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Full text of "Papers in Illinois History and Transactions: 1900-42"

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Publication Number Nineteen 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



TRANSACTIONS 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1913 



Fourteenth Annual Meeting; of the Society, >Springfield, 
minois, May 15-16, 1913 



Published by Aut»b*it^i^4he^pDar3jM Trustees of the 
lllinoia^Ktfte IHstoiicaLl^ibniry 



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52990 



Spbinopikld, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co., Statb Phintehb. 

1914. 



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List ot officers of tbe Ullaols State Historical Society 6 

Editorial note 7 

Circular letter urging contributions of historical material to the socletj' 

and library 8 

Constitution ot the Illinois State Historical Society 10 

Record of official proceedings 13 

Secretary's report 32 

A letter to the Governor 24 

Program of the annual meeting 31 

George A. Lawrence. Benjamin Lundy. A Pioneer of Freedom. The 

annual address 33 

Rev. N. S. Haynes. The Disciples of Christ In Illinois and their attitude 

toward slavery 52 

H. D. Jenkins. The History of Presbyterlanism In Illinois 60 

H, W. Clendenin. Paul Selby. A sketch 77 

Richard V. Carpenter, General Smith D. Atkins. In memorjam 83 

Frank E. Stevens. Stephen A. Douglas the Expansionist 87 

A. N. Beebe. The Meramech Club 99 

Rev. N. W. Thornton. Seventy -fifth Anniversary of Center Church, 

Seaton, Ilia 105 

PAST in. — coNTBiBunoNs to 8T4Tii histobt. 

John F. Steward. De Lery's Error 91 

Colonie du Sleur La Salle 92 

William Anwyl Jones. The Tragedy of Starved Rock 113 

Index 125 



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OFFICERS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Honorary President. 
Col. Clark E. Cabh Galesburg 

President. 
Dr. Otto L. ScHMmr Chicago 

First Vice-President. 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice-President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice-President. 
RiOHABD Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice-President, 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors. 
Edmdnd J. James, President, University Illinois. . . Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. BuHNHAM Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Webeb Springfield 

Charles H. Rammeleamp, President, Illinois College. .. .Jacksonville 

J. 0. Cunningham - Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal University. . .Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Rcssel Jacksonville 

Walter Colter Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary-Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmes Weber Springfield 



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EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previoaa 
years, this volume includes, besides the oificial proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contribiltiona to 
State History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kind* 
of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of oEBcial records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

3. Papers of a reminiscent character. ■ These should be selected 
with great care for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and, original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historicfj 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to.be 
achieved through the co-operation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such co-operation and mutual undertaking 
that this society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part is bringing to this 
publication the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed. in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



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AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE 
GENERAL PUBLIC. 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTION DESIRED BY THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

(Members please read this circular letter.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gen- 
ealogy, particularly those relating to the west; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ettmology ; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co-operative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to the great rebellion, and 
the wars with the Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps 
and charts; engravings; photographs; autographs; coins; antiquities; 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical works. Especially do 
we desire 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere; materials for Illinois histor}-; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and public 
men of every county either living or deceased, together with their por- 
traits and autographs; a sketch of the settlement of every township, 
village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first settlers. 
We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade ; maps of cities and plats 
of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; rail- 
road reports; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 



eots, and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and papers 
of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State legislatures; earlier Governor's messages and reports of 
State officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; views 
and engravings of buildings or historic places; drawings or photographs 
of scenery; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illinois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins; medals; paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, char- 
acteristics, religion, etc. ; sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements ; also, stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can illus- 
trate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or present 
condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. Contribu- 
tions will be credited to the donors in the published reports of the library 
and society, and will be carefully preserved in the State house as the 
property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people for all time. 
Communications or gifts may he addressed to the librarian and sec- 
retary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



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CONSTTTUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I— NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section 1. The name of this society shall be the Illinois St-1te 
HisTOHicAL Society, 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and stimu- 
late a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage historical 
research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect and 
preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of Illinois 
and its peoples. 

ARTICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIR ELEC- 
TION AND DUTIES. 

Section 1. The management of the affairs of this society shall be 
vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which hoard the president of the 
society shall be ex oiBcio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a president and as many vice-presidents, not 
less than three, as the society may determine at the annual meetings. 
The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, shall 
elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and shall have 
power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and committees 
as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently to 
promote the objects for which this society has been formed and to this 
end they shall have power : 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 
State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions 
as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may 
secure. 



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11 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest as 
may bear upon the history of persons aud places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 35, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve all eon- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the society. They may adopt by-laws 
not inconsistent with this constitution for the management of the affairs 
of the society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in otSce 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The president shall preside at all meetings of the society, 
and in ease of his absence oi- inability to act, one of the vice-presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither president nor vice-president 
shall be in attendance, the society may choose a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving upon 
such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed by 
the society or the board of directors. The treasurer shall keep a strict 
account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from the 
treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit an 
annual report of the finances of the society and such other matters as 
may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within such 
time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and after auditing 
the same the said board shall submit said report to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

ARTICLE III— MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. The membership of this society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall from 
time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of tweniy-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archjeological research or in the preservation of 



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the knowledge of hiBtoric events, may, upon the recommendation of the 
board of directors, be admitted aa affiliated members of this society upon 
the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues as 
active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be entitled to 
one duly credited representative at each meeting of the society, who shall, 
during the period of his appointment, be entitled as auch representative 
to all the privileges of an active member except that of being elected to 
office ; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative becoming an 
active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Sec, 5, Persons not active nor life members but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this society, may, upon recommendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tiona to the cause of history. ■ 

Sec. 1. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the priv- 
ilege of attending and participating in the meetings of the society. 

ARTICLE IV— MEETINGS AND QUORUM. 

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the Board of 
Directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said Board of 
Directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 3. Special meetings of the society may be cidled by the Board 
of Directors. Special meetings of the Boards of Directors may be called 
by the president or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE V— AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting : 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the Board of Directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the secretary to 
all the members of the society. 



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PART I— RECORD OF OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS, 
1913. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical 
Society was held on Thursday and Friday, May 15-16, 1913, in the State 
House, Springfield. 

The annual address was presented by Mr. George A, Lawrence, of 
Galesburg. The subject of Mr. Lawrence's address was on Benjamin 
Lundy, the pioneer anti-slavery agitator of Illinois. Few of the citi- 
zens of today realize the work of Benjamin Lundy or know that he 
became a citizen of Illinois, published a newspaper at Hennepin and 
is buried in this State. 

Mr. Lawrence's address was given on Thursday evening and is 
published in full in this volume of the transactions. The society 
held its business session on the morning of the second day, Friday 
morning, at which time reports of officers and committees were read, 
ofBcers elected and other business presented. The change was made on 
account of the fact that members of the society who are teachers in the 
schools cannot easily be away from home for two days, and Friday being 
the most convenient day for them has been selected as the time for hold- 
ing the annual business meeting of the society. A meeting of the 
Board of Directors and of some committees was held on Thursday 
morning, but no general meeting of the society. 

The literary sessions began on Thursday afternoon. Papers were 
presented relating to the history of religious denominations in the State. 

This was one of the principal features of the annual meeting. Ad- 
dresses were made on the Eoman Catholic church by Kev. James J, How- 
ard, of Springfield ; on the Baptist church by W. C. MacNaull, of Chi- 
cago; the Methodist church by Eev. John M. Ryan, of Pontiac; on the 
Presbyterian church by Rev. H. D. Jenkins, of Riverside; on the 
Christian church or Disciples of Christ by Rev. N. S, Haynes, of 
Decatur. These gentlemen are all special students of the history of 
the churches mentioned and the papers presented were of much interest, 
and it is certain that they will form a valuable addition to the ecclesias- 
tical and denominational history of the State. 

April 23, 1913, was the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Stephen A. Douglas and it is fitting that an address on this great Amer- 
ican statesman be given at the annual meeting. The life and career of 



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14 

Douglas is of interest to every one, and niany gtudonta have given special 
attention to the study of hia character and achievements. 

Among these Douglas students no one has devoted more time, atten- 
tion and painstaking research to the subject than has Frank E. Stevens, 
of Dixon, 111. Mr. Stevens is the author of the most complete and 
authoritative history of the Black Hawk War, and he has contrihuted 
valnahle articles on historical subjects to the columns of the transactions 
of the Historical Society and to the Journal, among the more notable 
of these being his account of the part taken hy the frontier territory of 
Illinois in the war of 1813-1814, his sketch of the life of A. P. Field, 
and his recent contribution to the Journal of January, 1913, of valuable 
notes and editorial work in connection with the autobiographical sketch 
of Senator Douglas. Mr. Stevens gave the society at the annual meet- 
ing an address on Douglas which was different from the usual eulogies, 
and was of the greatest interest. 

Prof, 0, E, Clark, of Drake University, of Des Moines, la., pre- 
sented an address on Abraham Lincoln. So much has been written 
about Mr. Lincoln that it wbuld seem hardly possible that anything new 
could be said, but Professor Clark had some new thoughts and facts to 
communicate. These he gave to the Historical Society in an address 
entitled the Lincoln Poor White Legend. 

It was hoped that Mr. E, F, Harris, of Champaign, an active mem- 
ber of the Illinois State Bankers' Association, would give the society 
an address on legislation in reference to agricultural conditions in Illi- 
nois, but owing to absence from the State he was unable to do so, bnt 
has promised to address the society at a later time, 

Mr. Paul Selby, the veteran newspaper man, and the last of the 
members of the Illinois Editorial Convention of February 22, 1856, closed 
his earthly career Marsh 19, 1913. Mr. H. W. Clendenin, editor of the 
Illinois State Register, presented a paper on the life of Mr. Selby at the 
annual meeting. Mr. Selby was an honorary member of the society and 
was most interested in and helpful to it in every way. The secretary of 
the society has always been assisted by the kind and generous counsel of 
Mr. Selby. 

An address on the life of Gen, Smith D. Atkins, of Freeport, was 
presented by Mr. Eichard V. Carpenter, of Belvidere, one of the directors 
of the society. 

Prof, E, B. Greene, the president of the Board of Trustees of the 
Historical Library and one of the directors of the society, spoke at the 
meeting upon the condition of the public archives and records in this 
State and made some suggestions as to the preservation of such records. 

The program was practically carried out as printed. 



BUSINESS MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 

Mat 16, 1913, State Libraey— 10 :30 a. m. 
The meeting was called to order by the president of the society, Col. 
Clark E. Carr, of Galesburg. 



15 

The first order of business was the reading of the secretary's report. 

The secretary explained that this report is as usual made to the 
Board of Directors of the society and has been accepted by the directors 
and that she had been directed to read it to the society. The report 
was read and it is printed in full in this volume of the transactions of 
the society. After the reading of the report the chairman asked the 
desire of the society as to its disposition. 

Dr. Schmidt. — I move that it be approved and ordered placed on 
file. This motion was carried. 

Col. Carr. — Shall we take up the reports of officers? Are there 
other reports of officers? The next thing is the report of officers, then 
the election of officers. I understand that a paper has been prepared 
by Mr. Clendenin on Paul Selby. We will have that whenever you are 
ready for it. ' The secretary has a copy of it. 

Captain Bumham. — Mr. President, the next thing in order is the 
election of officers. 

Profe^or Greene. — I move that the Nominating Committee be ap- 
pointed. The chair appointed the following as a Nominating Com- 
mittee: 

George W. Smith, chairman; Mra. I. G. Miller, Miss Lottie E, 
Jones, Andrew Eussel, H. W. Clendenin. 

Mr. Clendenin. — I would prefer not to be on that committee. I 
cannot hear very well. 

Chairman. — Mr. Clendenin asks to be excused. 

Mr. Clendenin. — I would not insist upon it. 

Mr. Silliman was appointed in Mr. Clendenin's place on committee. 

Mr. Clendenin. — I think the program ought to he carried out 
according to print. Some of the people want to hear from Professor 
Greene. 

Mrs. Weber. — -Mr. Chairman, Mr. Clendenin suggests that we carry 
out the program. Will you call for the committee reports then? 

Col. Clark. — If those reports are ready we will have them. Miss 
Osborne read the Genealogical Committee report. This report is 
printed in this volume. 

Mr. Clendenin. — -I move that the report be accepted and placed on 
file. Carried. 

Mr. Carpenter. — I think a special vote of thanks ought to be passed 
by the society to the Genealogical Committee. I think for several 
years, ever since the committee was formed, they have been doing great 
work. Carried. 

Mr, Chairman. — Are there other committees? 

Mrs. Weber. — I had expected Mr- McCan Davis to be here, but he 
is not present, but as I am a member of that committee I will say that 
Mr. Davis baa carefully gone over the manuscripts for the past two years 
and both are in the hands of the printer and will possibly be ready 
within the next six months. 

Mrs, Weber. — Chairman of the Program Committee, said the pro- 
gram of the meeting is the report of the committee. 

Captain Burnham. — There seems to be a few minutes that we may 
use. I notice that the secretary called attention to the necessity of 



16 

having more publicity given to the matter of a new building, and it is 
certainly a very important matter. It ia probable, as ahe says, no action 
will be taken at this session and we ought to organize public sentiment 
if we can, bo that by the time it comes up in the Legislature the next time 
there will be a strong public demand to coincide with our request, and 
that is a problem that ought to be considered in some way. I thought 
since I came here of one way, perhaps. We have a number of editors 
of papers who are members through famishing a copy of their paper and 
there are editors and press representatives. I have been wondering 
whether we could not, through those papers, arouse public sentiment at 
the proper time. Perhaps not right away, but sometime in the future 
we could have some plans made that would interest the press of the 
State at what might be the proper time and these papers could be of 
great assistance to us. 

Chairman. — Have yon a motion to make ? 

Captain Burnham. — I hardly know. I ]ust thought of this. I 
suppose that what I have said is out of order. I hardly feel like making 
a motion. Someone else might think of a better way to get at it. 

Mr. Clendenin. — In regard to that matter I think if the secretary 
or some one of the officers couid take the matter up with the newspapers, 
get up a circular letter telling the people what it is to be used for, and 
showing its value to' the State, and send it to all the newspapei's, they 
would be glad to co-operate with us in giving it all the public!^ desired. 
They would be glad to do it if they knew just what to use. 

Mr. Moore. — I think if you would have these circulars sent to each 
public school in the State you would have a local center and to the large 
body of people it would be easier to understand the idea — for the site of 
the educational building — and let them work up the educational building. 

Mr, Carr. — How would it do to appoint a committee ? 

Mr. Burnham. — Can you name such a building? Mr. Burnham 
then went on and stated the greatest diiEculty would be to get the cir- 
cular in the hands of the newspapers so they could all use it at the same 
time owing to the different dates of their publication. 

Mr. Moore. — Made a suggestion along the same line. 

Mr. Carr. — Which paper will we have first? 

Professor Greene read his paper on the Public Archives of the 
State of Illinois. This paper is published in this volume of the trans- 
actions. 

• Mr. Clark E. Carr. — Is there any action concerning the paper. Has 
Mr. Greene anything further to say. 

Mr. Moore. — Therp is one thing I want to say in regard to this 
subject. At home all the files of the Journal, which Mr. Selby was 
the editor of, the Jacksonville Journal, in 1859 are gone. I have 
spoken to the present proprietors of the Journal and also to the libra- 
rians of the city library and tried to get the papers put in the public 
library, I thinlt it would be well to employ the public libraries of the 
various cities of the State that are reasonably fireproof as local depos- 
itories. Another thing, the Journal has its files (I have had occasion to go 
through their files) stored in a little closet — a regular firetrap and dirty. 
Latterly they have had them down cellar, Neither place is safe. Neither 



17 

place is healthy or clean and as a matter of fact it would have been more 
convenieiit for the editors or others to have gone down to the public 
library and found the files at any time and refer to them much more 
easily than it would be to keep them aa they did and with added safety. 
I think it would be a valuable thing to do, 

Mr. Bumham. — Mr, President, this is certainly a very important 
matter and still the more you look into it the more difficult it appears. 
The matter of transferring records from towns to State is probably a 
good one and the Historical Library perhaps could draw the line by 
having some act passed by the Legislature by which counties having no 
fireproof receptades would be required to bring their papers here and 
those that had fireproof receptacles not be obliged to. I happen to 
know that Id Bloomington,. since we built the fireproof court house, that 
our papers are quite as safe as they could be made here and if these 
papers were brought here, on the large scale, we must have an immense 
building, and I am afraid if we go to the length advocated in the paper 
that the building to house them would consume all the room. 

Mr. Greene stated that Mr. Buinham's objection was based on a mis- 
understanding. He did not mean all papers, just a few of the most im- 
portant ones. 

Captain Burnham. — How would you draw the line? Did your 
investigator find there was a sort of jealousy existing? 

Mr. Greene. — ^Yes, there is a little feeling of that kind. We were 
not trying to collect matter. 

Mr. Bumham. — It seem to me that to preserve them on the large 
scale you are suggesting would require a structure separate from this 
educational building, in order to have a place to which we could trans- 
fer papers from tiiis building and have the accumulation of papers 
not crowd the future historical material. It is a pretty big subject. 
The most important historical material existing in our counties are 
the deeds and records and nearly every county has indexes to those 
deeds and records and abstracts of titles are furnished from those indexes 
and there are wagonloads of those books in the different counties and 
they would not be transferred and those are the ones that everybody is 
interested in; every building lot, every farm has its history from the 
time it was government land until the present time so that historical 
records are in those papers. It seems to me that this subject is a very 
large one and well worthy of being considered as it has been in this 
paper and further consideration should be given to it. 

Mr. Greene. — My recommendation is that we try to get this build- 
ing. 

Colonel Carr. — Is it necessary to take any action regarding this 
matter? If not we will proceed with Mr. Clendenin's paper. 

Mr. Clendenin. — Before Mrs. Weber reads my paper I just want to 
explain one thing to you about its preparation. Of course, I am in- 
debted to Mrs. Weber for the dates of the record of Mr. Paul Selby. 
She very kindly furnished them to me as I cannot look over books myself 
on account of defective eyesight. I made my paper as brief as possible 
because I thought many papers would be long and I did not want to 
— 2 H S 



D,qit,zeabvG00»^lc 



18 

tire the audience. That is the explanation of my asking Mrs. Weber 
to read my paper. 

The paper of Mr. Oendenin on Paul Seiby was read by Mrs. Weber, 
and it is published, in full in tbia volume of the tranaactions. 

Mr. Can. — I feel constrained my friends to add a word of com- 
mendation of Mr. Selby whom I knew ever since the organization of the 
Bepnblican party and whom I appreciated beyond all others. We were 
together at different times quite frequently and I wish to express my 
appreciation, as I have no doubt it is all of ours, of the bead and heart 
of the man who was his associate and in many ways his rival for many 
years, Mr. Clendenin, who wrote that beautiful paper on our dear 
lamented departed friend Paul Selby. 

Mr. Burnham.^ — Mr. President, I only want to say that the produc- 
tion of this paper by the writer is one of the proofs that the Historical 
Society is thoroughly non-partisan. 

Mr. Carr. — What is the further pleasure of this meeting? 

Professor Smith. — The Nominating Committee is now ready to ' 
report. 

Mr. Carr. — The report will be presented by Mr. Andrew Bussel, of 
Jacksonville. 

Mr. Eussel. — As secretary of this Nominating Committee I have the 
honor of presenting its report and move its adoption by the society: 

"Col. Clark E. Carr, honorary president; Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, 
president; W. T. Norton, Ist vice-president; L. Y. Sherman, 2d vice- 
president; Richard Yates, 3d vice-president; George A. Lawrence, 4th 
vice-president. 

"Directors — Edmund J. James, president University of Illinois; J. 
H. Burnham, Bloomingtpn; E. B. Greene, Champaign; Mrs, Jessie 
Palmer Weber, Springfield; Charles A. Rammelkamp, Jacksonville; J. 0. 
Cunningham, TJrbana; George W. Smith, Carbondale; E. M. Bowman, 
Alton; Wm. A. Meese, Moline; James A. James, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Evanston; Richard V. Carpenter, Belvidere; Edward C. Page, De 
Kalb ; J. W. Clinton, Polo ; Andrew Russel, Jacksonville ; Walter Colyer, 
Albion; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, secretary and treasurer, 
' "Honorary Vice-Presidents — All Presidents of Ijocal Historical 
Societies." 

Mr. Russel. — Members of this society, I would say personally, would 
still want Colonel Carr to be at the head of this institution and tiie idea 
of this is, as I understand, is that when Colonel Carr cannot preside at 
any meeting Dr. Schmidt will be here to preside. We want the advice 
of Colonel Carr and will always expect him to be our head. 

Motion seconded by Professor Greene. 

Chairman.— All in favor of the report of the Nominating Com- 
mittee will please signify by saying "aye;" contrary, "no." The ayes 
have it and the report of the Nominating Committee is adopted, and 
the secretary is directed to cast the ballot for the officers named by the 
nominating committee and elected by the society. 

This she did, and the officers for the year were declared duly 
elected. 



;vGoo»^lc 



19 

Dr. Schmidt. — "Mr. President I am so much overcome by the honor 
of this advaDcement. 1 had intended to absolutely refuse any proposi- 
tion of the kind, but by the rather rapid adoption of the report I do not 
know where I am." Dr. Schmidt said he had labored for the societj 
in the past and would continue to do so in the future and as willingly 
as a mere member without any thought of reward whatever, and that 
he felt that there were others in the society — Mr. Bumham and Pro- 
fessor Smith who had don^e more than he, that he felt disappointed about 
taking anything away from them. He expressed hia tiianks for the 
honor. 

Mr. Greene. — Mr. President I think that none of us here this morn- 
ing feels that the occasion ought to pass without some further expression 
of feeling in the min^a of all of us and I wish to express my own word 
of appreciation of the years of service which have been given in the 
last few yeara by our president. It seems to me that in giving him 
this position of honorary president we have given an expression of the 
deep debt we owe to him. The men who work from time to time in the 
society will vary from year to year, but I am quite sure that there are 
very few people in the society who will feel themselves quite as at home 
in the State Historical society which lacks the name of Colonel Carr. 

Profeaaor Smith. — I have just one word to say that I think has not 
been clearly brought out. It is the wish of this Nominating Committee 
and the organization that this position of honorary president of this 
society shall continue as long as the honored president shall live, and is 
intended for a life time title for his services in the society. 

Mr. Burnham. — I would like to go a little further than that. I 
believe that the society honors itself by taking this action and I believe 
that in all future time it might be comparatively easy to find an individ- 
ual in the State whose life and history would make it an honor to the 
society to continue to have an honorary president. I feel that this is a 
very happy move. 

Colonel Carr. — I simply have to say that I am very grateful to 
you and I appreciate your kind expressions, ladies and gentlemen, beyond 
all others. I have enjoyed the position of president of the society and 
I have done the best that I could. That ia all I can say. 

Mrs. Weber. — Mr. Chairman, is it in order for the secretary to say 
a word ? I simply want to say that Colonel Carr said to me and wrote to 
me that Dr. Schmidt was the one that he would like to have hold up hia 
hands. Of course, he knew nothing of this arrangement. It is Colonel 
Caries own wish that Dr. Schmidt be elected to assist him as the president 
of the society. 

Mr. Moore. — I do not want to inflict myself upon this company but 
Paul Selby belonged to Jacksonville as much as he belonged to any one 
else, and Jacksonville as usual is a feature of Illinois. I knew Mr. Selby 
since about 1857. I do not know just how many knew him earlier than 
that. Perhaps, Colonel Carr. He belonged to a society that I did at 
lUinois college. We had two literary societies there and he was a mem- 
ber of them. Naturally, I was thrown with him a great deal. I wrote 
an article when I was in college and published it in the Journal for 



|„,c::,GOO»^IC 



20 

the nomination of General Palmer for Grovernor of Illinois and I vas 
very much pleased that in the June aftfii Governor Palmer was nom- 
inated. I suppose Mr. Selhy, who was then editor of the Journal, 
brought out my article to introduce General Palmer through that. He 
always let me Bay anything I wanted to in his paper, and, as I say, he was 
a Jacksonville man and we never let go of him. The State cannot 
have all of it. 

I want to say another thing for Colonel Carr. My love for my State 
is largely typified in its name and I think the State of Illinois and its 
men, loyal native sons and daughters owe Mr. Carr their long continued 
thanks for bringing out in that book of his, the Illini, the name of the 
State, that State which produces men. It is the name that is the honor- 
able part of Illinois, Colonel Carr did the State of Illinois a service and 
history a service in writing that book. It certainly was a great addition 
to our library. 

Mr. Clendenin. — I want to speak a word about Colonel Carr. I have 
been a member and known its president. Colonel Carr is one of my 
best friends and I am glad to know that in relieving him of the active 
presidency, which, of course, his advancing years would make a burden 
to him, they leave him as the head of the Historical Society. It affords 
me great pleasure to add my testimony to the other members of the 
society and I appreciate it. (Mr. Clendenin told of the excellent man- 
ner in which Colonel Carr had served the society and its interests.) 

Colonel Carr. — What is the further pleasure of the meeting? 

Mr. Burnham. — Mr. President, our constitution and by-laws seem 
to require that in electing honorary members of the society we elect them 
on the recommendation of the Board of Directors. Tliat matter was 
passed over at the meeting of the Board of Directors yesterday. On 
that account there seems to be two or three that cannot very well be 
acted upon. 

Mrs. Weber. — There will be another meeting of the Board of 
Directors. We will have it up before the evening meeting. 

Mr. Carr. — Motion to adjourn is in order. 

Professor Smith. — I move that we now adjourn. Carried. 

Adjournment made to S :30 in the afternoon. 



DIRECTORS' MEETINGS. 

The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in the office of the secretary of the society, February 18, 1913, at 3:00 
P.M. There were present : Professor E. B. Greene, Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, 
Mr. W. T. Norton, Mr. Wm. A. Meese, Prof. Chas. H. Eammelkamp, 
Prof. E. C. Page, and the secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. The 
president of the society, Col. Clark E. Carr, came in later and presided 
over the meeting. The minutes of the previous meeting were read 
and approved. 

The secretary reported that the plan of calling the financial year 
of the society, from May to May, that is from one annual meeting to the 



31 

next, had not been satisfactory, and asked that the plan be changed 
back to the former method of following the calendar year, January 1, 
to December 31, each year. 

Mr. Meese moved that this plan as requested be adopted. Professor 
Greene seconded the motion, which, on being put to a vote, was carried. 

It was voted that the expenses of the directors of the soeity be paid 
for one meeting each year, and that this be the meeting of the directors 
held at the time of the annual meeting of the society. 

The secretary and treasurer was authorized to pay the expenses of 
the directors for such meeting. 

A general discussion as to plans for the proposed new builduig was 
held. 

There being no further business, the meeting of the Board of 
Directors adjourned to meet at the time of the annual meeting, unless 
called earlier in special meeting. 



DiRECTOKs' Meetings, Mat 15, 1913. 

The directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met in the 
Historical Library at 10 :45 a.m.. May 15, 1913. 

There were present : Messrs. Carr, Burnham, Meese, Rammelkamp, 
Russel, Carpenter, and the secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 

The minutes of February 18 were read and approved. 

A picture of Benjamin Lundy was presented by the Hon. George 
A. Lawrence, of Qalesburg, 111. 

Mr. Meese spoke of the plans for the new Historical Society Build- 
ing and discussed same. He also spoke of the site of old Fort Chartres 
and plans for the restoration of it. He also suggested that a Historic 
Site Committee, to have historic sites in charge, would be a good idea. 

It was moved by Doctor Rammelkamp, and seconded by Captain ■ 
Burnham, that a committee composed of Hon. William A. Meese, Hon. 
Andrew Bussel and Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber be appointed to investigate 
and prepare a bill making such plane to be presented to the next session 
of the Legislature. Carried. 

Information in regard to Cahokia Mound Committee, of which 
Hon. W. T. Norton is chairman, was called for. General discussion of 
what can be done for the preservation of the Mound followed. 

Mr. Norton spoke of the work the Cahokia Mound Association com- 
posed of the mayors of Alton, Belleville, East St. Louis, and the president 
of the Board of Trade of Alton, and other interested citizens. 

Mr. Meese spoke of the attitude of the owners of the Fort Chartres 
site. 

Mr. Norton again spoke of the Great Cahokia Mound. 

Mr. Meese spoke of the proposed new historical building and stated 
that Superintendent Blair would explain plans and reports, etc., in the 
meeting of the society in the afternoon. 

Otiier plans were suggested. It was moved to take a recess until five 
o'clock. Carried. 



.>glc 



22 

At the meeting at five o'clock Captain Burnham spoke on his 
expectation and his hope to prepare a paper with plans and maps on the 
over-flow of the river at Kaskaskia, which destroyed the old capital town. 
He had tried to prepare such a paper, but had been unable to do bo, and 
now he fears he can never do so and thinks that some one else should 
do it. He thought that Doctor Brown, of Bloomin^n, could do so, 
Mr. Meese said such data is hard to secure. All members interested 
should attempt to collect data. This should be the subject of an address 
at the next annual meeting. Mr. C. M, Thompson was suggested for it. 
All data collected by members to be snbmitted and some one decided on 
to write the paper. It was, however, the wish of the directors that Cap- 
tain Bumham himself continue the work and this he consented to do. 

According to a resolution of the meeting of directors of February 18, 
1913, approved May 15, 19-13, the treasurer was directed to pay ex- 
penses of directors for attendance on annual meeting from Historical 
Society fund from annual dues collected from members of the society. 

It was also suggested that the names of the presidents of the local 
historical societies be printed in the Journal. 

There being no further business presented the meeting of the Board 
of Directors adjourned, to meet as a new board after the election of 
officers at the annual business meeting. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

May 14, 1913. 

To the Board of Directors of the IJUnois State Historical Society. 

Gentlemen: I beg to submit to you my report' of the affairs of 
the Illinois State Historical Society for the year ending May 14, 1913. 

The society has grown and extended its influence largely during the 
year. We have now more than 1,300 members of all classes — Honorary 
members, annual members, life members, press association members. 
Of course our membership is principally resident of this State, but we 
have quite a number of former residents of Illinois who now live in other 
states but who have not lost their interest in their old home and who 
keep in touch with Illinois history through membership in this society 
and through its publications. We have one life member who Uvea in 
Paris, France. 

The society has attempted this year to maintain the high standard 
of its publications and the Journal continues to create interest in all 
parts of the country. It does not attempt to compete with or rival the 
Illinois Historical Collections which are prepared with great labor and 
expense by special writers, but its editors wish it to he the special organ 
of the membership of the society, and they desire contributions from it 
especially on matters pertaining to local history. 

The editors and the secretary of the society make a special plea for 
information in regard to local historical events, local records of any 
kind, collections of letters, and local books and pamphlets. 



|„,c::,GOO»^IC 



I wish each member would regard himself as a special committee 
or agent for his own locality, to hunt up for the sociel^, such material. 
A circular letter asking for aid in securing historical material of this 
nature was published in the April Journal of the society. You are 
requested to carefully read this letter. 

We have lost by death a number of our valued members. 

Notices of deaths and brief biographies appear in the Journal, so 
I do not give them here. 

.The society assisted in the observance of the Madison County Cen- 
tennial at Edwardsville, in September, 1913. This was a notable and 
successful affair, and will serve as an example of what a county can 
accomplish. The secretary sent some material to help in the historical 
exhibit and a committee from the society and many members attended 
the dedication of the monument which was erected by the State to the 
memory of Governor Ninian Edwards and the pioneers of the county. 

Committees have also been appointed to assist in the Edwards 
County and the St. Clair County Centennial observances in 1914. The 
society held a special meeting on February 18, 1913. Mr. Meese and 
Mr. Thompson addressed the meeting. Mr. Thompson on his work on 
the Lincoln Way and Mr. Meese gave an illustrated lecture on early 
Illinois. The meeting was largely attended. 

THE ILLINOIS STATE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION, 1918. 

This commission consists of ten members of the General Assembly — 
five Senators and five Representatives — and President James, Professor . 
Greene, Professor Gamer, of the State University, and Dr. 0. L. 
Schmidt and Jessie Palmer Weber, of the Illinois State Historical 
Society. 

I now ask the members of this society to give this matter earnest 
thought and then make suggestions to the secretary of the society, who is 
a member of the commission. Let us make our State's Centennial mem- 
orable. 

President James has said that as we celebrate a century of progress 
of the moat wonderful Eepublic the world has ever known and of a 
century of the life of one of the most remarkable of the States of this 
Sepublic, it' will be an opportunity for us to make this a celebration 
world-wide in its scope, and that it is none too soon to actively begin 
preparations. 

It is to be hoped that we will have a new building for the Historical 
and Educational Departments of the State by that time, and that it 
will be thoroughly appropriate and beautiful. 

Yesterday, Senator Logan Hay of Sangamon County, introduced 
s bill for a new building for the Historical Society and allied interests. 
I regret that we are unable to report that very high hopes are enter- 
tained for the passage of this bill. Owing to the great demand for money 
and the necessary increased rate of taxation it does not seem likely that 
legislation for the building can be secured at this session of the Legis- 
lature. We are not discouraged by these conditions and we must con- 
tinue to work for it. 



|„.c::,GOO»^IC 



24 

The transactions of the society for the past two years are in the hands 
vt the printer. The great number of State boards, including many tem- 
porary or special ones, and commisaions which are all required to make 
reports, make the pressure of public printing something enormous. As 
executive officers and their reports have precedence always, it means 
long delays for minor boards. 

Other legislation for historical projects has also been discouraged. 

Madison County, under the leadership of Senator Beall and Rep- 
resentative Flagg, both members of this society, and the other Eepre- 
sentatives from that district, has been making a valiant struggle for the 
purchase and preservation of the Great Cahokia Mound. 

Efforts are being made to secure for the State the site and remains 
of old Fort Chartres. 

Also the White Pine forests of Ogle County; this last named project 
has received great assistance from the State Federation of Woman's Clubs, 

The State Park Board is recommending and assisting in these worthy 
objects and is attempting to extend its work by further improvements 
and more land at Starved Rock. 

A'ery respectfully, 

Jessie Palmes Weber, 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 



LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR. 

Early in April, 1913, a letter was sent by Governor Dunne asking 
recommendations for changes in the different departments of the Stat«. 
The following letter was sent in answer to the Governor's inquiry in 
regard to conditions in the Historical Library: 
"Hon. William L. Sullivan, Secretary to Gov. Dunne, Springfield, HI. 

"Dear Sir : Replying to your letter of April 4th in regard to the 
crowded conditions of the Illinois State Historical Library and its needs 
of more room for present condt' ns to =ia notl *ng of room for its 
expansion and growth, I desire to say that tl s department has for its 
entire quarters — the main librar> room wh ch a r om approximately 
30 by 60 feet in size (its actual mea'^uren ent be ng a fraction less), and 
the librarian's room or office, a ro n wh ch s somet! ng less than 13 by 
40 feet. 

"Ten years ago, 1903 when the 1 brarj wa mo ed into these rooms 
from its former quarters, the north reading-room of the State Library, 
proper equipment was installed for the books of the library in steel stacks 
having an upper and lower floor or tier, and it was believed that these 
stacks would provide space for the books of the library and their increase 
for a period of five years, it being even then believed that within a short 
time a building would be provided for the Historical Department of the 
State. 

"About two years and a half. ago, or a little more, a slight sagging 
of the central stacks of the equipment was observed, which became daily 
more apparent. As the room had not originally been designed for a 
library room in the plans of the State House as had been the main 



S5 

library room in the west wing of the building, which is especially sup- 
ported from the foundation up, and books being extremely heavy, the 
Engineers of the State Highway Commission were asked to investigate 
the question of the weight imposed on the floors by the library books. 
The weight of the books was estimated and the floors examined, parts 
of the floor being taken up for the purpose of exact measurements and 
the bridge builders informed the library officials that the usual allowance 
for weight for the supports and arches had already been exceeded. The 
library room being over the long east corridor between the offices of 
the Governor and Secretary of State, and on account of the long corridor 
underneath the arches or supports are very far apart. It was found how- 
ever that the sagging was from defective construction of the book stacks 
and not from any weakness in the floor. 

"The Secretary of State thought it best that the upper floor of the 
library stacks be removed. This being done nearly one-half of the shelv- 
ing space of the library was cut oil, and this at a time when it seemed 
that the limit had been reached in room for the expansion of the library. 

"Hon. James A. Rose, then Secretary of State requested the ofBcials 
of the library to say nothing publicly of the reasons for removing the 
upper stacks because of the fact that it might give rise to rumors and 
exaggerated stories, and exaggerated statements that the State House 
is unsafe, when it fact there was no such fear except that it is, of course, 
undesirable to overload any structure. 

"It was then necessary to take away from the library rooms proper 
all materials except the most generally used and most frequently called 
for material. In a special collection such as this, it is the unusual which 
is wanted, for many persons exhaust other libraries and depositories 
before coming to the State Historical Library, hence, though earnest 
efforts were made to make a judicious selection, it is often necessary to 
search through the stacked away materials for important and necessary 
documents. 

"This frequently causes long and vexatious delays. The Secretary 
of State did the very best he could to help the library in its predicament 
but as the Capitol building is full to overflowing, he was able only to 
give it two small storerooms on the fourth floor back of the Senate and 
two rooms in the basement or sub-cellar. These rooms are most inacces- 
sible, but we have made every effort to make them safe for the preserva- 
tion of the valuable materials stored in them. In spite of this, however, 
after the roof of the State House was injured in the great storm of 1911, 
the roof over the room in the fourth floor leaked badly and many of the 
files of newspapers stored away in that room were injured though they 
were laboriously opened and carefully dried. 

"The Library Board has from time to time purchased steel stacks 
for the constantly increasing files of newspapers, purchasing these stacks 
of a style that can be used in more ample quarters when the time shall 
come, but buying small sections, is at the best, not the most economical 
way of buying equipment for any building. 

"We have on our shelves in the library's two rooms places for about 
800 flies of bound newspapers. 



agic 



as 

"Some years ago the Dlinois State Historical Society sent delegates 
to the meeting of the State Press Association, at which time an arrange- 
ment was made with the Press AssociatioD whereby editors were invited 
to send copies of their papers to the Illinois State Historical Library and 
the library promised to send these editors copies of the publications of the 
Library and Historical Society and the editors thus became members 
of the Historical Society; the library also promised to preserve and bind 
the newspapers thus sent and make them accessible to the people of the 
State and the students in general, 

"About seventy-five newspaper men send their papers as requested 
and many more would gladly do so if asked, but the library is absolutely 
unable to keep its agreement to bind the newspapers as there is no place 
to store them and make them accessible to the public. We preserve (iiem, 
arrange them in order, and wrap them in heavy paper and put them 
away in our attic storeroom until such time as we have time and place 
to have them bound and made accessible. The library would like to 
have, and hopes in time to have, two papers at least from each county 
in the State, that is, one of each of the principal political, parties. 
These form local histories of localities which cannot be found in any 
other way. Wisconsin has an immense collection of papers. It has in 
its magnificent Historical Library one of the largest collections of news- 
papers in the United States. More Illinois newspapers can be found in 
the Wisconsin Historical Library than can'be found in our own Historical 
Library. These are housed in the immense basement-rooms of the beau- 
tiful building. The basement is the best place for newspaper files on 
account of their weight, 

"If we should preserve in the library two newspapers from each of 
the one hundred and two counties of Illinois, that would mean at least 
two hundred and four papers each year, binding the smaller papers in 
annual volumes, though many of them are too large to bind in this 
way, making the volume too thick and heavy to be conveniently handled. 
We take in the library four Chicago daily papers, which on account 
of their size have to be bound in monthly volumes. This makes forty- 
eight volumes a year of the Chicago papers. We take one St. Louis 
daily paper which is much used by southern Illinois people and which is 
bound monthly like the Chicago papers. We also subscribe to four 
Springfield daily papers. These we bind every two months. The Chi- 
cago papers — as above stated — make forty-eight, the St. Louis twelve 
and the Springfield twenty-four volumes per year or a total of eighty-four 
volumes a year of these necessary daily papers which are consulted con- 
stantly and by all classes of individuals. ■ 

"The politician looks back to see the speeches of himself or his 
opponent; the student searches them for historical addresses or adver- 
tisements or things that serve to prove the manners and customs of the 
days; they are searched for death notices, marriage notices, and tax adver- 
tisements, advertisements, and the librarian has more than once been 
obliged to take a file of the newspapers into court to prove accounts aod 
advertisements of official improvements, etc. 

"As before stated we have shelf room for about 800 newspaper files ; 
these are all tased to their utmost and the storerooms are filled to over- 



37 

flowing. We have on the floor and chairs and tables, on tops of book 
stacks, etc., about 200 volumes of recent additions to our newspapers. 
These are the latest bound files of contemporary newspapers; older files 
are stored awaj in dark and inaccessible storerooms. 

"Many newspaper men would be glad to present to the State old and 
valuable files asking only an assurance of good care, accessibility and 
storage in a fireproof building. These assurances we are unable at 
present to give, 

"Agents of other institutions are going through the country himting 
up and buying precious material, which ought to be the property of 
Illiuois. WiBconsin is getting such material; the Library of Congress 
and the Carnegie institutions are collecting them and taking them away 
from the State and when they are secured by these rich and powerful 
institutions they are forever lost to Illinois and our students are obliged 
to spend the time and money to visit them instead of finding such things 
in tile Historical Department of their own State — and it is not so much 
a question of the cost of such material as it is the absolute lack of space 
and facilities for taking care of them. 

"This is not only true of newspapers but of books and other his- 
torical material and larger articles for a historical and archaeological 



"The library has more than once been obliged to decline collections 
because it could not meet the conditions required by the donors, a fire- 
proof building to receive them and their exhibition and accessibility. 

"It was during the last session of the General Assembly that the 
great fire at Albany occurred and also the burning of the Missouri State 
House and the great loss of valuable records at both places. This library, 
while not so rich as it should be in its collection of valuable original 
manuscripts, yet has some that are invaluable. We have no safe place 
for their storage and care. We have not even a small fireproof safe and 
we have scarcely a foot of space in which to house such a safe if we had it. 
Of course, less important filing cases or book cases might be removed to 
make room for it, but we have so often weeded out the matter that is not 
absolutely essential to our working library that it would be hard to decide 
■ upon what we could do without. 

"Every bit of floor space and every bit of wall space is in use and 
books are in double rows on our shelves. 

"If the original marriage license of Abraham Lincoln and Mary 
Todd was burned no money could replace it. If the original letter writ- 
ten by Mr. Lincoln to the Union mass meeting of 1863 and which was 
actually read at the meeting, with Mr. Lincoln's letter transmitting it 
was destroyed, how could such a loss be repaired? 

"If we lose the actual record {election tally sheet) of Lincoln's 
first vote, how could we replace it? These are but a few of the precious 
manuscripts which the State owns and which'are in the custody of the 
Illinois State Historical Library. If banknotes are burned or destroyed 
by mice, they can be replaced if the numbers are known and no loss will 
result, but if a precious manuscript of which there is but one original 
copy is destroyed it is lost for all time and no money can replace it. 



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"The library haa prepared luBtorical eihibits for three eipositionB — 
St. Louis, 1904; Portland, 1905 and Jamestown, 1907. These are par- 
tially exhibited on the walls of the library and form an interesting and 
valuable exhibit. 

"These collections are framed in flat wall eases and they contain 

photographic and manuscript material which illustrates the history of 

the State in many phases. Only the Lincoln material is exhibited in the 

■ library. All otl^r cases are stored away and are inaccessible to the 

public, 

"The library owns a large collection of pictures of Abraham Lin- 
coln, his family and associates. It is the ambition of the otficials of this 
library that the State of Illinois have the greatest collection of Lincoln- 
iana in the world. We have absolutely no more room to exhibit such 
material. Illinois ought not permit any other state, institution or in- 
dividual to excel it in the collection of historical material relating to her 
greatest citizen. 

"We have material relating to Stephen A. Douglas, Ulysses S. Grant, 
our Major Generals of the Civil War and of other of our illustrious citi- 
zens but we have no room to care for such exhibits. 

"Our library is used constantly by students of genealogy and state 
and western history, but as we have no separate workroom, it is necessary 
to have the noise of the typewriter constantly going in the room with the 
student. This is annoying to all readers and unbearable to many. We 
need room for students who require the use of a large number of books 
and maps, and we seriously need a workroom and storage-room. 

"The Illinois State Historical Library and the State Historical 
Society issue many historical publications of great value including a 
quarterly journal or magazine and the annual transactions of the society. 
"The work of preparing these volumes, proof-reading,, indexing, etc., 
the wrapping and addressing for the distribution of these volumes must 
all be done in these small quarters. These conditions create confusion, 
make working uncomfortable and unsatisfactory and are not conducive 
to producing the highest efRciency of the workers or the best results from 
their work. 

"Then, too, a lecture-room or assembly room is much needed not 
only for the Historical Society but for other gatherings. 

"Tliis week (April 8-10) the State Bar Association met in this city, 
and its sessions were held in the State Library. The room was incon- 
venient, there being no platform for speakers and chairs were brought 
in, crowding the room, and absolutely putting a stop to the regular work 
of the library for at least four days. Before the crowded condition of 
the State House made it necessary to use the old Supreme Court room 
for the Automobile Department of the Secretary of State's office, that 
room was used for small .conventions, lectures, etc., of departments or 
societies, which are wholly or partially a part of the State's machinery. 
"These are a few of the pressing needs of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library and Society, Wisconsin has a magnificent Historical 
Society Building. Iowa has a fine new Historical Society Building, 



ogle 



SJ9 

Kansas and Colorado are now building adequate buildings as homes for 
their Historical Societies. New York is spending millions on its won- 
derful new Educational Building, and Illinois students are obliged to 
go far afield to seek the sources of their own history. 

"I thank you, sir, and 'also the Chief Executive of the State for this 
opportunity of informing you of our most pressing needs. 

"The Illinois State Historical Library has for several years been 
crowded, seemingly to its capacity for expansion, in every branch of its 
work. When from the fact that our floors were too heavily loaded we 
were obliged to give up nearly half of our shelving-room, it was a severe 
blow and a heavy handicap. 

"We need at least to devise immediately some plan whereby we may 
add to our newspaper shelving, and thus make room for other depart- 
ments of our work, 

"We need a workroom and we need an assembly room, which could 
also be an exhibition room ; and we need at least one reference room. 

"These needs are pressing. We would gladly show the Governor our 
overcrowded condition and I think we could convince him that we need 
immediate relief. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Jessie Palmee Weber, 
"Secretary Illinois State Historical Society and 
Librarian Illinois State Historical Library." 



REPORT OF THE GENEALOGICAL COMMITTEE. 

To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications had 
hoped to report that the list of works on genealogy in the Historical 
Library had been printed, but owing to the delay in publishing the 191S 
transactions of the society this has not been done. 

It has been decided, however, as long as the volume of the 1913 
transactions will be quite full, to publish in a pamphlet form convenient 
for students, the works on genealogy in the library. This will be issued 
within a short time and mailed to the members. 

We wish to commend to the society the work of Mrs. B, S. Walker, 
a member of this committee. Mrs. Walker is compiling by counties lists 
of the Revolutionary soldiers of Illinois buried in the counties of the 
State. This is being published in the Quarterly Journal of the society, 
beginning with April, 1912, and continuing with each issue of the Jour- 
nal. So far the names of soldiers buried in the following counties have 
been published, namely : Cass, Clark, Greene, Macon, Madison, Menard, 
Iroquois, Sangamon, Warren. The list from Morgan County it is hoped 
will be ready for the October Journal. 

Mrs. Walker is aided in this work by members of the local chapters 
of the Daughters of the American Eevolution, and asks aid of each mem- 
ber of the society. If you know of revolutionary soldiers buried in 



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30 

country church yards in your locality or elsewhere in the country please 
notify Mrs, Walker or write us at the library. These names sent in will 
be added to the liat of counties already compiled or those to be published 
in the Journal. 

EespectfuUy submitted, 

Geohgia L. Osboene, 
ChaiTman of the Committee on Genealogy 

and Genealogical PublieatioTis. 



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PART II— PAPERS READ AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETING, 1913. 



PROGRAM. 

THURSDAY MOENING, 9:30 O'CLOCK, MAY 15, 1913. 

Directors' meeting in the office of the secretary of the society. 

THTJESDAY AFTERNOON, 2:30 O'CLOCK. 

STATE LIBBABT, 

"A Sketch of the History of the Roman Catholic Church in Illinois," 
Rev. James J. Howard, D.D., St. Agnes Church, Springfield, HI. 

"The Disciples of Christ in Illinois and their Attitude Toward 
Slavery," Rev. N. S. Haynes, A.M., Decatur, 111. 

"The History of the Presbyterian Church in Illinois," Rev. Hermon 
Dutilh Jenkins, D.D. 

THURSDAY EVENING, 8:00 O'CLOCK. 

8ENATE CHAMBEB. 

Annual Address — "Benjamin Lundy, Pioneer of Freedom," Hon. 
George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 111. 

Reception in the State Library, Illinois State Historical Society, 
assisted by the Springfield Chapter Daughters of the American Revol- 
ution. 

FRIDAY MORNING, 9:30 O'CLOCK, MAY 16, 1913. 

STATE L1BE4RY. 

Business Meeting of the Society : 
Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
Election of Officers. 
"The Public Archives of Illinois," E. B. Greene, Ph.D., University 
of Illinois. 

"Paul Selby, the Last Survivor of the Editorial Convention of 
1856," H. W. Clendenin, Editor Illinois State Register, Springfield, 111. 



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FEIDAY AFTERNOON, 3 :30 O'CLOCK. 

SENATE CHAUBEK. 

"Smith D. Atkins — In Memoriam," Eichard V, Carpenter, Belvi- 
dere, 111. 

"The Baptists and Slaverj- in Illinois," Willard C, MacNaull, 
Department of History, Oherlin College. 

"The Slavery Controversy and the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Illinois," Eev. John M. Ryan, D.D., Pontiac, 111. 

FRIDAY EVENING, 8 :00 O'CLOCK. 

SENATE CHAMBEIt. 

"The Lincoln Poor White Legend," Olynthus B. Clark, Ph.D., 
Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. 

"Stephen A. Douglas, the Expansionist," Frank E. St«vens, Editor 
Dixon Weekly Citizen, Dixon, 111. 



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BENJAMiif Luin>Y. 



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A PIONEER OF FREEDOM. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE FOURTEENTH 
ANNUAL MEETING OP THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTOR- 
ICAL SOCIETY UPON THE LIFE AND SERVICES OP 
BENJAMIN LUNDY. 

(By Geobge A. Lawhence.) 

"By Nebo'a lonely mountaiD 

On this side Jordan's wave, 

In a vale in the land of Moab, 

There lies a lonely grave. 

But no man dug that sepulcher 

And no man saw it e'er, 

For the angels of God upturned the sod 

And laid the dead man there." 
These beautiful lines of Mrs. Alexander's were written of a prophet 
and pioneer of the far away years; of the man divinely appointed to 
become the leader of the chosen people ; of a man who left behind him 
all that was alluring in life—wealth, almost kingly power, and a possible 
life of ease — to undertake the forty years' wandering in the wilderness, 
to endure the complaints and seditions of those he served, and to meet 
his death without having entered the promised land, to the very verge of 
which he brought his followers. 

I am privileged to present to you tonight the story of a man which 
in many respects parallels the career of Moses; of a man who is sepul- 
chered today not upon a "lonely mountain," but upon a hill-top on the 
banks of Clear Creek, in Putnam County, Illinois. Appreciative nature 
has covered that sepulcher deep with myrtle, and upon the simple stone 
which marks the resting place are graven these words : 

"BENJAMIN LUNDY 

Died August 33, 1839 

Age, 50 years, 7 months, 18 days" 

Buried in that lonely spot far away from the tumult, toil and strug- 
gle of life, there ia nothing in name or environment to suggest the char- 
acter, the achievements, or the deserved fame of the man who lies buried 
there. Yet he was to his generation a second Moses, Chosen to lead a 
people out of bondage, for more than twenty-five years he also wandered 
in the wilderness, leading what seemed to be a forlorn hope. He also 
died ere his hopes were realized, but he had vitalized agencies that would 



soon bring those for whom he had struggled into the promised land. 
In that lowly grave today rests one whose heroic life, loyal serviee, and 
sacrifice almost divine, ought to be emblazoned upon the pages of human 
history. He lived a life of quietude and peace, but he set in motion 
forces for human liberty and human fellowship that resulted in the 
freedom of a race. 

In obedience to your most kind invitation, I wish to bring to you, 
as far as my time will allow, something of this man. 

Shall we not first profitably inquire into his times, and the day and 
generation in which he lived and which he served ? 

The period from 1800 to 1830 may well be called, in discussing the 
question of human slavery, a period of stagnation. Slavery, introduced 
into Virginia in 1619, bad fastened itself upon the country, North and 
South alike. In the North, however, the slaves were used only for 
domestic purposes, and being the source of neither pleasure nor profit 
they soon ceased to be a factor in its'domestic or political economy. In 
the South, on the contrary, the milder climate, contributing as it did to 
the lassitude of the white population, became a fitting environment for 
the negro. 

Yet even there for a century and a half the slave had no special 
economic significance, and above all, was not a source of any great profit. 
The Declaration of Independence, and the formal assertion by the thir- 
teen colonies of the rights of man, affected in a great measure the status 
of the slave, for those sturdy ancestors of ours were logicians as well as 
patriots. In 1783 slavery was judiciously abolished in Massachusetts, 
and the ordinance of 1787 for the government of the Northwest Terri- 
tory was another long step forward in the direction of its general aboli- 
tion. A great world movement, begun in 1794, ended slavery in the 
French West Indies and several South American Republics, terminat- 
ing in a similar result in Mexico in 1829, and in the British West Indies 
in 1833 by Act of Parliament. Slavery had, prior to the revolution in 
this country, been suffered without comment, rather than endorsed or 
especially contended for. In the state of New York the first active oppo- 
sition to it was the organization of anti-slavery societies under the presi- 
dency of John Jay in 1785. Two years afterwards Benjamin Franklin 
led an abolition society in Philadelphia. From that time for a number 
of years these societies multiplied in both North and South, Abolition 
was in the air, Slavery in contempt and disgrace. These were the days 
of the passage of the ordinance of 1787, the creation of the Mason and 
Dixon line and the abolishment, by other nations, of the slave trade. 
With its destruction our forefathers hoped that slavery itself would die, 
and were well content to rest upon their laurels. Our most eminent - 
statesmen from all sections of the country, irrespective of political afSlia- 
tions, were as apt to be abolitionists in some form or other as to favor 
slavery. No one was more outspoken in behalf of equal rights than 
Thomas Jefferson, the leading character of the slave territory in his day. 
In fact, many of the southern enactments concerning the slave and slavery 
■were decidedly humanitarian in their tendencies, restraining manu- 
mission in a measure by an insistence upon the future support of those 



35 

who were to be freed. In a general way it may be said that the slave 
power at that time was that of a giant conecioua of his own invulner- 
ability. It did not fear discussion, and did not condemn those opposed 
to it. Tie anti-slavery sentiments of leading men, of Randolph, Jeffer- 
son, Mason, Nicholas, made no impression whatever upon this autocratic 
power, ruling as it saw fit for its own interest. Complacent when it saw > 
but little to contend for, with no pro-slavery or anti-slavery sentiment, 
it offered no obstruction to anti-slavery societies in North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee, fifteen years later. These normal forces were scarce 
noted in the enormous development of the cotton interest that took place 
in the early part of the Nineteenth Century. In 1794 the invention of 
the cotton gin by Whitney revolutionized the status of the slave as affect- 
ing the industry of the southern states. Hitherto slavery and negroes 
had been but a poor investment to the planter, growing out of idle 
habits and haphazard methods. Had there been no cotton culture, and 
no cotton gin to make the business active and profitable, it is probable 
that slavery would have expired in all the states as it did in half of them, 
under the inspiration of universal liberty which came of the Declaration 
of Independence and the struggle of the Revolution, But the cotton 
gin, with the aid of slave labor, made cotton cultivation possible on a 
greater scale ; incited ambitions for wealth, aggrandizement and political 
power, and became an essential from this standpoint to their future pros- 
perity. It held out the promises of enormous gain. It received a 
representation based upon slave population and for that purpose de- 
manded an extension of the area of slavery. It was the act of the hitherto 
sleeping giant awakened to the seductive influences of enormous wealth, 
and it had the more alluring temptations of supreme political power. 
The North also was more or less affected by its commercial relation with 
the South and especially is this true in the ease of important commercial 
centers. There, everywhere, could be found a decided pro-slavery senti- 
ment, ready then and afterwards to foster and encourage its promotion. 

It is interesting to note the effect which commercial relations or 
political ambitions had, or could have, upon the conscience or the conduct 
of mankind with reference to this question. One naturally looks upon 
Massachusetts as for rock-ribbed abolition, and upon Virginia as being 
for slavery, from the very nature of the situation. To illustrate how 
far from the truth this can be, let me quote from a speech of Edward 
Everett in Congress about 1834 or '35 : 

"Sir," said he, addressing the speaker, "I am no soldier. My habits 
and education are very unmilitary. But there is no cause in which I 
would sooner buckle a knapsack on my back and put a musket on my 
shoulder, than that of putting down a servile insurrection at the South. 
The slaves of this country are better clothed and fed than the peasantry 
of some of the most prosperous states of Europe. The great relation of 
servitude, in some form or other, with greater or less departure from 
the theoretic equality of man, is inseparable from our nature. Domestic 
slavery is not, in my judgment, to be set down as an immoral or irre- 
ligious relation. It is a condition of life as well as any other, to be 
judged by morality, religion and international law." 



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36 

And then, arose Joho Randolph of Koanoke, a typical Virginian: 

"Sir, I envy neither the head nor the heart of that man from the 
North who r^e here to defend slavery on principle." 

Abolitionism, meanwhile, was sitting quietly by with folded hands, 
all organized opposition at an end. Up to 1814 only three pamphlets 
' of any importance wete' published anywhere affecting anti-slavery and 
these advocated progressive emancipation or discussed doctrinal or agri- 
cultural questions in connection with slavery. 

In this crisis of affairs, aggression, on the one hand, and apathy on 
the other, who should lead a new crusade against the violators of the 
Temple of Liberty ? Wbo should become another Moses to lead a people 
out of bondage into freedom? 

He came, not out of kingly court. Not from among the learned, 
the eloquent, or those of commanding influence, but from the ranks of 
the humble and the lowly, and with nothing of either physical or educa- 
tional equipment that would indicate the possibilities of his career. 

Benjamin Lundy was born January 4, 1789, the only son of Joseph 
and Eliza (Shotwell) Lundy, at Handwick, Sussex County, New Jersey. 
His parents and most of their connections were members of the Socieiy 
of Friends and came originally from England and Wales. His mother 
died when he was about five years old. During her life he had been to 
school and learned to read but little. After hia father's second marriage 
he attended school a few weeks and began to try to write before he waa 
eight years of age. At the age of sixteen he again went to school a short 
time to learn arithmetic. This was all the schooling he ever had. He 
writes of himself: 

"I had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and was withal very 
ambitious, in so much that when my father hired men to work on his 
farm, I labored with them much too hard for my physical frame, in 
order to convince them, though I was a mere boy, I could do the work of 
the largest and strongest of them. By this means I partially lost my 
hearing and otherwise injured myself." 

At the age of nineteen, on account of failing health, he went to 
Wheeling, Va., where he remained four years and served an apprentice- 
ship at the saddler's trade and worked at it eighteen months as a jour- 
neyman. It was there he writes : 

"My faculties were developed, my character made known to myself 
and the principles that have since guided me in my public labor were 
formed and fixed." 

Of his associates he says : 

"They were wild, fashionable youths, clever enough, but fond of 
frivolous sports." 

For himself, he 

"Resolved to cheek any unreasonable propensities before it was too 
late. He kept in his plain dress, attended the regular meetings of his 
society (the Quakers) and spent most of his time in reading instructive 
books." 

Consider for a moment the geographical position of Wheeling, his 
residence in these formative years. Located upon the Ohio River, it 
was the boundary line of the slave territory over which Lundy passed 



every week is attendance upon first day service in a free state. The 
Ohio River was the highway of the slave traffic at that time, which was 
enormous and enormously profitable. Engaged in developing the new 
regions of the west and southwest, Kentucky and Missouri were being 
rapidly settled and Illinois was a future battle ground to be occupied 
and entrenched, if possible. Virginia, Maryland and the southern states 
adjoining were the breeding ground for the western market. Here the 
slaves were collected together, "bunched up" as we would say in cattle 
phrase today; Chained together under the guard of drivers, to prevent 
an escape into free states adjoining, they were driven to the Ohio Biver, 
placed upon boats at some convenient point and floated down to their 
destination. Wheeling was the greatest thoroughfare in this traffic in 
human fiesh and Benjamin Lundy saw it in all its enormity. Antici- 
pating by a few years the sensation and resolution of Abraham Lincoln 
at New Orleans, he formed a resolution then and there that became the 
deitermined purpose of his life, and from the accomplishment of which 
he never wavered. He says : 

"My heart was deeply touched at the gross abomination; I heard 
the wail of the captive, I felt his pang of distress, and the iron entered 
my sonl." 

The assistant editor of his closing days, Mr. Z. Eastman, was told 
in 1839 by Mr. Lundy that as far back as 1808 he was led to make a 
consecration of his life for the deliverance of the slave. That must have 
been in the first year of his apprenticeship and his impression must have 
been immediate as well as profound. 

Mr. Lundy left Wheeling in 1813 and returned to Mount Pleasant, 
Ohio, where he met his future wife. Remaining there for two years 
engaged at his trade, he returned to his father's home in New Jersey 
for a stay of eight or ten mouths. Refusing his father's offer to engage 
in business there, he returned to St. Clairsville, Ohio, ten miles west of 
Wheeling, was married and started a business. That he was successful 
appears from his own statement : 

"I began with no other means but my own hands and a disposition 
for industry and economy. In a little more than four years, however, I 
found myself in possession of more than $3,000 worth of property, 
beyond what was necessary to pay the moderate amount I owed. I had 
then a loving wife and two beautiful children that it was then a real 
happiness to possess and cherish. I was at peace with my neighbor and 
knew not that I had an enemy. I had bought a lot and built myself a 
comfortable house. All my wants and those of ray family were fully 
supplied. My business was increasing and prosperity seemed to smile 
upon me." 

I have quoted this fully that we might all appreciate the extent 
and completeness of the sacrifice that was to be made. In that period 
of our national development upon the frontier very much of future 
wealth and influence was represented in the fact of a permanent home, a 
united family, and increasing business. The accumulation of a capital 
of $3,000 within four years at that time, without assistance, was no 
mean accomplishment and indicated great business capacity. The man 
who could do this was capable of great things in any undertaking. 



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38 

May we take a glance at the man himself at that time? 

A biographer has said : 

"He was Blender and slightly under middle size, with light com- 
plexion, blue eyes and wavy hair. He was cheerful, unaseuming and 
studious." 

An engraving from a portrait by A, Dickenson, published in 184:7, 
reveals a man with a scholarly, dignified face, a mild eye, clad in con- 
ventional garb with high collar and choker; one whose appearance would 
never indicate his rugged nature or his ability for any heroic struggle 
which should demand the highest capacity for physical, mental and 
moral fortitude. His portrait is also included as one of a dozen men 
cited in Greeley's American Conflict as eminent opponents of the slave 
power; compared with the portraits of Joshua Giddings, William Lloyd 
Garrison, Garret . Smith, Charles Sumner, or Owen liovejoy, Lundy 
seems mild, indeed, though not effeminate. A water color portrait, 
however, owned by Susan Maria (Lundy) Wireman, his daughter, who 
is also buried at Clear Creek Cemetery, has given me a better idea of 
the real man he was. "Blue eyes and wavy hair" might well describe 
the man of the engraving I have spoken of. They do not identify the 
man of the water color portrait. An eye of blue that was bright with 
the gleam of steel and of fire, an eye that penetrated where it fastened 
its gaze; scant reddish hair and beard, and a complexion of purest 
Saxon type gave life and energy and vivacity to the subject which cold 
black print can never portray; more than all these, there is a certain 
setting of the jaw which suggests that, which no other portrait contains. 
Here in this portrait is seen the man to whom so much of heroism, 
daring and sacrifice has been attributed. Here can be seen the indom- 
itable will, unconquerable spirit and transcendent genius that was neces- 
sary to the accomplishment of the work to which he had dedicated 
himself. The portrait reveals the physical and native resources he 
possessed.. It cannot reveal the added mental and scholarly equipment 
which his "studious habits with book in hand" had furnished him. 

He was now twenty-five years of age, in the midst of the comfort 
and possibilities he has described. He was now a man with all the 
responsibilities of a man. What should be his future? Up to that time 
he had taken no active part in anti-slavery agitation, nor, so far as it 
can be learned, had it ever influenced the slightest act of his life. I 
have referred to his life at Wheeling, and in his later years he gave 
ntteranee to the reason which prompted his future conduct and con- 
trolled his entire careei'. I quot« from his paper. The Genius of Univer- 
sal Emancipation, at that time printed in Washington, as being the 
best authority for the reasons that determined him in the change of his 
entire life. In this journal of November, 1833, he said of Wheeling: 

"That was the place where his youthful eye first caught a view of 
the 'cursed whip' and the "hellish manacle' — where he first saw the 
slaves in chains forced along like brutes to the southern markets for 
human flesh and blood ! Then did his young heart bound within his 
bosom and his heated blood boil in his veins on seeing droves of a 
dozen or twenty ragged men chained together and driven through the 
streets bareheaded and barefooted in sun and snow by the remorseless 
'soul sellers' with horse whips and bludgeons in their hands ! It was 



39 

the frequent repetition of such scenes as these in the town of Wheeling, 
Va., that made the impressions on his mind relative to the slave question 
which have induced him to devote himself to the cause of Universal 
Emancipation. During the apprenticeship with a respectable mechanic 
of that place, he was made acquainted with the cruelties and the des- 
potism of slavery as tolerated in this land; and he made a solemn vow 
to Almighty God that if favored with health and strength, he would 
break at least one link of the ponderous chain of oppression when he 
should become a man." 

He had now become a man. The time is now at hand for the 
fulfillment of his vow, and he says in his autobiography : 

"I had lamented the sad condition of the slave ever since I became 
acquainted with his wrong and suffering, but the question, what can I 
do? was the continual response to the impulses of my heart. As I 
enjoyed no peace of raind, I 'concluded I must act, and shortly after 
my settlement at St. Clairsville, I called a few friends together ancf 
unbosomed myself to them. The result was the organi3ation of an anti- 
slavery association called the 'Union Humanitarian Society.' " 

The first meeting was held at his home and consisted of six persons. 
In a few months it had grown to nearly five hundred persons, among 
whom were the most eminent divines, lawyers and citizens of that state. 

He also wrote a circular dated January 4, 1816, being his twenty- 
seventh birthday, which was the first definite announcement of a cam- 
paign that ended in the overthrow of slavery. This circular is historic. 
Its first appearance was in five or six copies in manuscript. At the 
urgent request of friends and of persons from a distance who met at the 
yearly meeting in the society of Friends at Mt. Pleasant, this paper was 
printed and circulated on the condition that it should appear with a 
fictitious signature. This signature was Philo Justicia. As an intro- 
duction, while urging the inadequacy of stopping at the abolition of the 
African slave trade, when the seeds of the evil system had been sown 
in our soil and were springing up and producing increase, he proposed : 

First — That a society should be formed whenever a number of 
persons could be induced to join in them. 

Second — That a title should be adopted common to all the societies. 

Third — They should all have a uniform constitution, "varying only 
on account of necessity arising from location." 

Fourth — That a correspondence should be kept up between the 
societies, that they should co-operate in action, that in case of important 
business they should choose delegates to meet in general convention. 

This plan is practically the same in efficient operation twenty years 
afterwards when it embraced one thousand anti-slavery societies. At 
the conclusion of the address, the writer stated that he had the subject 
long in contemplation and that he had now taken it up fully deter- 
mined for one, never to lay it down while he breathed, or until the end 
should be obtained. 

This circular, short and simple as it was, is mentioned by Greeley 
in hie American Conflict as "containing the germ of the entire anti- 
slavery movement." 

A local newspaper. The Philanthropist, had been established at 
Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and its columns were open to the discussion of 



40 

slavery. Lundy became an interested contributor and soon vas invited 
to take part in its editorial work. Soon his articles vere upon the 
editorial page. While he was at work on his saddler's bench, tea miles 
away, an invitation to become a partner in the business and to remove 
to Mount Pleasant was accepted, and he proceeded to close out his 
business for that purpose. In 1819, for the purpose of a better market 
for his goods, he took the balance of his stock upon a boat, hia appren- 
tices plying tlieir trade on board while he steered the boat for St. Louis. 
TJnable to sell his stock at St. Louis by reason of financial depression, he 
rented a shop and boarded himself and hie boy apprentices. Miasoari 
was at that time in the turmoil and excitement of a great political 
campaign and was knocking at the door for admission to the Union. 
Every spare moment was devoted by Lundy, in person and through 
newspaper articles, in Missouri and Illinois, to exposing the evils of 
slavery. He says, "The contest which was long and severe, terminated 
in onr losing the day." * • • He sold his remaining stock at a 
ruinous sacrifice and returned home on foot, a journey of seven hundred 
miles and in the winter season, having been absent a year and ten 
months. 

During his absence, the newspaper had changed bands and waa 
conducted by EUsha Bates, who did not come up to the anti-slavery 
standards of Lundy. He also learned that Elihu Embree had begun 
the publication of an anti-slavery paper. The Emancipator, at Jones- 
borough, Tenn. He removed to Mount Pleasant and began the publica- 
tion of the Genius of Universal Emancipation, in January, 1831, The 
prospectus and first number were published by Elisha Bates. After- 
wards the printing was done at Steubenville, Ohio, twenty miles away, 
Ijundy going to and fro on foot, carrying his printed papers on his 
back. ,In a few months the subscription list was quite large, bat after 
eight monthly issues, Lundy started for Teimeasee to use the Embree 
press at Jonesborougb, Embree having died. It waa a journey of eight 
hundred miles, half on foot and half by water. There, for the first 
time, he undertook the printers* art and did the mechanical, as well as 
editorial, work. After a few months, during which considerable opposi- 
tion and threats of violence developed, he brought his family to Ten- 
nessee and resided there for three years. During this time he attended 
"The American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery" at Philadel- 
phia, a distance of six hundred miles, going and returning on horse 
back. He was the first delegate from any part of the country as far 
south as Tennessee to any anti-slavery meeting. Upon his trip he made 
the acquaintance of some abolitionists east of the Alleghany mountains. 
The Genius of Universal Emancipation had now obtained a considerable 
circulation. It was the only anti-slavery paper published in America. 
He concluded to transfer its publication to one of the Atlantic states to 
secure a wider influence and increased support. Arranging his business 
and shouldering his knapsack, he set out for Baltimore in 1824, On 
this trip he delivered his first public lecture and embraced every oppor- 
tunity of obtaining an audience; at house raisings, musters, and every 
sort of assemblies, he urged his cause, and in the state of North Carolina 
alone, while on this journey, twelve or fourteen anti-slavery societies 
were organized. 



;vGoo»^lc 



41 

The first Baltimore number of the Genius was issued in October, 
1824, being No. 1, Vol, FV, and in about a year the publication was 
changed from a monthly to a weekly. Meanwhile, his wife and famQy 
had been removed from Tennessee to Baltimore. In 1835 he made hia 
first trip to the Island of Haiti to establish there a number of slaves 
who had been freed, and arrange with the Island government for any 
emancipated slaves that might be sent there. Detained longer than ho 
had anticipated, he returned to Baltimore to find his wife dead and 
his five children scattered among friends. His obituary notice of his 
wife's death, published in the Genius, of June 3, 1826, is a most eloquent 
. and touching tribute to her worth. Only a brief quotation can be made, 
but it is due to this woman that she be credited with her part in his 
great work. He said of her : 

"Whenever it fell to my lot to be called away from home, she 
uniformly and cheerfully gave her consent thereto; observing that she 
could not find a freedom in urging anything as a hindrance to the 
success of my labor in the cause of philanthrophj." 

Five children were left motherless, among them twins a few weeks 
old, and this man, in face of that fact, said : 

"I collected my children together and placed them with friends in 
whom I could confide and renewed my vow to devote my energy to the 
cause of the slave until the nation should be effectually aroused in its 
behalf. I relinquished any prospect of future enjoyment of an earthly 
home until that object should be accomplished." 

The publication of the paper was continued at Baltimore, William 
Swain being added as assistant editor with Elizabeth Chandler, a poet 
and author of some distinction; both were converts of his lectures and 
publications, and it is noteworthy that his efforts produced not only 
converts, but missionaries in his work. 

In 1828 a trip was taken to the middle and eastern states for 
purposes of lectures and subscriptions. At Philadelphia a meeting was 
called to consider the use of free labor products, the first meeting of 
the kind ever held in America. This would indicate his intellectual 
grasp and his conception of the power of a modified boycott, an elabora- 
tion of which has become so prominent in the later stages of our 
national development. It was upon this trip that he met, at Boston, 
William Lloyd Garrison, who had not yet turned his attention to the 
slavery question. They met at a boarding house with eight clergymen 
of various denominations. The ministers all approved of the work and 
became subscribers to the Genius. Garrison also expressed approval of 
his doctrines. He was at that time the editor of the National Philan- 
thropist, the first total abstinence sheet in the world. Truly, here was 
a scene worthy the brush of the artist. This, in a way, accidental 
meeting, in an obscure boarding house in Boston, between Benjamin 
Lundy and William Lloyd Garrison — the little deaf Quaker and the 
near-sighted Baptist who was to become the foremost type of militant 
warfare in the cause he at that moment espoused. "The Signing of 
the Compact" and "The Landing of the Mayflower" have been immor- 
talized upon the canvas and form two of our great historic pictures. 
Yet neither of these events was more significant than the one we men- 
tion. Here awakened into vitality the conscience and co-operation of 



|„.c::,GOO»^IC 



the man who was to assume such prominence in the final overthrow of 
slavery. Liindy's word had been good seed and it had fallen upon good 
ground. The mild Quaker had- lighted a flame that was never extin- 
guished. The history of abolitionism shows us two fire-brands, John 
Brown and William Lloyd Garrison. But Garrison was the first and 
more significant iniluence and very likely was responsible for the atti- 
tude of the other. 

In November, 1828, Lundy again visited Boston and invited Gar- 
rison to assist him in editing the Genius of Universal Emancipation, but 
the latter was at that time editing a paper in Vermont from which he 
could not free himself. Meanwhile the paper was successfully published 
and free produce stores were opened in Baltimore and Philadelphia 
where nothing the product of slave labor was handled. The editorial 
position was full of dangers. A single example will suffice to illustrate 
them: 

"There was in Baltimore a slave-trader by the name of Austin 
Woolfolk, notorious for the heartless brutality with which he carried on 
his wretched business. He sent a gang of twenty-nine slaves on a boat 
to Georgia. When at sea the slaves rose for their liberty, murdered the 
captain and mate, reached New York City and escaped — all escept one, 
who was caught and hung. When led to the place of execution, the 
condemned negro, according to the custom of those days, was allowe<i 
to make some remarks expressing his penitence. Woolfolk, who was 
present, interrupted the unfortunate man with oaths and abusive lan- 
guage and would not desist until compelled to do so by the indignant 
spectators. An account of this disgusting spectacle was published in 
the New York Christian Inquirer, and reprinted by Lundy in the 
"Genius." 

Soon after this, Woolfolk met Lundy near the post-office in Balti- 
more, caught him by the throat, threw him upon the pavement, choked 
him until he was nearly unconscious, and then stamped on his head and 
face with the heel of his boot, Woolfolk was arrested and tried for 
assault and battery. The jury found Woolfolk guilty ; and the judge, in 
whose discretion the penalty was, sentenced him to pay a fine of one 
dollar. The judge said from the bench that Lundy got nothing more 
than he deserved, and he took the copy of the "Genius" containing the 
objectionable article and sent it to the grand jury, charging them to 
indict Lundy for libel, which they refused to do." 

In the spring of 1829 another trip was made to Haiti with a email 
colony of emancipated slaves and leases of land obtained for them on 
easy terms. Upon his return in September, 1829, Lundy announced in 
the Genius the association of Garrison in his editorship. This move was 
not a fortunate one. Garrison espoused the cause of Henry Clay against 
Jackson, while Lundy had no confidence in Clay upon the slavery ques- 
tion. Subscriptions fell off when politics and sectarianism supplanted 
in any degree the question for which Lundy alone stood. Garrison, 
moreover, did not possess the gift of using strong language just outside 
the law of libel that Lundy had, and was soon behind grates and bars 
and obliged to pay a fine, money for which was obtained in New York 
by Lundy. But Lundy himself was in turn arrested as co-editor and 
imprisoned for several days. The particulars of this incident are told 



,Coo<^lc 



in the life of GamsoD, and of the time he was in jail, which waa 
forty-nine days, he says: 

"The sun itself was not more regular day by day during that period 
in visiting my cell with its cheering light than was my friend Lundy, 
His sympathy, kindness and attention were all that a brother couid 
show." 

The partnership was a short one. This plan of the two joining to 
shake the sleepy nation to consciousness had to be abandoned. Garrison 
went to Boston with the inspiration of a Baltimore jail upon him, most 
terribly in earnest; an intellectual and moral lion aroused to work in 
his own way in the path laid out for him. Lundy was left to plod his 
accustomed way alone. At this point, for the first time, Lundy, in his 
paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation, after regretting the loss 
of the help of his friend, states his own case, and it were well to per- 
petuate it here : 

"Nine years have nearly elapsed since this work first made its 
appearance. During that period I have witnessed many vicissitodes in 
the affairs of life; have experienced something of the fickleness of for- 
tune and a good share of what the world calls hardship and privation." 

Then he tells of the great difficulties he encountered in getting out 
his monthly paper, his desires to publish it weekly, his hopes of the 
future, his patience and unflinching determination shown in every line. 
He goes on : 

"I do not wish to speak boastingly of what I have done or essayed 
to do in advocating the question of African emancipation, and I dete^st 
the idea of making a cringing appeal to the public for aid in my under- 
takings. I am willing to work, and can support myself and family by 
my own labor. But, after ten years' struggle to promote the cause to 
the best of my humble abilities and in every possible manner, it may not 
be amiss to inform those who take an interest in this publication that I 
have, within the period above mentioned, sacrificed several thousand 
dollars of my own hard earnings; have traveled upward of 5,000 miles 
on foot, and more than 30,000 in other ways; have visited nineteen of 
the states of this Union, and held more than 200 public meetings, with 
the view of making known our object, etc., and, in addition to this, have 
performed two voyages to the West Indies, by which means the libera- 
tion of a considerable number of slaves has been effected, and, I hope, 
the way paved for the enlargement of many more. What effect this 
work has had in turning the attention of the public to the subject of 
the abolition of slavery, it would not become me to say. * • * There 
is not another periodical work published by a citizen of the United 
States, whose conductor dare treat upon the subject of slavery as its 
nature requires and its importance demands, and, viewing the matter in 
this light, I shall persevere in my efforts, as usual, while the means of 
doing it are afforded, or until more efficient advocates of the cause shall 
make themselves known." 

In resuming control of the paper Lundy announced that the Oeniiis 
would hereafter treat exclusively upon the subject of emancipation. The 
paper had now fallen upon evil days. Subscriptions failed and it was 
changed from a weekly to a monthly sheet. It soon became necessary for 
Lundy himself to leave Baltimore and the Genius was moved to Waeh- 



.g„.c.::',COO»^IC 



ington and that citj became the nominal place of its publication. It 
aiao became necessary for Lundy to travel to secure subscriptionfi, leav- 
ing the papei' in the hands of a temporary editor. A tew numbers would 
be published and then publication cease for lack of funds. Lnndy, 
hearing of this, would prepare manuscript on the road and print the 
nest number where he happened to be. He could secure a printing press 
at almost any point. The type he found it more convenient to cany 
with him, possibly upon his back. 

The founding of Qarrison's Liberator in Massachusetts, and the 
breaking out of the "Nat Turner Bebellion" in Virginia, haat«ned the 
failure of the Oenius, The one, although working along the same lines, 
was necessarily to some extent a rival, and the Turner outbreak was 
fatal to all abolition societies of the south which furnished many sub- 
scribers. The story of the Oenius of Universal Emancipation is now 
shortly told. Removed to Washington in 1830, it was printed there 
until 1831, sometimes consecutively for months, when it made its last 
removal to Philadelphia, expiring there in 1838 amid the flames of 
Pennsylvania Hall, which was burned by a mob in June of that year. 

Just a word as to its appearance. I quote from the words of Mr. 
Z. Eastman, who was with Lundy at Lowell, III., at the time of his 
death, in the capacity of printer and assistant editor : 

"I well remember the editorial, 'Vignette.' It seemed to have been 
quite a pet of Mr. Lundy's. I think it was of his own designing. It 
was not quite clear to me what truth was to be inferred from it. Mr. 
Lundy once explained it minutely. It represented a scene in a garden. 
There was in tiie back ground a sort of miniature square tower with a 
seat at the bottom. There was nothing in this country like it. Over 
it were trailing vines. Nearby, dragging a chain and holding a spade in 
hand, was a white man with depressed appearance. By his side stands 
a man, possibly putting some question tfl the slave held by the chain. He 
looks like a philosopher or Doctor of Divinity, it is impossible to tell 
which. He is evidently inquiring of this white slave 'Why is this?' It 
was not a strange question if our own color were in that condition. Mr. 
Lundy would have had it asked, even of the black man also doomed to 
drag the ball and chain. Mr. Lundy's paper, besides that piercing motto 
'Justicia fiat, ruat coelum,' also carried on its front this motto, 'We 
hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal and 
are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, in which 
are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." 

The historical value of Lund3^s paper, beginning in 18S1 and prac- 
tically ending in 1830-34, can hardly be estimated. It is the repository 
of all plans for the abolition of slavery, of all laws, opinions, arguments, 
essays, speeches, poems, views, statistics, constitutions of societies, manu- 
missions, congressional proceedings, book notices, pamphlets, colonization 
efforts, political movements, in short, it included everything that could 
throw light upon or affected the question of slavery here or elsewhere. 
It had taken part in the historic campaign of 1824 in Illinois, where an 
attempt was made to fasten slavery upon this State, and was a factor in 
what was, everything considered, the hardest fought political campaign 
ever waged in Illinois. Speaking of this campaign through newspaper 



46 

and pamphlets widely disseminated, I havs before me a pamphlet called 
"Impartial Appeal to the Reason, Justice and Patriotism of the People 
of Illinois and the Injurious Effects of Slave Labor." This little 
brochure, pTiblished anonymously in Philadelphia and used in the Illinois 
campaign, bears every token of being the work of Benjamin Lundy. It 
applies to the economic side of the question and repeats many arguments, 
purely his, found elsewhere. It is noteworthy as bearing upon our sub- 
ject that it was reprinted in London, and used in connection with the 
struggle for the abolishment of slavery in the West Indies, and I found 
the little book in London. So we may well claim that this humble 
Quaker contributed also to that work in no small degree. 

Time forbids to speak of the literary character of the Genius, its 
trenchant English, modes of emphasis and telling invective. With but 
the scanty preparation spoken of at the outset, Lundy became a great 
master of English in both style and expression, nor was he lacking in 
sentiment and poetry. Let me quot« a single verse, being one of a num- 
ber sent his sister after informing her of the birth of his second daughter 
and their decision to call her Elizabeth : 

"Here let me pause, the Muse in accent clear 

Repeats the name that memory holds most dear, 

My mother, it was thine — ^blest spirit see 

Thy son, thy only son, remembers thee." 
Leaving for a time his journalistic work, permit me to call your 
attention to another phase of his many sided plans for abolition. I have 
suggested the two trips to Haiti, each time with a number of slaves that 
he located there. Lundy was unique as an abolitionist in this. He was 
willing to do for the time being the best that could be done. Garrison 
had the one idea of immediate emancipation, so had Goodell. Lundy 
possessed that idea with equal fervidness, but pending its success wished 
to have something done and that without delay. With this thought in 
mind he sought to colonize emancipated slaves and free blacks upon 
territory contiguous to the United States, and upon lands which were not 
only to provide for them a home, and comply with some State laws as to 
voluntary emancipation, but would furnish a concrete illustration of the 
safety and profitiableness of the "Emancipation on the Soil" theory. 
With this in mind he made two journeys to Texas, then a part of Mexico, 
the first in 1830-31, beginning in the winter. A large portion of a biog- 
raphy published by his children in 1847 is taken up with the account of 
these trips. He says of them, "My labors were most arduous." The 
story is one of poverty, privation and danger; at times in disguise; 
cholera raging everywhere; working at his trade to get the means for a 
scanty livelihood ; when this did not offer, in making suspenders and shot 
pouches for those who would buy. The purpose of this trip was to estab- 
lish a settlement of colored people in Texas with the view of the cultiva- 
tion of sugar, cotton and rice by free labor. The first trip lasted eighteen 
months and involved much diplomacy with the Mexican Government to 
obtain the land, but owing to disturbing conditions was without avail 
and he returned home in 1833. In May, 1834, he again started on a 
similar errand, this time not disguising his name, and several times 



ogle 



46 

nearly lost his life. In October of that year aorrj times certainly were 
upon him. His notes in his journal of October 7 show that he had 
spent hia last cent for provisions and "was reading the 'liett«rB of 
Junius' to beguile hia thoughts." On the 15th of October he writes: 
"I must move in some direction shortly even if I must as a last resort, 
fast, beg or starve." His narrative as a whole shows close habits of 
observation, and unbounded resource and diplomacy in approaching the 
authorities seeking the grant of land. In this quest he was successful 
and obtained from the Government of Taumaulipas a grant of 138,000 
acres of land, conditioned upon introducing two hundred and fifty 
settlers with their families. This grant, however, came to naught, by 
reason of the revolution in Texas which followed, and the years of 
privation and absence went for nothing. It did accomplish, however, in 
another way a great and telling result. 

Better than any other American, Lundy had become acquainted 
with the Texan country. He knew its extent and the mmiher and kind 
of its inhabitants and it was he who furnished to John Quiney Adams 
the facts upon which the sturdy fight was made in the United States 
Congress against the admission of Texas, and the subsequent acts that 
led to the war with Mexico. It is not a part of our theme to discuss 
what part in this war with Mexico the question of slavery played, hut 
this may be said, that no one person did more to furnish the opponents 
of slavery with weapons against the admission of Texas or the war with 
Mexico tiian he. 

A pamphlet issued in 1836, of sixty-four double columns printed in 
small type, reveals him in the fullness of his intellectual activity and de- 
velopment. It was entitled, "War in Texas, a Eeview of Facts and Cir- 
cumstances, Showing That This Contest is a Crusade Against Mexico, 
Set on Foot and Supported by Slave Holders, Land Speculators, etc., in 
Order to Re-establish, Ee-extend and Perpetuate the System of , Slavery 
and Slave Trade." It was signed by "A Citizen of the United States." 
This pamphlet is a masterly review of the situation from the standp^t of 
those opposed to the acquisition of Texas to become a part of the Ur^ited 
States. It is a scathing arraignment of all engaged either in the con- 
quest of Texas or its admission to the Union; brims with quotatiV)US 
from southern jonmalB, and southern speeches to make clear his clttim 
of conspiracy, all presented in a forceful and convincing way; it fur- 
nished to John Quiney Adams the material upon which he based hss 
opposition in Congress to the admission of Texas as a state, and did a 
other writing of his exist, this pamphlet would distinguish Mr. Lundi 
not only as a consecrated and determined missionary, but as a master o^ 
polemic literature, inferior to none of his day. The struggle was nott 
successful; the enemy was too strong and too well intrenched, but the\ 
admission of Texas was delayed for years thereby, and opportunity given J 
to strengthen the abolition forces against the greater conflict now inevi- 
table and almost in sight. May I place upon your records the conclud- 
ing paragraphs of this great pamphlet which I do not find to have been 
quoted elsewhere: 

"Our countrymen in fighting for the Union of Texas with the 
United States will he fighting for that which at no distant day will 
inevitably dissolve the Union. The slave states having the eligible 



47 

addition to their land of bondage, will ere long cut asunder the Federal 
tie and confederate a new and slave holding Republic in opposition to the 
whole free Republic of the north. Thus early will be fulfilled the pre- 
diction of the old politicians of Europe that our Union could not remain 
one century entire; and then also will the maxim be exemplified in 
history that liberty and slavery cannot long inhabit the same soil. 

"Citizens of the free states : Are you prepared to sanction the acts 
of such freebooters and usurpers? Nay more: Are you willing to be 
made the instruments of these wantom aggressors, in eflEeeting their 
Tinholy purposes, and thus not only excite the sympathizing maledictions 
of other human powers, but also invoke the awful judgments of Heaven 
against you? Some of our wisest statesmen have spoken out, in con- 
demnation of their deeds; and the patriotic conductors of the press are 
likewise beginning to awaken the public attention to them, 

"You see that they are now fully resolved to make a speedy appli- 
cation to Congress, for the incorporation of the government which they 
have thus assumed into the confederation of the United States. This 
will be attempted the very moment that an opportunity is presented. 
People of the north ! Will you permit it ? Will you^sanction the abomi- 
nable outrage; involve yourselves in the deep crinnnality, and perhaps 
the horrors of war, for the establishment of slavery in a land of freedom; 
and thus put your necks and the necks of your posterity under the feet 
of the domineering tyrants of the south, for centuries to come? The 
great moral and political campaign is now fairly opened. Your govern- 
ment has fully espoused the cause of these land-pirates and free-hooters. 
Can you still remain silent, and thus lend your sanction to the unparal- 
leled and Heaven-daring usurpation? With deep anxiety, I await yonr 
response; and trust it will come in the loudest tones of a thundering 
Negative, resounding o'er your granite mountains, and echoing through 
«very valley north of 'Mason and Dixon's Line.' 

"You have been warned, again and again, of the deep machinations, 
and the wicked aggressive policy of this despotic "Slave-holding Party." 
I have unfolded its marauding designs, and pointed out its varied plana 
and movements. You would not listen to these earnest entreaties and 
admonitions. You have slumbered in the arms of political harlots, until 
they have nearly shorn you of your locks, and bound you with the bloody 
cords prepared by the Phillistine horde of tyrannical desperadoes. Arise I 
Arise quickly! and burst those bands, or your doom, with that of your 
posterity, is sealed perhaps forever." 

Let me call especial attention to the prophecy of a "dissolution of 
the Union" and the confederation of a new and slave-holding Republic. 
1 know of no earlier prophecy and it is noteworthy that when formed, it 
■was called the confederacy. 

I have gathered the story of this man largely from the diary he 
kept. He seeks there to prepare for himself no page in history. It is 
the simple story of resolve, effort and accomplishment. But he has a 
permanent place in history and may I be allowed to record a few brief 
extracts from various tributes to him? 

"Any one who will examine John Quincy Adams' speech on Texas, 
in 1838, will see that he was only seconding the full and able exposure 
of the Texa,3 plot, prepared by Benjamin Lundy, to one of whose pam- 



oo»^lc 



48 

pblets Dr. Channirg in his letter to Henry Clay' has confesaed his obli- 
gation. Every one acquainted with those years will allow that the 
North owes its earliest knowledge and first awakening on that subject 
to Mr. Lundy who made long journeys and devoted years to the investi- 
gation. His (Lnndy's) labors have this attestation that they quickened 
the zeal and strengthened the hands of such ~ len as Adams and Chan- 
ning. I have been told that Mr. Lundy prepared a brief for Mr, Adams 
and furnished him the materials for his "Speech on Texas."— Speech of 
Wendell Phillips, Boston, January 27, 1853. 

"The immediate precursor and in a certain sense the founder of 
abolitionism was Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker, bom in New Jersey. 
* * • In 1831 he began to publish the 'Genius of Universal Eman- 
cipation,' which is to be considered the first abolition organ. • • • 
The Nineteenth Century can scarcely point to another instance in which 
the commandment of Christ to leave all things and follow Him' was 
so literally construed • * *." — Von Hoist's History of the United 
States, Vol. 2, pages 81-88. 

"Nor is that pioneer of freedom, Benjamin Lundy, to be forgotten. 
It was his lot to st^jiggle for years almost alone, a solitary voice crying 
in the wOdemess; poor, unaided, yet never despairing, traversing the 
Island of Haiti, wasting with disease in New Orleans, hunted by Texan 
banditti, wandering on foot among the mountains of East Tennessee and 
along the Ozark Hills, beaten down and trampled on by Baltimore slave 
dealers; yet amidst all, faithful to his one great purpose, the emancipa- 
tion of the sUves and the protection of the free people of color. To him 
we owe under Providence the enlistment of William Lloyd Garrison in 
the service which he has so nobly performed." — Letter of John G. Whit- 
tier, dated Amesbury, Massachusetts, March, 1874. 

"I trust that the memory and labors of Benjamin Lundy will be 
especially remembered and honored at this reunion gathering. To him 
I owe my connection with the cause of emancipation, as he was the first 
to call my attention to it, and by his pressing invitation to me to join 
him at printing and editing the 'Qenijis of Universal Emancipation' at 
Baltimore, he shaped my destiny for the remainder of my life." — Letter 
of William Lloyd Garrison to Eastman, March, 1874. 

More than five pages of Greeley's American Conflict are devoted to 
the life and service of Mr. Lundy and he concludes with these fitting 
words : 

"Thus closed the record of one of the most heroic, devoted, unselfish 
lives that has ever been lived on this continent." — The American Con- 
flict, pages 111-115. 

"Mr. Garrison writes of Mr, Lundy in the Jourjial of the Times, 
Burlington, Vt, December IS, 1828: 

"Instead of being able to withstand the tide of public opinion, it 
would seem at first doubtful whether he could sustain a temporary con- 
flict with the winds of Heaven. And yet, he has explored nineteen states 
out of the twenty-four, from the Green Mountains of Vermont to the 
banks of the Mississippi, multiplying anti-slavery societies in' every quar- 
ter, putting every petition in motion relative to the extinctidn of slavery 
in the District of Columbia, everywhere awakening the slumbering sym- 
pathies of the people and beginning a work, the completion of which 

i 



■/ 



49 

will be the salvation of his couiitr}'. His heart is of gigantic size. Every 
inch of him is alive with power. He combines the meekness of Howard 
and the boldness of Luther. No reformer was ever more devoted, zeal- 
ous, persevering or sanguine. He has fought single-handed against a 
host without missing a blow, or faltering a moment, but his forces are 
rapidly gathering and he will yet save our land. It should be mentioned, 
too, that he has sacrificed several thousand dollars in this holy cause, 
accumulated by unceasing industry. Yet he makes no public appeal, but 
goes forward in the quietude and resolution of his spirit, husbanding his 
little resources from town to town and from state to state. He said to 
me some months ago, 'I would not exchange my circumstances with any 
person on earth if I thereby must relinquish the cause in which I am 
enlisted.' Within a few months he has traveled 3,400 miles, of which 
upwards of 1,600 have been on foot, during which time he has held 
nearly 500 public meetings. Rivers and mountains vanish in his path. 
Midnight finds him on his solitary way over an unfrequented road. The 
sun is anticipated in his rising. Never was a moral sublimity better 
jllugtrated." 

But I must hasten to the conclusioi of this eventful life. He had, 
following the assassination of Lovejoy, determined to move to Hlinois 
and print an abolition paper here if it led to a bloody grave. His little 
property consisting of books, papers and Quaker clothing, and a complete 
file of his Genius of Universal Emancipation, were, preparatory to his 
departure, stored in "Pennsylvania Hall," a building erected for the 
cause of freedom at Philadelpha. On May 17, 1838, it was destroyed . 
by the torch of a mob and all of his property, with the brain work of 
twenty years, went up in flames. 

In- July he started for Illinois and planned to re-establish the 
Genius here. His relatives lived at Magnolia, in Putnam County, and 
he selected Hennepin, the county seat, as his place of publication. The 
paper was dated at Hennepin, but printed at Lowell, where some friends 
had purchased an old press and worn out type. Lowell was then a city 
of the future, with a large stone mill in process of erection, with city 
lots to sell and some to give away. Now scarce a vestige remains of the 
place. The paper was mailed at Vermilionville, across the Vermilion 
River, and not far away. A building 12 feet square was the printing 
ofiice and a two-room house just behind was the dwelling. The twins, 
now twelve years old, were with him and his daughter, Esther, his little 
housekeeper. In the spring of 1839 three or four issues were printed. 
John Lovejoy, a brother of the martyr, came to his assistance as a helper, 
but he was not a printer. In the spring of 1839 Mr. Z. Eastman, a 
printer, joined him and may I use his words in describing the end : 

"We all worked in that little office for a few weeks. Lundy seemed 
very happy. He had some confidential talk with me, when I told him 
it would become necessary for me soon to return to the East. He spoke 
of dividing with me his town-lots in Lowell, and of giving me a share of 
the broad prairie on which he had squatted ; but the proposition did not 
seem flattering. He was taken ill a day or two after; he wrote a sentence 
as an apology for lack of editorial, in which he said, 'We shall soon be 
better.' He went to his bed at the tavern the next day, and the day 



ogle 



so 

following, about eleven o'clock at night, being told by the physician that 
he was near his end, stated that he felt perfectly easy, and in a few 
moments fell into a sweet sleep, that of a chdd pillowed upon its mother'a 
bosom ; but it was his last sleep. I saw that peaceful death, I wrote the 
obituary notice that appeared in the same paper with his last editorial 
words, in which he said he should soon be better. His friends, without 
display, in the simple, plain style of their religious faith, carried him 
away, for burial. I suppose no colored man in this world knows where 
they laid him." 

The last statement is not true certainly at this day. Last summer my 
wife and I drove to the little cemetory in a car driven by a negro 
cbaufEeuT. We stood at the grave of Lundy and it occurred to us that 
it would he a matter of interest to the colored man to see the grave of 
the man who struck the first blow for the freedom of his race. We called 
him to the spot and told him in a few words of the man who lay buried 
there. I have spoken of the wealth of myrtle upon the grave, and I saw 
the young negro quietly place some sprigs of it in his purse. I asked 
hirp what he wanted to do with them. He replied that he wanted to 
send them to his sister at Tuskegee. Then I thought. Oh that the man 
who lay so quietly there could see this act, and could know that from 
his grave, perhaps from his very bones, had sprung the tokens that 
carried a brother's message to the negro in his better estate, with the 
opportunities at hand for which he had lived and suffered and died. 
Surely if that message wrought its perfect work, it would tell to that 
people, to whom his life had opened such opportunity, of the heroic self- 
sacrifice that had made freedom and opportunity possible to them. 

He, like Moses, did not live to enter the promised land, but the 
people for whom he labored have entered into it. 

May I not fittingly close this address by quoting the last verse of 
Mrs. Alexander's poem with which I began : 

"0 lonely tomb in Moab's land ! 

dark Beth-peor's hill ! 

Speak to these curious hearts of ours. 

And teach them to be still. 

God hath His mysteries of grace, — 

Ways that we cannot tell ; 

He hides them deep, like the secret sleep 

Of him He loved so well." 

BIBLIOGEAPHT. 

Adams, Alice Dana — 

The Neglected Period of Anti-Slaver\- in America (1808-1831). 
(Eadcliffe College Monographs.) Ginn and Company, Boston, 
1909. 
Armstrong, William Clinton — 

The Lundy Family and Their Descendants. J. Heidingsfeld, New 
Brunswick, N. J., 1902. 
Bimey, William — 

James G. Bimev and His Times (pp. 76-85). D. Appleton and 
Co.. New York, 1890. 



D,qit,zeabvG00»^lc 



Tomb of Benjamin Lundy. 



DiqineOwGoOl^lc 



jjGooi^lc 



51 

Lundy, Benjamin — 

The War in Texas. (2d edition pamphlet.) Merrihew and Ginn, 

Philadelphia, 1837. 
The Life, Travel and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy (compiled under 

the direction of his children) . W. D. Parrish, Philadelphia, 1847. 
Sanborn, Frank B. 

The Great Agitation. The Cosmopolitan Magazine, vol, vii, pp. 

5S-55, 1889. 
The Chicago Daily Tribune (Thursday, June 11, 1874). Article 

on the Aholitionistfi, at the Anti-Slavery Eeunion. 
Massachusetts Anti-Slaver}' Society. 5th Annual Eeport, p. 66. 

Isaac Knapp, 25 Comhill, Boston, 1837. 



;yGoo»^lc 



THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST IN ILLINOIS AND THEIR 
ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY. 



(Kev. N. S. Hatnes, Decatur.) 

The beginning of the nineteenth century witnessed a widespread 
revolt against human authority, botii Papal and Protestant, in religion. 
Many men in many places came to see that God alone can be Lord of 
the conscience. Everywhere these reformers, protesting against the 
creeds of councils and the dogmas of fallible men, appealed to the Bible 
alone. Everywhere their aim was the emancipation of the church from 
the bondage of human traditions and rule. This movement first focal- 
ized in the religious body known as the Christian denomination. For 
many years they were called New Lights but since they have never 
recognized this name it is unfair to so designate them. 

Minister James CKelly withdrew from the M. B. Church during 
its first General Conference held in Baltimore in 1792. In hia earlier 
years he was a classmate of Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry. He 
was a popular preacher and an old presiding elder from Virginia. He 
urged upon the conference the right of those preachers, who thought 
themselves injured by the appointment of the bishops, to appeal to the 
general body then in session. His appeal was in vain. Many individuals 
and local congregations, either in mass or in part, seceded with him. 
Appealing for popular favor to the public spirit of the time, they for a 
few years called themselves Republican Methodists. 

At the close of the eighteenth century. Dr. Ahner Jones resided at 
Hartland, Vt. He was a regular Baptist but he was especially averse 
to himian creeds which he regarded as walls separating the followers of 
our Lord. And sectarian names grieved him much. In those years 
when a man of God got a new thought he was compelled to get a new 
church to put it in. So Dr. Jones organized a church at Lynden, Vt, in 
1803 with twenty-five members, another chjirch the same year at Han- 
over, N. H., and a third at Pierpont, N. H., in 1803. 

About that time Elias Smith, then a Baptist minister, was preach- 
ing with great success in Portsmouth, N". H. He fell in with Abner 
Jones and soon the church under his care was led to adopt the principles 
and position of the Christians. 

Barton W. Stone, a learned and eloquent minister, withdrew from 
the Presbyterian Church in 1804 and became very actively identified 
with the Christian denomination. 

Thus there arose simultaneously in the East, South, and West con- 
gregations that wished to be known simply as Christians. These were 
remote from one another and without a knowledge of one another's 
work. They urged the all-sufBciency of the scriptures as the rule of 



,Coo<^lc 



faith and life, the democracy of the local church, Christian character as 
the test of fellowship and the name Christian to the exclusion of all 
denominational names. 

Those years were particularly auspicious for the proclamation of 
such Christian truths. Beginning in the last days of the eighteenth 
century with the Presbyterians in Tennessee and Kentucky and con- 
tinuing to near the close of 1801 there was a most extraordinary revival 
of religion. Caneridge, Ky., was its center — its circumference was 
almost the outer boundfi of the nation. Its slogan was "the Bible Our 
Rule of Faith and Practice." Many thousands turned to the Lord. 
Consecrated lives testified to the genuineness of their conversion. Its 
impressioDB were deep and its influences abiding. 

That revival was the John the Baptist of the movement inaugurated 
within leas than two decades thereafter by the Disciples of Christ This 
also bad its beginning in various localities — East, West, and South. It 
came neither from the Biblical research nor thought of any one man. 
It was not accidental but Providential. Its members approached the 
Bible "with all readiness of mind, examining the scriptures daily." 

It is believed by many that Alexander Campbell was the founder of 
the religious body known as the Disciples of Christ. This is a mistake 
and the abundant and incontestible facts of history prove it to be such. 
It was at least a decade after the beginnings of this movement in various 
places that Mr. Campbell became the champion and later the most power- 
ful advocate of those principles of Christian truth which differentiate 
the Disciples from all other religious bodies. This last fact was the 
occasion ttiat led many uninformed people to call those with whom Mr. 
Campbell found himself to be in full accord "Campbellites." But thia 
to the Disciples, has always been an offensive nickname. Now it is 
no longer in use except in some back precincts where the trees grow tall 
and the brush thick, and hence the light of intelligence is slow in pene- 
trating. 

William Barney came into what is now Wabash County and settled 
about eight miles north of the site of Mount Carmel in 1808. His family 
then consisted of himself and wife and the following children : George, 
William, Richard, James, Betsy, Jane, Sarah, Clara and Ann.Shortly 
afterward Mr. Barney's three sons-in-law with their wives and children 
also came. It is plain that this was a real Eooseveltian and patriotic 
family. Other settlers followed. Three forts for protection against the 
Indians in the locality were built. 

Seth Gard came into this settlement in 1813. In 1814 he was a 
representative in the third territorial legislature and in 1818 was a 
member of the convention that framed the Constitution for the State. 
Evidently Mr. Gard was one of the leading citizens of that section. He, 
with Minister James Pool and others, on the ITth day of July, 1819, 
organized the Barney's Prairie Christian Church, Seth Gard was elected 
elder and Joseph Wood, deacon. His grandson, 0. H. Wood, now resid- 
ing in that locality, has in his keeping the original book containing the 
record of his transaction. He is in his sixty-eighth year, has been a 
member of the congregation over fifty years and affirms that from its 



ogle 



64 

beginning the Barne/s Fiaiiie Church bae always stood on apostolic 
ground. This congregation has had an unbroken and useful life for 
ninety-six years. 

Stephen England settled near the site of Cantiall, Sangamon County, 
in 1819. He was a native of Virginia but grew to manhood in Kentucky. 
He was a Baptist preacher but was acquainted with Barton W. Stone 
before coming to Illinois. Here he was never known as a Baptist min- 
ister. Shortly after settling here be invited the people to come to bis 
cabin for public worship. That the people were soul-hungry is indicated 
by tbe fact that two women walked two miles to th^ meeting through 
prairie grass as high as their heads. On May 15, 1830, be constituted in 
bie own house the first Church of Christ in Sangamon county. In all, 
there were nine members whose name have come down to us. From that 
date to this it has always been known as the Church of Christ or Antiocb 
Christian Church. When the village of Cantrall was laid out in the 
sixties, the place of meeting was moved there and the local designation 
was changed from Antioch to Cantrall. In the fall of 1836 the Little 
Grove Church of Christ, located six miles east of Paris, was constituted 
by Minister Samuel McGee. Two sisters, Mrs. Mary Morrison and Mrs. 
Anna Fitzgerald, who had come from Kentucky, were the leaders in tbe 
formation of this congregation. From the first it was called "The Little 
Grove Church of Christ." It still lives. 

Ebenezer Rhodes was born in Holland in 1780. He came to Amer- 
ica, and iu 1824 to McLean County, settling in Blooming Grove, five miles 
south of Bloomington. He was a Baptist preacher and married the first 
couple in that county. Reuben Cariock was a native of Overton County, 
Tenn. He came to Illinois in October, 1837, and settled in Dry Grove, 
five miles southwest of the site of the present town of Cariock. Minister 
William Brown, a Christian preacher ,came to visit his friend, Eeuben 
Cariock, in 1828. In August of that year Mr. Cariock yoked his ox team 
to his wagon and accompanied by some members of his family and his 
guest, preacher Brown, drove to the cabin of Ebenezer Rhodes for a three 
days* meeting. Then and there a little church was constituted. Where- 
upon the recognized leader, Ebenezer Rhodes, said, "And now, brethren, 
we must have some articles of faith." Then Reuben Cariock, drawing 
8 small copy of the New Testament from bie pocket and holding it up 
said, "Brother Rhodes, this book has all tbe articles of faith we need." 
Mr. Rhodes at once and in full assurance answered, "That is true," 
Thereafter he was known as a Christian minister and continued to preach 
the gospel without the mixture of human traditions until his death in 
1842. That little congregation was simply a church of Christ. 

In 1815, "Christian Settlement" was founded in Lawrence County, 
seven miles northwest of Vincennes, Ind. It was made up of members 
of the Christian denomination. For ninety-eight years that country 
community has been remarkable for its industry, sobriety, thrift and 
high ideals. In 1828 the church there came fully to apostolic grounds. 

The first sermon ever preached in Hittle's Grove, near what became 
the town site of Armington, was by a Methodist minister named Walker, 
but he did not form a class. This and other public meetings for worship 
were held in the log cabin of Michael Hittle. After a time two women 



55 

wished to be baptized and a Baptist minister, probably Ebenezer Rhodes, 
was aent for. Finding no church there to vote on the fitneaa of the can- 
didates aft«r deliberation it was decided to immerse them on the public 
confession of their faith in Christ. Thereupon a Baptist church was con- 
stituted with aeven members. On January 11, 1829, this congregation 
was reorganized on the following basis ; "We, the undersigned, do give 
ourselves to the Lord and to each other as a church of Jesus Christ to be 
governed by this word contained in the Old and New Testament." This 
agreement to constitute a church of Christ, was signed by seventeen per- 
sons. The church has had an unbroken life to the present time. 

In 1829 a church was constituted in the southern part of Marion 
County. It was known as the Mt. Moriah Free Will Baptist Church. 
In 1837 its members dropped the words "Free Will Baptist" and sub- 
stituted for them "Christian" and since then to this date it has been 
known as "The Mt. Moriah Christian Church." 

i'rom an old original record book the following is taken : "April 
30, 1831, the Church of Christ on Cedar Fork of Henderson River, War- 
ren County, was constituted upon the belief that the scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments are the word of God, and the only rule of faith 
and practice, and are sufficient for the government of the church. The 
location was one and a half miles northwest of the present town of 
Cameron. This was probably the first church of Christ in the Military 
Tract. Some of its families became representative in that part of the 
State and elsewhere. 

The second Sunday in July, 1831, Minister John B. Curl constituted 
the "Bear Creek" Church in Adams County and also the "Mill Creek" 
Church in the same county before the close of the year. Mr. Curl labored 
diligently through all that section of the State and three or four other 
congregations were formed about the same time. 

Bushrod W. Henry was a native of Culpepper County, Virginia. He 
came to Illinois and settled in Shelbyville in 1830. He was then twenty- 
five years of age. He was a Baptist preacher and a man of superior 
mental endowments and magnificent personality. In July, 1831, he 
constituted the "First Baptist Church of Christ in Shelbyville." Within 
one year he was preaching clearly those Biblical truths commonly held 
and taught by the Disciples. In 1834 Mr. Henry, with those of like 
views with him, were summarily expelled from the Baptist church. 
Then the congregation in Shelbyville dropped the name "Baptisf and 
has since then been known as the Church of Christ. Mr. Henry has 
two sons living: Judge W. B. Henry, of Vandalia, and Minister J. 0. 
Henry, of Findley. The latter is eighty-six years old. He was a com- 
rade of Richard J. Ogtesby in the 4th III. Infantry during the Mex- 
ican War. Ever afterward they were fast friends until 'TTncle Dick" 
passed over the great divide. Mr. Henry clearly and positively afiirms 
that his father was not assisted by any one except his wife in reaching 
his conclusions on the teachings of the scriptures. That together, they, 
husband and wife, reverently and faithfully read themselves out. 

By 1833 there began to be some general unity of thought and action 
among the widely separated disciples in their efforts to restore the church 
after the New Testament pattern — in its teachings, its ordinances and 



.glc 



56 

its life; so in this year a number of local ehurchea had their beginnings. 
Moat of these still live and have been forceful factors in building society. 

The church in Jacksonviile had its beginning in that year. Several 
Christian families came to Morgan County from Kentucky in 1830 and 
1831, Fourteen families of Disciples, then called Reformers, by many, 
met together regularly that winter for public worship. In the Bummer 
of 1831 Josephus Hewett settled five miles east of Jacksonville, He was 
the first regular preacher of the Disciples in that section. 

James Green and Harrison W. Osborne of the Christian Denomina- 
tion were in that locality at that time. They preached in the courthouse 
and in schoolhouses as they had opportunity. In 1832 there were good- 
sized nuclei of Disciples and members of the Christian Denomination 
in and around Jacksonville. It was in this year that the scholarly and 
pious Barton W. Stone came from Kentucky into "the Far West" as 
Illinois was then called. The reputation of this good man had preceded 
him, for he was an active factor in the Caneridge revival in 1800 whose 
influences and glory became more enduring than the stars. Mr. Stone 
made a tour through the Prairie State preaching at Lawrenceville, 
Carrollton, Rushville, Springfield, Jacksonville and other places. He 
believed in and labored for the union of all God's people. At Jackson- 
ville he laid his strong but tender hand upon the two separated bodies 
■and left them united in one. This was in October, 1833. 

A similar result was effected at Carrollton a few days later. It 
may be properly noted here that the Disciples of Christ absorbed the 
larger part of the Christian Denomination, not only in Illinois but 
elsewhere. However, the latter body still lives. The appeal of both 
parties was to the Bible as the only recognized authority in religion, and 
in this way many of the latter concluded that the Disciples were nearer 
the divine standard than themselves. 

The church at Winchester was formed December 1, 1833. 

The old Union Church, located about ten miles west of Clinton, 
was constituted October 13, the second Sunday, 1833. It was formed 
with seventeen charter members under the spreading branches of a 
large white oak tree whose decaying stump marks the spot. This with 
the gravestones in the cemetery that grew around the house of worship 
are silent sentinels of faded joys and departed glory. Hughes Bowles 
was the leader there. He was a product of the Caneridge, Ky., revival 
as were those associated with him in this beginning. His son, Walter 
P. Bowles, became the best known and most powerful preacher of his 
time in that section. He and Abraham Lincoln were familiar friends 
and long before the immortal emancipator dreamed of place and fame, 
he said to Mr. Bowles, "Wat, if I could preach like you I would ratiier 
do that than be president." The old Union Church served its commu- 
nity and generation for just fifty years to a day, and then, railroads 
coming and towns growing, it fell on sleep. 

Joseph Hostetler was a great, strong man in his time. In his 
youth he became a member of the Tunker Church and soon thereafter a 
preacher. With little help his own study of the Bible led him to the 
common, basic principles of the gospel. He came from Indiana to 
niinois in 1832, and in November, of that year, organized the West 
•Okaw Church of Christ. It was located about two miles west of the site 



.glc 



57 

of LovLQgton and became the mother of a number of congregations of 
like faith in that section. West Okaw still lives and flourishes in tlie 
Lovington church. 

In the early thirties a number of families came from Christian 
County, Kentucky, to Illinois, and settled in Walnut Grove, now known 
as Eureka. In April, 1832, thirteen Disciples met in the log residence 
of John Oatman, that stood about one-half mile northeast of the railroad 
station now there, and organized a church. Since that time it has been 
known as the Christian Church or Church of Christ at Eureka, and has 
been one of the most forceful agencies in the entire State for truth and 



In 1833 churches of Christ were organized at Springfield, Lawrence- 
ville, Decatur, Ursa, Mt, Pleasant, ten miles southeast of Carthage, 
Little Mackinaw ten miles south of JIackinaw town and elsewhere. 

This is less than a birdseye view of the beginnings of the Disciples 
of Christ in Illinois, but for this paper it must suffice. Across central 
Illinois and through most of the southern part they continued to grow. 
Every inch of ground they occupy today has been won by battle. They 
met opposition, often hitter, always determined, from the older religious 
bodies. Where we are now strong in numbers, intelligent and wealthy, 
and particularly "respectable," we are quickly and cheerfully recognized 
as "orthodox" and welcomed into "the sisterhood of churches." Without 
doubt with the changing times we have all changed with them and by 
Divine grace for the better. 

Whs.t was the attitude of the Disciples in Illinois toward slavery ? 
By 1861 we had grown to number possibly about 30,000 in the State. 
In all the discussions upon the question of slavery that culminated in 
the Dred Scott decision — the deepest and the moat damning nadir of 
our national annals — we were active participants. In the thirties, forties 
and fifties many Disciples came into Illinois from Kentucky, Tennessee 
and Virginia. Some of these who settled in some of the border counties 
were pro-slavery, but the most o£ these immigrants came because of their 
aversion to the "peculiar institution." For example, Ben Major who 
came from Kentucky and settled in Walnut Grove in the early thirties 
freed his slaves and sent his agent with them to New York City in 1834 
to pay their passage to Liberia. Of those Disciples who came into Illi- 
nois during the three decades named from the states east of us nearly 
all were anti-slavery except those from southern Indiana. In the early 
forties two colonies of Ohio people came to Illinois. Of these. Dr. J, P. 
Walters, now a resident of Fairfield, says : "The two colonies of Chris- 
tians who came from Ohio and settled in Wayne County in earlier years 
were decidedly anti-slavery in their political convictions, there being 
abolitionists in each of the companies. These people were important 
factors in moulding the political sentiment in this county in the years 
1840 to 1861. The attitude of the Disciples of Christ during those years 
throughout this portion of the State was decidedly anti-slavery, but in 
border counties pro-slavery sentiment prevailed. In evidence of which 
it is a fact that this county raised more than its quota of soldiers in 
every call for volunteers, and that the prevailing religious convictions 
in quite a number of the military organizations in this part of the State 
was that of the Disciples of Christ." 



.>glc 



Edwards Cotinty, sometimes called "Little Britain" because so 
many Englisli people settled there in the earlier years, was not only 
opposed to slavery but outlawed the liquor traffic fifty years ago. The 
preponderating religious influence in the county during that period has 
been that of tte Disciples. 

Hon. W. H. Johnson was a member of the House from White 
County in the General Assembly of 1883. The family to which he 
belongs has been noted for its intelligence and patriotism for one him- 
dred and fifty years. He affirms that most of the Disciples in that part 
of Illinois in its formative period were opposed to slavery. 

The Gale families came from Ohio into Lake County, the Moffett 
and Hawk families into Carroll County in the early years. These were 
al! anti-slavery people. 

The writer is indebted to Professor B. J. Badford, the Sage of 
Eureka, for the following; 

"Of the Disciples of Christ who came into Illinois up to 1861 the 
great majority were immigrants from Kentucky, Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia. They were pretty evenly divided between Henry Clay Whigs and 
Jackson Democrats — the Whigs predominating in the central and the 
Democrats in the southern portions of the State. The Clay Whigs 
leaned strongly toward abolitionism and many of them were supporters 
of the Liberian Colonization Society. The Democrats were mostly pro- 
slavery, or indifferent to the slavery question, 

"In the breaking up and recasting of parties in the fifties the Whigs 
in the Churches of Christ generally became Eepublieans and the Demo- 
crats followed Douglas. When Douglas was repudiated by the pro- 
slavery Democrats, the majority of. his followers among the Disciples 
, remained loyal, but a considerable minority supported Breckinridge, 
probably one-sixth of thfe voters in our churches in the State. When 
the Secession movement began, the patriotic course of Douglas rallied 
his followers almost unanimously to the defense of the Union, Many 
of them from our churches entered the military service and considerable 
per cent of them came out Kepublicans. Not a few of the Breckinridge 
followers sympathized with the Secessionists, and some of them gave aid 
and comfort to the enemy. I believe that more than 90 per cent of our 
people in the State were loyal, a good showing when we consider their 



The following are the names of a few representative Disciples of 
Christ who were active in their anti-slavery views: Dr. W. P. Nara- 
more, of Stephenson County; Ministers A, H. Trowbridge and H. D. 
Palmer, of Marshall ; Ben Major, of Woodford : William T. Major, of 
McLean; John Johnson and Minister Geo. W. Minier, of Tazewell; J. 
W. Simpson and Col. J. W. Judy, of Menard; J. S. Anderson and 
Minister E. G. Rice, of Morgan; William B. King and William S. 
Pickrell, of Sangamon; John Chandler, of Douglas; George Eedmon, of 
Edgar; Minister William Schooly. of Clay, and Dr. John Kossouth 
Ashley, of Wayne. These men were the peers in every way of their 
contemporaries in these several counties, intelligent, strong, active and 
forceful citizens; and they were only a few of a great host. 

Many Democrats in the North held with Mr. Douglas to the doc- 
trine of "popular sovereignty" but the attack on Fort Sumter, April 



,.c.::,LlOO'^IC 



13, 1861, by Beauregard opened their eyes to see the real spirit and aim 
of the slaveocracy. They would let the biack race suffer on but they 
could not see our flag ^ot into the dust. Then quickly indifference 
gave place to patriotic devotion to the Union, the preservation of whose 
integrity was then paramount to all things else. From a wide range of 
personal acquaintance and many sources of information the conclusion 
of the writer is that less than S pet cent of the Disciples of Christ in 
Illinois sympathized enough with the would-be Confederacy to even wish 
for its success. 

It is proper to note here that a number of the great Protestant 
churches have been split in two by the question of slavery long before its 
clima:( was reached in the Civil War. But the Disciples of Christ went 
through that frightful shock without even a thought of division. Their 
common faith in the conquering Christ and the Catholic gospel subordi- 
nated life-long prejudices and flaming political passions to the interests 
of the Kingdom of God. 



;vGoo»^lc 



THE HISTORY OF PRESBYTERIANISM IN ILLINOIS. 



(By H. D. Jenkins, D-.D.) 

The history of a particular denomination in a particular state caa 
have a general interest only as it can be shown to have influenced the 
development of the commonwealth in things that make for the general 
good. However dear the child to its parents, however bright the boy or 
beautiful the girl, the public wilt not demand that its biography be 
written unless in its later years it may affect the State by its affecting 
the larger life of the community. The important part played by the 
Presbyterian Church in the civil, moral and religious life of Illinois 
during the past one hundred years may well justify the call for a sketch 
to be printed and filed away among the archives of the State Historical 
Society. 

WHAT IS A PRESBYTERIAN CHtTHCH? 

When a witty Boston girl was asked "Where is Boston?" she is said 
to have replied, "Where is Boston? Why, Boston is not a place; it is a 
way of looking at things." So whatever else Presbyterianism may be or 
may not be, it emphatically is a way of looking at things. In organizing 
the World's Council of Presbyterian churches, it was left to the distin- 
guished scholar, Prof. Philip Schaff, to say what constituted a Presby- 
terian church. And his definition stands today in the charter of that 
council. "A Presbyterian church is a church having a reformed (or 
Calvinistic) creed and a Presbyterian (representative) form of gov- 
ernment." 

A creed in which the sovereignty of God ia made prominent is 
popularly called "Calvinistic," but among church historians it is called 
"Reformed," since at the time of the Reformation it was accepted by 
all Protestants except the Lutherans. But the belief in that sovereignl^r 
is older than Calvin, older than Augustine who laid stress upon it, older 
than Paul's Epistle to the Romans, indeed as old as human thought. It 
forms the basis of every philosophical system and runs through all the 
mighty dramas of the old Greek world. That "God from all eternity 
did, by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely and 
unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass," is accepted by Hindu, 
Moslem and Greek alike, but that God is not the author of sin and man 
is free as tested by his own consciousness and the words of Holy Scrip- 
ture, marks the line between Moslem fatalism and Christian sovereignly. 
"Every man," said Samuel Taylor Coleridge, "is a Calvinist when he 
prays." The Presbyterian believes that God is the one only original 
first cause of all things, including conversion and salvation. It is not 
my duty to defend Presbyterianism, but only to define it. And the 



61 

Presbyterian Church does not hold or teach the sovereignty of God any 
more than it does the free will of man. The Calvinist does not 
"reconcile" these antinomies any more than he does any other of the 
many antinomies of philosophy included in the definitions of time, 
space, matter, spirit, or being itself. 

But if a mighty faith in the Sovereignty of Almighty God has given 
vigor to the Presbyterian church, its representative form of government 
has made it the special champion of our Republican form of govern- 
ment in America. 

The Supreme Court of the United States in repeated decisions has 
set forth the relation of American churches to the civil state. The state 
with UB regards all churches as voluntary societies into which the mem- 
ber enters (or in which he remains) of hia own free will. He assents 
to the rules of a church and must submit to its form of government 
because he has himself chosen it or continued it. These forms of gov- 
ernment are three. The first, or prelatical, is that in which the bishop 
is the ruler. The private member surrenders all his natural rights in 
church affairs to the prelatical authorities who hold office for life. The 
third form is that of Congregationalism in which the private member 
surrenders nothing, but decides everything from the form of the creed 
to the exercise of discipline by a popular vote. The last vote taken is 
the only law. This is pure democracy, a democracy without constitution, 
without precedent and without appeal. The second, or middle form, is 
that called Presbyterian, in which the whole body of communicants 
forms the church and the written constitution the binding law. The 
details of administration are carried on by chosen representatives who 
are bound by the written constitution of the church but otherwise con- 
duct the government of a church free from popular reversal. This, it 
will be seen, is the model upon which our civil state, is erected the 
practical administration of affairs being placed in the hands of a few 
representatives hut these representatives being bound by the constitu- 
tional law of the whole body. 

THE BEGINNINGS OF AMEEICAN PEESBYTERIANISM. 

The churches of New England were Calvinistic in their creed hui 
Congregational in their form of government. The chorches of Maryland 
and Virginia were, so far as their founders were concerned, prelatic in 
their government. But about 1641 a small number of worshipers near 
New York began the formation of Calvinistic churches with Presbyterian 
forms of government, and these in 1706 formed a Presbytery, which 
Presbytery in Iflf was recast as a Synod, and in 1788 the foundations 
of a national general assembly were laid. The first meeting of the 
national body was held in 1789. In 1800 its missionaries crossed the 
Alleghenies; in 1810 its organization embraced parts of Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and two years later its first explorers, Samuel J. Mills and 
John P. Sehermerhom, were skirting the river fronts of this State seek- 
ing for that lodgment which two years later — 1814 — they accomplished. 

It was not, however, until 1816 that the first Presbyterian church 
in what is now Illinois completed its organization under the leadership 
of Eev. James McGready, a missionary from Kentucky, and this little 



..glc 



62 

rural church at Sharon, in what is now White County, had to wait eight 
years until (in 1824) it had a minister of its own in the person of Kev. 
Benjamin Franklin Spilman, justly called "the Father of Presbyterianism 
in Illinois." 

At that time there were supposed to be about 15,000 white persons 
in the territory. The territory became a state in 1818. And the settle- 
ments were practically all along the river fronts as the rivers then afforded 
the only way of communication with the outer world. Sharon, where 
the first Presbyterian church in the State was organized, now ninety- 
seven years ago, waa a farming community near the Wabash River and 
not far from its junction with the Ohio. Its people were perhaps all 
from across the riTer, But Golconda, where a Presbyterian church was 
organized in 1819, being on the Ohio River itself, was a more promising 
field, and Shawneetown, where on his first visit Mr. Spilman found only 
one woman and no man professing a Christian faith, had a church which 
he formed in 1836. So we have now three Presbyterian churches in 
this part of the new State, the result of ten years' labor, and we may note 
in passing that Mr. Spilman in six years of his labor preached 959 
sermons and traveled 3,688 miles on horseback, as his diary records. 

Meanwhile Rev. Salmon Qiddings, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in St. Louis, Mo., was not idle. He made frequent missionary 
trips across the Father of Waters and organized a church at Shoal Creek, 
in 1819, another at Edwardsville in the same year and a third at Turkey 
Creek the year following. Thus while the first church waa organized in 
the southeastern section of the State the first three churches to form a 
group were gathered on the prairies opposite St. Louis. 

It waa a little later — 1829 — that a young graduate of Princeton 
walked into the ofBee of the American Home Missionary Society in New 
York and requested to be sent to any place "where no other man would 
go." The society immediately dispatched him to Galena, 111. This 
section was just then attracting a mob of prospectors because of its 
recently exploited lead mines. This aspirant for a difficult field was 
Rev. Aratus Kent, a man of truly apostolic courage, faith and zeal, Hia 
coming to Galena waa aa the breaking of the dawn over the regions of 
darkness, although, welcome as he was, it was not until nearly three years 
later that even the smallest church could be formed. But the churches of 
Elizabeth, Hanover, Apple River, Freeport, Eockford and Belvidere fol- 
lowed, until a junction may be said to have been formed in the forties 
with the settlements about Chicago, where another pioneer missionary, 
Kev, Jeremiah Porter, had begun his work in 1833. This chaplain in 
the regular army had organized a church in Fort Dearborn, largely com- 
posed of soldiers who had been converted under his preaching at Fort 
Brady, Sault Ste. Marie, where the battalion was then stationed. 

On the 30th of January, 1828, the Presbyterian Church of Sanga- 
mon, with two places of worship but no fixed home, was organized by 
Rev. John M. Ellis, to which Rev, John Q. Bergen came as a pastor about 
a year later. The church building later erected and dedicated — 1831 — 
was the first brick church in Illinois. Its interesting history has recently 
been written by its former pastor. Rev. Thomas 'D. Logan, D,D. This 



.glc 



63 

beeame a center of missionary activity in the center of the State. It was 
called the First Presbyterian Church of Springfield later. 

The tide of immigration was now at its flood and Presbyterian 
churches sprung up rapidly at Peoria, Rushville, Ottawa and all around 
these sites. In 1816 the little church at Sharon was the only Presby- 
terian organization in the territory, but twenty years later we know 
from the reports made to the General Assembly there were not less than 
60 ministers, 76 churches, and 3,390 church members in Illinois. Today 
there are in this State 606 Presbyterian ministers, 597 churches, and 
99,944 members, with a net gain of over 5,000 members each year. The 
federal census recognizes 130 to 150 "religious denominations" in the 
United States. But Presbyterianism has today in Illinois alone a larger 
membership than any one of more than 125 of these "denominations," 
some of which maintain a bureau to keep their name before the public 
and assert their growth to the people. The Presbyterian in Illinois may 
be pardoned if he feels that he is, as St, Paul said of his Tarsian citizen- 
ship, "a citizen of no mean city." 

But the most important question after all is: 

FOB WHAT DOES ILLINOIS PRESBYTERIANISM STAND? 

Judging by its history, apart from its maintaining the Reformed 
Faith and the Representative Form of Government, 

IT HAS STOOD FOR FREE SCHOOLS. 

Up to the coming of such men as Mr. Spilman, Mr. Giddings, Mr. 
Bergen, Father Kent and Chaplain Jeremiah Porter to this State, there 
had been more or leas itinerant preaching by other ministers, whose 
qualifications for their work may be summed up by one of the Baptist 
historians who says that "one-third of the early ministers of his church 
■were a benefit to their denomination ; another third did no harm, but the 
last third helped the enemy more than they helped the cause they advo- 
cated." Governor Ford asserts in his History of Illinois that there was 
only one "educated" minister settled in the State before 1820. 

But I have carefully traced the biographies of the first fifteen Pres- 
byterian ministers noted in connection with the founding of our work 
in this State — preachers between 1816 and 1836 — -and found that four- 
teen of the fifteen were graduates of the best colleges in the United 
States, more coming from Harvard than from any other one source ; not 
a few were from Princeton and others from Dartmouth, Union and so on. 
They "endured hardness as good soldiers of Jesus Christ" and such of 
them as have left us diaries or biographies of their labors, show us that 
they braved merciless suns and furious blizzards; ate the coarse food of 
the pioneer settler and slept on the bare floor of the log cabin, or in 
default of that, in the stable or under the open sky. Yet they carried 
with them the culture of the schools and that love of books, both of which 
have always characterized our ministry. 

Almost every rude home in which the parson found refuge was con- 
verted into a schoolhouse for its vicinity. The men founded perhaps 



.g„,c.::',COO»^|-C 



64 

scores of academies, which have given place to the modern high echool, 
but there still survive under denominational care some of the best acad- 
emies in the State. And what may surprise even some loyal Presby- 
terians, we have in Illinois five fuEy equipped and well endowed col- 
leges, such as Illinois College at Jacksonville, Blackburn College at 
Carlinville, Lake Forest College, Lincoln and Decatur, in all enrolling 
upwards of 3,000 students and so placed that they bring an education 
near to the homes of those who need the inducement of contiguity to 
rouse their ambition. 

And it was Illinois College, founded by Presbyterians in Jackson- 
ville as early as 1839, that gave to the State Xewton Bateman, "the father 
of the free school system of Illinois," after which system the systems of 
practically all the western states are modeled. It is true the public school 
had been outlined as early as 1822 by far-seeing men, but the laws which 
were needed for organization and support were repealed and almost as 
soon as passed and Governor Ford reports that up to 1847 there was "no 
common school system worthy of the name" and there were no adequate 
funds. But during these troubled years more than one Presbytery put 
itself on record as urging free schools for all the people and appealing to 
the church as a whole to vote for men in sympathy with the movement. 
It is Newton Bateman, graduate of its first college — the college also from 
which our present Secretary of State of the United States, comes — to 
whom we owe an admirable system which has imitators round the world. 

But not less in importance we remember that 

PRESBYTEEIANISM IN ILLINOIS HAS ALWAYS STOOD FOE 
FREE LABOR. 

Very few persons know anything of the bitter fight which was made 
between 1816 and 1834 to convert Illinois into a slave State, Indeed 
Illinois was a slave Stat« when admitted to the Union in 1818, in spite of 
the ordinance of 1787 which distinctly prohibited slavery in all the 
territory north of the Ohio River. But in that ordinance the rights, 
customs and privileges of the old French (Catholic) inhabitants were 
guaranteed to them; and as they all owned slaves this was interpreted 
by the courts to continue such slaves in slavery, and by further interpre- 
tation, their children after them were to be slaves ! And so it came about 
that 800 slaves were reported in the federal census of 1840. Many anti- 
slavery Presbyterians of Kentucky and Tennessee and even from Nori:h 
Carolina, had come to Illinois to set their slaves free, which they were 
not permitted to do in their native states; bnt even in Illinois they found 
it a matter of difficulty as they were required to give bonds for the 
conduct and support of such negroes as long as they should live, and 
every trick known to the demagogue was resorted to to make freedom 
odious and unprofitable if not impossible in this State. Long trains of 
immigrants from the border states passed every sBmmer through this 
territory with teams and retinues of slaves on ^eir way to Missouri, a 
slave state, and many of the settlers felt that could they arrest this 
stream and give to these wealthy families from the South the laws which 
had protected their "property" in their old homes, the future of Illinois 



.,Coo<^lc 



66 

vould be asBured aod affluent. It might almost be aaid that the contest 
"for" or "against" slavery was the only political issue for all these years. 
And Then, in 1820, the Legislature advocated calling a convention to 
reviBe the constitutioD, then only two years old, in the interests of the 
slaveholder, a contest was precipitated which was continued without 
mtermission for four years. As every historian acknowledges, the Pres- 
byterian church defeated the attempt. That Illinois was never legally 
a slave state ve owd to such men as Spilman, Edwards, Kent, and 
Jeremiah Porter, the four men who held the fort for freedom in strategic 
cent«T8, such as Shawneetown, Edwardsville, Springfield, Chicago, and 
Galena. WevCTtheless while the call for pro^avery convention was 
defeated in 1824, "black laws;" of so iniquitous a character were passed 
"by one legislature after another, that the fight for the civil, rights of 
negroes in this State was never ended until the Civil War turned the 
scale forever in the favor of universal free labor. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN ILLINOIS HAS ALWAYS 
STOOD FOR FREE SPEECH AND A FREE PRESS. 

Of course there were pro-slavery preachers in some of our pulpits 
and protestants against "agitation" were to be found in every Presby- 
tery. But I doubt if there was a single Presbytery in the State which 
had not at some time or other distinctly put itself on the side of free 
speech and a free press. The first attempt to hold an anti-slavery 
meeting in Peoria was called to meet in the Main Street Presbyterian 
Church, 1843. But it was driven from the auditorium by a mob "com- 
posed of the wealth and respectability of Peoria" as the papers said next 
day. Six years before that, at a meeting of the Synod of Illinois in the 
old First Presbyterian Church of Springfield, October 19, 1837, Rev. 
Jeremiah Porter, chaplain of the troops at Chicago and founder of the 
First Church there, preached an anti-slavery sermon before the Synod 
which roused such bitter hostility that it was only the personal courage 
to Edwacd D. Baker — who died twenty-five years later at the head of 
his brigade at Ralls Bluff — that saved the speaker from violence. 
Edward Beecher at this meeting silenced the men "in the back seats" 
who sought to suppress freedom of debate, and it was here Eev. Elijah 
P. Lovejoy attended his last meeting, for he was shot three week/later 
when attempting to set up an anti-slavery press at Alton. It was the 
fact that such men as Governor Coles and Governor Edwards would not 
be silenced, and that such men as Rev. Thomas Lippincott insisted upon 
freedom of the press in his Edwardsville Spectator that the defeat of 
all the attempts to make Illinois a silent if not active partner in slavery 
is due. 

But finally we may say that: 

PRESBYTEBIANISM IN ILLINOIS HAS ALWAYS STOOD 
FOR FREE GIVING. 

I mean, of course by this, that it has been noted for the large and 
wise benevolence of its members. Its 100,000 communicants last year 
— 6 H S 



;vGoo»^lc 



€6 

gave but little short of $1,000,000 to the benevolences which are recog- 
nized 88 regular church channels. They contributed at the same time 
much more than $1,500,000 to the support of their own churches. And 
were we to include the individual gifte of Buch men as Cyme McCormick, 
whose gifte to our theological eeminary run op into the milliona ; or of 
such men as the late John Crear, who founded and endowed the Crear 
Library for research at a cost of $3,000,000, now worth twice that ; or 
of John V. Farwell, the father and nursing mother of the Chicago 
T. M. C. A.; or Henry B. Crowell, the president of the Quaker Oats 
Corporation and chief backer of the Moody Institute in Chicago — to 
mention only four Presbyterians, all elders in Chicago — it would be easy 
to show that Presbyterianism is not a cloudy, metaphysical system of 
'lunar politics," but a living faith, holding fast the forme of sound 
doctrine and not remise in the acts which prove faith by deeds. 



;vGoo»^lc 



ANTI-SLAVERY STRUGGLE IN ILUNOIS AS IT EFFECTED 
THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



(John H. Btan, Pontiac, 111.) 

Methodism was transplanted in America from Wesley societies in 
the British Isles. Phillip Bmbnry in New York and Robert Strawbridge 
in Maryland were unconsciouB competitore for the honor of first preach- 
ing Wesleyan doctrines in the Colonies in 1766. 

The Revolutionary War, having severed American and English 
Methodism, John Wesley made provision for the organization of the New 
World societies, then numbering 14,988, into the Methodist Episcopal 
Chureh. 

The organization was completed in the First General Confereace 
which met in Baltimore, December, 1784, Dr. Thomas Coke, who had 
been consecrated by Mr. Wesley in England for the office of a general 
superintendent in America, was present, and the conference selected 
Frances Asbury as superintendent, who immediately entered upon his 
duties with Dr. Coke in shaping the policy of the chureh. 

The first discipline was adopted by this conference in which the 
relation to general methodism was set forth, and the doctrines and poli- 
cies to which they shall adhere were presented in a series of questions 
and answers; and in the answer to question 42 an elaborate plan to 
estripate the abomination of slavery ia given,- and to the next question, 
"What shall we do with those who buy or sell slaves or give them away?" 
the answer is, "They are to immediately be expelled unless they buy 
them on purpose to free them." Wesley's attitude was well known. In 
his Journal of 1772 he speaks of the slave trade as "That execrable sum 
of all villianies." His close and sympathic interest in Wilberforce and 
Howard is even more expressive; his last letter dated February 24, 1791, 
being to the former, at the time he brought the question of abolition of 
slavery before the British Parliament; he writes — "Unless God has 
raised you up for this thing, you will be worn out by the opposition of 
men and devUs, but if God be for you who can be against you"; and 
Howard writes — "I was encouraged by Wesley to go on vigorously with 
my own designs. I saw in him how much a single man might achieve 
by zeal and perserverance and I thought why may not I do as much in my 
way as Wesley has done in his." 

To understand such a controversy as a question like slavery might 
project upon the activities of the chureh, it is necessary to understand 
its connections) administration, its bishops have general supervision; its 
secretaries and editors are elected, while its periodicals and publishing 
interests belong to the general church; so in its government there are 
three judicatories, styled conferences, the Quarterly Conference, the 



ogle 



highest busineBB authority of the church or charge ; the Animal Confer- 
ence, composed of ministers in a given territory, there being at this time 
133 such conferenceB; the General Conference, the quadrennial law 
making body, composed of representatives proportionate to the ministers 
in the Annual Conference. 

It vould be impossible, therefore, to make a local issue ont of any 
question involving the merits of the anti-slaTery struggle. 

Of the two classes, organized in 1766, one was in New York and 
the other in Maryland, and at the time the church was organized in 
1784 of the 14,988 members, 1,607 were north and 13,361 sooth of Mason 
and Dixon's line. TheBe conditions were not to change with the west- 
ward course of settlements and -the churches' growth; almost immediately 
the controversy was on, and with no sentence of palliation or justifica- 
tion of slavery the position was assumed by some, that in the presence 
of an institution that had always existed, and when slavery had never 
excluded from membership in the general church, that to enforce the 
Oeneral Conference rules on slavery would be to exclude the church from 
the slave holding south; so in 1785 we find a suspension of the slavery 
rule, accompanied with the declaration that "We do hold in deepest 
abhorrence the practice of slavery and shall not cease to seek its destruc^ 
tion by all wise and prudent means." 

That this resolution was adhered to was proven in the fact that in 
1818 the eloquent Kentuckyan, Henry BaBcont, friend of Henry Glay, 
and later bishop of the Church South, was admitted to the conference 
by a majority of only one vote on account of his sympathy with the lax 
enforcement of the slavery rule, and in the same year, Reverend Jacob 
Oruber, a member of the Baltimore Conference and presiding elder, 
preached at a camp meeting with such severity against slavery that he 
was arrested for felony, and in an eloquent speech in his defense, Hoger 
B. Taney, who later was the United States Chief Justice of Dred Scott 
fame, affirmed that the Methodist Church had steadily in view the aboli- 
tion of slavery, and that its preachers were accustomed to speak of the 
injustice and oppression of slavery. 

While many enactments of the church were nncompromising and 
beyond the public sentiment of the time, yet a concession to the Soilth 
in failing to insist on obedience to the letter of the law gave occasion for 
a softer tone of protest, till, finally for the sake of peace, conferences and 
individuals were deprocating agitations which distressed the body ot 
believers, and gave promise of no immediate good, but even snch utter- 
ances only indicated tliat the irresistable confiict was on and even the 
most conservative utterances were met by the rising tide of freedom. 

The first Methodist Abolition Society was formed in New York City 
in 1833. The same year Zion's Herald opened its columns to abolition 
sentiment. In the General Conference of 1836 one memorial in favor 
of the restoration of the original rule on slavery was signed by 300 
ministers and another by 3,284 members. 

The conflict intensifled; in some of the New England conferences 
issues between the body and the presiding bishop made conservative 
action impossible. The example of Lucius C; Matlock will show the 
spirit of the times; licensed to preach in 1837, and immediately recom- 
mended to the Philadelphia Conference as a traveling preabher; Mb 



elder, asked to represent him, acknowledged that he was a mild aboli- 
tionist. An unusual debate ensued, and resulted in tabling the motion. 
He continued to preach as a supply but later the renewal of his license 
was refused on the same ground. That his gifts and graces were of a 
high order and only his strong anti-slavery convictions stood in the way 
are proven in the testimony of I>r. J. F. Dnrbin, President of Dickinson 
College, who, as a member of the committee to confer with him, writes 
to him personally to that effect. 

Some remarkable church trials followed the agitations of ministers 
closely identified with the anti-slavery societies of the church. The state 
of public feeling was very intense, and names of such men 'as Orai^ 
Scott, Luther Lee, L. C. Matlock and Leroy Sunderland, the latter 
having been tried six times on charges constructed from his official acts 
and utterances ; and while prosecuted by the ablest debaters of the nation 
he successfully made his own defense with such ability, that his triumphs 
were not only personal, but general, in making sentiment for his cause. 

With this state of feeling the General Conference of 1840 assembled. 
Anti-slavery memorials from five hundred ministers and ten thousand 
lay men were presented. Silas Comfort, a member of the llissouri 
Conference, had been judged guilty of mal-administration for admitting 
the testimony of a colored member against a white. The General Con- 
ference confirmed the action of the Missouri Conference, but not without 
an epoch making debate, and compromise resolutions saggested by 
Bishop Soule, which modified the apparent firmness of the conference 
action in the ease of Comfort. These were mutterings of a fiercer storm, 
for in 1844 the church was rent in twain, but before that time, so intense 
was the feeling among men of the North that many left the Methodist 
Church and joined olier denominations. In 1841 the Wesleyan Metho- 
dists were formed in Michigan with 1,116 members and in 1842 a church, 
non-episcopal and anti-slavery was organized, with such men as Luther 
Lee, L. C. Matlock, formerly mentioned, and whose history of the anti- 
slavery struggle and triumph in the Methodist Church is the most com- 
plete Idstory of the great controversy. Orange Scott, of whom Whittier 
spoke as the ablest advocates of the anti-slavery cause, also joined 
this company. Six thousand members adhered to them and over fifty 
ministers. 

Legislative enactments in the slave-holding states tended to exasper- 
ate the multitude who gravely viewed the impending crisis. 

The House in the Maryland Legislature passed a resolution tending 
to drive the free negroes from the state, or reduce them to slavery. Dr. 
Bond, Editor of the Chrisiian Advocate in New York, but a native of 
Maryland, who had written so vigorously against the abolutionists in his 
native state, denounced the movement of the slave-holder's convention 
as "beyond the ordinary wickedness of man." The questions we are told 
are dangerous to discuss are now forced upon us by those who conjure 
us to silence. The columns of the Christian Advocate were now open to 
the discussion of slavery. Dr. Bond lead the discussion. He allowed 
Dr. Eohert Boyd to answer. 

In reviewing these defenses the editor expressed anti-slavery views 
for which be was criticised by the Southern Advocate. He was also con- 
demned by various quarterly conferences in Georgia and Alabama. He 



ogle 



answered that such extreme views would not only leave us without hope 
of better things, but forced upon us the necessity of defense, before which 
he would resign as editor, and if the church ever ceased to testify against 
slavery he would seek a purer community. 

The Methodist Abolitionists of New England held a convention in 
Boston in January, 1843, in which they resolved that slave holding was 
a sin, every slave-holder a sinner and ought not to be admitted to the 
pulpit or communion. 

Another convention, held in Maine, claimed to have collected docu- 
mentary evidence that there were 200 Methodist ministers holding 1,600 
elaves, and 25,000 members holding 207,000 more, while a New Hamp- 
shire convention recommended entire separation from the South. 

This brings us to the critical time in the history of the church, and 
to come within the limitations of this paper it is necessary to review 
the history of church affairs within the State. 

Illinois had only 215 inhabitants in 1800, but Methodism had 
entered the State in 1793, and Benjamin Young was regularly appointed 
as Missionary to Illinois in 1804, and at the end of one year reported 67 



In 1805, Jesse Walker, of Virginia, and William McKendree, after- 
ward bishop, came to the territory, and together crossed the prairie, 
penetrated the forest solitudes, swam the swollen streams and located the 
isolated settlers of the State. The next year Walker was appointed to 
the Illinois circuit and immediately proceeded to settle his family in the 
Turkey Hill settlement in St. Clair County. In 1807, he held a camp 
meeting near the present town of Edwardsville. In 1813, Jesse Walker 
was made presiding elder of the Illinois District, which he traveled for 
four years, and in 1816 was removed to the Missouri District, and while 
in this pioneer work he founded the Methodist Church in St. Louis in 
1819. His interest in the Indians lead to his being appointed to mission 
work among them in 1824, in connection with his pioneer work among 
the whites, and he immediately opened a school among them at Port 
Clerk, now Peoria, and while extending his work among the Indians, 
organized the first Methodist class in Peoria in 1835. His Salem mission 
among the Indians was established on the Fox River, above Ottawa, 
about the same time. He also assisted in founding the church in Chicago 
in 1831. 

Many of the men who were pion(«ring the church's interests in the 
West were of southern birth and sympathy, but strong in the espousal of 
the cause of freedom. Moreover, the conference territory, which included 
the present State of Hlinois, was border territory and was destined to be 
drawn into all phases of the slavery controversy. Men, meeting in the 
same Annual Conference sessions, were to come from churches with a 
plantation constituency to deliberate with men fresh from the rising' 
spirit of anti-slavery sentiment. The official papers, directed by elected 
editors and presses, owned by the church, to serve the church and sus- 
taining an ethical standard consistent with an approving conscience, was 
to find leadership constantly embarrassed with a great moral and secular 
problem. This demanded delicate adjustment in a peculiar territory, 
where skill, piety and diplomacy were blended accomplishments devoutly 
to he desired. 



D,qit,zeabvG00»^lc 



71 

The Western Confereuce included the settlements between the Alle- 
gheny Mountaina and the far flung battle line of civilization in the west — 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri and Mississippi, with Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois. At the General Conference of 1812 it was divided into the Ohio 
and Tennessee Conference, each of which included territory in several 
states, while in 1816, when the Missouri Conference was formed, it in- 
cluded that state with Arkansas, Illinois and Indiana. The nest division 
of territory wholly within the Stat«, was in 1840, when the Rock Kiver 
Conference was cut off the northern end of the State and included 
territory in Wisconsin and Iowa, and the geographical relation of these 
territories ia necessary to an understanding of the problem, and the 
character of the leaders in ihe ministry is more important even than 
what might be credited to the accomplishment of a single man. 

Peter Cartwright, so familiarly known to the Sangamon territory, 
reviewing the history of the church and his part in it from 1812 to 
1820, speaks of the constant agitation of the slavery question, the unit 
of tile ministry to bear testimony against it, the success in securing the 
freedom of thousands of slaves through moral effort, and the fact of 
other thousands who were converted to God through the efforts of the 
ministry, which drew no color line. He confesses, however, that the 
General Conference tried to keep ministers from entanglement with the 
political phase of the question, and even in that early time predicted 
the possible civil strife if the bitterness of the controversy increased. 

In 1836 he consents to stand for the Legislature of Illinois in 
protest against an effort to make the State slave territory, and makes 
record that he had left Kentucky on account of slavery and hoped in so 
doing he might be free from the "abomination of desolation," but with 
the contest on he entered the list to oppose slavery. In his canvass he 
met rascal, horse thief, and even more inelegant terms, that were sup- 
posed to strengthen the political vocabulary of the frontier, but he was 
successful, and served creditably for two terms. Indeed he was in the 
Legislature when Mr. Lincoln served that body and was selected by the 
Democrats to oppose him for, Congressional honors. Mr. Lincoln did not 
pay indifferent compliment to this Knight of the Forum, to whom life 
had been one long school to qualify him for mastery of assemblies, and 
same deliberation in council. 

The delegates from Illinois to the General Conference of 1844 were: 
Peter Acres, J. Van Cleve, J. Stamper, N. G. Berryman, and Peter 
Cartwright. They had been elected at the Annual Conference over 
which Bishop Andrew had presided, the very men whose unsought rela- 
tion to slavery precipitated the division of the church. 

From the Rock River Conference Bartholomew Weed, John Sin 
Clair, H. W. Reed and J. T. Mitchell were elected. No more representa- 
tive men could have been selected. Sin Clair was from Kntucky, while 
Cartwright, Acres and Mitchell were Virginians ; Mitchell was eloquent 
and scholarly; all were men of convictions, with ability to defend them. 
While Acres and Cartwright, so unlike as to make comparison a contract, 
so conspicuously serviceable as to make eulogy, superfluous. 

The Memorable General Conference convened in Green Street 
Church, New York, in May, 1844. The Episcopal address, read by 
Bishop Soule, was adroit and conciliatory, and calculated to divert the 



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72 

mind from the dangers upon iFhich they were entering. Then followed 
the case of Francis A. Harding, of the Baltimore Conference, who had 
been suspended from his ministerial standing for refusing to manumit 
certain slaves brought into his possession by marriage. He appealed to 
the General Conference, and tiie appeal was admitted. The law of the 
State and the view of the South was preseated in defense. Slavery was 
admitted to be an evil, not necessarily a sin. The action suspending him 
was affirmed by a vote of 56 to 17. Two voted from the southern states 
with the majority, while four votes from the two Illinois delegations 
Toted with the South, among them, Peter Akers, still hopeful of con- 
ciliation. 

Then followed the case of Bishop Andrew. A preamble and resolu- 
tions were introdneed asking an investigation of the bishop's relation to 
slavery. At the request of the Episcopal Committee the bishop answered: 

First — That an aged lady of Augusta, Ga., had bequeathed to him a 
mulatto girl, in trust, that he should care for her until she was nineteen 
years of age, and then, with her consent, she should be sent to Liberia. 
Eefusing to go she had remained legally his slave. 

Second— The mother of his former wife had left to her daughter a 
negro boy. By .the death of his wife, and the provisiona of the State law, 
the boy became his property, but he was at liberty to go when the State 
permitted or when he was satisfied he could provide for himself. 

Third — Having recently married his present wife, she was at the 
time possessed of slaves inierited from her former husband's estate. 
They were additionally secured to her by a trust deed from him, and he 
disowned, therefore, any right or title in them. 

Resolutions with comprehensive preamble, respectfully asked the 
bishop to resign his office. 

The greatest debate of the church followed, leaving no word to be 
said on any phase of tlie subject, in morals, in expediency, or pleas for 
time and reflection to save the church from the threatened disruption. 
Only the defense of slavery was wanting; no one spoke for it. The fear 
of excluding Methodism from the slave holding states and a personal de- 
fense of the bishop, who had not chosen the position he occupied, sums 
the defense. 

Cass, of New Hampshire, in a radical speech, quoted Wesley as 
saying : "Men buyers were exactly on a level with men stealers," and to 
palliate on terms of inheritance was to neither satisfy conscience nor 
justice. To which Pierce, of Georgia, replied that "New Englanders 
were described by Paul as intermeddlera in other men's matters." 

Bishop Andrew, deeply pained, convened a meeting of the delegates 
from the stave holding conferences and offered to resign in the interest 
of peace, but the answer was, "If slavery disqualifies you it disqualiiies all 
of us." The faultless character, the refined spirit, the generous sympa- 
thy and consecrated zeal of Bishop Andrew with the severe alternative 
which sectional feeling and rapidly changing sentiment had forced upon 
him and his friends, was expressed by Bodie, of Tennessee — "Here, take 
teishop Andrew and crucify him, for I find no fault in him," 

Peter Cartwrigbt, of Illinois, made a characteristic speech. His 
experience had dated from 1805, when he joined the Western Conierence. 



73 

Every Methodist preacher had opposed slavery from stem to stern. There 
was not to be found in its ministry an advocate of slavery. He deplored 
the suggestion that we could not at any time touch a bishop who had 
become unacceptable. He pronounced the sentiment as humbug that 
if a man inherited a slave he could do nothing with him. "I so became 
owner and shouldered my responsibility, resolved to be like Cesar's wife, 
above suspicion ; I kiok them to my State and set them free ; gave them 
land and buUt them houses, where they have prospered." He quoted 
Bishop McKendree, "If I owned a thousand slaves I would not die a slave 
holder. This doctrine I accepted when a beardless boy." 

The debate intensified feeling and deepened interest. It was clearly 
seen that division was imminent. An effort was made to postpone action 
until th neit General Conference, This was proposed by the Board of 
Bishops, but by a roll call it was tabled by a majority of twelve. The 
previous question then prevailed and amid profound silence a vote was 
taken on the resolution, that Bishop Andrew desist from the exercise of 
his ofBce so long as his impediment remained. This resolution prevailed 
by a vote of 111 against 69. All votes from the middle, eastern and 
western states were for the resolution, except three from the Illinois 
Conference, five from Baltimore, four from Philadelphia, two from New 
Jersey, and one each from New York, Michigan and the Rock River 
Conference. But one resident from the South voted for it — John Clark, 
a delegate from the republic of Texas, who, four years before, had been a 
delegate to the General Conference from Illinois. 

A resolution providing for two general conferences, with continued 
joint interest in the publishing house and missions, was submitted to 
the committee, of which Akers, of Illinois, was one, but before the com- 
mittee was named, another was introduced, asking that the committee 
propose a plan for the constitutional, friendly, and mutual division of the 
church, which prevailed, Cartwright, of Illinois, opposing. 

It is a matter of pride on the part of the friends of this wonderful 
man that, being a member of the General Conference from 1816 to 1856, 
he never east a vote on a matter of church policy which subsequent events 
proved unwise. In a misistry of over fifty years, largely confined to 
Illinois, and in a formative period of its history where he had preached 
over 14,000 sermons and received 10,000 persons into the church, it was 
interesting to read his calm reflection of the later years — "That no cir- 
■ cumstance had so afflicted him as the division of the church in 1844, 
nor could he ever forget the impatience on both sides which drove the 
church to such an exigency," and he records with pride the fact that he 
voted alone against his colleagues on all revolutionary measures, which 
tended to divide the church. 

The plan of division was looked upon as a moral victory by many 
of the North. They were no longer compromised. They assumed the 
position of extreme abolitionists, who preferred withdrawal from the 
union of states on the same ground. Not so with all, and it is of interest 
to note that another statesman in a different field of public service, saw 
in this first secession the early banking of the ominous storm cloud- 
Henry Clay, writing to his friend. Dr. W. A. Booth, expresses his deep 
regret at the course of events in the Methodist Church, stating that no 



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u 

public occurrence had so pained him as a division of the church, throw- 
ing all free states on one side, and all the slave states on the other, and 
he adds : "I will not say that such a separation would necessarily pro- 
duce a dissolution of political union of these states, bat the example will 
he fraught with imminent danger." 

Many calm reflections upon this period of church history have dis- . 
cussed the distinction of the "evil and sin of slavery." The Pauline 
policy of meeting existing institutions, Prudential and Constitutional 
grounds and limitations, but the history is made, and he who writes the 
philosophy of history must give the verdict as to its bane or blessing. 

Feeling was intensified over litigation following the plan of separa- 
tion. The well defined boundaries of the two divisions made the matter 
of local property and responsibility for benevolence easy of adjustment, 
but the property of the common church, known as the book concern, wa» 
secured by restrictive rules, of which the sixth provided that the General 
Conference should not appropriate the profits of the Book Concern for 
aJiy other purpose than the benefit of the traveling ministers, their 
widows, etc., the legal contention being that the seceders, going out as 
any individual leaving, the Methodist Episcopal Church remained and 
was responsible for its trust fund. 

A suit was begun in the United States Circuit Court, District of 
Ohio, and appealed to the United States Supreme Court, where it was 
held that the General Conference had power to divide the church and 
that the division of joint property by a court of equity followed as it 
matter of course. 

Stamper and Berryman, of the Illinois Conference, had voted for 
the plan of division, but Peter Cartwright had stood against it, and with 
all the vehemence of his nature. When the conferenra met at Nashville, 
Washington County, 111., in the early fall, immediately following the 
stormy General Conference of May, it was to consider the plan of divi- 
sion and change of the restrictive rule, which required a three-fourths 
vote of the conference. Cartwright, girded for tiie defense of the in- 
tegrity of his beloved church, made that majority impossible, as it was 
later throughout the conferences of the church. 

Illinois, being border territory, and coming early in the series of con- 
tests that were to follow, its action and position, and the position of Dr. 
Cartwright, set the example of non-concurrence, and had no little effect 
on the general results. This fact, however, made the legal outcome the 
more unusual in denying that it was a secession and that neither division 
lost interest in the common property. 

Another powerful influence effecting the growing sentiment of 
Illinois was the position of the official press of the church, which forced 
upon public opinion the evils of slavery, even to the displeasure of the 
slave-holding South. This was a greater mark of courage than if the 
publications were personal property, and had a local constituency rather 
than belonging to the entire church, with editors elected from the mem- 
bership who were to feel the obligation of a full church service, and nat- 
urally not to be indifferent to the support and general interests of the 
church. 



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75 

The Western Christian Advocate, published at Cincinnati, had the 
largest circulation in Illinoia. It had been established in 1833, with 
Thomas A. Morris, afterward bishop, as its first editor. It was always 
anti-Blavery, and as the result of ita position lost heavily in soiithem 
Ohio and Illinois, but gained 4,000 subscribers above its losses in the 
■western reserve, Eentu<^ and western Virginia. 

The sectional sentiment of the State is indicated in this paragraph — 
Bonthem Illinois never justified slavery; but was in sympathy with the 
ministry of the adjacent border, seriously handicapped by the presence 
of an institution, which, judged as a secular wrong, nevertheless did not 
seem to justify a policy whidi would exclude the church from access to 
thousand within the borders of the stave territory, so this part of the 
State is on record as not concurring with sentiment of terriory to the 
^orth and East. 

The Illinois Conference made its protest against slavery as early as 
the record of its ministry. While the Rock River Conference, to the 
north, carved out of the old Illinois Conference in 1843, went on record 
against slavery in its first session, and with consistent regularity till 
the Committee on Slavery was changed to one of the state of the country 
with the opening of the Rebellion and among the early utterances of 
prophetic insight was that the government could not long recognize 
chattels in the slaves of those who fired on Sumpt«r. 

The central Illinois, originally a portion of Rock River until 1856, 
had in a resolution drafted by Dr. Richard Haney, in September, 1862, 
and adopted by the conference, asked President Lincoln to manumit the 
slaves of this country. It is claimed to be the first ecclesiabtical action 
of like character reaching the President. 

The repadity with which events rushed to their culmination will be 
indicated in a brief review. The first subscription to a Methodist church 
in America was made by Captain Webb, of the British Army, whose 
regiment was then quartered in New York. On the same paper is the 
name of Phillip Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of Independence ; 
and side by side with these names are those of Margaret and Rachel, two 
slave girls. This was in 1768. A prophet could have seen in these 
names the suggestion of the greatest events in the next century. Revolu- 
tion, the fierce, unabating anti-slavery struggle, and Rebellion, with its 
laurels bom by the spirit of the new civilization. 

The faith and conviction of the people called Methodists is indicated 
by their devotion to the nation in the dark days of civil strife. Dr. 
Richard Haney, a worthy associate of Cartwright, Akers and Phelps 
preached the centenary sermon of American Methodism at Lexington, 
HI., September, 1866. He had given constant service to the ministry 
in Illinois since 1835; had presided at the first meeting called to form 
plans for the Northwestern University; was sis times elected to the 
General Conference, and during the war was chaplain of the Sixth Illi- 
nois Volunteers, In one paragraph of his address he says, "Our church 
sent 175,000 warriors to the front ; the blood of Methodists baptised the 
soil of 636 battlefields. Scarcely do we meet a coBgregation without a 
bereaved mother, a broken-hearted wife and orphans of a soldier father. 
This is confirmed by the fact that 510 chaplains from her ministry, 64 



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76 

of whom came from Illinois, pointed to glory and led the way. Ae to 
how they responded, let the Great Emancipator speak : 

"It is not the fault of others that the Methodist Church, by its 
greater numbers, sends more soldiers to the front, more nurses to the 
hospitals, and more prayer to Heaven than any other. 

"These are the spiritual sons and daughters of those who are strong 
enough to break with slavery, and while that great army came from hill 
and shore between the seas, yet Shiloh and Vicksburg and Chicamaugua 
proclaim in eloquent memorial : 

" 'Not without thy wondrous story, Illinois.' " 



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PAUL SELBY. 



{A Sketch by Henrt Vf. Clbndenin.) 

The enbject of this sketch, Mr. Paul Selby, first Tice-president of 
the lUinoie State Historical Society, 1903-1906, died at his home in 
Chicago, March 19, of the present year, in the eighty-eighth year of his 
age. He was born in Pickaway County, Ohio, Jiine 20, 1825, It ie 
given to but few men to live to this advanced age, and be bleased with 
vigor of mind and comparative vigor of body as fully as did Mr. Selby. 

There are no fixed rules for preparing a sketch of a friend to be read 
before a society of friends. And I may assume that all those members 
of the Illinois State Historical Society present today and who have ac- 
quired the commendable habit of attending the annual gatherings of the 
society are friends and acquaintances of the late Paul Selby. I will, 
therefore, in this brief sketch of the life and services of our friend, devote 
the larger portion of it to giving my views of what Mr. Selby was, rather 
than to telling about what he did. 

My personal relations with Mr. Selby date back to the time when I 
came to Springfield in 1881, thirty-two years ago — and became editor of 
the Illinois State Register. Mr. Selby was then and for a number of 
years afterward editor of the Illinois State Journal. The firm hand 
clasp and warm welcome that he gave me at that time have remained one 
of the most pleasant recollections of those early days, and have been 
cherished as a benediction. My first impression of Mr. Selby was that 
he was a friend— not only to the stranger whom he greeted, but also to 
humanity. There was that air of sincerity about him that inspired con- 
fidence and respect. In his intercourse with others I found him to be 
not a man of many words nor a man of many moods, but a man whose 
words and moods had not the slightest taint of hypocrisy. They carried 
with them the evidence of a profound and abiding devotion to those prin- 
ciples of truth which mark the sincere man in dealing with his fellow 

Mr. Selby was a busy man. From eariy manhood, as his record 
which will be briefly given hereafter in this paper shows, he filled places 
of responsibility, honor and labor. ■ From the days of his youth to the 
day of his lamented passing, Mr. Selby never coveted an idle moment. 
What was remarkable in a man of his ability, which was great, and his 
acquirements, which were varied and valuable, he was not a seeker after 
wealth, nor ambitious for distinction. He was governed more by a 
spirit of helpfulness, by a desire to assist others to plant their feet on 
solid gtound and to make those whom he could influence better, happier 
and more useful. 



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Mr. Selby was a man who never faltered in the advocacy and promo- 
tion of principles and movements which he believed to be right. He pos- 
sessed the courage of his convictions, a trait that many able and good 
men who figure more or less in public affairs do not possess, much to 
the impairment of their usefulness and the retarding of the world's 
progress. To Mr. Selby and men like him the credit is due for the 
efFective influence and constructive methods that have made Illinoia the 
great commonwealth it is. It is the teachers among men who have laid 
the foundations for advancing civilization and planned the super- 
structure. Mr. Selby was by nature and by choice a teacher. It was this 
predisposition to teach the higher ideals of life, so manifest in his jour- 
nalistic and literary career that led him in his early manhood to become 
a school teacher. 

Mr. Selby came to Illinois in 1844, when nineteen years of age and 
taught school in Madison County. He taught for a few years and in 
1848 entered as a student in Illinoia College at Jacksonville as a junior, 
to perfect his education. It was here that Mr. Selby first acquired his 
taste for journalism in which profession in after years he became dis- 
tinguished as a leader in thought and influence. In coimection with 
his college course at Jacksonville, he came editor of the Morgan Journal, 
now the Jacksowville Journal. He was recognized at that early age as a 
strong and conscientious writer. Mr. Selby some years later became a 
teacher in a Ix>ui8iana institution but was forced to leave at the breaking 
out of the Civil War on account of his anti-slavery views, which he did 
not try to conceal. The trustees of the institution, however, recognizing 
his merit and respecting him for his personal worth, passed resolutions 
commending his work as a teacher, and his policy as a man. 

Returning North, Mr. Selby was employed for a time in the govern- 
ment service in the transportation and subsistence departments at Cairo, 
HI., and Faducah, Ky. But Mr. Selby's inclinations led him to jour- 
nalism. 

Mr. Selby's experience as an editor of the Morgan Journal fitted him 
for a wider fleld, and on his return from the South he became associate 
editor of the Daily Illinois State Journal for a brief period. He after- 
ward went to Chicago and in 1866 was on the editorial staff of tiie 
Chicago Journal and the Chicago Republican. In 1868 he became editor 
of the Quincy Whig. He gained a wide State reputation as editor of 
that journal. In 1874 he became editor and one of the proprietors of 
the Illinois State Journal, continuing in that capacity until 1889, when 
he disposed of his holdings in the Journal and removed to Chicago, where 
he engaged in literary work up to a short time before his death. 

It was as editor of the Illinois State Journal that the writer gained 
personal knowledge of Mr. Selby as an editor. Although our journals 
were of opposite politics and our controversies at times were warm, Mr. 
Selby always recognized and respected the amenities of journalism and 
we maintained most friendly personal relations. He was an able, vigor- 
onfl writer, careful in statements as to facts, courteous in language, 
uncompromising in his championship of the principles he advocated, 
thoroughly informed on public affairs, historic^ and current, conspicu- 
ously public spirited in local matters, and conscientious in his treatment 



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79 

of all subjects he discussed. He was a "four-square" man in his dealings 
with the public; and as a consequence his influence as au editor was 
great, and the results he achieved proportionately large. 

It was as the editor in politics that Mr. Selby was prominently 
potential. He was as a young man a leader as an editor in the formation 
of the Republican party. In 1854, when only twenty-nine years of age, 
he was a member of the anti-Nebraska convention at Springfield. This 
was the beginning of the political conflict in Illinois that brought Abra- 
ham Lincoln conspicuously before the country aa the champion of a 
"free-soil" party which subsequently chose the name "Eepublican" and 
elected William H. Bissell Governor in 1856, made Abraham Lincoln its 
candidate for United States Senator in opposition to Stephen A. Douglas 
in 1858 and candidate for president in 1860. Mr. Selby was prominent 
as an editor and worker for the cause he advocated in this great political 
■conflict. In 1856 Mr, Selby originated the movement for calling a con- 
vention of the editors of the anti-Nebraaka papers of the State at Deca- 
tur. This convention was held on February 33. Mr. Selby was chosen 
chairman of this convention. In the October, 1912, Journal of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, he gave an interesting account of tliat 
convention of which he was the last survivor. He did not attend the 
Eepublican State convention, held May 29, 1856, at Bloomington, on 
account of illness, but was there in spirit and kept iu full touch with 
its important proceedings. Beginning thus early in life as an indna- 
trious, influential factor in the building of the great party and in the 
advocacy of the principles it championed, he continued during more than 
a quarter of a century of active editorial work a leading spirit in its 
ranks. It is not too much to say that his influence as an editor did 
more for the success of his party tiian did that of many who profited in 
the distinction and emoluments of office through that success. Mr. Selby 
was content to labor for the advancement of his principles, modestly 
refraining from pressing claims for official recognition. He held only 
two public offices during his long life. In 1865 he was appointed Deputy 
Collector of Customs at New Orleans, and in 1880 was appointed post- 
master at Springfield by President Hayes, an office he held until 1886, 
resigning that year to be succeeded by the writer of this sketch. Our 
personal friendly relations were unimpaired by this turning of the scales 
of politics. After his removal to Chicago in 1889 he fre<5uently visited 
Springfield and seldom, if ever, failed to call and spend a pleasant hour 
at the sanctum of the State Register, talking over old times and current 
local events. To me, Mr. Selbys friendship will always be a most agree- 
able memory. 

Mr. Selby was twice married. His first wife was Miss Erra Post, 
who died in 1865, leaving two daughters, Emily and Erra. In 1870 he 
married Mrs. Mary J. Hitobcock, of Quincy, who with his two daughters. 
Dr. Emily Selby, of Chicago, and Mrs. Charles Harmon Johnson, of 
Biver Forest, and his devoted stepdaughter, Mrs. Arthur Prince of this 
city, who as a little child came under his fatherly care, and a stepson, 
who resides in the state of New York, survive him. 

Mr. Selby died March 19 of the present year, in Chicago, and, was 
buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in this city March 22. He passed over 
to the majority full of years, honored and mourned by all who knew him. 



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80 

At Mr. Selby's funeral in this city, Major James A. Connolly, 

former United States District Attorney and Representative in Congress 
from this district, delivered an address in which he paid an eloquent, 
loving and just tribute to his close friend of many years. The writer 
believes it shoTild be preserved in the records of this society, and there- 
fore incorporates it in this sketch. Major Connolly said : 

"When a boy, taking up the study of Latin at the academy of the 
Eev. J. B. Selby, in Ohio, I was not able to supply myself with the 
necessary Latin lexicon, and Mr. Selby generously supplied me with one 
of bis own, which seemed like a fortune to me then, and I still own and 
affectionately cherish it. Years afterwards, in conversation with Paul 
Selby, I learned from him that my Eev. J, B. Selby and Paul Selby 
were cousins, 

"The name Selby had been lovingly remembered by me since my 
early days at the academy and on meeting Paul Selby years ago and 
learning of his kinship to the early preceptor, all of tfie affection and 
love for my old teacher was revived, and like tendrills of a vine seeking 
some place to cling, stretched out to Paul Selby, reached him and clung 
to him now for forty years, and in all these forty years I always found 
ItJTti the same modest, unassuming, intelligent, reliable gentleman as I 
ever conceived that early teacher of mine to be, and with full and afEee- 
tionate respect for the memory of Paul Selby I come to his bier today 
to say that his life has not been in vain. 

"He made his mark for good on the age in which he lived, and all 
the words that have flown from his pai have been for the good of his- 
country and society. 

"He was a prime factor in building the great movement that brought 
Lincoln before the world, and embalmed his name in the kindliest pages 
of human history — a movement that blotted the stain from our nation's 
flag. In that movement Paul Selby bore a knightly part 'without fear 
and reproach' and his name is honorably recorded among its pioneers, 

"In his long intellectual life work he was singularly modest and 
unassuming, and lovable in his companionship among men, but in all 
his touch with men and current life he was undeflled. He followed his, 
ideas of clean, honorable manhood, and his memory will long remain in 
this State, where he passed so many useful years— -nearly all the time in 
the full light of active public and serai-public life. 

"It is hard to say goodby to so good and worthy a man. 

"His widow and surviving children have reason to modify their 
grief at the parting, by the knowledge that the husband and father, after 
a full and honorable life, has gone to rest with his work well done, and 
his name honored, because of his real intellectual manly worth, which is 
imcoiTuptible." 

The Illinois State Historical Society by the death of Paul Selby 
loses one of its charter members, and one who was ever active in pro- 
moting its interests. H&.was a faithful attendant at its. annual meet- 
ings, and took a prominent part in the proceedings. He was chosen first 
vice-president in 1903, and, was the society's first vice-president for four 
years. He did much as a member and officer to make the society and 
its library the success they are today. In speaking of him, our worthy 



81 

secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, says that Mr. Selby was from the 
beginning a valuable counsellor and aid to her in the work of her office. 

Our friend, Paul Selby has been gathered to his fathers. Like a 
sheaf of wheat, fully ripened, he has been garnered into the heavenly 
storehouse. 

A.n able editor, a ripe scholar, a useful citizen, a genuine gentleman, 
a consistent Christian, Paul Selby will live in the hearts of his friends 
US a pleasant memory so long as life shall endure. 



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GENERAL SMITH D. ATKINS. 
IN MEMORIAM. 

(By EiCHARD V. Carpenter, Belvidere.) 

It has been thought appropriate to devote a part of this afternoon's 
progiam to the memory of one of our most prominent members. Gen- 
eral Smith D. Atkins, for five years a vice-president of the society, who 
passed on to his reward for a long, active and honorable career, at 
Preeport, Thursday evening, March 37, 1913. 

In every forest there are giant oaks, about which the other trees 
cluster as their natural leaders and to which they look as their pro- 
tectors in time of storm. Their roots strike deeper into the fundamental 
principle — Mother Earth — their heads, lifted above the general run of 
the forest, have a clearer view of what is above and about. 

In that thriving community in Northwestern Illinois, which has as 
its center the city of Freeport, General Smith D, Atkine has been these 
many years, as it were a giant oak, and when after a well-filled career of 
some seventy-eight years, his activities were brought to a dose, he left 
a place in the community that will long remain unfilled. 

General Atkins, like many of the people of Northern Illinois, was a 
native of New York State, being bom in Horsehead, Chemung County, , 
Jnne 9, 1835, the place being now known as Fairport. When the boy 
was eight years old the family and some of their kinsmen came by way 
of Erie Canal and prairie schooners to Illinois, and took up land just 
east of Freeport, between that city and Ridott. Among the party was 
his uncle. Smith Dykins, from whom he took his name, Smith Dykins 
Atkins. The young man pursued the usual way of ambitious young men 
of that period, having considerable advantages in way of education, bnt 
apparently not having his road all made easy for him, as it is stated that 
during one winter he suffered considerably from the cold on account of 
wearing a linen suit, being too poor to bny a woolen suit and too proud 
to borrow. Being a lawyer myself, I am inclined to think this must 
have been during the first years of his legal practice. 

He started his long newspaper career by working in the Prairie 
Democrat office, at Freeport, for a time, and then attending Eock Eiver 
Seminary at Mt. Morris, where he had such distinguished fellow-students 
as Senator Shelby M. Cullom and Congressman Robert R. Hitt. He 
studied law with Hiram Bright in Freeport, and with Goodrich & Sco- 
viJle, of Chicago, and afterwards with Oscar Taylor, with whom he 
formed a partnership in Freeport, the firm being Taylor & Atkins when 
he enlisted for the war. It was that great struggle of '61 to '65 which 
brought out in the young man — as it did in so many other young men 
throughout the North and South — all the energy and ability contained 



Qks. Smitk D. ATKins. 



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83 

in hira. When the call came he was trying a case as State's Attorney in 
the Stephenson County Courthouse, and being asked to draw up the 
enlistment roll, he signed his own name as the first volunteer from hia 
county. In the beautiful home of his former law partner, Oscar Taylor, 
now deceased, surrounded by its spacious grounds and beautiful old trees, 
I had the privilege of copying a letter from the young soldier to Miss 
Winifred Taylor, one of ttie present chatelaines of the home, I read it 
because it reflects so accurately and vividly the spirit which animated 
the whole life of General Atkins. It is dated at Camp Lyon, Birds 
Point, July 8, 1861 ; after the first portion, which rah along the lines 
which gallant young soldiers usually wrote to charming young ladies 
at home, it read as follows; "I hope there will be a chance to fight, I 
want to go through or fall in a fierce battle before this war ends. I 
volunteered to fight and I don't want to be cheated out of it. After I 
have bidden you "Good Eye," I want to smell gun powder and hear the 
whistling of leaden balls before I come back again. I think I will. 
This War must be a fierce one. It may be a long one. It will depend 
much on the action of Congress now just convened. I will watch their 
actions closely and God grant that it may not be lacking in manly 
courage." 

General Atkins' career as a soldier was an active, brave and useful 
one. He did not lack the chance to fight. He flret enlisted in the 
Eleventh Illinois Volunteers and became successively captain (May 14, 
1861) and major (February 15, 1862), taking gallant part in the capture 
of Port Donelson. He then devoted his energies to raising the Ninety- 
second Illinois and on September 4, 1862, Governor Yates commissioned 
him as its colonel. With this regiment his name is moat closely asso- 
ciated. At the head of his regiment he was in the battles about Chatta- 
nooga and took part in Sherman's March to the Sea. As colonel of this 
Illinois regiment, his name is a part of the military history of our State 
and Nation — strict in discipline, but just and well-beloved of hie men ; 
sharing their dangers and hardships with them; chivalrous in protecting 
the southern ladies and children from any rudeness on the part of those 
few northern soldiers whose zeal outran their politeness; a useful, ener- 
getic, able fighting man, at the head of a regiment from our own Prairie 
State, directing its efforts in the cause of the Union. He was commis- 
sioned as brevet brigadier general in January, 1865, and as brevet major 
general in March, 1865. 

The atmosphere up to this time had been one of the North — starting 
with old New York state, then to that westward extension of New York 
and New England, northern Illinois, then through the long campaign in 
the rank's of Blue. But there now creeps into the scene the romantic 
influence of the South, of that strong, virile people, the settlers of Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas, whose westward extension — southern Illinois — 
and the influence of whose earlier ofif-shoots — Tennessee and Kentucky — 
have been the means of making this great Prairie State to be the typical 
State of the Union, the blending of what is best in the North and in the 
South, the true standard of Americanism. 

It has seldom been the writer's lot to meet a more striking combina- 
tion of what we most cherish in the historic past of both the North and 
the South, than in General Atkins' home on Prospect Terrace at Free- 



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port. Hanging along the walls of the hallway, wtre the General's eom- 
misaions in the Union army, framed — some signed by Governor Richard 
Yates and the later onea by Abraham LiQcoln. In the library and in 
the attic there was a wealth of historic matter concerning old North 
Carolina, including bound volumes of newspapers dated back just affer 
the Eevolutionary War, and many documents signed by prominent south- 
ern statesmen. On the wall hung a silk flag — borne at the Eevolutionary 
battle of Camden. And the southern hospitality — ^which the writer of 
this paper enjoyed a short time ago — rested over the whole home. 

Little did young Colonel Atkins, as he rode into Chapel Hill, N. C, 
with his regiment, during Sherman's March to the Sea, expect that he 
was going to such a complete surrender to a southern victor before night. 
It became his duty, aa a matter of form, to arrest the president of the 
State University — ^located at Chapel Hill — David L. Swain, one of 
North Carolina's distinguished sons who had been the governor of the 
state. With southern courtesy. Governor Swain invited his captor to 
his home. The family tradition is, that the yoongest daughter, Mira 
Eleanor, stated to her father that she was not going to sit at the same 
table with that young Yankee. However, as the Governor intimated 
that such conduct would not be polite, she consented to sit at the table, 
but declared that she would not say one word to him. The young colonel, 
upon seeing her, decided that there should be a union of the states at 
once, so far as he was concerned, and with his usual firm determination 
he succeeded in securing the young lady's consent to marry him, before he 
went away that night. In both love and war, in those days, events fol- 
lowed one another quickly. In 1865 they were married and settled in 
the same home on Prospect Terrace at Freeport, in which General Atkins 
died, the house having been added to from time to time as the occasion 
arose. Mrs. Atkins died thirty-one years ago. 

After the war General Atkins again took up the practice of law, 
but soon became interested in newspaper work. He was first interested 
in the Northwest, which was afterward merged in the Freeport Journal 
in 1866, and from that time until 1883 he for various periods owned a 
part interest in the paper. In the last named year the Freeport 
Journal Printing Company was organized, in which he acquired the 
controlling interest and his strong and able personality guided the poli- 
cies and conduct of the paper until his death. {See Newspapers and 
Periodicals of Illinois, page 180.) 

He was appointed postmaster of Freeport in 1865 by Lincoln and 
was continued in office by Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison, 
McEinlej, Roosevelt, and Taft, being the postmaster of the city from war 
times until his death, except during the two administrations of Cleveland. 

In everything pertaining to the good of Freeport and Stephenson 
County, he was an active leader. Among his most cherished activities 
were those in connection with the Lincoln-Douglas Semi-Centennial in 
1908 and the marking of the lot in which the debate was held with a large 
boulder. He was for many years the president of the Old Settlers' Asso- 
ciation of the county, which has held an annual meeting the last Wed- 
nesday in August for many years in Cedarville, about six miles north of 
Freeport, that village being, incidentally, the girlhood home of Jane 



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85 

Addams. Among Ms many other activitieB, General Atkins was a Mason, 
a member of the Grand Army of the Sepublic, the Society of the Army of 
the Tennessee, and that of the Army of the Cumberland. Ferhapa hia 
greatest interest in societieB was in the Loyal Legion. He was also a 
member of several of the press aasociationB, He was elected second vice- 
president of this society in January, 1908, and held that office until his 
death. He did considerable writing on iuBtoiical matters, including a 
History of the Ninety-second Illinois, written in 1875, and various 
pamphlets, including one on the Battle of Chickamagua, which he re- 
garded as a "uaeless battle," and an address given at Streator on Abraham 
Lincoln. For this latter pamphlet there has been a wide call, including 
requests from many of the American colleges and from several great uni- 
versities across the sea. 

General Atkins* successor as the head of the Journal was his son-in- 
law, Mr. N'eedham T. Cobb. Mr. Cobb is himself a southerner, being 
connected with many of the prominent North Carolina families. He 
came to Freeport in 1906 and took much of the labor in running the 
paper from the General's shoulders in 1910. During the last years of 
his life. General Atkins confined his editorial work to the editorial page 
of the weekly and one issue of the Daily. His editorials were widely 
quoted. He vorked in his library at his home and it was sitting at Me 
desk, surrounded by Ms library of many books on Mstory and govern- 
ment, that much of the material for this article was gathered. As a 
j'oumalist, he disliked sensational methods — or methods wMch he con- 
sidered sensational — and when the younger members of the stafE, on 
such important occasions as a disastrous cloud-burst in the county, or the 
sinking of the "Titanic," ventured to "break the columns" and spread 
the news over more than one column in width, they never breathed easy 
until they knew whether the General disapproved of such a departure 
from the old conservative ideals. Since General Atkins* death the 
Journal has been consolidated with another Freeport paper. 

General Atkins died March 27, 1913. His funeral was the largest 
ever held in Freeport. The writer of this paper attended as one of the 
delegates for this society. The large rooms of the home were filled and 
many stood on the lawn as the citizens passed through to view their old 
friend for the last time, the favorite martial tunes, such as "Marching 
Through Georgia," were played on the piano (an heirloom picked out for 
Governor Swain in 1833 by George Bancroft, the historian). The pall 
bearers were the veteran employees of the postoffice, in uniform, and 
among those present were the carrier boys of the Journal, who went in a 
body of their own accord to pay their last respects to their old employer. 
The monument marking his testing place is the old composing-stone 
upon which for so many years were made up the forms for the Journal 
It was chosen by the family as the most fitting memorial of one whose 
life had been so closely allied with the newspaper business. 

General Atkins' nature was a positive one ; when he thought a tMng 
should he done so and so, it was usually so done, but his influence was for 
the good, his judgment correct, and his work was directed to the build- 
ing up of Ms country and making Freeport what he loved to call it, 
"Good Old Freeport."* 



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Scarcely a branch of Freeport's activities has not felt his strong per- 
sonality; be was always active and even after his death his words were 
heard in a Memorial Day address which he had already prepared for a 
city in Iowa. Upon his desk was also found an account of the city 
election at Freeport which had not yet occurred, but written as if it had 
already happened and which was very accurate as to the real results which 
did take place. He loved children and they always knew that their 
boyish depredations on fruits or dowers would be excused by their stem- 
looking, but Hndly, old friend. 

We can beat close by repeating two lines of a poem written concern- 
ing him as a dashing young colonel by one of the young ladies during 
war time : 

"We'll make his bed among the red, red roses and the lilies. 
Firm and enduring as bia adamantine will is." 

So long as Stephenson County remaina one of the most favored 
portions of nortbweetem TlHnoia, so long as our Prairie State stands as 
one of the grandest — and to us the dearest — in the sisterhood of states, 
so long will the name of Smith D. Atkins remain one of theirs and our 
deeply cherished memories. 



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Stephen A. Douglas. 



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STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, THE EXPANSIONIST. 



(By Frank E, Stevens^ Dixoa.) 

Undoubtedly Thomas Jefferson will remain in our histories for all 
time, the country's greatest expansionist. His wise forethought; his 
prudence in negotiation as well as his action in hurrying emissaries to 
the Pacific Coast to head off expeditions sent forward by England, added 
to our domain practically all the land lying west of the Mississippi River. 

The ambition of Douglas to expand, was as great as that of Jeffer- 
son, but because JeSerson had secured about all the land on the con- 
tinent thought to be worth while, he had to remain satisfied with his 
efforts in the Mexican annexation, so faT as annexing new territory was 
made possible. But perhaps it was better for him and better for alt of 
us that his great genius was addressed to the task of building up what 
Jefferson acquired and what fell to us from Mexico, than by fulfilling 
his ambition, we ultimately had extended our country from the Artie 
to the Gulf and that we had reached out into the sea as he predicted we 
might, to take in the islands of the Pacific. The expansion wrought by 
Douglas made for our country's greatness as the work of no other states- 
man ever has made in our history. 

That ambition, early manifested, placed him in the chairmanship 
of the Committee on Territories, in the House, and when he entered the 
Senate, the prestige of the chairmanship carried him into the chairman- 
ship of the same committee in the higher body. And during his entire 
encumbency it was tremendously important and exacting and it had to 
be handled at all times with a delicacy altogether unreasonable. To- 
ward its close, the word unbearable would fit the case better. The 
concluding chapter was his deposition by the caucus of the Senate, 
which as much as the firing on Sumter, signified secession. 

Through all the embarrassments of that position, Douglas toiled, 
pleaded, fought, compromised, yet ever persisted, and that persistence, 
which tie southern members early learned to know, could not be curbed 
in or out of a caucus, ended in the bolt at the Charleston convention at 
which his enemies repudiated every compromise and every party pledge. 
Douglas" plan of building up the West, amended more or less during 
terrible emergencies, was to place beyond the Mississippi Eiver a cordon 
of free territory which slavery could never penetrate and while he had 
added many great states and territories, the political career of Douglas 
ended when he refused to sanction the party tactics used to keep Kansas 
and Nebraska out of the Union. The consuming ambition of Douglas 
was to see his country grow and prosper ; to see its vast wealth developed ; 
to see it filled with the oppressed of other nations, and of that power- and 



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wealth, he was very jealous. He opposed the treaty of Guadaloupe, 
because of its clause forbidding this country ever taking over any more 
Mexican territory except under certain restrictions almost impossible. 
It will be remembered that he opposed the ratification of the Bulwer- 
Clayton treaty because it restricted this country in futai« efforts to 
build a canal aciose the iBthmus. How forceful must his wisdom appeal 
to us at this very moment when both those questions are of such im- 
portance to us? 

During the debate over the Oregon boundary, Douglas favored 
"fifty-four forty or fight" because it enlarged this country's boundary. 
Douglas essentially was of the West; he believed in the West by adopting 
it as his home, yet never was he a sectional man. Time and again he 
stated from his seat that he knew no South; no North; no West and no 
East. But because the West was new and unpeopled; because its develop- 
ment meant increased prosperity, and increased population, he was am- 
bitious for his home State of Illinois to profit by that development. 

Douglas was one of the shrewdest business men that ever entered the 
United States Senate. At an early day he foresaw the possibilities of 
Chicago. Wherefore, to that point he removed upon his elevation to the 
Senate and there he invested heavily in real estate, from which he 
profited and from which he would have attained inmiense wealth, but 
for his untimely death. 

When to develop the western country, the necessity of a railroad 
began to be agitated, D\>ugla8 naturally favored the one proposed for 
Nebraska with a terminus at or near the present Omaha. He believed 
Chicago would become the base of supplies for the travel which was cer- 
tain to pour into the country which such a road would open. He favored 
such a railroad because it would develop the new West, just as he favored 
granting to the Illinois Central Railroad the gift of land to aid in its 
construction. He believed the road once built, would bring Illinois into 
the first rank as a State. His notable position in favor of the admission 
of California with its two anti-slavery senators which would overbalance 
the slave-holding states in the Senate, more than anything else should 
compel belief to the unprejudiced mind that Douglas never trimmed for 
political infiuence or position. That position more than anything else 
convinced the slavery leaders who controlled the nominations for the 
presidency, that Stephen A, Douglas never would consent to a compro- 
, mise which might even remotely retard the growth of his country. He 
favored the instant admission of California. 

Study him carefully and you will find him always favoring the 
erection of new territories, and then so soon thereafter as possible, you 
found him favoring the admission of that or those territories into states. 
No influence, no ambition, no threat, no possibility was permitted to 
interfere with his almost impatient haste to add states to the Union just 
as fast as possible, whether they adopted slavery or not. 

Nobody so well as Douglas knew what the new states would do with 
slavery so soon as they had achieved statehood. The vast army of the 
oppressed of Europe whose faces were turned towards this country lived 
in the temperate zone. Rarely indeed did they ever slip over to the 
south of the latitude they had left. Did any change, it generally was 



89 

for one more northern. With their almost insane passion for freedom ; 
for free homes; free schools; freedom of voice and the opportunity 
afforded to secure for nothing, a free home, it was not to be presumed 
that such immigrants ever would favor any law upon the statute book of 
their adopted states which oppressed another as they had been oppressed, 
even though that other's skin was black. But open the new country and 
slavery would take care of itself. 

But one man seem to divine Douglas' views; that was John C. 
Calhoun, one of the shrewdest of all statesmen. In a speech character- 
istic of him, he predicted this very increase of free states, which if 
admitted, must of course out vote the slave states. Wherefore, he then 
and there advocated secession without delay. 

While he died soon afterwards, the influence of that speech survived 
and very soon, Douglas noticed that none of his recommendations for 
new territories and new states received votes enough to be carried. More 
than likely, his bills and his recommendations, were smothered or de- 
bated into the waste baskets. At alt events as people continued to pour 
into Kansas and Nebraska, those communities began clamoring for a 
government, strong enough to afford local protection. Bills to erect them 
into territories had been strangled many times. Atchison attempted 
to make a speech consenting to the bills for the erection of Kansas. 
The St. Louis merchants, his constituents, demanded it. While try- 
ing to square himself with his party and yet hold the loyalty of his 
merchant constituents, Atchison exposed the plans of his brother sen- 
ators who feared for slavery. The squatter sovereignty plan of Cass, 
adopted by Douglas, which had sounded so nicely in theory, had 
failed to work out any practical results. The slave-holding senators 
discovered that the free soil voters were far too numerous in Kansas to 
take a chance. They found also that ballot box stuffing, murders and 
armed mobs could not defeat the determined votes and voters of the 
abolition and free soil people. It was found too that one important 
individual, feared not to fight them in their activities. That person was 
Douglas. Knowing full well that his opposition to the plans of his partj' 
and to Buchanan's weak policies meant the nomination for president for 
another, Douglas fought with all his great strength, for the freedom of 
Kansas and Nebraska. Atchison's speech developed the opposition to be 
expected from those who would consent to nothing less tiian the repeal 
of the old and honored Missouri Compromise. Douglas begged Dixon to 
withdrew his proposed amendment, but without avail. The matter was 
canvassed with the Iowa senators. Iowa was desirous to see Nebraska 
organized as a territory. They were anxious to see the Pacitic railroad 
built They like Douglas, especially Dodge, knew full well that the 
free soil people would outnumber the pro-slavery people many to one in 
all the remaining territory which might become states and they coun- 
seled a report which Douglas, it will be remembered, filed with his bills 
for the erection of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. 

Douglas at last enlisted in support of the fight which repealed the 
old Missouri Compromise. The bills were passed and Kansas and 
Nebraska began immediately to fill up, John Brown's activities; the 
Missouri forees; the invaders and all the border outlawry followed, and 



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90 

all of those actions Douglas opposed. That opposition was the parting 
of the ways. He was deposed from hie chairmanship of the Committee 
on Territories; but his work had been done well. Many states and terri- 
tories had been added by him. His love of fair play had been preached 
too long and into too many ears. What he could not finish from his 
committee room, the people finished for him. The great West filled 
rapidly. It became tributary to Chicago, just as he had predicted. The 
influence of the Mississippi Valley had become overpowering, just as he 
had foreseen, and just as he had predicted, it became anti-slavery terri- 
tory. Many a time he had said that if let alone, the domestic economy 
of the southern states would take care of the defective parts of i^ 
political economy and that is true. He could see that business develop- 
ment eventually would smother slave labor. He saw plainly enough that 
the vast majority of the population would settle north of Mason and 
Dixon's line and that it would exert the influence required to retire slave 
labor. All of his prophesies have been fulfilled, 

I realize that I have neglected to oblige you with dates and details. 
To have done this, would keep us here all night. The brief allusions I 
have made, took long and bitter years to enact. To deal with the subject 
justly or aptly in half an hour, is hopelessly impossible. 

A close study of Douglas as an expansionist would require many 
pages. They would be interesting pages; they would be entertaining 
pages and in justice to a great Illinois statesman, they should be em- 
bodied into book form and made a volume for the Historical Library. 
It is a shame to notice so many insignificant matters of Illinois history 
magnified into book forms while Douglas and his great works are suffered 
to smoulder. In the nature of things, they may be lost and our people 
will be deprived of their honest heritage. More than to any other 
individual, the State of Illinois owes its first step to greatness, to 
Stephen A. Douglas. While he opposed the old internal improvement 
development schemes, that opposition proved his masterj' over the ques- 
tion of what was and what was not substantial development. In sup- 
porting the Illinois Central and the Union Pacific Railroads, he was 
able to distinguish fact from the fiction. His judgment of Chicago was 
correct. His judgment of his state and of the West, has proved his 
sagacity and his last public act in defending the freedom and the entirety 
of our country, has placed his patriotism beyond the reach of criticism. 



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PART III— CONTRIBUTORS TO STATE HISTORY. 



DE LERVS ERROR AGAIN. 



(By John F. Steward.) 

Since preparing my article entitled "Conflicting Accoimta Found 
in Early Illinois History," published in the Transactions for 1908, I 
recalled the fact that the Illinois River, as a whole, had, at one time 
been called the Macoupin, after our beautiful pond lillies that so adorn 
its nooks. On Franquelin's map of 1684 it is so shown. Referring now 
to DeLery's statement that the small stream he shows on his map, aa 
flowing "Eastward," "Proche cette de Macoupin," and to the fact that 
the smaller stream at the foot of Maramech Hill, before being turned 
by man to turn his wheels, ran "Eastwardly" thereby and then reached 
the main tributary of the Macoupin, of the Algonquin tribes. Fox Eiver, 
as we know it, it seems more clear than I stated that De Lery mixed two 
stories. He had evidently learned of an old fort the Foxes had made 
near the headwaters of the Kankakee, referred to by LaSalle and 
Charlevoix and, seemingly, having before made his maps, jumped to the 
conclusion that the mnner'a account of the slaughter of the Foxes there 
took place, which point is, in fact, about "50 lieues L'Est Sud est du 
Hocher." I understand that the French liegue at that time was two 
and forty-two hundredths miles. This true, the distance from either 
rock would be about 131 miles. The rock on Fox Biver is "near" the 
rock on the Illinois Eiver as it is but 12 liegues away. 



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"COLONIE DU SIEUR DE LA SALLE." 



(By John F, Steward.) 

After Dollier and GalUnfe left LaSaUe, on Lake Erie, in 1669, 
little is known of his wanderings, in hie dream to reach the sea of the 

West. We learn, hovever, that he went down the Ohio as far as the 
Falls, at Loidsville, at least; and I am not alone in thinking that he 
may have gone much farther. The familiarity later shown with the 
Illinois and Indiana countries, at the time his greater plans were being 
laid, could have been little lees than the result of extensive wanderings 
in -those regions by him. We have few definite records of his travels 
during the years between 1669 and 16'1'9, although Perrot, who had 
accompanied him down the Ohio, in 1G69, speaks of having met him on 
the Ottawa Kiver in 1670, hunting with a party of Iroquois. It is 
possible that he may then have been retoming from the upper lakes 
where the meager accounts place his unrecorded explorations. It may 
have been that, following the instincts of the true explorer, so marked 
in him, and at the instance of Governor Frontenac, and in the interest 
of the King, he explored a part of what we, of this State, consider 
the garden spot of the world, praised so highly by the early French 
explorers.* 

He had met Joliet on Lake Erie, when the latter was returning 
from the upper lakes, and had read the accounts of the later journey of 
Joliet and hia fellow traveler Marquette (an invited guest whom the 
Jesuits proclaimed to be the discoverer of the Mississippi Eiver). He 
had listened to the tales of the earlier fur traders. He may have con- 
versed with Nicolet, with Eadison and with Grosillier, the first fur 
traders of the West, but it does not seem that such information alone 
could have warranted him in taxing his friends so far beyond his ability 
to repay. It seems on the contrary, that only his own explorations, 
during the years not made clear; the personal accounts given by an 
enthusiast, could have brought foiih the needed means. The fur trade 
was to bring returns to his creditors, the glory was to be his. 

Joliet, when on the Mississippi, knew of LaSalle'e earlier explora- 
tion of the Ohio, and on the various maps that I have at hand, he placed 
the mouth of that river approximately correct. 

On his large map of 1674, a copy of which may he found on page 
212, vol. 4, of Narative and Critical History, we find the Ohio drawn 
in, and along it the words, "Eoute du Sieur de LaSalle pour aller dans 
le Mexique," which, in plain English means, route taken by Sieur de 
LaSalle to go to Mexico. The pwi^s of the river do not correctly join, 
however, and it is thought by some that the Ohio was drawn in by a 

* See Note 2 at toot of page Sg. 



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93 

■ iater hand. Nevertheless it seems to me that the river, from its source, 
was lat«r there drawn by Joliet, himself, or by a eontmporary familiar 
with all the facta that have come dowa to lis. 

I have used the word contemporary advisedly, as, on a map repro- 
duced by Piuart, and stated by him to have been made in 1680, and 
by Harrisse, the French map expert, in 1619, we find the full informa- 
tion then known to cartographers, and there is shown the lower portion 
of the Ohio properly placed. 

Joliet's and Marquette's maps also show the mouth of the river 
approximately in the right place. FranqueUn's maps of 1684 and 1688 
make the junction of the Ohio with the Miasisaippi clear. 

The accompanying sketch, taken from the map of 1684 shows, in 
dotted lines, that portion, aside from the military headquarters, of 
LaSalle's Colony. The extent of his- alleged colony is found to have 
been fleeting, as the dotted line is omitted in the later map. On the 




earlier Franquelin map, as seen in the sketch, is placed Maramech, a 
few years later referred to by the Governor of New France as that great 
village, and its people referred to as "Miarais of Maramech," including 
the Pepikokias who were living near the Illinois River. 

(O'Callaghan, not being well informed, wrongly places the Miamis 
of Maramech on the Marame River of Michigan, now known as the 
Kalamazoo Eiver, and he is blindly followed by other writers. For 
proof of the error see "Lost Maramech and Earliest Chicago," page 71, 
by the present writer.) 

Of the sixty-eight old maps in my possession, not one shows any 
village on the Kalamazoo Eiver, and seven show Maramech on the Fox 
Eiver of Illinois. 

I account for the error, in part, by the fact that, when O'Callaghan 
prepared his compilation, the Franquelin map of 1684 was not at hand. 



94 

On that map the river Marame, east of Lake Michigan, and the town on- 
the Pestecuoy, (the Fox River of Illinois) are both shown where are 
also shown the Pepikokiaa, Miamia of Marameeh. 

Before him should have been an old English map drawn about 
1790, showing the Kalamazoo aa the Barbue entering Lake Michigan, 
and Maramek River entering the Mississippi below the mouth of the 
Missouri River. On one of Popple's maps of the great lake region the 
Kalamazoo is laid down, as given by the French, "Riviere de la Barbue 
ou Marameg," and the well knewn stream entering the Mississippi as 
"Maramec ou de la Barbue." On that map, however, our ancient town 
is changed to "Maraux." 

Map No. 28, in the library of the Chicago Historical Society, gives 
the name of the Michigan stream and that of Missouri as Marameg, and 
near the latter are the words, "Mines of Marameg." The confusion in 
names was due to the fact that the various Algonquin tribes gave the 
names of any stream prolific in spiny fish, as for instance, the sturgeon, 
bull head, and other spring fish, as Marameg, Maramec, or some similar 
form, as spelled by the French. 

In forming his colonie LaSalte depended largely upon the Miamis, 
and sought to bring the various villages together. At times a part were 
near the Wisconsin River, part on the Mississippi, part on the St. Joseph, 
the Illinois, and a large part on the Fox River of Illinois, as we know 
that stream. 

The Iroquois, after the destruction of the Hurona, sought other 
worlds to conquer, or, perhaps merely an extension of their hunting 
grounds, (largely at the instance of the English), and made repeated 
attacks on the Miami and Illinois tribes, ultimately, with the aid of 
allies, years later driving the latter from their long-time home in the 
northern part of our State to southern Illinois, where they established 
their new Kaskaskia. LaSalle, early seeing his interests jeopardised, at 
once sought to bring about a union of the mutually jealous branches 
of the Miamis and the Illinois, in order that the incursions of the 
Iroquois might be forestalled. 

(After LaSalle's death the union, in part, was brought about and 
the Iroquois were limited in their western operations. Bowles' map of 
1783 shows a dotted line along the Illinois and Chicago rivers, Uiere 
having the word "Quadhoghe," that word constituting one of the names 
given by them to the Hurons, and the line was considered to mark the 
western limit of their claims. On the same map, by the way, we find 
the words, "These parts and rivers were discovered by the English in 
1634," which statement may well be doubted). LaSaile thought best 
to first work through the Miamis and then take in the Illinois and other 
Algonquin tribes. In an account found in Margry, parti, page 585, 
and part 2, page 139, LaSalle, referring to his voyages from August 22 
to the autumn of 1680, touches upon his proposed union of the people in 
the interest of his proposed colony, in the interest of France and perhaps 
in the financial interest of the governor of New France, as stated by 
some of the early writers. At the time last mentioned we find LaSalle 
at the mouth of the St. Joseph River, having stopped there while search- 



96 

ing for his Lieutenant Tonty, who had passed up the Desplaines River, 
(then known as the Chicagou by the natives), and along the lake shore 
to the Pottowattomies. On his arrival at the St. Joseph he found twenty 
or thirty people of several nations, with women and children, who had 
been at war with the English, evidently driven from their homes beyond 
the Hudson, who, at that time, were hunting on the lands westward 
of those actually occupied by the Iroquois. He then found an oppor- 
tunity to join these people with the western tribes, that also spoke the 
Algonquin tongue, and to have a representative remain with them. They 
had been pursuaded by LaSalle's man in charge of the little post at the 
mouth of the St. Joseph River to await the arrival of his leader and 
hold a conference with him. LaSalle came and as he approached his 
little dog ran before him so that Nanangoucy, ("c' est le nom de mon 
sauvage," this is the name of my savage) of the tribe of the Minisous 
from near Boston, came to meet him. The latter told what had been 
done in contemplation of a treaty with the Iroquois, but that if LaSalle 
wished to establish himself with the Illinois or the Miamis, his people, 
with about thirty others would follow ; that he would assist in this and 
only require that he be made chief of his (LaSalle's) nation. It thus 
appears that this Algonquin from the East was to be made the chief of 
the then existing, or soon to exist, town of Maramech, the principal town 
of the colony, as will soon appear. (This Algonquin must not be con- 
fused with Nanangousi, mentioned by O'Callaghan as having lived 67 
years later.) 

With LaSalle, during his travels for two years, had been the son 
of a chief who lived near Boston, to whom was left the negotiations. 

Jealousies had existed among the Miami chiefs, but the attacks of 
the Iroquois forced attempts to reach a compromise. To the St. Joseph 
also came a hundred of the Miamis from the vicinity of Kaskaskia, the 
Illinois village near what we know as Starved Rock. These people were 
returning from an excursion against the Iroquois, led by one of their 
principal chiefs. There also came 150 warriors from the region of the 
Ohio River, begging of the Frenchmen the assistance of the King of 
France for protection, and of this opportunity LaSalle sought to avail 
himself to further his schemes. 

Soon after the Indians from near Boston informed him that two 
canoes were ready to take him to the Miamis. It seems likely that the 
Miamis referred to were those who had been at war with the Iroquois 
and the route taken was by way of the Kankakee, the Illinois, and the 
Pestecuoy (our Fox Eiver) on which Maramech was to be, or already 
was, situated, (The herds of buffalo lent their name to our beautiful 
river because of their abundance on our prairies.) 

Nanangousista (Nanangouci, of LaSalle's phraseology) some years 
later was "chief of that great village," Maramech, chosen to that position 
through the influence of the Frenchman. Arriving at the Miamis he 
found three Iroquois who were endeavoring to persuade the people to aid 
in the destruction of the Illinois tribe. The flight of the three during the 
night had a good effect on the Miamis, who then listened to the long 
talk of LaSalle, which was accompanied by presents, as seals to his 
promises. Following the custom of some of the tribes {but apparently 



ogle 



96 

not that of the Miamis) he resuscitated, as it was termed, a deceased 
chief, by assuming his name, saying: "Ouabicolcata — no longer believe 
that he is dead; I have his spirit and his soul in my body; I revive his 
name; I am another Ouabicolcata, and I take the same care of his family 
ae he while with you. I no longer call myself Okimao but Ouabicolcata. 
He is no longer dead ; he lives and his family shall no longer be in need. 
His soul is in the body of a Frenchman who has much of all you need." 
After other promises, sealed by more presents, response was made by 
Ouabichagan, who said : "We never have seen, my brother Ouabicolcata, 
a thing so surprising. It must be that the one that thou hast given 
life to is a great spirit; he renders the sky more beautiful; the sun is 
brighter; we are ashamed to have nothing to present to him to equal 
the presents he has made to us." Much more was said, but sufBee it to 
end with this : "The Illinois is our brother, since he has acknowledged 
our father who has returned to life our brother. But as he is our father 
in common, we pray that he may give sense to our brother, the Illinois, 
who is accustomed to eat the flesh of man, which custom he will not quit 
unless our father forbids it." 

The governor of New France had frequently made war against the 
Iroquois, always followed by a formal treaty of peace, soon to be broken, 
but LaSalle felt called upon to say that he did not favor going to war 
against the Iroquois by any of the tribes he sought to become members 
of his colony. He knew, and the proposed component parts of his colony- 
to-be knew, that clear skies were only a dream. 

He had met the Illinois sometime earlier at their village, Kaa- 
kaskia, had estimated their number of warriors at twelve hundred and 
had made many promises of aid and protection from incursions of the 
Iroijuois, whom he thought to be superior in bravery and who were 
accustomed to the use of firearms. His promise to the Illinois induced 
them to ofiEer to go to the sea with him by way of the Mississippi River. 

They saw plainly that, that river once opened, they then could 
procure firearms and other necessities without interference from the 
eastern tribes. 

By opening up the great river LaSalle hoped, not only to open up 
to French settlement the valley of his proposed colony, but to call within 
reach thereof many of the tribes located far to the southwest, then trad- 
ing with the Spaniards of Mexico. The beauty of the valleys and 
prairies and their fertility were dwelt upon, when communicating with 
his friends and associates in France. Wild hemp was abundant, buffalo 
wool would become a great commodity, mines of coal, iron and copper 
were in, and within reach of, the proposed colony. 

Tanneries, with bark at hand, could find ample market for their 
products in France, The prairies needed the plow only, and that could 
be worked by the buffalo. 

Furs could be brought down every tributary to the mouth of the 
great river to awaiting vessels. The rapid settlement, after opening the 
river, would permit the withdrawal of a large French force from Canada 
with which, and allies from the western tribes, he could wrest from the 
Spaniards the mines of Mexico. Such was another of his dreams, but 
far therefrom the realization. 



97 

The tribes that LaSalle had half cemented became, to some extent, 
proof against the eastern enemies, and they joined the French in at- 
tempts to defeat, or at least overawe the Iroquois. The Miamia were in 
the majority; at least sttch vas the case when various minor nations 
allied themselves therewith. 

In an address by the governor of New France to a deputation of 
Miamis who visited Montreal, he said: "You, Meeatonga and you Nanan- 
gousista, are chiefs of that great village," referring to Maramech. Al- 
though the termination of the second name mentioned differs, as was 
often the case in the various accounts when written by persbns not accus- 
tomed to a language, it seems that LaSalle's promise held good until 
long after his death. While the buffalo remained on our prairies and 
beavers and other animals, fine of fur, had not been hunted to extinc- 
tion, the interests of Canada were such as to prompt careful supervision 
of the natives thus in part allied, and to better do so, to establish secure 
trading posts and a chain of small forts, as LaSalle had, in fact, begun. 
Nicholas Perrot, who had accompanied LaSalle on his early explorations, 
nicknamed by his comrades "Petit Ble," {Little Com), soon after La 
Salle's death had become known, being one of the most prominent 
travelers and traders, was appointed to supervise the nations of the 
region of the eretwhile colony, one of his trading stations being at 
Maramech. His principal trading post, however, was on the Miasiseippi 
River. Of him we read : "In addition to these officers who have their 
stations fixed, the man named Perrot is to occupy one in the immediate 
neighborhood of the Miamis, in order to execute whatever will be ordered. 
This place is called Malamet (called by LaPotherie Maramek, when 
referring to Perrot), and a great concourse of Indians repair thither, 
among whom this man has a great amount of infinence. 

(De La Potherie was a contemporary of Perrot, and authors gen- 
erally acknowledge that he received much of the information regarding 
the western tribes at first-hand from the latter. See De La Potherie, 
"Histoire De I/Amerique Septentrionale 1 & 21.) 

Perrot himself refers to the Pepikokias as Miamis of Maramek, and 
they are shown, on Pranquelin's map as being practically a part of 
LaSalle's colony. So far, in my extended investigations, I have found 
no reference to any of the villages grouped in and about LaSalle's colony 
since I'/OO, but they are shown on many maps in my possession. Charle- 
voix, who passed down the Illinois Eiver in 1721, speaks in words of 
praise of the region of LaSalle's colony, but mentions none of the Indian 
towns there located. Fort St. Louis on "The Rock," had long been 
abandoned and the people of Kaskaskia had founded their new town far 
to the south. It seems that Maramech had been abandoned before 1730, 
as we find no mention of it in the military accounts of that year, when 
referring to the destruction of the Poses nearby the "Little River," for 
a time called, as yet is its larger tributary in Kane County, "Battle 
Creek." 

Quite likely the governor of New Prance, through Perrot, had 
succeeded in pursuading the Miamis of Maramech to smother their 
jealousies and "move their fires" and unito with their brothers on the 



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98 

St. Joseph River, where most of the Miamis were later found, as Bhown 
by many mapB of the time. CartographeiB were inclined to follow each 
others delineations of old as well as new errors, and as late aa 1718 our 
beautiful Fox River is given the name "Riviere du Eocher," (fiiver of 
the large rounded Rock), its foot bathed thereby, the river having 
an erroneous termination, but the town properly placed but called 
"Maraux." Popple's map, in the Yale Library, shows Maraux and the 
beautiful hills thereby. At the time this map was made and the coming 
of another generation, LaSalle was here known only in tradition. 

Aside from the Citadel on the Rock, our valley was at first best 
known of all parts of our now so prosperous State. Ijater the region 
became no-mans-Iand, hunted by bands grown more nomadic in their 
natures. Of the erstwhile fields of com and melons few remained, and 
the few were oflf the trails. The buffalo soon passed over the "Father 
of waters." 

Vanished were the dreams of LaSalle. His day-dreama began to 
vanish when, in 1685, he sailed beyond the mouth of the Mississippi, led 
by his error in longitude, and Ai4d with him in the wilds of Texas; 
then vanished the prospects of France in our valleys. We read words 
of praise of our present homes, those of Joutel, Tonty, Cavalier (the 
priest-brother of LaSalle) as words of prophesy — words not overdrawn. 

We cross the seas to eastern lands and return to appreciate anew 
the high estimate placed by the Frenchmen on the fertility of our soils. 

Note. — The nomenclature of our early history, its rivers, towns 
and particularly its tribes was not constant. It is often found that a 
single river, or an Indian chief is spelled in a half dozen' ways. 

Note I.— The nomenclature of our early hlatory, ila rlvars, towns and pBrUcolBrly lis trlb« waa Dot 
ODDStant. It is often (ounii that the name of a sfngle river, or an Indian oiiel Is spelled hi a hall dOiQD 

Note S.— I have before me a photographic reprint ol a mqi In which the statement Is made tikat 
the HisalsslpplrlvH, In Its mth^ was d&coveied by the Jnulta. In this regard I quote Cram LaPotherle 
a clause which shows that LaSalle had Blmdy wandtnd about the weatem rc^on: "The discoverr 
<tf the sea o[ the Sonlh held stnogly to the heut of Mi. Talon who threw the eyes on the sleoi Joliet, 
to make the attempt He had yoyued with tbt 0tt»was; the knowledge that he had already of thl» 
country would give to him aoouj^ lldit to undertake this discovery. Ela voyace was nothlnc aum 
ttian an mcbaDtment of adventures that «lann vndd make a Tdama, bnt to cut short he panetrated 
aa Car as the Arkansas, that was three hundred Itagnes from the mouth of ttie MbstsalppL The niiiiais 
who had accompanted him broudiC blm back by anotbtr route, ahortsr by two hiuKlred leaaits and 
madeblm enter in therlvsrSahitJoseph, where UonsleurdelaSale had commenced anatabltahment." 



jvGooi^lc 



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John P. Stbwabd. 
The discoverer of Lost Meramach, 



DiqineOwGoOl^lc 



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Avert N. Beebe. 
President Meramach Society. 



Geoboe S. Steward. Harlan P. Baknes. 

Vtce-Presldent 
Meramach Society. 



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THE MERAMECH CLUB. 



(By A. N. Beebe.) 

Al] literary clube and kindred organizations should be liberally 
endowed with fraternal fellowship, toleration and moral stamina; and 
should be membered with the beat class of citizens, irrespectiTe of all 
creeds and conditions in life, religions or political, conditioned only on 
the high and lofty staodard of respectability and integrity. To adopt 
and live up to thiB axiom is no trifling task or of easy accomplishment. 
The proneneBs of human kind to fall below their high standards is as 
natural as life itself. 

The Meramech Club of Kendall County was first organized in 
Piano as the Sunset Club, in January, 1900, on the occasion of a birth- 
day party of E. W. Faxon, who had invited as many friends as repre- 
sented the number of his years, to celebrate his birthday anniversary. 
The personel of this party was E. W. Faxon, Prof. Alfred Cook, Prof. 
J. E. Freeborn, Dr. I. E. Bennett, Dr. B. E. Ladue, George H. Scott, 
L. K. Woodman, W. H. Jones, Harry Paradise, Frank H. Earl, Amer 
B. Cook, J. E. Bates, Henry Stabile, Frank W. Lord, James M. Sears, 
Ivan L, Smith, Ward E. Shaw, A. E. Hinckley, James Crick, Julian E. 
Steward, Hugh D. Henning, Charles A. Darnell, Charles M. Morris, 
W. L, Means, William Deering Steward, William Whitfield, George S. 
Faxon, George S. Steward, Loren D. Henning, C. Emmet Jeter, Hon. 
Charles T. Cherry, Hon. J. Bert Castle, and Walter M. Foster, and 
others. 

After a bounteous hanqixet had been served, and many general 
topics had been discussed, Mr. Charles A. Darnell was called on to 
explain the motion which led up to the formation of the Meramech 
Club. It was the desire that such a club be organized as would insure 
permanency, to bind together the citizens in friendly relations and estab- 
lish good will and friendly business rivalry. 

CODE OF ETHICS. 

No clubhouse; no constitution; no debts, no profanity; no fines; no 
combines; no dress coats; no late hours; no perfumed notes; no parlia- 
mentary votes; no personalities; no vituperation; no accounts; no duj 
no by-laws; no long speeches; no dictation; no litigation; and> 
other "noes" and a few other impossibilities. '' 

However we soon found a club with no one to direct, no oi^ 
sible for what was done — ^was like a ship without a compass or 
a captain — moreover we were up against another proposition-f 
of ethics was overloaded and no finance for ballast. The Y 



100 

and fuel companiee were Ering bills at tis. The butcher, tbe baker, and 
the candlestick makers must be paid, so we got busy. Some of oar 
code articles had to be eliminated. If we continued with "no dnfee" 
"no debts," there soon would come "vituperation" and "litigation" 
Nevertheless a club so anspiciously begun ga&ering force and new mem- 
bers at ever; meeting was not to be sidetracked merely for lack of a 
bank account. 

We have tried to make our club a permanent organization. It has 
passed the experimental stage and has had an existence of thirteen years 
and appears like a good robust organization. Hardly a meeting paseee 
but we add from two to half a dozen new members. We have a strong 
auxiliary represented by the wives and daughters of the members, which 
is a very welcome aid and comes on at the pleasure of the Executive 
Committee. "Ladies Night" means a hearty response and a large at- 
tendance, as the ladies give to these functions great spirit and enthnsiasm. 
The ladies' ass^tance means added vim to onr program, and they never 
flinch when drafted into the list of speakers. They have discussed 
many very interesting topics. 

Our club started under the most favorable conditions, all the mem- 
bers were entbnsiastic and determined to fulfill every requirement of 
the code. We soon enlisted as members the very best element in all 
parts of our country. The teachers and the preachers, the doctors and 
the lawyers, and all classes of professional and tradesmen, business men, 
together with our farmers flocked to our standard, only unstinted praise 
came from alt onr newly acquired members, and our invited guests ex- 
pressed ardent satisfaction with the aims, objects and management of 
the club, and they generally became enthusiastic members. 

We find the younger men of the club are inclined to be reserved 
and reticent when the caU comes for volunteer speeches, but we remedy 
this to some extent by publishing a list of ten or twenty names previ- 
ously selected; this affords them opportunity to prepare, and most of 
ihsm will respond in short appropriate speeches. In the management 
of our club we find the members are remunerated by being drafted 
into writing a paper on a chosen and to*tbem unfamiliar topic, simply ' 
because they are taxed vrith the effort of gathering the data for the 
paper which ia good schooling for the writer. 

The most feasible plan adopted was to have meetings once each 
month, omitting perhaps the summer months; it is the business of the 
Executive Conunittee to arrange topics for discussion, then two, three 
or four members are selected to read papers on the topics assigned them, 
then five minute arguments follow by volunteer speakers. 

We have been unable to make favorable terms with the weather man 
at all times, and when a club banquet is to be steged our caterers gen- 
erally ask for a guaranty of a certein number to provide for at our ban- 
quet tables. The only way, or rather the best way out of this, is for 
the secretary to canvass the members, and those engaging plates must 
pay for them, whether they come or not. Each member is privileged 
to bring as many guests as bis generosity will allow him to provide with 
banquet tickets. No distinction is made on account of politics, religioue 
creeds, or nationality; the artisan, the mechanic, the profesdional and 
the working man all meet on a common level. 



Hon; Julian R. Stewabii. 



DiqitizeabvG00»^IC 



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Judge C. S, Williams. 

YorkvlUe, III. 



DiqitizeabvG00»^IC 



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DiqineOwGoOl^lc 



Ceas. a. Dabnell. 
Attorney, Piano, 111, 



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:. Abtkub E. Lobd. 



DiqitizeabvG00»^IC 



101 

Discussions have taken a wide range and obsolete questions have 
to give current topics the right-of-way. 

Our membersbip has broadened and our club is not enviroaed bj 
county or State lines. 

The following list shows what lines have been followed in the club 
discussions : 

"Indian History," by J, F. Steward, Chicago, Day Picnic at Mera- 
mech Pill , June, 1900; "Old Time Beminiscences," by Hon. P. A, 
Armstrong, Morris, Hon. Geo. M. Hollenback, Aurora, and J. F. 
Steward, Chicago. 

"The Torrens Land Law," by Ivan L Smith, Avery, N". Beebe, 
Judge Geo. W. Brown, September Meeting, 1900; "Methods of Con- 
gressional Legislation," by United States Senator Albert J. HopkinB, of 
Aurora. 

"The Hay-Pauncefote and the Clayton-Bulwer Treaties," by Dr. 
I. E. Bennett, C. A. Darnell, B. W. Fazon, A. N. Beebe, J. E. Steward, 
H. P. Barnes, and J. B. Marshall. 

"The Merchant Marine," by J. W. Hunt, Clarence S. Williams, 
E. L, Henning, J. R, Marshall, Geo. Mewhirter. 

"Cuba," by Prof. George Elliott and Attorney R. 0. Leitch. 

"The Influence of the Christian Religion in China," by Rev. E. Q. 
Rose, E. W. Fazon; "The Boier Movement," by G. S. Steward; "Atti- 
tude of the Great Powers to China," A. N. Beebe, Rev. Henry H. Alger. 

"The licgal Phase of Heed Smoofs Election to Congress," by Hon. 
A. J. Hopkins, and reply by F. M. Cooper, of the Latter Day Saints 
Church. 

"The Panama Route," by A. N, Beebe; "The Nicaraugua Route," 
by C. A. Darnell ; "The Darien Route," by J. R. Steward. 

"Election of United States Senators by Direct Vote of the People," 
by Prof. Alfred Cook, Dr. I. E. Bennett. 

"Compulsory and Arbitrary Education," by W. W. Owen and C. M. 
Steward; "Critical Periods of American History," by G. S. Steward, 
E. L. Henning, W. D. Steward, and Henry Stabile. 

"The Continental Congress," by E, W. Faxon; "The Isthmian 
Canal Eout«," by H. P- Barnes. 

"Science of Ethics and Morality," Rev, Francis 0. Wyatt; "The 
Convention of Hogs," (satire), by Prof, Alfred Cook; "Ole Jacobson 
as an April Fool," by G. E. McCracken; "Domestic Tragedy," (full of 
fun), by A. E. Brickenback. 

"Development of Piano's Manufacturing Interest," by Hon. C. W, 
Marsh, of DeKalb; "Early Reminiscences," by Geo. M. Hollenback, 
Rev, J. B. McGrifBn, Dr. G. H. Robertson, Lawrence Rank, Graham 
Hunt, and B. A. Darnell. 

"Has the Attitude of England Toward the United States Since 
the Fall of Yorktown Been of a More Favorable Than Hostile Nature?" 
by Dr. I. E. Bennett, C. A. Darnell, affirmative; W. W. Owen and H. 
P. Barnes, negative. 

"The Acquisition and Development of Alaska," by Prof. J. R. 
Freeborn; "Resources and Value to the United States," by 0. G. 
Irfiwbaugh; "Seal Fisheries," by Dr. A. R. Taylor; "The Boundary 
Dispute," by E. L. Henning. 



.>glc 



"Theosophical Theory of the Universe," bj Prof. Walter S. Green- 



"The Unwritten Law," by C. A. Darnell, N. P. Barnard, B. F. 

Herrington, and F. M. Cooper, 

"GoTernora of IllinoiB, Ninian Edwards," by Lillian K. Faxon; 
"Shadrack BoBd," by Mrs. W. E. Kinnett; "Richard Yatea, the War 
Governor," by A. N. Beebe. 

"The Open Shop, for and Against; from the Capitalist and labor 
Standpoint," by F. H. Earl, E. W. Faxon, and J. R. Steward. 

"Development of Japan During Last Fifty Years," by Rev. Fran- 
cis 0. Wyatt; "Course of the Present Crisis in the East," by Dr. I. B. 
Bennett; "Russian Eastern Policy," by G. S. Steward. 

"Should There Be Further Pacific Legislation Controlling Mar- 
riages," by B. F. Herrington, I. L. Smith, and Dr. Henry ; "Psychology 
of the Mob," by Professor Jones. 

"Seventieth Anniversary of Oswego," meeting in Oswego; "Olden 
Times," by J. F. Steward, Geo. M. HoUenback, J. R, Marshall, Mrs. 
M, Young, and Lawrence Rank. 

"Does the Tariff Foster Trusts?" by H. P. Barnes, J. R. Freeborn, 
negative; J. E. Turpin and J. R. Steward, affirmative. 

"Our Public Schools," by Prof. W. S. King and G. S. Steward. 

"Good Roads," by J. R. Steward and Judge C. S; Williams. 

"Mexico, Conquest," by Dr. I. E. Bennett; "Revolution," by W. W. 
Owen; "Modem Mexico," by G. S. Steward. 

"Restriction of Immigration, Oriental Races," by C. A. Darnell; 
"Latin Races," by Professor Nichols; "Slavic Races," by Nelson Morley. 

"Did Tom Paine Write the Declaration of Independence?" by C. 
A. Darnell; "Alexander Hamilton As a Statesman," by Geo. Mewhirter; 
"The Dred Scott Discussion," by Rev. H. E. Sweitzer. 

"Influence of Clubs in American Life," by John M. Raymond; 
"Enlargement of the American Navy," by Avery N. Beebe; "Uniform 
Divorce Laws," by N. P. Barnard. 

"Deep Waterways," by Hon. Lyman E. Cooley, Chicago. 

"The Abolition of Slavery," by Ben M. Olson; "Manual Training, 
Its Place of Education," by J. R. Steward. 

"The Annexation of Canada," by J. R. Adams, Lorin D. Henning, 
and Prof. W. S. King. 

"Why Was the Capitol Located at Washington?" by Prof. W. S. 
Bixler; "The Usefulness of the Crow, Blackbird, and Other Birds," by 
J. R. Steward. 

Lincoln Birthday Anniversary; meeting February 12, 1909- Ad- 
dresses by Dr. R, H. Pooley, John Fitzgerald, B. F. Herrington, Judge 
Mazzini Slusser, John M. Raymond, N. J. Aldrieh, John S. Sears, 
James S. Hatch. This was ladies night. There was a very large attend- 
ance and it proved to be one of the most enjoyable meetings ever held 
by this club. 

"One Term for President," by H. P. Barnes, Capt. Arthur Peacay. 
"Conservation of National Resources," by Nelson Morley; "Fer- 
tility of the Soil," by J. H. Steward; "Mining and Water Power," by 
J. B. Gilpatricb. 



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Db. F. H. Lotel. 

Piano. 111. 



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Ivan. L. Smith. 
Secretary Meramach Society. 



DiqineOwGoOl^lc 



"Stocking Streams With I"ish," by Asher D. Havenhill; "History 
of tbe Meramech Club," by Dr. I. E. Bennett. 

"The Mound BuildeiB," by B. R Herrington; "The Guarantee of 
Security to the Woman in the Marriage Contract," by Dr. F, R. Frazier ; 
"Laxity of Emigration Laws," by John Sears and Rev. C, D. McCammon. 

"Regulation of Public Service Corporations," by Judge Mazzini 
Slusser, of Wheaton, Chas. Hoard, and N. P. Barnard. 

"Some Hindrances and Some Aids to Education," by Father John 
Cusack. 

"Commission Form of Government," by C. A. Darnell and G. S. 
Steward. 

"Barbarous Mexico," Professor Locke, read a lett«r by Chas. Hen- 
ning. "Railroad Builders in Mexico;" "A Winter in Mexico," by G. S. 
Steward. 

"Lax Enforcement of Criminal Law," by J. R. Raymond, Oliver A. 
Burkhart; "Ininjigration Laws," by R. 0. Leitch and C. D, McCammoD. 

"The American Fanner as a Producer and Manufacturer," by W. C, 
Thompson, president of the Independent Harvester Company, and 
others. 

"Irrigation," by Lyman Sheaffer; "Minority Representation," by 
N .P. Barnard; "Recent and Present Troubles in Southern Europe," by 
Rev. C. Lemont Hay. 

"The Robber Fee Bill," by C. S. Williams; "John Euskin," by 
Rev. J. F. Miln. 

"Resolved that the United States Should Charge Alike for All 
Panama Canal Tolls;" affirmative, John Fitzgerald; negative, John 
Sears, 

"Resolved that Political Patronage is a Menace to Good Govern- 
ment;" aifirmative, J. M. Raymond; negative, George Elliott. 

"Resolved that Women Should Be Given the Right of Franchise;" 
affirmative, Mrs. J. B. Gilpatrick; negative. Rev, C. Lemont Hay, Miss 
Julia Norton, Prof. R. E. Locke. 

"Live Stock Production from Producer to Consumer," by John D. 
Russell and Erick Nelson. 

"The Cause and Cure of Strikes," by George Cormack and Ray 
McLarty. 

May meeting, 1913, ladies night. Address by Rev. E. W. O'Neal, 
of Chicago, "Seers of "Visions." 

LIST OF OFFICERS. 

The following is the official roster of the club since organization: 

Presidents — Dr. I. E. Bennett, Julian R. Steward, C. Emmett 
Jeter, Dr. Frank H. Lord, Charles A. Darnell, Avery N. Beebe. 

Vice-President — Harlan P. Barnes. 

Treasurer — Edgar W. Faxon. 

Secretaries and Treasurers — Prof. J. R. Freeborn, George S. Faxon, 
Ivan L. Smith. 

Executive Committee — G. S. Steward, I. E. Bennett, Edgar L. 
Henning, W. W. Owen, C. Emmett Jeter, F. H. Lord, C. A. Darnell, 
Avery N. Beebe, Clarence S. Williams, Arthur E. Lord. 



i„.c:..Goo»^lc 



IM 

The Personel of the Honorary Members follow — Hon. John F. 
Steward, Chicago, 111. ; former U. S. Senator Albert J. Hopkins, Aurora, 
111. ; Eev. F. J. Miln, M.E. Church, Piano, 111. ; Judge Mazzini Slusser, 
Wheaton, 111.; Eev. H. E. Sweitzer, Pastor M.E. Church, Piano, 111.; 
Eev, Kellner, Pastor Congregational Church, Piano, 111.; Elder F. M. 
Cooper, Latter Day Saints Church, Piano, lU. ; Father Byrne, Catholic 
Priest, Piano, 111.; Rev. Ernest Wray O'Neal, Fiist M.E. Church, 
Chicago, 111. 

NECEOLOGY. 

With profound sorrow the writer announces the names of departed 
members who have passed to the other shore, viz : 

Hon. Edgar W. Faxon, of Piano, 111.; Prof. J. E. Freeborn, of 
Granville, 111. ; Mr. Graham C. Hunt, of Bristol, 111. ; Charles W. Beebe, 
of Yorkville, 111.; Hon. Charles T. Cherry, of Oswego, 111., and bis 
eAimable wife, Emma Clark Cherry, of Oswego, III. ;. Hon. Perry A. 
Armetrong, Morris, 111., and his beloved wife, Maliiia Newell Armstrong; 
Eev. Q. H. Eobertson, Sandwich, III. ; Judge George W. Brown, Wheaton, 
111. ; William W. Owen, Piano, HI. ; Dr. Amasa E. Field, Plattville, El. ; 
Lawrence Bank, Oswego, 111. ; Judge William HUl, Yorkville, III. ; Mrs. 
George L. Needham, Yorkville, 111.; Hon. Edgar L. Henning, Piano, 
111.; Charles N. Lawson, JPlano, 111.; William Whitfield, Piano, III.; 
William L. Means, Piano, 111. 



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Geo. S. Faxos. 

cretary Meramach Society. 



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SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF CENTER CHURCH. 
SEATON, ILL. 



(By Eev. N. W. Thornton.) 

An importaat hiBtorical service was held at Center Presbyterian 
Church, Seaton, Mercer County, Illinois, Sabbath morning, January 
12, 1913. It celebrated the Beventy-fifth anniversary of the church. 
Popes River Church waa the original church of the communis, organ- 
ized October 14, 1837. It was merged later in Center Church 8 few 
miles to the south, and afterwards moved to Seaton. 

The whole of the week before had been devoted to social meetings 
wherein were presented the special lines of the various departments of 
church work. It had been a pleasant and profitable week leading up 
to a summary and memorial of the church iteelf. This church has had 
a long and honored history. Anyone who has been associated with it 
in any way may be proud of that fact. 

The opening address of the occasion was made by the writer of this 
article, and with a few corrections was as follows : 

Fs. 87 :4, 5 — "I will make mention of Rahab and Sabylon to them 
that know me: behold Phillistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man 
was bom there. 

"And of Zion it shall be said, this and that man was bom in her; 
and the highest himself shall establish her." 

The early settlement of any land is important. The settlement of 
Mercer County, Illinois, is as important in a sense as the Settlement 
of Plymouth. 

We meet today in an important historical gathering — to celebrate 
the seventy-fifth anniversary of organized Presbyterianism in this part 
of the State of Illinois. If any church anywhere might appreciate such 
an historical event then this church should. Presbyterian church 
history in Illinois came in from Kentucky and moved northward. In 
1820 a church was organized at Jacksonville, at Hnshville a few years 
later, at Monmouth in September, 1837, and at Popes River, October 
14, 1837. Later in the year churcjiea were organized at Edgington and 
lower Rock Island, But Popes River was organized before any church 
either to the north or west. 

October 14, 1837, Popes River Church was the farthest point organ- 
ized Presbyterianism had reached in the United States. We hardly 
realize that at that time Michigan, Iowa, and Wisconsin were territories. 
Michigan became a state in 1838, Iowa in 1846 and Wisconsin in 1848. 
The Blaekhawk War was fought in 1832. Friendly and straggling 
Indians were still in the country. It was the day of log cabins and 



,Coo»^lc 



106 

rail fences. The improvements were first made along the streams and 
timber. It was thought then the open prairies never would be settled. 

The charter members of Popes River Church were thirteen. There 
were received by letter Thomas Candor and Margaret, his wife, John 
Black and Nancy, his wife, Ephraim Gilmore, John Long and Martha 
Long, William I, Nevius and Mary Ann, his wife; by profession of 
faith, Mrs. Julian Gilmore and Miss Nancy Nevius. The preaching 
services of the church were held around the neighborhood, but generally 
at Mr. Candor's until 1849 when the church building was fii^shed in 
section t of Ohio Grove Township. The last records in the old minute 
book of Popes River Church were March 12 and 13, 1869, the very days 
that the Center Church was being organized in the southeast comer of 
Abington Township. The last members of Popes River Church were 
then and there transferred to become the charter members of Center 
Church. And of the thirty-five that constituted the church, sixteen 
were from Popes Eiver. It was the same stream flowing on under a 
new name. 

The period of time from October 14, ISS?, to March 13, 1869, is 
31 years, 4 months, and 28 days, and from the later date to the present 
is 43 years, 10 months, making the age, of the church to date 75 years, 
2 months and 38 days of consecutive history associated with this con- 
tinuous organized work in three places — two adjacent to and one in 
Seaton. During the period embraced by the Popes River Church there 
were received by letter one hundred and fifteen and by profession of 
faith eighty-eight — two hundred three in all. 

The first elders were Thomas Candor and Ephriam Gilmore. Mr. 
E. Gilmore was clerk of the Session for seventeen years, until the 
Millersburg church was organized. The names of those dismissed April 
16, 1854, to form the Millersburg church were as follows: E. Gilmore 
(an elder), Julian Gilmore, Jno. M. Gilmore, Margaret S. Gilmore, 
Ann Janet Taylor, Henry Lee, Martha Lee, Mary Marsh, Edward 
Brady, Mary Sherer, John Brady, Eliza Brady, Catherine Gilmore, 
Tabitha M. Bay, John T. McGinnis, Betsy King, Mary E. Murphy, 
Sarah E. Lloyd, Sarah Clark, Elizabeth Ann Edgar, Elizabeth Davie, 
Mary M. Steele, John Kiddoo, Eliza Eiddoo, Graham Lee, Mary H, Lee, 
David Morrow, Elizabeth Morrow, Julia Riggs, Margaret A. McGinnis, 
Joseph G. Gilmore, Aletta Ann Gilmore, Samuel Guffy, Mary Guffy, 
H. W. Thornton, E. F. Thornton, Rachel T. Willits, Hannah J. Reed. 

These thirty-eight persons, many of them who had united on pro- 
fession of faith, going out at one time must have caused the workers 
remaining to feel the burdens would be much heavier to carry. 

November 8, 1856, certain members were released to help organize 
the church at Aledo; W. W. McCandless (an elder), James OfBcer, 
Mary Jane OfBcer, Jacob Vanbuskirk, Mary Ann Vanbuskirk, Martha 
Detwiler, David Brown, John McKee, Sarah Ann McCandless, March 
8, 1858, some more members were released to Aledo : Thomas Candor 
(an elder), Mary Candor, Arabelle Thompson, M, P. Marsh, Eliza 
Marsh, Phoebe Gregory. Here were fifteen, all told, released to Aledo. 

Jlay 2, 1857, a group of fourteen members were released to help 
form the church of Keithsburg: I. N. Anderson, Anna Anderson, 
Mary Frazier, Eliza Neely, H. L, Senter, Nancy W. Frick, Catharine 



107 

Cabeen, Anna M. Fleming, Paul Sheriff, Mary Sheriff, Sarah Mount, 
Margaret Brisbane, Austin Hale, Mary E. Hale. 

The whole membership released to help, form tliese three churclieB 
was sixty-seven. 

The last record in the book is March IS, 1869, when fifteen mem- 
bers were released to enter the new organization known as Center Church, 
viz : Samuel Crisswell, Sarah Crisswell, Lewis Wright, Eebecca Wright, 
Samuel Pollock, Marg. A. Pollock, Matthew Taylor, Mary E. Hale, Mary 
Holmes, Catharine J. Cabeen, Margaret Cameron, Sarah Cameron, 
Mary A. Cabeen, Jane G, Cabeen, Elizabeth P. Cabeen. 

This exhausted the Popes River Church and its life and sphere of 
work then was merged into the Center Church, now the prosperous 
church of Seaton. 

The list of ministers is as follows: John Montgomery, Ithamer 
Pillsbury, Thomas S. Vail, L. B. Crittenden, S. B. Smith, William 
Townsley, E. K. Lynn, I. H. Nevius, L. G. Bel!. 

The list of elders: Thomas Candor, Bphraim Gilmore, John W. 
Nevius, David E. Harris, James Kiddoo, William W. McCandless, James 
McPherrin, Austin Hale, Samuel Pollock, 

These pioneers, through their wisdom and fidelity, organized the 
new settlers of Mercer County into this parent church, and then when 
geographical points began to be centers, set them off to become centers 
themselves. 

The one thing that will impress anyone in reading over the minutes 
of Popes River Church is the remarkable number received on profession 
of faith and the remarkable history of many of these. 

Thomas Candor and Robert, his brother, made the trip from Penn- 
sylvania to Mercer County horseback in 1836. Thomas Candor entered 
two quarters in Ohio Grove Township — northwest quarter of section 6 
and southwest quarter of section 7. Then selling their horses they 
returned to Pennsylvania by river. After selling his tannery, Mr. 
Candor made ready to move west. With his wife and family of five 
children he journeyed westward overland in the fall of 1837, reaching 
Mercer County sometime before the organization of Popes River Church. 
His wife's maiden name was Margaret Montgomery. She was one of 
nine brothers and sisters, the children of John Montgomery, Sr., of 
Danville, Pa. Her brother, Daniel, settled near Edgington about 1836, 
and became an elder of that church when it was organized in Efovember, 
1837. Her brother, John, was a minister who had been laboring at 
Paris, 111., in the Presbytery of Palestine in 1835. He was the first 
Presbyterian minister to locate in Mercer County and settled at FarloVs 
Grove in 1837. He preached statedly for the Farlow's Grove Church 
and Popes River Church until his death, October 6, 1843. Mrs. Hop- 
kins Boone, of Farlow's Grove, was also a sister. The Boones came to 
Illinois in 1835 and stopped at Paris where Rev. John Montgomery was 
preaching, and Mrs. Boone said to her brother, "Why don't you come 
and preach for us." He replied, "I would as soon preach for you as 
anybody." And so in 1837 we find the families of brother and sister 
side by side at Farlow's Grove. Another sister of Mrs. Candor was Mrs. 
William Sheriff. Both Mr. and Mrs. William Sheriff were charter mem- 



108 

bers of the Popes Eiver Church. So of the Montgomery family two 
brothers and three Bisters settled near together and took active part in 
foTinding religious privileges in Mercer County. 

The death of Mrs. Candor September 30, 1841, was a great blow 
, to the loving fellowship of these early settlers. Her grave beside the 
church became the dedication of the old cemeter;. In 1843 the family 
of Rev. John Montgomery was stricken with five deaths. First, Mtb. 
Montgomery died in the spring of 1843. In the summer the twins died 
which she had left. A little later the niece, who had come to nurse 
the sick in this home, died. And in October, Bev, John Montgomery 
died. In the minutes of the Popes Biver Church is this record : 
"Departed this life on the 6th day of October, a.d. 1843, at his residence 
in Farlow's Grove, Mercer County, Illinois, tiie Rev. John Montgomery, 
stated supply for thia congregation." 

The Montgomery family of two brothers and three sisters afforded 
four ruling elders and one minister. 

One interesting feature of the Popes River Church is the number 
which united on profession of faith. Another feature is the number of 
persons out of the Montgomery family and of the church that entered 
into organized church work. Daniel Montgomery became an elder of 
the Edgington Church and his three sons, Robert, Daniel and John, 
also became elders. Hopkins Boone became an elder of the Farlow's 
Grove Church and the daughter's husband, John Geddes, also became 
an elder. Of. Thos. Candor's family, Mr. Candor was an elder for many 
years, his first son, John, studied for the ministry, graduating from 
Princeton College, and whUe taking the course at Princeton Theological 
Seminary died in his senior year at the age of twenty-four and was 
buried at Danville, Pa. The daughter, Mary, became the wife of 
Graham Lee, prominent in the eldership and prominent in positions of 
trust in the state at large. The sons, Daniel M, and Bobert, both 
became elders of churches in the county. Of the third generation, 
Elisha, son of Graham and Mary Candor Lee, is a present elder of the 
Hamlet Church. Of Robert's family, Robert, himself, was an elder; 
the son, John, was an elder; Thomas is a preacher and missionary in 
the United States of Columbia. He is considered one of the gifted and 
successful South American missionaries. The third son, Ward L., is one 
of the present elders of Center Church, as his father was of the old Cen' 
ter Church before its removal to Seaton, and as his grandfather was of 
the antecedent church of Popes River. Surely the mark that this family 
has made on the church history of Mercer County is not to be passed 
idly by. 

Aside from the Popes River Church being a hive from which went 
colonies to form the charter members of Millereburg, Keithsburg, Aledo 
and Center churches, these members dismissed became elders or the 
parents or elders and ministers still in church work. Aside from elders 
and ministers already named, Ephraim Gilmore acted as an elder for 
many years after leaving Popes Biver Church, and his eon, John, was 
an elder at Garnet, Kan. John M. Gilmore and wife, received on pro- 
fession of faith at Popes Biver Church, were of the charter members of 
Millersburg Church and Mr. Gilmore for many years was an elder. The 



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two sons, George and Taylor, enlisted in the Civil War. The boh, George, 
was in the mi^t of his preparation for the_ gospel ministry but gave hia 
life for his country and his body sleeps 'neath Bouthem sod. The son, 
J. Taylor, returned home at the close of the war and upon the death of 
his father became an elder of the MiUersburg Church. 

Henry Lee and wife, dismissed to the Milleraburg Church, brought 
up a large family of church workers. Heniy Lee, himself, was an elder 
for many years and upon his death his son, Scoville Lee, succeeded and 
is an elder today. The daughter, Euth, married Mr. Ed Partridge, who 
for several years before his removal to Whittier, California, was an elder 
of the MiUersburg Church, and is an elder today in California. 

Edward Brady and John T. McQinnis, dismissed to the MiUersburg 
Church, later became elders of the Peniel Church, and Charles McGinnis, 
a son, is at present pastor of Whitehall Presbyterian Church, near 
Albany, N. Y. 

Of my father's relation to the Popes River Church, I wish to speak. 
My mother, EUzabeth Frick Norbury, was baptized in the Dutch Re- 
formed Church in Philadelphia. As a girl of sixteen she united on pro- 
fession of faith witli the Danville, Pa., Presbyterian Church, the same 
church out of which tho Montgomerys and Candors came. Upon her 
marriage in 1839 and removal to Mercer County, she handed in her 
church letter to the Popes River Church in June. My father, H. W. 
Thornton, united on profession of faith February 36, 1845. They were 
dismissed with the group of thirty-eight to form the charter members 
of the MiUersburg Church April 16, 1854. The oldest daughter, Martha, 
became the wife of Rev. J. S. Lute, who was pastor of the Center Church 
when it was organized. They are now living in Rock Island County 
where for thirty-six years they have worked in the neighborhood Presby- 
terian church. The son, Norbury W. Thornton, became a minister, and 
the son, George ,i8 at present an elder of the MiUersburg Church. One 
of the members dismissed to MiUersburg among the charter members 
was Rachel Thornton, s'ister of H. W. Thornton. She united with the 
Popes River Church on profession of faith. She became the wife of 
Chas. WUlits and later removed to Mt. Pleasant, la. There a large 
family grew up in the M. E, church. Mr. WUlits' second wife was Mies 
Ellen Crpeier, a devout member of the Methodist church, by whom there 
were two sons, John and WUmot. Thornton WilUts, a son, is a wealthy 
land owner and a prominent director of Iowa Weslejan University, Mt, 
Pleasant, la. Another son. Rev. John Willits, D.D., of Battle Creek, 
Mich., is pastor of a large M. E. church. 

Another person I want to name of the charter members of Popes 
River Church was Martha Long. She became the wife of Erastus Den- 
nison and resided in MiUersburg in the '30's. Upon her marriage to 
Samuel Sheriff she took her letter to the M. E. Church of New Boston. 
Thence they removed to Geneseo and both lived untU a few years ago, 
widely known, highly esteemed and much beloved — saints they were in 
the kingdom of God, members through a long life of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

One of the members received on profession of faith of Popes River 
was Dr. J. A. Maury. He and his wife were dismissed to Oquawka in 



110 

1848 and later to the Aledo church. The daughter, Anna, now Mrs. 
Wm. Bunting, of David City, Neb., is one of the noted women of 
Nebraeka'in church, temperance and federated club work. 

Of the members dismissed from Popes River Church to organize the 
Aledo church November 8, 1856, the name of Mrs. Martha Detwiler ap- 
pears. The sons of Mrs. Detwiler are Rev. Geo. Detwiler, pastor of the 
First M.E. Church of Nashville, Tenn., Chas. W. Detwiler, an elder of 
tiie Presbyterian Church, Aledo, today, and Lewis C. Detwiler, the 
useful Sunday school superintendent of the same church. These last 
named brothers are prominent in the lay work of the county, and 
prominent in educational and business interests of Aledo. 

I have hesitated somewhat in the matter of starting on the indi- 
vidual names, lest not being acquainted with the families of many, I 
might leave out some as important as others I have named. 

Of those dismissed to the Keithsburg Church in 1857, the SherifFs 
and Fricks were prominent and their children and grandchildren are 
now active church workers in Monmouth, Seaton and Keithsburg. Of 
those dismissed from Popes River Church to Center when it was organ- 
ized was the elder, Samuel Pollock, who was an elder of Center Church 
for over twenty-six years, and his son, J. K. Pollock, is at present one 
of the elders. 

All the list of prominent church and business men and women who 
are the descendants of the original organized church of Popes River owe 
in a great measure their sanctified parentage to the hallowed influences 
of the Candor Church. Their ancestry were a converted group. As 
they became members and officers, of other Mercer County churches, 
they carried with them the principles and beliefs of gennine Christianity. 
It is not prejudice that causes me to rate so highly the place that the 
Popes River Church occupies in the history of Christianity in Mercer 
County — in this part of the world. And the saying goes that no history 
of anj^hing can be written until after one hundred years. 

Think for a moment what would have been the consequences had 
Popes River Church never been. And there are plenty of counties in 
Illinois where early settlers were not brave and consecrated to do aa the 
Mercer County pioneers did. It may have been partly due to the fact 
that an influential leader rose up to whom the settlers looked and 
responded. So the tribute which may be pronounced is that Mr. Thomas 
Candor and his home were the center of this whole work. To say this 
is not saying less than the truth. I have said it before and I repeat it 
today that if there were one individual in Mercer County to whose 
memory a marble shaft wa$ to be erected as a monument to the chief 
pioneer in the planting of the Christian church in these parts, the name 
of the individual is Thomas Candor, and as well the name of Mrs. 
Margaret Montgomery Candor, his beloved wife. Their spiritual chil- 
dren and grandchildren are scattered all over these Illinois communities, 
and they are still true to their example. And they are workers today as 
he was in his day. And these workers today are making their impress 
on this generation which must bear fruit in another generation. Such 
characters, following quietly and faithfully after our great Redeemer, 
are building better than they know. No other life can be more impor- 
tant, and no other work shall be more abiding. 



Ill 

Mr. F. M. Sotb, Clerk of the Session, spoke from notes regard- 
ing the history of the church from the reorganization as the Center 
Church to the present time. Center Church was organized Friday, 
March 12, 1869, and the building was at first located in the southeast 
corner of Abington Township. The Preebyterial Committee for Organi- 
zation were: Rev, H, Hanson, Rev. J, M, Jamieson, D.D., Rev. J. H. 
Moore, and Elders E. W. Porter and Samuel Pollftck. 

The following constituted the charter members: From Popea 
River — Samuel Pollock and Mrs. Mary Pollock, Samuel Crisswell and 
Mrs. Sarah Criaswell, Matthew Taylor, Lewis Wright, Mrs, Rebecca 
Wright, Mrs. Mary Hale, Mrs. Mary Holmes, Mrs. Catharine E. Cabeen, 
Mrs, Margaret Cameron. From Presbyterian Church of North Hen- 
derson — H, A. Henry, Mrs. Catharine Henry, Mrs, Eliza Lawrenson, 
Jae. Kellogg, Mrs. Martha Kellogg, Mrs. Jane Pepper, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Lafferty. From the Presbyterian Church of Aledo — Robert Candor, Mrs. 
Rebecca Candor, John Candor, Miss Mattie E. Jamieson. Received on 
profession of faith — Jno. Benti, Mrs. Jemima Bentz, John R. J. Howe, 
twenty-five members in all. 

On the following Sabbath the following members were received: 
From Popes River — Mrs. Elizabeth P. Cabeen, Mrs. Jane Cabeen, Mrs. 
Sarah Cabeen, Mrs. Sarah Cameron, Austin Hale, an elder. Received 
on ■profession of faith — James A, Kellogg, Miss Mary M. Kellogg, 
Walter H, Howe, Miss Mary Holmes, Wm. Penn Criswell, making 
thirty-five in all. 

The whole list of the ministers of the Center Church is as follows : 

Rev. J. S. Ltitz, 7 years, 6 months. 

Rev. J. P. Roth, 7 years 10 months. 

Rev. J. H. Aughey, 1 year, 2 months. 

Rev, H. P. Detiierage, 8 years, 4 months. 

Rev. C. M. Eobb, 11 years, Z^ months. 

Rev. Philip Palmer, 4 years, 6 months. 

Rev. M. G. Banna, present pastor. 

The list of elders is as follows : 

Robt. Candor, 15 years. 

Samuel Pollock, 26i^ years. 

John Bentz, 5 years. 

Glasgow Parshall, 23 years. 

Jas. Logan, 23 years. 

W. J. McLityre, 21i^ years. 

Jno. M. Candor, 14i^ years. 

Dr. Thomas Elder, 6 years. 

J. K. Pollock, 16y2 years. 

W. L. Candor, 16^^ years. 

F. M. Roth, 161^ years. 

J. E. Orth, 7 years. 

Dr. W. A. Roth, 7 years. 

The last five are the present elders of the church. 

A new charch building was erected in the village of Seaton in the 

' summer and fall of 1893, and was dedicated January 31, 1894, Bev. 

W. S. Davis, of Aledo, HI., officiating. In the summer of 1901 the 



ogle 



112 

building was remodeled and enlarged and dedicated Il^ovember 24, 1901, 
Eev. W. S. Davis again ofGciating. 

Of the charter members two are Btill members of this church and 
both reside in Seaton, 111., Mrs, Elizabeth Lafferty and Mrs. John Henry 
(Miss Mattie Jamieson). 

Of the first accession to the church on March 14, 1869, there are 
four alive, namely : Jlr. and Mrs. Wm. Penn Crisswell, Jae. A. Kellogg 
and Mrs. Mary M. Moore. The session of the church has never been 
without one or more Candors, and in the case of the Pollocks, lacking 
only a few mon^. The congregation always had Candors, Pollocks, 
Crisswells, Cabeens, Henrys, Peppers and Laffertys on ije rolls. 

Eev. M. G. Hanna undoubtedly has before him a happy and suc- 
cessful pastorate. 



D,qit,zeabvG00»^lc 



THE TRAGEDY OF STARVED ROCK. 



WiLLiiM Anwtl Jones, Kansas City, Mo. 

The decline and fall of a brave and industrious people is always a 
cause of regretful interest. The complete wiping out of such a nation 
by one act of a more powerful and revengeful people is worthy of more 
than a passing paragraph in a school history ; it deserves to be embalmed 
ii. a manner at once unusual and attractive, end with a permissible touch 
of sentiment and even of mystery. 

The pathetic yet stirring story of the utter annihilation of the once 
important tribe of Indians from whom the great State of Illinois took its 
name is here given, with so much of historical accuracy, probably, as is 
possible, although I believe the reader will be lenient with the liberty 
taken in investing the sole survivor of his tribe with a fanciful taking 
off. There have been other versions of the historic facts, but from the 
studies I have made at various times I conclude that the account fur- 
nished by Mr. N. Matson, late of Princeton, 111., who was a careful and 
painstaking local historian of the early days in Illinois, is as nearly 
accurate as any later efforts, and to his books I acknowledge my debt for 
the salient facts. 

I offer no apology for the employment of the meter of the Song of 
Hiawatha, for it appears to me peculiarly appropriate — and it was bor- 
rowed from other primitive singers across the northern seas. 

THE LAST OP THE ILLINT. 

A LEGEND OF STABVED HOCK. 

{By William Anwtl Jones.) 

It was spring-time on the prairies. 
Prom the mystic southern flower-land, 
Prom the land of birds and flowers. 
Prom the land the sun e'er smiles on, 
Looks straight down and never sidewise — 
Came the South-wind armed with arrows. 
Golden-pointed, deadly arrows; 
And he fought the bitter Ice-fiend, 
Slew his hosts with glittering helmets, 
Till in drifts their bodies lay there; 
And the earth and air, like vultures 
Always thirsty, ever greedy. 



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114 

Opened wide their mouthfi capacious 
And they vanished out of being. 
Then the Ice-fiend spread his pinions. 
With a shriek that made men judder 
And their coats draw close about them, 
And away he sped to northward, 
To his glittering, icy stronghold. 
There are blazing still his camp-fires, 
And he sometimes, as a menace 
To his foes, heaps on the fuel 
Till the angry flames up- darting 
Startle all the country southward 
With their blazing and their crackling — 
Wise men call it the Aurora. 
When at last the battle ended. 
Gently, lovingly the South-wind 
Breathed upon the blackened prairies. 
Where the Ice-fiend trampled on them; 
Wanned to life the grass and flowers. 
Called the birds to come and greet them 
With their cheering songs of welcome. 
And all nature beamed with gladness. 

It was spring-time on the prairies. 
Slow the smoke rose from the chimneys. 
Catling o'er the aettiers' cabins 
Dotting here and there the prairies. 
Out into the flelds the men went, 
Plowed the ground and made it mellow. 
Beckoned up their crops beforehand. 
Planned for wealth and case when aged. 

But among them dwelt an old man — 

Dwelt among, yet was not of them. 

Bowed and weak bis manly form was ; 

Swarthy was his skin; hia clothing 

Was a blanket wrapped about him. 

Nothing with the world in common 

Had he; but he dwelt among them. 

Relic of the days departed. 

He in mystery was shrouded; 

No one Imew how long he'd lived there ; 

Naught he said about his people ; 

But he sat and brooded, sighing 

O'er the days so long departed. 

And the settlers' children playing 

On the grass anear the cabin. 

Silently would look upon him. 

Stand with mouths agape with wonder — 

Stop their play to look and question 



;vGoo»^lc 



With each other what his thoughts were, 
Why he never told his sorrow. 

It waa evening on the prairie. 

Hushed and still the South-wind's breathing. 

And the dying Sun, the artist, 

Seized his pencils and was painting 

Nighfs soft curtains red and purple. 

Filling all the world witii splendor. 

Came the settlers to their dwelling. 

Fed their horses in the stable. 

Bathed their grimy hands and faces. 

And with appetites keen-sharpened. 

Quick responded to the summons 

Of the house-wife in the cabin, 

Where the frugal meal was waiting. 

But the old man sat tliere silent; 

In his hands his face was buried; 

All his thoughts were in the old time. 

Reverently Wie children called him. 

But he heeded not their voices 

Till they closer came and touched him. 

Then he roused himself, and struggling 

To his feet, he beckoned to them. 

Led the way down to the river. 

While the wond'ring children followed. 

Then upon the bank reclining. 

Looking out across the river 

As the evening shades descended. 

Thus he called the children round him, 

Told them of his life mysterious: 

THE ILLINI. 

"Come around me now, my children; 
Gather round me in the twilight. 
In the darkness of the evening. 
As the Spirits of the evening 
Wrap the world in robes of shadows — 
Ere the Spirits of the Soul-land 
Wrap in sable robes the old man, 
Make him unseen with their garments. 
Bear him on their noiseless pinions 
To the happy hunting places, 
To the Islands of the Blessed; 
Where no more hell suffer hunger. 
Suffer from the cruel winter, 
Suffer from the greedy white man. 
For the old man's days are numbered. 
And the remnant of his people 



;vGoo»^lc 



116 

All have vaniehed from hie presence; 
All have reached the Blessed Island!;: 
He alone is left to mourn them. 
And the old man's heart is lonely 
And he lon^ to go and join them. 
Soon the Manitou will bid him 
Lay aside his warlike weapons 
And his calumet, his peace-pipe, 
Follow Hiawatha's footsteps 
To the Islands of the Blessed. 
But before I go, my children, 
I must tell to you a secret, 
Tell the story of my people; 
How they fought for wife and children, 
How they fell for home and fire-side; 
How they perished from the nations. 
From among the prairie-people; 
How no more their fires are gleaming 
By the margin of the river ; 
How no more they track the wild deer 
Through the wood and o'er the prairie; 
How no more they plant the corn-field. 
Hunt the muskrat and the beaver. 
Gather round the sparkling camp-fire 
And relate their deeds of valor. 
While their women and their children 
Clap their hands and loudly cheer them — 
They are gone from earth forever, 
And the old man longs to join them ! 

"Many years ago, my children, 
On the swelling, rolling prairie 
Stretching onward, north and southward 
From the margin of the river — 
Of the broad, majestic river. 
Where the sturgeon leaped and gamboled. 
Where the bark canoes went sailing. 
Floating, drifting with the current. 
Graceful as the swans that floated 
On the river's placid bosom 
When the wind was lulled to silence. 
And the song-birds in the forest. 
Thrush and cat-bird, black-bird, robin. 
Caroled to their mates a love-song. 
Filled the air with sweetest music; 
On this swelling, rolling prairie. 
Covered o'er with waving grasses. 
Decked with gorgeous-painted wild flowers 
Lading all the air with fragance 
From their honey-bearing petals; 
On this prairie, with its cornfields 



;vGoo»^lc 



117 

With their regal plumage Bwaying 

In the gentle prairie zephyrs. 

Girt by forests grand and gloomy, 

Where the wild deer loved to wander, 

Where the wild-cat and the panther 

Screamed in triumph o'er their victim. 

While the nimble squirrel, leaping 

In the branches high above them. 

Laughed and chattered at their fury; — 

Where at night, in words of wisdom. 

Spoke the owl, the feathered prophet. 

Spoke so none could understand him. 

Though the people always feared him 

For hia words so strange and solemn 

And his eyes so large and ghostly; — 

Where the wind at dawn and evening 

Sighed and whispered through the branches. 

Telling aye ite plaintive story 

To its lover in the tree-tops, 

Till the trees, in deepest pity. 

Moaned and tossed their let^y branches; — 

On this swelling, rolling prairie 

By the margin of the river, 

Dwelt a Nation, strong and manly, 

Peaceful, diligent and happy; 

Skillful in their hunting parties. 

As they trailed the bounding wild deer, 

As the buffalo they followed. 

Dashing o'er fbe trackless prairie; 

As they trapped the cunning beaver 

In his wondrous, snug-built wigwam, 

And the musk-rat, little beaver; 

Trapped the mink, raccoon and otter; 

While their women in the cornfields 

Plied their peaceful avocation, 

Dressed the game their husbands brought them. 

Bound the camp-fire brightly blazing; 

While the happy children, sporting. 

Gathered wild-flowers on the prairie. 

Shot with little bows and arrows 

At the squirrels in the forest. 

Learning to be mighty hunters. 

Thus they lived, a happy nation; 

Peaceful were they with their neighbors, 

Smoked the Calumet, the peace-pipe. 

Prayed to Manitou for guidance — 

The Great Spirit in the heavens — 

For prosperity in hunting, ■ 

For the increase of their cornfields. 



;vGoo»^lc 



DEATH OP PONTIAO. 

"But acposa the rolling piairie, 
To the margm of the river. 
From the country of the Wabash, 
Stranger red-men, bent on hunting, 
Came in bands all armed and moimted. 
Gay with feathers, red with war-paintn- 
Hunted where they had no title; 
Killed otir buftalo and vild deer ; 
Burned our cornfields and our wigwama; 
Laughed to scorn our mighty warriors; 
Swore to utterly destroy ua 
If we hindered them from hunting 
On our ancient hunting places. 
Where our fathers roamed before us. 
Still, in spite of all their threat'ning. 
Of their insolence and boasting, 
Offered we the sacred peace-pipe — 
Offered, but they would not smoke it, 
Scornfully the pipe rejected. 
Hurled it to the ground in anger ! 
Pontiac, their mighty chieftain, 
Hero of a hundred battles. 
Bold of speech and great of stature, 
Sneeringly proclaimed us cowards 
Said that he would give no quarter. 
Ne'er would cease his warfare 'gainst us 
Till the mini had perished 
From among the prairie people, 
Vanished from among the nations! 
Quickly, ere he finished Speaking, 
Sprang iu rage our chief upon him. 
Raised his tomahawk above him. 
Plunged it in his treacherous bosom, 
Till the life-blood spurted o'er him 
Like a gushing, bubbling fountain; 
And their mighty, boasting chieftain, 
Hero of a hundred battles, 
Sank, a quivering corpse, before him! 
Loud the war-cry then resounded; 
Broke the council up in fury ; 
Round their chiefs the warriors rallied. 
Armed with tomahawk and rifle; 
In their belts their knifes were gleaming — 
All their faces red with war-paint. 
And their heads all gay with feathers. 
Met they then in awful combat; 
Rang the air with sound of rifie, 
Whistled through the air the arrows. 
Dealing death to valiant warriors. 

i:^,q,t,7edbvG00»^lc 



119 

Thue the battle long continued, 

Till at last our braves, outnumberedj ' ■ 

Fleeing from the field- of carnage. 

Sought their homes beside the river. 

ITiere they rested; there they labored; 

Thought the strife was surely over. 

Spring increased and grew to summer — 

Slept the vale in peaceful beauty. 

Summer grew and aged to autumn; — 

In the valley rich with cornfields. 

Covered o'er with waving grasses. 

By the margin of the river 

Where the bark canoes went sailing, 

Still secure were all the people; 

Enemies no more oppressed them. 

THE NIGHT ATTACK. 

"Gathered at the town LaVantum, 
All the warriors had assembled. 
All the young men and the maidens, 
All the women and the children — 
Met to celebrate the wedding 
Of our chieftain's lovely daughter. 
Pride and fiower of all the nation: 
Celebrated it with feasting. 
Celebrated it with dancing; 
Mirth and gladness reigned unstinted. 
Hark! what stops so quick the dancing? 
See! a messenger, all breathless 
With his running, hastens toward tiieml 
'UP AND AEM ! QUE FOES ARE MARCHING, 
COMING RAPIDLY UPON US! 
WILL ATTACK US ERE THE MORNING! 
UP AND ARM!' 

"Thus spoke the runner. 
Ceased the music and the dancing, 
Vanished all the mirth and gladness. 
Then, with wild and thrilling war-cry. 
Quickly built, the braves defences 
And prepared to give them battle; 
While the women and the children 
Wrung their hands in direst terror. 
In cpnoes the warriors placed them, 
Sent them sailing down the river 
To a marshy, reedy island. 
Where they thought they would be hidden 
From their foes so fierce and cruel. 
Onward rushed the foes like demons. 
Skull and cross-bones of their chieftain, 
Pontiac, their mighty warrior. 



;vGoo»^lc 



120 

Whom brave Kineboo our leader 
Killed, they, carried Mgh above them ; 
Swore that they would give no quarter, 
But pursue the warfare 'gainst us, 
Utterly destroy oiir nation. 
Leaving none to tell the story ! 
Through the night fierce raged the battle; 
Daylight brought, alas, no respite! 
Through the tong bright day we fought tt 
Men like autumn leaves were falling, 
Far and near the vale resounded 
With the war-cry and death-song. 
Till the night came down upon ua. 
With her sable robes of darkness. 
Bringing with her furious tempest — 
Such a storm as stopped the fighting, 
Drove the foe to sedt for shelter. 

STARVED ROCK. 

"Quickly called we then a council: 
Many of our braves were missing. 
Hundreds laying where they'd fallen 
By the foe's unerring rifle, 
By his poisoned, fatal arrows. 
Quick we came to the decision 
To desert our town La Vantum. 
In the darkness and the tempest 
Crossed we the majestic river 
Which the sterm had lashed to fury; 
In our bark canoes went sailing — 
Hurrying, flying o'er the river: 
Pressed we onward to LeEoeher, 
To our fortress strong and lofty, 
Bising up from out the river 
Like a gloomy, giant castle; 
(So the Jesuits described it 
When they visited La Vantum) ; 
Up the steep and narrow stairway 
To the summit of LeRocher, 
To the site of Port St. Louis, 
Where La Salle had placed his treasure, 
Garrisoned his rocky stronghold, 
In the days long since departed. 
Here we waited till the morning, 
When the enemy, advancing 
On the town, now found it empty, 
Found their victims had escaped them. 
Then they burned the luckless village, 
Plied the torch with fiendish triumph; 
Tomahawked our dyi 



i„,c:..Goo»^lc 



121 

Left them there to feed the buzzards. 

Quickly forded ihey the river. 

And our stronghold fierce asEauIted; 

But invincible the rock stood. 

Then they climbed the narrow stairway. 

Thinking soon to overcome us; 

But our tomahawks received them 

And their life-blood poured in torrents 

Down the path now red and slippery. 

Long the bloody siege continued; 

All our store of food had vanished; 

Thirst and hunger gnawed our vitals 

Like a famished wolf imprisoned 

In the dungeon of our bodies. 

Then we made ropes of our garments 

And let buckets down for water ; 

But the crafty foe below us 

In canoes, would cut the ropes off ; 

So we'd neither food nor water. 

One by one our starving warriors 

Laid them down beneath the cedars. 

Sang their death-song and resigned them 

To the Manitou above them, 

The Great Spirit in the heavens. 

Thus they perished. All who stayed there 

Died a death prolonged and cruel; 

And their bones for years lay bleaching 

On the summit of LeEocher — 

'STARVED ROCK' white men since have called it. 

Afterward the bloody victors 

Down the river sent their forces, 

Till they found the reedy island. 

Found the women and the children. 

Then the wolfish, fiendish cowards 

Murdered all the helpless women. 

Murdered all the little children; 

Left their bodies there unburied, 

Food for birds of prey and wild beasts. 

THE PBISONER'S escape. 

"Of my people on LeRocher 
I alone escaped destruction. 
When the tomahawk had fallen 
Prom the hand of my last comrade. 
Under cover of the darkness 
Tore I into strips my clothing. 
Making a long rope of buckdfin, 
Let myself down to the river 
Down the rock so steep and lofty, 
Reached the stream below in safeti', 



;vGoo»^lc 



Floated downward with the current 

And escaped the fiendish dutches ' 

Of the hated foe so cruel. 

Then I traveled faint and weary, 

Many days along the river. 

Till I found among the white men 

Friends, with whom I formed acquaintance 

And have lived, from that time onward. 

Now, the old man's days are numbered; 

Frosted o'er by many winters 

Are his locks, once black as crow's wing; 

And his form, once bold and upright. 

Now is bent; his step is feeble; 

And his eye, once like the eagle's. 

Is so dim he scarcely sees you; 

And his ear, once quick at hearing 

As the deer's in lightest slumber. 

Now is dull, and grows yet duller. 

All his early friends and kindred 

Long have passed away before him ; 

And the old man's heart is lonely 

And he longs to go and join them !" 

THE PASSING OF THE ILLINI. 

Ceased the old man from his speaking; 

And the children, awed and silent, 

As the darkness fell around them. 

Closer crept and gazed upon him 

As he sat there looking forward, 

Ont across the placid river. 

All forgotten was the present; 

All his thoughts were in the old time; 

And he heeded, not the children 

Who were gazing, rapt, upon him. 

Suddenly he raised his right arm, 

Pointed out across the river, 

And the children's large eyes followed 

And dilated wide with wonder; 

For the river seemed to widen. 

Stretch away into the distance. 

Spreading like a mighty ocean; 

And the farther shore had vanished — 

Water melted into darkness ; 

And eternity was near them, 

And the river laved its borders. 

As they sat there, scarcely breathing, 
Lo, a star shone through the darkness! 
Faint and far away it glimmered ; 
But it nearer came, and nearer, 



;vGoo»^lc 



123 

And its light grew clear and stronger 
Aa it floated ever toward them. 
Then the outlineB of a vessel, 
Indistinct and weird and ghostly. 
Rose before them, draped in sable! 
Shadowy forms, with wings of midnight, 
Steady plied the noiseless paddles; — 
And the distant star a torch was. 
Burning in the murky darkness! 

Then the old man broke the silence. 
Called the children closer round him. 
Placed his hands on them in blessing, 
Calmly spoke this farewell to them: 

" 'Tis the Spirits, my children ! 
'Tis the Spirite of the Soul-land 
That have come to bear me homeward 
To the happy hunting-places. 
To the Islands of the Blessed. 
Nevermore you'll see the old man; 
Nevermore his feet will wander 
To the margin of the river; 
Nevermore he'll sit here musing 
On the days so long departed. 
He is going to his people. 
And a long farewell he bids you. 
This is now the white man's country : 
I have lived to see just vengeance 
Meted out to those who murdered 
All my people. Northward, westward. 
Backward from our lands they're driven— 
Lands which they had won by murder — 
Till in deserts far they wander 
Where to live is worse than dying. 
Still the white man marches onward: 
Where he treads the cornfields ripen ; 
Trees are changed to giant lodges; 
Fire and water do his bidding, 
And his thoughts are borne on lightning! 
Nothing deep from him is hidden ; 
Naught for him is too mysterious. 
All too long I here have lingered; 
Naught have I with him in common. 
All my early friends and kindred 
Long have passed away before me, 
And I long to go and join them. 
Once again, Farewell, my children!" 

Then the old man ceased his speaking. 
Laid him down upon the greensward. 
On his breast his thin hands folded. 



:vGoo»^lc 



And in tones of reBignation, 

Clear and peaceful rose his death-song. 

Still the boat came nearer, nearer. 
Till upon the sands it grated; 
And ^e children shrank in terror 
As the Spirits of the Soul-land 
Bose, and coming to the old man 
Threw a robe of sable o'er him. 
Carefully and slowly raised him. 
Bore him to their shadowy vessel. 
While a solemn dirge they chanted 
In a tongue weird and myst«rious. 
Then the frightened children, watching. 
Saw the vessel drifting from them, 
Saw the torch grow dimmer, fainter, 
Till it seemed as but a firefly. 
Out across the waste of water. 
Still they watched it, till it vanished 
In the far-oflf clouds of darkness 
Into which the water melted. 
Thus the two worlds intermingle, 
And there are no bounds between them I 



;vGoo»^lc 



ovorsignt, onuiWQ iromi 
Episcopal Church, etc. 



AbinRon Township, Uercei County, ID 1 

AbolltiDn of SlavBiy, Papai on, marence to. 1 
AboUtion BoGlat; tn PbUadolphla under lead- 
ership of Bonlamin FrauUln. ISee sUver;). 
AbolltftaJaiQ 



iititisrullrbidei«d. StcJ 



yuUilMHidW 



Aboliticaidats— HolhodIsC AboUtknlals In N«<r 
9t AbalitioDte^'iii New 



Adams, Alice Dan 



,Neglect«d Period of Aj 



a inforniBtion by 

Adams, Jidm Qulncy, Spmcb on Teros in Con- 

AdSms* JanB.'. M,86 

African Emancipation 13 

African Slave Trade JB 

AterB, Peter, pbneer preadiei in the Uethod- 

Ist Church (ii Ollnids ;i,73,TS 

Alabama Stale «9 

Albany, N.Y 109 

Albion, m 18 

Aledo, 111., FrBsh;(arlan Church 108, 110, 111 

Alenande^ Mrs. Cecil F. HiimphrBy, Poem 

on the Death of Hoses, quotauons ttDm..33,50 
AlEonquln Indians SI, 94, 9S 



bchany Hounlalns . . 

,t™,ni. 

Iton, III.. Board of Trade. . 



'4ffd, Clarenoe Walworth. - 1h 

41,50,1 

(The), by Horace Greeley, 



of Benjambi Iiunn 



*!:-■■ 

[TbeJ, by Horace Qreele; 
Abolition 



4S 



portrait of . 

American Convention lu uis 

Slavery held at Philadelphia 

American Hoow Uissionary Society. New 

York 62 

American Navy— Enlarj^ment of the Ameri- 
can Navy, paper on, reference to 102 
American nesbyteriatusm B^iniilnEs of 61 
American Pevolution 34 35 
American Revolatioo, Slavery question not 

agitated previous to 34 

Ameabury, Mass. 4S 

Anderson, J. S., prominent ontl-slovery man 58 
Andrew, (Bishop) James O 71 72 /S 

Andrew (BL<<hop) James O hivestigatlon of 

the Bishop's relation to alaverj /2 

Anti-slavery. Sa slavery. 

AnthSlaverv Convention, FhDadelphia 40 

Anti-Slaverv— Disciples of Christ in Illinois, 

attitdde inward slavery... 



Antl-Slsvery Memorials presented at Mi 



Anti-Slavery soiHetieG 34,35,30,48 

Apple River, III., Presbyterian Church Kiund- 

edon fia 

Appleton, D. it Co., Pablishers, New YoA.. 50 

Arkansas River, footjiote...... M 

Arkansas State 71 

Armstrong, WHliam Clinton, The Lundy 

Family and Their Deecenduits 50 

Arthur (President) Chester 8* 

Ashley, (Dr.) John Kossoutb, anU.slaver7 

Atfihison, DaVtdR .'..' W 

Atkins, (Gen.) Smith D., Address on the Life 

of, by Richard V. Carpenter 14,82-88 

Atkhis, (Qon.) Bmith o., law partner of 

Oscar Taylor 83 

Atkiiu, (Qen.) Bmith D., Mflitary eoreer of. .83-84 

Atlantic Stales 10 

Aughey, (Rev.) J. H ill 

Augusta, Georgia 72 

Augustine Saint 00 

B 

Balthnra^, Md 40,41,42,43,73 

Baltimore, Md., B^amin Lundy Locates at 40 
Baltimore, Md., Conference Methodist Epis- 
copal Church 52,«,M,72 

Baltimore, Md., free labor, produce sloree 

Baltimore, Md., Geniiis of Universal Emanet 

pation, published at 40, 41 

Baltimore, Ud., Methodist CoDlerence held in, 

in 1792 52 

Bancroft, George, historian St> 

Baptist (ihurch S,fl! 

Baptist Church, hlstraian of S3 

Barnard, N,P 102,108 

Barnes, Harlan P. KB, 103 

Barney, Ann .53 

Barney, Bets; 5! 

Barney, Clara S3 

Barney , Jane SB 

Barney's Prairie Christian Church, orlgtnai 

book of In posseESion ofO. H. Wood K3 

Barney Richard 53 

Barney, Sarah 53 

Barney. William, early r^ldent of what is 

now WabB-sh County, 111 53 

Barney, William, son of William Barney, 
early resident of what is now Wabasb 

County, Bl 53 

Batetnan, Nevton, Father of the Free School 

System of Bliriois 64 

Bates,Ellshs,edltoroflhe"FhI1anfliioplat". 40 

"Battle Cr«t" in Kane County 97 

Battle Creek, Michigan, Methodist Episcopal 

Chnrch 109 

Battle of Camden, Revolutionary War 84 

BattteofChlckamauga, War of the Rebellion. 76, 85 
Beauregard, Pierre Giistave Toutant, Confed- 
erate General, War of the Rehellion 59 

Beckwllh, Hiram W 138 

Beebe, Avery N 99,102,103 



.ogle 



INDEX — Continued. 



p Lyon, Bird's Point, War ol tiia Reb«l- 



, — , , jy R«v. Jess* Walkar 70 

Canada 96 

Candor, Daniel M... 108 

CandwFBmUy 108,I(B,113 

Candor (Mercei Countv, 111.) Prwbyuilan 

Church 110 

Candor, John .;_. 108,111 

1 IID 



Bem-^ofi HUl f 

BlrdsTolnt, War o( the Rebellion 1 

Blrney, James Q.— "James O. Birney and his 
TimtB," by WlUlam Blrney, New York, 

iseo .; .' ( 

I. Blrney and his 



Candor, John _ 

Candor, (Mrs.) Margaret Moaleomery. 

Candor, Mary 

Candor, (Mrs.) Rebeoca 



. 108 



,(Mrs.. 

Candor, Bobett 107,10(1,111 

Candor, Thomas 108,110 

Candor, Thomas, missionary In the United 



e, ^arllnrille, 
Blair, Francis <]., 8uperint— ' 
lostmotloD, State oillllnc 



m Church or Disdi^ 



BlooDiingtiRi, 111. . 

BodlB, B., oITemtassoa / 

Bond, Shadraeli, Oovemor oC mioois IC 

Bond, (Dr.) Thomas £., editor ol (he Christian 



Boone, (Mrs.) Mopklas 107 

Booth, (Dr.) W. A 73 

Baslm, Mass 41,«,4a,60,70.B5 

Bowles, (Bev.) Hugbos, early minister In the 



omCbi^eln. 6* 

.', ' Qmiiia' SmttJi " D.' 

14,83-80 

14, 1&, 18, 21, 83 

... 14, IS, le, IT, i£ 10, ao,3i 

crtces to Illinois State 
ipredatlon of, by offi- 
be sodeCy 10^0 



Bovlea, (Rev.) Walter P., eariy minister In the 

Christian Choroh In nunob ! 

Bovmao, E. H 1 

Boyd, <^.} Robert e 

Bra^.^dwvd IC 

BreokemldEe, Iidm C £ 

BriAt, Hiram, lawyer of rraeport, HI t 

BfitisbPu\Haineot.'..'..,M'.'.l"!'.'.!j'.;!l"l ( 
British Wast Indies, slayary Id, ab(fllsh«d,lS33 ! 

Brown, (Dr.) £. L., of Bloomlngttm i 

Brown, Idui, anttslavmy leader a, I 

Buchanan, Jama ( 

Buok.Solod J 1! 

Bdfldoaa ( 



Carrollton, 
CartWe.ll 

StBtBollllhioia,iilsattltudoto™dliiav(i7l 71 
Caitwrl^t, Peter, Pioneer preBcherMeOadbt 

Bplsoopal Churoh, nUnote 71,71,73,74,76 

CaBs,Uwis 80 

Cass, Willlan D., o[ New Hampahhe 73 

Carelter, Jean, sulpltlan priest, iKother ot 

LaSalle...- U 

Cedorvllle (Stephenson County), til S4 

Center Presbyterian Cliurdi, organized March 



Bulwer<;layt™ Treaty, ralerencs to 88 

Bunting, (Mrs,) wmiam 110 

Bumham, (Capt.) J. H 6. IS, 16, 17, 18, 19,31 

n — k„„ /^ T „ "'-Ts and Maps on 



D, (Mrs.) Catherine E. . 



Cabeeo, (Mrs.) Sarah.. 



CahoUa Mound Committee, Illinois State 

Historical Society 31 

Calhoun, JehnC 8ft 

Calffmila State S8,iD0 

Calumet— Indian Flee ol Peace 118,117 

CaWnlstie Creed (The) SO 



Chainpalgn, III 18 

Chandler, Eliiabeth, author and poet 41 

Chandler, John, anti-slavMy man G8 

Channing, (Dr.) William Elery, Letter to 

jHenrrClay 48 

Chapel H1U,N.C 84 

Charleston, 8. C 87 

Charleston, S. C, Bemocratto Convention ot 

nsso, relorenw to 87 

Charlevoix, (FaUier) Francois Xavler 91 

Chattanoora, Tenn 88 

ChemungCounty, N. Y 82 

ChiesKo,™ 6,61,83,65,88,00 

Chtc»go,Ill.,PTB5byterlBnChurchat,toundBd 83 
Chlc^o Tribune (newspaper), Thursday 
June U, 1874, article on Tbe Abolitionists M 

the Antl-Siavery Reunion SI 

Chlckamauga, Battle ol. War ol the RebeUlcm 



titude Toward elavory, addrew 

' liefQre Illinois State BIslDrical Society, by 
- .r» — >r g Haynea... '" ' 



r , , c^med by many to bo 

the (ounder of the Christian Church or 
diadples, Amistalie f 

CampbelUtas, term applied to the loUovers ol 

Alexander Campbell .■. . i 

0, Battle 01, Revohltitaiary War. I 



oii^iuiiKeu uct. ta, ifija.... 

Christian Church, Decatur, Ql., organised In 



jvGooi^lc 



INDEX— Contmoed. 



CbristlOD CbuTch' Membenbip a(,"in"limiob^ 



ChristlBB Church, rule o( [alth and practice oT, 



Chrlstuiii Church, UrsaiU.,u[|iiiiim 
CbriBtUa Chuicb— Wast Oka« C 

Chrlat 50, a. 

Chrbtlaii Church, WUichasUr, DL, ugonlied 

Dec. 1,1832 SI 

Christian County, Ky 5: 

Churches— Baptial Churoh S 

Churches— Christian Chinch, Disciples ol 

Christ in Ullnois and their Attitude Toward 

Slavery, Igr Rev. N. 3. Haynes 32-5i 

Chumhos— Cnristian Churoh, Barney's PrahrlB 
, GhristlanChtirah.organiiedluly lT,lglfl..S3,5- 
™ ■— ™~'-"an C&urch, De"' — "' - 



Cburohes— Christian ci 



Id hi IS 



ch, Decatm-, lU., or 



Churches— Christian Church, Eureka, ni.... GT 
Churches— Christian Church, Jacksonville, Dl. 

t Of gaolied In ISJI 56 

Churches— Christian Churdi, Lavreocaville, 

ni., oiEaiilied In 1833 B7 

Churches— Christian ChuriA, Lovinnoa, HI. . S7 
Churcbn— Christian Church, Ul. Flnsaat, 



Churdies— Chiiattan ChunAi, SprhiEfleld, 111., 
otgauljed In "™ 



Churoh, Ursa, III,, or- 



ChuTChas— Dutch Ksfornisd Ouirah, FbUa- 



Churohei— Methodist Episcopal Church, Antl- 
Btavery Struggle in IlUnols as it Affected 
the Methodist Splsoopal Church, by Jdin 
H. Ryan B7-7 

Churches— Uethodlst Episcopal Church, Bat- 
Ue Creek, Mich 10 

Churches— Methodist Episcopal Church, 
(First), Nashville, Tann II 

Churches— Methodist Episcopal Church, New 



1.111... 



Churches— Methodist Episoopal Churoh, Hew 
Boston, 111 IC 

Churchea- Proabyterlfln Churoh 



„ Preabyierian, History ol trosby- 
s Id nilnols. Paper read before the 

lumols State Historical Society, by H. D. 

Jenfctas, D.D 60-88 

Churchas— Presbyterian Church, Aledo, III 

> ' - - 103,110,111 

Chtu'chei— Presbyterian Chiuch — Candor 

Church {Mercer County, 111.) 110 

Churches— Prsabyterian Church— Center Pres- 
>' byterlanCburch, or^anlzfldMarch 12, I86fl.. Ill 
Churches— Presbyterian Church, J>aiivHle,PB. 100 
Churches— Presbyterian Church Edglaetoti, 

HI ; 108 

Churches— Preabyterlan Church- Fatlow's 

' Orove, Mercer County. Ill 107 

Churches— PresbyterlMi Church, KelthsburK, 

HI : - 10^,110 

Churches— Presbyterian Church, Millarsbure, 



Churches— Fiesbytarian Church, Monmouth, 

III no 

Churches— Presbyterian Church — North Qon- 

derstra Presbyterian Church Ill 

Churches— Presbyterian Church, Oauawka, 

111 100,110 

Cburobes— Presbyterian Church— Fenlel Pres- 
byterian Churdi loe 

Churctaas— Presbyterian Church— Popes River 

Prmbylerlan Cnurch. . . . 108, 107, m. 109, 110, 111 
Churches— Presbyterian Church, Beaton, 111 

106-U2 

Churches— Presbyterian Church, Whitehall, 

N. Y 109 

Churches— Tunkar Church 58 

Civil War. 5(e War of the RebeUlon se.IW 

Clark, (Kev.) John 73 

CUy County, 111 58 

Clay, Henry 42, (8,58, 73 

Clay, Henry, Henry Clay Whigs, refarenoi to. 68 

ClearCreek, Putnam County, M. 33 

Clendonln, H. W 14,16,18,17,18 

Claudanlu, H. W., Fap« on the Lila of Paul 

Selby 14,77-81 

Cleveland, (President) (Jrover 84 

Clinton, lU., Union Cbunfli— Cbrbtlan Cboroh 

orgenlied Oct. J3, 1833 59 

CUnton J. W IB 

Clubs— Influence of Clubs in American Lite, 

paper on, reference to 102 

Cobb, Needham T., aon-In-lBw of Qen. Smith 

D.Atkins 8fi 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, quotation from 

wriUnf3 of St 

Colonic du Sieur de La Balle, by John F. 

Steward 01-98 

Colyor, Walter 18 

Cmiatltutlon of 1S18, State of Illinois, reference 

Cooley, Lynuo E., Deep Waterways, paper 

on, relerence to 103 

Cooper, P. M 101. IW 

CosmopoUttnt Magazine, Vol. T, 1880, reference 

Cotton a'lu, invanUim of, bV Wtdtney, ITH, 

effect of on business of south 35 

CrtssvfoU family lU 

Criss well, Samuel HI 

Crlsswell, (Mrs.) Sarah IH 

Crisswell, William Penn 111,112 

Crlsswell, (Mrs,) WlUlam Penn 101 

Crosier, EUen, second wile ol Chas. WlUlCs. . lU 
Cullom, (Hon.) Shelby M 98 

D 
Danville, Pa 107,108,100 

Danville, Pb., PresbytHlan Church 100 

Darnell, C. A 101,103 

Dartmouth College, Hanover. N.H 83 

David City, Neb IIO 

Davls.J. McCan 15 

Davis, (Hev.) W. B 111,112 

Decatur. Ill 52.57,84 

Decatur. III., Christian Churdi organlied in. 

hi 1833 S7 

Decatur, Ill.,Mlllikln University located St.. 84 

Declaration of Independence 34,35,75,102 

Declaration of Independence. Its effect on 

DeKal^b m\\v^"v^v^v^\v^\\\v^'.v.v.'". w 

DeLory's Error, by John F. Steward 91 

Democratic Party. 58,87-90 

Dennison, (Mrs.) Erastus 109 

DBtherage, (Rev.) H. P Ill 

Detwller. Charles W 110 

DetwUer, (Rev.) George llO 

Detwller, LewisC 110 

Detwller, {Mrs.) Martha 110 

Dickenson, A., eoEraver of portrait of Benla- 
min Lundy 38 



jvGooi^lc 



INDEX — ConfimiefL 




Earl,F.E 

EaitmnD, Zsbina, asststant «d 
Loudyat Lcnrell,IU... 



-t-ixn^, r- 

irCoui^.Ill 

>iict<m,IU - 

butoi, UL, PmbTtHiBn Chureh. . . 



^Blsokbum College, CuUuTiUe, 
Sducstlim— Daitmnuth CoUaEe, EBnoTar, 

N.H :„ '. ( 

Education— niinola Collage, Jacksonville, IIL 19, 1 
EducatioD— nUnols, QoverDot Fotd qnolad on 

the eonunon school system I 

■Bj — ..™ I.,.— ._ i-o 3d by early Pros- 



— wta, Univoisity ol 

EducsUoD— Iowa Wesleyan Cniveislty, Ut. 

Pleasant, la I 

Educstioii— L^8 Forest CoUeni, Lake Forest. 

El .T^.. I 

Education— MiUikln University, Decatur, HI. i 

Education— ^^•'wf-nn nnl*>m«r< "thn tathmr" 

olthefrf 
Eduratlon 

Education— Out Public Schools, discussion on 
referenced 1 

EducaUon—Prlnceton College, Princeton, 
N.I .TZ?. 1 

Education— Rock River Somlnary at Ut. 



EduCHtloi 



—Yale Unlvwslty, New Havo 



Edwards County, m., Dl 
Edwards, (GovJ Ninlan. 
Edwardtville, III., Modi: 



m., Discl^ of Christ In. . i 

"bilan M, 65,11 

Madison County, Centen- 



Edwardtville, I 
nisi held at, Bepter , _. 

Edwardsville, Hi., Presbyterian Church or- 
ganized at, 1S10 6! 

Elder, (Dr.) Thomas 11; 

Eltiabeth, 111., Presbylwton Chun* fli 

Ellis, Rev. John M., Fresbyteiian missionary 

"E mancipation on the Soil" theory tl 

Emancipator, (The), newspaper, Jonesbor- 

ough.Tenn., Elihu Embroe, editor 41 

Embree, Elihu, editor, The Emandpator, 

Joneshorondi, Tenn 11 

England M.38,8: 



England— Ai 
s&v«y In 



: ol Parliament bi ItSi. abollsbed 



BriOah West Indies 34 

83 

Church ol 



rle Canal. 
Eureka, lit.. Christian Chmt^ 

Christ at, "■!""' ■■""" cd 

Europe 

Everett, Edi 



Ctmgc'ess on sHavery, quotatloi 



ol, hi United SUtes 



J 58, 87-90 

.-, , 1, by Frank E. 

, Stephen A. Douglas the Eipan- 

skmbt 4,B7-M 

Douglas, Stephen A,— Llnoola-Douglas De- 
but*. Semtcentnmlal Celebration, Free- 
port, HL, 1008 S4 

Dred Soott Dectslon, Paper on.reterencs to.. 102 

Dred Scot DedsioD, Relereuce to 57,102 

Dutch Reformed Chuich, Philadelphia lOS 

Dykhis. Smith 82 



terlan Church 107 



an,Ed™i W.. 
on, UlSuiE.. 



quoted 83 

Ford, (Governra-) Thomas, quoted ihi the com 
mon sdiool system hi m' — '- " 



Fort Donelson, Capture of, V 

Fort sV.'Lou^'CSWivW Hook).".'.'.' .".'.' .".'.'.".'.'97, 120 

FortBamler 58,59,87 

Foi Indiana 91,97 

Foi River 70,91,95,98 

Foi River (RtrlenduRoolier) 98 

France 22,98 

Franklin, Benjamin, leader ol Abidltkai 

Society hi PhDadelphla 34 

Franqudln's Map 01^884, reference to 91,93 

Franquelln's Map of 1688, reference to........ 93 

Freebtra, (Prof.) J. K 102,103 

Free Lalxir — FreebyterlaiLlsm In lUtuols has 

^ways stood lor free labor......-- 64 

Freeport,IU 14, 62, 82, S3,-84, 85, 8(1 

Freeport, 111., Journal (newspaper). .84,88 

Freeport, Bl., Northwest (newspqier) pnb- 



Freepert,Ill., Presbyterian Church 82 

French West Indies, slavery abolished In 34 

Frlck family UO 

Friends, Society of 38 

Friends, Societyof, at Ut. Pleasant, Ohio.... 39 
Frontenac, (Count da), QoTemor of Canada.. 92 



Gale Family, emterate from 1 

Countv,in 

Galena, 111 

Galena, 111., Presbyterian Churi 
QalesbuTE, III. . 
Gard, Seth, ee ' 



, member of the Constitutional 



ieglBl 

Gard, _.. 

Couvention ISIB, State ol .uuii,» — 

Garfield, (President) Janus A 84 

Garnet, Kan 108 

Garrison, William IJqyd 38, 41. 42 43, 48 48, 49 

Garrison, William Lloyd, arrested lor anti- 

slavery writings 42,43 

Garrison, William Lloyd, associated with Ben- 
jamin Lundy In publication of Genius of 

Universal Emancipation 42,43 

Garrison, William Lloyd, editor National 

Philanthropist 41 

Garrison, William Uoyd, estimate of value ol 
labors of Benjamin Lundy 48,49 



jvGooi^lc 



INDEX— Contiiuted. 



GsFTbon, William Uo;i1, First meettng o[, 
with Benjemln Lun^ 41 

aarrison. William Lloyd, InfluBnced by Ben- 
jamin tundj 48 

OaiTlsoii, William Lloyd, Letter of, to Zabina 
Eastman, March, 1874 48 

Oeddes, John 108 

"Oenlus c^ Universal Emancipation," ant)- 
slavery newspaper, Benjamin Lnndy, fditor 
andpuhllsher 38,4(l.42,4S.44,4fi,48,4S 

Oenlus of Universal Emancipation FUe of 

"OaniiisalUDlversalEmBncInatkm fonnded 
January 1821 at Mount Pleasant Chic 
removed to Jonesborough Tenn to Bait! "" 



at Hennepin Til 

"Oenlu' of Universal Emanmpatlan pub- 
lished at Fhltadelphia 44 

"Genius of Universal Emanelpatlon VIg 
nette described bv Zabina Eastman 44 

OeorglflState 42,19 7! 85 

GeoTKia State— Marchlnj! through Georgia 

Satrlotlc air — ' '- 
Idli^ Josh 
Glddln)!s Rev 
Glddfniis B»i Sai 
terian Charoh f 
work of 
Gllmore Epliratm 
Gllmore Gecvge 



Gil nil 



(Mrs ) John M 108 

J Taylor 109 

& Co .Publishers, Boston 50 

mda Fope ronnty 111 Presbyterian 

Church organized In 1819 62 

GODdell WDUam 4; 

Goodrich and 8coviI1e law firm Chicago III 32 
Goodrich Grant- member of firm of Goodrifh 

and SntvUte law Arm thlcagD 82 

Grand Army of the Repuhlle *' 



cntiU 



84 



Greeley Horace 38 39 48 

Oreel^ Horace American Conflict bv 48 

Greene Everts Bout«n 14 IS IB 17 IS, 19 20 21 
Greene Evarta Boutell Archives of the State 

of minrris address of reference to 14 10 

Oreenleaf fProf ) Walter S 102 

Green Mountains of Vermont 48 

Greek dramas reference to M 

Greek religion «0 

GuadalouDe Treaty of ref«ence to 88 

Gull ol Mexico 87 



H^ti Island Benjamhi Lnndy visits 41 42 4! 

Balel (Mrs ) Mary 111 

Hamnton Alexander Alexander Hamilton 

as a Btatasman paper on reference to 10^ 

Hamlet III Presbvterian Church 108 

Handwick <?ussex County N I birthplace of 

Benlsmin Lundv ^ 

Haney (Dr ) Richard Chaplain of the Sth 



? '■^l 



\ ols War of the Hebellion 
) Richard Resolution drafted 1" 
E Conference esking Frestdi 



by- 



Hanover HI Presbyterian Church at 
— 9 H S 



Hanaver, N. H., Early church organized at, in 

1803, by Dr. Abner Jones 52 

Hanson, (Rev,) H Ill 

Harding, (Rev.) l~ranels A 72 

Harris, David R 107 

Harrison, (Prfeident) Benjamin F 84 

Hartland, Vermont..' 62 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mess 83 

Hawk Family, early emigrants to Illinois — 58 
Haynra, (Rev.^ N. 8., The Disciples of Christ 
In nilnols and thehr Attitude toward Slavery 

4,52-60 

Hayes, (President) Rutherford B 84 

Hetingsfeld, J., Pabllshw, New York 60 

Henderson, lU., North Henderson Fresbyt«r- 

ianChurcL ill 

Hennepin, county sMt of Putnam County, 

iii..rrr *» 

Henry, (Mrs.) Catherine Ill 

Henry ramlly 112 

Henry, H. A Ill 

Henry, (Mrs.) John, (Miss Mattle Jamjeson} . 112 

Henry, Patrick 52 

Herrlngton, B. F 10^108 

Hiawatha— Song of Hiawatha, reference to. 113,116 

Hindu religion 80 

HIM, (Hon.) Robert R 82 

Hollenback, George M 102 

Holmes, (Miss) Mary lU 

Holmes, (Mrs.) Mary Ul 

Hoist, Hermann Edward Von, Conatltutlonal* 
and FoliUcBl History of the United States, ~ ' 

Vol. 2, qnoted 48 

Horsehead, Chemung County, N.Y 92 

Bosletler, (Rev.) Joseph, early minister in 

the Christian Church In tUinds M 

How, John R. I Ill 

Howard, John, English phllsnlliraptst 49,67 

Howe, Waller H HI 

Hudson River « 

Huron Indians __.._.............. 94 

Tllhil, (The), Col. dark E. Carr, author of!. 20 

nihil— Passhig of the Ullnl 12J-J34 

Illinois College, JecksonvHlB, 111 64 

Hlhiols, County of 02 

nihiois Indians 95,96 

tootnote 98 

Hlinob River 91,96,97 

TllinDlsRIver,caIledatonettmetheMaconpb 91 
Ullnols State. . .7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
' 20,21,22,23, 94, 2.S 26, 27, 28, 20, 31, 32. 33, 37, 40, 
44,49,.'>2,64,.16,,W,67,,'18,M,81,fi2,83,M,B6,67, 
70,71,72.73, 74. 76. 76, 77. 78, 79, 60, 82, 88,84, W, 
86, 88, 90. 91, 92. 98,94,104,105, 108, 110, 111, 112, 118 
TlllnolsState,admlttedtotheUntonfail818.. 64 
Illinois State, Antl-slavery strafe of, 1823-24 

44,45 

Illinois Stale— Archives of the Stale ol HIMoiB 
address cm by Evarts B Greene relerence 

to 14,16 

minofs State— Benjamin Lundy removes to 

tlibiois 40 

Illinals State— Benjamin Young missionary 

tolllh<ol"h]1804 70 

Tninols State Capitol BTilldlne 13 

minims State Centennial Celebration 1918 

Commission 23 

mtnals State— Central Railroad 88 90 

Illinois State— CTirlstlan Church or Dlsclplca 

growth of 1861 57 

Illinid! State-Coirfliothig Accounts Found in 
Early Illinois History by John F Steward 
reference to 91 

nihioisStatfl.ConsOtutloQol.lBlS.referenceto 53 
minois Bfate-lMseiples of Christ Irom Ken- 
( tuckyiTennesseeand Virginia, emigrate tc6T,!6 



.)glc 



INDEX^-ConlimiML 



il Cbrlst in nilnote 

-jward BlBvury, by 

Rut. N. 8. Haynes S2-59 

nilnoli BtBta, (Qov.) Ford quoted on tha oom- 

mon sohool sysWmin 64 

lUlnaia Slate, Fnt Bchod Svstem in, Newton 

Batemaa, ui« fatber of, islerancA to. a 

HUnolaStateiHlalorlcal Building, plans (or.. 21 
HUnoia Staumtorlcal Llbruy^Archliss of. . «0 

minds State HishrloBi UbrBiy --'' 

7,8,17,31,2,34,25,27,28,29,90 

nUnab atat«Htat4nli»l Library, Collactloas of '" 
IlUnob State Historical Library, List ot pub- 

llcatlooa ol, end of this volutne 

DUnoig State Historical Society 

18, 20, 21, 22,33,24,28,27, 2R.2f 

Illinois''*-*-'"--—^ ""'-'- '— ■-' 

A. Lb 
Ullaols 



Society, ArchlTe; ol. . 



Illinois State Hiatoiical Soc&ty, Business 
i "ElstorkBi Society, CahoklB 



nilQois state Hiatorint Society, ContrlbutiaDa 
to State HisloTT 91-lS 

Winais Stale Uistorioal Society, Directors 
mestlngs 20-S 

nUnois State Historical Society, Genealogical 



il Society, Journal of. . 



Illinois State EMorical Society, Publications 



Illinoia State— Meeee,'wiliiani A., lUiisCrated 

Lecture on Illinois 1 

Illinois Slate, Methodism in, 1793 ; 



Antt-Slavery Stmgele tn Illinois a: 
tooted the Methodist Episcopal C 



Illinois, iSlt-1879, luin 

tions, VoL VI. quoted 

Illinois State, Populatioiiot, in 1800 70 

Illinob State— PrairieState S3,S8 

Illinois State— Pr^ries of minoia 

70.0S,9a,113,m,llS,I16,117 

minoIa State— Prcsbytcmn Charch first or- 

ea^ud In ISie, at Hiaron, White County. .61, 62 
nuiois State— Presbyterian Church in Illinois. 

Hlatoryof,H. D. JenJdos, D.D 60-60 

nibuds State, PrBsbyterian churches in, nom- 

berof.etc " 

tninols State, Press Association 



Xlllncds Stale, Records, care ol discussed. ..15-16 
Illinois State, Slaves in, !□ 1340, federal census 

report. - 64 

Illinois State, Slavery In, tight against 64 

Illinois State— University ol IlUniris 19 

Illinois State— War of the RebeiUon, Sixth 

~ arlntantryln.. 



IimiartlarAppeal'to'tbe'Reasou.'Iustice and 



iphlet pro^bly by Benlamiu Luiidy.. 45 

"'"ite 66,67,71 

.S,9,i;3,70,ei,B3,ft4,eS,M,e7,9S,113-lI4 



Indiana 

Indians 

footnote ... 

Indians— Aleonqoln Indians 91, 95 

Indians— Calumet, Pipe of Peace 118,117 

Indians— Fox Indians 01,97 

Indians— Hiawatha, Song of Hiawatha, refer- 
once to 11}, 118 



138 



Indians— Miami Indians 95,96,97,98 

Indians— Minisous Indians OS 

Indians— NanaDgmci, chief of the U«ramech 



Indiem— NananRonsi 95 

Indians— Otimao Indian Chief 98 

Indlaas— Ottawa Indians, footegte SS 

Indians—Ouabloateata, Indian Chlel 9B 

Indians— Fepikoklas Indians 97 

Indlans-Pontlac (Chief of the Ottawas). . .118, IH 

Indians— Pottowattomie Indians 95 

Iowa State 718,8,109 

Iowa State Wesleyan University, Mt. Pleas- 



Isthmos of Panama. . . 



offlcialMoceedhigs 13-80 



Jacksonville, III 16,17,18,20,84 

Jaoksonvllle, HI.— Illinois College 84 

J^ksonyille, HI., Illinois College founded by 

Presbyterians fn, hi 1829 84 

Jaoksonvllle, m. Journal, files of, relerence to. 16, 17 

James, Edmund 1 13S 

James, James A 138 

lamlBSon, (Rev.) J. M., D.D HI 

Jamieson, Mattle (Mrs. J(*n Henry) Ill, 112 

Japan, Coiu^ of the Present Crisis in tie East, 

paper on, reference to 1(0 

Janan- Development of Japan during Last 

Fltty Years, discussion on, reference to — 102 
Jay, John, president of an anttslavery society 

in the State ol New York 34 

JelTerson, Thomas 35,6^87 

Jefferson, Thomas, Aotl-Slavery switlmenis 

rand opinions of 35 

Jenliias H. D.,D.D., IIlEtoryolPresbytfflian- 

ism in Illinois, address before the Ullntris 

Stale Historical Society, May, 1B13 80-88 

Johnson, John, anti-slavery man 58 

Johnson, (Hon.) W.H.,m^ber of the B 



f Represent: 
let. Louis.. 



Bodk »S-1M 

Jordan River -^^ ■ w -J.' ■ ■ ■ VrV-^" ** 

Journal ol the Times, Burliniiton, Vt. Dec. 
12 1S28, contains Mticle by William Lloyd 

Garrison on Bei^arnln Lundy 48, 49 

Joutel, M.Henri - Jf 

Judy, (Col.):I. W., 'anti-slavery man 68 



INDEX — ConHmwd. 



Xane County 111 97 

iLaukakM iuvat 81 9a 

Ik^msas L tj Uo 113 

Kansas buie 8* S9 108 

Kansas Teir tory !>9 

wnsitftshift DasuuctlOQ ol Plu^ and Maps 



Kaskaskia Ehei 
am relaience to 
lUsge near btu « 



KasLaaldB llllnola 

kasliaskis River 

KelUisbuig 111 Presbfterlsn Chuich 

kelk^ James 

Kellogj James A 

EaUogg (Mrs)Martba 

■""--gjdlKJUaryU 



Kentuck; bcate S bl,64 1 !l I 

Kentucky btaW— Cauerldee Ky Cnristiaiii 

Church or Dlsdples Ear^ beguuungs ol ! 

Eentucli; btate— Canerldge ky Belielous 



Elddoo James 

IiJneboo (Dhnols Indian) 

lUngoC franca 

KJng William B , anttslsTeiy m 

Iiing (Proi)W S 

Klnnett (Uts ) W E 



Lafferty (Mrs ) Elliat»th 111 12 

Lafleity lamily II 

Lake County 111 6a 

Lake Erie li2 

Lake 1 crest LoUeee Lake Forest 111 bt 

Landing ol the Mayflower Hlslor e picture 41 
LaFulherl? g.uoled lootnota Bt 

LaUolle Bene Rober Sleur de 91 92-Sg IJO 

LaSalle Kene Itobert bleur de, Colonle du 

Sleui de LaSalle by John F Steward 9! US 
LaVantum (The wasted) Indian Village on 

the Illinois Rl ai 119 UO 

Lawrence OeorgeA 4 j 13, IN 31 3^ 

Lawrence Geo»e A, Del vered amiual ad 

dress before the Illinois Slate Ulstorusl 
L Society, Uey, 1»13, on Life and Services ot 

Benjamiu Lnudy 4,13,31,33-81 

Lawreoce, George A,, presents ' 

tmin Lundy to the Illinois I 
Ibrary ^i 

LawreDcevJlle, 111., Christian Church in, organ- 
lied hi 1833 57 

Lawrenson, (Mrs.) Ell2a ill 

Lee, Ellsha 108 

Lea, Graham lOg 

Lee, (Mrs.) Orabam 108 

Lee, Henry 109 

Lea, (Mrs.) Henry 108 

Lee, Lutber, ant^lavery minister, U. E. 

(Surch 69 

Lee,BeovlllB 108 

LeRocher, (The Rock), Starved Hock ....120,121 
Letters—Jessie Palmer Weber to WUHam L. 
Sullivan, Secretary to Governor Dunne, 

AprU, IBIS 24-29 

Letters— John Q. Whlttler, dated Anw<l.urr, 

Mass., March, 1874 48 

Letters— Wm. Lloyd Oairison to Zablna 

Eastman, dated Marrh, 1874 48 

LexhiBton, 111 75 

LlberutorlTbeJ, newspaper, lounded by Wm. 

Lloyd (larrison 44 

Liberia, Africa 67,72 

Liberia, Africa, Freed slaves sent to Si 

14berlan Colonliatlan Society 58 



Lile, Travel and Opinions of Braxjamln Lundy, 

Lincoln, Abraham 37 66 il o iC 84 

Lincoln, Abraham great emancipator ijuuted 
on the Methodist Church services m the 



Lincoln, Ibiaham quoted ou (It«v ) W alter 

Lincoln College Lincoln 111 t 

Linuiln-Soutlas beau-CentennisI Celebratlou 
l-reopoit,!.' '" 

' n.Ili,™,^^ 

a Uritaln 



Little Mackinaw, 111 



Logan, Ilei Ihomas, D J> pastor Fust 
l-resbyterian Cburch Springfield wrius 
history or the church ( 

London, England 4 

Long, Martha (Mis Erastus Dennison) 1( 

I^vejoy, Ml]ah P Assasslnallon ol < 

Lovajoy, Johu, brotlier of EJiJah P Lovejoy 

assisted Benjamin Lundy < 

Lovejoy, Owen i 

Lovington 111 Christian Church I 

Lowell, Putnam County 111 44 ' 

Lowell, Futnam County 111 description ol 
Lowell, Putnam County 111 Cemi 

Universal hmi ... 

Loyal Leelou 8< 

BebeUiou 



Lundy, Beujamm antts1a\ery workers owi 

debt Co him 
Lundy, Beii)amin 

Lundy, Ben|amln attends 

[.elpbia 
LiiDdy, benlamin autobiography of 
Lundy, B^amhi bibliography ^t 



42 43 

American Con 

AboUtlon ol Slavery Fbda 



'i'i'conceiuuiE 
Lundy, Benjamin burial place ol and 

ttone described 
Lundy, Benjauun career ol coropaied 

Lundy, Benlamln Children of 
Xiundy, Benjamin Cblldrui of compi 



50 61 



olhat 



In Children of publish his 

n Chcular letter written by 39 
a Colored mac visits grave of 50 
n Death and burial of 49 60 
n Death ol wile ol 41 

□ Describes business success 
le Obio 87 

n Devotion and self sacriflc- 
... „ 48 40 

Benjamin Diary or Journal of. 



Lundy, Benjamin 
Lundy, Benlamm 
Lundy, Benjamin 



Lundy, Benjainin goes to Joneeborougb 



Goi.)^lc 



INDEX — Continaed. 



Lun^, Bcnjunln, goM to St. Lonlsjmltaa 
antMsTNT artkilds to 

LaDd]', BfojiuDlii, Uuvt ol 50 

Lund;, Bcojunlu, Uistotical value of his 
wrlteigs «,45 

Limdy, HiintBialn, Lite and Serricss of, ad- 
dieen iMloce tb* lllinoia Slate lllstorlcal 
Soclsty, Hay, 1013, by Ueorge A. Lawrenca 

Lundy, Beujanuii, Life, TTsvel and Oplnioiis 
OE benjamin Lundy, compiled under dlr<^ 
tlou 01 Ilia cliUdrea, W. U. f airlali, FMa- 
dalptila, 1847 61 

Llinay, ifenjamin, Literary Klyle oE - 46 

Lundy, Benlamln, locates al Mount Fleaaant, 
Ohio - 37 

Lundy, BanjamlD, locales at iJt. Cloiisiille, 
Ohio 37 

Lundy, Benjamin, Marriage of 37 

Lundy, Benjamin, oTgatiisas at Bt. Clairsvllle, 
Obio, Ihe Union Uumanllailan Society.... 39 

Lundy, Benjamin, Pamphlet wrltt«ii by, fla 

Lundy, Bemjamin, Personal appearance ol 3: 

Lundy, Beujamiu, Poem to his mother, verse 

Lundy, Benjamin, Portrait of, preaentad to 
the lllltioia Stale iUstorlcsI Library by 

Hon. George A. Lawrence 31 

Ltmdy, Bamamm, Porlratts ol, described.. 3S 
Lundy, Benjaniin, visits Island ot Haiti and 

eataUbhealreedslavtt 11,I2,U 

Lundy, Bfujunin, visits, Texas; objects and 

mulu <d vut. 4MJ 

Lundy, Benjamin, War In Texas, 2d ed., pam. 

Uembev & Girm^ Philadelphia, 1837. 51 

Uindy, (Mrs.) Benjamin, death ol, obituary 

notioeol *l 

Lundy, (lira.) Benjamin, MarrlaEe of 37 

Lundy, Elizabeth (Elks], mother ol Benja- 
min Lundy, poem by Benjamin Lundy 45 

Lundy, Elizatietb, second daughter of Ben- 
jamin Lunily 45 

Lundy, Ellia Shotwell, mother ol Benjamin 

Lundy 3B 

Liudy, Esther, dauebter of Benjamin Lundy 411 
Lundy Family, (The), and Their Descend- 
ants, by wmlam Chnton ArmstronE, New 

Brunswick, N. J., IBOZ 60 

Lundy, Joseph, lather of Benjamin Lundy... 37 
Lundy, Susan Uaria (afterwards Wireman), 

daughter ot Baztjamlii Lundy 33 

Lutheran Church 60 

Lutber, Martin 49 

Lnti,(Rev.)J. S 109,111 

Luti, (Mrs.) J. B 109 

Lyndeu, Vermont, Early church organiied 

at, by Dr, Abner Jraiea 52 

Lynn.E. K. 107 

M 

McCandless, William W 107 

McQlnnis, Charles 10» 

UcGlnnls, John T 10» 

McOready, (Rev.) James, nguiiies First 

Presbyterian Church In Itlioois ai,62 

Mdntyre, W. I Ill 

Mackinaw, 111 67 

McKendree, William, early Methodist Minis- 
ter in Illinois, aJterwBTds bishop 70,73 

McKlnley, (President) William 84 

McLean County, 111 - 53 

Macoupin River, Illinois River at one time 

called 91 

Macoupin Rivsr, "Procbecette de Macoupiu" 91 

MoPherrhi, JaniiH 107 

Madison County Centennial Sept. 12, 1912.... S3 

Maenolla, Putnam County, 111 49 

Maine Siate, Methodist Abolitionists bold 

convention in 70 

Major, Ben, anti-slavery man 57,58 



a Id Walnut Grove, 111., 

,_ leiJeityV.iioiii?, 

Maps— iranquelln's Map ol 1I1S4, reierance 10.91 
Maps— Fianiiuelin's Uap ol iaS8, reierenra to. 

Maps— Pinari's Map ol 1680, reiereoce U> 

Maps — l'opple'8Map,relerBnce to............ 

Uarameoh 95, »7 

Maiamech Club, History ol. 



Margaret, tlave glil, ri 



11,69 



Mar»haU,lll 

MarEbaU,J.B..., 
Maryland State.. 
Maryland SI— " 

Maryland tit ^ 

Ing to drive the iree negroes Irom the stale, 

or reduce them to slavery, reference to 69 

Mason and Ulion's Line 34,47,90 

"Mason and Dixon Line, " Creation of. 34 

Maaon, George, Anttelavery oumlons of — 36 

Massachusetts ti tale 34,36,44,48,51 

MassBcbusetls Stale— Antt^laverj socle^, ,., 
5th annual report, Isaac Knapp, Boston, 

1837 ..' 51 

Massachusetts State, Slavery aboUsbed In, In 



Meese, William A is, W, 31,22,23 

Meese, WiUlaui A., Illustrated Leclnie on 
Early Illinois, reference to S3 



Meraoiecb Club, History of 9»-10 

Mercer County, 111 107, 108, lOS, UO, 11 

Mercer County, III., Abington Xown^p in " 



New Hampshire... 

Methodist AhoUtionista of New En^and 70 

Methodist Episcopal Cburch 

57, 63, W, 70, 71, 72,^,75,76, 109, no 

Uethodist Episcopal Church, Antl^avery 

memorials presented at early coolereuces-. 68-69 
Methodist Episcopal Cburch, Anti-slavery 



Methodist Episcopal Churcb— Antt^lavery 
Struegles hi Illinois as it Adected tbe Uetbo- 
dist ^iscopal Cburch, by John H. Ityan. ■ 57-70 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Baltimore Con- 
ferehco B7,«8,72 

Methodist Episcopal Church, BatUe Creek, 
Michigan 109 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Missouri Ccai- 



Methodlst Episcopal Qiurch, Ohio cWe> 

Methodist Episcii^ai CbunJi, Rode RJver 
Conference 71, !3, 76 

Methodist Kpiscopal Cburch— St. Louis Meth- 
odist Church founded by Rev. Jesse Walker 
in 1819 70 

Uetbodlst Episcopal Church, Tennessee Con- 
lerenC6....:7rr!t 71 

Methodist Episcopal Churdi, Western Con- 
ference _... 71 

George 101,102 



;vGoo»^lc 



INDEX— Coaliiaed. 



U«£jcan <ii>Tenuaaut -,^,- 45 

Meiiobn War 46 

Meiico. 34,4B,«(,WS,1CU 

Mexico aboUsbce sJaver; In ViW 34 

Ueiico — Conquest of, itevolutlon in Modern 



Nebo, Mount 

Ngbrsska tjtate 

Mebiaima btue— David Cil;, Neb. . 



Meiico, diseussic . 

Meilco—Minea of Maxim. 
Maiifo— Spaniards ol Me] 



MlUa, (Bev.) Hamiul J., sari; missiiniary to 

Mia«s ol Uezico i 

Mlniar, (Uev.) aeorga W ., auU«lavBr; maa. . '. 



Mississippi Biyet 48,87, 

Mississippi Kiver '' FathsVoi WatMS"; .' '.'.'.'.'.'. 



MlBsoutmCate 37, tu, 64, tw, 71, 8U, lU 

Missouri male, adniissicm ioto ttie Federal 

Missouri Stata Contoence, UMliodist Kplsco- 



Uitchell,<Kev.) JoImTtlama9,plonMIpIeacb- 
e^ M. K. Cliurcli In Illinois 71 

Uoab, Land ol 33, 60 

MoOatt FamilT, Early emigraats to lUinois. ■ EiS 

Molina, lU 18 

Monmoulh, 111., Presbyterian Cbuidi liu 

Montgomery, Daniel 107,108 

Monlgomary, Daniel M 108 

Monlgomerj lamlly 108,109 

MtBitgomery, John, Br 107 

Mcmtgomery, (Kav.) John 107,108 

Motitgomaiy, (Mrs.) John 108 

MoDtgamery, Maigaret 107 

Montgomary, Bobert 108 



Morgan IJounty, 111. . . 
Money, Nelson 



It ol Bw^min Lundy.. 



Mount Pieasmi, ill., Christian Choich oigaii- 



Hount Pleasant, Ohio, Benjamin Lundy lo- 
cales there 

Uount Fleasant, Ohio, Society of Friends, 



..108,IOE Neviu^,! 



Nanriioston,lll.,Methodistl!:pi8eopalCbuich 1( 



New l^ngland Ohurcbss, Uinn ol government. 
New lL]ngland, Met' — '""■ ' ' — '""■ — '"~ '" 
New Uampshue iil 



tletliodist A boutiimisls hold 



New Hampslilre—Pierpont, N. H... 
New Hampshire — PorLemouth, K. k 

New Jersey Stale 

New Lights, eaiiy term applied to 






...87,48 



Newspapers— Christian Advocate. . . 

Newspapers— Christian Inquirer u 

Newapapars— Emancipator, ITbeJ, Jon«8bo> 

ougn, Tenn 40 

Newsp^jers— t'reepoct Journal S4, 8i 

Newspapers— Freeport, 111., "The North- ■• 



uversal Emanclpa- 



..38,10,41 



paper. . 



Newspapers— Ililiiois—Newspiipeis and terl- 
Ddicals ol Illinois, iei4-is;u, Illinois Uistori- 

1 cal Collections, Vol. VI, quoted 84 

Newspapers-*^lllmois Press Association. 84 

Newspapers— Jacksonville Journal 10, 17, 10, 20 

Newspapers— Journal o( the Times, Burling- 
ton, Vermont 48,49 

Newspapers— Liberator, (The), edited by 

William Lloyd Oarrison 44 

Nawspapeis—National rbllauthropist, Wm. 

Lloyd Carrison, editor 41 

Newspapers— New York Christian Inquirer . . 4a 
Newspapers— North w€6t, pubUshed at Frea- 

Newspapers—' Philanthropist" (The) Mount 

Pleasant, Ohio 39,40 

Newspapers— Prairia Democrat, Freeport, 111 82 
Newspapers— Southern Adv ocata, religious pa 



New York Stab 
New York ■ 

founded in 
Now Yorkist 

Norbury, Elizabeth irtit 



Nanangouci— 5»,Nanangousista, chiel of tbe^ 

Meramech Village 05 

Nanangoiun ol the tribe of the Mlnisous OS 

Nanangousi (Algonquin Indians) 95 

Nanangousista (Nanangoucl) ol LaSalla'a 
phraseotogy, chief of theMaramech Village. 95 

Naramore, fDr.) W, P., anttilaverv man 5S 

Nashville, ( Washmgton County), Ifl 74 

Nashville, Tenn.,FiratM-E. Church in 110 

Nat Turner Eebelltoo In Vh-glnia 44 

Nattonal Philanthropist (newspaper), edited 
by Wm. Lloyd Garrison, flrat total abstln- 



North Carolina State UoivgrsitT, located ai 

Chapel HiU, N C 
Northwest Territory 
Norlhwestern University, Evanston, UL 
Norton, W T is, ; 



Oatman, John, Christian 
log cabin of, Wa'-— " 
O'CaUagban, E B 
Ohio 



of. Walnut Grove, 111 ST 

I. E B 05 

Towiuhip, Uercer (bounty. III 107 



oqIc 



INDEX— Condnned. 



OiloBlver 3ll,3T,63,e4,eS,{Q,es 

Okio HiVBT, r»Ua o[ ..,.„....,... 81 

OWoSlau 37 39 40,67,68,71,74,76 

Ohio tiiate Couleieiica, Methodist Eplsca[4l 



OcegoQ Scau Boundary, dabus ovei 



OrtH.J.E 

Osborne, aeorgla L., Chaiiman ol tba Oeoaal- 
logical Commltlea, U"—'' °—- "'-•—'—■ 
Society, rsport ol. . . 



Slate Historical 

Oswego, ill., Olden TlmtB in, remlolacenci, 

Oswego, 111., Sevuntietli aouiversary ol 

Otlawa,Ill 63 

Ottawa, 111., PrcsbytHlan Cburcli 

OtlawB Indlana.fooInoM 

OuBblcoloeta, liidiiiii c'lJ^' "' " '.'.'.'."'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 



. idistoricat tiociatf. May, lfll3, by George 

Polo, iiiT '.'.'. .11'.' 11'.^ ".'.'.".".!".■. '.".;;.!;. IS 

bollock i'amily ua 

PoUoct.J. K ■, 110, Ul 

Pollock, (Mrs.) Mary lU 

Polloct, Hamud 107,110, Ul 

Poutiac, Indian Cblef of the OtUiwaE....IlS,lUI 
Pool, (Rev.J James, Orgauius the fiamey's 
Fralile Christian Church, July 17, ISM.... S3 

Pop<8 Kiver Presbyterian Church 

IDS, 107, 108, 100, HO, 111 

Popple's Map, reterenoa to sfi 

Pa[nilartJDvaiaieaty,DocUhi«ol, reference to X 

Ptqwlatlon 01 ILlliiols in 1800 70 

Farter, Rev. Jeremiab 02,68 

Poller, Rev. Jeremiab, FresbyteilBii Mission- 
ary and Chaplala at Chicago B3 

Ftfftar, E. W Ul 

Portsmouth, N. H 62 

Pottowattomie Indiabs 06 

Fialiie DeiDOCtat (sewapaper), FTeepwt, 111.. 83 

Prairie Ktale, Illinois 88 

Prairke ol llQiiols. .. .70,06, 90, 113, 114, IIS, 116, 117 

Frtebyterlan Church 

52,63,61,02,03,107,108,100,110,111 

Fresbytariau Churi^~-Aledo PresbyCerlaD 

Churdi 108,110,111 

PreEbyMrian Church, Apple Biver, 111 B2 

FnebyMrlan Churoh, BeMdere, 111 02 

Fresbytedan Church, Candor Fiesbyterlan 
Church (Mercer County, Ill.J... "" 



102 Prairie I 



Paolfle Coast... 



Page, tProl.) E. C 6,18,20 

Paiiie, Tom— Did Tom Paine Write the Deo- 
laratiou ollodepeiidmce, paper on, reiernice 



Panama, Isthmi 



Parrlsb, W. D. Publisher, Fhlladelphia 61 

Parshall, Glasgow Ul 

Partridge, (Mrs.) Edward 109 

Paul's £pistle Id the Romans, lelerance to... 60 

Peaiel Church, Fifsbytariau Church 109 

PennsjlVBuia Hall, Phlladelpliia, burned by 



lb May 17 



Feppor, (Mrs.) Jane 11 

Penott, Nicholas 1 

Pesteouoy River (Foi River) ) 

Philadelphia, Fa 34,40,41,42,44,46,40,61,; 

' Philadelphia, Fa., Abolition Society in. i 

Fhlladelphia, Fa., Free labor produce stores 

Fhiladelphta, Pa., aeiiiusol Universal Eman- 

Philadelphte, Pa., Pennsylvania Hall biinied 



Phillips', Wendell, quotation Irom speech ol. . 

"FhHo Jus-'-'- " ' — ■■ '~ "' — '~' 

'ett^by 

Pierce, Aera-ge F^oiOwnga... 



iJusticIa,' . 

— Why Benjamin Luady 

Pldcnll,. WUIlani 8., anli-alavery 



Piasbytecian Church, Center' PreEbyterian 

Churob, oiganlECd March 12, 1860 1L> 

Ptesbylarian Church, Chicago, 111 63 

PresbytecianChurch, DanviUe, Pa 109 

Presbyterian Church, dascripUon ol govem- 

Prcabylarlan Church— Edglo^cn, lUiaols 

Prcebylarian Church 108 

FiesbytalBoChurdi,EdwaTdsviUe,IU 61 

FiesbyterlanChurch, Eliiabetb, III 01 

Piesl^teciaii Church, FarloVs Utove, Meroer 

County, III 107 

Presbyterian Churd^Flist brick church in 
lUiuois, The First Fresbyterlau ol Sprii^ 

field, HI 61-63 

Presbytarlaa Church, Fhst, in UUnols organ- 
lied 1816, at Sharon, White County, 111. . . .61-61 

Presbyterian Church, Freqiort lU 61 

Prcsbyterlao Church, Qalma, III 62 

Fresbyteriau Church, Uolconda, 111 61 

Fresbyterian Churob— Uamlet, IIL, Fresby- 



Prast^ierian Church. lUlnais, Influence on 



Fresbyterlaa Church— Jenkins, H. D.. D.D., 
History oC the Piesbylarian Church in 
Ulinob, address belore the Illinois Stale 

Historical Society, May, 1013 60-flfl 

Presbyterian Church'-lfelthsburg, Ul 108, 110 

Presbyterian Churdi, MlUersburg, III 106, ir" 



Presbyterian Church, Mioistera and Ifbslon- 

arlBs ol, educated men « 

Fresbytctlan Church, Monmouth, III U 

Presbyterian Church— North HeQders<m Pres- 
byterian Church II 

Presbyterian Church- Oquawka, 111., Piesl^- 

terian Church 109,11 

Presbyterian Church, Ottawa, III G 

Fresbyterlan Churim— Fenlel Frasbyterlan 

Churob 10 

33 Fresbyterlan Church, Peoria, III 6 

. 58 Presbyterian Church— Popes River Prwby- 

. 71 terianChurch 106,107,108,109,110,11 

Fresbyterlan Ghurch,Rock[ord, III 6 

. 63 Pregbytarlan Church, BushvlUe, m 6 



..glc 



13S 
INDEX— Contmoed. 



>ytertaCliurch. !!!!!!!;. 'bs 

-■■■ 5,16,18,21 

■,PapM™,rater6nc--- — 
Antf-Blavery struj 



ief, Pspet on 
I. Antf-Blavery StrueElt 
aCfccled the UethodisI 



St,__Clalr County, m., Turkey Hill sotllement 

), antlfllivery society^ 
m Sooietj, orgBuked at, 



Frospact TertBcs, l^eeiiin^. iii., Honw of 

(Gen.) Bmlth D. Atkins located on B3-t 

Protjotant Churches ( 

Fsycholoey ol the Mob, papei on, relereoce (o U 
Putnam County, Hi 33 4 



Ra^Ol—Slare girl. rtCHence to n 

Baddlfle CMlan, UODOgrapha 50 

Radlord, (FroO I- B. quoted on the Disciples 
OlCliifatsndaielTAttitndeTQwBrdSlav«T 58 

BaOroads—IUbuiia Central Ridlioad SS,sa 

Baiiroads— Union Paciflo Railroad 89, (W 

Ranunaikarap. CharlBS H 5, 18, 20, 21 

Randolph, Edmund, Antl^layery sentiments 



Bedmon, George, anti^leTery man 

Reed, (Her.) H. W,, ptonoer preacher M. 1 

Churdi in Illinois 

Eeformatlan, (The) 

Reformed Churches 

RellKlma. Set Churchea. 

Bd^iona, Greek 

Reiisfous, F' " 






1 an early 



Kidott, Ills., (Stepiienaon County). 
RiviBro du Rocber, River of the far 
rock. For River so called In 171) 
Hobb (Ebt.) C. M 



Bookford, Il4 Presbyterian Church < 

Rook Island County, 111 1< 

Rock River GonlercDcs, Methodist Episcopal 



min Lundy at ' '^q 

idist CEiii 



: the Indians established 



lounded 
70 

.60,63 



^h^h''in'^'toS&ed"'*' ' ^''^^ ' *^'^)''«iar' 

Sangamon TerritOTy. .'.'"" * 

SBuIt Ste, Marie, Fort Brady 

?hllip, ■■-»--'" 
(Hav 

Scli™iy(R,».) William. anU-sikVe,^^^'"'^ 

siierifl,^?ir;;;;:;:;: 11° 

Sh6ri(I,Paul iS! 

Sheriff. Samuel 'SJ 

Sheriff, (Mrs.) Barouel 'tS 

Sheriff, wmiin... J^ 

Sheriff, (Mrs.) William...' JS 

Sherman, Lawrence Y , 

Sherman (Geri.) William TeciimVeh i, if 



&. i^iiiucn m XMinols 



.glc 



INDEX— CoDtmoed. 



SlBTsry— AnttslaTBTy convention, FbilBdei^ 

SlBTSiy— Anttslavery iabora of Benjainti] 
Lundy 43 

Slavery— Antl-sUvery memoriBls presented at 
early oonfermcos of the M. E. Church 68-6B 

BIbvbiy— Anti-slBveiy societies M, S5, M, 18 

SlBvenr— Antl-slsvery sociellea In New Yorit 
and Pennsylvanlo- - - , - - - --.,- -,- 34 

Slavery— Anti-slaTery societies In North Caro- 
lina, VirRtnla and Tennessee 35 

Slavery— Anttslaverv society In St. ClaErs- 
ville, Ohio 3B 

Slavery— Christian Advoiste opens Ita col- 
umns to the discussion on 89 

Slavery— Christian Churctt or Disciples attl- 
tode toward 57-58 

Slavery— Early pamphlets against slavery.. 36 

Slavery— nuixds Anti-slavery Stniprles In 
niinob as it Affected the Methodist Episco- 
pal Churdi, by John H. Byan 87-78 

Slavery tntrodnced Into Vireinla, IBIB 3i 

Slavery- T-tbecian ColonlEatlon Society 58 

Slavery— Uaryland Lettlslature resolution In 
passed, tending to drive the free negroes 
Irom the state or toreduce them to slavra;. . M 

SlavBTv- Methodist Episcopal Church adopts 
resolDtion asklnlF President Lincoln to man- 
umit the slaves claimed to l>e the Orst eccles- 
iaatical action of like character to reach the 
President 7S 

Slave]?— Slaves at Wheeling Va, sale and 

Slavery^ Status ol in diffeiBnt locaUties In 

Blavery-Unltfld States Slavery hi 33-51 

Slavery, World wide movement against in 

1794, etTect of 84 

Smith, Ellas early Baptist mhiister '>2 

Smith (iBOTTO W 15 15 19 

Smith a«rntt S8 

Smith Ivan L 1D2 103 

Society of Friends S6 

Society of the Army at the Cainberland SS 

Society of the Armv of the Tennessee 85 

Sooletv ol the Loyal Legion ^ocletv comnosed 

of cheers who were in the War of the Rehel 

lion 85 

Song o( the niawathn referenceto 113 

Soule rBI<ihoii) Joshua ot the Methodbt 

Enlscopa! Church 60 l 

South American Mlsslnnarifff 10S 

Sonth Atnerlean Republics Several of abolish 

Sonthem Advocate religious paper 80 

Spaniards nf Hetlco 9<t 

Spiltnan (Kev ) Benjamin Franklin 62 03 65 
Spllman fRev ) Benlamfn Franklin called 

Father of Fresbyterlanlsm In TDlnols First 

resident PrwibyteriBn nroaoher «■' 

Rnriniflpld Til 1 W W,M 28 ^1 WIB7 82,83 M "7 7B 
Sprlnefleld HI Christian Choroh in organlied 

bilSWt 57 

SpringSeld Til First Fresbvterlan Chartdi, 

History of 83-83 

Bprlncfleld III First Preshyterlan Church 

In Sanmmon foitnty toanded in 82-63 

Stamner To*iBthan pioneer preacher M B 

Church In ininofA 71 74 

Starved Hoi-k— TmM William Anwyl The 
Tragedv of Starved Rock 113-1M 

Starved Rock— fThel Last of the TUhil a lee 

end n( Starved Rock 113-124 

Starved Rock Lerand ot lW-124 

Rtarved Rock on the Rllnob River 8% 113-124 
Bteptiwison Conrrtv 111 W B3 M 88 

StenhoTson Ciinitv Til Cotrt House B3 

Stmhenson Coanty Hi Old Settlers A^ocla 

Mon 84 

fiteubenville Ohio 40 

Stnveni Frank F Addresi on Stephen A 

'Douela," tfie Expsnilonist 4,8 90 

Blewwd a '' ita 103 



Steward, lohnF.... 91,102 IM 

Steward, John F., Confflctlng Accounts Found 
In Early Illinois History, reference to article 

StawardVJiiiii F!,'D(iLery's Error' AiainI!" SI 

Steward^ Julian H 102,103 

Stone, Barton W., pioneer preacher in the 

Christian denomination 52 

Stone, Barton W., wlthdrawslrom the Frreby- 

tHlan Church; Identified himself with the 

Christian denomination 52 

Streator, 111 35 

Sumner, Charles 3s 

Sunderland, Leroy. anti^avery minster U. 

E, Church BO 

Sussei County, N. J 88 

Swahi, David L,, educator and governor of 

North Carolina 84, gs 

Swain, (Miss) Eleanor, wUe of Qeneral Smith 

D. Atkins S4 

Swain, William, assistant editor to Benjamin 

Sweiteer, (Itev.)H. E.''.,*.*.'.*'.'."^'.'J.'"!'^^; 102 

T 

Talt, (President) William H 84 

Talon, Jean Baptlste, footnote -.^.. 9S 

Tarlfl- Doffl the Tariff Foster Trusts, dis- 
cussion on, reference to 102 

Taumauilpas, Mexico, Govemmant erooted 

land to Bonlamln Lundy 48 

Taylor & Atkins, law Arm, Frwport, HI 82 

Taylor, (Dr.) A. R 101 

Taylor, Matthew Ill 

Taylor, Oscar, law partner ol Smith D. Atfctau 

82,83 

Taylor. (Miss) Winifred S3 

Tazewell County HI fig 

Tennessee Stale 40 18 S3 E7 98,81,04 71 72 83 11 D 
Tennessee State Antl-^very sodatles in 35 

Tennessee State Diselpleg of Oirist emigrate 

toIUhudsfrom 57 5S 

Tenjiessee State — Conlerence Methodist Epls- 

copid Church 71 

Teias "tate 45^ 46 47 48 51 

Texas State Admission to Federal Union of 

Sght against In United States Congress 46 
Texas State Benjamin I<undy s plan to settle 

a colony of negroes in 48 

Texas State Benlamln Limdy visits 45,48 47 
Texas State War In pamphlet by Benjamin 

Londy 46 61 

Theosophlcal Theory of the Universe paper 

on reference to 102 

Thompson Charles Manfred 22, 13 138 

Thomp<ion Charles Manfred Lincoln Way 

Thornton (leorge 109 

Thornton H W 109 

Tlkomton Martha (Mrs J S Luti) 109 

Thornton (Rev ) Norbury W 109 

Thornton Rachel (Mrs dhas Wlllits) 10> 

Tonty Henri de 88 

Townslev WHliam 107 

Treaty of auadaloupe reference to 88 

Trowbridge (Rev ) A H anti-slavery man 58 

Tanker Church 68 
Turkey Creek HI Presbyterian Church or 

ganiied at 1820 A3 
Turkey Hill Settlement St Clali Comity 

ni 70 

Turpin IE MB 

Tuskegee Institute Alabama 50 

U 



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INDEX— Condnded. 



Union PBciflc RaUroad 89,90 

United States <5,»^a3 

United Sutes, Colleges ol 63 

United Stales of Columbia 108 

United States Congtese «. 4a, <7, 83, 88 

Unlled Slates Congresa, Fight in, on questloQ 

ol admission ol Texas 4fi,47 

United UtiMs Coogtess, Speecbol Edward 

Everett in 3S 

United Stales, Ulstoiy ol, by Von HolsC, 

quoted 4S 

United Slates, Slavery in ai-31 

United States Supreme Court, Decisions of, re- 
lating to oburcfies fll 

Unwritten Law, (The), E 



ji Cleve, <Rev.) I., pioneer preacher M. E. 



VermtBit State 42,18,52 

Vermont State— Green Uountalna of Vermont 18 

Vermont State-Hartland.Vt S2 

Vermont State— Lyudeu, Vt 52 

VlTKinla State. 31,35,37,52,57,88,71,75,83 

Vh^lnta Stale, Anti-slavery societies In J5 

Virginia Slate, Churches of. Bl 

VlTEinla State— Disciples of Clirist emigiale to 

iffiiola from VlrgMfl . . .17. 1» 

Virginia State, Slavery Introduced i 



VonH 



't Hoi- 



48 



Wabasb Country II 

Wabaah County, 111 £ 

Wabash Blvar t 

Wales, Country oT 3 

Walker, (Rev.) Jesse, Camp meeting held by, 
In 1807, near the present town ol Edwards- 

■rille,lll : 

Walker, (Bev.) Jesse, earl; Methodist minister 



Wdkra, (Rev.) Jesse,_prB^diiu elder ol the 

minob IMstrlct, H. E. CburiR, 1812 : 

Walnut drove. III., now known is Eureka, 



Walt 



quoted on the DLschiles 



Iters, (Dr.) _j___ 

- . Christ wbo came Irom Ohio and settled In 
Illinois and their attitude toward slavery. . 
far in Teias— A review of lacls and circum- 
stances showing that this contest is a crusade 
igalnst Mexico set on toot and supported 



by slave holders, h 

'-der to re-fstabllsh, i^r^^umui ouu jiei iisiu- 
e tbe ^em of slavery and slave trade. 



d perpetu- 
ate tbe ^em of slavery and slave trad" 
Pamphlet by Benjamin I<andy , its purposi 



. fleet, quotatlo 

War in Texas, by Bentamln Lundy, 2d ed., 

pam. Merrihew & Oinn, PhUadelplila, 1837. 

War of the Rebellion M, ft, 7B, S3, 8-'i. 

War ot the RebetUon—Battle of diickamauEa 

78, 

War ot the Rebellion— Camp Lyon, Birds 



War of (he RebeUicn— Illinois— Sixth IlL VoL 

Inf.. 75 

War of the Rebellion- Illinois— ElevenUi 111 

Vol. Inl 83 

Worof theRebelllon- lihaois— Mnety seccmd 

Ill.\ollnf S3.8i 

War ol tbe Rebellion— Society of Ibe Army ol 

the Cumberland S5 

War ol Ibf Rebellion— Society ol the Army of 

the Tennessee 85 

War of the Rebellion— Sooiety of the Loyal 

War ol the BevolutioQ— Battle ol Camden 81 
Washington Comity, 111 74 

Washington, D C 38,43,44 

Washington, V C , Genius of Unlve^ol 

Emonclpatlrai published at U,44 

Waterways— Deep W aterways paper on, by 

Lyman E Coo&y. reference to 1U2 

Wayne Countv, III 57, SS 

Weber, Jessie Palmer secretary, Ullnois State 

Historical Society 5 »,15 I-, 18,19,20,21,24,29 
Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary ol the Illinois 

State Historical Society, Report ol 22-21 

Weed, (Rev.) Bartholomew, pliMieer preacher 

M.S. Church In Illinois 71 

Wesley, John, founder ol Methodism 73 

Western Christian Advocate, liiomas A. Mor- 
ris, odlwr erf 75 

W«8i Indies. 31,43,15 

West Otaw, III., Churdi of Christ M,57 

Wheeling, Va 3»i37,3S,3» 

Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia), Ben- 
jamin Lundy locates at- 38 

Wheeling, Virginia, Location ol 311,37 

Wheeling, Virghxlfl, Slave market 37 

Whig Party S8 

While County, III 68,62 

Whitehall, N. Y., Presbj-lerian Church lOB 

Whitney, Eli, Invented cotton gin in 1794... 35 

Whittler, California 109 

Whittier, John Greenleaf, American poet, 

estimate ol Beniamin Lundy 48 

Whittier. John Greenleal, quoted on Rev. 

Oronee Scott Be 

Wlllams, (Judge) C. S 102 

Wiilits.tias 109 

WDlits, (Mrs.) Chas 100 

Wlllits, (Rev.) John, D.D 109 

Willlts, ThcBulon 109 

Willlts, Wilmot 109 

iied Dec, 'l, 1B32 '. 50 

Wlreman, Susan Maria Lundy, dai^ter of 

Benjamin Lundy -.. 38 

Wisconsin Stale 71 

WoodJord County, III SB 

Wood, Joseph, deacon in the Barney's Prairie 

Christian Church 53 

Wood. U. H., Possesses the original book ot 

tbe Barneys Prairie Chrisllan Church — 53 
Woolfolk, Austhi, Baltimore slave trader, at- 
tacks Benjamin Lundy 12 

World's Council ot Presbyterian Church, or- 

Wriiflit. Lewis ill 

Wright, (Mrs.) Rebecca Ill 

Wyatt, (Rev.) Francis O 102 

Y 

Yale Universlly Library, reference to 9» 

Yates, Richard (The Younger) 5, 18 

Yates, (liov.) Richard, War Governor of Illi- 
nois 83,84,102 

Yoang, Benjamin, missionary to niinois In 

Young,' (Jirs.VM!!.!!!!!!!!!!^!!! "!"!!'""' 102 



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PUBUCATIOSS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND S 

No, 1. "A BlbllogrBphy ol Nen'spapflH Published In Illinois Prior to ISM, Prepared by Edmund" 
, Jamee, Pb.D,, and UDo J, Loveless, M p, S vo,, Sprlngfleld, ISM. 

No S. *IiiforTnstloD relating to the TerrlCorlal Laws ol Illinois, passed Irom IW9 to 1812. Prepared 
by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., 15 p., S vo,, Bprlngfield, 1S8B. 

No. S. 'The Terrliorlfli Kecords of IllinoLs. Eillted hy Edmund J. James, Ph.D., ITO p., S vo., 
Sprlnpleld 1901. 

N-o. *. ■Tranaacllons of the Hllnois SlaM HisHirioil Soofely tor Ihe Year 1900. EdtlMl by E. B. 
Greene, Ph.D., secretary ol the society, jjp., K vo., Hprlnicfleld, IMO. 

No 5. •Alphabetic ('atalogue ol the Books. Maauscripts. Plctiu-es and Curios ol the lillnots State 
Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjeols. Compiled bythe Librarian, Mrs..J«--sie Palmer 
Weber, 3SJ p„ x vo„ Springfield, 1900, 

Transartloiis ol the IlllDnls State Hlstorleal Society lor Ihe years 1901 1o I»I4, n vo., Nds. t)-12, nut 



il Cdlecliona, Vol. 1, Edited by H. W. Beckwllh, President Board ol Trustees 

Ol the lUinola Stale Hislorlcsl Library, «42 p., 8 vo.. Snrlnefleld, 1903, 

»Illinob HlstorlcatColleelions Vol 2, Virginia Serliw, Vol. I, Edited by Clarence W, Alvord, CLVI 
and es3 p., S YD., Springfleld. IWT. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, \'0I. 3, LIncoln-Dougtas Debatea ol lim. LlncMiln Series, ^'cd. 1. 
Edttad by Ednrin Erie Sparks, PI1.D., (BT j>„ S vo., Springfield, 190H, 

•Illinois HlslDrlCBlCollectloDs,Vcd,t. E.xecutlve Series, Vol, I, Thellovernors' Letter Books, IMIS- 
1894. Edited by EvuW Boutell Greene and Clarence Walworth Alvord, XXXil and 317 p., » vo., 
Sprlnlileld, 1M». 

Il^tris Hlstoilcal Collections, Vol. .V VlrgltJaSerks, Val.2. Kaskaskia Records ITTS-imO. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvvd. L and OSI pa^s, g vo,, Springfield, lUOU. 

•DHnols Hbtvlcal Collections, Vol. VI. BiUloEraphlral Merles. Vol. 1, Newspapers and Ferlod- 
leals al IlUnDls, 1SI4-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited hy Eranklln William Scott, CIV 
and eiO p,, S vo., Sprindleld, 1010. 

•llllnob HlstoricalCollectlons, Vol. VII. Executive Series Vol. II. Governors' Letter Books, ItMO- 
18i3. Edited by Everts Boutell Greene and Charles Manlrert Thompson. fXVlII and <89 p., K vo., 
SpriniHeld. ISII. 

•nifnoiB Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George Rogers Clark Papers, 
1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes byJames Alton James, CLXVIIandTlSp., 8 vo., Spring- 
"•«d, 1912. 

1.... ._„,., . ^. ......... ,... ,„ ^,,.,. _._,.._., ^__,._ .--I II Travel and Description 

1905. Illinois in the 
^ _ _ _ _ >.. Sprin^^d, 19W. 

•Bulletin ol the lltmois State Hislorlcsl Llbru-y. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, lOOH. Laws nl the Terrilorv 
ol Ullnds, iaOB-1811. Edited by Clarence W. Alvonl, University of llllnob, 31 p. , )< 

•Circular, lilhiole State Hislorlcsl Library, Vol. I. No. 1. Novemliar. IM». An 
of Illinois Stale History. Complied by Jeaaie Pal 
field, 190.1. 

Publications No. 18. List of the GenealOElcal Works In Ihe Iliinob State llblorlcal Library. Georgia 
L, Osborne, Comp^ 103 p., 8 vo.. Springfield, 1014. 

Journal ol Uie Illinois Stale Hbtorical Society, Vol. I, April, 1908 to Vol. 7, No. 4, Januan', 1915. 

Number ol the Journal of the IllinoLs State Blslorlcal Society out ol print, Vols. I, II, III, IV. 

•Out of print. 



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