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?3 







PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



TASMANIA, 



1888. 




TASMANIA : 
FBINTED AT " THK UEBCUKT " Omca, KAOQUABIE BT., HOBiXT. 



■• iV \ 



t 



The responsibility of the statements and opinions 
given in the following papers and discussions 
rests with the individual authors ; the Society as 
a body merely places them on record. 



EOYAL SOCIETY OF TASMANIA. 



patron : 

HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

Preieitient : 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR ROBERT GEORGE CROOKSflANK 

HAMILTON, K.C.B. 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D. 

JAMES BARNARD, ESQ. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT DOBSON, Knt., C.J., 

F.L.S. 
THOMAS STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 

dLonxuxl : 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT DOBSON, Knt., C.J., 

F.L.S. 
RUSSELL YOUNG, ESQ. 
C. H. GRANT, ESQ. 
0. T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 
T. STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 
J. B. WALKER, ESQ. 
J. BARNARD, ESQ. 
JUSTIN M'C. BROWNE, ESQ. 
A- G. WEBSTER, ESQ. 
COL. W. V. LEGGE, R.A. 
K. M. JOHNSTON, ESQ., F.L.S. 

C. J. BARCLAY, ESQ. 

^onomrg ^ecretetg: 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D., M.E.C. 

^ecreterg anJ TLxht&xi&xt: 

ALEXANDER MORTON, ESQ., F.L.S. 

^onorars PmttgI)tieimAn : 

W. H. CHARPENTIER, ESQ. 

^ttittorjei of linnttal ^cconnU : 

FRANCIS BUTLER, ESQ. 
JOHN MACFARLANE, ESQ. 

^ttbttoria; of |ftontI)ls ^ccomttjei 2 

JUSTIN M'C. BROWNE, ESQ. 
a T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 



(S)0ntmU, 






April Meeting , i 

His Excellency's Opening Address „ 

Sir Thos. Brady „ 

The Hon. J. W. Agnew's Gift „ 

Sir Thos. Brady's Address n 

Hon. P. O. Fysh's Bemarks VI 

Mr. B. Henry, Submarine Mining vn 

Mr. W. F. Ward, Experiments „ 

Mr. Perrin's Exhibits ,t 

Tasmanian Photographic Exhibits i, 

Platinotype Printing h 

Lithographic Press vni 

Oxyhydrogen Microscopy „ 

Salmon Ova to Tasmania, per B.S. Kaikonra IX 

Observations as to temperature taken on the Voyage it 

May Meeting xni 

Election Mr. B. A. Bastow, Corresponding Member u 

Election Fellows— Bev. Mr. McDowall, Canon Dicker, and Mr. F. M. 
Young I, 

SalmonidsB in Tasmania, by Mr. P. S. Seager. A Paper n 

Sir Thos. Brady's Bemarks „ 

June Meeting XVii 

Silver Extracting Process. A Paper xvm 

Mr. Toplis' Paper xvn 

Addition to Tasmanian Avifauna xix 

Anseranas melanolenca it 

Chibia bracteata it 

Protection for the Seal and MuttonBird XX 

Antarctic Begions, The u 

August Meeting XXi 

Dr. A. Von Groddeck, Death of n 

Additions to the Library n 

Problem of Malthus Stated. APaper tttt 

Scott's Track to the West Coast. A Paper xxni 

Highlands of Lake St. Clair n 

Extraordinary Phenomenon at Beaconsfield. APaper xxv 

Antarctic Exploration XXVI 

Native Opossum, The it 

October Meeting XXVII 

Boyal Society, Address to Her Majesty xxxn 

Aquatic Shells of Tasmania. APaper it 

Daphnidoe, Notes on the n 

Notes and Exhibits n 

Eucalyptus Cordata, Notes on the n 

Grallina picata, shot at Stanley u 

An Art Exhibition m 



Page, 
VawBoiim Meeting ; , xxxv 

French in Van Diemen'i Land. APaper xxxvi 

Taimanian Unio. APaper xxxvn 

Tippagory Coal 

PAFEBS : 
ObteiTations during the Voyage of the s.s. Eaikoura, on the recent 
Shipment of Salmon Ova. By Sir Thomas Brady n 

Silyer Extracting Process. By J. "W.Toplis xvm 

Extraordinary Phenomenon at Beaconsfield. By Mr. J. Davis XXV 

A Ck>ncise ffistory of the Acclimatisation of the Salmonidae in 
Tasmania. By Mr. P. S. Seager, Secretary to the Tasmanian 
Fisheries Board 1 

Besnlta of the yarioos attempts to acclimatise Saimo Solar in 
Tasmanian waters. By Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.L.S 27 

Notes in Beference to *' Scott's Track," via Lake St. dair, to the 
West Coast of Ttomania. By Mr. James Andrew 49 

The Problem of Malthns stated. By Mr. B. M. Johnston, F.L.S. ... 63 
Contributions for a Systematic Catalogue of the Aqnatic Shells of 
Tasmania. By Mr. W. F. Petterd 60 

Critical Obsenrations on Becent Contributions to our knowledge of 
the Frediwater Shells of Tasmania. By Mr. R. M. Johnston, 
F.L.S 84 

Tabular History of the Classification of Tasmanian Freshwater Shells. 
By Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.L.8 86 

An Addition to the Ayifauna of Tasmania. By Mr. W. F. Petterd, 
F.Z.S 91 

Gooorrenoe of Chibea hracteata, Gould, in Tasmania. By Col. W. 
V. Legge, R.A. 93 

Obeervations on the variability of the Tasmanian Unio. By Mr. R. 
M. Johnston, F.L.S 95 

The French in Van Diemen's Land, and the First Settlement at the 
Derwent By Mr. J. B. Walker 97 



R E PORT 



OF THE 



KOYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



TASMANIA 



FOR THE YEAR 



1888. 




Caismanta: 

imriULrAii thohas strutt, goyernment printer, hobart. 



1889. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF TASMANIA. 



Matron : 

HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

9re0tTrent : 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR ROBERT GEORGE CROOKSHANK 

HAMILTON, K.C.B. 

HON. J, W. AGNEW, M.D., M.E.C. 

JAMES BARNARD, ESQ. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLAM LAMBERT DOBSON, KNT., CJ., 

M.E.C, F.L.S. 
THOMAS STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 

• 0. T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 

•T. STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 

•J. B. WALKER, ESQ. 

•J. BARNARD, ESQ. 

R. M. JOHNSTON, ESQ., F.L.S. 

JUSTIN M'C. BROWNE, ESQ. 

A. G. WEBSTER, ESQ. 

COL. W. V. LEGGE, R.A. 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D., M.E.C. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT DOBSON, KNT., C.J., 
M.E.C., F.L.S, 

RUSSELL YOUNG, ESQ. 

C. H. GRANT, ESQ. 

i^on. €xtamvn : 

C. J. BARCLAY, ESQ. 
HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D., M.E.C. 

Sbtetetatu anir WLitvaxian : 

ALEXANDER MORTON, ESQ., F.L.S. 

9iUittot0 of Annual S^ccounts : 

FRANCIS BUTLER, ESQ. 
JOHN MACFARLANE, ESQ. 

SliUittor0 Of MontUVi Secounto : 

JUSTIN M*C. BROWNE, ESQ. 
C. T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 

* Members who next retire in rotation. 






Jilotuitstfi fiSltt(Att$i* 

* Baron F. von Miiellep, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

&c., Government Botanist, Melbourne, Victoria. 

* Rev. J.E.Tenison-Woods, F.L.S., F.G.S.,F.R.G.S., Sydney. 
Mrs. Charles Meredith, Malunnah, Orford. 

* Hon. W. Macleay, M.L.C., F.L.S., Sydney. 

Dr. Edward Pierson Ramsay, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
&c.. Curator Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. 

* Members who have contributed Papers which have been published in the 

Society's Transactions. 

Professor John Agardh, M.D., University of Lund, Sweden. 

W. H. Archer, Esq., Melbourne. 

Frederick M. Bay ley, F.L.S., Brisbane, Queensland. 

G. Bennett, Esq., M.D., F.Z.S., Sydney, New South Wales. 

William Thompson, Bednall, Esq., Adelaide, South Australia. 

John Brazier, Esq., C.M.Z.S., Sydney. 

Rev. J. J. Bleasdale, D.D.. F.G.S. 

Rev. George Brown, C.M.Z.S., Sydney. 

* B. Carrington, Esq., M.D., Eccles, Manchester, England. 
R. J. L. Ellery, Esq., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Government 

Astronomer, Melbourne. 

* Robert Etheridge, jun., Esq., F.G.S., Bntish Museum. 
Professor W. Harkness, U.S.N., United States Naval 

Observatory, Washington. 
H. H. Hayter,Esq.,C.M.G., Government Statist, Melbourne. 
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, C.B., K.C.S.I., &c., London. 

* F. W. Hutton, Esq., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology, 

Canterbury Cottage, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

James Hector, Esq., M.D., C.M.G., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Director Geological Survey of New Zealand, WeUington, 

R. L. Jack, Esq., Government Geologist of Queensland. 
♦Colonel W. V. Legge, R.A., F.Z.S., M.R.A.S., Hobart. 

Archibald Liversidge, Esq., F.R.S., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S., &c., &c.. Professor of Chemistry and Miner- 
alogy, University of Sydney. 

* G. M*Intyre, Esq., Christchurch, New Zealand. 
Professor F. M*Coy, F.R.S., F.G.S., Melbourne University. 
Professor G. Neumayer, Munich. 

*W. H. Pearson, Esq., Manchester, England. 
The Right Rev. D. F. Sandford, LL.D., England. 
G. S. Perrin, Esq., F.L.S., Conservator of Forests, Victoria. 
J. S. Stirling, Esq., F.L.S., F.C.S., Assistant Government 

Geologist, Victoria. 
W. Saville Kent, Esq., F.L.S., Brisbane, Queensland. 



ILi^t of jTrtlotoie; 

Fellows who have contributed Papers which have been published in the 
Society's Transactions, t Denotes life Membership. 

The addresses of Fellows residing in Hobart are omitted. 

* Andrew, James. 

* Abbott, Francis. 
Adams, G. Patten. 
Adams, R. Patten. 

* Agnew, Hon. J. W., M.D., M.E.C. 
Aikenhead, Hon. J., M.L.C., Launceston. 
Allport, Morton John Cecil. 

Archer, W, Henry D., M.H.A., Brickendon, Longford. 
Archer, Rev. Canon Geo. Fred. 

* Atkins, Charles J. 
Atkinson, Thomas R. 

Barclay, C. J. 
Barclay, D. 

* Barnard, James. 

* Barnard, C. E., M.D., F.L.S. 
Barnes, William, Trevallyn, Launceston. 

* Beddome, C. E., Formby. 

Bedford, W. J. Guthrie, M.R.C.S., Waratah, New Town. 

Belstead, C. T. 

Belbin, W., M.H.A, 

Bernacchi, Diego A. G., Maria Island. 

Bethune, John C, Dunrobin. 

Benson, Wm. 

Bidencope, J. 

* Biggs, A. B., Launceston. 
Bird, Hon. B, S., M.E.C. 
Braddon, Hon. E. N. C, M.E.C. 
Bright, R. S., M.R.CS. 
Browne, Justin M'C. 

Brown, Hon. Nicholas J., M.H.A. 

Brufoitl, H. B. 

Buckland, Rev. J. Vansittart. 

Buckland, W. Harvey, B.A. 

Butler, Francis. 

Butler, A. 

Burgess, Hon. W. H., M.H.A, 



Clarke, Rev. George, New Town. 
Clark, Andrew I., Hon., M.H.A. 
Clemes, S. 
Cook, Henry. 

* Crawford, Lieut.-Colonel Andrew, Castm. 
Crosby, Richard. 

Crosby, William, Hon., M.L C. 
Crowther, E. L., M.D., M.H.A. 

* Crowther, B., M.D. 
*Crouch, E. J., M.R.C.S. 

Davies, J. George, M.H.A. 

Davies, Charles Ellis. 

Davies, J., Beaconsfield. 

Dobbie, E. David. 

Dobson, Hon. Alfred, M.H.A. 

Dobson, Henry. 

Dobson, His Honor Sir Lambert, M.E.C., F L.8. 

Dodds, Hon. J. S., M.H.A. 

Douglas, Hon. A., Launceston 

Duffy, W. 

Dundas, Very Rev. Chas. Leslie. 

Eehlin, J. F. 
Eldridge, W. 
Elliston, C. H. 
Evans, T. M. 

Featherstone, C. E. 
Fincham, James. 
Fitzgerald, George, P., M.H.A. 
Fysh, Hon. P. O., M.L.C. 

Gellibrand, Hon. W. A, B., M.L.C, Hon. Member Leeds 

Institute, River Ouse. 
Giblin, Edward O., M.D. 
Gill, H. H., M.H.A. 

Graham, Albert W., L.S.A., M.R.C.S., Circular Head. 
Grant, C. H. 
Grant, James. 
Gray, Thomas, M.D., New Norfolk. 

Hamilton, John., M.H.A. 
Hardy, Dr. 

* Henry, Robert* 



Hinsby, Greorge. 
Hookey, Vernon W. 
Huybers, James Alfred. 

Jefirey, Molesworth, Boumbank, Lachlan. 

* Johnston, R. M., F.L.S. 
Jones, W. J. 

Kermode, W. A., Mona Vale. 

* KingsmiU, C. H., M. A. 
Knight, William J., M.A. 

Legffe, W. v., Colonel, R.A. 

Lewis, N.E , M.H.A. 

Lodder, Miss Mary, Louah, Leven, N. W. Coast. 

Lord, Hon. John, M.L.C. 

Mace, Frederick, Buckland. 
Macfarlane, W. H., M B., New Norfolk. 
Mac&rlane, James. 
Mac&rlane, John. 
*M*Clymont, James R., M.A., the Cascades, Tasman's 
Peninsula. 

* M*Cance, John, F.R.A.S. 
M'Mullen, J. F. 
Macmicbael, John C, 
Maning, H. T. 

Maddox, Wm. Gordon, M.R.C.S., Launceston. 
Marsh, H. J. 
Mather, J. B. 

* Mault, Alfred. 
Maxwell, C. M. 
Maxwell, J. Crawford. 
Milles, R., Sydney. 

* Moore, T. B. 

* Morton, Alexander. 

Murphy, Most Rev. D., Bishop of Hobart. 

Nairn, C. C, New Town. 
Napier, G. R., Avoca. 
Nicholas, Wm., Nant, Bothwell. 
Nicholas, Geo. C, Mill Brook, Ouse. 
North, A., Launceston. - 

* Nowell, E. C, 



8 

O'Callaghan, Rev. T. M., New Norfolk. 

Park, Archibald, M.R.C.V.S. 
Parkinson, C. J., M.D., Melbourne. 
Payne, C. A., M.R.C.8. 
Pedder, Frederick. 
*Petterd, W. F., C.M.Z.S., Launceston. 
Pillinger, John, Antill Ponds 

Raynor, Rev. T. E. 

Read, R. Cartwright, Redlands, New Norfolk. 

Rex, R. R. 

Riddoch, Alexander. 

Ritchie, A. 

Roberts, H. L. 

Rodway, Leonard. 

Rooke, H. I., M.H.A., Launceston. • 

* Ross, J., Clunes, B.S.C., F.G.S., &c., Bathurst, N.S. W. 

Salier, Frederick J. 
Seal, Matthew. 
Sharp, John. 
Shaw, Bernard. 
*Shoobridge, W. E., New Norfolk. 
Shoobridge, R. W. G., New Norfolk. 

* Shortt, J., Capt., R. N. 
Simmons, Rev. J. Wilkes. 

* Simpson, Augustus, Launceston. 
t Solomon, Joseph. 
•Stephens, Thomas, M.A., F.G.S. 

* Swan, Edward D. 
Symc, J. Wemyss. 

Tabart, T. A. 
Taylor, A. J. 
*Thureau, G., F.G.S., Launceston. 
Toplis, W. J. 
TurnbuU, T. 
Triffit, J. T., Ouse. 

* Tfavers, 8. Smith. 

Walsh, James H. B. 

Waller, G. Arthur, M.A., Cangort, New Town. 

Walker, James Backhouse. 

Wallack, E, 



• Warrl, W. F. 

liVaterhoase, George Wilson, B.A., Laoiiceston, 

• Webster, Alex; G. 
Weymouth, W. A. 
Wiison, Edward P. 
Wise, Fred. H. 
Wolfhagen, E. H. W., M.D. 

• WooUnough, Rev. J. B. Williams, M.A. 

Young, Russell, 
Young, F. J., B.A. 



10 

MINUTES of the Annual General Meetiftg of the 
Royal Society of Tasm^nia^ held at the Mtistum on 
Friday evvening, 2dth Marchy 1889, — James Barnard, 
Esquire^ Vice- President y in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Corresponding Mem- 
bers of the Society : — Right Rev. D. F. Sandford, LL.D.; 
Messrs. James Stirling, F.L.S., F.G.S., Assistant Government 
Geologist, Victoria ; G. S. Perrin, F.L.S., Conservator of 
Forests, Victoria.; and W. Saville Kent, F.L.S., &c. Fellow 
of the Society — Rev. J. W. Geiss, 

The Annual Report. 

In the absence of the Hon. Secretary, the Secretary (Mr. 
Alexander Morton) read the following Annual Report : — 

Mr. Seal moved — 

That the Report now read be adopted, printed, and cir- 
culated among the Fellows of the Society. 
Mr. E. A. Counsel seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Moved by Mr. Wm. Benson, and seconded by Mr. James 
Andrew — 

That Messrs. R. M. Johnston, F.L.S., Justin Browne, A. 
G. Webster, and Col. W, V. Legge, R.A., the retiring 
Members of the Council, be re-elected ; also Messrs. 
Francis Butler and John Mac&rlane be re-elected as 
Hon. Annual Auditors. 
Carried. 

Moved by Mr, E, D. Swan and, seconded by Mr. C. T. 
Belstead — 

That the thanks of the Royal Society be presented to the 
gentlemen who have performed the duty of Auditors ol 
the Annual Accounts during the year. 
Carried. 

Mr. Justin Browne moved that a vote of thanks be given 
to the Press for its valuable services in promoting the 
objects of the Royal Society by its early and accurate 
reports of the proceedings of the evening meetings, and 
in various other ways. He was sure it needed no 
words from him to recommend the motion to all present. 
The Press, he might say, was one of the Society's best 
allies, and he had pleasure in moving the motion. 

Mr. T. Stephens seconded, and the motion was carried 
unanimously. 



11 

Correspondence. 

The Secretary said he had* received letters of apology for 
non-attendance from Colonel Legge and Mr. U. H. 
Grant. He also read a letter from the Hon. E. N. C. 
Bi^ddon, Agent-General, to the Premier, foi*warding a 
copy of letter from Lieut.-General Sir J. H, Lefroy, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., offering to present to the Royal 
Society of Tasmania two volumes, entitled " Franklin's 
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 
1819-22, and his narrative of a second expedition in 
1825-27." The books were forwarded by the eame 
mail, together with the following letter from Sir. J. H. 
Lefroy to the Secretary of the Society. 

Leumme^ Liskeard^ ComtoaU^ Englandy 
January 28, 1889. 
Dear Sir, 

When I was in Tasmania I had occasion to refer to 
Franklin's Journeys to the shores of the Polar Sea — once a very 
celebrated book of travels, and still a very interesting one. To my 
surprise I could not discover a copy in any library in the Colony. 
I thought he would have presented one himself. As the Royal 
Society will, I am sure, like to pos&ess this memorial of a former 
Governor, I have the pleasure in presenting a copy. 

I am &c. 

J. H. LEFROY, General. 

On the motion of Mr. T. Stephens, seconded by Mr. C. T. 
Belstead, it was resolved — 

That the best thanks of the Society be transmitted to 
Lieut.-General Sir J. H. Lefroy, for his contribution 
to the Library of the Society. 

The Chairman stated that during General Lefroy's short 
term of office as Governor of the Colony he had always taken 
a lively interest in the affairs ot the Society. He might state 
that he believed that copies of the volumes forwarded had at 
one time been deposited in the library knowu as the Franklin 
Museum, but owing to the books afterwards being distnbuted 
it was difficult to say what had become of them. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman terminated the proceedings. 



12 



REPORT. 



The Council of the Royal Society have great pleasure in 
presenting their Report for 1888. The work of the 
session commenced most auspiciously on the evening of 
April 24, in the recently erected v^ing of the Museum. 
On the occasion the Fellov^s had the privilege of intro- 
ducing friends, and accordingly the attendance was much 
more numerous than had ever been the case previously. 
About 300 visitors and members were present, including 
Lady Hamilton and Sir Thomas Brady, Inspector of 
Irish Fisheries. His Excellency Sir Robert Hamilton, 
as President of the Society, took the chair, and opened 
the proceedings by a speech in which, after congratulating 
members on the new addition to the Museum, he referred 
at length to the recent successful importation of salmon ova 
by Sir Thomas Brady, whom he had then the pleasure of 
introducing. Sir Thomas, who was received with great 
enthusiasm, gave an elaborate and interesting account of 
his management of the ova whilst under his care from the 
time he obtained them (through the kindness and liberality 
of Mr. R. D. Moore, Molenna, Londonderry) to his arrival 
with them in the Derwent. Other matters of general 
interest were brought forward during the evening. 
" Submarine Mining, illustrated by experiments," by Mr. 
R. Henry ; " Experiments illustrative of the Elasticity of 
Gases," by Mr. W. T. Ward; "The Oxy-hydrogen 
Microscope," by Messrs. J. F. Echlin and A. L. Sutler," 
" Platino-type Printing," by Messrs. Echlin and Scott, &c. 

To the May meeting Mr. P. S. Seager contributed " A 
Concise History of the Salmonidee in Tasmania," an 
excellent paper, containing in small and readable compass 
much information on the subject, not only of present 
interest, but of permanent value for future reference. 
A thoughtful and elaborate paper which claims special 
notice — " The Problem of Malthas stated " — was read 



18 

by Mr. R. M. Johnston at the August meeting. In 
^November a paper of much historic interest, " The 
French in Van Diemen's Land," was read by Mr. J B. 
Walker; and the other contributions were all highly 
appreciated, as evinced by the subsequent discussions. 

At the close of the session the President gave a review 
of the work which had been done, and took the opportunity 
for suggesting that the scope of the Society's efforts might 
be advantageously extended so as to embrace such subjects 
as engineering, agriculture, use of timbers, &c. 

The full list of contributions is as follows : — . 

1. Observations during the voyage of the s,s. Kaikoura^ 
on the recent shipment of Salmon Ova. By Sir Thomas 
Brady. 

2. " A concise history of the Acclimatisation of the 
SalmonidcB in Tasmania." By Mr. P. S. Seager. 

3. " Results of the various attempts to acclimatise 
Salmo salar in Tasmanian waters." 

4. *'Tbe problem of Malthus stated." 

5. " Critical observations on recent contributions to our 
knowledge of the Fresh Water Shells of Tasmania." 

6. " Observations on the variability of the Tasmanian 
Unio." By Mr. R. M. Johnston, Jb'.L.S. 

7. " On the various methods employed in extracting 
Silver from argentiferous Galena and other ores." By 
Mr. J. W. Toplis. 

8. *'An addition to the Avifauna of Tasmania. — 
Anseranas melanoleuca, the semi-pal mated goose." 

9. " Contributions for a systematic Catalogue of the 
Aquatic Shells of Tasmania." By Mr. W .F. Petterd, 
C.M.Z.S. 

10. "Notes on a Bird new to Tasmania — Chibia 
bracteaia" By Colonel W. V. Legge, R.A. 

11." Notes on an extraordinary phenomenon observed 
at the Tasmanian Mine, Beaconsfield." By Mr. J. 
Davies. 

12. " Notes in reference to Scott's Track, via Lake St. 
Clair, to the West Coast of Tasmania." By Mr, James 
Andrew. 



\ 



14 

13. "The French in Van Diemen's Land, and the first 
Settlement at the Derwent." By Mr. J. B. Walker. 

As these papers are for the most part already in type, 
the zeal and energy of our Secretary will ensure their early 
distribution. 

Council. 

By the departure from the colony of the Bishop of 
Tasmania, the Councir has been deprivedof the services of 
one of its most valued members. The seat recently occu- 
pied by Dr. Perkins is also vacant. Mr. J, B. Walker 
and Colonel Legge, who have both shown much interest in 
the affairs of the Society, have been proposed for the vacant 
seats, and, in accordance with the Rules, were balloted for 
and elected to fill the vacancies. 

Library. 

The Library, in addition to the ordinary periodicals, has 
been enriched by valuable donations from the Royal Society 
of Canada and other scientific. bodies. 

Fellows. 

Five new members have been admitted, and six have 
been lost through resignation or death. 

Finance. 

The income has been — Subscriptions to Royal Society, 
£202 lOs. ; fixed deposit of the late Dr. Milligan's legacy, 
£200 ; interest on same, £8 ; held in trust for the Museum, 
£100 ; interest on same £15 85. 9d, — making with balance 
from 1887, £638 7s. 4d. The expenditure amounted to 
£196 11 5. 7d, — leaving a balance to credit with fixed de- 
posit, £458 Is. 5d, 

ALEXANDER MORTON, 

Secretary and Librarian, 






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3 



KOYAL SOCIETY. 



APEIL, 1888, 



The opening meeting of the 1888 session of the Royal Society of 
Tasmania took place on Monday evening, April 23rd, and was held in 
the upper room of the new wing recently added to the Museum, which is 
intended to be ultimately used as a temporary picture gallery, but was 
made use of last night for the special purpose of permitting some technical 
subjects to be dealt with by the aid of bome large apparatus for illus- 
tration. A large number of Fellows, and an unusually large number of 
visitors were present, including Sir Thomas Brady, the Inspector of 
Fisheries for Ireland, who accompanied Sir Kobert and Lady Hamilton 
and a party from Government House. 

His Excellency the Governob, who took the chair as President of the 
Society, said : Ladies and gentlemen, let me first say how pleased I am 
to see such a large gathering here this evening. The fact of the 
addition of these two tine rooms to the Museum buildings enabled the 
Council of the Royal Society on this occasion to depart from the usual 
programme of opening nights, and instead of having papers read and 
discussions upon them, to have a meeting more of the character of a 
conversazione, with the exhibition of certain mechanical processes. But 
we have also another item on the programme here this evening which I 
think will interest you all. There was no matter which the Royal 
Society took up last year which was of greater interest than the 
introduction of a new stfpply of salmon ova under the superintendence 
of Sir Thomas Brady. (Cheers.) As you all know, it was through the 
liberality of Dr. Agnew that this experiment was enabled to be tried, 
and I am sure you will all regret, as I do, the absence of that gentleman 
this evening. (Cheers.) I begged him to come and stay at Government 
House and meet Sir Thomas Brady, and be present at the unpacking of 
the ova, but he was most unfortunately prevented. Sir Thomas Brady, 
as you are no doubt aware, has arrived. The Council has made him an 
Hon. Member of this Society, and he has been good euough to undertake 
to make a few remarks upon the work he took in hand for this Society. 
From the columns of the Press we have heard a good deal about what 
has happened since the ova arrived here, but a great deal of the work 
began before the ova arrived here, and we hope to hear from Sir Thomas 
some account of this work, and I do not think I need ask you to give 
him, what I am sure you will give him, a very warm reception. (Cheers. } 
It would be unreasonable to expect Sir Thomas Brady would to*night 
give us an elaborate paper, for the preparation of which he would have 
had but very little time, and all that we can expect him is to give us the 
Mklient points of his observations, and the steps he took to ensure 
success. After he has expressed these to us I would ask him to be kind 
enough to tell us what his opinion is as to the fish we really have here, 
for I am sure it would be very interesting to have his opinion. I am not 
going to anticipate anything he will say to you, but there is one point I 
particularly wish to notice. He will tell you that through the kindness 
of Mr. Robert Moore, of Londonderry, not only was this ova given 
gratuitously, but that gentleman's hatcheries and men were placed at the 
disposal of Sir Thomas Brady so as to allow the ova to be developed 
into that state most suitable for the voyage. I think the colony owes 
a great deal of gratitude to Mr. Moore. (Cheers). I will not detail 



ii PROCEEDINGS, APEIL. 

yon longer, as there is a great deal to do this evening, bat will now 
introduce to yon Sir Thomas Brady, and, in doing so, I introduce an old 
and valued friend and colleague. Sir Thomas Brady is not like some of 
us, a merely dilettanti fisherman, nor is he a mere scientist. He has had 
40 years of public service, and during the whole of that time has been 
engaged in regulating the fisheries of Ireland — a most important in- 
terest — looking after the public rights in these fisheries, and developing 
them in the interest of commerce and the improvement of the food 
43upply of the people. I think we are to be congratulated upon the 
presence of Sir Thomas amongst us. I can only hope that his visit here 
will be as pleasant to himself as I am sure it will be profitable and 
pleasant to us. . 

Sir Thomas Brady, who was greeted with prolonged applause on 
rising, said : Your Excellency, ladies and gentlemen, — Before entering 
into details of the observations made by me in the recent transport m. 
ova to this colony, will you permit me in the first place to express, 
however inadequately, the great gratification it affords me to stand on 
the present occasion within the precincts of the Royal Society of Tas- 
mania, and to congratulate its members on the success it has obtained 
by the magnificent Museum which gave me such pleasure in visiting on 
Saturday in company with His Excellency. It would be idle for me to 
speak to you of the generous patriotic conduct of Dr. Agnew, who is so 
well known to you aJl, for the desire he has always shovm to promote 
the interests of the colony, or to comment on the munificent contri- 
bution he has given towards promoting an industry which I hope, and 
have every coi&dence, may become one of the most important products 
of the island. I trust it may prove to be only the pioneer for other yet 
undiscovered or undeveloped natural resources of the island, and that 
the example so nobly given by him may be imitated not only here, bat 
in other places, and may be followed in that country which is my birth- 
place and has my love, and to which Tasmania is again indebted for 
another supply of salmon ova. Though perhaps trespassing too far on 
your indulgence in these preliminary observations, I cannot refrain from 
mentioning the name of another to whom the colony is indebted for the 
unprecedented success that has attended our late work, and for the 
details I will have the honour to give you by and bye, which may 
probably in future years tend to facilitate fish acclimatisation in this or 
other colonies, and to dispel some of the mysteries which at present 
surround it. No doubt money could have procured salmon ova, without 
my aid, from any country in which that noble fish exists, but, without 
egotism or claiming to deserve any thanks whatever, I cannot help 
feeling some doubt as to the wishes of Dr. Agnew or your Socie^ 
having been so successfully carried out this year as they have been, but 
for the great interest felt and the prompt action taken by His Excellency 
the Governor, who has in this matter only given another proof of his 
anxiety to promote the material interests of any country with which he 
may be connected, thus confirming the opinion entertained by all who 
know his pubUc character, that the country over whose councils or wel- 
fare he is called on to preside must be benefited if his advice prove of 
any avail. The colony of Tasmania is to be congratulated in having as 
•Governor an able statesman — one who will spare no exertion to promote 
its interest as he has done in other places and other climes, where his 
absence is now deeply deplored by the many, and where he has left 
behind him a name respected and honoured — '* the best to live for and 
the best to die for." The salmon ova which has been landed and placed 
in the hatchery was taken from salmon in the celebrated salmon river, 
in the county of Donesal, the property of Robert L. Moore, Esq., D.L., 
of Molennan, Londonderry. The intimation I received from the chair- 
man of the Society arrived too late to enable me to obtain ova from 



PROCEEDINGS, APRIL. iii 

other rivers, of which I tried several without saccess. Owing to the 
very mild winter in Ireland salmon were found on the spawning beds 
much earlier than usual, and in many rivers which were tried only 
spawned fish were found. I was almost in despair of being able to get 
a sufficient quantity of ova to export, when Mr. Moore, animated by 
that kindness and public spirit which have always governed his actions, 
in the most generous manner placed at my disposal any fish from any of 
the rivers held by him, and also his very complete hatchery on the 
banks of the river Erne, so as to enable the ova to be all " eyed " before 
being sent away. It is to that gentleman, and not to me the colonists 
are deeply indebted for the present large supply of ova. The fish from 
which tne ova were taken varied very much m size, from 10 to upwards 
of 201bs. each in weight. They were stripped in the middle of January 
and placed in the hatchery where they remained till removed by me on 
the 28th and 29th February, and Isb March last. The eyes in the ova 
were first observed on the 23rd February by the superintendent of the 
fishery, so that before being packed for their ultimate destination, all 
the ova had been ** eyed " for fully a week previously. The mode of 
packing and transit was that so successfully adopted by Sir James 
Maitland on a shipment of salmon ova by him to New Zealand in 1886. 
The trays in which the ova were packed, consist of a light wooden frame, 
lOin. square by 27in. deep, bottomed with perforated zinc. Into these 
trays was placed at the bottom on the perforated zinc, a layer of clean 
weU-picked fresh moss (sphagnum). On this moss was placed a layer of 
ova taken from the hatching rills. Above that, another layer of moss, 
and on this latter another layer of ova, and finally another 7ayer of 
moss. Of these cases or trays there were 120, each of whi. h contained 
about 18,000 ova. The number was ascertained by counting the number 
of salmon ova in a given space on the rills, and making a calculation 
accordingly with reference to the size of the trays in which they were 
placed. It was the most accurate way of computing the number of 
ova. Six of these coses were placed in what might be called refri- 
gerating packing boxes, consisting of an inner box gin. larger than 
the frames of the trays or cases ; the outer box was 4in. deeper than 
the inner and 3in. wider for sawdust to be packed between the two 
boxes, to serve not only as a protection against frost, but to act as a 
•cushion and minimise the effects of rough usage. An air space surrounds 
the trays to secure an equal temperature to each. These boxes are 2ft. 
7in. long by 1ft. 6iin. wide, and 1ft. 8iin. high outside measurement. 
The inside box is sufficiently smaller to allow a few inches of sawdust 
between the two boxes. Charred fillets are fitted into the inside box, 
which is also charred, to hold the trays half an inch clear Each tray 
has four holes cut in the sides to admit air freely to the moss and to 
facilitate adjusting. A large ice tray rests on the top of the ova trays, 
but clear of the moss covering the ova, and is bevelled outwards so 
as to entirely close the inside of the outer box. This most successful 
mode of transporting ova was invented by Sir James Maitland, Bart., 
of European celebrity, for hatching and transporting ova of many 
species of fish from his great fish hatching at Hawisto\ivn, and the 
description given by me is taken from his book. Having packed these 
120 trays or cases into 20 of these transport boxes, I found that I 
had a large quantity of ova still over — which I brought to London 
with me in bottles, swung in trames in a particular manner invented 
by myself, and which I packed in London in 30 boxes, of about 
ISin. by 12in. by about 4in. deep, in the same manner as I had 
already packed the cases for the refrigerating transport boxes. The 
aorpliis of ova was caused by my having placed only two layers of 
ova in each tray instead of three, which they were originally designed 
for, having learned that a good deal of the ova in the wider la^ex 
irhiere there were three, sent to New Zealand, had not reacYied \ihe\t 



iv PROCEEDINGS, APBIL. 

destination in as good order as the other two layers where there was 
less pressare. I determined, therefore, that it was better to have a 
less quantity with only two layers in better condition, or at least with 
less risk, than a larger quantity with more risk of loss. .1 called the 
ova packed in these 30 boxes my surplus ova, and they could not 
have been less in number than 60,000 at the very lowest calculation. 
I need hardly describe the journey, which was only a short mile from 
the fishery to the railway station, with the precious loads each time, 
and the care that they should get no concussion, against which a 
plentiful supply of straw was provided. Straw mattresses were 
placed on the floor of the railway waggon on which the boxes were 
put, and firmly wedsed with plenty of straw so that they could not 
collide or move. I left by train on the evening of 2nd Maich and 
remained at Ennlskillen all that night. At 6 o'clock next morning we 
left for Dublin, when all the boxes had to be shifted on board the 
steamer from Holyhead, and on arrival there we had a special waggon 
ready in waiting, into which the boxes were removed and packed in the 
same manner as at first start. On arrival in London on Sunday 
morning, I had all the boxes examined and replenished with ice, of 
which I carried a good supply with me, and on Monday morning, 
March 5, they were carted to the docks, where they were put on 
board the s.s. Kaikoura. The chamber constructed for their reception 
on board the vessel was between decks in the forward part of the 
vessel, and contained a space of 1,953 cubic feet. It was thoroughly 
insulated and lined out with lead fitted for cold air blast from ship's 
refrigerating chamber to regulate temperature. It had ice racks for 
store ice, and inside were formed one double refrigerating case, and 
two single ones for holding the transport boxes already described. 
The 20 boxes were placed in these refrigerating chambers, the doors 
of which were regularly supplied with ice from the ship during the 
voyage, and ice packed round the boxes. The 30 boxes containing the 
surplus ova were placed on the top and outside of these refrigerating; 
cases, there being no room for them in the inside. As I had not much 
confidence in their keeping alive under the conditions under which 
they had been packed in London by water supplied at the London 
docks, aud the position in which I was obliged to place them in 
the chamber, I would not waste any of the Wenham Lake ice on them, 
and they were during the whole voyage consequently only supplied 
with ice made on board ship from condensed steam. On arrival here 
and being opened I expected to have found them all dead, but to my 
surprise the ova in them was found to be in almost as good condition as 
those which had received such extra care and constant attention. 

I have drawn out a table showing the temperature of the air on deck 
— the sea water inside the chamber, but outside the refrigerating cases 
in which the ova boxes were placed — and that inside the double 
refrigerating cases, which I have called Nos, 1, 2, and 3, No. 1 being 
nearest the door entering into the chamber, and which might be more 
or less affected by the opening of the door— No. 2, the one further from 
the door, and No. 3, the one furthest from the door. In considering 
these tables and the positions of the allotment of ova in the chamber 
it will be seen that on some days the temperature in the chamber in 
which these boxes with the surplus ova were placed ran up as high as 
47 degrees, while the highest temperature inside the refrigerating cases 
only reached 35ideg. 1 hough the inference to be drawn from this 
is that ova may be safely carried when the air is at so high a tem- 
perature as 47 and the outer air at same time up to 78 and 79, yet 
I would not think of trusting a shipment of ova to the dangers 
attendant on such a high temperature, but I think it solves this 
problem at any rate that all the elaborate arrangements of perfectly 



PROCEEDINGS, APRIL. V 

insulated cases are not necessary, and that, with ordinary care and 
watchfulness in keeping up a proper supply of ice, and not allowing 
the ova to get frozen, are all that are required in the case of eyed 
ova. The great thing to be observed is the proper impregnation of 
the ova and careful hatching till it has arrived to the eyed state. 
The tables of temperature may, and I hope will, lead, after careful 
scrutiny, to important results in a scientific point of view. A large 
quanti^ of ship's ice was used during the voyage, but only for the 

Snrpose of packing and filling in doors, casements of chamber, etc., 
ut all from the water of which the ova was to be fed was Wenham 
Lake ice, of which I brought with me from London four tons. I also 
used one ton in Ireland and between that and London. On the 10th 
April, finding the ova in Bnoh a forward state of development, I 
determined to try the experiment of hatching a few on board. The 
commander kindly gave me the use of a spare cabin, and in this I 
erected a temporary hatchery. My appliances were not of a first-class 
order. My hatching box consisted of a portion of an old tobacco 
box, which I had emptied, and got cut in two by the engineer, and a 
lip soldered on it. My water holder consisted of a common oil can 
inverted with a pipe and a tap in the neck to allow the water to run 
into the tobacco box. The water was obtained from a breaker lying 
in one of the ships boats on deck, and which had been brought on 
board at Plymouth exactly one month previously, and was thick with 
sediment, and lastly I sot a foot bath to receive the water as it flowed 
from the hatchery. These were my materials for making a most 
Important experiment. I never had much of a faint heart, but I could 
not help feeling I was working under great difficulties, but I remem- 
bered the expression of our immortal poet — "Never say fail," and to 
work I went. I lifted with a teaspoon from one of the trays out ot 
the refrigerating case, which then stood at 34 degrees, 43 ova, and 
placed them in my new hatchery in the cabin, which then stood at 
SSJdeg. Next morning the water was up to fiOdeg., and on the 
13th at 1 o'clock I had the gratification of seeing one fish 
swimming about and another just coming out of the shell. 
The teniperature of the air and water in the cabin then stood at 
60deg. The fish were actually hatched out under all the difficulties 
I have mentioned, and in addition a great rolling of the vessel, 
in 74 hours. On the 15th we had a stiff breeze and a high sea, 
which caused the vessel to roll very much, disturbing the ova, tossing 
them about from end to end of the vessel in which they were in such a 
maimer that I felt assured ail would be killed, but the only effect it had 
was that several of the young fish partly out of the shell had been 
ajpporently strangulated. Whether this was caused by the rolling of 
the ship or the great sediment in the water I could not tell, but before I 
lefttheshipevery ovumof the 43 promiscuously taken from the trays 
had hatched out either fully or in part, and I left the living fish with 
the commander to be carried to New Zealand, and thence, if possible, 
again to London. I look upon this experiment as valuable to show that 
there is little or no danger m removing ova when hatched for a certain 
time from a low to a very high temperature. One more experiment I 
made with living salmon fry, and I will not detain you longer. I 
brought 12 fry of a year old from the River Foyle, in the county of 
Londonderry, to try how far I could carry them safely. I had two 
glass jars fitted into a case and placed in the cool chamber. In the one 
jar I had water in which I had kept the fish in London, and in the 
other water supplied to me from the ship. In the latter I placed five of 
the fry, and next morning to my horror all were dead. The rest 
ooatinueid slive and weU, and fed daily on flour and water rubbed in my 
hand into Uttle strips resembling worms until the 18th inst., when we 
were in latitude 17deg. N., when six out of the seven died. I luad beea 



VI PROCEEDINGS, APBIL. 

induced the previous evening to give them vermioelli for food, but 
whether that killed them or not I conld not say. I have, however, 
brought a little of it with me to have it analysed. It was certainly not 
the temperature, for it stood on that day at 40. I removed the only 
living one into Plymouth water, but it took no food, and on the 20th, 
when we were in the 6th deg. of latitude, it died while I was looking at 
it. The temperature of the water was then only 35. I have by this 
experiment proved that there cannot be the slightest doubt about 
carrying living fry safely if any proper precautions about the water 
being supplied with the necessary quantity of oxygen are taken, and 
that there can be no difficulty in doing this. I will now conclude these 
too lengthy and perhaps somewhat tedious observations by asking your 
indulgence, and saying that having examined the fish lately taken by 
the Governor I had no hesitation in pronouncing it a true salmon, and I 
am quite convinced that no practical ma^ who would see the fish would 
ever think of calling it anything but a salmon. Whether it be the true 
salmo solar or not, it is, at any rate, a fish which would be considered 
and treated as a salmon in salmon countries ; would be sold and 
purchased as such, and if the colonists of Tasmania seek for more than 
Ireland, which now exports salmon to the amount of over £600,000 
worth annually, I cannot help saying that I think they are hard to be 
pleased, and ought to go without them. 

The paper was listened to with marked attention and freouently 
applauded, and at its conclusion Sir Thomas said no scientist would 
consider or talk of the fish we have in Tasmania in any other way but 
as a salmon. He remembered three or four years ago Mr. Seager sent 
him three fish which; after writing his own opinion of, he submitted to 
an eminent member of the Royal Society of Dublin, an icthyologist and 
a well-known scientist, who was not aware of his opinion and wrote one 
that exactly coincided with it. It was that one fish was a true salmon, 
one was not, and there was a doubt about the third. He took this fish 
before one of the most celebrated scientists and icthyologists, a man 
with a European reputation, but this gentleman would not give an opinion 
until he knew where it came from. After some demur the information 
that it came from Tasmania was s^iven, and the authority then said it 
was not a salmon. (Laughter.) As he went away this gentleman said, 
" You are going to take it to somebody else. You may take it to the 
six best scientists in England, and you will get six difirerent opinions." 
Sir Thomas concluded by apologising for taking up so much time, but 
as he had heard it whispered that the Royal Society had conferred the 
honour of electing him an honorary member, he desired to take the 
opportunity of saying that he felt deeply indebted to the gentlemen 
composing this Royal Society for the very kind manner in which they 
had appreciated any little exertion of his in trying to benefit the colony. 
He had only to assure them, to assure all present, and to assure every 
colony that wherever it was possible for him to assist them, either by 
advice or work, it would afford him the greatest pleasure to do so. 
(Cheers.) 

The Hon. P. 0. Ftsh regretted the absence of the Hon. Dr. Agnew, whose 
name would ever be mentioned with great respect for his professional and 
private worth, and for his munificence to this Institution. He would desire, 
as he was sure all present would do, to tender to our distinguished visitor. 
Sir Thomas Brady, this public and hearty welcome, accompanied with 
congratulations upon the successful fruition of the important work which 
he has travelled so far to accomplish. We welcome him as a scientist 
eminent in his speciality, and have much gratification in learning his opinion 
that the fish before us, caught by His Excellency, is a true ScUmo salar, 
and, therefore, about its character their existed no longer any dubiUty. 
It was his duty to regard Sir Thomas' mission, from a utilitarian point 



PROCEEDINGS, APBIL. vii 

of view, as adding to the food of the people and increasing the commercial 
value of the Fisheries of Tasmanian waters. In these waters, the nurseries 
of fish, the harvests of the future are to be gathered for Australasia, and 
remembering that the Board of Trade returns of England show a value of 
£10,000,000 per annum as the product of the Fisheries of Great Britain, 
that gave some indication of the commercial importance of Fisheries here. 
This experiment has demonstrated the kinship between the philosophical, 
practical, and profitable. Ova brought from rivers 13,000 miles away, 
under circumstances of suspended animation, passing through the Torrid 
Zone, and reaching a Southern sphere to be revitalised, with the result 
that the living fish are exhibited upon the table as examples of the teeming 
life now existing at the Salmon Hatchery, thus gaining practical evidence 
of the commercial value of science to this ooijimunity. Apart from 
that aspect, however, the occasional advent of scientific men at this 
Institute gave a new inspiration to the work of the Fellows, and leave 
behind not only pleasing memories, but incentives to renewed efforts. 
The archives of this Institute wHl hand down as public benefactors the 
names of Dr. Agnew, Sir Thomas Brady, and Mr. Moore, and in years 
to come, when future generations shall enjoy the sports of our rivers 
and partake as food of the king of fish, the record of this work, in which 
Dr. Agnew, Sir Thomas and Mr. Moore have been engaged, will be reviewed 
and the great value of their services re-acknowledged, and not the least 
that assistance afforded by Mr, Moore's lavish gift. That Irish gentleman 
has learnt from his associations with Nature's bounties himself to be 
bountiful. Nothing could be more so than his gifts of ova to this 
community. This, the second important donation, this time of half-a- 
million ova, without fee or reward, no, not without reward, for the 
scientist finds his high reward in the success of his experiments, and in that 
respect Mr. Moore reaps a great reward, and he is rewarded also by the 
fact that he has ministered to the commercial success of a people akin with 
himself — British Colonists. 

He called upon the assembled company to welcome Sir Thomas with the 
heartiness with which Tasmanians knew so well how to greet their 
friends. 

The audience rose and expressed their response to the invitation by 
loud applause. 

Mr. KoBEBT Henby then gave a short explanation of submarine 
mining, illustrated by apparatus and illustrations of the working of 
electro-contact mines as used for the protection of our harbour. Mr. W. 
F. Ward, the Government analysist, followed with some simple but 
interesting and rapidly performed experiments with the air pump, to 
illustrate the elasticity of gases and modern theories deduced from such 
phenomena. 

In the lower room there was a display of exhibits, a collection of photo- 
graphs, a lithographic press, and an oxy-hydrogen microscope. 

Great interest was manifested in Mr. Perrin's exhibits, especially in the 
proposed design for the timber trophy in the Melbourne Exhibition. The 
photographs represent the work of an eight months old association — The 
Tasmanian Photographic and Art Association — and are worthy specimens 
of this beautiful Art. Mr. Echlin, secretary to the association, gave 
practical demonstration of platinotype printing — this process is the inven- 
tion of and patented by Mr. Willis (a relative of our worthy citizen, Mr. 
Clemes), and consists of sensitising the paper with platinum-chloride, 
printing as in silver, but in about an eighth of the time, and developing in 
an aqueous solution of neutral oxalate of potash, at a temperature of 
150d^. to 170deg. Fahr. — then fixing in an 8 per cent, bath of hydrochloric 
acid, the result being a picture bearing a resemblance to fine steel 
engraving, and having the inestimable advantage of being permanent ; the 



VIU PBOCEEDINOS, APBIL. 

subject chosen by the demonstrator was a copy of an engraving, the 
property of the Royal Society, of Sir John Franklin; upwards of 200 prints 
were developed and distributed to the visitors. 

Mr. E. Scott presided at a small lithographic press, by Waterlow, 
London, and printed some excellent work from a very fine drawing of a 
portion of Mr. B. M. Johnston's work (about to be published), the 
delicay of the lines proved the efficacy of the machine under Mr. Scott's 
able manipulation. 

The oxy-hydrogen microscope was also demonstrated by Mr. Echlin, 
assisted by Mr. A. L. Butler. This instrument is probably the only one 
of its kind in the colonies, patented by Newton, London. It will project 
the smallest microscopic object on the screen eight feet in diameter or at 
will the image can be deflected on the table, rendering it applicable either 
for copying the object with pencil or photograph ; with the latter an 
exposure of a fraction of a second will suffice. 

The photograph of His Excellency, party, and members of the Council 
was taken by a charge of gun-cotton and magnesium powder discharged 
by electricity by Mr. Henry, the management being under the direction 
of Mr. B. McGuffie. 

At the conclusion of the meeting a formal vote of thanks was passed 
to Messrs. B. Henry, Lieut. Mathieson, W. F. Ward, S. Clemes, F. 
Echlin, A. Butler, and W. F. Scott for lending apparatus and explaining 
their use. 



PBOCEEDIHGS, APBIL. IZ 

SALMON OVA TO TASMANIA, PER S.S. "KAIKOUEA." 
Makch and April, 1888. 



Ohternation* as to Temperature vtade on, Yoyaae. 







42 


Inside KefriseiEltii, 


(,' Caaes. 






Itatd. 


Ho.r. 


nearest 


In No. 2, 
from" 


IbNo.3, 


Dack. 


Sea 






Door. 


Door. 


D^. 






March a 


4 p.m. 


35 


34 


34 






» 9 


6 a.m. 


40 


34 


33 


33 










40 


34 


33 


33 








4 p.m. 


40 


34 


33 


33 






10 


8a.ni. 


38 


34 


33 


33 








noon 


39 


34 


33 


33 


62 


54 




4p.in. 


43 


34 


33 


32i 


50 


64 


» 11 


8 km. 


40 


sa 


34 


34 


52 


64 






40 


35 


34 


34 


50 


64 




4 p.m. 


38 


33 


32 


31 


50 


64 


12 


8 ft.™. 


39 






32 


54 


CG 




noon 




33 


32 


33 


54 


55 




4 p.m. 


39 


33 


32 


32 


54 


55 


„ 13 




39 


34 




33 


56 


57 






39 


34 


34 


34 


60 


59 




4p.m 


38 




33 


33 


GO 


59 


1^ 




40 


34 


33 


33 


62 


60 




noon 


38 


34 


34 


34 


62 


62 




4 p.m. 


38 


34 


34 


34 


61 


63 


. 15 


8 a.m. 


40 


34 


34 


34 


63 


64 




]Oia.m. 


40 


34 


33 


33 


66 


67 




11a.m. 


40 


34 


33 


33 


67 


67 




2 p.m. 


41 


35 


35 


35 








3ip.m. 


40 


35 


35 


35 








6 p.m. 


88 


34 


33 


33 






16 


6 a.m. 


38 


33i 


33 


3ai 




67 






40 


35 


34 


34 


68 


67 




2ip.m. 


41 


35 


35 


35 








4 p.m. 


41 


35 


35 


35 


70 


68 


17 


8 a.m. 


40 


35 


34 


34 


m 


68 






.38 


34 


34 


34 


70 






4 p.m. 


38 


34 


34 


34 


69 


68 




5jp.ra. 


38 


34 


34 


34 






18 


8 a.m. 


40i 


35 


34 


33 


70 


69 






42 


35 


.34 


34 


74 


70 




4 p.m. 


41 


35 


34 


35 


74 


70 


19 


Sam. 


44 


35 


34 


34 


74 


73 






41 


35 


34 


34 


77 






2ixm. 


40 


34 


33 


33 








4 p.m. 


38 


34 


33 


33 


80 






6fp.m. 


38 


34 


33 


33 







PBOOEEDINOS, APBIL. 







45 *^ 


Inside Refrigerating Cases. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Airinsi< 
Cool 


InNo.l, 
nearest 


In No. 2, 

farther 

from 


In No. 3, 

furthest 

from 


Air 

on 

Deck. 


Sea 
Water. 






Door. 


Door. 


Door. 






March 20 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


35 


35 


80 


• 80 




10 a.m. 


38 


35 


35 


35 








noon 


40 


35 


35 


34 


83 


84 




4 p.m. 


40 


35 


34 


33i 


84 


83 


21 


8 a.m. 


45 


35 


34 


34 


82 


82 




noon 


42 


34 


33i 


33 


82 


82 




1^ p.m. 


44 


35 


34 


33^ 








4 p.m. 


44 


35 


34 


33| 


82 


83 


„ 22 


8 a.m. 


45 


35 


34 


34 


80 


80 




noon 


45 


34 


34 


33 


82 


80 




4 p.m. 


45 


35 


35 


34^ 


82 


80 


„ 23 


8 a.m. 


45 


35 


34 


34| 


80 


80 




lOj a.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33| 








noon 


42 


35 


35 


35" 


81 


80 




4 p.m. 


44 


35 


34 


34 


82 


80 


24 


8 a.m. 


47 


35 


35 


34 


78 


78 


24 


noon 


47 


35 


35 


34 


79 


78 




4 p.m. 


47 


35 


35 


34 


77 


76 


„ 25 


8 a.m. 


45 


35 


34 


34 


75 


75 


## 


noon 


42 


35 


34 


33 


77 


74 




2i p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33 








4 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33 


77 


75 




7 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33i 






„ 26 


8 a.m. 


42 


35 


35 


34 


72 


72 


## 


noon 


43i 


35 


35 


35 


74 


71 




4 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


34 


74 


72 


27 


8 a.m. 


44 


35 


34 


34 


70 


69 


## 


noon 


42 


35 


34 


33.V 


73 


71 




4 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


34" 


75 


71 


28 


8 a.m. 


42 


35 


34 


34 


69 


69 




noon 


42 


35 


34 


33J 


72 


69 




3p.in. 


42 


35 


34 


34 








4 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


34 


74 


70 


29 


8 a.m. 


44 


35 


34 


33 


67 


68 




noon 


42 


35 


34 


33 


70 


67 




4 p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33 


71 


69 




5 J p.m. 


42 


35 


34 


33 






30 


8 a.m. 


42 


35 


35 


34 


65 


67 




noon 


42 


35i 


35 


34i 


71 


67 




4 p.m. 


42 


35| 


35 


34j 


71 


67 


„ 31 


8 a.m. 


42i 


35j 


35 


35 


64' 


66 



PBOCEEDINGS, APRIL. 



XI 





e. 


Hour. 


111 


Inside Befrigeratmg Cases. 


Air 




Dai 


In No. 1, 


In No. 2» 


In No. 3, 


Sea 




*#• 






nearest 


farther 
from 


farthest 
from 


on 
Deck. 


Water. 








Door. 


Door. 


Door. 






April 


1 


8 a.m. 


42 


35I 


35 


34 


66 


64 






noon 


39 


34 


34 


63 


72 






4p.ni. 


42 


35 


34 


34 


66 


68 


9) 


2 


8 a.m. 


40 


35 


34 


34 


64 


64 






noon 


40 


35 


34 


34 


63 


65 


»> 


2 


4p.ni. 


40 


35 


34 


34 


64 


65 


99 


3 


8 a.m. 


39 


35 


34 


34 


58 


58 






noon 


40 


35 


35 


35 


60 


62 






1 J p.m. 


39 


35 


34i 


34 










4 p.m. 


38 


35 


34" 


34 


56 


59 


99 


4 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


49 


55 






11a.m. 


35 


34 


34 


34 










noon 


35 


34 


34 


34 


53 


52 






4 p.m. 


35 


34 


34 


34 


49 


48 


99 


5 


8 am. 


35 


34 


34 


34 


45 


43 






noon 


35 


34 


34 


34 


47 


46 






4 p.m. 


35 


34 


34 


34 


44 


43 


99 


6 


8ia.m. 


25 


34 


34 


34 


45 


45 






13 a.m. 


30 


34 


34 


34 










noon 


32 


34 


34 


33i 


47 


45 






4 p.m. 


35 


34 


34 


33" 


49 


49 


99 


7 


8 a.m. 


33 


34 


34 


34 


51 


49 






noon 


34 


34 


34 


33i 


52 


48 






1p.m. 


34 


34 


34 


331 










4 p.m. 


35 


34 


34 


34" 


53 


48 


99 


8 


8 a.m. 


40 


34 


34 


33 


46 


43 






noon 


38 


34 


33 


33 


47 


43 






4 p.m. 


38 


34 


33 


33 


51 


43 


99 


9 


8 a.m. 


38 


34 


34 


33^ 


47 


46 






11 a.m. 


38* 


35 


34 


33J 










noon 


38" 


35 


34 


34 


49 


46 






4 p.m. 


38 


35 


34 


331 


47 


44 


}9 


10 


8 a.m. 


36 


35 


34 


33i 


48 


49 






11a.m. 


35 


34 


34 


33i 










noon 


35 


34 


34 


33| 


48 


47 


99 


10 


4 p.m. 


38 


34i 


34J 


34 


47 


47 


JJ 


11 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


48 


47 






noon 


40 


35 


34 


34 


50 


46 






4 p.m. 


40 


35 


341 


34 


50 


44 


yj 


12 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


50 


49 






noon 


40 


35 


34 


34 


51 


47 






4 p.m. 


40 


35 


34 


34 


50 


44 



xu 



PB0CEEDIN6S, APRIL. 





1 




111 


Inside Refrigerating Cases. 






Date 


Hftnr 


Tn No. 1, 


In No. 2, 


In No. 3, 


Air 


Sea 


A^CwlT^ 


^« 


AAVi-tX • 


1^1 


nearest 


further 
from 


furthest 
from 


XJMA, 

Deck. 


Water. 

• 








door. 


Door. 


Door. 






April 


13 


8a.ni. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


51 


47 






noon 


38 


35 


34 


34 


49 


46 






2 p.m. 


38 


35 


35 


34 










4 p.m. 


38 


34 


34 


33J 


49 


45 


j> 


14 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


50 


47 






11 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 










noon 


37 


35 


34 


33 


50 


48 






4 p.m. 


38 


35 


34 


33J 


50 


48 


>j 


15 


8 a.m. 
noon 
4 p.m. 










54 
54 
53 


51 
52 
50 


99 


16 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


52 


50 






noon 


38 


35 


34 


33| 


53 


49. 






Ijp.m. 


40 


35 


34 


34 










4 p.m. 


38 


35 


34 


33J 


52 


49 


99 


17 


8 a.m. 


37 


35 


34 


34 


56 


52 






10 a.m. 


37 


35 


34 


33i 










noon 


40 


35 


34 


34 


56 


52 






4 p.m. 


38 


35 


34 


34 


57 


52 


99 


18 


8 a.m. 


38 


35 


34J 


34 


56 


54 






noon 


35 


35 


34 


33J 


56 


56 



PROCEEDINGS, MAY. Xlll 



MAT, 1888. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania was 
held on May 14th, when there was a moderate attendance of 
Fellows. Amongst others present were His Excellency the Governor 
and Liady Hamilton, Sir Thomas Brady, Sir Lambert Dobson, and Col. 
L^e, R.A. 

The President (His Excellency the Governor) took the chair at 7*30. 

NEW MEMBEBS, 

The President said the first business on the paper was the nomination 
of Mr. R. A. Bastow as a corresponding member of the Society. They 
were all aware of Mr. Bastow*^ position as a scientist, his work in 
connection with the Society being of an extremely valuable character, 
but it was necessary to go through the form of an election. 

Mr. Bastow was elected a corresponding member, and the following 
new Fellows were elected : — The Rev. Mr. McDowall, Canon Dicker, 
Mr. F. M. Young. 

the SALMONID^ in TASMANIA. 

Mr. p. S. Seageb read a paper, entitled "A concise history of the 
acclimatisation of the ScUmonidce in Tasmania." He pointed out that 
the subject of acclimatising English salmon in Tasmanian waters was 
first considered by Captain F. Chalmers in 1841, but the experiment 
failed through entire want of experience. The matter next engaged the 
attention of Mr. James L. Burnett, of the Tasmanian Survey depart- 
ment, and Sir William Denison warmly interested himself in the 
matter. In this second attempt, which took place in 1852, when 
50,000 salmon trout ova in a tub were imported, the ova hatched on 
the voyage, but there was no trace of either spawn or fish on arrival 
at Hobart. It then occurred to Mr. Burnett that the temperature 
should be regulated by means of ice. In 1858 the Government referred 
the matter to the Royal Society, and had already taken great interest 
in it, with a reward of £500 from Parliament for the successful 
introduction. At this time the idea of introducing the living salmon 
was prominent, and the committee recommended the use of ice to lower 
temperature, and the construction of breeding ponds. The next 
experiment was made in 1860 through the efforts of the Australian 
Association in England working under the guidance of Mr. J. A. Youl, 
who, from that time, became closely associated with every succeeding 
shipment ; but this attempt also failed, as the ice melted before the 
voyage was over. In anticipation of the arrival of this shipment the 
Government had caused ponds to be constructed at North West Bay, 
though these ponds were never used, and the site was abandoned in 
favour of the River Plenty site. In 1862, 50,000 ova were shipped for 
Tasmania in the Beautiful Star, with iced water flowing over the trays 
containing the ova. Severe gales and the failure of the ice supply 
made this attempt another failure. In October 1861 the Government 
had appointed a body of gentlemen as honorary commissioners, to 
whom the future management of the whole business was entrusted. 
In the failures up to the date experience had demonstrated the perfect 
practicability of the project under proper conditions easily attainable. 
A little box containing ova, packed in layers of moss and charcoal, had 
been placed in an ice-house by Mr. Youl, and forgotten by Mr. 
Ramsbottom, until 60 days after the Beautiful Star had left England, 
led to further experiments, in which there were many claimants for 
the credit of the discovery that ice retarded the development of ova. 
Mr. Brady, who was much impressed with the idea, sent a sketch of 



XIV PROCEEDINGS, MAY. 

ova packed in damp moss under an ice tank, and with a tap to draw 
off water, to Mr. Yoal. The original of this sketch the writer of the 
paper produced. Mr. Brady recommended a small trial in this way, 
adding that if they did not hatch before arrival it would be a decidedly 
safe wey of transporting them. In 1862 a number of experiments in 
this direction were made by Messrs. R. and W. Ramsbottom, Thos. 
Johnston, and others under the direction of Mr. Youl, and after some 
difficulties in obtaining ova and proper accommodation on board ship, 
Messrs. Money, Wigram, and Co. placed 50 tons of space on the clipper 
ship Norfolk at Mr. YouFs service gratuitously. Mr. Youl has been 
enabled to ship 106,000 salmon ova packed in the following manner, 
which has since bean repeated with little alteration : — *' A couple of 
handsful of charcoal are spread over the bottom of the box, then a 
layer of broken ice ; after this, a bed or nest of wet moss is carefully 
made and well drenched with water. The ova are then very gently 
poured from a bottle, which is kept filled with water. The box is now 
nlled up with moss, and pare water poured upon it until it streams 
out from all the holes. Another layer of finely pulverised ice is spread 
all over the top of the moss ; the lid is then firmly screwed down. 
The boxes used measured 11 Jin. long, 6|in. wide, and 5Jin. deep, 
perforated top and bottom." As doubts had been expressed whether 
the true salmon had ever been received, Mr. Seager gave full par- 
ticulars of where the ova were taken, and the names of the ditferent 
persons of well-known experience who obtained it from the various 
rivers, also an article from The Times of January 18, 1864, giving 
particulars with reference to what had been done. The Norfolk 
arrived in Melbourne after a voyage of 84 days, and the ova were 
transhipped in the Victorian Government sloop Victoria, and brought 
on to Hobart. They were deposited at the hatchery on the 91st day 
after shipment, when it was estimated that there were 35,000 living 
ova. The ova hatched out well, and the mortality amongst the fry was 
very trifling. It was estimated that 1,500 of the fry escaped through a 
leak, and that gave rise to a statement that the Norfolk shipment had 
died ; but upwards of 3,000 fry were admitted to the pond from the 
breeding boxes, and fish in a more mature stage were subsequently 
liberated. In 1866 another 102,500 salmon ova with 15,000 ova of sea 
trout were shipped in the Lincolnshire, and 50 per cent, were deposited 
at the ponds. Of this shipment the commissioners reported on 
September 2, 1869, that 6,000 salmon and 900 salmon trout had been 
liberated. In 1882 Dr. Agnew, then in London, was entrusted by his 
brother commissioners with the direction of a further shipment, but 
that gentleman was, from various causes, unable to carry the object to 
completion, though he visited and secured the co-operation of Messrs. 
Youl and Brady, who secured and packed 80,000 ova, which were 
despatched in the Abington on the 19th February, 1884. On July 1 
there were 1,825 fry of thb shipment in the boxes at the ponds — a 
comparative failure in this shipment arising from a defect in the 
drainage of the ice-house. Thirty fish of this lot were retained in the 
ponds for breeding purposes, and 300 fry of their progeny were 
liberated last season. In 1885 Messrs. Brady and Youl packed 160,000 
which were sent direct to Hobart in the Yeoman, and resulted in a 
greater success than any of the preceding shipments. Of this lot 
10,000 arrived in such a state of development as to have the eyea 
visible, and revealed so few dead eggs that it was decided to ship ova 
in the "eyed" stage in future. After paying a high compliment to 
the Salmon Commissioners who resigned in 1887, Mr. Seager referred 
to the noble offer of Dr. Agnew and the last shipment under the charge 
of Sir Thos. Brady, and concluded by quoting some passages from 
the writings of Mn B. M. Johnston and others as to the character of 
the fish we have succeeded in acclimatising. 



PEOCEEDINOS, MAY. XV 

Mr. B. M. Johnston followed with a paper on the same subject, 
dealing in a Boientific manner with the evidence as to the fish 
we have secured. He was not aware, in preparing his paper, that 
Bfr. Seager was engai^ed in writing such an important paper, and 
would therefore omit the brief reference he had made to the history 
of the subject, which Mr. Saager had already so exhaustively dealt 
with. Takinfl^ up the subject from the discovery of the proper means 
of conveying the ova, he spoke in very high terms of the services 
rendered by Sir Thomas Brady and Dr. Agnew, and said the problem 
to solve was whether the progeny of the real Salmo scUar when liberated 
perpetuated their species in Tasmanian waters ; for no specimen hitherto 
caught in Tasmania could be decidedly classified with the S. scUar of 
Europe. But if the fish in the water here referred to as S, truUa and 
iSL faario, liberated in 1866, what had become of the far greater number 
ot 8, solar then liberated ? The theories advanced to account for the 
supposed non-appearance of 8, solar might be briefly referred to as the 
hyDrid theory; the extinction theory — that the environment, food, 
cumate, and enemies had killed them ; and the exodus theory — that 
they had wandered away from our shores and had not returned. That 
hybrids of scUmonidoi existed was confirmed in other parts of the world, 
but the facts of the history of acclimatisation here would not admit of 
the assumption that hybrids were introduced, as there were five ship- 
ments obtained at different times, different places, and by different 
people all skilled in the work. Granting that a few mistakes might 
occur, it was preposterous to assume that hybridism should have 
resulted in all the cases, and the facts stated were sufficient to 
dismiss it at once. The extinction theory was more reasonable, as 
it was conceivable that extremes of temperature, or sach enemies as 
tiie barracouta, might account for the extinction. Still, the variation 
in the temperature of deep water was not very great, while in the 
shallow ponds of the Plenty they had the undoubted progeney of Salmo 
salary not only surviving, but actually bred in the ponds. There was 
no means in the colony of obtaining accurate information of temperature 
at a depth, and it was absurd to gauge isotherms on shallow sand flats, 
where in England an equally high temperature will be discovered. At 
the Clyde sea area and other places a series of temperatures had been 
taken with deep sea thermometers, revealing the fact of very slight 
variations at a depth. Looking at the characters of the waters here, 
there was every reason for distrusting the temperature taken on a sandy 
shallow. Regarding the presence of enemies such as the barracouta, 
there was no reason for supposing that the Salmo solar should fall a 
prey to these fish, while others survived. The exodus theory also 
depended upon temperature. It was not unreasonable, but the evidence 
was against it. Mr. Kent had suggested that the fish had wended 
their way towards Japan, but this was improbable, and opposed to 
the known instincts of all animals who were prompted to return, if they 
wandered, to the homes of their ancestors. If the heat caused them to 
migrate they would travel south, and be lost in the wilderness of waters 
in the Antartic Ocean. The question then was, had the Salmx) solar 
migrated to the waters around the South Pole, or was the migratory 
fish now in our waters the true descendants of the Salmx) solar of 
Europe, modified by the difference of enivronment. The classifications 
of museums were not reliable when applied to the various intermediate 
forms of the fish marVet, where the doubts of the classifiers were set 
aside as the vivialities of naturalists and the fish bought and sold as 
salmon. Nor did individuals agree on the points of determination. 
What n&turalist was prepared to declare the limits of individual varia- 
tion in form, colour, ete., in the growth of one fish through its various 
stases, under changes of food, climate, and other circumstances of 
environment? He did not urge these remarks against the classification 



XVI PB0CEEDIN6S, MAT. 

of maseums, but against the arbitrary adoption of fixed forms, and 
then applying them to fish under such chanses as those presented in 
acclimatisation here. He pointed out the undoubted variation existing 
in the trout, and asked how naturalists could affirm the non- variation 
of salmon in Tasmanian waters, where they were preserved from the- 
interfusion of other local types to break down the developing variations. 
In this respect European opinions were not of much value, as they were 
not aware of the limit of rareability in the new environment of 
Tasmanian waters. Classification had undoubtedly failed to deal with 
the difficulty, as Sir Thomas Brady had instanced the case of an 
ichthyologist with a European reputation, who had plainly said that if a 
specimen shown him from Tasmania were taken to six different autho- 
rities, six different opinions would be given. What, then, was the 
verdict? Between extinction or exodus, and modification produced 
by environment he would decide in favour of the latter. He had 
prepared a table of measurements, which would show that all the 
classifications overlapped, except as to the number of scales to the 
adipose fin. Not only did the characteristic overlap in different species 
but individuals exhibited in different specimens the extreme of variation. 
We had two classes of fish here known, and a third, a migratory fish 
partaking of the characteristic of the other two, but differing from the 
English S. ScUar. He could not say definitely that the fish caught 
by His Excellency was the English S, Solar, but he would suggest 
that it be designated S. ScUar Tasmanicus. ' 

Mr. MoBTON said the difficulty Mr. Johnston had laid before them 
bad been dealt with by Ramsbottom in 1854, who quoted LyeU's 
opinion that '* future inquirers have yet to determine the number of 
species of Salmonidce." The true salmon kept in the ponds did not 
agree with the measurement of the maxilary bone, but the scales did 
agree. Few had s^one so clesely into the ichthyology of Tasmania 
as Mr. Johnston, but he (Mr. Morton) could not quite see that Gunther 
and other authorities had disregarded all the facts advanced. The 
fish presented by the Governor, after Che opinion of Sir Thos. Brady and 
Mr. Johnston, he intended to label S, Scdar, but paying due regard to 
the criticism which might be brought to bear upon the specimen, he 
intended to add Tasmanictis, because the fish would not fit with the- 
classification of Salmo solar. The subject was beset with difficulties, 
but Mr. Johnston's paper would be printed, and he would see that 
Gunther, Day, and other authorities received it. 

Sir Thomas Bbady spoke in the highest terms of the papers, and 
looked upon Mr. Johnston's as important, not only to the colonies, 
but to every salmon producing country. He had noticed such variations 
in fish from different rivers that fishermen could pick out of a sea catch 
the fish that came from the Foyle, the Ban, or the Ballycastle Rivers.. 
As to colour, he had seen a haul of 2,100 salmon and fish picked out, 
the flesh of which were both white. He intended to send one of theso 
and the salmon sold in the public markets out to the Museum. 

Sir Lambert Dobson thought a few words would sum up Mr. Johnston's 
paper. It seemed to him that Mr. Johnston had gone back to first 
principles, and abolishing the terms salar, tnitta^ and fario he simply 
said — *' We have the salmon in different variety." 

The President, in proposing a vote of thanks to the readers of the 
papers, and Sir Thomas Brady for his valuable remarks, spoke very 
highly of the value of the papers and the interest he had in listening to 
them. He thought Mr. Johnston had disposed of the various theories 
very ably, and had almost ruled that we have the salmon in some 
variety. 

The 70te of thanks was carried, and owing to the lateness of the hour 
the reading of some other papers was postponed. 



PKOCEEDINGS, JUNE. xvii 



JUNE, 1888. 

The nsaal monthly meeting of this Society was held on June 11th, at 
the Museum, but owing to the unpropitions weather the attendance was 
much smaller than usual. In the absence of the president (His Excel- 
lency the Governor) Mr. James Babnabd took the chair, and in opening 
tiie meeting, stated that His Excellency Sir B. G. C. Hamilton was absent 
in the country, but had expressed his desire that the business of the even- 
ing should not be postponed. Although the attendance was small, he (the 
chairman) should proceed with the reading of the papers, and not break 
the regularity of their meetings. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Barnard directed 
the attention of the ladies and gentlemen present to the bound book of 
proceedings for the past year as printed and published at The Mercury 
office, and which were laid on the table for the use of members. He 
said the book had been well printed, and was ^ot up in a most 
creditable manner, it having received the attention which it deserved. 

Additions to the library during the months of April and May: — 

American Agriculturists, Current Nos. 

Annals and Magazines, Natural History, current Nos. 

Athenaeum, current Nos. 

Boletiro da Sociedade de Georaphia de Lisboa, 7th Serie, Fos. 
3, 4. — From tbeSociety. 

BoUettino della Societa Africana, D'ltaliana, Anno Y., Fac. III. — 
From theSoeiety. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass. Vol. XIII., No. 6. On the Eyes of Scorpions, by 
6. H. Parker. No. 8. On certain vacuities or deficiencies in the crania 
of Mammals, by D. D. Slade. From M. Agassiz. Vol. XVI., No. 1. 
On the petrographical characters of a dike of diabase in the Boston 
Basin, by W. H. Hobbs. Vol. XIX., No. 7. Studies from the Newport 
Marine Laboratory. On certain Medusae from New England, by J. 
W. Fewkes. From A. Agassiz. 

Bulletin of the New York State Museum for 1883-4. — From the 
Department. 

Bulletin of the New York State Museum of Natural History, Vol. 
L, No. 2, 1887.— From the Department. 

Bulletin du Comite Geologique, St. Petersburg. Vol. VI., Nos. 1 to 
10. — From the Society. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part III., '* Apetalae,'' by J. Macoun, 
B.A. — From the Society. 

Characese of America. The Introduction, Morphology, and Classifi- 
cation, by Dr. T. F. Allen. — From the Author. 

Bulletin du Mus^e Royal D'Histoire, Naturelle de Belgique. Tome 
v., No. 1. — From the Society. 

Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of New Zealand. 

Geological Report, No. 18. Index M useum Report, No. 22. Studies 
in Biology, No 2 — From the Department. 

Die Internationale Polarforschung, 1882-3. Band I., II. — From the 
Government. 

Ergebnisse der Meteorologischin Beobachtungen in Jabre, Berlin, 
1886.— From theSoeiety. 

Flora of British India. Pt. XIX. By Sir J. D. Hooker, C.B.— 
From the Record Office, India. 

G^logical Magazine. Current Nos. 

Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, Vol. IV. — From the Depart- 
ment. 



xviii PBOCEEDINGS, JUNE. 

Guide to the Shell and Starfish Galleries in the British Musenm, 1887. 
— From the Trustees. 

History and description of the skeleton of a new sperm whale, lately 
set up in the Australian Museum, Sydney, hy W. S. Wall. (A reprint.) 
— From the Trustees. 

History and description of Mr. Tebutt's Observatory at Windsor, 
N.S.W., by Mr. J. Tebutt.— From the Author. 

Ibis. Current Nos. 

Journals and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 
Paits II., III. Vol. XXL— From the Society. 

Journals and Papers of the Parliament of Tasmania. Vols. X., XI. » 
Xn. — From the Government. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, London (current numbers). 
— From the Society. 

Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeology Association of 
Ireland. — From the Society. 

Manual of the Geology of India. Part IV. Mineralogy (mainly non- 
economic). By F. R. Mallet (bound). — From the Department. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. XXIV., Part L 
The Southern Coalfields of Sarjuroa Gondwana basin. — From the 
Department. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Paloeontologica Indica. 
Ser X. Indian Tertiary and Post Tertiary Vertebrata. Vol. IV., 
Part III. Eocene Chelonia from the Salt Raoge. By R. Lydekker, 
B. A. — From the Department. 

Memoires de la Society Royal des Sciences de Liege. Tome XIV. — 
From the Society. 

Memoires du Comite Geologique, St. Petersburg. Vol. I. IL, 
No. 1-6. — From the Society. 

Monthly Weather Review, January, 1888.— From the Meteor. Office, 
Canada. 

Morse collection of Japanese pottery, reprinted from the American 
Architect of May 28, 1887. Salem. Essex lustitute. — From the 
Society. 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Queensland Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia, 1886-7. Pt. III. — From the Society. 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Victorian Branca of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia. Pt. I. Vol. I. — From the Society. 

*' Psyche " : A Journal of Entomology Pts. — From the Society, Mass. 

Resultados del Observatorio Nacional Argentine en Cordoba. Buenos 
Aires. Vol. IX. 1876.— From the Department. 

Seventh Annual Report of the State Mineralogist for the year ending 
October 1, 1887. — From the Californian State Mining Bureau. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. IV., current Nos.— From the 
Society. 

Sidereal Messenger The Minnesota, by Mr. W. V. Payne, 1887. 
— From the Society. Statistical Papers of New Zealand. — From the 
Government. 

Teaching of History in Schools, an address delivered October, 1887» 
by Oscar Browning, F.R. Hist, S. — From the Royal Historical Society. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. 
XXIV., Part 1, 1887.— From the Society. 

THE SILYEB EXTRACTING PROCESS. 

Mr. J. W. ToPLis read a paper on the various methods einployed in 
extracting silver from argentiferous galena and other ores. The paper 
was one of much interest and importance. Mr. Toplis prefaced his 
remarks by stating that now silver oids fair to become the source of a 
large revenue to the colony, owing to the enormous deposits recently 



PEOCEEDINGS, JUNE. XIX 

discovered afe Mount Zeehan and Heazlewood, he hoped that the varioas 
methods of extracting the precious metal from hoth galena and its ores 
put before them in a consolidated and condensed form, would prove both 
interesting and instructive. He went on to explain that galena was 
almost invariably associated with silver to a greater or less extent, and 
that when the precious metal was present in sufficient quantities to 
render it payable, it was extracted by various methods, which he pro- 
ceeded to explain. The process which Mr. Toplis detailed was mu'jh 
less expensive than that formerly adopted. Under the old process the 
whole of the lead had first to be reduced to the oxide on a large hearth 
covered with bone ash, the silver escaping oxidation then being separated 
from it. This process was on account of the very great expense only 
applicable to very rich ores. To Mr. Pattinson he said must be awarded 
the palm, for by his valuable discovery he had cheapened the process to 
such an extent that any lead containing over 5oz. of silver to the ton 
would pay for treatment. Mr. Toplis went on to explain the ptocess 
of cupellation on the larger scale, and the construction of the cupel, 
etc. He succeeded in giving those present a very good rough idea of 
the treatment through which galena must pass before the precious metal 
could be obtained, asking them to always bear in mind that the process, 
although a long and tedious one, was comparatively inexpensive. The 
first part of the process — smelting — cost about 10s. per ton, and the 
desilverising from 12s. 6d. to 15s. per ton. He referred briefly to the 
enormous deposit of silver lead at Mount Zeehan. He believed that 
before the next year had passed Tasmania would be known as one of 
the largest silver-lead producing countries in the world, and this opinion 
of his, he said, was shared by some of the leading mining experts who 
had visited Tasmania from the other colonies. The galena from Mount 
Zeehan was most remarkable for its extreme purity. They had lodes 
there 6ft. and 8ft. wide of pure metal, which in some cases assayed 
about 75 per cent, of lead. The lead itself not only paid all expenses 
of working, but also yielded a large profit. He spoke at some length on 
the enormous value of the fields, and concluded by expressing a hope 
that ere long they would see smelting-works and foundries in their midst. 
(Applause.) 

In the course of the discussion which followed on the paper, Mr. 
W. F. Ward (Government Analyst) said he thought Mr. Toplis was too 
sanguine in giving them one year only in which to develop the Moun^ 
Zeehan mines. He (Mr. Ward) thought it would take rather more 
than that. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor said he fully believed that before many months 
were over Tasmania would be one of the best silver-producing countries 
in the world. One great thing in favour of their silver-mines on the 
West Coast was that the metal was very pure ; in fact, it was so clean 
that it was only necessary to bag it and send it right away. He thought 
they were much indebted to Mr. Toplis for the interesting information 
he had given them. 

AN ADDITION TO TASMANIAN AVIFAUNA. 

A paper in the absence of the author, Mr. W. F. Petterd, F.Z.S., of 
Launceston, was read by Mr. Morton, entitled ** An addition to the 
Avifauna of Tasmania Anseranas Melanohuca^ ** the Semipalmated 
Croose." This bird, a species of goose common in the North of Australia, 
was lately shot in the Lake district, near Cressy. It was noticed with a 
small flock that had lately been seen in the neighbourhood of Launceston. 

another new VISITOR. 

A paper, by Colonel W. V. Legge, also dealt with a new bird not 
previously found in Tasmania, belonging to the Order of Fly-catchers 
(Chibia bnicteeUaJ, This bird was shot on the East Coast, and the 



XX PE0CEEDING8, JUNE. 

colonel, in bis paper, stated that it was qnite possible that the islands 
in the Straits proved to be a resting place for birds on their way from 
Australia to Tasmania. 

PROTECTION FOR THE SEAL AKD MUTTON BIRD. 

Mr. C. Allport called attention to the desirability of getting protec- 
tion in Tasmania for the seal and the mutton bird. The former he said 
were becoming in very large numbers the victims of poachers from Kew 
Zealand. At one time as many as a 1,000 seals were to be counted on 
Clarke's Island in one day, but they were rapidly being killed, and would 
soon become extinct unless protected. As to the mutton bird, their 
eggs were being destroyed, as well as being sent away wholesale, and 
the birds themselves were being destroyed in immense numbers. The 
bird was a most valuable one, its oil being an excellent thing for con- 
sumptive persons ; its feathers were marketable, and the flesh on the 
bird was excellent eating. 

In the course of a very lensthy discussion which took place on the 
matter. Bishop Sandford said he lived at one time for 10 days on an 
island on the mutton bird, not having been able to get anything else. A 
young delicate friend of his was with him at the time, and he greatly 
improved in his health, through, he (the Bishop) believed, eating the 
bird named continuously. 

Mr. E. Swan did not agree with the Bishop that the bird was a good 
article of food, and Dr. Barnard said the oil from it could be made much 
more palatable than cod liver oil, which was so much used for con- 
sumptives. 

The Hon. B. S. Bird said the Government before they took steps for 
protecting the mutton bird would require sound information as to the 
necessity for such protection. 

Mr. ¥, Belstead, Mr. F. H. Wise, and other gentlemen having 
spoken, the matter dropped. 

THE ANTARTIC REGIONS. 

Bishop Sandford introduced the subject of appointing an exploring 
party to proceed to the Antartic regions. If, his lordship, said, Tas- 
mania did not do something, Melbourne would take the matter out of 
their hands, and he reminded them that Germany had its eye on the 
regions named. He had no doubt whatever that the starting-point 
should be from Hobart. 

The Chairman said the question had now become a national one. He 
thought representations for assistance in the matter of an expedition 
should be made to the Imperial Government. 

Votes of thanks were accorded to the gentlemen whose papers had 
been read to the meeting, and a similar compliment having been 
passed to the Chairman, the proceedings terminated. 



PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XXI 



AUaUST, 1888. 

The monthly meetiDg of the Royal Society was held at the Tasmanian 
Museum on August 13th. The president (His Excellency, Sir Rohert 
O. C. Hamilton, K.C.B.)f occupied the chair. 

Mr. Alex. Morton read a letter from Mr. G. Thureau, F.G.S., calling 
the attention of the society to the following announcement which 
appeared in the illustrated Leipziger News of July 30, 1887 : — ** Dr. 
Albucht von Groddeck, Royal Mining Counsellor and Director of the 
United Mining Academy and School of Mines, at Clauthsal, Hanover, 
on the 18th June, 1887, 50 years of age." The deceased gentleman 
was a foreign correspondent of the Society. 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

The following list of additions to the library during July was 
tabled : — 

Account of the operations of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of 
India. Vol X. Electro-Telegraphic Longitude operations executed 
during the years 1881-2, 1882-3, and 1883-4, by Major G. Strahan, 
R.E., and Major W. J. Heaviside, R.E. (Bound.). — From the Survey 
Department. 

American Agriculturist. (Current Nos.) 

Annals and Magazines of Natural History. (Current Nos.) 

Annual Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, 
for the year 1887. From the Department. 

Bibleoth^que deM. L'Abbe Favre (pamphlet), Paris, 1888. — From the 
Society. 

Boletin da Socicdade de Geographia de Lisboa, 7a. serie., Nos. 
5.6-7-8.— From the Society. 

Bollettino della Societa GcogratiQa Italiana, serie III., Vol. 1., 
Fascicolo V., Maggio, 1888. — From the Society. 

Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico del Colegio Pio de 
Villa Colon. Ano. I. mes de Enero No. 2 (Montevideo).— From the 
Society. 

Bulletin of the New York State Museum of Natural History, No. 3, 
March, 1888. — From the Museum. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada. Alfred R. C. 
Selwynn, C.M.G., L.L.D., etc.. Director." 

Summary Report of the operations of the Geological and Natural 
History Survey, to 3l8t December, 1887, being Pt. III. 

Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1887. — From the 
Department. 

Geological Maciazine. Current Nos. 

Goldhelds of Victoria. The Reports of tho Mining Registrars for 
the quarter ended 3l8t March, 1888. — From the Secretary of Mines. 

Iconography of Australian Species of Acacia and Ognate Genera, 
9th, 10th, 11th Decade. By Baron F. Von Mueller, K.C.M.G. From 
the Government. 

Imperial Federation (current Nos.) From the Editor. 

Journal of the Royil Microscopical Society, Pt. 3, 1888, June. From 
the Society. 

List of Hepaticae, collected by X«lr. Thomas Whitelegge in New South 
Wales, 1884-5, by B. Carrington, M.D., F.R.S.E., and W. H. Pearson. 
(Pamphlet.) From the Authors. 

Magnetical and Meteorological Observations made at the Observa- 
tory, Bombay, in the year 1888, under the direction of Charles Cham- 
bers, F.R.S. — From the Gk)vernment. 



XXll PEOCBKDINGS, AUGUST. 



i> 



Memoini of the Geological Survey of India, " Paloeontologia Indica. 
SerXm., Salt Range fossils, by W. Waagen, Ph. D.S.F.G. 1 Pro- 
dnctas — ^Limestone fossils ; 7 Coelenterata, Amorphozon — Protozoa. — 
From the Department. 

Monthly Weather Review, current Nos.— From the Signal Office, 
Washington. 

Monthly weather report. (Current Nos.) — From the Meteorological 
Office, London. 

Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, April. 

Monthly Weather Report. Meteorological Service of Canada. March,. 
1888. (Pamphlet.) From the Department. 

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. XLVIII. 
No. 7, May, 1888.— From the Society. 

. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wiales. Vol. III. 
Part I, 1888. 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Queensland Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia, 3rd session 1887-8. Vol. lU., 
Part I. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geographical and Polytechnic Society, 
N.S. Vol. IX., Part III. pp. 337-498.— From the Society. 

Report on the Meteorology of India in 1886, by J. Eliotopia. — From 
the Department. 

Report of the Technological, Industrial, and Sanitary Museum, 
Sydney, for 1887. — From the Department. 

Scottish Geofi;raphical Magazine, Vol. IV. V, Nos. 6, 6, 7. — From the 
Society. 

Sixty- eighth Report of the Council of the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society at the close of the session, 1887-8 (pamphlet). — From 
the Society. 

Statistics of the Colony of New Zealand for the year 1887. Pt. III. 
Trade and Interchange. — From the Registrar-General's Office. 

Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of 
Australia. Vol. X. for 1886-7.— From the Society. 

Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft Fiir Erdkunde Zu Berlin. Band 
XV., No. 4, 6, 6.— From the Society. 

THE PROBLEM OP MALTHUS STATED. 

A paper of considerable length, bearing the above title, was read 
by Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.L.S. He stated tnat he had prepared 
the paper mainly with a view to force the noble aims and ideas 
of Malthus from the great misconception which existed in regard to 
his problems. The paper opened with the following remarks : — Darwin 
has observed '* that in a state of nature almost every full-grown plant 
annually produces seed, and amongst animals there are few which do 
not annually pair. Hence we may confidently assert that all plants and 
animals are tending to increase at a geometrical ratio — that all would 
rapidly stock every station in which they could anyhow exist. And 
this geometrical tendency to increase must be checked by destruction 
at some period of life," and, as an inevitable consequence, he goes on to 
add ** that each individual lives by a struggle at some period of its life, 
that heavy destruction falls either on the young or old during each 
generation, or at recurrent intervals. Lighten any check, mitigate the 
destruction ever so little, and the numTOr of the species will almost 
instantaneously increase to any amount." These considerations, the 
writer submitted, when fully appreciated, formed the foundation of 
the problem of Malthus. [An Essay on the '* Principle of population.'* 
Malthus. London, 1826.] Much attention was devoted by Mr. Johnston 
to Mr. Henry George's views on the problem of Malthus. He remarked, 
" That Mr. Henry George altogether failed to grasp the various elements 



PKOCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XXIU 

of this problem is at once apparent by the manner in which in his other- 
wise yery able work ' Progress and Poverty,' he has attempted to refute 
the conclnsions of Maltbus. When Malthus affirmed that the ratio of 
increase of population increased faster than the ratio of increase of means 
of subsistence, he never stated or conceived that population could 
actually outstrip the means of subsistence as interpreted and discussed 
by Mr. Henry George ; and hence the whole of Mr. George's citations 
and reasonings are either fallacious, or they never touch upon the real 
causes at the root of Malthus' problem. That there is a thorough 
misconception on the part of Mr. George is clearly proved by the 
following quotation from Malthus : 'According to the principles of 
population the human race has a tendency to increase faster than food. 
It has, therefore, a constant tendency to people a country fully up to the 
limits of subsistence ; but by the laws of nature it can never go beyond 
tiiem, meaning, of course, by theoe limits the lowest quantity of food 
which will maintain a stationary population. Population, therefore, can 
never, strictly speaking, precede food.' This clear expression on the 
part of Malthus casts aside the whole of Mr. George's ratiocinations as 
worthless. His inability to grasp the most important elements of the 
problem is still further made manifest by his query, ' How is it, then, 
that this globe of ours, after all the thousands, and it is thought millions, 
of years, that man has been upon the earth, is yet so thinly populated? " 
The paper went on at great length to deal with the subject 
of checks, and the fallacy of Mr. George's arguments, and the writer 
maintained that when population is declining it is rather because misery, 
disease, and vice have abnormally raised the death rate higher than 
the birth rate, and not because of any material tendency to a decline in 
the birth rate. While there are different stages of civilisation in 
existence, over-population is a relative term applicable to the particular 
country, and not an absolute quantity to be determined by an absolute 
number of persons to a given area as most erroneously indicated by Mr. 
George. This is clear to any one who studies the civilisation and the 
sanitary state of different countries. 

Mr. J. S. Laubie said the whole question was in a nutshell. There 
was a sufficient supply of food for a family of a certain number, but 
when fresh births occurred in that family without any fresh avenues 
of work with which to obtain the means of sustenance, trouble began. 
This principle, when extended, of course, narrowed the pleasures of a 
certain number, because of there being too large a number to participate 
in them, Population, however, was fairly balanced by disease, famine, 
war, etc. As to moral restraint, however, the lower orders knew nothing 
whatever about it, and had no powers of restraint, aod consequently 
overwhelmed the world by imprudence. This was the reason of the 
overpopulation in many countries, and he took it that the art of living 
was to live without making life a burden to one's self. The French 
adopted this plan, and their families averaged three. In Scotland the 
average was eight, six or seven in England, and in Ireland 12 or 15. The 
soil could not produce more than a maximum portion of food, and when 
there was no further opening for employment, and no further source from 
which to obtain food, there must be disaster. 

scott's track to the west coast. 

Mr. James Andbew read a paper entitled ''Notes in reference to 
Scott's Track, via Lake St. Clair, to the West Coast of Tasmania." 
In the notes he said he had been requested by a fellow of the Society 
whom circumstances prevented from himself representing the subject, 
to call attention to an error in the designation of a track which appeared 
in a paper on ** The Highlands of Lake ^t. Clair," read at the Novem- 
ber meeting by Colonel Legge. The member referred to was Mr. T. B. 



XXIV PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST. 

Moore, a well-known explorer, and he had asked him (Mr. Andrew) to 
bring under the notice of the Society that Scott's Track along the 
Cnrvier Valley, and westward to the coast is as such incorrectly 
described. It was, he knew of his own personal knowledge, Mr. 
Moore who explored the route and cut the track referred to along which 
many weeks later the Hon. J. B. Scott travelled. Colonel Legge in 
speaking of Scott's Track used the name recently adopted by the Lands 
Office, and it would be most unlikely that he should have any cause to 
imagine that the gentleman whose name it bore had any claim to sucli 
credit as might be attached to developing the first overland route from 
the southern side of the island to Mx)unt Heemskirk. The notes went 
oa to give a condensed chronological statement of the movements of the 
two gentlemen referred to and their parties with the view of establishing 
Mr. Moore's claim as the pioneer of this particular portion of the colony. 
Encouraged by the indications of gold and tin found in the vicinity of 
tne Pieman and its tributaries by Mr. Sprent's party, Mr. T. B. Moore 
started from New Norfolk on January 1, 1877« his brother (Mr. J. A. 
Moore), and the writer of the present notes, with the object of finding 
a practicable overland route to the West Coast in the deviation 
recommended. The party were provisioned for four months, but in spite 
of loss in sapplies from depredations from bush vermin, remained in the 
field for five months. Two months after the party left Mr. Scott started 
for the coast, and on the 13th of that month he (Mr. Andrew) returned 
for supplies. He left his companions on the Mount Dundas Range, hard 
at work cutting through some of the worst scrub that could exist. The 
distance then reached was, according to Mr. Scott's own estimate, 60 
miles from Lake St. Clair. He met Mr. Scott half-way back, and 
directed him as to where he could best pick out Mr. Moore's route. 
The Messrs. Moore had meanwhile made to the main depdt, and they 
met Mr. Scott near Lake Dora, and they gave him further directions to 
assist him. When he (Mr. Andrew) returned to join the Moore party 
on April 2, when nearly to the limit of their track, they found warm 
ashes at a camp recently occupied by Scott, and indications of the route 
he had taken in the shape of three direction notices, one pointing east- 
wards to Mount Heemskirk, another along Moore's route north-westerly 
to the summit of Mount Dundas, and another towards home, giving the 
distance from Hobart 176 miles. It was on May 13 that Mr. Andrew 
next joined his comrades, and he then learnt that they and Mr. Scott's 
party bad combined to cut the track down the spur of Mount Dundas 
to the open coast. Moore's party returned to Hobart in May, 1877t 
when Mr. J. A. Moore wrote to the Lands department, detailing what 
occurred in connection with Mr. Scott, and stating that they (Moore's 
party) were the first white men ever in Dundas, and, judging from 
the look of the country, he (Mr. Moore) doubted whether a blackfellow 
had ever been there. It took them 10 days to get from the foot of 
Mount Read to the top of Dundas. The then Minister of Lands and 
Works (the Hon. N. J. Brown) at that time wrote to the Hobart Mercury 
stating that as to Mr. Moore's statement that his party had been through 
the country before the Hon. J. R. Scott, he (Mr. Brown) asserted from 
his own knowledge that his statement was correct. The notes concluded 
by pointing out that further testimony as to Mr. Moore's priority as the 
explorer in this part of the colony was borne by the late Mr. Sprent in 
his paper on recent explorations on the West Coast. Mr. Sprent did not 
mention that Mr. Scott in any way assisted in the exploration and 
development of the Western country. 

Mr. R. M. Johnston said he readily endorsed the statement that Mr. 
Scott would be one of the first to acknowledge the claim of the Messrs. 
Moore to having discovered the track. He thought it due to Mr. Moors 
that the track in question should bear his name. 



PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XXV 

The Hon. N. J. Brown said he conld confirm in every particular the 
atatements made by the reader of the paper with regard to Mr. Moore. 
He was living in that part of the country at the time Mr. Moore went 
through, and knew the whole history of his expedition. 

EXTBAOBDINABY PHENOMENON AT BEACONSFIELD. 

Mr. R. M. Johnston read the following paper, which was contributed 
by Mr. Joseph Davies, the manager of the Tasmania gold mine at 
lieaconsfield : — 

"Being connected with the Tasmania mine, and a resident in that 
district since 1877^ I have had the pleasure of witnessing a very extraor- 
dinary phenomenon, which has been perceptibly in operation during the 
past three years. Parallel with the Cabbage Tree Range, the course of 
which is 30deg. east of south; on the eastern side of the range (at the 
base), three-quarters of a mile south-east from the Tasmania mine, there 
is a depression in the surface, which forma a small lagoon, 140 yards in 
circumference, and 10ft. deep, dish-shaped. (See on No. 1 sketch, section 
No. 1.) Half a mile further south-east there is a flat almost oval-shaped 
area, about 20 acres. The Junction Creek passes through the flat 
between No. 2 and No. 7. No. 2 is a lairne lime quarry hole, 400 yards, 
in circumference ; average depth, 24ft. No. 3 is also a lime quarry hole, 
100 yards in circumference, and .35ft. deep. Large quantities ot lime- 
stone were taken out of them 46 years aince. The water that was 
flowing into the two holes was kept under control with pumps driven by 
water wheels. The quarries were abandoned in the year 1852, and 
remained full of water, the surplus being one sluice-head in the summer 
and four io the winter, flowed out of the byewash into the creek. In 
December, 1885. water at No. 1 commenced to subside, and very soon 
disappeared. Before the end of the same year the water at Nos. 2 and 3 
started subsiding, and within three weeks were quite dry. Just at that 
time I had a large increase of water in the Tasmanian mine, at the 360ft. 
level. The increase flowei through the joints of sandstone on the south- 
east part of the mine. In order to take limestone from No. 4 the creek 
was diverted into No. 2. I measured the water just a few feet before it 
passed into the hole, and immediately it passed out, and found that 
more than one sluice- head had disappeared. Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are small 
depressions that occurred in September last year, and are the receptacle 
for an immense quantity of storm- water, which passes down through the 
fissures and joints in the limestone. There is 10ft. thick of clay, sand, 
and conglomerate boulders underlaying the lime bed between No. 2 and 
No. 7. I first saw No. 8 on the 7th of last month ; it is 4ft. deep and 
20ft. in circumference. No. 9 depression was first seen on March 17, 1886. 
The subsiding lasted 10 days^ leaving a hole 14ft. deep and 90ft. in cir- 
cumference. While the subsiding continued, the water being pumped by 
the Tasmania, Florence Nightingale, and Lefroy mines was almost as white 
as snow. The hole was filled up with sand, and remained quiet until 
the 16th of last month, when the sand vanished from sight. The sub- 
siding lasted for seven days, making the hole 25ft. deep and 146ft. in 
circumference. I examined the bottom part of the hole, and found that 
it contained soft limestone. I have filled up the bole with 280 cubic 
yards of clay, and diverted the water from No. 2 hole, which is now 
dry, and now I find that the water has decreased in all the mines. The 
strike of the strata which is in parts of the mines (Lefroy mine excepted) 
is almost on its edge, and cross-course cuts the Junction Creek, also 
ancient channel, which no doubt has allowed the water to percolate 
not less than one mile and a half to the mines. As a proof of this, in the 
year 18S0, while the Daily's United Co. was driving at their 200ft. level, 
towards No. 9 they cut a huge body of water, which filled up drive 
240ft. long, and shait 2(X)ft. deep within 40 minutes, and three sluice- 



XXVI PBOCKEDINGS, AUGUST. 

heads flowed over the sorface of the shaft for three years. When the 
other mines sunk below 200ft. the water subsided. Another proof, the 
three mines, viz., Lefroy, Florence Nightingale, and the Tasmania have 
been pumping 1,852 gallons of water per minute, which is far in excess 
of what might reasonably be expected from a quartz lode only 400ft. 
below the natural surface. No. 2 sketch shows ancient channel." 

At the conclusion of the paper Mr. Johnston said he could quite 
confirm what Mr. Davies had said. He had an intimate knowledge of 
the district, and the fruit and flowers he had obtained from that part 
of the country during the last eight or ten years had enabled him to 
increase his store of the tertiary flora of the island. His. own 
impression with regard to the phenomenon was that there was a large 
nnderground channel ranning through the limestone, the upper part of 
which constituted the roof of the channel. The extensive pumpins 
operations which had been going on had reduced the water, whicn 
previously supported the roof, and its withdrawal had caused the roof 
to fall in. 

VOTE OP THANKS. 

The President moved a vote of thanks to the gentlemen who had 
contributed papers, and the motion was carried by acclamation. 

ANTABCTIC EXPLORATION. 

Bishop Sandpord mentioned the matter of Antarctic Exploration, as 
he noticed that the Germans were moving in the matter, ana the various 
Australasian societies were quiet about it. The President also asked 
to be informed as to the exact position of affairs connected with the 
question. Mr. Morton stated that the Imperial Government having 
refused to submit proposals to the Legislature for the undertaking it 
had dropped for a time, but meetings would be held in Melbourne and 
Sydney shortly. 

the native opossum. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor drew attention to the destruction of the native 
opossum, and said that something like 75 per cent, of the animals killed 
had young in the pouch at the time. The opossum had a large com- 
mercial value, and he .mentioned the matter, as there was a member of 
the Government present, but thought the Society should make represen- 
tations to the Government for the protection of the animals. 

Mr. Bird (the Treasurer) said he would be pleased to receive any 
information upon the matter. 

This concluded the business of the evening. 



PBOCEEDINGS, OCTOBER. XXVU 



OCTOBER, 1888. 

The usnal monthly meeting of this Society was held at the Museum 
on Monday, the 8tb October, the president (His Excellency, Sir Robert 
G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B.) in the chair. There was a lar^e attendance 
of Fellows of the Society. 

Liat of additions to the Library during the months of August and 
September. 

Annual report of the chisf sis^nal officer of the Army to the Secretary 
of War for the year 1887. (Washington, bound). In two parts, part 
1. — ^From Brigadier-General A. W. Greely. 

Abhandlungen der Mathematisch — Physikalischen classe der Kone- 

flich Bayerisohen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1887. — From the 
department. 

Anales del Museo Nacional Republica de Costa Rica Tomo I. Ano de 
1887. — From the Department. 

Annals and Magazines, Natural History. 

Annual Report of the Board uf the Smithsonian Institution, showing 
the operations, expenditures, and constitution of the Institution to 
July, 1887. Pts. 1.2 (bound).— From the Institution. 

Annual Report of the Clandian Institute Session, 1886-7, being part 
of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, 
1887.— From the Institute. 

Ajinual Report of the Chief Signal Offices of the Army to the Secre- 
tary of War for the year 1885-1S86, Washington, bound. — From the 
Department. 

The AtJiencBum, 

Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana. Serie III., Vol. I., 
Fascicolo VII. Luglio 1888, Roma. — From the Society. 

Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Gomparata della 
B. Uuniversita di Tornio, N. 44 to 48. Vols. III. (pamphlets). — 
From the Society. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 
Vol. XITT. No. 9. The superior incisors and canine teeth of sheep, by 
Florence Mayo, with two plates. (Pamphlet). 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard Col- 
lege, vol. XIII., No. 10. "The Rattle ot the Rattlesnake." By 
Samuel Garman. 

Vol. XVII., No. 1.— Studies from the Newport Marine Labor- 
atory. — Communicated by A. Agassiz. XX. — On the development of 
the calcareous plates of Asterias. By W. Fewkes. — From Professor 
A. Agassiz. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes de Mosco<9, 
No. 2. Moscow, 1887. — From the Society. 

Bulletin of the Californian Academy of Sciences, vol. 2, Nos. 6, 
7, 8. January, June, and November, 1887. — From the Academy. 

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Article 
L— The West Indian Seal (Monachus tropicalis). By J. A. Allen. 
Article II. — Note on Squalodont remains from Charleston, S.C. By 
J. A. Allen. Vol. II., No. 1. — From the Department. 

Bulletin de la Soci4te4 de Geographic. Pts. 1 to 4, 1887. From 
the Society. 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Salem. January to December, 
1886. Vol. 18, Nos. 1 to 12. From the Institute. 

Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Vol. V., No. 
2. The Gape Worm of Fowls (Syngamus trachealis). The Earth 



XXViii PBOCEEDINOS, OCTOBER. 

Worm (Lumbricas terrestris), its original host. Also, od the pre- 
vention of the disease in fowls called gapes^ which is caused by this 
parasite. By H. D. Walker, M.D. From the Society. 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the collection of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, Part 1. Recent Paloeichthyan Iilshes, (pamphlet), by J. 
Douglas Ogilby, F.L.S. — From the Trustees. 

Contributions to the Matural History of Alaska, results of in- 
vestigations made chiefly in the Yukon district, and the Allatian 
Islands, conducted under the auspices of the signal service, United 
States army, extending from May 1874, to August 1881 
(bound), by L. M. Turner. — From Brigadier General A. W. Greely. 

Darwinism.— A lecture by Prof. F. W. Button, F.6.S. at the Philoso- 
phical Institute of Canterbury, September 12, 1887 (pamphlets). — 
From the author. 

Department of the Interior. — No. 34, on the relation of the 
Laramie Molluscan Fauna to that of the succeeding Freshwater 
Eocene and other Groups. No. 35, Fbysica] properties of the IrOB- 
Carburets. No. 36, Subsidence of fine solid particles in Liquids. 
Washington, 1886. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 
No. 37. Types of the Laramie Flora, No. 38. Peridotite of 
Elliott county, Kentucky, No. 39. The upper beaches and Deltas of 
the glacial lake. Lake Agassiz. From the Department. 

Eruption of Mount Tarawera. — Report on the Tarawera volcanic 
district. By Professor F. W. Button, F.G.S. (Two pamphlets.)— 
From the author. 

Essex Institute. — Historical Collections, January to December, 1886. 
Vol. XXm. Salem, Mass. — From the Institute. 

" Faraday," a lecture by Cbas Tomlinson, F.R.S. From Mrs. Davies. 

French CJolonies and their Resources, by James Bonwick, F.R.G.S. 
(bound), London, 1886. — From the hon. the Chief Secretary. 

Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1882-3. (Bound.) By J. W. 
Powell, Director. — From the Institution. 

Gedachtnisrede auf Joseph von Fraunhofer zur Feier seines 
hundersten Geburtstags von Carl Max V. Bauerfeind. — From the 
Department. 

History of Geological Magazine. 

Howietown, containing a full description of the various hatching 
houses and ponds, and of experiments which have been undertaken 
there, from 1873 to the present time, and also of the Fish Cultural 
work and the magnificent results already obtained. (Bound). 
— By Sir James Ramsay Gibson Maitland, Bart. 

Imperial Federation, current Nos. — From the Editor. 
. In halts verzeichniss der Sitzung — sberichte der mathematisch — phy- 
s^kalischen classe dee k. b. Jahrgang 1871*1885. Munchen 1886. — 
From the Department. 

Journal of the Linnean Society, London. *' Botany," Vols. 22 to 
24, Noa. 149 to 152. «* Zoology," Vols. XX. to XXH., Nos. 117 to 
140. — From the Society. 

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, London. Vol. L., Pts. 
n., III., IV., 1887, Vol. LL, Pts. L, IL, 1888.— From the Society. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, August, 1888. — From the 
Society. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 
(new series), Vol. XIX., Pts. III. and IX., 1887, Vol. XX., Pts. 1-2, 
1888.— From the Society. 

Journal of the Royal History and Archaeological Associati on o f 
Ireland. Vol. VIII., fourth series, April 1887, No. 70. Vol. VHI., 
July 1888, No. 75.— From the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER. XXIX 

Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, edited by W, 
A. Conklin, Ph., D.D.V.S., Director of the Zoological Gardenj, 
Kew York. — From the Department. 

Life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiography 
chapter ; edited by his son, Francis Darwin, in three volumes. 
Second edition (bound), London, 1887. 

List of the Linnean Society of London. Session, 1887-1888. — From 
the Society. 

List of the Geological Society of London, November 1,1887. — From 
the Society. 

List of members of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. November, 
1887.— From the Society. 

Minerals of New South Wales, etc., by A. Liversidge, M.A. F.R.S., 
Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 
With map. (Bound). London, 1888. Purchased. 

Memoirs of the Boston Societv of Natural History. Vol. IV., No. 1. 
The significance of bone structure. By T. Dwight, M.D. No. 2. The 
development of the ostrich fern. No. 3. The introduction and spread 
of Pieris ropae in North America, 1860, 1865. by S. H. Scudder. 
No. 4. North American Geraniaceae. By W. Trelease. No. 5. The 
baconic of Georgia and the report on the geology of Vermont. By 
Jules Marcon. No. 6. The Entomophthoreae of the United States. 
By R. Thaxtor. — From the Society. 

Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophic Society. Vol. 
X. Third series Vol. XXX. (old) (bound). — From the Society. 

Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, London, Vol 41, 
Pt. 1. — From the Society. 

Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. Ill, Pt. 
2, Washington. Ninth memoir contributions to meteorology. — From 
the Department. 

Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. XL VIII, 
No. 8, June 1888.-— From the Society. 
Nature. 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Zu, Hamburg. Bericht des Direktor, 
Professor Dr Pagenenstecheifur das Jahr 1887, abgestattet in dem 
Jahrbuch der wissenschaftlichcn Anstalten, Zu, Hamburg, fur 1887. — 
From the Society. 

On some effects of Lightning by Chas. Tomlinsoo, F.R.S. — 
From Mrs. Da vies. 

On the colour correction of Achromatic Telescopes : a reply to 
Prof. Chas. S. Hastings. By iVm. Harkness, Washington, 1888. 
(Pamphlet). — From the author. 

On the Progress of Science, as exemplified in the Art of Weighing 
and Measuring, being the Presidential Address delivered before the 
Washington Philosophical Society. December 10, 1887. By Wm. 
Harkness, in which are appended some Historical Notes and a Biblio- 
graphy. (Washington, 1888.) Pamphlet. — From the Author. 

Observations made during the year 1883 at the United States Naval 
Observatory. Rear-Admiral R. W. Shufeldt, U.S.N. (Bound).— 
From the Department. 

Pioneering in New Guinea. By Rev. J ames Chalmers. I^ondon, 1887. 
(Bound.) 

Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute. Vol. XVIIL, 1886-7. 
Vol. XIX., 1887-8. (Bound).— From the Institute. 

Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Vol. XII. 
Pt 1. List of the Members, Officers, and Professors, etc., for 1887. — 
Froai the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and monthly record 
o! Geography. Vol. IX. Nos. 6 to 12, 1887. Vol. X. Nos. 2 
to 8, 1888.— From the Society. 



XXX PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER. 

Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of 
London, Pts. I., January and Febraary ; XI., March and April ; III., 
May and June ; IV., November and December, 1887. Pt. I.» January 
and February, 1888. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Vols. XXV., VI. Sessions 1885 6-7.— From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Sessions 1883-4, 
1884-5, 1885, 1886, 1886-7. Vol. XIV. —From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, July, 1888. From 
November, 1886, to June, 1887.— From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Linnean Sociely of New South Wales (second 
series, vol. III., pt.) the second. April, May, and June, 1888. — From 
the Society. 

Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto. Third series, vol. V. 
Fasiculus No. 2, April 1888.— From the Society. 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (new 
series). Vol. XIV., whole series. Vol. XXIL, Pt. ], from May, 1886, 
to December, 1886, selected from the records, Pt. 11, from December, 

1886, to May, 1887.— From the Society. 

Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, thirty-fifth and sixth held at New York, August, 1886-7. Vol. 
XXXV., XXXVL— From the Association. 

Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, thirty-fourth meeting, held at Ann Arbor, Mich., August, 
1885.— From the Society. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society held at Phila- 
delphia for promoting useful knowledge. Vols. XXIV., XXV., Nas. 
125 6-7.- From the Society. 

Piroceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Pts. I., II.. III., January to December, 1888. — From the Society. 

Queensland Post and Telegraph Department. — Weather Chart of 
Australasia at 9 a.m., August 31, 1888. — From Clement L. Wragge, 
Government Meteorologist. 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. XLIII., Pts. 
3, 4, No9. 171, 172; Vol. XLIV., Pts. 1,2, Nos. 173-4.— From the 
Society. 

Refraction in the principal Meridians of a Triaxial Ellipsoid, with 
remarks on the correction of Astigmatism by Cylindrical Glasses ; 
and an Historical Note on Corneal Astigmatism by Swan M. Burnett, 
M.D., with a communication on the Monochromatic aberration of the 
human eye in aphakia, by Professor W. Harkness (pamphlet), 
Washington, 1888. — From Professor W. Harkness. 

Report of the Trustees of the Australian Museum, Sydney, for 

1887. — From the Trustees. 

Raising Diatoms in the Laboratory, by Prof. Samuel Lockwood, Pt. 
10. Read before the New York Microscopical Society, December 19, 
1886. From the Author. 

Report of tne Superintendent of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey, showing the progress of the work during the fiscal year ending 
with June, 1886. Pt. 1. Text. From the Department. 

Resultados del Observatorio Nacional Agentido. Vol. VI., 1887. 
From the Department. 

Summary and Review of International Meteorological Observations 
for the month May, 1888, with charts. Published by order of the 
Secretary of War, A. W. Greely (pamphlet). — Washington, 1888. 

Statistics of the Colony, of New Zealand for the year 1887. Part 
I, Blue Book. Part II, Population and Vital Statistics. Part III, 
Trade and Interchanjy[e (unbound). — From the Registrar. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine. The Vol. IV., No. 8. From the 
Society. 



PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER. ' XXXI 

Scientifio Writings of Joseph Henry. Vols. ], 2. Published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1886 (bound). From the 
Institute. 

Sixth annual report of the United States Geographical Survey to the 
Secretary of the Interior, 1884-5. By J. W. Powell. (Bound.) 
— From the Departinent. 

Sitzungsberichto der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der k.b. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu MtiDchen, Heft III, 1876. — From 
the Department. 

Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand. By Professor F. W. 
Hntton, F.G.S. (Pamphlet. )^From the Author. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. XXVII. Meteorological 
and Physical Tables, by Arnold Guyot, Vol. XXX. Catalogue of 
Scientific Periodicals, by H. C. Bolton, Vol. XXX. Scientific Writings, 
by Joseph Henry, Vol. XXXI. Synoptical Flora of North America, 
by Asa Gray. — From the Institution. 

Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, J. W. Powell, 
director. Bibliography of the Siouan Languages. Bibliography of 
the Eskimo Languages. By J. C. Pilling. 

Work in Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology. By 
C. Thomas. 

The Use of Gold and Other Metals among the Ancient Inhabitants of 
Chiriqni, Isthmus of Darien. By W. H. Holmes. — From the Depart- 
ment. 

Society de Geographic, Compte Rendu, Nos. 10 to 16, 1887 ; Nos. 
1 to 13. 1888.— From the Society. 

Soci^te Boyale Malacologique de Belgique. Process — Verbal de 
I'Assembie g^neral^ annuUe du 3 Juillet, 1887 (pamphlets). — From 
the Society. 

Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan. Vol. XII. — From 
the Society. 

Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in 
Scotland, Vol. X.X.X., 30fch session, 1886-7 (bound).— From the 
society. 

United States of America War Department. — Monthly Weather 
Review, general weather service of the United States. — From the 
departmemt. 

United States of America War Department, office of the Chief 
Signal Officer. — Tri-daily Meteorological Records for 1878. — From tho 
department. 

United States GeoloG;ical Survey, J. W. Powell, director. ''Dino- 
cerata," a monograph of an extinct order of gigantic mammals. (Bound.) 
By O. C. Marsh. — From the Department. 

United States Geological Survey, J. W. Powell. Mineral Resources 
of the United States Calendar Year 1886. David T. Day, Chief of 
Division of Mining Statistics asd Technology. (Bound.) — From the 
Department. 

University of Cincinnati. Publications of the Cincinnati Observatory 
of Zone Catalogne of 4,050 Stars, 1887. — From the University. 

War Department, Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army 
of the United States. Summary and Review of International 
Meteorological Observations July to December, 1885.— From the 
Department. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letter from His Excellency's private secretary :— ** I am directed 
by His Excellency Sir Robert Hamilton to acquaint you that by the last 
mail he received a despatch from the vSecretary of State for the Colonies, 
in which he was requested to inform you ' that the address of congratu- 



XXxii PROCEEDINGS, OCTOBER. 

lation from the Boyal Society of Tasmania to Her Majesty on the 
occasion of the 50th anniversary of Her reign, was duly laid at the foot 
of the throne, and that Her Majeety has commanded us to convey 
Her thanks for the dutiful and loyal sentiments expressed in the address. 
The Secretary of State reports that owing to an oversight the 
acknowledgment of this address has been delayed." 

The Secbetaby, Mr. Morton, read a letter from the curator of the 
Technological Museum, Sydney, respecting a cutting from the Pharmd' 
cetUiccU Journal to the effect that a M. Guilmeth had discovered in 
Tasmania a mammoth deposit of honey, the work of native bees, and 
asking for information as to the probabilities of the story contained in 
the paragraph, which spoke of M. Guilmeth having come upon a grove 
of gigantic Eucalyptus trees, from 260ft. to 390ft. high. The largest 
individual store of honey weighed as much as 11,0001b. (The tale, 
which is utterl}» without foundation, was published in the columns 
of The Mercury some 18 months ago.) The writer stated that he 
^ had received a small quantity of the honey from Paris and had analysed 
it, proving it to be an artifical compound of common honey with 
20 per cent, of Eucalyptus oil. 

AQUATIC SHELLS OF TASMANIA. 

The Secbetabt, in the absence of Mr. W. F. Petterd, F.Z.S., read 
a paper entitled *' Contributions for a systematic cai-alo^ae of 
the aquatic shells of Tasmania, in which the author expressed his 
intention, in a series of papers, of revising the somewhat large 
amount of work already done, recording omissions and describing 
newly discovered species and varieties of the fresh water shell- 
bearing moUusca of the island, preparatory to the compilation of a 
systematic catalogue in which tne groups would be defined, the 
specific characteristics explained, and geographical distinction 
recorded. Such a catalogue, carefully criticised with the necessary 
bibliography, would in his opinion supply a desideratum much 
required by the general collector, and might also be of service to the 
more philosophical student. It was now a well established tmth 
that examination of shell coverings was an almost infallible guide for 
the determination of species, so that it was necessary to undertake 
an extensive seiies of comparisons from as many localities as were 
accessible, before a systematic catalogue could be so worked out as to 
become of scientific value and service. The primary reason for his 
recent investigations was to endeavour to discover the correct genus 
in the system of classification in which to place the many species of 
minute paludinous aquatic shells so abundant in streams and pools. 
With this end in view he had selected the most abundant widely 
dispersed and characteristic form for special examination. The ^ older 
conchological writers were satisfied in placing those in what, to oar 
* modern eyes, mixed genus Pcdudina, which then included a 
heterogeneous assortment of small shells of a conical form, without 
reference to their habitat being fluviatile or marine. More recent 
scientists had annexed them to a numerous variety of genera of 
more or less staple definition, but unfortunately almost all writers 
simply devoted their attention to the outline of the shell, and 
structure of the operculum, few, if any, devoting the amount of 
attention to the malacological characters that the more irodem and 
elaborate system of classification demands. After further remarks 
on the system of classification, the writer said his investigations had 
led him to place without any hesitation our most prominent species in 
a genus quite new to Tasmania or even Australia — that of 
Potamopt/rgua, established by Dr. Stimpson in a volume of the 
American Journal of Conchology for the analogous minute aquatic 
pnlmonate moUnsca of New Zealand. The paper then went on to 



PBOCEEDINGS, OCTOBEE. XXXIU 

enumerate species already described by several authorities, and forming 
others into new genuses and species. 

Mr. B. M. Johnston read a paper entitled *' Critical observations 
on recent contributions to knowledge of the fresh water shell of 
Tasmania," in which he gave the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods the 
distinction of having been the first to make a systematic attempt to 
arrange the fresh water shells of the island. He dealt in an elaborate 
manner with the general classification of the fresh water shells, 
showing that they present many difficulties, and accompanying the 
paper was an exhaustive tabular history of the classification of the 
Tasmanian fresh water shells, quoting the Bev. Tenison Woods and 
Professor Button. 

DAPHNIADiE. 

Mr. C. J. Atkins read some interesting notes on the genus 
Daphniadoe allied to the water flea of Europe, and after reading the 
paper examples of these water insects were shown in living form by 
the aid of the microscope and a powerful lantern. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

In the absence of Mr. T. Stephens, F.G.S., Mr. Mobton read some 
notes from that gentleman on the rare Eucalyptus cordcUa^ which h&^ 
been sent to the author by the Bev. C. J. Brammall from Nelson's 
Tier, where he found it growing abundantly over a range of from 6 
to 10 miles from Sorell. This species of Eucalypt was noted in the 
transactions of the Royal Society for 1881, and had been described 
as named by Labillardiere in 1793. It was not again met with until 
1842, when Sir Joseph Hooker and the late Mr. Ronald Gunn met 
with it near the Hi\on district! It was then lost sight of for nearly 
40 years, till again in 1880 the author obtained a specimen at 
Beoherche Bay, and another from near Leslie in 1881, and in the 
same year he, with Mr. Abbott found it growing abundantly near 
the Huon-road, about four miles from Hobart. 

Mr. B. M. Johnston said the variability of all forms of eucalypti 
was so great that the final classification of • various descriptions was 
not yet made, nor could it be until a representative collection of 
them in their different forms throughout Australia was got together 
for determination. 

The CmEi* Justice remarked that one thing he found with regard 
to the foliage of Eucalyptus cordata, was that while in its young 
state it closely resembled E, Risdoni the latter in its more advanced 
state WdA more lanceolated, and not glaucus as in E, cordata. So 
difficult was it to classify many of the eucalypti, that Baron Von 
Mueller had found it necessary to make sections of the anthers for 
purposes of determining the several species, 

Mr. Mobton exhibited a bird new to Tasmania, Orcdina picata, 
a female, the specimen being shot at Stanley, and kindly forwarded to 
him by Dr. Holden. 

Mr. A. J. Taylob exhibited two specimens of abnormal growths 
on trees, which he said were obtained at Mount Heemskirk, the one 
from a sassafras, and the other from a manuka. 

AN ART exhibition. 

The Hon. W. H, Bubgess, M.H.A., brought forward the question 
of an exhibition of pictures from the British Art Society in Tasmania. 
He wished for some help in inducing the Society of British Artists to 
send an exhibition of pictures, which were being sent to Sydney, to 
Tumania sd^ter they left that city. While he was in London he met 
tiie President of the Society on the subject, and told him a wing 
bad been added to the Society's building in Hobart, and that it was 

C 



XZXIV PB0CEEDIN6S OCTOBEB. 

intended to form the nacleus of an art gallery for Tasmania, asking 
whether there would be any likelihood of the pictures being sent on to 
Tasmania after the Sydney Exhibition closed. The President replied 
that the proposal might be entertained if a guarantee was given to 
cover the expense. Eventually he obtained from the President his 
views in writinsr, and the note in which they were embodied specified, 
among other things, the provision of galleries for the Society, and a 
guarantee that the sum of £500 would be raised in the event of the 
exhibition not realising that sum from entrance money. He felt 
confident that a large proportion of the sum would be realised by 
the charge for admission. In return, the president would give his 
large picture, '* Helpless," painted by himself and J. C. Gotch, R.A., 
for presentation to the trustees of the National Gallery. The picture 
was 14ft. X 8ft., and its price was l,000gns. A photograph of the 
picture was laid on the table. If a committee were appointed to 
take up the matter and wait on the Government for assistance, there 
would be no doubt whatever the pictures would come here for 
exhibition. In addition to other works it was more than probable 
Firth's celebrated pictures, entitled ''The Koad to Ruin/' which 
created such a furore, when they were first exhibited, would be sent 
to Sydney, and Mr. Ingram, the president, promised him that if they 
went there they should come on to Hobart, provided the arrange- 
ments were made. 

Mr. Russell Young thought great credit was due to Mr. Burgess 
for taking such an interest in the subject. It would be a good 
opportunity to raise the status of artistic ability in Tasmania, and as 
it appeared to him simply a matter of guaranteeing the difference 
between the sum taken at the doors and £500, he thought there 
would not be much difficulty in obtaining the requisite guarantee. 

Mr. Ghabfentieb said he had pupils in the Technical School who 
would, if they could only see something to stimulate their ambition, 
produce work which would be astonishing. We had nothing what- 
ever here whereby any person attempting to learn anything^ of art 
oould see any technical methods by which certain results were arrived at, 
or any high standard of art. 

Mr. GuBZON Allfort thought the matter had best be referred to 
a committee. He doubted whether the room in the Museum was 
altogether suitable for an art exhibition, on account of the arrange- 
ment of the lights. 

Bishop Sandford thought it would be as well to give Launceston 
the benefit of such an exhibition if possible, as well as Hobart. 

The Ghief Justice would be very glad to see all the assistance 
possible given to such an exhibition as this, but was afraid the best 
of the pictures would never reach Hobart, as they would be sold in 
Sydney or perhapa Melbourne. 

After further discussion, Mr. Allfort moved the appointment of a 
committee, consisting of Bishop Sandford, the Ghief Justice, Hon. W. H. 
Burgess, Messrs. Russell Young, R. M. Johnston, W. Benson, A. 
Morton, Golonel Legge, and the mover, to arrange preliminaries. This 
was seconded and carried. 

His Excellency then proposed a vote of thanks to the gentlemen 
who had prepared piipers, those who had taken part in the discussions, 
and to Mr. J. F. Echlin and Mr. G. J. Atkms for the lantern exhibition. 
He was sorry Mr. Petterd was not present, but he had contributed a 
very valuable paper. Mr. Johnston's paper was also very valuable. 

The vote was carried, and those present then examined several natural 
history specimens under the microscope, after which the meeting 
terminated. 



PBOOEEDINOS, NOYEMBEB. XZxv 



NOVEMBER, 1888. 

The monthly meeting of the Royal Society was held in the new wing 
of the Tasmanian Museum on November 13. The chair was occupied 
by His Excellency Sir Robert George Crookshank Hamilton, K.C.B., 
President of the Society. 

ADDITIONS TO LIBBARY. 

List of additions to the library during the month of October : — 

Annual Report of the Secretary for Mines and Water Supply^ 
Victoria, '* On the working of the Regulation and Inspection of Mines 
and Mining Machinery Act during the year 1887." — From the 
Department. 

Annals and Magazines of Natural History. 

BoUettino della SocietdGeograficaltaliana, Serie m., Vol. I., Fasicolo 
Vin., Agosto 1888.— From the Society. 

Classified Index of the Second Supplement to the Indigenous and 
Naturalised Plants of Queensland, with alphabetical index of Genera 
by F. Manspn Bailey, F.L.S. — From the Author. 

Die Internationale Polarforschung 1882-83, Beobachtungs-Ergebnisse 
der Norwegischen Polarstation Bossekop in Alten. — From the Depart- 
ment. 

Geological Magazine, current numbers. 

Iconography of Australian species of Acacia and Cognate genera, by 
Baron F. Von Mtteller, K.C.M.G. (Twelfth decade.)— From the Govern- 
ment. 

Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 
Vol. XXn, pt. 1,— From the Society. 

Meteorological Service, Dominion of Canada. Monthly Weather 
Review, June, 1888. — From the Department. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 1888, Vol. V,, pt. 11. 
— From the Society. 

Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, decade XVI., by Frederick 
McCoy, C.M.G. — From the Government. 

Report on the Geological Features of the Mackay District by R. L. 
Jack, Government Geologist. — From the Department. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. IV., No. 9. — From the Society. 

Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, vol. V., VI., parts 
7, 8, N.S. parts 1, 2. — From the Society. 

Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, vol. Ill,, series 
n. XV.— The Echinoderm Fauna of the Island of Ceylon, by F. Jeffrey 
Bell, M.A. Vol. IV., series II. — On Fossil — Fish Remains from 
the Tertiary and Cretaceotertiary Formations of New Zealand, by J. W. 
Davis, F.G.S.— From the Society. 

Summary and Review of International Meteorological Observations 
for the month of July, 1887, United States. — From the War Department. 

Synopsis of the Queensland Flora, containing both the Phoenogamous 
and Cryptogamous Plants, byF. M. Bailey (bound). — From the Author. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia (Victorian Branch), Pt. 1, Vol. VI. — From the Society. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. 
XXIV., Pt. II.— From the Society. 

Transactions of the Geolological Society of Australasia, Vol. I., Pt. 
in. — From the Society. 

T ransactions of the (Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
Vn., Pts. 1 and 2.— From the Society. 

Victorian Year Book for 1887-8, Vol. 1.— From the Government 
Statist, 



ZZZVi PBOCEEDINGS, NOYBMBEB. 

THE PBENOH IN VAN DIEMEN's LAND. 

Mr. J. B. Walkeb read a paper on " The French in Van Diemen'a 
Land and the first settlement at the Derwent." The paper had been 
written at the request of the Premier (Hon. P. O. Fysh), and was fonnded 
principally on documents relating to the early history of Tasmania, 
preserved in the English Record Office, and copied by Mr. James 
Bonwick (the well-known writer on the Tasmanian aborigines), under 
instructions from the Tasmanian Government. The paper began by a 
reference to Professor Seeley's statement in his work on " The Expansion 
of England," that the wars of last century between England and France 
had been a duel for the possession of the new world. The writer pro- 
ceeded to trace the influence of that rivalry on the colonisation of 
Australia. At the end of the last century France had lost nearly all 
her colonial possessions, and England had lost her North American 
colonies by revolt. This loss was probably one potent moving cause in 
the settlement of Australia. When it was found necessary to provide a 
new method of disposing of the criminal population, English statesmen 
naturally turned to the new land in the south just made known by 
Captain Cook. French writers many years before had advocated the 
settlement by convicts and foundlings of some land in the South Sea, 
and England in 1788 carried out the idea by the settlement of New 
South Wales. There had long been a keen rivalry between the two 
nations in discovery in the South Seas. France did not relinquish her 
designs on Australia because of the English colony, and the Derwent had 
always been a favoured spot for her navigators. After Tasman's dis- 
covery of Tasmania in 1642, the first visitor to our shores was the 
Frenchman Marion in 1772,and although Cook and others had touched at 
Adventure Bay, the French Admiral Bruny D'Entrecasteaux in 1792 was 
the first to discover and^explore the channel which bears his name and the 
magnificent harbour of the Derwent. The expedition remained some 
weeks in the channel, and made surveys indicating an intention 
to colonise. The French expedition of Baudin was sent out expressly 
to further explore Tasmania and the coast of Australia, probably with 
a view of forming a settlement. The French ships spent weeks in the 
Derwent, and then visited Sydney, where they were received with great 
hospitality, though France and England were chen at war, in striking 
contrast to the French treatment of Captain Flinders, who less than a 
year afterwards had his ship seized at Mauritius, and was imprisoned 
for six years, while his discoveries were claimed by the French as having 
been made by Baudin's expedition. The settlement of the Derwent in 
1803 was made by Governor King, in consequence of a report which 
reached him that Baudin had orders to plant a colony at the Derwent. 
King sent a little vessel after Baudin, to inform him that he woald 
resist by force any attempt on the part of the French to occupy any 
portion of Tasmania. This vessel — the Cumberland, 29 tons — was 
commanded by Captain Bobbins, who examined King's Island, then 
proceeded to Port Phillip, made the first survey of that port, and 
returned to Sydney. The Governor then determined to be on the safe 
side, and anticipate any action by the French, by sending Captain John 
Bowen with a small establishment to Bisdon on the Derwent to form a 
settlement. Bowen sailed from Sydney in June, 1803, but was driven 
back by stress of weather. On August 31, 1803, he sailed again in the 
Albion whaler, with the Lady Nelson in company carrying the bulk of 
his people. The Lady Nelson arrived at Kisdon on September 7, and 
Bowen himself in the Albicn on the 12th of the same month. Bowen's 
civil establishment consisted of three persons, himself, a doctor, and a 
storekeeper ; his military establishment of a corporal and seven privates 
He took 21 male and three female convicts, and four free settlers. 
Altogether 49 persons^ of whom 13 were women and children. They 



PROCEEDINGS, NOVEMBER. XXXVii 

had aiz months* provisions, 10 head of cattle, and about 60 sheep. This 
was the first settlement in Tasmania. Kisdon was abandoned in the 
following year when Lientenant-Oovemor David Collins founded 
Hobart. 

His Excellency said he was only expressing the feelings of every one 
present at the satisfactory account which Mr. Walker had given of the 
early history of the colony. He invited any person present to speak 
upon it. 

The Hon. P. O. Ftsh said he confessed that he had been at a 
loss what to do with the historical papers which had been left as a 
legacy by his predecessors in office, and he had cast about him to see 
how that could best be dealt with. There was a mass of manuscripts 
comprising 600 pages, and he thought that in Mr. Walker there was a 
friend to whom he could refer them. That gentleman had made the 
Btndy of Tasmanian history a specialty, and for that reason he was 
pleased to hand them over to him. The documents came down to him 
early in the present year and when looking over them with Mr. Walker, 
they noticed a very curious coincidence that whilst England at the end 
of last century was engaged in a difficulty with the French in regard to 
the settlements in Tasmania, at the time the papers reached them there 
were also difficulties with the French in regard to the New Hebrides. 
The papers dealt with brought them down to 1805, but there 
were some 700 pages more which brought them down to 1807, and 
unless he could get Mr. Walker to undertake to deal with them he did 
not know how the historical facts would obtain publicity. Mr. Bonwick 
was still going on searching the archives of the War Office in Paris, and 
various places in England, and he proposed to bring this batch down to 
1824, the time of Governor Sorell. It could not, however, be expected 
that Parliament would undertake the publication of the whole of the 
facts which were thus obtained, and he was in hopes that after the 
reading of Mr. Walker's paper, the Society would assist the Govern- 
ment by appointing a committee which would advise Mr. Bonwick as to 
the matters which should have special attention. He had had very 
much pleasure in listening to the paper read by Mr. Walker, and trusted 
that he would have his help in future. 

Bishop Sandfobd said with regard to Antarctic exploration, he 
thought that if for meteorological purposes only they were bound to 
explore the lands near the South Pole. He thought they might very 
largely increase the knowledge of the earth by further Antarctic ex- 
plorations. 

Mr. J. B. Walkeb briefly acknowledged the kind terms in which 
His Excellency and other Fellows had spoken of the paper. With 
respect to the State documents copied by Mr. Bonwick, he suggested 
that the Government or the Bioyal Society should have them abstracted 
or calendared for public information. He wished also to cake the 
opportunity of calling the Premier's attention to the fact that no official 
papers before 1821 were to be found in the Chief Secretary's office. On 
enquiring for these earlier records of the colony, he had been informed 
that they were supposed to be lying hidden away in the cellars of the 
Houses of Parliament. He trusted that the Premier would take steps 
to rescue from destruction by damp and neglect papers of so much 
value for the future historian of Tasmania. 

THE TASMANIAN UNIO. 

Mr. R, M. Johnston, F.L.S., said as the hour was late, he would 
not read the paper he had prepared on *' Observations on the varia- 
bility of the Tasmanian Unio," but would simply give an abstract of it. 
He gave a description of the variability of the freshwater Unio which 
inhabited and was restricted to the northern rivers of the colony, and 



ZZZVIU PBOOEEBIKOS, NOVEMBEB. 

especially the South Esk. He gare drawings of seven stages of growth, 
and showed how that if the variability of these stages (be taken into 
consideration it would indicate that many of the Australian forms, 
regarded as distinct species, may be due to the accidental selection of 
different stages of growth of one widely distributed form. He urged 
that beforet the perfect classification of the Unionidce of Australia, a 
similar study of variability of widely-scattered habitat? must be made 
before satisfactory classification could be established. For these 
reasons he felt disinclined , to accept another synonym for our local 
form at the present time. 

TIPPAGOEY COAL. 

Mr. R. M. Johnston also made some observations upon a specimen 
of coaly shale obtained by Mr. Hackett whilst exploring on the 
Tippagory Bange, near Mount George, in the vicinity of George Town. 
He said it was a coaly shale containing abundant impressions of 
Oangamopteris spatidata, McCoy, and therefore allied to the coal 
measures of the Mersey, rather than to those of the south-eastern 
portions of Tasmania, and would, therefore, be much older than the 
latter. 

BEVIEW OF THE SESSION. 

The President said :— 

Gentlemen, — We have now come to the last of our meetings in' the 
year 1888, and following the precedent of 1887, I propose to sum up 
briefly the results of the session. The number of our Fellows is some- 
what in excess of last year. The additions to our library have been 
very satisfactory, and the number of societies with which we exchange 
our publications has been increased by the important additions of the 
Royal Dublin Society, and the Royal Geographical Society of Edin- 
burgh. In referring to the additions to our library, I would call special 
attention to Mr. Johnston's great work, " A Systematic Account of the 
Geology of Tasmania," published by the Tasmanian Government, who 
are highly to be commended for the handsome contribution to the cause 
of science which the cost of the production of this elaborate work must 
have involved. We opened the present session with a conversazione 
held in the new rooms recently added to the Museum, which was largely 
attended, and at which some very interesting mechanical processes were 
exhibited. We heve held five meetings, and have had submitted to us 
the following papers, viz., in *' Ichthyology," from Sir Thomas Brady, 
Mr. Johnston, and Mr. Seager. In '* Ornithology "from Mr. Petterd 
and Colonel Legge ; in ** Conchology " from Messrs. Johnston (2), and 
from Mr. Petterd ; in " Mineralogy " from Mr. Toplis ; in *• Geology " 
from Mr. Davies ; in '* Exploration " from Mr. Andrew ; in 
"Topography" from Mr. Walker; and in '* Statistics " from Mr. 
Johnston. We have no reason to be ashamed of the quality of the work 
of the session, but the quantity is not so great as usual. A glance at 
the list of contributors shows how much we owe to one or two of our 
members, notably Mr. Johnston. If, through any misfortune the Society 
were deprived of the work of some half-dozen members, as we have 
already, I am sorry to say, been deprived of Mr. Bastow's work though 
he has become a corresponding member, I fear the record would be very 
meagre. Now, is it not possible to remedy this ? I find on looking at 
the reports of the other Australasian Societies that they include many 
more subjects than we do, such, for instance, as engineering, agriculture, 
use of timbers, etc. I feel pretty sure that some of our members might 
usefully contribute on some of these subjects. Then, again, we have no 
papers this year on health matters — drainage and sewage. Considering 
that we have among us so many medical men — men of science capable 
of dealing with these subjects^I think this is matter for regret, and I 



PBOCEEDmOS, NOVEMBEB. XXXIX 

hope it will be remedied next Bession. It cannot be held that our 
position in respect of sanitary matters is such, notwithstanding our 
great natural advantages, as to make them subjects of indifiference to 
us. It is satisfactory to find that the attention given by this society to 
the necessity for preventing the wholesale slaughter of the mutton bird 
and the opossum nas borne fruit» and that Acts have been passed by 
Parliament this year which afford them some protection. •'^ It may be 
remembered that at the closing meeting of last session a very interesting 
paper was read by Mr. Laurie, showing the necessity of scientific and 
technical education. Since then two ^chnical schools have been estab- 
lished, the one in Launceston, and the other in Hobart, which are 
attended by about 150 pupils, and are doing good work. In the matter 
of art, we are endeavouring to secure au exhibition in Hobart of a 
collection of pictures from the British Artists' Society about to be 
exhibited in Sydney. The subject was brought under our notice by the 
Hon. W. H. Burgess on his return from England, and a committee has 
been appointed to communicate with that society on the subject. There 
is almost no limit to the useful work which a society like this, having 
for its object the advancement of science and investigations of a physical 
character, can undertake, and I hope that next session we may have 
papers on some of the subjects to which I have referred, respecting 
which we have had no contributions this year. In a small community 
like ours, the minute subdivision of subjects which properly exists in 
large centres like London would be out of place and practically 
impossible. There you have separate societies for every important 
branch of investigation. Here we combine all, and we do more, for we 
endeavour, as far as possible, to make our meetings attractive by a 
judicious mixture of subjects so that they are not all merely food for 
■oientista but are of general interest as well. Such papers for instance 
u those read by Sir Thomas Brady, Mr. Seager, and l^r. Johnston, on 
the acclimatisation of the salmonidsB in Tasmanian waters were not alone 
of interest and value to the scientist and naturalist. The subject of 
acclimatisation is of great interest to us all, an interest not connned to 
Tasmania, for numerous articles have appeared in the Enclish press 
commenting upon the good work done in this direction by Tasmania. 
We have still much to learn, not only as regards the effects of acclimati- 
sation on the salmonidse, but also on the trees and shrubs, and flower 
and vegetable life which has been transplanted here. This opens a wide 
and interesting field for observers, and I trust we may have the results 
of their observations submitted to this Society in its future sessions. 
In such matters, too, as a native shrub like the wattle tree there is room 
for interesting observation. The wattle tree bark is now so important 
an article of commerce that it would be very desirable to know whether 
it is necessary in Tasmania, as is done in some of the other colonies, to 
re-plant trees to take the place of those stripped of their bark, or 
whether they reproduce themselves sufficiently without planting. This 
year has witnessed the establishment of an Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science based on the same lines as the British 
Association. It does not interfere with the ground occupied by any of 
the existing scientific societies in the various colonies, although its 
objects are somewhat similar. Its objects are to give a stronger 
inpnlse, and a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, to promote 
the intercourse of those who cultivate science in different parts of the 
British Empire with one another and with foreign philosophers; to 
obtain more general attention to the objects of science, and a removal 
of any disadvantages of a public kind which may impede its progress. 
This IS a direction in which no difficulties ought to stand in the way of 
federation, and we have given this association our warmest support. 
It will no doubt have the effect of attracting more attention to the 
nfantifio work turned out in the colonies than I fear it has hithAtto 



xl PBOCEEDINGS, NOVEMBEB. 

received at the hands of soieotista at home, and may lead to the pro- 
ceedings of this and kindred societies in the other colonies beinff more 
studied. It is true that our publications go home now, but people live 
at such high pressure that they have little time to unearth the many 
gems these contain unless they are directly brought to their notice. But 
an associati^i of this sort, by directing attention to what is being done 
in the causi^of the advancement of science generally, cannot fail to 
secure greater attention being paid to the work in these colonies, much 
of which is on a level with similar work produced at home. Our society 
was worthily represented at the first meeting of the association which 
was held in Sydney in August last by our senior vice-president, Mr. 
Barnard, who did his utmost to secure that the next annual gathering 
of the association should be held at Hobart. In this, I am sorry to 
say, he was not successful ; but when the meeting does take place here 
we shall accord the representatives from the other colonies a most hearty 
welcome. Our Society naturally takes great Interest in the Centennial 
Exhibition now being held at Melbourne, and we are particularly pleased 
at the completeness of the Natural History collection in the Tasmanian 
Court. The exhibits also from the technical schools of Tasmania are 
very creditable, considering how short a time the schools have been in 
operation. In conclusion, our best thanks are due to those of our 
members who have submitted papers and taken part in the discussions 
upon them, and to our secretary, Mr. Morton, who is as indefatigable as 
ever. To the Press also we are much indebted for their accounts of the 
proceedings at our meetings. We hope that from a business point of 
view it suits their purpose to give the full reports they do of our pro- 
ceedings, but nevertheless we are under obligations to them for the 
space which they always ungrudgingly allot to the operations of the 
Society. In bidding you farewell till next year, I would again impress 
upon you, as I did last year, the importance of more members doing 
work for the Society, and especially I would ask our medical friends, 
who are experts in matters relating to health and sanitation, not to let 
another session pass without contributing to the Society some papers 
on these all-important subjects. I know how valuable the time of 
medical men is, but I know also how much science owes to them, and I 
dare hope that the medical men of Hobart will not be behind their 
fellows elsewhere in that devotion to the cause of science for which the 

frofession is so worthily distinguished. I hope also that a suggestion 
made last year, although it has not been acted upon this session, may 
be acted upon in future sessions, and it is this. As you know, we receive 
from other scientific societies copies of their proceedings in exchange 
for ours, and I would again suggest to some of our members how 
advantageous it would be to us if they would, in the shape of papers 
which could be read at our Society, tell us something of the work those 
other societies are turning outonkindred subjects to our own. This would 
not only be very interesting and instructive, but I believe that it would 
both directly and indirectly tend to improve our original work, and thus 
still further increase the usefulness of this society, whose interests we 
all have so much at heart. I regret that this is the last occasion on which 
we shall be favoured at this Society with the genial presence of His 
Lordship the Bishop, and I assure him that the best wishes of the 
Society will follow him into his new sphere of labour. (Loud applause). 
Sir Lambebt Dobson said their president had summed up the work of 
the session so compactly that it was almost presumptive for him to say 
anything after it. They owed a great deal to His Excellency for the 
great interest he took in their Society. He had at times ttembled for 
the Society when he had seen men like Mr. Spicer, Father Julian Woods^ 
and others going from them, and he hoped yet to see something done to 
enlarge the scope of the Society as suggested by His Excellency. The 
Society was started by Sir John Franklin as a recording society, and 



PBOCEBBINGS, KOVEKBEB. zU 

they were gradually ranning down that line ever since. It was true 
that there were only a few who worked in the Society, hut there were 
many difficulties in the way. It was a question, however, whether they 
miflht not enlarge their work by having lectures on such subjects as light 
and heat, etc. He was glad to see that technical education had been 
introduced, and he would like to see it extended much further, as he 
believed that to keep pace with the world they must go in for education. 
With regard to art, a subject on which His Excellency had touched, he 
believed there was a brighter time coming in this direction after the lull 
which had been experienced. They suffered by the superior attractions 
of the other colonies, and as soon as they got good men amongst them 
they lost them again. He was reminded whitet speaking of this that 
one of the exhibits of drawing which had been forwarded by the 
Technical School to the Centennial Exhibition had been sent for by 
Yiotorians, and lost to the colony simply because their friends over the 
water had noticed the lad's ability. However, he did not think they 
should be discouraged, but go on and do their best in educating the 
youth of the colony. 

Mr. Basnard made the following remarks : As Your Excellency has been 
pleased to make mention, in your interesting address, of my recent visit to 
Sydney, to attend the meeting of the Australian Association for the Pro- 
motion of Science, I may be permitted to give some particulars of that 
visit. Up to the last moment I had no intention of being present, until I 
learnt that our highly esteemed Honorary Secretary and Vice-President, 
the Hon. Dr. Agnew, had excused himself on the score of illness from 
giving attendance at the meeting, where he was to have read a Presidential 
address on the science of Anthropology. As I had been appointed, in con- 
junction with His Lordship the Bishop, to represent our Boyal Society at 
this meeting of the Association, I determined, although at the eleventh hour 
(not liking our Society to be unrepresented), to attend the meeting, knowing 
that the Bishop could not possibly leave the more important work of his 
diocese. The proceedings of the Association commenced on the 28th of August ; 
but owing to imtoward circumstances I was unable to leave Tasmania before 
thai very day, arriving in Sydney on the 30th, so that all the bloom was, as 
it were, taken off, as the various Presidential addresses had been delivered 
before my arrival. However, I at once set to work to make the best of the 
fra^ent of time remaining ; and I accordingly devoted myself to two 
Bubjects which I conceived would be of especial interest to our Boyal 
Society. The first of these was the fixing by the general body of members 
of the places of meeting of the Association for 1889 and 1890. In the 
discussion I urged the claims of Hobart for the distinction of being chosen 
upon several grounds which appeared to me sufficiently cogent. The first 
ground was the priority over other scientific bodies in Australia of our 
Royal Society, which was founded in 1843, and of its predecessor, the 
Tasmanian Society, established in 1840. The second ground was, that it 
must prove agreeable to the members of the Association to escape from the 
sultry heats of Australia to enjoy the cool breezes of Tasmania. The third 
ground was that Hobart was a city when Victoria was in the cradle. The 
fourth and last ground was, that Victoria owed its parentage to Tasmania 
its first settlers having come from our island ; and then I was guilty of the 
pedantry of quoting horn an ode of Horace which came into my mind — 

" O matre pulchra filia pulchrior ! " 

Although my motion was seconded by Professor Ellery, who spoke strongly 
in its favour, we were outnumbered in the voting, and it was lost in favour 
of Melbourne for 1889, and of New Zealand for 1890. However, there is 
little doubt that in 1891 Hobart would be chosen in preference to Adelaide, 
which had much fewer supporters in the divisions which took place. On 
the second question, relative to the contemplated Antarctic Expedition, I 
met with greater success. An excellent paper was read beioi^ \3i;» 



idii FKOOKIDHIQSi MOVBHlUdt 

Geogrftphica] seotioii by Hr. G. S. Griffiths, F.G.S., of Melbourne, pointing 
otit the Boientiflc and commercial advantageB which m^ht be expected to 
remit ; and the proposition received genend support. Knowing the strong 
leeUng wb^ bad been manifested in its faTour by our R<^al Sodetr, 
drawn forth bj the admirable and exhaustiye paper of the lato deeply 
hsnented Mr. Sprent, and having taken a peculiar interest from my re- 
oollectiona of the previous expedition under Captains Ross and Crozier on 
its return to our waters in 1842, I entered into the discussion at some 
length ; and concluded by moving that the whole subject should be referred 
to a general meeting of tifie members, with a view to take further action. 
Accordingly this was done, as will be seen by the following report of the 
proceedings of that meeting, quoted from the Sydney Monwng Herald of 
Si^rtember 11, with which I will conclude : — 

"▲NTABOnO SXFLOBATION. 

" Mr. J. Babkabd called attention to a motion passed at the last meeting 
of the €(eographical Section of the Association recommending the appoint- 
ment of a committee to consider the question of Antarctic ]&ploration. It 
had been thought that they should seek the assistance of the Imperial 
Gkyvemment, and make the question one of Imperial policy in conjunction 
with Australasia. It was also thought that it would be best for the 
movement to emanate from Australasia, with the co-operation of England ; 
but^ as the ships and officers that would take part in the expedition would 
very likely oome from England, the matter had better be viewed as an 
Impenid question. He moved that a committee be appmnted to cany out 
the objects in view. 

" The motion was seconded and carried. 

" On the motion of the Hon. J. Fobbbbt the following were appointed a 
committee, with power to add to their number : Professor Stephens, Mr. 
Bllery, Mr. G. S. Griffiths, Professor Baldwin Spencer, Mr. J. Barnard and 
Hon. J. Forrest. 

" The meeting then terminated." 



CONCISE HISTOET OF THE ACCLIMATISATION 
OP THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

By p. S. SEAaBB, 
Secretary to the Fisheries Board of Tasmania. 

The idea of acclimatising the English sdlmon (Salmo salar) 
ia Tasmanian waters was entertained hj some of the colonists 
tA a very early period in our history. In the year 1841, as 
recorded in Vol. 1, p. 281, of the '* Proceedings 9f the Eoyal 
Soiciety of Tasmania," the late Captain Frederick Chalmers, of 
Brightoi^, in Tasmania, applied to Dr. Mackenzie, of Kinillan- 
by-Dingwall, Eoss-shire, Scotland, for salmon fry to bring to 
l&smania. The fry were not supplied, but the correspondence 
18 interesting, and shows how little was then known of the 
flubject when Dr. Mackenzie suggested that artificially 
impregnated ova deposited in a basket of fine gravel and 
plunged in a tank would require no more attention until it 
was umded in Tasmania, where it could be put into a pail and 
4»rried to any stream and there deposited. Dr. Mackenzie's 
last letter to Captain Chalmers, of 12th July, 1841, says : — 
**Next year you can have some vry sent south to you in better 
time if you like, or if you will give me the address of some 
careful confidential friend, I will send him south two baskets 
containing impregnated roe, say in September, one basket t6 
be sunk in water in England to produce live fish for your next 
year's trip, and the other to be shipped to your address in 
Australia, where it is probable you will receive it long before 
tbe fry begins to chip the shell. All that will be necessary is 
to direct your friend to keep the basket under water in some 
£resh stream till the ship is ready to sail, when one can be 
transferred to the ship's tank." Dr. Mackenzie had evidently 
a very limited knowledge of the difficulties which had after- 
wards to be overcome in the transport of salmon ova before 
success was secured. There is no record that Captain Chalmers 
proceeded farther with his experiment. 

In the year 1848 Mr. James L. Burnett, of the Tasmanian 
Survey Department, when on leave of absence, visited the 
Duke of Sutherland's salmon fisheries in InveimesS'Shire, und 
consulted the manager, Mr. Young, on the practicability of 
introducing salmon and trout into Tasmania. Mr. Young 
Miggested two methods — one to bring out the spawn, and the 
ether to bring out young fish, giving the preference to the 
, htter. In a letter to Mr. Burnett, of 23rd Ooiober, 1848, he 
fmj%: — ''It would be a grand undertaking, and perfectly 



2 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONIDiB IN TASMANIA. 

practicable if it could be accomplisbed during the time between 
extracting the eggs and their hatching ; but unless that could 
be done, I fear the delicate state of the new-hatched fish could 
not endure the fatigues of a long yojage." Mr. Young's plan 
was to erect boxes or tanks about 18ft. long by 4ft. deep and 
broad, in which salmon smolts were to be placed, and regularly 
and slowly supplied with water from' the sea, and fed with 
salted liver, boiled, and coarse flour bread, broken up smalL 
A paper on Mr. Burnett's visit to Mr. Young, written by 
Captain C. E. Stanley, E.E., with the correspondence, was 
read before the Eoyal Society of Tasmania on 12th September, 
1849, and is recorded in its proceedings, YoL 1, p. 135. With 
reference to Mr. Young, Mr. Morton Allport, in his " Brief 
History of the Introduction of Salmon to Tasmania," says : — 
'' Mr Young gave the preference to the latter method (young 
fish), which is the more remarkable, as from the account of one 
of his experiments it is clear that he had accidentally been 
upon the verge of discovering the very method which, after 
many years, led to success. In the experiment alluded to Mr. 
Young caused the fecundated ova packed in baskets of gravel 
to be hung in a running stream at different distances from the 
shore. During a severe frost one or two of the baskets nearest 
the bank, and those which were in comparatively still water 
were frozen hard on the surface, and Mr. Young supposed 
that the vitality of the eggs was destroyed ; but he let them 
remain, and discovered that the onl^ effect of the reduced 
temperature was to delay the hatching of the ova for several 
days." 

The result of Mr. Burnett's enquiries was, that the'then 
Lieut. -Governor of Tasmania, Sir William Denison, whose 
name is associated with so many important undertakings in 
the colony during the term of his governorship, and who had 
already evinced the greatest interest in the salmon question, 
wrote to the Secretary of State to allow of tanks constructed 
for the purpose, and supplied with salmon fry or smolts taken 
at the right season, being placed on board some of the convict 
vessels, and brought out under the immediate care and super- 
vision of the surgeon-superintendent. 

Some such efforts must already have been made, for on 13th 
August, 1849, Sir William Denison, writing to Earl Grey on 
he subject of the introduction of salmon, says : — " Several 
attempts have been made to bring out the spawn, but they 
, have all failed ;" but there is no record of such experiments. 
A long correspondence between Sir W. Denison, the Home 
authorities, and Mr. A. Young, appears in the " Proceedings 
of the Royal Society of Tasmania," Vol. 2, p. 40, wherein the 
employment of a welled fishing smack to convey adult salmon 
and smolts to the colony was advocated, and it is closed by a* 



BY P. S, SEAGER. 3 

despatch from Earl Grey, in which he states that it was 
impracticable to carry the fish in tanks on the deck of the 
prison ships, " while, on the other hand, the alternative of 
using a welled smack for their conveva.ice has, for the present 
at least, been abandoned as being attended with too much 
expense." 

In the year 1852, through the efforts of those interested in 
the subject, and at the instance of the Governor, Sir William 
Denison, an attempt was made to introduce both salmon and 
trout by means of ova. This effort is the first of which any 
detailed record exists. A paper read before the Eoyal Society 
of Tasmania (see its Proceedings, Vol. 2, p. 288) by Mr. J. L. 
Burnett, describes the arrangements made, and gives details of 
the voyage of the vessel selected — the Columbus. The ova 
were shipped on the 3 1st January, 1852, and the plan adopted 
is thus described by Mr. Burnett : — " About 60,000 ova of 
salmon and trout were placed in a large oval tub or Tessel 
with a false bottom, 4ft. Gin. by 3ft. 4in., 1ft. 8in. deep, 
double-sided, made of wood, cased in lead, and capable of 
containing 60 gallons of water, besides the requisite quantity 
of gravel. . . . The tub was slung just under and on one 
side of the fore hatchway, with directions that every six hours 
a fresh supply of six gsdlons of water should be added by 
means of a funnel inserted in a tube entering below the false 
bottom, the old or original quantity (or the greater portion of 
it) being drawn off by a stop-cock placed for that purpose in 
the upper part of the tub, and that the six gallons of water 
were to be supplied six times a day as the vessel approached 
the Equator, making 36 gallons in the 24 hours, and to be 
again reduced in the cooler latitudes to the original quantity 
of 24 gallons per diem." 

Mr. Gottlieb Boccius, who was employed by the Home 
Government, through the Land and Emigration Commis- 
sioners, to procure the ova, fixed the 15th and 20th April as 
the dates upon which the trout and salmon respectively would 
hatch, but the hatching commenced on 1st March, in latitude 
14*^ 30' north, longitude 26° west, and the fry were seen in 
the tub until the water became thick and putrid. On arrival 
of the vessel at Hobart the tub was examined by Dr. Milligan, 
the then Secretary of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and Mr. 
J. L. Burnett, and it is not surprising to read, " without 
finding any traces of either spawn or fish." 

Mr. Burnett in his paper gives his opinion as to the causes 
of failure, and his suggestions as to future efforts, one of which 
was that the temperature of the water should be regulated by 
means of ice. This is the first recorded suggestion for the 
regulation of temperature, the importance of which appears 
previously to have been entirely overlooked. 



4 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

The cost of this experiment is stated to have been about 
J6dOO, and it appears from a despatch from the Buke of New- 
castle to Sir W. Denison, dated 2nd June, 1853, which covered 
a detailed account of the Columbus experiment by Mr. Boccius 
(see proceedings Koyal Society, Vol. li., p. 437), that in- 
structions were given to renew the experiment under the 
same supervision. 

Arrangements for this further experiment were made with 
Mr. Boccius, who provided the necessary appliance, wbidi 
were placed on board the " Duke of Eoxburgh." The sailing 
of the vessel was delayed, but owing to a severe frost having 
set in when the ova was required, artificial spawning could not 
be successfully completed. The attempt was therefore aban- 
doned, and the spawn-tub landed from the vessel. 

The interest of the Boyal Society of Tasmania in the subject 
still continued, and the matter was frequently referred to at 
its meetings, at one of which, held on 11th August, 1S52, the 
Secretary read a letter from Mr. J. C. Bidwell, Commissioner 
of Crown Lands in New South Wales, to Sir William Denison, 
covering '^ Notes on the Establishment of the Salmon and other 
fish in the Rivers of Tasmania and New Zealand" (see pro- 
ceedings Boyal Society Tasmania, Yol. ii., p. 326), in which be 
thus writes upon the introduction of salmon : — 

" Now, to do this it would be necessary to bring and hatch 
the spawn, and I think that by packing spawn in ice the^ 
would be no difficulty in preserving its vitality for a much 
longer time than would be required. It is not probable that 
the vitality of fish spawn would be destroyed even by freezing, 
but by merely packing it in ice there would be no danger of 
actual freezing as the ice would always be in a melting state." 

Mr. Bidwell, in writing, explains that he would have written 
long before, but that he had suffered a long and severe illness, 
and it is more than probable that his health failing prevented 
his practical views being more prominently considered and 
carried into effect. However much we may be indebted to 
those who afterwards adopted, to a large extent, the same 
method which Mr. Bidwell suggested, it is due to the latter 
gentleman that the credit of first suggesting the packing of 
spawn in ice should be prominently mentioned in any history 
of the subject. 

On 9th February, 1858, the then Colonial Secretary of Tas- 
mania submitted certain questions to the Boyal Society 
** relative to the introduction of salmon into Tasmama," and 
the payment of a Parliamentary reward of £500 for anch in- 
troduction, and a committee, consisting of the Hon. £. S. P. 
Bedford, M.L.C., J. W. Agnew, Esq., M.D., Morton Allporf, 
Esq., and Joseph Milligan, Esq., E.L.S., was appointed, whose 
report appears in the proceedings of the Society, Vol. iii., p. 283* 



BY P. S. SEAGER. 



Tne idea of the introduction of living salmon was still promi- 
nent, as the committee state in the first paragraph of their 
report *' that the mere introduction of spawn, even though 
properly fecundated and in a state of vitalitj, ought not of 
itself to entitle the person introducing it to any portion of the 
reward." Members of this committee lived to learn that the 
most successful means of conveying salmon to distant parts is 
by means of spawn, and that the introduction of living fish as 
then strongly advocated at the time proved to be a failure. This 
committee also advocated the use of ice to regulate temperature 
during the voyage, and they recommended the construction of 
breeding ponds, which recommendation was afterwards carried 
out. 

Sir Thomas Brady has, however, recently demonstrated the 
possibility of carrying live salmon to the colonies by success- 
fully conveying some fish, twelve months old, to the south of 
the line, where their deaths were caused by improper food. 

The next experiment was made in 1860 through the efibrts 
of a body of colonists then in England, known as the Austra- 
lian Association — amongst whom was Mr. Edward Wilson, 
President of the Victorian Acclimatisation Society, — working 
under the guidance of Mr. James Arndel Youl, who from this 
date was closely associated with every succeeding shipment of 
ova from England to Australia and New Zealand, with, I 
believe, one exception only, and who has displayed the most 
praiseworthy zeal and self-denial in his efibrts. It is said that 
Mr. Youl's attention was drawn to this work by the experi- 
ment of Mr. Boccius, and that in the year 1 854 he commenced 
to study the artificial propagation of salmon and transport of 
their ova. The association raised by subscription a sum of 
£600, and the experiment made under their management cost 
nearly that amount. The vessel selected for the experiment 
was the S. Curling, which sailed from Liverpool for Melbourne 
on 25th February, 1860, with 80,000 salmon ova, collected by 
Mr. H. Ramsbottom, from the River Dovey, in Wales. The 
shipment was under the care of Mr. Alexander Black. The 
apparatus consisted of a supply tank on deck of 200 gallons 
water, the water being conveyed from this tank by means of a 
fin. pure block-tin pipe, which passed through the deck into 
an ice-house containing, when the vessel sailed, 15 tons Wenham 
Lake ice ; the pipe was taken twice round this house, a length 
of pipe of from 80 to 100ft., when it found its exit into the 
vessels for the ova, which comprised a stout framework 4ft. 
sooare, surrounded on all sides by a continuous wooden trough, 
lu. wide, 6in. deep, lined with pure block tin, with stops at 
intervals to divide and regulate the depth of water, the steps 
acting as falls for the purpose of aeration, and a further fall of 
1ft. from the upper series of troughs to the lower was made to 



6 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

aid in the same direction. The bottom of this trough was 
covered with fine gravel, in which the ova was placed. The 
ova apparatus was swung with chains and pulleys to keep it 
steady and counteract the pitching and rolling of the vessel. 
The water, after passing through the ice tank, flowed over the 
ova, fell into a tank below, from which it was pumped up 
again to the tank above, thus maintaining a regular stream : 
1,800 gallons of spring water was shipped, with a supply of 
charcoal for purification. The experiment failed, as on the 
24th April, and the 59th day out, the last of the ice melted^ 
and the last ovum died. 

In anticipation of the arrival of this shipment the Tasmanian 
Government caused ponds to be constructed at North-West 
Bay for the reception of the ova ; but these ponds were never 
used, and the site was afterwards abandoned in favour of the 
present position at the Eiver Plenty, where hatching-boxes 
and ponds, after the model of those at Stormontfield, in 
England, were constructed, the sketches of Stormontfield 
ponds having been supplied by Mr. Curzon Allport, then in 
England, to his brother, Mr. Morton Allport. Although this 
experiment failed, Tasmanian s should always acknowledge 
their gratitude to the subscribers to the fund and the Com- 
mittee of the Australian Association, who bore the whole 
expense of the shipment, and consigned it to the Koyal Society 
of Tasmania as a gift to the colony. 

This effort is also memorable from the fact that Mr. Black's 
journal was submitted to Mr. (now Sir Thomas) Brady, of the 
Irish Fisheries, for his opinion as to the causes of failure. 
From this time up to the present date Mr. Brady has been 
closely connected with each shipment to Tasmania. In the 
year 1860 a joint committee of both Houses of the Tasmanian 
Parliament, consisting of Mr. "William Archer (chairman), 
Messrs. Maclanachan, Henty, Chapman, Dr. Butler, Dr. 
Officer, and the Colonial Treasurer, was appointed ** to take 
into consideration the report of Mr. Black on the introduction 
of salmon into the rivers of Tasmania." In their report, dated 
31st August, 1860, they stated that " they deem themselves 
justified in coming to the conclusion that our rivers and the 
adjacent seas are adapted in point of temperature and in all 
other respects to the habits and constitution of the salmon," 
and that they " have good reasons for believing that it is quite 
possible to introduce the salmon by means of their ova." 
Their estimated expense of the introduction was £2,400, and 
they recommended that its conduct and the appointment of a 
manager, etc., should be confided to the Australian Associatioii 
which had managed the previous experiment. The report 
appears in Tas. Parliamentary Journals, 1800, No. 87. 

Up to this date the more active portion of the work in 



BY P. S. SEAGEB. 7 

Tumania had been carried out by the Boyal Society, but now 
a wider interest was being felt in the subject, with stronger 
hopes of success. The Government, on 21st October, 1861, 
mpointed a body of gentlemen as Honorary Commissioners in 
tKismania, and entrusted to them the management of the whole 
subject. 

The Commissioners at once entered heartily into their work. 
Prior to their appointment, however, the Government of 
Tasmania, acting in accordance with the reiommendation of 
the Parliamentary Committee last referred to, had authorised 
another experiment under the direction of the Committee of 
the Australian Association in London, and the Commissioners 
found upon enquiry that all such arrangements were completed. 
The association in England derived great assistance from Mr. 
Edward Wilson, of Melbourne, but the chief worker was Mr. 
James A. Toul, who really directed all matters in connection 
with the experiment. Mr. TouPs great desire was that the 
shipment should be direct to Hobart, and possibly to some 
extent the giving effect to this desire contributed to the 
fiiilure which followed, as at the time he had under offer a larger 
vessel bound to Melbourne, in which the apparatus required 
would probably have worked more satisfactorily. After much 
difficulty he secured a small iron steamer of 120 tons (the 
Beautiful Star), at a cost of £500, which was, however, to sail 
to the colony under a jury rig, and not to use her steam power. 
The apparatus used consisted of trays, one set hung on gimbals, 
and another large swinging tray, in each of which the ova was 
laid on gravel, over which iced water flowed at the rate of 500 
^dlons per day. Mr. William Kamsbottom, a son of Mr. R. 
Bamsbottom, of Clitheroe, had been brought to England from 
Melbourne and appointed to conduct the experiment. He 
sailed in the Beautiful Star from London on 4th March, 1862, 
with about 50,000 salmon ova. Full particulars of the voyage 
and its disasters appear in the report by Mr. Bamsbottom, 
which discloses that the simbal apparatus proved a complete 
fidlure from the outset, the ova dying in great numbers on the 
first day at sea, caused by the violent rolling of the apparatus 
keeping them continually in motion. The swinging apparatus 
worked successfully, so far as the limited space in the vessel 
would permit it to do so. Ova hatched, and the fry survived 
for a limited period only, owing principally to a succession of 
aevere gales, and Anally to the failure of the ice supply, which 
was exhausted at 12*30 on 17th May, on which date the whole 
of the remaining ova died at 1 p.m., with the exception of a 
fisw taken from a small box in the ice-house, which lived for 
eight hours beyond this time, 74 days after the date of sailing, 
and 88 days from the time of the ova being taken from the 
parent fish. 



8 ACCLIMATISATION OP THB SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

Notwithstanding this failure, the experience gained was 
such that in reporting to the Chief Secretary the CommicH 
sioners wrote " they were justified in expressing a confident 
opinion that that experiment, though unsuccessful, had demon- 
strated the perfect practicability of the project, and the 
certainty of success under proper conditions easily attainable.'* 
This shipment was the last failure and the cause of future 
successes. The little box already meationed containing ova 
packed in layers in moss and charcoal, which had been placed 
in the ice-house by Mr. Toul, and forgotten by Mr. Eams- 
bottom until he stumbled against it 60 days after the Beautiful 
Star had left England, led to further experiments and the 
institution of a similar system of packing ova adopted after- 
wards in most of the future shipments. It is only natural to 
suppose that there would be many claimants for the credit of 
this discovery. The suggestion to retard the development of 
ova by the use of ice was made long before by Mr. Bid well, as 
already mentioned, and there exist many records of somewhat 
similar suggestions by other individuals at various times in 
this colony and elsewhere prior to the experiment in the 
Beautiful Star. The credit of the first practical attempt to 
test what had previously been many times suggested lies, 
therefore, with Mr. Toul, who has stated that the idea was 
first mentioned to him in Paris by M. Girley, who showed 
him how fish ova packed in wet moss in earthenware jars 
were sent long journeys. But prior to the shipment of ova 
per Beautiful Star our present guest. Sir Thomas Brady, 
then secretary to the Fisheries Board of Ireland, had by his 
practical views on pisciculture attracted the attention of Mr. 
Toul, and the latter gentleman several times visited Dublin 
to consult with him. Mr. Brady was much impressed with 
the packing of ova in moss, and writing to Mr. Toul on 24t]i 
December, 1861, he says : — " It strikes me that you ought to 
try the ova in moss also. J got it up the other day in 
beautiful order in moss, and it kept very good for several 
days in the damp moss, and might keep so a very long time, 
I think. I send you a sketch of what I would propose." [I 
have this sketch, which shows a box of ova packed in layers 
in moss, with a tank for iced water at top and a false 
bottom, with tap to draw off the water after it passed 
through the moss.] "If by means of the iced water 
you can retard the hatching of the ova I think it will be the 
easiest way of preventing them being tossed about by the 
rolling of the ship as the moss will keep the ova steady. I 
never saw any ova in such good condition as that I lately 
received in the moss, and I am trying an experiment with it, 
and also purpose sending some ova to Italy in this way ; 
at any rate a small trial in this way would do no harm, and it 



BY P. 8. SEAGEB. 9 

-can easily be watched to ascertain if they are coining to life. 
If they don't hatch before the arrival it will he a decidedly safe 
way of transporting them." Mr. Youl sent the letter to 
Tasmania with an endorsement : " Requested Mr. B. to have 
made for me an apparatus such as he describes to hold from 
one to two hundred ova. I will feed them with ice-water 
from the melted ice drawn from ice-house." 

This letter was written on 24th December, 1861, and the 
Beautiful Star sailed on 5th March, 1862, with a box packed 
almost exactly as per Mr. Brady's sketch, but without the water 
tank. Mr Youl, writing some years afterwards, 26th March, 
1867, thua refers to Mr. Brady's value to him at the time. 
^* So important did I think Mr. Brady's instructions that I 
paid three visits to Dublin to learn all I could on the subject, 
and it was there I consolidated all I had read and previously 
seen on the subject." It affords me the greatest pleasure in 
stating my belief that Sir Thomas Brady's advice had much 
to do with the experimental box placed in the Beautiful Star 
and also to place on record the fact that, from the date of 
his letter, thenceforward to the present time, Sir T. Brady 
has worked zealously, heartily, and gratuitously with Mr. 
Youl and others, in relation to all or nearly all the shipments 
of ova to this colony, and that his interest in the acclimati- 
sation of salmon in these Southern waters has never flagged, 
but has now culminated in the most successful shipment of 
salmon ova ever made. In recording this tribute to Sir 
Thomas Brady let it be well understood that I do not in any 
way ignore the self-denying work of our good friend, Mr. J. 
A. Youl, C.M.GI-., whose value in this cause I so well know, 
and whose work can never be forgotten by those acquainted 
with the history of salmon acclimatisation in the Australian 
colonies and New Zealand. I feel sure that should Mr. Youl 
read this paper, he will be pleased to think that the services 
of his coadjutor. Sir Thomas Brady, are appreciated so well 
by the colonists of Mr. Youl's former home, who have so 
many times admitted their indebtedness to himself in the 
same direction. 

The experience gained in the Beautiful Star experiment 
was a ma.tter of much consideration bv the Commissioners 
and Mr. Ramsbottom, who were equally anxious that the 
method of packing ovain moss and ice should be practically and 
thoroughly tested. The Commissioners forwarded a report to 
His Excellency the Grovernor,T. Gore Browne, on 1st September, 
1862 (Parliamentary Paper, No. 82, 1862), in which they 
recommended the immediate return to England of Mr. 
Ramsbottom to arrange another experiment, and " during the 
approaching winter Mr. S. would be able — first to put to the 
test of further experiment the preservation of the ova in 



10 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

moss, of which his late experience in the Beautiful Star has 
led him to think so favourable ; and secondly, to ascertain 
"whether and for what period the ova can be preserved alive 
in a state of congealation." At the date of this report it was 
considered that the latter method would be supplementary to 
the main plan. At the same time Mr. Youl was also working 
in a similar direction, as shown by a letter addressed by him 
to a member of the Salmon Commission, dated 27th October, 

1862, in which he writes : " So impressed am I with the little 
experiment in the box with moss that I mean to try an 
experiment at my own expense this year, to test it by placing 
some 20 small boxes, with from 800 to 500 ova in an ice- 
house, containing 25 tons of Wenham Lake ice ; " the experi- 
ment was to be made, if possible, in a ship direct to Hobart. 
Mr. Toul was afterwards in treaty for space in the s.s. G-reat 
Britain, but the expense involved being greater than he 
anticipated, and being afraid of the effect of the vibration 
of the screw on the vitality of the ova, this shipment did 
not take place, but he afterwards secured necessary space in 
the Dunrobin Castle sailing for Hobart direct, had everything 
arranged, and orders given for the construction of the ice- 
house, when the owners, fearing injury to the cargo from the 
melting ice, withdrew their promise and the shipment was 
abandoned. 

In the meantime with the use of the Wenham Lake Ice 
Company's vaults in London, and the assistance of Messrs. B. 
I^msbottom, W. Eamsbottom, Thos. Johnston, and others, a 
series of experiments were being carried out under the direction 
of Mr. Youl with ova packed in moss in boxes similar 
to the box placed in the ice-house of the Beautiful Star. 
The boxes were covered with ice and examined at different 
periods of 45, 57, 90, 120, and 144 days, with perfect success, 
the vitality of the ova having been in no way impaired, and 
ova of each lot being successfully hatched. Thus, at last, 
the long cherished hope of the successful acclimatisation of 
the salmon species in distant lands was in a fair way of 
accomplishment, the expensive and somewhat cumbersome 
mode hitherto adopted by means of trays with gravel, etc., 
was at once abandoned, and Mr. Toul, writing on 25th May, 

1863, says : — " It does, therefore, appear that the best way of 
making another attempt next year would be with ova in an 
ice-house, and not to attempt it again by placing them in a 
running stream, which not only entails a much greater 
outlay, but is attended with so much risk." 

The Salmon Commissioners again entrusted the manage- 
ment of a further experiment to the Australian Association 
in England, who delegated to Mr. Youl " the sole superinten- 
dence of the necessary preparation of the renewed experiment 



BY P. S. SEAGER. 11 

about to be tried." Mr. Toul found great difficulty in pro- 
curing a suitable vessel, the desire of the Commissioners 
being that tbe experiment should be made in a ship sailing 
direct to Hobart. Although arrangements were nearly com- 
pleted with the owners of a barque named the Alfred Hawley , 
circumstances arose which rendered this impossible, and Mr. 
Toul, fearing the loss of another year, sought the aid and 
assistance of Messrs. Money Wigram and Sods, who 
generously allotted to him 50 tons of space in their well- 
known clipper ship, the Norfolk, advertised to sail for Mel- 
bourne on the 20th of January following. Messrs. Wigram 
first intimated that the space was without charge, but Mr. 
Toul offered them 100 guineas from his private purse, 
which were subsequently declined, Messrs. Wigram being 
desirous that the service should be entirely gratuitous. Mr. 
Toul, having overcome one great obstacle, was almost im- 
mediately met by another. He had engaged Mr. Robert 
Bamsbottom, the well-known pisciculturist, of Clitheroe, to 
forward a supply of salmon ova from the Eibble, for shipment 
per the Norfolk, but every fish captured in the Eibble was 
foand to have shed its spawn. In this dilemma Mr. Youl 
published in The Times an appeal for assistance, and des- 
patched Mr. Bamsbottom with his son to the Dovey, in Wales, 
and Mr. Johnston, another experienced pisciculturist, to the 
Tyne, and their efforts were successful, about 100,000 salmon 
ova reaching London on 18th January. The ova was at once 
packed and shipped in the Norfolk : the mode of packing at 
that time adopted has been repeated with little alteration in 
each succeeding shipment, and is thus described by Mr. 
Toul: — " A couple of handfuls of charcoal are spread over 
the bottom of the box, then a layer of broken ice ; after this, 
a bed or nest of wet moss is carefully made and well drenched 
with water. The ova are then very gently poured from a 
bottle, which is kept filled with water. The box is now filled 
up with moss, and pure water poured upon it until it streams 
out from all the holes. Another layer of finely pulverised 
ice is spread all over the top of the moss ; the lid is then 
firmly screwed down. The boxes used measured llfin. long, 
6|in. wide, and 5 jin. deep, perforated top and bottom. 

In addition to the salmon ova, a small consignment of 
trout ova (Salmo fario) was placed in the ice-house, con- 
tributed by Admiral Keppel through Frank Buckland and by 
Francis Francis. All the boxes were placed in the ice-house ; 
the remaining space was filled with blocks of Wenham Lake 
ice, and the house securely closed. The Norfolk sailed from 
the London Docks on 21st January, 1864, arriving at 
Melbourne on 19th April following. Before stating the 
procedure on the vessel's arrival at her destination it may be 



12 ACCLIMATISATION OP THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

well to here enter into rather full details in relation to this 
shipment of ova, as the produce formed the first stock of 
salmon and trout liberated in Australian waters. Many 
theories are now advanced as to the various species to be 
found in these waters, and doubts have frequently been 
raised as to whether true salmon ova were ever received ; 
various opinions have also been expressed npon different 
specimens of trout (8, fario), which have been called fario 
erioxy etc. Under these circumstances I have thought it 
well to record all available information in my possession, 
which may help to set at rest unfounded theories and 
incorrect assumptions upon so important a matter. The 
salmon ova were obtained from the following rivers in 
England and Wales : — 

River Dovey, 17,000, obtained by R. Ramsbottom. 

Rivers Ribble and Hodder, 35,000 to 45,000, obtained by 

Westell Ramsbottom. 
River Severn, 30,000 to 40,000, obtained by W. Ramsbottom 

and Allies. 
I^ver Tweed, 20,000, obtained by Johnston. 

With regard to the salmon the names of those who 
collected the ova are well-known as men of experience who 
were not likely to err in the choice of fish for stripping ; that 
the greatest caution and care were exercised does not admit 
of a doubt Mr. Youl has always indignantly repudiated the 
suggestion that any mistake could possibly have been made 
by sending for salmon ova that of another species. 

I have a newspaper clipping which thus refers to Mr. 
Ramsbottom's proceedings at the River Dovey : — 

" The Dovey Fisheries at Machynlleth. — Mr. Ramsbottom, 
who has been so successful in the artificial propagation, 
of salmon, has lately visited the Dovey for the 
purpose of obtaining salmon ova to send to Tasmania. 
He commenced netting in Mr. Bulkeley's water on the upper 
part of the Dovey, but here only succeeded in getting two 
fish suited to his purpose. These he put in a small piece of 
water near the river at Mallwyd, secured by a cord to their 
tails ; but, although he had paid the men very liberally, and 
explained throughout the neighbourhood the great object the 
fish were to be used for and the enormous expense already 
incurred, and that the ship that was to convey the ova was on 
the eve of sailing, some scoundrels actually cut the cords and 
stole the fish during the time of service on Sunday. He 
subsequently, with the permission of the Preservation Society, 
succeeded in getting from the lower part of the Dovey at 
Derwenlas two splendid female salmon of 281b. and 141b. 
weight, laden with spawn, from which he obtained all that 



BY P. S. SEAGER. 13 

he required. He captured numbers of very large salmoi^, 
"both in the upper part of the Dovey and at Derwenlas, but 
all had spawned." 

I have also a clipping from The Times of 18th January, 
1864, with reference to the ova obtained from the Severn : — 

" Salmon Spawn for Tasmania. — Mr. Youl, who has been 
deputed by the Tasmanian Grovernment to procure from the 
English rivers a supply of salmon spawn for the purpose of 
introducing that fish into his own country has, after many 
difficulties, at last succeeded in obtaining a supply from the 
Severn, which the Inspectors of Fisheries pronounce one of 
(he best salmon rivers in England. Last week he went down 
to Worcester, and on Friday a number of fishermen were 
employed, under the direction of the officers of the United 
Association for the Protection of the Severn Fisheries, in 
netting the river near Worcester. The result was that 18 
salmon were taken, from which five were selected as being fit 
for the purpose required. These were fish of from 161b. to 
181b. each, three spawners and two milters just ready to shed 
their spawn and milt. The fish were kept until Saturday, 
when the spawn was pressed from them and the milt of the 
male fish also shed over the spawn, which was deposited in a 
vessel prepared for the purpose. When this was done — and 
it was accomplished very successfully — the fish were returned 
to the river apparently none the worse for the operation. 
The spawn thus impregnated was to be conveyed to London 
to-day, and will be at once despatched to its destination, a 
vessel having been detained on its voyage for the purpose. 
It is hoped that the experiment will be crowned with success. 
Some interesting facts in connection with the salmon came 
out in the conduct of this experiment. In a tributary of the 
Severn — the liver Terne, which falls into the Severn near 
Worcester — all the fish taken were found to be spent fish. 
We believe that neither a new river fish nor an unspent fish 
was taken. In the Severn out of 18 fish taken several were 
spent, some were not sufficiently advanced in spawn for the 
purpose of the experiment, and only two were fresh river fish. 
The last-named fact at once affords ample proof of the good 
policy of making January a close month^ as it was done under 
the last Salmon Fisheries Act. In order that the fishermen 
might perfectly understand the object of the netting on 
Friday last they were assembled and a local magistrate 
explained to them that it was only legal to capture salmon for 
the purpose of artificial breeding, and that even if fresh river 
fish should be taken they must be returned to the water. The 
fishing was witnessed by many." 

Can it be seriously suggested in the face of these extracts 
ihat the ova obtained on these occasions was other than that 



14 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONIDiE IN TASMANIA* 

of S. solar. The trout ova were obtained from the river 
Itchin, from the Wey and High Wycombe, Bucks. The 
former are thus described by Frank Buckland: **I have obtained 
about 1,000 eggs, regular beauties, of * Itchin Trout ; ' " and 
the two latter are referred to by Francis Francis in a letter to 
Mr. Toul : " The ova sent is the finest trout ova I ever saw, 
andwastaken from 81b. and 101b. fish which had all but finished 
spawning." These trout ova were the first and only lot which 
reached Tasmania alive, a second consignment in the Lincoln- 
shire being all dead on arrival in }!ilelboume. From the 
produce of the Norfolk trout ova the rivers of Tasmania and 
the adjacent colonies have been stocked, and it will be at once 
seen that, beyond the changes produced by food and water, 
it is a popular error to suppose that many varieties of brown 
trout are to be found in our rivers. 

The Norfolk arrived in Hobson's Bay on 16th April, after 
a voyage of 84 days. She was immediately boarded by Mr. 
Edward Wilson, the presidcDt, and other members of the 
Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, in whose presence the 
ice-house was opened and an ova box examined, a consider- 
able portion of the ova being found alive. Steps were at 
once taken to tranship the ova-boxes and ice to the Victorian 
sloop Victoria, which was placed at the disposal of the 
Tasmanian Government for the purpose of conveying the ova 
to Hobart ; 170 boxes were distributed in 11 strong wooden 
cases, each being covered with a quantity of ice and enveloped 
in blankets ; 11 boxes of ova were retained by the Victorian 
Acclimatisation Society for the purpose of being hatched in 
Melbourne. Of these the first egg hatched on May, and 
ultimately from 200 to 300 fry appeared, the temperature of 
the water having been kept at from 60*^ to 54** by means of 
ice, and the fry were afterwards transferred to a tank, 120 
being ultimately liberated in Badger Creek and never heard 
of afterwards. 

The Victoria sailed for Hobart on 18th April, arriving at 
her destination on 20th April. The cases as packed in 
Melbourne were at once transferred to a barge which was 
towed by steamer to New Norfolk. Intense excitement existed 
in the locality, and the greatest desire was evinced by the 
residents to render assistance in transporting the boxes to the 

Eonds on the Plenty. The larger cases containing the ova 
oxes, were slung on bamboos and placed on the shoulders of 
men who thus carried them to the hatchery where Mr. Eams- 
bottom, with the assistance of Mr. Morton Allport, at onco 
proceeded to unpack the ova and place them in the hatching 
boxes, where they were deposited on the 91st day after 
embarkation in the Norfolk. The temperature of the water 
was reduced by means of the remaining ice to 42°, and 



BT P. S. SEAGEB. 15 

averaged about 47" up to 12tli May, from whicli date to 5th 
July Uie average was about 41*". It was estimated that there 
were about 35,000 living ova, including trout ova. On the 
4th May the first trout ova hatched, and on the following day 
the first salmon; the hatching of the trout continued 
until the 25th May, and of the salmon until 8th June ; 
the salmon fry were kept in the hatching boxes until 
early in August, when they were permitted to pass 
mto the rill attached to a large salmon pond. The 
trout were kept in the boxes until the end of August, 
when owing to several deaths and the appearance of disease 
amongst them, they were removed to a specially prepared 
rill, when their number was found to be nearly 30D. The 
mortality amongst the fry was very trifling, and the fish 
continued to feed and thrive well in their new home. The 
prospect so long hoped for of establishing the salmon in these 
Bouthem seas seemed about to be realised. So much has 
been said and written of late years in relation to this experi- 
ment, and so many misrepresentations and misstatements 
made in reference thereto — ^frequently by those who should 
have hesitated to make assertions without due enquiry, and 
assertions which could not be supported — that it seems 
desirable to give in rather full detail the number of fish 
liberated from the ponds, and the date of liberation. 

A statement has been made that all the fish resulting from 
"the Norfolk shipment died before reaching the Dei went, but 
this statement has arisen from the circumstance that on 
-4th October following the hatching, when the fry were about 
five months old, a leak was discovered from the salmon pond 
•communicating with the Eiver Plenty, through which it was 
found that the fry were escaping, as one was captured in a 
box placed at the outlet of the leak. A trench was at once 
cut, and the leak repaired, which occupied 19 days, and 
during that period 240 fry passed from the pond into the 
leak, and were captured and returned to the pond. A very 
large number must have already reached the Plenty, the 
number escaping being estimated at 1,500. This estimate 
was arrived at from the fact that upwards of 3,000 fry were 
admitted to the pond from the breeding boxes, that the mor- 
tality to the discovery of the leak was trifling, and that 
owing to the careful watch kept night and day by Mr. Eams- 
bottom and his assistants, the natural enemies in the shape 
of water rats and platypi were destroyed. Mr. Eamsbottom, 
in his diary, referring'to tlie water bursting upon them when 
repairing the leak, which necessitated the immediate filling up 
of the trench, writes : — " As to how many of our young fish 
passed away with this terrible flow of water, I cannot give 
the shadow of an idea, only that a vast number must have 



16 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

found their way into the Plenty." Owing to a rather heavy 
mortality amongst the salmon parr in the pond, it was deter- 
mined to liberate in the Eiver Plenty those remaining. 
The morfcalitv could not be accounted for by Mr. 
Kamsbottom, who said the fish affected, '' when dead> 
look as bright and as healthy as any I ever caught with the 
fly and gentle in the Eibble ; fine plump fish they are, and I 
may say I never saw any so large for their age." The water 
in the Salmon Pond was lowered and from the 19th to 22nd 
March, 1865, 419 young salmon, 10 months old, measuring 
from 5 to 6 inches long were liberated in the Plenty, 14 parr 
were retained being immature, and it was afterwards dis- 
covered that others were unintentionally kept back, as on ^th 
January, 1866, 33 smolts were taken from the pond and 
liberated in the Plenty, and on 6th August, 1866, 76 smolta 
were also liberated. 

The result of the Norfolk shipment of salmon ova waa 
528 salmon counted into the Plenty and an estimated number 
of at least 1,500 by the rush of water when the leak in the 
pond was being repaired. In January, 1866, 38 trout were 
liberated in the Plenty, and 133 were retained in the pon4» 
these fish formed the stock from which and their progeny, an4 
the rivers of this colony, Australia, and of New Zealand,, 
have been supplied. It is well to bear in mind, as already 
stated, that these trout were the first and only importation 
of S. fario into Tasmania, and that the very common opinioix 
that there are several species of brown trout in the colony 
is thus manifestly inaccurate. Any variability existing must 
arise from local causes connected with the water and food of 
the rivers in which the fish are found. 

The Salmon Commissioners having strongly urged the 
necessity for a further supply of salmon ova, the Government 
provided the necessary funds, and the task of management 
again fell to Mr. J. A. Youl who, through the aid of Messrs. 
!B&,msbottom, sen., Westell Ramsbottom, F. Allies, and Thos. 
Johnson, procured the following lots of ova from the 
rivers Eibble, Hodder, near Clitheroe, the Itchin, and its 
tributaries, near Southampton, the Severn, and Teme, near 
Worcester, and the Tyne, and Tweed. 

Mr. Eamsbottom, sen. ... ... 41,000 

„ Westell, sen 16,000 

„ Allies ... ••• ••• ,•« uOU 

„ Johnston ... , 45,000 



102,500 

There were also obtained 15,000 ova of sea trout (JS. 
tndta), and a box of trout ova, 8. fario. The ova were packed 
in 161 boxeS; in the same manner as in the previous shipment 



BY P. S. SEAGER. 17 

per Norfolk, and were shipped in an ice-house on board the 
ship Lincolnshire, which sailed from England on 8th February, 
1866, arriving in Hobson's Bay, 30th April, 1866, where the 
boxes were transhipped to the Government steamer Victoria, 
with the ice remaining, and sent to Hobart, which was reached 
on 4th May, and on the following day the ova were all placed 
in the hatching boxes at the Plenty, it being estimated that 
50 per cent were alive. The hatching was complete on 30th 
Jane, the first salmon ova having hatched on 8th May, 1866, 
and the first sea trout on 12th May, 1866. In October, 1867, 
it was determined to liberate the young salmon and sea trout 
as they had assumed the small form, and they were permitted 
to pass into the Plenty. In the Commissioners' report, dated 
2nd September, 1869, the numbers liberated are stated to have 
been nearly 6,000 salmon and 000 salmon trout. A few pairs 
of sea trout were detained as a breeding stock. 

For many years subsequently to this date the work of 
acclimatising trout and salmon trout was carried on at the 
breeding ponds with great success as to trout, but with only 
modified success as to salmon trout, which spawned for the 
first time in Tasmania in fresh water, without having been 
to the sea, in June, 1869, as after a few years it was found 
that although the few salmon trout detained, and their 
increase, continued to deposit ova, their fertility ceased and at 
last the fish were liberated. 

But in 1882, a Royal Commission having been appointed 
to enquire into and report upon the fisheries of the colony, 
it was recommended by that body that further importations 
of salmon ova should be procured. Parliament acting upon 
their recommendation provided the necessary funds, and the 
Hon J. W. Agnew, a member of the Salmon Commission visit- 
ing Europe in 1882, was entrusted by his brother Commis- 
sioners with the uncontrolled direction of a further shipment of 
salmon ova. Dr. Agnew, from various causes, was unable to 
carry this object to completioo, but he was able to correspond 
with and to visit Mr. J. A. Toul and Mt. T. F. Brady, whose 
co-operation he secured, and those gentlemen, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Eichard Philpott, Merchant, of 3, Abchurch 
Lane, London, were afterwards appointed a Committee of 
Management to conduct the next shipment, the latter gentle- 
man acting in finance and the two former in packing and 
collecting the ova. Through the co-operation of E. L. Moore, 
Esq., Molennan, Londonderry, E. J. Mahony, Esq., Dromore 
Castle, County Kerry, and Samuel L. Alexander, Esq., Eoe 
Park, Limavady County, Londonderry, Mr. Brady was 
enabled, with the assistance of his son Mr. Herbert Brady, 
and Mr. ISTevin, head-keeper to Mr. Moore, to secure upwards 
of 80,000 ova, presented by these gentlemen through Mr. 

B 



Its ACCUMATISAHOM OF THB SALUONIDS IN TABHANIA. 

Brad; to the colony, wMch were conveyed to London and 
there packed by Mr. Toul in the usual manner in moaa, and 
shipped ia an ice tank in the a.B. Abington, sailing for 
Hobart on 19th February, 1884; she arriTed in the 
Derwent 1st Mar, after a passage of 71 days; the ova 
being deposited in the hatching boxes at the Plenty on the 
following day. The following tables extracted from the 
Salmon Oommisaioners' report, dated 15th July, 1884 
(Parliamentary paper, No. 68, Session 1884), furnish fuU 
particulars relating to this shipment : — 

The hatching continued up to the Ist July, and on that 
date there were in the boxes 1,825 fry. 

The following return shows the mortality of ova and fry 
from the date of the first count, 5th May, to the end of tke 
hatching, 1st July. 





Oiadied. 


Fit died. 


m 


% 


III 


ll 


is 


BIaA.ngBOalH.,e.. 


s 


» 


1 


i 


1 


i 




Keny 

EtuB and Brae Top 

UmflTBdy 

X -, 

Eyed ova. 


3)6 


z 


360 
1I3B 


64 


I 


00 
20 


162 

11 


... 

1574 
1331 


IDS 
903 


£0.000 
27,OW 
lO.MO 
20,000 
UDknown 


-93 



* Not Including 3,000 sent to lAuncsatan. 



MMWuBBonTMies. 


Nnmber 
i£ip^ 


Living 


11 


Date of 

taking dts 
from ^.tent. 


^11 

'4i 


s 


Kerry 


20,000' 


1,085 


6.47 


17*22 Dec, 1888 


OMfty 


mdajB 


Etoe and Brae Top.. 


50,000 


1 m' 


[.-27 


16 Jan., 188*. 


BMay 


llEdMO 


">n»™dy 


io,w» 


1,27* 


12-74 


16 Jan., 1884. 


6 May 


llSdaya 


X 


20,000 


1,331 


fl'65 


2S Jan., 1S84. 


MM. J 


US days 


Eyedo™ 


Unknot 


25 


... 


1 Dec., 188S. 


3 May 


ISGday. 



The canse of comparative failure on this occasion was a 
defect in the drainage of the ice-house which became choked 
with debris, thus preventing the exit of the melted ice and 
causing the ova boxes to 3oat and knock about with the rolling 



BY P. S. SEAGEE. 19 

of the ship, and also saturating the moss and decomposing it 
and killing the ova. From this shipment, 229 smolts were 
Hherated in the Eiver Plenty during 1885, and 730 in 
October, 1886. 

Thirty fish of the Abington shipment were retained in a 
special pond at the Plenty hatchery, and although their 
growth has not been very great they were artificially spawned 
daring last season, producing 3,140 ova, from which 300 fry 
were liberated, the majority being forwarded to the Northern 
side of the colony under the care of the Hon. James Smith, 
M.L.O., whose attention to his charge was so great that he 
succeeded in liberating 800 in the rivers selected, and 50 
were also placed in the Plenty- It is hoped that for a time, 
at least, ova will be obtained from the stock detained which, 
however, thrdugh deaths is now reduced to 9 fish. 

Parliament having supplied a vote for another shipment, 
Messrs. Toul and Brady again offered their valuable services, 
and Mr. Brady gave his personal attention to the fertilising 
of the ova from carefully-selected fish from the rivers Erne 
and Blackwater, Messrs. Mahony, Moore, and Alexander 
having a second time generously granted the use of their 
waters for the purpose and presented the ova to the colony. 
The Salmon Commissioners had also made suggestions to 
Mr. Toul as to improvements in the ice-house, profiting by 
the experience of the defects on the previous occasion in the 
Abington. Mr. Brady succeeded in securing about 160,000 
ova, which were packed by himself and Mr. Youl in 101 
boxes, and shipped in an improved ice-house in the s.s. 
Yeoman, which sailed from London on 27th February, 1885, 
arriving at Hobart on 4th May. On arrival the ice-house 
was opened, and the result found to be highly satisfactory. 
The ova were at once removed to the ponds at the Plenty, 
and the hatching was completed in June with greater success 
than had hitherto been obtained, and much of this success 
may fairly be attributed to the improvements in the ice- 
house. Ten thousand ova of this shipment were ** eyed ova," 
i.e., ova arrived at such a state of development as to have the 
eyes visible in the ovum, and the unpacking of this lot 
revealed so few dead eggs that in their report to Parliament 
upon the shipment, the Commissioners wrote : — " This cir- 
cumstance would seem to indicate that in future experi- 
ments ova alone which have arrived at the ' eyed ' stage 
should be packed.^' 

Prior to the shipment per Yeoman, a small lot of about 
10,000 ova had been shipped to Hobart per s.s. Tainui, in an 
iosulated case placed in a small room adjoining the refrigera- 
ting machinery. The case had a series of six trays for ova, 
with an ice tray above each, the ice being suppKed from the 



20 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMdNID^ IN TASMANIA. 

refrigerator during the voyage. The care of the room was 
entrusted to a gentleman passenger travelling to Hobart, who 
was fully instructed in his duties, and faithfully performed 
them. Although on arrival a large percentage of the ova 
were alive, the result after hatching was very indifferent. 
It is, however, impossible to assign accurately any satisfactory 
reason for this result, which may have arisen from one of 
several causes. When writing of this experiment to Sir 
Thomas Brady, while advocating the old sjstem of shipment 
in an ice tank, I admitted that the refrigerator boxes in the 
hands of a skilled attendant would be a great success, and the 
recent great success of Sir T. Brady's shipment, per Xaikoura, 
conducted upon a somewhat similar principle to that adopted 
in the Tainui, but upon a larger scale and improved arrange- 
ments, bears out wlmt I then wrote. I am still, however, 
inclined to support the old method of the ice tank, as pro- 
viding an even temperature and requiring no supervision or 
attention during the voyage, in preference to the insulated 
cases, which really need the attention of a skilled attendant, 
thereby adding considerably to the outlay. The fry from the 
Teoman and Tainui being so large in number could not be 
conveniently detained in the ponds, and it was determined to 
liberate them when the umbilical vesicle was absorbed, and 
27,000 salmon fry were placed in various rivers of the colony 
between 18th August and 2nd December following. For the 
first time in the history of salmon acclimatisation in Tasmania 
j8^. solar were liberated in other rivers than the Derwent, the 
allotment being as follows : — 

Eiver Derwent and tributaries 10,950 

South Esk (71 died) 6,000 

North Esk 250 

Eiver Huon (10 died) 4,000 

River Mersey (40 died) 4,000 

Eiver Pieman (all died) 50O 

Eiver Leven (25 died) 2,000 

Eiver Inglis (86 put in Inglis, about 25 put in South 

jjSKy ,,, ... ••• (•• ,., ,,, aUv 



27,900 

735 therefore died in transit. 

This shipment was the last carried out under the direction 
of the Salmon Commissioners, but before closing the record 
of their work it should be stated that in addition to 8, salary 
8, truttaf 8. fario, they have successfully introduced to the 
waters of the colony the American brook trout, 8, fontinailis, 
ova of which were obtained from New Zealand in 1883, the 
increase from which has been distributed amongst many 



BY P. S. SEAGER. 21 

streams and lakes in Tasmania. The fish is a great acquisition 
being a handsome, plump fish, very game and taking the flj 
readUy ; it is in great demand, and justifies all that had been 
reported of the species prior to its introduction at the 
instance of Mr. W. Tarleton, a member of the Commission, 
whose attention was drawn to the fish in New Zealand when 
visiting that colony. 

The Commissioners tendered their resignation on 20th June, 
1887, and closed a history of 26 years' useful and valuable 
work performed amidst many difficulties and discouragements. 
They have often been assailed as incompetent, but when the 
names of the more prominent are considered such charges 
entirely fail. Who would have dared to have challenged 
the scientific knowledge and attainments of the late Morton 
Allport, who was so closely associated with the experiments 
until success was attained, and whose memory still lives in the 
records of his work amongst the papers of this Society. 
Self-denying, an ardent lover of nature in every form, his 
death created a blank which has not yet been supplied. I 
speak thus feelingly of him, having had the privilege of his 
fnendship and a personal knowledge of the zeal he threw 
into the work of salmon acclimatisation. He was also the 
means of introducing other fishes to the colony. Sir Robert 
Officer, for many years Chairman of the Commission, was 
also well known as a man of science and a zealous worker. 
Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.L.S., etc., another member, needs no 
eulogy from me. He is the author of the only complete 
catalogue of Tasmanian fishes, and his general scientific 
attainments are universally acknowledged. Mr. Matthew 
Seal's practical knowledge in fishery matters are also admitted 
by all. The Hon. J. W. Agnew, the last Chairman of the 
Commission, and Hon. Secretary of this Society, and a 
member of the committee which reported on the subject in 
1858, is a worker of no mean order, and the other members 
of the Commission at different times — the Hon. Captain 
Langdon, Thos. Giblin, the Hon. W. Archer, W. A. B. 
Jamieson, the Hon. Dr. Butler, R. C. Read, John Swan, A. 
a. Webster, A. Riddoch, W. Tarleton, H. Weedon, R. P. 
Irvine, Bernard Shaw, J. H. Wedge, J. Buckland, C. E. 
Beddome, the Hon. W. A. B. Gellibrand, and Ebenezer 
SbQobridge — make up a roll to whom Tasmanians should be 
glad to acknowledge their indebtedness for years of self- 
imposed labour. If all the success desired has not been 
attained, it is from no lack of zeal or labour on their part. 

I may be pardoned for having thus referred to the mem- 
bers of the late Commission, having worked with them as 
their Secretary for many years, and I submit with confidence 
that an impartial study of what they performed during 



22 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IN TASMANIA. 

their tenure of office well entitled thena to the com* 
mendation they received from Hia Excellency the Governor 
on their retirement, which was conveyed to them by the Chief 
Secretary as follows ; — " His Excellency accepts with regret 
the resignation of these gentlemen, and the members of the 
Government desire to join with him in expressing the high 
sense entertained of the valuable services rendered by "^e 
Commissioners in their efforts to introduce the salmon inta 
the waters of Tasmania. The services thus voluntarily 
rendered to the colony for so lengthened a period, during 
which the Commissioners had to combat with difficulties and 
discouragement of no ordinary character will, it is hoped, 
result in the acclimatisation of the true salmon, as it has- 
alreadv in the propagation and distribution of the salmon 
trout." 

Thus ended the labours of the Salmon Commission, but the 
work was not to stop there, as by a singular coincidence its 
further prosecution has again fallen into the hands of this 
Society, whose Ist volumes of records of 1841 contains corre- 
spondence on the subject of salmon acclimatisation. Dr. 
Agnew, Hon. Secretary to the Society, the only surviving 
member of the Committee who reported on the subject in 
1858, was so much impressed by the success of the last ship- 
ment of " eyed ova " that he generously proposed to the Eoyal 
Society of Tasmania, that if they would appoint a Committee to 
undertake the conduct of another shipment, to consist of " eyed 
ova" only he would personally meet all the expense of the 
undertaking. The Society willingly accepted so noble an offer 
and appointed a Committee of Management, consisting of 
Messrs. A. G-. Webster, Matthew Seal, E. M. Johnston, C. T. 
Bel stead, R. C. Read, and A. Morton, to which committee I 
had the privilege and honour of being elected a member. It 
was Dr. Agnew's express wish that the whole management in 
relation to the collection of ova was to be entrusted to Sir 
Thomas F. Brady, who was invited to accompany the ship- 
ment to the colony. His Excellency the G-overnor also lent 
his willing aid to further the object. It is unnecessary for 
me to do more than allude to the shipment per Kaikoura, as 
our guest Sir Thomas Brady has, so recently at the opening 
meeting of the session, given the fullest details of his work. 
Those who, like myself, have been many years connected 
with the Salmon Commission know well how to appreciate 
the work Sir Thomas Brady has done for the colony on this, 
occasion. Those unacquainted with the subject know little 
of the privations to be undergone in the collection of salmon: 
ova during the most inclement season of the year — the 
many miles of travelling to be endured and the anxiety in 
relation to the numerous minute details necessary to ensure 



BY P. S. SEA.GEB. 23 

Buocess ; were sach difficulties more widely known the great 
Talue of such work would be more highly appreciated. Sir 
Thomas has received a hearty welcome and I trust he will 
carry away with him from our colony the most pleasing 
lecollections of his visit, and live long to learn of the success 
attending his recent labours and tibe establishment of a 
taluable salmon industry in the colony. 

Before closing this history I must draw attention to the 
important fact that although large sums of money have been 
expended by this colony in the work of salmon acclimatisa- 
tion, great assistance was rendered at various times by other 
members of the Australasian group. The following sums of 
money having been contributed, «£995 by the Government of 
Victoria, J6200 by the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, 
J6300 by the Provincial Government of Canterbury, New 
Zealand, £200 by the Provincial Government of Southland, 
New Zealand, and .£150 by the Provincial Government of 
Otago, New Zealand. The Victorian Government also on two 
occasions generously gave the use of their sloop Victoria to 
convey ova from Hobson's Bay to the Derwent. 

I regret that I do not feel myself competent to enter 
scientifically into the result in relation to the efforts made to 
acclimatise salmonidse in Tasmanian waters, but in this 
respect I am somewhat relieved by my friend, Mr. E. M. 
Johnston, who has prepared an exhaustive paper dealing with 
the matter from sever^ standpoints. I can, however, claim 
that success has been secured in the thorough and unques- 
tioned establishment of salmon trout and brown trout, both 
of which species are now abundant. The establishment of 
the true salmon, however, is still to some extent a matter of 
uncertainty. It must, however, be borne in mind that more 
than one specimen submitted for scientific examination to 
Dr. Gunther and others have been pronounced 8, salar, and 
that Sir Thomas Brady has publicly stated his belief that 
specimens shown to him are of the same species. In speaking 
of them commercially. Sir Thomas states that such specimens 
in a salmon producing country would be accepted as salmon 
without a doubt. This being so, I may almost claim that 
ibe establishment of 8, solar is an accomplished fact, and 
express my earnest hope that the grand result attending Sir 
Thomas Brady's shipment per Kaikoura will be the means 
of so establishing the species as to admit of no doubt in the 
future. The question of a change of character to some extent 
in 8. salar by a new environment is so ably dealt with by 
Mr. B. M. Johnston in his " General and critical observations 
on the fishes of Tasmania," that I may be pardoned for con- 
cluding my short history of the subject by quoting the 
following extract from that work : — 



24 ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONIDiB IK TASMANIA. 

" With respect to the exact nature of the Derwent migratory 
Salmonoicls, there has been much discussion as to whether 
the 8, solar has really established itself or not. The 
handsome fish which is now so numerous in the estuary of 
the Derwent is, within certain limits, a most variable form — 
some individuals being almost identical in all specific 
characters with the grilse form of 8, salar, while others 
partake more of the character of the equally valuable 8, 
iruUa, and its still more closely allied congener, 8, camhrieua. 
It is clear to me, however, that the prevailing form found in 
salt water is a mean between these, and it is this overlapping 
of the closely agreeing characteristics of these so-called 
species which renders it so puzzling to determine to which of 
them any one individual belongs. The question, which has 
excited much interest in Tasmania, is confused by the notions 
of imperfectly informed persons, who, by the use of such a 
misleading common name as ' bull trout,' have led many to 
think that we have only succeeded in acclimatising the 
common brown trout and its varieties in our waters, and 
they often, in ignorance, speak of our fine migratory fish as 
if it were a coarse, destructive fish of no value. It is to be 
regretted, where legislation may be concerned, that erroneous 
notions should be circulated in this way. By such people 
the fanciful views of amateur pisciculturists or sportsmen are 
deemed to be of equal value to the utterances of learned 
ichthyologists such as Dr. Gunther, whose profound know- 
ledge forces them to speak with extreme caution. 

" We only know as yet that we have a fine non-migratory 
trout (the brown trout), and a splendid sea- going migratory 
salmonoid. The question is, not 8. fario versus S. trutta, or 
8. fario versus 8. salar^ but the more difficult one of deter- 
mining whether the variable, handsome, migratory fish, which 
is frequently captured far out at sea, is (1) 8. trutta, (2) 8. 
cambricusj (3) 8. hrachypoma, (4) 8. salar, (5) all of these in 
variable numbers, (6) a hybrid partaking in varying degrees 
of the characters of the four named species, or (7) one or 
other of those named but modified by transfer to a new 
environment. If the individuals which prevail agreed with 
or fell within the classified limits of any one species we would 
not have the slightest difficulty in determining their specific 
value ; but when no one individual comes exactly within the 
limits of the written characters, it is necessary that the seven 
propositions advanced by me should be answered satisfactorUy 
before any one can pronounce with confidence on the subject. 

** Mr. Allport, who knew very well the niceties of distinction 
between 8, aala/r and 8. trutta, inclined strongly to the opinion 
that our Derwent salmonoids are grilse of the former, and 
not 8, trutta. Dr. Gunther and Rrofessor M'Coy have had 



BT P. S. SEA6EB. 25 

the disadyantage of determining tlie nature of the species 
from single individuals sent to them at odd times. Thej 
consequently, from such disconnected points, could have no 
means of determining the curve of variability, and I am not 
surprised therefore that, respectively, at different times, they 
lukve pronounced certain individuals to be S. salary S, truUa, 
8. eambricus, and a hybrid between S. salar and 8. trutta. Old 
n>ecimens cannot determine the curve of variability, nor can 
tney determine whether the four fish, so differently named, 
were not after all the progeny of the same parents." 

Mr. Johnston's observations are also supported by the Chief 
Inspector of Fisheries of England, Mr. A. D. Berrington, 
who in his report to the Board of Trade, dated 31st March^ 
1887, thus writes : — 

'' The artificial propagation and acclimatisation of fish is one 
of the hobbies of the day ; and the results which it is pro- 
ducing are of great value. It has added much to our know- 
ledge of the l^e history of fish, and consequently of the lines 
on which their increase may be promoted. It has served to 
show us more clearly how small are the differences which 
separate the varieties of our salmonidse, and has furnished 
proofs that in many instances these varieties are not of a 
permanent character, but depend upon food and other cir- 
cumstances of position. These are facts which must be borne 
in mind if we would hope to avoid disappointment when intro- 
ducing fresh strains into our rivers. According to all analogy 
it must be advantageous to cross the existing breed, and in 
80 doing to bring in the best form of the race we desire to 
improve and multiply ; but it must not be expected that the 
special characteristics of the fish we turn out will necessarily 
be perpetuated in the offspring, as under changed conditions 
these peculiarities are apt to disappear." 

I trust, therefore, that with these opinions strengthened by 
the views of Sir Thomas Brady, we will in the future hear of 
fewer doubts upon the subject and accept the one broad fact 
which is beyond dispute, that a fish has been acclimatised in 
Tasmania which is of considerable commercial value, that it 
is the means of attracting visitors to our shores, and that with 
proper care and attention, it will in the future afford 
profitable employment to our fishermen, and add wealth to 
our Island home. 



26 



ACCLIMATISATION OF THE SALMONID^ IK TASMANIA. 



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27 



EESTJLTS OP THE VARIOUS ATTEMPTS TO 
ACCLIMATISE 8ALM0 8ALAB IN TASMANIAN 
WATERS. 

By R M. Johnston, F.L.S. 



Tasmaiiia has some reason to be proud of her efforts to 
acclimatise the most important edible fish of Europe, well 
named the " King of Fishes" (Salmo salar). It is now 36 
years since the first attempt was made in the ship Columbus. 
This, with the two succeeding others, in 1860 and 1862 failed, 
simply because the artificially impregnated ova were not 
supplied with the more perfect arrangements subsequently 
discovered for preserving a low temperature throughout 
the whole period of transport by means of ice. 

Nothing daunted, however, the original acclimatisers 
persevered in their efforts, for in the years 1862-3 James A. 
Toul, R. Ramsbottom, W. Ramsbottom, and Thos. Johnston 
carried out a series of experiments in the ice- vaults of the 
Wenham Lake Ice Company with such success that they 
actually hatched artificially impregnated ova which had 
previously been buried for 90 days in ice refrigerators in the 
Wenham Lake Company's vaults. Frank Buckland, who 
was asked to witness these experiments, was enthusiastic with 
this proof of the vitality of ova whose incubation was so long 
artificially retarded, and declared '* these results most en- 
couraging," and expressed the hope " that next season the 
actual experiment of sending the eggs to Australia in a fast 
sailing ship, packed in ice according to the experience now 
gained will be attempted." The actual attempt was made, 
under the supervision of Mr. (now Sir Jas.) Youl, on 
the 24th January, 1864, in the ship Norfolk, to Mel- 
bourne, and although the refrigerator boxes (170°) had to be 
transferred to the steamship Victoria in Melbourne, they 
finally were successfully transferred to the hatching boxes at 
the River Plenty on the 21st day of April, 90 days after the 
ova were shipped in London. The proportion of living ova. 
was estimated to be about 45 per cent, of the whole shipped. 

The subsequent mortality in the process of hatching, how-^ 
ever, was very great, for of the original 90,000 of ova of 
Salmo salar, only 3,000 fry were distributed in our waters as 
healthy salmon fry, and of the original 1,500 ova of Salmo 
fario (brown trout), 300 fry were liberated in a healthy 
condition. 



28 RESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

This shipment was, however, a great success, for the 
Tasmanian experiment demonstrated to the world that it was 
possible to retard incubation without destroying vitality for 
a period sufficiently prolonged to cover the transport of ova 
to the remotest parts of the globe. It also gave a fresh 
impulse to acclimatisation generally, for now that the main 
difficulty had been successfully disposed of it caused 
increased attention to the discovery of improved methods 
in the important details of packing and insulating. 

One of the most important discoveries in this respect was 
the result of general observation, viz., that if the ova had 
arrived at the eyed stage of development prior to being 
insulated in refrigerating boxes and chambers they would be 
more able to survive the adverse conditions to which they 
would be subjected by artificial refrigeration and the 
accidents during prolonged retardation of development when 
transported to long distances. 

Another important lesson taught by noting causes of 
failure was the necessity for guarding against the ice doing 
damage as it melted into smaller dimensions by arrange- 
ments which would confine its mass in separate though 
contiguous receptacles while securing a continuous supply of 
the melting ice to each tray of ova embedded and overlapped 
with clean pressed layers of soft moss. The beneficial result 
of these improvements in matters of detail is exemplified by 
the last splendid experiment carried out from start to finish 
by the grand veteran of acclimatisation, Sir Thomas Brady ; 
for out of the 400,000 eyed ova packed by him in insulated 
boxes there were not more than 2 per cent, of mortality when 
transferred to the hatching boxes of the Eiver Plenty on 
April 19th, 1888. 

This most successful result has far surpassed the expec- 
tations of the most hopeful, and the colony owes a deep 
debt of gratitude to Sir Thomas Brady, " the Grand Old 
Man," who has in this and in former experiments 
enthusiastically traversed the length and breadth of " Ould 
Ireland," collecting ova, capturing and stripping mature fish, 
and fertilising and packing ova. No one but those engaged in 
such work can form an estimate of these loving labours ; the 
long weary miles of travel in rain and snow ; wading in rivers 
up to the armpits for hours together ; the laborious hours 
preparing trays and tenderly laying out the thousands of tiny 
pink eggs ; and the anxious care of packing and provision for 
transport. All these matters would be bejond the powers 
of ordinary men, but they have been joyously and success- 
fully overtaken by this grand enthusiast who has shown 
Tasmanians, that indomitable energy and enthusiasm in a 
good cause breaks down all difficulties, laughs at mere 



BY S. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 29 

inoonyenience or exertion, and overthrows obstacles of everj 
kind. If Tasmanians are thus deeply indebted to Sir 
Thomas Brady, the generous protector and friend of the poor 
struggling fishermen of Ireland, they are also under the 
deepest obligation to Dr. Agnew, whose unabated interest in 
the acclimatisation of edible fishes in Tasmania is proved by 
his munificence in bearing the whole expense of the last 
splendid enterprise. 

The princely gift is not merely creditable to himself, but it 
adds lustre to the colony which produces men like him, who 
are as much distinguished for wisdom in the conception of 
making such thoughtful provision for the material welfare 
of the land of their adoption as for the generosity which 
carries it into effect. The " Aguew " experiment deserves to 
be a success. 

OTHER PEOBLEMS STILL AWAITING SOLUTION. 

While we have to congratulate ourselves on the success so 
far of the Agnew experiment, there is still another problem 
to solve. Will the veritable progeny of SaJmo solar, when 
liberated in our waters, survive and perpetuate their kind ? 
This is now our real trouble and anxiety. It formed the 
subject of many interesting papers read before the members 
of this Society by the late Mr. Morton AUport, whose name 
will always be remembered in connection with the acclima- 
tisation of the salmonidse. That we have good reason to be 
anxious still of this result, and to discuss its probabilities, is 
manifest to every one who has taken any interest in the 
acclimatisation of the true salmon {Salmo solar). It is now 
twenty-two years since the first live fry of Salmo salar have been 
liberated in our waters, since which time repeated successful 
hatchings have added to the original stock. Notwithstanding 
this, no fish of the salmon family, now so common in our 
seas, has been captured, which can with confidence be referred 
to the European type of Salmo salar. The type of migratory 
salmonoid, now so common in the Derwent, in certain respects 
comes close to the smolt and grilse form of Salmo salar, but 
in a greater degree — although extremely variable within 
limits — its characters correspond more closely with the chief 
Tarieties of Salmo trutta {S, eriox, S, hrachypoma, and S, cam' 
hricus). If, therefore, we assume that the varieties so 
common in our waters are actually the descendants of the 
few individuals of S, trutta originally liberated (496 fry 
liberated) in 1866, what has become of the many thousands 
of fry of Sahno salar liberated in our waters in the several 
experiments since the year 1864?* 

* Exclnding the last snccessf ol shipment it is estimated that out of the 88,000 fry 
hatched from British and Irish ecgs, there were about 07 per cent, of S, salar 
Spar 00^ of S. tnota, and scarcely 1 per cent, of S. fwio. 



30 KESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

To this question several rougli guesses have been made hj 
various authorities, but all of which are most unsatisfactory, 
as in my opinion none of them were arrived at either by a 
scientific method or in a scientific spirit. They were purely 
rough guesses, as already described. 

It is not necessary to discuss the whole of the opinions 
advanced at different times. It will be sufficient to bring 
under review the three which have found more or less favour 
with some. These are — 

1 (the Hybrid Theory). — That the ova introduced were 

not derived from parents that were true types of 
Salmo salary but owing to mistake either the ova of 
hybrid forms were introduced, or that the ova of 
S. salar by mistake were fertilised (artificially) by 
the semen of 8. trutta or vice versa, 

2 (the Extinction Theory). — That the conditions of the 

new environment in Tasmania, whether of tempera- 
ture, food, or enemies, were so adverse to the young 
of the S, salar that they speedily died out. 

3 (the Exodus Theory). — That the tempei'ature of our 

waters range so high that in consequence the fish 

do not return to their native rivers, but wander 

away fi'om our shores to more congenial waters. 

Thus we have to examine three distinct conceptions, which 

for convenience may respectively be classed as (1) the hybrid 

theory, (2) the extinction theory, and (3) the exodus theory. 

THE HYBRID THEORY. 

That hybrid breeds between the various species of salmon 
exist in large numbers in European and American waters is 
too well confirmed by Johnson, Gunther, Day, Brady, Francis, 
Buckland, and other authorities, whose observations have 
been extensive and accurate. That these hybrids interbreed 
and perpetuate their several overlapping varieties has also 
received the most ample confirmation. 

To assume, however, as Dr. Gunther seems to have done in 
his " Study of Fishes " (p. 642), that only hybrid forms have 
been introduced to Tasmania, is quite a different matter, and 
is, moreover, without justification, when all the facts of the 
case are judicially examined. 

In the first place, let it be clearly understood that the ova 
stated to have been obtained from hona fide examples of 
Salmo salar have neither been collected at one time, at one 
place, nor from one particular pair ; neither have they been 
selected and fertilised by one particular person. 

On the contrary, there were five distinct shipments of ova 
successfully transported and finally hatched and liberated in 
Tasmanian waters in the years 1864, 1866, 1884, 1885, and 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, P.L.S. 31 

1888. The ova of 8almo solar thus transported, amounted to 
about eight hundred and fifty thousand. 

The ova were obtained under the direction of Youl, 
Buckland, Francis Francis, Brady and others eminently 
qualified to judge — aided in each district by the most skilled 
local experts. The pairs of parent fish, as might be expected, 
represent many distinct individuals taken from many -widely 
separated salmon rivers in England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland, including the Rivers Eibble, Hodder, and Tyne in 
England ; the Dovey in Wales ; and the rivers Shannon, 
Liffey, and Erne in Ireland. 

Now, assuming that one or two mistakes might have been 
made by these various experts, this would, not in any way 
affect the greater number of ova collected and fertilised at 
other times and places ; and surely it would be too prepos- 
terous to assume that all the separate selections made by so 
many experts failed owing to a similar mistake in each 
separate case, in different districts, and at different periods. 
The idea of hybridism under all such circumstances is 
certainly extremely improbable. 

The names already mentioned as being concerned in the 
selection are quite sufficient to dismiss the hybrid theory as 
untenable as an explanation of the apparent absence in 
Tasmanian waters of the pronounced types of the European 
Salmo aalar, 

THE EXTINCTION THEOBT. 

The second gViess is not so easily disposed of, viz., that the 
conditions of the new environment in Tasmania, whether of 
temperature, food or enemies, were so adverse to the young of 
Salmo sala/r that they speedily died out. The non-appearance 
of unmistakable examples of Salmo aalar after so many 
years certainly adds great force to this conception, and would 
of itself be conclusive if there were no alternative presented 
to us accounting for the absence of typical forms of S. salar. 

As, however, alternative theories hereinafter discussed may 
also account for the absence of the normal European type it 
is necessary to examine the present theory most carefully. 
First, let me confess that the extinction theory is sujficiently 
reasonable to demand serious consideration. 

It is conceivable that the extremes of temperature in our 
rivers and seas, or the numerous powerful enemies, such as 
the barracouta, are such as may have accomplished the des- 
truction of the progeny of Salmo salar. 

There are strong reasons, however, for the belief that the 
theory of extinction on such grounds is unsatisfactory if not 
untenable. In the first place the assumption that the local 
temperature of our waters would cause the extinction of 
Salmo salary although apparently confirmed by the somewhat 



32 BESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

• 

higloL range of surface or shallow water, is open to several 
objections. 

Ist. We haye positive evidence to the contrary, gained from 
the close observation of many years of the progeny of 8almo 
salar in confinement in the shallow artificial ponds connected 
with the Hatchery at the Eiver Plenty. 

It is reasonable to infer that the water of these shallow 
ponds are more subject to extremes of temperature than our 
open rivers and seas, where the fish are at liberty to seek for 
the more congenial temperature in the deeper waters. When 
we find, however, that under the most unfavourable conditions 
for anadromus fishes — viz., confinement permanently in shallow 
fresh water ponds — the undoubted progeny of Salmo salar 
Bot only survive for very many years, but even breed there, 
we have the best of reasons for being dissatisfied with the 
temperature argument. 

Apart from this: the idea that the temperature of our open 
waters of rivers and seas varies to any material degree from 
that of the southerly portions of Ireland and England where 
the salmon exists is based upon very imperfect reasoning. 
The vertical isotherms of our estuaries and seas have never 
been properly investigated, and so far I am aware we are not 
providing Tasmania as yet with appliances for conducting 
investigations of this kind. 

It is true we have perfect records of fresh water shallows, 
as at the Plenty, and of sandy flats, as at Mr. Saville Kent's 
late salt water enclosures at Sandy Bay; but these are utterly 
deceptive as affording an index of the variations or mean 
temperature of neighbouring depths of the estuary, far less 
of the submarine depths of the various sea-basins lying 
beyond and hidden to ordinary observation. It must be borne 
in mind that the sandy flats at the old Fisheries Establish- 
ment at Sandy Bay are exposed in summer, and especially 
in January, to the direct rays of the sun at low water, and at 
high water stage the sands are only covered for a very brief 
period by one to two feet of water. It would be absurd, 
therefore, upon such evidence, to gauge the varying isotherms, 
even at a distance of 400 yards from the shore line. In 
shallows laid bare to the sun's rays for many hours at each 
tide, it is natural to expect that the surface layer of 
shallow water would indicate a very high range in January^ 
but similar shallows in Great Britain and England might be 
selected showing a nearly equal high range in the height of 
summer. The proper way to ascertain the temperature of 
our waters is to follow the scientific method as carried out 
recently by Dr. Hugh Eobert Mill* in the investigation of 
** The temperature of the Clyde sea area." In Dr. MUl's 

; Nature^ Rlay, pp. 37-39 ; 56-58. 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, P.L.S. 33 

interesting account he states that he emplojed Messrs. 
Negretti and Zambra's patent standard deep-sea ther- 
mometers. The temperature was ascertained at the surface, 
at 5 and 10 fathoms, and at a distance of 10 fathoms down 
to the bottom. The Clyde sea area extends over 1,300 square 
miles, and includes three grand plateaux, whose mean depths 
were respectively 27 fathoms, 60 fathoms, and 80 fathoms. 
The depth oft Skate Island, near Tarbert, was as much as 
107 fathoms. One of the most instructive investigations was 
carried out at Strachur, in Upper Loch Fyne, where a depth 
of 50 fathoms exists. 

In this region eight sets of observations were made with 
the following results : — 

SuBFACE. Bottom. 



April 20 


... 42-6 


41-9 


June 21 


... 49-2 


441 


August 11 ... 


... 541 ... 44-2 


August 25 ... 


... 53-5 


44-2 


September 27 


... 52-4 


44-1 


November 17 


... 46-4 ... 44-2 


December 29 


... 41-0 


44-7 


February 4 ... 


... 43-0 ... 45-9 



The remarkable lesson to be derived from this investigation 
is that the effects of the surface temperature in summer does 
not penetrate to depth of 50 fathoms until the following Febru- 
ary, and that even then, when at the maximum of bottom tem- 
perature, itis lower than maximum surface temperature by 8*2°. 
It is also instructive to observe that while the surface tempera- 
ture ranges from 41*0° in December to 54*1° in August, ^.e., 
total range of 13*1°; the bottom temperature only ranges 
between the extremes of 41*9° in April, to 45*9° in February, 
I.e., a total range of 4°. Thus the bottom depths only feebly 
follows at a wide interval the variations of the surface 
temperature. 

Besides, it is clearly shown that in the hidden depths of 
the sea there are hills, valleys, and protected basins, whose 
temperatures vary with their depths, and with the physical 
barriers which isolate basin from basin. When, therefore, 
we realise that shallows bared at low tide were not even taken 
into consideration, and when we have good reason for 
assuming similar variation in the far-reaching Derwent sea 
area of Tasmania, we have the strongest reasons against 
resting upon any argument which assumes actual knowledge 
of the temperature of its varying depths. 

At any rate these observations are sufficient to cause us to 
distrust theories based upon guesses or imperfect observation 

With respect to natural enemies, it is undoubted that in 



34 RESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

the barracouta {ThyrsUes atunj and kingfish (ThyrsUet 
solandri)^ the sea-going salmonoids have swift and rapacious 
foes to contend with ; but surely if the existing migratory 
salmonoid of the Derwent is able to survive among them, 
there is less fear that the normal European type of Sdlmo 
solar would stand a smaller chance of escape. 

The food of our waters, suitable for the salmon, is at least 
as rich and varied as in the waters of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and for this reason we may dismiss the last argument 
in favour of the extinction theory. 

THE EXODUS THEORY. 

The exodus theory is a very old one, indeed. It was 
advanced originally as an argument against the introduction 
of Salmo solar to Tasmanian waters prior to the first attempt 
made to transport live salmon ova to Tasmania. Owing to 
the absence of any sign of the normal type of the European 
Salmo solar it has been recently revived by Mr. Saville-Kent, 
who even went so far as to suggest the coast of Japan as the 
favoured shore to which possibly our wanderers directed the 
march of their exodus from the assumed uncongenial 
warmth of the temperature of Tasmanian waters. The 
conception of an exodus from these waters is not 
regarded by me as unreasonable. Far from it. Never- 
theless I am not convinced that the reasons for the exodus 
are sufficient. Mr. Saville-Kent*s suggestion that they have 
possibly wended their way to the coast of Japan appears to me 
to be altogether improbable and opposed to all our notions 
with respect to the instinct of animals. It is conceivable, 
although improbable, that some hereditary instinct of the 
Tasmanian salmonoids might lead them to pierce the highly- 
heated isotherms of the equatorial latitudes — a physicked 
barrier as compared with the worst possible condition of 
Tasmania — corresponding to " jumping out of the frying-pan 
into the fire." But if they did attempt this strange freak of 
instinct, they would be guided by some notion of the natal 
locality of their ancestors, and that would be in the direction 
of the Irish coast, following the great flow of the Gulf Stream 
through the Atlantic, and not in the opposite direction of 
Japan. 

If the exodus was carried out in obedience to some in- 
stinct of temperature without reference to a possible heredi- 
tary instinct of locality, we ought to expect them to 
travel in a southerly direction, that is, towards the latitudes of 
the Antarctic circle. But of this possible migration -we have 
not the slightest evidence. On the contrary, the evidence of 
New Zealand acclimatisation afEords a complete parallel to 
that of Tasmania. Surely we might hope that in the most 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 35 

southerly shores of the Southern Island the progeny of the 
normal type of the European Salmo solar might find tolerably 
suitable conditions as regards temperature. ObseryatioUy 
however, discloses the important fact that the only type of 
migratory salmonoid found in their seas corresponds in all 
respects with that of the Derwent. 

The only conclusions left to us, therefore, so far as I can 
judge, are : — either that the assumed wanderers have lost them- 
selves in the wilderness of waters in the direction of the 
South Pole, or — ^that many of the variable types of salmonoids 
now inhabiting the Derwent are in reality the actual descend- 
ants of the Salmo solar of Europe, modified by the combined 
influences of retarded incubation in transit, and the varying 
-conditions of their new environment. 

MODIFICATION DUB TO ENVIRONMENT, ETC. 

To assume, as a last resource, that arrested incubation, 
together with the changed condition of a new environment, 
may have modified some of the few remaining characters 
{such as the size of scales, relative size of maxillary and 
snout), 'which in European waters now alone serve satisfactorily 
to distinguish Salmo salar from some of the larger protean 
forms of 8. trutta, is not so extravagant a notion that it may 
be dismissed without thoughtful enquiry. 

If, on the one hand, the lack of special knowledge on the 
part of practical fishermen and pisciculturists frequently lead 
them to ignore important although variable characters (often 
hidden to common-sense appreciation), which distinguish 
•closely allied forms ; yet it must be confessed that naturalists 
in dealing with a protean genus having a wide range of 
variability, may have a tendency to err at times in seizing 
arbitrarily upon certain extreme types, and upon these base a 
classification of a complicated nature, which may serve some 
useful purpose in grouping the few specimens preserved in 
Museums, but which may be of little practical value in 
-classifying the myriads of intermediate or overlapping forms 
•captured and sold in the fish markets. Classifiers in 
Museums may easily resort to the theory of hybridism for 
labelling the few perplexing intermediate or overlapping forms 
which find their way to Museum collections; but .what 
resources have the fishmonger and purchaser when such forms 
are brought in large numbers to market. Take, for example, 
the many examples of large-sized silvery forms of salmon 
■caught in salt water, whose maxillary largely exceeds the 
length of snout, and whose transverse series of scales between 
root of adipose fin and lateral line exceeds 11 in number. Are 
these forms sold as real salmon or as salmon trout ? If we 
•examine the fish stalls, or question the pisciculturist or fish- 



36 BESTJLTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

monger, we ascertain that in nine cases out of ten the silyery 
form, the colour of the flesh, and the size alone determine 
their opinion, and all such forms are pronounced and sold as 
Salmo salar. All doubts of the classifler regarding the nicer 
points are readily set aside as the trivialities of naturalists^ 
with perhaps the contemptuous obserration "that no two 
men of science are able to agree with each other's views in a 
matter of classiflcation." 

As regards the fish market it may be practically ascertained 
that there are only three forms of the salmon family re- 
cognised, viz.: (1) The common river or lake trout. (2) 
The smaller sizes of migratory species, generally recognised 
either as grilse or salmon trout. (3) All the large-sized 
migratory forms, almost invariably recognised as salmon, ie.^ 
Salmo solar. 

In some cases the brown shade or colour, and number* 
colour, or disposition of spots, may cause ordinary persons to 
allow the possibility of hybridism ; but this admission ia 
rarely made in respect of characters which escape their 
observation — such as the length of the maxillary, the develop- 
ment of the limb of the prse-operculum, and the number and 
size of the transverse series of scales. J^or is this to bo 
wondered at. As regards the genus Salmo, nearly all the 
characters selected by the classifier are of the most unsatis- 
factory nature. No two individuals agree in any point 
exactly ; every selected character varies in the widest manner,, 
and the greater number of these overlap the bounds which 
ideally separate the various species of the classifier. 

So long as the limits of variability of individuals of tho 
same parents in freedom are uncertain or obscure, reliance 
upon the minute differences of many trivial characters must 
certainly be a fertile source of error. Even observationa 
made in respect of fish in artificial confinement show that 
within such restricted conditions individual variation is very 
considerable. But this is a small matter. What naturalist 
is prepared to declare the full extent of the limits of 
individual variation as regards form, colour, and ornamenta- 
tion throughout the whole life development ah ovum, under 
all the possible changes of environment, including differences 
in food, temperature, and other important conditions charac- 
teristic of the different localities open to the migration of 
fishes ? It does not follow because we are unable satisfac- 
torily to view the free movements of fish throughout their 
life history in different localities, as in terrestrial forms of 
life, that the changing conditions of environment do not 
equally produce marked differences in many of the characters 
now depended upon for the distinction of species. 

So long as individual variation, together with the influence 



BY R. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 37 

of difEering environments are unknown or obscure, so long 
must we be dissatisfied with a classification which so largely 
depends on the theory of hybridism to account for the vast 
number of intermediate forms which link together the several 
closely-allied types, now artificially erected into species for 
the mere convenience of local classification. 

These remarks are not intended to reflect upon the necessary 
dassification adopted locally for museum collections. They 
are only intended as a protest against the classification so 
artificially based when it is assumed to be in truth naturally 
fixedy and capable of maintaining the various characters 
unmodified by transference to the widely changed conditions of 
a new environment ; as for example, the transfer of selected 
types of European species to the waters of Tasmania. 

When the few trival distinctions which alone serve to 
support the adopted nonemclature of Europe fail to appear 
in what in all probability are deemed to be the true acclima- 
tised descendants of such species, we have no right to 
assume upon such uncertain ground that the characters of 
their descendants are so fixed as to remain unaffected by the 
new conditions under which they live. It is quite possible 
that it may be so ; but that is an open question. That they are 
not so fixed is at least equally possible ; and this conception, 
moreover, is more probable when all the facts of the case are 
taken into consideration. When individuals show one or 
two peculiar characters in one environment which are not 
reproduced by what appears on good evidence to be their des- 
cendants in another widely differing environment, it is more 
reasonable to assume that the characters have been modified 
by the transfer, than that the extreme forms so largely and 
successfully introduced into our waters should altogether 
eease to exist, or vanish from our shores. It must be borne 
in mind that among fishes showing every gradation of change 
within the limits of variability, the predominant types in one 
locality may be due to the influence of local environment, 
rather than to hereditary influences. To assume, as is too 
frequently the case, that such prevailing types indicate 
greater purity of breed, is to beg the whole question at issue. 
It is well known that the prevailing forms of sea-trout in 
English, Welsh, and Scotch streams, differ so considerably 
with the locality that classifiers regard them as distinct 
species. The forms known as 8. truUa, 8. gellivensis, 8. 
Catnbricua, 8. hrachyjpoma, are examples of this class. 

But although the minor characteristics which served im- 
perfectly to distinguish these types are admitted, there is 
no proof that the prevalent type characters are not purely the 
effect of local environment which might be speedily obliterated 
or transformed by transfer to a different environment. The 



38 BBSULTS OP THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAE. 

writer drew attention to this uncertainty in the years 1879* 
and 1882t. Writing of the new modification produced in 
the prevailing forms of migratory salmonoids acclimatised in 
the Derwent, he states : " Whether this local form is the 
result of hybridism, as suggested by Dr. Gunther, or is 
simply the effects of the differing conditions of a new environ- 
ment, I am as yet unable to decide — perhaps a good deal may 
be due to both influences. It is noteworthy, however, that 
already in New Zealand X and Tasmania the allied species 
S, fario var. Ausonii has developed into types which are 
characteristic of particular local streams. This variability in 
relation to environment is very suggestive, and may yet help 
to explain the trifling variable differences in character often 
overlapping between S.camhricus, S.gallivensis, 8,hrachypomay 
and S. trutta of Scotch, English, and Irish streams. Characters 
which may be greatly affected by environment are not to be 
depended upon, and in the opinion of some authorities in other 
branches of natural history such differences would not bo 
recognised as of specific or even sub-specific rank. The 
assumption of hybridism is to me extremely unsatisfactory^ 
for the reason that the extreme types steadily perpetuate 
themselves in European waters, notwithstanding the extra- 
ordinary facilities among fishes for intercrossing by 
natural means which probably have existed unrestricted for 
ages. 

The reasonableness of this opinion has received strong con- 
firmation subsequently by Dr. Day in his works on " British 
and Irish Fishes," and " British and Irish Salmonidse," where 
he actually reduces all the types named to varieties of one 
species (8, trutta). 

It is not an easy matter to tell what characters are of 
specific value and what are not, even when the fullest infor- 
mation has been obtained as to the variability of the 
individuals of a group ; and the greatest living authorities 
often come to different conclusions. It would be unreason- 
able, therefore, to expect, in the absence of the fullest know- 
ledge respecting variation of size, colour, sculpture, distribu- 
tion, etc., that any author could determine with accuracy 
those characters which alone should entitle certain 
forms to specific rank. Of course, I am aware of the 
difference of opinion which existed, and which still exists in 
a more modified form, with respect to what constitutes a 
species and what a variety ; but there is now, with few 
exceptions, sufficient agreement among the leading philo- 
sophical naturalists to leave little room for doubt in cases 

* Mercury f Hobart, Nov. 26, 1879 : t Fishes of Tasmania, p. 130, Hobart, 
1882. X Chi the Brovm Trout introduced into Otago, By W. Arthur, O.E. 
(Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883.) 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 39 

where the definition of a species is based upon the observation 
of a large number of specimens from different localites. I do 
not use the words species as the type of a group of allied 
organisms which have a rigidly determinate number of 
immutable characteristics in common; for the characters 
which, as a whole, are relatively constant in those sections 
which we group under a specific name are themselves variable, 
and are frequently to be found interlapping other groups 
of merely relative constant characters, but which we yet 
acknowledge as belonging to a distinct species. 

The type of a group termed species is fixed upon mainly to 
define the maximum of relatively constant characteristics 
around which all the individual varieties may cluster, and 
which shall serve to distinguish the type species from a closely 
allied group of a similar character. Indeed, we may picture 
species as the nodes of an irregularly moniliform series, 
whose extremities are in some cases sharp and distinct, and 
in other cases mere constrictions, where the extreme indi- 
viduals of each node or group meet, and can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from each other. But even when we clearly 
understand, and agree with each other as regards the prin- 
ciples which determine classification, it is often perplexing to 
fix upon characters whereupon to erect the standard of a 
species or variety, for it is well known in practice that 
characters are seized upon rather from stability and associa- 
tion with certain other characters than from absolute 
differences in particular features. Gwyn Jeffreys thus 
defines the degrees of difference which should determine 
species : — " They constitute more or less extensive groups of 
individuals which resemble each other as well as their parents 
and offspring to the same extent as we observe in the case of 
our own kind. These groups to deserve the name of species 
must be distinct from others : because, if any of them are so 
intimately blended together by intermediate links, so as to 
make the line of separation too critical, the test fails, and a 
subordinate group, or what is called a 'variety,' is the result. 
For this reason it is indispensably necessary to compare as 
great a number of individuals as possible, and especially a 
series of different ages and sizes, commencing ah ovo, as well 
as specimens collected from various localities" And again, 
he states in respect of what are termed varieties, that " the 
characters by which they usually differ from species consist of 
size, comparative proportions of different parts, colour, and 
degree of sculpture ; " and he remarks that such differences 
" originate in some peculiarity of climate, situation, composi- 
tion of soil or water which they inhabit, the nature or supply 
of food, and various other conditions." These latter, he 
adds, may be " permanent or local." When permanent he 



40 RESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

calls them races, but, as he himself remarks, it would " be 
difficult " to discriminate between a race and a species. 

When we consider all such matters, what assurance remains 
to us *' that the remaining and only trustworthy specific 
character differentiating f^almo salar from Sahno trutta"* 
— viz., " eleven rows of scales in an oblique row from the 
adipose fin to the lateral line, all forms of 8. trutta having 
fourteen or more such scales," — does not break down or 
become modified in the totally different environment of the 
antipodean waters of Tasmania to which S. salar has been 
so largely introduced ? 

Are English ichthyologists prepared to declare a priori that 
the scales of the variable genus Salmo are alone fixed, and 
cannot be modified by the changed conditions of a totally 
different environment ? Surely not 

If this possible modification be admitted by them, what 
becomes of the classification which depends upon this last 
critical test for the separate specific recognition of the large, 
mature silvery forms of Salmo salar and Sahno trutta. The 
answer is simple enough : the classifier's final test breaks down 
entirely as a guide to the proper classification of the two 
supposed distinct species. The experience of acclimatisation 
of S. salar, and its results in the waters of Tasmanifti 
formerly devoid of any form of the genus Salmo, affords 
better evidence to naturalists bearing upon variability than 
can possibly be obtained in regions, as in Europe, where the 
variability due to influence of any one locality or river is 
being disturbed, and inferences obscured, and made hazardous 
by the constant influx of stragglers originally bred in other 
localities where other characteristics have been developed, and 
which may be perpetuated for a considerable time with more 
or less persistency in foreign waters among the prevailing 
local types. 

No such interfusion from foreign sources can affect the 
progeny of undoubted S, salar, largely introduced at different 
times, and 8, trutta only once introduced in small number, 
in Tasmanian waters; and consequently in such a region 
there is less uncertainty as to what may or may not be the 
extent of the modifying effect of environment per se than in 
European waters where each region's locally-bred forms are 
continually being interfused with immigrants bred in distant 
regions. 

The conclusions to be drawn from these differing conditions 
have not yet received that amount of attention from classifiers 
which they deserve, for it is too evident that a priori and not 
a posteriori argument still largely colours the opinions of 
many, and this arises, no doubt, from the treacherous tendency 

* See Nature, January 12, 1888 



BY E. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 41 

to restrict ohservation to the local region best known to the 
particular observer. 

Unfortunately, opinions expressed hitherto with respect to 
the odd examples sent to English authorities for deter- 
mination, have merely added confusion to the whole question. 
Different specimens at different times have been doubtfully 
pronounced to be S, salar, S. trutta, S, fario, and a hybrid 
between 8. trutta S. fario, without any detailed reasons 
baying been given for arriving at these very opposite 
•conclusions. 

Authoritative opinions of this kind are worse than useless, 
as we do not know the points of evidence upon which the 
separate opinions were based. A knowledge of the local 
range of individual variability is absolutely necessary before 
a reliable opinion could be expressed by any scientific expert ; 
and as this knowledge was not possessed by European experts I 
am of opinion that their decisions are not of much value in 
matters which relate to variation induced by local conditions 
in Tasmania. Besides, as urged by me in my observation on 
" The Fishes of Tasmania," in the year 1882, " Odd specimens 
cannot determine the curve of variability, nor can they 
determine whether the four fishes so differently named were 
not after all the progeny of the same parents." 

I am not finding fault with the authorities referred to, as 
possibly they did their best in relation to the fixed classifica- 
tion of English types ; but seeing that the new environment 
might be expected to produce remarkable modifications of 
many characters it might be expected that such considerations 
should have been allowed for and specially commented upon. 
It is true some of our types examined seemed to puzzle the 
best authorities, but it is significant that the nature of the 
variations which caused hesitation has not been publicly 
recorded in support of whatever opinion was expressed. 

That I am not overstating the case in this respect is borne 
out by the high testimony of Sir Thos. Brady. In his address 
to the Members of the Royal Society of Tasmania on April 
23rd, 1888, Sir Thos. Brady stated that three or four years 
ago, Mr. Seager — Secretary to the Salmon Commission of 
Tasmania — sent him three fish, which, after writing his 
opinion of, he submitted to an eminent Member of the Royal 
Society of Dublin, an ichthylogist, and a well known scientist, 
who was not aware of his opinion, and wrote one that exactly 
coincided with it. It was, that one fish was a true salmon, 
one was not, and there was a doubt about the third. He 
took this fish (the salmon) before one of the most celebrated 
scientists and ichthyologists, a man with a European reputa- 
tion, but this gentleman would not give an opinion urdil he 
hnetu where it came from ! After some demur the information 



42 BESTJLTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISE SALMO SALAB. 

that it came from Tasmania was given, and the authority then 
said it was not a salmon ! As he went away this gentieman 
said — '^ You are going to take it to somebody else. You may 
take it to the six best scientists in England^ and you vrill get six 
different opinions " / / K such be the perplexity with respect 
to the progeny of well-known English species now inhabiting 
Tasmaniau waters in such numbers, what shall we say of 
the sufficiency of the established classification which fa^ to 
determine satisfactorily their true relationship. 

The fishes which in size, colour, and general form, ap- 
proach the true salmon of England, as developed in Tas- 
mania, although they will not fit the Englisn classifiers' 
limits as regards the relative length of snout, the reUtive 
length of maxillary to snout, and the exact number of rows of 
scales between adipose fin and lateral line, yet conform so 
closely in the more apparent characteristics recognisable by 
fishermen and pisciculturists, that even Sir Thos. Brady — 
who has the widest knowledge of the common salmon of 
Ireland and of the fish supplied as salmon in the English 
markets — has no hesitation in pronouncing a fine specimen 
(39 inches long, and 281bs. weight, caught in the Huon River 
by His Excellency Sir Eobert Hamilton) to be " a true salmon," 
and he further added '^ that no practical man who would see 
the fish would ever think of calling it anything but a salmon." 
He further stated : " Whether it be the true Salmo salar or 
not, it is, at any rate a fish which would be considered and 
treated as a salmon in salmon countries; which would be sold 
and purchased as such; and if the colonists of Tasmania, seek 
for more than Ireland, which now exports salmon to the 
amount of over d£600,000 worth annually, he could not help 
saying that . . . they are hard to please and ought to go 
without them." 

And yet, after all, this fine fish had 14 or 15 scales in a 
series between adipose fin and lateral line, had a slightly 
brownish tinge on sides though very silvery, and the maxHlary 
greatly exceeded the distance between the end of snout and 
eye, and therefore, according to the recognised classification 
of England, it would be pronounced Salmo trutta. What 
shall the verdict be, therefore? Has the Salmo salar so 
largely imported and liberated in Tasmanian waters failed to 
survive or vanished from our shores ; or has the transfer to 
the totally different environment in antipodean waters broken 
down or modified the one or two trifling characteristics which 
now alone serve to mark the critical passage between the 
allied English types of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta ? If I am 
asked to choose between these two alternatives I un- 
hesitatingly accept the latter. 

In support of this view I have to add that my opinion is 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 43 

not based upon the casual examlDation of one or two speci- 
mens. During the last twelve years I have carefully 
examined and noted the varying characters (over thirty in 
each specimen) of himdreds of examples taken in various 
localities. I have not made £nal comparison of the relative 
size of fins and other essential characters of different sized 
specimens until each absolute measurement was reduced to a 
common equivalent. 

That is, I have been in the habit of regarding the total 
length of each fish as 1,000, and by computation I have 
reduced all other parts in relation thereto. 

In no other way can the observer appreciate with the 
fullest accuracy the relative agreements and differences of 
individuals of different sizes and ages. In no other way can 
the various modifications of locality, age, and variety, be 
satisfactorily compared and appreciated. 

That due attention has been paid to the many nice dis- 
tinctions which characterise the individuality and species of 
the English and local salmonoids may be admitted upon 
reference to the following tabular analyses of the principal 
typical specimens deposited in the British Museum, for which 
measurements have been recorded in Dr. Gunther's Catalogue 
of Fishes, Vol. VI. ; with which typical individuals of the 
three principal groups of Tasmanian salmonoids are com- 
pared according to a common standard ; all the measurements 
have been carefully reduced by me, a work of considerable 
labour in itself. 



44 RESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIMATISB SALMO SALAB. 









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• • 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 45 

A study of the analytical table given reveals the fact that 
with the exception of one, or perhaps two, out of the 32 
points, all the characters not only vary with each individual 
of the same species, hut the range of this individual 
Tariability covers or overlaps the whole of the different species 
in EngHsh and Tasmanian types. The characters which 
alone serve to distinguish the English S. solar are — ^the trans- 
Terse series of scales between lateral line and root of adipose 
fin, and the relative length of maxillary in adult specimens. 

The specially distinguishing characteristics of Tasmanian 
fishes as compared with their British and Irish progenitors 
are common to the migratory and fresh- water forms, viz. : — 

1. The prevailing greater relative depth and girth of the 

body. 

2. The prevailing higher number of pyloric csBca* 

ranging as high as 56 in the brown trout form ; the 
range of the local analogue of S, solar reaches as 
high as 72. 

3. The prevailing greater relative length and depth of 

the dorsal and anal fins. 

4. The prevailing greater relative distance of the dorsal 

fin from the occiput. 

6. With the exception of the small silvery form of sea 
trout, the prevailing larger size of the adipose ^^ 
with about six well-marked rows of rudimentary 
scales ascending upwards some distance from its 
base ; the only distinguishing test between some 
of the large brown trout of the Great Lake and the 
migratory fish entering the sea is one of colour and 
ornamentation, No two specimens of the Great 
Lake fish agree in size, form, and number of the 
spots, nor in the general colour of the body ; some 
having a deep brownish shade, while others are of a 
bright silvery colour, without a red spot or shade of 
brown. Between these there is every possible 
gradation. Every river has the effect of producing 
some more or less marked local characteristics. 

Where the brown trout inhabit streams near to the sea 
they enter the salt water freely, and soon assume a bright and 
silvery appearance, although in most cases the tinge of the 
golden shade and their greater size readily distinguish these 
from the smaller 8, trutta, which seems to linger in the salt 
water for a longer period (usually from July to November and 
I>ecember), and ranges farther towards the open seas. 

• This great increase in the number of pyloric caeca has also been noted 
specially in New Zealand by Mr. Arthur. 



46 RESULTS OF THE ATTEMPTS TO ACCLIHATISB SALMO SAIAB. 

We have, therefore, three races or varietieB, if not 
three species, each with a wide range of variation. 

1. S. fario var. Ansoniiy attaining a very much larger 

size than the Engtish type restricted to fresh water 
lakes and rivers. 

2. The analogue of the English white trout, B. ifmnHkk* 

3. The intermediate form partaking soti^ewhat of the 

characters of 1 and 2 attaining a much larger idze 
and entering salt water freely. This is the groupto 
which the fish belongs recently caught by His 
Excellency, Sir Bobert Hamilton, and deemed by 
Sir Thomas Brady to be a true salmon. 

If it be the true analogue of the English 8. saJar it certainly 
has local characters which serve to distinguish it. And if the 
classifier persists in retaining the maxillary and scale tests, we 
must recognise it for the time being by a local name, and I 
propose for it the name of S, aalwr var. Tasmanicua^ thus 
standing as a variety within the same species as varieties 
Oaimckrdi and Anaonii within the species 8. fario. The 
characters given in table are sufficient for its determination. 

By the characters already tabulated the three principal 
groups in Tasmania may also readily be determined. 

That the introduced fishes will ultimately become an im- 
portant article of food, and afford a large revenue to the 
colony, I have little doubt. 

In conclusion, I have only to add that the peculiar 
nature of the problems demanding solution in the classifica- 
tion of our acclimatised fishes demanded of me that I should 
fearlessly express my convictions, as I have done in this paper. 
The great respect which I have for the wisdom and learning 
of the leading ichthyologists of England is none the less 
sincere because I am now obliged to state fully and clearly the 
nature of our difficulties, and I only hope that my observa- 
tions may be of some use in establishing a more satis&.ctory 
basis for the classification of the salmonidsd of Tasmania. 



In 



'ElfPTS TO ACDLOUTISB SAUEO BAIAB. 4B 

TYPES. 



IN TASMANIA. 



J ._... 








■rata Tront,) 


between S. tnitta 
ajidaiario. 


8. F*RIO. 


i 


13-lB 


m 


1^ 

ISO 


134fl 




13 

9 
120 

104 


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M 

33i 


321 


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' DlBtuice oi^ _ 
• Length in»f» - 

■ GreatMt «id<j _ 
■• GiMtert d»g _ 

assassa z 


1 

•268 
-510 


■207 

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■iVo 


•iSl 
■312 

■ fia 

• M 

■200 

-00 

i 


-111 

-057 

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■asa 

■Ui 

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■Mi 
•ons 

■017 

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■WO 
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-m 

■077 


-209 
■256 
■tB6 
■f 

■104 

■4te 
-MB 


■08» 
■017 


■ffi7 
■092 

;002 


BJnioii"byiQuj 


kaSo 


lieH 


c'"Z 


wr. an 


dpro 
tub 


nmmoe 


dtot 





49 



NOTES IN EEFEEENCE TO " SCOTT'S TRACK/' VIA 
LAKE ST. CLAIR, TO THE WEST COAST OP 
TASMANIA. 



By James Andbbw. 

I have been requested by a Fellow of this Society, whom 
circumstances prevent from himself representing the subject 
dealt with in these notes, to call attention to an error in the 
designation of a track which appeared in a paper on *' The 
Highlands of Lake St. Clair," read at the November meeting 
by Colonel Legge. 

The member to whom I refer, Mr. T. B. Moore, is well 
known as an explorer, and he asks me to bring under the 
notice of the Royal Society that " Scott's Track," along the 
Ouvier Valley and westward to the coast, is, as such, incor- 
rectly described. 

Of my own knowledge I can state that it was Mr. Moore 
who explored this route and cut the track referred to, along 
which, many weeks later, the Hon. J. R. Scott travelled. 
Having preserved my notes taken at the time, and from 
reference to various public documents, I am enabled, with 
the permission of the Council of the Society, to lay before 
you a brief statement of the nature desired by Mr. Moore. 

Colonel Legge, however, in speaking of " Scott's Track," 
used the name recently adopted by the Lands Office, and it 
would be most unlikely that he should have any cause to 
imagine that the gentleman whose name it bears had no 
claim to such credit as might be attached to developing the 
first overland route from the southern side of the island to 
Mount Heemskirk. 

It was owing to the untimely death of Mr. Scott, shortly 
after his return from this trip, that Mr. Moore neither ob- 
tained, nor has ever sought to obtain, what may seem a 
trivial privilege, but which is, nevertheless, one of an esti- 
mable value in an explorer's eyes — that of having his route 
charted in his own name, and of suggesting to the Govern- 
ment the adoption of such designations as he might select, 
by right of discovery, for mountains, lakes, or rivers, which 
were previously undescribed or unknown. It is not my 
object, therefore, in calling attention to this error, to seek to 
have it rectified, but merely to place on record in the pro- 
ceedings of the Society such a condensed chronological state- 
ment of the movements of the two gentlemen referred to, and 



50 NOTES IN EEFERENCB TO SCOTT's TBACK. 

their parties, as may, I trust, clearly establish the justice of 
Mr. Moore's claim as the pioneer of this particular portion 
of the colony. 

The late Mr. C. P. Sprent, then a Government surveyor, 
in a report dated May 3rd, 1876, to the Minister of Lsmds 
and Works, of his explorations in the country between Mount 
BischofE and Mount Heemskirk, stated that to completely 
open up the West Coast to prospectors, three main tracks 
were required, of which one should be from Lake St. Clair to 
some point on the coast. 

Encouraged by the indications of gold and tin found in the 
vicinity of the Pieman and its tributaries by Mr. Sprenfs 
party, Mr. T. B. Moore started from New Norfolk on January 
1st, 1877, with two companions — his brother, Mr. J. A, 
Moore, and myseK—with the object of finding a. practicable 
overland route to the West Coast in the Erection recom- 
mended, and also with the view of prospecting the country 
passed through for minerals. The party were provisioned 
for four months, and in spite of heavy losses in supplies 
from depredations by bush vermin, remained in the field 
for five months. 

Of the country traversed, of the magnificent scenery in the 
Western ranges, and of the incidents of travel, except so feir 
as they relate to Mr. Scott's journey, I do not propose to 
speak this evening. As previously stated, the parly, of which 
I was the jimior member, left on the 1st of Januaiy, 1877, 
and it was not imtil two months later, viz., on the 1st March, 
that Mr. Scott made a start for the coast. On the 13th of 
that month it was necessary for me to return for supplies^ 
and I left my companions on the Mount Bead — Mount 
Dundas range — hard at work cutting through some of the 
worst scrub it has ever been my bad fortune to become ac- 
quainted with. The distance reached by this date was, 
according to Mr. Scott's own estimate, 60 miles from Lake 
St. Clair. On the 15th March, having then travelled about 
half this distance, I met Mr. Scott with two men, and did 
all in my power to facilitate his westward journey by direc- 
tions as to where he could best pick up our route. The 
Messrs. Moore had, meanwhile, decided to make a trip to 
our main depot, and they also met Mr. Scott near a lake now 
charted as Lake Dora, and gave him further directions with 
the object of assisting him on his way. 

The next entry in my diary in reference to the subject of 
these notes occurs on April 2nd, when having again tmvelled 
back with the Moores nearly to the limit of our track, we 
found warm ashes at a camp recently occupied by Scott, and 
indications of the route he had taken in the shape of three 
direction notices, placed in cleft sticks, one pointing coast- 



B7 JABCES ANDREW. 51 

irards to Mount Heemsldrk, another along our route westerly 
to the summit of Mount Dundas, and the third towardis 
home, giving the distance from Hobart as 176 miles. 

On the 3rd April I again left my companions, and thus 
had no opportunity of learning how far Mr. Scott had pro- 
ceeded before they overtook him, but as both parties camped 
together that evening, the distance could not haye been very 
great, nor was the country difficult. 

It was on the 13th May that I next joined my comrades, 
and I then learnt that they and Mr. Scott's parfcy had com- 
bined to cut the track down the spur of Mount Dundas to the 
open coast country, and that they had separated on the 6th 
April. 

Of the remainder of Mr. Scott's journey I need only make 
brief mention. At Moimt HeemsHrk and on the Pieman he 
fell in with Donnelly's party and the Brothers Meredith — 
besides ourselves, the only prospectors up to that time on the 
coast — and he naturally avaoled himself of their tracks, as far 
as available, for the completion of the round journey to 
Mount Bischoff. I am not aware, however, that this portion 
of his route has ever been charted or referred to as '^ Scott's 
Track." 

Upon our return to Hobart at the end of May, 1877, some 
notes of the expedition were communicated by Mr. John A. 
2f oore to the Lands Department, and I quote his remarks so 
&r as they bear on the subject dealt with. Mr. Moore 
states : — 

" Our party had reached Dundas with our track, and went 
l)ack for provisions to what Scott had named Lake Dora 
l>ef ore we met him on his way out, being quite six weeks 
tihrough that country before he was. We were the first 
"white men ever on Dundas, and I doubt whether a black- 
:f ellow ever was there, judging from the look of the country." 
He adds : " It took ten days to get from the foot of Mount 
IBead to the top of Dundas, and hard work, too." 

The Hon. Nicholas J. Brown, then Minister of Lands and 

"Works, supplied a copy of these notes, with a map, to the 

IBditor of the Hobart ifercury, and wrote that "with reference 

tx> the statement made in the latter portion of Mr. Moore's 

^otesas to his party having been through a considerable 

portion of the western country before the late Hon. James 

£eid Scott, I can assert that &om my own knowledge this 

statement is correct, and I am quite sure that but for the 

premature death of that lamented gentleman, the claims of 

the Messrs. Moore to some credit for having materially 

assisted in exploring that hitherto almost unknown region 

would have been fully recognised and borne out by him." 

{Vide Mercury 26th November, 1877). 



52 NOTES IN KEFEBENCE TO SCOTT's TBAGK. 

Further testimony as to Mr. Moore's priority as the ex- 
plorer of this part of the colony is borne by the late Mr. 
Sprent, who, in a paper on " Recent Explorations on the 
West Coast of Tasmania," read before the Victorian Branch 
of the Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia on the 4th 
September, 1885, spoke of the work done in 1877. He stated 
that " besides the parties who were working from the Pieman, 
one party had succeeded in reaching the locality from Lake 
St. Clair, and had cleared and marked a good foot track. 
This work was accomplished by Messrs. T. B. and J. A. 
Moore and James Andrew. It was in every respect most 
useful and interesting. The route they had adopted passed 
over a most mountainous country, and it was only by dint of 
much toil that provisions could be got out." 

Mr. Sprent, who was well acquainted with the details of 
these journeys, does not mention that Mr. Scott in any way 
assisted in the exploration and development of the western 
country, and on the chart attached to his paper the track is 
correctly ascribed to T. B. Moore. 

In May, 1878, Mr. E. A. Counsel, G-overnment Surveyor, 
who had been commissioned to ** cut, mark, and clear a track 
from Lake St. Clair to the deep waters of the Pieman River," 
which work was discontinued owing to scarcity of provisions 
and bad weather, returned to Hobart along our route in 
company with Mr. T. B. Moore. That the difficulties of the 
small section of track formed conjointly by Scott and the 
Moores were not very great, may be estimated from the fact 
that on the first night after leaving Mount Heemskirk, the 
party camped between Mounts Dundas and Read. Of the 
succeeding day's tramp Mr. Counsel remarks : — " We had to 
journey over the top of Mount Read, the roughest piece of 
track from Mount Heemskirk to Lake St. Clair ; the day's 
march must be experienced to be understood." This was 
the section which was completed weeks before Mr. Scott 
passed through, and on which three of us were occupied for 
ten days in cutting the track. 

Mr. Scott's most deservedly high reputation as an explorer 
and as a bushman is far too firmly established in the memories 
of those who knew him, to suffer in the least degree from any 
remarks of mine in reference to this particular journey. It 
would, I feel sure, cause either of the Messrs. Moore as much 
annoyance as it would myself, should anyone imagine that 
the object of these notes is to detract in any way from the 
credit which was due to Mr. Scott, and I trust that the 
statement given has been fully sufficient to acquit me of any 
such intention. 



53 



THE PEOBLEM OF MALTHUS STATED. 
By E. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 

Darwin (page 52, Origin of Species) has observed " that 
in a state of nature almost every full-grown plant annually 
produces seed, and amongst animals there are few which do 
not annually pair. Hence we may confidently assert that all 
plants and animals are tending to increase at a geometrical 
ratio — that all would rapidly stock every station in which 
they could anyhow exist. And this geometrical tendency to 
increase must be checked by destruction at some period of 
life," and, as an inevitable consequence, he goes on to add 
" that each individual lives by a struggle at some period of 
its life, that heavy destruction falls either on the young or 
old during each generation, or at recurrent intervals. 
Lighten any check, mitigate the destruction ever so little, 
and the number of the species will almost instantaneously 
increase to any amoimt." 

These considerations when fully appreciated form the 
foundation of the problem of Malthus.* 

That Mr. Henry George altogether failed to grasp the 
Tarious elements of this problem is at once apparent by the 
manner in which in his otherwise very able work, " Progress 
and Poverty," he has attempted to refute the conclusions of 
Malthus. 

As he has fallen into the most simple errors in his adverse 
comments upon Malthus, it may be as well to state with 
greater precision the factors of the problem, thus ; 

P. — Actual population. 

I. — Natural tendency to increase. 

(a) At its maximum in an ideal state of perfect 
health, virtue, peace, and prosperity. 

(6) At its minimum when' the opposite of this 
state obtains. 

T. — Natural limit of life ; death at extreme old age. 

C. — Checks, cutting off life before the healthy limit 
of life has been reached, among which are promi- 
nent : — 

(a) Competition of other forms of animal 
life — zymotic diseases, parasites, attacks 
by beasts of prey, etc. 

* An EsBay on the Principle^of Population. Malthus. (2 vols. London, 
1826.) 



64 THE PBOBLEM OF MALTHUS STATED. 

(6) Insufficiency of food or famine^ whether 
from seasonal inflaence, poor soil, 
climate, ignorance, wilful waste, or im- 
providence. 

(c) Violence, wars, murders, accidents, physical 

causes, such as earthquakes or yolcanic 
outbursts, cannibalism, infant and senile 
murder, massacre. 

(d) Diseases, whether due to ignorance, vice, 

human neglect of hjgiene, climate, cos- 
mical influences, etc. 

(e) Diseases due to the tendency of civilised 

communities to aggregate in dense num« 
bers, as in cities and towns. 
(/) Misery the close attendant of these evils. 

M. — ^Moral restraint operating upon I. 

E. — Means of subsistence, varying with season, but 
increased absolutely by numbers and increasing 
knowledge of natural resource; the ratio per 
individual, however, gradually lessening as the 
poorer lands and waters are invaded by swelling 
numbers. 

F. — The absolute limit when a greater density for 
each square mile of the earth's surface is reached 
by removal or the minimising of all checks. 

G. — The final stage, the world peopled to its full 
limit, and the struggle for existence only per- 
mitting a perpetuation of the maximum population 
at F by the effects of T, and the &ilure of either 
in any degree, again re-introducing of necessity 
checks 0, a, 5, c, d, e, and so producing a decline in 
population, although the natural tendency (I) to 
multiply may still be conceived to be as vigorous 
and prolific as at the first. 
When Malthus affirmed that the ratio of increase of popu- 
lation advanced faster than the ratio of increase of means of 
subsistence, he never stated or conceived that population 
could actually outstrip the means of subsistence as inter- 
preted and discussed by Mr. Henry Gteorge (p. 17, book ii.), 
and hence the whole of Mr. George's citations and reasonings 
are either fallacious, or they never touch upon the real causes at 
the root of Malthus' problem. That there is a thorough mis- 
conception on the part of Mr. George is clearly proved by the 
following quotation from Malthus (p. 243, vol. ii. Malthus on 
Population) : " According to the principles of population the 
human race has a tendency to increase faster than food. It 
has, therefore, a constant tendency to people a country fully 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 55 

up to the limits of subsistence (F or Of), but by the laws of 
nature it can never go beyond them, meaning, of course, 
by these limits the lowest quantity of food which will main- 
tain a stationary population. Peculation, therefore, can 
neTer, strictiy speaking, precede food." This clear expression 
on tibe part of Malthus casts aside the whole of Mr. George's 
raliocinations as worthless. His inability to grasp the most 
important elements of the problem is still further made 
mamifest by his query, p. 17, '' How is it, then, that this 
fflobe of ours, after all the thousands, and it is thought mil- 
fionSy of years, that man has been upon the earth, is yet so 
thinly populated ?" 

I can hardly conceive that a man of Mr. G-eorge's intelli- 
gence could put forward such a plea in proof of his con- 
tention that the natural tendency of population (I) is not 
towards an increase in the direction of the limits of 
subsistence. 

His query indicates unmistakably that he confounds the 
product with the ever-varying factors jplus and minus I, T, 
and C, which make the product (P). There is no argument 
necessary to show the absurdity of ignoring the value and 
tendency of I, because the product P does not disclose a 
similar value and tendency. 

For example, the query entirely ignores the whole burden 
of Malthus' problem by the effects of the checks T and C. 
The mere fact, notwithstanding the powerful influence checks 
T and C, which have always been in operation — the human 
race is now, after a million years, still vigorous, and numbers 
over 1,480 million souls, is in itseK the strongest proof that 
"the natural tendency to increase has been the powerful 
influence counteracting the terrible effects of C, which we 
"too well know have always exerted a most powerful and dire 
influence in preventing a large increase of population. 

The fallacy of Mr. George's arguments is more clearly 
appreciated by stating the problem thus : 

Let. L — Natural tendency to increase (birth rate). 

D. — A^ctual rate of increase or decrease of popu- 
lation (a) surplus of births over deaths ; 
(6) stationary state, etc.; (c) surplus of 
deaths over births. 

T. — ^Death as the full termination "^ 

of a natural healthy life > Death Bate. 
C — Deathfrompreventible causes ) 

M. — Moral influence lowering the value of L 

S. — Prosperity heightening the effect of I. 

P. — ^The result upon the population (a) increase ; 
(h) stationariness ; (c) decline. 



56 



THE PROBLEM OF MALTHUS STATED. 



D. — The actual surplus (a) ; statioDariness {b) ; 
decline (c) per year. 

1. When I + S — M exceeds T + C, the result wiU be 

P a or D a, or an increase of population. 

2. When I + S — M, only equals T + C, the result will 

be F 6 or D 6, or a stationary state of population. 

3. When I + S — M falls below T + 0, the result will 

be P c or D c, or a decline in population, caused by 
the checks being greater than the birth rate. 

What folly, therefore, to conceive a stationary state of 
population as being due to the lowered absolute influence of 
I alone, when the same result, according to our experience, 
based upon the vital statistics of all countries, is due rather 
to the increased value of C, the root evil, which Malthus 
wished to see eliminated. 

That a high death rate has a greater influence than a low 

b irth rate in diminishing the surplus of births over deaths is 

easily proved by reference to vital statistics — our only guide 

in such matters. For example, take the case of Norway and 

Spain and Hungary for the year 1885. 





I + S — M 


C + T 


Da 




Birth rate 


Death rate 


Surplus of births 




per 1000 


per 1000 


over deaths 




persons. 


persons, 


per 1000 persons. 


Norway 


... 30-9 


171 


13-8 


Spain 


... 36-6 


30-6 


6-0 


Hungary 


... 45-3 


32-6 


127 



No better example from actual facts could be obtained to 
show that the increase of disease and misery, as shown by 
the death rate C + T has more influence in lowering the 
value of B a, or surplus of births over deaths, than the 
lowering of the rate of births ; for Norway's actual rate of 
increase is higher than that of Spain and Hungary respec- 
tively by 7*8 and 1*1 per 1,000 persons ; although its birth 
rate is actually lower than in these countries by 5*7 and 14*4 
per 1,000 respectively. In a healthy, happy, prosperous, and 
peaceful country, the actual rate of increase is invariably 
high, due to a high birth rate and a low death rate. 

In an unhealth}, miserable and savage society, the 
tendency, while these conditions last, is invariably shown in 
a higher death than birth rate, resulting in a positive decline 
in population. 

It is clear, therefore, that when population is declining it 
is rather because misery, disease, and vice have abnormally 



BY E. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 57 

raised the death rate higher than the birth rate, and not 
because of any material tendency to a decline in the birth rate. 

While there are different stages of civilisation in existence, 
oyer-population is a relative term applicable to the particular 
country, and not an absolute quantity to be determined by 
an absolute number of persons to a given area as most 
erroneously indicated by Mr. George. This is clear to any 
one who studies the civilisation and the sanitary state of 
different countries. 

When peoples who have attained to the same state of 
dvilisation are so situated that the struggle for existence is 
made lighter for a given community by local causes, 
such as may be seen in the comparison between the 
Australian colonies and the older countries of Europe — 
theo, the increased prosperity, the diminution of com- 
petition for labour, the increased health due to the 
smaller density of population, and other advantages — 
climate not being too unequal — would show such an 
improvement in the actual rate of increase from natural 
causes alone that their effect is significant and instructive. 
Thus, although the actual rate of increase in the colonies, 
during many years, is equal to about 20*05 per 
1,000 (not including the effects of immigration) or 
about 10 per 1,000 above the rate of Europe, nevertheless, 
its average birth rate is only about 1*5 per 1,000 higher. This 
again, forcibly proves that the higher rate of actual increase 
to population is due mainly to favourable circumstances 
lowering checks C, or deaths from preventible causes. These 
illustrations by explicit reference to actual facts entirely 
overthrow the arguments of Mr. George, which solely 
confine attention to one of the two great factors in the 
problem relating to the causes of the increase, stationariness, 
or decline in the population of different countries. Malthus 
was not so visionary as to expect the entire elimination 
of any of the factors. He only hoped to regulate population 
in relation to means of subsistence, by the substitution of an 
increased power of check M., in place of the terrible check 
C. He conceived that as man grew in knowledge and 
dignity, he might be able by degrees to lower the terrible 
influence of C, thus favouring the state P a ; the latter being 
prevented from again re-introducing the evil effects of C by 
the substitution of influences increasing the power of the 
superior central check M. If the check C now ruthlessly in 
operation be removed altogether or reduced to a minimum — a 
most desirable thing for its own sake — it is certain that the 
geometrical increase of I would produce a maximum effect as 
J) a, and this would sooner or later, if unchecked, over-populate 
the whole earth. No matter in what degree the final stage 



58 THE PROBLEM OF IIALTHUS STATED. 

was delayed by increased knowledge and piodndayeiiefla, 
fairer modes of wealth distribution, and the gradual spread 
over all habitable areas ; or hastened by exhaustion of existing 
sources of wealth, or a state of anarchy ; ihe stage would 
in effect be often reached in particular isolated districts, 
although not in all, by reason of human ignorances, jeolounes, 
prejudices, not to mention lower types of human beings 
unfitted for the reception <^ a higher civilisation. 

Had it not been for the fortunate discoyeiy of the steam* 
engine, the perfecting of means of transport, and the 
discovery of new fertile continents (Australia and America) 
thinly populated, opening out vast additional sources of pro* 
duction and affording relief to the pressure of crowded 
European centres, it is certain the state of Europe would be 
very different at the present hour ; and the check C would 
long ere this have reduced existing crowded centres to half 
their present numbers. What would England do with her 
present population (37 millions) if America and Australia 
were no longer open to her emigrants and no longer furnished 
food and other products. England is now a striking example 
of a country whose population has rapidly outstripped 
the means of subsistence so far as local supply of food is 
concerned. 

You will readily conceive, therefore, that the complicated 
problem of Malthus is, — the elimination of C altogether, 
or, as far as it lies within man's control, with the substitution 
of an increased power of M, only when deemed to be 
absolutely necessary to banish the dire influence of C. 
Both Malthus and Mr. Henry George agree in desiring the 
elimination of check C, but Maltiius showed that this 
constant effect, due to vice, ignorance, disease, and misery, 
could only be finally grappled with effectually, by never 
allowing P, or density of population, to press too strongly on 
the means necessary to preserve a population in a healthy and 
happy state, and this could not be practically effected without 
some such controlling influences as M. The nobleness of 
Malthus' aims, and the problems which he endeavoured to 
grapple with, are altogether misconcieved by Mr. George and 
other opponents. Some (might I not add the popular view) 
even maliciously or carelessly identify the Malthusian problem 
with the revolting physical check of Condorcet and others; 
and also of the view which rests in considering vice and 
misery as necessary evils. This proves that such people have 
not honestly studied the views of this much-wronged 
philanthropist. This is indisputably proved by the followmg 
quotation from his writings, pp. 478, 479 : " Vice and misery, 
and these alone, are the evils which it has been my great 
object to contend against. I have expressly proposed moral 



BY B. M. JOHIfSTOK, FJLS. 59 

restraint (M) as their rational and proper remedy; and 
whether the remedy be good or bad, adequate or inadequate, 
the proposal itself and the stress which I have laid upon it 
is an incontrovertible proof that I never can have considered 
vice and misery as tiiemselves remedies." In connection 
with these unmir charges urged by a Mr. Graham, he, in a 
diffnified rejoinder, maintains '' It is therefore quite inconceiv- 
able that any writer with the slightest pretension to 
respectability should venture to bring forward such 
imputations, and it must be allowed to show either 
sudi a degree of ignorance, or such a total want of candour, 
as utterly to disqualify him for the discussion of such 
subjects.'* And with respect to charges identifying his view 
with die restraints prescribed by Condorcet, he distinctly 
afirms, " I have never adverted to the check suggested by 
Condoroet without the most marked disapprobation. Indeed, 
I should always particularly reprobate any artificial and 
unnatural modes of checkiug population on account of their 
immorality and their tendency to reinove a necessary stimulus 
to industry . . . the restraints which I have recommended 
are quite of a different character. They are not only pointed 
out by reason and sanctioned by religion, but tend in the most 
marlced manner to stimulate industry. It is not easy to 
conceive a more powerful encouragement to exertion and good 
conduct than the looking forward to marriage as a state 
peculiarly desirable, but only to be enjoyed in comfort by the 
acquisition of habits of industry, economy, and prudence, 
and it is in this light I have always wished to placed it." 
How clearly and nobly Malthus explains his check of moral 
restraint is a matter which ought to leave no doubt of the 
purity and nobleness of his views, whatever doubts mav 
remam as regards the efficacy of the moral check in itself. 
The possibility of the check, too, pre-supposes the general 
possession of moral strength sufficiently adequate, not 
merely during large intervals of time, but at all times ; for 
the effects of opposing passion might wreck its efficacy at any 
moment if we do not contemplate the superior strength and 
continuous exertion of the higher moral virtue. 

I think I have in these observations fairly vindicated the 
nobility of Malthus' ideal, however we may demur to it as 
regards adequacy. It has also been clearly shown that the 
problem is a serious one ; and individuals, and the poorer 
classes often reach the limit of the means of subsistence 
long before society as a whole feels its pressure. How are we 
to eliminate the elements of disease, vice, and misery which 
at present form the only check (C) against over-population 
in crowded centres without substituting some adequate 
check of a superior kind. This is the problem of Malthus, 
Can you answer it ? 



60 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR A SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE 
OF THE AQUATIC SHELLS OP TASMANIA. 

By W. F. Pkttebd. 



PartL 

I purpose in a series of papers revising the somewhat large 
amount of work that has already been done, recording 
omissions, and describing newly discoTered species and 
Tarieties of the fresh water shell-bearing mollusca of tliis 
island, preparatory to the compilation of a systematic 
catalogue in which the groups will be defined, the specific 
characteristics explained and geographical distribution 
recorded. Such a catalogue carefully criticised with the 
necessary bibliography will, 1 think, supply a desideratum 
much required by the general collector and may also be 
of service to the more philosophical student. 

All workers in this special field of zoology well know 
the extreme difficulty to be surmounted as to specific 
limitation from the great variability of aquatic testacea in aU 
parts of the world. This is caused by a very large number of 
local influences retarding, or otherwise, the development of 
the more pronounced and important specific characteristics, 
so that many supposed distinct species collected from special 
localities prove not to be so when a large series are examined 
from many habitats ; on the other hand, it sometimes occurs 
that what are considered simple varieties prove to be 
specifically distinct when carefully compared with typical 
examples. The most apparent infiueoces are the greater 
or less rapidity of the streams in which they live, the 
chemical effect of the mineralogical formation through 
which they flow, the variety and more or less abundance 
of the requisite food-plants, combined with the varying 
altitude of the habitat ; all are important factors 
in producing modification of the shell covering, but 
fortunately the animal is far less susceptible to variation. 
It is now a well established truth that its examination 
is an almost infallible guide for the determination of 
species, so that it becomes absolutely necessary to under- 
take an extensive series of comparisons from as many localities 
as are accessible before a systematic catalogue can be worked 
out so that it may be of real scientific value and service. 

The primary reason for my recent, investigations was to 
endeavour to discover the correct genus in the system of 



BY W. P. PETTEBD. 61 

classification in which to place the many species of 
minute paludinoidal aquatic shells, so abundant in all 
our streams and pools, and with this end in view I 
have selected the most abundant, widely dispersed, and 
characteristic form for special examiDation.. Moreover, it was 
the first species to be recorded, having been discovered in our 
streams by those illustrious early French naturalists, Quoy 
and Qaimard. The older conchological writers were satisfied 
in placing those then known in that, to our modern eyes, 
mixed genus Paludina which then included a heterogeneous 
assortment of small shells of a conical form without reference 
to their habitats being fluviatile or marine. More recent 
scientists have annexed them toanumerous variety of genera of 
more or less stable definition ; amons^ others the following 
generical t,erms have been applied to many of our indigenous 

Siecies : — Paludina, Bythinia, Bythinella, Paludestrinaf and 
ydrohia, but unfortunately almost all our writers have 
simply devoted their attention to the outline of the shell and 
structure of the operculum, few, if any, devoting the amount 
of attention to the malacological characters tiiat the more 
modem and elaborate system of classification demands. All 
scientific conchologists agree that the inhabitant of the shell 
requires thorough examination before the generical position 
can be with certainty decided ; more especially in reference to 
the lingual membrane and the form and arrangement of the 
denticles thereon. This mixed and varied arrangement can well 
be overlooked when we consider the lack of information at the 
disposal of classifiers, for almost the total of the <iiagnosis 
that they could give had to be obtained from the extremely 
limited number of examples contained in the cabinets of the 
general collector and the cases of museums. My investiga- 
tions have led me to place, without any hesitation, our most 
prominent species in a genus quite new for Tasmania or even 
Australia, it is that of Potamopyrgits, established by Dr. 
Stimpson in the "American Journal of Conchology," Vol. I., 
1865, for the analogous minute aquatic pulmonate mollusca 
of New Zealand, having conically ovate shells, horny opercu- 
lum, animal with long slender tentacles and peculiar formula in 
the arrangement of the denticles on the membrane. The species 
have hitherto been supposed to be peculiar to the moUuscan 
province of New Zealand. The most characteristic form 
of this island {Palvdina nigra, Quoy and Craimard YojSige 
Astrolabe, III.^ p. 174.) agprees with all the essential characters 
of Dr. Stimpson's diagnosis of his genus, both as regards 
outline of shell and animal as well as in the arrangement of 
the dental formula. Professor Hutton has very concisely 
worked out the various forms peculiar to New Zealand 
(Trans. New Zealand Institute, 1882), and that 
learned conchologist therein refers to the general similarity of 



62 CONTBIBUnONS FOB SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS 

Potam(myrffU8 antipodum (the Amnieola antipodum of Orei/t 
vide Dieffenbach's New Zealand, 1843), a form of extreme 
variability in the outline of its shell to the species described by 
Quoj and Gkdmard, so abundant in almost sJl the slug^d^ 
streams of this island. 

I also describe several apparently new species that in all 
probability belong to the same group, but in most instances 
the opportunity of a careful examination of the fl.Tiifnq.1ft hat 
not occurred. 

Several species I purpose placing in a new sub-genus, and 
add one or two others, but with no little hesitation, as in 
most cases the animals have not been examined. 

In the genus Litnncsa a great amount of confusion has 
been caused, principally by the well known general variability 
of all the members of the family, and also from the fact that 
an European form — the L. peregra — has been acclimatised^ 
the young immature shells of which have been mistaken for 
an indigenous species, and also that one observer has confused 
it with an undoubted native kind. 

I think I shall be able to show that we have at least four indi- 
genous species, one of which at least has been placed in a genus 
that has been established upon malacological characters. I 
have known for many years that the species referred to— £• 
Launcestonenms — Tenisoti'Woode, was really an Amphij^lMf 
with the lobed mantle extending over a portion of the slielL 
Professor Balph Tate has described a species under the name 
of A. papyracea (Trans. Eoyal Soc. of South Australia, 1880) 
from iPenola, S. Australia, and more recently recognised 
several examples in a collection of aquatic shells, forwarded 
him by Mr. E. M. Johnston, mostly obtained from the Huon 
River (see "On the community of species of acquatic pul- 
monate snails between Australia and Tasmania." Pro. 
Boyal Soc. Tasmania, 1884, pages 214-17.) XTpon careful 
examination of a very numerous series of examples from 
many localities, I feel confidant that this species with the £• 
LauncestonensissindL, HiMnensis of TenUon-WoodSfSxe simply 
variations of one common form, apparently well dispersed 
over this island. The shells show a limited variation within 
certain well-defined limits, but the animal is invariably 
constant. This at once sets at rest the idea that one or other 
of the above-mentioned forms was identical, or a variation 
of the introduced Limnoea peregra of Europe. 

The three new species of true •Uiiwncea were obtained in 
localities that preclude the supposition of having been 
introduced, and their form totally separates them from their 
congeners already known to exist here, or in any part of 
Australasia. They show considerable specific difference i^ 
both outline of shell and form of animal ; in habit also they 
are wide apart, two being confined to pure limped streams. 



BY W. F. PETTSBD. 63 

and the other liyes oii the surface of mud, within the influence 
of the tide« 

In the JPhyscB a large amount of work remains to be done, 
so as to arrange the species with satisfaction, and no doubt 
many of the forms described as distinct species, will require 
reduction. Their inyestigation and determination has been 
difEicult wherever undertaken. In the genus Planorhia there has 
also been some little confusion, for I find upon the examina- 
tion of Inrpical specimens, that the P. meridionalia, Br., is yery 
distinct urom the sheU named by the Sey. Tenison- Woods, as P. 
Tamnanica^ which name was withdrawn by that learned gentle- 
man in favour of the former, under the supposition that they 
were identical. An examination of the drawings — taken 
from undoubted typical examples — ^will at once show the great 
amount of difference in form, and a careful investigation of 
many hundreds of specimens has not resulted in the finding 
of any intermediate variations, so that I consider that both 
species should be retained. That described by Mr. E. M. 
Johnston under the name of P. Athinsoni, I find to differ 
very materially from either, although it clearly shows a nearer 
approach to the P. Tasmanica, than to P. meridionalis. 
Another, but smaller form, will be given in the catalogue, it 
is the P. ScoUiana, a shell of very constant character, with- 
out any likeness to the three species mentioned. In the 
Ancylince but little remains to be done, although I have 
examples from the Liffey and Scamander rivers that differ 
very much from described species. We have two remarkably 
large species, one of which, the Ancylus Cummingianus, Bor,, 
forms the type of the genus Cummingia, established by 
C^essen, for its reception ; this was proposed many years ago 
by Hanley. The animal of this shell, as well as that of its 
congener, A. Irvince, mihi, will repay examiDation ; a dis- 
tinguished American conchologist tlunks they will show a wide 
departure from that of the typical Ancylince. Two additional 
species of Assiminea- have been recently added to our fauna, 
one an Australian form, and the other, so far as at present 
known, restricted to a single locality on the North Coast. 
The Riaaoa marioB of Tenison- Woods presents the form of 
Hydrobia, and Professor Tate is of opinion that it would be 
better placed in that genus, in which I think it will be also 
necessary to place the Eissoa Brazieri, T, Woode ; the habit of 
the latter is much the same as typical Hydrohice, but an 
investigation of the animal in both cases would be of some 
importance, and moreover settle the point. In the genera 
Fuidium and Sphcerium some little dif&culty will be 
encountered, and it may be necessary to add a new species to 
each. The 8. Taamanicum will require careful comparison 
with examples of British species, as it may prove to be an 
acclimatised form. 



64 CONTRIBUTIONS FOR SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS. 

I have thought it well to reproduce the original descrip- 
tions of several obscure Tasmanian aquatic shellB that were 
published in the proceedings of the Vienna Society of Zoology 
and Botany many years ago from specimens sent to Europe 
by the late Mr. Ronald Gunn, and also of one collected in the 
island by Professor Braun. These extracts I consider of 
very great value and interest, as they no doubt will have an 
. important influence upon the nomenclature of the subject 
and furthermore open quite a new and unexpected field 
for careful investigation — later on I will endeavour to 
identify the species described by the various authors. I may 
state that the Ampullaria Tasmanice, Le Chiillon (Revue 
Zool. page 105, 1842) is no doubt the shell now known as 
belonging to the more modem genus Amphiholaj which is 
generally considered as more fittingly placed in the marine 
molluscan fauna. I have to thank Mr. John Brazier, F.L.S., 
for the arduous task of supplying ne with exact copies of 
the descriptions taken from the extretaely rare scientific pub- 
lications in which they appear, and to Mr. Thureau, F.Q-.S., 
I am indebted for the kind and cheerful manner in which 
he undertook to give me literal translations. 

So far as investigation has gone very few of our species 
have been found to be identical with those known to exist in 
the mainland of Australia, although a very large amount of 
practical work has been done since the publication of the 
catalogue of the fresh water shells of this island by the Rev. 
Tenison- Woods (Proc. Royal Soc. Tas., 1875) ; more recently we 
have had the useful reference summary of Professor Ralph 
Tate and Mr. John Brazier, entitled "Check List of the Fresh- 
water Shells of Australia" (Pro. Linnean Society of N.S.W., 
1881), the elaborate and beautifully illustrated catalogue by 
Mr. Edgar A. Smith of the British Museum ("On the 
Fresh-water Shells of Australia," Journal of the Linnean 
Society, London, 1882), and many valuable and important 
papers by several well-known specialists all materially 
enhancing our knowledge of this comparatively neglected de- 
partment of natural history. In Australia the cosmopolitan 
genus Physa is very largely represented, for of this group above 
50 species have been recorded of which number only two or 
three have the faices of our insular forms. Lirnnaea has 16 
species, one of which is certainly, and another doubtfully, 
identical with forms common here. Planorbis is represented 
by but six kinds, all different from those known to exist in 
our streams. The genus Unto has about 17 species to our 
peculiar one which is restricted in habitat to northern rivers. 
In the Bithynia-group only six species are quoted ; here we 
have a much larger number. Only one form of Ancylus has 
been discovered to our four — the two giants of the genus 
have •no congeners in the mainland. The northern form of 



BY W. F. PETTBED. 65 

Oundldchta luis been discovered by Professor Tate in a 
small stream near Adelaide, South Australia. 

The foUcwing genera having representatives in Australia 
are not known here, viz., Neritina, Melania, Corhicula, 
SegmerUina and Vivijpara, the first two are more characteristic of 
tropical than temperate climates. Some few of our 
aquatic moUuscahave a resemblance to those of New Zealand, 
notablj the l7"mo,the species o£ Potamopyrgus, and one of the 
Ly7rmoea,iAie L, ampulla Bt^ffow, very closely approaches a small 
species that I have named L. Gunnii. The wide difference in 
the fluviatile and terrestrial — only about nine species of our 
land shells extend in range to the mainland — molluscan fauna 
of the island from that of Australia, proves that they have 
been separated for a considerable geological time, although, 
no doubt, the severance occurred during the earlier tertiary 
period. 

It will be found that the fresh-water shells of Tasmania 
present a peculiar series of forms that are well worthy of 
careful study; and no doubt as the examination of the streams 
in the more remote portion of the island is undertaken, many 
additional species will be brought to light and the range 
of many found to be more extended than is at present known. 



Amphipeplea Latjncestonensis. Tenison-Woods. 

Plate n. Fig. 11. 

Limnosa Launcestonensis, T. Woods, Pro. Royal Soc. Tas., 
1876. 
Limnoea Huonensis. T. Woods, op. cit. 

Habitat — River Huon, Hamilton, River Ouse (Dyer), River 
Glenelg, South Australia (Tate), many places about 
Laimceston, St. Leonard's, Carrick, Deloraine, Circular Head, 
Rivers Mersey, Forth, Leven and Piper, Flinders* Island, 
King's Island, Cape Barren Island. 

A careful examination of the types of the two species 
erected by the Rev. Tension-Woods, preserved in the Hobart 
Museum, and a comparison with many hundreds of examples 
collected at numerous localities, in all stages of growth fuUy 
prove that they are but specimens in different stages of develop- 
ment. It is general ly to be found crawlin g on the margins and the 
bottoms of quiet secluded pools, and is not often met with in 
running streams. 

It is very different to the introduced Limnoea peregra of 
Europe (Plate HI. Fig. 13), which I have not met with in the 
northern portion of the island. 



66 GONTBIBUTIOKS FOB ST8TEMATIG CATALOOUfi 



A.H«"— 



Tar. a. Paptsacba. Tate. Traas. fiojal Soo. 8Jk^ 1880. 

Plate n. Pig. 12. 

Hahitat — Penola, Adelaide, and Kangaroo Island, South 
Australia (Tate) ; Merrigum, Victoria (Bailej, apud. Tate) ; 
Ouse Eiver (Dyer), Mowbery, Waverley, St. Leonard^ and 
many other places near Launceston, Pingal, Si Mary's, Huon ^ 
Biver, etc. 

I am of opinion that this is but a variety of the above ; they 
are found living together in the same pools about Launceston. 
I cannot see any difference in the animals. At Penola, S.A., 
Professor Tate found numerous dead shells in tiie bed of a 
dried up marsh ; here they may be often obtained under 
similar circumstaiices. 

LiMNCEA SXJBAQXJATILIS. Tote, 

lAmncea mbaquatilis. Tate. Trans. Soy. Soc. S. Australia, 

p. 103, t. 4 fig. 6. 
Habitat — "Among paludinal herbage growing on the 
marshy margins of the Eiver Torrens at Adelaide, S. Australia" 
(Tate). 

var. a. neolecta. 
Plate n. Fig. 13, 
Shell, thin, pale greenish horn colour, broadly ovate, 
ventricose, with irregular longitudinal lines of growth ; spire 
short, suture very much impressed ; aperture ovate, more than 
half the length of the shell ; columellar fold indistinct, joined 
to the labrum by a very thin shining callosity. 

Lengthy 7. Breadth, 5 fnill. 

Animal (Plate IV. Figs. 1 and 2), short and broad, not 
showing beyond the shell behind, yellow brown colour, darker 
above with specks of darker shade and irregular flakes of a 
lighter colour; foot broad and pointed behind; tentacles 
short and blunt ; eyes very distinct, distant from the margin. 

Hahitat — Found living on damp moss and mud in the Ti- 
tree swamp, near Launceston. 

This interesting shell I have made but a variety of Professor 
Tate's species with considerable doubt, but the similarity of 
the figures and somewhat peculiar habitat of both has 
restrained from erecting it into a distinct species until the 
animal of the type has been examined. The animal does not 
glide as is usual with the species of the genus, but moves 
with a peculiar jerky motion. 

LiMNCEA GUNNII. n, Sp, 

Plate n. Fig. 10. 
Shell thin, fragile, shining, yellowish horn colour, ovate, 
marked with very fine longitudinal lines of growth ; whorls 



BY W. F. PETTEBD. 67 

4|, rounded with a moderate satural impression ; spire very 
short and small, pointed, acute ; aperture ovate, columellar 
arched and a little reflexed near the umbilical region ; fold 
small and inconspicuous ; labrum very thin, acute. 

Length, 7. Breadth^ b\ mill. 

Animal, pale bluish white; head very broad; tentacles 
short, flattened, of a pale milky white ; muzzle expanded. 

Plate m. Fig. 9 and 12. 

Habitat — South Esk Eiver, near Launceston. 

This specie differs very much in form from its nearest 
congener X. suhaqtiatilis var» neglecta, both Jin the outline of 
the shell and animal. It lires in clear, ^ntly flowing water, 
attached to the submerged rocks about which it smoothly 
glides without any of the jerky motion so characteristic of 
neglecta. 

The animal at once separates it from Amphipeplea 
Launcestonensis, and from the introduced L, peregra, it may 
be known by its smaller size, form and texture of the shell. 
The L, ampulla, Hutton, from Hasterton, New Zealand, is 
nearly the same in size and form, but quite specifically 
distinct. 

LlMN(EA LUTOSA. n, Sp. 

Limncea Tasmanica miJii. M,S. 

Plate II. Pig. 13. 

Shell, narrowly ovate, pointed above, brown-horn, duU ; 
Whorls 5, flatly convex, coarsely marked with lines of growth, 
spire turreted, apex acute ; body whorl elongated ; aperture 
ovately pyriform about two-thirds of the total length of the 
shell ; GoluTnella almost straight, flattish and reflexed, with a 
thick shining, arched deposit of callus which forms a false 
but minute umbilicus. 

Animal ? 
Length, 12. Breadth, 6 milh 

Habitat — Brighton, River Jordan {Dyer). 

A shell with much the appearance of L. Victorice, from 
Bamsdale, Yictoiia, but more acute in form, and almost 
subperf orate. Prom the other Tasmanian species it is widely 
different. I have several examples in my collection and all 
are constant in form. 

Planobbis mebidionalis Brazier, 

Plate I. Figs. 4, 6, and 6. 

Planorhis meridionalis, Brazier, Pro. Linn. Soc, N.S. 

Wales. P 20, 1875. 

E 



68 CONTRIBUTIONS FOB ST8TEMATIC OATALOOUB AQUATIC SHELLS. 

PUmarhia ccUhcarti miki. M,8. 

HahUat — ^Upper Ouse Biver {Masters). Ghreat Lake {Irvine). 

This species was first discovered by Mr. Qeorge Masters, ot 
the Sydney Museum, in 1864. It is the largest species found 
here, and the least understood. The three type specimens, 
from one of which the drawings are taken, were lately sent 
me for comparison, by Mr. J. Brazier, and I find that what has 
been generally taken for meridionalis by concholo^sts here, 
is not in reality so, and that the form described by the Bct. 
Tenison- Woods, under the name of P. Tumumicus^ is quite 
another kind. This species may be known by its comparatively 
large size, sharply carinated periphery and depressed 
aperture. I have not seen this shell from any locahty but 
those given. It has no representative in Australia. 

I am informed by Mr. Brazier that the Thmorhis Austra- 
liamLSf Martens, (I^tel, Cat. der Conch, 1873), is simply a 
catalogue name, the shell never having been described. 

Planobbis Tasmanicus. Tenison-Woods. 

Plate n. Figs. 8 and 9. 

Flanorbis Tasmanicus. Tenison-Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, p. 79, 1876. 
Habitat — Circular Head, South Esk, and Liffey rivers. 

A minute, flatly discoidal shell, which is widely umbilicated 
above and below, freely showing the whorls on both sides ; 
it is but obscurely angled below the periphery with an ovate 
aperture. It is totally distinct from the preceding, as the 
illustrations will clearly show. The Eev. Tenison-Woods 
withdrew his specific name, as he thought that he had 
described the same form as Mr. Brazier (Pro. Boyal Soc, 
Tas., 1878). 

At Circular Head I have collected it in vast numbers, 
harbouring among acquatic weeds on the surface of small 
pools, and in marshes in the same neighbourhood. About 
Launceston it is not abundant, being only occasionally 
obtained in the South Esk, here the smaller P. Seottiana 
seems to take its place, The nearest Australian form is P. 
Brazieri, Clessen, from Ipswich, Queensland, but that species 
is more acutely keeled and even flatter. 

Planobbis Atkinsoni. Johnston. 

Plate n. Figs. 6 and 7. 

Flanorbis Atkinsoni. Johnston. Pro. !Boy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1878. 
Habitat — South Esk Eiver. 



BT W, F. PETTEBD. 69 

Of t^ shell I have examined a great number of specimens, 
«nd I have ,m^raxi$h\j found it constant in its specific 
ehaiaeters. Its i^sutel^ keeled peripheij, and remarlj^blj 
swollen iwd angled aperture, at once separates it not only 
from our other forms, but also from all the known Australian 
representatiyes of the genus. In colour evea it differs from 
ihe other Tasmanian kmds ; for it is always of an extremely 
pale greenish horn, almost white. It is commonly found 
4ittac£iBd to the leaves of aquatic plants, sometimes in 
swiftly running water ; at Clynevale it is very plentiful. 

POTAMOPYEGUS, StIMPSON* 

SheUf ovate-conic or oval, imperforate ; body whorl more 
than hsJf the length of the shell ; aperture ovate, the outer 
lip acute ; peritreme continuous or discontinuous. Opercutum 
homy, subspiral, without any internal process. Animal with 
the foot rather short, slender, tapering and pointed. Eyes 
on very^ prominent tubercles. Dentition. Median tooth 
trapezoidal, the inferior margin more or less trilobate. First 
lateral broad and excavated in the middle, contracted into a 
long peduncle, the denticles nearly equal. Second lateral 
pointed at the inner extremity; the shank broad, and 
thickened on its outer margin. Third, lateral with the inner 
extremity broad and rounded, constricted at its junction with 
the very broad shank, which is thickened on its outer margin. 
Number of transverse rows of teeth, 55 to 69. 

Formula of the 7 or 9 . ,-i ^/^ «o o/%^ jr. 

aenticlea, 3 or 4 — 3 or 4 » ' ' 

The formula of the denticles differs widely from that 

-of Bythnella, and approaches more nearly those of Stomato^ 

^yrusBJidAmnicola; hut Potamopyrgiis is readily distinguished 

from both these genera, by the shape of the third lateral 

tooth. 

The above is the diagnosis of this genus, as given by 
Professor F. W. Hutton, in his paper on the New Zealand 
Hydrohiine; it is a slight modification of Dr. Stimpson's 
original description that was found necessary on more 
-extended investi^tion. 

The distribution is given in Tryon's '' Structural and 
^Systematic Conchology," as New Zealand and Cuba. 

PoTAKOPYEOus NiOEJL Quoy and Oaimard. 

Plate ni. Figs. 2 to 8. 

Paludina nigra, Quoy and Qaimard. Yoy. Astrolabe, iii.| 

p. 174. 
BishyniaLegrandif Tasmanica andunicarinaia. Tenison^Woods. 

Fh>. Eoyal Soc. Tas., 1867. 
Trans. New Zealand Institute, 1882. 



70 CONTEIBUTIONS FOR SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS. 

Palvdestrina Legrandiana and Wisemamana. Brazier. Pro. 

Zool. Soc. London, p. 678, 1871. 

Amnicola Petterdiana. Brazier. Pro Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales. Vol. 1., p 19, 1875. (Tenison-Woods.) 

Bythinella exigua, Tenison -Woods. Pro. !Boyal Soc. 

Tas., 1878. 

Animal, with a narrow foot which is expanded in front, 
opaque, white shaded with very pale bluish- grey. Tentacles, 
long, slender and pointed. Eyes plainly visible, under the^ 
lens, at the outer base. Bostrum, thick, projecting and 
wrinkled. The tentacles and rostrum shaded with dark 
bluish- grey. 

Operculum, thin, yellow-horn, paucispiral. 

Dentition, The central basal lobe of the median tooth is 
much produced, the first lateral is very much bent, and has 
from 12 to 13 small rounded denticles thereon. In the second 
they are also of the same rounded form but are not con- 
tinuous. 

Q 

Formula of denticles, ^ — - ; 12 to 13 ; 11. 

o — o 

Var, A. Legrandiana. Brazier, 

Shell, conical, with the last whorl keeled below the suture, 
and furnished with small, solid, stimted, hair-like spines. 
Aperture ovate. 

Habitat — Widely distributed. Streams and pools near 
Hobart and Launceston. Huou Eiver, Elizabeth Eiver, 
Eiver Mersey. 

Yar. B. unicarinata. Tenison- Woods, 

Shell, conical, thin, last two whorls with one interrupted 
keel. Ajperture, ovate. 

Habitat — With the last. 

Var, C. 

Shell, elongately conical, tapering, narrow. 

Aperture, narrowly ovate. 

Habitat — On stones and mud within the influence of salt 
water. Eiver Tamar and other places. 

The " minute shining ovate scales " referred to by the Rev. 
Mr. Woods are simply an incrustation of the frustules of 
Cocconeis, a species of Diaiomaceoe, This specie is extremely 
variable in form^ size and ornamentation ; for these reasons I 
have taken the plain, unadorned minute blackish shells, so 
abundant in our streams, as the type of the specie under which, 
with the three extreme modifications given, the great majority 
of the examples generally to be obtained may be arranged. 

In size, with the relative length of spire and aperture, it 
varies almost indefinitely, so much so that almost every little 
stream or pool has its own special variety, so that it is quite 



BY W. F. FETTERD. 71 

impossible and certainly unnecessary to enumerate all tlie 
modifications. In many localities the whorls are more 
or less sharply carinated, with sometimes the additional 
ornamentation of a line of interrupted pointed spines, but 
plain, carinated and spinose specimens are often found living 
in the same pool. The same pecularity has been noticed in 
one or two of the New Zealand forms of the genus. 

In clear ranning streams the shells are often sub- 
«translucent and of a pale yellowish horn colour, but in quiet 
still water they are usually coated with a thick covering of 
decaying vegetable matter, generally of a rusty brown colour ; 
often a closely packed mass of Diatomacece covers not only 
the shell but also the operculum. In a small variety, collected 
^t Deep Creek near the Duck River, the penultimate whorl is 
abnormally developed and the aperture constricted ; it is 
possible that some conchologists may consider this and others 
worthy of enumeration as varieties. Its nearest congener in. 
New Zealand is P. Antipodum, Gray ; it is also a variable shell, 
extending in range throughout the whole of that colony ; it 
is also found in brackish as well as fresh water. The teeth 
agree in form with Dr. Stimpson's diagnosis, but the number 
of denticles on the laterals present some modification ; this I 
do not think of great importance. 



POTAMOPYRGUS WOODSII. «. Sp, 

Plate I. Fig. 12. 

Shell, small, turbinately conical, thin, brown-horn colour, 
covered with a thin epidermis, marked with irregular very 
fine lines of growth. Whorls 6, very convex, suture impressed, 
spire short, apex obtuse, rounded. Body whorl large, inflated. 
Aperture somewhat large and full, ovate, nearly one-third 
length of shell. Peristome continuous, inner margin free, 
forming an indentation behind, labram thin. Operculum, 
yellowish horn, thin pancispiral, with an internal submarginal 
elevation. Animal, with long tapering tentaculae and project- 
ing muzzle, coloured dark lead-grey, foot of moderate width, 
white. Dentition, median both with the base broadly and 
roundly expanded, pointed on either side, first lateral club 
shaped, but little bent. Second much curved and broad. The 
third is much rounded above, and the constriction at its 
junction with the shank is deep, so that it forms a prominent, 

rounded, and curved tooth. 

9 
Formula of denticles, ^ ^ ■ 11 ; 20 to 23. Number of 

transverse rows, nearly 70. ^ 

Length, 3J; breadth, 2 J milL 



72 CONTBIBnTIOKS FOB SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS^ 

Plate IV. Fig. 3. 

Ifadtfaf^Soxxih. Est River. 

In the First Basin near Laiinceston this species is in extreme 
profusion both in swiftly runniDg and almost still water. On 
the large boulders of diorite it may be seen in countless 
thousands in company with one or two other small forms. In 
coloration it is subject to considerable variation, sometimes 
the edge of the aperture is almost white, and much resembles, 
the tint of the rock to which they adhere. In this 
locality it appears to take the place of jP. nigra^ a species that 
is not found with it. The arrangement of the denticles on 
the radula shows all the essential characteristics of the genu& 
in which I have placed it, and their form differs so very 
materially from those of the last described, that no doubt can 
exist as to their specific difference. 

POTAMOPYEGUS SmITHII. n, 9p, 

Plate I. Fig. 10. 

Shell, very minute, subpupiform, brownish horn, glossy^ 
almost smooth. Whorls, 6 to 6, veiy convex, suture much 
impressed, body-whorl moderate size. Aj^erture, ovate 
pointed above, straight, peristome continuous, free, labrum 
thin, not expanded. Operculum, thin, homy, pancispiral. 

Length 2; breadth 1 mill. 

Habitat — Heazlewood, Arthur, Waratah, and Castray rivers,, 
abundant on stones, etc. 

This little species has somewhat the appearance of 
Amnicola Sim^oniana, Brazier (Plate II., fig. 6), but differs in 
its much smaller size and more swollen whorls; it may,, 
however, prove to be an extreme variation. So far it has- 
only been obtained in the western streams of the island,, 
where it no doubt has a wide range. I have named it after 
Mr. James Smith, the veteran explorer and discoverer of tho 
Mount Bischoff Tin Mine. 

PoTAMOPYEGUS BeOWNII. fl, Sp. 

Plate m. Fig. 14. 

Shell, minute, turbinately conical, thin, greenish brown,, 
dull, covered with a thin epidermis. Whorls, 5, rounded,, 
suture deep, spire somewhat short and small, obtuse. 
Aperture, ovate, distinct, labrum thin. Operculum, homy,, 
pancispiral. 

Length, 2 ; breadth, \\ mill. 

Habitat — St. Paul's River, near Avoca (Mr. J. Brown), 
Scamander and Styx rivers, George's Bay, St. Mary's (Mr. A. 
Simpson). This shell has no important specific character 



BT W. F. PBTTEBD. 73 

except its dimmutire size and rounded whorls, in both of 
whidi it appears to be yerj constant. At some future time I 
hope to be able to describe the animal with the dentition, 
not only of this, but also of other species that I haye named. 



POTAMOPTBOXTS (?) MABaiNATA. M. «p. 

Plate I. Fig. 9. 

Skellf small, elongately conical, thin, almost smooth, whitish 
horn colour, somewhat glossy. Whorls, 5| to 6, scarcely 
rounded, margined with a fine line above the sutures, apex 
very obtuse and mammillated. Aperture^ small, ovate a little 
expanded below, peristome continuous, attached to the body- 
whorl. Operculum, homy, thin, pancispiral. 

Len^hf 4 ; breadth, 1^ mill. 

Habiiat — a small trickling stream near the Heazlewood 
Siver, which is tributary of the Whyte. 

I have no hesitation in describing this, in some respectsy 
remarkable little shell as quite a new form, as will be seen by 
the figure ; it differs widely from all its congeners. The 
sutural line and mammillate apex are peculiar to it, and it 
alone. It was collected rather sparingly attached to small 
stones and decaying leaves in a scarcely noticeable little 
stream. 

Bbddombia. new sub-genus. 

Shell, globosely conical, thin, umbilicate, or sub-umbilicate. 
Spire, short. Body-whorl, inflated. Aperture, ovate, columellar 
margin more or less thickened. Operculvm, homy, paucispiral. 
Animal, with a somewhat broad foot, tentacles long, slender, 
and pointed, eyes sessile at outer base of same, muzzle broad 
and projecting. 

Dentition as in Totamopyrgus, but the trapezoidal median 

tooth has quite a different arrangement of the inferior basal 

row, which consists of two ovate elevations on either side of 

a curved central tooth 

7 or 9 
Formula of denticles on median tooth ^5 — -. — 5- 

This new sub-genus it is necessary to form for the reception 
of the globosely conical forms of Fotamopyrgua, which also 
show the above-mentioned modification of the formula of 
the denticles on the median tooth. 

I have named it in honour of my esteemed friend, Mr. 0. 
E. Beddome, the well known conchologist. 



74 CONTSIBUnONS FOS STSTEHATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS. 

Beddomela Launcestonensis. Johnston, 

Plate I. Fig. 2. 

Amnicola Launcestonensis , Johnston. Pro. Boyal Soc. Tas., 
1887. Animal with the foot of medium size, opaque white, 
tentaculsB extremely long and pointed, of a dark lead grey 
colour, muzzle broad, wrinkled and prominent, the same 
colour as the tentaculse, but freckled with a darker shade. 
The eyes are distinctly Tisible when the animal is in motion. 

Lingual membrane is somewhat long but narrow, with about 
100 close set rows of very minute teeth, the formula of which 

is as follows:— , ^ ^ ! 8 ! 18 to 20. 

2—1—2 

Plate IV. Fig. 4. 

The median tooth is much arched, has a deep indentation 
on the upper margin, and the lower central lobe is not vary 
pronounced. The first lateral has a rounded protuberance on 
the upper inner margin at its juncture with the peduncle 
and the denticles are pointedly serrate. The second lateral 
is curved, angular, and much thickened behind, and has 
18 to 20 extremely fine roimded denticles. The third is not 
nearly so much arched and has also a prominent lump on the 
inside margin. 

Operculum, thin yellowish horn, pancispiral. 

Habitat — South Esk Eiver. 

Var. A. tumida. 

Shell, thin, greenish horn colour, marked with fine lines of 
growth, perforate. Aperture, more regular in outline than in 
mature typical examples ; outer lip thin, not reflexed. 

Length, 4; "breadth, 3 mill. 

Habitat — The Great Lake. 

Var, B. MINIMA. 

8hell, very much smaller than type, black, granular on 
surface, perforate. Aperture, contracted above. 

Length, 2\ ; breadth, 2 mill. 

Habitat — In a small stream near Scottsdale. 

The typical shell is extremely abundant in many parts of 
the South Esk ; it more especially loves the quiet secluded 
lock pools on the margins of the swiftly running portions of 
the stream. About the Cataract near Launceston it is very 
plentiful, often in company with the form I have named 
P. Woodsii ; in the First Basin and higher up the river it is 
more globose in form and of a paler colour, and thus in many 
respects approaches the variety collected in the Great Lake. 
The variety minima will require further examination as it is 
possible that the animal may be different to the type ; should 
such be the case it will be necessary to rank it as a species. 



BY W. F. PETTBBD. 76 

Beddombia Tasmanica. Tenison-Woods. 
Plate I. Pig. 11. 

Valvaia Tasmanica. Tenison- Woods. Pro. Eoyal Soc. Tas., 

1876. 
I find upon examination that this interesting little species 
has not the true multi'Spiral operculum, which constitutes 
the most important character of the genus Valvata ; in this 
shell it is paucispira/ and it is therefore necessary to place 
it in another genus. Its only known habitat is a small stream 
in Gould's Country. 

Beddomeia Bellii. n, sp, 
Plate I. Fig. 7. 

Shell small, thin, globosely conical, brown, rather dull. 
Spire small, apex obtuse. Whorls 4|, very convex, suture 
impressed, marked with lines of growth. Body-whorl large, 
inflated with a peculiar open excavated and sharply margined 
false umbilicus. Aperture ovately expanded almost semi- 
lunar, peritreme continuous, almost straight, thickened and 
reflexed at the columellar margin, expanded but not reflexed 
on the labral edge. Operculum^ thin, dark horny, paucispiral. 

Lengthy 3| ; breadth^ 3 milL 

Habitat, — Small stream near the Heazlewood River. 
Castray and Waratah rivers. 

The unique character of the umbilical opening separates 
this well-marked species from the many other small forms 
that inhabit our streams. In shape it is not unlike J5. Sulliy 
but its colour, combined with the umbilical opening at once 
separates it. It is named after Mr. W. G. Bell, one of the 
pioneer prospectors of the western portion of the island, who 
moreover, takes a very great interest in all scientific matters. 

Beddomeia LoDDERiB. n.sp. 
Plate ni. Pig. 1. 

Shell, small, globosely conical, thin, brownish horn, covered 
with a very thin epidermis. Whorls, 4|, flatly convex, the 
penultimate large, inflated. Spire, somewhat small, acute. 
Aperture, large, broadly ovate ; peristome, thin, acute, 
columellar margin rather thickened, depressed and united to 
the termination of labrum with a very thin, shining callus 
deposit. Operculum, horny, paucispiral. 

Length, 4 ; breadth, 3 mill. 

Habitat — Creek, upper Castra, Eiver Leven (Miss Lodder), 
Deep Creek, near the Duck River, North-west Coast (Rev. Mr. 
Hull). 



76 CONTBIBUnOKS FOB SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHELLS. 

A plain, variable and widely distributed shell. It is 
generally covered with a thick tenacious coating of rusty 
coloured decomposed confervse. 

It appears to be distinct from all other described species^ 
and may be recognised by its inflated form and large 
aperture. 

It is certainly not the immature form of any other spedes, 
for I have examined a rather large number from both the 
localities mentioned. 

Beddomeia Hullil n. »p. 

Plate I. Fig. 8. 

Shell, small, pyramidally conical, subperforate, thin, pale 
horn, glossy, obsoletely keeled at the periphery. Whorls 4f|, 
moderately convex. Spire, short, finely marked with lines of 
growth. Aperture, large, acutely ovate, peristome, thin, 
continuous, feebly expanded on outer margin. Operculum, 
thin, horny, pancispiral. 

Length, 3 ; breadth, 2 mill. 

Habitat — Near the Heazlewood Eiver with B, Belli and 
P. marginata. 

This is a small pale shell with a closer affinity to S. 
Lodderce, mihi, than to any other form, but it is no doubt 
specifically distinct. I have named it honour of the Rev. 
Mr. Hull, a gentleman much devoted to natural history 
studies. 

Bbaziebia. New Gentis, 

Shell globosely rounded, imperforate ; spire small, body- 
whorl large ; aperture very oblique, effuse ; outer lip acute, 
inner lip thickened ; operculum horny, subspiral. Animal ? 



Bbazieria Tasmanica. TeniBon-Woods. 

Plate I. Fig. 1. 

Ampullaria Tasmanica, Tenison-Woods. Pro. Eoyal Soc. 

Tas., 1876. 

Amnicola Tasmanice, Tenison-Woods, Tate and Brazier. Pro. 
Linnean Soc. N.S.W. Vol. VI., 1881. 

Sabitat — Abundant upon stones in a small tributary of the 
Arthur River, west of Mount Bischoff (Mr. James Smith). 

When describing this shell the Rev. Tenison-Woods 
expressed great doubts as to its correct generical position, 
and only provisionally placed it in the genus Ampullaria, of 
which no Australasian forms have hitherto been discovered. 



BY W, F. PETTEBD. 77 

I haye sabmitted examples to several of the recognised 
oonchologioal authorities, and all are of opinion that an 
entirely new genus is absolutely necessary in which to place it. 
I have very great pleasure in naming the genus after my 
friend, Mr. John Brazier, F.L.S., of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, N.S.W., a gentleman well-known in the scientific 
world, and one who has done an enormous amount of work 
in the Zoological field of Australia. 

ASSIMINEA BICINCTA. n. Sp, 

Plate n. Fig. 4. 

Shell small, conical, thick, brownish horn, banded with 
dark brown, covered, a thin epidermis ; whorls 4J^, convex, 
obtusely angular near the base. Aperture, ovate, pointed 
above, bands of colour clearly showing within, columellarwith 
thick shining callus deposit below, thm above at junction of 
labrum. Operculum, dark homy. 

Length, 4 ; breadth, 3 mill. 

Habitat — Mouth of the River Don, North Coast (Rev. Mr. 
HuU), obtained Hving on stones and grass within the influence 
of the tide in company with Tatea rujilabris. The 
bi-coloration of this specie is very constant, which, with its 
small aperture, constitute its most notable characters ; in both 
respects it differs from the A, Tasmanica, of Termon-Woods 
(plate n., fig. 2), as it is not so large or globose as A, 
Australie, Tate fplate m., fig. 10). The last mentioned has 
been collected by Mr. C. E. Beddome, at Kelso, near the mouth 
of the River Tamar, on the mud flats. 

In the " Check List of the Fresh Water Shells of Australia" 
the A, Tasmanica is given as a synonym of A. granum, Menhe 
(MoU., Nov. HolL, 1843). 

Hydbobia tubbinata, n, sp. 

Plate n. Fig. 3. 

Shell small, turbinately elongate, thin, brownish green, often 
much corroded, subperforate. Whorls 6|, very convex, 
suture deep. Aperture small, ovate, continuous, columellar 
margin a little reflexed, outer lip thin, acute. Operculum 
homy. 

Lengthy 4 ; breadth, \\ mill. 

Habitat, — River Styx, near Falmouth, East Coast and 
George's River (Mr. A. Simpson). 

This shell was collected in great abundance at the first 
locality by Mr. A. Simpson ; it was living in almost salt water 
ith true marine species. I have placed it in he genus 



78 CONTRXBUnONS FOB SYSTEHATIC CATALOGUE AQUATIC BHELDS. 

Hydrobia, because Trjon retains it for small turbinatehr 
elongate shells inhabiting brackish water. The animal is 
thus described : '' Eostrum rather long, tentacles somewhat 
tapering, but blunt at extremity, foot somewhat pointed 
behind." I have not had an opportunity of examining the 
arrangement of the teeth in the radular. Many of the 
examples from the River Styx have Serpuke^ and marine 
Polyzoa attached to them, the corrosion often extends to the 
body-whorl. 

Tatba rupilabbis. a. Adams, 
Plate n. Fig. 1. 

Biala rufildbris^ A. Adams, Ann. and Mag. N. Hist., 1862. 

Hydrobia rufilabris. Smith, pro. Zool. Soc, 1875. 

Bythinia Huonensis, Tenison- Woods. Pro. Eoyal Soc. Tas., 

1876. 
Tatea Huonensis, Tenison- Woods, op. cit., 1878. 

Operculum J thin, brownish, horny, paucispiral, with a vertical 

submarginal claw. 

Habitat, — Port Lincoln, S.A. (Adams), Clarence River, 
N.S.W. (Brazier), near Melbourne, Victoria (Woods) ; in Tas- 
mania it has been collected at the following localities: — Huon 
River (Woods, Legrand, and Beddome), opposite Risdon near 
Hobart (Simpson), GFeorge's Bay (Simpson), River Don Heads 
(Hull), Rivers Leven and Forth (Mies Lodder). In Tidal 
Creek at the head of North- West Bay and obtained living with 
the dredge in from 5 to 7 fathoms of water, 300 to 400 yards 
off shore at the same locality (Beddome). I have collected it 
in many localities, including several of the above ; at many 
favourable places in the Tamar river it is plentiful and near 
Bridport it lives in great profusion. 

The identity of the Rev. Tenison-Wood's shell with that 
described by Mr. A. Adams was proved by Mr. E. A. Smith 
(On the fresh- water shells of Australia. The Journal of the 
Lin. Soc. of London, 1882). The fact of its being obtained 
alive in from 6 to 7 fathoms of water by Mr. C. E. Beddome 
is very intesesting, the examples did not show any variation 
of the shell. The figure of Mr. Smith does not represent the 
ordinary form of the species. 

Hydrobia Tasmanica. Y, Martens, 

" Weigmann's Archives for Natural Science, 24. Vol. 1., 
page 185. PI. V. Fig, 12, 1858. 

Sifielly 2^ to 3 M M. long, conical, acute and consisting of 
4| to 5 arched whorls of regularly diminishing sizes; 
suture moderately deep (angle of tangent about 35 degrees). 



BY W. P. PETTERD. 79 

proportion of length to width = 5:2. The mouth, 
^ewise occupies 2-5ths. of the whole length (with young 
specimens it stands nearly yertical) ; the upper angle of the 
same clings to the preceding whorl and appears rounded off; 
the columnal rim is bent, and closes wholly the umbilicus (in 
young examples it does not quite do so). Shell, thin, 
glistening with lines of growth, brown, like Helix lucida, or 
brown-red, edges of aperture white in colour. Apparently 
it occupies the central position between thermalis and acuta, 
as proved by size and colour, which, however, deviate some- 
what. (Spiral cover.) 

Discovered by Professor Braun, in large quantities with 
Chara macropogon, A. Br. in Van Diemen's Land." 

** H, Tasmanica, V. Martens. 

Von Frauenfeld, in Trans, of K. K. Zool. and Bot. Soc, 
page 653. No. 830. Vol. XIV., 1864. 

This has been described by V. Martens, in Weigmann's 
Archives, 24, 1, page 185, illustrated on Table V,, fig. 12. 
The reference to " Spiral cover " appears as certainly remark- 
able." 

Hydeobia ceistaiiLina. Ffr, 

This appears to be one of the earlier described species, and 
judging from the reference made to it, certainly anterior to 
the next. In the next portion of my summary of our aquatic 
shells I hope to be able to supply the full original diagnosis. 



Hydeobia Gunnii. Frauenfeld. 

''Transactions of the K. £. Zoological and Botanical 
Society, Vienna. Vol. XIII. No. m. and IV., page 1,025, 
1863. 

In Cumming's collections, marked by Mr. Gunn, as from 
Van Diemen's Land, this shell is found intermingled with 
Hydrohia cristallina Ffr, and likewise Amnicola diemense 
Frfld. 

It is characterised by its beautifully formed mouth, which 
is almost without traces of any edge. Shell, slender, conical, 
grayish-brown in colour, semi-transparent, frequently with 
h\ turns and confined cicatrix, small opening of mouth, round, 
with totally free edge which arches or overlaps outwards. 

Lengthy 3 mm\ width, 1*5 mm. 

(Prauenfield). 

R. Gunnii, V. Frf. Transactions of the K. K. Zoological 
and Botanical Soc, Vol. XV., page 526, 1864. 

Distinguished by its equally formed mouth or orifice, the 
edges of which as standing somewhat apart from the spin- 
didar cell sides makes one to remember it as similar to a 



80 CONTBIBUTIONS FOB SYSTBMATIO CATALOGUE AQUATIC SHXLL& 

Truneatella. It is of a still more slender torm^ than as shown 
in ijie illustrations, which represent some as of a yery 
compressed nature. 

Mydrohia Ounnii. Y. Frfld, this was already described 
amongst the number and species of these shells in the 
Transact, of the K. K. Zool. and Bot. Soc., 18dSf page 1,025^ 
also in same Transact., page 612, No. 387, 1864" 

Ahnicola diemensb, !Fbfli>. 

<' Transact, of the K. K. Zoological and Botanical Society, 
Vienna, Vol. XHT. No. HI. and IV., page, 1,028, 1863. 

In Mr. Cummin gs ' collection from Van Diemen's Land, this 
is represented (as intermingled with Hydra Gunnii, Frfld. 
and cristallina Pfr.) This shell is acute, conical, brownish in 
colour, almost non-transparent, 4^ turns or windings, slightly 
arched, and gradually becoming more so towards lower 
extremity, last whorl largely developed. The mouth is almost 
circular, large down to half of the length of the shell, edge 
somewhat wider, not clinging to whorls ; umbilicus distincuy 
visible and deep. 

Lengthy 27 mm. widths 1*9 mm. There were several 
specimens much smaller, slender, and obtuse, with smaller 
orifices, so that it was difficult at first to classify between 
these extremes, though, at last I discovered a medium by 
means of which these difficulties were put aside. 

Note. — I am not quite certain whether these species could 
not be more properly designated with Hydrohta, Frfld. 

Hydrobia cristallina, Pfr. 

2. Van Diemen's Land, Mr. Gunn ; intermingled as afore- 
said with Hydrobia Gunnii Frfld and Amnicola diemense Frfld, 
As referred to in the Transact, of the K. K. Zoology and 
Botanical Society, Vienna. Vol. XTTT. No. m. and IV. 
Page, 1,024 1863." 

Amnicola diemense, V, Frfld. 

" Transactions K. K. Zool. and Bot. Soc. Vol XV. Page 
529, 1865, pi. X. fig. 2. 

At the same place the shell described as Al, floridana V. 
Frfld,y I noted that it was not quite sure whether or not these 
two species were not to be better incorporated with Hydrobia, 
In these cases where the shells are so similar in form, it is 
often very difficult to decide such a question, and it requires 
some skiU to do so. 

In the next following newly discovered species, it appears 
that the slightly compressed forms, the graduated windings 
or turns, the more open umbilicus, the larger lower mouth or 
orifice, decided me \o classify same as Amnicola^ which differs 
but little from Hydrobia^ and it doubtless renders this classi- 
fication as very delicate under the circumstances. 



BY W, F. PETTERD. 81 

Ammcola diemense V. Frfld. Trans. K. K. Zoo. and Bot. 
Soc YoL XIV. F&.ge, 599. No. 268, 1864, in the prelimi- 
nary examination of tlie genera and species of Hydrobia^ 
AmnUola^ &c. See Trans. K. K. Zoo. and Bot. Society, 1863. 

JNots. — ^The plates are missing in the volume of the Vienna 
Societies Transactions, contained in the library of the Austra- 
lian Museum, Sydney, N. S. Wales. The Linnean Society of 
N. S. Wales do not possess a copy for the year 1865. 

This species will probably prove to be the Beddomeia 
LautuesicnensiSj Johnston , in which case Von Frauenf eld's 
name will have to be retained. 



TJnio Legrandi. n. sp. 

Unio 3foretonicus. JReeve, Woods, Pro, Eoy, Soc, Tas., 1876. 
Tate and Brazier, " Check list of the Fresh-water Shells of 
Australia:' Fro. Linn. 8oc,, N.8. W., 1881. 

Of the widely distributed and extremely variable genus 
UniOf we have but a single representative, the one that is 
peculiar and so abundant in our northern streams. To this 
shell tradition has applied the specific term Moretonicus, under 
which name it is given by the Bev. Tenison -Woods in his 
list of the fresh- water shells of this island (Pro. Boy. Soc. 
Tas., 1876). How this identification originated or by whom 
appHed I have quite failed to discover, but that it is an error is 
fully elucidated by Mr. E. A. Smith in his paper on the fresh- 
water shells of Australia (Pro. Linn. Soc. of London, 1882); 
there the learned author gives an exhaustive summary of the 
numerous species occurring on the mainland with their full 
bibliographical history, and the results of a careful study of the 
extensive series of examples contained in the collection of the 
Sritish Museum is fully explained. Under Uhio d^ressiis^ 
Xam.y a species common to the Nepean, Began, Brisbane, and 
Murray rivers, it is stated that '' The TJ. depresstis of the 
* Conchologia Iconica,' fig. 81, is a very distinct species, and 
approaches certain varieties of U. amhiguus^ the specimen 
figured being from Tasmania ; " an examination of the figure 
proves this statement to be correct, although the shell 
Tepresented is not nearly so elongated as the great majority 
of the examples that l' have collected. The TT. MoretonieuSf 
Beeve (Con. Icon., fig. 118), is given as a variety of 
17, Australis Fhilippi, but without any precise locality. The 
plate illustrates a shell of quite a different outline to any of 
the many hundreds of Tasmanian specimens that I have 
carefully examined. 

The U. amhiguuSf Parreyss, is from the Balonne, Began, and 
the Qnkaparinga rivers, and although in many respects it 
approaches the species of our streams it is clearly specifically 



82 CONTBEBUTIONS FOB SYSTEMATIC CATALOGUE AQUATtC SHELLS. 

distinct. All writers upon the subject gire special 
prominence to the general confusion into whicli the 
Australian forms of Unionidoe have fallen, principally 
caused by slight yariatlons and immature examples having 
been described as distinct species ; this has been renderedmore 
confusing by erroneous habitats often given, and the now 
well known incorrectness of many of the localities recorded 
in the *' Conchologia Iconica " has also caused several recent 
authors to fall into error. 

After carefully studying the subject and comparing 
numerous specimens from ahnostall parts of Australia with an 
extensive series collected in our streams, I have come to the 
conclusion that our form, that has been known to 
conchologists for so many years, is in reality an undescribed 
species, so that it is therefore necessary to bestow upon it a 
specific appellation, in doing which I have embraced the 
opportunity of recording my obligation to Mr. W. Legrand 
for my early instruction in the study of shells. 

In any case the specific term Moretonicue, is a geographical 
misnomer, and, to my mind, it should be altered if oidy for 
that reason. The figure given by Eeeve, No. 118, very closely 
represents a variety of JJMenziem^ Ghray, of New Zealand, from 
rapid fiowingstreams when it is much shorter and thicker than the 
more typical form. In TT. Leqrandi the teeth are small and 
the interior is clear bluish white with faint iridescence of pink 
and green. Its home is the sandy beds of shallow clear 
running streams, where, as in certain parts of the South Esk 
and the St. Paul's Eivers, it can be obtained in considerable 
numbers. As is the case with many species of the genus, the 
sexes differ in the outline of the shell. 



Plate 1. 

Fig. 1. Brazieria Tasnianica, Tenison- Woods j Arthur Eiver. 

2. Beddomeia Launcestonensis, Johnston, South Esk Riven 

3. „ ,, Ytix. minima, Scottsdale. 
4-5-6. Planorbis meridionalis, Brazier, Ouse River. 

7. Beddomeia Belli, mihi, Heazlewood River. 

8. „ Hulli, mihi, „ „ 

9. Potamopyrgus marginata, mihi, near Whyte River. 

10. . „ Smithi, mihi, Waratah River. 

11. Beddomeia Tasmanica, Tenison- Woods j Gk)uld's Country. 

12. Potamopyrgus Woodsii, mihi, South Esk River. 



99 



Plate U. 

1. Tatea rufilabris. A, Adams, River Don. 

2. Assiminea Tasmanica, T, Woods, Brown's River. 

3. Hydrohia turbinata^ mihi. River Styx. 



Plate 1 








J . 



:W 



'im.'i 



'tm- 







tisW 






,j^ 



Plates 





Plate 3 A 




Plate 4 




V «. 

V w 



BY W. P. PETTEBB. 83 

„ 4. Assiminea bicincia, mihi^ River Don. 
„ 5. Potamopyrgus (P) Simsoniana^ Brazier, Brigliton. 
„ M, Planorbis AtMnsoni^ Johnston, South Esk River. 
„ 8-9. „ Tasmanica, Tentson- Woods, Circular Head. 

,, 10. Limncsa Gunnii, mihi. South Esk River. 
„ 11. „ Launcesionensisy Tenison- Woods, Waverley. 
„ 12. „ „ y, var, papyracea, Tate, 

„ 13. 99 subaquatalis Tate^ var, neglecta, Launceston. 
„ 14 „ lutosa, mihi. River Jordan. 

Plate m. 
Fig. 1. Beddometa Lodderce, mihi, Castra, River Leven. 
„ 2. Potamopyrgus nigra, Quoyand Gaimard, Brown's River 
3. „ „ var, Legrandiana, Launceston. 

„ „ unicarinata, Invermaj. 
„ „ Launceston. 
„ dentition. 
„ operculum. 
„ animal. 
9. Limnosa Gunnii, mihi. South Esk River. 
10. Asseminea Australis, Tate, Kelso, Tamar Heads. 



4 
„ 5. 
„ 6. 

8. 



99 
99 
99 



99 

99 

99 



11. Beddomeia LauncestonensiSy Johnstofiy var, Tumiday 
Great Lake. 

12. Limncsa Gunnii, mihi, animal. South Esk River. 

13. „ peregra. Mull,, Hobart. 

„ 14. Potamopyrgus Brownii, mihi, St. Paul's River. 

Plate IV. 
Fig. 1 and 2. Limncea subaquatalis var, neglecta, near 

Launceston. 
„ 3. Potamopyrgus Woodsii, dentition, 
„ 4. Beddomeia Launcestonensis, „ 



F 



84 



CEITICAL OBSERVATIONS ON RECENT OONTBIBF- 
TIONS TO OTJR KNOWLEDGE OF THE FRESH 
WATER SHDELLS OF TASMANIA. 

Pabt I. 



By R. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 

In August, 1875, the Rey. J> E. Tenisou- Woods contributed 
a paper to this Society on the fresh water shells of Tasmania. 
Pnor to this date no systematic attempt had been made to 
arrange the fresh water shells of this island. It is true that 
five or six species were actually described in the scattered 
works of earlier writers, but these isolated observations in 
foreign works attracted little notice locally ; indeed, without 
special research and access to a good library of reference it 
would be impossible for ordinary students to obtain certain 
guidance on the subject. 

Mr. Woods fully described the shell characters of all the 
four forms known to him at this time, and from such 
characters, and from former references by other observers, 
he determined them to consist of 12 genera and 34 species, 
all of which, with the exception of five, he considered as new 
to science. The following is a complete list of the species 
described by him : — 

Univalves — 

1. Ancylus Cummin gianus, Bourg, 

2. Tasmanicus, Ten, Woods. 

3. Limnsea Tasmanica, Ten, Woods, 

4. Huonensis, Ten, Woods, 

5. Hobartensis, Ten, Ifoods. 

6. Launcestonensis, Ten, Woods. 

7. Physa aperta, Ten, Woods, 

8. ebumea, Ten, Woods. 

9. mamillata, Ten, Woods. 

10. nitida, Sowerby. 

11. Bruniensis, Sowerby. 

12. Vandiemenensis, Sowerby. 

13. Huonensis, Ten. Woods. 

14. Legrandi, Ten, Woods, 

15. Tasmanica, Ten. Woods. 

16. ciliata, Ten, Woods. 

17. Tasmanicola, Ten, Woods. 

18. Huonicola, Ten, Woods. 

19. Bythinia Legrandi, Ten, Woods. 

20. Pontvillensis, Ten. Woods. 



BT B. X. JOHNSTON, F.I»& 85 



31. Dolvartonensis, Ten, Woods. 

2^ Hiionensis, Ten, Woods, 

23. unicarinata. Ten. Woods. 

24. Doorobiuensis, Ten. Woods. 

25. Tasmaoica, Ten. Woods. 

26. Pomatiopsis striatula, Menke, 

27. AsBiminea TasmaDica, Ten, Woods. 

28. Planorbis Tasmanicus, Ten. Woods. 

29. Paludestrina Legrandiana, Brazier. 
80. Wisemaniana, Brazier. 

31. Unio Moretonicus, Sowerby, 

32. PUidiam Tasmanicum, Jen, Woods, 

33. Dulvertonensis, Ten, Woods. 
34 Cjclas Tasmanica, Ten, Woods. 

la this first paper of Mr. Woods', he was on] j able to deal 
ifith the sheH or exo-skeleton ia this scheme of classification. 
"That this was due to lack of materials at the time, however, 
rather than choice, is amply proved by his elaborate memoir 
^ On some Tasmanian Patellidse," contributed in the following 
year (May, 1876), where he minutely describes in an ad- 
mirable manner the various species examined by him (eight) ; 
the malcological characters of each animal, including the 
odontophore, lingual plate, or radula, having received the 
greatest attention. 

The appearance of Mr. Woods' paper, therefore, was hailed 
with much satisfaction by local naturalists, and it speedily 
had the efEect of drawing the attention of other observers to 
this neglected branch of study. Among these, the writer 
was the first to follow up the work begun by Mr. Woods, and 
the results of many observations were communicated to this 
Society in the year 1877, in a paper entitled " Further Notes 
on the Fresh Water Shells of Tasmania." 

My numerous explorations in nearly all parts of the island 
afforded me rare opportunities for collecting and for observing 
the varying character of the same species in different habi- 
tats. The extreme variability of the prevailing forms par- 
ticularly arrested my attention, and a lengthened examination 
of some of them enabled me to draw particular attention to 
the unstable character of some of the distinctions which Mr. 
Woods deemed at first to be of specific value. Among these 
I specially drew attention to the influence of local environ- 
ment, such as altitude, volume, and degree of brackishness 
of water, in modif jing size, transparency, and colour ; and in 
the genera Physa Lymnsea and Bithynella, I pointed out the 
danger of depending upon the presence or absence of con- 
tinuous or discontinuous cilise, spiniform cilise or ciliated 
membranous keel, as characters of specific value. 



86 CBinCAL OBSERVATIONS ON BECENT CONTRIBUTIONS, ETC. 

With respect to the genus BithyneUa^ I particularly noted 
that the species vary widely with the slightest difference in 
the conditions of their environment. In my notes I showed 
that the degree of bracMshness had a very marked effect. 
The variety then known as B, unicarinatay T. Woods, in the^ 
drain near the Eailway Station, Lannceston, partly influenced 
by the tidal waters of the Tamar, has six whorls, shell 
moderately thick, coated with reddish decomposed confervae^ 
About a mile distant, where the water is still more brackish, 
the shell of the same species is of a very delicate pale horn 
colour, transparent, six whorls, and scarcely half the size of 
the individuals in the habitat previously mentioned. , The 
carina of epidermal membrane, at that time deemed to be of 
specific value, was observed to be very inconstant, sometimes 
in awl-shaped spines, as in B, Legrandianay Brazier ; in inter- 
rupted lines, as in Biihynella unicarinata ; in continuous lines 
simple ; in continuous or interrupted lines fimbriated ; and 
most frequently without any apparent carina, as in Paludes^ 
irina Wisemanianay Brazier, or its synonym Biihynella 
TasmanicUy Ten. Woods. iCTor was my attention confined to 
the exo-skeleton. The malacological character of the animals,, 
mcluding the odontophore, were frequently examined by me 
under the microscope, and careful drawings were made of the 
various parts. Descriptions of the animal and its dentition 
and external characters were given in my paper, together 
with similar descriptions of several interesting new forms not 
previously observed. Lithographs of these drawings were 
prepared at the same time, but these came to hand too late- 
to be inserted in the proceedings along with the paper^ 
These lithographic sheets, however, were preserved, and I 
now present them as an accompaniment to these notes. The 
following is a list of the species then described for the first 
time : — 

Gundlachia Petterdi, Mihi. 
Amnicola Launcestonensis, Mihi. 
Planorbis Atkinsoni, Mihi. 
Scottiana, Mihi. 
Pomatiopsis Badgerensis, Mihi. (fossil) 
Ancylus Woodsii, varieties A., B., T., Mihi. 
Bithjnella nitida, Mihi. (fossil) 

With the necessary exception of the fossil forms, the mal- 
cological characters of all these species were obseiTed and 
described in addition to those of various forms of Biihynella 
and Physa Tasmanica, T. Woods. 

So far as I am aware, these were the first descriptions pub- 
lished of the malcological characters of Tasmanian £resh 
water shells. 

I claim no special credit for this, because with the exception^ 




<n 




lN frei 



B. M. J« 

April, 

ProcKoy. 



Announces 
covery of I 
Ampullarial 
T. woods, a 
it under Am,'. 



>>tf kV^H 






H 

Pi 






Co 

tJn 



lN frei 



B. M. J< 

April, 

ProcKoy. 



Announces 
covery of 1 
Ampullarial 
T. Wood«, a 
it under Aim 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 87 

"perhaps, of Mr. Woods and Mr. Petterd, the naturalists at a 
•distance from Tasmania, who described the first four or five 
forms, had no other characters at their command than the 
shell afforded. 

I merely make these observations in justice to myself, 
because Mr. Petterd in his otherwise excellent paper* read 
this evening, has remarked that hitherto "unfortunately 
almost all our writers have simply devoted their attention to 
the outline of the shell and structure of the operculum, few, 
if anyj devotic^ the amount of attention to the malcological 
characters that the more modem and elaborate system of 
classification demands." 

I think Mr. Petterd is somewhat unjust as well as inac- 
curate in making this statement without further qualification. 
So far as local observers are concerned, it is true, neither 
himself, in the description of the two fresh water forms, viz., 
Gundalachia Beddotnei and Ancylus Irvinice, published by him, 
nor Mr. Woods in the first and most important of all con- 
"tributions to our knowledge of Tasmanian fresh water shells, 
give any description of the animals other than those relating 
to the exo-skeleton, and the operculum where present; but it 
is not true so far as I am concerned, as the statement I have 
already made proves. 

As some confusion has already occurred, owing to the 
alterations in nomenclature more recently made, I have 
thought it desirable to draw up a tabular historical list 
showing the various modifications and additions which have 
been made in connection with Tasmanian fresh water shells 
since Mr. Woods* paper was published in 1875. 

Classification. 

The classification of the various forms of Lymnseidfie and 
Hydrobiinse presents many difficulties, and these already 
•have been the principal cause of the present overload of 
synonyms, which must be a fruitful source of error to many. 
The confusion now existing will not be dissipated by the 
mere creation of fresh names for genera. Already, owing to 
the various modes of classification adopted by independent 
authors, the sxxhAdjmij JfydrobiincB is broken up into an inter- 
minable number of genera, each with a host of synonyms, 
while the characters of many of them do not justlEy their 
separation from each other. 

Certain genera are based upon the form and character of 
the shell and its operculum. Others are established upon 
the form of the muzzle and tentaculse of the animal, while 
not a few are erected upon the character of the odontophore 
and its denticulse. So long as there are .different methods 

* Contributions for a Systematic Catalogue of the Aquatic Shells of Tasmania. 



88 CBinCAL OBSEBVATIONS OS BECENT CONTBIBUTIONS, VIC 

employed — ^where in each the characters depended upon hj 
all other authorities are reduced to play a subordinate part 
in determining the limits of a genus — so long will we be in- 
volved in contradiction and confusion. This must certainly 
be the case when we are assured that no single character can 
be made to harmonise with any other character in a commoni 
generic range. 

But we have still another difficulty. The local worker may^ 
zealously, as in Mr. Petterd's case, work up the hidden 
characters of the denticulse, and show clearly the differences, 
so far as local examples are concerned, but if he have no 
reliable knowledge that genera already established for similar 
forms of shell may or may not have corresponding dentition 
characters, what justification is there for creating a new 
genus for a local form of shell which in all respects corre- 
sponds with one already established for this particular form, 
irrespective of the character of its denticulse ? 

Take, for example, Mr. Petterd's sub-genus Beddomeia pro- 
posed for globosely conical shells, spire short ; body whorl 
inflated. 

So far as apparent form of shell and animal is concerned,, 
it answers exactly to Ltihoglyphus, of Muhlfeldt, or with 
Gillia^ of Stimpson. Why, therefore, create a new genus for 
a similar form in Tasmania. But it may be said that the 
denticulated teeth justifies the separation. To this I reply, 
Good. Show us proof that this is so. Have you examined 
the denticulse of the various species of Lithoglyphus and of 
Gillia ? K you have done so, why neglect to show the marked 
contrast of dentition in forms externally alike ? 

When genera are established after the fullest comparison 
in this way few will object, but I need hardly say that 
thrusting fresh generic names into our nomenclature is far 
from satisfactory when the dentition of allied forms of other 
countries have not been thoroughly examined and compared 
with the local types. 

While it is admitted that all external and internal charac- 
ters of the animals should be studied together, where possible, 
few will altogether agree with Mr. Petterd's observation 
" that in all cases the inhabitant of the shell requires thorough 
examination before the generical position can be with certainty 
decided." 

For, we may exclaim with Binney, " Supposing the dentition 
of all living forms to be examined (an impossibility), we are 
still confronted by the fossil shells. What shall we do with, 
them? Shall we use for these 30,000 species obvious ex- 
ternal universal characters, yet discard these in the recent 
mollusca for the modifications of a partial character, the very 
slight observation of which has sufficed to show that it may 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 89 

not be predicted with certainty from either the shell, oper- 
oulum, external features, or anatomy of the animal." These 
are weighty considerations. 

Mr. Petterd forgets that all systems of classification, 
ancient and modem, are more or less arbitrary and artificial, 
whether based upon the " infallible criterion '* lingual den- 
tition, respiratory organs, muscular impressions, or external 
form generally. Young observers, enthusiastic with a new 
idea, are apt to forget that all fresh discoveries, however 
valuable, only cover a small space of the whole field, and are 
usually accompanied by fresh germs of error which must 
also be reckoned with. Defective exo-skeleton is dead : long 
live defective endo-skeleton ! 

So far as true progress in the exact sciences is concerned, 
a celebrated writer has well said : " Assuredly he will not 
be most capable of discoveries who despises the theory 
of yesterday and swears by that of to-day ; but he who 
sees in all theories but a means of approximating to the 
truth and of surveying and mastering the facts for our 
purposes." 

The best systematists of the modem school do not share 
Mr. Petterd's distrust of our old valued friend, the shell and 
Us fomif and some of them are even bold enough to trust to 
its guidance in cases of conflicting evidences rather than to 
any other singular characteristic. 

That this is the opinion of two of our best modem system- 
atists (Tryon, unfortunate to science, recently deceased ; and 
Mr. Wm. G-. Binney, who has devoted a number of years to 
the study of the dentition and anatomy of terrestrial mol- 
lusks), is shown by the following utterances. 

G-. Tryon, who has a high opinion of lingual dentition as an 
auxiliary aid, in his recent work on ''Structural and Systematic 
Conchology," concludes that there is "a growing conviction 
that there are no sharply defined groups in nature ; that a 
generic character, for example, cannot be made to cover all 
its species ; that upon its borders occur forms which partake 
of the characters of other so-called genera, and that families, 
orders, etc., similarly coalesce upon their confines. We may 
anticipate a period when our larger collections, together with 
our better knowledge of external influences and of the power 
of adaptation to them of these creatures, shall reveal to us a 
series of recent and fossil forms having relationship so inti- 
mate that our present system of classification, and resulting 
nomenclatures shall become utterly valueless. 

" In this point of view classification is essentially arbitrary. 
The value of a classification founded on a single organ (the 
lingual ribbon), which does violence to other apparent afi&ni- 
ties, whilst at the same time it fails of signification even in 



90 CBinCAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEGENT CONTRIBUTIONS, ETa 

one of the moat important functions with which it is con- 
nected, in that it does not enable us to certainly separate the 
phytophagous from the zoopbagos animals, may be seriously 
questioned. 

'' We have many most important characters of the mollusks 
which impress themselves upon their shells, so that they are 
in. accord, and enable us to predicate reciprocally their 
relationships; and such characters appear to be much more 
useful for classification.' Binney expresses bimself in a 
similar way, and states briefly : " If it be proposed that a 
single arbitrary standard shall be used because it ia arbitrary 
• . . . then the standard selected should be the most 
universal and the most apparent, namely, the sheW 

Binney, who has devoted many years to the special study of 
dentition, goes so far as to say, '^ Is it not impertinent to 
make use of a few hundred observations of an organ which 
only pervades a portion of the mollusca, to establish a classi- 
fication which is frequently in violent contrast with natural 
affinities ascertained by long examination of all the species, 
recent and fossil ? " 

Enough has been stated to show that we have no new 
" divining rod " to help us in classification difficulties. Wide 
careful comparison of all characters are certainly necessary, 
but so long as local workers only trouble themselves to single 
out extremes of each type for the information of others, so 
long will a satisfactory classification of our shells be a thing 
of the future. 

Local workers would better advance the cause of science if 
more regard were paid to the study of the variability of char- 
acters of the shell and of the animal. Little is known yet how 
far the denticulee of the lingual ribbon varies in animals of 
the same genus, and this must be well studied in every group 
before we can depend upon their form and numbers for 
determining the limits of a genus. 

Is our knowledge of the constancy of form and number of 
denticles on the median tooth of fresh water shells wide enough 
to enable us to rely upon its indications alone for marking the 
limits of a genus? This is a most pertinent question. Some 
of our best classifiers, who have tested this matter system- 
atically, insist that reliance upon such characters are decep- 
tive, and are not so reliable as the more obvious ones. 



91 

AN ADDITION TO THE AVIFATJNA OF TASMANIA. 

Order Anseres, 

Family Anatidce. 

AnseranoB Melanohmca Latham ? 

(The Semipalmated Goose). 



By W. F. Pettbed, F.Z.S. 

The example of this interesting species that I sent as an 
addition to the Museum collection is that of a young female, 
probably a first year bird. It was shot on the Lake River, 
near Cressy, on the 20th inst., and no doubt formed one of a 
small flock that have lately been observed in the neighbour- 
hood of Launceston. Another specimen was shot on the 
outskirt of the town, and at about the same time two others 
were noticed flying at a great height over Invermay, and still 
another I hear has been simultaneously seen in the vicinity 
of the township of Westbury, so that there is little doubt 
that at least five individuals have made their appearance 
here. In aU probability they have been carried away from 
their distant native haimts by high wind currents of unusual 
force. The specie belong to a genus peculiar to Australia, 
containing but a single form whose true home is the eastern 
portion of the continent, having been recorded from almost 
every favourable portion, with the exception of the western, 
the interior, and the extreme north at Cape York. In 
Victoria and Southern New South Wales it is fast becoming 
extirpated, and it is now only in the most out-of-the-way 
and secluded fresh-water lagoons and rivers that it is to be 
still met with, but in the more northern portion of the latter 
colony, and in Queensland, it is to be seen in some plenty 
where a suitable locality exists for its requirements. In the 
wild and less frequented extreme north of Australia it is very 
abundant, and forms one of the chief sources of food for the 
natives. Gould states — (The birds of Australia, Vol. 11., p. 
352-53) that it " was of the utmost value to Leichardt and 
his party, during their adventurous journey from Moreton 
Bay to Port Essington, as shown in numerous parts of his 
interesting accoimt of the expedition. So dense are the 
flocks that occur in the northern parts of the country, that 
the natives are enabled to procure numbers of them by 
spearing." 

Like many of the order, mature specimens show a peculiar 
elongated conformation of the trachea, but in the yoimg 
example that I have had the pleasure of manipulating, this 
was not so noticeable as in those of older growth recorded by 



92 AN ADDITION TO THE AVIFAUNA OF TASMANIA. 

Gould and other observers. In fully mature spedmens, the 
colouration is more developed, the head, back, wings, tail^ 
and thighs then being of an intense glossy greenish black, 
the bill a reddish brown, and the protuberance in the fore- 
part of the head much more conspicuous. The specimen I 
have obtained shows the colouration of a greyish-black, but 
the sex may in some way modify the colour. The time of 
incubation is between September and December, the nest 
being built in the delise ruddy banks of lagoons, the eggs, of 
which but very few have been obtained by Oologists, are of 
a brownish-white colour 3 3-16th inches in length by 2 
2-16ths in breadth. 

It is sincerely to be hoped that the remainder of the little 
flock will be able to find their way to the more secluded 
portion of the Lake district beyond the reach of the sport- 
man's gun, there find a congenial home, sufficient food in 
the sedgy herbage, and in course of time increase its numbers 
so that we may be able to add this island to its list of 
permanent habitats. It is worthy of remark that while the 
eastern portion of the Australian continent is the native 
habitat of this specie, the home of the " Freckled n>uck, 
8tictonella ncevosa Gould), a small flock of which appeared 
on the Lake River three years ago, in the western and 
southern portion, so that here we have an admixture of 
species in our chance visitors. 



_ * 



93 



OeCOEEENOE OF GHIBEA BEAGTEATA (GOULD) 

IN TASMANIA. 



By Col. W. V. Leooe, E.A., F.Z.S. 

I liave mucli pleasure in bringing to the notice of the 
Fellows of the Society this evening the occurrence of the 
Australian Drongo in Tasmania, and exhibiting a specimen of 
this bird, which was shot on the 1st of May, at Falmouth, by 
Master Steele. 

Of all the occasional visitants to Tasmania, which have 
from time to time been recorded, the present is, perhaps, 
oneofthemostinteresting,asonreferencetoMr.Eamsay'sdistri. 
bution list it does not appear to hcive been hitherto noticed 
farther south than New South Wales, on the mainland, and 
its occurrence, therefore, in the more southern locality of 
Tasmania, is all the more remarkable. Its having been met with 
on the East Coast, tolerably far North, is a proof that the Bass 
Straits Islands form a halting or resting place for any birds 
that may imder pressure of strong northerly winds, wapder 
beyond their usual habitat in this direction, and taking a 
farther flight southwards arrive on the shores of Tasmania, 
about the locality where this bird was killed. It is note- 
worthy that once before an occasioDal visitant to this island 
was flrst recorded from the same place. I speak of the 
Leaden Flycatcher, Myiagra ruhedula, obtained by myself 
when on a visit to this island in 1868. 

The Drongo now before us was killed on the skirts of the 
bush, a short distance from the sea. It was there, probably, 
frequenting the dead or overspreading branches of trees, and 
following its flycatching habits, when it was espied and fell 
a victim to the youthful sportsman. It is not a bird of long 
flight, merely launching itself about from tree to tree in 
pursuit of flies and beetles, with an occasional stretch, when 
it compasses longer distances, with the object of changing its 
position in quest of food. 

A few remarks on the interesting family to which this bird 
belongs may not be out of place here. 

The Dicruridoe — Drongos or Drongo-shrikes — is a family 
numbering 10 recognised genera containing about 40 species 
(if sub-species or varieties be counted), and which has an 
African, Asian, and Austro-Malayan distribution, extending 
laterally from Western Africa to New Britain, and vertically 
from Japan to South Africa and New South Wales. The 
occurrence, therefore, of the present species in Tasmania 
ertends the southerly range of the family to the farthest point 
yet reached. 



94 OCCTJSBENCE OF CHIBEJL BSACTEATA (GOXTLD) IN TASICANIA. 

In Africa the family is represented by only five species^ 
tliree of which belong to the genus Dtcums, the fourth to 
Buchanga, and universally distributed throughout that 
continent, and the fifth to the peculiar Madagascar genus 
Edoliua, The genera Dicrurus, Chibia, and Buchanga^ contain, 
the most species, and Chibia is the genus so largely repre- 
sented in the Austro-Malayan region, our present bird being 
one of its members ; other species of the genus are found in 
Lombock, Mores, Batchian, Gilolo, Am Islands, Ceram, I^ua^ 
Sirla Islajids, New Britain, Celebes, and Ke Islands. There 
are likewise the peculiar Papuan genus Choetorhynchus, and a 
member of the genus Chaptia (C, Mala/yensis), from Sumatra 
and Borneo to swell the list of Drongos from Austro-Malaya. 

In no single country, however, do the Drongos come so 
prominently forward as in Ceylon, in which there are no fewer 
than five species, three of wluch belong to Buchanga^ and the 
other two to IKf^emt^rtea and 2>id«emterot^(the crested Drongos) 
and the kings of the whole family. The large Eacket-tailed 
Drongo, D. paradiaeiis, which is one of the crested species, is 
remarkable for the varying form of the beautiful outer-tail 
feathers, from which it derives its name, as well as for its 
extraordinary power of mockery. It imitates ahnost every 
bird in the forest, which has loud notes enough to attract itA 
attention, and is a very tyrant in its habits, selecting the Bed 
Woodpeckers of the Ceylon forests for its special attacks. 
I have seen it swoop across open spaces in the jungle at these 
bird, seemingly with the sole object of disturbing them while 
in search of their food ; it would then perhaps dart up to a 
bush and commence mocking other birds with all its power. 



95 

OBSEEVATIONS ON THE VAEIABILITT OP THE 

TASMANIAN VNIO. 

By E. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 

Having collected many specimens of the genus TInio 
inhabiting the northern rivers of Tasmania, daring the last 
seventeen years, more especially those found in varions parts 
of the South Esk Eiver, I have often been much impressed 
with the extreme variability of form and colour exhibited by 
different individuals. This is more particularly remarkable 
if specimens marking different stages of growth are compared 
with each other. 

If specimens marking seven successive stages of growth be 
compared together as in the plate accompanying this paper, It 
will be observed that the variation in form — from youth to 
the adult stage — embraces characteristics which cover most 
of the distinctions upon which many of the Australian forms 
mainly depend for the recognition of distinct specific rank. 
Nor is this variability confined to the form of the shell. In the 
first four stages of growth the examples collected by me near 
Carrick, on the South Esk, correspond in nearly in all respects 
with J7. Wilsoni (Lea), as figured and described by Beeve 
(fig. 472), ^.e., " Shell thin, rather depressed, elliptic, oblong,, 
somewhat retuse below, with delicate and concentric grooves,, 
shining, olive green, obscurely rayed (some examples only) ; 
umbonas ridge rounded and scarcely raised; beak a little 
prominent and not sculpturic ; nacre, bluish white ; primary 
teeth small, oblique, lamellar ; lateral teeth, long, straightish." 

Among these stages of growth some are to be found which 
are with difficulty distinguished from TJ. Stuartii, Adams and 
Angus, especially in its young stage. 

Many of the individuals of the fourth and fifth stages of 
growth agree in most respects with 17, N&peanensis, Conrad, 
while the individual variations of the adult or sixth and 
seventh stages, embrace generally all the characteristics of the 
following Australian forms, viz. — 

Unio Australis. Lamarch 

depressus. Lamarch 

ambiguus. Parreys 

Balonensis. Conrad 

Phillipianus. KtLster 

Moretonicus. Beeve 

Vittatus. Lea 

If such be the variability of our local form in the indivi- 
duals of the various stages of growth, there is good reason for 
the belief that the several forms erected into specific ranks in 



96 OBSEBVATIONS ON THE VARIABILITY OF THE TASHANIAN UNia 

yarious paxts of Australia loaj ultimately prove to be UhnJ 
varieties, or particular stages of growth of one widely 
distributed species. Indeed, any of those named have already 
been linked together in the very interesting communications 
contributed by Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S. (0, Prof. Tait and 
J. Brazier, F.Z.S. ('). For these reasons I, at least, am 
disinclined to accept a fresh synonym for the Taamanian 
variable form. Among the individuals which prevail loeaUy, 
of course, it would be easy to select some one or two types 
which would slightly differ in size and form with any one 
type-figure of allied Australian forms, but such a proceeding 
would be very misleading when we regard the extreme 
variability of our local example. As an illustration of what 
might be done in this way, I may observe th^t the manner in 
which the umboes of the shell are eroded by carbonic acid, 
often produces malformation or some considerable modification 
in the form of adult specimens. 

This is conspicuously the case with one of the specimens 
figured (No. ) ; and it is also remarkable that in tlds same 
specimen the animal has almost completely absorbed the 
primary teeth in both valves, while the lateral teeth have 
been partly absorbed towards their extremities. 

Under these circumstances it is apparent that a satisfactory 
classification of the TJnionidoe of Australia cannot be 
established until the various stages of growth, and the 
individual variability of the forms of each Australian habitat 
have been properly studied. The observations made in this 
paper, together with the accompanying figures of Tasmanian 
forms, will, I hope, be of some help in this direction. 

1 On the Fresh Water Shells of Australia (Journ. Lin. Soc, April, 1882). 

2 Check List of the Fresh Water Shells of Australia (Pro. Lin. Soc. N.S. Wales, 
Jtfay, 1881). 






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97 



THE FRENCH IN VAN DIEMEN'S LAND, 
AND THE FIRST SETTLEMENT AT THE 
DERWENT. 

BY JAMES B. WALKER. 



Prefatory Note. 

As the subject of the present Paper may appear to be 
scarcely within the scope of the objects of the Royal 
Society, it seems proper to state briefly the occasion of 
its being written and submitted to the consideration of the 
Fellows. 

Some two years ago, the Tasmanian Government — of 
which the Hon. James Wilson Agnew, Honorary Secretary 
of the Royal Society, was Premier — following the good 
example set by the Governments of New South Wales, 
Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and New Zealand, 
directed search to be made in the English State Record 
Office for papers relating to the settlement and early 
history of this Colony. The idea originated in a suggestion 
from Mr. James Bonwick, F.R.G.S., the well-known 
writer on the Tasmanian Aborigines, who had been 
employed for years on similar work for various Colonial 
Governments, and to him the task was entrusted by Dr. 
Agnew. Mr. Bonwick searched, not only the Record 
Office, but the papers of the Admiralty, the Foreign 
Office, the Privy Council, and the British Museum, and 
discovered and copied a large mass of documents relating 
to the early days of Tasmania. In the early part of 
this year, these copies, extending over some 640 foolscap 
pages, were received in Hobart, and the present Premier 
— ^the Hon, Philip Oakley Fysh — obligingly allowed me 
to peruse them. I found them to be of great interest. 
They thr6w quite a new light on the causes which led to 
the first occupation of this Island ; gave a complete 
history of Bowen's first settlement at Risdon Cove ; 
and supplied materials for other hitherto unwritten 



96 FRENCH IN VAN DIEMEN's LAND. 

chapters of Tasmanian history. Upon informing Mr. 
Fysh of the result of my examination, he entered warmly 
into my proposal to put before the public in a narrative 
form the information acquired, and placed the documents 
at my disposal for that purpose. It is at Mr. Fysh's 
suggestion that this first paper on the subject is now sub* 
mitted to the Royal Society. The introductory sketch 
of the operations of the French in Tasmania has been 
compiled from the original pubhshed narratives of the 
expeditions. Some history of preceding events seemed- 
necessary for a proper understanding of the transactions 
referred to in the documents under notice. My object 
has been, not to give a history of the discovery and 
early exploration of our island, but merely such an outline 
of the rivalries of the French and English in these seas 
as would suffice for a better apprehension of the motives 
which prompted the first occupation of the Derwent. 

The story of the first settlement of Tasmania, and of 
Lieutenant Bowen's little colony at Hisdon Cove, has 
never yet been told, so far as I can discover. West, 
Fenton, and other authors give meagre, inaccurate, and 
contradictory particulars. No writer records even the 
date of Bowen's landing. Mr. Bonwick's researches now, 
for the first time, enable us to give this missing first 
chapter of Tasmanian history. 

I. — ^The French in Van Diemen's Land. 

The Cambridge Professor of Modern History, in a 
recent remarkable book, has shown that the great English 
event of the 18th century, indeed, the greatest fact of 
modern English History, has been the expansion of 
England into lands beyond the seas — the foundation and 
growth of a Greater Britain. Professor Seeley holds 
that the great hundred years' struggle between England 
and France, lasting from the time of Louis XIV. to the 
days of Napoleon, was, in the main, a duel between 
the two nations for the possession of the New World. 
Even in the English conquest of India the Professor 
traces, not so much the ambition of conquest and the lust 
of empire, as fear of the French and rivalry with them. 
By the close of the last century the issue of the strife 
was no longer doubtful. In India, Wellesley had anni- 
hilated French influence, and was rapidly consolidating the 
English dominion. France had lost for ever her finest 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 99 

possessions in America, though she on her side had 
dealt us a return blow in assisting to tear from England 
her North American Colonies. 

But the struggle was not over, and it was destined to 

Jield yet wider triumphs for the English race. The very 
amikation which France had helped to inflict oh her 
rival was to prove a potent factor in the further expansion 
of "Greater Britain." It is probably no exaggeration 
to say that it is to the hostility of France, and her action 
in America, that we owe in no small measure the British Expansion of 
colonisation of Australia — a work which must ever stand ^'^^^^'i^* 
as the most momentous event of our century. 

The secession of her North American provinces had well 
nigh left England without a colonial empire. English- 
men straightway set themselves to search for a com- 
pensation for their lost possessions, and to find a new 
outlet for their energies and for their surplus population. 
A new world lay ready to their hand. As David 
Livingstone, in our own days, has called into existence 
a new realm in the dark continent of Africa, so in the 
days of our great grandfathers, the genius of Captain 
Cook, England's greatest circumnavigator, had opened 
up a new realm in the unknown and mysterious seas 
of the South. But in these Southern seas, as formerly 
in America and India, England and France were, and 
indeed still are, rivals. In exploration each nation can 
boast of distinguished names. The English navigators, 
Anson, Vancouver, Cook, Furneaux, and Flinders, had 
active competitors in the Frenchmen, Bougainville, 
Marion, Surville, La P^rouse, D'Entrecasteaux, and 
Baudin. Nor were the English the first to entertain the 
design of colonising the new lands. So far back as the 

Sear 1766, an eminent and learned French advocate, 
I. le President Charles de Brosses, in his Histoire des 
Navigations aux Terres Australes, had strongly urged 
upon the Government of France the wisdom of establishing 
a French colony in the South Seas. In the work cited, the 
author passes in review the relative advantages of various 
portions of the Southern world, and concludes that some 
part of Australasia^ offers the best prospect for settle- 
ment, the country being favourable, and access easy, with 

• De Brosses was President of the Parliament of Uijon. To him 
we owe the invention of the name Atistralasia. Nav. aux Terrep 
Aiut)].,80. 



100 FRENCH IN VAN DIEMEN's LAND. 

Pondicherry as a base of operations.* He rejects New 
Zealand and Van Diemens Land as too remote; and 
after hesitating for a while over Quiros' Terre da St. Esprit 
(the coast between Cooktpwn and Townsville), finally 
inclines to New Britain as the most suitable locality. 
With a sagacious foresight, since amply justified by events, 
he declares that any colony planted in these regions would 
hold Ariadne's clew for the whole Southern world. From 
such a centre, every part of this new realm could in 
time be explored and conquered, from the Equator to the 
Antarctic Circle. He elaborately discusses the best means 
of forming such a settlement, and recommends that after 
its first establishment a certain number of convicts, male 
and female, should be sent to it every year to supply the 
necessary labour, and to be in time transformea from a 
danger and burden to the State into industrious and 
useful citizens.t Still further to strengthen the new 
colony, he would deport to it, as free citizens, numbers of 
foundlings, who are in a sense the property of the State 
which has reared them, and can therefore dispose of them 
at its pleasure. He warns his countrymen against the 
danger of waiting until some other nation had proved the 
practicability of a colony by trying the experiment ; for 
when once any nation has gained a foothold it will not 
suffer another to share the territory to which it has thus 
acquired a right by conquest.^ Although various dis- 
covery expeditions were despatched from France to the 
South Seas after the days of De Brosses, the President's 
warning remained unheeded. France missed her oppor- 
tunity, and it was left to England to take the first step, 
and found a new empire in these southern seas, from 
which — justifying the Frenchman's forecast — she did not 
scruple from the very first peremptorily to warn ofi' all 
intruders. 

It was probably due to the fact of the coincidence of 
Captain Cook's discoveries with the loss of the American 
colonies, quite as much as to her naval supremacy, that 
England chanced to be beforehand with her rival. It 
takes an effort of imagination to realise the New World 
which Cook revealed, and how he opened up to men's 
minds the possibilities and promise of the new field for 
enterprise. Until his time. New Holland — ^for as yet 

.♦Nav. aux Terres Aust., ii., 367, et seq. f ^m?-j i«) 28, et seq. 

*' " J iWef., ii., 408. 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 101 

Aastralia was not* — had been little more than a 
geographical expression. Parts of the Northern and 
Western coasts, and one ominous Bay of Storms at the 
South, were laid down more or less vaguely on the maps 
firom the reports of Dutch navigators of the preceding 
century, and those old and infrequent voyagers had 
brought back only reports of forbidding shores and 
desolate territory. The right to these dreary coasts was 
conceded without dispute to the Dutch, for it was a land 
that no man desired. The English had no part in its 
discovery. One Englishman, indeed, and one only — 
William Dampier — had touched on the Western coast 
in the year 1 688, had found a barren sandy soil, inhabited 
by wretched savages, with no redeeming advantage, and 
had left it gladly, thinking it the most miserable spot on 
the face of the earth. Such was the state of affairs when 
Cook appeared on the scene. In 1770, on his return from 
the observation of the Transit of Venus at Tahiti, and in 
pursuance of instructions to try to solve the mystery of the 
great South Land, the Endeavour^ after rediscovering and 
surveying the islands of New Zealand, sailed west till the 
eastern shore of New Holland was sighted. Cook 
explored the coast from Cape Howe to Cape York ; 
landed at Botany Bay, hoisted the English flag, took 
possession of the country in the name of King George, 
and returned home to report the existence of a fine and 
fertile territory in a temperate climate, well suited for 
English settlers. At home the growth of feeling in favour 
of a milder penal code had rendered it necessary to devise 
some scheme for disposing of criminals, and Pitt and the 
English Government resolved to choose Botany Bay as 
the field for a project which should relieve English diflS- 
culties, and lay the foundation of a new colony. The first 
fleet sailed from England, and in January, 1788, Governor 
Phillip planted the first settlement in New Holland, sub- 
stantially on the lines indicated in detail by the French 
President more than a quarter of a century before. 



• Qqiros (1606) named his discovery Austrialia del Espiritu 
Santo, in honor of Philip of Austria. Purchas, in his English 
translation of Quiros' voyage (1625) called it Australia Incognitar— 
(Sfc Petherick's Bibliography of Australasia). Dalrymple, in his 
Collection of Voyages (1770) suggests the name, and Flinders 
revived it in the Introduction to his Voyage to Terra Australis, 
1814, p. iii. 



102 FRENCH IK VAK DIEM£N*S LAND. 

But the French had never ceased to turn longing eyes 
towards the new Southern world. If the mind of Franee 
had not been so fully occupied in the desperate effort to 
maintain her naval power against the English in other 
seas, it is quite possible that to her, and not to England, 
would have fallen the dominion of Australia. And, 
probably, suspicion of French designs had its effect in 
hastening English action. Already, in 1785, the French 
Government had despatched the celebrated La Perouse 
with "an expedition to circumnavigate the world, and 
explore the coasts of New Holland, doubtless with some 
more or less definite design of settlement. When, on the 
26th January, 1788, La Perouse, with his ships, the 
JBoussole and the Astrolabe, sailed into Botany Bay, he 
found an English fleet at anchor there, having arrived five 
days before him. Governor Phillip had just left the Bay 
in the Supply to find in Port Jackson a more suitable 
site for a town ; and on the very day La P6rouse's ships 
Collins' New came to an anchor the city of Sydney was founded. The 
&)uth Wales, French remained in Botany Bay for six weeks, the 
English and they maintaining a friendly and pleasant 
intercourse. Collins says that the French were very 
unfavourably impressed with the prospects of the settle- 
ment, the officers having been heard to declare that in 
their whole voyage they had never found so poor a 
country, or such wretched people as the natives of New 
jbid,U2o. South Wales. On the 10th March La Perouse sailed 
from New South Wales to vanish into space — ^the mystery 
which shrouded his fate not being solved until nearly 40 
years had elapsed. 

The English foothold on the Australian continent was 
now securelv established, and disregarding the western 
half, to which the Dutch were still considered as having a 
title — something like their present title to Western New 
Guinea — England, by solemn proclamation, formally laid 
claim to the whole eastern territory from Cape York to the 
extreme South Cape of Van Diemen's Land, and as far 
west as the 135th degree of east longitude. 

Still France did not relinquish her dreams of colonisa- 
tion, but seemed to cherish the idea of disputing with 
her great rival her exclusive possession of the new 
territories. There is reason to think that the French 
designs, if ever distinctly formulated, pointed to the 
southern extremity of Van Diemen's Leind as the locality 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 103 

for a settlement. The Terre de Diemen and the Baie des 
Tempfites exercised a particular fascination over successive 
French navigators, and excited the attention of the French 
(jovernment. It was a spot known only for a forbidding 
rock-bound coast, washed by an angry sea, and lashed 
by perpetual tempests. For more than a century after 
its discovery by Abel Tasman in 1642 no European had 
invaded its solitudes, until on the 4th March, 1772, the 
French navigator, Marion du Fresne, anchored his ships, 
the Mascarin and the Castries^ in the Frederic Hendric 
Bay of Tasman*. He remained there six days, landed, 
and attempted to establish intercourse with the natives, 
the attempt resulting in an encounter in which the fir^t 
Tasmanian aborigine fell under the fire of European 
muskets. After Marion, the English navigators Fur- 
neaux (1773) Cook (1777), Cox (1789), and Bligh (1788 
and 1792) paid ptissing visits to Adventure Bay ; but it 
was a Frenchman, again, who made the first survey of the 
approaches to the Derwent. The instructions to La 
Perouse in 1786 had directed him to explore this, the 
extreme southern point of New Holland; and the last La Porouse, 
letter written by him from Botany Bay, on 7 February, 7Md,'iv!,203. 
1788, notes his intention to proceed there before his 
return, — an intention there is some reason to believe he 
executed^. I'he exploration was made four years later 
by Admiral Bruny D'Entrecasteaux, Commander of the 
expedition sent out by the National As ;enibly in 1791 to 
search for the missing navigator. It was to Storm Bay 
that his ships, tlie Recherclie and JSsperance, first directed 
their course from the Cape of Good Hope. The autumn 
of 1792 was far advanced before the French Admiral 
sighted the basaltic cliffs of Van Diem en's Land. 
Through an error of his pilot, Itaonl. he missed 
Adventure Bay, which he had intended to make, and on 
21st April cast anchor at the entrance of the inlet after- 
wards known to the English as Storm Bay Passage, but 
which now more fittingly bears the name of D'Entre- 

* This is not the Frederic.'k Henry Bay of the colonists, but 
that marked on the maps as Marion Baj', on the East Coast. 

t Bont's Alniaiiac for 1827 states that in the year 1809 Captain 
Bunker, of the ship Vntus^ tbund, burird on the shore of Adventure 
Bay, a bottle containing let tejs iron I La Perouse dated one month 
after his leaving Port Jackson. In the year 1826 Captain Peter 
DilloT discovered traces of La Perouse's expedition at Vanikoro, in 
the Santa Cruz Group. 



104 



FRENCH IN VAN DIEMBN'S LAND. 



casteaux Channel, after its diseoverer. Recherche Bay, 
close at hand, offered a safe and commodious harbour for 
the ships ; and here they remained for a month, their 
boats exploring and surveying the channel and the various 
inlets on the coast, while the scientific men journeyed 
inland, made observations, collected specimens of natural 
history, and revelled in the examination of a new flora 
and fauna. The natives, at first timid and distrustful, 
were soon conciliated, and showed themselves most fi'iendly 
to the Europeans. On the 17th May the ships entered 
the Channel, and the French viewed with astonishment 
the extent of the harbours which unfolded themselves to 
their delighted gaze, affording a secure shelter spacious 
enough to contain easily the combined fleet of all the 
maritime powers of Europe. After a fortnight employed 
in examining the Channel, the Admiral sailod out of th > 
Passage into Storm Bay, rounded the Pilltrr, ai»d pro- 
ceeded to New Caledonia. In J;he summer of tlr^, 
following year he returned to Van Diemeu's Land, and 
spent another five weeks in the Channel ^21 January 
to 28 February, 1793). During this second stay the 
French completed the surveys which they had begun 
in the preceding autumn, explored Norfolk Bay and 
Frederick Henry Bay (Baie du Nord), and ascended 
20 miles up the Derwent, which they named. Kiviere 
du Nord. Flinders, with his usual generous recognition 
of the work of previous navigators, says of the charts 
of Beautems Beaupre, the hydrographer of the exy)edition. 
that " they contain some of the finest specimens of 
marine surveying perhaps ever made in a new conntry." 
Labillardiere, the naturalist and historian of the expedition, 
devotes more than 1 60 pages of his work to a description 
of the Terre de Diemen. He speaks with enthusiasm of 
rec^ercht^e La ^^^ country and its productions, of its magnificent forests 
ne-iorkndi^^* ^^ blue-gum and other timber, of its soil and fertility, and 
428— II.', p. 80.' 'of the amiability of its ])eaceful inhabitants, and dilates 
with pardonable pride and satisfaction on the grandeur 
and extent of the harbours which French enterprise had 
discovered in this hitherto dreaded coast. The Icugthenerl 
stay of D'Entrecasteaux, the minute and elaborate nature 
of his surveys, and the space his historian devotes to a 
description of the country and its advantages, indicate 
some further object than mere geographical research. 
The names which stud our southern coast, and are 



Flinders' voy. 
Intro., p. 93. 



Lablllardldre, 



BY J4MB$ B. -^ALKE^. 106 

familiar in our moutlis as hoiiseliold words, — Bruny 
Island, D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Recherche Bay, Port 
Esperance, River Huon, Cape Raoul, and others, — stand 
a perpetaal monument to the memory of the French navi- 
gi^tors. 

And now, at length, English explorers appear upon the 
scene. In 1 794, Lieut. John Hayes, of the Indian navy, 
was despatched from India in the ships Duke of Clarence 
and Duchess on a voyage of discovery, including the 
exploration of the coasts of Van Diemen's Land. He 
sailed up the Riviere da Nord — which he re-christened 
the Derwent — as fai- as Herdsman's Cove. As the 
admirable charts of D'Entrecasteaux were unknown to the 
English until long years afier, it was on Hayes' sketch Flinders* inti 
that subsequent visitors had tq rely, and in many cases ^* 
the names he gave have been substituted for those given 
by the French. 

In December, 1797, t.!)e adventurous Bass, leaving 
Port Jackson in an open wh^leboat, had solved the vexed 
problem ol the strait which bears the name and immortalises 
the intrepid daring of its discoverer ; and late in the year 
1798, Bass and Flinders, in the Norfolli, a little sloop of 
25 tons, sailed through Bass' Strait, explored Port Dal- * 
rymple, circumnavigated Tasmania, and mqide a careful 
examination and survey of the Derwent and its a])proaches 
and neighbourhood. 

On the 19th October, 1800, when Bontfparte was First 
Consul, an expedition, consisting of two ships, the Geo- 
gruphe and Naturaliste, sailed out of Havre, amidst great 
demonstrations, for a voyage of discovery round the world. 
Commodore J^audin, in iho Gfo(/ro.p/ie, was chief of the 
expedition; Captain Hamelin commanded the NaturaJisie. 
Althouf2:h fierce war was ra«:iu2: at the time between the 
two nations, the English Admiralty granted a passport or 
safe conduct to Baudin, on the ground that scientific 
expeditions should be exempt from hostilities. Notwith- 
standing these C()nrt(?sie.s ,ot' tlio Enghsli Government to 
the French commandei', it was shrewdly suspected tliat 
the real design of the expedition was to s])y out the state 
of the English possessions in Nqw Holland, and, if 
practicable, hoist tlio standard of Bonaparte at some con- 
venipiit j)oint of tiic coast and establish a French colony. Eainhurgii, 
Certain it Is tliat Bandin's instructions — afterwards pub- jJugj'cu's^^i^iJc 
iisheJ in P<^;:on's six^count of tlie voyage — give colour ,to PortPhiiiip,ii 



106 FRENCH IN VAN BIEMEN's LAND. 

the belief. They direct the captain to proceed direct 
from the Mauritius to the southern point of the Terre de 
Di6men, double the South Cape, carefully examine the 
Canal D'Entrecasteaux in every part, ascend all the rivers 
in this portion of the island as far as they were navigable, 
explore all the eastern coast, carefully survey Banks' 
Straits, sail through Bass' Strait, ana after exploring 
Hunter's Islands, proceed to the continent of New 
Holland and search for the great strait which was sup- 
posed to separate the eastern part occupied by the 
English, from the western portion claimed by the Dutch. 
All this certainly looks very like some further object than 
geographical discovery. The French expedition doubtless 
stirred the English to renewed activity, and through the 
influence of Sir Joseph Banks, Earl Spencer (then at the 
head of the Admiralty) consented, early in 1801, to 

Flinders, i., p. 4. despatch the Investigator, a sloop of 334 tons, to niako 
a complete survey of the coast of New Holland. The 
command was given to Lieut. Matthew Flinders, who had 
already distinguished himself by some daring explorations 
in company with Dr. George Bass : and amply did he 

ibidy p. 15. justify his appointment. The ship's complement was 88 
persons, amongst whom served, as a midshipman, John 
Franklin, afterwards destined, as Sir John Franklin, to 
become the Governor of Tasmania, and to die in solving 
the problem of the North- West Passage. The Investigator 
sailed from Spithead on the 18th July, 1801, and sighted 
Cape Leeuwin on 6th December following. Meantime 
Commodore Baudin, deviating from his instructions, had 
gone to the western coast of Australia, and it was not until 

pferon, 1, p. 218. the 13th January, 1802, that he sighted the De Witts 
Islands (known to our fishermen as *' The Witches "),. off 
the south coast of this island. The French commander 
anchored next day off Partridge Island, in the Channel ; 
remained there until the 17tii February — 36 days; 
occupied the warm summer season in making a very 
complete examination and survey of the Channel, the 
River Huon and Port Cygnet, Frederick Henry and 
Norfolk Bays, and exploring the Derwent carefully nearly 
as far as Bridgewater. The French had many interviews 
with the natives, doing everything in their power to con- 

/wd, pp.218. ciUate them, and with complete success. Peron, the 
naturalist, who wrote the history of the expedition, 
devotes nearly 100 pages of his first volume to Van 



BT JAMES B. WALKER. 107 

Diemen's Land. He gives a glowing description of the 
beauty and capabiKties of the country, and a poetical i\iu\ 
highly-coloured picture of the kindliness and good qualitivs 
of the aborigines. On leaving Storm Bay the French rnoji 
sailed for ttie east coast; they examined Maria Island, ivi on, i.,pp, 
visited the Schoutens and Freycinet's Peninsula, and snr- '^^^•'''^• 
veyed the remainder of the coast until they reached Banks* 
Strait. Here the ships were separated by a storm. The 
Naturaliste surveyed Banks' Strait, and explored the 
Hunter Islands and other islands in Bass' Strait; and the 
Geographe sailed for the south coast of New Holland — 
or, as Baudin christened it, Napoleon Land — to search for 
the channel which was supposed to divide New Holland. 
The French expedition had surveyed the whole coast-line 
of Van Diemen s Land, with the exception of the west 
coast from Cape Grim to Port Davey. 

On the 8th April, 1802, the ships of Baudin and Flinders, i.,p.i89. 
Flinders met off Kangaroo Island. Flinders states that 
Baudin was communicative of his discoveries in Van 
Diemen's Land, and declares that he, on his part, furnished 
the French commander with every information as to his 
own explorations of the coast, and gave him directions for 
his guidance. Peron, in his brief notice of the interview p6ron,i.p.326. 
between the two commanders, simply remarks that 
Flinders showed great reserve on the subject of his own 
operations. The object of this suppression of facts by the 
Frenchman will appear later on. 

On the 2oth April, 1802, Captain Hamelin, in the 
Naturalistey arrived off Port Jackson. His provisions 
were exhausted, his crew prostrated by scurvy. He was Jdi^ p. ses. 
in urgent need of succour. Yet he approached Port Jack- 
son with many misgivings. War, so far as lie knew, was 
raging in all its bitterness and fury between France and 
England, and though he bore a safe conduct from the 
Admiralty, he fully anticipated that he would not be 
allowed to enter the Port, or, if he was, that the aid 
he so much needed would be refused him. But his doubts 
were soon dispelled, for, as he says, he was instantly 
welcomed by the English with magnanimous generosity. 
Not only were all the resources of the country placed at 
the disposal of the French captain, but the most dis- 
tinguished houses of the colony were thrown open to 
his officers, and during the whole time they remained they 
^experienced that delicate and affectionate hospitality 



108 FRENCH IN VAN I^^|t^ f^ LAND, 

which is equally honorable to those vfh^ oppi^r H aod 
to those who are its objects." The WWS ^f the Peace 
of Amiens (proclaimed 27 March, ISQ^,) whiab reached 
Sydney a short time later, though it i^ade intercourse 
more pleasant, " could not,'* PeroA s^ys, " inc^aase the 
kindness which the English displayed tftW^rds us." A 
fortnighl. later (May 9) Flinders, who bfid Goo^pjeted a 
thorough survey of the South C^^^st, fu*]4ir§4 at Port 
Jackson in the Investigator, 

Baudin, in the Gtographe^ had bi^n ^oii^e ati:^ wpoks on 
the South coast of New HoUaijd, r^disppveriftg and 
renaming the discoveries already made by Flir^dPF^* His 
crew were suffering terribly from scurvy, ^pd his pfficers 
urged his going to Port Jackson to recruit. Whether the 
Commodore doubted the nature of his reception, or whether 
the attractions of the Terre de Dierpen proved irresistible, 
does not appear, but Baudin disregarded their protests, 
and to their intense chagrin, though winter Wjaj^ fast 
approaching, headed hig ship for the cold and $tprmy 
south, and on 20th May once ?4ore cast S-Bi/cbpr in 
Adventure Bay. 'J'he state of his ship's company, how- 
ever, was such that after oply two days' stay hp was 
obliged to give orders to sail for Sydqey. Bgffled by 
contrary winds, battered by vix)Jent storms, i^^rith a cfew 
unable, from illness, to handle the ship, it tpok J^iip a 
whole month to make the passagjc. On the 20th June 
the Gi'ographe approached jihe hestds of Port J^kson. 
Not only were they apprehensive respecting the ^e of 
the Naturaliste^ and ?is to the naturae of their p^wn 
reception, but the condition pf the cvQjff w^s most 

Fiindor?, 1., 230. deplorable. Flinders says "it was grievoigis to siee the 
miserable condition to which both officers and c^^w were 
reduced by scurvy, tliere b,ei9g% according ito the Com- 
manders account, out of 170 xi\&f^ »ot nvore th^n 12 

Pcron,!.,]!. c-io. capable of doing their duty." Perpn quotes the ]Co|n- 
mander s journal as stati;:ig .that but io^ of the ^r<ej»% 
including a midshipman, w^re abje to keep th/e deck, jaji?d 
he adds there was not one ^on boijurd who was fr^e 
from the disease. Many had 4ied, aijd the surgeon, 
M. Taillefer, gives a horrible description of the suffe^ipgs 

jW(7,p. 3!3. Qf the survivors.^' Ijn fact, on arrivi^ag off Port .Jackson 

* The scurvy was at this period the scourge of the naval and 
mercantile marine, and especially of discovery exjjeditions. Van- 
couver attributes the high position £Uiglaiiid hod «JM;fdP€d, in a 



BT JAMES B. WALKER. 109 

the Geographe was unable to make the harbour, until 
Groyemor King had sent the Investigators boat with a 
number of hands to work the vessel into port. It is 
hardly necessary to say that the distressed FrenchiniMi 
were received with the greatest kindness. The numerous 
sick were removed to the Colonial Hospital, and tenderly 
cared for by the English surgeons. Whatever they had 
need of that the place could furnish was placed at their 
disposal, and the Governor gave the Commander an 
unlimited credit at the Public Treasury to enable him to 
re victual and refit, and also purchase a third vessel. More Poron,p.377. 
than this: the Colony was at the time in gieat want of 
fresh provisions, floods on the Hawkesbury having 
destroyed the wheat harvest, salt meat was exceedingly 
scarce, and fi*esh meat almost unprocurable ; yet so soon 
as the strangers' necessities were knowj], Government 
oxen were killed, and by a common consent the ration of 
wheat issued to garrison and inhabitants, including the 
Governor and officers, was reduced one-half, so that the 
scurvy-stricken crew might not want what was so essential 
for their recovery. This statement is made on the authority Fimders voy., 
of a letter written by Baudin himself. Both he and Peron "' ^' '^^* 
handsomely acknowledge the kindness they received, and 
exhaust their phrases in describing the affectionate and 
obliging care of Governor King and his unexampled 
conduct, the courtesy and unremitting attention of the 
inhabitants, the generosity of the Government, the absolute 
freedom accorded to their movements, and the sentiments 
of gratitude which these kindnesses inspired. 

I have dwelt particularly on these incidents, not only 
because it is matter of pardonable pride lo record how 

^eat degree, to the attention her captains paid to n^ival hygiene. 
The French discovery crews always suffered terribly from want 
of proper precautions, and from Peron's account Baudin's ships 
were miserably victualled, and their commander culpably indifferent 
to the health of his men. Out of 23 scientific men who left France 
in the Geographe and Naturaliste only three returned to their 
country. Out of 219 men who sailed with D'Entrecasteaux, 89 died 
before the ships returned to Mauritius. The French voyages ot 
discovery were singularly fatal to their commanders. Besides La 
Perouse, who perished with all his ship's company, not one of the 
commanders who visited Tasmania lived to return to his native 
country. Marion du Fresne was killed at New Zealand. Admiral 
D'Entrecasteaux died at sea off the Admiralty Isles, and his second 
in command, Huon Kermadec, at New Caledonia. Baudin himself 
died at Mauritius on the voyage home. 



110 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT. 

chivalrously Englishmen can behave towards an enemy 
in distress, but because of the striking contrast which the 
aid and courtesies extended to the Frenchmen by Governor 
King and the English colonists offer to the treatment 
Flinders experienced from the Governor of a French 
Colony within little more than a year of the arrival of 
Baudin's expedition at Sydney. In December, 1803, on 
his way to England in the little Cumberland^ Flinders was 
obliged to put into Mauritius in distress ; when, in spite 
of his safe conduct from the French Admiralty, his ship 
was seized as a prize, he himself subjected to close 
imprisonment, his papers and charts confiscated, and 
when, after three years, tardy orders for his release came 
from France, he was detained on one pretext or another 
until 1810, six years and a half after his seizure. In the 
meantime the narrative of Baudin's voyage was published 
in Paris, all mention of Flinders' explorations being 
suppressed, and the credit of his discoveries being claimeq 
by the French for themselves. In Sydney, at any rate, 
the French oflScers had made no pretensions to priority of 
discovery, for Flinders tells us that Lieut. Freycinet (the 
joint editor of the history of the voyage), remarked to 
him, in Governor King's house — " Captain, if we had 
not been kept so long picking up shells and collecting 
butterflies at Vun Diemen's Land, you would not have 
discovered the South Coast [of New Holland] before us ;" 
and Flinders, in Peron's presence, showed his chart to 
Baudin and pointed out the limits of his discovery. 
Flinders generously acquits Peron of blame in the. matter, 
and says that he believes his candour to have been equal 
to his acknowledged abilities, and that what he wrote was 
from overruling authority, and smote him to the heart. 
He attributes the suppressions in Peron's work, and his 
own treatment, to the secret instructions of the French 
FiiuderH voy., Govemmeut, and possibly to have "been intended as the 
forerunner of a claim to the possession of the countries so 
said to have been first discovered by French navigators." 

11. The first Settlement at the Derwent. 

The foregoing sketch of the operations of the French 
navigators in these waters will, I tliink. have made it 
pretty plain that the French Government entertained 
serious designs of planting a colony at the first convenient 
opportunity somewhere in Tasmania, presumably in the 



11., p. 470. 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. Ill 

neighbourhood of the Derwent. How disastrous to the 
English colonies in Australia the successful accounplish- 
ment of such a design would have been we can partly 
appreciate from our recent experience of the trouble and 
vexation caused to the Australians by the existence of a 
French penal settlement even so far removed from our 
shores as New Caledonia. 

The following particulars of the circumstances which 
were the immediate occasion of the English occupation 
of Van Diemen's Land are drawn almost wholly from 
unpublished documents preserved in the English State 
Record OflSce, and which I have already referred to as 
having been lately copied by Mr. Bonwick for the Tas- 
manian Government. They will show that the colonisa- 
tion of Tasmania was not au isolated or chance event, but 
one link of a chain, — a ripple in the great current of 
influence which has been shaping English and European 
liistory. 

On the 18th November, 1802, after a six months' stay, 
the two French ships sailed out of Port Jackson for Bass' 
Straits. The Naturaliste was intended to take home the 
sick, leaving the Geographe to complete her voyage of 
discovery alone. Governor King had not been without 
misgivings respecting the movements of the French, and 
had given expression to them in a despatch to Lord King to Hobart, 
Hobart written a few days before ; but his suspicions only 23 Nov. 1802, p. 
proceeded from the circumstance of the long time they 
were engaged in surveying at Storm Bay Passage. 
Moreover, the recent discovery of Bass' Straits, by 
proving Van Diemen's Land to be an island, had given 
rise to a new cause for apprehension, since it might now 
be fairly contended that the island could not form part of 
the territory of New South Wales, and that the English, 
having no prior right of discovery, could not make good 
their claim, while the French expeditions by their 
explorations and surveys had established a superior title. 
But a few hours after the French ships were out of ihia. 
sight, a piece of gossip reached the Governor's ears 
which fairly startled him out of his equanimity. This 
was a report that some of the French officers had stated, 
in conversation with Lieut.-Colonel Paterson and others, 
possibly in a convivial moment, that a principal object 



112 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT. 

of their voyagt3 was to fix on a place at Van Die- 
men's Land for a settlement. The alarmed Governor 
sent off fortlnvith to Colonel Paterson for more precise 
information, and the answer he received, on that same 
Tuesday morning on which the ships had sailed, more 
Paterson to than confirmed his worst fears. Not only had the talk 
S^*p!^8L^^' among the French officers been so general that the 
Colonel could not understand how it was that the 
Governor had not heard of it, but one of the oflScers had 
sent Paterson a chart, and had pointed out the very spot 
selected — the place where they and D'Entrecasteaux also 
had spent so much time — the Baie du Nord [now known 
as Frederick Henry Bay], in Storm Bay Passage, or, as 
the French called it, Le Canal D'Entrecasteaux. King, 
of course, knew very well that Baudin could, at most, 
take formal possession, for, with his small and sickly crew, 
and without stores or provisions, he had not the means to 
found a colony. There was no immediate danger on that 
score, but he did not know what recommendations might- 
have been sent to the French Government, or how soon a 
properly equipped expedition might be on its way from 
France to plant a settlement, and, being a man of action, 
accustomed to act promptly and on his own responsibility, 
without waiting for instructions that might be twelve 
months in reaching him, he proceeded forthwith to take 
steps to prevent an invasion of His Majesty's territory of 
New South Wales, of which territory he was the guardian. 
His first diflSculty was to find a ship. The naval strength 
at the command of the Governor of New South Wales 
was not large. His Majesty's ships in these seas were 
few in number, small, and often unseaworthy, and there 
was a constant difliculty in finding vessels that could be 
spared for any special service. Of those under his orders 
the Buffalo was essential at Port Jackson, the Lady 
Nelson was oflF north with Flinders, the Porpoise^ the 
only other king's ship, was away at I'ahiti salting pork 
for the necessities of the colony. But there was in JPort 
Jackson a little armed schooner called the Cumberland, 
which had been built at Sydney a few years before for 
the purpose of pursuing runaways. She was only 29 tons 
burden, it is true, but she would do to checkmate French 
designs. This little craft was therefore hastily prepared 
for sea, a crew was selected, Lieut. Chas. Kobbins, 
master's mate of H.M.S. Buffalo, was put in command, 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 113 

and in four days she was ready to sail. Robbiris received King's ordei-s to 

, ^ /.•'. , ,. . <, . ^, , ' J. ' . ■ Robbins, 22 Nov. 

several sets oi instructions, indicating the uncertainty into 1802, p. 65-72. 
which the Governor was thrown. His general instructions 
required him to proceed without loss of time to Storm 
Bay l^assage, — ^" the dominion of which, and all Van 
Diemen's Land, being," says King, " within the limits 
of His Majesty's territory and my government," — and 
to fix on the most eligible places in Frederick Henry 
Bay and the River Derwent, agreeable to the separate 
instructions on that head. If, however, Robbins met p. 65-72 
with southerly or westerly winds, he was to go to King's p- ^^• 
Island and Port Phillip, for the examination and survey 
of which places he had separate instructions, and after- 
wards proceed to Storm Bay Passage. He was to hoist 
the English flag whenever on shore, placing a guard at 
each place, who were to turn up the ground and sow 
seeds. As the Porpoise was intended to follow with 
soldiers and settlers immediately on her return from 
Tahiti, he was to keep the King's colours flying to 
indicate the intended settlement. Captain Robbins was 
also charged with a letter from King to the French com- 
mander, if he should happen to overtake him in Bass' 
Straits; and he received very precise instructions respecting 
the action he was to take lo assert English rights if the 
French ventured to infringe them. Having his prepara- 
tions made and his little vessel ready for sea. King sat 
down to report to Lord Hobart the position of aSairs. 
He tells the Secretary for War* that, on hearing Colonel 
Paterson's report, he had lost no time in expediting the 
Cumberland, armed colonial schooner; that she was on 
the point of sailing, and that, from the arrangements he 
had made, His Majesty's claim to the threatened part of 
this territory could not be disputed ; for, whatever might 
be in contemplation, it could not be performed by Baudin 
in his present condition ; it was only necessary to guard 
against any action of the French Government which 
Baadin might have recommended. It was his intention, 
therefore, when the Porpoise arrived from Tahiti, to 
despatch her with a small establishment to the most 
eligible spot at Storm Bay Passage, and also with one for 
Port Phillip or King's Island. 

•The Secretai^ for War was also at that time Minister for the 
Colonies. 



114 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT. 

Fiemming's The Cumberland sailed the same day (23rd November). 

ouma. gj^^ j^^j ^^ board Mr. Charles Grimes* (Acting Sur- 

veyor-General), M*Callura (the surgeon), Jas. Flemming 
(the gardener), and three marines ; with the crew, 17 
persons. In the journal t kept by Flemming, the 
gardener, who was sent to report on the soil and pro- 
ductions of the almost unknown regions to which they 
were going, we have a chronicle of their proceedings.^ 
They had a quick run of two days to Cape Howe, but, 
baffled by contrary winds and calms, were nine days more 
in reaching Kent s Group, and it was not until the 8th 
December — a fortnight after leaving Port Jackson — that 
they made Sea Elephant Bay, on the east coast of King's 
Island. Here they found the French ships lying at 
anchor, and at 5 o'clock on that summer evenmg the 
little Cumberland dropped anchor alongside them. The 
Naturaliste was on the point of sailing for France. 
Captain Robbins boarded the Geographe^ announced his 
mission, and delivered to the Commodore the Governor's 
letter. It was short, and friendly in tone. King begins 
by remarking that his intention to send a vessel to the 
southward to fix on a place for a settlement was already 
known to Baudin himself. He then mentions the report 
that had led to the departure of this vessel being hastened, 
and goes on to say that, while wholly disbelieving that 
the French commander had any thought of such a design 
as had been imputed to him, yet it seemed but proper that 
he should be informed of the rumour, and of the orders the 
captain of the Cumberland had received in consequence. 
The version of the Governor's letter given by Peron in 
his history of the expedition represents it as couched in 
more forcible and less conciliatory terms. Peron says 
that hardly had they anchored at King's Island when 
the little schooner Cumberland arrived from Port Jackson, 
bringing Surveyor-General Grimes, who had been sent 
by Governor King to make a declaration, as singular 
in its form as it was remarkable in its object, "A 
report having reached me," wrote Mr. King to our Com- 

* Grimes was one of the first, if not the first, to cross Tasmania 
from north to south. — See Flinders' Chart, 1807. 

t Fiemming's Journal was disinterred from the Records in the 
Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, by Mr. J. J. Shillinglaw, in 
1877, and was printed in that gentleman's " Historical Records of 
Port Phillip." Melbourne, 1879. X Ibid, pp. 16-30. 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 115 

mander, "that you entertain a design of leaving some 
people either at Diemen's Land or on the south-west 
coast of New South Wales, to found a French Colony 
there, I deem it my duty to declare to you. Monsieur 
le Commandant, that by virtue of the proclamation of 
1788, whereby England formally took possession, all these 
countries form an integral part of the British Empire, 
and that you cannot occupy any part of them without 
breaking the friendly relations which have been so recently 
re-established between the two nations. I will not even 
attempt to conceal from you that such is the nature of 
my positive instructions on this point that it will be my 
duty to oppose by every means in my power the execution 
of the design you are supposed to have in view. 
Accordingly, H.M.S. Cumberland has received orders 
not to leave you until the officer in command of her is 
convinced that your proceedings are wholly unconnected 
with any attempt at invasion of the British territory in 
these parts."* With King's own copy of his letter before 
usf we can hardly accept Peron's version as accurate. 
Probably, while professing to give the letter textually, 
he really relied on his memory, and interwove tne 
substance of the English Captain's verbal communications 
to the Commodore. It is suflSciently clear, however, that 
Bobbins, with the downrightness of a sailor, had left 
nothing doubtful or ambiguous with respect to the object 
of bis mission. During the week after the arrival of the 
Cumberland and the delivery of the despatches, the 
representatives of the two nations fraternised and inter- 
changed hospitalities on the disputed shores of King's 
Island. The French meanwhile set up an observatory 
on land, and pitched their tents near the beach. Perhaps 
it was this proceeding that confirmed Bobbins' suspicions, 
or perhaps the French Commander would not give him 
the assurances he wanted ; at all events, before the end 
of the week the Englishman made up his mind that the 
time for decisive action had come; so on the 14th he 
made a formal landing in full view of the Frenchmen, 
marched his little party to the rear of the tents, hoisted 
His Majesty's colours on a large tree, posted at the foot of 
the tree his guard of three marines with loaded muskets, 



♦ P^ron'fl Voyage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 11 ; and see Appendix B. 
t See Appendix B. 



116 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT, 

fired three volleys, gave three cheers, and took formal 
possession of the island in the name of King George. 
This defiant assertion of British claims by a handful of 
English sailors in the teeth of ten times their number of 
traditional enemies, might well have wounded the vanity 
of people less susceptible than Frenchmen, and we need 
not therefore wonder that we hear of no more mutual 
hospitalities. Peron remarks that " such 'proceedings may 
probably seem childish to people unacquainted with the 
English policy, but to the statesman such formalities 
have a more important and serious aspect. By these 
repeated public declarations England continually aims at 
strengthening her claim, and establishing her rights in a 
positive fashion, and uses these pretexts to repel, even by 
force of arms, all nations who may desire to form settle- 
ments in these lands.""*^ Peron must often have recalled 
to mind the warning of the President of the Parliament 

* The high-handed and exclusive policy of the English is a 
frequent topic of complaint in Peron's work. Thus, he relates that 
two days after leaving Port Jackson they fell in with a schooner, 
on board of which w?is a M. Coxwell from the Isle of France, who 
had accompanied another Frenchman, Lecorre, on a sealing cruise 
to Bass' Straits in the Enterpinse^ of Bordeaux. He goes on 
to explain that while other nations had been indifferent to the 
importance of New Holland, England had in 1788 despatched a fleet 
thither and founded a Colony, and had, without remark from 
European statesmen, taken possession of half the Continent. 
Emboldened by the silence of other Governments, the British 
Government had published the instructions to Governor Phillip 
claiming the country from Cape York to the South Cape flat. 10° to 
48" S.), and as far to the West as the 185th parallel, besiaes all the 
islands in the Pacific, and had established a policy of exclusion of 
other nations from the fisheries. So that on the arrival of the 
Enterprise^ Governor King, although peace had been declared, 
warned Lecorre ofi' the coast under a threat of seizing his vessel, 
and though he finally allowed the Frenchmen to fish at the Two 
Sisters, it was only on the condition that he should undertake not 
to enter Bass' Straits, and that no vessels in future would be allowed 
even so much indulgence. Lecorre's vessel was wrecked at the Two 
Sisters, and he himself and two-thirds of his crew perished. Peron 
says it is plain that the intentions of the English Government 
are so hostile that it will be dangerous for other speculators to 
venture into these waters. (Peron^s Voyage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 8.) 

Governor King, in a despatch to the Admiralty (9th May, 1803^, 
states his intention of restricting seal fishing by foreigners ; and m 
another despatch to Lord Hobart, referring to Lecorre's vessel, 
remarks witn some satisfaction that the French schooner had been 
wrecked at the Cape Barren Islands, *' which may stop more 
adventurers from that quarter." 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 117 

of Dijon half a century before, and reflected with some 
bitterness how amply the prophecy had been fulfilled. 

The French Commander's answer to Governor King's 
letter is worthy of notice as showing that the French had 
by no means relinquished their claim to a share of 
Australian territory. His letter is dated from the 
Oeographe^ and bears date the 3rd of the month JSivose, 
in the 11th year of the French Republic (23rd December, 
1802). He tells King that the arrival of the Cumberland^ 
and espedally the letter which the Governor had done him 
the honour to write, would have surprised him iC Mr. 
Robbins had not, by his conduct, made clear to him the 
true motive of the expedition which had been despatched 
afler him in such headlong liaste. " But perhaps," says 
the Commodore, "' after all it may have come too late, for 
several days before the gentleman who commands it 
thought proper to hoist his flag above our tents, we had 
taken care to place in four prominent parts of this island — 
which I intend shall continue to bear your name — proofs 
sufficient to show the priority of our visit." He then 
declares that the report — of which they suspected Captain 
Anthony Fenn Kemp to have been the author— was 
entirely without foundation, and he does not believe that 
his officers or scientific men had by their conduct given 
any ground for it. " But," he concludes, " in any case, 
you ought to have been perfectly certain that if the French 
Government had given me orders to establish myself in 
any place, either at the nortii or at the south of Diemen's 
Land — discovered by Abel Tasman — I should have done 
so without keeping it a secret from you.""* 

A week after the date of his letter to King (31st 
December), Baudin sailed from King's Island for the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, and from thence made his way to 
Mauritius, where he died. Surveyor-General Grimes and 
Flemming spent some six weeks in a thorough exploration 
of King's Island.f Their report of the island as a place 

* See Appendix B for Baudin' s letter. 

t The bland was in those days a favourite resort of sealers. 
Peron hays that when they reached Sea Elephant Bay the beacli 
was covered with sea elephants, their brown colour making thoni 
strikingly visible on the white strand, vhere they lay like great 
black r.*cks. At the approach ol* the i'rench soiiio of the aniiniils 
planned into tlie sea, roaring irightfully, while others reniaiiud 
motionless on the sand gazing on their visitors with a placid and 
inditi'erent air. In the same year Captain Campbell, of tlie Sivixc 



118 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DEHWENT. 

for settlement was unfavourable. They then proceeded in 

the Cumberland to Port Phillip, where they remained six 

weeks, Grimes making an accurate survey of ihe Port 

both by sea and land, discovering the River Yarra, and 

bringing away a more favourable impression of the 

King to Hobart country, but, as King says, with no very promising 

p.^7ficf^^* hopes that either that place or King's Island would ever 

be found an eligible place for an agricultural settlement. 

Jie^jng'8 On leaving Port Phillip, Robbins sailed direct for Port 

'^* Jackson, where he arrived on 7th March, having been 

absent about three months and a half. It does not appear 

why he did not fulfil the rest of his instructions and go on 

to Storm Bay Passage. Perhaps, having seen the French 

ships sail away to the westward and fairly off the English 

premises, he conceived the danger to be at an end. 

King, at any rate, was perfectly satisfied, and writes to 

the Admiralty that Robbins had conducted the service 

entrusted to him very much to his satisfaction, and reiuarks 

K^g Nepean, that " making the French Commander acquainted with 

^' my intention of settling Van Diemen's Land was all I 

sought by this voyage." 

The fear that the French might yet make a descent on 
Van Diemen's Land still weighed on King's mind. As 
we have seen, before tlie Cumberland sailed he had 
determined to send the Porpoise, on her arrival from 
Tahiti, to make a settlement. The return of Robbins 
with unfavourable reports of King's Island and Port 
Phillip had satisfied him that neither of those places was 
adapted for settlement, and he once more fixed his 
attention on the point which, now that Baudin had left 
Bass' Straits, appeared to be most threatened. He 
therefore resolved to limit his action to Storm Bay 
Passage, and immediately took steps to carry out his 
resolution. 
King to Nepean, He reported his intention to the Admiralty, and says in 
9May,i803,p.7o. j^jg d^gpatch, '' My reasons for making this settlement are 
the necessity there appears of preventing the French 
gaining a footing on the east side of these islands; to 
divide the convicts ; to secure another place for obtaining 
timber with any other natural productions that may be 
discovered and found useful ; the advantages that may 

Harrington, at New Year's Island, on the western side of King's 
Island, in 10 weeks (19th March to 27th May) killed 600 sea 
elephants and 4300 seals. 



► 



BT JAMES B. WALKER. 119 

be expected by raising grain ; and to promote the seal 
fishery." 

There is no doubt that Governor King was in perfect 
accord with the Home Government in his apprehension of* 
French designs, and in his policy of anticipating them by 
occapyin^ important points " for political reasons."* 

Already, in January of this very year the Authorities in 
Downing-street had determined to form a settlement at 
Port Phillip, and had selected Lieut.-Col. David Collins 
to be its Lieutenant-Governor, and the date corresponds 
with the communications that King had made to the 
English Government with respect to Baudin's expedition. 

Five months later (24th June, 1803), in consequence of see Memo, of 
King's despatch of 23 November, 1802, informing theJJ*^^'^^' 
Admiralty of the report that the French were about to 
colonise Van Diemen's Land, Lord Hobart instructed the 
Gtovemor to remove part of the establishment at Norfolk 
Island to Port Dalrymple, " the advantageous position of Hobart to King, 
which, upon the southern coast of Van Diemen's Land and pt429f * ^^^^' 
near the eastern entrance of Bass' Straits, renders it, in a 
political view, pecuUarly necessary that a settlement should 
be formed there." The amusing confusion of localities 
does not say much for the state of geographical knowledge 
at Downing-street, but the anxiety of the Government 
to anticirate French action is very clearly indicated. 

The Governor's mind was now firmly made up to 
establish a colony at the Derwent, but some months were 
et to elapse before he could carry out his plans. One of 
difficulties had been to find, out of the slender 
establishment at Port Jackson, a competent ofHcer to 
whom he could entrust the command of the intended 
settlement. The arrival of H.M.8. Glaiton at Sydney, 
in March, 1803, reUeved him from this embarrassment. 
There was on board the Glatton a Lieutenant who had 
made several voyages to the colony, and so far back as 
1792 had been engaged in conveying cattle and pro- 
visions from Bengal to New South Wales in tlie Atlantic 
storeship, at a time of great scarcity .+ He was a son of 

• See Professor Seeley on Napoleon's intentions in the war that 
ensued on the rupture of the Peace of Amiens, 18th May, 1803. 
Exp. of England, p. 34. 

f So Mr. Bonwick, who gives an extract of a letter from Bowen 
to the Under-Secretary of State, dated from the storeship Atlantic^ 
March 1792; Collins, however, gives the name of the Admiralty 
Agent on bo«rd the Atlantic as Richard Bowen. Collins, New 
South Wales, i., 174, 



yet 
his 



120 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT. 

Commissioner Bowen,"^ and we hare King's testimony 
that he came of a family various members of which, 
including his &ther, had distinguished themselves in the 
navy during the French wars. Peace had now been 
declared, and Lieut. John Bowen saw little prospect of 
King to Hobart, speedy promotion. When, therefore, the Governor spoke 
iso^^w^'^' of the difficulty he was in through not being able to find 
^jen to King, a man competent to take charge of the Derwent establish- 
p. 137. ' ' ment, it occurred to Bowen that here was a chance for 
him to earn a claim to notice as the founder of a new 
colony, and so possibly win a promotion he could hardly 
hope for as a junior lieutenant in time of peace. He 
obtained Captain Colnett's permission, and offered his 
services to the Governor. King was glad to accept them, 
J>^der 28 March, and ou 28th March, 1803, he issued a Commission in 
which, after premising that it had become necessary to 
establish His Majesty's right to Van Diemen's Land, 
within the limits of the territory of New South Wales, 
he directed Lieut. John Bowen to proceed in H.M. 
armed tender Lady Nelson to choose a suitable place 
for an establishment, and appointed him Commandant 
Instructions, 28 and Superintendent of the settlement. The more detailed 
March, 1803, instructions to the new Commandant, bearing the same 
date as the commission, direct him to proceed in H.M. 
armed vessel Porpoise, or Lady Nelson tender, with 
people and stores for a settlement, and fix on a proper 
spot in the Derwent, about Risdon's Cove; to begin 
immediately to clear ground and sow wheat and other 
cro[)s; and to furnish full reports on the soil, timber, 
capabilities, and productions of the country. He was to 
have six months' provisions ; was to employ the convicts 
in labour for the public good ; to hold religious services 
every Sunday; and to enforce a due observance of 
religion and good order. No trade or intercourse was to 
be allowed with any ships touching at the port. AiTange- 
ments were to be made for laying out a town, building 
fortifications, and appropriating land for cultivation on 
the public account. The free settlers who accompanied 
him, in consideration of their being the first to volunteer, 
were to have a location of 200 acres for each family, and 
be allowed rations, the labour of two convicts each for 
18 months, and such corn, seeds, and other stock as could 
?803%!9a*King ^® sparcd. Bowen also received sealed orders with 

to Collins, .____^_^»^»«_«-____^^_ 

30 Sept. 1804, " 

p. 889. "^ Jorgensen's Shred of Autobiography in Ross' Almanac, 1835. 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 121 

respect to any French ships which might arrive ; he was 
to inform them of IJis Majesty's right to the whole of Van 
Diemen's Land, and was to repel any attempt to form 
a settlement, — ^if possible, without recourse to hostile 
measures. 

Another three months elapsed after Bowen had received 
his Commission before King had vessels at his disposal 
which he could spare for the service. It was not until the KingtoHoba 
30th June, 1803, that at last the Porpoise and Xa<y K^^iJ^piS 
Nelson sailed from Port Jackson with the Commandant 29 ^pt.i804, 
and people and stores for the Derwent. Yet even then FUnders, u., j 
the attempt was destined to be thwarted for a time. Both ^^^\^^ 
ships were much out of repair and sadly leaky, and on aa to' Porpoia 
leaving Port Jackson they met with such strong ^^^d J^^®"' ^•' ^ 
winds that they were compelled to give up all idea of j^^' 299, 
proceeding on their voyage, and put back to the harbour, 
arriving on the 4th July. The Porpoise was now required 
to take Flinders to England, and after undergoing repairs, 
she sailed on 10th August, only to be lost a week after- 
wards, in com[)any with the Cato^ on Wreck Reef, to the 
north of Rockhampton (Lat. 22° \V 8.). King forth- 
with ordered the Colonial vessel Francis to be fitted out to 
accompany the Lady Nehon on a second attempt, and 
wrote to Lord Hobart that he hoped these ships would King to Hobi 
complete the service, which he deemed the more essential p.^Jf* ^^^^' 
from the inclination the French had shown to keep up a 
correspondence with Port Jackson. 

In those days the exigencies of the service compelled 
Governors to take whatever offered to aid them in 
accomplishing their plans. Many were the missions of 
relief or mail despatch that were entrusted to whalers, 
or even American sealers, and their remuneration was 
sometimes odd enough. Thus, on one occasion Governor 
King desired Governor Collins to pay for the despatches 
sent to him by a sealing sloop going' to King's Island, by 
giving the skipper 30 empty salt-meat casks — surely as 
odd a postage as ever was paid. And it must be 
admitted that at times the Yankees fleeced the Britishers 
handsomely for the humane help they afforded — for a 
consideration. 

Let us be thankful that it was not a Yankee sealing 
schooner that carried the first Governor of Tasmania to 
tiie seat of his Government, but a British whaler, which 
turned ap at the right moment — ^the Albion^ 326 tons — 



122 FIRST SETTLEMENT AT DERWENT. 

whose skipper, Captain Ebor Bunker, was afterwards well 
known at the Derwent Settlement in early times.* 

On the 31st August, 1803, the Albion and Lady Nekon 
set sail from Port Jackson. The Lady Nelson took the 
bulk of the people and stores. She was a brig of 60 tons 
burden, and had been originally sent out in 1800 under 
the command of Lieutenant Grant to explore the newly 
discovered Bass' Straits. A little while before she bad 
been employed as a tender to Flinders' vessel, the 
Investigator^ on the survey of the coast within the Great 
Barrier Reef. She was commanded by Acting Lieutenant 
C. G. Curtoys, and had for Chief OflScer the redoubtable 
Dane, Jorgen Jorgensen, the conqueror of Iceland. The 
same plan of colonisation with convicts and a few free 
settlers that had obtained in the planting of the settlement 
at Port Jackson 16 years before, and in settling Norfolk 
Island in 1788 by King himself, was followed in this little 
KingtoHobart, offshoot from the parent colony. Governor Bowen's Civil 
p. 77."'^* ' Establishment consisted of three persons, including himself. 
His subordinates were Dr. Jacob MountgaiTet, Surgeon of 
the Glatton, as Medical Officer, and Mr. Wilson as Store- 
keeper. His military force consisted of one lance corporal 
p. 96. and 7 privates of the New South Wales Corps. There 

Bowen's retumi, were 21 male and 3 female convicts. Three free settlers 
p!m**^^^' accompanied the party — Birt, who took his wife; Clark, 
a stonemason ; and another whose name is not given, who 
was made overseer of convicts. Three other free persons, 
a man and two women, also obtained leave to try their 
fortunes in the new settlement. Thus the whole colony 
consisted of 49 persons, of whom 13 were women and 
children. They took about six months' provisions and 
some live stock — viz., 10 head of cattle and about 60 
sheep — while the Governor had the only horse, and the 
settlers a few goats, pigs, and fowls. 
Bowen to King, The Albion and Lady Nelson put to sea on the 31st 
30 ^pt. 1803, August; but Governor Bowen was invariably unlucky 
at sea, and on the second day of their voyage they 
encountered a heavy gale, which obliged the Albion to 

* In 1809, when in the ship Venus^ he put into Adventure Bay 
and there found a bottle containing the last letters of the unfortunate 
La Perouse. And his name is yet perpetuated on a tombstone a 
Crayfish Point, near Hobart. which records that under it lies buried 
James Batchelor, Second Officer of the ship Venus^ commanded by 
£. Bunker, and that he died 28th January, 1810. 



BY JAMES B. WALKER. 123 

beave-to, and cost them heavy losses among the live 
stock. Then it fell calm, for which, however, Captain 
Bunker found consolation by catching three sperm whales. 
The Albion had a reputation for fast saihng — having made 
the passage from Spithead to Port Jackson in the then 
unprecedented time of 108 days — but, baffled by hght 
un&vourable winds, she did not make Storm Bay until 
the tenth day out. Even then she was two days beating 
up the river against head winds, so that it was not until 
Sunday, the 12th September, 1803, that, passing along 
the lonely and thickly wooded banks of the Derwent, the 
Albion^ with the first Governor of Tasmania on board, 
came to an anchor in Risdon Cove. Here they found the 
Zittdy Nelson already lying at anchor, having arrived five 
days before, on the 7th September. 

I have searched in vain hitherto in printed accounts for 
the correct date of Bowen's settlement. The dates given 
vary from June to August, but I think we may henceforth 
consider it settled, on the authority of official documents, 
that the birthday of Tasmania was Tuesday, the 7th day 
of September, 1803. 

Here I must pause. On a future occasion I hope to be 
able to draw further on the store of material which has 
been provided by the wise liberality of the Government, 
and to give some particulars of the history of Bowens 
abortive colony at Risdon, and of Collins' settlement at 
Solliyan's Cove. 



Appendix A. 



BUKMART OF DOCUMENTS COPIED BY Mr. BoNWICK 
FOR THE TaSMANIAN GOVERNMENT. 



1. British Museum Discovery Papers ; viz. — 
Fomeaux, in the Adventure, 1773 ; 
Grant, in the Lady Nelson, 1800 ; 
Ffinders to Sir J. Banks, 1 802 ; Sealers 
in Bass' Straits, 1802; Exploration of 
River Huon, 1804 ••••••••••t 69 pages. 



134 FRENCH IN VAN DIEMEN'S LAND, &G. 

2. Despatches relating to supposed French 

designs on Australia ; especially the pro- 
ceedings of Baudin's Expedition, and 
the measures taken by Governor King 
to anticipate the French in forming a 
Settlement in Van Diemen's Land, 
1802-3 25 pagpes. 

3. The Bowen Papers — First Settlement at 

Risdon Cove, 1803 .,.. 48 pages* 

4. The Collins Papers — Settlement of Hobart 

Town, 1804 300 pages. 

5. Exploration of Port Dalrymple and River 

Tamar — Settlement at York Town 

under Colonel Paterson , 1 804 1 24 pages. 

6. The Bass Papers ...r 44 pages. 

7. Papers on the Aborigines 37 pages. 



Appendix B. 

Governor King's Letter to Commodore Baudin. 

(From the copy in the Record Office, London.) 

Sydney y November 23rdf 1802. 

Sir, 

You will be surprised to see a vessel so soon after you. 
You know my intention of sending a vessel to the southward 
to fix on a place for a Settlement, but this has been hastened 
by a report communicated to me soon after your departure — 
"that the French intended to settle in Storm Bay Passage, 
somewhere about what is now called Frederick Hendrick Bay, 
and that it was recommended by you to the Republic,*' as a 
proof of which a chart pointing out the situation (Baye du 
Nord) was, as Colonel Paterson informs me, given him a 
short time before you sailed by a gentleman of your ship. 

You will easily imagine that if any information of that 
kind had reached me before your departure I should have 
requested an explanation ; but, as I knew nothing of it, and 
at present totally disbelieving anything of the kind ever being 
thought of, I consider it but proper to give you this informa- 
tion. In case the Cumberland should fall in with your ships 
the Commander of that vessel has my directions to commu- 
nicate to you the orders he is under. 



BT JAMES B. WALKER. )05 

Myself and family join in the kindest good wishes for yo«r 
health, and shall long remember the pleasure we enjoyed in 
your society. We request you will offer our good wishes to 
Captain Hamelin and all your officers. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Serrant, 

PHILIP GIDLEY KING. 

To Ckmmedore Baudik, Commander-in-Chief 
of the French Expedition of Dis€ove7nes. 



Psron's Vehsion of the above Letter. 

[••Voyage de D^couvertes aux Terres Australes." 2^ edition. 

Tome 3»>% p. 11.] 

" Le bruit s'etant repandu — ecrivoit M. King k notre com- 
mandant — que voire projet est de laisser quelques hommes, 
soit k la terre de J>iemen, soit k la c6te sud-ouest de la 
Nouvelle-Galles, pour y jeter les fondemens d'une coloDie 
frangoise, je crois devoir vous declarer, monsieur le Com- 
mandant, qu'en vertu de I'acte de prise de possession de 1788, 
solennellement proclame par TAngleterre, toutes ces contr^es 
font partie int^grante de I'empire britannique, et que vous ne 
sauriez en occuper aucun point sans briser les liens de Tamitie 
qui vient si recemment d'etre r^tablie entre les deux nations. 
Je ne chercherai pas m^me a vous dissimuler que telle est la 
nature de mes instructions particulieres k cet egard, que je dois 
m'opposer, par tons ]es moyens qui sont en mon pouvoir, k 
Texecution du projet qu'on vous suppose ; en consequence, le 
navire de Sa Majesty le Cumberland a regu Tordre de ne 
vous quitter qu'au moment oii I'officier qui le commande 
aura le certitude que vos operations sont etrang^res k toute 
esp^ce d'envahissement du territoire britannique dans ces 
parages . . ." 



Commodore Baudin's Reply to Governor King 

[From the copy in the Record Office, London.] 
/ 

A Bord de la Corvette le Geographe, Isle King, le 
3Tne jVn'(?5«, an 11"«. [23 Decembe?-, 1808.] 

Le ^ Commandant en Chef V Expedition de Decouvertes 
A Monsieur le Gouveimeur King au Part Jackson. 

Monsieur Le Gouverneur, 

L'arrivee du Cumberland ra'auroit surpris par le contenu de 
la lettre que vous m'avez fait Thonneur de m'ecrire, si Mr. 



126 FRENCH IN VAN DIEMEN'b LAND. 

Robeu qui le commande n*avoit par sa conduite fait connoitre 
le veritable motif pour lequel il a ^t^ si pr^cipitamment 
6xp6di6 ; mais peut-«tre est il yenu trop tard^ car, plusieors 
jours avant qu'il arbora sur nos tentes son payillon, nous 
avions laiss^ dans les quatre points principaux de Flsle k 
laquelle je conserve rotre nom des preuves de F^poque ou 
nous Tavons visitee.* 

L'histoire qu^on vous a fait, et dont on soup^onne Mr. 
Kemp, Capitaine Regiment de la Nouvelle-Gralles da Sad, 
etre 1 auteur, est sans fbndement. Je ne crois pas non plas 
que les officiers et naturaliste qui sont k bord puissent j avoir 
donne lieu par leur discours, mais dans tons les cas vous deviez 
etre bien persuade que si le Gouvemement fiungois m'avait 
donne ordre de m^arreter quelque part au Nord ou au Sad 
de la terre de Di6men decouverte par Abel Tasman j'y aurais 
reste, et sans vous en faire un secret. 

Le dixHsept le Naturaliste a mis k la voile et doit se rendre 
droiture en France. 

Malgre toutes mes recherches avant le depart il s'est trouve 
trois hommes caches k bord du GSographe ; cinq autres 6toient 
sur le Naturaliste, et trois sur le batiment Am^ricain la Fanny 
dont le mauvais temps nous a s^par^. J'ai, comme nous en 
^tions convenus, mis sur Tlsle Kmg les huit hommes qui nous 
concernoientjt on leur a donn6 un pen de pain et quelques 
vetements ; vous trouverez cy-joint leurs noms ou du moins 
ceux quUls ont donnes. 

J'ai I'honneur d'etre avec la plus parfaite consideration, 

Monsieur Le Gouvemeur, 
Votre Serviteur, 

N. BAUDIN. 

[Mr, Chapmani Colonial Secretaryi certified the foregoing 
as a true copy of the original letter.] 

* Governor King has written in the margin : — ^^ If Monsieur 
Baudin insinuates any claim firom this visit — ^the island was first 
discovered in 1798 by Mr. Reed in the Marthay afterwards seen by 
Mr. Black in the Harbinger, and surveyed by Mr. Murray in 
February, 1802." 

t Kinff notes : — ^^ Most of these found means to go on board the 
Oiographe before she left the island." 



PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY 

TASMANIA, 
1889. 




TASMANIA: 
FBINTSD AT " THR MBEC0BY " OFFICE, UACQTTABIE ST., HOBART. 



The Kesponsibility of the Statements and 
Opinions given in the following Papers and 
Discussions rests with the individual Authors; 
the Society as a body merely places them on 
record. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF TASMANIA- 



HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

IprejEittient : 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR ROBERT GEORGE CROOKSHANK 

HAMILTON, K.C.B. 

liter Jrejsibetitjs : 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D. 

JAMES BARNARD, ESQ. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT DOBSON, Knt., C.J., 
F.L.S. 

THOMAS STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 

Clounctl : 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D. 

HIS HONOR SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT DOBSON, Knt., C.J., 
F.L.S. 

RUSSELL YOUNG, ESQ. 

C. H. GRANT, ESQ. 

C. T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 

T. STEPHENS, ESQ., M.A, F.G.S. 

J. B. WALKER, ESQ. 

J. BARNARD, ESQ. 

A G. WEBSTER, ESQ. 

COL. W. V. LEGGE, R.A. 

R. M. JOHNSTON, ESQ., F.L.S. 

HON. N. J. BROWN, M.E.C. 

Sottoraru jSemtarij: 

HON. J. W. AGNEW, M.D. 

^ubitor of ittotttl)l8 llccoutttjs : 

C. T. BELSTEAD, ESQ. 

^ubitorjBi rf llttttual ^ccoutitjBi : 

FRANCIS BUTLER, ESQ. 
JOHN MACFARLANE, ESQ. 

?|ott. Sreajsurer: 

C. J. BARCLAY, ESQ. 

jSecretaru anb ILtbramtt : 

ALEXANDER MORTON, ESQ,, F.L.S. 



ROOT MATTERS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC 

PROBLEMS. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Average Bate of Wages. At page 25 the average rate is based 
upon all kinds of breadwinners'; at page 48 the average 
rate is based upon the wages of Tnale adults of about 
12 selected occupations. 

Definition of Certain Terms Employed. 

Wants. This term is used in a double sense throughout the 
various chapters : (1) the term is often used in its more 
legitimate sense^ viz., appetites^ cravings^ or desires ; (2) the 
term, however, is also employed less correctly in the sense 
of the thvngSy objects, or desiderata which satisfy cravings. 
It is used in the latter sense when such terms as tne 
following are used : — " creation of wants," "wants in 
exchange," "aggregate of primary wants." "wants essential 
to life." "wants essential to comfort, "production of 
wants, " struggle for wants," " supply of wants," etc It 
is used in the former sense in the following phrases : — 
"wants are interminable," "satisfaction of wants," 
"sufficiency for the wants of all," etc. On recon- 
sideration it would, perhaps, have been an improvement if 
the term vmnts had been restricted to its more legitimate use, 
as indicating cravings and desires, or lacks ; and that the 
term satisfactions should have been substituted where 
the things wanted are concerned. 

ERRATA. 

Page 6, line 8, For are greatly ... are eryoyed read is 

greatly ... is enjoyed. 
Page 6, line 16, For satisfaction read satisfactions. 
Page 10, line 28, For very read fairly. 

Page 15, line 5 from bottom, For satisfaction read satisfactions. 
Page 17, line 9, For increase read decrease. 
Page 19, line 8, For polemist read athlete. 
Page 20, line 28, For the ideal state read the people of the 

ideal stata 
Page 22, after line 31, For figures given substitute ^?^ = 10'^^ 

hours. 
Page 22, line 37, For per day read per day fully. 
Page 23, line 5 from bottom. For £130,000,000 read £1,300.000,000. 
Page 25, line 10 from bottom, For ditto read earnings of ditto. 
Page 25, line 7 from bottom. For ditto read average wages per 

head. 
Page 26, line 19, For her purchasing read England's purchasing. 
Page 29, line 1, For casual read causal 
Page 31, line 4, For them read proprietors of land. 
Page 31, line 6, -For thus read this. 
Page 31, line 23, For it as a possible ingredient read them as 

possible ingredients. 
Page 31, line 24, For it no more read they no more. 
Page 36, line 32, For variety redd rarity. 
Page 64, line 31, For unsoluble read insoluble. 



^0ttt^2. 



SIRS. 

Page 
ART. L—The «*Iron Blow" at the Linda Goldfields. By G. Thureau, 

f •XjfaO* ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• ••• t*a ••• ••• ••• ••• vt* X 

ART. n. — Od Some Tide Observations at Hobart during February and 

March, 1889 (with diagram). By A. Mault 8 

ART. III.— On the Encouragement of a More General Interest in 

Scientific Pursuits. By Wm. Benson 13 

ART. IV.— Notes on the Possible Oscillation of Levels of Land and Sea 

in Tasmania during Recent Years. By Capt. Shortt, R.N. ... 18 

ART v.— The "Iron Blow" at the Linda Goldfield. ByR. M. Johnston, 

Mm • JU« 9^» ••• ••• «•• ••• ••• ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• «l J* 

ART. YI.— Notes on a Case of Poisoning through Eating a Portion of 

the *'Brugmansia." By Dr. Hardy 29 

ART. Yn.— Notes on Augora Goat Farming. By James Andrew ... 31 

ART. YIIL— Protection of Tasmanian Owls. By Col. W. Y. Legge, R. A. 40 

ART IX.— l*rotection of the Cape Barren Goose. By Col. W. Y. Legge, 

£w« XL* ••• ••« ••• ••• «•• ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••« ••• ••• *X 

ART. X.— A Preliminary Critique of the Terra Australii legend. By 

J. R. McClymont, M.A 43 

ART. XI.— Macquarie Harbour Leaf Beds. ByR. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 53 

ART. XII— Foraminifera in Upper Palseozoic Rocks. By T. Stephens, 

f • VJI • lO» ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •«• ^^m 

ART. XIII. Australian and Tasmanian Sandarach. By J. H. Maiden, 

f aJIJvK)*! f AVXaO***! ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• OO 

ART. XIY.— Notes on the Last Living Aboriginal of Tasmania. By 

James j5arnaTci ... ou 

ART. XY. — The English at the Derwent and the Bisdon Settlement 

(Diagrams). By J. B. Walker 65 

ART. XYL— Smut in Wheat. By T. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S 94 

ART. XYIL— Smut in Wheat. By Francis Abbott 95 

ART, XYIII.— A New Dark-field Micrometer for Double • star Measure* 

ment (Diagrams). By A. B. Biggs 98 

ART. XIX. — Notes on the Discovery of a Ganoid Fish in the Enocklofty 
Sandstones, Hobart. By Messrs. R. M. Johnston and A. 
Morton (Two Plates) 102 

ART. XX. — Observations of Comet of July and August, 1889, taken at 
Launceston, Tasmania, Lat. 41° 26' 0" ; Long. 9° 48' 31". By. 

^^« J[3« •DIkKB •■■ ••• at* ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• t*« ••• ••• XvtJ 

ART. XXI. —Recent Measures of "a Centauri." By A. B. Biggs ... 106 

ART. XXII. — Notes on Charts of the Coast of Tasmania, obtained 
from the Hydrographical Department, Paris, and Copied by 
permission of the French Government (Four Charts). By A. 

Jf^CTVH V ,.a •«• ••• ••• *•• ••• ••» ••• •#• •#• ••• ••• ••• ••• A\3% 



Page 
ABT. XXni.— The Detention of Flinders at the MaoritiuB. By A. 

x m mx w • # # t*« ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• t** ••• ••• ••• ••* ••• x^x 

ART. XXIV.— Observationa regarding Pjrramid Numbera (Diagrams). 

By B. M. Johnston} F.L.S. ... .* 125 

ART. XXY.— Note on the Australian Curlew and its Closely Allied 

Congeners. By Col. W. Y. Legge, R.A 133 

ART. XXVI.— Additions to the List of Tasmanian Fossils of Upper 

Palseozic Age (I^te). By R. M. Johnston, F.L.S 137 

ART. XXVII.— Root Matters in Social and Economic Problems. By 

R. M. Johnston, F.L.S 143 

ART. XXVIII.— The Expedition under Lieut..Govemor CoIUds in 

1803-4. By J. B. Walker 205 

ART. XXIX.— The Founding of Hobait by Lieut. -Governor Collins. 

j5y V . j3. *v aLKer ... •«. ... .•• .•• ... ... ... •.. *•« ... £iuo 

ART. XXX. — Notes on a Grub found Infecting the Orchards of Hobart, 
with a few Remarks on the Subject of Insect Pests generally. 
By A. Morton, F.L.S 249 

ART. XXXI.— The President's Address. By His Excellency Sir Robert 

Hamilton, Iv.C/.B «0a 

Proceedings \ i to xxxviii 



ROYAL SOCIETY. 



APRIL, 1889. 

A meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania was held at the 
Tasmanian Museum on April 16th. The President, His Excellency Sir 
Robt. G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., presided, and there was a large 
attendance of Fellows and ladies, including Lady Hamilton. 

The secretary laid en the table the following additions to the 
library : — 

Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Howard College for 1887-8. — From the Department. 

Boletem da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa, 7a serie. No. 9, 
10. — From the Society. 

Bolelin Meusual, Mexico. Tomo 1. Nos. 8 to 10. — From the 
Department. 

&llettino della Societa Geographica Italiana, Serie III., Vol. 1, 
Fase IX. XII.— From the Society. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes de Moscow, No. 3, 
Moscow. — From the Department. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ D'Ethnographle, Paris. — From the Society. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Howard College, 
whole series vol. XVI , Nos. 2 and 3, ** On the geology of the Cambrian, 
District of Bristol, County Mass. By JN. S. Shaler. 

" Fossil Plants collected at Golden, Colorado." By Leo Lesquerliex. 

Bulletin de laSoci^t^ Acad^mique IndoChinoise de France. Deuxi^me 
S^rie — Tome Deuxieme. — From the Society. 

Descriptive Catalof^e of the Sponges in the Australian Museum ^ 
Sydney. By K. Von Lendenfeld, P L. D. — From the Trustees. 

Flora of Bricish India, The. By Sir J. D. Hooker, C.B. Part XV.— 
From the Department. 

Indian Meteorological Memoirs. Vol. TIL, parts III., IV.; Vol. 
IV., part 5. — From the Department. 

Journal of the Koyal Microscopical Society. Current numbers. — 
From the Society. 

Key to the system of Victorian Plants, Dichotomous arrangaments 
of the orders, genera and species of the native plants, with annotations 
of primary distinctions and supporting characteristics. Parts 1 and 2, 
1887-8. By Baron Mueller.— From the Author. 

Meteorologische Bebbachtunjen, Moscow. — From the Department. 

Meteorological Report of New Zealand for 1885. — From the Depart- 
ment. 

The Mineral Wealth of Queensland. By R. L. Jack, F.G.S.— From 
the author. 

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Current 
Kumbers. — From the Society. 

Monthly Weather Report, Canada. — From the Department. 

Vol. XVn., No. 2, on the lateral canal system of the Selachia and 
Holoephold. By Samuel Green. — From the Department. 

Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, October 1888. — 
From the Society. 

Pfoceedincs of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. in.> 
ffa% 3rd.— From the Society. 



U PBOCEEDINaS, APBIL. 

Prodromns of the Zoology of Victoria, Decade XVli. By Prof. F. 
McCoy, C.M.G. — From the Department. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Qaeensland, 1887, vol. IV.; 
1888, vols. nT. IV. v.— From the Society. 

Psyche, a journal of Entomology, vol. 5, Nob. 149 to 153. — From the 
Society. 

Report of the Mount Morgan gold deposits, Queensland, 1889. By 
R. L. Jack, Government Geologist. — From the Author. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine. Current l^umbers. — From the 
Department. 

Select Extra-Tropical Plants, readily eligible for Industrial Culture or 
Naturalisation, with indications of their native countries,, and some of 
their uses. By Baron F. Von MUeller. From the Author. 

Systematic Account of the Geology of Tasmania. By R. M. Johnston, 
F.L.S. — From the Government. 

Tabular list of all the Australian birds at present known to the 
author, showing the dbtribution of the species over the continent of 
Australia and adjacent islands. By E. P. Ramsay, LL.D., etc. — ^From 
the Trustees Australian Museum. 

Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. VoL X.V.I., Part 
II. — From the Society. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia (Victorian Branch). Part II., Vol. VI. — From the ISociety. 

Verbandluogen des naturhistorischen, Vereines des preu&sischen 
Rheinlande, Westfalens und des Reg. Bezirks OsnabiUck. — From the 
Society. 

Verhanalungen der Gesellschaft Filr, Erdkunde Band, XV., Noa. 7, 8, 
10. From the Society, Berlin. 

Victorian Year Book for 1887-8. — From the Government Statist. 

His Excellency stated that there were two interesting papers to be 
read, and a number of equally interesting ones were promised durioe 
the session. Many of the subjects brought forward did not lend 
themselves readily to discussion, but he would like to see the Fellows 
of the Society intimate with any subject laid before them to give them 
the benefit of their opinions. This would make their meetings more 
lively and interesting, and also gave an opportunity to those who had 
read papers to correct any misunderstandings or wrong impressions 
that may have arisen from the reading of those papers. He trusted, 
therefore, that they would have freer and fuller discussions than they 
had had during previous sessions. 

PAPERS. 

THE "lEON blow" AT THE LINDA GOLDFIELD. 

Mr. Alex. Morton, F.L.S., read a paper by Mr. Gustav Thurean, 
F.G.S., on "The * Iron Blow 'at the Linda Goldfield." In it the writer 
gave his opinion that this unique gold formation was due to volcanic 
agency, and not as Mr. R. M. Johnston contended, to local decom- 
position, especially as far as^ the dark-coloured and pulverulent masses 
are concerned. Decomposition, he believed, was a chemical process by 
which the destruction of one or more substances leads to the su ostitution 
and depositing of quite different matters, thereby bringing about the 
re-3rrangement of the former original substances in quite different forms. 
The analyses of Mr. Ward conclusively proved the almost total absence 
of gold in the pyrites veins or beds, which are very dense and 
excessively solid, and which have undoubtedly resisted both decom- 
position and dissolution for ages, therefore he asked how it was possible 
that these almost non-auriferous vein bi-sulphides produced on their 
supposed (inert) decomposition that peculiar purple mineral, assayingy 



PROCEEDINGS, APRIL. ill 

•M reported, considerably above 170oz. of gold to the ton. Again, those 
Tery solid pyrites contain no barytes, which latter minerals he first 
"discovered as the necessary adjunct to the gold. Supposing, however, 
as Bir. Johnston had stated, that the "Iron Blow is the result of 
oxidation of pyrites similar to that now so largely associated with it," 
it would be necessary to bear in mind that as proved from analysis they 
had first to deal with a nearly non-auriferous bi sulphide of iron, con- 
taining no baryta to speak of, and, secondly, that water is assumed 
to have produced the rich pulverulent gold rock by means of the 
decomposition of the former, and contemporaneously or subsequently 
by means of infiltration filled the fi&sure, and that small disseminated 
particles of baryta appeared either before or during the process of 
oxidation. In his (Mr. Thureau's) opinion everything points to a more 
drastic process of origination than simple and quiescent decomposition, 
-and to him it becomes clear to the close and careful observer of these 
unique gold deposits in situ that dynamical geology can alone account 
for these strictly speaking volcanic products. Having had opportunities 
for examining active " mad volcanoes " in the United States, and as the 
process observable there in active progress assimilates a great deal 
to what can be seen in its " dead state " at the *' Iron Blow " of baryta 
is substituted for silica, as matrix in the Utter case, the question of 
origin as to both metalliferous deposits is not only in his opiniou, very 
suggestive, but forms the only possible true solution of the case. 

In consequence of the absence of Messrs. Johnston and Ward it was 
decided to postpone discussion until next meeting. 

TIDE OBSERVATIONS AT HOBART. 

Mr. A. Mault read a paper on "Some tide observatioDs taken at 
Hobart during February and March, 1889," in which he stated that with 
-a wish, firstly, to obtain information connected with the drainage of 
Hobart, and, secondly, to fix the mean sea level for geodetic and 
engineering matters to get a series of tidal observations, he had arranged 
with Captun Oldham, of H.M.S. Egeria, that observations be taken 
at the New Wharf by the automatic tide gauge belonging to that boat, 
and the result briefly was as follows: — 1. The tides are subject to a 
large diurnal inequality, the highest high water being followed by the 
lowest low water. The tide then rises to a lesser high water and falls 
to a lesser low water. 2. With the moon's declination north the higher 
high water follows the superior transit of the moon; with the moon's 
-declination south the higher high water succeeds the inferior transit. 3. 
The greatest range of tide appears to occur about two days after the 
moon has reached its greatest north or south declination : the least 
range when the declination is zero. 4. H.W.F. and C. occurs at 
HoSart at 8h. 15m. Springs rise 3|ft. to 4ift. and 2ft., neaps 2ift. In 
the letter to him from Captain Oldham the following words occur : — 
*' From these observations the mean tide level is 8ft. 2'7in. on the gauge 
•or 35*255ft. below the datum mark on the Town Hall." In the letter it 
was also stated that, as these observations were only for one month 
and as probably the mean tide level vaiies at different seasons, to get a 
•4Mtisfactory result a year's observation shouid be obtained." He (Mr. 
•Mault) was glad to say that the Hobart Marine Board were obtMning 
an automatic gauge, so that the observation could be continued. For 
the purpose of more readily comprehending the information contained in 
those observations, he had prepared diagrams showing the occurrence of 
aprings at greatest declination, and oot at new and full moon, and that 
there is no **age of the tide" at Hobart, Diagrams were also 
-appended, showing, for comparison, a fortnight's tide curves at Hobart, 
^Md afortBight*s at Bombay, and another representing a normal curve of 
luitldid -intervalf. The IrregularitieB which appeared by these 



iv PBOCISEDINQS, APRIL. 

diagramB showed that no time of high water on the day of new or loll 
moon conld be fixed, althouffh Captain Oldham mentiona 8h. ISmin. 
He pressed on the Society the need of co-operating with the Marine- 
Board in the taking of observations. The force and direction of the 
wind also had an influence that must be noted. The highest tides 
occarred with the wind blowing from north and north-easterly points^ 
The barometer also shoald be noted, as a fall of lin. in the barometer 
meant a rise of 20in. in the sea level. He also suggested that the 
Marine Board be asked to get their lighthousekeepers to keep a 
register of the high and low water times. 

A DESIKABLE CHANGE. 

Mr. W. Benson read a paper in which he pointed out that the work 
of the Society had and was rendering practical and substantial benefita 
to the colony at large, but was of opinion that it might be made 
of still greater interest and value. There were two classes amongst 
the memoers, first savants or specialists, and secondly those who had 
not thoroughly studied any special subject. So far as the meetings of 
the Society were intended for the interchange of notes upon new dis- 
coveries, the reading of papers prepared by savants ana specialists 
was natural and proper, though he doubted whether those who 
merely heard them read could gain as full a knowledge of their con- 
tents as they could by studying them in the Society's printed proceed- 
ings. Opportunities for self-instruction in all local branches of science — 
local geology, botany, natural history, and the like — were very few 
compared with what had been provided for English students. Here 
text books hardly existed, and English works were in many cases unsuit- 
able. He would therefore ask the Society to consider whether means 
could not be devised for affording icstrnction of a more elementary 
and general kind, and he did not know of any other organisation so 
well qualified to do the work. He wished the rising generation to 
become more interested in the physical history of their native land, 
its fauna, flora, and so forth. The taste for such studies when once 
acquired rarely left a man, and developed afterwards along the lines 
of his peculiar preference, and thus the whole field of scientific enquiry 
became gradually occupied. He proposed for consideration the desir- 
ability of initiating courses of popular lectures on scientific subjects, 
under the auspices of the Society, not restricted to members, but open 
to all. He would like to see the Museum made use of on all occasionb 
where its cabinets could be used as illustrations. Another thing which 
might be attempted in connection with the Society, was the forma- 
tion of a Field Naturalists' Club. One other matter which might 
well interest the Society was the introduction of local science primers 
for school use. His chief desire was to supplement rather than subvert 
the work of the Society. For years science stood apart, its afi^irs were 
assumed to be above the popular understanding, but that had all 
been changed, and in Huxley, Tyndall, and many others they saw 
men of the highest scientific rank taking the lead in bringing their 
chosen studies home to the minds of the masses ; consequently the 
Society need not fear that anything it might do would be infra dig. 
He hoped the love of science for its own sake would suffice to 
induce one or more of their savants to lecture, and permit the ex- 
periment to be tried. If the Council of the Society could keep an 
open eye for any opportunity that might arise tu interest the public, 
and especially the young, he had faith that good results would follow. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

The Secbetaby drew attention to a rare bird that had lately been 
ahot near Muddy Plains. It was commonly known in Au9tndia as the 



PROCEEDINGS, APRIL. V 

*' nankeen kestrel," TinnunctdtM dnhceroidea, Mr. Morton stated 
^at it was a singular coincidence that in April 1875, two specimens 
now in the Museum, were shot at Sorell. On dissection the bird now 
exhibited proved to be a female. The habitat of this bird, as recorded 
in Br. Bamsay's list, was N.W. Australia, Queensland, and Victoria. 

Another specimen, '* the golden plover," Charadrius fulvus, shot at 
the Great Lake by Mr. T. Clarke, as also a grebe, Podiceps Auatratis^ 
shot by the same gentleman, was shown, having been shot at the 
Great Lake. 

The Seobetaby also drew attention to a valuable collection of 
minerals from the great Broken Hill Mine that had been kindly pre- 
sented to the Museum by Mr. F. Back, Generid Manager Tasmanian 
Government Railways. 

Mr. J. B. McClymont, M.A., stated he had much pleasure in placing 
<m record a new bird to the lists of birds at Tasman's Peninsula, the 
brown quail, Synoicus AustrcUis, He also exhibited a specimen of 
native bread, with a peculiar fungus growing from the bread. 



▼1 PBOCEEDINOS, ICAT. 



MAY, 1889. 

The monthly evening meeting was held on May 14th. The Presideikt, His- 
Excellency Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., presided. 

Mr. R. Price- Wniiama was iatroduced as a visitor. 

OSCILLATION OF LAND AND SEA LEVELS. 

Captain Shortt, B.N., read > paper on "The possible osoillatioii 
of levels of land and sea in Tasmania daring recent years.*' He referred 
to the earth tremors experienced during the years of 1883-86, prior 
to the Tarawera eruption, in this and adjacent colonies, and these 
phenomena being knovrn to often be associated with local changes of 
sea and land, he was led to form the opinion that it was of great 
importance that it should be ascertained whether recent changes 
could be traced along the coast line of this island. Great difficulty 
naturally arose owing to the fact that with but one isolated exception 
no definitely fixed marks were in existence. This exception was a 
tide mark taking the form of a broad arrow on the Isle of the Dead,. 
situate off Point Puer, Port Arthur. This mark was cut in the rock by 
Mr. Lempriere. He had made efforts to discover further records relating, 
to Mr. Lempriere*8 observations, having applied to Mr. Wharton, Hydro- 
grapher of the Admiralty, but without success. By observations made in 
February of last year, it was apparent that there had been no practical 
alteration of the levels of sea and land during the past 47 years. This, 
however, only bore reference of a reliable character in so far as the 
southern portion of the island is concerned. Regarding the northern 
portion no reliable data existed, but it was interesting to note that 
Captain Miles had learned from the half-castes of the Fumeaux Group 
that they had noticed an apparent decrease of depth of water over 
certain well-known rocks during recent years. He had taken steps to 
fix a tide mark on Flinders Island, permitting of observations being 
made in future, and urged the necessity of making such marks on 
various parts of the coast line of the colony. 

CONGRATULATORY. 

Mr. Barnard desired, on behalf of the Royal Society, of which he 
was one of the oldest vice-presidents, to thank His Excellency for 
the part taken by him in that afternoon's proceedings relative to 
the new wing now added to the Museum building. He referred to the 
small beginnings in the matter of a museum first taken up by the 
Tasmanian Scientific Institution, of which Institution only two members 
— Dr. Agnew and himself — now remained alive. They then had an 
exhibition of specimens in a room in Macquarie-street without any 
attempt at classification. He congratulated tlie Royal Society on the 
progress made, and also the Museum Trustees on the fine addition 
to their building, for despite the fact that there were some persons 
who regarded the Museum and Royal Society as separate institutions, he 
could not in his mind separate them, for they had one object, the 
advancement and increase of knowledge. He also referred in con- 
gratulatory terms respecting the movement in the direction of an art 
gallery. 

PAPERS. 

THE ENGLISH AT THE DERWENT AND THE RISDON SETTLEMENT. 

Mr. J. B. Walker read a paper on this subject. He referred to a 
paper read by him last November on French visits to this colony and 



PBOCEEDINGS, MAY. YU 

their Bupposed design of .oolonisine it, and stated that the present 
paper would follow the coaise of English discoveries in Soathem 
TWabania. The English discoverer of the Derwent was Lieut. John 
Hayet, of the Hon. East India Go.'s Service. In those days the East 
India Co. olatmed a monopoly of the trade, not only \»ith India and 
China, but with the whole of the Pacific and New Holland. So late 
as 1806 the company successfully resisted the landing and sale in 
England of a cargo of oil and seal skins shipped by a Sydney firm, the 
ground being that . it was infringement of their monopoly. Hayes' 
expedition was the only one ever sent by the company to assist in Aus- 
tnuian discovery. Hayes was i^orant of D*Entrecasteaux's surveys, 
mnd when he came up the river in 1794 he thought it was an original 
dlfloOTery, and named it the Derwent. He also named Mount Direction, 
Prince of Wales Bay, Cornelian Bay, Bisdon Cove, and other places. 
The vessel carrying Hayes' charts and papers to England was captured 
hy the French and all his journals taken to Paris, and the result of his 
Yoyage was lost. The next visitors to the Derwent were Flinders and 
BasSy in the Norfolk. They circumnavigated Tasmania for the first 
time and surveyed the Derwent. Bass gave a favourable description of 
tiie country on the shores of that river, and was particularly struck with 
tiie advantages of Bisdon. It was probably owing to his report that 
Governor King instructed Lt. Bowen to form his settlement there. 
The paper then proceeded to give the history of the Bisdon settlement, 
principuly f rom information contained in documents preserved in the 
Iteglish State Becord Office, and which were lately copied by Mr. Jas. 
Bonwiok for the Tasmanian Government. The first settlement in 
Tasmania was made on September 12, 1S03, on the hill near Bisdon, 
on which the house of the late Mr. T. G. Gregson stands, a most 
unsuitable site, as it afterwards proved. From the very commencement 
Bowen had great trouble wiih his people, the prisoners being of a very 
had dass, l£^, useless, and ill-behaved. The few soldiers who formed 
his guard were discontented and almost mutinous. A few weeks after 
Bowen's arrival a reinforcement of prisoners and soldiers was sent from 
Sydney, making the number up to about 100, but the new arrivals 
proved no better than the first. Very little in the way of progress was 
accomplished, and when Governor Collins arrived in February, 1804, he 
found no ground had been prepared for sowing. Prisoners escaped from 
the colony, and the soldiers robbed the stores. In February, 1804, 
€U>vemor Collins abandoned the proposed settlement at Port Phillip^ 
and brought his colony to the JDerwent. He abandoned Bisdon as 
unsuitable, and chose the present site of Hobart. for his new town. 
Bowen was at the time absent in Sydney, whither he had taken a soldier 
to be tried for robbery. When he returned he found Collins in 
command at the new settlement in Sullivan's Cove. The little party 
at Bisdon were in a sad condition, short of food, and altogether 
demoralised. Lt. Bowen was still left in charge of the Bisdon colony, 
and on May 3, 1804, the first affray took place between the English and 
the aborigines at Bisdon. The cause of this unfortunate occurrence was 
the arrival of 200 or 300 natives who had come to hunt kangaroo. They 
did not attack the settlers, but their appearance created a panic, which 
leanlted in the soldiers firing upon the blacks, killing a number 
variously estimated at from three to 50. This was the beginning of 
the troubles with the natives which lasted for nearly 30 years, and 
ended in the almost complete destruction of the native race, and the 
removal of the renmant to Flinders Island, In May 1804 the Bisdon 
settlement was abandoned, and all the soldiers and the prisoners 
oomprising it, except about a dozen were sent back to Sydney in the 
month of August. Lieut. Bowen's pay for 14 months governorship was 
lOOgns. He returned to England, and as captain of an English man-of- 
war, served during the later years of the French war, dying in 1828. 



Tlil PBOCEEDINGS, ICAY. 

OPINIONS OF A YISITOB. 

Mr. Price- WiLLiAics expressed the deep interest he had felt in the 
papers read that evening. He was of opinion that the snggestioa 
respecting the recording of the earth's changes and the relative levels of 
the earth and sea should be given efifeot to in all purts. It was hiehly 
gratifying to find to what extent the scientific efforts were carried m 
tills colony. 

THE ntON BLOW AT THE LINDA OOLDFDU) 

Mr. B. M. Johnston read a paper on this subject, in which he set 
forth that the differences of opinion as between himself and Mr* Thnrean, 
fortunately, were not of a serious nature, and, according to Mr. Thurean's 
recent explanation, he perceived they were more due to the confused 
way in which descriptive terms were employed than to any real 
differences of opinion. The question between them had been altogether 
misconceived by Mr. Thureau. If Mr.Thureau had discussed the Iron 
Blow question without confusing these two fundamental considerationB 
it would have placed the issues between them in a very small compasr . 
In the course of the paper he contended that the fissure at the Linda was 
originally caused by the same dynamic forces which caused the tUting^ 
foldiug, and metamorphoses of the crystalline rocks, and that these 
mighty effects were primarily caused by the gravitation of the outer crust 
towards the shrinking and cooling central mass of the earth. Mr. 
Tbureau*s reply firmly established ms opinion " That the four principal 
elements — iron, barytes, sulphur, and gold — were originally precipitated 
from solution." That both decomposition and recomposition in mineral 
veins are among the most common of all occurrences and cannot 
reasonably be disputed ; and finally that true mud volctknoee differ 
widely in characteristics from the phenomena associated with the 
Linda Iron Blow, and neither in their mode of appearance, nor in their 
characteristic contents, show the slightest correspondence with the 
metalliferous fissure lodes of the Lioda district. Further discussion 
was postponed till the June meeting. 

COMPLIMENTABY. 

Votes of thanks to the writers of papers, dosed the proceedings. 



PBOCBE0tNGS, J17NE. IZ 



JUNE, 1889. 

The monthly evening meeting was held on June lith. The President, 
His Excellency Sir Robt. G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., in the chair. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The foUowins gentlemen were balloted for, and declared elected 
«■ Fellows : — Messrs. H. Herbert Oakley, Chas. E. VValch, Howard 
Wright, John Mitchell, and Geo. Lightly. 

LABGE AUSTBALIAN TREES. 

The Secretary (Mr. A. Morton) read the following letter, under 
date 2uth ult., received trom the Hon. F. Stanley Dobson, Mel- 
bourne: — 

My Dear Sir, — Instigated by Oliver Wendell Holmes, I have been 
trying to get ascertained the actual height of our tallest gum trees. 
Baron von MUller in his *< Botanic Teachings'' speaks of 500ft. ! Li 
our recent Exhibition was the photo of the butt of a tree called 
" The Baron," which was stated, as per note thereto anuexed, to be 
464ft. measured. I gravely doubted this, and I arranged with the Hon. 
Jaa. Mnnro, who was appointed with myself to control and appro- 
priate the expenditure of £100 from the trustees of the Public Library ; 
£100 from the Commissioners of the recent Exhibition, and any further 
earn np to £800 that might be necessary from our Lands department — 
to have this specially-named tree measured and photoed. Mr. Munro 
advertised a reward of £100 from his own pocket for any one who 
would point out to a licensed Government Surveyor a tree reaching 
400ft. Mr. Munro and I obtained through the Hon. Mr. Dow, Minister 
of Lands, reports from the surveyors in his department as to any 
exseptionally large trees within their knowledge. The highest turned 
out to be a tree near Ueerim, in Gippsland, which reached (I am 
speaking from memory) 325ft., at any rate it was the largest that our 
surveyors and photographers could get at. "The Baron" was known 
only to a Mr. Boyle, and to a photographer, Mr. Carie, the gentleman 
whose photo of the butt appeared in our Exhibition. Mr. Carie 
would not say where it was, so 1 wrote to Mr. Boyle, and he consented 
to ffuide anyone whom I choose to send to the tree. I saw Mr. Perrin 
and Mr. Dow, and it was arranged that Mr. Perrin and Mr. Fuller, 
a €k>vemment surveyor, should arrange to go with Mr. Boyle to the 
sjpot. They went, and when Mr. Perrin saw that the trees on the 
Sassafras Valley were very tall, he set four men to work to clear 
the scrub and undergrowth away, so as to allow both a theodolite 
and a camera to work on '* The Baron," and to other trees in the neigh- 
bourhood. Allowing time for the clearing, he returned with surveyor 
and photographer, and we now find that the *< Baron" instead of 
being 464ft. is only 219ft. 9in. No tree in the neighbourhood reached 
9C0ft. Now, I believe that your Tasmanian trees beat ours, and as 
I am most anxious to set the matter finally at rest, I am writing to 

rn and through you to the members of the Royal Society to get, if 
can, verified statements of the height of Tasmanian trees. I 
remember that Sir William Denison measured some trees near the 
Huon, and in one of the Tasmanian Exhibitions the printed catalogue, 
unless my memory fails me sadly, was contained his measurement 
of the tree, and a further statement of the number of 8ft. and 
({ft. palinffs, the number of shingles and laths cut out of it, and the 
vAoe which this timber realised in the Melbourne market— something 
nke £250, as our first goldfield rush was then at its height, say. 



X PBOCEEDiDrGS, JUNE. 

1853 or 1854. Sir William's tree reached, I think dimly, 290ft. 
before a branch was given off and then ran up some 50ft. or 60ft. 
more. Now, I want to ask you to turn up this record and to let me 
know the results. Yon must have other records of big trees — some 
which were cut down by the convicts near Port Arthur must, I believe, 
have exceeded any record I have seen, and probably none remains. 
This is a matter of Australian interest, aud 1 feel sure that your 
Society will aid us now that we are tr^ring — with sufficient funds at 
our back — to fiud out the height of the tallest gum-tree in Victoria. It 
is humiliating to have to give up the idea of the 500ft. tree of which 
the Baron V . Muller wrote, but the close investigation now going on 
will serve to give us data from actual measurement, and not from the 
excited fancy of bush explorers. If you can assist me in this matter I 
shall be very grateful. 

Mr. Swan stated that the late Anthony Trollope had expressed the 
opinion that the Victorian trees equalled in height those of America. 
His own personal observations had, however, been only in regard to 
girth measurement. 

Colonel Leoge, R.A., expressed the opinion that it would be well if 
the Government would assist in the matter of obtainiug reliable infor- 
mation as to the height of their forest trees. Doubtless great misap- 
prehension existed on this subject. Personally he had never seen any 
trees which exceeded 250ft. in height. 

Mr. C. H. Grant exprsssed the opinion that the Maraposa and 
Calaveras trees were larger than those of these colonies. 

Mr. Madlt explained the method in which the height of trees might 
be easily ascertsiined. He thought the maximum height brought 
under his notice was about 283ft. 

PAPERS. 

anooba goat fabming. 

Mr. James Andrew read a paper on this subject which had not come 
under the notice of the Society since 1874, when an effort was made to 
stimulate popular interest in f&vour of a trial in this colony of a descrip- 
tion of stock-farming, elsewhere found so profitable. This, however, 
has proved ineffectual, and it was a regrettable matter that mohair 
(the fleece of the Angora goat) was absent from the list of our exports. 
In Asia Minor, the natural habitat of the Angora goat, the present 
value of hair exported from the province amounted to £200,000 per 
annum. Col. Henderson was the first introducer of the goat in the 
Cape Colony, aijd from an export of l,0861bs. in 1862 up to 1887 the 
trade had grown to 7,154,000, of a value of £268,500, a fall of Id. per 
lb. on the preceding year's clip. An additional item of export was the 
skins, valued at £100,000, and even these figures failed to represent 
the total value of the products of this useful animal, for the flesh of 
the wether had been proved to be an excellent article of food. Latest 
returns from the Cape showed the number of Angora goats in the 
colony to be two and a half millions. Mr. Scott, Minister to Turkey 
in 1848, was the introducer of the goat into America, but the industry 
had not equalled the South African. As an evidence of the market 
which existed for the fleeces he quoted from the Tariff Commission 
of the United States, in which it was stated that — '* The supply pro- 
duced in the States, if multiplied threefold, would not be sufficient 
to furnish material for the plushes now used in the railway cars of that 
country alone." The history of the endeavour to establish the industry 
in Victoria had not been very satisfactory. It was feasible to cross with 
the common goat the fleece of the fourth generation, pure sires being 
nsed being equal for market purposes to that of the pure-bred ; 5lbs. 
might be taken as a fair average of a well-kept grade flock shorn 



PBOOEEDINGS, JUNB. XI 

ODee a year. Any staple of over din. in length would suffice for 
maanlactaring purposes. Shearing in South Africa was usually 
oondacted in a somewhat slovenly manner, and sorting but inefficiently 
carried ont. Some trouble arose at kidding time, owing to the 
helplessness of the young, and the want of strong maternal instinct on 
the part of the dams. The trouble and expense of managing the 
flodc wonld be less than in the case of uheep, goats being the more 
iiitelUg«nt, and less liable to destruction by dogs. Their attachment 
to home enabled dependence to be placed on their return at night. 
Their introduction would not encroach on the pasturage available for 
flheep ; indeed, the reverse, for Angoras had been found to be excellent 
pioneers in clearing up new country for sheep and cattle, and 
were positively a benefit to other stock, especially sheep. An immense 
amount of land now valueless could be utilised for good farming, and an 
Important fact was that they did not appear subject to dietetic influences 
each as were sheep, and appeared to suffer no inconvenience from 
heing depastured on country where plants abound which, when eaten 
by aheep, prove fatal. The climate of Tasmania and Australia had 
Men proved to be peculiarly suitable for goat farming. Islands were 
specially adapted for farming goats, and one he could recommend for 
tentative occupation was West Hunter Island, to the north- west of 
Tasmania, in Bass Straits, obtainable on a 14 years' lease from the 
Crown for £20 per annum, and which was unsuitable for sheep- 
iarminff, as the poisonous tare — lobelia — of King's Island abounded, and 
mvariably proved fatal. If it was found that the goat enjoyed immunity 
from the evil effects of the plant an illimitable scope for goat-farming 
was opened up on the unstocked islands of the Straits. The stocks 
i^golations at present in force prevented the importation of goats from 
any place outside Australasia, but prize-bred Angoras could be obtained 
hi neighbouring colonies where small flocks are maintained. He had 
made enquiries to ascertain particulars of the Angora goats still re- 
maining m the colony, but these had proved unsuccessful. Possibly the 
non-success of previous attempts at goat-farming here might be attri- 
boted to the fact that the goats had been kept on an open gra^s country, 
clearly a mistaken policy : rough, mountainous, and scrubby country 
being for more suitable. 

Mr. Justice Adams pointed out that between Latrobe and Ulver- 
stone there was a considerable flock of Angora goats in existence. He 
coald not say if they were pure breds. He estimated the flock to 
namber between 50 and 60 anin^als. He had also seen another flock 
of these goats, but could not call to mind the exact locality. 

Mr. James Babnabd confirmed what had been mentioned by Mr. 
Jnstice Adams. The flock was owned by Mr. James Smith, of 
Westwood. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor suggested that the secretary should communicate 
with Mr. Smith for the purpose of obtaining information on the 
anhject. 

CHILD POISONING BY EATING THE TRUMPET LILY. 

Br. Hardy read a paper describing a recent case of poisoning 
occasioned by a child eating a portion of the common trumpet flower — 
Brugmansia sp. The plant he pointed out was allied to the Solanacia 
hunily, known to be poisonous. He treated the case in queption 
witii success, but concluded the paper by directing attention to the 
derirableness of an investigation of the qualities of Australasian flora 
from a medicinal point of view, respecting which at the present moment 
bnt little is known. He had little doubt that if this was done the result 
wonld be the discovery of remedies for diseases which might be classi- 
fied as having become peculiarly localised — as for instance typhoid 
fever and cancer. 



211 PBOCEEDIKGS, JUNE. 

Mr. Ward supported the saggestion contained in the conclading 
portion of the paper. He purposed making an examination of the 
plant which had been eaten by the child treated by Dr. Hardy. 

THE IBON BLOW : LINDA GOLDFIBLD. 

Mr. Wabd, in continuation of the discussion already opened, in which 
he maintained that the composition of the Iron Blow completely showed 
that they were not of volcanic origin, as such materials were seldom 
found in masses such as in the present instance. This, with the 
exception of specular iron which is occasionally of volcanic origin. He 
laid particular stress upon the presence in all of them of peroxide of 
iron and pyrites, from which, he asserted, was derived the large 
proportion of sulphate of Barium. He also contended that Mr. Thurean 
was incorrect in contending that the presence of gold in small quantities 
was to be taken as evidence of volcanic origin. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor produced specimens obtained from the Iron 
Blow, and pointed out that he considered the papers read by Messrs. 
Ward and Johnston had fully established the nature of the present 
case. He believed the plain inconsistencies in Mr. Thureau's paper 
were attributable to that gentleman's mistaken estimation of the yalae 
of various equivalents of the English 1an&;uage. 

DISCOVERY OF FOSSIL FISH. 

The Secretary stated that at the next meeting, in conjunction with 
Mr. Johnston, he would lay before the Society a paper on the discovery 
by an enthusiastic collector — Mr. Nicholls — near Hobart, of a fossil fish* 
The specimen, which he placed on the table, and which had been secured 
for the Tasmanian Museum, was, he believed, the first discovery of its 
nature in the colony. 

AUSTRALIAN TURQUOISE. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor exhibifced a beautiful specimen of turquoise, the 
latest found in Australia of a mineral suitable for jewellery purposes, 
obtained at Wangaratta. 

complimentary. 

In moving the customary \ ote of thanks to the authors of papers. 
His Excellency mentioned that Mrs. Meredith had added her ex- 
perience to the effect that the Angora goat could be successfully 
farmed in this colony, and would thrive where no other animid 
would. He referred in complimentary terms to the other papers, and 
the vote having been passed the meeting terminated. 



FBOOEEDIKGS, JFLY. Z1U 



JULY, 1889. 

The monthly evening meeting was held on July 9th. The President, Hi& 
' Szoellency, Sir Bobert G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., presided, Lady Hamilton 
-was also present. 

Mr. F. Back, General Manager Tasmanian Government Bailways, 
was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

TASMANIAN TREES. 

COBBESPONDENCE. 

Bell-street, Domain, Hobart, Jane 12, 1889. Dear Sir,— ^By thi& 
morning's Mercury I observed an interesting letter from Mr. F. Stanley 
Bobson, referring to what steps had been taken in order to ascertain 
by careful measurement the height of forest trees in V^ictoria. We 
have very little reliable evidence as to the exact height of the tallest 
Tasmanian trees. Some years ago, the Rev. T. J. Ewing, of the Orphan 
Sohools, New Town, was engaged under the authority of the Govern- 
ment to compile a short paper on the statistics of the colony, wherein 
was mentioned the measurement of several trees of exceptional size, but 
none (trusting to my memory) reached 300ft. One was stated to be 
240ft. to the first branch, where the tree had been broken off by wind, 
and the remaining portion guessed at 50ft. or 60ft., therefore the 
tme height was left still conjectural. Many years ago I accompanied 
the late James Sprent (Surveyor-General) up the spurs of Mount 
Wellington, where it was thought the tallest trees of Tasmania would 
be found. We, however, did not meet with anything like .300ft. We 
measured the root of a large stringy bark {E. Robust), and ascertained 
its circumference to be 14ft. close te the butt. On my own farm. Circu- 
lar Head, I had a tree felled away from the house, upon which I placed 
the 2ft. rule, and found the heigbt to be 218ft. 6in., 12ft. at the butt 
in diameter. About 24 miles south of Stanley, Circular Head, I met 
with at the foot of a steep hill, near the banks of the River Arthur, a 
bed of trees of extraordinary height, where some might possibly reach 
300ft. There are exceptionally large and tall trees at Table Cape, 
North- West Coast, growing all along its summit and in the deep 
gullies, attaining great height, but whether above or below 300ft. could 
only be ascertained by proper tests. I employed splitters at Circular 
Head who produced 13,000 and 11,200 5ft. palings from two trees,. 
some of which were sold at Melbourne at the rate of 105s. per 
1(X), 1852 and 1853. It would be very interesting if the Royal Society 
of Tasmania took steps to procure authentic statements of the 
height of our forest trees, and to clear up as well the statement that 
the trees of Tasmania in their growth make two rings every year ; upon 
one occasion I put it to the proof by cutting down a young" sapling 16 
yean after it had been planted, and found 16 rings only. I think the 
age of our trees has been much exaggerated, and that the true time 
of growth is far less than is generally supposed. I cut a tree at 
Piper's River evenly with the crosscut saw, and found 151 rings dis* 
tinctly visible ; its heigbt was 155ft., and thickness when felled 5ft. 2in. 
and 4ft. lOin., or about a mean of 5ft. I refer you to Ainsworth's 
"All Bound the World," 1st and 2nd vol., for photos, of giant trees 
of Sonora, 460ft. high. — Yours truly, 

S. B. Emmett. 



Dear Sir, — Having read the enclosed slips which appeared in our 

iper, and observing your name mentioned in one of them, I take the 

iberty of telling yon that I discovered a clump of trees (silver topped 



r^ 



317 PBOOEEDINOS, JTTLY. 

Btringy bark we call them) some 15 years ago nnder the soath end of 
Mount Barrow. Having noticed in Sturt's map a patch marked 
*' impenetrable scrub" I had the cariosity to force my way through 
it, and so found the trees in question. As well as I can remember, 
there may be about a hundred of them, one bein^ 33ft. through by 
actual measurement with a tape, and, I should judge, 400ft. high. 
The others are all about 20ft. to 25ft.athrough, and as square as a 
dry goods box, and would split like matches. None of them, except 
the large one, have a blemish of any sort, but run up hundreda 
of feet without a bough. The large tree is burnt through, there 
being a passage wide enough for a man to walk. The first time I 
saw it I could only measure it by pacing, but a few days afterwards I 
got two of my brothers to go up with me, taking a tape, and we then 
found its actual measurement as stated above. In all my travels 
about Tasmania, prospecting and otherwise, I have never seen a 
tree to compare in any way with this colossus, and it is worth going a 
good way to see. I often think of these trees and endeavour to form 
an idea as to how many palings one of them would split. I may say 
that I was one of the Qovemment party that cut and surveyed the traek 
through the great Gippsland scrub from Moe to Stockyard Creek and 
saw some big trees, but none to compare with the one in question. 
Apologising for trespassing on your valuable time.— I am, dear sir, yonrs 
very truly and obliged, 

Chas. 6, Babeley. 

A letter from Mr. A. Johnston, addressed to Colonel Legge, was also 
read, wherein he directed attention to having brought nnder Colond 
Legge's notice some years since a tree measuring 295ft. 

SELl'-BEGISTEBING THEBMOMETEB. 

Captain Shobtt laid before the Society a chart showing the registra- 
tion of temperature by a self-registering themometer recently received 
from Paris. He explained that the instrument did not move by means 
of spirit or mercury, but on an entirely new principle, i.e., the expansion 
of a curved piece of brass. 

TERBA AUSTBALIS. 

^ Mr. McClymont read a paper on the misconception existing in earlier 
times on this subject. He dealt with the probable discoveries made by 
early Portuguese and French voyageurs. 



OLD TASMANIAN CHABTS. 

Mr. Mault apologised for his inability to lay his paper on this snbjeet 
before the Society at that meeting. 

Mr. McClymont explained the circumstances which had given rise to 
inquiries being made respecting charts captured from Captain Hayes by 
the French. 

THE TBUMPET FLOWEB. 

Mr. Ward related the results of recent analysis of a portion of the 
plant mentioned by Dr. Hardy at the last meeting. He had discovered 
-only a small trace of atropine present. 



PBOGESDIKOS, JX7LY. XV 



SMUT IN WHEAT. 

Mr. Joseph Babwick oontribu'sed the following PftP^r on this subject 
to the Council of the Royal Society of Tasmaoia, and it was read by 
the Secretary at Monday night's meeting. In his paper Mr. Barwick 
said : — My apology for addressing this paper to you is that we have 
no Farmers' Club in Tasmania, or experimental farm, and my object is 
to ask that a small space in your Botanical Garden may be granted to 
test the cause of smut under your manager ; but before asking for this 
imiisaal concession it is due to you that I should explain a few of the 
teets that I have practised for the last 15 years. It is a fact that this 
pest has hitherto defeated all attempts to discover the cause, which 
I can fairly claim to have discovered, and it was in this way. In 1873 
I had a small paddock to sow with wheat, which I sowed with wheat 
threshed by steam machine, but in completing the sowing I had not 
sufficient dressed, as we term it, with blue stone, and I took sufficient 
from a bag, which I sowed without dressing. The result was that only 
aboat 25 per cent, of the dressed wheat came up, but that which was 
sown without dressing produced upwards of 80' per cent, of plants ; but 
npon the wheat coming to maturity I found that there was no smut in 
that which was dressed, but that the small piece sown without dressing 
contained more than 60 per cent, of smut. I then measured a square 
rood of each, and counted the plants which had produced perfect wheat, 
with the result that the number was nearly as possible equal, which at 
once struck me that the dressing had simply destroyed that which would 
have proved smutty. This induced me to enter into further tests the 
follewing year, which I applied as follows : — (I must explain that in 
those days it was not safe to sow wheat threshed by steam, consequently 
we used to get sufficient threshed by hand for seed. ) I rubbed out 20O 
grains of wheat from stock which we were then threshing. I took 
another 200 grains of that threshed by steam, 200 do. threshed by hand. 
I divided these into two equal parts of 100 grains each. The first division 
I dressed with bluestone, the other division I planted without dressing, 
with the following result of that which was dressed : — ]No. 1. The 
100 grains rubbed out by hand produced 96 plants of perfect wheat. No 
2. Threshed by flail, or what is called hand-threshed, produced 81 
plants of perfect wheat. No. 3. threshed by steam, produced 60 perfect 
plants. 1 will now ask you, gentlemen, to mark the result of that 
which was not dressed. The 100 rubbed out by hand produced 98 
perfect plants and no smut. That threshed by hand produced 90 plants, 
81 beins: perfect and nine smut. That threshed by steam produced 81 
plants, 50 being perfect and 31 smut. This result confirmed my previous 
experience that it was the damaged grain that produced smut, and that 
the dressing simply destroyed these grains and prevented them from 
germinating, but I did not stop here. I planted other beds with samples 
threshed as described, and took up the plants as soon as they came 
out of the ground, and I discovered that these damaged grains, unlike 
perfect ones, came to the surface before shooting any roots, and that the 
roots when they came they differed from the perfect roots by spreading 
in to a delicate form near the surface, instead of a strong, healthy, root 
penetrating downwards, and during one test I divided my plot, and by 
trying the plants with the finger and thumb upon one half of the plot, 
and taking out those that came too readily I succeeded in taking out all 
the defective plants but one, as shown when the wheat ripened, for I 
had only one smut plant left when in the other half, I had 31 smut 
plants. I have followed up my tests from year to year with the same 
ceralt, and have never produced a smut plant from grain mbbed out by 



XYl 



PB00EEDIKQ8, JULY. 



hand, and not injared, and I have come to the conclotion that ftmnt it 
the result of defective rooting of these damaged grains, and if my con- 
tention proves correct an enormous saving can be effected by introancing 
machines coated with gntta percha, including loss of time, oost of blue- 
stone, and destruction oT wheat would amount to a saving of fully 38. per 
•ore, but there are other causes of smut quite bejrond the control of man, 
another strong proof that I am correct, and that is atmospheric influence ; 
for instance, the past season was most prolific in smut, and in every case 
I found it was upon the high lands, it being too dry to allow the roots 
to penetrate to a sufiScient depth to mature the grain. I found during 
the last season heads one half smnt the other half perfect wheat, and in 
one case one grain half smut and the other half contained flour, and in 
all cases the upper half is the smut. Again, in the very wet season 
amut may be found, but it will be found in the low and wet portions of 
the field, the root having been injured through too much moisture. Oor 
grasses often prove smutty, but it is only the annual variety that can be 
loond smutty. The perennial plant has establishe'i the roots to a 
anfiicient depth to mature. I have read, from time to time, the theory 
that smut is caused by infection in the stack, and, giving as a proof that 
aelf-sown or shook wheat is never found smutty. The truth is that this 
aelf-sown grain is not subject to injury in threshing, and will support 
my experience with reference to infection. I have, upon several oocMOons 
coated wheat that I had carefully rubbed out of the head with smut 
dust, but have never produced a smut head from sound grain. I hope 
tiie tests explained have had the effect I desire of interesting you in a 
problem that has hitherto baffled all attempts to solve. To permit some 
tests to be carried out in your gardens under your manager, I will 
undertake to supply seed prepared in various forms for the test and 
numbered. I am sure the tests would be interesting. Again apologising, 
gentlemen, for bringing under your Society what very properly shouM 
Save been a farmers' subject to deal with.—I am, etc., 

JOSEPH BARWICK. 

The Secretary intimated that the sug(;;estions would be laid before the 
Trustees of the Museum and Botanical Gardens. 

The President, in moving the usual vote of thanks to the contributors 
of papers, expressed the hope that something would be done to meet Mr. 
Barwick's suggestions. 



PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XVU 



AUGUST, 1889. 

The monthly eveniDg meeting was held on Monday evening, August 
19tb, the President, His Excellency Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, K.CB.i 
in the chair. 

THE LATE MB. JUSTIN BROWNE. 

The President said : Grentlemen, before W9 proceed to business 
to-night I would remark that siace our last meeting this Society 
has suffered the loss of a very old member who had been, I understand, 
21 years a member of the Council — Mr. Justin McC. Browne; I am sure 
we should wish to place on record our great regret at his death, and 
our heartfelt sympathy with those he has left behind. 

TALL TASMANIAN TREES. 

The Secretary (Mr. Alex. Morton) stated that since the last meeting, 
mt which the question of the height of some of the tallest Tasmanian 
trees had been discussed, he had been making inquiries by circular 
on the subject and had received some replies of value thereon. He 
intended to have a paper on the subject at a future meeting of the 
Society. Baron Von Mueller had written on this subject asking him 
to mention at this meeting that he (Baron Von Mueller) had never 
made himself responsible for measurements of 400ft. in height of any 
enoilyptns trees, and that in nearly all his writings on this subject he 
tSkYe the names of those on whose statements he had relied too hastily 
in reference to exaggerated data concerning the supposed exceptional 
heights of certain eucalyptus. In the Argus of May 25 last he had 
set forth some of the best information obtainable, and urged new 
measurements of trees in Tasmania and West Australia, It would 
be [pleasing if the Tasmanian members of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, who will attend the Melbourne 
meeting to be held in the early part of next year, could furnish for the 
biological section genuine measurements of Tasmania's tallest trees, or 
trustworthy records of past discoveries in this direction. He further 
Boggeated that an officer from the Survey Department should visit 
the group discovered by Mr. C. Barkley at Mount Barrow to obtain 
reUable data on the height of these trees. 

Mr. T. Stephens furnished the following memorandum on the subject 
of Lady Franklin's tree : — 

In June, 1881, I measured the trunk of a large tree near the Huon 
road, which had gone by the name of Lady Franklin's tree, and was 
probably identical with one of those described by the Rev. T. J. Ewing 
m the proceedings of the Royal Society of May 9, 1849. It had been 
blown down in the gale of December 26, 1880, and had been paitly 
burnt in a bush fire some two months afterwards. The circumference 
of the trunk at the ground was about 70ft., but measurements round 
the buttresses of these large trees are not worth much for purposes 
of comparison. At 26ft. from the root the circumference was 27ft., 
and at 56ft. upitwas21fti. The total length of the stem to where it 
ended abruptly, being free from branches the whole way, was 266ft., 
and it was theie 9lt. round. Sixty or seventy feet is a very moderate 
estimate for the height of the rest of the tree, and the total height could 
not be less than 330ft., and might have been much more. The tree 
was too much burnt to enable one to determine the species, but Mr. 
Swing calls his big tree a swamp gum. My impreasion at the time 
was that the greater part of the top had been blown off, as often 
happens, hm^ before the tree fell. More remains of it would have 
been left if it had been down only six months. 

b 



XYl PB00EEDIKQ8, JULY. 

hftod, and not injured, and I have come to the concIuBion that amat ia 
the result of defective rooting of these damaged grains, and if my con- 
tention proves correct an enormous saving can be effected by introducing 
machines coated with gutta percha, including loss of time, oost of blue- 
atone, and destruction of wheat would amount to a saving of fully 38. per 
•ore, but there are other causes of smut quite beyond the control of man, 
another strong proof that I am correct, and that is atmospheric influence ; 
for instance, the past season was most prolific in smut, and in every case 
I found it was upon the high lands, it being too dry to allow the roots 
to penetrate to a sufiScient depth to mature the grain. I found during 
the last season heads one half smut the other half perfect wheat, and in 
one case one grain half smut and the other half contained flour, and in 
all cases the upper half is the smut. Again, in the very wet season 
amuv may be found, but it will be found in the low and wet portions of 
the field, the root having been injured through too much moisture. Our 
grasses often prove smutty, but it is only the annual variety that can be 
found smutty. The perennial plant has establishe'i the roots to a 
aufiicient depth to mature. I have read, from time to time, the theory 
that smut is caused by infection in the stack, and, giving as a proof that 
self-sown or shook wheat is never found smutty. The truth is that this 
self-sown grain is not subject to injury in threshing, and will support 
my experience with reference to infection. I have, upon several occasions 
coated wheat that I had carefully rubbed out of the head with smut 
dust, but have never produced a smut head from sound grain. I hope 
the tests explained have had the effect I desire of interesting you in m 
problem that has hitherto baffled all attempts to solve. To permit some 
tests to be carried out in your gardens under your manager, I will 
undertake to supply seed prepared in various forms for the test and 
numbered, I am sure the tests would be interesting. Again apologising, 
gentlemen, for bringing under your Society what very properly shoukl 
Save been a farmers' subject to deal with. — I am, etc., 

JOSEPH BARWICK. 

The Secretary intimated that the sug^iiestions would be laid before the 
Trustees of the Museum and Botanical Gardens. 

The President, in moving the usual vote of thanks to the contributors 
of papers, expressed the hope that something would be done to meet Mr. 
Barwick's suggestions. 



PROCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XVU 



AUGUST, 1889. 

The monthly evening meeting was held on Monday evening, August 
19th, the President, His Excellency Sir Robert G. C. Uamilton, K.CB.^ 
in the chair. 

THE LATE MB. JUSTIN BROWNE. 

The President said : Gentlemen, before W9 proceed to business 
to-night I would remark that since our last meeting this Society 
has suffered the loss of a very old member who had been, I understand, 
21 years a member of the Council — Mr. Justin McC. Browne; I am sure 
we should wish to place on record our great regret at his death, and 
our heartfelt sympathy with those he has left behind. 

TALL TASMANIAN TREES. 

The Secretary (Mr. Alex. Morton) stated that since the last meeting, 
mt which the question of the height of some of the tallest Tasmanian 
trees had been discussed, he had been making inquiries by circular 
on the subject and had received some replies of value thereon. He 
intended to have a paper on the subject at a future meeting of the 
Society. Baron Von Mueller had written on this subject asking him 
to mention at this meeting that he (Baron Von Mtleller) had never 
made himself responsible for measurements of 400ft. in height of any 
encalyptns trees, and that in nearly all his writings on this subject he 
tSkYe the names of those on whose statements he had relied too hastily 
in reference to exaggerated data concerning the supposed exceptional 
heights of certain eucalyptus. In the Argus of May 25 last he had 
set forth some of the best information obtainable, and urged new 
measurements of trees in Tasmania and West Australia. It would 
be [pleasing if the Tasmanian members of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, who will attend the Melbourne 
meeting to be held in the early part of next year, could furnish for the 
biological section genuine measurements of Tasmania's tallest trees, or 
trustworthy records of past discoveries in this direction. He further 
Boggedted that an officer from the Survey Department should visit 
the group discovered by Mr. C. Barkley at Mount Barrow to obtain 
reliable data on the height of these trees. 

Mr. T. Stephens furnished the following memorandum on the subject 
of Lady Franklin's tree :— 

In June, 1881, 1 measured the trunk of a large tree near the Huon 
road, which had gone by the name of Lady Franklin's tree, and was 
probably identical with one of those described by the Rev. T. J. Ewing 
m the proceedings of the Royal Society of May 9, 1849. It had been 
blown down in the gale of December 26, 1880, and had been paitly 
burnt in a bush fire some two months afterwards. The circumference 
of the trunk at the ground was about 70ft., but measurements round 
the tuttresses of these large trees are not worth much for purposes 
of comparison. At 26ft. from the root the circumference was 27ft., 
and at 56ft. up it was 21ft. The total length of the stem to where it 
end^ abruptly, being free from branches the whole way, was 266ft. , 
and it was theie 9ft. round. Sixty or seventy feet is a very moderate 
estimate for the height of the rest of the tree, and the total height could 
not be less than 330ft., and might have been much more. The tree 
wia too much burnt to enable one to determine the species, but Mr. 
Swing calls his big tree a swamp gum. My imprejsion at the time 
was that the greater part of the top had been blown off, as often 
hi^pens, Xoxkf^ before the tree fell. More remains of it would have 
been left if it had been down only six months. 

b 



XX PBOCEEBINGS, AUGUST. 

OLD CHARTS OF TASMANIA. 

Mr. Mault read a paper dealing with certain old charts captnred 
from Captain Hayes by the French, and now lodged among the archives 
of France, but copied by the permission of the Government of that 
country. The paper dealt at length with each of the charts, and 
illustrated the origin of many of the original names of the Derwent and 
its sarroundings. 

Mr. McCltmont complimented Mr. Manlt on the care bestowed on his 
paper, and reviewed the earlier part of the voyage of the Marion. 

Mr. Walker also spoke on the paper, quoting from the Braboume 
Papers to illustrate the possibility that Flinders at the time of his 
detention at the Mauritius was carrying despatches from Governor 
King, which were res^arded by his captors as a violation of the passport 
held by him from Bounaparte. 

DISCOVERT OF A FOSSIL FISH. 

Mr. B. M. JoHKSTON read a paper, the joint production of Mr. 
Morton and himself, respecting the recent discovery by Mr. H. Nicholls 
of a fossil fish, presented by him to the Museum. The specieshad been 
named Acrolepis Hamiltoni, in recognition of the deep interest always 
observed by the President in the afifairs of the Society. 

The SzcRETABT read a communication from Mr. Petterd, referring, 
to a fossil fish discovered by him in a quarry near Knocklofty 18 years 
back, but which had not been described, but had been lost. 

Mr. Stephens referred te certain correspondence received by him 
from Professors Stephens and McCoy asking for particnlars of this 
discovery. 

AUSTRALIAN AND TASMANIAN SANDARACH. 

The Secretary read a paper by Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
Curator, Teobnological Museum, Sydney. In it the writer referred 
to the fact that a specimen of resin irom the Oyster Bay Pine of 
Tasmania, sent to the Exhibition of 1851, first drew the attention of 
experts to the possibilities of Australian Sandarach. For this exhibit 
and other gums and resins, Mr. J. Milligan was awarded honourable 
mention. Sandarach is one of the most valuable of Australian and 
Tasmanian vegetable products, a market is ready for it, and it seems 
strange that it should have been so long neglected. No statistics are 
available in regard to the importation of Sandarach into these colonies, 
but to bring it here at all is a veritable *' carrying of coals to Newcastle.'' 
In various parts of Australia and Tasmania there are vast numbers of 
Ccdlitria trees, and their resin, often abundant, can readily be collected, 
and the author is sure that even with the cheap labour of Northern 
Africa to contend against, it can be profitably gathered during a 
portion of the year. The approximate price of Sandarach in London, 
is 60- 115s. per cwt., and there is no difierence between it and the 
colonial article. As to the cultivation of the trees. Baron von Mueller 
states, " Probably it would be more profitable to devote sandy 
desert land, which could not bo brought under irrigation, to the 
culture of the Sandarach cypresses, than to pastoral purposes, but 
boring beetles must be kept off. It is also to be borne in mind that 
CaUitris timber is valuable." 

Mr. Stephens referred to the manner in which these trees were 
destroyed in clearing for sheep farming. 

The President said he had frequently noticed the destruction of 
these trees. 

COMPLIMENTARY. 

The President moved the usual vote of thanks to the contribulora 
of papers. 



FBOCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBEB. xxl 



SEPTEMBEE, 1889. 

The monthly meeting of the Royal Society was held on Monday, 
^September 9th. The Pbesidei^t (His Excellency Sir Robert Q. C. 
Hamilton, K.C.B.) presided. Mr. J. Pro vis, of South Australia, was 
elected a corresponding member of the Society ; Mr. Chas. Guesdon a 
member. 

The Pkesident desired to bring a matter concerning the young 
salmon now at the Salmon Ponds before the Society. These were the 
undoubted product of the ova brought out by Sir Thomas Brady, 
which had been stripped from the male and female fish and artificially 
fertilised, and the utmost care had been taken to keep them apart from 
any other fish bred in the Ponds. He recently visited the Ponds, 
accompanied by the Chairman of the Fisheries idoard, the Secretary, 
and two of the members, when they carefully examined a number of 
the young salmon, among which they were surprised to find marked 
-<Li£ferences existing, not only in size, but in their characteristics. It 
has often been held that the scUmomdoe caught in Tasmanian waters 
cannot be true ScUmo solar because so many of them have spots on the 
dorsal fin, and a tinge of yellow or orange on the adipose fin, but nearly 
half of the young salmon they examined, which had never left the 
Ponds, had these^racteristics. Again, many of them were almost 
'' bull-headed " in appearance — another characteristic which is not 
supposed to distinguish the true ScUmo scUar. He would suggest to 
the Chairman of the Fisheries Board, whom he saw present, ^t the 
Secretary should be asked to make a formal report of the result of this 
Tisit, and to obtain some specimens of the young fish, which could be 
preserved in spirits, and perhaps sent to Sir Thomas Bra^ to be 
sabmitted for the consideration and opinion of naturalists at Home. 

Mr. Allfobt directed attention to the desirableness of placing young 
fish in the West Coast rivers, which were entirely free at present of 
fish of a migratory character. 

Mr. Johnston pointed out the difficulty of transit in stocking these 
rivers. He thought Lake Dixon would afford an excellent home for the 
salmon, equal to any of the Scotch waters ; and as it is one of the 
affluents of the Franklin and Gordon Rivers, the young fish would find 
their way to the Western Ocean. 

Mr. MeBTON drew attention to a specimen of the fish referred to, one 
that had been bred from the late shipment of ova brought out by Sir 
Thomas Brady. The fish exhibited had no markings on the dorsal fin, 
bat, as had been stated by His Excellency, there appeared to be quite an 

S[iial number in the pond with markings on the dorsal as those without, 
e hoped the recommendations of His Excellency, that specimens of this 
jronnff fry should be sent to some of the leading ichthyologists in Europe 
for their opinion would be carried out, because from the care and 
attention bestowed on the late shipment of ova there could be no 
question but that the ova was from the true fish, ScUmo aalar. 

SMUT IN GRAIN, AND DEPOSIT OF SALT. 

The Secretary (Mr. A. Morton) read the following correspondence 
torn Mr. Joseph Barwick, relating to smut in wheat, and also to a large 
deposit of salt found on the plains near Mona Vale. 

" To the President and Council of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 
'Gentlemen, — After reading the two high class, and what would seem 
imanswerable papers upon the above subject, read at the last meeting 



XXU FB0CEEDIN6S, 8EPTEMBEB. 

of your Society, it will seem presnmption for me to agMn trespaas vLWUk- 
you. However, I respectfully ask leave to do so in support of my nrst- 
paper. The learned writers, Messrs. Abbott and Stephens, conclude, 
from the tenor of my paper, that I had not made myself acquainted 
with what had been done la attempting to elucidate the mystery of smut. 
I desire to say that for the last 14 years I have obtained and read all 
the papers I could find upon the subject, but scarcely two of the writers 
agree in the most important points, and the whole of the writings that I 
have read deal more with effect than cause, that is, with the diseased 
plant. We all know that when we see either cattle or horses infested 
with vermin that the animal is weakly and poor ; but we do not believe 
that the vermin cause the poverty, but the reason we knowis that poverty 
from disease or starvation breeds vermin, and this is my experience with- 
plants and trees ; and I am strongly of opinion that it is the same witii 
our crain plant, the plant being weakly from defective rooting it is 
attacked by fungus. My object in asking for space in the Botanical 
Gardens was not with a desire to carrv out scientific examinations^ 
but to demonstrate that sound grains will not produce smut, and that 
the so-called spores are as harmless as soot dust, that is if practical tests 
of sixteen years are of any value, and I further concluded that the oody 
way to interest the public and induce other societies to take the matter 
np, was to carry out the tests in some public place, and if my experience 
was confirmed that some means might be devised by which the seed graiD' 
could be threshed without injury, which would prove an enoimons saving 
of grain, labour, expense, and a more vigorous plant. The tests I 
enumerated were only a few of the many ; I tried all with the same- 
result. I have now one and a half acres sown this year with wheat 
collected upon stock that had been shaken out in removing sheaves ;. 
this I have not dressed. I do not fear the result. It is too late to 
carry out any further tests this year," 

'' Tea Tree, August 23, 1889. Curator of the Museum, Uobart— ^ir» 
— In forwarding the exhibit of salt it cannot be classed as one of our 
manufactures, as it is a natural product of the centre of Tasmania, 
and it seems to me more of a curiosity, or more properly a source of 
undeveloped wealth, as nothing has ever been done to ascertain the 
source of the constant and inexhaustible deposit. These chains of lagoons,^ 
or what are known as the salt pans, are situated nearly in the centre of 
the colony, and are situated on the estates of Lower Park, Balochmyle, 
EUenthorpe, and Mona Vale. I am well acquainted with these pans, 
having known them for nearly 50 years. They extend for a distance of 
seven miles, running as nearly as, 1 should say, south-east by north-west,, 
and there are to my knowledge 10 of them, in area from one acre to 100. 
There may be more beyond my travels, and I think if a line was drawn 
it would be found that they are not over one mile out of line. To my 
mind, the most mysterious fact is that on either side of this line there 
are similar pans containing fresh water. In one case at EUenthorpe 
there is one large pan of probably 100 acres, and within 10 chains 
on either side there is a lagoon of fresh water. The most prolific 
in salt of these pans is Ballochmyle and Mona Vale, as over 
50 years ago I went with my father to these pans for a supply, and in dry 
seasons large quantities have been taken from those pans, many hundreds 
of tons ; the surface, about 2in. deep, is scraped up for domestic use, and 
the soil is used for manure. A very old hand in the colony, John Duffield, 
who came in the prison ship Dromedary, informed me that this salt was 
formerly a source of wealth to the aboriginals who owned the surrounding 
lands, and was often the ecene of hot battle and bloodshed. I have heard 
several theories of the source of supply, but none of which are tenable. 
The one is that it is brought from higher levels by streams, but 
most of them are situated upon a level surface and have no inlet. Another 
is that the land is impregnated with salt, and that the supply is kept up 



PBOCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBEB. XXUl 

hy aoakaae, but if this was so it wonld f olbw that the whole of these 
pMM would be salt, which I have shown is not the case. My idea is 
that a reef extends throughout the length of these pans. Supposing this 
to be so, would the salt rise from any great depth ? I think not, and if 
my theory is correct, the reef cannot be far from the surface. 

Mr. Stephens said Sir Lambert Dobson, who had had a lengthy 
knowledge of the district, might impart some information. 

Sir Lambebt Dobson had known the salt pans district for a period of 
68 years. They were really small lakelets which contained salt water, 
and from which, during summer, the evaporation caused the layer of salt 
to form. In past years this was made a source of revenue by collectors of 
thesalt, which was of excellent quality, and suitable for domestic purposes. 
Some of the lakelets provided richer deposits of salt than others, but no 
reliable information, so far as he was aware, was forthcoming respecting 
the origin ef these deposits. Evidently they did not originate from springs, 
becanse during summer the lakelets dried up. The soil around was 
fertile, the native grasses growing well. This suggested that the water 
became impregnated with salt below the surface. 

Mr. Johnston considered the subject one of deep interest, and worthy 
of oonsideration at the hands of members of the Society. He thought 
that Mr. Barwiok had given good reasons in favour of the idea that the 
■ait was derived from some underlying rock formation of marine origin — 
probably of upper palsBozoic age — whose members are often highly 
idiarged with saune matter. 

Mr Stephens said it would be interesting to ascertain from the 
inhabitants of the district if the trade in the salt had been discontinued 
owing* to a decrease in the supply, or market influences. The difference 
between salt and fresh water las^oons was that the latter always had 
natural outlets, and even if some of these lagoons having outlets 
contained a percentage of salt from the solid deposits, the outflow 
natarally brought about a reduction of this. Many of the sandstone 
formations in Tasmania were particularly saliferous, and contained 
large percentages of all the salts, from Epsom salt and alum to 
eUorlde of sodium. This especially was noticeable in caves which 
proteeted the deposits from being carried away by the rain. It should 
Im remembered that a large portion of this district had been under the 
•ea about the tertiary period, if not in post tertiary times. The 
possibility of the existence of a solid bed of salt, as suggested by Mr. 
Johnston, should not be ignored. 

Mr. Johnston doubted this. 

Mr. Stephens said that the district, as far as Antill Ponds, gave 
evidence in favour of this. Marine fossils were not likely to be found 
where the land had been rising or in drift. 

the last living ABOBIOINAL of TASMANIA. 

Mr James Barnard read the following paper compiled by him upon 
this subject : — It has been generally supposed that the grave has 
dosed over the remains of the last of the aborigines, and that the 
extinction of the race has been final and complete. This supposition, 
however, is believed to be erroneous ; for there still exists one female 
descendant of the former *' princes of wastes and lords of deserts ' in the 
person of Fanny Cochrane Smith, of Fort Cygnet, and the mother of a 
urge family of six sons and five daughters, all of whom are living. Some 
doubts have been cast in Parliament and elsewhere upon the claim of 
Fknny (to keep to her pre-nuptial and first Christian name) to be of the 
pure blood of her ancestors, but after searching the records, and upon 
her own personal testimony, and from other evidence, there seems to be 



XXIY PROCEEDINGS, SEFTEMBEB. 

lifctle reason to doubt the fac^. It appears, theo, that Fanny was bom 
at Flinders Island in 1834 or 1835, and is now aboat 65 years of age. 
Sarah was the name of her mother, and Eugene that of her father, 
and both were undeniably aboriginals. Sarah first lived with a sealer, 
and became the mother of four half-caste children ; and was subsequently 
married to Eugene (native name, Micomanie), one of her own people, 
and had three children, of whom Fanny is the sole survivor and 
representative of the race. Lieut. Matthew Curling Friend, R.N., ia 
a paper read before the Tasmanian Society, on March 10, 1847t "On 
the decrease of the Aborigines of Tasmania," in alluding to the curious 
theory propounded by Count Strzelecki, that the aboriginal mother of a 
half-caste can never produce a black child should she subsequently 
marry one of her own race, controverts this notion of invariable sterility 
by quoting two instances which came under his notice while visiting 
the aboriginal establishment at Flinders Island. I give his own words : — 
'* One was the case of a black woman named Sarah, who had formerly 
four half-caste children by a sealer with whom she lived, and has had 
since her abode at Flinders Island, where she married a man of her uim 
race, three black children, two of whom are still alive. The other, a 
black woman named Harriet, who had formerly by a white man with 
whom she lived two halt-caste children, and has had since her marriage 
with a black man a tine healthy black infant, who is still living.** 
Commenting upon this doctrine of Strzelecki, West observes (Hist, of 
Tasmania, vol. 2, p. 75.)* *' A natural law by which the extinction of a 
race is predicted will not admit of such serious deviations." Some 
explanation may properly be expected from me for reviving a questioii 
wnich was supposed to be set at rest when Truganini was consigned to 
the tomb, and declared to be the last woman of her race. I wfll 
therefore mention the incident which has given me something of a 
personal interest in the matter. It is now nearly 40 years ago that I 
was accustomed occasionally to accompany my friend, the late Br. 
Milligan, the Medical Superintendent of the Aborigines, to the settlement 
at Oyster Cove, where I saw a good deal of tue native people, at that 
time some 30 or 40 in number. Among these I have a distinct recollection 
of Fanny, who was then apparently about 17 years of age, slender and 
active, less dusky in colour, but rather more prepossessing in appearance 
than any of her kind ; and certainly at that time I never heard a 
doubt expressed of her not being a true aboriginal. There was one 
circumstance in particular which impressed her upon my remembrance, 
and that was on one occasion we crossed over in a boat from Oyster 
Cove to Bruni Island, rowed by four of the black men, and Fanny taking 
the steer-oar, which she handled with marvellous skill and dexterity. My 
visits to the settlement shortly after ceased, and from that time to the 
present, until a few weeks ago, when I was greatly surprised to receive a 
visit from this identical Fanny, who had become transformed into 
a buxom matron of considerable amplitude. By the courtesy of the 
Hon. P. 0. Fysh, Chief Secretary and Premier, I have been permitted 
access to the official records bearing upon the subiect of this investigation. 
The first documents brought under my attention were two letters under 
date June 23 and 26, 1882, embodying a report from the Police Magistrate 
of Franklin, the late E. A. Walpole, emphatically stating that Fanny 
** is a half-caste, bom of an aboriginal woman, by a white man whose 
name is unknown, at Flinders Island on or about the year 1835." No 
authority beyond the expression of his individual opinion is adduced 
by Mr. Walpole in support of his statement. The next document was 
a letter by the late Dr. Milligan, Medical Superintendent of Aborigines, 
under date July 17> 1854, enclosing William Smith's consent to marry 
Fanny Cochrane, and describing her as an aboriginal girl belonging to 
the establishment at Oyster Cove. This afiords strong evidence in 
support of the opposite view of the case, as those who knew Dr, 



PROCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBEB. 

Milligan would remember how precise and accurate he invariably was in 
Aoy statement of facts. A point of some importance in the contention 
woold arise from Fanny's second name, Cochrane. According to 
B«nwick, in his ''Last of the Tasmaoians,'' p. 282, this was taken from 
the sealer who lived with Sarah, whose name was Cottrel Cochrane. 
Were this so, it would have at once have gone far to settle the question 
of parentage, and show her to be the half-caste supposed. Bonwick is 
obTionsly in error in his statement ; for I have lately ascertained from 
the lipe of a married lady living in Hobart, a daughter of the late 
Mr. Robert Clark, catechist at the aborigines establishment, that 
Cochrane was the maiden name of her mother, and that it was given by 
her father to Fanny when a child, and residing in his family. Again, 
Bonwick writes (p. 310) : " We read of a sawyer, one Smith, and his 
Uaok friend, Mrs. Fanny Cochrane Smith, receiving £25 a year for their 
half-caste child." Instead of *' black friend " he niieht have written 
*' black wife ;'' for the parties were duly married at Hobart by the Rev. 
Frederick Miller, Congregational minister, in 1854. As respects the 
oanse assigned for the annuity, this writer wmi also in error, for the sum 
of £24 (not £25) was bestowed upon Fanny on the occasion of her 
marriage, and not for the reason stated. The next document is a 
letter dated 8th December, 1842, conveying the ofiScial approval of the 
admiseion into the Queen's Orphan School of the three aboriginal 
childien named in the margin — Fanny, Martha, Jesse. Then follows in 
the records under same date an application from Mr. Robert Clark, late 
oatechist of the aborigines on Flinders Island, for permission to receive 
into his family '* an aboriginal child named Fanny, upon his engagement 
to feed, elothe, and educate her as one of his own children." 

Next is an extract from an official document dated 8th March, 1847 : — 
*' fingene and his wife, the father and mother of Fanny and Adam, 
being aaked if they were willing that their children should be sent 
back to Mr. Clark, said they were not. Fanny being asked if she 
understood the nature of an Odth, answered, * No,' and the doctor 
explained it. Fanny said she did not wish to return to Mr. Clark." 

Fromalong report to the Government by Dr. Milligan, dated November 
29, 1847, 1 have taken the following extract : — *' The fifth girl, Fanny 
CSoiohrane, almost a woman, might remain with her half-sister, Mary 
Ann. Indeed, I can scarcely say how otherwise she could be satisfactorily 
diipoted of." There being no difiference of opinion as to Sarah being 
the mother of boch, this testimony, given by Dr. Milligjin as to a 
diilerenoe of parentage in the case of the father, at once discriminates 
her from Mary Ann, and in itself affords a strong presumption in favour 
of the contention. 

The superintendent at Oyster Cove, under date 4th November, 
1857, reports to the Colonial Secretary the death of Adam, aged 20 years, 
the yonngest of the aboriginals ; and states that daring his illness 
he was waited upon by his mother, sister, and the latter's husband ; 
these being respectively Sarah, Fanny, and William Smith. Up to 
this point my researches have been eminently satisfactory, and have 
tended to confirm the theory of Fanny being an aboriginal ; bat another 
document has been brought under my notice which, unexplained, 
certainly discountenances that theory. It is the report of certain 
proceedings taken before Dr. Jeanneret, the superintendent at Flinders 
Island, on the occasion' of certain allegations made against an officer of 
the eetablishment, and in which is a deposition made by Fanny, dated 
March 25, 1847, commencing with these words, — '* I am a half-caste of 
Van Diemen's Land. My mother is a native. I am about 13 years 
of age," etc., with her signature attached at the foot. At first 
light this admission would appear to be conclusive and unanswerable ; 
hat, npon reflection, I am led to believe that there must be a mistake 



XXIY PBOCEEDINOS, SEPTXMBEK. 

little reason to doubt the fac^. It appears, theo, that Fanny was bom 

at Flinders Island in 1834 or 1835, and is now aboat 65 years of age. 

Sarah was the name of her mother, and Eugene that of her father* 

and both were undeniably aboriginals. Sarah first lived with a sealer, 

and became the mother of four half-caste children ; and was snbseqnentiy 

married to Eugene (native name, Micomanie), one of her own people, 

and had three children, of whom Fanny is the sole survivor and 

representative of the race. Lieut. Matthew Curling Friend, R.N., im 

a paper read before the Tasmanian Society, on March 10, 1847, '*0n 

the decrease of the Aborigines of Tasmania," in alluding to the cnriona 

theory propounded by Count Strzelecki, that the aboriginal mother of a 

half-caste can never produce a black child should she subsequently 

marry one of her own race, controverts this notion of invariable sterility 

by quoting two instances which came under his notice while visiting 

the aboriginal establishment at Flinders Island. I give his own words : — 

'* One was the case of a black woman named Sarah, who had formerly 

four half-caste children by a sealer with whom she lived, and has had 

since her abode at Flinders Island, where she married a man of her uim 

race, three black children, two of whom are still alive. The other, a 

black woman named Harriet, who had formerly by a white man with 

whom she lived two halt-caste children, and has had since her marriage 

with a black man a line healthy black infant, who is still living." 

Commenting upon this doctrine of Strzelecki, West observes (Hist, of 

Tasmania, vol 2, p. 75.)* *' A natural law by which the extinction of a 

race is predicted will not admit of such serious deviations." Some 

explanation may properly be expected from me for reviving a quesUon 

which was supposed to be set at rest when Truganini was consigned to 

the tomb, and declared to be the last woman of her race. I wiU 

therefore mention the incident which has given me something of a 

personal interest in the matter. It is now nearly 40 years ago that I 

was accustomed occasionally to accompany my friend, the late Br. 

Milligan, the Medical Superintendent of the Aborigines, to the settlement 

at Oyster Cove, where I saw a good deal of tue native people, at that 

time some 30 or 40 in number. Among these I have a distinct recollection 

of Fanny, who was then apparently about 17 years of age, slender and 

active, less dusky in colour, but rather more prepossessing in appearance 

than any of her kind ; and certainly at that time I never heard a 

doubt expressed of her not being a true aboriginal. There was one 

circumstance in particular which impressed her upon my remembrance, 

and that was on one occasion we crossed over in a boat from Oyster 

Cove to Bruni Island, rowed by four of the black men, and Fanny taking 

the steer-oar, which she handled with marvellous skill and dexterity. My 

visits to the settlement shortly after ceased, and from that time to the 

present, until a few weeks ago, when I was greatly surprised to receive a 

visit from this identical Fanny, who had become transformed into 

a buxom matron of considerable amplitude. By the courtesy of the 

Hon. P. 0. Fysh, Chief Secretary and Premier, I have been permitted 

access to the ofBcial records bearing upon the subiect of this investigation. 

The first documents brought under my attention were two letters under 

date June 23 and 26, 1882, embodying a report from the Police Magistrate 

of Franklin, the late E. A. Walpole, emphatically stating that Fanny 

*' is a half-caste, born of an aboriginal woman, by a white man whose 

name is unknown, at Flinders Island on or about the year 1835." No 

authority beyond the expression of his individual opinion is adduced 

by Mr. Walpole in support of his statement. The next document was 

a letter by the late Dr. Milligan, Medical Superintendent of Aborigines, 

under date July 17, 1854, enclosing William Smith's consent to marry 

Fanny Cochrane, and describing her as an aboriginal girl belonging to 

the establishment at Oyster Cove. This afiords strong evidence in 

support of the opposite view of the case, as those who knew Dr. 



PBOCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBEB. 

MilUgan would remember how precise and accurate he invariably was in 
Aoy statement of facts. A point of some importance in the contention 
woald arise from Fanny's second name, Cochrane. According to 
Banwick, in his **La8t of the Tasmanians,'' p. 282, this was taken from 
tha sealer who lived with Sarah, whose name was Cottrel Cochrane. 
Were this so, it would have at once have gone far to settle the question 
of parentage, and show her to be the half-caste supposed. Bonwick is 
obTioosly in error in his statement ; for I have lately ascertained from 
the lips of a married lady living in Hobart, a daughter of the late 
Mr. fiiobert Clark, catechist at the aborigines establishment, that 
Cochrane was the maiden name of her mother, and that it was given by 
her father to Fanny when a child, and residing in his family. Again, 
Bonwick writes (p. 310) : '* We read of a sawyer, one Smith, and his 
black friend, Mrs. Fanny Cochrane Smith, receiving £25 a year for their 
half-caste child." Instead of *' black friend " he might have written 
** black wife ;" for the parties were duly married at Hobart by the Rev. 
Frederick Miller, Congregational minister, in 1854. As respects the 
cause assigned for the annuity, this writer wm also in error, for the sum 
of £24 (not £25) was bestowed upon Fanny on the occasion of her 
marriaffe, and not for the reason stated. The next document is a 
letter dated 8th December, 1842, conveying the ofBoial approval of the 
admission into the Queen's Orphan School of the three aboriginal 
children named in the margin — Fanny, Martha, Jesse. Then follows in 
the records under same date an application from Mr. Robert Clark, late 
catechist of the aborieioes on Flinders Island, for permission to receive 
into his family '* an aboriginal child named Fanny, upon his engagement 
to feed, clothe, and educate her as one of his own children.'' 

Nextb an extract from an official document dated 8th March, 1847 : — 
*' Eugene and his wife, the father and mother of Fanny and Adam, 
being asked if they were willing that their children should be sent 
back to Mr. Clark, said they were not. Fanny being asked if she 
understood the nature of an Odth, answered, *No,' and the doctor 
explained it. Fanny said she did not wish to return to Mr. Clark." 

Fromalong report to the Government by Dr. Milligan, dated November 
29, 1847, 1 have taken the following extract :— *' The fifth girl, Fanny 
Cochrane, almost a woman, might remain with her half-sister, Mary 
Aim. Indeed, loan scarcely say how otherwise she could be satisfactorily 
disposed of." There being no difiference of opinion as to Sarah being 
the mother of boch, this testimony, given by Dr. MilUgjin as to a 
difference of parentage in the case of the father, at once discriminates 
her from Mary Ann, and in itself affords a strong presumption in favour 
of the contention. 

The superintendent at Oyster Cove, under date 4th November, 
1857, reports to the Colonial Secretary the death of Adam, aged 20 years, 
the youngest of the aboriginals ; and states that daring his illness 
he was waited upon by his mother, sister, and the latter's husband ; 
these being respectively Sarah, Fanny, and William Smith. Up to 
this point my researches have been eminently satisfactory, and have 
tended to confirm the theory of Fanny being an aboriginal ; bat another 
document has been brought under my notice which, unexplained, 
certainly discountenances that theory. It is the report of certain 
proceedmgs taken before Dr. Jeanneret, the superintendent at Flinders 
island, on the occasion of certain allegations made against an officer of 
the establishment, and in which is a deposition made by Fanny, dated 
March 25, 1847, commencing with thesb words, — '* I am a half-caste of 
Van Diemen's Land. My mother is a native. I am about 13 years 
of age," etc., with her signature attached at the foot. At first 
sight this admission would appear to be conclusive and unanswerable ; 
hat, upon reflection, I am led to believe that there must be a mistake 



XYl PB00EEDING8, JULY. 

hand, and not iojnred, and I have come to the eonoluaion that amat is 
the resnlt of defective rooting of these damaged grains, and if my con- 
tention proves correct an enormons saving can be effected by introducing 
machines coated with gntta percha, Including loss of time, cost of blne> 
■tone, and destruction o? wheat would amount to a saving of fully 38. per 
acre, but there are other causes of smut quite beyond the control of man, 
another strong proof that I am correct, and that is atmospheiio influence ; 
for instance, the past season was most prolific in smut, and in every case 
I found it was upon the high lands, it being too dry to allow the roots 
to penetrate to a sufficient depth to mature the grain. I found during 
the last season heads one half smut the other half perfect wheat, and in 
one case one grain half smut and the other half contained flour, and in 
all cases the upper half is the smut. Again, in the very wet season 
amuii may be found, but it will be found in the low and wet portions of 
the field, the root having been injured through too much moisture. Our 
grasses often prove smutty, but it is only the annual variety that can be 
found smutty. The perennial plant has establishei the roots to a 
aufficient depth to mature. I have read, from time to time, the theory 
that smut is caused by infection in the stack, and, giving as a proof that 
aelf-sown or shook wheat is never found smutty. The truth is that this 
aelf-sown grain is not subject to injury in threshing, and will support 
my experience with reference to infection. I have, upon several occasions 
coated wheat that I had carefully rubbed out of the head with smut 
dust, but have never produced a smut head from sound grain. I hope 
the tests explained have had the effect I desire of interesting you in a 
problem that has hitherto baffled all attempts to solve. To permit some 
tests to be carried out in your gardens under your manager, I will 
undertake to sapply seed prepared in various forms for the test and 
numbered. I am sure the tests would be interestiog. Again apologising, 

gentlemen, for bringing under your Society what very properly should 
ave been a farmers' subject to deal with. — I am, etc., 

JOSEPH BARWICK. 

The Secretary intimated that the suggestions would be laid before the 
Trustees of the Museum and Botanical Gardens. 

The President, in moving the usual vote of thanks to the contributors 
of papers, expressed the hope that something would be done to meet Mr. 
Barwick's suggestions. 



PBOCEEDINGS, AUGUST. XVU 



AUGUST, 1889. 

The monthly evening meeting was held on Monday evening, August 
19th, the President, His Excellency Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, K.CB.i 
in the chair. 

THE LATE MB. JUSTIN BROWNE. 

The President said : Gentlemen, before we proceed to business 
to-night I would remark that since our last meeting this Society 
haa saffered the loss of a very old member who bad been, I understand, 
21 years a member of the Council — Mr. Justin McC. Browne; I am sure 
we Bhoold wish to place on record our great regret at his death, and 
our heartfelt sympathy with those he has left behind. 

TALL TASMANIAN TREES. 

The Secretary (Mr. Alex. Morton) stated that since the last meeting, 
at which the question of the height of some of the tallest Tasmanian 
trees had been discussed, he had been making inquiries by circular 
on the subject and had received some replies of value thereon. He 
intended to have a paper on the subject at a future meetiog of the 
Society. Baron Von Mueller had written on this subject asking him 
to mention at this meeting that he (Baron Von Mueller) had never 
made himself responsible for measurements of 400ft. in height of any 
cncalyptos trees, and that in nearly all his writings on this subject he 
leave the names of those on whose statements he had relied too hastily 
in reference to exaggerated data concerning the supposed exceptional 
heights of certain eucalyptus. In the Argvs of May 25 last he bad 
set forth some of the best information obtainable, and ursed new 
measurements of trees in Tasmania and West Australia. It would 
be fpleasing if the Tasmanian members of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, who will attend the Melbourne 
meeting to be held in the early part of next year, could furnish for the 
biological section genuine measurements of Tasmania's tallest trees, or 
tmstworthy records of past discoveries in this direction. He further 
suggested that an officer from the Survey Department should visit 
the group discovered by Mr. C. Barkley at Mount Barrow to obtain 
reUable data on the height of these trees. 

Mr. T. Stephens furnished the following memorandum on the subject 
of Lady Franklin's tree : — 

In June, 1881, 1 measured the trunk of a large tree near the Huon 
road, which had gone by the name of Lady Franklin's tree, and was 
probably identical with one of those described by the Rev. T. J. Ewing 
m the proceedings of the Royal Society of May 9, 1849. It had been 
blown down in the gale of December 26, 1880, and had been paitly 
bomt in a bush fire some two months afterwards. The circumference 
of the trunk at the ground was about 70ft., but measurements round 
the tuttresses of these large trees are not worth much for purposes 
d comparison. At 26ft. from the root the circumference was 27ft., 
and at 56ft. upitwa8 21f6. The total length of the stem to where it 
ended abruptly, being free from branches the whole way, was 266ft., 
and it was theie Oft. round. Sixty or seventy feet is a very moderate 
estimate for the height of the rest of the tree, and the total height could 
not be less than 330ft., and might have been much more. The tree 
was too much burnt to enable one to determine the species, but Mr. 
Swing calls his big tree a swamp gum. My impreasion at the time 
was that the greater part of the top had been blown off, as often 
happens, long before the tree fell. More remains of it would have 
been kit if it had been down only six months. 

b 



ZXZ PBOCEEDINGS, SEPTEMBEB. 

ProceediDgB and Tmnsactions of the Qaeensland Branch of the Royal 
Cleographiod Society of Aostralaaia, 1888-9, Vol. IV. From the Society. 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. Vols, 
m., 1885 ; IV., 1886 ; V., 1887 ; (bound). From the Society. 

Psyche, a Jonmal of Entomology, Mass., U.S. (Carrent numbers.) 
From the Society. 

Report of the Trustees of the Australian Museum for 1888. From 
the Trustees. 

Report of the Public Library, [Museum, and Art Gallery of South 
Australia for 1887*8. From the Trustees. 

Report of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria for 
the year 1888. From the Society. 

Report of the Surgeon-General of the Army to the Secretary of War 
for the fiscal year ending June, 1888. From the Department. 

Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum for 1888-9. From the 
Trustees. 

Report of the Mining Registrars of the Goldfields of Victoria for the 
^quarter ended 31st March, 1889. From the Department. 

Report, Twenty- third Annual, on the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, 
etc.. New Zealand. From the Trustees. 

Reports of Geological Explorations during 1887*8, with maps and 
■sections. New Zealand. From the Department. 

Revista do Observatorio, Rio de Janeiro, 1889. From the Departments 

Records of the Geological Survey of India (current numbers). From 
the Society. 

Results of Astronomical Observations made at the Melbourne Observa- 
tory in the years 1881 to 4 (bound). From the Department. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine (current parts). From the Society. 

Scientific Proceedings of me Royal Dublin Society (current numbers). 
From the Society. 

Scientific Transactions of the Koyal Dublin Society. II. A monograph 
of the marine and freshwater ostracoda of the North Atlantic and of 
North- Western Europe. Section I. Podocopa. By G. S. Brady, M.A., 
and Rev. A. M. Norman, M. A. Plates. III. Observations^of the Planet 
Jupiter made with the reflector of three feet aperture at Birr Observjitory, 
ParsonstowD, by Otto Boeddicker, Ph.D. Plates. IV. A new deter- 
mination of the latitude of Dunsink Observatory, by Arthur A. Rambaut. 
V. A revision of the British Actiniae, Part 1, Alfred C. Qaddon, M.A., 
etc. Plates. From the Society. 

Studies from the Newport Marine Laboratory. Communicated by 
Alexander As^assiz. XVI. The Development of Osseue Fishes. II. The 
pre-embryonic stages of development. Pt. la. The history of the egg 
from fertilisation to cleavage. By A. A(;assiz and C. O. Whitman. 
With 12 plates. From A. Agassiz. 

Statistics of the colony of New Zealand for 1887. From the Depart- 
ment. 

Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. 1., part I. The 
Anatomy of Megascolides Australis. The giant earth worm of Gipps- 
land, by W. Baldwin Spencer. From the Author. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1888. Vol. 
XXI. From the Department. 

Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of 
South Australia. Vol. XI., for 1887-8. From the Society. 

Text Book of Geology, by Archibald Geikie, London 1882 (bound). 

Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen vereines (current Nos.) From 
the Society. 

Verhanalungen de Gesellschaf t FUr Erdkunde zu Berlin (current Nos,) 
From the Society. 

Victorian Naturalist (current Nos.) From the Society. 

Victorian Year Book for 1887-8, Vol. m. From the Department. 



PBOCEEDINGS, OCTOBEB. XXXI 



OCTOBEE, 1889. 

The monthly meeting was held on Monday evening, October 15. 
There was a large attendance of Fellows and several lady visitors were 
present, including Lady Hamilton. His Excellency (Sir Bobt. G. C. 
Hunilton, K.C.B.), President of the Society presided. 

NEW MEMBER. 

Mr. Alex. Montgomery, M.A., Government Geologist and Inspector 
of Mines, was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

THE PRESIDENT AND "LYNX." 

The President said : My attention has been drawn to a paragraph 
in last week's Tasmanian Mail in a column headed, ** Echoes " by 
*' Lynx," in which an amusing account is given of an error I am 
sapposed to have fallen into in describing some of the young salmon 
hatched from the ova brought over by Sir Thomas Brady, as *' markedly 
ball headed." I am supposed to have seen them, as I think the 
writer sometimes sees things, through a distorted medium. (Laughter.) 
Kow, I am sorry to spoil so good a story. The fish I examined were 
not looked at through a glass, and there is now here, in the Museum, 
one cf these fish which is *' markedly bull headed." I do not have 
the aoqnainntace of ''Lynx," or I may have that pleasure without 
knowing it, but if he will call here, or if ho is here now, he can take 
the fish out of the bottle and look at it for himself, and I am sure he 
will agree with my description of it. But a more interesting point 
irises as to these fish. It almost seems as if some of the characteristics 
ol these young salmon vary with their size, or the season of the year, 
or whereas a short time ago certainly half the fish had spots on their 
dorsal fin and a coloured tip to their adipose fin, the Curator the other 
day could only find one possessing these characteristics, and that a 
somll one. This is a matter which mi&;ht also be brought under Sir 
TbxnoBa Brady's notice when the specimens are sent to him. (Applause.) 

Mr. B. M. Johnston felt glad that His Excellency had noted these 
peculiar characteristics, because Tasmania was the first to demonstrate 
totibe world the possibility of safely transporting fish over a great 
diitanoe. They had many things to consider in connection with the 
lodimatisation of the fish, and it was a matter of great importance that 
tiie resolts of their observations should be communicated to the experts 
in the Old Country. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT OF TASMANIA. 

Mr. J. B. Walker read a very interesting paper entitled ** The 
settlement under Collins in 1803-4 : The failure at Port Phillip." The 
paper was a continuation of the very complete and graphically historic 
aoooont of the foundation of the colony which he has compiled from 
official papers, reports, etc., obtained at the instance of the Tasmanian 
Government, by Mr. James Bonwick, in London. Former papers 
prepared by Mr. Walker dealt with the early visits of French and 
English navigators to the colony, and in this one he gave an account 
of the voyage of Lieut. Collins when under instructions to found a 
oolony at Port Phillip, and the failure to do so. The paper was 
attentively listened to, and upon concluding the writer was heartily 
apj^uded. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor favoured Mr. Walker's suggestion because he had 
no doubt these documents would be more highly prized. He was 
in hopes that before long they would have an opportunity of securing 
ior tiie Ifablic Library a large number of works^ relating to the early 
history of the colony. 



t 



ZZXU PBOCESDINGS, OCTOBER. 

THE AUSTRALIAN CURLEW. 

Mr. Morton, acting for Colonel Legge, read a note embodying a 
comparison of the Australian Curlew with its near Asiatic ally, and its 
more distantly related representative in Europe and Western Asia* 
The curlews of the old world, like other members of the Wader family 
{Charadriidce), resemble one another in plumage. Unlike the American 
curlews, which have a distinguishing characteristic in the buff tinting of 
the under wing and axiliaries, the old world species differ chiefly in 
the character of the markings of the breast. A marked characteristic, 
however, of the Australian bird is its length of bill. As regards our 
Curlew (N. Cyanopus) on arriving in Tasmania in Septeml^r, some 
specimens have the buff tinge of the breeding season still remaining 
on the breast and flanks, and accompanying this is a rufescent hue on 
the longer upper tail coverts and central tail feathers. Although 
the Australian Curlew is a migratory species, breedint; in northern 
climates in summer and ** wintering" here in our summer, many seem 
to remain throughout the year with us. It migrates north as far as 
Hakodadi, in Japan, and east as far as New Zealand. GThe Eastern 
curlew rauges across the continent to China, southward to China, and 
down the East coast of South Africa. The range of the European 
Curlew is throughout Europe, taking in the Orkney, Faroe, and 
Shetland Isles, and extends down the coast of Africa to Damara Land. 
It would therefore appear to take in the west coast, while the Asiatic, 
or '* Eastern" Curlew monopollBes the east coast and the extreme 
south in its wanderings. 

astronomical papers, 

Mr. A. B. Biggs, of Launceston, forwarded two papers, which were taken 
as read. One was entitled *' Observations of comet of July and 
August, 1889, taken at Launceston, Tasmania," and "B>ecent measure- 
ments of a Centauri." 

silver ore. 

Mr. A. J. Taylor exhibited a specimen of the silver ore struck at the 
100ft. level in the Silver Queen mine at Mount Zeehan. 

PAL-EOZOIC FOSSILS. 

Mr. Johnston tabled a paper, which he 8%id formed a sequel to a 
paper he had read some time ago dealint; with additions to the list of 
upper palaeozoic fossils. The paper, at the author's request, was taken 
as read. 

FUTURE subjects. 

Mr. Johnston reminded those present that some time ago the 
President had suggested that the Society should deal with a wider 
range of subjects. He had brought down a paper, "Boot Matters 
in Social and Economic Problems," and if thought desirable it might 
be printed and circulated amongst the Fellows in time for discussion at 
the next meeting. 

The President stated that the Council would be pleased to consider 
the suggestion. 

votes of thanks. 

The President, in moving a vote of thanks to the authors of the 
papers, referred in flattering terms to the one read by Mr. Walker. 
It was well that they should now perfect the early history of the 
colony for they were nearer to the old times than those who had to 
follow, and it was aworK which the Society should take in hand, as it 
was to a Society of this sort that anyone would come for accurate 
records of their early history. 

The vote was accorded by acclamation, and the meeting terminated. 



^PROCEEDINGS, NOVEMBEK. XXxiii 



NOVEMBEK, 1889. 

The last meetiDg of the Boyal Society for the present session was 
held at the Tasmanian Museum on Monday evening, November 18, 
1889. There was a large attendance of Fellows and several ladies, 
and His Fzcellency the Governor (President) presided. 

ELECTION OF FELLOWS. 

Bishop Montgomery and Mr. J. H. Innes were elected Fellows, and 
Dra. Schewiakoff and Lanterbach and Mr. F. D. Power were elected 
correspood'ng members. The President, in declaring the results of the 
hallot, said he was sure they would all sympathise deeply with the 
Bishop in the trouble with which his family were afflicted, and had it 
not been for that he had no doubt they would have had him present with 
them that evening. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS. 

Mr. B. M. Johnston, F. L.S., read copious extracts from a very able 
paper, which he had prepared, entitled ''Root Matters in Social and 
£<M>nomio Problems." When he had concluded, the President said 
sach a paper required the most careful study and thought before 
anyone should speak upon it, but he hoped next session they would 
have certain points in the paper discussed, which he was sure would 
raise issues of the fi^reatest interest. The reading of the paper was re- 
ceived with loud applause. 

the founding of hobart. 

Mr. J. B. Walker read a paper entitled "The Founding of Hobart." 
This was a further contribution to the series of articles by that gentleman 
upon the early history of the colony, based upon original official 
dccnments preserved in the English State Record Office, and recently 
copied by Mr. Bonwick for the Tasmanian Government. A former 
pap?r had given the history of Lieutenant-Governor Collins' expedition 
in 1803 down to his abandonment of Port Phillip as unsuited for 
settlement. The present paper took up the story from the sailing of 
the first detachment from Port Phillip in the ships Ocean and Lady 
Nelson for the Derwent. The ships arrived on February 15, 1804, 
and Collins, being dissatisfied with Risdon, chose Sullivan's Cove as a 
better locality, and on February 20 pitched his tents on the site of 
Hobart. The landing place was Hunter's Island, now part of the Old 
Wharf, but then an island connected by a sandbank with the mouth of 
the rreek, which at that time fell into the river at the Fishermen's Dock. 
A dense scrub bordered the creek, along the barks of which grew gum* 
trees of the largest size. The camp was pitched on the slope between 
the creek and the cove, and extended up towards the present site 
of the Cathedral. The description was illustrated by a very beauti- 
foUy executed plan by Mr. A. Mault, showing the alterations made 
by subsequent filling in of the harbour. Governor Collins' despatches 
and general orders, and the diary of Mr. Enopwood, the chaplain, 
■applied the materials for an interesting account of the progress of 
«ettlement during the first months, the clearing of the ground now 
forming the centre of the city, the building of the first Government 
House— a wooden cottage on the site of the Town Hall — the location 
of the settlers at New Town Bay, the formation of a Government 
farm at Cornelian Bay, and the building of huts of '* wattle and dab " 
for the prisoners. The prices of labour were fixed at 3s. 6d. per day 
for mechanics, and 2s. fid. for labourers. Workmen were paid in 
proTisioDs, too often in rum, and the only currency was small pro- 



XXxiv PBOCEEDiNGS, NOVEHBEIL 

misBory notes issued by the Government. Kangaroo, emn, pigeons, 
qaail, aiAl black swans were plentiful, and during the winter months 
black whales abounded in the river, as many as fifty being seen 
at a time. Explorations were made up the Derwent as far as Mac- 
quarie Plains, and the Huon was visited. The new settlement received 
the name of *' Hobart Town" after the removal of the Risdon oolony, 
but for years it was generally known as *' The Camp." The second 
detachment from Port Phillip did not arrive until the 25th June, 
the Ocean being five weeks on the passage. A census taken at the 
end of July gave the total population at 433. 



LIST OF ADDITIONS TO THE LIBKARY. 

List of additions to the Library of the Boyal Society, November. 

Abhandlungen der Matiiematisch Physikalisohen classe, der Koniglich 
Bayerischen, Akademie der Wissienschaften. From the Society. 

American Museum of Natural History. Annual report of the 
Trustees, etc., for the years 1887-8-9. From the Trustees. 

Annual report of the Canadian Institute. Session 1887-8. From the 
Society. 

Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission for 1886 (bound). 
From the Commission. 

Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey. No. 40. Changes in 
river courses in Washington Territory due to Glaciation, by B. »ViUis. 
41. On the fossil faunas of the upper Devonian, the Genesee seclion, 
N.Y., by H. S. Williams. 42. Report of work done in the division of 
chemistry and physics mainly during the fiscal year 1885-6, by F. W. 
Clarke. 43. On the Territory and Cretaceous strata of the Tuscaloosa, 
Tombigbee, and Alabama rivers, by E. A. Smith and L. C. Johnson. 
44. Bibliography of North American Geology for 1886, by N. H. 
Darloo. 45. Present condition of knowledge of the geology of Texas, 
by R. T. Hill. 46. The nature and origin of deposits of Phosphate of 
lime, by R. A. F. Penrose, junr. 47. Analyses of waters of the Yellow- 
stone, National Park, with an account of the analyses employed, by F. 
A. Gooch, and J. E. Whitfield. From the Department. 

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Central Paik, 
New York, Vol. II., No. 2, March, 1889. From the Society. 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Vol. 19, 1387, Nos. 1 to 12. From 
the Institute. 

Bulletin de la Society de Geographie, Redig4 avee, la concours de la 
section de publication, par le secretaires de la commission Centrale 
Trimestre 1 to 3, Tome IV., 1888. From the Society. 

California State Bureau Mining. Ei^ht annual reports of the State 
Mineralogist for the year ending October 1, 1888. From the 
Department:. 

Department of the Interior. — U.S. Geological Survey, J. W. Powell, 
director. Mineral resources of the U.S. calendar year, 1888, by D. T. 
Day, Chief of Division of Mining Statistics (bound). From the Depart- 
ment. 

General Index to the first twenty volumes of the Journal (Botany), and 
the botanical portion of the proceedings, November, 1838, to June, 
1888, of the Linosean Society oi London (bound). From the Society. 



LIST OF ADDITIONS TO THE LiBRARY. tXxV 

Geolc^ioal and Nataral History Survey of Canada, annaal leport 
(U.S.), Vol. n., 1886, reports and maps of investigations and Eurveys. 
From the Department. 

G^logical and Natural History Survey of Micnesota. Sixteenth 
aonnal report for the year 1887. Two plates and 80 other illustratfons. 
From the Department. 

Hiatorical Collections of the Essex Institute, Vol. XXIV., January 
to I>ecemher, 1887* No8. 1, 2, 3. From the Institute. 

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, of London, General Index, 
pt. 4, Vols. XXXVI. to L, 1173 87, Vol. LI , pts. III. IV., September- 
December, 1888, Vol. III., pts. I-II., March and June, 1889. From 
the Society. 

Jonrnal of the Lionsein Society of England (Botany), Nos. 156 to 
1.773 (Zoology), Nos. 19, 20, 21, 32, Vol. XX., Nos. 129, 20, 21, Vol. 
XXI., No. 132. From the Society. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Biitain and Ireland 
(new series), Vi 1. XX., pts. 3 and 4, July and October, 1888. From 
the Society. 

Joamal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of 
Ireland,. Vol. VIII., fourth series, Nos. 76, 77, 1888-9. From the 
Society. 

Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. XI., 
No. 4. From the Society. 

Journal of the Trenton Natural History Society, No. 3, January, 1888. 
From the Society. 

List of the Linnaean Society of London, session 1888-9. From the 
Society. 

List of Geological Society of London, November 1, 1888. From the 
Society. 

Meteorological observations made at Hobart, and ether places in 
Tasmania dutiog the year 1888, by Captain Short, R.N., Meteorological 
Obeerver. From the Department . 

Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. IV., part 1. 
First memoirs. The Cave fauna of North America, with remarks on 
the anatomy of the brain, and origin of the blind species by A. S. 
Packard. From the Society. 

Proceedings of theRojal Colonial Institute, Vol. XX., 1888-9 (bound). 
From the Institute. 

Proceedings of the Scientific meeting? of the Geolof^ical Society of 
London, for the year 1888, parts 2, 3, 4 ; 1889, part 1. From the 
Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, and monthly record 
of (^ograpby, Vol. X, Nos. 9 to 12, 1888 ; Nos. 1 to 8, 1889. London. 
From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Vol XII., part 
II., No. 82; list of members, etc. From the Institute. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural history. Vol. XXIII. 
Pt. in. February, 1886, December, 1887. Ft. IV., December, 1887, 
May, 1888. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Pt. II., March and September, 1888. Pt. III., October and December, 
1S88. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, held at Phila- 
delphia, for promoting useful knowledge. Vol XXX., No. 128, 
XXXL, No. 129. From the Society. 

Proceedings ot the American Academy of Sciences, U.S. Vol. XV., 
whole series. Vol. XX II., pt. 1, from May, 1887, to May, 18Sis, 
•elected from the records. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, April, 1880, third 
•eriesy Vol. VI., Fax., No. 2. From the Society. 



i 



1 



XXXYl LIST OF ADDITIONS TO THE LifiSABlT* 

Quarterly Journals of the Geological Society, Vol. XLIV., pt. 3, 
No8. 175-6. Vol. XLV., pts. 1, 2, 3, Nos. 177-8-9, August and 
November, 1888 ; February, May, and August, 1880. From the 
Society. 

Report of the Board of Governors of Public Library, Musenm^ and 
Art Gallery of South Australia, with the report of the library 
Committee for 1888-9. From the Trustees. 

Report upon Internation Exchanges under the direction of the 
Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30, 1888. By J. 
H. Kidder. From the Department. 

Rpport oi the Superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory 
for the year ending June 30, 1888. From the Department. 

Report upon Natural History collections made in Alaska, between 
the years 1877 and 1881 by E. W. Wilson, edited by H. W. Henshaw. 
No. III. Arctic series of publications issued in connection with the 
signal service U.S. Army (two plates) (bound). From the Depart- 
ment. 

Report of the committee appointed January 6, 1888, by the American 
Philosophical Society to assist the Commission on amended Orthography, 
created by virtue of a resolution of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 
From the Society. 

Re vista do Observatoria Rio de Janeiro. From the Department. 

Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland (Co. Sligo and the Island of 
Achill), by W. C. Wood -Martin. From the Royal HiBtorical and 
Archaeological Society of Ireland. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. V, No. 10, October, 1889. 
From the Society. 

Sitznngsberichte, der Mathematisch — physikalisohen olasse der K. B. 
Akademic der Wissenschaften zu MUochen, 1886, Heft 1, II. From the 
Society. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. XXXII. The Constanta 
of Nature, a table of specific gravity for solids and liquids, by F. W. 
Clarke. Vol. XXXIII., Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of 
Washington, Vol. VI. From the Institution. 

Societe de Geographie, Compte Rendu, des Seances de la Commission 
Centrale Paraissant deux fois par mois, Nos. 1 to 17 1887. From the 
Society. 

Table Generale des Annales de la Socidtd, Entomologique de Belgique, 
Vol. XXX., et catalogue des ouvrages Periodique de la Bibliotheque, 
26th December, 1887. From the Society. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia (Victorian branch), Part I, Vol, VII. From the Society. 

Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in 
Scotland, Vol. XXXI., 31st session, 1887-8 (bound). From the Society. 

Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan, Vol. XIII., part 1. 
From the Society. 

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part XIIL 
Report of the Commission for 1885. A. Inquiry into the decrease of 
food fishes. B. The propagation of food fishes in the waters of thd 
United States (bound). Illustrated. From the Commission. 

United States Geological Survey. Clarence King, Director. Geology 
and Mining Industry of Leadville, Colorado, with atlas. By S. F. 
Emmons (bound). From the Department. 

Victorian Naturalist, Vol. VI., No. 7. ninth annual report, 1888 9. 
From the Society. 

Visitor's Guide to Salem, Mass. From the Editor. 

Astronomical and Meteorological Workers in New South Wales, 1728 
to 1860, by H. C. Russell, B.A. From the author. 

BoUetino delta Societd Geografica Italiana, Ser. Ill , Vol. II., Fas. 
VIII. Agostol889. From the Society. 



UBT OF ADDITIONS TO THE UBBABT. ZXXTU 

Bolttim da Sooiedade de Geographia de LiBboa. 8a Ser., Nos. 3 to 6. 
From the Society. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. XVII., No. 4. 
Studiea on the Primitive Axial Segmentation of the Chick (two plates). 
By Julia B. Piatt. Studies from the Newport Marine Laboratory. 
Gommnnioated by Alexander ^gassiz. XVI. The Development of 
OtoeooB Fishes. II. The Pre-£mbryonic Stages of Development, pt. 
first. The History of the Egg from Fertilisation to Clearage. By 
Alexander Agassiz and C. O. Whitmau (with 12 plates.) 

Catalog 51, Americana Kartem und iiber oder gedrnckt in Nerd und 
Sttd— Amerik. From the Society. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia, and Amphibia in the British Museum, 
Pt. IL, oontainiog the orders. '* Ichthyopterygia and Sauropterygia " 
(boond). From the Trustees. 

. Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Pt. III., 
Vol. L, "Medical History," being the third Medical Volume (bound). 
From the Department. 

Monthly Weather Review of the C States (current parts.) From the 
Department. 

On a new self-recording Thermometer by H. C. Russell, B.A., Sydney 
Obeervatory. From the Author. 

Preaident's address, by H. C. Russell, B.A., F,R.S., at the first meet- 
ing of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 
From the Society. 

Proceedings and Scientific Transactions, U., UL, IV., V. of the 
Roval Sodety of Dublin. From the Society. 

Prooeedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. 1, pt. I. From the 
Society. 

Proposed method of recording variations in the direction of the 
vertioal by H. C. Russell. From the author. 

Prooeedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 1889, vol. xi., pt. v. 
From the Societv. 

PhKseedings of the Royal Society of England, vol, 39 to 45, pts. 241 to 
280. From the Society. 

Becorda of the Ceological Survey of India, vol. xxii., pt. 3, 1889. 
From the Department. 

Records of the Geological Survey of India (current numbers.) From 
the Department. 

Beocnrds of Observations for 1881-4. From the Government Astronomer, 
Melboame (bound). 

Report of the Victorian Zoological Society, Annual. From the 
Sookity. 

Report of Surgeon-General of Washington for 1888. From the 
DsMurtment* 

Beport of the Auckland Institute and Museum for 1888 9. From the 
IhiatiBea. 

Report of the Mines Department, Victoria, for quarter ending 31st 
If arohy 1889. From the Department. 

Twenly-third Annual Report of the Colonial Museum, Wellington, 
New Zealand, From the Department. 

Reports of Geological Explorations during 1887*8. From the Mines 
Bmrtment, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Report of the Trustees of the Queensland Museum Annual. From 
the :unistee8. 

Report of Mr. Tebutt's Observations at Windsor, N.S.W., for 1888, 
ilso on the high tides of June 15, and 17, 1889, New South Wales. 
From the Author. 

Bq^ort of the Secretary for Mines to the Hon. Duncan Gillies, M.P., 
on tiSe Mineral Statistics of Victoria for the year 1888. From the 
BtpwUneiit* 



XXZYIU LIST OF ADDITI0K8 TO THE UBEABT. 

Report of the Teohnologioal Mnaeom of Sydoqr for 188H. From tlu 
Trotteec. 

Report mod Ptoceedingt of the Royal Society of Soath Anstnik foi 
1887-8. From the Society. 

Reyista do Obeervatocio Rio de Janeiro 1888. From the Depar t ment 

ResnltB of Meteorologioal obeervatioas made in New Sonth V¥ala 
daring 1887 under the cUrection of fl. C. RotMU, 0.A., F.R.S Fioo 
the Department. 

Thonderstorm of October 26, 1888. The Sydney Obienratory. Froa 
the Department. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institnte for 1888 
V6L XXL From the Department. 

Victorian NatoraUst. (Cnrrent numbers). From the Society. 

Victorian Year Book for 1887-8. Prom the Department. 

Scottish Geographical Magazine (corrent nnmbers). From the Society 

Resnlts of Rain, River and Evaporation Observations made in N.S. W 
daring 1888. By H. C. Rnssell, B.A.,F.R.S. From the Departmeok 

Statistics for 1887, New ZeaUnd. From the Department 

The Storm of 2l8t September, 1888. By H. C. Rossell, QovernmeBl 
Aatronomer, Sydney, N.S.W. From the Antiior. 



THE "IRON BLOW" AT THE LINDA QOLDFIELD. 

By G. Thueeaxt, F.G.S. 

In the recently issued printed Papers and Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Tasmania, on page 216, are published 
some notes by Mr. B. M. Johnston, F.L.S., an esteemed 
member of the Society, on the " Iron Blow " at the Linda 
€k>ldfield, his conclusions having been based upon the 
examination of some rocks and specimens from that locality 
received from Mr. Crotty and Mr. Belstead, the Secretary for 
Mines. 

It is upon that remarkable gold-deposit that I desire to 
offer a few remarks, at the same time embracing the 
opportanity of supplementing and elaborating my report, No. 
146 of 1886, presented to Parliament. 

In the following remarks, I shall exclusively confine myself 
to the question of the probable origin of this unique gold 
formation in furtherance of my theory of its being due to 
** volcanic agency," and not, as Mr. Johnston contends, to 
local decomposition, especially so far as the dark coloured 
and pulverulent masses are concerned. I may likewise 
observe that in my report to the Government such questions 
as these concerning and referring solely to the more scientific 
aspect, must of necessity be very brief, because the larger 
questions as to the present or ultimate value of any mineral 
or metalliferous discovery, are of more immediate practical 
value as affecting directly the progress of the community at 
large. 

In the first place, it appears that the Secretary for Mines 
obtained the specimens in question from Mr. Crotty, the 
discoverer of that " Iron Blow." Subsequently, Mr. Johnston, 
aided by Mr. Ward, the Government Analyst, concluded that 
the soft purply black and so highly auriferous mineral was 
the result of decomposition of some of that immense bed or 
vein of solid pyrites (iron) filling the greater width of the 
fissure on its "hanging wall," or about 225 feet out of a total 
width of 280 feet between walls of that chasm. 

Dismissing all speculations as to whether it has been 
prudent to base any reliably practical opinion, such as to the 
question of origin of that valuable deposit, upon the examina- 
tion of ** specimens" only, even though, such was to some 
degree supported by chemical analyses, it further appears 
from the late Mr. C. P. Sprent's report that, but a very 
eorsory examination of that deposit, in iitu, had been made 
during that gentleman's and associates' tour from the Ouse 



2 THE "ikon blow" AT THE UNDA GOLDVIIELD. 

to the West Coast. Thus, on the whole, a settled and 
reliable opinion as to the causes governing the past geological 
history of the *' Iron Blow/' accounted for bj Mr. Johnston 
as a process of decomposition of materials at hand, in opposi- 
tion to the theory of volcanic agencies which I have advanoed 
in my report, deserves to be treated in detail, as involving 
important issues. 

Decomposition is, I believe, a chemical process by which 
the destruction of one or more substances leads to ihe sub- 
stitution and depositing of quite different matters, thereby 
bringing aboufc the rearrangement of the former original 
substances in quite different forms. 

In this case it has been attempted to be proved that those 
massive beds of pyrites on their decomposition from 
local causes, were replaced by that highly interesting 
pulverulent mass reported so rich in gold. Now, I have 
before me two letters from the G-overnment Analyst, viz.: 
one dated November, 1824, and the other October,* 1885, in 
which the results of the analysis of "solid pyrites" from 
that "Iron Blow" are given thus: — In the first letter 
Mr. Ward states : " I have carefully tested the minerals 
received .... have not been able to detect the 
presence of tin or any other metal of commercial value;" 
in the second he says : " In none of the samples forwarded 
for assay have I been able to find more than traces of gold." 
To these may be added those examples cited in Mr. Johnston's 
paper, viz.: No. 9, "A sample of Iron Pyrites in which gold 
is not mentioned as being present, and in No. 7 the sample 
only shows " fine specks of gold just visible to the eye," but 
this is not from pyrites, but from the soft purply pulverulent 
mass, which is about 56 feet wide. 

On page 219, the author states: "Whether we suppose 
that the * Iron Blow' is due to hydrothermal agency or not, 
there is nothing in the composition of the iron pyrites or the 
dark purplish rock which necessitates their having been 
originally formed in the way of volcanic mudJ' It is more 
probable that the four principal elements, iron, barjtes, 
sulphur and gold, were originally precipitated from solution." 

Leaving out the references made in the paper in question 
as to the production of gold elsewhere as foreign to the subject 
under discussion, and which, however, are not altogether 
accurate, I beg to direct your attention to the facts upon 
which I join issue with Mr. Johnston's theory of origination. 

The ajialyses of Mr. Ward, cited by Mr. Johnston and 
myself, conclusively prove the almost total absence of gold in 
the pyrites, veins, or beds, which may be described as very 
dense and excessively solid, and which undoubtedly have 
resisted both decomposition and dissolution for ages ; how is 



BY G. THUBEAtr, F.G.S. 3 

it possible then, I may ask, tliat these almost non-auriferouB 
iron bi-sulpliides produced on their supposed (inert) decom 
position that peculiar purple mineral, assaying, as reported, 
•considerably above 170ozs. of gold per ton ? Again, those so 
very solid pyrites contain no barytes, which latter minerals I 
first discoTered as the necessary adjunct to the gold. " Ex 
nihil aut nihilo fiV* 

It may also be fairly questioned how it is that these veins 
•or beds of pyrites, so dense in character, must have un 
-doubtedly withstood atmospheric influences for immeasurable 
periods, on decomposition (?) filled, with new substances 
resulting from that process, over 50 feet in width by over a 
mile and a half in length, and to unknown depth of an open 
fissure with a ** solution'* only. Such a fissure or chasm 
would have collapsed at the sides long before the decomposition 
process had even been initiated, as the adjacent and super- 
incumbent rocks could not have withstood the lateral and 
vertical pressure their own great gravity would produce, had 
not the walls of that fissure been kept apart by some heavy 
filling material of a homogenous kind, exerting in itself a 
sufficiently powerful resistance to the overhanging walls of 
this fissure. 

Supposing, however, decomposition was the cause and effect 
of tms rich aggregation of minerals and metals, or, in the 
authors own words : " That it (the Iron Blow) is the result of 
oxidation of pyrites similar to that now so largely associated 
with it ; the hydrated oxide first formed, being subsequently 
metamorphosed sufficiently to get rid of its combined vapour 
and produce the slight change in the form of disseminated 
particles of harytes, as revealed by the microscope ; or, this 
process may have occurred during the process of oxidation," 
-etc., etc. 

It will therefore be necessary to bear in mind that, as 

E roved from analysis, we have, firstly, a nearly non-auriferous 
i-sulphide of iron (pyrites) to deal with, containing no baryta 
to speak of ; and secondly, that water is assumed to have 
produced the rich pulverulent gold rock by means of the 
decomposition of the former, and contemporaneously or subse- 
quently by means of infiltration filled the fissure, and that 
■small (?) disseminated particles of baryta appeared either 
before (whence ?) or during the process of oxidation. 

Now, it is a fact that baryta is the " matrix" of that purple 
rock, exceeding " thirty (30%) per cent, of the whole of the 
vein-matter, being disguised by coatings and linings" of 
specular iron, and exhibiting gold in fine crystalline and 
fOiagree forms ; that auriferous rock Hkewise exhibits a dis- 
tinctly recognisable vesicular structure, the cells and cavities 
being now, however, filled by means of similar rock of a 



4 THE "iron blow" AT THE LINDA OOLDFIELD. 

denser kind and of a darker colonr, as, in all probability, the^ 
result of these ore-deposits haying become saturated with 
stesun or hot- vapours, and by means of segregation and 
expansion of these high-pressure volcanic emanations, the 
cavities or cells were firstly formed and subsequently filled, 
thus explaining the so-called "schistose" appearance, which» 
from all appearances was principally due to the gradual 
cooling of a seething mass of volcanic mud or ash which was^ 
ejected in combination of several kinds of metallic vapours, 
such, as for instance, specular iron, which not only forms a 
conspicuous constituent of that volcanic material, but also 
occurs quite frequently in the wall-rocks of that immense 
fissure. In my opinion everything in connection points to a 
more drastic process of origination than simple and quiescent 
decomposition only. 

That there is strong evidence of the former ebullition and 
belching forth of metalliferous and mineral vapours at high 
temperatures within certain ejective points of discharge with 
the volcanic muds and ashes, is clearly demonstrated by the 
occurrence of elongated or spherical nodules in these muds 
and ashes, which nodules on examination are found to 
contain, within hard crusts of " Limonite " — sesqui-oxide of 
iron — nuclei of pure iron pyrites, thus pointing the way how 
the decomposition of pyrites under precisely similar circum- 
stances has actually occurred, and caused the formation of a 
secondary and hydrated iron ore, and not of jmrple roch, 
though in very close contiguity to the massive pyrites vein 
and beds referred to. Those nodules, it is submitted, present, 
neither more nor less, former gaseous bubbles surcharged 
with vaporous sulphuretted solutions of iron, becoming rigid 
when nearer the cooler atmosphere, and which from compres- 
sion by the surrounding muds, etc., assumed their present 
characteristically elongated forms. 

When it is borne in mind that geologists have concluded 
that " the nature of vapours evolved depends on the tem- 
perature or degree of activity of the volcanic orifices ; chlorine 
and fluorine emanation indicating the most energetic phase 
of eruptivity, sulphurous gases, a diminishing condition and 
carbonic acid (with hydro-carbons) the dying out of that 
activity, and that sublimed by volcanic heat or chemical re- 
actions, causing the decomposition of metals and minerals from 
condensing vapours along crevices and surfaces wherein they 
reach the outer air and are cooled ; and further that, besides 
sulphur there are chlorides, and in a lesser degree, iron, 
copper, and lead; also free sulphuric acid, sal amonia, 
specular iron, oxides of copper, boracic acid, alum, sulphate 
of lime, baryta and others, are formed whilst at very high 
temperatures, and in connection with simultaneously en- 



BY G. THUEEAU, F.G.S. 



gendered electric currents " it becomes clear to the close and 
careful obserrer of these unique gold deposits, in situ, that 
djnamical geology can alone account for these, strictly 
speaking, Tolcanic products. 

HayiDg myself had opportunities for examining active 
^' mud volcanoes " in 1877, near Carson City, State of Nevada, 
IT.S^, these " Steamboat Springs " were most interesting, 
■and I can therefore speak with some authority upon the 
mibject. There, as is held by American geologists, these 
volcanic "vents" occur on the line of continuation of the 
fiunous Comstock Lode (silver-gold), and each spring or 
geyser is indicated at the surface to the visitor, at a distance 
by a thin column of white steam. When more closely 
approached, it is found that the discharges of heated mud 
and vapours are intermittent, and that previous to each of 
such discharge a greyish semi-liquid mass rises slowly within 
the mouth of the ** f umaroles " below, and en reaching the 
top of the respective orifices, the carbonic, sulphuretted and 
otuer gases encompassed beneath, cause, through pressure, a 
dome-like expansion of the " volcanic mud," which, however, 
with increasing subterranean pressure eventually bursts, and 
allows the " mud " again to subside. Each discharge, it is 
noted, however, leaves a thin deposit or lamina in the "cups" 
at the surface, which, after hardening, was found on analysis 
to be chiefly charged with silica (quartz), and to also contain 
a sensible percentage of gold and silver. This process is 
even now in active progress, and as it assimilates a great deal 
to what can be seen in its " dead state " at our " Iron Blow '* 
— if baryta is substituted for silica as matrix in the latter case 
— ^the question of origin as to both metaUiferous deposits is 
not only, in my opinion, very suggestive, but forms the only 
possibly true solution of the case. 

By way of further analogy, I would likewise draw attention 
to the fact of Senor Santos having found "Lead" in the 
"volcanic ash" from the eruption of Cotopaxi, of August 
^rd, 1878, and in a paper read before the Eoyal Society of 
England, on January 6th, 1887, Mr. J. W. Mallet, M.D. and 
F.B.S., etc., reports upon the *' Occurrence of Silver in Volcanic 
Ash, from the Eruption of Cotopaxi, L'cuador, of July 22nd 
and 23rd, 1886." 

A condensed extract may prove of interest ; — He, Dr. 
Mallet, received a specimen of volcanic ash from Senor 
Julian B. Santos, of Ecuador, which was collected at his 
residence, Bahia de Caraguez, about 102 miles nearly due 
west from Cotopaxi. This is the highest and most mighty 
of the active volcanoes of our globe ; it erupted on the 22nd 
of July, and the ash began to fall at Bahia de Caraguez next 
morning, to a depth of several inches, thus representing an 



6 THE "IBON BLOW" AT THE LINDA GOLDFIELD. 

enormous discliarge of yolcanic and metalliferous as well a» 
mineral matter. The specimens consisted of a finely divided^ 
powder, mobile and soft to the touchy hrovmish grey in colowr. 
Under the microscope, the following minerals could be 
distinguished in the granules and spicules, viz.: quartz, two 
felspars (one white and one pink), augite, magnetite (strongly 
magnetic, and scales of deep red specular iron oxide. After 
subjecting this ash to several experimental tests, it was, as a 
prefiminarj, found to possess a specific gravity of 2*64 at 18^ 
C, as compared with water at the same temperature. An 
analysis of the material taken, as a whole, i,e,, without any 
previous mechanical separation of its constituent minerals, 
and without previous digestion with water or acid, but dried up- 
100 C, gave no less than sixteen separate ingredients, 
amongst which were traces of silver. That metal was 
subsequently obtained by wet assay ; and it was also after- 
wards found that it could be obtained from the ash by furnace 
assay — fusion with pure lead carbonate, sodium carbonate- 
and a little cream of tartar, and cupellation of the lead button 
so obtained or produced, which gave a minute bead of 
metallic silver; the same reagents were tested in larger 
quantities, leaving out the ash, when negative results followed. 
It was subsequently ascertained that silver could be extracted 
from this volcanic ash by boiling it with a solution of 
ammonia, or of potass, cyanide, or of sodium sulphate." 

The discovery of silver in the ash or mud, adds, for the 
first time, this metal to the list of elementary substances 
observed in the materials ejected from volcanoes, and the 
addition derived some special interest from the fact of this 
ash having come from the greatest volcanic (active) vents of 
that great "argentiferous*' zone of the Andes. Small as 
would be the proportion of silver, it must represent a very 
large quantity of that metal ejected during the eruption, in 
view of the vast masses of volcanic ash, etc., distributed over 
the large area which is indicated by the fall of argentiferous 
ashes at a distance of 102 miles from the central crater to 
Bahia de Caraguez. 

There cannot be, it is submitted, much difference of opinion 
that, if silver, lead, iron, manganese, titanium, chlorium, 
mercury and other less important metals occur in volcanic 
ash or mud shown by frequent analyses, as derived, 
inter alia from the immensely rich argentiferous formations 
which that gigantic " vent " cotopaxi protrudes ; a similar 
occurrence here on a smaller scale, within a well-known 
^^ auriferous zone** is not only feasible, but can be, or is now, 
demonstrated to be a fact. The only, and to us most valuable 
difference, is, that the South America ejecta expelled the 
silver in its ashes, whilst, with our " Iron Blow " the ash or 



BT G. THUBEAU, F.G.S. 7 

^mud** is still retained within the "dead" vent or closed 
fissure, and happily for the colony at large, it is comeatable, 
and it can be extracted by future systematic mining operation s» 
followed by skilful treatment for the rich gold it is reported 
same contains. 

"With regard to the opinion I have had occasion to express 
in mj report to the Government, I may add that the mining 
operations carried on since still expose rich ores at times, and 
as Mr. Johnston concludes his Paper by saying: It — the 
hydroihermal theory — had also been adopted by Mr. Thureau 
in respect to such mineral formations as the Iron Blow at the 
Lmday although the latter " seems to be unaware of the fact 
that the mode of origin of the more common quartz reefs are 
also frequently ascribed to the hydrothermal agency." 

I may be permitted to state that, in the years 1845 to 1848, 
when a student at the Boyal School of Mines, Clausthal, 
Hannover, Germany, I studied under several eminent pro- 
fessors of geology, and at that time no less than five or more 
theories — ^including what is now termed hydrothermal — were 
known, recognised, and applied practicaUy. Since then I 
have been, and am still, an ardent student of mining geology 
in several countries, so that it is not likely that I am ignorant 
of so important a portion of that science. 

When I held, in 1875 to 1877 inclusive, the position as 
Lecturer at the Bendigo (Victoria) School * of Mines, of 
" Geology as applied to Mining," Mineralogy ; also Practical 
Mining, the Administrative Council of that institution 
arranged during each winter for a series of public lectures on 
Popular Science, and at such I elaborated a series of lectures 
upon the hydrothermal origin of the famous Bendigo Quartz 
Seef s, without controversy. It appears that at those lectures, 
— illustrated by models, diagrams, geological specimens, and 
analysis, — visitors from England, New Zealand, and America 
attended, and as one result of the interest they must have 
taken in the subject dealt with, I was subsequently elected, 
mon unsolicited nominations and recommendations, as a 
Ifellow of the Geological Society of London, which honour- 
able position I still hold and treasure. 



8 

ON SOME TIDE OBSERVATIONS AT HOBAET 
DURING FEBRUARY AND MARCH, 1889. 

By a. Matjlt. 

Wishing, primarily in connection with the obtaining of 
necessary information for purposes connected with the 
drainage of Hobart, and secondarily, to fix the mean sea level 
for geodetic and engineering matters, to get a series of tidal 
observations, I spoke to Captain Oldham, of H.M.S. "Egeria," 
on the subject and he at once arranged to fix the automatic 
tide gauge of his ship on the New Wharf, and to have 
observations taken for as long a period as the sojourn at 
Hobart permitted. I am indebted to him for the accompany- 
ing remarks and tables of observations. To enable him to 
connect his observations with the level of some permanent 
object on shore, I took the levels from the town datum mark 
fixed to one of the steps of the Town Hall to the graduated 
staff fixed at the New Wharf in connection vnth the gauge. 
In his letter to me enclosing the remarks and tables^ 
Captain Oldham says : — " From these observations the * mean 
**tide level* is 8ft. 2*7 inches on the gauge, or 35*255 feet 
" below the datum mark on the Town Hall. 

** Please note that these observations are only for one 
" month, and that, as probably the mean tide level varies at 
''different seasons, to get satisfactory results, a year's 
" observations should be obtained — this could easily be done 
" with an automatic gauge." 

I am glad to say that this will be done, as the Hobart 
Marine Board is taking the necessary steps to procure and 
fix such a gauge. When it arrives I shall be happy to fix 
the graduated staff so as to coincide with the datum of 
Captain Oldham's observations. 

The following are Captain Oldham's remarks and observa- 
tions : — 

"Remarks on Tides Observed at Hobart. 
February and March, 1889. 

1. The tides are subject to a large diurnal inequality; the 

highest high water is followed by the lowest low 
water, the tide then rises to a lesser high water, and 
falls to a lesser low water. 

2. With the moon's declination north, the higher high 

water follows the superior transit of the moon ; with 
the moon's declination south the higher high water 
succeeds the inferior transit. . 

3. The greatest range of tide appears to occur about two 

days after the moon has reached its greatest north or 
south declination, the least range when the declination 
is zero. 



BY A. ILLULT. 

i. H-W-F, & C. occurs at Hobart at Sh. Ifimin. 



Springs 
Month of 



■s} 



610 a-Si 

4;50 9;fii 



8-40 MM 1000 
9 'SO S0'16 loss 
lo'-h 2fl'63 06i» 



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S. by B. 



1 [0| 



MONTH of MARCH. 



10 SOME TIDE OBSEBVATIONS AT HOBABT. 

For the purpose of more readilj comprebending the 
information contained in these observations, I bave prepared 
diagrams — the greater part drawn to scale — and setting 
forth : — 

1st. The curve of tidal action for every day during wbicb 
observations were taken, from the 4tb February to 
the 6th March, showing the levels of high and low 
water in comparison with mean tide level, and the 
times at which they occurred. 

2nd. The moon's course so as to show the times of superior 
and inferior transit of the moon's phases and apogee 
and perigee. 

3rd. The moon's north and south declination. 

4th. The intervals, called by Dr. Whewell ^'Lunitidal 
Intervals," of time between the moon's transits and 
the succeeding higb water; the extreme intervals 
caused by the diurnal inequality being faintly 
marked, and the mean intervals more strongly. 

6th. Wind force and direction at every time of high water ; 
and 

6th. Barometric pressure at every time of high water. 

The graphic presentation of all these elements synchronically 
enables one to judge better of their influence upon the tide. 
The diurnal inequality of spring tides is not only shown, 
but is shown to follow the usual law, as pointed out by 
Captain Oldham, in connection with the north and south 
declination of the moon. Equally clearly appears the 
occurrence of springs at greatest declination, and not at new 
and full moon, so that at Hobart there is no " age of the tide ;'* 
and in connection with this the influence of perigee is sbown 
in the higher tides at south declination. Captain Oldham's 
caution is very useful while looking at these diagrams that we 
must remember that we have here only one month's observa- 
tion. But it is not likely that a year's observations will 
modify the abo'^e-mentioned facts. I believe they will be 
chiefly useful in showing that there is some regularity in the 
sequence and circumstances of the great apparent irregularities 
shown by these observations for one month. To show the 
nature and extent of these irregularities I have appended two 
diagrams showing for comparison a fortnight's tide curves at 
Hobart and a fortnight's at Bombay, and a diagram repre- 
senting a normal curve of lunitidal intervals in contrast with 
the zig-zag mean line of such intervals at Hobart. These 
irregularities will, I think, show that no " estdblishment,'* 
that is — time of high water on the day of new or full moon — 
can be fixed, although on the month's observations Captain 
Oldbam mentions 8h, lum. At Hobart this is of no great 











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BY A. MAULT. 11 

consequence, as the depth of water in the harbour is such 
iihat the comparatively small rise and fall of tide does not 
xnuch affect sailing arrangements. 

It is, however, very desirable that the observations to be 
taken should be as complete as those given by Captain 
Oldham, and I would press on the Society the desirability of 
co-operating with the Marine Board to secure this. The 
importance of the registration of the actual tidal action 
speaks for itself, and equally so does the necessity of com- 
paring continually such action with the age and position of 
the moon. The force and direction of the wind have also 
an influence that must be noted. In connection with this I 
may mention that during this month's observations, as shown 
on the large diagram, the highest tides occurred with the 
wind blowing from north, and north-easterly points — that is 
more or less down the Channel. The barometer should also 
be carefully observed, if a mean sea level is to be fixed, as a 
fall of one inch in the barometer means a rise of 20 inches 
in the sea level. 

Another important matter can only be secured by the co- 
operation of the Marine Board;— the progress of the tide 
wave roimd the coast. I would suggest that they be asked 
to get their lighthouse men to keep a register of the actual 
times of high and low water as nearly as can be ascertained 
by them during all the time that registers are being kept 
here. This is a matter of general interest. 

I have to apologise to the Society for the presentation of 
such a meagre paper, but must plead the engrossing nature 
of my other occupations, and the time that the preparation 
of the diagrams has taken. But I hope I have said enough 
to show the desirability of pursuing investigation in this 
channel. 



Discussion. 

Mr. A. G. Webster stated that the Marine Board would 
be willing to render any assistance in its power. 

Sir Lambert Dobson said that a namesake of his, who 
was head-master of the High School, had manufactured an 
automatic tide gauge himself, and kept a register of tides for 
some time. He could not say when it was, but he thought it 
would be about 1853. 

Mr. W. E. Shoobridge stated that at one time he used to 
register the tide in the Derwent, and found it varied very 
much, the lowest tides occurring about February and March. 

His Excellency thought it would be very important to 
have the observations in regard to the tidal wave aroimd the 



12 DISCUSSION ON SOME TIDE OBSEBVATIONS AT UOBABT. 

country. With regard to the point raised bj Sir Lambert 
DobsoD, he had been told by fishermen and others that low 
tides were a sign of fine weather, and high tides of bad weather, 
and if they had a series of observations extending over some 
time the value of them in this direction would be seen. He had 
thought the highest tides would have been experienced when 
high winds blew in through the Channel, keeping the water 
up, instead of finding the highest tides when the winds came 
from the N. or N.E., as Mr. Mault had stated. 



13 



ON THE ENCOUEAGEMENT OF A MOEE GENERAL 
INTEREST IN SCIENTIFIC PURSUITS. 

By Wm. Benson. 

The object of this short paper is to offer a suggestion for 
the consideration of this Society. 

It is a very simple one, and perhaps ought rather to be 
made to the Council privately than be brought forward in a 
general meeting. But there seemed some advantage to be 
gained by mentioning it here, inasmuch as an opportunity 
.would be afforded for ascertaining how far other members 
coincide in the views expressed. 

Our Society unquestionably has rendered, and is now 
rendering, practical and substantial benefits to the colony at 
large, but I think it may be made of greater use, and may 
influence a still wider circle than is at present the case. 

Also with regard to its meetings I venture to think that 
improvement is possible, which would increase their general 
interest and value. 

There are amongst our members two classes — first our 
savants, or specialists, all more or less entitled to speak with 
authority on some particular branch of scientific enquiry ; and 
secondly, there are those who possess a general acquaint- 
ance with and taste for such matters, but who have not 
thoroughly studied any special subject. It is as one of the 
latter class, and in their primary interest that I speak, having 
heard many say that they do not care to attend these meetings 
because the papers read are often abstruse, fragmentary and 
dry. 

It is obvious that this want of interest arises from our want 
of knowledge ; our previous acquaintance with the special 
subject brought forward has been to slight to enable us 
perfectly to follow the reader. The fault very rarely rests 
with him, for it is almost impossible briefly to handle in 
detail any scientific topic in a manner that can be readily 
comprehended by an unprepared hearer. Even the language 
is often strange, for diffuseness can only be avoided by the 
free use of technical and unfamiliar words. 

So far as the meetings of the Royal Society are intended 
for the interchange of notes upon new discoveries between 
savants and specialists only, the reading of such papers is a 
natural and proper course, though it may still be questionable 
whether those who merely hear a technical paper read gam 
as full a knowledge of its contents as they would by studying 
it at leisure in the Society's printed proceedings. 



14 ENCOUBAaEMEirr OF INTEBEST IN SCDENTIFIO PUBSUITS. 

But while I would not depreciate the yalue of such papera, 
which are and must be the most important that can come 
before the Society, yet I would urge whether papers of 
another kind might not also be encouraged. 

In so small a community as ours the savants can never be 
numerous, but there is, or with a little encouragement there 
might be, a considerable number among us who would eagerly 
and intelligently enter on scientific pursuits if facilities were 
ofEered : and surely the fostering of this general interest^ 
and the creation of a wide-spread scientific taste throughout 
our community are well worthy of any attention and assistance 
this Society can give. In the long run they will yield 
results of practical value, and also materially add to the 
prosperity and influence of the Society itself. 

It must be remembered that opportunities for self-instruc-, 
tion in all local branches of science (by which I mean our 
local geology, botany, natural history and the like) are very 
few as compared with what have been provided for Engli^ 
students. 

Ihere every branch has not only its well recognised and 
standard authorities, but also its popular text-books in which 
the subject is presented in a simpler and more approachable 
style. 

Here our authorities are few, text-books hardly exist, and 
English works are in many cases unsuitable. We are at a 
great disadvantage in this respect, and are much more 
dependent upon the direct teaching of our scientists them- 
selves, and for this reason I would ask this Society to consider 
whether means cannot be devised for affording instruction 
of a more elementary and general kind. 

There must be not a few who sometimes attend these 
meetings, and very many others who at present never think of 
becoming members, to whom such opportunities would be 
welcome, and, who by means of such assistance, would be 
enabled to follow up chosen studies on their own accoimt, and 
to take a livelier interest in the more advanced and specialised 
papers that are read here, which at present are too often, I 
fear, interesting only to a few. 

It is not to be expected that we can inspire everybody with 
a love for scientific pursuits. The tastes and talents of many 
will always lie in other directions. But good only can result 
from any effort that may be made to encourage and develop 
such a love wherever its germ exists, and I do not see any 
other organisation that is as well qualified to do the work as 
tins Society. 

I want to see the rising generation more interested than 
they appear to be in the physical history of their native 
colonv, its fauna and flora, and so forth. At present these 



BT WM. BENSON. 15 

flrabjects bave attracted but little attention, tbougb tbey are 
eaolj made attractive, and this neglect is largely attribut- 
able to the absence of accessible sources of information. 

The taste for such studies when once acquired rarely leaves 
a man, and developes afterwards along the lines of his 
peculiar preference, and thus the whole field of scientific 
enquiry is gradually occupied, though only a few branches be 
«t>ecially taught at first. 

At present the Royal Society occupies a somewhat isolated 

height, and my wish is to see encouragement offered to 

•dimbers from the lower level, and means of ascent provided. 

Many plans might be proposed for carrying out such 

educational work, and the following suggestion may not 

be the best, but there is an advantage in having something 

definite before us to be amended if it cannot be approved, and 

therefore I would propose for consideration the desirability 

of initiating courses of popular lectures on scientific subjects 

to be delivered under the auspices of this Society. Such 

lectures might alternate with the ordinary meetings, and they 

should not be restricted to members, but be open to all who 

desired to attend. I do not know whether this room would 

be available. It is not spacious enough for a large audience, 

but doubtless if the attendance became considerable a suitable 

hall would not be wanting. Personally, having great faith in 

object lessons, I should like to see the Museum itself made 

use of on all occasions where its cabinets could be used as 

illustrations, and the lecture would be none the less valuable 

to the hearers, and might perhaps be less arduous to the 

lecturer if it were so delivered. 

Another thing which might be attempted in connection 
with this Society is the formation of a Naturalist's Field Club, 
similar to what exists iu Melbourne and other Australian 
cities. 

These two suggestions are much alike in character, and 
both the lectures and the excursions might be expected to 
give rise to papers, for the discussion of which opportunity 
should be found, though of course not at our regular meetings. 
One other matter might well interest this Society, but it is 
probably one which must originate with some individual 
privately, and need only be hinted at here. I mean the 
mtroduction of local science primers for school use. 

Some may think such work, as is here suggested, too 
elementary for our Society to recognise. 

This would be true enough if it were proposed to abandon 
the Society's present work, or to lower the standard of the 
papers submitted to its meetings. But the desire is to 
supplement rather than to subvert, and the hope is to obtain 
in the end a wider circle of contributors and papers, 
embodying more varied original researches. 



16 ENCOURAGEMENT OF INTEREST IN SCIENTIFIO PUSSUITS. 

Also, if there were any other organisation capable of taking 
the matter up, or if the work coald originate spontaneously, I 
would not bring it before this Society's notice, but it seems 
to me a case where our recognition and help may make the 
difference between failure and success. 

For years science stood apart. Its affairs were assumed to 
be above the popular understanding. But all that has now 
been changed, and in Huxley, Tyndall, and many others, we 
see men of the highest scientific rank taking the lead iik 
bringing their chosen studies home to the minds of the 
masses. We need not fear that anything we may do will be 
infra dig. 

Any proposal for delivermg popular lectures, pre-supposes 
the presence amongst us of gentlemen qualified and wuling 
to come forward as lecturers. That we have the qualifi^ 
men none will deny, but it is not everyone who would be 
willing to devote the necessary time and thought to the 
preparation of such lectures as have been indicated, for it would 
involve much trouble, and at first, until public attention had 
been thoroughly aroused, there might appear to be too 
little interest manifested to warrant the effort. But I 
hope the love of science for its own sake, which animates 
all who have advanced any distance into its mysteries,, 
may suffice to induce one or more of our savants to 
offer their services, and to permit the experiment to be 
at any rate tried. It is hardly probable that we 
should ever have a continuous succession of lecturer 
all the year round, but if from time to time such series could 
be delivered, and if the Council of this Society could keep an 
open eye for any opportunity that may arise to interest the 
public, and especially the young, I have faith that good 
results will follow. 



Discussion. 

Sir Lambert Dobson said he had heard many lectures in 
his early days which had furnished him with a great deal of 
information, and which had been of great use to him sinco 
then. He was thoroughly in accord with Mr. Benson that 
the Society could be much more useful than it is at present. 
The start wanted to be made, and there was no reason why 
they should not have, say, half-a-dozen lectures in the course 
of a session. Geology was a subject which might well be 
introduced, and there were many other subjects which would 
be found both interesting and useful. 

Mr. James Barnard thought it would be very practicable 
to follow out the idea suggested by Mr. Benson, and he 
heartily supported and concurred in this. 



DISCUSSION ON INTEREST IN SCIENTIPIC PUBSUITS. 17 

The Hon. Nicholas Bbown said there could be no doubt 
fliat if it were possible to carry out a system of popular 
lectures they would gather in a much larger interest in the 
proceedings of the Society than at present existed. He 
thought the Council of the Society shoidd take the matter up 
and endeavour to ascertain whether or not it would be 
possible to give effect to the suggestions made by Mr, 
Benson. 

Mr. Mault agreed wjth the suggestions contained in the 

Siper, and ei^cially the one relating to the formation of a 
atontlist's Field Cflub, which could work during the receas 
of the Society. He would particularly urge this upon the 
Council, because during the summer months they would 
probably gain a good deal of knowledge through coming in 
oontact with members of similar clubs from the other 
colonies. 

The Bev. E. G. Pobtbb (United States), on being intro- 
duced and requested by His Excellency to give some idea of 
the working of American societies, said he was cordially in 
s]rmpathy with the objects of the Society and the paper 
irhicii had been read by Mr. Benson. In America people 
were glad to study and glad to learn. They had many 
societies, and although none of them were ''Eoyal," he 
thought they were doing " Eoyal work." (Laughter.) He 
gaTC an interesting account of the scientific work undertaken 
by the American societies, and stated that the results were 
that science became popular, and that large audiences could 
be secured at lectures, not only in the cities but in smaller 
towns. 

Mr. MoBTON stated that the Technical School Board had 
already arranged for a course of lectures to be delivered in 
connection with the work of the schools. Dr. Giblin, at the 
special request of the Board, had undertaken to give a series 
of lectures on " Human Physiology." His lectures would be 
illustrated by means of an excellent collection of slides. As 
secretary to the Society he would take care that the sug- 

Sstions contained in the paper should be brought before the 
^uncil. 

Mr. W. E. Shoobbidgb thought the Society should also 
take up the question of advising in regard to text books 
suitable for schools. 

The Pbesident (Sir B. Hamilton), in moving a vote of 
thanks to the readers of the papers, said he thought the 
suggestions made by Mr. Benson might be left to the 
Council. 

A vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. 



B 



18 



NOTES ON THE POSSIBLE OSCILLATION OP 

LEVELS OF LAND AND SEA IN TASMANIA 

DUEING EECENT TEARS. 

By Captain Shobtt, E.N. 

During the years 1883, 1884, 1885, and 1886, or immediately 
prior to the eruption at Tarawera, this island, and the South- 
Eastem portion of the mainland of Australia, were frequently 
shaken by earth tremors ; and as such disturbances are often 
known to be associated with local changes of sea and land, it 
appeared to me to be of great importance to ascertain whether 
any recent change could be traced along the coast-line of this 
island. 

This enquiry in a young colony is attended with many 
difficulties, as with one isolated exception, hereafter discussed^ 
no definitely fixed tide marks are in existence by which satis- 
flEictory conclusion might be drawn. 

The exception, however, is of peculiar interest, as it affords 
us some information, so far as the locality is concerned, in 
which this fixed tide mark occurs. The tide mark here referred 
to is situated on the North side of the " Isle of the Dead," 
which lies off Point Puer, Port Arthur. This mark was cut 
in the rock broad arrow form, on the 1st July, 1841, by the 
then Deputy-Assistant Commissary- General, Mr. Lempriere. 
The circumstances under which this mark was placed there is 
explained by Captain Sir James Clark Eoss, E.N., in his work 
entitled " A Voyage of Discovery andEesearch in the Southern 
and Antarctic Eegions during the years 1839-43." Thus Page 
22 : — My principal object in visiting Port Arthur was to afford a 
comparison of our standard barometer with that which had 
been supplied to Mr. Lempriere, the Dupty- Assistant Com- 
missary- General, in accordance with my instructions ; and also 
to establish a permanent mark at the zero point, or general 
mean level of the sea, as determined by the tidal observationa 
which Mr. Lempriere had conducted with perseverance and 
exactness for some time ; by which means any secular variation 
in the relative level of the land and sea, which is known to 
occur on some coasts, might at any future period be detected, 
and its amount determined. The point chosen for this purpose 
was the perpendicular cliff of the small islet off Point Puer, 
which being near to the tide register, rendered the operation 
more simple and exact ; the Governor, Sir John Eranklin, whom 
I had accompanied on an official visit to the settlement, gave 
directions to afford Mr. Lempriere every assistance of labo^^reni 



Bi CAMAIK &HOUTT, B.TX. 19 

lid required, to have the msak cut deeply in tiie rock, in the 
exact spot which his tidal observations indiieated as the mean 
level of the ocean. 

I may here observe, that it is not essential that the mark b^ 
made exactly at the mean level of the ocean, indeed it is more 
desirable that it should be rather above the reach of the highest 
tide, and the exact distance above the mean level recorded. 

The most desirable position for such another mark would be 
near the North- West extremity of the island, in the vicinity 
of Cape Grim. 

Mr. Lempriere, it is evident, carefully carried out these 
directions^ for on a tablet still existing a Httle above the tide 
mark in question is the following record. "On the rock 
fironting tnis stone a line denoting the height of the tide now 
struck on the Ist July, 1841, mean time 4h. Mm. p.m.; 
moon's age 12 days ; height of water in tide gauge 6 ft. lin." 

It is stated by my informant, Mr. T. Mason, that the words 
4md figures underlined are nearly obliterated, and that he has 
IpLven what they appear to be. It is unfortunate, also, that no 
other records can be found relating to Mr. Lempriere's tidal 
observations, although I have searched all local records. I have 
also applied to Capt. "W. J. Z. Wharton, R.N"., Hydrographer 
of the Admiralty, with the view of ascertaining if they had 
any records relating to Mr. Lempriere's observations at Port 
Arthur, but in answer I learn that no records of tidal 
observations have ever been received at the Admiralty. 

Capt. Wharton at the same time informs me that the 
approximate time of high water on 1st July, 1841, was 
5 n. 35 m., p.m., that is nearly an hour later than the apparent 
record on the tablet. If we now assume that the tide 
now strucJc refers to high water, which is most probable, we 
have some means of determining whether any change has since 
occurred in the relative levels of sea and land. 

Mr. Mason, at my request, very kindly ascertained the time 
of low water on February 24th, 1888, at 11 h. 45 m. a.m., which 
day corresponds relatively with the moon's age 47 years 
previously. 

At this low water level the mark was found to be 2f ft. above. 
This very closely corresponds with the normal difference between 
these levels of low and high water, and would therefore indicate 
that there has been practically no alteration of the relative 
levels of sea and land during the last 47 years. This, however, 
only bears witness to possible movements in the Southern 
poition of the island. As regards the Northern portion there 
18 no definite knowledge ; but it is interesting to place on 
record, that Captain Miles has learnt from the half-casts in the 
Fomeaux G-roup they have noticed within the last few years 



20 POSSIBLE OSCILLATION OF LEVELS OV LAJBO) AHD SEA. 

that there seems to be less depth of water oyer certain well- 
known rocks near the islands than formerly. This, howerer, if 
tme, does not seem to have been a sadden change, but rather a 
slow elevatini; movement possibly still going on. As it is of 
the greatest importance to get more definite information with 
regard to this locality^ I have already taken some steps te fix 
a tide mark on Hinders Island, so that in future years obser- 
vations may be made upon some certain data that we at present 
possess. 

It would be desirable also in the interest of Navigation te 
have such marks carefully made on various parte of our coast 
line. 

It might be of value, therefore, if this important matter 
received the attention of the Members of this Sociefy. 



21 



THE "lEON BLOW" AT THE LINDA GOLDFIELD. 

By E. M. Johnston, r.L.S. 

At the last meeting of this Society a paper, contributed by 
Mr. G. Thurean, F.G.S., was read, which calls for some 
•observations from me. Before commenting upon the matters 
which have caused differences of opinion, however, let me 
•express my sincere regret that any unfortunate remark of 
mine should have led him to suppose that I do not appreciate 
iihe scientific ability of the author of the paper in question. 
Having said this much, it will, I hope, be granted that the 
existence of differences of opinion upon geological matters 
which are obscure may nevertheless exist, and, in fact, 
oontinually happen — between the greatest names in science — 
without questioning the talents or training of those who may 
espouse irreconcilable opinions. 

The differences of opinion as between myself and Mr. 
Thureau, fortunately, are not of a serious nature, and, 
according to Mr. Thureau's recent explanation, I perceive they 
are more due to the confused way in which descriptive terms 
are employed than to any real differences of opinion. The 
question between us has been altogether misconceived by Mr. 
Thureau, and even in his last paper he often leaves me in 
doubt whether he is referring (1) to the original agencies by 
which the original metalliferous deposit was formed, or (2) to 
the causes wluch produced subsequent modifications. If Mr. 
Thureau had discussed the Iron Blow question without 
•confusing these two fundamental considerations it would have 
placed the issues between us in a very small compass. I shall 
endeavour to keep free from this confusion by discussing the 
iiwo questions separately : — 

I. (a) Under what circumstances and by what agency was 
the fissure formed originally ? 
(p) From whence and by what agencies were its present 

altered and unaltered contents derived P 
(r) By what mode were the original matters deposited 
or obtained ? 

First, then, we have to enquire — 

Under what circumstances and by what agency was 
the fissure originally formed i 

The schists and conglomerates in which the great fissure 
occurs are evidently of Silurian age, and the forces which 
operated in dislocating them must, therefore, have been 
exerted not earlier than this period. From the abundant 



CC -rrt^-Kr -nx /^«n- » 



22 THE "mON BLOW" AT THE IINDA 60LDFIELIX 

evidence at our command of crumpled, distorted, folded, and 
metamorphosed strata, common in rocks of this age, there is- 
little doubt of the fact that the dynamic forces at work were 
fflu: more potent than at present, although not difEerent from 
forces still in operation, whose throes, like those of Krakatoa- 
and Tarawera, are still mighty enough to produce vast local 
disturbances. There is little doubt m my opinion, therefore^ 
that the fissure at the Linda was originally caused by the 
same dynamic forces which caused the dilating, folding, and 
metamorphosis of the crystalline rocks, and that these mighty 
effects were primarily caused bj the gravitation of the outw 
crust towards the shrinking and cooling central nmss of the 
earth. Mallet's lucid exposition of this theory, many years 
ago, has convinced the large body of geologists of the 
reasonableness of this ; and I may be pardoned if I cannot 
discover any flaw in its sufficiency to account for all the 
dynamical phenomena observable at the Iron Blow. 

The next consideration is — Was the opening of the fissure 
accompanied by the expulsion of heated materials from the 
interior of the earth by volcanic agency ? This brings us to 
the second part — 

From whence and by what agencies were the present 
altered and unaltered materials derived i 

With respect to this question, I am still in accord with Mr. 
Thureau, for I am of opinion that the expulsion of heated 
materials from the interior of the earth by volcanic agency 
has occurred, and to this expulsion may be attributed the 
immediate cause of the opening of the Iron Blow fissure. My 
original suggestion, that the materials now forming the 
contents of the fissure does not " necessitate their having 
been formed originally in the way of * volcanic mud,' " is 
incorrectly interpreted by Mr. Thureau as a denial of volcanie 
action. 

This interpretation, moreover, is hardly warranted; for 
Mr. Thureau is well enough aware that elements such as 
barium, sulphur, iron and gold, now contained in the fissure 
are, and may have been, expelled from the interior of the 
earth as volcanic products by way of sublimation or heated 
solutions, or by both together or alternately. Mr. Thureau 
elsewhere admits this, for he states the discharges of the 
volcanic vents alluded to by him "leave a thin deposit or 
lamina in the * cups ' at the surface which, after hardening, 
was found on analysis to be chiefly charged with silica 
(quartz), and to also contain a sensible percentage of gold 
and silver." Now this deposit, it is clear by his own showing, 
was not composed of ''volcanic mud" seen in ebulition as 
" a greyish semi-liquid mass . . . within the mouth of 
the ' f umaroles,' " but was essentially a distinct chemicat 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.& 3f 

d^sii formed from associated heated solutions. If, therefore, 
fu8 be the process — a4si Mr. Thiireau avers it to be—'' which 
assimilates a great deal to what can be seen in its ^dead 
state ' at our ' Iron Blow/ " it is Mr. Thureau himself who 
OTerthrows his own argument, for it is not "volcanic 
mud " which he likens to the baryta of the Iron Blow, but the 
mlica found as '' lamina in the cups " which, without doubt, 
by his own showing, was formed as a precipitcUion from 
solution! Where, then, is Mr. Thureau's logic in finding 
firalt with me for preferring to believe the same thing in my 
statement, quoted by him, viz., " It is probable that the four 
p!rincii>al elements — iron, baiytes, sulphur, and gold — were 
mif^msSij precipitated together from solution ? " 

That there can be no mistake that the contents of the Iroji 
Blow were considered by him to be the analogues of the silica 
precipitated from solution, and not the " greyish semi-liquid 
mass," is proved by the following sentence : — ** If baryta is 
substituted for silica (as matrix?) in the latter case, the 
question of origin as to both metalliferous deposits is not 
only, in my opinion, very suggestive, but forms the only 
possible true solution of the case." 

I am, of course, extremely gratified to find in this clear 
expression of opinion that he thus agrees with me that 
precipitation from solution is " the only possible true solution 
of the case ;" for while it refutes his " volcanic mud " theory, 
it more firmly establishes my opinion " that the four principal 
elements — ^iron, barytes, sulphur, and gold — were originsdly 
precipitated from solution." 

Besides this, there is no evidence at the Iron Blow to show 
fliat the respective solutions were in anyway associated with a 
•* volcanic mud " corresponding to the " greyish semi-liquid 
mass within the mouth of the fumaroles" of America, of 
whose composition Mr. Thureau's description does not afEord 
us the slightest enlightenment. 

Strictly speaking, mud is a term more appropriately applied 
to mechanical mixtures of various hydrous aluminous silicates, 
and such mixtures are fundamentally different from the 
definite chemical compounds ^ pyrites and barytes^ which form the 
characteristic contents of the lode at the Lron Blow. 

Causes which produced subsequent modificcUion of 
materials as originally precipitated. 

This part of the subject does not concern me so much as 
Mr. Ward, who is well able to defend his own views. I may, 
however, be allowed to observe that Mr. Thureau's denial 
that the soft and pulverulent combination of iron peroxide 
md barium sulphate of a deep purplish colour, togetiier with 
tiie still more modified massive blocks forming the cap of this 



U-r^MT «T/v-»'> 



24 THE "ntON BLOW" AT THB LDXDJL GOLDFISLIX 

part of the lode, have been derived by sabsequent decom- 
position of the parts more exposed to deoomposing agencies, 
IS a most unsatis&ctory position for him to assume. £i is not 
true, as stated by him, that the iron pyrites contain ** no 
baryta to speak of." At page 218, " Eoyal Soc. Proc, 1886," 
the analysis given by Mr. Ward shows iron bisulphide pyrites, 
83*0 per cent.; barium sulphate (barytes), 17 per cent., i.e., 
actually 2*85 per cent, less than the decomposed pulverul^ 
mass, which Mr. Ward, no doubt, rightly attributes to oxida- 
tion of pyrites. 

Mr. Ward nowhere states that the entire mass of pyrites 
has undergone decomposition. On the contrary, he refers to 
the exposed surface of one portion of the original lode. The 
very fact that the undecomposed pyrites analysed by him was 
stated to be taken from a section described as two chains 
wide is proof that this is so. Mr. Thureau's most extravagant 
allusion to the fissure collapsing in consequence of a partial 
decomposition is therefore too preposterous to dwell upon. Has 
Mr. Thureau ever known pyrites, long exposed in lodes to air 
and water, not to have suffered from decomposition ? That both 
decomposition and recomposition in mineral veins are among 
the most common of all occurrences cannot reasonably be 
disputed. G^ikie, surely, may be trusted in a simple matter 
of this kind. At page 697, " Text Book of Geology," he 
states : — '^ It has been noticed that the ' countiy ' through 
which mineral veins run is often considerably decompos^ 
In Cornwall this is frequently very observable in the granite. 
Moreover, in most mineral veins, there occurs layers of clay, 
earth, or other soft, friable, loamy substances, to which various 
mining names are given. In the south-west of England the 
great majority of the remarkable minerals of that district 
occur in those parts of the lodes where such soft earths 
abound. The veins evidently serve as channels for the 
circulation of water both upward and downward, and to this 
circulation the decay of some bands into mere clay or earth, 
and the recrystallisation of part of their ingredients into rare 
or interesting minerals are to be ascribed." So much for 
decomposition. Mr. Thureau, curiously enough, makes no 
allusion to the remarkable strings and veins of solid barytes 
penetrating the decomposed part of the lode. He would 
find it a difficult task to account for these strings on the 
assumption that they were formed contemporaneously with 
the pyrites mass, or even with the decomposed portion of the 
original lode. 

Mr. Thureau's inexactness is also conspicuous in his 
references to baryta. In the first part of his paper, referring 
to iron pyrites (bi-sulphide), he states that it containij '' no 
baryta to speak of," and yet he had Mr. Ward's analyses 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 26 

before him proTing that it actually contained 17 per cent, of 
baiyta, thus : — 

Ibon Pybitbs. 

(Section : 2 chains wide.) 

Per cent. 

Iron bi-sulphide (pyrites) 83'0 

Barium sulphate (barytes) 17*0 

100-0 



The only difEerence of composition between the pyrites and 
Hie purple rock is due to oxidation of pyrites, thus : 

Per cent. 

Iron peroxide 77*75 

Barytes 19*86 

Water, etc 2*40 



100*00 

It will be seen, therefore, that the derivation of the one from 
the other is not such an inconceivable matter as Mr. Thureau 
wtLB led to imagine from his inaccurate interpretation of the 
data at his command. 

Mr. Thureau again makes a curious reference to the baryta 
of this purplish rock, in his expression — " Now it is a jact that 
baryta 18 the 'matrix' of that purple rock." How baryta 
can be the *^ matrix*' of the larger constituent iron peroxide 
{the latter being nearly four parts iron peroxide to one part 
baiyta) is a puzzle to me. 

The word matrix is usually employed by geologists to 
designate the rock or m>ain substance in which a crystal 
mineral or fossil is embedded. According to this meaning of 
the word, Mr. Thureau is far from correct in stating that 
^' it is a foot that baryta is the matrix of that purple rock." 



MUD VOLCANOES. 

As regards mud volcanoes, there are two well-known kinds, 
both of which differ widely in characteristics from the phe- 
nomena associated with the deposits of the Linda Iron Blow. 

The furst kind is not volcanic in the proper sense of the 
term, although variously named mud volcanoes, salses, air 
volcanoes, and maccUubas, G^ikie describes these as forming 
groaps of conical hills formed by the accumulation of fine 
and usually saline mud. They are distinguished from true 
mud volcanoes in having their chief source of movement in 
the escape of gases due to underlying chemical changes, usually 
carbon dioxide, carburetted hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and nitrogen. The mud is usually cold. 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 26 

before him proying that it actually contained 17 per cent, of 
baiyta, thus : — 

Ibon Pybitbs. 

(Section : 2 chains wide.) 

Per cent. 

Iron bi-sulphide (pyrites) 83*0 

Barium sulphate (barytes) 17*0 

100-0 



The only difEerence of composition between the pyrites and 
the purple rock is due to oxidation of pyrites, thus : 

Per cent. 

Iron peroxide ... 77*75 

Barytes ... ... 19*86 

Water, etc 2*40 



100*00 

It will be seen, therefore, that the derivation of the one from 
the other is not such an inconceivable matter as Mr. Thureau 
was led to imagine from his inaccurate interpretation of the 
data at his command. 

Mr. Thureau again makes a curious reference to the baryta 
of this purplish rock, in his expression — " Now it is a jact that 
baryta is the 'matrix' of that purple rock." How baryta 
can be the *^ matrix*' of the larger constituent iron peroxide 
{the latter being nearly four parts iron peroxide to one part 
bo^a) is a puzzle to me. 

The word matrix is usually employed by geologists to 
designate the rock or main substance in which a crystal 
mineral or fossil is embedded. According to this meaning of 
the word, Mr. Thureau is far from correct in stating that 
** it is a fact that baryta is the matrix of that purple rock." 



MUD VOLCANOES. 

As regards mud volcanoes, there are two well-known kinds, 
both of which differ widely in characteristics from the phe- 
nomena associated with the deposits of the Linda Iron Blow. 

The furst kind is not volcanic in the proper sense of the 
term, although variously named mud volcanoes, salses, air 
volcanoes, and macalubas, G^ikie describes these as forming 
groups of conical hills formed by the accumulation of fine 
and usually saline mud. They are distinguished from true 
mud volcanoes in having their chief source of movement in 
the escape of gases due to underlying chemical changes, usually 
carbon dioxide, carburetted hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and nitrogen. The mud is usually cold. 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 26 

before him proTing that it actually contained 17 per cent, of 
baiyta, thus : — 

Ibon Pybites. 

(Section : 2 chains wide.) 

Per cent. 

Iron bi-sulphide (pyrites) 83*0 

Barium sulphate (barjtes) 170 



100-0 



The only difference of composition between the pyrites and 
the purple rock is due to oxidation of pyrites, thus : 

Per cent. 

Iron peroxide 77*75 

Barytes 19*86 

Water, etc 2*40 



100-00 

It will be seen, therefore, that the derivation of the one from 
the other is not such an inconceivable matter as Mr. Thureau 
was led to imagine from his inaccurate interpretation of the 
data at his command. 

Mr. Thureau again makes a curious reference to the baryta 
of this purplish rock, in his expression — " Now it is a jact that 
baryta is the 'matrix' of that purple rock." How baryta 
can be the '^matrix*' of the larger constituent iron peroxide 
(the latter being nearly four parts iron peroxide to one part 
baryta) is a puzzle to me. 

The word Tnatrix is usually employed by geologists to 
designate the rock or main substance in which a crystal 
mineral or fossil is embedded. According to this meaning of 
the word, Mr. Thureau is far from correct in stating that 

it is a fact that baryta is the matrix of that purple rock." 



« 



MUD VOLCANOES. 

As regards mud volcanoes, there are two well-known kinds, 
both of which differ widely in characteristics from the phe- 
nomena associated with the deposits of the Linda Iron Blow. 

The furst kind is not volcanic in the proper sense of the 
term, although variously named mud volcanoes, salses, air 
volcanoes, and macalubas, G^ikie describes these as forming 
groups of conical hills formed by the accumulation of fine 
and usually saline mud. They are distinguished from true 
mud volcanoes in having their chief source of movement in 
the escape of gases due to underlying chemical changes, usually 
carbon dioxide, carburetted hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and nitrogen. The mud is usually cold. 



U-r^r^^ «-r/>-Rr» 



86 THE "ntON BLOW" AT THE LINDA OOLDFIELD. 

The inie mud volcano occurs in volcanic regions proper, 
and '' is due to the escape of hot water and steam through 
beds of tuff or some other friable kind of rock. The mud is 
kept in ebulition by the rise of steam through it. As it 
becomes more pasty the steam meets with greater resistance; 
large bubbles are formed which burst, and the more liquid 
mud below oozes out from the vent." 

These true mud volcanoes, in my opinion, neither in their 
mode of appearance, nor in their characteristic contents, show 
the slightest correspondence with the metalliferous fissure 
lodes of the Linda district. 

I may mention that although my examination of the 
various lodes in this district was necessarily limited, they 
occupied my close attention for the better part of three days, 
at a time when they were well exposed by working opera- 
tions ; 



DiscrssioN'. 

Me. W. !P. Waed, Government Analyst, said : — 

The point under discussion is the origin of the "formation" 

known as the " Iron Blow," the oxidised portion of which was 

described by Mr. Thureau as " volcanic mud or ash." Mr. 

Johnston, however, from close examination on the spot, and I 

myself, from the " internal evidence " yielded by specimens, 

etc., attribute to this a non- volcanic origm. 

The materials of this formation are (1) barytes, sulphate of 

barium, or heavy spar, (2) iron pyrites, or disulphide of iron, 

(3) hsematite, or sesquioxide or peroxide of iron. 
I will glance briefly at the usual modes of occurrence of each, 

as showing in the first place that they are not usually 

** volcanic products." 

1. " Heavy spar" occurs commonly in connection with beds 
or veins of metallic ore as part of the ** gangue " of the ore. 

It is found crystallised in the Cumberland haematite mines 
in the carboniferous limestone, and as much as 14 per cent, of 
sulphate of barium has been found disseminated in hsematite 
from another district. 

2. " Iron pyrites " is very widely distributed and abundant 
in rocks of all ages. By the decomposition (by the action of 
water and air) on the large scale of masses of pyrites, deposits 
of brown iron ore may be produced, sulphur being lost and 
oxygen and water tsJcen up by the iron, and a very moderate 
heat suffices to convert this hydrated brown oxide into the red 
oxide or haematite by driving out the combined water. 

8. ^' Hsematite " occurs in many forms differing in texture 
and state of aggregation as: (a) crystallised, forming 



DiaOUBSION ON THE "iBON BLOW ' AT LINDA GOLDFIELD. 27 

^speoalar iron;" (h) fibrous, red b»matite; (p) earthy, 
oooze, but all conBistmg essentially of peroxide of iron. 

In the Cumberland deposits are found hard or *' blast " ore, 
and Bofib, or " puddler's " ore, from its use in the puddling 
fiomace : the hard, fibrous, and more common form often passing 
into the crystallised condition. 

In Elba, bsematite occurs 'crystallised between talcose (or 
perhaps hydro-mica) schists and crystalline limestone, and the 
CBtystaU are frequently associated with iron pyrites. It is also 
loand with other minerals as an abundant component of 
mineral veins, also in beds interstratified with sedimentary or 
■chistose rocks. 

On the other hand ** specular iron " in some cases is a result 
of igneous action, is abundant around some volcanoes ; and as 
pointed out by Mr. Thureau, scales of specular iron were 
&und with 15 other minerals in " ash " from Cotopazi. 

To return to the formation, and quoting Mr. Thureau, we 
have ''An immense bed or vein of solid pyrites filling the 
greater width of the fissure on its hanging wall, or about 225 ft. 
out of a total width of 280 fb. between walls of that chasm." 
Alao '^ A soft purply pulverulent mass of oxide of iron about 
56 ft. wide " on the foot-wall. 

Now, as we have abeady seen, the pyrites decomposes sooner 
or later according to circumstances, and Mr. Thureau himself 
found '' elongated and spherical nodules, which on examination 
were found to contain within hard crusts of sesquio2dde of iron 
(hvdrated), nuclei of pure iron pyrites . . . the nodules 
bem^ in very close contiguity to the massive pyrites vein 
or bed;'* these showing that, as might be expected, 
decomposition is still taking place. 

To the analysis made by me in connection with Mr. 
Johnston's origmal paper, I appended a note thiEit " there seems 
little room for doubt that the ' Iron Blow ' is the result of 
oxidation of pyrites similar to that now associated so largely 
with it ; the hydrated oxide first formed subsequently losing its 
combined water," and I was not a little influenced in forming 
this opinion by finding 17 per cent, of sulphate of barium 
intimately mixed with the pyrites, and 20 per cent, of that 
substance, in similar condition^ intermixed with the peroxide of 
iron. This sulphate of barium Mr. Thureau claims to have 
"first discovered as the necessary adjunct to the gold." While, 
however, Mr. Thureau ignores or misquotes the evidence from 
the presence of this common constituent, and also deprecates 
fixnmng opinions from the examination of specimens only, he 
yet advances as a most, if not the most, cogent argument in 
fiivour of ''volcanic agency," the "almost non-auriferous" 
character of the scraps of pyrites assayed, as contrasted 



28 DISCTJSSIOK ON THE ''iBON BLOW" AT UNDA 60LDFIELD. 

with the high result of assay of one sample of the oxide of 
iron. Li addition, he calls in to explain tne presence of this 
always irregularly distributed metal gold, as I contend, quite 
unnecessarily, " a more drastic process of origination than 
simple and quiescent decomposition only,'* applying this 
only to the 02dde of iron and not to the bulk of the pyrites 
which fills four-fifbhs of the same ''chasm." 

To return for a moment to the nodules of decomposing 
pyrites found in the Blow itself, to quote Mr. Thurean again, 
" these present, neither more or less, former gaseous bubbles 
surcharged with vaporous sulphuretted solutions of iron 
becoming rigid when cooled, elongated or rounded by com- 
pression." This form isalmost certainly also due todecomposition 
which, acting more rapidly on edges and comers of irregular 
fitigments, more or less rounds them off. 

In conclusion, therefore, I maintain that ordinary processes of 
decomposition are sufficient to account for all the phenomena 
presented by the oxide of iron portion of the formation, and 
that there is no necessity to invoke " a more drastic process of 
origination strictly speaking volcanic." 

The SficEETABT (Mr. A. Morton), read a letter received 
from Professor Liversidge, Sydney XJniversity, in which he 
stated that his impression formed upon Mr. Thureau's paper, 
and without having specimens before him, was that the !&on 
Blow was not of volcanic origin. It would be almost im- 
possible to form a decided opinion without actual examination 
of the Blow. 



29 



NOTES ON A CASE OF POISONING THEOTJQH 
BATING A POBTION OF THE " BRUGMANSIA." 

By Db. Habdt. 

The case which I bring before you is one of poisoning 
Arough eating a portion of the common trumpet flower 
(Bmgmansia) now shown to you. 

This plant belongs to the order of solanacisB and is there- 
fiire allied to a number of others which are recognised as poisons 
for example : stramonium, belladona, tobacco, also potato and 
tomato. Gl^hese latter being classed as poisons appear at first 
aiffht contradictory, but although the tuber of the potato is 
wholesome when cooked, the leaves and other parts of the 
plant are poisonous. 

Stramonium and belladonna, although in common use as 
medicines, are highly dangerous if taken in improper 
doses. 

The potato is a powerful narcotic and has been used in 
ifaeumatism, while henbane is in common use as a sedative in 
irritable conditions of the brain. 

With these introductory remarks I will narrate the case in 
question : — 

On Thursday last a child, a&;ed 2, after having a good dinner 
and appearing in perfect health in all respects, ate a portion of 
a trumpet lily, which had been picked in the garden of a 
gentleman living in this town. Within a short time symptoms 
manifested themselves, and I was called in to what the 
messenger described as a case of convulsions. 

On examining the child I was struck by certain peculiarities 
in the symptoms unlike those of ordinary convulsions. The 
child's face and greater portions of the body were red, the eyes 
staring and the pupils widely dilated, the head and shoulders 
bent back, and tne position almost that usually seen in tetanus 
or lockjaw ; the feet pointing inwards and the great toes drawn 
up and stiff, an appearance of fear in the face and starting at 
times as if a&aid of falling off the nurse's knee and finally 
arms moving irregularly, power of co-ordination partly 
lost, and the hands picking at imaginary objects. I 
was struck by the resemblance to a case of poisoning in a 
child by drinong some belladonna liniment, which I attended 
some 8 or 10 years ago, and so questioned the mother as to 
whether any medicines of any kind had been lying about. 



30 NOTES OK A CASE OF POISONINa 

However, no such cause was to be found but she said the child 
had been eating the plant she produced, which is said to have 
a pleasant taste. Under prompt treatment the child improved 
and next day was nearly well, and on the following day 
apparently none the worse for its botanical experiments, but 
the parents have decided not to grow a trumpet lily in their 
garden, as they had intended doing. I have heard that a 
similar case occurred here some years ago, but have been 
unable to find out the particulars, or how the case terminated. 
My object in bringing forward this case, apart from the 
scientific interest, is, that although proverbially "a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing," still, the knowledge of the 
unsuspected dangers existing in our gardens is of interest to 
those of us, like myself, having chLdren of an inouisitive turn 
of mind 



31 



NOTES ON ANGORA GOAT FARMING. 
By James Andbew. 

This is not the first occasion on which the advantages and 
profits of Angora goat farming have been brought under the 
notice of the Eoyal Society of Tasmania, but as fifteen years 
have elapsed since the late Mr. John Swan read a paper on 
the subject, and the Honorary Secretary, Dr. Agnew, laid 
upon the table a letter with covering correspondence from 
the British Consul at Angora, giving particulars of the 
industry as conducted in A^ia Minor, I may be excused for 
re-opeuing the question. 

Since 1874, when this effort was made to stimulate popular 
interest in favour of a fair trial, in Tasmania, for a descrip- 
tion of stock farming elsewhere found so profitable, little or 
nothing has been done ; and although a few very small flocks 
of indifferently bred goats still remain in the colony, they do 
not appear to receive the attention they merit, and mohair, as 
the fleece of the Angora is termed in trade returns, does not 
figure amongst our exports. 

It is my aim in submitting the following notes, to revive if 
possible the spirit of experiment which induced Mr. Swan — 
an experienced flock owner — to advocate the claims of goat 
farming as worthy of careful consideration. 

In Asia Minor, the natural habitat of the Angora goat, 
whence the progenitors of all the stock now found in 
America, Africa and Australia were obtained, the hair of 
Bome of the best flocks, which is invariably pure white, was 
at one time so highly valued that its export was prohibited, 
and later, permission was granted to send it out of the 
country in a manufactured state only. At the present time 
the value of the hair exported from the province amounts 
to «£200,000 per annum, which, however, is far exceeded by 
the production of other countries in which goa^; farming has 
become a settled industrv. 

The Cape Colony owes the introduction there of Angora 
goats, in the first instance, to a Colonel Henderson of Bombay^ 
afterwards some were forwarded to the colony through Sir 
!Qtns Salt, who was the first English manufacturer of textile 
&bricsfrom their hair, and later Messrs. Mosenthal Bros., in 
the year 1856, secured some pure bred animals from Asia 
Minor. Since then there have been many private importa- 
tions of stud stock, one of the most important of which was 
that of a Mr. J. B. Evans, who personally selected goats in 
the mountain districts round Angora. 



32 NOTES OK ANOOSA GOAT FABMING. 

This was in 1880, and in the following year I had an 
opportunity of inspecting some of the rams — ^which had sold 
at from <£100 to <£200 each— in the Graaf Beinet and 
Eastern districts. It was in 1862 that mohair first appeared 
amongst Cape exports, the quantity being 1,036 lbs., in 1865 
the export was 7,000 lbs., valued at .£368, but in the next 
decade the increase was marked, the figures being 
1,148,000 lbs., valued at nearly 06135,000 ; still another ten 
years, and although the clip was more than quadrupled, being 
5,250,000 lbs., the price obtained for it had suffered great 
depreciation, the value being only ^6204,000. 

The last published returns for 1887 show weight of hair 
exported 7,154,000 lbs., worth 06268,500, a fall in price of Id. 
per lb. on the previous year's clip. la addition there must 
be taken into account the value of exported skins during the 
same year, viz., <£100,000,and even these figures fail to represent 
the total value of the products of this useful animal, as a 
large quantity of skins and leather are absorbed by home 
consumption. It is further necessary, when estimating the 
economic value of Angora goats, to remember that the meat 
of the wether or " kapata," as it is called in the Cape Colony^ 
is excellent. Sir Samuel Wilson, to whose monograph on 
" The Angora Goat " I am much indebted for information, 
states that : — " Its flesh when in good condition is not inferior 
to mutton." He adds, 'M have Baten the flesh of a half- 
bred which could not be distinguished from mutton, even in 
the carcase, and which on the table was considered quite a. 
luxury." Further testimony is bom by a Victorian sheep- 
owner of repute, who in February, 1873, reported to the 
President of the Acclimatisation Society in that colony 
that: — "Last winter I killed two wethers, fall mouthed, 
which each weighed when dressed 80 lbs., the flesh of which 
when put upon the table was pronounced most delicious,, 
being more rich and juicy than the best Merino mutton." I 
can fully endorse, from a somewhat lengthy experience of 
goat's flesh as an article of diet, all that these gentlemen say 
in its favour. 

At the date of the compilation of the last returns, 
the number of Angora goats in the Cape Colony 
was 2f millions, and the other countries of South Africa, 
Natal, the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal also maintain 
a considerable number, and mohair is an important item of 
their exports. 

A Mr. Scott of South Carolina, minister to Turkey in 1848,. 
was the first to take Angoras to America, and there have 
been many subsequent importations ; but the industry has. 
never assumed the proportions attained in South Africa. I 
have not been able to obtain any recent returns, but fr(^. 



BY JA1CB8 ANDSEW. 93 

efidence given before the United States Tarriff Commission 
in 1882, it appears there were then an estimated number of 
100,000 goats in the country, yielding hair of over 200,000 lbs. 
weight per annum. 

Mocks are now. to be found in various states of the Union, 
in Yery varied climates, such as Oregon, Wyoming, Colorado, 
Texas, California, Missouri, and Arkajisas, whilst an absolutely 
pure flock is owned by a Colonel Peters in Georgia. 

iPor some years the growers in the States maintained their 
flocks under great discouragement, as the demand there for 
Bueh fabrics as the hair was used for, fell off very rapidly. 
But the introduction of new materials gave a fresh impetus 
to their energies, and, to again quote the Tariff Commission, 
•*The supply produced in the States, if multiplied threefold, 
would not be sufficient to furnish material for the plushes now 
used in the railroad cars of that country alone." 

The industry had hardly been successfully established in 
the Cax>e Colony and America when steps were taken to 
introduce Angora goats into Victoria. A small flock was 
purchased at Broussa, near Trebizond, and shortly after 
arrival in the colony they were transferred to the care of the 
Acclimatisation Society. An addition to their number was 
made in 1863 when twelve pure rams of a very high-class 
were received as a present from the Imperial Acclimatisation 
Society of France. Two years later a further shipment of 
93 carefully selected animals was forwarded from Asia 
Minor, via London. These cost the Society about £16 per 
head. 

As the numbers increased the accommodation at the !Royal 
Fiork, Melbourne, was found too limited, and the flock was 
dispersed in 1870. A large number of the inferior 
animals were sold, the price being flxed at Ave 
guineas per head — less than their actual value — but 
about fifty of the choice animals were sent to the 
Wimmera district to the care of Sir Samuel Wilson, who 
three years later reported : — " The flock of Angora goats now 
on the Wimmera is 108 in number besides a few young kids. 
From calculations carefully made this small flock, if well 
managed, and sufficient pasture allowed it to graze upon, 
wifl at the ordinary rate of increase reach in thirty years the 
very large number of 442,868. This number should be 
sufficient to displace all the common goats in the colony. In 
forty years at the same rate the pure flock would increase to 
over seven millions." 

But to contemplate obtaining a flock of Angoras by 
depending on the natural increase of such pure bred animals 
18 could be secured for a moderate expenditure of capital 
woidd prove both tedious and disheartening, and we have 
tiie pronounced success of cross-breeding in other countries 

C 



34 NOTES ON ANGORA GOAT FARMING. 

to guide those who may be desirous of commencing the 
industry. It has been found that the progeny of pure 
Angora rams and common goat ewes, produce in the third 
generation — the sire in each case being of pure stock- 
animals, which in appearance and characteristics are hardly 
to be distinguished from their male ancestors. Every 
succeeding cross more nearly approaches perfection, but the 
plebian taint is almost completely eliminated, and quite 
sufficiently so for commercial purposes, in the fourth genera- 
tion. No matter what the colour of the female goat, black, 
brown, or grey, her offspring present the male characteristics 
to a pronounced degree, and in the third cross nearly every 
trace of colour has disappeared. 

Thus a stock-farmer has at his disposal practically 
unlimited scope for increasing his general flock. It is 
manifest, however, that a small stud herd would have to be 
maintained to keep up the supply of pure bred males, which 
are of course alone used for breeding purposes, and the 
purchase of a few carefully selected Angora ewes would there- 
fore be necessary. Many objections and as many defences of 
cross-breeding have been ably discussed at various times. On 
this subject Sir Samuel Wilson writes : — " It is stated by Mr. 
V. A. Niessen that the hair from the half-bred Angora is 
worth a shilling per pound, that from the three-quarter-bred, 
one shilling and sixpence per pound, that of the third cross, 
or seven-eighths-bred, would nearly equal in value that from 
the pure bred, and the fleece of the fifteen-sixteenths, or 
fourth remove, would be quite equal to that of the sire in 
purity, lustre, fineness, and length of fleece." He quotes also 
a letter addressed to the President of the Victorian 
Acclimatisation Society from the Hon. Robert Simson, " a 
large sheepowner, and a distinguished breeder of the Merino," 
dated 18th February, 1873. who enclosed samples of hair from 
descendants of three-quarter-bred ewes from the Cape 
Colony, and a pure bred ram. In regard to which Sir 
Samuel states : — " The specimens were aU of excellent quality 
and excepting a greater degree of lustre which those from 
the pure bred Angora exhibited, they appeared so equal in 
value as scarcely to be distinguishable from each other. On 
the question of the cross between the Angora and 
common goat, I am ready to admit that crossing with the 
Angora, with a view gradually to improve the common 
goat, may produce valuable results ; I wish it to be 
clearly understood that such animals or their progeny, 
even if pure sires be used for a thousand generations, can 
never become pure bred. The stain can never be washed 
away. Each cross with the pure blood reduces it by one 
half, but as division is infinite it never entirely 
disappears." 



BY JAMES ANDBEW. 35 

Theoretically, Sir Samuel Wilson's views are no doubt 
-correct, practically, in connection witli goat farming, they are 
unworkaJble. In the Cape Colony all the flocks, now 
numbering 2| millions, have been raised by cross breeding, 
and a simHar course has been followed in the United States 
with equal success ; indeed, Mr. John Swan stated that he 
was informed, " the best flock in America never contained a 
pure bred female." Sir Titus Salt, too, is known to have 
raised a flock in this manner in England. 

I sincerely regret that my specimens of hair, from a 
celebrated flock of goats in the Graaf Eeinet district of the 
Cape Colony, have so suffered from moth during eight years' 
inattention that they but very imperfectly exhibit the 
gradations of successive crosses aud the perfect sample which 
it is the aim of every flock owner to equal. They may, 
however, suffice to give some idea of the various grades 
through which animals with fleeces of good enough quality 
for a general flock are obtained. 

It is hardly necessary to remark that the degree of 
-attention given to the selection of the best stud rams, the 
proper classiflcation of ewes, and the systematic culling of 
nocks, will determine the value of the staple product. 

The fleece of the pure bred Angora often reaches to the 
'ground, the locks measuring 12 or even 14 inches in length. 
The kind most in demand is only so much matted as to 
cling together near the root, remaining free and separate 
to the tip. The weight of hair varies as much in different 
individuals as does the yield of wool in sheep. Mr. Swan 
exhibited samples from the fleece of a pure goat which 
weighed 8 lbs. 10 oz. realising 2s. 6d. per lb. in the Home 
market ; but perhaps 5 lbs. may be taken as a fair average of 
a well-kept grade flock shorn once a year. From my notes 
taken during shearing time at Graaf Eeinet I And that ewes 
•cut as much as 6f lbs., whilst a ram was relieved of 
an 8 months' fleece weighing 7 lbs. Kids of 8 months old 
<nit an average of 2 lbs. of very fine hair. 

Sir Samuel Wilson advocated shearing twice a year, 
and his returns shows that the general average of both clips, 
the first in May, the second in October, was over 3f lbs. 
Even although the expenses are largely increased there may 
be much to be said in favour of this double clip, for, as ft 
unshorn the goat naturally sheds its hair in early spring, it is 
loimd necessary to remove the fleece — if only one shearing be 
adopted — in mid- winter when its protection is most required. 
The growth in the former case is probably stimulated by 
Nature making an effort to provide for the wants of the 
animal ; and felting or matting is no doubt prevented by not 
allowing the hair to attain full length. For manufacturing 
purposes any staple over 4 in. in length is found sufficient. 



36 NOTES OS ANOOBA QOAT FABMXNG. 

SO that the shorter clip is not detrimental to the value^ 
of the fleece 

Shearing in South Africa is generally conducted in what, in 
Australia, would be considered a most slovenly manner. It 
is not unusual for a farmer to have the work done in the- 
" kraals," or yards, and even if under cover the floor is more 
often than otherwise of earth. Goats are less troublesome 
to shear than sheep, but owing to the decided " lay " of the 
hair, men who can use both hands equally well have a 
considerable advantage. Sorting is, as a rule, very inefficiently 
carried out. 

About the 1st June is the usual date for commencing 
operations, and in the Karoo, where a large proportion of the 
Angoras in the colony are kept, the nights at that time of 
the year are often bitterly cold. Bad weather 
immediately after shearing may cause terrible mortality 
amongst a flock if proper precautions are not taken, but the 
general conditions affecting stock farming are comparatively 
so unfavourable in the country alluded to, that but little 
harm need be anticipated in Tasmania. Cold alone does not 
appear to have a particularly bad effect, nor does a warm 
shower of rain ; but cold and wet together are very 
destructive and should be carefully guarded against by 
providing shelter. In the Cape Colony all flocks are 
"kraaled" or yarded at night for protection against wild 
animals and depradatory natives, and slight shelter is often 
contrived for newly shorn goats, but in the Karoo there is no 
scrub or timber to afford a friendly lee should the flock be 
caught in a storm during the daytime, and thus the mortality 
is often great. 

Goats are much more prolific than sheep, but Angoras less so 
than the common species, still a very large percentage of the 
ewes bear twin kids. The young are at birth very helpless, 
in marked contrast to lambs, and remain so for ten or twelve 
days, and as the ewes display maternal instinct in a very 
modified form, some trouble may be anticipated at this time, 
which is usually between August and October. Here, again, 
experience gained in South Africa is of little value when 
applied to Tasmania, but the advantages are all in favour of 
the latter, as the ewes would here be disturbed as 
little as possible until their kids gained strength and 
intelligence. 

Mr. Swan states that: — " The trouble and expense of 
managing a flock would be less than that required for sheep. 
Goats are much more intelligent and are less liable to 
destruction by dogs." He adds : — " No ordinary fence will 
restrain them, and as they are restless, energetic, and 
destructive, cultivation is not profitable in their vicinity. 
Hawthorn hedges and ornamental shrubs possess peculiar 



BY JAMES AKDBEtr. 37 

attractions for them." Mr. Swan further remarks : — ''They 
have great attachment for home and can be depended upon 
to return to their sheds at night. Shelter should be 
provided for them, as they evince great aversion to rain and 
will remain under cover all day in wet weather." 

There is no reason whatever why, if the goats kept here or 
in other colonies become very numerous, the area of 
pasturage available for sheep need be encroached upon. 
Lideed, the reverse would be found to be the case, as Angoras 
have been proved to be excellent pioneers in clearing up new 
^sountry for sheep and cattle, and they not only do not injure 
but positively benefit other stock, especially sheep. An 
immense amount of land now almost, if not quite, valueless 
could be utilsed for goat farming, for these animals will live 
and thrive where others would starve, and mountainous, 
scrubby, and wooded country, barren ranges, and heathy 
plains are alike suitable for their requirements ; and by their 
activity, superior intelligence and fearlessness, they obtain 
sustenance where sheep would be incapable of venturing. 
They are also, with the exception of a short period 
immediately after shearing, as indifEerant to climatic as they 
are to dietetic influences. In further reference to the latter 
there is one very important point to notice ; they appear to 
■suffer no inconvenience from being depastured on country 
where plants abound which, when eaten by sheep, prove fatal. 
In South Africa I know this is the case and Sir Samuel 
Wilson bears similar testimony, stating : — " Its freedom from 
disease, its activity, and endurance, and ability to feed on 
shrubs, bushes, weeds, and even poisonous plants with 
impunity give it a special value as the animal suited to 
the selector or the small freeholder with limited means." 

It has been conclusively proved that the climate, as well as 
the pasturage and herbage of Australia and Tasmania, are 
peculiarly suitable for goat farming. No large oatlay is 
required to form the nucleus of a flock, nor is any special 
knowledge requisite for their management; there are vast 
iureas of vacant land awaiting settlement, and the inquiry 
naturally suggests itself how it is that the industry has 
&aled to command the attention here or on the continent of 
Australia, which it has received elsewhere. 

If some one of enterprising spirit will embark a few 
himdred pounds in such a venture the investment will, I am 
-confident, prove remunerative. Islands are peculiarly 
adapted for the purpose, as secure boundary fences are 
naturally provided, and subdivision can often be arranged 
ifith the minimum of material. 

There is one which I can recommend for tentative occupation, 
viz., the West Hunter Island to the north-west of Tasmania, 
in Bass Straits. It has an area of 20,000 acres, most of 



38 NOTES OK ANGOBA GOAT FABMIKa. 

whicli is rough feed very suitable for goats, and it may be- 
rented from the Crown for .820 per annum on a 14 years' 
lease. Sheep cannot be kept there as the "lobelia" or 
poisonous tare of King's Island abounds and invariably 
proves fatal. The last attempt at stocking this island of 
which I have any knowledge was in 1882, when 600 owes 
were placed there as an experiment, of which only 30- 
survived in about 6 months' time. The same plant has 
proved most disastrous to the efforts made to depasture 
sheep on King's Island, and if my conviction as to the 
immunity of the goat from its evil effects prove correct — and 
at least an inexpensive trial might be made— there is 
practically unlimited scope for many years to come in the 
unstocked islands of the Straits for the development of goat 
farming. 

On the coast in various parts of the colony there are l^^rge- 
heath -covered plains which may be similarly utilised, and 
experience might show that even the much-abused button 
rush country can be turned to account. Perhaps the 
energetic gentleman who has obtained the lease of Maria 
Island from the Government may be induced to set apart the 
southern end as a goat farm; the ground is poor, can 
maintain only few sheep, but has considerable capabilities as> 
pasturage for the more active animals which feed principally 
by browsing. 

The Tasmanian Stock Regulations at present in force 
absolutely prohibit the importation of goats from any place 
outside the Australasian colonies, but there are, no doubt^ 
some perfectly pure bred Angoras to be secured in Victoria, 
Kew South Wales or South Australia, where small flocks are 
maintained. The common goat ewes are not difficult to- 
obtain. 

A certain amount of surplus stock must accumulate until 
after the third or fourth cross, when the hair of all should be 
of nearly equal value. The skins of such half-bred or three- 
quarter-bred *' kapatas " or wethers as are killed for meat 
will be found for tanning purposes of far greater value than, 
sheepskins, the leather being substantial and of attractive 
appearance. When the goats are killed carrying a medium 
length of fleece the skins make excellent and most ornamental 
mats, whether dyed or left of their natural colour, and find 
purchasers at all prices up to .£1 each. 

Croats have much more intelligence than sheep, are easily 
trained, and the employment of "voorboks" or leaders, kapatas 
of the common breed — chosen for size and strength — is 
infinitely better than to attempt working a flock with dogs. 
These leaders are considered indispensable in South ALfrica, 
they march in the van on making for the feeding ground in 
the morning, and lead the way home at night. As decoys. 



BY JAMES ANDBEW. 39 

for yarding the flock at shearing time they are invaluable, 
and I have known them pilot slaughter stock on board 
Tessels in the Cape Town docks without the least difficulty. 
Being of an otherwise valueless breed and having no fleece 
worth shearing they are consequently rarely handled and so 
losing all timidity amongst men they fully enjoy the dignity 
of their position. 

Enquiries I have made to ascertain particulars of the 
Angora goats still remaining in Tasmania have not been 
saccessful. There is some reason for suspecting that attempts 
previously made here, and perhaps in the other colonies, to 
establish the industry have not been so successful as other- 
wise might have been the case, owing to the goats having been 
kept on open grass country. This is clearly a mistake. !l&>ugh, 
mountainous and scrubby ground is far more suitable, and it 
is with a view to encourage the occupation of such districts and 
so assist to a small extent in developing the natural resources 
of the colony that I venture to recommend the farming of 
Angora goats as an industry quite worth a patient and 
carefdl tnal. 



40 



PBOTECTION OF TASMANIAN OWLS. * 
By Col. W. V. Lxggb, E.A. 

I desire to bring to the notice of the Fellows of the Boyal 
Society to-night the advisability of protecting the owls of 
Tasmania, inasmuch as they are the most useful vermin- 
killers of any known family of birds, while at the same time 
no birds are more persecuted by well-meaning people through 
ignorance of their true mode of life and also by pot-hunters in 
search of so-called sport. It is thought by the majority of 
people that owls destroy birds to a great extent, whereas, in 
reality, there are few species of this large family which are 
partial to birds. Owls are either twilight or night feeders, at 
which time vermin or other small animals are chiefly about, 
and, therefore, in the economy of nature, tbey form the natural 
food of these birds. 

Any of us who have studied works on British ornithology are, 
perhaps familar with the story of the farmer who, missing his 

Eigeons from his dovecote night after night, laid in wait with 
is gun. knowing that a pair of barn owls inhabited his 
premises, and shooting at the supposed offender, whom he 
caught issuing from the pigeon-house, brought him down with 
a huge rat in his talons. • 

The large owls which kill birds in any quantity, such as the 
genera Buho, Surnia, Nyctea, arid others are absent from 
Australia and Tasmania, and in fact the only species in this 
quarter of the globe which feeds much on birds is the large hawk 
owl, Ninox Strenua, Gould, of Eastern and * Northern 
Australia. We have only three species in this island : the 
well-known chesnut-faced owl. Stria: Casfanops, Gould, 
belonging to the "Barn Owl" section, and strictly a vermin- 
killing species, and the two little hawk-owls, Ninox Boehook and 
Ninox Maculata, which are chiefly insect-feeding species. In 
Victoria all owls are strictly protected, and in South Australia 
and New South Wales I believe they are partly so. I would 
therefore suggest that a deputation from the Royal Society 
wait on the Premier and request him to take steps at the 
forthcoming session of Parliament to have our owls protected, 
shooting them being forbidden, except for scientific purposes, 
when specimens may be required to assist naturalists in any 
research they may be engaged in. 

I may add that my friend, Dr. Agnew, is very anxious to see 
this step taken, and though I myself have long wished to see 
our owls protected, it is mainly at the Doctor's suggestion that 
I put the matter before the Society. 

* I was not aware, when I read this Paper, that the owls were protected by 
Act of Parliament, passed in 1887.— W.V.L. 



41 



PEOTBCTION OF THE CAPE BAEEEN GOOSE. 

By Col. W, V. Leggb, E. A. 

There is another bird for the protection of which I would 

suggest steps be taken by this Society. It is the Cape 

Sarren Q-oose (Cereopsis Novos SoUandice), a bird of very 

limited distribution, which is only found to inhabit the 

Bass Straits Islands, and according to Oould, the adjacent 

Bhores of Victoria. I make the suggestion purely in the 

interests of science, and I am therefore aware that it will be all 

the more difficult to carry out the matter. This goose is one 

of the very interesting monotypic generic forms which exist 

«mong the Anatidce in Australia, the others being the Semi- 

■j .palmated goose, Anseranas Melanolettcosy the pink-eyed duck, 

A jjSfialacorjfj^nchus MemhranaceuSy the musk duck, Biziura Lobata, 

•and the freckled duck, Stictonetta Noevosa. There is but one 

t9pecies to each of these remarkable genera (all forms peculiar 

to the Australian region) and it would be a thousand pities to 

«ee any of these birds become extinct. In Gould's day he 

found that the Cape Barren Goose must become extinct owing 

to its tame disposition, terrestial mode of life, feeding on the 

lands near the shore to a great extent. So inert is it described 

to be that numbers can be knocked down with sticks. The 

probability is that in the present day its numbers are much 

fewer than 40 years ago, and it is therefore not an exaggerated 

view of the case to say, that there is danger of this species 

being shortly relegated to the category of the Dodo and the 

Great Auk, a contingency that would be viewed with deep 

regret by the ornithologists of the whole world. The Cape 

Barren Goose, it is true, can be easily domesticated, and it 

breeds in confinement, though apparently not continuously 

out of its native country. It formed part of a collection given 

by Eing William in 1830 to the London Zoological Society, and 

from 1835 to 1860 it bred 20 times, but after that until 1880 no 

instance of its breeding occurred. I think the best course to 

pursue would be to shorten the open season for it by three 

months and to alter the close season according to observations 

to be made in the Straits Islands at an early date, to the time 

best suited to its breeding. 

I suggest the latter course, because, if it is desired to 
preserve our wild fowl to the best advantage, it will be 
necessary to alter the " open " season to suit the breeding 
babits of the various species better than it does at present. This 



42 PBOTEGTION OF THE GAPE BABBEN GOOSE. 

can only be done after more careful observation of the breeding of 
our wild fowl than has been the case hitherto. Some naturalists 
might visit the Straits Islands, and after observations on the 
Cape Barren Goose and eoquirj from the inhabitants of the 
island, smight afford us valuable information respecting it. At 
present the open season for it, though it inhabits a milder climate 
than other members of its family in this colony, is the same as 
the latter^ and this cannot be correct. I trust other 
members of the Society will support me in my plea for this 
species, and that we shall be able to have something done 
towards the protection of this very interesting member of the 
great family of the Anatidce. 



43 



A PBELTMTWAEY CEITIQT7E OF THE TEBBA 

AU8TBALI8 LEGEND. 
By JA.MES E. McCltmont, M.A. 

I, MISCONCEPTIONS DUB TO THE " NOVUS OEBIS." 

In the Latin edition of the Novus Orhis, first published in 
1532 in Basle and Paris, a letter from Lorenzo Cretico, 
Ambassador of the Venetian Eepublic to the court of Emanuel 
of Portugal, is translated from the Paesi nouam&ate retrouati, 
Yicenza, 1507, cap. cxxv. The letter treats of the Portuguese 
expedition to Lidia, conducted by Cabral in 1500-1501, for 
aluiough Cabral in not mentioned by name, we know that at 
ihe date of this letter (June 27, 1501,) his fleet had newly 
arrived in Lisbon, and was that to which the words of 
Cretico must apply when he spoke of the expedition '* which 
the king sent most recently to Lidia." 

The letter begins with a brief itinerary of the voyage. 
They sailed along the African coast as far as Cape Yerde, 
where they saw the Hesperides (Cape Verde Islands) and the 
coast of Lower Ethiopia, beyond which the ancients rarely 
travelled. From that point the coast trends eastwards until 
it reaches the meridian of Sicily ; in latitude it is four or 
five degrees north of the equator ; about the middle of it is 
the gold mine of this monarch (El Mina). A cape, called 
the Cape of Good Hope, rises further to the south, nine degrees 
south of the tropic of Capricorn. Thence the distance to 
our Barbaries is five thousand miles, coming towards our 
own shores. When you have passed that cape, the coast 
curves towards the promontory called Prasum, which the 
ancients, and chiefly Ptolemy, held to be the limit of the 
Southern Hemisphere; the land beyond he termed "Unknown." 
Thence their route was to the Troglodites and the gold mine 
called Sofala, where the ancients affirm that there is a 
greater quantity of gold than in any other place. Here they 
enter the Barbaric Gulf (from Mozambique to Mogadoxa), 
then the Lidian Ocean, and Anally reach the city of Calicut. 
Such was their route, which you will find to be almost 
fifteen thousand miles in length ; but if you sail direct, it is 
less. Near the Cape of Good Hope they were driven by a 
Bouth-west wind and discovered a new country, which they 
called the Land of Parrots — " Supra Caput bonse spei lebegio 
Tecti vento nacti sunt novam tellurem quam apellarunt 



r 



44 A PaELlMlNAHY CEITIQDB OP THE TEBBA ADSTBALIS I.EGKND. 

PBittacoram "— because they found these birds there ia 
incredible number ; some of them exceed a cubit and a, half in 
length, and are of many colours; we have seen two, so that 
there is no doabt of the truth of it. Wlien the ■ulors saw 
this coast, tiiej beliered it to be r contioentt becwiue thej 
sailed for two thonsand miles vithont wining to tiie end of 
it H'tuaerooB naked uid rather handsome men inhaMt 
this country. Nowt Orbie, civp. cssv. Exemplum. Uterarum 
cuiusdam, Creiici. 

Thia new land, discovered by Cabral, was. owing to the 
inaccuracy of the ttanslator, located in a quite erroneous 
direction. If the shipa were driven on it by a south-west 
wind, it must have lain to the east of their route, and it was 
placed by Mercator and other geographers west of the Cape of 
Good Hope and on a parallel somewhat south of it, and appears 
in Mercator'a Magna orhig ierrce de&criptio ; Duisberfr, 1569, 
reproduced by Jomard, Monunumls de Gi'ographie, No. XXL, 
under the nanjo Psittaoontm Begio, with an erplanatory note 
to the effect that it was discovered by the Portuguese when 
on tbeir way to Calicut they were driven upon it by a south- 
west wind. Where the Novus Orhis has " lebegio vecti vento," 
Mercator's map has "libegio vento appulsi." Cornelis do 
Jode says nothing about the direction of the wind, but simply 
that the Faittaeorum Segio, which he places 8.W. of the 
Cape of Glood Hope, was so called by the Portuguese on 
account of the incredible size of these birds in that country, 
and on another map that the Portuguese in rounding the 
Cape have seen "this southern \a,ti^" (the Terra. AuBtralis) 
extending opposite, but have not yet explored it — " sed 
nondvm imploravere." Cornelis de Jode. — Speculum orhig 
terrarum. Antwerp, 1593. The maps entitled OrhU univeraalia 
descriptio, 1589, and Hemtspheritifn oi isquinoetiali liTiea ad 
circwlutnpoK antarcUci. 

A blind adhesion to Mercator led subsequent cartographers 
to include this Land of Parrots in maps of various langu^es 
down to a comparatively recent date. M. d'Avezac mentions 
several of them. Relation da CapUaine de^ Qonneville, p. 20. 
note ; p. 22, p. 22, not«. 

This Southern Be^o Ptittaeorum had, however, a Bynonym 
in a quite different part of the world. Johann Schoner's 
globe of the year 1520 bears the inscription " America vd 
Brasilia tive PapagalU Terra" placed between 10 deg. and 
20 deg. 8.; Petrua Apianua places in a similar position the 
legend " Brasiliei give PaTagalli." Cogniti orbie tab^a. 
Ingolstadt, 1530. How comes it that landi bo far apart as 
Brazil and the legendary Terra Auetralis should be brought 
into conjunction P The answer is to be found in comparing 
the letter of Oretico, as translated in the Sovut Orbia, with the 
version in the Pam, published twenty-fire years earUer. We 



BT JAMES B. M^CLTMONT, ILA. 45 

shall find that the cartographers wore right or wrong in their 
location of the Begio Ptittacorum, according as they took the 
one or the other of these texts for their guide. 

The critical method of Kant has taught us modems 
to place no futh in second-hand testimony, or in reason- 
ings based upon plausible conjecture to which antiquity 
and authority have added a specious prestige. But in the 
days of the Noima Orbie, and even down to the confines of our 
own age, a conjectural theorising held the place which 
criticism now holds. The theory which taught the existence of 
an antipodal continent as necessary, in order to maintain the 
globe in a condition of counterpoise, is to be met with in a 
multitude of geographical treatises, in maps, and even, at a 
later period, in actual expeditions undertaken with the object 
of discovering the antipodal world — a striking instance of 
the infiuence of the philosophic upon the practical mind. 
Wben any fresh discovery was made, tliis favourite theory 
and the innate love of systematisation combined to induce 
geographers of the Ptolemaic school to identify the new land 
of fact with the old land of phantasy, and so a southern 
continent was pieced together out of the figments of men's 
brains and the inadequately recorded details of actual 
voyage. The compiler of the Novus Orbia, Jans Huttich, 
was, like his contemporaries, predisposed to adjust any 
fresh discoveries to the current misconceptions regarding the 
« configuration of the globe and the distribution of land and 
water. 

The Paesi, one of the first, if not actually the first 
collection of voyages compiled in modern times, was the 
work of Montalboddo Fracan, and was first published in 
Yicenza in 1507, and in Latin and German versions in 1508. 
The passage referring to the discovery of the Begio Psittacorum 
is thus worded in the Italian version : — " Di sopra dal capo 
d Boasperaza uerso garbi hano scopto una terra noua la 
chiamao d li Papaga." The words ** uerso garbi " are those 
over which the translator has stumbled. They mean 
"towards the south-west." The German version has " gegc 
nidergage aufE d' seite " — " towards the side of the west." The 
passage will run thus : — " Above the Cape of Good Hope 
they discovered a new land towards the south-west, which 
they called the Land of Parrots," With this indication of 
Oabral's landfall the above cited inscriptions of Schoner and 
Apianus agree, as well as the independent accounts given in 
lEhiinusio (i., 121), and in the letter of Emanuel to the Spanish 
sovereigns. (Navari'ete, Viages y descuhrimientos iii., 94) 
Instead of lying to the east of the route to India the Begio 
Psittacorum actually lay to the west of it, — was in fact the 
Vera Cruz of Cabral, which appears on a map by Johan 
Buysch in a Ptolemy published in Home in 1608 — " TTniver- 



46 A PBEUMINABT CBITIQTTE OF THB TXBBA AUSTBAIIS LBGEin>. 

aalior cogniH orhia tabula '* — under the name ** Terra sancte 
crticis iive Mundus novtes*' but which was known to French 
sailors as " Terre de Br6sil." 

II. MISCONCEPTIONS OF FBENCH OABTOOBAPHEBS. 

At the time of the publication of the Novus Orhis a French 
geographer and mathematician, named Oronce Fine, had just 
published, perhaps in Venice, a heart-shaped map of the 
world, — the second of its kind known to us. It was entitled, 
Nova et integra uniyersi orhis descrijptiOf and dated 1531. This 
map was issued a second time in 1532 in the Paris edition of 
the Novus Orhis, It represents a Terra Australis brought up 
to about 25 deg. S. in longitude 210 deg. to 240 deg. E. from 
Ferro, and bearing the legend " Terra Australis recenter 
inventa sed nondum plene cognita,** a phrase of which the 
" sed nondum imploravere " of de Jode's map sounds like an 
echo. There is no Regie Fsittaeorum on Finn's map, but there 
is what we have seen to be its true equivalent, a Begio 
JBrasilie, transferred, however, from its true American 
position to the legendary Terra Australis without further note 
or comment, and as if to clinch the error, a Megio Pafalis, 
or jpratalis as well, that is, the country of silver, of La 
Plata. 

This obvious and hopeless confusion of places was further 
augmented in the MS. maps of other French cartographers. 
Jean Eotz, Guillaume le Testu, Nicholas Desliens, and others, 
mostly Norman pilots, represent a country which they 
denominate " Jave la Grande," midway between Africa and 
South America, and inscribe on it a number of names, some 
in French and some in Portuguese, and the figures of men 
and animals. That this Jave la Grande is only an imaginary 
place is adniitted by one of the draughtsmen himself. In a 
MS. atlas, finished in 1555, and dedicated to Admiral de 
Coliguy, who was then sending out a Huguenot colony to 
Brazil, are twelve maps numbered xxxi. to xliii., in which the 
space comprised between 1 deg. and 84 deg. S. is occupied by 
a fertile country. " But these twelve maps," says their 
author, Guillaume lo Testu, of the town of Fran9oyse de 
Grace, " are only meant to warn those who may voyage in 
these parts to be careful when they think they are approaching 
land. Farther than that, all is imaginary, for no man has 
made any certain discovery there." (Margry, Navigations 
frangaises, p. 138.) The title " Jave la Grande " on these 
charts is derived from the travels of Marco Polo, who 
designated Borneo under the name ** Java," whilst the island 
known to us as Java was named by him "Java Minor." 
(Marco Polo's Travels, edited by W. Marsden. Book iii., 
chap, vii.) The coast lines and coast names are not, as Le 
Testu says, '* all imaginary," for they are in part derived from 



BT JAMES B. M'CLYHONT, H.A. 47 

the actual names and outlines of the South American coasts, 
with which, in some charts, the purely imaginary outlines of 
the Terra Australia of previous geographers are combined. 
Only the east coast of South America is inverted and so 
becomes the west coast of '' Jave la Grande," whilst the east 
coast of '* Jave la Grande," less salient in its physical features 
than the west coast, and therefore less easily identified, may 
be either inverted or simply transferred from the west coast 
of South America, or may be, as Le Testu s^ys, ''all 
imaginary." In some of these charts, as in the Dauphin map 
(about 1580), one of those of Jean Eotz (1542) and that of 
Desceliers (1550), the eastern coast-line ceases or becomes a 
vague featureless line at about 35 deg. S. The chart of 
Desliens (1566) prolongs that coast to about 65 deg. S., and 
gives to this prolongation features as specific as to the northern 
part of it. 

By inverting the western coast line of " Jave la Grande " 
we find the following coincidences with the east coast of 
South America. Beginning from the north we have a 
"** Grant Baye," and another unnamed inlet, probably 
representing the mouths of the Amazon and Tocantins. '' B. 
Grande " in some of the charts forms a strait between " Jave 
la Grande " and an island named '' Jave ;" in that of Desliens 
it is a deep bay and unnamed. ** Baye Bresille " in about 18 
degrees S., may coincide with Porto Seguro, immediately to the 
Bouth of which place, and in the same latitude as the ''Baye ^ 
Bresille," a "E. daBrasill" is marked on the s e chart S i To the //^ J /■{' 
French sailors is due this- name "Brazil," as the distinctive /t, ^^ 
appellation of the country whence they brought brazil-. ''^' '. 
wood to Europe. " The French alone," says La Popelinifere, ' 

''called it 'Terre de Brdsil,' in ignorance of what is above ^' '•// , 
narrated," — (namely, that Cabral had called it " Vera Cruz ") 
— "because they found brazil-wood there in abundance, 
although it is only in one part of it, and that produces many 
other woods as well." Les trois mondes, iii. p. 16. verso. A 
number of names cluster round the vicinity of Cape Frio and 
Gape St. Thom^, such as C. Quiesco in Desliens, C. de Sr 
Diao, and C. de Grace in the Dauphin chart. The last is 
probably a Norman sailor's reminiscence of his native Havre 
de St. Francoyse de Grace ; the second may be mis-written 
for the name of some merchant adventurer — " sieur," in the 
language of the time. The next notable feature is the 
Havre de Sylla, between 25 deg. and 30 deg. S., 
toparently intended for Bio de Janiero. Desliens marks a 
Gkufe des Ysles in from 40 deg. to 45 deg. S., resembling the 
Gulf of St. Mathias. If we so understand it, and if Havre 
de Sylla represents Eio de Janiero, then the Eiver Plate has 
been omitted. A parallel to this would be found in the 
Toyage of Diaz de Solis, who sailed along these coasts from 



7 -^. / 

i- 



50 A PBEUMINABT CBITIQITE OF THE TEBRA AUSTBALIS LEGEND. 

other countries, as well as tlie worship of cattle, both of which 

n r I cults are ascribed by him to the Javanese. 

^^^^/ The deer, of which numerous small species exist in South 
America, and the peccary Dycotyles torquatus and lahiatus, are 
both pourtrayed. Perhaps both, certainly the latter, is 
represented as tame ; the Indians of to-day keep it as a 
domestic animal. (Humboldt's Travels in America, ii. 
chap., XX.) Two species, at least, of palms are represented, 
one with palmate and the other with pinnate leaves ; a tree 
of the former species, the Corypha tectorum, or roofing palm, 
is described by Humboldt as affording the Chaymas Indians 
the leaves with which they roof their huts. (i. chap, xx.) 
The existence in France of a MS. chart as early as 1580, 
which shows the east coast of South America to about 
26 deg. S., and which is derived from French sources, is thus 
no matter of wonderment. But the possible acquaintance on 
the part of the French with the western coast of South 
America, even at that date, is a matter on which we can as 
yet throw but little light. In these circumstances a passage 
quoted by M. Margry from the MS. Cosmogra'phie of 
Jean Alfonce (1545), is not without interest. " La Grande 
Jave" says the writer, '*is a land which extends to the 
Antarctic Pole and joins the Terra Australis on the west and 
the land of Magellan's Straits on the east. Some say that 
it consists of islands, but as far as I have seen it, it is a 
continent, and when all is said, the whole world consists of 
islands, for land and water form one body. The ocean 
encircles everything by means of arms of the sea, which are 
in the ball (pomme) of the earth. What is called Java 
Minor is an island ; but Jave la Grande is a continent." In 
another place Alfonce remarks : — " There have been no 
discoveries beyond Java on account of the great cold under 
the Antarctic Pole. I have been in a place there where day 
lasted for three months, allowing for the reflection of the sun ; 
I did not wish to remain longer in case night should surpiise 
me." Margry, Navigations francaisesy pp. 316-317. The 
only continental land to which this description can approxi- 
mately apply is the west coast of South America. That 
coast joins the land of Magellan's Straits towards the east, 
and although there is no Terra Australis of fact with which 
it can be joined towards the west, there was a Terra Australis 
of fiction real enough to Jean Alfonce in the position required. 
At another part of his Cosmographie, Alfonce brings his 
" Grand Jaive " up to 21 deg. S., or about the latitude to 
which Desliens traces the eastern coast of ** Jave la Grande." 
Besides the French names on the MS. charts, of which I 
have spoken, there are others in Portuguese. The latter 
generally differ from the former, inasmuch as they are rather 
nautical than topographical, and correspond to the phrases 



BY JAMES B. m'CLTMONT, M.A. 51 

prmted on the Admiralty Charts for the purpose of directing 
masters of ships where thej are to look out for shoals, 
eddies, or other dangers. Thus we find terre ennegada, 
or anegada, — sunken shoal — and haixay — shoal. This intro- 
duction of Portuguese nautical expressions is an indica- 
tion of the superior skill of the Portuguese pilots of the 
time, which has left traces in the adoption of their language 
by foreigners, — as in the word abrolhosy breakers, — just 
as in our own day English nautical terms have been adopted 
in continental navies. But we know that the intercourse 
between Portuguese and French, as well as Spanish and 
French sailors, was from the fourteenth century onwards a 
peculiarly intimate one. Commercial privileges with French 
ports were accorded to both these nations. (Margry, p. 123 
note.) On the other hand the vessels of Honflenr merchants 
had access to the port of Lisbon, and in 1503 three of these 
merchants, De Gonneville, Jean TAnglois, and Pierre le 
Carpentier, having seen at Lisbon the rareties that had lately 
arrived from the East in the ships of Yasco da Gama and 
Cabral, engaged the services of two Portuguese pilots who 
had been to Calicut, Bastiam Moura and Diego Cohinto, in 
order that they might despatch a ship of their own to the 
same destination. The two Portuguese accompanied the ship 
in its wanderings about the Atlantic ; and touched at several 
points of the South American continent. Barros relates 
that a vessel from Dieppe, commanded by a Portuguese 
captain, Stevam Diaz, arrived at Diu in July 1527, and that 
in the same year another French ship, piloted by another 
Portuguese sailor, called " O. Eozado " or " The Rosy," was 
in the Indian seas and was ultimately lost on the west coast 
of Sumatra. (Margry, p. 192.) Similarly, French sailors 
sailed in Spanish and Portuguese vessels, and Navarrete 
preserves the names of twelve French companions of 
Magellan, the half of whom were Normans^ or Bretons. 
Viagesy iv. 12. 

III. MISCONCEPTIONS ARISING FBOM THE VOYAGE OF 

MAGELLAN. 

A claim to the discovery of the Terra Australis has been 
recorded on behalf of Magellan in an atlas by Fernando 
Vaz Dourado, Goa, 1570, in which a coast lying to the east 
of New Guinea, and trending east and west with a little 
southing, bears the superscription "Esta costa descubri6 
Fernao de Magalhaes natural! portuges por mandado do 
emperador Carllos o anno 1520." This claim occurs also on 
maps by Eumoldus Mercator (1587), Ortelius (1587), and 
De Jode (1589), in the words, — placed on a northward 
projection of the Terra Australis immediately to the south 



52 A PBELDONABT CBITIQnX OF THE TEBKii AUSTSAUS LEGEND. 

of New Guinea: — ''Hauc continentem australem nonulli 
Magellanica regionem ab inventore eius nuncupant." 

From the facts that the coast-line so described is in the 
map of Dourado disconnected by an interrening scale of 
latitude from the rest of the map, and that it bears some of 
the same names as were bestowed bj Magellan on places 
Tisited by him in South America, Mr. Major supposes that 
it is *^ a memorandum or cartographical side-note of the real 
discovery by Magellan of Terra del Fuego." Terra Australis, 
p. xxvi. The position of this coast on Dourado's map may 
have led to its being confounded with the north coast of 
New Guinea by Mercator, who adopts some of Dourado'a 
coast names ; but transfers them to the above-mentioned 
island. Amongst these are 0. de las Yirgenes, and C. del 
buen Deseo equivalent to Oabo Deseado, Magellan's names for 
the capes at the entrance and exit of the Straits. Some of 
the names used on the coasts of Jave la Grande much 
resemble others in the atlas of Dourado, and on a map 
by De Jode, entitled Brasilia et Peruvia, but they are 
placed by these cartographers in or near the Straits of 
Magellan. Such are Baia Fremosa in Dourado and De Jode, 
corresponding to 0. Fromose in the Dauphin map, and in De 
Jode, C. Blanco corresponding to Coste Bracq, C. de las 
Baixas to Baye Bassa, B. d muchas islas to E. de Beaucoup 
Disles, and Oosta dos Dheos to Baye des Ys. This parallelism 
is suggestive of a community of origin, and raises the 
question whether the voyage of Magellan may not in some 
degree have contributed to originate the MS. charts of Jave 
la Grande. 

It has been recently upheld by Mr. Petherick that Del 
Cano on his return voyage in 1522, sighted some part of the 
west Australian coast. (Atlienoeum, May 24, 1884.) This 
opinion is based on a passage in Galvano's Discoveries of the 
World, to the effect that that navigator discovered certain 
islands one hundred leagues beyond Timor and under the 
tropic of Capricorn, and further on others, all peopled thence- 
forward, when he was shaping a course which should carry 
him well south of the Cape of Good Hope. It is not 
impossible that in a zig-zag course Del Cano may have sighted 
some islands very near the Australian mainland. 



53 



MAOQTJABIE HAEBOUE LEAJ' BEDS, 

By E. M. JoHKSTOM", E.L.S. 

In the Tasmanian Museum there is a most valuable collec- 
tion of fossil leaves belonging to the earlier tertiary period of 
IDasmania, but in respect of which there is no record as to the 
locality from which they were originally obtained. I was long 
at opinion that this peculiar group of fossil plants was obtained 
by Ijt. Milligan from Macquarie Harbour in the early days of 
the colony's history, and this conviction was one of the main 
reasons which induced me to visit and examine the leaf 
deposits of Macquarie Harbour in the year 1887. In this 
examination I was unsuccessful in discovering the exact 
deposit from which the Museum collection was obtained, but 
Hhe discovery of the same forms in the lacustrine beds in the 
neighbourhood of Long Bay tended to confirm me in the 
notion that the unknown deposit was a member of the 
lacustrine leaf beds extending from the latter locality to Kelly's 
Basin ; and in my work on geology (p. 203, " Geology 
of Tasmania"), I ventured to predict that an examina- 
tion of the many fine sections further east " may in the future 
determine this matter." I am happy now to be in the position 
to declare that the hitherto unknown locality has been dis- 
covered; for in a fine collection of fossils made by that 
indefatigable member of our society, Mr, T. B. Moore, and 
sent last year to Mr, Belstead, I was fortunate in recognising 
the identical rock, together with the usual impressions of leaf 
forms, so characteristic of the museum collection referred to. 
I now present a specimen of the rock in question, in order 
that those interested may be able to judge of its value in 
clearing up this interesting point in our tertiary geology. 
On a future occasion I may be able to give a description 
of the more remarkable plants contained in this deposit. 



54 



POEAMINIFERA IN TJPPEE PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 

By T. Stephens, F.G.S., M.A. 

At former meetings of the Eoy al Society I have incidentally 
mentioned a foraminiferal limestone as occurring among the 
Upper PaleBOzoic rocks of the North-Eastem district. 
Several years ago on one of my official cross-country journeys 
I met with specimens of limestone dotted with minute white 
spots, and on closer examination detected two or three more 
or less perfect forms of Foraminifera, one of them resembling 
genus Spirillina ( Trochammina,) and another like Valvulina, 
In the absence of any local palaeontologist competent to 
determine the specific character of these fossils, and having 
myself to attend to other business, I had put the specimens 
away until a few months ago, when I had an opportunity of 
submitting them to Mr. E. Etheridge, jun., who is engaged in 
working out the paleeontology of New South Wales, and the 
following is an extract from a letter lately received by him : — 
" I have at last had time to examine the pieces of supposed 
foraminiferal rock you left with me. There is no doubt but 
that is their nature, and, so far as I know, it is the first 
record of such in the Permo-Carboniferous rocks of Australia 
or Tasmania. I have sent the material to a foraminifera man, 
so we shall hear more about it soon." The difficulty of 
separating these small fossils from the matrix is very greats 
but I have roughly mounted a few for inspection. 



55 



AUSTRA.LIAN AND TASMANIAN SANDARACH. 
Bt J. H. Maidbn, F.L.S., F.C.S., Etc. (Curator of the 

Te3hnological Museum, Sydney). 
Gommunicated by A. Mobton, F.L.S. 

It was a specimen of resin from the Oyster Bay Pine of 
Tasmania, sent to the Exhibition of 1851, which first drew 
the attention of experts to the possibilities of Australian 
Sandarach. For " the fine pale resin of the Oyster Bay Pine 
{Oallitris australis), from the eastern coast of Van Diemen's 
Itfuid,'' and other gums and resins, Mr. J. Milligan was 
awarded honourable mention (Jury Reports, 1851 Exhi- 
bition, p. 182). 

This is one of the most valuable of Australian* vegetable 
products, a market is ready for it, and it seems strange that 
it should have been so long neglected. There are no statistics 
ayailable in regard to the importation of Sandarach into these 
colonies, but to bring it here at all is a veritable ** carrying 
coals to Newcastle." 

Ordinary Sandarach exudes naturally, but the practice in 
Northern Africa is to stimulate the flow, making incisions in 
the stem, particularly near the base. In various pnrts of 
Australia and Tasmania there are vast numbers of Gallitris 
trees, their resin, often abundant, can readily be collected, 
and the author is sure that, even with the cheap labour of 
Northern Africa to contend against, it can be profitably 
gathered during a portion of the year, by parties of men, or 
tiie families of settlers. The approximate price of Sandarach, 
in London, is 60-115s. per cwt., and there is no difference 
between it and the colonial article. As to the cultivation of 
the trees. Baron von Mueller (Select extra-tropical plants, 
Victorian Edition) states, " Probably it womd be more 
profitable to devote sandy desert land, which could not be 
brought under irrigation, to the culture of the Sandarach 
cypresses, than to pastoral purposes, but boring beetles must 
be kept off." It is also to be borne in mind that Gallitris 
timber is valuable. 

The Sandarach, or Gum Juniper of commerce, is the product 
of a Gallitris (quadrivalvis), and the latest classification of 
Australian Sandarach trees (that of Baron von Mueller), 
places them under OaZZt^m likewise. The following summary 
of the uses of Sandarach, is taken from Morel (Pharm, Journ. 

* This word is here used in its widest sense, and, of course, includes 
Tumumia. 



56 AUSTBALIAN AND TASMAIOAN SANDABACH. 

[3]. viii. 1,024.) " According to Gubler, the Arabs used it as 
a remedy against diarrhoea, and to lull pain in haemorrhoids. 

The Chinese employed it ((7. sinensis) as a stimulant in the 
treatment of ulcers (as promoting the growth of flesh), as a 
deodoriser, and to preserve clothes from the attacks of insects. 
In Europe it is used very little in medicine. It is most 
frequently employed as an ingredient in varnish, to increase 
its hardness and glossiness. It is used also as a fumigant, 
and in powder (" pounce") to dust over paper from which the 
surface has been scraped, to prevent the ink running. Rarely, 
it enters into the composition of plasters." In Southern 
New South Wales (Snowy Eiver), Callitris resin is often 
mixed with fat by the settlers, to make candles. 

All our native Sandarachs possess a pleasant aromatic 
odour, similar in character to that emitted by Sandarach. 

When the trees are wounded the resin exudes in an 
almost colourless, transparent condition. It has obviously 
high refractive power, and is much like ordinary pine resin 
in taste, smell, and outward appearance, when the latter is 
freshly exuding. This transparent appearance is preserved 
for a considerable time, the resin meantime darkening a little 
with age. Old samples possess a mealy appearance, but this 
is merely superficial. The origin of this appearance has been 
explained as follows in regard to Sandarach, and doubtless 
the simple explanation holds good here : — 

** The surface of the tears appears to be cohered, more or 
less, with powder, but this character is not to be attributed, 
as alleged by Herlant, {Etude sur les produits resineux de la 
famille dee coniferes, p. 38), to the friction of the fragments 
one against another, but, as has been ascertained by a 
microscopical examination by Dr. Julius Wiesner (Die che- 
misch-technisch verwendte Gummiarten, Harze and Balsame, 
1869, p. 129), to the unequal contraction of the resin while 
drying, resulting in a mass of fissures that form, as in the 
case of several kinds of copal, facets that gradually separate 
from the mass, and constitute the "powder" of many authors." 
(Morel, op. cit.) Evidence against Herlant's supposition is 
also found in the fact that resins of the Sandarach class are 
mealy while on the trees, after they have been exuded some 
little time, showing that the appearance is brought about by 
exposure to the weather. 

The Callitris resins soften slightly, but do not melt in 
boiling water, and a sample of commercial Sandarach behaves 
similarly. In the mouth they feel gritty to the teeth, and m 
no way different to Sandarach. When freshly exuded they 
are very irritating to a cut. 

Following are descriptions of actual specimens of resins of 
different species. For the results of analyses of Sandarach 
for comparison, see Gmelin, xvii., 429. 



BY J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S., F.C.S., ETC. 57 

CATiTiTTBIS CUPRESSIFORMIS. Vent. 

Muell., Cens. p. 109. Syn. 0. australia (ined.). Frenela 
rhomboidea Endl. Var, Tasmanica, Bentli. F, Ventenatii 
Mirb., B. FL, vi., 238, and others. 

" The Ojster Bav Pine of Tasmania." Found in all the 
colonies except Western Australia (normal species). 

This is the pine already referred to, and a brief account of 
the resin has been copied into many of the text-books. I 
have collected resin of this species from Port Jackson, clear 
and transparent as water. It turns pale amber coloured in 
12 months if placed in a bottle, but its brilliancy shows no 
sign of diminution in that time. The Sydney trees readily 
exude their resin on slightly wounding, and the same remark 
apply to the Tasmanian. 

CALLITRIS CALCARATA. J2. Br. 
Syn. Frenela Fndlicheri Parlat., B. Fl., vi., 238. 

Found from Northern Victoria to Central Queensland. 
" Murray Pine," "Black Pine," Red Pine," ''Scrub Pine," 
" Cypress Pine." 

Sample 1. " Murray Pine," Quiedong, 3rd March, 1887. 
Has a pale, bleached appearance, much lighter than ordinary 
Sandarach. Externally it has a very mealy appearance. 
Water has no efEect on it. In rectified spirit it almost wholly 
dissolves, leaving a little whitish, resinoid substance. 
Petroleum spirit dissolves 5 per cent, of a perfectly colourless 
and transparent resin. 

Sample 2. I have received a quantity of flesh-coloured 
resin from the Snowy River, N.S.W., belonging to this 
species. It is so different in appearance from the normal 
resin, that no market can at present be found for it, and as 
this is the first time such resin, in quantity, has come under 
my notice, it is well worth describing. It is of the consistence 
and general appearance of Manila elemi, differing from that 
substance in being of a flesh-colour, and having a pure 
turpentine odour, instead of a turpentine-fennel one. 

There is no doubt that it would form a valuable ingredient 
in plasters, and an enterprising pharmacist would doubtless 
find it worth his while to follow the matter up. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that the trees yielding this 
resin had also, at other portions of the stem, more or less of 
the normal Sandarach. 

Sample 3. ** Red Pine." Lachlan River, N.S.W. Feb. 1885. 
This has comparatively freshly exuded, and has the colour 
and appearance of the best selected Sandarach. 

Rectified spirit nearly wholly dissolves it, forming a 
beautifully clear, slightly yellowish liquid; 1*3 percent, of 



58 AUSTBALIAN AlH) TASMANIAN SANDABACH, 

residue remains. Petroleum spirit extracts 22*1 per cent, of 
an appaxentlj perfectly colourless and transparent resin. 

CALLITEIS COLTIMELLAEIS. F. v. M. 

Syn. Frenela rohusta A. Cunn., var. microcarpa Bentb. B. 

El. vi. 237. 

Sample 4. "Cypress Pine," etc. Found in New South 
Wales and Queensland. Eeceived from the Botanic Qurdens, 
Sydney, Dec. 1887. 

'This is in much larger masses than the others, and some 
of it has been exuded for a considerable time. It is next 
lightest in colour to No. 1. 

It almost wholly dissolves in rectified spirit, forming a pale 
yellow solution. The insoluble residue amounts to 4*6 per 
cent. Petroleum spirit, when digested on the residue, 
removes no less than 35*8 per cent, of a transparent colourless 
resin. This is a remarkable percentage, and it would be 
worth while to enquire whether Australian Sandarach becomes 
increasingly soluble in that menstruum by age. An ordinary 
sample of commercial Sandarach yielded 8*9 per cent to 
petroleum spirit. 

CALLITKIS VEERUCOSA. B. Br. 

Syn. GalUtris Preissii Miq. Frenela rdhusta A. Cunn. and 

others. B. PI. vi, 236. 

The following note by Dr. Julius Morel (Pharm. Joum. 
[3] viii. 1,025), in regard to a South Australian specimen, is 
interesting ! " With Sandarach resin may be connected 
another resinous substance, which was exhibited in the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867 from South Australia, under the name of 
"pine gum." It is the resin of GalUtris Beissii Miq. (a 
misprint for Preissii), This product resembles Sandarach, 
and might become an important article of commerce. . . . 
This resinous substance occurs in the form of slightly 
yellowish tears, thicker and longer than those of ordinary 
Sandarach. In consequence of unequal contraction, it pre- 
sents, like Sandarach, numerous facets, and consequently the 
surface appears to be covered with a white powder. By 
examining this resin under the microscope, Wiesner ascertained 
that the finer fissures were derived from the larger ones. In 
its transparency and hardness the resin corresponds to 
Sandarach. Its odour is very agreeable and balsamic, and 
its taste is bitter and aromatic." 

" Mountain Cypress Pine," ** Desert Pine." ** A Sandarach 
in larger tears than ordinary Sandarach is yielded by this 
species. It yields it in considerable abundance, eight or ten 
oimces being frequently found at the foot of a single tree, 



BT J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S., F.CS., ETC. 59 

but although this exudes naturally, the supply is stimulated 
by incisions." Vict(ynan Cat, Col. and Ind. Exhib., 1886.) 

"It is a transparent, colourless, or pale yellow body, 
fragrant and friable, fusing at a moderate temperature, and 
burning with a large, smoky flame, very soluble in alcohol 
and the essential oils, and almost totally so in ether ; turpen- 
tine at the ordinary temperature does not act upon it, nor do 
the drying oils, but it may be made to combine with these 
solvents by previous fusion." (JReport on Indigenous Veget 
Svhst. Victorian Exh,, 1861). 

Sample 5. Obtained from the Botanical Gardens, Sydney, 
29th December, 18*87 ; no particulars available. 

Of a dark amber colour, and externally possessing the 
dulled appearance found with lumps of amber. It is the 
darkest resin examined by me. 

It almost wholly dissolves in rectified spirit, yielding a 
bright yellow liquid, leaving 2*5 per cent, of insoluble residue. 
Pe^oleum spirit removes 22*8 per cent, of a clear resin when 
the original substance is digested in it. 



Discussion. 

Mb. Stephens remarked how unfortunate it was that 
people in the colony were so little alive to their own interest. 
The Oyster Bay Pine was useful for a variety of purposes, 
being suitable for light hurdles, gates, and other uses for 
which the common hardwood timber was ill adapted, while 
the advantage gained from shelter to stock was far superior 
to any that could result from its wholesale destruction. This 
beautiful and useful tree had, however, been destroyed, so far 
as it could be destroyed, by riog-barking over thousands of 
acres on the East Coast. 

The Pbssident stated that he had had his attention 
directed to the state of things mentioned by Mr. Stephens. 



60 



NOTES ON THE LAST LIVING ABOEIGINAL 

OE TASMANIA. 

By James Babnabd, Y. P. 

It has been generally supposed that the grave has closed 
over the remains of the last of the aborigines, and that the 
extinction of the race has been final and complete. This 
supposition, however, is believed to be erroneous ; for there 
still exists one female descendant of the former '' princes of 
wastes and lords of deserts " in the person of Eanny Cochrane 
Smith, of Port Cygnet, and the mother of a large family of 
six sons and five daughters, all of whom are living. 

Some doubts have been cast in Parliament and elsewhere 
upon the claim of Eanny (to keep to her pre-nuptial and first 
Christian name) to be of the pure blood of her personal 
ancestors, but after searching the records; and upon her own 
testimony, and from other evidence, there seems to be little 
reason to doubt the fact. 

It appears, then, that Fanny was born at Flinders Island 
in 1834 or 1835, and is now about 56 years of age. Sarah 
was the name of her mother, and Eugene that of her father, 
and both were undeniably aboriginals. Sarah first lived with 
a sealer, and became the mother of four half-caste children ; 
and was subsequently married to Eugene (native name, 
Nicomanie), one of her own people, and had three children, 
of whom Fanny is the sole survivor and representative of 
the race. 

Lieut. Matthew Curling Friend, R.N., in a paper read 
before the Tasmanian Society, on March lOth, 1847, " On the 
decrease of the Aborigines of Tasmania," in alluding to the 
curious theory propounded by Count Strzelecki, that the 
aboriginal mother of a half-caste can never produce a black 
child should she subsequently marry one of her own race, 
controverts this notion of invariable sterility by quoting two 
instances which came under his notice while visiting the 
aboriginal establishment at Flinders Island. I give his own 
words : — ** One was the case of a black woman named Sarah, 
who had formerly four half-caste children by a sealer with 
whom she lived, and has had since her abode at Flinders 
Island, where she married a man of her own race, three black 
children, two of whom are still alive. The other, a black 
woman named Harriet, who had formerly by a white man 
with whom she lived two half-caste children, and has had 
since her marriage with a black man a fine healthy black 
infant, who is stUl living." 



BY JAMBS BAENAED, V. P. 61 

Clommenting upon this doctrine of Strzelecki, West 
observes (Hist, of Tasmania, vol. 2, p. 75), " A natural law by 
which the extinction of a race is predicted will not admit of 
such serious deviations." 

Some explanation may properly be expected from me 
for reviving a question which was supposed to be set at rest 
when Truganini was consigned to the tomb, and declared to 
be the last woman of her race. I will therefore mention the 
incident which has given me something of a personal interest 
in the matter. It is now nearly 40 years ago that I was 
aceostomed occasionally to accompany my friend the late Dr. 
imiigan, the Medical Supeiintendent of the Aborigines, to the 
settlement at Oyster Cove, where I saw a good deal of the 
native people, at that time some 80 or 40 in number. Among 
these I have a distinct recollection of Fanny, who was then 
apparently about 17 years of age, slender and active, less 
dusky in colour, but rather more prepossessing in appearance 
than any of her kind ; and certainly at that time I never 
heard a doubt expressed of her not being a true aboriginal. 
There was one circumstance in particular which impressed her 
upon my remembrance, and that was on one occasion we 
crossed over in a boat from Oyster Cove to Bruni Island, 
rowed by four of the black men, and Fanny taking the steer- 
oar, which she handled with marvellous skill and dexterity. 
My visits to the settlement shortly after ceased, and from 
that time to the present, until a few weeks ago, when I was 
greatly surprised to receive a visit from this identical Fanny, 
who had become transformed into a buxom matron of 
considerable amplitude. 

By the courtesy of the Hon. P. O. Fysh, Chief Secretary 
and Premier, I have been permitted access to the official 
records bearing upon the subject of this investigation. 

The first documents brought under my attention were two 
letters under date June 23 and 26, 1882, embodying a report 
from the Police Magistrate of Franklin, the late E. A, 
Walpole, emphatically stating that Fanny ** is a half-caste, 
bom of an aboriginal woman, by a white man whose name is 
unknown, at Flinders Island, in or about the year 1835." No 
authority beyond the expression of his individual opinion is 
adduced by Mr. Walpole in support of his statement. 

The next document was a letter by the late * Dr. Milligan, 
Medical Superintendent of Aborigines, under date July 17, 
1854, enclosing William Smith's consent to marry Fanny 
Coclurane, and describing her as an aboriginal girl belonging to 
l&e establishment at Oyster Cove. This affords strong 
evidence in support of the opposite view of the case, as those 
who knew Dr. Milligan would remember how precise and 
accnrate he invariably was in any statement of facts. 



62 NOTES ON THE LAST LIVING ABORIGINAL OF TASMANIA. 

A point of some importance in the contention would arise 
from Fanny's second name of Cochrane. According to 
Bonwick, in bis '' Last of the Tasmanians," p. 282, this was 
taken from the sealer who lived with Sarah, whose name was 
Cottrel Cochrane. Were this so, it would have at once have 
gone far to settle the question of parentage, and show her to be 
the half-caste supposed. Bon-wick is obviously in error in his 
statement ; for I have lately ascertained from the lips of a 
married lady living in Hobart, a daughter of the late Mr. 
Eobert Clark, catechist at the aborigines establishment, that 
Cochrane was the maiden name of her mother, and that it 
was given by her father to Fanny when a child, and residing 
in bis family. 

Again, Bonwick writes (p. 310) : " We read of a sawyer, 
one Smith, and his black friend, Mrs. Fanny Cochrane 
Smith, receiving £25 a year for their half-caste child." Instead 
of " black friend" he might have written "black wife " ; for 
the parties were duly married at Hobart by the Rev. Frederick 
Miller, Congregational minister, in 1854 As respects the 
cause assigned for the annuity, this writer was also in error, 
for the sum of dS24 (not <£25) was bestowed upon Fanny on 
the occasion of her marriage, and not for the reason stated. 

The next document is a letter, dated 8th December, 1842, 
conveying the official approval of the admission into the 
Queen's Orphan School of the three aboriginal children named 
in the margin — Fanny, Martha, Jesse. 

Then follows in the records, under same date, an application 
from Mr. Robert Clark, late catechist of the aborigines on 
Flinders Island, for permission to receive into his family " an 
aboriginal child named Fanny, upon his engagement to feed, 
clothe, and educate her as one of his own children." 

Next is an extract from an official document dated 8th 
March, 1847 : — " Eugene and his wife, the father and mother 
of Fanny and Adam, being asked if they were willing 
that their children should be sent back to Mr. Clark, said 
they were not. Fanny being asked if she understood the 
nature of an oath, answered, * No,' and the Doctor explained 
it. Fanny said she did not wish to return to Mr. Clark." 

From a long report to the Government by Dr. Milligan, 
dated November 29th, 1847, I have taken the following 
extract : — " The fifth girl, Fanny Cochrane, almost a woman, 
might remain with her half-sister, Mary Ann. Indeed I can 
scarcely say how otherwise she could be satisfactorily disposed 
of." There being no difference of opinion as to Sarah being 
the mother of both, this testimony, given by Dr. Milligan as 
to a difference of parentage in the case of the father, at once 
discriminates her from Mary Ann, and in itself affords a strong 
presumption in favour of the contention. 



BT JAMES BABNARD, Y. P. 63 

The superintendeut at Oyster Cove, under date 4th 
November, 1857, reports to the Colonial Secretary the death 
of Adam, aged 20 years, the youngest of the aboriginals ; 
and states that during his illness he was waited upon by his 
mother, sister, and the latter's husband; these being 
respectively Sarah, Fanny, and William Smith. 

Up to this point my researches have been eminently 
satisfactory, and have tended to confirm the theory of Fanny 
being an aboriginal ; but another document has been 
brought under my notice which, unexplained, certainly 
discountenances that theory. It is the report of certain 
proceedings taken before Dr. Jeanneret, the superintendent 
at Flinders Island, on the occasion of certain allegations 
made against an officer of the establishment, and in which is 
a deposition made by Fanny, dated March 25th, 1847, 
commencing with these words, — " I am a half-caste of Van 
Diemen's Land. My mother is a native. I am about 13 
years of age," etc., with her signature attached at the foot. 
At first sight this admission would appear to be conclusive 
and unanswerable ; but, upon reflection, I am led to believe 
that there must be a mistake somewhere. In the first place 
a child of her age, with imperfectly developed intelligence, 
would scarcely be likely to volunteer that statement, or do 
more than give a mechanical assent to the question when 
asked, without, perhaps, at all understanding its import. 
Again, possibly the clerk writing the deposition may have 
understood that Fannv was sister to Mary Ann instead of 
half-Biaier, and naturally assumed them to be the offspring of 
the same parents. Besides, it conflicts with all the official 
correspondence in which she is referred to with Dr. Milligan, 
the medical superintendent, and Mr. Clark, the catechist, in 
all of which the term " half-caste " never once appears, and 
she is invariably designated an aboriginal girl, and 
distinguished from Mary Ann, her half - sister, and an 
undisputed half-caste. I may add, also, that Fanny wholly 
repudiates all knowledge or recollection of the evidence 
referred to. The paper of Lieut. Friend, which I have 
quoted, in which he refers to Sarah, the mother of Fanny, 
in support of his hypothesis, as well as the official statement 
given of Eugene being her father and Adam being her 
brother, should remove all doubt as to Fanny being a true 
aboriginal. While it is not to be denied that difEerences of 
opinion exist on the point, I think it must be allowed, 
from the facts brought forward, that the weight of testimony 
is in its favour. 

The characteristics of the complexion and of the hair have 
been cited as favouring the opinion that Fanny must be 
deposed from the pedestal claimed for her as a pure aboriginal 



64 NOTES ON THE LAST LTVTNG ABOBIOINAL OF TASMANIA. 

and placed in the ranks of the half-castes. Mr. Walpole 
states that " her colour is a very dark brown," but I should 
rather term it a blackish-brown, and showing the true 
aboriginal tint. On this point it must be remembered 
that from her infancy she has been encircled within 
the pale of civilised life, and shielded from the 
severities of weather and privations to which otherwise 
she would have been exposed, — all this, together with her 
surroundings, must naturally have, in some degree, tended to 
exercise a modifying influence. The same as to her hair, 
which, if less woolly and like a mop, has no doubt been 
combed and brushed out to some small extent of its original 
fluffiness to reconcile it to the model of the hair of the white 
children with whom she was brought up, and which she would 
naturally strive to imitate. 

The question at issue may appear, at flrst sight, to be a 
mere personal matter, and of comparative unimportance, but 
it is in reality much more than that, and has acquired a 
sdentiflc aspect deserving of attention. There is reason to 
believe that the theory of Strzelecki has influenced many to 
concurrence in his views, and to disregard or overlook the 
cogency of facts opposed to it. Lieut. Friend, as we have 
seen, disputes the dictum referred to, and has adduced 
strong evidence in support of his objection. Thus an interesting 
problem has been presented for solution. 

All controversy, however, must now be regarded as finally set 
at rest, since the adoption by Parliament, after due inquiry, 
of two resolutions passed, respectively, in Sessions 1882 and 
1884, by the first of which the pension of Fanny Smith was 
increased from £24i to .£50 per annum, and by the second 
that a grant deed of the 100 acres of land she at that time 
occupied, and for the 200 acres additional then presented to 
her, should be issued to Fanny, free of cost ; both votes 
being passed on the ground specified of her being the last 
survivor of the aboriginal race. 



Discussion 

Mr. Stephens asked the writer of the paper not to press 
the matter too strongly on the Society. While Parliament 
was free to act at its discretion in entertaining a claim, the 
Eoyal Society would not be justified in showing any amiable 
weakness in the same direction. If, however, he threw out 
a challenge to ethnologists, he ran the risk of depriving 
Fanny Smith of what she now enjoyed. He was certain the 
paper would be well received, and the writer must not 
attribute any failure to discuss it on its merits to any lack 
of appreciation. 



66 



THE ENGLISH AT THE DERWENT, AND 
THE RISDON SETTLEMENT. 

BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 
Read October 14th, 1839. 



]. The English at the Derwent. 

In a paper which I had the honour to read before the 
Royal Society last November, entitled " The French in 
Van Diemen's Land," I endeavoured to show how the 
discoveries of the French at the Derwent, and their 
supposed design of occupation, influenced Governor 
King's mind, and led him to despatch the first English 
colony to these shores. That paper brought the story 
to the 12th September, 1803, when the Albion whaler, 
with Governor Bo wen on board, cast anchor in Risdon 
Cove, five days after the Ladt/ Nelson, which had 
brought the rest of his small establishment. 

The choice of such an unsuitable place as Risdon for 
the site of the first settlement has always been something 
of a puzzle; and, in order to understand the circumstances 
which led to this ill-advised selection, it will be necessary 
to go back sopae years, and follow the history of English 
discovery and exploration in the South of Tasmania. 

I have already noticed the elaborate and complete 
surveys of the Canal D'Entrecasteaux, and the Riviere 
du Nord, made by the French navigators in 1792, and 
again in 1802 ; but it must be remembered that the 
results of these expeditions were long kept a profound 
secret, not only fi*om the English, but from the world in 
general. Contemporaneously with the French, English 
navigators had been making independent discoveries 
and survevs in Southern Tasmania ; and it was solely 
the knowledge thus acquired that guided Governor 
King when he instructed Bo wen *' to fix on a proper 
place about Risdon's Cove'* for the new settlement. 

The English discoverer of the Derwent — a navigator 
who, though less fortunate than Admiral D'Entrecasteaux, 
yet merits the title of original discoverer equally with the 
illostrious Frenchman — was Lieutenant John Hayes, 
of the Bombay Marine, to whom I have already alluded. 
The occasion of Hayes' expedition is sufficiently curious 
to justify a few words of remark. It was the only 
exploring expedition ever seni out by the East India 
Company into Australian waters. In those days the 
great Company was at the height of its power. Its 



66 THE ENQLISH AT THE DERWENT. 

royal charter secured it an absolute monopoly of trade, 
not only with India and China, but with the entire East, 
including the whole of the Pacific Ocean. So exclusive 
were its privileges, and so jealously maintained, that the 
colonists of New South Wales could not trade with the 
home country except by permission of the Company. 
So late as the year 1806* it successfully resisted the sale 
in England of the first cargo of whale-oil and sealskins 
shipped by a Sydney firm in the Lady Barlow^ on the 
ground that the charter of the colony gave the 
colonists no right to trade, and that the transaction was 
a violation of the Company's charter and against its 
welfare. It was urged on behalf of tne Court of 
Directors that such " pii-atical enterprises " as the 
venture of the owners of the Lady Bariom must at 
once be put a stop to, as " the inevitable consequence of 
building ships in New South Wales will be an intercourse 
with all the ports of the China and India Seas^ and a 
population of European descent, reared in a climate 
suited to maintain the energies of the European 
character, when it becomes numerous, active, and 
opulent, may be expected to acquire the ascendancy 
in the Indian Seas." The Lords Commissioners of 
Trade decided that the action of the colonists was 
irregular in respect to the Company's charter. Sir 
Joseph Banks exerted himself strenuously on behalf of 
the colonists, and represented to the Court of Directors 
Brabourne that the Lords Commissioners in future cases " are 
Pamp., p. 14. (jigpQsed to admit the cargo to entry, in case the Court 
of Directors see no objection to this measure of indul- 
gence towards an infant and improving colony," and 
further, that their Lordships intend, without delay, *'to 
prepare instructions for the future government of the 
shipping concerns of the colony, on a plan suited to 
provide the inhabitants with the means of becoming less 
and less burdensome to the mother country, and framed 
in such a manner as to interfere as little as possible with 
the trade prerogatives and resources of the East India 
Company. It was mainly owing to Banks* diplomacy 
and energy that an Order of Council was obtained 
allowing future cargoes from Sydney to be landed and 
sold in England. 

It is, perhaps, not surprising that the Company should 
have contributed so little towards the exploration of 
regions which it held to be an appanage to its Indian 
dominions, for at that time the Southern Seas offered few 

* See Pamphlet containing a summary of the contents < the 
Brabourne Papers, Sydney, 1686, p. 11. 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 67 

or no temptations of profit to a g^reat trading corpomtion. 
As to New Holland, and Van Diemen's Land, its 
supposed southern extension, they were merely obstacles 
in the way of the lucrative China trade — jutting out incon- 
veniently into the South Sea, lengthening the voyage 
and increasing its dangere. For the sake of the vessels 
employed in this trade, a knowledge of the Australian 
coast and its harbours was desirable."' It was probably 
with the object of finding a convenient harbour of refuge 
for ships following the southern route to China in their 
passage round the stormy South Cape of the Australian 
continent, that, in the year 1793, the Company fitted out 
an expedition destined for Van Diemen's Land. Cook 
and Bligh had recently brought home reports which 
encouraged the idea that a suitable port might be found 
there, and it is quite possible that rumours of the visit of 
D'Entrecasteaux the vear before had stimulated the 
Board of Directors to action. 

Lieutenant John Hayes was appointed to the com- Low's Hist, of 
mand of the expedition, which consisted of two ships, the *J® Indian 
Duke of Clarence and the Duches.% and was despatched 2(XK2b5.' ^^ 
from India to explore the coasts of Van Diemen's Land 
and its harbours, and to make its way back to India by the 
South Sea Islands and the Malay Archipelago. This 
service Lieut. Hayes peiformed in a very satisfactory 
manner. He surveyed the coasts of Tasmania, parts of 
New Caledonia, of New Guinea and other islands, 
his voyage extending over two or thi*ee years. Un- 
happily, the results of these valuable surveys were lost 
to his employers and to England, for the ship taking 
home his charts and journals was captured by a French 
man-of-war, all his papers were taken to Paris and have 
never since seen the light.t A rough sketch of the Flinders' 
Derwent made by Hayes found its way to Sydney, and Voyage, 
18 frequently referred to by Flinders in the account of ^^^^'^'j ?• ^» 
his voyage. This is all we know of his exploration of 
Tasmania, and of the Honorable East India Company^s 
first, last^ and only discovery expedition to Australian 
waters. 



• It was considered a chief object of every exploring expedition 
to find harbours soitable for the East India Company's ships. When 
Flinders was about to saii in the Investigator to explore the Aus- 
tralian coast, the Court of Directois, on being applied to, made him 
an aUowance of £1200 as *' batta money ''—a practical recognition 
oftheir interest in his expedition.— Braboume Pamphlet, p. 13. 

t There is good reason to believe that Hayes' charts and journals 
tie in the National Library in Pai-is, or possibly in the Department 
of Hazine and Colonies. It would be well if an effort were made 
to disooyer them and have them published. See Appendix. 



68 THE ENaLISH AT THE DERWENT. 

Lieut. Hayes' ships reached Storm Bay in the year 1794. 
He had heard of the visit of the French to these shores 
two years before, but knew nothing of what D'Entre- 
casteaux had done. He explored and surveyed the 
approaches of the Derwent, and sailed up that river 
nearly as far as Bridgewater ; while, in the belief that he 
was making an original discovery, he gave new names 
to various localities. These have in some instances 
superseded those bestowed by his predecessor D'Entre- 
casteaux. Thus it is to Hayes that we owe the name of 
the Derwent, which has replaced the French appellation 
of the Riviere du Nord, and D'Entrecasteaux Channel 
was long known to the English by the name of Storm 
Bay Passage, which it bears on Hayes' chart. Other 
names which are still remembered are Betsey's Island, 
Prince of Wales Bay, Mount Direction, and, lastly, 
Risdon Cove.* It is said that Risdon Cove and River 
were named by him after one of the officers of the ship, 
but this I have not been able to verify.t 

Flinders* Jt ^as in the early spring of the year 1798 that 

Intro^% 138 Gr^vernor Hunter gave to Flinders — then a young 
'* * ' Lieutenant of H.M.S. Reliance — the Norfolk^X a little 
colonial sloop of 25 tons, to try to solve ihe vexed 
question of the existence of a strait between New 
Holland and Van Diemen's Land. Flinders secured 
Dr. George Bass as his companion in the expedition, and 
on the 7th October, 1798, the Norfolk sailed from Port 
Jackson with a crew of 8 volunteers, taking twelve 
weeks' provisions. They examined the North Coast of 
Tasmania, entering Port Dalrymple, and sailed for the 
first time through the Straits, to which, at Flinders' 

* Adamson's Peak, Mount Lewis, Cornelian Bay, Taylor's Bay, 
Court's Island, Fluted Cape, Ralph's Bay, were also named by 
Hayes. 

t Mr. Justin Browne informs me that Risdon is a name borne by 
a county family of Devonshire ; (see " Marshall's Genealogist's 
Guide," p. 524), and that it occurs also as a place name in 
Gloucestershire, (see also Burke's Armoury, Ed. 18.) The popular 
deriyation from a supposed ** Rest-down " may perhaps be credited 
to the fancy oi the enterprising and pugnacious printer, Andrew Bent. 
So far as I have been able to discover, it first occurs in ** Benfs 
Tasmanian Almanac " for 1827. It has been copied by Wert tad 
other writei*s. 

X The Norfolk^ which has the credit of hvrlBr 
gated Van Icemen's Land, was built al *—**** 
for which that island is celi»br»**^ 
Flinders in his exploratUm ^ 
History of Victoria. Yel * 



BT JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 69 

request, Governor Hunter gave the name of Bass' 
Straits.* 

Leaving Bass' Straits the Norfolk sailed southwards 
along the West Coast — Flinders naming Mount Hecms- 
kirk and Mount Zeehan after Tasman's two vessels — and 
on 14th December, arrived at the entrance of Storm Bay. 
Flinders had with him a copy of Hayes' sketch chart of Flinders, 
the Derwent, but had never even heard of D'Entre- ^"^^0., p. 181. 
casteaux's discoveries six years before. Bass, in 
speaking of Adventure Bay, says, — " This island, the Collins' New 
Derwent, aijd Storm Bay Passage were the discovery South Wales, 
of Mr. Hayes, of which he made a chart." More than ^^-^l^- ^*^'^- 
a fortnight was employed by Flinders in making a Flinde^^, 
careful survey of Norfolk Bay, and of the Derwent from Intro., pp. 
the Iron Pot to a point some 5 miles above Bridgewater. 181-181). 
In the Introduction to his Voyage to Terra Avstralis, 
he gives the result of his observations. Bass devoted 
his attention more particularly to an examination of 
the neighbouring country, its soil, productions, and 
suitableness for agriculture. He took long excursions 
into the country, having seldom other society than his 
two dogs, examining in this way the western shore of 
the river from below the Blow Hole at Brown's River 
to beyond Prince of Wales Bay, visiting various parts 
of the eastern shore, and ascending Mount Wellington 
and Mount Direction. His original journal has never 
come to light, but the substance of it was published in 
1802, by Collins, in the second volume of his Account r>/'Collins,li., pp. 
New South Wales. US-W4. 

It is interesting to learn how the country with which 
we are so familiar struck the first visitor to its shores, 
when as yet the land was in all its native wildness, and 
untouched by the hand of man, and I shall therefore 
give some of Bass's observations on the country about 
the Derwent. The explorers had some difficulty in 
getting the Norfolk as far up the river as the mouth of 
tne Joitlan, which Flinders named Herdsman's Cove. 
Thence they proceeded in their boat some 5 or 6 miles ibJd, p. 18C. 
higher up. They expected to have been able to reach 
the source in one tide, but in this they were mistaken, 
falling, as they believed, some miles short of it. I regret 
to say that Bass did not show the good taste of the 

* '* No more than a just tribute," says the generous 
Flinders, " to my worthy friend and companion for the extreme 
dangers and fatigues he had undergone in first entering it in the 
whiJe-boat, and to the correct judgment be had formed from 
varioas indications of the existence of a wide opening between Van 
Diemen's Land and New South Wi^los," — Voyage to Terra Aus- 
tralig^ Intro., p. 103. 



70 THE ENGLISH AT THE DERWENT. 

Frenchmen who were so enthusiastic on the grandeur 
and beauty of the harbours and rivers which they had 
Collins, ii., entered. Ho describes our noble river as a " dull, lifeless 
p. 183. stream, whieli after a sleepy course of not more than 25 

or 27 miles to the north-west, falls into Frederick 
Henry Bay. Its breadth there is two miles and a 
quarter, and its depth ten fathoms." He further remarks, 
" If the Derwent River has any claim to respectability, 
it is indebted for it more to the paucity of inlets into 
Van Diemen's Land than to any intrinsic merits of its 
own." Yet his impression of the country on its banks 
was distinctly favourable. "The river," he says, " takes 
its way through a country that on the east and north 
sides is hilly, on the west and north mountainous. The 
hills to the eastward arise immediately from the banks ; 
but the mountains to the westward have retired to the 
distance of a few miles from the water, and have left in 
their front hilly land similar to that on the east side. All 
the hills are very thinly set with light timber, chiefly 
short she-oaks ; but are admirably covered with thick 
nutntious grass, in general free from brush or patches of 
shrubs. The soil in which it grows is a black vegetable 
mould; deep only in the valleys, frequently very shallow, 
with occasionally a mixture of sand or small stones. 
Many large tracts of land appear cultivable both for 
maize and wheat, but which, as pasture land, would be 
excellent. The hills descend with such gentle slopes, 
that the vallevs between them are extensive and flat. 
Several contain an indeterminate depth of rich soil, 
capable of supporting the most exhausting vegetation, 
and are tolerably well watered by chains of small ponds, 
or occasional drains, which empty themselves into the 
river by a cove or creek." Black swans were seen in 
great numbers, and kangaroo abounded, but Bass came 
to the conclusion that the natives must be few in number, 
as although they frequently found their rude huts and 
deserted fires, during a fortnight's excursions they fell in 
with none of the aborigines, except a man and two 
women, with whom thcv had a friendlv interview some 
miles above Herdsman's Cove. Bass contrasts New 
South Wales and Van Diemen's Laud in respect of 
their fitness for agriculture : his opinion was that they 
were both poor countries, but in point of productive soil 
the preference was to be given to Van Diemen's Land. 
He found on the banks of the Derwent various tmcts of 
land which he considered admirably adapted for grain, 
for vines, and for pasturage, and no place combined so 
many advantages as Risdon Cove, Bass grows almost 



BT JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 71 

enthusiastic in describing Risdon. ^' The land at the Collins^ ii., 
head of Risdon Creek, on the east side," he remarks, P- 185. 
*' seems preferable to any other on the banks of the 
Derwent. The creek runs winding between two steep 
hills, and ends in a chain of ponds that extends into a 
fertile valley of great beauty. For half-a-mile above the 
head of the creek the valley is contracted and narrow, 
bat the soil is extremely pich, and the fields are well 
oovered with grass. Beyond this it suddenly expands 
and becomes broad and fiat at the bottom, whence arise 
long grassy slopes, that by a gentle but increasing ascent 
continue to mount the hills on each side, until they are 
hidden from the view by woods of lar^e timber which 

overhang their summits The soil along the 

bottom, and to some distance up the slopes, is a rich 
vegetable mould, apparently hardened by a small mixture 
of clay, which grows a large quantity of thick juicy 
grass and some few patches of close underwood." 

Flinders was, however, disappointed with Hayes' Flinders. 
Risdon River, and notices the insignificance of the little Intro., pp. 
creek, which even his boat could not entet, and at which ^®^' ^®^* 
he could barely manage to fill his water casks. Among 
" the many local advantages of the Derwent " to which King to 
Kin&^ alludes in his despatch to Lord Hobiirt, and which Hobart, 9th 
determined him to choose that place for a settlement, ^^^^> ^^^' 
there is no doubt that Bass's glowing description of the 
beauty and fertility of Risdon filled a large place, and 
induced him to direct Bowen to choose its neighbour- 
hood for the new colony. 

2. The Risdon Settlement. 

It is now time for us to return to Lieut. Bowen and 
his little colony, whom we left on the 12th September, 
1803, in the Albion and Ladi/ Nehon at anchor in 
Risdon Cove. A week later Bowen writes to Governor Bowen to 
King by the Albion, I'e porting his arrival, and his Kinsr, 20th 
definite selection of Risdon as the site of the new ^®JJ^®"^^*^^' 
settlement. He seems to have accepted Risdon as a 
foregone conclusion, for although he tells the Governor 
that he had explored the river to a point rather higher 
than Flinders went, it does not appear that he made any 
sufficient examination of the western bank. If he had 
done so he could hardly hare written to King — ** There 
are so many fine spots on the borders of the river that I 
was a little puzzled to fix upon the best place ; but there 
being a much better stream of fresh water falling into 
Risdon Cove than into any of the otherajand very extensive 
valleys lying at the back of it, I judged it the most 



72 THE RISDON 8ETTLB1IBNT. 

convenient, and accordingly disembarked all the men 
and stores." He could never have written thus if he 
had examined either Humphrey's Rivulet or the stream 
falling into Sullivan's Cove. Bowen's choice of Risdon 
does not lead us to form a high opinion of his qualifi- 
cations as the founder of a new colony. On the other 
hand, it is oiilv fair to take into account his difficulties. 
Doubtless he felt himself in a great degree bound by the 
instructions he had received from Governor King to fix 
on a spot in the neighbourhood of Risdon Cove. 1 1 e 
also knew that Bass had carefully examined both shores 
of the river and had found no place so eligible. Moreover, 
it would be unjust to judge his choice by our present 
knowledge. Every settlement in an unknown and thickly 
wooded country must be more or less tentative, and the 
objections to the locality were not so evident in its 
original state as they now are. At present the Cove is 
silted up in consequence of a causeway having been built 
across it, but when Bowen entered it it was a fairly 
deep and commodious harbour. There was much to 
recommend thtf site to a new comer. When the Albion 
sailed up the Derwent the best valleys running down to 
the river were full of a dense scrub, most discouraging to 
a settler, and at that period Risdon probably presented the 
most open land on this side Herdsman's Cove. It was early 
spring, and at that season there would be a good stream 
of water in the creek, the open land of the Risdon valley 
was covered with rich and luxuriant grass, and higher 
uj) the creek was a fair amount of the good agricultural 
land described by Bass. The unsuitability of the 
valley as a site for a large town would never occur to 
Bowen, who was cont( nt if he could find for his 
handful of settlers a sufficient space for their gardens, 
and a few cornfields to suj)])ly their immediate require- 
ments. The small scale of the establishment with which 
he was entrusted would inevitably limit his ideas. 
Still, after every allowance has been made, it remains 
evident that Lieut. John Bowen was not one of the men 
who are born to be the successful i'ounders of new States. 
The site of this first settlement is on the farm so well 
known as the home of the late Mr. Thos. Geo. Gregson, 
M.H.A. It lies about two miles i'rom the landing-place 
of the Risdon ferry. A stone causeway crosses the cove 
not flir from the mouth of the creek. For some 100 or 
150 yards before the little stream falls into the cove it 
finds its way through a small marsh of some 20 acres, 
shut in on each side by steep hills. In Bowen's time 
this stream was fresh and clear-flowing; now it is brackish, 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 73 

sluggish, and muddy, choked with weeds and slime, and 
altogether uninviting in aspect. At the upper end of 
the marsh, where the valley suddenly contracts, a dilapi- 
dated stone jetty marks the old landing-place on the 
creek, at present quite inaccessible for a boat. On the 
narrow strip of flat ground between the jetty and the 
steep hill beyond are the barely discernible foundations 
of a stone building, the first stone store in Tasmania. 
From this point a road leads upwards along the hillside 
for some 150 or 200 yards to the top of the rise, where 
there is a level piece of land of no great extent, bounded 
on the north by I'ough hills and on the south sloping 
steeply to the valley. On the edge of this level ground, 
overlooking the flat and commanding a fine view of the 
Derwent and of the mountains behind it, stand some 
dilapidated wooden buildings, for many years well known 
as the residence of Mr. Gregson, the little cottage in 
front being not improbably Lieut. Bowen's original 
quarters. A good gardon extends to the rear of the 
bouse, and in this garden, about 100 yards behind the 
cottage, there still stand the ruins of an oven with brick 
chimney, which Mr. Gregson for many years religiously 
preserved as the remains of the first house erected 
m Van Diemen's Land. From this point the va!!oy is 
narrow, tlie ground sloping down steeply, but there is 
good agricultural land in the bottom, and on the northern 
slope where Bowen's free settlers were located — the 
other side being atony and barren. A plan which Bowen 
sent to Governor King enables us to identify the locality 
with absolute precision. He tells King — " We are 
situated on a hill commanding a perfect view of the 
river, and with the fresh water at the foot of it — the land 
excellent." 

Afier pitching his tents at Risdtm, Bowen was not 
idle. He set his people at once to work to build huts. 
During the first week he made a boat excursion up the 
river ; examined Herdsman's Cove, and thought of 
locating his free settlers there. He describes the Der- Bowen io 
went as " perfectly fresh " above Herdsman's Cove, King, 20th 
and '* the lanks more like a nobleman's park in England fgno^^^®'^' 
than an uncultivated country ; every part is beautifully 
green, and very little trouble might clear eveiy valley I 
have seen in a month. There are few rocky spots except 
on the high hills, and in many places the plough might 
be used immediately ; but our workmen are very few and 
very bad. I could with ease employ a hundred men 
upon the land about us, and with that number — some 
good men among them — we should soon be a flourishing 



74 



THE RISDON SETTLEMENT. 



Bowen to 
King, 27th 
September, 
IS03, per 
Lady SeUon, 



King to 
Hobart, 1st 
March, 1801. 



Bowen to 
King, 27th 
September, 
1803. 



Ibid. 



colony." Next week he made another trip up the 
Derwent, but without further results. He sends King a 
plan of his settlement,* and already within a fortnight of 
his arrival he had got quarters built for his soldiers and 
prisoners, had located his free settlei-s on their five-acre 
allotments up the valley about a quarter of a mile from 
his tent, and had Clark, the stonemason, at work 
building a stone store. 

He had — probably in accordance with King's in- 
structions — named the new settlement " Hobart/'t afler 
Lord Hobart, the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

His Returns, dated " Hobart, Van Dieraen's Land, 
27th September, 1803," show an effective strength of 22 
men — 21 convicts and their overseer — of whom 2 were 
in charge of stock, 4 employed on buildings, (viz., a 
blacksmith, carpenter, and two sawyers), the bulk of 
the convicts forming a town gang. The three women 
are returned as " cutting grass," probably for thatching. 
Of the stock, the Government owned 9 cattle and 25 
sheep, the Commandant had a mare, and the Doctor a 
cow, while the Oflicers and Birt and Clarke, the free 
settlers, were possessors of 7 sheep, 8 goats, and 38 
swine. 

Within a fortnight from his landing, as I have said, 
Bowen had all his people housed, and reports to King 
that the soldiers and prisoners have got very comfortable 
hills. He fixed his own quarters on the spot where 
Mr. Gregson's house now stands; the soldiers' huts were 
a little behind Dr. Mountgarret's quarters, and the 
prisoners' huts were placed on the brow of the steep 
bank overlooking the creek. (See plan). The Command- 
ant tells King that he has not yet drawn any lines for 
the town, waiting till he can cut down the large timber 
wliich obstructed his view. To lay out a town in such 
a situation must have been a difficult problem, for his 
little settlement was perched on the top of a high almost 
precipitous bank, on the edge of a very narrow gully, 
and the narrow plateau on which it stood, shut in at the 
back by rough hills, did not afford room for a fair sized 
village. But the difficulties of the locality were as 
nothing to the difficulties of the human material out of 
which he had \o form his colony. 

The soldiers of the New South Wales Corps, who 
formed his guard, and on whom he had to depend for 



* See Appendix. 

t "Town " was not added to the name until some time after the 
settlement was removed by Collins to Sullivan's Cove. 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 76 

the maintenance of order, were discontented, almost 
mutinous. Within a week of his arrival they were 

frumblinor at the hard duty of mounting one sentry 
uring the day and two at night. The Commandant 
thought they had been spoilt by too easy a life in 
Sydney, and begged the Governor to send him down an 
active officer or sergeant who would keep them to their 
duty. 

As to the prisoners, they were of the worst class, 
ill behaved, useless, and lazy. Indeed, when we find 
that some of the worst offenders in New South Wales 
had been sentenced by the Criminal Court in Sydney to 
serve a certain number of vears at Risdon Creek, we 
cannot wonder at Bowen's complaints of their conduct, 
nor can we be surprised that he was able to effect so 
little. 

Meanwhile, Governor King did not forget the interests 
of the new colony. In his reply to Bowen's first letters, Kinj^to 
he expressed himself as well pleased with the selection of Bowen, l8th 
Risdon, and with the progress that had been made with October, 1803. 
the settlement. He also promised the reinforcements for 
which Bowen asked, and, accordingly, towards the end of King to 
October the Dart brig was despatched to the Derwent. Hobart, 
She took 42 prisoners— of whom 20 were volunteers —and ^f^ October, 
these latter were told that, if their behaviour was good, 
they should be allowed at the end of two years to choose 
-between settling at the Derwent and returning to Sydney. 
The Goveraor also strengthened the Military force by 
sending down 15 soldiers nndei the command of Lieut. 
Moore. He strongly urged Bowen to leave their discipline 
entirely to their officer, to give them good huts, full 
rations, a plot of ground for a garden, and to employ 
them on militarv dutv onlv, so that thev mig^ht have no 
just ground for complaint. The Dai't took six months' 
supplies of pork and flour for the new arrivals, and also 
two carronades which had belonged to the Investigator, 
and as to the care of which King gave the Commandant 
very special cautions. No more free settlers were sent, 
as the Governor wished first to get a better knowledue 
of the country and of its suitableness for agriculture. To King to 
this end he sent down James Meehan, a surveyor who Howen, l8th 
had done good work in New South Wales under Sur- ^'^^^^h 1803. 
yeyor-General Grimes, and had recently formed one of the 
party who had made the survey of Port Phillip in tho 
Cumberland, Meehan was to be employed in surveying 
and making observations on the soil and natural pro- 
ductions of the colony, and was to advise with respect to 
the distribution of tlie town, church, and school lands, 



76 



THE RISDON SETTLKMBNT. 



Knopwood*8 
Diaiy, Gth 
March, 1804, 



Collins to 

King, 2Uth 

February, 

1804. 

Harris's 

statement. 



fortification^ court-house^ settlers' allotments, and govern- 
ment grounds for the purpose of agriculture and grazing. 
He remained some four months at Hobart, returning 
to Sydney in March, 1804, after having completed the 
fii-st surveys in Tasmania. Flinders' map shows that 
Meehan explored from the Coal River in a north-east 
direction, returning by way of Prosser s Plains and the 
Sorell District, but we have no particulars of the result 
of his observations. 

Bowen's little colony now numbered something like 
100 souls. It had been established about two months, 
and might fairly have been expected to have made at 
least a start towards definite progress. But it was pre- 
destined to failure. The few meagre facts that can be 
gleaned from the Record Office papers show that matters 
went most persistently wrong. The Commandant may not 
have been to blame for this ill success — possibly no man 
could have achieved success with the like material. The 
first arrivals had been bad, the second batch was certainly 
no better. We have Collins' testimony, very emphatically 
given, that many of them were " abandoned, hardened 
wretches" — "more atrocious than those imported from the 
gaols of England." The story of the escape of seven of 
these convicts, under the leadership of one Duce, gives 
us an idea of their lawlessness, their ignorance, and their 
utter recklessness. One night, Duce and his six com- 
panions stole the Commandant's boat as she lay in the 
cove, gained possession of two guns, and got away down 
the river. Some of the party wanted, without compass 
or provisions, to run for New Zealand, which they 
thought could easily be done. Others, not quite so 
ignorant, preferred to try to make Timor. Violent 
quarrels ensued, but they kept on their coui"se along the 
east coast, living on fish and such vegetable food as they 
could collect on the shore, and constantly on the verge 
of murderous conflict, until they reached Bass Strait. 
Here one of the party was left on a desolate rock, Duce 
threatening to shoot any one who interfered. The rest 
made Cape Barren Island, where they fell in with a 
sealing party. Duce and three others designed to seize 
the vessel, but were betrayed by their companions. The 
sealers overpowered them, and put the four, with some 
provisions, ou one of the islands, where they left them. 
Whether they perished, or whether they helped to swell 
the number of lawless runaways who for so long a time 
infested the islands in the Straits, no one knows. 

The soldiers were almost as great a trouble to the 
Commandant as the convicts, They were always 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 77 

discontented, occasionally mutinous. At times, instead 

of guarding the stores from depredation, they connived 

at the prisoners plundering them. An occasion of this King to 

Bort, when a soldier was proved to have been accomplice Hobart, Ist 

in a robbery, led to Bowen taking a very extraordinary ^*^^> ^®^» 

step. He could not try the man, not being able to 

constitute a court martial, and was so pjizzled to know 

what to do with him, that when the Ferret whaler 

chanced to put into the Derwent, he actually determined 

to leave his post, and himself take the culprit to Sydney 

for trial. Accordingly, he sailed from Risdon for Sydney 

in the Ferret, on the 9th January, 1804. 

With all these signs of the utter disorganisation of the 
settlement, we cannot wonder that no progress had been 
made, and that when Collins arrived a few weeks later, 
he found that after five months' residence not a single acre Collins t<> 
of land was in preparation for grain upon Government King, 29th 

account Ja^^'^' 

Bat the Risdon settlement was already doomed, owing 
to a series of events of which neither Governor King 
nor his Commandant was yet aware. Before Bowen 
had made his first abortive start for the Derwent, and 
before Governor King's despatch of 23rd November, 
1802, respecting French designs could have reached 
England, the Home Government had taken a resolution 
which — not by any intention of theirs — was destined to 
bring Lieut. Bowen 's colony to an end, by its extinction in 
a more systematic and extensive settlement on the banks 
of the Derwent. In January, 1803, an Order in Council Downing- 
appointed Lieut.-Colonel David Collins, of the Royal ^^^®®* *^ 
Marines, Lieutenant-Governor of a settlement intended °"™ ^^' 
to be formed at Port Phillip, in New South Wales. 
The new establishment sailed from Spithead on the 24th 
Aprily 1803 — a month before King had given Bowen Knopwood's 
his commission as Commandant of Hobart — had just left Diary. 
Cape Town when Bowen sailed from Sydney in the 
Attnony and arrived in Port Phillip on the 9th October, 
1808. 

This is not the place to give an account of Collins' 
mroceedings, at Port Phillip or elsewhere, except in so 
mr as they affected the fortunes of the Risdon settlement. 
Saffice it to say, that Collins found, or fancied, that Port 
Phillip was unfit for a settlement, and after corresponding 
with (ioyemor King, and dawdling near the BTeads for 
some three months, he finally decided to remove his 
establbhment to the Derwent. Thereupon^ King sent King to 
Collins a letter addressed to Bowen, directing the latter Bowen, 26th 
to hand over to Collins his command at the Derwent, |^°^ 



78 THE RISBON SETTLEMENT. 

and to send back to Port Jackson his detachment of 
the New South Wales Corps. And so a p^me of cross 
purposes began. For while Collins was still fuming and 
fidgetting at Port Phillip, balancing the comparative 
advantages of Port Dalrymple and th6 Derwent, and 
gradually making up his mind in favour of the latter 
9th January, place, Bowen had sailed from Risdon in the Ferret 
1804. with his burglal'ious soldier, and had presented himself 

23rd January, to the astonished Governor King at Port Jackson. The 
Governor seems to have taken no pains to conceal the 
annoyance he felt at his Commandant leaving his post 
on so trifling an occasion, and sarcastically remarks in a 
1st March despatch to Lord Hobart, that Bowen's " return was 
1804. occasioned by the necessity he conceived himself to be 

under of bringing up a soldier who had been implicated 
with the rest in robbing the stores." He was the more 
vexed at this inopportune return, as he knew that Collins 
was on the point of leaving Port Phillip, and he was 
particularly anxious that the Risdon Commandant should 
be at hand to give the new Lieutenant-Governor the 
benefit of his experience and knowledge of the locality, 
j^^ The colonial cutler Integrity had just been launched. 

She was hastily fitted for sea, and Bowen was ordered 
to return in her to the Derwent forthwith, calling at 
Port Phillip to join Collins, to give him all necessary 
assistance, and accompany him to Risdon. The In- 
tegrity sailed on the 5th February ; but Bowen's ill 
luck still attended him. When he reached Port Phillip 
he found only a remnant of Collins' establishment, under 
the charge of Lieut. Sladcjen, the Lieutenant-Governor 
30th January, himself having sailed for the Derwent in the Ocean 
1804. ^iijj ^|jg \yxx\\i of his people two or three days before. 

King's Order Bowen accordingly hastened on with his despatches, but 
90 h*A^^^' f shortly after sailing the cutter's rudder fastenings carried 
1804 ^^^^ ' a^vay, and she was placed in a very dangerous position. 
However, she managed to reach Kent's Bay, Cape Barren 
Island, and there they found a sealing parly belonging 
to the American ships Pilgrim and Perseverance, The 
necessity for getting on was imperative ; so Bowen made 
a verbal agreement with the American skipper, Captain 
Amasa Delano, to carry them on in his ship, and after- 
Knopwood's wards, if required, to proceed to Port Jackson. From 
Diary^ 10th ^he diary of the Chaplain of Collins' party, the well 
*^^ * known Rev. Robert Knopwood, we learn that the Pilgrim 

cast anchor in Sullivan's Cove on 10th March, and that 
at six in the evening, a boat brought ashore " the Governor 
of Risdon Creek, Lieut. Bowen, of the Royal Navy." 
It must have proved a considerable mollification to 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 79 

the Ooyemor of Risdon Creek to learn the events that 
had occurred during his unlucky absence. Lieutenant- 
Governor Collins had arrived in the evening of the 15th 
February, and next morning had landed at the Risdon 
settlement under a salute of 11 guns from the Ocean. 
On landing, he had been received by the officer in charge, 
Lieut. Moore, of the New South Wales' Corps, and the 
rest of the establishment — consisting of the doctor, store- 
keeper^ and military force of 16 privates, one sergeant, 
and one drum and fife. After examining the camp, 
gardens, water, &c., the new Lieutenant-Governor had at 
once come to the conchision — which indeed was pretty 
eyident — tliat Risdon was not, in the Chaplain's words, 
" calculated for a town." Accordingly, on the following 
day the Governor, with the Chaplain and Wm. Collins, 
had gone exploring, and had returned much delighted, 
haying found at a place on the opposite side of ihe riven 
six miles below Risdon, "a plain well calculated in 
every degree for a settlement." Forthwith the tents 
of the new establishment had been struck and taken on 
board the ships, which had dropped down the river to 
the selected spot, and anchored in Sullivan's Cove Si> 
that on the 20th February — five davs after Collins' Knopwood. 
arrival — his tents had been pitched at the mouth of the 
creek on the present site of Hobart, and the glory of 
Risdon had departed. 

Bowen's settlement had had its own internal troubles, 
which, no doubt, Lieut. Moore duly reported to the 
Governor of Risdon Creek. On the 21st February, the Collins to 
day after the founding of the new Hobart at Sullivan's Kinp, 29th 
Cove, a further batch of five convicts had escaped from Febmary 
Risdon, having found means to steal half a barrel of 
gunpowder fix)m under the very feet of the sentry, and 
also two "musquets," with which they had got off into the 
woods. The runaways, however, did not find the woods 
mTitiiig enough for a permanent residence, and one of 
them having voluntarily come in, the others followed his 
example next day, bringing the arms and ammunition 
with them. It was too troublesome and expensive to 
send them to Sydney for trial; they were therefore 
heavily ironed, and kept to work as a gaol gang. 

The only consolation that the Risdon Governor could 
have found in his adversity — besides the greater oppor- 
tunities of good fellowship which were now afforded nim, 
with no doubt better fare than the salt pork and bread, 
which had hitherto been the regulation diet— was the 
consideration that the religious wants of his people, 
abont which Governor King had been so emphatic. 



80 



THE RISDON SETTLEMENT. 



26th March. 
17th April. 



King to 
Palmer, 29th 
Augrost, 1804. 



Kuigto 
Hobart, 20th 
December, 
1804. 



American 
sealers — 
Murreirs 
statement. 



Khigto 
Hobart, 20th 
December, 
1804. 



were now under proper regulation, and that on Sundays, 
when the weather was not unfavourable, the Chaplain, 
after divine service at Sullivan's Cove, had occasionally 
pfone over to llisdon in the afternoon, and^ as he phrases 
it, " done his duty to all the convicts, &c., &c.," dining 
aftei^wards with Dr. Mountffarret. 

Captain Delano, meanwhile, was making a good thing 
out of Bowen's misfortunes. The Integrity was still 
lying at Cape Barren Island, disabled, and she had to 
be brought on. So after enjoying and returning the 
hospitalities of the place for a fortnight, the American 
captain sailed again for the Straits, with new rudder 
fastenings for the disabled vessel, and in less than a 
month ihe Pilgrim once more appeared in the Derwent 
with the Integrity in company. The Pilgrim sailed 
away a few days later to continue her sealing voyage, 
and her captain carried with him not only the reward 
of an approving conscience, but- also Bowen's bill on 
Governor King for £400. When the bill was pre- 
sented in the following August, King's surprise was 
considerable, and he made some vigorous protests. But 
the bill was in due form, for services performed, and 
the Governor had to pay. He could only relieve his 
feelings by writing to Lord Hobart in strong terms as 
to the American's conduct ; but he says, " I did not 
consider I could, with that respect due to the British 
character, either curtail or refuse payment of the bill, 
notwithstanding the extortionate advantage that had 
been taken of Mr. Bowen's necessities, and his not 
entering into a written agreement." 

We hear again of Captain Delano and his party a 
month or two later, and they seem to have been very un- 
desirable visitors. Not only had they been smuggling spirits 
against the stringent regulations and decoying prisoners, 
but they had made themselves still more obnoxious by 
their brutal treatment of a sealing party at Kent's Bay 
belonging to the Surprise sloop, of Sydney. According 
to the statement of the master of the Surprijse, he had 
been flogged and nearly killed by Delano's men for 
venturing to come into the Straits and intei'fere with 
them by killing seals in their neighbourhood. Governor 
King was inclined to take vigorous measures to put a 
stop to the lawless conduct which was then only too 
common amongst the American sealers in Bass' Straits, 
and proposed to the Home Government that he should 
be authorised to go the length of seizing their ships as 
the only means of teaching them better behaviour. 

But to return to the fortunes of the Risdon Settlement. 



BT /AMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 81 

Lientenant-Goveraor Collins was altogether disappointed Collins to 
with the condition of Bowen's colony, and made a very Kingr, 29th 
nn&Yoarable report on it to Governor King. The site was f^"*^^' 
quite unsuitable ; the landing-place on the creek was 
choked with mud, and only accessible at high tide ; the 
stores were placed on a low position, and likely to be 
flooded by any heavy rain ; the land was by no means 
first class ; and the rivulet, on which they depended for Oillins to 
their fresh water, and which in September had been a Hobart, 31 st 
running stream, was in February dwindled to a few pools ^^^^* ^^^' 
of dirty water. The indifferent capabilities of the place Collins to 
had not been made the most of. No grain had been King, 29th 
sown, snd no Government land had been even prepared February, 
for sowing. Dr. Mountgarret, and Clark and Birt, the ^^^' 
free settlers, had each about five acres ready, but they 
had no seed, so Collins- had to supply them with suf- Collins to 
ficient to crop their land. The five months' occupation Hobart, 31st 
had been wasted ; there was nothing to show but a few ^^^^^ ^^^^' 
wretched huts, cottages somewhat better for the officers, 
and a few acres of land roughly cleared of trees and 
scrub. The people were in a miserable condition, having Collins to 
been for some time on two-thirds of the standard rations, Hobart, 3i*d 
so that Collins had to supply them with food, and even -^"ff^st^ 1^04. 
to remove their starving pigs to his own camp to save 
their lives. A more dismal failure for a new colony 
could scarcely be imagined. It is difficult to decide how Collins to 
far Bowen was to blame for this wretched state of things. King, 29th 
The human material that had been given him to mould f^ijf"*^^' 
into shape was desperately bad. Collins says that the 
officer in charge on his arrival (probably Lieut. Moore) 
described them " as a worthless and desperate set of 
wretches ; " and this language does not appear to have 
been too strong. The Sydney authorities seem to have 
taken the opportunity of Bowen's settlement to rid them- 
selves of their worst criminals, including the most tur- 
bulent of the United Irishmen, who had lately given so 
much trouble by their rising in the older colony. Even 
the soldiers of the New South Wales Corps, sent to curb 
these undesirable colonists, were lazy and mutinously 
inclined. It is a satisfaction to know that Collins 
eventually shipped the whole lot back to Sydney — both 
soldiers and convicts, with but few exceptions — so that 
they never had any part in the new Hobart. 

Collins did not interfere with Bowen or with Lieut. Ibid, 
Moore in their command, but left them in uncontrolled 
charge. Indeed, be seems to have been only too anxious 
to wash his hands of Risdon and all its works. Governor 
Bowen and the Risdon officers, however, made the best 
of their circumstances^ and^ if we can trust the chaplain^s 



82 



THE RISBON SBTTLEMENT. 



Knopwoody 
26th March. 



1 AprU. 



Collins to 
Kingr, •i4th 
April, 1804. 



diaiy, took life easily — shooting, hunting, excuraionising, 
and exchanging frequent visits with the officers of the 
new camp. Towards the end of March Mr. Knopwood 
goes to Kisdon for a few days, and " they caught six 
young emews the size of a turkey, and shot the old 
mother.'* On Easter Sunday, after Divine Service, 
they all go to the chaplain^s marquee at the camp, and 
" partook of some Norfolk liam, the best we ever eat" 
At 4 P.M. he adjourns to Lieut. Lord's to dinner, " and 
was very meriy." Mr. Knopwood records many visits 
to Risdon, and excursions with Bowen up the river, to 
Mount Direction, to Ralph's Bay, and other places. 
" The Governor of Risdon Creek," as Knopwood called 
hin?, had, however, enough trouble with his refractory 
people. His soldiei-s had long grumbled at the sentry 
duty as too hard for their smkU numbers ; and the dis- 
content at last broke out into direct mutiny. On Sunday, 
22nd April, the men flatly refused to mount guard, and 
became so insolent and insubordinate that Lieut. Moore 
promptly put four of the ringleaders into irons, and took 
them down to Sullivan's Cove. Lieut.-Governor Collins 
sent the mutineers under a guard on board the Colonial 
cutter Integrity, then on the point of sailing for Port 
Jackson. At the same time a plot was on foot amongst 
some of the Irish convicts at Risdon. Their object was 
to seize the storehouse, supply themselves with provisions, 
and make good their escape from the settlement. On 
the discovery of the plot three of the ringleaders were 
forthwith flogged, and to prevent further mischief Cap- 
tain Bowen and Mr. Wilson, the storekeeper, a few 
days later took the mutinous prisoners to Norfolk Bay 
in the Risdon whaleboat. ^* Eight of them, and all 
Irishmen," remarks the chaplain. They were left on 
Smooth Island (now known as Garden Island), with a 
month's provisions, and Bowen went on to explore the 
River Huon. 

With that fatality which always kept Bowen out of 
the way when he was wanted, an important and disastrous 
event occurred at Risdon in his absence. This was the 
first affray of the English with the natives. It was on 
the 3rd May, 1804, that this first of the long series of 
fatal encounters between the two races took place. 
Up to this time it does not appear that any natives 
had been seen in the neighbourhood of Risdon. Knop- 
wood relates that there had been some friendly intercourse 
with the tribe on the other side of the river, and that 
some of them had come to Collins' camp. We also leam 
from him that he and Bowen had seen many natives in 
the neighbourhood of Frederick Henrv Bay. The blacks 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER, 83 

had always shown themselves shy and suspicious, but 
relations had hitherto been quite friendly. The unhappy 
event of the 3rd May sowed the seeds of a hostility on 
the part of the blacks, which, exasperated from time to 
time by mutual injuries, filled the colony with deeds of 
outrage and horror, with savage murders of innocent 
settlers, and almost equally savage retaliation, until the 
native race was nearly exterminated, and the misemble 
remnant removed to Flinders' Island, to perish of slow 
decay. Of the origin of the affray the accounts are very 
contradictory. Two of these are contemporary ; one re- 
corded by Mr. Knopwood in his diary, the other in a 
letter by Lieut. Moore, the officer in charge of Risdon. 
The Chaplain says, under date Thursday, 3rd May : — 
"At 2 P.M. we heard the report of cannon once from 
Risdon. The Lieut-Governor sent a message to know the 
cause. At half-past 7, Lieut. Moore arrived at the camp 
to Lieut.-Governor Collins, and I received the following 
note from Risdon : — 

Dear Sir, 

I beg to refer you to Mr. Moore for the particulars of an 
ftttaiik the natives made on the camp to-day, and I have every 
reason to think it was premeditated, as their number far 
exceeded any that we ever heard of. As you express a wish 
to be acquainted with some of the natives, if you will dine 
with me fo-morrow, you will oblige me by chnstening a fine 
native boy who I have. Unfortunately, poor boy, his father 
and mother were both killed ; he is about 2 years old. I have, 
likewise, the body of a man that was killed. If Mr. Bowden 
wishes to see him dissected, I will be happy to see him with 
you to-morrow. I would have wrote to him, but Mr. Moore 
waits. 

Your friend, 

J. MOUNTGARRBT. 

Robert, six o'clock. 

The number of natives, I think, was not less than 5 or 6 
hundred. J. M." 

Knopwood continues : 

** At 8, Lieut. Moore came to my mar(]^uee and stayed some 
time ; he informed me of the natives being very numerous, 
and that they had wounded one of the settlers, Burke, and 
was going to burn his house down, and ill-treated his wife, 
&c., &c." 

Lieut. Moore's letter — ^a copy of which is preserved in 
the Record Office— is dated Risdon Cove, 7th May, 
1804, and is addressed to Governor Collins. He says — 

Sib. 

Agreeable to your desire, I have the honor of acquainting 
you with the circumstances that led to the attack on the 
natives, which you will perceive was the consequence of 
their own hostile appearance. 



84 



THB RISDOK SBTTLBMBKT. 



MUitary 
operations 
against the 
aboiig^es of 
V.D.L., 
House of 
Commons 
Paper, 28rd 
September, 
1831^ p. 59. 



It would a{>pear from the numbers of them^ and the spears, 
&c., with which they were armed, that their design was to 
attack us. However, it was not until they had thorouehly 
convinced us of their intentions, by using violence to a settler's 
wife, and my own servant — who was returning into camp with 
some kangaroos, one of which they took from him — that they 
were fired upon. On their coming into camp and surrounding 
it, I went towards them with five soldiers. Their appearance 
and numbers I thought very iar from Mendly. During this 
time I was informed that a party of them was beating fiirt, 
the settler, at his farm. I then despatched two soldiers to his 
assistance, with orders not to fire if they could avoid it 
However, they found it necessary ; and one was killed on the 
spot, and another found dead in the valley. 

But at this time a great party was in the camp ; and, on a 
proposal from Mr. Mountearret to fire one of the carronades 
to intimidate them, they departed. 

Mr. Mountgarret, with some soldiers and prisoners, fol- 
lowed them some distance up the valley, and have reason to 
suppose more was wounded, as one was seen to be taken 
away bleeding. During the time they were in camp, a num- 
ber of old men were perceived at the foot of the hill, near the 
valley, employed in preparing spears. 

I have now. Sir, as near as I can recollect, given you the 
leading particulars, and hope there has nothing been done but 
what you approve of. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

William Moobe, 
Lieut. N.S.W. Corps. 

It will be noticed that in this letter Lieut. Moore, 
who had every reason to represent the conduct of the 
natives in the worst light, can show no direct act of 
hostility. He assumed that they were hostile, from their 
numbers ; and, for the beating of Birt, and the proposed 
burning of his hut, he has no evidence to offer but a 
report brought to him in the midst of the panic which the 
appearance of the blacks had caused among his people. 
That the doctor's proposal to fire the carronade should 
have induced savages, who did not understand the 
language and had never seen fire-arms, to withdraw, is 
too great a stretch on one's credulity. We know, from 
Knopwood, that the gun was fired ; but, whether it was 
loaded with blank cartridge or with grape we have no 
means of deciding. 

The only other eye-witness of the afifair whose account 
we have directly contradicts Lieut. Moore ; and his 
story looks probable, like the story of a man who had 
kept his head amidst the general panic. This witness is 
one Edward White, who was examined before Governor 
Arthur's Aborigines' Committee in 1830. In considering 
his evidence it should be remembered that at the time he 
gave it the exasperation of the whole colony against the 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 85 

blacks, on account of their brutal outrages, was at fever 
heat, and the witness had every inducement to repre- 
sent their conduct in this affair in an unfavourable light. 
White canie to the colony with Bowen, and was an 
assigned servant to the settler Clark. He was the firet 
man who saw the approach of the natives. He was hoe- 
ing new ground on the creek near Clark's house, which 
was about half a mile up the valley behind the camp. 
As he was hoeing, he saw 300 natives, men, women, and 
children, coming down the valley in a circular, or rather 
a semi-circular, form, with a flock of kangaroo between 
them. They had no spears, but were armed with 
waddies only, and were driving the kangaroo into the 
bottom. On catching sight of him they paused astonished, 
and, to use his expression, 'Mooked at him with all 
their eyes." White had very probably been accus- 
tomed to the Port Jackson natives ; at any rate, he says 
that he felt no alarm at the approach of the blacks, but 
he thouffht it advisable to go down the creek and inform 
some soldiers. He then went back to his work. On 
his return the natives, •were near Clark's house. They 
did not molest him or threaten him in any way. Birt's 
house was on the other side of the creek some hundreds 
of yards off, and White was very positive that so far 
from attacking Birt or his house, they never even crossed 
over to that side of the creek, and " were not within half 
a quarter of a mile *' of the hut. He knew nothing of 
their going into the camp itself; but they did not attack 
the soldiers, and, he believed, would not have molested 
them. When the firing commenced there were a great 
many of the natives slaughtered and wounded, how many 
he did not know. 

The Rev. Mr. Knopwood gave evidence before the h. of Com. 
same committee. He stated that he had heard different Paper, 88rd 
opinions as to the origin of the attack ; that it was said ^P**> ^^^> 
the natives wanted to encamp on the site of Birt's hut, ^* ' 
half a mile from the camp, and had ill-used his wife, 
but that the hut was not burnt or plundered. They did 
not attack the camp, but our people went from the camp 
to attack the natives, who remained at Birt*s hut. He 
thought only five or six natives were killed. The 
general opinion was that the blacks had gone to Risdon 
to hold a corrobberry. 

These accounts throw great doubt on the accuracy of 
Lieut. Moore's version of the affair. It is significant i 
that Knopwood, who had every opportunity of learning 
the truth at the time, should state so positively that the 
natiTes never left the neighbourhood of Births hut, but 
that the soldiers went out to attack them. 



88 



THE RISDON SETTLEMENT. 



King to 
Collins, 30tb 
September, 
1804. 

Collins to 
King, '29th 
February, 
1804. 



King to 
Collins, 30th 
September. 

Knopwood, 
3rd Sept. 

King to 
Palmer, 29tli 
September. 
King's Com- 
mission, 31st 
August, 1804. 

King to 
Collins, 30th 
September, 
1804. 



King's memo, 
to Palmer, 
29th Septem- 
ber, 1804. 



Bowen to 
King, 17th 
Novembc!*, 
1804. 



King to 
Hobart, 20lh 
December, 
1804. 



The other settler, Birt, had applied for and obtained 
leave to remain ; but at the last moment he changed 
his mind, an.l sailed with the rest in the Ocearij which 
broufjht him under the displeasure of Governor King, 
who refused to allow him a grant of land. Dr. Mount- 
garret also at first desired to stay, as he had been 
combining commerce with medicine, and- had a lai^e 
stock on hand which he wished to dispose of; bat he, 
eventually, changed his mind, and he also sailed in the 
Ocean. 

The net balance of the Risdon Settlement, therefore, 
remaining with Collins was Richard Clark and the 
1 1 male and 2 female convicts above mentioned. Collins 
afterwards ordered all the houses at Risdon to be pulled 
down ; but it does not appear whether this was carried 
into effect. The Ocean did not arrive in Port Jackson 
until the 23rd August, King having almost given her np 
for lost. Dr. Mountgarret got a fresh appointment as 
Surgeon to the new Settlement at Port Dalrymple, 
under Lieut.-Colonel Patereon. 

Lieut. Bowen had left a mare at the Derwcnt for 
which he had paid «£12(>, and he offered her to King at 
that piice. The Governor agreed to purchase her on 
Government account, and paid Bowen with four cows, 
which he stopped out of his next shipment to Collins. 
This was the first lioree taken to Van Diemen's Land. 

It only remains to state what more we know of the 
Governor of Risdon Creek. On his arrival at Sydney 
he was desirous of returning to England, in order that 
he might again enter on active service in the navy. 
Governor King had offered him the munificent pay of 
5>'. per day from the 30th June, 1803, when he first 
sailed from Sydney in the JPorpoise, to the 24th August, 
1804, when lie returned thither in the Ocean, viz., 420 
days, at 5.9. per day, or <£105 — exactly one hundred 
guineas for 14 months' governorship — certainly not an 
extravagant salary for a Governor — not enough to pay 
his passage to England. He refused the colonial pay 
offered, and addressed a letter to King, in which he 
remmds the Governor that pecuniary considerations had 
not been in his view in accepting the appointment, but 
simply the advancement of his interest in His Majesty's 
naval service ; but that, as he had been at great expense 
consequent on that appointment, lie trusted the Governor 
would recommend him to the Home authorities for a 
sufficient remuneration. Kinij enclosed the letter to 
Lord Hobart, strongly recommending the application, as 
he believed Bowen had done his utmost to forward the 
service he undertook, and expressing a hope that, in 



I 



r.t 



BY JAMES BACKHOUSE WALKER. 89 

addition to this, his character, and that of his father and 
other relatives in the navy, might open a way for the 

Eromotion he was so anxious to obtain. King also paid 
is passage home in the Lady Barlow^ amounting 
to £100. 

It would seem that Lieut. Bowen obtained the promo- 
tion he sought. Jorgensen — who, however, was not the 
most accurate of men — states in his autobiography that 
the Commandant of Risdon was a son of Commissioner 
Bowen. Mr. Leslie Stephen's '* Dictionary of National Rosa* Hobart 
Biography," in a notice of Captain James (afterwards Town 
Admiral) Bowen, who performed brilliant services at sea fl^^^^* 
daring the French wars, mentions the feet that he was * - 
one of the Commissioners of the Navy from 1816 to 1825, 
and that his son John, also a captain, after serving in 
that rank through the later years of the war, died in the 
year 1828. 

With this brief notice of its founder, I close the story 
of the first Settlement at Risdon Cove. 



APPENDIX A. 

Captain Hayes' Charts. 

A manuscript map, evidently the result of Lieut. Hayes' 
surveys of the Derwent, was recently discovered by Mr. 
James R. M'Clymont in the National Library. Mr. Alfred 
Mault has obtained through his friends in Paris a fac simile 
of this map, which he has courteously placed at the disposal 
of the Royal Society, and a photo-litnograph of it will appear 
in this year's volume of the Society's Proceedings. The map 
bears the imprint of A. Arrowsmithj London, but apparently 
was never published. Mr. Mault thmks it is Lieut. Hayes' 
own draft of his chart prepared for publication. This is pro- 
bable ; but the map in question is not identical with the 
sketch FUuders refers to, since that sketch showed Risdon 
Cove, which does not appear in Mr. Mault's/ac simile. His 
Excellency the Governor has kindly interested himself in the 
matter, and it is probable that through his influence some 
further information respecting Hayes' expedition may at last 
be brought to light. 

APPENDIX B. 

Population of the Australian Colonies at the time of the 
Risdon Settlement (1803) :— 

New South Wales 7134 

Norfolk Island 1200 

Van Diemen's Land ' 49 

Total 8383 



See Collins' ** Account of New South Wales," ii., 333. 



90 ABBBKDA BT COBBIGBHBA. 

Addenda bt CoBBieiBirDi. 
^'thb ntBvoH nr yan dibmbh's IiAvd.'' 

(See Btqrml 8oel0ty'i TnuuMtkiiH, 1888.) 

P. lOl^Note.— The name ^^Anttrafia.''— Ina deepatefa to Lord 
Bathnrst, dated April 4th, 1817, Governor Macauarie says — 
'' The Continent of AuttraHOf which I hone will be the name 
given to this cowitry in fhtnre, instead of the very orroneons 
and misapplied name hitherto given it, of Neu> HoOand^ 
which, properly speaking^j only ap^es to a part of this 
immense continent. — Labdlierrs ^ Early History of Yic- 
toria," i., 184. 

P. 100, line 8.— << Qmros' Terre du St Esprit, the coast 
between Cooktown and Townsville." — It is so placed l^ De 
Brosses in the chart appended to his ^ Navigations anz Terres 
Aostrales.^' It is now identified as the island of Espirita 
Santo, one of the New Hebrides group. 

P. 108, line 16.— <'Cox (1789)."— Throoeh inadvertence 
Cox is mentioned as having touched at Adventure Bay. 
He did not enter Storm Bay, but visited Oyster Bay and 
Maria Island. 

P. 110, line 9. — ^^ In spite of his safe conduct from the French 
Admiralty, [Flinders'] ship was seized as a prize.'' — In a 
pamphlet published in Sydney in 1886, containing a summary 
of the contents of the BralMume Papers, it is stated that 
amongst the despatdies carried by the Cumberland was one 
from Governor Kine jpointing out the opportunities which 
Port Jackson afford^ for the concentration of troops, which 
might at any time be sent against the Spaniards in South 
America, and it is suggested that the discovery of this de- 
spatch amongst Flinders' papers gave Governor De Caen a 
plausible excuse for the detention of the English navigator. 
It is difficult to believe that this surmise has any sumcient 
foundation, since, if such a despatch had come to the hands 
of De Caen, he would certainly have produced it as a justifica- 
tion of his action, and would not have been driven to the 
paltry pretext drawn from an entry in Flinders' journal. 

It may be mentioned that in a paper dated 1809 — while 
Flinders was still a prisoner — Governor King states that 
there was no doubt that the French entertained the design of 
attacking New South Wales from Mauritius. He says that 
Baudin had taken correct plans of Port Jackson, and had 
explored the passage to Mauritius through Bass Straits, and 
that had he lived another year the Commodore would most 
likely have visited the colony for the purpose of annihilating 
the settlement. — LabilUere's " Early History of Victoria," i., 
121. See also Jorgensen's Autobiography in Ross's "Hobart 
Town Almanack for 1835," p. 138. 



DISCUSSION ON THE FRENCH IN VAN DIBMBN'S LAND. 91 

Discussion. 

The Eev. F. H. Cox referred to the interest always mani- 
fested in tracing the past history of peoples and places. Mr. 
"Walker had taken up the position of a Goldsmith in relation 
to this deserted village of Eisdon, and traced a reason for this 
desertion. In a sense he might claim a relationship to Mr. 
Knopwood mentioned in the paper, in that he had succeeded 
Mr. Bedford, and Archdeacon Davies, who had immediately suc- 
ceeded Mr. Knopwood. 

The Rev. Geo. Clarke congratulated the writer of the 
paper, and referred to the value of such information being 
placed on record. It also removed several mistaken impres- 
sions which had been allowed to gain ascendency. 

Mr. Mault asked Mr. "Walker if the chart referred to by 
liim was similar to one which he had brought under that 
gentleman's notice a few days ago. 

Mr. Walker said it was not. The Sydney chart gave further 
particulars than in the one mentioned. 

Mr. Mault explained that he had, through the medium of 
friends in Paris, obtained permission to copy certain of the 
maps in the archives at Paris. There was one map alleged to 
liave been issued by Arrowsmith, but of which no trace could 
"be found in the publisher's house. The theory he formed was, 
that Lieut. Hayes was seized, together with his charts, by 
Trench vessels when proceeding to London, and that this map 
was in manuscript at the time of seizure. He should be happy 
to place the copy at Mr. Walker's disposal should he so 
desire. 

Sir Lambert Dob son endorsed the remarks made by the 
Eev. Geo. Clarke. He referred to the statement made in 
Hopwood's Journal, in which it was asserted that the river 
was endangered by the number of whales, and also to the fact 
that a former Governor had enjoyed snipe shooting near 
Hobart. All this was changed and gone. He did not think 
the full blame for the exterminatory war lay on the shoulders 
of Lieut. Moore. It was bound to come in time. He also 
mentioned that the site of Hobart was densely covered with 
Bcmb, and therefore the first settlers might be forgiven for 
choosing a more favourable spot. These changes that had 
occurred he hoped were for the better. 

His Excellency congratulated the writer of the paper. 
He endorsed the opinion made by Mr. Mault respecting the 
existence of old records in France. He would be prepared to 
xiae his influence in the direction of making a request to the 
Home Government on the subject. (Applause.) 



F 



SMUT IN WHEAT. 

Bt T. Stbphbws, M.A., P.G.S. 

The letter of Mr. Joseph Barwick, read at the last meeting 
of the Eoyal Society, is speciallj interesting as showing a 
spirit of intelligent enquiry, and a desire to work out the 
solution of one of the numerous problems connected with 
natural phenomena, which are to some extent a matter of 
uncertainty even to those who have devoted their lives to 
scientific research. Mr. Barwick's long experience as a practical 
farmer, and the results of his special experiments, have shown 
him that the origin and spread of the parasitic disease to 
which he refers is involved in much obscurity. He has, 
however, perhaps not sufficiently realised that a thorough 
knowledge of the general history of these low forms of 
vegetable life must be acquired before one can be 
sure of a satisfactory basis for experiments. The absence 
here of facilities of access to standard works and recent 
reports increases the difficulty of investigation, but the main 
facts of the propogation of the disease in question are 
sufficiently well-known for all practical purposes. Smut 
and bunt may be regarded as convertible terms. Though 
they are spoken of as distinct species by some authorities, I 
can say from personal knowledge that what is called smut in 
Tasmania bears the same name in some parts of England, 
while elsewhere it is known as bunt. It is a minute fungus 
belonging to the family Coniomycetes, sub-order UstilagineU 
and has been described at different times under various names, 
as Uredo caries, Uredo foetida, Tilletia caries, and UstUago 
segetum ; but it is pretty well-known now that the form in 
which the disease is always recognised is simply one of 
the conditions or stages in the life of a fungoid plant, which 
in other stages is known by a different name. In the case of 
animal parasites, such as the sheep fluke {Fasciola hepatica), 
the stage in which it appears to the ordinary observer is 
only the final development in the sheep of a cycle of changes, 
one of which, at least, cannot take place except in the body of 
an animal belonging to a totally different class. Again, the 
disease in sheep caUed ** sturdy " or " staggers " — the common 
term in Tasmania is a " cranky " sheep " — is derived from the 
ova of the tape worm {Taenia) in a dog which, voided on the 
.grass, are taken up by the sheep with its natural food, and 
find their way through the circulation into the brain, and 
are there developed into a new form called Ccentmis cerebratu, 
which, lodged near the inner surface of the skull and pressing 
on the brain, produces the symptoms which are well-known 
to most sheep farmers. So the blight known as ** corn 
mildew " (JPuceinia graminis) has been definitely connected 



BT T. STEPHENS, M.A., F.Q.S. 93 

iriih a fuDgns {^cidium herberidii) found on the wild 
barberry, and is said to have disappeared from some 
localities when this hedgerow tree had been extirpated. As 
regards smut, it is sufficient to know that the disease generally 
springs from seed infected by the minute spores of the fungus 
Imown by that name, which explains the use of sulphate of 
-copper or some other fungus destroyer, as a preyentive, and it 
is probable that the intermediate changes take place in 
dinerent parts of the wheat plant, reaching their final 
development in the ear. It is well known that self-sown 
wheat, such as grows on headlands, is very rarely affected by 
the disease, and the probable explanation of this fact is that 
it is not so much exposed to infection as that which has 
j>assed through the steam-threshing machine. The myriads of 
^spores beaten out from eyen one smutted ear form a cloud of 
impalpable slightly glutinous dust, which adheres to the 
grain with which it comes in contact, and this applies also to 
hand-threshed wheat, though in a much less degree. When 
the machines first came into use, English farmers still pre- 
ferred to use the flail for wheat intended for seed, because in 
machine-dressed wheat some of the grain is often so much 
broken by the beaters as to be unfit to produce healthy plants. 
They do not omit in either case to use some preventive 
against smut, the experience of generations have proved that 
if properly applied, it very rarely foils to check its ravages. 
Of course wheat selected from sound ears and rubbed out by 
hand, as described by Mr. Barwick, would be in a condition 
analogous to that of self- sown wheat, having been free 
from exposure to the ordiaa'ry causes of infection. I doubt 
very much whether any trials of seed at the Botanical Gkkrdens 
•€Oiild be of much practical value in a matter of this kind ; but 
iiuther experiments by Mr. Barwick and other intelligent 
farmers might prove interesting. As the mode of dressing 
wheat against smut varies considerably, and some kinds of 
treatment may do as much harm as good, I will conclude these 
remarks with a brief description of the process adopted by 
the best farmers in the North of England, where it was 
always regarded as an almost infallible preventive. A solution 
is prepared by dissolving powdered sulphate of copper in 
water, at the rate of 2ozs. to a pint for each bushel of wheat. 
The grain is emptied on a floor, a little of it is shovelled to 
one side by one person, while another sprinkles the solution 
over it, and this process is continued until the whole quantity 
is gone over. The heap is then turned repeatedly, the men 
working with shovels opposite to each other. After lying for 
•a few minutes the grain is ready for sowing either by hand or 
machine. The seed ought not to be steeped in the solution, 
bat merely wetted. A too strong solution may kill the seed 
as well as the fungus, and damaged grains are probably often 



94 DISCUSSION ON SMUT IN WHEAT. 

destroyed by the ordinaxy process of pickling ; while too long 
soaking in even a weak solution may cause premature 
germination, resulting in a badly-rooted and unhealthy plant. 



Discussion. 

Mb. E. M. Johnston said he had studied this matter IT 
or 18 years ago, and had found that the same form of 
fungoid growths prevailed in all these cases. At that time 
he took occasion to make enquiries among the western 
farmers as to the surroundings which usually proved most 
favourable to the development of the pest, and the prevailing 
opinion was that it was most prevalent in newly cleared 
lands, adjoining forest lands, and that the further removed 
the land was from the timber growth, the pest sensibly 
decreased. Perhaps, in view of aU this, it might be wise on 
the part of farmers, when selecting seed wheat, to obtain it 
from districts which were free, or almost free, from the 
pest. 

Me. Mault directed attention to the fact that the Agri* 
cultural Department of the Privy Council, Great Britain and 
Ireland, issued reports by experts on all these subjects, and 
that copies thereof were furnished to the Tasmanian 
Parliamentary Library. These reports embraced works deal- 
ing with the latest information, respecting both agriculture 
and fruit culture, and he thought the fact was not generally 
known that copies existed in the colony. 

Me. Waed called attention to the fact that sulphate of 
copper contained a percentage of sulphate of iron, which 
was a decidedly more powerful germicide than sulphate of 
copper. It also appeared that the iron sulphate formed a 
chemical compound with the cellulose portion of the coating 
of grain. 



95 



SMUT IN WHEAT. 

By p. Abbott, Superintendent of the Botanical 

Gardens. 

At the last meeting of the Eoyal Society a communication 

from Mr. Joseph Barwick was read on Smut in Wheat, in 

which he relates his own tests for the purpose of ascertaining 

the cause, and suggests that further experiments should be, 

carried out in the Botanical Gardens for a like purpose. 

Having carefully read Mr. Barwick' s communication, I can 

but think that he, as well as others with whom I have 

•conversed, are not acquainted with much that has been done 

-of late in the investigation of this subject, and that, 

therefore, the following general notes may interest many : — 

The various species of Ustilaginse, especially U. Segetum, 

causing smut in wheat and other plants have been under 

observation by a host of competent scientific observers for 

many years past, and it is only of late, after much patient 

research and many thousands of anatomical observations, 

ipore in the laboratory than the field, that the life history of 

ihe fungus has been elucidated. In the Gardener^ a Chronicle 

for February 23 and March 2, a detailed account of recent 

-discoveries as to the nature of TJstilaginse is given by H. 

Marshall Ward. As this account is replete with information 

^t present little known, arrangements have been made for its 

publication in Webster's Gazette for August and September, 

where full details may be found. To others into whose hands 

this publication may not come, the following brief notes may 

be of interest ; The dark substance, popularly called smut, is 

in reality dense masses of spores arising in tufts at the ends 

of fine filaments, formed in the ovary or young grain at the 

expense of the food material, which is destroyed. These 

spores, of which there are enormous numbers, every ear of 

smutted com producing, it is estimated, not less than ten 

millions, are capable of germinating when placed under 

favourable circumstances, and multiply their conoidal cells 

with great rapidity in the soil ; fresh manure or manure 

washings greatly favour their development, and should in all 

cases be avoided ; in material of this description the fungus 

produces generation after generation in vastly increasing 

niunbers, waiting as it were for the coming of its host, into 

which it quickly penetrates, and with which it continues to 

grow. The spores ripening in the grain of the smutted 

cereal are garnered with the latter, become scattered on the 

healthy grain and are sown with it, the fungus germinating 

at the same time as the cereal, produce their prymocella, the 

g6rm tubes of which penetrate the embryo plant. Experiments 



96 SMT7T m WHEAT. 

have proved that the fungus is only able to effect an entrance 
to its host by attacking the embiyonic tissue; once inside, it 
gradually permeates the whole plant, extending with its growth 
from, cell to cell, and finally meeting in the young fruit con- 
ditions favourable to the production of spores. As the fungus 
can only enter the tender tissue at the color of the young seed- 
ling, it is very important that the cultivator should endeavour, 
by the selection of good, sound, clean seed only, and a good and 
properly prepared seed bed, to encourage a rapid growth from 
the first. Anything that tends to retard this growth in its. 
earliest stages lengthens the time during which it is possible 
for the fungus to effect an entrance, and greatly increases 
the chances of infection ; a few hours even may make all the 
difference, for though thousands of sporidea may be near the 
color of the young seedling, no entrance can take place unless 
the germ tubes reach it at the critical time. Experiments 
have been made with a view of infecting the leaves and stem 
of the growing corn with the germinating spores, but have 
invariably resulted in failure, except on the tender growing 
point, where the tissues remained sufficiently soft for the 
sporidea to effect an entrance, but under natural conditions 
this point is not subject to attack. As regards suit- 
able dressings, there is yet a large field open to 
investigators ; if freeing the seed coat from spores super- 
ficially attached was all that was necessary, the matter would 
be simple enough, but much more than this is required, as 
the smut fungus may be present in the soil itself, ready to 
attack the grain at the critical time. Dressings, to be 
effectual, must be sufficiently permanent to destroy in the soil 
any prymocelia or conoidal cells that may happen to be in 
proximity with the seed corn. The following are said to be 
as efficacious as any at present known : — A strong solution of 
Glauber's salts, in which the seed grain is to be well washed,, 
and afterwards, while still moist, dusted over with quicklime ; 
by the application of the lime the caustic soda is set free and 
destroys any fungoid growths it may come in contact with. 
The application of copper sulphate to the grain as a dressing 
before sowing is a well-known remedy, but though it destroys 
the fungus it greatly retards the growth of the wheat, which 
is an objection to its use. Lime applied after the copper salt 
neutralises its prolonged effect, and is a good practice. The 
presence of lime itself in the soil is likewise beneficial. The 
foregoing notes are the result of the labours of many com- 
petent investigators, who have bestowed much time and care 
on the subject, the elucidation of which necessitated thousands 
of artificial cultures of the fungus and microscopical examina- 
tions. One or two points in Mr. Joseph Barwick's 
communication will be better accounted for, if viewed with the 
light thrown on the subject by recent investigations. Mr* 



BY F. ABBOTT. 97 

Barwiok points out m one of his experiments that it was the 
strong and deep-rooted plants tliat escaped infection ; this is 
only what might hare been looked for, as upon the strength 
and rapidity of growth of the plant depends in great measure 
its immunity from infection. And, again he points out that 
it was only in the annual species of grasses that he detected 
smut ; here again is precisely what might be expected, as the 
perennial grasses would have become too consolidated at the 
part subject to infection for the fine filaments of the fungus 
to efTect an entrance, and thus would remain free &om attack 
TVlth reference to the suggestion that experiments should be 
undertaken in the Botanical Gardens for the purpose of 
throwing light on the subject, I doubt much if any good 
result could be obtained by such experiments. There is no 
doubt but the life history of fungoid .pests effecting cultivated 
plants is one of great interest to the cultivator, but the 
subject is so intricate, the same fungus presenting many 
varying forms during its growth, that if any satisfactory 
progress is to be made in its elucidation, it is absolutely 
necessary that cultivators in many and varying localities 
accurately record &>cts coming under their notice, and these 
&cts, which are only so much crude material, wlU need to be 
arranged and investigated by the mycologist. Only after very 
many and oft repeated experiments, made for the purpose of 
verification, have been made can any definite result be 
obtained. 



98 

A NEW DAEK-FIELD MICEOMETER POR DOUBLE- 

STAR MEASUREMENT. 
By a. B. Bioas. 
Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

I often think it must be very pleasant for the ardent 
votary of science to have unlimited means at his command 
for obtaining such apparatus as he requires in the pursuit of 
his favourite study ; apparatus elaborately finished, and 
perfectly adapted for the work for which it is designed. Yet 
it too often happens that such apparatus becomes a mere toy 
in the hands of its possessor, he merely contenting himself 
with its possession, and the enjoyment of its beauties. On 
the other hand, it remains a fact that some of the grandest 
achievements of science are due to workers who have had to 
be content with very simple and perhaps roughly constructed 
apparatus, the outcome of their own ingenuity, called forth 
by the necessities of the case. The writer claims the 
applicability of the foregoing remarks to his own case only 
so far as they relate to the necessity of trusting mainly to 
his own resources in his very limited field of scientific work. 
The instrument of which the following is a description, has 
been in this way the outcome of his necessity. Its special 
function is the measurement of very minute angular distances, 
such as those of double stars, giving at the same time the 
angle of position with reference to the meridian. 

A few preliminary remarks on some of the existing forms of 
Micrometer may help to elucidate the special adaptability 
of the instrument to be described for the work for which it 
was designed. The Reticle Micrometer is specially useful for 
mapping star fields, but a driving clock for the telescope is 
almost essential. My first Micrometer was of this form, and 
consisted of a photograph (on thin micro, coverglass) of a 
scale,' ruled on a sheet of glass coated with black paint, and 
having lines cut through the paint with the point of a pen- 
knife. The figure was a square subdivided into 400 by 
parallel lines each way (20 x 20). Each interlinear space 
was divided by a line running from the centre to the outside 
of the square each way. The one for use with my highest 
power is only iVin. square, the spaces between the lines 
being only 2ofrin. It is, however, quite inadequate for 
double-star work. 

The Ring Micrometer is adapted for distances occupying a 
considerable portion of the field, by timing the passages across 
the ring. But unless the passage describes chords at some 
distance from the diameter the measures are unreliable. It 
involves somewhat tedious calculation for differences of 
declination. 



BY A. B. BIGGS. 99 

A very useful dark-field Micrometer, embracing the greater 
portion of the field, is the Bar Micrometer. My own form 
■of it is a modification of that used by Lacaille in the prepara- 
tion of his valuable Catalogue of Southern Stars. His was a 
rhomboid cut out of a piece of thin brass and placed in the 
focus of the eye-piece ; mine is an equilateral triangle, formed 
of watch hair-spring. The differences of right ascension and 
declination are obtained by timing the passages in and out of 
the triangle. It is a very useful instrument for faint objects 
which will not bear illumination of the field, and especially 
for comet work. 

The Micrometer, par excellence, for general work is doubt- 
less the Filar Position Micrometer. A description of this is 
of course superfluous to those at all acquainted with telescopic 
work. The measurement is effected by parallel spider lines, 
moved to and fro by fine screws, the measu es being read off 
by the number of turns, and by graduatious on the screw 
heads. The scale is revolved by a pinion and wheel, so as to 
make a cross spider line intersect the objects to be measured, 
and the position angle is read from a graduated circle. This 
instrument is specially convenient for differences of declin- 
ation ; but for direct oblique distances, is difl&cult to use with- 
out a steady driving clock for the telescope. It is a delicate 
and expensive aparatus. 

Many other forms and methods of Micrometer measurement 
are adopted, which it will be unnecessary to fiirther refer to. 
I will now go on to describe my own, first giving the general 
principle. 

If a strip of s^lass (A), coated with black paint, and having 
two fine converging lines cut through the paint, at an angle 
of 10 or 15 deg., be placed face to face with another piece 
of glass (B), similarly coated, and having a single line ruled 
across it — this line being placed so as to cross the lines of A 
— the intersection of the lines will show as luminous points 
by transmitted light. On sliding the slip A along, these 
points will recede or approach until they coalesce at the 
point of the angle. Now, if an image of these points can be 
projected into the field of the telescope, and brought into 
juxtaposition with the pair of objects whose angular distance 
is to be measured, we obviously have the means, by a proper 
adjustment of the points as to distance and parallelism, of 
determining the measurement required. The position of the 
sHde A is read upon a graduated scale, the value of which 
ifl determined by well-known astronomical methods. 

The projection of the image into the telescope is effected 
by means of an adjustable camera-lucida, constructed from 
a selected micro, cover-glass and attached to the eye-piece. The 
Whole carrying arrangement of the glass plates is made to 



100 A NEW DABK-FIBLD MIGBOMBTER. 

rerolye in a suitable frame, so that the luminoos points maj 
be brought into parallelism with thepair of stars to be measured^ 
and the angle read off from a graduated circle on the rim,, 
the zero point being first ascertained by revolving the scale 
until a star shall run along the single Ime of plate B. The- 
difEerence of readings will give the position angle withe 
reference to the meridian, it being supposed that the telescope- 
is mounted equatoriallj. 

The foregoing will, I think, make the principle clear*. 
Dimensions will depend very much on the size of the telescope. 
In my case, the glass slides are 7in. x 4in., the opening of 
the circle or ring 4in. The telescope is a Newtonian reflector 
— speculum 8|in. The apparatus is fixed perpendicularly on 
the telescope tube at a distance (towards the speculum end) 
of 19|in. from the eye-tube, this distance being adopted for 
convenience, as giving a value of ^ sec. of arc with the 
power I generaUy use for double stars. The sliding glasa. 
slip fits into a brass sliding frame, or carrier, which moves by 
a rack and pinion. A scale of lOO divisions is engraved on 
the side of the frame, answering to the length of the glass, 
slide. (See A and F, Fig. 1.) 

For the glass slides I prepare a coated slip three lengths ia 
one, ruling the diverging lines the whole length of the slip„ 
from the angle at one end to an opening of about 3|in. at the 
other. This slip is then cut into 3 lengths (commencing from 
the point of the angle), each length being exactly equal ta 
the 100 divisions on the frame. This gives scale readings to 
100, 200, 300, the glasses being interchangeable in the frame. 
The whole arrangement, with its graduated circle, revolves in 
the frame which supports it, by a pinion in the support, 
working in a toothed wheel on the circle. My apparatus is 
fitted with a small electric lamp (2 J candle), with a contact 
conveniently near the eje-piece. At the back of the lamp is a. 
concave reflector, to throw a parallel beam of light upon the 
scale. It is of advantage to frost the back surface of the 
glass (next to the lamp). The coated surfaces should be next 
each other without rubbing. 

The measurement is effected, not by direct coincidence, but 
by coTJiparison. Supposing we are working without a driving- 
clock, the ** ghost," as I will call it (i.e., the image of the 
points), is brought to about the middle of the field, and the 
star brought into position with it. The circle is then revolved 
until the ** ghost " is sensibly parallel with the line joinings 
the components of the star, and the slide moved to correspond, 
with the distance. When these adjustments are perfect, as 
the star approaches and recedes from the " ghost," the four 
points will form a perfect parallelogram. (Fig. 2.) 

Practically it will be found that the eye is very sensitive te 



FlOl (PACE3) 




The-Arrpw skews ^MfpeLtiuofihe^Starao'oss M«. Aitld' 



Fla^ 




• The/ ^Givost 



X X 



X >i2Jieystarpassizigih^6fwst 



Fig 3 Page 4. 



of 




F/C4 Pace 4 




BY A. B. BIGGS. 101 

aaj irregularity in the figure; I think more so than with 
respect to coincidence with spider lines, as in the use of the* 
filar micrometer, especially when, without a driving-clock, the 
object is moving obliquely across the field, and only a. 
momentary contact can be obtained in passing. The similarity 
of the images in the former case favours the comparison. 
Fig. 3 shows the general arrangement of the apparatus, 
as applied to a Newtonian reflector. 

My first experimental arrangement was fitted to my Sin. 
refractor, and was a very primitive affair, the carrier being of 
tin, revolving in a paper tube. For a refractor, a different 
arrangement from that described above has to be adopted. 
With the Newtonian reflector, the position of the scale being 
at right angles with the direction of vision, a single reflection 
at 45deg. throws the image into the eye-piece. With the 
re&actor, on the other hand, the only practicable position for 
the apparatus is on the body of the tube towards the object- 
glass ; that is in the direction of vision. This necessitates 
an intermediate reflection at an angle of 45, to throw down 
the image of the scale upon the camera-lucida. (Fig. 4.) 

The apparatus admits of very considerable elaboration and 
development ; as, for instance, star photometry. Further ; 
the whole apparatus may be made to travel to or from the eye 
on a suitable slide, having a graduated scale ; a single plate 
with parallel lines being placed in the plate-holder. By this 
arrangement planetary discs and differences of declination 
may be read off, as with the filar micrometer. I will not, 
however, add to the tediousness of this paper by further 
reference to this matter. 

I must, in closing, express my obligation to Mr. Alex. 
Wallace, of this city, a clever amateur mechanic, for hia^ 
kindness and generosity in the successful construction of my 
present apparatus. 



102 



NOTES ON THE DISCOVERY OF A GANOID FISH 

IN THE KNOCKLOFTY SANDSTONES, HOBART. 

By Messrs. R. M. Johnston and A. Mobton. 

Two Plates. 

The recent discovery of the very perfect remains of a 
Ganoid Fish, closely allied to the genus Acrolepis, in one of 
the beds of the Knocklofty sandstones, is of the greatest 
interest. Several fossil fishes are said to have been found 
previously in the flagstone quarry near the Cascades, but, 
unfortunately, the quarrymen regarded them as being of 
little or no importance, and although, from curiosity, one or 
two specimens had been preserved for a time by one of the 
workmen, they were soon lost or thrown away. The specimen 
now referred to was discovered by Mr. H. NichoUs, who, 
with commendable thoughtfulness, at once presented it to 
the Tasmanian Museum. 

Fortunately the casts of the specimen are remarkably 
perfect. The only parts imperfect, or missing, are the ventral 
fins, part of the anal fin, and the anterior part of the head. 
The strongly pronounced heterocercal tail and the scales of 
the body are remarkably well preserved. The following is 
a description of the fish, which is named, provisionally, in 
honour of His Excellency Sir Robert Hamilton, to whom, as 
its President, the Royal Society is so much indebted for the 
enthusiastic manner in which he' has ever promoted its 
interests. 

Acrolepis ? Hamtltoni, Johnston and Morton. 

Body compressed, elliptical, elongate ; length from snout to 
end of caudal fin about 7 inches ; length of body 5| inches ; 
depth at a vertical line through occiput, 12 lines, increasing 
to 14 lines at greatest depth near ventrals, and from thence 
gradually tapering to peduncle, where it measures 5 lines ; 
length of heterocercal tail — which is inclined upwards at an 
angle of about 22 degrees — 14 lines; length of lower ray 
lobe of caudal, 5 lines ; length of head about \\ inches, or 
scarcely one-sixth of the total length; length of dorsal, 
about 8 lines; fin low, with fine rays, probably 15 or 16; 
anterior end situated about 39 lines from end of caudal, and 
the posterior distant about 31 lines from the same point. 
The anal fin is inconspicuous and imperfectly preserved, but 
it appears to be similar to the dorsal, and it is situated fully 
half the length of that fin nearer the tail. The ventrals are 



BY MBS3BS. B. M. JOHNSTON AND A. MOBTON. 103; 

scarcely visible, but appear to be small ; and the root is only 
about 10 lines distant from a vertical drawn through posterior 
portion of head. Pectorals about 7 lines in length, and 
consists, apparently, of about 15 slender rays. 

There are 56 rows of small rhomboid scales, longitudinally 
arranged in an inclined dorso-ventral series ; the caudal series 
being more perceptibly angled than the anterior series. The 
inner surface of each scale is alone visible, from which it clearly 
appears that each one is finely ridged longitudinally, as in 
the scales of Acrolepis. There are usually 4 slightly curved 
ridges, radiating longitudinally from posterior angle of 
rhomboid scale to the two inner ones, almost invariably 
becoming furcate as they approach anterior inner margin ; 
the outside one on either side smaller and almost invariably 
simple. The upper margin of tail is markedly serrate, 
indicating the presence of numerous pointed fulcral scales. 

The only Australian fish which appears to come near it is 
the well-known Myriolepis Olarkei, Egerton, but it is evident 
from the description and drawings that the Tasmanian 
Qanoid has relatively much smaller fins, and the scales, though 
belonging to a specimen half the size, are relatively much 
larger and consequently less numerous. 

Age of the Rocks in Which the Pish Remains Occur. 

The discovery of this interesting fossil is another proof of 
the aqueous origin of the important series of sandstone beds, 
of which the section from Cascades to Knocklofty affords the 
best and most fully developed example. Although the shales 
contain impressions of what appear to be fucoids, the 
evidences are not sufficient to determine whether these basins 
were estuarine or lacustrine; or whether the waters were 
fresh, brackish, or salt. Ganoid fishes of the period are found 
under aU such conditions ; and therefore their discovery in 
such deposits prove little further than to indicate the aquebu» 
origin of the beds in which such remains occur. It is most 
probable that the waters were of the nature of brackish 
lagoons. The exact position of these sandstones in relation 
to the Mesozoic Coal Measures, on the one hand, and the 
Upper Paleozoic Mudstones, on the other, has ever been one 
of much doubt. 

It is true a similar series of sandstones at Adventure Bay 
appear to immediately succeed the Upper Carboniferous Coal 
Measures without any sign of stratigraphic break; and 
again at Passage Point this succession appears to be very 
complete in immediate relation to beds of the Upper Marine 
series. But the absence of fossil evidence, and the manner 
in which the several deposits are separated from each other^ 
by distance or faults and intrusive rocks, make it a doubtful 



104 NOTES Oir THS DISOOYSBT OF A QASfOTD FOH. 

matter whether these apparently similar formations are, in 
Tealitj, members of the same horizon. The evidence of 
breaks in the series at Enockloffcy, and on the Huon Bead 
near the Old Toll Bar, also adds perplexity when relationships 
are sought to be established. And much observation is yet 
needed before it is possible to satisfactorily determine the 
true relations of the various separated sandstone formations, 
lying either between the Upper Paleozoic Mudstones or 
Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures, and the Coal Measures 
of Mesozoic Age. 

Section Fbom the Cascades to Knocklopty. 

The series of sandstones and shales between the bed of the 
creek at the Cascades, and the blow of intrusive greenstones 
forming a conical knoll above the highest sandstone quarry 
on Knocklofty, is about 800 feet thick, measuring from the 
bed of the creek. At this point it is not known to what 
depth the series extend, but it is probable the thickness 
altogether will exceed 1,000 feet. 

The following is a description of the series exposed^ taken 
in ascending order : — 

1. Yellow fissile sandstones, splitting up 

into thin evenly bedded flagstones ... 20 

2. Greyish or blackish micaceous bed of flaggy 

sandstone, with hardened ferruginous 
nodules, sometimes enclosing remains of 
fossil fish ... ... ... ... ... 5 

3. Friable mottled shales — green, red, or 

yellow — with obscure impressions of 
minute strap-shaped plants (apparently 
slightly unconformable with No. 3) ... 60 

4. Thick bedded sandstones — ^white, red, and 

yellow, worked throughout for building 
stone with thin bands of fine friable 
yellow or grey shales intercalated 
irregulary at intervals 715 

Total Thickness 800 





f J 



II 



f' 



105 

OBSBEVATIONS OF COMET OF JULY AND AUGUST, 
1889, TAKEN AT LAUNCESTON, TASMANIA, 
LAT. 4r 26' 01" ; LONG. 9^ 48' 31" EAST. 

By A. B. Biaos. 

The comet was first observed here on 26th July, faintly 
Tisible without telescope. Tail about Ideg. in length, its 
position angle estimated at 140°+,* Nucleus, sharp and 
starlike, about 7 mag., surrounded with considerable nebu- 
losity. Position (approximately) R.A., 13hrs. 21|min. S. 
Dec. 23° 07'. (This and the position readings given below 
were merely the readings of the rough home-made circles of 
the equatorial, and make no pretension to exactuess.) The 
star comparison measures were all taken with a Bar Micro- 
meter, equilateral triangle, aud are apparent difEerence 
measures only, uncorrected for refraction, etc. Owing to 
persistent cloudy and unsettled weather, very few oppor- 
tunities for star measures were afforded. Circle readings for 
position were taken as often as opportunity ofEered. 

Telescope, — ^Beflector, 8Jin., silver on glass by Browning. 



Appabent Dipp. . 


R.A. AND N.P.D. Comet 


PBOM 


Stab. 


Date. 


Time 


* 


Diff. E.A. 


Diflf. 
N.P.D. 


2 


Star. 


Comet. 


Approximate 
Place of Comet. 


Aug. 
2 


h. m. 
20 31 


a. 
13 


m. 8. 
+ 0-18-75 


m. s. 
+ 2 15-8 


b(see below) 


S.F. 


B.A 

h. m. 
14 24 


s. 
30 


O 
-50 


2 


21 67 


42 


+3-02-5 


-14 52-2 


1 


a (104 Virg.) 


N.F. 


)f 




*» 


8 


22 11 


09 


-1-06-7 


+ 0-36-8 


3 


c 


S.P. 


14 31 


30 


- 3 05 


8 


22 27 


25 


+0-20-5 


-17-26-3 


3 


d 


N.F. 


ti 




If 


16 


21 66 


13 


-1-08-4 


+ 20-03-3 


6 


17 Serp. 


S.P. 


15 31 


— 


+14 61 


17 


22 24 


23 


+1 -52-6 


-23-28-8 


1 


19 Serp. 


N.F. 


15 38 


— 


+16 43 


27 


19 40 


05 


-1-07 


+ 24-21 


3 


10 Hercnlis 


S.P. 


16 6 


— +28 25J 



Notes and Eepebbnces. — ^August 2. a. — 104 Virg. (?) 
h. — About 7 mag., close to a small nebula, ** 70 " ^Proctor's 
Atlas), looking like a detached wisp of the comet, c. — A 
minute star (lOllm.). 

August 3.—" c " "d "—Not identified, each 7m. + 
17. — ^Brightness of nucleus, about 8m. 
„ — ^Tail estimated about 10' length. 
„ „ — „ Position angle, 120°_+ 

N.B.— The brightest star available always selected, except 
4Ui to 5, August 2, on account of proximity to nebula. 



» 



99 



106 



II 



I 



RECENT MEASURES OF •* a. CENTAURL" 

By a. B. Biaas. 

As an illustration of the efficiency of the Micrometer 
described in my former paper, I give the following series of 
measures, in their order, extending from 26th May to 21st 
November, 1888 :— 

Distance Readings 15"-60 16"01 17"13 17"-40 16"-93 17H6 
Position Angle 201°-5 203°-5 204° 204°-2 205°-4 203°-7 

Summary Table, Mean Date 188871 ) Total No. of 

Distance 16"'71 > Observations 

Posn. Angle 203°-7 ) 25. 

I also give for comparison, measures taken with the Filar 
Micrometer, from 19th March to 26th May, 1888 ; and from 
19th September to 2l8t November, 1888 :— 

Mean of both 
Columns. 

1888-58 

16"77 

203^-97 



» 



» 



Mean Date 

„ Distance 

„ Position Angle 
Total No. of Observa^' 



1888-35 
16"-45 

203''-34 
14 



1888-82 
17"10 
204-6 
29 



43 

I reckon the variation at the present time at + l"-00 per 
annum for distance, and + 0°'7 for position angle. To 
the foregoing means of measures up to epoch 1889*00, we 
shall have to multiply these rates of variation by (1889- 
1888-71 = ) 0-29:— and (1889-1888*58 = ) 0*42 respectively. 
Applying the corrections thus obtained, we may make the 
following comparisons. In the third column I give the 
corresponding figures from my Ephemeris — (Society's Vol., 
1887, page 82) :— 

EPOCH, 188900. 



Micrometer 
Distance 
Position Angle 



Filar 
17''-19 
204°-26 



Ephemeris 
17"-00 
202°*90 



ABB 

17"-00 
203°*90 

I think it probable that the Ephemeris is in error about 
1 degree in Position Angle. 

The measures of distance by the Filar were all taken as 
differences of Declination, and were reduced to direct distance 
by the secant of the Position Angle. 

The specially favourable conditions which this star affords 
for double star observations, as well as the particular interest 
which attaches to it on many accounts, especially to us in the 
South, will, I ti-ust, be sufficient excuse for my having dealt 
with so much detail 



107 



NOTES ON CHAETS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA, 
OBTAINED FROM THE HYDROGRAPHICAL 
DEPARTMENT, PARIS, AND COPIED BY PER- 
MISSION OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. 

By a. Mault. 

(Chabts I, n, III, IV.) 

More than a year ago Mr. McCljmont spoke to me of the 
charts of which copies are attached to this paper. He 
explained at the last meeting of the Royal Society the 
manner in which he had become acquainted with their 
existence. I am sorry that it has not fallen to his lot to 
formally present them to you, for the Society is really 
indebted to him for their possession. Furthermore, in 
making the presentation he would have been much more able 
to accompany the gift with an explanation of the character 
and history of the charts. Another gentleman to whom 
thanks are due is my friend Monsieur Adelphe Patricot, of 
St. James's, Paris, who, after some little difficulty, overcame 
the prejudice that the French authorities have to allowing 
plans and maps to be copied, and then insisted on taking 
apon himself the cost of having fac-simile tracings made« 
Ajisknowledgments are also due to the Hon. E. N. C. Braddon, 
who, when Minister of Lands and Works, authorised the 
reproduction of the charts at the Government Photo- 
lithographic Establishment. 

Charts op Mabion's Expedition, 1772. 

The two charts that are respectively called (1), Cote des Terrea 
de Diemen parcovruea en Mars 1772 par la jflute du Boy le 
Mascarin, and (2), Terres de Diemen faisantpartie de la Nouvelle 
SfoUande la phis grande Isle conniie leve du tord du Vau le 
Marquis de Castries enfaisant route le long de la cote. Par 
Mr. du Clesmeury are particularly interesting. It will be 
remembered that the first visitors to land in Tasmania after 
Tasman's time were the French in these vessels. The 
expedition carried out in them was undertaken at the cost 
of Captain Marion du Fresne, whose grade in the French 
Navy was " Captain of fire-ship." The authorities of 
Mauritius allowed him to charter two of the Government 
Vessels in the Colonial Service, the storeship Le Mascarin^ 
fhe tonnage of which is not given^ and the Marquis de 
CattvieSi apparently a smaller vessel, and to man them at his 
own pleasure. He himself took command on board the 

6 



108 NOTES OK CHABTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. 

Mascariny with Mons. Crozet, who also was Capitaine de 
bnilot, as his second on board, and gave the command of the 
Marquis de Castries to the Chevalier du Clesmeur, who was 
second in command of the expedition, and succeeded to the 
entire command on the death of Marion. 

An account of the expedition, under the title " New Voyage 
to the South Sea," was published in Paris in 1783, being 
compiled from the plans and journals of Crozet. Crozet 
ignores as much as possible Captain du Clesmeur, who 
evidently knew it, and also of the proposed publication of 
the journal. For the editor of the journal prefixes to it a 
" preliminary discourse," the reading of which, he says, " is 
indispensable to rectify some important points in the narra- 
tive of the voyage ; " and in which he declares that it was 
only on the eve of publication that he learnt that du 
Clesmeur succeeded to the command on the death of Marion. 
For in the journal Crozet never once mentions du Clesmeur's 
name, from the time of Marion's massacre until the moment 
when the vessels are parting company at MamUa, but always — 
even in relation to matters on board the Castries — says, " I 
did this," " I ordered that," as if he were in supreme com- 
mand. The editor of the journal therefore requests the 
reader to note that everything done after Marion's death 
was done imder the command of du Clesmeur and not of 
Crozet. 

It is necessary to note this jealousy, as it explains some of 
the events that came to pass, and some of the results of the 
expedition. Its main object was to seek the great south 
land. Marion left the Mauritius in October 1771, and after 
some detention at Bourbon, Madagascar, and the Cape of 
Good Hope, left this last on the 28th December in that year. 
On the 19th January, 1772, he discovered, after having 
looked for Losier-Bouvet's Cap de la Circoncision in the wrong 
place, — ^the islands now called Prince Edward's or Marion's, 
but which he himself named Terre d' Esperance. WhUe 
examining the islands, the Mascarin, by disregarding the then 
acknowledged " rules of the road," ran foul of the Castries, 
which was lying to, and carried away her bowsprit and fore- 
mast. Crozet, who mentions the accident, carefully avoids 
details as to cause. Jury masts were rigged up, and it seems 
that the Castries after the accident was still a better sailor 
than her consort, and du Clesmeur told Marion he was ready 
to go wherever he wished. But Crozet says that the condition 
of the Castries prevented Marion from carrying out his 
intention of going southward. Sailing eastward, the islands 
now called the Crozets were discovered on the 22nd January, — 
they were first sighted from du Clesmeur's ship, — but like 
other injustices in nomenclature, record the name of a man 
to whom none of the credit of their discovery is due. 



By A. MAULT 109 

Xearing the Crozets the ships were steered due eastward 
until thej passed the longitude of St. Paul's Island, and then 
were headed towards the land discovered bj Tasman. This 
was first sighted on the 3rd March, when Crozet calculated 
that they were in latitude 42deg. 56min. south. The 
longitude as given in the " New Voyage " is so evidently 
incorrect — 126deg. 20min. east of Paris — that I will not 
here allude to it but to say that it certainly is a misprint. 

Crozet gives no account of the voyage round the south end 
of the island, simply saying : — " The chart that I have 
prepared of the Terres de Didmen will give an exact idea of 
the configuration of these lands, and of the route we followed 
till we anchored in a bay named by Abel Tasman, Frederic 
Henry's Bay, which, according to that naviagator, is situated 
in 43deg. lOmin. of south latitude." The chart thus referred 
to is given in the " New Voyage " od a very small scale — the 
whole south coast of the island being shown in a space of 
less than two inches, and no latitude or longitude is marked. 
Flinders, in the introduction of his "Voyage to Terra 
Australis," says of it : — " The chart of Mons. Crozet, which 
accompanies the voyage, appears, though on a very small 
scale, to possess a considerable degree of exactness in the 
form of the land. The wide opening called Storm Bay is 
distinctly marked ; as is another bay to the westward with 
several small islands in it, the easternmost of which are the 
BoreeVs Eylanden of Tasman." 

A very cursory examination of this small engraved chart 
will show that it is a reduction made from the first of the 
charts mentioned above, and this leaves no room for doubting 
that the manuscript chart copied at Paris is the original one 
prepared by Crozet himself on the Mascarin and during its 
passage along the coast. The track of the course made is 
given, with soundings and with the position of the ship at 
various hours every day during the passage. These details 
enable us to correct an error into which Flinders has fallen. 
He says, after mentioning the sighting of land on the 3rd 
March, 1772 : — " Steering eastward round all the rocks and 
islets lying off the south coast, he arrived on the evening of 
the 4tli in Frederik Hendrik's Bay." Flinders obtained this 
second date by deducting the six days Marion is said to have 
stayed in the bay from the date— the 10th March — when he 
quitted it for New Zealand. But the " New Voyage " is so full 
of misprints in figures that it is not to be depended upon 
without checking. This chart of Crozet' s affords such a 
check. From it, it is evident that after sighting land, Marion 
in the Mascarin, steering south-east, arrived south of the 
Mewstone about 6 o'clock in the evening of the 3rd March. 
He probably lay to for the night, but by 5 o'clock on the 
morning of the 4th he had drifted down to 44deg. of south 



110 KOTBS ON CHABTS OF IHB COAST OF TASMANIA. 

latitude o£E South-east Cape. Then steering north-east, at 
midday he was south of Tasman's Head, and passed the night 
off Storm Bay. He doubled Tasman's Island at 8 o'clock on 
the morning of the 5th, — at noon was off the Yellow Bluff, 
and must have anchored in Frederik Hendrik Baj, now 
called Marion Bay, early in the afternoon. 

I do not think that flinders, if he had seen Crozet's chart 
on this larger scale, would have expressed the flattering 
opinion above given as to its exactness in the form of the 
land. The longitudes given on this chart and in the *^ New 
Voyage " are so far out as to be inexplicable. On the chart the 
longitude of the anchorage is given as 14>ldeg. 30min. east of 
Paris — this probably being the result of reckoning and 
observation during the voyage. At the anchorage Crozet 
says, ''I made several observations for longitude and I found 
it to be 143deg. east of Paris." This is more than 2^deg. out ! 
In the simpler matter of latitude he is also wrong, giving quite 
a false impression of the trend of the south coast by making 
South-west Cape more southerly than South-east Cape. 

But it is in comparing this chart with the one made at the 
same time, and in similar circumstances by du Clesmeur on 
board the Castries, that the work of Crozet most shows its 
inferiority. From the tracks laid down on the respective 
charts, and from the soundings given, it is evident that in 
sailing down the west coast the McLscarin was the nearer in 
shore. Crozet could therefore see the opening into Port 
Davey, which du Clesmeur could not. This, and perhaps the 
entrance to D'Entrecasteaux Channel, are the only points in 
which the Mascarin chart is superior to the Castries one. 

From du Clesmeur' s chart it is evident that the Castries had, 
as usual, outsailed the Mascarin^ior she had to lie to to allow 
Marion to come up. The rocks and high land near Mainwaring 
Cove were, in the distance, taken to be islands. Rocky Point 
is distinctly and accurately laid down. The De Witt range 
and the hills on Point St. Vincent which mask the entrance to 
Port Davey were mistaken for islands, the h^wer land between 
them not being seen. If the coast-line be carried along 
the west side of these mistaken islands and carried back 
along the eastern side. Point St. Vincent and the entrance to 
Port Davey wiU be more accurately shown than on Crozet's 
chart. All the salient points of the south coast, from the 
South-west Cape to Tasman's Head, are accurately given with 
the islands lying off. The far end of the bays and bights, not 
being seen, are less accurately shown. In Storm Bay and 
eastward and northward to the anchorage in Frederik Hendrik 
or Marion Bay, the Castries went farther in, and along this 
part of the course the chart is wonderfully accurate — in fact 
in some places more accurate than Flinders'. 

It is not often that one has a chance of comparing the 



BY A. MAULT. Ill 

impressions made by the same coast-line, seen at the same 
lime, and in almost identical circumstances, by two navigators 
of the same nation and of equal standing. The result of the 
comparison in this case makes us regret that the recording of 
the whole of Marion's expedition had not fallen to the lot of 
<lu Clesmeur instead of Crozet. One more word and I have 
done with this part of my subject. What is now called Maria 
Island, Marion named St. Mary's Isle. Could not the proper 
name be reverted to ? 

Chart op Captain Hates' Discoveries. 

Mr. J. B. Walker has recently called your attention to the 
sole expedition for discovery sent under the auspices of the 
East India Company into these seas — that commanded by 
Oaptain, afterwards Sir John Hayes, who visited the Derwent 
in 1794. Mr. Walker further told you how " the vessel carry- 
ing Hayes' charts and papers to England was captured by the 
French, and all his journals taken to Paris, and the result of 
his voyage was lost." I think this is rather too sweeping an 
assertion, for it is evident from the narrative of Flinders 
that ** sketches" of Hayes' charts were known, and that 
Hayes' nomenclature of localities was in many cases adopted. 
I think it probable that the originals or copies of these charts 
were kept in the Marine Office at Calcutta, and it was from 
iJiese that the chart published by Arrowsmith in 1798 was 
taken. It is a copy of this chart (3) that I now present to 
you. 

As for the history of this copy I think that probably it is 
as follows : — It is entitled, Chart of Several Harbours in the 
South East 'part of Van DiemarCs hand, London : Published 
January 1st, 1798, By A. Arrowsmith, Rathbone Place, 
^ough it is said to be " published," the copy in the French 
archives, from which this copy I have was traced, is in manu- 
script and is kept with the next chart I have to describe, that 
is, one of Flinders'. In the " Observations " on this latter 
chart. Flinders says : — " The details of the south-east part of 
Van Diemen's Land are taken from a manuscript plan made 
hj Mr. J. Hayes who visited that part in a ship called the 
Vuke sent out from Bengal. Henshaw's Bay and Cape 
Hanson of his chart are Frederic Henry Bay and Cape 
Pillar, of which we have restored the names," etc. Now the 
parts of D'Entrecasteaux Channel not seen by Flinders 
are exactly reproduced by him in his chart as they are laid 
down in this published chart, but the names mentioned by 
him are different. I would therefore venture to suggest that 
Flinders, when at home in the winter of 1800-1801, obtained 
a copy of Hayes' published chart, which was not identical with 
tibe manuscript one he had before seen, and that it was found 
among his papers when they were taken from him in the 



112 NOTES ON CHABTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. 

Mauritius ; that tho draughtsman who copied Minder's charts 
that I am about to describe, seeing the reference therein to 
Hayes' chart, copied the published one as giving further, 
details about the country that was evidently then cledming . 
much attention from the French, and that it was thus that a 
manuscript copv of an engraved chart found its way into the 
Hydrographical Office at Paris. 

This copy of Hayes' chart is furthermore interesting in 
connection with the history of names of places in these partSc 
For instance, it is curious to note how Ray-Taylor's Bay 
has become Great Taylor's Bay. And the name» 
"Admiral D'Entrecasteaux Bay" shows that Hayes had 
heard of the French navigator's voyage. 

I may mention that one of our fellow-members. Colonel 
Cruickshank, is a great-grandson of Sir John Hayes, and have 
pleasure in adding that he has promised to obtain, if possible, 
copies of all documents relating to the expedition that may 
exist among the family papers in England, or in the Marine 
Office, Calcutta. 

Chart of Flinders' and Bass' Discoveries. 

The last of the charts (4) I have to describe is one of 
exceptional interest. It is entitled, Garte du DStroit de 
Basse entre la Nouvelle Galles Meridionale et la Terre de 
Diemen Levee par M. Flinders, Lieutenant du Vaisseau 
Anglais la Reliance, par ordre de M. le Gouverneur Hunter en 
1798 et 1799." Notwithstanding the title, it embraces the 
whole island of Tasmania, and there are laid down on it the 
tracks made in the following voyages : — 

1. Bass' voyage in the whaleboat from Sydney to Western 

Port in 1797-8, whereby the existence of a strait between 
Australia and Van Diemen's Land was virtually proved. 
I am not aware of the existence of any other chart dhow* 
• ing this track. 

2. Flinders' voyage in the schooner Francis from Sydney 

to Furneaux Islands in 1798. 

3. Flinders' and Bass' voyage in the sloop Norfolk round the 

Island of Van Diemen's Land in 1798-9. In the chart, 

the Frenchman who was stealing Flinders' observations 

has called this sloop the " Jackson,'^ in specifying the 

routes, confusing the name of the little vessel with that 

of the port from which she sailed. He calls her by her 

right name elsewhere. He frequently mistakes English 

manuscript figures, especially a long drawn 1 for the long 

drawn French 5, the 3 for the 5 also, and the 6 for 

the 8. 

The longitudes on the chart are taken from the meridian of 

Paris. Thefollowing" Observations" are made: — "The voyage 

of M. Flinders, second lieutenant of the English ship, the 



BY A. MAULT. 113 

Beliance, round Van Diemen's Land, was made in the colonial 
sloop Norfolk of Port Jackson. The position of Port Dalrjmple 
is fixed by 6 sets of lunar distances, taken in each direction 
with 2 sextants. The rest of the northern and western 
coast have been traced by estimates corrected by observations 
along the coast ; but on arriving at South-west Cape our 
longitude, compared with that deduced from Cook's 
observations, was only 3min. in error. This error seemed to 
us so small that we changed nothing in the chart we had 
made. Adventure Bay is copied from the plan of Captain 
Cook (8th Edition, Dublin), Swilly Rock or Pedra Blanca is 
placed 69min. of longitude to the east of South-west Cape, 
according to the table in Cook's voyage, which agreed with 
the observations we made. The east coast, where shown by a 
simple line without shading, is traced from Captain Furiieaux', 
and copied from a chart of New South Wales, of which the 
scale was about an inch to the degree of longitude. The 
shaded part of the coast in the neighbourhood of Oyster 
Bay is copied from a plan of 7in. to the deg. made by J. H. 
Cox and published by Mr. Balrymple in 1791. The details of 
the south-east part of Van Diemen's Land are taken from a 
manuscript plan made by Mr. J. Hayes, who visited that part 
in a ship called the Duke, sent out from Bengal. We cannot 
answer for their exactitude. Henshaw's Bay and Cape 
Hanson of his chart are Frederic Henry Bay and Cape 
Pillar, of which we have restored the names in this : we have 
also made some slight changes in the names of points 
surveyed from the sloop : the ports and bays of his chart 
were called coves, and the rivers creeks. 

" The coast of New South Wales from Port Jackson to 
Western Port was surveyed by Mr. Bass in a whaleboat. The 
shaded parts are copied from a sketch he made of it by sight. 
The cape called Eam's Head having been placed in the 
position fixed by Cook and taken as a datum point, the long 
coast beyond it has been extended further than shown in the 
sketch, in order to place Cape Wilson in the position it ought 
to have relatively to Fumeaux Islands. Little confidence 
can be placed in estimates of courses made in waters like 
these, where there are strong currents, and it is only by 
estimate that these points have been fixed. The islands 
were placed by Captain Furneaux eastward of their real 
position : they have been marked here after the observations 
made at Port Dalrymple and the estimated course from that 
Port to the Swan Islands. 

" The beginning and end of an eclipse of the moon, observed 
at the east end of Preservation Island, gave 148deg. 37min. 
SOsec. of east longitude from Greenwich, 148deg. (146deg.) 
17min. SOsec. east of Paris." 

Then follow the symbols giving the various routes ; after 



114 NOTES ON CHABTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. 

which the " ObBervations " continue : — " The double arrows 
show the direction of the tides. 

" In thq Eiver Derwent, high water at 8 hours. Height 
above low water 4 or 5 feet. "Hiese tides are feeble, and do 
not appear to always coincide with full and new moon. 
Sometimes they have an opposite course. We have grounds 
for suspecting an under-current in a contrary direction." 

What is the history of this chart ? 

Tou will remember that when Flinders was kept prisoner 
in the Mauritius his books, charts and papers were taken 
from him. After many reclamations most of them were 
returned to him in the seventh or eighth month of his 
captivity. In recording this he says : — " Word had been sent 
me privately that the trunk had been opened and copies taken of 
the charts — (the italics are Flinders') but to judge from 
appearances this was not true ; and on putting the question 
to Colonel Monistrol, whether the trunk or papers had been, 
disturbed, he answered by an unqualified negative." No 
one who knows Colonel Monistrol from Flinders' graphic 
narrative will doubt the Colonel for a moment. But no one 
who knows from the same source the Governor of the colony, 
General De Caen, will hesitate for a moment in thinking that 
he was capable of tampering with the charts, and that if he 
did so he would take good care that the honest Colonel should 
not know it. Mj own opinion is that the private letter was 
right — the trunk had been opened, and the charts copied — 
and the manuscript from which this photo-lithograph was 
taken is one of the copies. I think this is capable of as much 
demonstration as is possible in such a matter. 

Apart from tlie fact that other information was sent to 
Europe about Flinders* voyages that could only have been 
obtained from Flinders' papers — for instance, that which 
he refers to as having been given in the Moniteur of July 7th, 
1804— which shows that the papers had been read and a 
jprecis made or copies taken, there is a great deal of internal 
evidence that the copy of this chart was made during the 
time of Flinders* detention in the Mauritius. 

In the first place this chart contains exactly all that 
Flinders knew of Van Diemeu*s Land at that time— no more 
and no less. It is true that some of Flinders* charts had 
been published in England after the return of the 
Reliance in the end of 1800, but it is hardly likely that they 
were so published till after Flinders had left England in the 
Investigator in May, 1801. I have not seen one of these 
published charts, but think that they were not precisely 
similar to this, seeing that Flinders, in his published charts, 
puts in only his own course, whereas in this he marks Bass* 
whaleboat track. Again, if this copy were not taken from 
Flinders' papers, why was it taken at all ? if the published 



BY A. MAXJLT. 116 

aShaxt was in French hands there was no need to copy it in 
manuBcript. 

Then there is some internal evidence. In the '' Observations " 
al)ove given the French copyist begins in the third person, 
but at the end of the first sentence incontinently drops it, 
and evidently translates exactly what is before him. This 
greatly differs from Flinders' style when relating any of hia 
own proceedings only, for he always uses the first person 
singular. I think, therefore, that the '^ we " used here showa 
that these *' Observations " were written while Bass was still 
with him, aud before Bass had made any separate report to 
the Port Jackson authorities. 

• Again, when Flinders was surveying Frederic Henry Bay 
he had not seen any charts or details of D'Entrecasteaux'a 
expedition, and consequently it is quite natural for him then 
to copy from Hayes' chart and make the observation above 
quoted. But when in England in 1800 he could have 
obtained details of the French discoveries, and would hardly 
have published the less accurate work. In his great atlas he 
unhesitatingly prefers D'Entrecasteaux, and dismisses Hayes 
ndth rather scant courtesy. 

As for the object for which the chart was copied it was 
probably in connection with some designs of the French 
tolonial authorities in regard to the occupation of Van 
Diemen's Land. G-eneral De Caen do doubt fully shared in 
the desire to extend French territory in this direction, and 
thought that all information regarding the island, and 
especially the south-east part of it, would be useful. If he 
knew of the beginning made of English occupation, he was 
not the sort of man to be turned from his purpose by such 
an act. It may hereafter be found that the real explanation 
t)£ Flinders* unjustifiable and otherwise inexplicable deten- 
tion at the Mauritius was connected with De Caen's 
eug^estions to the French Government of an occupation of 
Van Diemen's Land. No doubt it was thought that the 
^ihangiug of English into French longitudes would facilitate 
the comprehension of the chart in Paris. It would be easily 
done by ruling the parallels 2deg. 20min. east of those given 
en the original. It is pleasant to note tdat the copy contains 
no trace of a desire to rob Flinders of the credit of his 
discoveries. 

But the chart taken by itself is very interesting as showing 
ifhat was known of our island at the moment of its first 
t>coapation by our countrymen, and as such I have great 
pleasure in presenting it to you. The concluding paragraph 
t)f the " Observations " shows how careful an observer 
Flinders was, and contains a suggestion in regard to the 
anomalous cha,racter of the tides in the Derwent that may be 
t>f great use, and which I will not forget. 



6 notes on chabts of thb coast of tasmania. 

Discussion. 

Mb. J. B. McClymont complimented Mr. Matilt on the 
3areful stady he had made of these charts. Their friends in 
Canada had set them an example in this department of work. 
The Eoyal Society there published from time to time 
historical researches, largely regarding the early exploration 
of their noble Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Canadians had to 
go back 350 years ; as we stood much nearer the origins of 
our history than they did, it would be a crying disgrace to us 
if we allowed them to out-distance us, and if we sluggishly 
left to our descendants historical work that could bettor and 
more easily be undertaken to-day. He referred especially to 
the discovery and exploration of the Derwent and its 
approaches, and hoped that Mr. Mault, or some other equally 
competent person would take the matter up thoroughly, and 
he, for one, would be most happy to render all the assistance 
in his power. They had a glorious heritage in this river^ 
with its maze of bay and island, strait and peninsula^ 
wrought out of the blue incandescence of a summer sea. 
This intricate net had involved one navigator after another ; 
to bring order out of the confusion by tracing the develop- 
ment of our completed knowledge of it would be an 
admirable intellectual exercise. 

The voyages of Kerguelen and Marion du Fresne, were 
historically connected with those of Bouvet de Lozier 
and .Bougainville, and Marion's later discoveries were the con- 
firmation of those of Tasman. The voyage of Bouvet, in turn» 
was undertaken for the French East India Company for the 
purpose of discovering in the Southern Ocean a port for 
their outward-bound vessels — an idea that was su^ested to 
the minds of these merchants by an imperfect record of the 
voyage of Gonneville in 1503-1505^ The tradition in France 
was, that this merchant of Honfleur had been cast upon a 
fertile continent and amongst a race of genial pagans when, 
after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, he had encountered 
a violent tempest which drove him out of his course to India. 
The tradition has been traced as far back as the year 1668; 
when the Abbe Binot-Paulmier de Gonneville — a descendant 
from the union of a native of the land on which Gonneville was 
cast with a relation of the navigator — addressed a memoir to 
the Pope begging that a mission might be sent to the land of 
his origin. Whether the Abbe merely adopted a current 
tradition regarding the discovery of his ancestor, or himself 
misinterpreted the account of the voyage as given in a 
judicial declaration signed by Gonneville and his officers, we 
cannot tell. At all events he placed the discovery south of 
the Cape, and identified the land so fortuitously found with 
the legendary Terra Australis, Bouvet's attempt to follow the 
course taken by Gonneville led to his discovery, on the Ist 



DISCUSSION OK NOTES ON CHARTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. llT 

Janiiaiy, 1739, of the Cap de la Circoncisiony in 55 deg. S.» 
5 deg. E. The extreme rigour of its climate was incom- 
patible with Qonneville's account of the country visited 
by him. Despite much difference of opinion as to 
Gk)nneyille's actual landfall, some placing it in Virginia, 
others in South America, and others in the lately coasted 
New Holland, two fresh attempts were made with the object^ 
not only of finding some compensation for the loss to France 
of its American territory, but also to discover the southern 
land supposed to lie near the route to India. These voyages 
were undertaken by the captain Kerguelea de Tremarec, and 
were as fruitless as that of Bouvet, for they only resulted in 
the discovery of the barren Kerguelen Land, in 49 deg. 3 min. 
S., 68 deg. 18 min. E. Kerguelen returned full of tho 
persuasion that Madagascar was the Southern Indies of 
Gonneville. When Kergaelen*s crews were freezing on 
the shores of his new antarctic island, Marion was 
altering his course from an easterly one between the parallels 
of 46 deg. and 47 deg. S., to one with sufficient southing in 
it to fetch his ships off the west coast of this island, some- 
where between Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour. He too 
had been disappointed in the weary search for a southern 
continent, and had only added the Prince Edward and 
Crozet groups to our cognizance of the Southern Ocean. 

The interest of Marion's voyage lies in this — that it was 
the last Prench voyage ostensibly undertaken with the object 
of discovering the Terra Australis^ and with it and the con- 
temporary voyages of Cook the belief in the existence of a 
continent reaching as far north as 45 deg. or 50 deg. S , may 
be said to expire. But this was not Marion's own opinion or 
the opinion of his officers. On the contrary, Crozet says 
expressly, ''At that point where we then were," namely. 
Possession Island, "everything promised the discovery of 
the southern continent could we only have continued to the 
S.E., but, unfortunately, the state of the Castries since she 
had lost her masts (through a collision), did not permit M. 
Marion to follow in its full extent the careful project he had 
formed for the discovery of these lands." Nouveau voyage^ 
p. 28. Eochon, editor of the journals of Crozet who was 
lieutenant on the Mascarin, does not agree with the opinion 
that the change of route was due to the accident to the 
Castries, for he says that its commander, M. Duclesmeur^ 
"assured M. Marion so often and so positively of his ability 
aad willingness to follow his leader that M. Marion must have 
had some other reason for abandoning his original plan than 
that above assigned." As for Marion's place in relation to 
his loocessors, it is this. Our complete cognition of any 
partioD of the earth's surface is generally preceded by a 
cjyneCiil hydrographical survey, and that again by a cursory 



118 IHBCnmMION ON NOTBS ON C^LASTS OF THE COAST OF TASMAinA. 

one, which has confirmed the original discoveiy. Thus, in 
Tasmania, the labours of Hayes and Flinders, of Baudin 
and D'Entrecasteaux, had their raison d^Stre for the English, 
in the flying visits of Pumeaux and Cook, for the French, in 
that of Marion, whilst in turn Marion, Pumeaux, and Cook, 
were the men who established the indications given by 
Tasman. Marion is in an intermediate position. He Iookb 
back 130 years and — his own plan of original discovery 
having failed because it was based on insufficiently digested 
data — ^he is obliged to be satisfied with the seconda:^ but 
still honourable and necessary position of the man who 
confirms another's effort and renders it possible for that 
effort to flower into scientific achievement. 

The islets in the Southern Ocean discovered by Bouvet, 
Kerguelen, and Marion, may be regarded as so many step- 
ping stones to Australia. To Tasman, who held a more 
northerly course than the French captains did, the stepping 
stones were the islets of St. Paul and Amsterdam. To the 
French captains, they were the Cap de la Circoncisionf Prince 
Edward and Crozet groups, and Kerguelen Land, the last three 
being discovered within a month of each other. Their dates 
are Prince Edward's Island, January 13 ; Crozets, January 24; 
Kerguelen Land, February 13, 1772. Sixteen days out from 
the Cape the first land was sighted by Marion, and named 
Terre d'Esperance, *' because its discovery flattered us with 
the hope of finding the southern continent which we sought." 
Cook re-named it Prince Edward's Island, after the Duke of 
Kent, the father of Her present Majesty. Its mountains 
were visible at a distance of twelve miles, and were covered 
with snow. Marion was unable to land and explore it because 
of the accident to the Castries, which happened when the 
ships were about to take soundings preparatory to casting 
anchor. A smaller island was seen to the N.E. of the larger 
one ; on its N.E. side, according to Crozet's account, or on its 
east side, following Ross, is a bay with a large cave ; round 
the cave were a number of white flecks like a flock of sheep, 
perhaps patches of moss, which Moseley describes as forming 
principal features in the vegetation of Marion Island as seen 
from a distance. Had the weather permitted, they would 
have found an anchorage in this bay which was frequented 
by sealers at a later date. The island was seven or eight 
miles in circumference. Crozet places these islands in 
46 deg. 45 min. S., and 34 deg. 31 min. E. of Paris ; Crozier, 
the companion of Ross, places the North Cape of Prince 
Edward's Island in 46 deg. 53 min. S., and 37 deg. 33 min. E. 
of Greenwich, and Cave Bay in the lie de la Caverns of 
Marion, is reported by Boss to lie in 46 deg. 40 min. S. 
There is a discrepancy in the nomenclature of these islands : 
Ross calls the larger island, which it may be presumed is 



DIBOUSSION ON NOTES ON CHABTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. 119> 

Marion's Terre d^ Eeperance, Prince Edward's Island, and 
gives no name to the smaller island; his reference to the 
cave on it identifies it with Marion's He de la Oaveme, 
Moseley of the Challenger, on the contrary, says that the 
Prince Edward group consists of Marion and Prince Edward 
Islands, of which Marion Island is the larger, and contains 
80 square miles. Authorities on the Prince Edward and 
Crozet groups are C. M. Q-oodridge*s Narrative of a Voyage 
io i%e 8ov£h Seas, Lond., 1883 ; Capt. Lindesay Brine's 
VtsU io the GrozetSf in Q^ogr. Mag., Oct., 1877, and the 
accounts of the Challenger expedition. 

On the sixth day after leaving the Terre cT Esperance 
Marion sighted two other islets in 46 deg. 5 min. S., and 
42 deg. E. of Paris by dead reckoning, and named them 
Lea lies Froides, They are the Penguin and Hog Islands 
of the Crozet group. On the morning of the following day 
(January 23), they were no longer visible ; but Possession 
Island — He de la prise de possession — was sighted from the 
Castries, and next day both Possession Island and East Island, 
the He Aride of Marion, about ten miles apart, were in sight; 
the former is placed in 46 deg. 30 min. S., and 43 deg. E. of 
Paris ; Boss places its southernmost point in 46 deg. 28 min. 
S., its northernmost in 46 deg. 19 min. S., and gives the 
longitude of these points as 51 deg. 53 min. E., and 51 deg. 
66 min. E. respectively. 

When the ships were lying off Possession Island, Crozet 
was sent ashore and annexed it in the name of the King of 
France, and deposited, according to custom, a bottle containing 
the declaration of annexation on the summit of a pyramid 
of rocks about 50 feet above sea level. Not a tree or shrub 
was visible on the island. He mentions only a species of 
leed (jonc) growing along the shores, a small delicate grass 
(gramefi), and a plant he calls ficoides. Penguins, Cape 
pigeons, cormorants, and other marine birds were so tame 
as to allow themselves to be taken by hand, and continued to 
sit on their eggs without apprehension, whilst the seals 
gambolled undisturbed by the presence of man. Strangest 
of all, one white pigeon was seen, from which circumstance 
Crozet supposed that a land producing the food proper to 
that family could not be far distant. Nothing further of 
interest occurred till the arrival of the ships in Frederick 
Henry Bay, on the 5th March, 1772. 

Mb. J. B. Walker said that the Society was imder great 
obligations to Mr. Mault for having obtained copies of the 
interesting maps which he had laid before them, and for his 
descriptive paper, and also to Mr. McClymont for his 
criticisms on the sketch charts relating to Marion's expedition. 
The map of the Southern part of Van Diemen's I^nd was 
evidently that of Lieutenant Hayes, though he thought not 



120 DISCUSSION ON NOTES ON CHABTS OF THE COAST OF TASMANIA. 

absolutely identical with "Captain Hayes* sketch," which 
Flinders mentions as having had with him on his visit to the 
Derwent, in the Norfolk, in 1798. The latter contained some 
names — such as Risdon Cove, — which did not appear on the 
map they had now before them. Of the Dames on this map 
very few were now in use. Some of them were given in 
honour of the captain's fellow-officers in the Bombay Marine. 
Following His Excellency's suggestion at a former meeting, 
he had searched fot further particulars respecting Captain 
(afterwards Sir John) Hayes, and his expedition in 1794^ He 
had not succeeded, however, in finding more than was con- 
tained in Lieutenant Chas. R. Low's " History of the Indian 
Navy." That work gave a short account of the discovery 
expedition, and of Hayes' services in the Lidian Seas, from 
which it appeared that he was a most distinguished naval 
officer. He was afterwards appointed Master Attendant at 
Calcutta, ranking next to the officer in Supreme Command 
of the Indian Navy. As they had in Hobart a descendant 
of Sir John (Colonel Cruickshank, of New Town), he hoped 
some clue might be found which would lead to the discovery 
of the lost journals of the expedition. The map of Van 
Diemen's Laiid, purporting to be from Flinders, was most 
probably copied from one of the manuscript charts which 
were seized in the Cumberland at Mauritius. In a tracing 
made by Mr. Bonwick from Flinders' original chart, the 
precise phrases occurred which were here translated into 
French. With respect to Flinders' detention by Q-ovemor 
De Caen, he had observed in a pamphlet containing a 
summary of the Brabourne Papers, a statement that amongst 
the despatches carried by the Cumberland was one from 
Governor King, suggesting the possibility of using Port 
Jackson as a centre from which to attack the French. The 
writer of the pamphlet suggested that this despatch might 
have afforded De Caen a pretext for detaining Flinders, as 
being a violation of the terms of his safe conduct. 

Me. Matjlt could not give credence to the latter statement, 
seeing that Captain Flinders had always been regarded by him 
in the light of a true man, in every sense in which that could 
be applied, and strictly honourable in eYerj sense of the 
word, and he could not credit it that he would so ignore the 
terms upon which he held his passport from Bonaparte. 
If sucli papers were found on him he could not have been 
aware of their contents. 

Mr. Walker fully shared Mr. Mault's admiration for 
Flinders, who was a man wholly incapable of doing a dis- 
honourable action. If he carried such a despatch, it was 
certain that he was unaware of its nature. It should also be. 
remembered that the Cumberland left Port Jackson during 
the peace of Amiens, and therefore there would have been no 
impropriety in Flinders carrying despatches. 



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121 



THE DETENTION OF PLINDEES AT THE 

MAURITIUS. 

By a. Mault. 

To the passport dated at Paris the 4 Prairial, An neuf de 
la Republique Frangaise, to the " corvette Investigator, its 
officers, crew, and effects, during their voyage, to permit 
them to land at the different ports of the Eepublic, as well 
in Europe as in other parts of the world, whether they be 
forced by bad weather to there seek refuge, or that they come to 
ask for succour and the means of repairs necessary to continue 
their voyage," there is added the proviso : — " It is well under- 
stood, nevertheless, that they shall not thus find protection 
and assistance, but in the case that they shall not have wil- 
lingly turned out of the course they should follow ; that they 
shall not have committed, nor announced their intention to 
commit, any hostility against the French Republic and its 
allies ; that they shall not have procured, nor sought to 
procure, any succours to its enemies ; and that they shall not 
nave occupied themselves with any kind of commerce nor of 
contraband/' It should be also borne in mind that in the 
preamble to the passport. Captain Matthew Flinders is n9.med 
as commanding the Investigator, Flinders himself records 
that the Lords of the Admiralty directed him ** to act in all 
respects towards French ships as if the two countries were not 
at war ; and with respect to the ships and vessels of other 
powers with which this country is at war, you are to avoid, if 
possible, having any communication with them ; and not to 
take letters or packets other than such as you may receive 
from this office, or the office of His Majesty's Secretary of 
State." 

We all know that, the passport notwithstanding, when 
Flinders and some of his crew — the Investigator having been 
condemned and the Porpoise lost — came in the little sloop 
Cumberland to Port Louis in December, 1803, " to ask for 
succour and the means of repairs necessary to continue their 
voyage," to use the words of the passport, G-eneral De Caen, 
Governor of the Mauritius, refused the request, and made the 
captain and crew prisoners of war. Till recently this action 
of De Caen's has been as universally as righteously con- 
demned. But in 1886, in an official, or quasi-official docu- 
ment, published by the New South Wales G-ovemment (a 
summary of the contents of the Brabourne Papers), the 
following passages occur : — " Much trouble had been taken 
to obtain this scientific passport for Flinders. Why, then, was it 



122 THE DETENTION OF FUNDEBS AT THE MAIJItITIU& 

not respected ? We find a satisfactory answer here. . . » 
Captain Flinders was going home. Governor King took 
the opportunity of sending home some despatches, and these 
despatches, there is little doubt, were the cause of all poor 
Minders' trouble. We have here (unfortunately, without a 
date) a memorandum from Captain Kent, of H.M.S. Buffalo^ 
for G-ovemor King, in which it is stated that the colony * ia 
admirably situated for sending forth a squadron against the 
Spaniards on the coast of Chfli and Peru.* Gk)vernor TTfng 
makes this idea the subject of a despatch. He enlarges upott 
the opportunities this most excellent harbour offers for the 
concentration of troops, which might at any time be sent 
against Spanish America. This despatch he entrusts to 
Captain Flinders, and this Governor De Caen finds when, Ids 
suspicion aroused by the peculiar appearance of the little 
Cwmherlandj he seizes her and detains all her papers. Now 
Flinders' passport was granted to an officer commanding a 
ship to be employed on scientific work only, and here Flinden 
was found conveying a despatch to England, England being 
at the time engaged in a life and death struggle with France, 
which, if delivered and acted on, would have the effect of 
placing points of vantage, and possibly valuable colonies^ 
within easy striking distances. A despatch of this sort could 
hardly be considered as a document of purely international 
scientific interest. Governor De Caen did not so consider it> 
and having a natural animus against all Englishmen, con- 
sidered himself justified in using the excuse this paper gave 
him to justify a rigorous imprisonment." And the writer 
goes on in a rather sneering style about " poor Flinders." 

I confess that I have " a natural animus " against special 
pleading of this sort. If it had to be answered from infor- 
mation given by itself the task would be difficult, for the 
information given is so vague. The only one of the documents 
above referred to, which is specifically said to exist among the 
papers, is the memorandum " unfortunately without a date '* 
from Captain Kent. But Governor King's' despatch founded 
thereupon ; is it among the papers ? If so, why is it not to be 
published as Captain Kent's memorandum is ? Again, what 
is the proof that Flinders took this despatch, and that it fell 
into the hands of De Caen, and when did he use " the excuse 
this paper gave him to justify a rigorous imprisonment?" 

On the contrary there is much to prove that no such 
despatch was carried by Flinders, and that consequently none 
such could have been taken from him by De Caen. Flinders 
did take despatches from King to the Secretary of State in 
England, and those despatches were taken from him and 
never returned; but they could not have been of this 
contraband character, for in almost all certainty they were 
papers relative to Flinders' expedition, detailing the arrange- 



BY A. MAiriiT. 123 

ments the G-overDor had made, and the orders he had given 
in consequence of the abandonment of the Investigator, This 
is proved as clearly as such a fact can be by the conduct of 
both Flinders and De Caen. Flinders would not willingly 
have taken general despatches, much less such an one as this 
particular one of Governor King's isdescribed to be, for he would 
not carry any from the ships at Madeira and the Cape. And 
he blames the captain of Le Oeographe for taking some from 
Mauritius, which, had he been guilty of the same offence, he 
could hardly have done at the time he was claiming the 
benefit of his passport on the ground of not having broken its 
conditions. While the despatches were in De Caen's hands. 
Flinders writes to Admiral Linois, asking for his intervention, 
and says : — ** I should willingly undergo an examination by 
the captains of your squadron, and my papers would either 
prove or disprove my assertions. If it be found that I have 
committed any act of hostility against the French nation or 
its allies, my passport will become forfeited, and I expect no 
favour ; but if my conduct hath been altogether consistent 
with the passport, I hope to be set at liberty, or at least to be 
sent to France for the decision of the Government." Is it 
likely Flinders would have challenged this enquiry if he knew 
that De Caen had written proof that his conduct had not 
been " consistent with the passport ? " 

But it may be said that Governor King may have sent the 
despatch without letting Flinders know its contents. That 
is true. But if it had been among Flinders' papers De Caen 
would have found it, and it is certain, notwithstanding all 
that the author of the summary of the Brabourne Papers 
says about De Caen's finding it and acting upon it, he never 
did find anything of the sort. It was exactly the kind of 
thing he wanted to find, and had he found it, it would have 
a£Eorded the only possible justification of De Caen's after 
conduct, and he would not have been driven to make the 
paltry excuses he was reduced to. But not finding any such 
thing he had to fall back on a passage in Flinders' journal, 
in which, after giving his main reasons for running into Port 
Louis rather than to the Cape, he adds, as a subordinate one, 
that it will give him an opportunity of making meteorological, 
and other observations on the Mauritius. If De Caen had 
the despatch which would have constituted a real proof that 
the passport had been forfeited, would he have withheld it 
and put forward the fictitiously hollow reason that by the 
passport Flinders " was certainly not authorised to put in at 
the Isle of France to be able to observe the periodic winds, 
the port, the actual state of the colony, etc., that thus by thia 
conduct he had violated the neutrality under which he had 
been indirectly permitted to land in this island." Such is 
the only excuse De Caen offers, not only to Flinders in hia 

H 



Ii4 THE DETENTION OF IXJNDEES AT THE MJLnBITIU& 

oaptivitj, but to the French GoTemment at Paris. For in 
tlie communique of the Government in the Moniteur of the 
22 Messidor, An. XH. (Llth July, 1804) on the subject of 
the arrest, detention and falsely reported release of Flinders, 
it is said : — " In fine, the passport granted to M. Flinders did 
not admit of any equivocation upon the objects of the 
expedition for which it was given ; but we read in one part of 
his journal that he suspected the war ; and in another, that 
ho had resolved to touch at the Isle of France as well in the 
hope of selling his vessel advantageously, as from the desire 
of knowing the present state of that colony, and the utility of 
which it and its dependencies in Madagascar could be to ]rort 
Jackson." Now is this language compatible with the 
existence of King's despatch among Flinders' papers? If 
Flinders had carried what was clearly contraband of war, 
would the French G-overnment have been content with the 
above lame apology for his arrest P There can be but one 
answer. 

No ! De Caen's conduct admits of no palliation. It brands 
him with everlasting infamy. The finding of King's despatch 
after he had arrested Flinders, would not much exonerate 
him. When Baudin came to Sydney was he arrested, and 
his ship searched for compromising documents to justify the 
arrest ? I am only sorry an Australian should attempt to 
whitewash De Caen by a method which, if successful, would 
tarnish the memory of Flinders. 



Discussioi^. 

Mr. J. B. Walker said that Mr. Mault had undoubtedly 
made out a good case, but there was independent evidence to 
show that Flinders did carry despatches to the Secretary of 
State. Amongst the State papers in the Record Office, lately 
copied by Mr. Bonwick for the Tasmanian Government, was 
a despatch from Governor King to Lord Hobart, dated 8th 
October, 1803, in which the Governor refers to previous 
despatches sent by the Cumberland. What was the nature 
of these despatches did not appear, but they probably related 
to Flinders' explorations, and were not in any way a violation 
of the conditions of his safe conduct from the French Govern- 
ment. Mr. Mault's strongest argument— indeed, an un- 
answerable argimient — was, that if these despatches had been 
of the compromising character suggested by the writer of the 
pamphlet on the Braboume Papers, Governor De Caen would 
have produced them in evidence against Flinders as a complete 
justification of the detention, and would not have been driven 
to find a paltry excuse in an entry in Flinders' journal. In 
any case Flinders' himself was without blame in the matter. 



125 



OBSERVATIONS EEGAEDING PYEAMID NUMBERS, 

By R. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 
(Diagrams.) 

The ancient structures of Egypt, especially the pyramids, 
have ever been regarded with the most prof ound interest. 
Travellers and historians find in them an everlasting theme 
for description. Geometricians also find in their designs, 
magnitude and dimensions, much matter for scientific 
speculations ; and the mystic inspired by their age, grandeur, 
and mystery, is disposed to gather from their every feature 
some more or less fancifully conceived revelation or miracle. 

Nor can we wonder at this. Egypt is the land of wonders. 
Great pyramids covering acres of land ; colossi sitting silent 
in granite thrones ; obelisks of prodigious height wonderfully 
carved from a single stone ; and temples, sphinxes, and canals, 
of stupendous proportions. When we consider that all these 
monuments were hoary with age at the time of Herodotus, 
and that a close study of their works and hieroglyphics 
reveals that their builders had attained great knowledge in 
astronomy, geometry, architecture, engineering, and various 
arts, we may readily admit that our highest modem 
civilisation was cradled in the land of the Pharaoh's. 

It is not my intention, however, to enter into the enquiry 
of Egyptian civilisation at present. The observations which 
I have to make are confined to the pyramid structures them- 
selves. It is now well established that pyramidal structures 
were peculiarly characteristic of the most ancient civilisations 
of India, Babylon, Nineveh, Egypt, China, North America, 
Mexico, and even in islands of the Pacific; and that the 
whole or greater part of them are associated with sepul- 
tures for the dead. But while it is most probable that 
originally such monuments were built solely for com- 
Inemoration and for the preservation of the remains 
of noble persons, there are also good reasons for 
supposing that some of them — such as the Great Pyramid 
of Gizeh or Cheops — fulfilled a double purpose. The Great 
Pyramid of Cheops covers a space of about 13*05 acres. If 
we make allowance for slight disturbance, due to pressure of 
the enormous superincumbent weight, we must assume that 
its designer intended its base to form a perfect square, and 
its shape a true pyramid. The various measurements of the 
most competent engineers only show a variation of 11, 13, 
and 19 inches in the length of each side, and with such 
doubtful data the side has been variously estimated at between 
9,129 and 9,164 inches, and the mean of the five most careful 



126 OBSERVATIONS BEGASPHTG PYRAMII) NTTMBEES. 

measurements give a length of 9,137 inches, or 36,548 inchesfor 
the circuit of the four sides. Ferguson's, Duf ell's, and Colonel 
Howard Yyse's measurements of height are the most reliable^ 
and they only vary between 450| feet and 456 feet, or 5,472 
English inches. Broadly speaking therefore its circuit re- 
presents about 100 inches for each day in the year, and its 
height almost exactly fibs, of its side base. The orientation 
or eastward aspect is almost true, being for South-East, 
'+ -1 for North-East, + -1 for South- West, and + •0*636 for 
North- West. Subsequent settlement or earth tremors might 
easily account for these minute divergences from absolutely 
true orientation. 

While rejecting the many fanciful interpretations of 
piystical writers drawn from known facts with respect to 
shape, dimensions, measurements, and orientation, I have long 
been convinced by the reasoning of sober minded investi- 
gators that the principal characteristics were probably 
j^etermined as a base or fixed standard for measures 
of space and capacity; and if so, the shape and 
dimensions themselves might have been suggested to the 
skilled geometricians of the time by reference to some 
astronomical fact of importance known to them, in conjunction 
with significant properties of number and proportion dis- 
covered by them to belong to the structure of cubes in 
pyramidal form. That men who taught the modem world 
mensuration and astronomy, should strive to attain a sure 
method for securing uniformity in standards as applied to 
weights and measurements, is a most reasonable supposition. 
That these standards should be symbolised by some 
striking or well-known astronomical fact, is in the 
highest degree probable, and corresponds exactly with the 
idea of the French astronomers, who determined the length 
of their metre in relation to the ascertained length of a 
meridian line drawn from the Pole to the Equator. (The 
metre representing the tenth millionth, or 39*37079 English 
inches ; the centimetre being one hundredth of a metre. The 
gramme or standard of weight is derived from the centimetre, 
I.e., a cubic centimetre of distilled water at the temperature 
of maximum density, nearly equal to '0022054 of an English 
avoirdupois pound, or 15,438 English grains.) 

Impressed with this idea, and with the conviction that the 
Egyptian builders were adepts in the construction of models, 
I sought to obtain some light upon these matters by studying 
the numerical combinations of simple cubes built upon the 
pyramid type. I was guided to a considerable extent in these 
investigations by the wide prevalence of multiples of 7, 12, and 
10, in the existing subdivisions of time, space, weight and value. 
How has it come about, for example, that a certain sacredness 
attaches to the number 7 ?' Why was the important division 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.I*& 12^ 

x>£ the year (a week) determined to be seven days, for it waa 
in common use long before the birth of Moses ? Why was the^ 
seventli day originally set apart as the Sabbath p Why have 
we the day divided into two parts of 12 hours each, and why 
do multiples of 12 so commonly appear in weights and 
measures, especially in astronomical divisions ? 

In many combinations conducted with the hope of throwing 
light OQ such matters, I failed to get any remarkable indica- 
tions, with three important exceptions. These three exceptions 
possess so many remarkable proportions and numbers relating 
to existing sub-divisions of weights, measures, and values, and 
•especially with the proportions and dimensions of the Great 
J^ramid, that I have been induced to risk the appellation of 
** pyranud mystic," and to lay the remarkable results before 
the members of this Society. 

The models which appear before you have each some, 
particular claim to notice, and whether any of them may ofEer 
^sufficiently remarkable characteristics or not as bearing upon 
the Great Pyramid, they are all well worthy of close attention as 
offering a natural solution to the genesis of particular numbers 
as used in sub-divisions or measures of time, space, weight, or 
value. 

Pyramid op Ctpj> Nxjmbbes, Having 7 as a Base. 

As shown in diagram, the most remarkable characteristic is 

the fact that the cube root of its basal layer, 49 or 7^, enters 

into and agrees with all the important dimensions of the 

<3-reat Pyramid, including length of complete circuit ; length 

of side ; height ; length of Egytian cubit ; English inch ; and 

through the latter it harmonises in the most obvious and 

simple multiples with these dimensions- and the days in the 

year, days in the lunar month. Other natural proportions of 

the three angled sides of pyramid connote the months in 

the quarter and year ; while its aggregate number of cubes, 

84 or 7 times 12, suggest the alliance of 7 and 12 in 

measurement of time. 

***** 

Demonstration indicating that the Great Pyramid dimen- 
sions were probably determined by the radix of sacred num- 
ber (7), which in itself has probably been selected because 
the cube root of its square contains nearly the exact figures 
representing the known days in the year : — 

Badix (V7'') = B = 3-6593. 

1. Circuit of pyramid in inches 36593 = lOOOOR 

, 2. Length of each side (4) „ „ 9148 = lOOOOR 

S. Height of pyramid „ „ 5488« = * (10000B) 
= 457 •• feet 2 



^8 oBsiBVATiQiini BaaAJUxme fibaiod nuxhbbs. 

FoTM.^- § Heifllit proportion may have been 
Aon. g ideeted necaaie 8 ex^Mes the 

umuberof dimentionfl in a cube : 
and 1 «-£- 2 exactlj expresses tlie 
felatiTe elevation surface of a 
triangle and square resting upon 
a common base and of equal ver- 
tical height at its maximum, in 
a vertical line drawn at right ' 
angles to base line. 

4. Principal unit of measurement in 1 0OOB 

inches 25*^ = 12* or 14^ 

Nearly equal to existing cubit 
in Egypt. 

HoTE — 12** most probably was adopted as a 

divisor, because curiously enough 
the actual number of square cubes 
contained in a pyramid of even 
numbers, which most nearly 
approaches the number of days 
in a year, is 364, and the base of 
such pyramid or Ist layer contains 
12 X 12 cubes or 144 : the second 
layer in importance succeeds it 
with 10 X 10 cubes or 100 (see 
plan). 

lOOOR 
5. Cubits in circuit of pyramid, No. 1440 == — ^qi- 

lOOOOE lOOOOB 

or 



10000E^12? 25-*^ 

lOOOOE 



6. Ditto in each side (mean) 360. [ iqqqq^j:^i2.2 ) ~ ^ 

8 

„ TT -t 1 looooE :yl^ 

7. rmtoryearorl=:-3^ggg-^ or ^^^ 



7-2 49 
8. Days in Week or 7 = -=- or y 



BT B. IL JOHNSTON, F.L.& 129 

9. Months in Year or 12 = Angles on 4 faces 4X3: 

also eqtial to base of a 
simple pyramid of even 
nnmbers whose aggre« 
gate represents 364: also» 
the seventh of the aggre- 
gate of a simple pyramid 
of odd having 7 for its 
base. 

10. Lunar Months in year orl3» nearly (lS-«0 = i2222£ 

7X4 

S<)XTABE Pyramid of Mixed Odd and Even Numbebs, 
Having fob a Base (7 x 2)* ob 14* = 196. 

Perhaps this forms the most interesting of all the com- 
binations. Its natural proportions and naturally related 
numbers are most suggestive. 

The following combinations are most striking : — 

1. If we take either the exposed cubes on the margin of each 

layer, or the total faces of distinct cubes- in the four 
sides, the aggregate comes exactly to 365, or the exact 
number of days in the year ; and therefore the propor- 
tional number of cubes on each triangular face is 91^, 
corresponding to days in the quarter of a year. 

2. If we now take the basal layer alone, we find the exposed 

number of cubes in the square to be 52, corresponding 
to weeks in the year. 

3. If again we take the aggregate of all cubes in the pyramid, 

we find they amount to 1,015, and if this number be 
multiplied by 36, or 4 times 9 (the latter number repre- 
senting the number of verticle angles on faces of the 
four wedges or prisms of which the pyramid is built, as 
indicated by its diagonals), we obtain 36,540, or within 
8 inches of the best actual measurements of its present 
state, which has no doubt undergone some slight settle- 
ment due to superincumbent pressure. 

4. A quarter of this gives 9,135 inches, or within 2 inches of 

the mean of the best actual measurements obtained by 
competent investigators. 
6. If we now take the square of its basal layer, 14 x 14, we 
get 196, and it is remarkable that if this number be 
multiplied successively by half the side, and by the 
number of sides, i.e., 196 x 7 x 4, we get 5,488, or within 
16 inches of the best estimates of the present height of 
the Great Pyramid, any two of which differ far more 
seriously with each other than this curious combination. 



130 OBSXBVATIONS BBQABDINO PTBAHID NUMBEB& 

6. The basal layer lias 13 distinct cubes in each side^ 
ponding to* number of weeks in eacb quarter, whick^ 
side typifies naturally; while the three angles of 
triangular face makes 12, corresponding with the 
in the year or hoxurs in the day. 
These combinations are all natural to the ps 

structure, and are not selected in arbitrary or forced 

as in many suggestions found in works referring to 

pyramids. 

Sqxtabe Pyramid of Eten Numbers Haying 12 fob 

Base. 

The remarkable characteristic of this pyramid is that— ^ 

1. The aggregate of all the cubes, if capped with an odd 

as a finishing point, numbers 365, corresponding to 
number of days in the year. It has 12 cubes along 
basal layer of each side, corresponding to moi 
There are exactly 36 cubes in each triangular face, jj 
144 in basal layer. If each of these be multiplied'^ 
the number of cubes in side of 2nd layer, and ta^ken 
divisor of the circuit and side of pyramid they 
results .which almost exactly correspond with the exu 
cubit of Egypt. 
The same result is very closely attained bp multij)lying 

aggregate number of cubes (365) by 7, and diviaing tl 

result by the square of the second layer (100). 

2. But perhaps the more interesting numbers in this pyi 

of even numbers are those of the cubes of the exp( 
sides of squares, and the aggregates of the cubes H 
each layer. 
It is singular that in the first series the sequence 1, 4, 
20, should exactly correspond with the sequence of Englii 
standards of money value, viz.: Earthing, farthings in penn] 
pennies in a shilling, and shillings in a pound. 

The figures of the base, 12 and 144, are associated wil 
sub-divisions of square measured multiples or suU 
divisions of 28, as 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 2,240 as in sub-divisioi 
of weight ; and in the second series of aggregates we have ii 
the second layer the numbers 10, 220, and in the basal^ 
exposed margin of circuit 44, all suggestive of some connectioft'^ 
with reasons which originally entered into the determination * 
of subdivision of 44, 220, 440, 1,760, in the English mile. 

Conclusion. * 

Taken by themselves the remarkable coincidences with<* 
known facts relating to measurement of time and space might ] 
only be construed as simple examples of the facility with 
which many numbers may be made to coincide with known ■ 






■es an -f^u 
viSecttcCt 



BT B. IC JOtfKfii^N, F.L.S. 13t 

measurements or proportionals relating to the earth's diameter, 
circumference, distance from the sun, annual period of 
revolution, etc.; for it is easy by slight variations of any root, 
arbitrarily made, and arbitrarily selected raultijples, to make 
any number approximate to some important terrestrial 
measurement, provided that the computer is himself pre- 
viously aware of the proportional, size, or measurement, with 
which a show of correspondence is desired. Much of the so- 
called remarkable coincidences of mystical writers are of this 
class ; for it not unfrequently happens that the same root 
measurement, by slight alteration, is worked up to bring about 
coincidences with very different things. Thus Mr. Piazzi 
Smith, by taking the height of the niche of the Queen's 
Chamber of the Great Pyramid as 182*62, and multiplying it 
by 2, he obtains 365 242, equivalent to the days in the year; 
and again by arbitrarily taking the same dimensions as 185, 
and multiplying it successively by 3*1416 and 10, he obtains 
5,812, which he arbitrarily concluded to be the height 
of the Great Pyramid in inches. But curiously enough 
the same dimensions, 182*62, multiplied by 10 and divided 
by 2 (why not at once multiply by 5*") is made to show an 
approximate to length of one of the sides in inches. These 
are common examples of the facility with which many fancy 
the discovery of purposeful design in numbers or dimensions, 
when dealt with in a fanciful and arbitrary way. 

It seems to have been forgotten by such persons that any 
root figure, by the arbitrary selection of a multiplier or divisor, 
may be made to coincide exactly with any other number 
provided the manipulator Tcnows hefcrehand the number or 
proportional with which correspondence is sought to be 
established. 

But making all allowance for the vagaries of the mystics, 
there are many legitimate subjects of enquiry, upon 
which some light might be thrown by the careful investigation 
of ancient structures At the present day it is remarkable 
how largely the numbers 7, 12, and 10, or simple multiples of 
these enter into standards of space, time, weight, and value. 
It is easy to imagine how 1 was seized upon so frequently as 
a standard of measurement ; for counting by means of the 
digits of the two hands so universal and so natural at once 
suggests a probable reason ; but the reasons for the original 
selection of 7 and 12 for a similar purpose are not so easily 
conceived. 

What, for example, were the determining causes for the 
selection of the many sub-divisions of weights, values, time, 
lineal and square measure P 

Why have we a sequence of 4, 12, 20, in English money 
in sub-divisions of the penny, shilling and pound ; of 14, 28, 
56, 112, 2,240, in sub-divisions of a ton weight ; of 44, 440, 



132 OBSEBVATIOKS BXOAXDWQ PYRAMID NUMBEB& 

1,760, in sab-divisions of the English mile ; of mnliiplea of 
12 in square measure; of either 8 or 7 as a root of wine 
measure ? 



8x42 



8x1 I gall.: ^^AA tierce: ^ «q hogshead 



8x84 
7x96 



7x48 
8 X 126 



8x62 



puncheon : 7 ^ j^^ pipe : 7 ^ ggg 



7x72 

8x252 



tun 



The German elle }► „ ^ ^||® 



Then going to the survivals of ancient systems of linear 
measurement, how can we account for the origin of lineal 
measures, such as — 

The English foot ... Equivalent to 12 English inches 
The ancient *' Pied de 

Eoi" of France ... „ 1279 „ 

The Italian pie ... „ 22*428 

The common guerze of 

xcrsia ... ... ,, Au „ 

The pic of Turkey ... „ 26 8 „ 

The braccio of Ancona „ 25*83 „ 

The short pichaof Greece „ 25 „ 

The long „ „ „ 27 „ 
The existing derah or 

cubit of Egypt ... „ 25*488 „ 

Jewish cubits ... j^ „ {2474 " 

May it not be possible therefore that the ancient draftsmen 
or modellers of pyramids had seized upon many of these 
characteristics shown in the forms and figures referred to, 
both for sub-divisions of measures and weights, and also to 
typify in their important fixed standards some of the more 
remarkable facts of astronomy then known to them ? 



133 



NOTE ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUELEW AND iTS 
CLOSELY ALLIED CONGENEES. 

Bx Coi.oinsi< W. v. Lbsge, E.A., F.Z.S. 

I 

A comparison of the Australian Curlew with its near 
Asiatic ally, and its more distantly related representative in 
Earope and Western Asia, may not be uninteresting to 
Members of this Society who study ornithology. 

The Curlews of the old world, like other members of the 
Wader family (Gharadriide), resemble one another in plumage, 
and hence we find that a few years ago Naturalists con- 
fused them not a little; we have the Indian and the 
Chinese Curlew spoken of as the European bird, and there 
seems to be some confusion about the European and South 
African species. Unlike the American Curlews, which have a 
distinguishing characteristic on the buff tinting of the under 
wing and axdiaries, the old world species differ chiefly in 
character of the markings of the breast and axiliaries and 
in the ground colour of the rump, and it is by deferring to 
these parts that a correct diagnosis of the above species, on 
which I make this note, can be founded. A marked charac- 
teristic, however, of the Australian bird is its length of bill. 

The European or common Curlew is : — Numenius Arquata 
(Linn), described as Scolopax Arquata, LlnnsBus, Syst. Nat. 
Ed., 12, 1. p. 242 (1766). 

The Eastern, or Asiatic Curlew is : — Numenius Lineatus 
(Cuvier), Eeg. An., 2nd Ed., 1. p. 62 (1829). 

The Australian Curlew is : — Numenius Cyanopus (Vieillot), 
2nd Ed., du Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Vol. viii., p. 306 
(1817). 

The latter is the Numenius Major of Schelgel from Japan, 
and the Numenius Australis of Gould from Australia, and like- 
wise the Numenius Eufescens of Gould, in the proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, 1832, p. 286 — which name appears 
to have been founded on a specimen in breeding plumage. 

The following diagnostic table will tend to illustrate the 
characteristics above alluded to : — 



134 



NOTE ON THE AUSTRAUAK CUSLBW. 



Hi 
M 




a p^9t 

3.S 



'^ 



a" 
I- 

o o 
feu 

5.2 




a 



aa 



<1 



no • pj 
•" Ife a ^ 

OQ O -«J 




0) 



^ 



00 


-*3 


a 


Q) 


•1^ 


m 


1 


-i 


a 






-fd 




QQ 




O 


€> 


s 


^ 




^ 


d 



^ a 
is 2 ® 

^ pja «H °° 

g .-§ .§ .2 



* oo-S 



3 

a 



<B 



a 

o 



e3 



-M CM pi3 




H 

OQ 

pq 



i QQ a 

fl bog 

^i' fl fe 

^ s ® 

^ '^ 

^ d o 

CO S -M 

>-i l> c3 

a> o -S 






o 



QQ 

c3 



43 ^ o 





QQ 


^ 


0) 


-»d 


• «H 


•1^ 


^ 


r—t 




,-*3 


^ 


*t3 


a> 


cd 


^pfl 


-fi 


Ui 


d 




a> 




Ph 


^ 




O 




;-4 






a-a 



2:S 



a ^ 






QQ J3 






QQ 






H 
OQ -^ 



OQ 

t3 



QQ 
P 

O 
WO 



BY COLONEL W. V. LEGGE, B.A., F.ZS. 136; 

As regards our Curlew, N. Cyanopus, on arriving in Tas- 
mania in September some specimens have the buff tinge of the 
breeding season still remaining on the breast and flanks, and 
accompanying this is a rufescent hue on the longer upper tail 
coverts and central tail feathers. This species no doubt varies 
in size, length of wing and length of bill, as much as its 
congeners. But, unfortunately, I have not yet got together 
a series of specimens, and cannot give much information on 
the subject. A pair shot in Ealph's Bay, by my son, on the 
14th September, measured as follows : — 

Length, 24*75 in.; wing, 12*25; expanse, 42*0; tarsus, 
3*5 ; bill along culmen, 6.9. 5 Length, 22*0 in.; wing, 11*1 ; 
tarsus, 3*4 ; bill along culmen 5*5. In both, the legs were 
bluish grey, with the toes darkish ; iris, very deep brown ; 
bill, dark brown ; tip, blackish ; base beneath, fleshy reddish. 

Oeographical Distribufion, — Although the Australian Curlew 
is a migratory species, breeding in northern climates in 
summer and " wintering " here in our summer, many seem to 
remain throughout the year with us. This is a common 
feature in the economy of the "Waders. I have found several 
species of well-known "northern breeders" remaining in 
Ceylon in considerable numbers in the cool season, but not to 
breed ; and thuugh our Curlew remains with us in the winter 
it is impropable that it breeds here. 

It migrates north through the Malay Archipelago, being 
there met with on passage in Borneo, New Guinea, the 
Philippines and other islands ; thence northward along the 
coast of China to Amoor Land, and up to Lake Baikal, in 
which region it is supposed to breed. In Japan, it has been 
met with as far north as Hakodadi. According to Buller it 
only occurs sparingly in New Zealand ; but nevertheless seems 
to remain there in winter. New Zealand is probably its 
eastern limit ; for farther east it is replaced by the oceanic 
species, N. femoralis, with curiously formed tibial feathers, 
and which occurs in the Marquesas Islands. Eamsay records 
our bird from all the Australian Colonies. 

EoUowing the principle advocated here, that the Asiatic 
Curlew, N. Lineata, is distinct from the European bird, we have 
the range of the former across the continent to China, down the 
peninsula of India to Ceylon, and likewise southwards from 
China to the Malay islands, where it has been procured in Java, 
Sumatra, and Borneo. The same form of bird is known to 
migrate down the east coast of Africa, and Layard records it as 
a resident in South Africa. 

Its range would appear to be over-lapped, so to speak, by 
that of the Australian Curlew in Amoor Land and Japan, the 
present bird not being found north of the south-eastern part of 



136 NOTE ON THE AUStBAIIAN CUBLEW. 

Mongolia — where it breeds, quitting the southern portions of 
the continent in April for that purpose. 

Lastly, the range of the European Curlew may be defined to 
extend throughout Europe, taking in the Orkney, Faroe, and 
Shetland Islands. It Imewise occurs in Western Asia. It is 
found in the Azores and in North Africa, extending down the 
coast of that continent to Damara Land. It appears not to 
wander to the extreme south, for all the South African Curlews 
I examined in the British Museum when compiling my work 
were inseparable from the foregoing species as round in India, 
China, and Ceylon. It would therefore appear to take in the 
west coast, while the Asiatic or " Eastern *' Curlew monopolises 
the east coast and the extreme south in its wanderings. 



* 



137 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF TASMANIA^ FOSSILS 
OF TJPPEE PALEOZOIC AGE. 

By Bobeet M. Johnston, F.L.S. 

(Plate.) 

The mudstone beds (Upper PalsBOzoic) in the neighbourhood 
of Hobart are extraordinarily rich in spirifers. Fourteen species 
have already been noted in my recent work on the Geology of 
Tasmania. A number of other interesting forms have been 
collected by me during the last two or three years ; but 
hitherto I have not had time to study them with that care 
which is desirable ; for any one who has worked long in 
our rocks must be aware of the many difficulties which are 
presented when any attempt is made to determine the 
characters of the Protean-winged spirifers of Tasmania. In 
the mudstone rocks casts alone are generally found ; and 
although these are numerous and sharply marked, the casts 
present such a wonderful range of variation when large 
numbers of the same species are subjected to examination that 
the task of determining the central or most typical represen- 
tative of each species is extremely puzzling. If attention 
were confined to a single specimen — as is often the case where 
odd specimens are despat-ched to palseontologists at a distance 
— there would be less perplexity ; but it need hardly be stated 
determinations so made, without the knowledge of local vari- 
ability, must add greatly to the perplexities of the field 
worker who may have to determine whatever variety comes to 
his hand by the aid of descriptions based upon odd types. 

All the winged spirifers of Tasmania are extremely variable, 
and many species among these extreme forms are scarcely 
separable from similarly variable allied species. 8, convoluta, S^ 
hisculcata, S* ves]pertilio, 8, duodecimocosta, and /S. avciula are 
remarkable for the extreme variability in form and sculpture. 
Added to the difficulties of the observant field worker are the 
variety of modes in which they are presented in casts ; some 
showing sharp details of external surface of right valve; some 
of left ; some of more or less blurred surfaces of one or both 
sides of internal casts. The greater number, again, are 
curiously distorted. It is not surprising, therefore, that many 
able authorities have had frequently to revise the classifica- 
tion of many of these forms, when other examples of an 
abnormal form or type have been submitted to them. The 
following six species, as determined by me from a series of 
specimens of each kind, presented all the difficulties referred 



138 



ADDITIONS TO THE IJST 07 TASMANIAS FOSSIU. 



to ; but after careful comparison I was enabled to account for 
young and adult forms, and to mark individual variation ; and 
nually I could, with some degree of confidence, select tbe most 
' utal of eich group. By this meana I have ledifffld a^ largb 

. ^ sber of Toriabie specimens to aix Bpecies, all of which X fan*, 

bean able, ^th some degree of con£aence, to refer to types 6~ 
well-known fossils occurring with many of their asHOCutei; X 
rocks of tbe same age in Europe. Fairly good photo " 
have been taken of theie, and the following are the d ' 
tions wliicb I have been able to arrive at. 



Tasuahiah Bbachiopods. 



1. 1, 4. Spirifem striata 
2, ?. laminosa 

- cristata 




Martin 
K'Coy 

IdeC. Sow. 



var. octoplicata ) 
duplicostata 
alata Schi. 

triangularis Mariin 
veapertllio Q. Sow. 



Lous 



Hupn^iQqad 



.rV'-' 



*. 



As the descriptions of tbe same specieB taken from Davidson's 
" British Carboniferous Bracliiopoda" auswer elosely to local 
forms, I bave appended descriptive extracts from this eminent 
authority, for the convenience of local students. 

Figures of local forms are taken from select types by photo- 
graphy. I bave also to announce tbe discovery of Lophof nullum 
comiottlum, de Konwick. Collected by Capt. Beddome iri tte 
mud stone beds near Fin gal. - 

DESCKIPTlOy 01' Sl'SCIES OcCUEEINU IN EuROPEAK Bo(iBft.' 

AccoHDiKo TO T. Datidsoh, F.E.3. 

Spirifeva striata, Murtin. / 

A very large and variably shaped shell, transversely Semi- 
circular, or sub-rhomboidal ; valves almost equally convex. 
In the dorsal valve the mesial fold is of moderate alerttii 
while tbe sinus in tbe opj^oBiteone is both variable in its ^'£3 
and deptb. The hinge-line is either a little shorter, ( 
aa the greatest width of the shell, tho cardinal angles being ti 
or less rounded in adult individuals. Tbe area is ot-sao^' 
widtli, with sub-parallel sides ; fissure triangular, anS "pSt 



( 



BY BOBEBT M. JOHNSTON, F.L.& 139 

covered by a pseudo-deltidium. The external surface of the 
shell is ornamented by a variable number of radiating ribs, 
which augment in number to a greater or lesser extent, from 
intercalations at unequal distances from the beaks ; so that from 
70 to 90 may be counted round the margin of each valve in 
adult individuals. The ribs on the fold and sinus are likewise 
more flattened than on the lateral portions of the shell. The 
Burfaoe is closely and finely reticulated. In the interior of the 
dorsal valve, under the extremity of the incurved umboual beak 
there exists a small cardinal process or muscular fulcrum, and on 
either side are situated the dental sockets. The spiral cones which 
fill the larger portion of the shell are attached to the extremities 
of the inner socket-walls. The lamellae, after having converged 
and given birth to the crural processes, diverge, and form the 
first of the 20 or 22 convolutions of which each spiral is 
composed. Four impressions left by the adductor muscle are 
visible in this valve. In the interior of the ventral valve a 
strong hinge-tooth is situated on either side at the base of the 
fissure, and is supported by a vertical shelly plate of much 
strength, but not advancing to any great length into the interior 
of the valve. Between these a large portion of the free space 
at the bottom of the shell is occupied by the adductor and 
cardinal muscular impressions, which are divided by a blunt, 
central, longitudinal ndge. The dimensions of one of the 
largest examples are : — 

Length, 4| in.; width, 6 in. 1 line ; depth, 3 in. 1 line. 

Spirifera laminosa, M^Coy, 

Transversely sub-rhomboidal ; valves nnequally convex, the 
ventral one by far the deepest. The lateral portions of the 
shell are regularly curved, forming with the extremities of the 
hinge-line, acute, but not prolonged cardinal extremities ; area 
large, triangular, more or less elevated, and divided by a fissure 
of moderate width. Beak small, not much produced above or 
beyond the level of the area. The mesial fold in the dorsal 
valve is broad, and more or less elevated without ribs, and 
corresponding with a deep and rather wide longitudinal sinus 
in the ventral one. Each valve is ornamented by about 20 or 
22 narrow radiating ribs, intersected by closely disposed, sharp, 
oncentric, undulating laminae. The measurements from two 
examples have produced — 

Length, 12 ; width, 21 ; depth, 10 lines. 
„ 8 „ 11 „ 6^ „ 

Spiriferina cristata, var, octophcata, J, De O, Sowerhy. 

Transversely sub-rhomboidal, valves about equally convex, 
and at times rather gibbous ; hinge-line as long as the greatest 
width of the shell. Cardinal angles acute or shghtly rounded ; 
area concave, triangular, and of variable width ; fissure partly 
covered by a pseudo-deltidium ; beak small and incurved. The 

I 



140 ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF TASMANIA^ FOSSILS. 

mesial fold of the dorsal valve is more often composed of a 
single rib which is much larger than those situated on the lateral 
portions of the shell; its crest being in general rounded 
m)m the umbone to about half its length, when it gradually 
becomes more and more flattened as it approaches the frontal 
margin, but at times it remains angular during its entire 
length, with a tendency to the formation of a rudimentary 
plait on either of its slopes, so that in these rarer cases the 
fold assumes towards the front an obscurely triplicated 
appearance. The sinus in the ventral valve is deep, acute, 
and generally simple, but also more rarely interrupted by a 
rudimentary rib, which becomes visible in the proximity 
of the front. The valves are ornamented by from S to 12 
angular ribs, which are, as well as the sinus and fold, inter- 
cepted by closely disposed, concentric, scale -like lamin®. The 
surface of the shell is also closely beset by numerous small 
granular (spinose) asperities ; the shell-structure being likewise 
perforated by minute tubili or perforations. 

In the interior of the ventral valve there exists a sharp 
elevated mesial septum, which rises from the bottom of the 
valve, and partly divides the spiral cones. Dimensions very 
variable. Three examples, of which the first two are Sowerby's 
original types, have afforded the following measurements : — 

Length, 9 ; width, 13 ; depth, 8 lines. 
» 6 „ 11 „ 6 „ 
» 5 » S » 5 „ 
Spirifera duplicicosta, Phillips. 

Transversely sub-rhomboidal when adult, longer than wide, 
or almost circular when quite young ; valves moderately convex, 
with a more or less produced mesial fold in the dorsal, and a 
corresponding sinus in the ventral one. The hinge-line is 
shorter than the width of the shell, the area of moderate 
breadth, beak incurved. Valves ornamented by numerous 
radiating ribs, which rapidly augment at various distances £rom 
the beaks by intercalation as well as bifurcation. Two examples 
have afforded the following measurements : — 

Length, 16 ; width, 20 ; depth, 11 lines. 
„ Ibg^ „ 17 a „ i\J-2 ), 

Spirifera alata, Schlotheim, 

S. alata varies considerably in shape, according to age and 
individual. When adult or full grown it is transversely fusi- 
form, being twice and even three times as wide as long (PI. 1, figs. 
23 and 27). Valves convex, deepest at a short distance from 
the umbone ; hinge-line as long as the greatest width of the 
shell, the cardinal extremities being more or less attenuated in 
different individuals. The area is wide with sub-parallel sides ; 
fissure triangular, and in great measure covered by a convex 
f seudo-deltidium ; a narrow rudimentary area may be seen 



BY BOBEBT M. JOHNSTON, F.L.a 141 

likewise in the smaller valve ; beak small and incurved. The 
mesial fold is simple, of variable width, and flattened along its 
upper surface ; while in the ventral valve there exists a shadow 
«inus, interrupted by the presence of a rounded slightly elevated 
mesial rib. The valves are likewise ornamented by a variable 
number of rounded, or but slightly angular, ribs ; these are 
simple, or here or there augmented by an occasional intercalca- 
tion. In number they vary from about 8 to 30 on each valve, 
the larger number occurring on the most adult individuals. 
The ribs are also at times of unequal width, even on the same 
example ; and the entire surface of the shell is omamened by 
dose and regular scale-like, concentric, imbricated laminsB. 
The interior of the ventral valve does not show a trace of that 
devated mesial septum which is always present in Spiriferma 
cristata, 8p. octoplicata, Sp, Munsteri, rostrata, Tessoni, and 
other forms composing that sub*genus. The dental or rostral 
plates in S. alata are also much smaller, and I might almost say 
rudimentaiT ; the muscular impressions are likewise exactly 
similar to those peculiar to the genus Spirifera, In the dorsal 
valve, under the extremity of the umbone, there exists a small 
striated cardinal process or boss, but no hinge-plate, and a 
little lower is seen the quadruple impression left by the adduc- 
tor (PI. I., figs. 31, 32, 33a). 

Spirifera triangularis, Martin. 

T^angular, twice as wide as long, with a straight elongated 
hinge-line, and slightly concave, nearly parallel-sided area, 
towards the attenuated extremities of which the lateral margins 
of each valve converge, forming acute angles with the hinge. 
The fissure is triangular, and partly covered by a pseudo- 
deltidium. The dorsal valve is less convex than the opposite 
one with an. elevated mesial fold which commonly assumes the 
character of a single produced and acutely angular cuneiform 
ridge or rib, at times considerably prolonged beyond the frontal 
level of the lateral portions of the valve. On either side of 
this central ridge from 6 to 10 smaller ribs ornament the 
lateral portions of the valve. The beak of the ventral valve is 
narrow, produced, and incurved. A shallow mesial sinus 
commences at the extremity of the beak, and extends to the 
fronts but at a short distance from its origin a mesial or 
central rib originates, which becomes wider and more elevated 
and produced as it approaches the front, and corresponds with 
the central ridge of the dorsal valve. Seven to 11 smaller ribs 
exist also on the lateral portions of the valve, on either side of 
the sinus. The dimensions taken from a perfect individual have 
produced : — 

Length, 10| ; width, 21^ ; depth, 6| lines. 



142 



CONTENTS. 

1. Is the Poverty of the Masses a Necessary Concomitant of Increasecl. 

Accumulation of Wealth in the Aggregate ? 

2. Wants of Man. 

3. Division of Labour and Means of Exchange — Advantages and Defects. 

4. Further Difficulties — ^Allocation. 

5. Proportional Classification of Occupations. 

6. Causes of Existing Poverty and Misery. 

7. Satisfaction of Wants and Theory of Obstacles Considered. 

8. The Best Mode for Effecting Exchanges Depends Greatly Upon the 

Extent and Value of Local Natural Sources. 

9. Buy in the Cheapest Market. 

10. Free Trade. 

11. Aggregate Wealth and Individual Wealth. 

12. The Effect of Strikes or a Rise in Wages in Food-producing and Food- 

lacking Countries. 

18. Rent Monopoly. 

14. Monopoly of the Gifts of Nature. 

15. Middlemen. 

16. Distribution of Consumable Wealth. 
i7. Capital and Wages Difficulty. 

18. Improvement in Social Conditions Largely Due to the Savings of Anterior 

Labour. 

19. Comparative Progress in Modern Times Due to Increased Productive 

Power. 

20. Past and Present Contrasted. 

21. Comparative Effective Purchasing Power of Labour. 

22. Present and Past Condition of England Contrasted. 

23. Increasing Numbers. 

24. The Struggle for Existence. 

25. Can a Higher Culture be Maintained in Any One Country Without 

Regulating its Intercourse with Other Races of Men in a Lower Plane 
of Civilisation? 



143 



EOOT MATTERS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC 

PEOBLEMS. 



By E. M. Johnston, P.L.S. 

Is THE Poverty of the Masses a Necessary Concomi- 
tant OF Increased Accumulation of Wealth in 
the Aggregate ? 

All observers are nearly -agreed that the accumulation of 
wealthandwealth-producmg power haveprodigiouslyincreaaed 
within the present century. Of this there can be little 
doubt. Modem discoveries— as regards the properties of 
matter, the discovery and development of new lands, the uses 
of steam, electricity, and labour-saving inventions in every 
department of social and industrial life — have enormously 
increased man's power over the forces of nature. With this 
immense gain of power vast continents of virgin forest and 
barren swamp have become gardens of plenty. Eivers, 
mountains, and other formidable obstacles to communication 
or distribution of products have been bridged or pierced by 
railways, roads, and other superior means of distribution; 
4Uid the wide ocean, connecting far distant lands, now forms 
the easy and open highway of magnificent steamers, which 
vie in regularity and speed with the railway train in bringing 
ix> local markets daily supplies of the fresh meat, fish, £ruit, 
{uid cereals of lands many thousand miles away. As a 
natural consequence famines, such as are known to have been 
«o common and so terrible in England in the immediately 
•preceding centuries, are rendered an impossibility. 

How is it, then, that we are again brought face to face with 
the old terrible problems: ''The Misery of the Masses," 
^' The Labourer's Struggle for Existence," *' The Growth of 
Poverty," " The Increase of Pauperism and Crime ? " If we 
<can judge by the popular literature of the day, the state of 
the masses in Europe seems to be verging into as hopeless a 
•condition as that which existed prior to the introduction of 
our vaunted discoveries. 

Indeed, one writer, who recently has been heard above all 
^ther claimants for reform, confidently affirms that *' it is 
true wealth has been greatly increased, and that the average 
•of comfort, leisure, and refinement has been raised; but 
these gains are not general. In them the lowest class do not 
■shareJ' He broadly insists that increase in poverty is the 
•constant concomitant of increase in aggregate wealth, and 



144 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS 

that tills constant '' association of povertj with progress m 
the great enigma of our times." Is it true, as this writer 
confidently affirms, that with all the advantages which man 
has gained in his increased and increasing command over the^ 
forces of nature, our present civilisation has by its customs 
and provisions barred the effectual distribution of accumu- 
lated wealth ; and the only effect produced is that of making 
the rich richer and the poor poorer ? 

This cannot be answered effectively without some enquiry 
into that form of wealth which constitutes man's chief 
satisfactions. 

Are these sufficient in the aggregate to suffice for all, if 
proper means for effecting distribution were employed^ 
supposing such means were possible ? Or is the aggregate 
supply of primary wants insufficient to provide all needs, even 
were the most thorough means devised for its distribution ? 

Wants op Man. 

The satisfaction of the wants of man is the mainspring of 
all his activities. Wants are interminable. Some affect his 
very existence, while others only concern his greater degree of 
comfort or happiness. In all enquiries into matters deeply 
concerning the existence and welfare of man it is well,, 
therefore, to keep these fundamental distinctions clearly in 
view ; for not a few of oar misconceptions arise from a failure 
on the part of social and political economists to establish a. 
satisfactory classification of wants according to their varying 
importance. 

Broadly speaking, these may be divided into three great 
groups : — 

(1.) Wants Essential to Life Itself. 

(2.) Wants Essential to Comfort. 

(3.) Luxurious Wants. 

Whatever eccentricities may be exhibited by isolated 
individuals at times, it is unmistakable that the fierceness or 
intensity of the struggle for wants among communities is: 
determined by the ruiture of the wants ; and, invariably, sa 
long as the reason of man is preserved, the greater intensity 
of the struggle — beginning with the most important — is in 
the order before given, viz.: — 
Wants essential to — 

(1.) Life. 

(2.) Comfort. 

(3.) Luxury. 

Man can, and, unfortunately, the masses of men are oftea 
obliged to, exist without the enjoyment of luxurious wants« 
He may even be deprived of all wants beyond the first group 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 145 

and still maintain a more or less extended life-straggle with 
misery of some kind : but if the wants of the fivBt growp be 
ever so little curtailed below a certain minimum, lie will 
speedily perish miserably. 

Preserve to man bis life, and if needs be be will eagerly 
exchange for its preservation all his comforts and luxuries. 
Deny lum Hfe, and all the Economist's wealth of exchange 
becomes to him as dross — absolutely valueless. This being 
80, let us endeavour to investigate some of the more important 
social problems closely connected with the welfare and 
progress of man. It is for many reasons necessary at this 
stage to confine attention to those primary wants essential to 
life itself ; and for greater clearness these may be restricted 
to that minimum of each great want necessary to maintain 
the life of each person. The exact minimum of these, what- 
ever their form may be, depends upon the energy destroyed 
by work, and upon the physical condition of the labourer's 
environment, and may be stated thus : — 

The minimum to maintain existence of 

Food. 

Shelter. 

Best. 

Without a certain minimum of these, man, like all living 
organisms, must perish inevitably. 

Division op Labour — ^Advantages and Defects. . 

Division of labour necessary to produce necessary satisfac- 
tions, and to distribute them in large civilised communities, 
undoubtedly ensures greater skill, and prevents unnecessary 
wast-e of the aggregate time and energy of the individuals. 
Were it not for this provision no country could sustain the 
life of large numbers. This division of labour, however, 
rests upon the tacit understanding that energies in other 
directions than that of actually producing food may 
constantly be exchanged for food and other primary wants. 
Individual societies, communities, and nations are alike in 
this respect; for no matter the skill, time, and labour 
proffered or applied for or in the production of other than 
primary wants, it is necessary that they be constantly 
exchangeable in sufficient amount to obtain at least that 
minimum of primary needs from other persons or communi- 
ties, who, under this system, are supposed to produce a 
sufficient surplus for the satisfaction of all other members of 
society not immediately engaged in the production of primary 
wants. Were it not for this understood assurance, the 
present civilisation — with special centres of manufactures for 



146 BOOT MATTERS IN SOOIAL AND EOONOmO PBOBLEMS. 

tbe world at large, its defined local division of labour and 
individual rights in large areas of land — ^would be altogether 
impossible. 

Among the conflicting opinions of Political Economists, 
Socialists, and Communists, there is at any rate this one 
fundamental point of agreement, viz.f that by a proper 
division of labour or services, the sum total of human 
satisfactions are greatly superior, and are enjoyed by vastly 
greater numbers than would be possible to men were each to 
work in a state of isolation, and each one obliged to attempt 
to create the whole round of his own requirements. Let us 
take it for granted, then, that division of services is a 
necessity ; but while so doing let us bear in mind that the 
greater satisfaction of wants in the aggregate may be attained, 
and yet owing to an imperfect scheme of distribution a 
sufficiency, nay, even the minimum of primary satisfaction 
necessary to maintain life, may failto reach many ; and hence 
it may appear that mudb of the idleness, pauperism, crime, 
misery and death experienced in crowded centres is due to 
the defects of distribution. 

Let us therefore examine this root difficulty, free from the 
clouds of irrelevant or less urgent considerations. Division 
of labour without facilities for exchange may render a unit 
more helpless in such a scheme than he would be in a savage 
state. Much ingenuity and ability has been exercised by 
many writers in showing to us, as Bastiat does, the glorious 
provisions of one of the so-called social harmonies (Liberty 
alixys Competition) in preventing monopoly, and in effecting 
the distribution of wealth. And it may be at once conceded 
that human society does reap all the advantages claimed on 
behalf of competition. 

The question, however, is not — ^Does competition effect 
much good P That may be readily conceded. But confining 
attention to the minimum of primary wants alone — Do the 
combined effects of division of services, competition and 
modes of exchange now existing, provide for the preservaiion 
of due proportions between the different classes of services, so as 
to ensure the production of primary needs in sufficiency for 
the wants of all ; and are the means of exchange sufficiently 
perfect to secure with more or less certainty a due modicum 
of primary needs to all. In a word, is the *' all for each " as 
effectively complete as the " each for all ? " 

If this latter provision be defective — and this unfortunately 
seems too true — can the defects be removed ? And if this be 
impossible — can the evils be minimised to any extent ? All 
possessors of services must be enabled to secure primazy 
wants, or they perish. Eeferences to the wide distribution 
of wealth in exchange or commercial valtie ; or to standard 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 147 

^prices or wages — low or liigh — are utterly misleading. 

Without tlie power to acquire, or the actual possession of a 

"due provision of that portion of exchange wealth — not 

necessarily possessing a high exchange value — the whole 

: aggregate of the remaining part of the world's wealth in 

•exchange would be worthless ; for it would fail to preserve the 

life of the man destitute of primary wants. This is the root 

difficulty ; and it is forcibly exemplified in the $rst notable 

•exchange recorded in sacred history between the typical 

representative of the hunter of wild animals, and the more 

filalled and peaceful agriculturist. 

" . . , And Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the 
field : and Jacob was a plain man dwelling in tents. . . . 
And Jacob sod pottage : and Esau came from the field and he 
was faint : And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee with 
that same red pottage, for I am faint. . . . And Jacob said. 
Sell me this day thy birthright. And Esau said. Behold I am 
at the point to die, and what profit shall this birthright do to 
me P And Jacob said. Swear to me this day ; and he sware 
unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. Then Jacob 
cgave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles ; and he did eat and 
drink, and rose up and went his way ; thus Esau despised his 
birthright." — (Genesis xxv., 27-34.) 

It is fortunate for Esau that he had the power of effecting 
^an exchange, and that, notwithstanding the exorbitancy of the 
^seller's terms, he had no hesitancy in exchanging (or 
•despising as it is stated) the less needful wants for the more 
pressing or primary ; for in the trial of Job's integrity and 
fortitude it is affirmed, with truth, that skin for skin, all 
iihat a man hath will he give for his life. 

Unfortunately for the working class breadwinner, his 
only birthright is physical power and manual skill, and 
Although these are all he can offer for his life needs, he cannot 
always as a competitor effect the necessary exchange ; and 
too often he, and those depending upon him, travel the swift 
road to beggary and death. 

Thus there are still defects, whether remediable or other- 
wise, in the present civilisation, so long as these fundamental 
necessities of a power to exchange with primary wants are 
imperfect, e.g, : certain divisions of humankind are not directly 
engaged in producing primary wants for themselves. They 
•are mostly engaged merely in rendering more or less skilled 
services, in return for tokens (money or other medium) 
understood to have at least the power of effecting correspond- 
ing definite supplies of primary wants. But this division has 
itnother difficulty. 

The actual owner of the power (rich capitalist^ to effect 
the production of things which may be exchanged for a 



148 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL Ain> ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

corresponding quantity of primary wants, may in all likelihood 
be able to effect sach exchanges; bat the poor capitalist, the 
possessor of the power of mere seryices, such as the navTy, 
the house servant, the blacksmith, may often be unable to 
exchange his services towards the production of these very 
things ; and under such conditions as the needful, exchange 
cannot be effected, the unemployed wage-earner in tibie 
division of human labour must be supported by drawing 
upon a more or less limited surplus previously earned; 
idling that he must either borrow, take the risk of violent 
means to secure primary wants, be fed by private or public 
charity, or die of starvation. 

This, then, is the problem of problems of the present day. 
Beferences to current high rates of wages, the low prices of 
provisions, or the increasing aggregate value of wealth in 
exchange, do not always disclose this skeleton in the 
social cupboard. When the ship of society is barred 
into many more or less water-tight compartments the 
ship itself may not founder, although one or two minor 
chcunbers be damaged and water-logged, and their contents 
destroyed. If the larger and more important chambers, 
however, be destroyed the whole ship may founder, and 
those who may effect escape may be small indeed. This- 
allegorical picture must not be pressed too hard. It may be 
sufficient, however, to draw attention to a dangerous side of 
the division of labour composition of modern society. 

But, says the theorist : True, his services were shut out by 
over-competition in that particular place or in that particular 
occupation ; but if he only knew at that moment that by 
transferring his services to other employments, or to the 
same occupation in another place, the balance of service for 
service would be adjusted, and the life of himself and hia 
dependants would be saved. Ah, if he only knew ! But the 
possession of knowledge is in itself practically a form of 
wealth, and that he did not possess any more than he did the 
necessary capital to acquire the necessary skill in the new 
occupation calling for services, or in the necessary capital 
to transfer himself and his household to a great distance 
where his own special skill was then in demand. We may 
therefore summarise the difficulties lying at the root of all 
social problems as follows : — 

(1.) All breadwinners and their families to maintain 
existence must possess primary wants, whether 
they can effect exchange of services or not. 

(2.) Many breadwinners — whether due to lack of know- 
ledge or inability to change their occupations or 
, locality — cannot obtain employment, and therefore 
cannot effect exchange. 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.& 149 

(3.) Such of the latter as by former misfortunes have 
been deprived of every form of wealth in exchange, 
must beg or steal from public or private resources, 
or die of starvation. 

Thus it is shown that one of the great economic harmonies 
in competition, while it effects much good in distributing 
wealth and breaking down monopolies and privileges, and in 
enlarging the domain of community in the enjoyment of the 
gratuitous products of nature and invention, it also, as one 
of the mills of God, directs its force terribly on the mere 
monopolists of bone and muscle ; competition grinding them 
smaller and smaller as its force is augmented by increasing 
numbers. 

Ftjrthbb Difpictjltibs Connected With the Division 

OP Labour — Axlocation. 

One of the most formidable difficulties connected with the 
division of labour is allocation. ; for it is evident that if in 
the technical training of the young due regard be not paid to 
the chances of finding employment in the service to which the 
future breadwinner aspires, disaster or a disappointed life may 
be the result. This, being a relative matter, applies to a 
small community as well as to a large one. Few take into 
consideration that there is a natural law in operation which 
as surely determines the numbers required for each great 
class of employment as do the natural laws which locally 
determine the times and relative heights of the tide. No 
social advancement by means of the higher education of the 
people can ever alter the relative numbers of the various 
branches of human service ; and should it be thought possible 
that the education of the masses exerts any influence in the 
nature of its training in disturbing the necessary proportions 
of each great group of services upon which our lives and our 
civilisation depends, it would certainly prove that the general 
spread of higher education was a curse and not a blessing. 

Services would never become a marketable commodity of 
value in exchange if it were not for wants. Kinds of services, 
therefore, must be exactly proportionate to kinds of wants. 
The wants which demand the expenditure of the greater 
amount of labour must necessarily absorb the greater amount 
of persons requiring employment without regard to their 
capacities, attainments, or personal desires ; and, so far as the 
mass of human beings are concerned, there is no choice. 

The great wants, food, clothing, and shelter, are by far the 
greatest factors in the determination of the aggregate numbers 
tiiat must be employed if the wants are to be satisfied. The 
same three great wants also determine the necessary amount 
and proportions of capital^ machinery, and land to be employed. 



150 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

together with the necessary proportion of labourers for each 
Idndof occupation which directly or indirectly is somehow 
utilised in the production of the said three great wants. 

It is true the strict average proportions of the various 
classes of labour machinery may not he found to be quite the 
same in each country ; but this does not affect the aggregate 
of all countries. It is not absolutely necessary that the 
manufactures and agricultural industries of any one country 
should preserve the world's strict average proportions to each 
other, so far as that one country is concerned, so long as it is 
free to make necessary exchanges with other countries for 
disposing or making good their respective local surpluses and 
deficiencies. Nevertheless, countries confined to the produc- 
tion of their own wants— -or, what is the same, the world as a 
whole — ^must preserve the strict average proportion and 
quantity of labour and machinery in the production of those 
three great wants which are the mainsprings of all human 
activities and e£Ebrts. It is necessary, therefore, to make a 
very wide net to obtain approximate information with respect 
to the amount and due proportions of all kinds of services 
employed in the production of the whole round of wants of 
each country. It is unfortunate that figures relating to the 
occupations of all countries are not accessible, but reference to 
the ascertained occupations of Australasia, ITnited States of 
America, British India, and seven principal States of Europe^ 
embracing 433 millions of people, and representing all climes 
and all forms of industry, adOEord a basis wide enough to 
secure very accurate information. 

The figures contained in the following table of classified 
occupation of these countries afford valuable information 
with regard to the definite proportions of the division of 
labour engaged in the production of human wants : — 



BY B. H. JOHNSTON, F.LS. 



PROPORTIONAL CLARIFICATION OF THE OCCUPATIONS 
OF ALL PEi^ONS ENGAGED IN THE SUPPLY OF 
HUMAN WANTS:- 









[Percentage) 


AH. 


1 




Jl 

Si 


' 


a 1 3 1 4 ! fi 1 i-fc,: fl 1 7 


fl-T 


a 9 


... 


1-a 

AU. 


.£■ 


COUNTHY. 


1 

1 


1 1 

1 

o 5 


1 


1 
1 


1 


J 


•5 


(1 


s'. 


1 




Englsmi, WHlM .- 


3,735 
B,l-4 


S'l 


" 


z 


:: 


::j:; 














2'S» 




j;.' 


■ i 






1 








Unitid KHifTdom . 


SB,003 


«, 


,,l,. 


., 


,-. 


4., 




.. 


.. 


... 


... 


... 


^ 


2-iS 


Six Cokaxiei <if Aw 
rretart).— 




'•■ 


61) 


*-l 

SI 

1-4 


la-B 


16-7 


" 


0-3 
D-3 

0-2 


D-C 


0-7 


H-fi 
M'7 


E 


BS-O 


10* 

m 




IJoDtli AiistiBlin ... 
WBHteni Australia . 


sib" 

2-IS 


BewZeaLmd 


■■■" 


Tatai nf Six Cohmis 
of AtHlralatia . . . 


1,091 


.-. 


13-7 41-7 


0-8 


Sfl-fl 


O'o 


„.. 


» 


™ 


Units d StBtea 


60,1B6 
37.270 


■■J., 


3-fl 


id:: 




... 


... 


... 


■■■ 


... 


: 


E-S8 


Trance 


"i":j;;.j;.j:.; 


a-W 




!S3,891 IS 1-1 


■ l- ,--- 






:::;::i3::i- 






218 






4.'4 






Totals 


tsj.804 I'a a-o 


'■■IH- 






- 


- 


... 




- 


S-2S 



152 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

Erom tliis table we learn that all peo^e are divided into 
two important groups: — Viz,, breadwinners, representing 
about 44*2 per cent, of all persons, and non*breadwinners or 
dependants, composed mainly of wives and children, repre- 
senting 55 '8 per cent, of the total populations. Thus it 
appears that the wants of all must be provided by the service 
of less than half the total number of those who consume 
wants. The proportions of the breadwinners necessary to 
effect this service are as follows. That is to say, for every 
100 persons engaged in services of exchange value there must 
be on the aggregate the following proportions nearly : — 

Pebcbntagb Pbopobtion. 

Agricultural and Pastoral services . . . 52*5 

Industrial services ... 30*1 

Domestic services ... 6*8 

Commercial services ... 5*2 

Professional and other undefined services 5 4 



Total 100*0 



It will be seen that the simple services of the agriculturist 
and herdsman are by far the most important (52*5 per cent.), 
ai;id that the next in importance are the industrial services, 
embracing all artisans and labourers, representing 30*1 per cent. 
The higher skilled workmen of this group only represent about 
11 per cent, of all services. As the balance of services — com- 
mercial and professional — only amount to 10*6 per cent., it 
follows that of all services required only 21*6 per cent 
demand skill of a higher order; and that 78*4 per cent, 
represent agricultural and other labourers and domestic 
servants, in respect of which skill of a high order is not 
absolutely requisite. 

It is largely due to the flooding of particular kinds of 
employment beyond the strict proportions which local wants 
demand that inconvenience or distress is felt in young as well as 
old countries. The numbers which can find entry into the higher 
industrial, the commercial, and professional divisions cannot, 
without unhealthy competition, be increased beyond the 
relative proportions which these divisions must bear to the 
producing industries of the particular country ; and these 
dominating industries in Australasia are agricultural, pastoral, 
and mining. Employment in other divisions can only follow 
substantial tncreases in the three industries named ; for 
manufacturing industries cannot alter their present propor- 
tions independently, as in England, until such time as they 
are able to manufacture for the markets of other countries 
than the local one. This applies much more strongly to the 
smsLller division represented by unskilled labour (not agri- 



BY B. M. JOHNSTON, F.LS. 153 

cultural), and by the commercial and professional classes. 
These certainly may only increase according to their rigid 
proportion ; and this must be determined by a previous 
increase in the fundamental producing industries of the 
particular place. 

The principal producing industries of the place may 
increase irrespective of other local divisions (i.e,, agricultural, 
pastoral, and mining), as their products may find the neces- 
sary consumer in foreign markets. . Whatever influence, 
therefore, may bar the progress of the dominating producing 
industries of the place must also bar occupations in all oiher 
divisions of services. 

It is clear from what has been stated that applicants for a 
given kind of employment may often fail, not because there 
is no room for more labour, but because the direction in which 
the applicants have been trained, or in which they desire to 
be employed, is out of harmony with the natural or local 
proportions of that particular service necessary in the pro- 
duction of general wants. 

From this cause arises much difficulty and distress. It 
largely adds to the proportion of dependants, and consequehtly 
the direct or indirect strain (i.e., support of friends, relatives, 
private and public charities) upon the actual breadwinners 
becomes oppressive. I do not here touch upon artificial aids 
to local production in its effects upon the alteration or dis- 
turbance of the relative proportions of the division of services 
upon which such aid must have an immediate effect, further 
than to remark, that if the aid by tariff duties or other means 
enables the local division at once to cover the ground formerly 
supplied by foreign industry, it can only do so either by 
increasing the machinery or the relative proportion of numbers 
employed locally in the division of service affected. The 
advantage or disadvantage of adopting such a policy is here- 
after discussed. It is sufficient for the present purpose to 
show the possible effect it may exert upon local employment 
alone. 

Causes op Existing Poverty and Misery. 

It cannot be denied that iu spite of the great accumulation 
of wealth, and the increased command over .the forces of 
nature during the present century, that there is still to be found 
much poverty and distress, and that much of it is due to the 
unequal distribution of wealth ; and whether we may or may 
not be able to point a remedy, it is utterly repugnant to the 
best feelings of human nature to sink into the despair or 
apathy of many who say; '' Let alone ; whatever is is oest or 
worst, and cannot be helped." Whatever errors the Socialists 
and Communists are chargeable with they must be credited 
with warm aspirations for the amelioration and improvement 



154 BOOT MATTEBS VX SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

of sofferinpf humanity, and are free from the charge of indif>< 
ferenoe. The latter, however, are too emotional to perceiye 
the great difficulties of the problems which haye always 
engaged the deepest attention of earnest Social Economists, 
and are too ready to advocate the introduction of their own 
pet schemes, without having taken sufficient trouble either to- 
test their adequacy, or to fathom the true nature of funda- 
mental difficulties, which would in most cases be made vastly 
more formidable by the various plans propounded by them 
for their removal. Thus some, having been misled by the 
assumption that all our evils are due to individual property 
right and unequal distribution of wealth, employ all their 
ingenuity to show that all existing evils are attributable to 
these, and to these alone. 

Yet there are many other influences far more potent for- 
evil which no scheme yet propounded by Political Economists, 
Socialists or Communists may wisely undervalue or ignore. 
Of such are the following ; — 

(I.) The superabundant proportions of human beings 
in existence who, free from restraint, are naturally 
disposed to be idle, sensuous, and wicked ; or who 
are ignorant, foolish, and improvident. 
(2.) The difficulties of supplying other motives more 
adequate than self-interest to so many in effecting 
conformity to the necessary social laws and virtues, 
and as a spur to industry and useful application of 
powers. 
(3.) The inequalities of difEerent habitable portions of 
the earth as regards productiveness, climate^ 
disease, density of population, and the difference^ 
of civilisation and racial characteristics. 
(4.) The periodic failure of food supply (famine),, 
whether due to seasonal influence, exhaustion of 
soil, violence, wilful waste, or improvidence. 
(5.) Effectual means for elimination from society of the 
more pronounced forms of hereditary vice and 
madness which, if allowed to persist, would 
endanger society. 
(6.) Absence of facilities for relieving the pressure of 

population in over-peopled lands by migration. 
(7.) Difficulties connected with free exchange of products 
between different nations whose artisans and 
labourers are living under different material and 
social conditions, e.g., slave labour and free labour. 
(8.) Difficulties in effecting adequate exchange of pro- 
ducts with other nations where, as in England,, 
local foods, products, and the raw materials for 
manufacture are locally far below the level of 
requirement of an ever-increasing population. 



BY E. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 155 

(9.) Difficulties and dangers arising from local increase 
of population, especially when foreign, tliinly- 
populated lands are forciHj closed to emigrants, 
as in the experience of the Chinese. 

(10.) The misery caused by war, strife, murder, accident, 
painful disease, and preventible forms of death. 

(11.) The terrible root difficulty connected with either (1) 
decrease, (2) stationariness, or (3) rapid increase 
of population. 

(12.) The absolute limits-of space requisite for the recep- 
tion and sustenance of man. 

The last two form (he popidation difficulty; in itself the chief 
cause of human trouble. 

This difficulty cannot be banished by sentimental tirades 
or bad argument. No tinkering with schemes affecting 
*' Eights of Property," " The Battle of Interests," *' Com- 
petition," or " Community of Goods," can do other than make 
the dominant difficulty more formidable. As this great 
difficulty is often denied or misunderstood by those who 
attribute all the evils to rent and free competition, it may be 
well to touch upon these important subjects separately. 

Satisfaction of Wants and Theory of Obstacles 

considsbed. 

Human satisfactions are enjoyed to the fullest extent with 
the smallest expenditure of time and human energy in regions 
where the natural sources of human satisfactions are vast and 
rich, and under conditions where the fewest obstacles 
intervene between actual producers and actual consumers. 
Extra time and labour, often necessarily spent in mere 
distribution^ are in themselves obstacles, and directly tend to 
lessen the quota of satisfactions which might be enjoyed by 
each individual. All conditions, therefore, which necessitate 
the larger expenditure of time and labour — (such as extreme 
distance between the several kinds of producers and 
manufacturers) as well as conditions which necessitate extra 
provision against loss or waste of satisfactions produced or 
being produced (such as dangers from loss by storms, 
inundations, fire, waste by war, civil strife, robbery, depreda- 
tions by wild animals, idle and useless de|>endant8, plagues 
of parasites, disease, etc.), curtail of necessity the amount of 
necessary satisfaction which otherwise might be enjoyed by 
each useful human unit. Obstacles, therefore, greatly 
reduce the amount of human satisfactions so far as each 
individual is concerned, although in the aggregate this is not 
80 easily comprehended. Lowness of nominal prices is not & 

J 



156 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

correct index of conditions most favourable for the attainment 
of the greatest amount of satisf actions, with the smallest 
expenditure of time and human energy : for it often happens 
that low prices may be caused bj excessive easpenditure of 
human energy forced upon a struggling producer; or by 
poverty due to forced idleness on the part of a large body of 
consumers. While it may often happen — as in young 
colonies — that a high price is no index of a lower supply of 
satisfactions ; but rather of the smaller amount of obstacles 
intervening between consume and producer, and gratuitous 
sources of nature ; the smaller amount of enforced idleness 
on the part of consumer, giving him a greater purchasing 
power; and the greater advantage of the producer, due to 
similar causes, enabling him to obtain all the most necessary 
round of satisfactions with a smaller expenditure of time ana 
labour. Mere cheapness of satisfactions, therefore, is not a 
reliable index of individual welfare. Purchasing power, as 
indicated by expenditure of time and labour, is the only true 
index as between countries differently circumstanced, and 
this purchasing power of the consumer — unlike the unreliable 
fiominal cost or wage — is always in harmony with the amount 
of obstacles intervening between the actual producers of 
satisfactions and the actual consumers. 

TLis method of determining the condition of different 
communities will be better understood if we carefully 
investigate the effect of obstacles more closely. As the 
factors are variable and numerous, the only way to arrive at 
true conclusions is to approach the question by the 
mathematical method : thus : — 

Let N=Natural agents and products ; or the gratuitous 
forces of nature. 

P=Productive power of human agencies, including 
skill and energy, and skilled appliances. 

0=Obstacles intervening between NP or producer 
and consumers. 

C=Producers, dependants, distributors, etc., repre- 
senting the living population ; or consumers. 

^J!\xQn NP 

p — =Represents the amount of the average satis- 

factions provided for each individual. 

— p — =Represents the nominal cost of satisfactions 
for each individual on the average — or it 
may fairly represent the amount 9f exertion 
or energy expended by human energy. 

Having stated the general effect of obstacles between direct 
producer and consumer as minimising the actual supply of 



BY E. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 157 

necessary satisfactions to each consumer where tlie values of 
N and P and C are constant, it follows inevitably that the 
amount of satisfactions to each individual is in direct corre- 
spondence to the amount of ; increasing with its decrease, 
and decreasing with its increase. 

The effect nj^on price, however, is exactly the reverse of this, 
as a definite amount of aatiaf actions increase in price in corre- 
spondence with the increase in obstacles (0), and decrease 
correspondingly with its increase. 

This law is not invalidated, because in particular cases (1) 
price is comparatively low when is absolutely great, and 
conversely (2), price is comparatively low when is absolutely 
small; for in every such case there must be corresponding 
dissimilarity in the other elements to explain this effect : i.e.: — 

The effect (1) could only happen in cases where either N 
or P is abnormally or relatively great, or C is comparatively 
small ; and similarly the effect (2) coidd only happen in cases 
where either N or P is abnormally or relatively small or C 
is comparatively great. 

The failure to grasp these fundamental considerations is 
the chief cause of the blunders in all reasonings connected 
with questions related to the policy of different nations in 
respect of artificial restrictions, hindrances or facilities in 
the interchange of foreign products. 

To make this matter more clear it may be advantageous in 
•demonstration to set forth a number of examples for the sake 
of illustrating the important truths involved in the effects 
produced where one or all the factors are different in value : — 

(1.) Where soil, climate, or natural utilities are particu- 
larly advantageous the value of N is at its best or 
maximum=N"' 

(2.) Where skill and energy exist and are employed to 
the best advantage the largest results are attained 
for P=P- 

(3.) Where the smallest number of obstacles occur 
between NP and C, the largest amount of satis- 
factions fall to the share of C=C"' 

(4.) The most perfect conditions favourable for effecting 
the highest amount of satisfactions to each indi- 
vidual consumer coincide with N* P" — 0" 

Or, 

If we separate P" into labourers (L), and instruments 
(1) the fruit of former efforts saved from previous consump- 
tion, and devoted by inventive skill and energy to more or 



168 AOOT MATTEBS IX SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

less permanent aids to L, we have a more perfect statement 
of (4) thus : — 

(A) S" = jg^-^ =Tlie ideally best conditions for 

Or greatest (juota *^^ attainments of tlie 

of satisfactions. highest satisfactions of 

human wants with the least 
expenditure of htiman 
energy. 

Understanding by m and n the indices of the maxiuum and 
minimum of the various conditions, then it would logically 
follow that the converse or worst possible conditions for 
attaining the necessary satisfactions of human wants, involving 
also the greatest expenditure of human energy, would be 
when the equation becomes 

(B) w (Trr)—(r ^ 
c= ~^ 

This being so, it also follows that this stage will be 
coincident with conditions which favour the maximum of 
cost for each satisfaction, thus ; — 

N° (L" T) 4- 0- 

Similarly the conditions favourable to the attainment of 
minimum of lowest cost or price (P") would coincide with 
stage A, thus : — 

N*" (L" P) + O" 



C" 



=F 



Reasoning from these premises it is clear that the results 
S and P, or their values, can never be satisfactorily known, 
unless we can gauge the values of their respective co-efficients. 
That is, we must know not merely what is the tendency of any 
one factor — but we must also know the tendency of all 
factors affecting the problem. Nay, more ; if Political 
Economy is ever to be dignified bj the name of ** The Science 
of Political Economy," it must not merely take cognisance of 
the tendency of every one of these factors, but, like the 
skilled physicist, its disciples must not talk of the ** teachings " 
** or conclusions " drawn from them until they are prepared 
to place approximate values against the tendency of each 
factor, and then to strike a balance showing the ultimate 
effects of the ever-varying combinations in ever-varying 
localities. 

The difficulty of the problem is no excuse for ignoring the 
necessity for the adoption of this course. Hitherto, to a 
great extent, the subject has been governed by the more or 



BY B. IC JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 159 

less plausible generalisations of mere literary men; and 
their des^rve^ feime and undoubted ability and skill as such 
have given them a prestige in political matters to which 
they are not entitled from a practical or scientific point of 
view. That they have done good service in arousing and 
sustaining attention on such important matters is readily 
admitted ; but further progress is impossible so long as the 
inexact methods of the mere literaiy polemist are employed. 
In future the progress of Political Economy as a science 
depends upon demonstrations basedupon quantitative analysis, 
and not as heretofore upon authoritative dogmas based upon 
the qualitative analysis of any one factor of the problem 
arbitrarily chosen from a compound or complex equation. 

It is obvious that we may concur with most of the writers 
on Political Economy as to the general tendency of any one 
influence ; but while this is so it may not be a safe proceeding 
to trust the effect of this one tendency — even admitting its 
importance — as determining the ultimate conclusion; for 
other tendencies, minus or plus, must be reckoned with before 
any reliable conclusion can be arrived at. Pathos and 
literary merit are powerful adjuncts, no doubt, but in the 
solution of political problems they are worse than useless 
where complete and exact methods are eschewed. 

Ths Best Mode fob Effecting the Highest Quota of 
Satisfactions with a Minimum of Tbottble Depends 
Upon the Local Value and Extent of Natubal 
SouBCEs of Supply. 

The principal material satisfactions essential to the hap- 
piness and cultured content of human life primarily depend 
upon natural sources of supply, and that country whose 
natural sources afford the greatest potential of elements 
which may be made to contribute to the material satisfactions 
of cultured men, is also the country wherein the greatest 
number of people may best fulfil all those mutual services to 
each other which cover the whole round of wants of an 
ideally happy community. The essential natural conditions 
for the sustenance of a highly-cultured community, and 
permitting a natural, healthy expansion, are : — 

(1.) Large area covering all zones of climate favourable 
for the production of all reasonable wants, and 
possessing richly all the elements essential to 
production, such as water, fertile soil, the varied 
mineral and vegetable products, and such flocks 
and herds as most contribute to the welfare of 
man. 



160 BOOT MATTERS IX SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

(2.) Division of labour — each, division carefully appor- 
tioned in relation to the probable amount of 
different satisfactions required ; and each labourer 
in every division carefully trained in that branch 
of work to which he has been apportioned. 

(3.) The creation and maintenance of instruments whicb 
best supplement man's efforts in modifying and 
distributing the products derived from natural 
sources, and so enabling each unit to enjoy the 
maximum of desirable satisfaction with that 
minimum of exertion which is most conducive to 
the health and happiness of the individual. 
Now, if it were possible to find such a combination of 
favourable conditions, wherein all the wants of man could be 
completely met, it follows that interchange with other 
countries, so far as material needs are concerned, would not 
only be unnecessary, but disadvantageous. 

It is true, on moral grounds, a nation enjoying the 
maximum of satisfactions with a minimum of exertion or 
maximum of ease, might either reduce the amount of satis- 
fjEbctions or increase its exertions for purposes of benevolence 
as directed towards a country less favourably situated ; but 
there would be no such necessity on commercial grounds as- 
laid down by the earlier economists, except upon the plea 
that we should buy in the cheapest market. But this last 
plea, the favourite maxim of Free Trade theorists, ignorea 
many consequences of the most vital importance. 

First, the ideal state contemplated had already discovered 
and achieved that final state of content or end to which a 
people can aspire to — that is, a maximum of desirable satis- 
factions combined with a minimum of reasonable exertion^ 
This being so, why should they attempt to procure this end 
by another method untried by them, seeing that they could 
not improve their condition in this way, but might make it 
worse. But as this plea must be discussed, let us see under 
such circumstances what it might lead to. 

Buy in the Cheapest Mabket. 

In our ideally perfect state, let us for convenient reference 
call it ** Euphrasia." One of the fundamental conditions 
regulating its well-being is, that all for each is considered of 
as great if not greater importance as each for all. 

The favourable natural conditions were experienced to be 
such that the round of wants of all might be satisfactorily 
supplied without demanding from any one group of its divisions 
of labour more than 44 hours of public labour per week. But 
it was also carefully determined that although a certain 
aggregate of labour when properly directed would affect this 



B7 B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 161 

desirable end, a corresponding or even a much greater amount 
of labour could not produce the same result if the previously 
carefully arranged and periodical regulation of the apportion- 
ment of labourers were subsequently disturbed in an arbitrary 
way. Every arbitrary disturbance of the proportion of 
labourers trained and originally apportioned to a special work 
or function, has the effect of lowering the purchasing power 
of the section which was arbitrarily increased, because it 
introduced either curtailment of employment, wrongful com- 
petition, over-production, or diminished purchasing power 
within that particular section of the division of labour ; and 
in the section from which they were arbitrarily withdrawn, it 
either lessened the amount of aggregate satisfactions required 
for all ; or, if it have not that effect, it increases the hours of 
labour of those within the division beyond the maximum 
standard without additional recompense for increased exer- 
tion. If, however, the additional hours are rewarded by 
extra satisfactions, it must be at the expense of the general 
consumers, thus lessening their average of aggregate satis- 
factions. 

The wrongful over-production is a direct loss to the whole 
community so healthfully regulated by community of in- 
terests. 

Oh ! but your ideal Euphrasian forgets, says the Economist, 
that the surplus of A division might by interchange with 
another nation be made to restore the balance thus arbitrarily 
destroyed by A recompensing through products needed in 
division B where a deficiency was caused. This is true, but 
at best this course only helps to restore the loss occasioned by 
the arbitrary disturbance of the apportionment of the local 
Euphrasian division of services. Nay, more ; the loss occa- 
sioned could not be fully restored by an equal exchange of 
labour and skilly for the exchange with the distant foreign 
country involved a fresh expenditure of labour in transfer 
and agencies of exchange — thus increasing the value of or 
obstacles —between producer and consumer, and so inevitably 
lessening the quota of the essential material satisfactions to 
be divided among consumers. It must be borne in mind 
that Euphrasia is assumed to possess the maximum of favour- 
able natural resources — plus best art appliances — and con- 
sequently the restoration of the destroyed equilibrium in 
Euphrasia could only be effected by a skilled people, who 
of necessity were forced to adapt themselves to circumstances 
by either being satisfied with a lower requirement of wants 
than that enjoyed by the Euphrasians, or by a similar standard 
of material satisfactions gained at a much greater expenditure 
of labour. 

For the sake of illustration, let us further examine this 
theory of obstacles. It will readily be granted that where 



IQS BOOT MATTERS XNf SOCIAL Ain> iBCOXOMIC PROBLEMS. 

two producing centres are situated at vastly different distances 
from consuming centres, that supply from the nearer pro- 
duciog centres can be effected by a much smaller expenditure 
of labour than by the more distant centre of production. 

Thus, if A be 8,000 miles distant, and B 40 miles, it 
follows that the extra labour and time consumed in carrying 
the extra 7,960 miles is a serious disadvantage. Men do not 
consume distance. In itself it does not add a jot to the 
ultimate material wants of man otherwise produced. Dis- 
tribution is certainly a necessity, but the smaller the need for 
distribution the larger the produce to be divided, for it is 
obvious that the more machines and human beings that are 
abstracted from direct production of essential satisfacti(m8, 
the smaller is the quantity falling to the share of each 
consumer of wants. Thus, if 100 producers and 50 distributors 
provide the ideal quota of wants of an Euphrasian at the 
maximum of eight hours per day — say 10 wants per day^ 
then the 100 producers must each have produced 15 wants, 
for consumers include producers, and non-producers or 
producers and distributors, and these number 150> an^ 

100 X 15 ^ nQ 

160 

for each consumer : or on the basis of exertion which lies at 
the root of price or cost, we might put it that for the aggre-» 
gate hours of labour in producing and distributing each 
consumer was put in the possession of 10 wants. Now, if we 
increase obstacles we cannot supply the same number of 
wants without individually increasing the hours of labour. 
Thus, if the additional distance involves the labour of 50 
additional-distributors, and if producer and consumer alike 
share the additional labour thrown upon them^ we have 

200 X 10 

'200 ~^^ 
= X =10>' 

Thus, to maintain the same share of wants as formerly, the 
necessary increase of 50 non-producers or distributors involved 
an extra two hours labour per day, or 25 per cent, extra 
exertion on the part of all breadwinners. In like manner it 
may be shown if tbe amount of exertions per individual 
remain undisturbed — then the amount of wants formerly 
supplied to each consumer must be lessened, thus : — 

150 X 10 ^ ^ 

— r — =7*5 wants per consumer 

Thus we have with the increased obstacles a diminution in 
the satisfaction of wants equivalent to a reduction of 25 per 
cent. 



BY B. M. JOHNSgrON^ r.L.j3. 163 

In these sioiple illustrations the direct effects of increased 
obstacles between producer and consumjer are set forth i^ 
plain terms, so far as interchange with a distant country 
affects the conditions of a country circumstanced like our 
ideal Euphrasia. To apply the argument iuTolTing obstacles 
to other countries not so favourably conditioned as Euphrasia 
might favour the adoption of interchange between two or 
more distant countries, as effecting improvement in the 
<;ondition of consumers in each country — but this improve- 
ment could only reach the highest possible quota for such a 
place where the exchanges are confined to the necessary 
products, which are either naturally easily produced beyond 
local needs, or in respect of products which are naturally 
deficient within its own border. Iq such case the exchange 
•of the former by exports would have to be met with a similar 
value of imports of the latter. But even here the disadvan- 
tageous effects of obstacles are not a whit lessened. The 
disadvantageous effects of obstacles have to be endured so 
long as they do not outweigh the advantages of the desired 
exchanges. 

Nay, there is one form of want— Food — which no obstacle 
can outweigh so long as the energies of the labourer in other 
directions remain unexhausted. The unfortunate country so 
circumstanced must of necessity effect exchanges with food 
countries, or perish as a community. Still more terrible is it 
for the masses of this country if it should happen that it lacks 
the natural or raw products upon whose manufacture the 
exchanges for the food of other countries depends. 

In such a case the friction of obstacles (distance) between 
(1) producer of raw products (2), manufacturer, and (3), 
consumer — attains its maximum — notwithstanding thajb 
science and skill may have done, and are still doing, wonders 
by steam and other contrivances on sea and land to minimise 
its lowering influence on the amount of satisfactions propor- 
tionate to labour exerted. 

TheEconomistmay here exclaim : How does the Euphrasia!! 
argument from obstacles reconcile itself with such a case as 
the United Kingdom. He will no doubt proceed to show that 
no nation on earth has carried the method of interchange 
with other countries to so high a pitch as the United Kingdom. 
Her vessels are found laden with the products of exchange 
in every important harbour of every country. 

Her aggregate wealth is the envy of nations, amounting to 
a sum something approaching <£130,000,000 as a yearly 
income. Her external interchange trade amounts to 64& 
millions yearly, 362 millions being imports and 281 millions 
being exports. Her annual value of real estate alone reaches 
<£196,000,000. Surely, he would continue confidentlyi this 



164 BOOT MATTEBS IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

is the most complete yindication that could be giyen 
practically, that the nation which has the greatest amount of 
foreign interchange trade and, presumably, the greatest 
amount of obstacles — is also the nation which, by her great 
wealth, affords the greatest amount of satisfactions to 
divide among her consumers. 

The answer to this supposed objection certainly involves 
many complex questions, but it may at once be af&rmed that 
it does not in the slightest degree diminish the value of the 
argument from obstacles as applied to Euphrasia. In 
making this afi&rmation it is not denied that the wealth of the 
United Kingdom in the aggregate is unbounded, and no one 
can reflect upon her grand achievements in science, wealth, 
and progress, without admiration and pride. The skill and 
energy of her people are marvellous, and our admiration is 
not lessened, but increased, by the thought that her vast 
resources and enormous interchange of trade have been built 
up by her prodigious energy and industry in spUe of dbstaclea 
of every kind. Her skill, daring, and enterprise have giveii 
her the command of important lands under every clime. 
This skill and enterpiise, however, could not within her own 
borders increase, beyond a certainlimit, the necessary supplies 
to meet her rapidly growing needs, as regards food and 
clothing for her people and raw products to supplement her 
needs for supplying manufactures in exchange for prime 
necessaries, failing which she could not support the lives of 
her people. It is necessity, therefore, which inevitably forced 
her to direct her industries in such a manner that her lack 
in food and other raw products at home should be purchased 
by a surplus creation of manufactures. Food, being one of 
the prime essentials to the life of each person, must be 
secured in sufficient quantity, or the lives of her workers 
cannot be sustained. A nation possessed of all the world's 
wealth of exchange could not preserve the lives of her people 
if this one form of wealth — Food — be lacking or insufficient. 
With such a nation — so unfavourably conditioned — her 
existence depends upon her power to command supplies of 
the food of other countries in exchange for such products as 
food-producing countries may think it desirable to take from 
her. 

The food -producing countries may carry on this exchange 
as a matter of choice or preference ; but with the food- 
requiring country the exchange must be effected — on the 
best terms possible — but if necessity presses hard, it must he 
effected upon any terms forced upon her. 

Fortunately for such a country all lands capable of pro- 
ducing large food supplies are not in the condition of our 
ideal Euphrasia, and hence there is little danger of a 



BT B. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 165 

stoppage of food exchanges for manufactures so long as the 
food-producing country is tempted by cheapness to buy those 
of the food-lacking country in preference to making them for 
herself; or of buying them from a rival manufacturing 
country on still more advantageous terms. 

Fbee Trade. 

A food-lacking country must therefore favour free inter- 
change of trade, for it is necessary to her existence. A 
country with ample natural sources unutilised or partly 
utilised would only suffer a temporary inconvenience by the 
cessation of imports of foreign manufactures, and it is 
pbssible that this inconvenience which forced her to supply 
her own wants from sources and agencies within her own 
borders might result in increasing the amount of satisfactions 
for each consumer with an expenditure of a smaller amount 
of exertion on the part of each producer and distributor. 

Aggregate Wealth and Individual Wealth. 

But let us again return to the outward indices of the 
prosperity of the United Kingdom. Admitting that she has 
great wealth in the aggregate, it does not necessarily follow 
that the share of satisfactions falling to the bulk of her 
people compare fsivourably with countries whose aggregate 
weaJth is comparatively smalL In point of fact any aggregate 
respecting the wealth of a country is a pure abstraction. It 
is as such enjoyed by no one. It is the share falling on the 
average to each individual which is the true indication of real 
wealth, or of the satisfactions enjoyed by the unit. 

This is significantly demonstrated by contrasting two 
widely differing countries in respect of that abstract idea 
called national wealth : — 

■xvxea ... ... ... ... 

Ditto per head of population 
.Aggregate earnings of wages 

Class ••• ••• ••• 

Working class breadwinners, 

estimated ... 

Ditto per head 

Average hours employed per 

WcCJx ... ... ... 

Ditto per week 

Average wages per hour ... 

Average cost of one quarter 

of wheat 32s. 6d. ... 32s. 6d. 

Equivalent of ditto in true 

purchasing power, viz.y 

hours labour 41'" hours ... 92*' hours 



Tasmania. 
16,778,000 
11413 


United Kingdom. 
... 77,800,000 
... 2-05 


5,519,340 


... 800,084,000 


61,326 
de90 


... 15,884,000 
... dfiSl 


44 

348. 6d. 
9«d. 


... 55 
... 198. 3d. 
... 4-»«d. 



166 BOOT MATTERS IN 90QUL AST) EQONOMIC PBOBLEMS. 

Thus it will be aeeci that i^ojbwithst^ading the impo9ing 
efEect of the yaist aggregate wealth of labour 19 Engl^ad 
representing over eight hundred million pouads sterling — the 
pnrdiase of one quarter of whe^, the staff of life — demsuidB 
of her workmen the expenditure of 92' hours time in labour^ 
whereas in Tasmania the same amount of satisfactions can 
be gained by the expenditure of 41* hours of labour. That is, 
the English workman would have to work — if work could be 
placed at his disposal (in itself a greater difficulty) ^123 per 
cent, more hours to attain the same purchasing power pos^ 
sessed by the Tasmanian workman^ whose aggregate weaMh 
only represents 0*69 per cent, of the corresponding aggregate i& 
Eoglaod. 

This clearly proves how misleading are the efiEects produced 
by allowing the mind to d'well upon mere abstracticHis based 
upon aggregates. 

The Effect of Stbikes ob a Bise in Wages in Food- 
Pbobtjcino and Food-Lacking Cotxntbies. 

But the difference in the puxohasio^ power of the Bngliib 
breadwinner is not the only disadvantage, Qer purcha^ipg 
power is also not merely limited by tibe extent of the vaarlM: 
for her manufaictures^ but upon her saeoess in wderselliog 
foreign rivals who are also by necessity compelled to exchange 
manufactures for the prime necessaries of raw products o£ 
food and clothing ; and hence her success depends either upon 
her superiority in skill and local appliances, or in cheapness 
or extending the hours of labour. It is a necessity that a 
manufacturing country must produce cheaply, and necessity 
will force her to attain this end by extending the hours of the 
labourer without extra recompense, should other means &dl 
her as a competitor for the bread and raw products of food- 
producing countries. Strikes and combinations among 
workmen are only of value to them within very narrow limits. 
For let us suppose that England's supremacy as a manufac- 
turing country depends upon her present power to undersell 
rival countries to the extent of 15 per cent., it would then 
follow that any now.inal success attained by the combined 
strikes of her workmen, thereby improving their hours of 
labour or rates of wages to the extent of, say, 16 to 20 per 
cent., would be altogether disastrous ; for it would destroy 
the competitive power of England as a manufacturer for other 
countries than her own. But if England was thus shut 
within herself there would probably be no employment 
whatever, and no means of subsistence for perhaps 20 
millions of her present population of 38 millions. This 
would be a terrible result arising out of the success of 
combined strikes among her manufacturing workmen. 



BY S. H. JOHNSTON, P.L.a t&T 

That an increase of the cost of her products to the extent of 
what has been indicated is not a very improbable matter 
springing from strikes has been foreshadowed by the recent 
combination among English dock labourers, who succeeded in 
having their rate of wages raised 2d. per hottr. As the 
{Average rate of workmen in England is only 4*'®d. per hour, 
a general increase of IJd. per hour would raise the cost of 
wages 35*' per cent.; and as the price of labour is the chief 
item of cost in all manufactures, it is not improbable that tfae 
ultimate cost of her manufactures would be raised 20 per 
cent., thus cutting her off from her previous advantage, which 
enabled her successfully to outrival all other countries in 
supplying the external markets of the world with manufac- 
tures. 

In countries where food and raw products is or can be 
produced far in excess of local requirements, the effect of 
prohibitive tariffs in raising local prices would not have a 
similar effect. K the cost of living would be nominally 
raised thereby, it would be exactly or nearly counterbalanced 
by a nominal increase in earnings locally. Thus, for example, 
if the consumer had to pay 20 per cent, extra for all articles of 
consumption it is probable that even this would not be dis- 
advantageous ; for it is almost certain that the true purchasing^ 
powers of labour — relative to staff of life — ^would be very 
little altered, as the price of labour would also tend to 
approach an increase of 20 per cent. 

But there is one effect which this would have upon a food- 
producing country, which would show a decided contrast with 
a similar rise of wages in a manufacturing country such as 
England, viz., it would draw to the former the manufacturing 
labourers of manufecturing or densely-peopled centres ; for 
instead of cutting off sources of employment, as in England, 
it would of necessity require her to import labounrers to 
produce those wants locally, or a great portion of them, which 
formerly had been supplied to her by the manufactures of 
external labour. That is, broadly, its main effect would be to 
increase the local labour market or widen the field for the 
employment of local labour. At first this would also have 
the effect of diminishing the aggregate extent of external 
commerce: but it need hardly be discussed, all things being 
fairly equal as regards natural sources, that the supply of 
exchanges by home products, instead of by foreign, is all in 
favour of diminution of dbstaclesy and therefore, upon the 
whole, advantageous. . . . This problem has already been 
worked out in the United States of America, and whatever 
the ultimate effects may be when local population approachea 
too close to her limits of natural powers for producmg food 
and necessary raw materials for her own people, it is undoubted 



168 BOOT MATTSBS m SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PBOBLEM& 

that 60 millions would not be profitably employed and well 
supported if it were not for her policy of faTounng the 
creation of her own wants as far as possible by the energies of 
heal labourers. 

It must be granted, however, that the policy which is 
advantageous to a rich food and raw-producing country, such 
as America, would be annihilation to a country such as 
England, where the population by far exceeds her natural 
sources of supply as regards food and other essential raw 
products. 

A country so circumstanced must maintain a Free Trade 
policy or perish. With countries thinly populated, possessing 
illimitable sources of natural wealth, including soil, climate, 
and all conditions favourable for the production of food and 
raw products in excess of local wants, it must inevitably follow 
that the tendencies and influences arising from the desire to 
extend the local field of emploj/ment must be in the direction 
of Protection, or restrictions upon foreign trade. It is the 
conditions of the various countries which determine means to 
ends. In one country the means is Protection, in the other 
Free Trade ; but the end in both cases is the same, viz,, the 
best available mode of supplying the greatest amount of satisfac- 
tions to each individual (including local employment