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Illinois State Historical Society 

FOR THE YEAR, 1901. 

Published by Authority of the Board of Trustees 
of the State Historical Library. 

Phillips Bros., State Printers. 




I. Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

II. List of Officers and Members of the Society. 

III. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the Society, January 
30-31, 1901. 

IV. Annual report of the Secretary and Treasurer. 

V. Suggestions. For Organization of the State Historical Society. By 
Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

VI. Annual Address. By Dr. Reuben S. Thwaites, Secretary of the 
Wisconsin State Historical Society. 

VII. The objects of the German-American Historical Society of Chicago, 
by Hon. William Vocke, its President. 

VIII. The influence of Government Land Grants for Educational Purposes 
fupon the Educational System of the State. Jonathan Baldwin Turner, by 
Prof. Wm. L. Pillsbury. 

IX. Old Peoria. By Hon. David McCulloch. 

X. Slavery in Illinois. By Hon. E. A. Snively. 

XI. Early Reminiscences. By A. W. French, D. D. S. 

XII. The Oldest Civil Record in the West. By Hon. J. N. Perrin. 

XIII. Illinois During the Revolution. By Mrs. Laura Dayton Fessenden. 


XIV. Hon. John M. Palmer. By Rev. Euclid B. Rogers. 

XV. Hon. John A. McClernand. By Gen. Alfred Orendorff. 

XVI. General James M. Ruggles, By P. L. Diffenbacher, M. D. 


The Wood River Massacre. By Volney P. Richmond. 

The Bennett-Stuart Duel. By James Affleck. 

Prof. John Russell. By S. G. Russell, Esq. 

An Incident in the Settling of Morgan county, Illinois. By John Yaple. 

Some Old Letters by, and Relating to Stephen A. Douglas. By Joseph 
Wallace, A. M. 

Discovery of the Graves of the Soldiers who fell at Stillman's defeat. 


Sec. 1. The officers of the society shall be a President, such Vice-Presidents* 
as may be deemed best by the society, a Secretary, a Treasurer and an Exe- 
cutive Committee consisting of the President, the Secretary and five other 
members of the society. This Executive Committee shall also constitute the 
Board of Trustees of the society. 

Sec. 2. All the officers of the society shall be elected by ballot annually at 
the regular annual meeting in January, except that the society may designate 
particular officers to be elected for an indeterminate period. 

Sec. 3. The duties of the President, the Vice-Presidents, the Secretary 
and the Treasurer shall be those usually appertaining to such officers. The 
Secretary shall also act as Secretary of the Executive Committee. 

It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to prepare the programs 
for the annual meetings of the society and to perform such other functions as 
may from time to time be entrusted to it by the society. 

Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall at each annual meeting present 
through the Secretary a report on the finances of the society and on its work 
during the preceding year, together with such recommendations as may 
seem to them appropriate. 


The Board of Trustees shall at an early date cause the society to be legally 
incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois; shall have general charge 
and control of all the property of the society; shall make and approve all its 
contracts; shall direct the Librarian in the selection and purchase of books 
and other historical matter; shall see to the carrying out of all orders of the 
society and shall perform all duties prescribed by the by-laws. 


This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members of 
the society present at the annual meeting: Provided, that at least thirty days 
prior to the holding of such annual meeting the Secretary shall send to the- 
members of the society notice of such proposed amendments. 


List of Officers and Members of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 


President, Hiram W. Beckwith, Danville; Vice-President, John F. Snyder, 
Virginia; Honorary Vice-Presidents: John N. Jewett, Chicago (president 
>f the Chicago Historical Society); William Vocke, Chicago (president of the 
xerman- American Historical Society of Illinois); J. 0. Cunningham, Urbana 
ipresident of the Champaign County Historical Society); George P. Davis, 
Bloomington (president of the McLean County Historical Society) ; 
Sarvey B. Hurd, Evanston (president of the Evanston Historical Society) ; 
secretary and Treasurer, Evarts B. Greene, University of Illinois; Ex- 
cutive Committee: The President; the Secretary; George N. Black, 
Springfield; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington; McKendee H. Chamberlain, Leb- 
mon; Edmund D. James, University of Chicago; David McCulloch, Peoria. 

honorary members. 

Dr. Robert Boal, Lacon; Judge James B. Brad well, Chicago; Mrs. Ben- 
amin S. Edwards, Springfield; Hon. Charles P. Johnson, St. Louis; *Gen- 
ral John A. McClernand, Mrs. John A. McClernand, Springfield; ^General 
ohn M. Palmer, Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield; ^General James M. 
toggles, Havana; *Mrs. John T. Stuart, Springfield; Mr. R. G. Thwaites, 
ladison, Wisconsin. 

active members. 

Horace G. Anderson, Peoria; James S. Barclay, Oak Park; H. E. Barker, 
pringfield; H. W. Beckwith, Danville; George N. Black, Springfield; J. H. 
Irevoort, Rutland; Mrs. C. C. Brown, Springfield; W. R. Brydges, Elgin; 
7. L. Burnap, Lake Forest University, Lake Forest; J. H. Burnham, Bloom- 
lgton; J. M. Bush, Pittsfield; Charles L. Capen, Bloomington; M. H. 
hamberlain, McKendee College, Lebanon; Clinton T. Conkling, Springfield; 
. S. Cook, Leroy; Mrs. Harriett Palmer Crabbe, Springfield: J. 0. Cun- 
ingham, Urbana; J. Seymour Currey, Evanston; J. P. Cushing, Knox Col- 
>ge, Galesburg; George P. Davis, Bloomington; J. McCan Davis, Spring- 
eld; Philip L. Dieffenbacher, Havana; Charles A. Dilg, Chicago; N. C. 
•ougherty, Peoria; Mrs. Julia Mills Dunn, Moline; Richard Edwards, 
loomington; Albert Judson Fisher, Chicago; Stephen A. Forbes, Univer- 
ty of Illinois, Urbana; A. W. French, Springfield; D. M. Funk, Blooming- 
>n; Hon. Lafayette Funk, Bloomington; T. M. Garrett, Chicago; Evarts B. 
reene, University of Illinois, Urbana; H. H. Greene, Bloomington; J. N. 
ridley, Virginia, 111.; W. L. Gross, Springfield; James Haines, Pekin, 111.; 
ogan Hay, Springfield; John G. Henderson, Chicago; E. J. James, Uni- 
3rsity of Chicago, Chicago; J. A. James, Northwestern University, Evans- 
»n; Dr. William Jayne, Springfield; Miss Emma F. Jones, Springfield; 
harles P. Kane, Springfield; William F. Lodge, Monticello; Walter F. 

* Deceased. 

Manny, Mt. Sterling; G. M. McConnel, Chieago; David McCulloch, Peoria: 
E. L. Merritt, Springfield; Richard W. Mills, Virginia; John R. Moss, Mt. 
Vernon; W. I. Norton, Alton; Alfred Orendorff, Springfield; John B. Oren- 
dorff, Bloomington;E. C. Page, Normal School, DeKalb; C. M. Parker, Taylor- 
ville: J. N. Perrin, Lebanon; Frederick C. Pierce, Chicago; Ezra M. Prince, 
Bloomington; J. W. Putnam, Illinois College, Jacksonville; Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, Chicago; Edgar S. Scott, Springfield; Paul Selby, Chicago; R. D. 
Sheppard, Evanston; George W. Smith, State Normal School, Carbondale; 
E. A. Snively, Springfield; Dr, J. F. Snyder, Virginia; E. E. Sparks, Uni- 
versity of Chicago, Chicago; S. S. Spear, Springfield; Arthur K. Stearns, 
Waukegan; F. E. Stevens, Chicago; Bernard Stuve, Springfield; Miss 
Maude Thayer, Springfield; Mrs. Eliza F. H. Tomlin, Jacksonville; Hon. 
Wm. Vocke, Chicago; Dr. H. N. Waite, Decatur; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Springfield; Simeon H. West, Monmouth; Mrs. Katherine Goss Wheeler, 
Springfield; S. P. Wheeler, Springfield; G. F. Wightman, Lacon; E. S. 
Wilcox, Peoria; Charles T. Wyckoff, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. 


Second Annual Meeting Held at Springfield, January 
30 and 81, 1901. 

journal of proceedings. 

Executive Committee — The Executive Committee of the society 
met on the morning of January 30. The following members were 
present: Messrs. Beckwith, Black, McCulloch, Burnham and 
Greene. On invitation of the committee, Dr. J. F. Snyder attended 
and took part in the discussions. 

The secretary presented his annual report, which together with a 
paper presented by Dr. Snyder, formed the basis of the discussion. 
The committe then voted to present to the society resolutions; (1) 
urging more liberal provision for the State Historical Library; (2) 
declaring the opinion of the society that some organic connection 
between the State Historical Library and the State Historical 
Society ought to be recognized by law and that the annual appro- 
priation for the State Historical Library should include an item for 
the expenses of the society; (3) authorizing the executive committee 
to publish suitable matter in addition to the annual proceedings. 


The society held its annual meeting for the election of officers and 
the transaction of other business on Wednesday, January 30, at 2 
P. M. in the Supreme Court Room. President H. W. Beckwith 

The annual report of the Secretary was read and accepted. 

It was voted that the chair appoint a committee on nominations: 
.Messrs. Cunningham, Black and Perrin were named as members of 
the committee and subsequently reported the following nominations: 
President, H. W. Beckwith, Danville; Vice-President. Dr. J. F. 
Snyder, Virginia; Secretary and Treasurer, E. B. Greene, University 
of Illinois. 

Members of the Executive Committee: George N. Black, Spring- 
field; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington; David McCulloch, Peoria; E. 
J. James, University of Chicago; M. H. Chamberlin, McKendree 
College; in addition to the President and Secretary, ex- officio mem- 
bers under th© constitution. 


The report of the committee on nominations was accepted, and 
the persons named therein were unanimously elected. 

Capt. J. H. Burnham presented the report of the committee on 
auxiliary societies of which he was chairman. The report was ac- 

After an informal discussion based upon the proposals of the Sec- 
retary and the paper of Dr. Snyder presented by him to the Execu- 
tive Committee and to the society, the following resolutions were 
voted substantially as reported by the Executive Committee: 

JANUARY 30, 1901. 

(1) Resolved, That in the opinion of this society, the Legislature should 
make more liberal provision for the State Historical Library. 

(2) Resolved, That some organic connection ought to be established be- 
tween the State Historical Library and the State Historical Society; that the 
annual State appropriations for the State Historical Library should include 
an item for the expense of the society; and that a committee be appointed to 
formulate a definite plan in accordance with these general principles, this 
committee to consist of five persous including the trustees o£ the State His- 
torical Library and two others to be named by the chair. 

(3) Resolved, That the society authorize the Executive Committe, so far 
as ways and means may be provided, to publish, in addition to the proceed- 
ings of the society, such other matter as may be deemed worthy, whether 
original material or the results of investigation. 

Under the second resolution, Messrs. H. W. Beckwith, G.N. Black 
and E. J. James were ex-officio members of the committee therein 
provided for. The two other members of the committee subsequently 
named by President Beckwith were Messrs. Lafayette Funk of Bloom- 
ington and Alfred Orendorff of Springfield. 

The attention of the society was called to the bill, introduced by 
Senator Stubblefield and now pending before the General Assem- 
bly, calling for an appropriation for the publication of documents 
relating to the history of the State. 

On motion, the matter was referred to the above-named commit- 

The society voted its thanks to the President, Hon. H. W. Beck- 
with, for his services to the organization. 

The gift of Judge J. O. Cunningham, of L T rbana, consisting of the 
ballots cast by the Illinois Electors for President and Vice-President 
of the United States in 1804, suitably framed, was accepted with 
thanks. It was voted that with the concurrence of the Board of 
Trustees, the gift be placed on the walls of the State Historical Li- 

The thanks of the society were voted to Governor and Mrs. Richard) 
Yates for the hospitality extended by them to the Society. 


E. B. Greene, 




The formal opening session was held on the evening of January 
30, in the Supreme Court room. President Beckwith presided. The 
address of welcome was given by Governor Richard Yates, and the 
response by President Beckwith. 

The annual address was then delivered by Mr. Reuben Gr. Thwaites, 
Secretary of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. At the close of 
this address, Judge David McCulloch, of Peoria, called attention to 
the presence in the audience of Dr. Robert Boal, of Lacon, a resi- 
dent of Illinois before the organization of the Illinois Territory. On 
motion of Mr. McCulloch, Dr. Boal was then unanimously elected an 
honorary member of the Society. 


The sessions of the society for the presentation of papers were 
beld on Thursday, January 31, in the Supreme Court room. The 
program prepared for these sessions is to be found in the following 

Program of Exercises. 

wednesday, january 30. 

10:30 a. m. 
Meeting of the Executive Committee. 

2 p. m. 
Business meeting of the Society (Supreme Court room). 

1. Secretary's report for the Executive Committee. 

2. Reports of committees. 

3. Election of officers for 1901. 

4. Miscellaneous business. 

5. Informal discussion of the future work of the Society. 

8 p. m. 
Formal opening session (Supreme Court room). 

1. Address of welcome. By Governor Richard Yates. 

2. Response. By Honorable Hiram W. Beckwith, President. 

3. Annual address. By Reuben G. Thwaites, Secretary of the Wisconsin 
State Historical Society. 


Literary sessions (Supreme Court room). 

Papers are limited to thirty minutes. It is requested that this rule be 
strictly observed. 

9:30 a. m. 

1. Old Peoria. By Hon. David McCulloch, Peoria. 

2. The Oldest Civil Record in the West. By Hon. J. N. Perrin, Lebanon. 

3. Illinois During the American Revolution. By Mrs. Laura Dayton 
?essenden, Highland Park. 

4. Slavery in Illinois, By Hon. E. A. Snively, Springfield. 

5. Early Reminiscenses of Illinois. By Dr. A. W. French, Springfield. 


2 p, m. 

1. The Influence of Congressional Grants Upon Our School System Pro- 
fessor Jonathan Baldwin Turner. By William L. Pillsbury, Esq., University 
of Illinois. 

2. McKendree College. By Professor Edmund J. James, University of 

3. The Objects of Historical Research. By Hon. William Vocke, 

4. General John A. McClernand. By Hon. Alfred Orendorff, Springfield. 

5. General John M. Palmer. By Rev. E. B. Rogers, Springfield. 

8 p. m. 
Reception by Governor and Mrs. Yates at the Executive Mansion. 

The program was carried out, with the following changes: Pro- 
fessor James was unable to be present and his paper was not read. 
Mr. Snively's paper was read by Mrs. Snively. Mr. Perrin's paper 
was transferred from the morning to the afternoon session. Captain 
J. H. Burnham presented a communication from the Stillman Valley 
Battle Monument Association at the morning session, and a paper by 
Mr. J. G. Henderson, of Chicago, was read by title. 

At the close of the afternoon session, the following business was 

1. Mrs. John T. Stuart, Mrs. Benjamin S. Edwards, Mrs. John A. 
McClernand, and Mrs. John M. Palmer, were unanimously elected honorary 
members of the Society. 

2. The following gentlemen were elected honorary vice-presidents of the 
Society: Hon. John N. Jewett, of Chicago, President of the Chicago His- 
torical Society; Hon. William Vocke, of Chicago, President of the German- 
American Historical Society of Illinois; Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, of Evanston, 
President of the Evanston Historical Society; Judge J. O. Cunningham, of 
Urbana, President of the Champaign County Historical Society; George P. 
Davis, Esq., President of the McLean County Historical Society. 

3. The thanks of the Society were voted to the local members of the 
Society and to the citizens of Springfield for their hospitality. 


E. B. Greene, 




Annual Report of the Secretary and Treasurer for the Year 1900. 

During the year, 1900, the society held two meeting's. The first annual 
meeting was held at Peoria on Friday and Saturday, January 5 and 6, and 
on the the call of the President, a special meeting was held at Springfield, 
May 23. The proceedings of both these meetings may be found in the pub- 
lished transactions for 1900. 

In accordance with votes of the Society, standing committees were ap- 
pointed on Publication and on Auxiliary Societies. The former committee 
has, through the courtesy of the Trustees of the State Historical Library, 
been enabled to publish without cost to the Society, a volume of Transac- 
tions, including the papers read at the annual meeting in Peoria. 

The Committee on Auxiliary Societies, Messrs. J. H. Burnham, of Bloom- 
ington; J. O. Cunningham, of Urbana, and E. C. Page, of the Northern 
Illinois Normal School at DeKalb, has been occupied with plans for correlat- 
ing more effectively the work of local Historical Societies, and with this end 
in view has issued a circular which has been widely distributed and has met 
in many instances with a cordial response. 

Throughout the year, the society has had evidence, in the form of con- 
stantly increasing correspondence, of a very general interest in any organi- 
zation occupied with the State and local history of Illinois. Many of the 
leading members of other historical organizations within the State have in 
one way or another expressed an active interest in our plans. The German- 
American Historical Society is represented in our program by its president, 
Mr. Vocke, and the Daughters of the Revolution by Mrs. Fessenden. We 
iave in our membership list representatives of the Chicago Historical Society 
and of a number of county and other local historical societies. It is par- 
ticularly pleasant to have such evidence of good will from the members of 
so honorable an organization as the Chicago Society. There is reason for 
eongratulation in the general sympathy shown throughout the State with 
this new enterprise. 

Up to the present time, the finances of the society have been exceedingly 
simple. Its income is derived wholly from membership fees. There were on 
the rolls of the society prior to the date of this meeting the names of about 
sixty members. Fortunately, the expenditures have also been small; they 
have been chiefly for postage and the printing of circulars and programs. 
The following is the financial statement for the year, 1900: 

Treasurer's Report, Year Ending Dec. 31, 1900. 


[nidation fees (50c and $1.00) 


Sloomington Pantagraph Company— Printing... 

Jrbana Herald Company 

Secretary of State— Filing fee for annual report. 
Total expenditures 

Balance in the treasury, Dec. 31. 

4 75 
1 00 

$50 00 

$14 55 

$36 45 


At the close of our first complete year of existence, what definite results 
can we claim to have accomplished, what has been done to justify the creat- 
ing of a new Society at a time when any needless organization may be re- 
garded as a positive evil? In the first place, we have undertaken to hold 
annual meetings for the presentation of papers and the exchange of ideas 
among those who are interested in the same field. Such meetings, if care- 
fully planned, certainly furnish a real stimulus to historical studies. In the 
second place, through the courtesy of the Trustees of the State Historical 
Library, the Society has in a very modest way entered the field of publica- 
tion. In the third place, through its Committee on Auxiliary Societies, it is 
doing something to stimulate local historical research. The Society should 
aim in the future not only to stimulate such efforts, but also in a measure to 
suggest their direction along intelligent lines. 

These are lines of work already begun which in themselves may be urged 
as a sufficient justification for the existence of a State society, especially if 
they can be conservatively but steadily extended. Yet after all, we can not 
rest content with these results. What then caD we hope to do in the future? 

The society ought in the first place, to serve as an instrument for shaping 
public opinion in favor of more adequate provision by the State, through 
existing agencies or otherwise, for collecting and preserving the materials of 
its history. The State Historical Library has been in existence for several 
years, but it has never had anything like adequate support, if we compare 
its appropriations with those made for similar purposes in Wisconsin, May 
we not, by formal resolution, urge upon the Legislature more liberal provis- 
ion for the State Historical Library? 

Secondly, the society may well, if the necessary ways and means can be 
secured, extend somewhat its publications. So far we have published only 
the papers presented at our annual meeting. It would seem to be desirable 
that the Executive Committee, or the Secretary, should be given authority to 
print such other matter as may seem worthy of a place in our collections. 
This may be either original material deserving of preservation in print, or 
the result of investigation. 

Thirdly, there is undoubtedly scattered about this State a considerable 
amount of manuscript material, private or documentary, which is in danger 
of being lost altogether, and which ought, as soon as practicable, to be 
brought together in safe public depositories. The society and its members 
might well constitute themselves a committee for the purpose of bringing 
such material to light and seeing that it is properly housed with a view to 
ultimate publication in suitable form. 

Fourthly, to do this and other work which needs to be done, the society 
needs to be strengthened at least in two ways. It needs a larger income thar 
that now secured or likely to be secured, solely from membership fees, anc 
it needs one officer who can devote himself wholly to the direction of its 
work. He should be some one who will not merely execute the orders of tht 
society, but will have the capacity to initiate new lines of useful activity 
Though primarily an officer of the society, he should aim to cooperate witt 
the governing board of the State Historical Library. He might well be made 
a member of that board. To put the proposition concretely, Illinois ought tc 
have some one who can do for historical research and for historical collec 
tions in Illinois, a work comparable with that of Lyman C. Draper anc 
Reuben GL Thwaites in Wisconsin. 

It is at this point that the question of State aid arises. It is doubtfu 
whether provision can be made for such an officer devoting his whole time 
to these interests without financial aid from the State. Here again we ar< 
bound to proceed very cautiously. The society can not afford to discredit it: 
cause by premature plans for large expenditure. The following proposition: 
are, however, submitted for consideration: 

1. That the Legislature in making its appropriation for the State Histori 
cal Library, should include an item for the expenses of the Historical Society 


2. That of this a sufficient amount be paid to a competent expert who 
should act as the Corresponding Secretary of the society and perform the 
)ther functions outlined above, subject to the direction of the Executive Com- 

3. That this Corresponding Secretary should be appointed by the Execu- 
ive Committee of the Historical society, subject to the approval of the Board 
)f Trustees of the State Historical Library, and should be ex-officio a member 
)f that body. 

4. That such an appointment once made should be held subject to the con- 
litions only of good behavior and efficient services. 

In conclusion, it may be proper to emphasize the vital importance of care- 
:ul and conservative consideration of any plans for action which may come 
before us. In this day of beginning, we are establishing precedents which 
nay tell strongly for better or worse in the future life of the society. Above 
ill, we must try to establish a reputation for work which is thoroughly sound 
md accurate, preferring to lay the foundations slowly that they may be safe 
ind sure. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Evarts B. Greene. 



The Organization of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

[By Dr. J. Snyder.] 
To the question, ''How can we secure a more effective organization of his- 
torical research in Illinois?" My answer is, by making the Illinois State 
Historical Society an effective agency for the prosecution of historical re- 

How is this to be done? 

1st. By constituting each member of the society a special agent to seard 
for, and, if possible, secure, any and all data accessible to him, or her, relat- 
ing to the past and current history of the State. 

2d. By appointing or employing one agent, or more, for this service ir 
each county in which no member of the society resides. 

3rd. By soliciting donations of, or advertising for such data in newspa 
pers, or in printed circulars. 

4th. By encouraging the organization of local historical societies in coun 
ties not having already such societies, and securing their cooperation with th< 
State Society. 

But as a necessary preliminary basis for this work, the State Historical So 
ciety must have a fixed local habitation. It can not succeed as a peregtnat 
ing affair at home wherever the Secretary's journal happens to be. Nor cai 
it execute the purposes of its mission satisfactorily so long as it is a mer 
tenant at will, or by sufferance, with no safe repository for its archives am 
other historical collections, and no certain business headquarters. 

To permanently locate the society in quarters of its own should therefor 
claim our first attention. 

How can that be attained? 

To purchase a building for this use by individual subscriptions is, in th 
present status of the society, out of the question. 

There is, however, one of two other causes that may be considered. Wl 
can perhaps pre\ail upon the State authorities to grant to the Historical Sc 
ciety, free of charge, the exclusive use of a room in the State house in whic 
to store our historical material and collections, and hold our business meel 
ings. The other course that may be pursued is the one I suggested at th 
special meeting of the society in this place (Springfield), in June, 1899; an 
which mature reflection has convinced me is the proper one to adopt — pr< 
vided we can make it practicable. It is, to ask the General Assembly of 111 
nois, now in session, to so amend the act creating the Illinois State Historic? 
Library as to give the State Historical Society legal recognition and standin 
— as in other states — by making it an adjunct to, or collaborator with th 
State Historical Library, and providing that the trustees of the Historical L 
brary. appointed by the Governor, shall be — as they now in fact are — < 
officio, members of the executive committee of the State Historical Society. 

This would coalesce the Historical Library and Historical Society, as c< 
ordinate branches of the State's historical department. 


By this simple amendment of the State Historical Library's organic law' 
the library would be constituted — as it should be — the repository of the His- 
torical Society's collections; and those collections, and contributions to the 
history of Illinois, would become the property of the State in trust for the 
benefit of members of the society and the public. 

Such accessions to knowledge of the history of Illinois that might then be 
acquired by the society, and deemed worthy, by its committee of supervision, 
of publication, could appear as part of, or supplementary to, the annual re- 
port of the Board of Library Trustees, or in a separate volume. 

This course, if adopted, and sanctioned by legislative enactment, will place 
the State Historical Society in the fostering care of the State, with no addi- 
tional expense to the public but a trifling amount for annual publications. 
And it will result in time in greatly enriching the State Historical Library by 
the labors and accumulations of the Historical Society. 

Pausing here in this discussion, let us briefly consider the objects for which 
the State Historical Society was originated, commencing with the last of the 
three propositions set forth in its articles of incorporation, namely: "To col- 
lect and preserve all forms of historical data in any way connected with Illi- 
nois and its people." 

This is the paramount purpose of the society, underlying all others, involv- 
ing a wide field of activity and a vast amount of labor. It comprises the col- 
lection of a historical library of all accessible data, printed and in manuscript, 
relating to early Illinois discoveries and explorations; to the history of primi- 
tive and recent Indian tribes in this territory; to early setttements within the 
limits of the State; to the evolution of the State's industries, commerce and 
wealth, and the progress of its civilization and culture. This includes the 
securing and preserving of biographies of prominent lllinoisans; accounts of 
noted incidents and events; and rescuing from oblivion the relics of the ma- 
erial agencies employed in the State's development, comprehending the tools 
and appliances of the nation makers, and those of their aboriginal predeces- 
sors; that is, a historical museum. 

The essential part of this great work before us we have thus far evaded; 
or, more properly, deferred consideration of upon the subterfuge that the 
State Historical Library is here at hand; consequently, we need not bother 
ourselves about buying historical books, or collecting historical data, the 
State having already attended to that for us. And we beguile ourselves and 
the public with the assertion that "the relations of the State Historical So- 
3iety and the State Historical Library are very close;" when in fact our 
present relations with the State Historical Library are simply the same as 
ire enjoyed by all citizens of the State and no more. We now have no legal 
Dr official connection with that Library; no vested or acquired rights in it, 
ind no special privileges. 

But should the logical relations of the Historical Society with the Historical 
Library be defined and fixed by the Legislature, our labors would be simpli- 
ied and could readily be reduced to a practical system. This legalized con- 
aection of the Library and Society would be mutually beneficial, by relieving 
che society of the labor and expense of collecting a historical library of its 
)wn; and, instead, each member of the society would become an active agent 
cor increasing the State Historical Library. 

Now then, supposing this union of the two co-ordinate branches of the 
State Historical Department to have been affected, let us for a moment con- 
sider the two other objects the Historical Society has in view as specified in 
ts charter, i. e. "To excite and stimulate a general interest in the history 
)f Illinois," and "to encourage historical research and investigation, and 
secure its promulgation." 

To promote these objects, a base of operations having been secured, I 
vould suggest the creation by the society of a permanent "committee of su- 
pervision" of three active, enthusiastic members, residing in, or near 
|;he State capital, giving to said committee plenary power of supervision over 
he affairs of the society. We already have, it is true, an Executive Com- 

— 2H. 


mittee having this power. But the members of our Executive Committee 
reside at distant points in the State, each having private interests demanding 
his time and attention to the exclusion of the immediate business of the 
Society; so that they can not conviently come together more often than once 
each year; and indeed have at no time all been present at any one meeting. 
The less number composing the Committee of Supervision, and their prox- 
imity to the society's headquarters, would enable them to meet every three 
months, or oftener if necessary. The duties of this committee would be, in 
a great measure, commensurate with the primary objects of the society; 
namely, to receive and properly care for historical data sent to the society 
by its members; to carefully examine, classify and catalogue historical contri- 
butions received, and select such as may be most available for incorporation 
in the society's annual publications; to supervise the printing and distribu- 
tion of circulars, lectures, addresses, etc., to dictate press notices, and other 
forms of advertising; to direct, by correspondence or otherwise, special lines 
of research and investigation where the same may promise results of value; 
to prepare programs for annual or special meetings of the society; to pre- 
pare and issue invitations to the same when advisable; to suggest from time 
to time, to the Executive Committee the adoption of such measures or ap- 
pointment of such special committees or agents, as may be found indispens- 
ible for the promotion and welfare of the society, and, finally, to report their 
acts to the Executive Committee at the close of each year. 

The plan here outlined, if feasible, will, in my opinion, undoubtedly 
"secure a more effective organization of historical research in Illinois," and 
make the historical society a credit to our State, and the peer of similar 
institutions in other states of the Union. 



Annual Address Before the Illinois State Historical Society, at 
Springfield, January 30, 1901. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretary and Superintendent of the State Historical Society of 


Love of city was one of the crowning 1 virtues of the Greek. The upbuild- 
ing- of cities, the wresting of charters, struggles for liberty and inde- 
pendence, are features of the local history of Europe. Local historic senti- 
ment is ever strong in the old land. The history of the locality is a source of 
just pride to its inhabitants, and in them fosters civic patriotism. 

State patriotism was one of the dominant characteristics of our own South, 
before the war of secession; and it is still one of the charming features of 
Southern life. Revulsion against the state-rights doctrine led the North, per- 
haps, to the other extreme. But there is now noticeable a return of the old 
sentiment — the growth of local historic consciousness, largely inspired by the 
recurrence of historical anniversaries. One now notices, for instance, a con- 
siderable output of local histories -always a feature of New England life, but 
now spreading all over the United States and Canada. 

We are coming to feel that the national domain is so enormous, and has 
such diverse interests, often quite remote from the common people, that it 
does not take hold of the imagination save in times of great popular excite- 
ment. We are coming to feel that we must more closely cultivate the senti- 
ment for state, country, city, village, town; that we must cultivate civic pa- 
triotism, pride in the institutions of self-government, in the annals of our 
community, in all attempts to better ourselves and to bring nearer to one's 
home and neighbors the best things of earth. 

Civic sentiment is at the foundation of true patriotism; and unless its people 
are patriotic, no nation can long survive. You remember that in ancient days 
each village fed and kept alive an eternal flame, handed down unquenched 
from each generation to its successor. In Rome, the vestal virgins were ded- 
icated to this service of maintaining the holy fire. In our day, civic patriot- 
ism is that flame that must never be quenched; and our American youth are 
the vestals who must feed it and carry it forward to succeeding generations. 

Annually we receive into our life a great body of foreign-born, who flock to 
our shores hoping to find a freer air and broader opportunities in the struggle 
for existence. They can never become fitted as American citizens until they 
know what our institutions stand for, what lessons to humanity our history 
conveys. Away up in Northern Wisconsin, a public library was opened in a 
community where there are many Poles. It was thought desirable to place 
in the collection a number of books about Poland and in the Polish tongue. 
One day a little Polish boy asked the librarian for some book that his parents 
might like, and she gave him a popular history of Poland. Next day he came 
back with it and said that his parents did not like this book — they wanted 
"something that told about our country." Old and young, of whatever 
nationality, are eager to learn of the new land within which they have cast 
their lots; the old has been put away, they are yearning to take on the new. 
The schools should, therefore, be permeated with this prevalent spirit of in- 
quiry into our past; every opportunity should be seized to take an historic 
retrospect, to teach lessons from the past, to take new hope for the future. 


Europeans tell us that we have no history, and some Americans are prone 
to echo them. This is but a superficial view. In fact, we have a history 
— you of Illinois, we of Wisconsin— that thrusts its roots deep into the past, 
for more than two and a half centuries. 

Let us look at it. Only nine years ago we were celebrating the 400th anni- 
versary of the coming of a man who found here a land dark in savagery. 
From the Atlantic to the Pacific was an unbroken wilderness of alternating- 
mountains, forests and prairies. Then slowly crept in, a thin fringe of set- 
tlement upon the Atlantic slope, and another entering the St. Lawrence like a 
wedge — rivals keenly watching each other, meanwhile gathering strength for 
their great struggle to the death, for the mastery of the continent. 

In the far interior were wild beasts and wilder men. Up the Ottawa River 
came Champlain as far as Lake Huron; came Radisson and Groseilliers to 
discover Lake Superior; came Jogues and Raymbault to treat with the 
tribesmen at Sault de Ste. Marie; came Perrot, Jolliet and Marquette. And 
then there passed into and through our Northwest a motley procession of fur 
traders, coureurs de bois, voyageurs, priests, soldiers, adventurers of every 

The old regime of New France brought life, color, incident, to these West- 
ern wilds. There was LaSalle, with visions of vast empire, who came by the 
way of Chautauqua portage and the Ohio River; and again by the Great 
Lakes and the Chicago portage — Marquette's ground, also. Think of the 
Jesuit missions in the Illinois country, with their far-reaching influences, and 
the picturesque careers of the little French towns of Peoria, Cahokia, 
Prairie du Rocher, and of Kaskaskia, which was long the commercial entre- 
pot of the West. Parkman has told it to us, in glowing pages, which no man 
of Illinois can read without a thrill of pride that he is treading storied ground. 

Then came the French and Indian War. French traders in Wisconsin and 
Illinois were summoned to the defense of Montreal and Quebec. One of the 
Wisconsin traders was a character worth remembering. His name was 
De Corah. He had married the daughter of a village chief on Lake Winne- 
bago, and had four half-breed sons. Hastening to the lower St. Lawrence to 
help uphold the lilies of France against the final onslaught of the all- con- 
quering English, he left his family behind, and returned not, for he feli on 
the Plains of Abraham. The four dusky sons married tribeswomen in their 
turn, and begat large families. So widespread is the De Corah family tree, 
that today full half of the Winnebagoes — three thousand of them in all, in 
Wiscousin and Nebraska — claim to be descendants of this fur trader who, a 
century and a half ago, went forth to the front from Wisconsin, hoping to 
save New France. 

But the English won. New France became but a memory. At first, 
Englishmen came in our West as fur traders, although they found that in 
order to succeed with the savages, French methods must still prevail. They 
temporized with savagery; and this temporizing led to the brilliant check- 
mating exploit of George Rogers Clark, in the Revolutionary War — a lumin- 
ous chapter in Illinois history. 

Then came the Northwest Territory, and its division into smaller terri-)ii 
tories and states. There was at once a mighty pouring in of settlement by 
way of the Ohio and the Great Lakes. This brings us to the picturesque (hi 
flatboat era wherein Shawneetown figured as the typical Western town. 
Comparatively recent have been the lead mine excitement at Galeua, the 
Black Hawk War, and the modern agricultural and industrial settlement of (m 
the splendid empire of Illinois, which has for its commercial metropolis one 
of the greatest cities of the world. 

Thus have we seen the primeval wilderness tamed— Indian village sites 
transformed into trading camps, they into forts for the protection of traders 
and settlers, the trading hamlets at last developing into modern cities; the 
old buffalo traces became Indian trails, the trails became the roads of the 
backwoodsmen, and along many of these followed, in due course, the turn- ffi 
pike and the railway; forests were cleared for farms; portage swamps were 1 
developed into canals. A mighty and multifarious commerce has succeeded ee 
to the fur trade, the whir of great industries rends the air where once the 





arrow makers pitched their wig-warns — the American wilds are at last in the 
full tide of modern life. The progress has been astonishingly rapid; history 
furnishes no parallel. 

American history, far from lacking coloring, is really wonderfully absorb- 
ing and romantic. Here, in two hundred and fifty years we have run 
through the gamut of ten centuries of European experience. Much of it, 
indeed, is quite within the memory of men within the sound of my voice to- 
night. From the historical point of view, time is merely relative. The old 
settler of Illinois has seen, has experienced, has felt more of real life* has 
done more, in the past six or seven decades, than Methuselah of old. 

Here we are at the culmination of some of the most wonderful experiences 
that have ever befallen men. What are we going to do about it? Are we to 
let all these facts die with the pioneers'? Are we to allow all the machinery 
Df modern methods of historical research and publication go unused in this 
3ase? Are we to let all pass away with these old men, because the facts 
which are to our hand are familiar and commonplace to us? 

We should not belittle any thing because it is commonplace; the present is 
3ver commonplace. We are living in a changing world. Our ideas, our 
methods, the machinery of our life, our experiences, are but a passing phase 
Df the world's history. We and ours will appear strange enough to posterity; 
we owe it to them to preserve what we may of the records of our time. Do 
ive not bless the memories of old William of Malmesbury, of Froissart, of 
Captain John Smith, of the authors of the Jesuit Relations, of Champlain, of 
Eennepin, of Pepys, and of all the grand army of diarists and journalists 
who have left to posterity their records of the times in which they dwelt? Yet 
here is just as much need of record-writing today, if our posterity is to know 
lught of us and of our origins. 

The man who sat in the Illinois constitutional convention is just as impor- 
ant and interesting a factor in history as the man who participated in the 
neetings of a primitive Saxon tribe, or attended the Witenagemote in the 
>arly days of Britain. Posterity will study this constitution maker of Illinois 
^uite as closely and curiously as we do our forebears of the long ago. 

In the matter of letters and memoirs, we are in the habit of saying that 
hey are of a past generation. Yet we have frequent evidences that the let- 
ers of today are quite as important as those of old — of Abigail Adams's, we 
vill say, or of Baroness Bunson's. Tennyson's or Robert Louis Stevenson's 
)lease us quite as thoroughly as any thing in the past; in our own state of 
Wisconsin the recent reminiscences of Mrs. Therese Baird, or of Mrs. Morgan 
j. Martin, or of Mrs. Charlotte Van Cleve have all the charm and flavor of 
he olden day; Mrs. Kinzie's Wau-Bun is as interesting and informing in its 
vay as Caesar's Commentaries. 

There is an abundance of historical material, and always will be, for those 
pho recognize material when they see it. Learn to know it, to find it, to pre- 
erve it, to publish it, or to make it available for those who will — this is the 
irovince of the historical society. Illinois is not lacking in local agencies for 
he prosecution of this work — you have the Chicago, Evanston, German- 
Lmerican, and McLean county societies, all of them constructed on excellent 
ines, and engaged with considerable vigor in this business of investigation, 
ccumulation, and diffusion. You have an admirably conceived State His- 
orical Library, large with promise. Just what part your State society is to 
'lay is, apparently, as yet undetermined — whether it is to be itself an accu- 
lulator of material, or to act as a central agency for infusing zeal and for 
ublication, the future will alone decide. 

Conditions in Wisconsin are much different from those in Illinois. We have 
here no local societies answering to the character of these Illinois organiza- 
ons which I have named. Historical study and collection in Wisconsin was 
arly centralized in the State society, and has ever since remained practically 
ae monopoly of that body. I have been requested to tell the story of the 
Wisconsin State Historical Society, in the hope, I am told, that the relation 
iay be useful at this time, when you are laying your plans for a more per- 
3ct organization and are still unsettled as to your programme. As I have 


already said, the conditions in these two neighboring states, as respect his- 
torical work, differ greatly in some important essentials; we could not, there- 
fore, advise you to follow explicitly in our footsteps — but some of our experi- 
ences may at least be worthy of your consideration. 

Fifty two years ago tonight the Wisconsin Historical Society was born. A 
hundred or more state officers, members of the legislature, — Wisconsin's first 
state legislature, — and otherwise prominent citizens upon the thirtieth of 
January, 1849, met in a hotel parlor in Madison and organized the society. 
Some of them, men of culture and brains, had belonged to such societies in 
the east; all were imbued with the happy thought that history in this new 
frontier state was now in the making, and ought to be recorded — that there 
was a past history of Wisconsin also, coming down from the advent of the 
French regime in 1634, that was worth hunting up and publishing; that the 
pioneers ought to be interviewed while they were still in the vigor of life, that 
letters and diaries ought to be collected and preserved, narratives written 
and published. 

And so they organized their historical society. But life upon the frontier 
is strenuous; these men were too busy moulding a commonwealth and earn- 
ing livelihoods, to give much time to such work, and it languished. In five 
years, they had published two or three annual addresses and had accumulated 
a library of fifty rather insignificant books. It was then seen that, if it was 
to be a success, the enterprise should be placed in trained hands. Ljman 
C. Draper, a young Philadelphia antiquarian, was imported as secretary and 
general executive officer. As a consequence of his energetic and intelligent 
labors, the library soon sprang into importance, the publications of the 
society were well edited and regularly issued, and the institution came within 
a few years to win a national renown. Its growth has ever since been uninter- 
rupted, and today it occupies a building erected for it by the commonwealth 
at a cost of $600,000. Id 

Far removed from the centres of wealth and culture, the people of early !ai 
Wisconsin could not privately endow an institution of this character. State § 
aid was soon seen to be essential to its very existence. Such aid was given, 
and in due time this circumstance wrought a profound change in the char- 
acter of the society; in the first place, a state-aided organization could not 
remain a close corporation of scholars, as are the great Eastern societies — |0. 
obviously, the gates must be open for all citizens to enter, who care suffi- 
ciently for the objects sought to contribute their mite towards its mainte- 
nance; again, the society in consideration of being practically supported by 
the state — for the sum of its membership fees is insignifficiant compared with 
the cost of conducting the institution— surrendered all of its property to the 
state, and became simply the state's trustee for the administration of this 
enterprise, much the same as the board of regents of the State University. 

The work of the Wisconsin society may properly be considered under 
seven heads — field work, solicitation of historical material, 'the museum, the 
historical portrait gallery, the library, the society as a state information 
bureau, and publications. 

1. Field Work — This is what we call the interviewing of pioneers who 
have valuable recollections, those who have memories of important public 
affairs and men of note, who can give data of early social and economic con- 
ditions, or who have had interesting experiences. It is always important to 
remember that personal narratives are not always sound material for history; 
but often they are the only obtainable sources, and in any event are worth 
gathering, for the purpose of amplifying documentary material. 

G-etting into touch with and advising local historical societies, is also a 
feature of our field work. We are, too, ever on the search for manuscripts 
for our state archives, and inspiring archaeological investigations. Illinois 
possesses much that is interesting, in this line — for example, pottery in the 
river mounds, and the great mound at Cahokia. And you have an ever- 
present inspiration in the splendid archaeological collections of the Field 
Columbian Museum, in Chicago. We also endeavor, in Wisconsin, to in- ... 
lei est the newspapers and the teachers, and in general to awaken and keep j™ 
awake the historic consciousness within our state. 


2. Solicitation of Historical Material— This is an ever-present duty. Private 
persons are influenced, on grounds of public policy, to give to our state 
aistorical library everything which may be classed as historical material. 

And here one is met by the inquiry, what constitutes historical material? 
Bistory seeks to crace the development of man in society; in doing this, the 
listorian need* materials. The scientist takes the toe-nail of a silurian 
nonster, a piece of one of his ribs, one of his teeth, a hair of his tail, and 
vith the aid of these reconstructs the animal. Very much in the same sort 
)f a way, the historian takes the ephemera of the period which he desires to 
)ut before you graphically. He takes these little odds and ends of record 
md tradition, the stuff which we call historical material, and reconstructs the 
stage, and reconstructs society upon that stage. 

There is nothing more impressive to the historian, to the student of society, 
jolitics, economics, than the great collection of documents in the British 
.Museum called the Thomason Tracts. Thomason was a bookseller about the 
niddle of the seventeenth century, who, for a period of something like twenty 
?ears, went about gathering up the literary flotsam and jetsam of the great 
city of London. He put a date upon each article thus collected, with the cir- 
cumstances under wnieh it was obtained. He gathered programs, manuscript 
lotes and letters, posters, play bills — all sorts of odds and ends. This great 
collection of material at last, after various adventures, came to the British 

The historian of the Cromwellian period goes at once, of necessity, to the 
Thomason Tracts for his material. In the light of the ephemera of that day 
le sees move before him the people whom Cromwell knew. The stage of 
liondon and of English society in that time of storm and stress, is recon- 
ducted for us, very largely from the Thomason Tracts, from those ill-con- 
lidered trifles of his day that have become such largely-considered material 
n our own. It was from the use of such materials as he found in the Thom- 
pson Tracts that Macaulay formulated his.. celebrated dictum, "The literary 
•ubbish of one generation is the priceless treasure of the next." 

It is for the Historical (Society's library to perform this task of accumula- 
ion, for the generations which are to follow us. Constantly, one hears the 
nquiry, "What shall we of today save, for the historians of the future?" 
)f course that requires some judgment and experience; and yet one will not 
^o far wrong, if practically everything is preserved. The Chinese have a 
ligh veneration for everything that is printed. I was not much of a China- 
nan fifteen years ago, but those years of experience in my present position 
tave brought me almost to the Chinese attitude in this respect; even a patent 
uedicine label may adorn a tale, a hundred years hence; each memorial of 
he present will find its user in the generations to come. 

But to particularize. I would save, first of all, the newspapers. Patent in- 
ides, plate matter, and Associated Press dispatches involve a great deal of 
epetition; yet the little country cross-roads newspaper of fifteen or twenty 
'ears ago we know to be of some value for local history purposes today. I 
lo not think 1 would carry the matter of collection of local newspapers to the 
ixtent that it is carried in some states of the Union. I am not certain, if we 
tad the thing to do over again in Wisconsin, but what we would scratch off 
>ur list many of the minor papers which we have been receiving for many 
'ears past. Some of them are certainly very poor; the best of them, one or 
wo in each county, I would preserve as a mirror of the daily and weekly life 
>f the people. They are not perfect mirrors, nevertheless they are the best 
re can obtain — distorted mirrors, nevertheless reflectors after a fashion. 

I would also preserve everything that pertains to the religious life of the 
•eople. Encourage the locai public libraries to gather the church programs, 
videnees of their methods of doing business, their methods of raising money, 
heir little year-books, the sermons which the minister has had printed: 
verything about the church. So also, everything relating to the social life 
f the community, the lodges, the clubs, all the current manifestations of 
ippular thought and action. Modes and tendencies in vogue today are far 
ifferent from those which will be in vogue twenty five or thirty years from 
low; and the only memorials of those of the past may be these ephemeral 


publications which you will have preserved in your State libraries. Nothing 1 
changes so fast as these very matters. I would preserve everything relating 
to art; everything relating to the schools in the community, such as com- 
mencement programs; the State Historical Library may well preserve the 
commencement programs and catalogues of all the educational institutions in 
the State, local or otherwise. Preserve all the books, pamnhlets, reports, 
and manuscripts of every sort pertaining to your State — all sorts of local 
books and leaflets, diaries, journals, account books, surveyors' note and field 
books, record books of every sort, letters and letter books. The State His- 
torical Society should consider itself the proper custodian of the archives of 
the Commonwealth, save such as are properly in the custody of the State 
officers. Somebody has very well said that rubbish is but matter out of place. 
Classify^ these seemingly heterogeneous collections according to the best 
library "methods, and you greatly dignify them, and make them worthy of 
the attention of scholars. 

In appealing to State and local librarians to collect local history material 
we wish to arouse the same sort of missionary spirit that animates the man 
who plants a tree today for the edification and comfort of the generation that 
is to come after him. Let us put ourselves in the attitude of posterity, re- 
member our duty to that posterity, and rear for ourselves monuments such 
as historians rear to the memory of that Cromwellian bookseller who has 
left us the splendid heritage of the Thomason Tracts. 

3. Ihe Museum. — A State historical society should certainly maintain a 
museum, but it would be well to restrict it to history and anthropology. 
Properly conducted, it can be made of importance as an educational feature. 
It should not be allowed to degenerate into a curiosity shop. 

4. Historical Portrait Gallery. — We aim in Wisconsin to make this the 
Pantheon of the state. Certainly no feature of our work is more popular 
than the great collection of portraiture, in oils, crayons, marble and plaster 
which helps attract to our museum something like sixty thousand visitors 
each year. 

5. Ihe Library. — When all is told, this is, and will always remain, the 
most important work of the Wisconsin society. Because amassed under the 
administration of an historical society, many persons suppose that the library 
is devoted exclusively to history — a still smaller number take it for granted 
that the collection is wholly one of Wisconsin history. Viewing history as 
simply the record of whatever man has thought and wrought the society has 
accumulated a general reference library, in which the greatest stress has, 
however, been laid upon American and English history and geography, 
economics, and the political and social sciences. 

On account of the proximity of the University of Wisconsin, about 95 per 
cent of its readers are instructors and students from that institution, and in 
purveying for the library their wants are taken into consideration. Univer- 
sity students doing original work of some importance are, under certain re- 
strictions, allowed access to the bookstack shelves, the same as other special 
investigators. Members of the University are, in fact, encouraged rouse the 
library as freely as they do that of the university itself, which is now under 
the same roof, with the reading and delivery rooms in common. 

In 1875, the miscellaneous books of the state library, in the capitol, were 
transferred, by order of the legislature, to the society's library, leaving the 
former purely a state law library, under the control of the justices of the 
supreme court; while the latter became, to ail intents and purposes, the 
miscellaneous state library in charge of the historical society as the trustee 
of the state. The relations between the two libraries, both the property of 
the commonwealth, are most cordial, and they cooperate so far as possible. 

The society's library now numbers 230,000 titles. In making purchases we 
differentiate with the university library (of about 100,000 titles), leaving to 
the latter the fields of science, belles lettres, philosophy, education, ana the 
history of the continent of Europe. While both libraries are under the same 
root', they are separately administered; but the custody of the building rests 
with the historical society, as the state's trustee. We often have from 350 
to 400 readers in our rooms daily, and make loans, so far as practicable, to 
local public libraries throughout the state. 


6. Information Bureau — In recent years, particularly, the Wisconsin so- 
siety serves a useful public purpose as an information bureau for the state. 
State officials, editors, and public speakers are continually referring- to our 
)ffice for a great variety of data to be used in reports, speeches, and articles; 
md the hundreds of letters which come annually to the state house, seeking 
statistical or other information concerning the state, are almost invariably 
iorwarded to our society for reply. There is also hereafter to be maintained 
it the state house, during legislative sessions, a branch reference library 
svith a competent attendant, to furnish assistance to members of the Legisla- 
te who are engaged in research. 

7. Publications — In Wisconsin, our list has slowly grown. At present, we 
publish annual Proceedings, biennial Collections, and occasional Class Cata- 
logues and Bulletins of Information. But of course this feature of an histori- 
3al society's work will depend entirely upon the extent of official support. 
Lf a society cannot publish, it is seriously handicapped in the view of scholars 
md the general public. 

All this takes money; each year's progress requires an increasing appro- 
oriation. But the institution cannot stand still; it must either fall backwards 
3r go ahead. When, however, lawmakers are assured of the high pur- 
pose of an institution of this character, and can be made to appreciate its 
possibilities, there will probably be small objection to granting it aid, for it 
s one of the worthiest and most useful of educational enterprises. 

i A state historical society, in order to win state aid, should be popular in 
brganization and in methods; it should perpetually demonstrate it raison 
yetre by proving useful and inspiring to the public. Its directors must 
leartily believe in the undertaking, and in its service spend freely of time 
md effort. The salaried staff must be headed by men holding office for the 
?ood they can do — experts, of sound business habits, knowledge of men, and 
capacity to influence public opinion in a good cause. They must not be 
nere dry-as-dust antiquarians, but be imbued with modern thought, be ac- 
customed to modern methods. Some of our state and local historical so- 
cieties, especially in the East, are fossilized organizations, lacking light or 
he capacity for leading. Not upon such lines can progress be made, here in 
he West. You need in your work earnest, practical men, in whom both 
cholars and men of affairs may repose confidence. 

The Illinois Society seems to be imbued with these ideals. Let us hope 
hat, whatever role it may play— that of an accumulator of material, or of a 
entral agency of publication and influence, it may be enabled, through 
roper public support, to put its principles in practice, and become a light 
hining afar from this State which enjoys so rich a heritage of historic deeds; 

State wherein , in two and one-half centuries, the experiences of a dozen centu- 
ies of Europe have been condensed— the walls of savagery beaten down; the 
radeof the forests developed, with all its wealth of romantic episode; agricul- 
aral pursuits at last perfected in a bountiful soil and fruitful clime; indus- 
tries developed to a stage which in some directions distances every preceding 
ecord; where cities have sprung into life, which challenge the admiration of 
de world; and where today a united people from many lands, of many races, 
ven of the aboriginal race itself, are witnessing the splendid triumphs of 
le most advanced civilization— peace, progress and prosperity. 

We of the Wisconsin Society, upon this our fifty-second birthday, bid the 
oung Society of the Illinois— God speed! 



The Objects of the German- American Historical Society. 

As President of the German-American Historical Society of Illinois I have 
been invited by your kindred organization to read a paper at your annual 
meeting today. I have chosen the subject: "The Objects of Historical Re- 
search," and fear that this high sounding title may have induced the belief 
on your part that I intended to deliver a learned discourse on history in gen- 
eral. In order to disabuse your minds I will therefore state at the outset that 
my only purpose here is to explain briefly what objects the German-Ameri- 
can Historical Society of Illinois aims at and how far its own research into 
the history of our people is designed to extend. 

Our country is inhabited by a people composed of all the different nation- 
alities of the Old World, some more numerous than others, but all endowed 
with their own peculiar national characteristics springing from more or less 
striking dissimilarities in speech, manners and and other environments. Un- 
der our free institutions we have, by reason of the vast elbowroom afforded 
us upon our vast domain, admitted to our shores, from climes less favored 
than ours, millions of people who have made this country their home and 
have lent us a helping hand in the development of its resources. We are h 
here concerned with that element of our people which has come to us from jo 
the fatherland. 

During the conquests which followed the discovery of America, Germany D 
was rent asunder by fierce internal strife, chiefly induced by religious dissen- ° 
sions, and therefore unable as a power to take any part in the colonization f 
and political division of this continent. But since the incessant wars waged f 
upon her soil created a condition of indescribable misery among its people, 
thousands of them were driven by dire necessity, without leadership or guid- 
ance from their own governments, to leave their German homes and to brave 
an unknown fate amid the savages of the forests beyond the sea. Hence we 
find that in our early colonial settlements there landed upon our shores small 
bodies of Germans, which by degrees assumed the proportions of an immense 
army that spread over a vast extent of territory, chiefly in the states of New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas. In 
the very nature of things these immigrants belonged to the humblest classes 
of the people in the fatherland; they were with few exceptions modest me- 
chanics, laborers and peasants, but withal pious and God-fearing people, and 
since the most of them had left their homes not merely for economic reasons, 
bul also in search of freedom to worship God according to their own convic- 
tions, they were not without spiritual guides, some of whom were men pos- 
sessed of rare intellectual attainments as well as of the highest nobility of 
character. Prom these settlers sprang a host of stalwait men who were not 
only among the most daring of our early explorers, but also among the 
bravest of the soldiers in the armies of George Washington during the Revo- 
lution. Their speech and manners differed, however, from those of the morei 
numerous English speaking colonists, and hence they were but little under- 
stood but rather looked upon as springing from au inferior race. This view 
became so (irmly rooted in the minds of the English colonists that only a lit- 
tle over half a century ago so learned a man as the New England historian, 
Francis Park man, stigmatized these German immigrants as "dull and ignor- 
ant boors," adding that ''their descendants for the most part maintain the 


;ame character." Later historians, among them the illustrious Bancroft, how- 
ever, have treated them more justly while our noble Quaker poet, John Gh Whit- 
ier, bears the following testimony to their high character and proud achieve- 

"The pilgrims of Plymouth have not lacked historian and poet. Justice 
las been done to their faith, courage and self-sacrifice, and to the mighty in- 
luence of their endeavors to establish righteousness on the earth. The Quaker 
)ilgrims of Pennsylvania, seeking the same object by different means, have 
iot been equally fortunate. The power of their testimony for truth and 
toliness, peace and freedom, enforced only by what Milton calls 'the unre- 
istable might of meekness,' has been felt through two centuries in the 
.melioration of penal severities, the abolition of slavery, the reform of the 
irring, the relief of the poor and suffering — felt, in brief, in every step of 
mman progress." 

The correctness of this judgment is especially apparent in the abolition of 
lavery. The first German settlers, who came to our shores in 1683, were the 
ounders of Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia. It has been indisput- 
,bly shown that their noble and accomplished leader, Francis Daniel Pas- 
orioas, was the first man on this continent who sent forth, a strong public 
irotest against the scourge of negro slavery. The humane sentiments con- 
ained in this memorable document breathe the true German spirit, which 
sserted itself so powerfully in the days of the anti-slavery agitation and the 
ivil war-, and hence Samuel W. Pennypacker may well say, as he does with 
eference to Pastorious and his freedom-loving followers: "A little rill there 
tarted which further on became an immense torrent, and whenever here- 
fter men trace the causes which led to Shiloh, Gettysburg and Appomattox, 
bey will begin with the tender consciences of the linen weavers and hus- 
andmen of Germantown." 

But it can not be doubted that the diversity in speech and manner between 
aose of our people who trace their origin to Plymouth Rock and those who 
ave come to us from the fatherland, has tended to create between them a 
ondition of aloofness which has not been conducive to a proper appreciation 
f each other's virtues. The German immigrants, using their native speech 
nd forming as they do in many instances all over these broad states large 
ammunities more or less distinctly separated from those of their native 
.merican fellow-citizens, are to the latter, by reason of these facts, in a 
reat measure "a book with seven seals," and hence their inner life and the 
art they have taken in all great public movements, as well as in the indus- 
■ial, commercial and agricultural development of our country, have not 
>und the attention which they deserve, although keen and impartial obser- 
3rs have at all times conceded that, notwithstanding the outer differences 
Btween the two great elements of our people, their natural tendencies and 
laptabilities, as well as their common aspirations toward the betterment of 

1 human conditions, present strong and striking likenesses. 

Among a people like ours, made up as it is of the most varied elements, i 
the duty of every good citizen to cultivate the utmost harmony between 
tern all and to labor faithfully in dispelling racial and national prejudices, 
>r the words of John Stuart Mill that "whatever really tends to the admix- 
ire of nationalities and the blending of their attributes and peculiarities in a 
>mmon union is a benefit to the human race," apply to no people so forcibly 
; to ours. It is, therefore, highly important that in sifting the material 
9eded in the making up of the history of a great people, or of any part of it r 
1 those should be called upon to render effective aid who, owing to their 
aining and associations, have a more or less intimate acquaintance with the 
>ecial traits, talents and achievements of any particular class of our citizens. 
r hoever may be thus situated should, therefore, esteem it a cheerful duty to 
psist in securing accurate records from which history may be compiled for 
iture generations, for "Man changes and quits the stage; his opinions pass 
vay and change with him; history alone remains upon the stage, as the im- 
ortal citizen of all nations and ages." 

But while in our colonial days we wrote upon this continent part of the his- 
ry of European nations, we write here now only American history. It be- 
>oves us, therefore, that we should determine as accurately as possible what 


particular part the different elements of our people have had in shaping it. 
True, in the great armies of colonization that marched over this continent to 
conquer the wilderness, those who came from the fatherland formed only- 
part of the rank and file, their commanders hailing from those other coun- 
tries whose governments were strong enough to undertake conquests. Never- 
theless, it has to the studious mind always been an interesting inquiry, 
whether these German colonists compared favorably with the others of equal 
rank in their manly qualities as well as in all other respects, and what traces, 
if any, they left upon our American civilization. 

But the matter with which the German-American Historical Society of Illi- 
nois is concerned first and foremost, is to determine what share the German 
immigrants of Illinois have had in the growth and development of our State. 
About one hundred years ago human civilization had hardly gained a foot- 
hold within its limits. Two military posts, Cahokia and Kaskaskia, were 
found on its southeastern border and under their protection alone the first 
settlers were enabled to maintain themselves against the red savages. Today 
about four million people inhabit this State. Within a period of scarcely one 
hundred years hundreds of flourishing communities have sprung from our 
soil, our fields and orchards bear abundant grain and fruit, our mines yield 
valuable minerals, our rivers and artificial highways are lined with innumer- 
able industries, as well as with many other proud works of human industry 
and ingenuity; trade and commerce are in a thriving condition, our citizens 
enjoy a reasonable measure of welfare, many of them have distinguished 
themselves brilliantly in all spheres of human activity, and while not a few 
achieved in the past the highest honors of State, it fell to the lot of some, at 
a time when the blessings of our free institutions were trembling in the bal- 
ance, to guide the destinies of the nation, and with God-given genius not only 
to lead our economic conditions, but also the political and moral views of our 
people, evolved as they were from these, into new and better channels. 

It may be safely assumed that about 30 per cent of the population of this 
State are of German origin. Making due allowance for the fact that the most 
of the German immigrants came from the humblest classes of their people 
and that in the struggle of life they labored in tne beginning under serious 
disadvantages on account of their ignorance of the language and the general 
conditions of the country, the questions neverthless arise: Have these immi- 
grants and their descendants, by their industry and intelligence, contributed 
approximately as much to the progress of our State as the other nationalities 
have done which, together with tbem, constitute the bulk of our people? 
Have their endeavors in church and school, in agriculture, in trade and com- 
merce, in the industries, and in the arts and sciences been as rich in bless- 
ings as those of their fellow citizens springing from other races? Were they 
at all times to their adopted country loyal and patriotic citizens? Have they 
cherished a proper appreciation of their public duties, and have they never 
failed to show a full measure of love and devotion for our free institutions in 
peace as well as in war? Did German immigration influence the character of 
our people, and if so, in what respect and to what extent? Has it conferred 
any special benefits upon our civilization, and if so, what? In what fields of 
human activity have the Germans been most useful? What business branches 
may be said to have more particularly been advanced by their special skill 
and experience? 

These and other kindred inquiries address themselves especially to those 
who by reason of their intimate acquaintance with the special traits of the 
German element of our people, their knowledge of its language and their 
constant intercourse with it, have greater facilities to study all the phases of 
its intellectual and material existence. If men of that stamp do not render 
the historian effective assistance in gathering the data upon which the true 
history of our American people and its composite elements may be based, 
then the German-Americans have only themselves to blame, in case they fail 
to receive a fair share of recognition for the endeavors they put forth to pro- 
mote the public weal, because they are the ones who by reason of their former 
surroundings bring with them conditions which are the very cause of the 
comparative remoteness between them and the English speaking elements ol 


»ur people. This same cause led to the estrangement which existed in colonial 
[ays between the English colonists and the German and which tended to pro- 
luce a long-lasting lack of appreciation of the latter's merits. 

The welfare of our people demands that the most cordial intercourse be 
ultivated and cherished among all its parts. It is essential to our normal 
;rowth that all these parts meet each other at all times in a spirit of fairness 
,nd mutual confidence, in order that a harmonious interchange of the best 
raits of all may ultimately lead to the development of the strongest and 
loblest national character in history. 

The Historical Society of Illinois writes the history of the whole people of 
his State; the German- American Historical Society of Illinois is engaged in 
fathering historical data concerning one of the most numerous elements of 
ur people. The latter society is therefore a mere adjunct of the former and 
heerfully enrolls itself in its service, in order that from the German side 
'not that which fancy shapes or the heart holds dear, but only that which 
ipe reflection and a sound judgment have discerned to be the truth, be ad- 
litted through the sacred portals of history." 



The Influence of Government Land Grants eor Educational Purposes 
Upon the Educational System of the State. 

Jonathan Baldwin Turner. 
When I accepted the invitation of your program committee to read a papei 
before you upon such a topic related to the educational history of the State as 
I might select, I did so with some reluctance; for I knew that I could nol 
come before you with fresh material, but must, for the most part, fall bad 
upon gleanings made.sotne years ago, while an employe in the State Super 
intendent's office, much of which will, I fear, be ancient history to you, 

In speaking of the government land grants to education in our State 
shall not d«vell further upon what the grants were, how they were made, anjfl 
what has been realized from them than seems necessary to serve my chie 
purpose — to call your attention to the part they have played in shaping ou 
educational system. f 

In an act passed by Congress May 20, 1785, providing, among other things 
for the sale of lands in what is known as the Northwest Territory, it wa 
ordered that the land should be laid off into townships six miles square, tha 
each township shouid be divided into thirty-six tracts, each a mile square 
and that "there shall be reserved from sale the lot No. 16 of every townshi] 
for the maintenance of public schools within said township." 

Most of the provisions of this act are credited to Thomas Jefferson, an | 
the clause with reference to education has commonly been attributed to hiL 
well known zeal for education. But it clearly appears from a paper putt 1 
lished by the American Historical Association* that a bill containing man 
of the features of the act of 1785 was prepared by Jefferson and considere 
by Congress in 1784, that this bill did not contain any educational clause, th? 
Jefferson was not in Congress in 1785, and .that the clause in question shoul 
be attributed to the efforts of Col. Timothy Pickering, if, which is perhar. 
doubtful, any one man should be credited therefor. 

The ordinance of 1787 did not repeat the educational grant of 1785 in term ^ 
but did sanction it by the well-known article, "religion, morality, ar 
knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mai 
kind, schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged." j$ 

Pursuant to the act of 1785, and following the precedent set in the admi ft 
sion of Ohio and Indiana, Congress, in the act of April 18, 1818, "To enable 
the people of Illinois Territory to form a constitution and state government, " 
inserted the following: "Section numbered sixteen in every townshp 
* shall be granted to the state for the use of the inhabitants of su< 


township for the use of schools." The phrase in the act of 1785 "for t 
maintenance of public schools within said township," and the correspondii 
phrase in the enabling 1 act of 1818, "for the use of the inhabitants of su> 
township for the use of schools," have clearly restricted the proceeds of eai 
sixteenth section, whether from rents or from sales, to the use of the tow 
ship in which it lies, and the restriction has been upheld in the courts. 

What use was made of these lands prior to the admission of the state is ni 
known to the writer. It is possible that, under a law passed by the territ( 


ial legislature of Indiana and continued in force in the territory of Illinois 
by an act of its legislature declaring the general laws of Indiana in force in 
Illinois, some leases were made by the courts of common pleas. 

The acts of Congress did not provide for the sale of these lands and our 
first General Assembly, at its second session, in 1819, (it will be remembered 
:hat there was no legislation at the session of 1818), authorized the county 
3ommissioners to appoint in each township three substantial freeholders 
;rustees of the lands. They were to appoint a treasurer and were to lease 
:he lands, care for them, and collect the rents, which were for a time paid 
nto the county treasury to be disbursed by the county commissioners. The 
ineal successors of these trustees are the township trustees of schools and 
;he township school treasurer of today. 

It should be remembered in this connection that the word township has a 
;hree fold meaning with us today: First, the congressional township estab- 
ished by the government survey; second, the school township, originally the 
;ame as the congressional township, but now in many cases something differ- 
ent through legislative action making or permitting changes in territory; 
ind, third, the civil townships in counties under township organization, which 
nay or may not have the same territory as congressional or school townships. 

I In 1825, a genuine free school act was passed, the schools to be supported 
)y State and local taxation. But the people were not ready for free schools 
lor were they willing to be taxed for such a purpose then. State aid was 
oon withdrawn, and the power to levy local taxes was made of no avail by 
,n amendment to the effect that no one should be taxed without his consent; 
,nd no organized school system, worthy the name, was provided by law until 
837, and no free school act based upon taxation was passed until 1855. 
leanwhile, in 1831, a law had been enacted authorizing the sale of the school 
^nds, and the township trustees were required to make prior to such sale sur- 
eys and appraisals of the lands. 

By the act of 1837, the people of any congressional township, the only 
Dwnship known at that time, were given the power to organize under the 

ad of the trustees; and such organized townships became school townships, 
lected school trustees who were made the successors of the trustees of school 
mds, and were authorized to receive and loan through their treasurer any 
unds which had been received from the sale of school lands. In addition to 
lis, the board of trustees was to lay off the township into school districts, 
nd the title of all school property was vested in them. They were also to 
ollect and report the school statistics for their township, and to apportion to 
ae several districts, in addition to interest on the school fund of the town- 
aip, such other moneys as came to the township for school purposes. Their 
*easurer was made the custodian of all township school funds and later of all 
istrict funds, whether raised by taxation, or by the sale of bonds, or coming 
'om other sources, and through him all disbursements of school funds were 
lade, and by him all district accounts were kept. These powers these officers 
ave held till the present time, except in so far as they have been curtailed 
y the granting of a few special charters and by modifications of the law in 
jgard to the formation of districts. 

To this same grant of sixteenth section lands for school purposes, we may 
ace directly another school office, which has been perhaps the most potent 
ngle influence in the upbuilding of our school system. As has been said, 
le act of Congress gave no authority for the sale of these lands. However, 
suming that it would be given to Illinois as it had already been given to 
hio and Indiana, our Legislature, in 1831, passed an act for their sale, in 
icordance with which the county commissioners in every county appointed 
commissioner of sales and the selling began the same year. In 1843 con- 
•essional authority for such sales was given and sales already made were 

The commissioner of school lands at first had no direct connection with the 
hools of his county; but when many sales had been made, so that the in- 
rest on accumulated funds became considerable, it was provided that the 
>mmissioner should pay the interest to teachers; and when, in 1835, the 
tate, which up to that time had used to meet its own expenses all school 


funds which had come into the treasury, directed that interest should be paid 
thereon, the school commissioners were made the agents by which these 
funds were distributed to the townships in the several counties. But the of- 
fice was not vitalized and made efficient as a school office until, by the act of 
1845, it became elective, and the commissioner was, ex- officio, county 
superintendent and was required to visit schools and to advise in all matters 
pertaining thereto. It was also made his duty "with such person or persons 
as he shall associate with him to examine all persons proposing to teach a 
common school in any township in his county touching his or her qualifica- 
tions properly to teach orthography, reading in English, penmanship, arith- 
metic, English grammar, modern geography, and history of the United 
States; and if he shall find such person qualified, he shall, on being satisfied 
of his or her good moral character, give such person a certificate of qualifi- 
cation, and no person who shall teach a school without first having obtained 
such a certificate shall be entitled to receive any portion of the public fund. n 
In these provisions of the law of 1845 we find the gist of the powers and du- 
ties of the county superintendent of schools of today. 

We may thus trace directly to the grant of the sixteenth section for schools, 
our school township and the important school offices of township school trus- 
tees, township school treasurer and county superintendent of schools. 

We must not forget, too, that the establishment of schools for thirty years a 
after the admission of the State was, in the large majority of cases, in all 
probability either made possible or hastened by the income from this grant. 
The school report of 1850, submitted by the Secretary of State, (thenar officic 
State Superintendent of Schools) , shows that two-fifths of the amount ex- 
pended for schools was interest from township funds. 

These figures from the State Superintendent's report of 1899-1900 showislj 
the present condition of the fund may not be out of place here: 


1 . Total of township funds $15, 494, 675 4 

2 . Total income of same | 900. 183 9 

3. Township fund (Chicago) 

4. Lands of same 

5. Total income of same 

6. Income from rents of same 

10,431.582 H 
209,818 3' 
583.241 9 
534,125 5 



The second land grant to Illinois for school purposes was made in part ii 
1804 and in part in the enabling act of 1818. After the admission of Ohio th 
rest of the Northwest Territory was divided into three land districts, and th 
Secretary of the Treasury was directed to locate one entire township in eacJ 
for the use of a seminary of learning. The enabling act gave another town 
ship, or thirty-six sections, for the same purpose. Under the earlier act, T 
5 N., 1 W. 3d P. M. was located, but the location was a poor one and Cor 
gress accepted its surrender and gave instead thirty- six sections. 

The management of these choice lands was so unwise — one can hardly fl 
frain from saying criminally unwise in view of the facts — that under an a< 
passed in 1829, fourteen years in advance of any authority from Congress fo 
their sale and almost thirty years before any provision was made to use legi 
imately the proceeds thereform, the sales were begun at $1.25 an acre an 
but little more than the upset price was realized, the total being but $55,001 
Had the lands been held until 1857, when first the income was used in con 
pliance with the purpose of the grant, and the rents accumulated, the pr< 
ceeds of sales and rentals would have reached easily one and one-half an 
possibly two million dollars. Did the State own the lands today their rent; 
would maintain handsomely all our State normal schools. jjj 

In the using, the seminary fund has always been coupled with another fun< 
the college fund; accordingly let me recall to your minds briefly its origii 
Ohio and Indiana had been granted for road building five per cent of futures, 
sales by the government of lands within their limits. The bill for the admi | 
sion of Illinois contained, as introduced, a similar provision; but Mr. Nathai 
iel Pope, our delegate in congress, secured an amendment by which two p<| 
cent was to be given for road building, "the residue," three per cent, "to 1 


>propriated by the legislature of the State for the encouragement of learn- 
g, of which one-sixth part shall be exclusively bestowed on a college or 
liversity." Probably one of Mr. Pope's arguments for the amendment, 
at "nature had left little to be done in the proposed State of Illinois, in 
der to have the finest roads in the world," would be scouted by the good 
ads advocates of today. The one-sixth of three per cent brought $156,613.32. 

It is needless to recount in this connection the many efforts made to have 
ese two funds divided up among some or all the colleges of the State, or to 
ive them used in maintaining county seminaries. Suffice it to say, that an 
tempt to secure a charter in 1833 for an institution to be established in 
>ringfield and to be called Illinois University, failed; that schemes to divide 
id scatter the funds were thwarted by a flank movement giving for the time 
ing the interest on them to the public schools; and that a bill for "An act 
incorporate the Trustees of Illinois University" was not passed. 

As early as 1832, while as yet there was no school in the country, public or 
ivate, distinctively for the education of teachers, it was proposed that such 
work should be undertaken in Illinois and that a part of the income of the 
hool funds should be used for this purpose. At an educational convention 
Id in Vandalia (at which Abraham Lincoln was a delegate and Stephen A. 
mglas a secretary; the same idea was advocated, and shortly after a bill 
is introduced for an elaborate system of county seminaries in which the 
ition of such persons as would pledge themselves to teach in the public 
hools of the State should be paid in whole or in part from the income of 
| seminary fund. A proposition for a State normal school in Illinois, the 
t so far as I have been able to learn was made by John S. Wright, of 
icago, in 1840, in a paper he was just starting, called at first the Union 
riculturist and afterwards the Prairie Farmer. This school it was proposed 
:>uld be established at Springfield and should have for its suppoit the col- 
*e and seminary funds. 

iThe proposition for a normal school, once broached, was urged vigorously 
other quarters. The Illinois Industrial League, organized through the 
orts of Professor J. B. Turner to promote the establishment of a State 
iversity, at its convention held in Chicago, November 24, 1852, proposed: 
'hat so much of the seminary fund as is needed for that purpose should be 
mediately appropriated as designed for the endowment of a seminary or 
rmal school for the purpose of educating a full supply of competent and 
11 qualified common school teachers, for the direct benefit and use of the 
|nmon schools." The convention also named a normal school first in its 
liedule of departments to be maintained in the university proposed. The 
ite Teachers' Institute, now the Illinois State Teachers' Association, at 
first meeting in 1853, declared " for the establishment and support of 
rmal schools." The State university bill of 1855 failed; but in 1857, after 
igorous campaign, a bill for a normal school was passed, with but a 
gle vote to spare, in the House, and the income of both the college and 
ainary funds was appropriated for its support. It was not until 1869 that 
f additional appropriation was made for the maintenance of this school. 

]"hus we see that the existence of these funds constantly stimulated effort 
the establishment of a school of instruction for teachers; and 1 think it 
lot too much to say that there is no probability that we should have secured 
• first normal school until long after the civil war, had it not been for the 
d grant for a seminary fund. 

before proceeding to the consideration of the third and last land grant 
de to us by the government, that for a college, permit me to call your at- 
tion to the improbable, though wide-spread, story of a college in Illinois 
ly in the third decade of the eighteenth century. In most ancient times, 
the myth runs, the Jesuits brought higher education into Illinois. Many 
isions to a Jesuit college at Kaskaskia are to be found in historical writ- 

— 3H. 


Stoddard says: *"In the early part of the last century, when the French in 
Upper Louisiana were at the apex of their glory, a college of priests was es- 
tablished at Kaskaskia. The practice of most Catholic countries obtained 
here; the poor were neglected while some of the most wealthy and consider- 
able were permitted to quaff at this literary fountain. The liberal and use- 
ful sciences were but little cultivated in this seminary. Scholastic divinity 
afforded almost the only subjects of investigation. * * * Of what salutary 
use was such a seminary to the people? * * * No regulations were offi- 
cially made on the subject of general education." 

Governor Reynolds, who came to Illinois in 1800, grew up in Kaskaskia, 
and began practicing law in Cahokia in 1814, writes: t "In the year 1721 the 
Jesuits erected a monastry and college in Kaskaskia, and in a few years it 
was chartered by the government. * * * The Jesuit college at Kaskaskia 
continued to flourish until the war with England in 1754, was declared." 

Brown writes as follows: J" While the French retained possession of Illi 
nois, Kaskaskia was their principal town, Charlevoix visited it in 1721. It 
contained at that time a college of Jesuits and about one hundred families." 

* * * "The Jesuits once had a college at Kaskaskia, and it is said, though 
on doubtful authority, that the celebrated Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray, 

* * * while a monk of the order of St. Sulspice, taught therein. Whether 
he did so or not is immaterial. The Jesuit missionaries in this country were 
learned men. They were educated, however, in Europe and we have no evi- 
dence that the college at Kaskaskia produced any such. It has long been in 

Davidson and Stuve, evidently following Reynolds, say: § "All the settle- 
ments between the rivers Mississippi and Kaskaskia became greatly extended 
and increased in number, and in 1721 the Jesuits established a monastary and 
college at Kaskaskia." 

Maj. A. S. De Peyster, writing from Mackinac, under date of June 27, 1779. 
to Gen. Haldimand, at Montreal, has the following: l"By creditable people 
just arrived from the Illinois, I have the following accounts so late as 24th oi 
April." [Gen. Clark had captured Kaskaskia in the July before.] * * * 
"The Kaskaskias no ways fortified. The Fort being a sorry pinchettec 
[picketed] enclosure round the Jesuits' college, with two plank houses at op- 
posite angles, mounting two four-pounders, each on the ground floor and e 
few swivels mounted in a pidgeon house." 

Rev. Father L. W. Ferland, writing me from Kaskaskia under date o! 
April 29, 1890, says: "In reply to your favor of the 22d inst. I wish to sa^ 
that tradition shows the place where once stood a Jesuit college." * * 1 
"The building must have been spacious for the times; if I can judge fron 
where stood the foundations, it was about 50 feet long." The novelists hav< 
copied the historians. 

It would seen that such statements as these should conclusively prove tha 
there was for some thirty years of the first half of the 18th century an insti 
tution of a high grade in the old French settlement of Kaskaskia. Why ; 
college at a missionary outpost, among a few hundred simple peasants an< 
traders, surrounded by scattering tribes of Indians, was, however, a questioi 
not easy to solve; and not having the opportunity to investigate it with car* 
myself, I have sought information from others well known to be familiar witl 
the historical material which alone could give a satisfactory answer. 

Mr. Douglas Brymner, archivist, Ottawa, Canada, wrote me May 23, 1890 
"1 have looked over the papers connected with Kaskaskias, but none of thes 
contain any reference to the existence of a college, but this is no evidenc 

* Amos Stoddard.— Sketches. Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana. [Phila. 1812. 
Page 308. 

t John Reynolds.— The Pioneer History of Illinois. [ Belleville. 1848.] Pages 3336. 

Beery Brown. The history of Illinois from its First Discovery and Settlement to th 
Present Time, [N. V., 1854J pp. 12,447. 

I Davidson and Stuve. A Complete History of Illinois [Springfield, 1884,] p. 121. 

1 Michigan Pioneer Collections, vol. 9, p. 338. 


3 1405707 

that none existed. The earliest manuscript I have does not go back further 
than 1759, being the register of the parish of Notre Damede I 1 Immaculate Con- 
ception, Cascaskias. I can find nothing among printed works that would 
throw any light on the subject." 

From several letters from Oscar W. Collet, Librarian of the Missouri His- 
torical Society, I make these extracts: "There never was, in French times, 
a monastery, conventual establishment, college, or any institution in the na- 
ture of a college, boarding school or like educational house outside New Or- 
leans." * * * "That there may have been some attempt at a miserable 
day school is possible. This is conjecture, however; for although somewhat 
familiar with the history of the valley, I have no knowledge of any such 
school." • 

"When I said Stoddard started the Kaskaskia college romance, I meant 
simply, not that he invented it, but was the first, as far as I knew, to put it 
into print. He was in this region 1803-4 and after." 

"The building to which DePeyster gives the name of Jesuit College, is 
most certainly the Jesuit residence in Kaskaskia." 

"Of one thing you may be certain; had there been a college, mention of 
the fact would assuredly be found in some contemporaneous authority, or at 
least reference to it. But positively there is none. If you will read Bossu, 
the part that relates to his sojourn in Illinois, Father Vivier's two letters from 
the Illinois, and Carayon's Bannissement , the conviction will come to you that 
the college was an impossibility." 

In the Bannissement des Jesuits, written late in 1764, or during 1765, 
Carayon, who was one of the Jesuit Fathers, sets out methodically, one by one, 
the different works in which the society was engaged, during the century up 
to its expulsion in 1763; and to suppose that he would have omitted, as he 
was putting forth a justification of the Jesuits in Louisiana, even a reference 
to a college or school anywhere, had one existed, is to set him down as a 

Two letters from John Gilmary Shea, the eminent historian of Catholicism 
in America, are as follows: The Jesuits had their mission at Kaskaskia; 
priests from the Seminary of Quebec had a mission at Cohokia or Tamoroa; 
there was occasionally a Recollect or Reformed Franciscan at Fort Chartres 
acting as a chaplain. There are many letters from all these, and in none is 
there the slighest allusion to any educational establishment. There is no 
trace of any charter for such an institution." 

"My own impression is that such a story was made up from some misun- 
derstanding. There is in many minds such an absurd jumble in regard to the 
secular and regular clergy of the Catholic church that we meet all manner of 
side-splitting comicalities. One writer on the Mississippi Valley speaks of 
Hennepin as a Jesuit monk of the Franciscan order! To make one man 
monk, prior and regular clerk would be like classifying a man as cavalry- 
man, marine and Indian scout. I think some such addle-pated fellow met an 
allusion to priests of the Seminary in the Illinois country and with the fixed 
idea that there were none but Jesuits there, supposed these to be Jesuits be- 
longing to a Seminary in Illinois; whereas they were secular priests sent 
from the Theological Seminary in Quebec, who were not on very good terms 
with the Jesuits. 

I can not see any other way in which the story originated ; but it is very 
3ertain the Jesuits never had a college in Illinois in French days." 

"Your reference to a Jesuit college is certainly early (De Peyster letter 
3ited above) ; but at that time, 1779, there could have been no Jesuit institu- 
:ion there at all, as their property at Kaskaskia, though on British soil, was 
=eized under authority of the Louisiana council Sept. ,22, 1763, and the Jesuits 
carried off. The property was than sold and the French authorities pretended 
:o give title. 

"The mission at the present Kaskaskia began about 1700, after the removal 
)f the tribe. Catalogues exist of the French Jesuits in Canada, etc., and in 
lone is there any allusion made to any college except at Quebec. In the 


lists of missionaries during all the period 1700-1763, in which the address and 
employment of each member are given, no one is ever given as president or 
professor except at Quebec. Charlevoix's Journal shows that there was no 
college in 1721. The letters in Letters Edifiantes, coming down to 1750 are 
silent as to any college; and none is mentioned at the time the Jesuit property 
was seized in 1763." 

I submit that upon this testimony we must conclude that the story of a col- 
lege at Kaskaskia, though told in our histories and repeated in fiction, has 
no foundation in fact. 

I have already alluded to efforts made to establish a State university be- 
ginning in 1833 and continuing at intervals until 1855. For the endowment 
of this institution, the Legislature was asked to appropriate the college fund 
"exclusively bestowed," in the words of the act of Congress for this purpose; 
but we have seen that the income of the fund was devoted in 1857 to the sup- 
port of the State normal school established at Normal. While this was a 
perversion of the fund, we may not perhaps conclude that it was unfortunate 
either that the fund was so used or that the State university waited for the 
richer endowment of the congressional grant of 1862. 

In 1852 Congress was memorialized from Illinois for "a grant of public 
lands to establish and endow industrial institutions in each and every state in 
the Union." Similar memorials followed from other states, but it was not 
until the Morrill bill for this purpose was introduced in 1857, that the subject 
was seriously considered. The bill was passed ^in 1859, but was vetoed by 
President Buchanan. It was again introduced in 1861, was passed, and re- 
ceived the approval of President Lincoln July 2, 1862. 

By this act 30,000 acres of public land for each member of congress were 
granted to each state for the endowment, support, and maintenance of, at 
least, one college, where the leading object shall be, without excluding other 
scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in 
such manner as the legislatures of the states may respectively prescribe, in 
order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes 
in the several pursuits and professions in life. 

There being no public lands in Illinois subject to entry at the price named 
in the act, $L.25 an acre, the State received scrip for 480,000 acres of land. 
The legislature by act of February 28, 1867, chartered the Illinois Industrial 
University and located it in Urbana. The scrip was assigned to the trustees 
of the university who located scrip for 25,000 acres and sold the rest for 
$319,178.87. Sales of lands located have increased the fund to about $525,000 
and will probably swell it still further to $625,000. In 1885 the legislature 
changed the name to the University of Illinois. The institution is controlled 
by a board of twelve trustees, of which the Governor, the President of the 
State Board of Agriculture, and the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction are members ex-ofjicio. The other members are chosen, three at 
each general election, and hold office for six years. I need not detail to you 
the history of the university. When it was opened in 1868 there were already 
twenty-six chartered colleges and universities in the State and naturally its 
growth at first was slow. For years State appropriations were meager, but 
of late they have been more liberal. Its buildings and their equipment 
represent an investment by the State of over $1,000,000. 

The organization of the university embraces a college of agriculture, a col- 
lege of engineering, with departments of architecture, civil eugineering t 
municipal and sanitary engineering, mechanical engineering and electri- 
cal engineering, a college of science, a college of literature and arts, a 
graduate school, a school of art and design, a school of library science, and 
a school of household science, a biological experiment station, and the State 
water survey. Its professional departments are a school of pharmacy, a col- 
lege of law, and a college of medicine. The State Laboratory of Natural 
History, supported by legislative appropriations and the Agricultural Exper- 
iment Station supported by congressional appropriations are under the con- 
trol of its board of trustees. It has been found desirable to maintain a 


preparatory school of the grade of a high school. The State entomologist's 
office is at the university and one of its professors is State entomologist. 

The university has always sought to maintain a close connection with the 
public schools, and a much larger number of our high school graduates go to 
the university for college or professional study than to any other institution. 

The fees for undergraduate courses are very low — $111.00 for the four 
years — and besides there are offered annually 116 free scholarships in these 
courses, good for four years, and 108 scholarships, good for two years, in the 
college of agriculture and the school of household science. 

There were 377 students enrolled in 1887-8; the enrollment this year will 
reach 2,500. Its roll of professors, instructors and assistants, has 267 names. 

You see how broad a foundation has been laid. The future seems secure 
and full of promise, for the university is under the fostering care of the im- 
perial commonwealth of the Mississippi valley. 

The congressional land grant of 1862 made possible the State University as 
the fit head of the public school system, and without the grant there is no 
probability that such an institution would ever have been established in Illi- 


The name of one man is indissolubly connected with the educational devel- 
opment of our State for a third of a century. Jonathan Baldwin Turner was 
born and reared on a farm in Templeton, Mass. He grew to be a tall, strong 
man with an iron constitution. About a year before his death, when ninety- 
two years old, he told a friend that he had never in his life lost a meal of 
victuals through sickness. 

In 1827, when 22 years of age, he entered the preparatory department of 
Yale College and supported himself in part by manual labor and by giving 
instruction in the gymnasium. He was graduated from the classical course 
of the college in 1833, and at once came to Illinois, to the Yale colony which 
had opened Illinois College in Jacksonville, in 1830. His connection with the 
college continued for fourteen years, his professorship being that of English 
Literature and Rhetoric, but his teaching was not confined to these subjects. 
From the first Professor Turner was, with his associates, a strong and indefatiga- 
ble advocate of free public schools. He told me that he spent his summer vaca- 
tion in 1834 traveling through half a dozen or more counties at his own ex- 
pense delivering addresses in advocacy of common schools, wherever he cou<ld 
find an audience. One incident of this trip was lying senseless upon the 
prairie for nearly a day where he had been thrown by a vicious horse bought 
of an honest farmer to replace his own horse which had gone hopelessly 

Late in the first half of this century the idea had become prevalent that an 
oducation beyond that of the common school, but different from that of the 
academy and college of the times, was desirable for the so-called "industrial," 
as distinguished from the "professional," classes. Agricultural and technical 
schools, as well as normal schools, had been established in some of the states 
of continental Europe; but in the United States the Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute, founded in 1824, at which a few young men received instruction in 
civil engineering, and three of the Massachusetts normal schools, started in 
the late thirties, were the pioneers. Sheffield Scientific School, at Yale, and 
Lawrence Scientific School, at Harvard, were opened just at the close of the 
half century. 

The Buel Institute, an agricultural society of Putnam county, in this State, 
at its fair in the fall of 1851, decided to call a Farmers' Convention at Gran- 
ville in November, "to take * * * * steps toward the establishment of 
an Agricultural University." Professor Turner, who had resigned his pro- 
fessorship in 1847, and who was already recognized as one of the strongest 
advocates of "industrial" education, was invited to attend the convention 
and to deliver an address. What the attitude of the convention toward higher 
education was and what its leaders were seeking to obtain through the pro- 
posed university will best appear from the following resolutions, adopted 
upon the report oE a committee of which Professor Turner was chairman: 

Resolved, That we greatly rejoice in the degree of perfection to which our 
various institutions for the education of our brethren engaged in professionals 
scientific and literary pursuits, have already attained, and in the mental and 
moral elevation which those institutions have given them, and in their conse- 
quent preparation and capacity for the great duties in the spheres of life in 
which they are engaged; and that we will aid, in all ways consistent, for the- 
still greater perfection of such institutions. 

Resolved, That, as the representatives of the industrial classes, including 
all cultivators of the soil, artisans, mechanics, and merchants, we desire the 
same privileges and advantages for ourselves, our fellows, and our posterity 
in each of our several callings as our professional brethren enjoy in theirs r 
and we admit that it is our own fault that we do not also enjoy them. 

Resolved, That in our opinion the institutions originally and primarily de- 
signed to meet the wants of the professional classes, as such, can not, in the- 
nature of things, meet ours, no more than the institutions we desire to es- 
tablish for ourselves could meet theirs; therefore, 

Resolved, That we take immediate measures for the establishment of a uni- 
versity in the State of Illinois expressly to meet those felt wants of each and 
all the industrial classes of our State; and that we recommend the founda- 
tion of high schools, lyceums, institutes, etc., in each of our counties, on? 
similar principles, so soon as they may find it practicable to do so. 

Resolved, That in our opinion such institutions can never impede, but must 
greatly promote the best interests of all those existing institutions. 

Professor Turner's address was entitled, "A Plan for an Industrial Uni- 
versity for the State of Illinois." 

Two questions were propounded: 

What do the industrial classes want? 

How can that want be supplied? 

His answer to the first was: "They want, and they ought to have, the* 
same facilities for understanding the true philosophy — the science and the 
art — of their several pursuits, (their life business), and of efficiently applying- 
existing knowledge thereto and widening its domain, which the professional 
classes have long enjoyed in their pursuits." 

In answer to the second question he advocated — (1) a National Institute of 
Science (and this he hoped would be supplied by the Smithsonian Institute,, 
then just established); and (2), to cooperate with this institute, a "Univer- 
sity of the Industrial Classes in each of the States, with their consequent 
subordinate institutes, lyceums, and high schools in each of the counties and 
towns." From the State university he proposed that "no species of know- 
ledge should be excluded," but said further that "whether a distinct classical 
department should be added or not would depend on expediency," as it 
might be best to leave that department to existing colleges. It was also in 
his plan that a considerable part of the work of the university should be in- 
vestigation and experimentation. 

The address was widely circulated through the press of the country, and 
many copies were sent out in pamphlet form. It attracted much attention r 
and seems to have given just the impulse needed to start the movement which 
has resulted in establishing a state university in every state and territory of 
the countrv. 


A year later (November, 1852), at la third convention held in Chicago, the 
Industrial League of the State of Illinois was organized, with Professor ite 
Turner as chief director, and it was "Resolved, That this convention memori- p 
alize Congress for the purpose of obtaining a grant of public lauds to estab- 
lish and endow industrial institutions in each and every state in the Union." 
The Legislature, which met January 4, 1853, was urged by a fourth conven- ,p 
Hon to memorialize Congress for a grant to each state of public lands to the 
value of not less than $500,000 for the endowment in each of an industrial col- 
lege, and joint resolutions to tnis effect were unanimously adopted by the 
General Assembly. 



The question of Congressional aid for such schools had already been raised 
n the east, and Michigan had, in 1850, asked for itself an endowment for 
t distinctively agricultural college; but to Profess >r Turner and his friends 
>elongs, I beiieve, the honor of first securing the formal presentation to Con- 
gress of the proposition to endow state universities to be established on the 
>road lines of the Granville address; and this proposition is the central idea 
>f the beneficent land grant act of 1862— an act which has so changed our sys- 
em of higher education and so enlarged its scope and made the State so pow- 
irful an ally of the university that we as yet hardly realize its full significance 
tnd importance. 

The character of the institution desired by Professor Turner and his co- 
workers in Illinois may be seen by the following extract from a bill prepared 
>y them at a convention held January 1, 1855, and considered but not passed 
>y the General Assembly of that year. 

The object of the institution shall be to impart instruction in all depart- 
nents of useful knowledge, science, and art, commencing with those depart- 
aents now most needed by the citizens of the state, to- wit: 

1. A teachers' seminary, or a normal school department, for the improve- 
aent and education of common school teachers. 

2. An agricultural department for the benefit and instruction of farmers, 
nd the sons of farmers, and of all others interested in the science or arts of 
griculture and horticulture. 

3. A mechanical department for the benefit and instruction of mechanics 
nd the sons of mechanics, and for all others interested in, and desirous of 
cquiring knowledge of, architectural and mechanical science and the me- 
hanic arts, and the use and application of mechanical power. 

To these departments others may be added from time to time, as the wants 
f the people require, and the funds and means of the university will justify, 
o that, finally, the university may become a place of resort for acquiring an 
ccomplished and finished education in all useful, practical, literary, and sci- 
ntific knowledge. 

I have spoken of the passage of the Morrill act of 1862, of the land grant 
jade thereby, and of the charter granted the Illinois Industrial University in 
867. With the opening of the university in 1868 the struggle was over. In 
n address delivered on inauguration day, by Dr. Newton Bateman (himself 

pupil of Professor Turner's), are to be found these vivid words, which, bet- 
3r than my meager story, tell of Professor Turner's part ic the struggle: 

"In the West, the man whose voice rang out earliest, loudest, and clearest 
i this great movement, whose words pealed and thundered through the 
linds and hearts of the people, and the roundshot of whose tremendous 
roadsides of irrefragible facts and logic and fiery rhetoric, plowed and 
lunged and ricochetted through these prairies with an energy and 
ehemence that no bulwarks of ignorance or apathy could withstand, and 
rhich brought nearly every farmer and artisan hurrying to his standard from 
ir and near, and put in motion the imperial columns of our freeboru yeo- 
lanry; the man who threw into the struggle not only the best energies of 
is mind, but the unwavering faith of his soul and the deepest longings of 
is heart, and who plead for the uplifting and regeneration of the masses aud 
3r the "millenium of labor," as the patriot pleads for his country, aud the 
hristian for the salvation of God; the man whose able reports, instructive 
ddresses, and thrillingly eloquent speeches were caught up aud re-echoed 
y the enlightened press of the whole country, and which furnished at once 
le material and inspiration of auxiliary and cooperative movements aud or- 
anizations in many other states; and the man who, as I believe, through all 
lese multiplied and overwhelming labors, was animated not by cousidera- 
ons of self aggrandizement or sordid gain, but by the loftier purpose of 
iving his race and honoring God by uplifting and blessing the toiling uni- 
ons of his children— that man was Jonathan Baldwin Turner." 

On the facade of the central of the five buildings just erected at the Vm- 
ersity for the College of Agriculture, are inscribed tnese words of Professor 

urner's: "Industrial education prepares the way for the millenium of 


labor," and on one side of the main entrance is a bronze tablet thus in 
scribed: "This Tablet is Erected to the Memory of Jonathan Baldwin Tur 
ner; to his persistent efforts as a courageous advocate of scientific educatioi 
the nation owes the legislation which laid the foundation of this Universit 
and of all other land grant colleges." 

I venture here to renew a suggestion made by me some years ago in a re 
port of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction: "Would it not b< 
fitting, when the niches in the rotunda of the State house are to be fillet 
with effigies of those who will forever receive honor, because in their live 
they have done well for the people and the State, to set in one of them : 
marble statue of this man?" 


Old Peoria. 

(By David McCulloch.) 

Soon after the declaration of war between the United States and Great 
Britain in the year 1812, Ninian Edwards, Governor of the Territory of Illi- 
nois, organized an expedition to march to Lake Peoria to strike terror into 
the tribes of hostile Indians inhabiting that region. His force was to consist 
of a body of Illinois militia to be commanded by himself, a small detachment 
of regulars under command of Col. William Russell, a company of militia to 
go by boat from Shawneetown under command of Capt. Thomas Craig, and 
a large body of militia from Kentucky under command of General Hopkins. 

On or about the 18th of October, Governor Edwards with the militia under his 
command, accompanied by the detachment of regulars under Colonel Russell, 
left Camp Russell near Edwardsville, and marched directly north towards the 
head of Lake Peoria, expecting there to be joined by the forces under General 
Hopkins. He also expected Captain Craig to arrive about the same time with 
his boats laden with provisions for the army and materials for the erection of 
a fort at Peoria— a project he had long had in mind. 

Arriving at the head of Lake Peoria, the Governor attacked and destroyed 
the village of Black Partridge, but, in consequence of the non-appearance of 
Hopkins, and finding himself surrounded, as he supposed, by hostile Indians, 
he beat a hasty retreat to Camp Russell, where he arrived on October 31, just 
thirteen days from the date of his departure. 

Captain Craig did not arrive at his destination until November 5, when he 
anchored his boats near the French village commonly called Peoria, but the 
real name of which was Le Ville de Maillet — so named after its founder, Jean 
Baptiste Maillet. Under the mistaken supposition that the French inhabitants 
n the village were in league with the hostile Indians, and that his boats had 
Deen fired upon by them in the gray of a November morning, he burned a 
large portion of the village, took all the inhabitants, there at that time, prisoners, 
carried them by boat to a point opposite the mouth of the Missouri river and 
:urned them loose in the woods without protection. 

That piece of vandalism must be laid to the charge of Captain Craig alone, 
tnd not upon Governor Edwards, as some would have it. 

To obtain redress for this outrage, the inhabitants in the following year 
aid a petition before the Congress of the United States, but it was not acted 
ipon until the year 1820, when an act was passed allowing them to prove up 
heir claims before the Register of the Land Office at Edwardsville. Edward 
^oles, the Register, took the matter in hand, and received proof of seventy 
laims, most of which came within the scope of the act of Congress, but some 
•n account of their remoteness from the village, were not considered to be 
within its provisions. 

The Register made his report to Congress and an act was passed in the 
ear 1823, confirming the claims of such as had been duly proved. These 
7ere surveyed by the government surveyor in the year 1837, the survey be- 
ng approved in the year 1840. 


The lands upon which they were supposed to be located were allowed to be 
entered only subject thereto, and patents were issued accordingly. This was 
the origin of the so-called French Claims of Peoria, in relation to which liti- 
gation raged in great fury for twenty years, ending about the year 1865. 

In his report, the Register characterized the inhabitants as Indian traders, 
hunters and voyagers who had formed a link of connection between the 
French residing on the waters of the great lakes and those of the Mississippi 
river, and who, from that happy faculty of adapting themselves to their 
situation and associates, for which the French are remarkable, had lived 
generally in harmony with their savage neighbors. This statement might be 
somewhat misleading unless it be borne in mind that the three occupations 
mentioned were the leading industries of the country, often requiring large 
amounts of capital and ripe business experience to carry them on. 

In addition to the town lots and outlots appearing upon the map of the 
village made by the Register as part of his report, there were a number of 
claims to improved farm lands in the vicinity of the village, some of them 
lying in the bottoms adjacent to the Kickapoo creek three miles distant. 

Among the principal inhabitants of Le Ville de Maillet were Thomas For- 
sythe who for many years occupied a prominent position in the confidence of 
Governor Edwards and other government officials; Antoine Le Clair, who after- 
wards became one of the founders of the city of Davenport, Iowa; Michael 
La Croix, an extensive trader whose widow afterwards became the wife of 
Gov. John Reynolds; William Arundel, another merchant who afterwards 
removed to Cahokia where he became a leading citizen and Recorder of 
Deeds for St. Clair county; Isaac Darneille, a brilliant but profligate young 
lawyer, the second one in the State, whose memory has been embalmed by 
Governor Reynolds; Antoine Des Champ, a justice of the peace and afterwards 
manager of the American Fur Company's interests on the Illinois; Jean 
Baptiste Maillet the founder of the village, all of whom have a place in the 
history of the State. 

In the course of the investigation made by Edward Coles it was made to 
appear that prior to the founding of Le Ville de Maillet there had existed on 
the west bank of Peoria lake on older French village, located about one and 
one-half miles from the former. Claims for lots in this older village were 
also lodged with the Register, the proof of which he embodied in his report, 
and when the village was surveyed these lots were also surveyed and a plat 
thereof made as in the former case. 

As this paper has to do chiefly with this older village, a brief reference to 
the topographical features of the locality may be useful to a proper under- 
standing of what is to follow. Peoria Lake, in early times known as Lake 
Pimiteoui, in reality consists of two lakes, the combined length of which is 
about seventeen or eighteen miles. The upper lake, which consists of a mere 
widening of the river, begins at the foot of an island opposite the city of 
ChilJicothe. The land on its westerly shore rises gradually from the water's 
edge, and for a considerable distance slopes back into a gently rolling prairie, 
varying in width from two to three miles, where it is bounded by the ordi- 
nary wooded bluffs. This is LaSalle Prairie. For one half the distance from 
Chillicothe to Peoria the course of the lake is to the southwest. Near the 
village of Mossville it changes its course to almost due south, in which direc- 
tion it continues to flow for a distance of about six miles. At the distance of 
five miles from this change of course the lake contracts iuto a narrow and 
deep channel through which it flows for the distance of nearly one mile. 
This is known as the "Narrows." At its southern extremity this narrows is 
spanned by a wagon road bridge. Near its northern extremity it was former- , 
ly crossed by a ferry. At the bridge the lake or river resumes its southwest- 
erly course, and at that point again expands in width forming a lower lake 
about three miles in length, and as wide as the upper lake at its widest part. 
At the mouth of this lower lake LeVille de Maillet was located, 
about one-half of it being above, and one half below the present. 
location of another wagon road bridge crossing the river close to the p 
mouth of the lake at the foot of Bridge street in the city of Peoria, f. 
This is called the lower bridge. Near the upper end of the village f8 

:;.i ; 


te, Fort Clark was erected in the year 1813. Near the center of the village 
ad been a French fort, which is not to be confounded with Fort Clark, noi 
ith a still older fort at the Old Village. 

The new village had two streets running parallel with the river, the first 
: which, closely hugged the declivity of the river bank, which at that point 
as about thirty feet higher than low water mark, as it was known before 
le construction of the Copperas Creek Dam in the Illinois river. At Main 
reet, in the now city of Peoria, this break of the embankment was one 
mdred and ten feet from the upper side of Water street as it now exists. 
ollowing this declivity of the river bank to the northeast, it gradually in- 
•eases in height, untii at Caroline and Mary streets, a distance of nearly one 
id one-half miles, it reaches its greatest altitude, the same being about fifty 
et above low water mark. Soon after passing Mary street it begins to curve 
' the northwest, forming the southern bank of a small creek which takes its 
se in Springdale Cemetery about one and one-half miles to the north. This 
tie stream comes down through a charming little vale, known as Birket's 
ollow, and at its mouth there is a point of low land covering several acres 
[tending out into the lake several hundred feet further than the regular 
tore line. This point was formerly known as Plum Point. South of Plum 
Dint is a little cove or bay formerly known as Turtle Bay now partly filled 
), on the margin of which several ice houses are located, while the high 
'ound in their rear is occupied with railroad tracks, the buildings of the 
?oria Pottery Company, the Peoria Steam Marble Works, with many dwell- 
gs and business houses. 

The government surveyors located the " Old Village " near the foot of 
iroline street in the city of Peoria, directly facing Turtle Bay. Charles 
allance, Esq., a lawyer and surveyor was here at the time of the survey 
id had abundant opportunity for testing the accuracy of this location, for 
any of the former French inhabitants were still living at that time and con- 
lued to live long afterwards. Mr. Ballance had also much to do with the 
igation concerning the French Claims and could have learned the facts as 
the location of the Old Village if he had suspected the accuracy of this 
cation. He wrote a history of the city of Peoria about the year 1870, in 
lich he not only confirms the location of the Old Village as given by the 
rveyors, but further says that the " Old Fort " was located about one hun- 
ed and fifty feet north-east of the buildings of the Peoria Pottery Company, 
lich would place it on prominent ground at the curvature, and at the 
ghest point of the river bank as already mentioned. 

Commencing at that point and extending back to the bluffs a distance of 
out one-half mile, and to the south-west about four or five miles, varying 
width from one-half mile to a mile and a half and surrounded by a vast 
nphitheatre of wooded bluffs two hundred feet high, was a beautiful prairie 
i which the city of Peoria now stands. 

When the first American settlers came to Peoria the narrows were by the 
dians called Cock-a-Mink, evidently a corruption of Ke-kauk-kem-ke, a 
>rd which Governor Reynolds says was used by the Indians to designate a 
'aight, and was the same which they applied to the river connecting Lakes 
*ie and St. Clair. It has its equivalent in the French word detroit. So fit- 
ig was this latter name to the locality that the early settlers called a village 
lich they had laid out just above the narrows, by the name of " Detroit, " 
lile on the easterly side of the river just opposite was a country postoffice 
lied "Little Detroit. " 

The first settlers also found the name " Opa, " attached to the locality about 
oria which is evidently a corrupt abbreviation of the French term " au pied 
Lac" or " au pied "(the foot.) The name "Opa" was by the American 
ir Company given to their station established in the year i818, at Wesley 
ty three miles below the lake, and the city o2 Peoria barely escaped being 
ing afflicted with that name instead of its present euphonious title. 

A.bout the year 1778, Jean Baptiste Maillet, who then resided in the old vil- 
je, removed his residence to the foot of the lake and there started a new 
lage which he called Le Ville de Maillet. One reason given for this change 


of location is that he found better water there than at the old village, a re 
son which from our standpoint seems to be somewhat far fetched. Durirf' 
the Revolutionary war, in consequence of insufficient protection, both loc I 
tions were abandoned from 1781 to 1783. From the testimony taken befof 
Edward Coles, it seems that by the year 1790, the "old village" had bee 
practically abandoned, and the inhabitants had all taken up their residency 
in the new one. Yet we find that five years later the old village and the fo 
obtained distinct recognition in the treaty of Greenville, where a tract | 
land six miles square is ceded to the United States, as one of the sixteejj 
posts ceded by the Indians. Three of these posts were within the limits 
the State of Illinois; one, six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicago rive 
one, twelve miles square, at the mouth of the Illinois river, and one, six mil 
square, at "the Old Peorias Fort and Village," near the south end of tl 
Illinois lake, on the said Illinois river. 

Contrary to the assertions made by some that the inhabitants of this villag 
constantly maintained a hostile attitude towards the government, or that th( 
considered themselves to all intents and purposes a foreign people, it appea[J 
conclusively they were loyal citizens of the United States. So far as the i j 
habitants of Le Ville de Maillet were concerned, this subject underwent j? 
thorough examination at the hands of Congress before their claims were co 
firmed. As to the inhabitants of the "old village," prior to the conquest 
the Northwest Territory by General Clark, they must have been subjects 
Oreat Britain, for by the treaty between France and England, none of tl 
French were allowed to remain who refused to take the oath of allegiance 
the British Crown. The story of how General Clark induced the French of Vi 
cennes to take the oath of allegiance to Virginia is familiar to all. 

But there is much better evidence not only of the citizenship, but of tl 
character and extent of the possessions of the inhabitants of both villages. 

In order to carry into effect the stipulations contained in the deed of ce| 
sion of the Northwestern Territory by Virginia to the United States, tl 
Uongress of the Confederacy on August 29, 1788, passed a resolution provi 
ing for the confirmation in their possessions and titles, of the French ai | 
Canadian settlers about Kaskaskia and Vincennes, who on or before the ye, 
1783, had professed themselves citizens of the United States or any of ther 
and also donating a tract of four hundred acres of land to each head of jsc 
family of the same description of settlers. The resolution also required tl 
Governor of the Territory to make lists of the persons entitled to lands aifn 
to have them surveyed. ft 

By act of Congress of the United States of March 3d, 1791, the provisio: 
of the said resolution were extended so as to cover what was known as ti 
Illinois country, which is understood to have embraced the country once o 
cupied by the Illinois tribes, and so designated by the early missionarie 
The act further provided that when lands had actually been improved ai 
cultivated within the limits mentioned, under presumably valid grants of t|ss 
same by any commandant or court claiming authority to make such granl 
the Governor was empowered to confirm the same, not exceeding in are 
four hundred acres, also that the Governor be authorized to make a grant I 
land not exceeding one hundred acres to each person who had not obtain s 
any grant of land from the United States, and who on the first day of Augu 
1790, was enrolled in the militia at Vincennes, the Illinois Country, and hie 
done military duty. t 

The provisions of these enactments having proved ineffectual for the pu 
poses intended, Congress on March 0, 1801, passed an act establishing lai 
offices at Vincennes and Kaskaskia, under which Michael Jones was appoint 
register and Elijah Backus receiver at Kaskaskia, with authority as spec: M 
commissioners to take proofs and adjudicate all claims coming within tf 
provisions of the former acts. 

This commission under various modifications and changes continued in d[ 
istence until the year 1815, during which time it reported many claims f j 


By a liberal construction of the provisions of the act of 1791, these commist 
mers classified the claims coming under it as follows: (1.) Ancien- 
ants. (Of which there were none claimed at Peoria.) (2.) Donations of 
) acres to heads of families, citizens of the United States or some one of 
3m in 1783. (3.) Donations on account of actual improvements and culti- 
tion at or before the specified time in 1783. (4.) Donations to militia men 
ming within the designated requirements. 

!t must be observed that Le Ville de Maillet was founded, not earlier than 
r 8; that the inhabitants had abandoned both villages from 1781 to 1783, 
Dut which latter date a considerable number of them returned. It is fair 
presume therefore that the proofs of occupancy and of improvements by 
:ual cultivation had reference to the inhabitants of the "Old Village" 
her than those of the new, although some of the latter are included. 

U various sittings of said commission from 1804 to 1815, twenty-one claims 
persons who had lived at Peoria were proved up and reported for confirma- 
n; sixteen for four hundred acres each on account of improvements made; 
'rteen for four hundred acres each on account of the claimants or their 
estors or grantors having been heads of families residing at Peoria in 
3, and seven of them claiming 100 acres each as militia men. One of the 
ter was William Arundel who having received his militia donation was 
lfirmed in only 300 acres each in the two other classes. Two were con- 
ned in 400 acres for improvements made, and not as heads of families 
militia men; all who claimed as heads of families also claimed on account 
tmprovments; four claimed only as militia men, while four claimed under 
three classes. 

n the foregoing enumeration, although the names of the original claim- 
s are given, most of the claims had, before then been sold to speculators 
whose names the confirmations were made. A limited number of these 
nsfers will be noticed by a deed from Jean Baptiste Maillet to Isaac Dar- 
lle dated July 6, 1801, the original of which is still in existence, the grantor 
lveys to the grantee all that tract or parcel of land lying and being upon 

Illinois river adjoining the village of Peoria, containing 800 acres, being 
onation of 400 acres as a head of a family, and an improvement right of 

acres which the grantor held under the act of Congress of March 3, 1791, 
cribed as follows: "Beginning at a stone below the gate of the said 
ac Darneille in his lot in said village and running thence south-west to the 
iner of the stable of the said Maillet, thence west — and from the said stone 

th and west so as to include the said quantity of four hundered acres of a 
lation right, and four hundred acres of an improvement right, in all the 
entity of eight hundred acres of land." From this deed it appears that 
illet had located his claims at the new village, where both he and Dar- 
Ue lived at the period of its execution. 

n the 5th day of October, 1807, Darneille conveyed this claim to William 
5sell, presumed to be Col. William Russell, who figured largely in the war 
.812. The deed containing the conveyance of this land with many other 
its is also still in existence, and sheds much light upon these old grants, 
i first tract therein described was located on the western shore of the Illi- 
5 River, on the River Cartineaux (now called the Kickapoo Creek) about 
league below the town of Peoria, seven hundred poles in length by three 
dred and twenty, or one mile in width and containing 1.400 acres.* The 
it lay on both sides of the Cartineaux. The next one is the tract conveyed 
Maillet to Darneille which needs no further description. The next is a 
ation and improvement right of 800 acres purchased of one Baptiste Pel- 
3r, but no other description is given and it has not been ascertained 
ither Pelletier was an inhabitant of Peoria or not. The next is a donation 
it of 400 acres purchased of Pierre Verbois alias Blondereau. The land is 

Although it is stated above that no claims based upon ancient grants had been made at 
ia, later research has revealed the original application of William Russell for conflrm- 
i of this claim, in which it is stated that it had been granted to Jean Baptiste Maillet by 
British Government on account of improvements made by him. and that he had con- 
d the same to Isaac Darneille, and Isaac Darneille had conveyed it to William Russell. 


not described, But inasmuch as Blondereau was one of those in whose nam 
a militia right only had been proved up, it may be presumed this claim wa 
rejected by the commissioners. But Blondereau was nevertheless prove 
to have been a citizen else he could not have obtained the militia right. Th 
next is a donation and improvement right of eight hundred acres, nc 
described, purchased of Francis Buche, attorney for Louis Chattelereaux, i 
whose name two claims located at Peoria were proved up by Wiliiam Rue 
sell. The next is a tract of three arpens in front by forty arpens deep, situ 
ated in the common field near the town of Peoria, purchased of Francis Wi' 
lette, assignee of Pierre Lavasseur, containing one hundred and twent 
arpens of land. This, it may be remarked, is the only mention yet die 
covered of a common field at Peoria. There is nothing improbable in th 
supposition that this tract may have included the 100 acre tract proved up b 
William Russell, in the name of Lavasseur, otherwise called Chamberlain, a 
his military right 

One of the most significant, however, is yet to be mentioned. Two claim 
of 400 acres each were proved up by William Russell as successor of Jea 
Baptiste Point de Saible, sometimes called Pointstable. The proof showe 
that Point de Saible had been the head of a family residing at Peoria befoi 
and after the year 1783, having a house in the "Old Village" and aboi 
thirty acres of land in cultivation at a place between the old and new vi 
lages, The deed from Darneille to Russell is for one lot of land and a hous 
at the "Old Peorias Fort" and a tract of land near said "Peorias Old Fort, 
quantity unknown, purchased of Jean Baptiste Point de Saible, assignee ( 
Jean Baptiste Maillet, by deed dated March 13, 1773. That this man, Poii 
de Saible, was a very early inhabitant of Old Peoria is shown by the furttu 
fact that he was a witness to one of the claims proved up before the commi: 
sioners dating as early as 1780. Here we find that as early as March 1.' 
1773, he had purchased from Maillet the property which he afterward sold t 
Darneille, and Darneille to Russell. 

This man, Point de Saible, has become famous as the first white settler < 
Chicago, although he was a colored man from San Domingo. Hence the sa? 
ing that "the first white man in Chicago was a nigger." The historians < 
Chicago claim to have traces of his residence there as early as 1779, six yeai 
after his purchase from Maillet. Others say he came there in 1796. Tl 
sworn testimony before the commissioners located him as a resident head < 
a family at Peoria before and after 1783. These accounts may all be tru 
After locating in Peoria he may have gone to Chicago during the time tl 
village was abandoned, and after peace had been restored returned and n 
mained here until about the time of his second appearance at ChicagfjJ 
There he is said to have laid the foundation of the great city by erecting •" 
cabin which he afterwards sold to one Mai, from whom it was purchased t 
John Kinzie, through whom it obtained its celebrity as the Kinzie Cottag 
It is said that Point de Saible represented himself to the Indians as havir 
been a great man among those living further south, and had some aspiratioi 
of becoming the chief of the Pottawattamies at Chicago. Mr. Matson, in b! 
"Pioneers of Illinois." takes some of the romance out of the story by sayii 
he was a runaway negro slave from Kentucky, a fact which he had learnt 
from some of his descendants. This story, however, needs confirmatio 
from the fact that he places the date of De Saible's leaving Kentucky in til 
year 1790, seventeen years after his purchase from Maillet, eleven years aft 
his first appearance in Chicago and seven years after his residence is prov* 
to have been in Peoria. It is also related of him that after leaving Cuicaj 
he returned to Peoria where he died at the house of his friend, Glamorgan, 
man who was well to do financially and was a large landholder in that vici, 
ity. Research fails to connect the name of Glamorgan with any lands 
Peoria, but there was a man in St. Louis by the name of Clamorgan w] 
claimed a large tract of land donated him by the Spanish authorities. Tt^ 
man may have been the friend of Point de Saible at whose house he died.* 1 


*lliere is in the library of the Historical Society of Chicago a copy of the journal of Jl 
Huirh Heyward of his journey to the Illinois country in 1790. He found Point de Saible jff, 
Chicago on May 10. of that year, six years earlier than the time of his arrival as mention f* 
by the author of Wan bun. seven years later than he is shown to have been a resident of Peoi 


Little can be gleaned from the official records as to the manners, customs 
ind mode of life of these ancient villagers, but it may be assumed they dif- 
f ered little from those inhabiting the other French villages. They raised cat- 
le and hogs, cultivated wheat and corn, they were hunters and trappers, 
sending their surplus products down the lakes and in return obtaining arti- 
cles of merchandise brought by the traders. 

In the proof of the claim of Louis Chattelreaux it appears there was a horse 
nill upon his premises near the "Old Fort." Mr. Matson in his "Pioneers 
)f Illinois, 5 ' says they had a church, a wind-mill and a wine press, all of 
vhich may well be believed. 

Of the antiquity of the old fort and village little is known. The oldest 
slaim proved before the commissioners was that of Pierre Troge, wno claimed 
n the right of his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Antoine St. Francois, who 
ived in Peoria in the year 1765— the same year the British government ac- 
juired possession of the country. The claim was proved by the testimony of 
me Louis Pilette, who with St. Francois and his wife, Troge and his wife, 
ills up the number of five known residents at that early date. Mr. Matson 
ilso gives the names of a Father Buche and one Felix LaPance as residents 
is early, if not earlier than that year. He also speaks of one Patrick Ken- 
ledy who visited the place in 1773, and found the stockades burned, but the 
)lock-houses still standing* He also mentions a tradition that one Father 
>enat had built the chapel, which he thinks must have have been as early as 
736. Governor Reynolds says there was a tradition among the French that 
he old fort was the one built by LaSalle, and that this was the general under- 
standing among them, a supposition that might well be accepted as the truth 
vere it not for the fact that contemporaneous historians seem to locate Fort 
preve Coeur on the easterly side of the lake or river. 

When LaSalle first visited the place in January, 1680, he found no Indian 
illages between that of the Kaskaskias near Starved Rock and the place of 
is debarkation after having passed through Lake Peoria. The Indians he 
rst met there were those who had come down from Kaskaskia, whose camp 
ras on both sides of the river. This camp is not to be confounded with the 
illage of the Peorias, which is frequently mentioned in the narratives of 
lennepin, Membre and Tonti. Many of the Peorias were at that time absent 
n their annual hunt. Nicanape, who made a feast for LaSalle, was the son 
f Chattagousse, one of the Peoria chiefs who was then also absent. Before 
aSalle had left Fort Creve Coeur on his return to Fort Frontinac, Chief 
•umahoua of the Kaskaskias, had returned to his village, taking with him 
'ather Membre, whom he had adopted as his son. Two days earlier, when 
lennepin started on his voyage down the river, and during his first day's 
)urney, he met the Peorias on their return to their village with the products 
their hunt. Assuming that the Kaskaskias would not have occupied the 
illage of the Peorias, the conclusion is reached that the latter was located 
elow but very near the spot where LaSalle landed. 

On LaSalle's second (possibly third) visit nearly two years later, no men- 
on is made of the village of the Peorias, but Fort Creve Coeur is spoken of 
3 being then in good condition. 

In 1687 or 88, Father Gravier assumed control of the mission of the Immacu- 
ite Conception at Kaskaskia, and may have made annual visits to Peoria 
ake during the hunting seasons, but of these we have no account. On Feb- 
lary 15, 1694, he wrote a long account of his missionary operations during 
Le preceding year. 'Some antiquarians have located the mission at that time 
; Peoria Lake, probably on account of the frequent mention of the Peoria 
idians and their chiefs living with or in close proximity to the Kaskaskias, 
it this is evidently an erroneous conclusion. Tonti was then alive, there 
as a military post at Fort St. Louis and the mission there was called the 
nmaculate Conception, a name which the mission at Peoria never bore, 
ravier called upon the commandant of the fort to settle a difficulty between 

*Patrick Kennedy's journal may be found in the State Historical Library, from which it 
•pears he arrived at "Old Peorias Port" on August 7. 1773, where he says "We found the 
ockades of this Peorias Fort destroyed by fire, but the houses standing." 


mm and some of the Indians. This the commandant declined doing. These 
circumstances with others seem very inconsistent with the supposed location 
of the mission at that time on Peoria Lake, 

In September, 1698, Gravier is found at Mackinaw, where he met Montigny, 
St. Cosme and Davion, three priests of different order, on their way to estab- 
lish missions near the mouth of the Ohio. On their way and when near Chi- 
cago, these three men met with Father Pinet, who had charge of a mission 
there, and Father Buineteau, who had charge at the Immaculate Conception. 
These two missionaries preceded the three newly arrived ones and reached 
Peoria Lake some days in advance of their arrival. On the 15th daj T of No- 
vember these new comers reached a place called the Old Fort, a rock about 
one hundred feet high on the bank of the river, where LaSalle had built a 
fort which he had abandoned. This was evidently Fort St. Louis. There 
they found the Indians had gone about twenty-five leagues lower down. In 
his account of this expedition, St. Cosme writes as follows: "From Chicago 
to the fort they reckoned thirty leagues. Here navigation begins which con- ' 
tinues uninterrupted to the Fort Permavevvi, where the Indians now are. 
We arrived there on the 19th of November (four days from the Old Fort). ,r 
There they overtook Pinet and Buineteau, who were on their way south, and 
also found Marest in charge of the mission at that place. On November 22d ' 
they were obliged to break the ice for two or three arpens to get out of the 
Lake of (Pimiteoui).* As Tonti was a member of this party, if the fort here 
mentioned had been Fort Creve Coeur, it is reasonable to suppose it would 
have been so called. Any one who has seen the ice form in Lake Peoria 
could be easily convinced that the place of their moorage was in Turtle Bay, 
opposite the site of the "Old Fort" at Peoria. 

In a letter of Buineteau written in January, 1699, from the Illinois Country,, jrl 
he speaks of the wonderful talent of Father Gabriel Marest who had been 
laboring there for several months. Pinet and Buineteau had accompanied 
the St. Cosme party down the river, and during their journey they had 
passed three or four villages, one of which was that of Rouenzas, the most 
considerable of the Illinois chiefs. Marest was probably not far from Caho- 
kia when Buineteau wrote. 

Gravier having returned from Mackinaw, he set out on September 8, 1700 r 
for the gulf to ascertain the condition of affairs in that region. In the ac- 
count of his trip, written February 16, 1701, he says, "I arrived too late at 
the Illinois du Detroit of which Father Marest has charge, to prevent the 
transmigration of the village of the Kaskaskias, which was too precipitously 
made on vague news of the establishment on the Mississippi. I do not be- 
lieve that the Kaskaskias would have separated from the Peorias and 
their Illinois du Detroit had I arrived sooner. * * * God grant that 
the road from Chicago to the Strait (du Detroit) be not closed and the whole 
Illinois Mission suffer greatly." These passages mark the time, the place I 
and the occasion of the separation of the Kaskaskias from the Peorias, after 
which time the mission of the Immaculate Conception became located on the 
Mississippi. In a letter written by Father Mermet from Kaskaskia in 170(5, 
mentions the Illinois of Detroit, otherwise the Peorias — where Father Gravier 
had nearly lost his life on two occasions. The conclusion from these state- 
ments is that the separation of the Kaskaskias from the Peorias took place 
at the Detroit or Narrows of Peoria Lake in September or October A. D. 
1700. Marest went with the Kaskaskias, leaving the Peorias for the time 
being without a missionary. Gravier continued his journey to the gulf, from 
which point he wrote the foregoing account, in which mention is also made 
oil a church in the village but not of a fort. 

On April 29, 1699, soon after the visit of the St. Cosme party to Lake 
Peoria, Father Marest wrote a letter to another of the same order in which 
he describes the village as being one-half league in length with a chapel at 
each end, one of which had been recently erected to accommodate the increas- 
ing number of converts. This was the year before the separation of the Kas- Fj 

The name of this lake is left blank in the printed copy of this expedition. I have sup- 
plied the name Pimiteoui, as the only one fitting: the narrative. 


askias from the Peorias. This separation may have taken place when the 
^askaskias were on their annual hunt, but it is possible both tribes may have 
Ben located there at that time. Prom other sources it is learned that the 
Dpulation of the village numbered from one to three thousand, but the time 
llowed will not permit a discussion of that point. 

In the summer of 1705, Gravier was again among the Illinois where he was 
ttacked by an Indian who shot five arrows at him, one of which left its point 
ubedded in the tendons of his elbow, which afterwards resulted in his death, 
at not until after a visit to Paris and his return to America. Father Mermet 
i a letter dated March 2, 1706, gives a minute account of this transaction, 
oncerning the condition of the affairs of the Illinois he says: "It is 
ood from this village (Kaskaskia) except that they threaten to leave 
s at the first word. It is bad, as regards both spiritual and temporal 
tatters among the Illinois of Detroit — otherwise the Peorias — where Father 
ravier nearly lost his life on two occasions, and he is not yet out of 
anger." After suffering for three months at that place, but having learned 
le Indians were hostile to his leaving, Gravier planned a secret departure 
t night, but when he was about ready to embark he was greatly surprised 
) learn that his house was surrounded by about 200 Indians who had taken 
own a portion of his palisade in order to get in. But through the interpo- 
tion of a friendly chief he was permitted to proceed, and after arriving at 
.askaskia was sent to Mobile whence he sailed for France. 

The mission house surrounded by a palisade may possibly be all that is 
[eant by the word fort in these early narratives. 

On November 9, 1712, Father Marest wrote to Father German, another 
3suit, a long account of the Missions among the Illinois in the course of 
hich he says: "I worked with these missionaries (Pinet and Buineteau), 
id, after their deaths, I alone remained charged with all the labors of the 
ission until the arrival of Father Mermot. Previously I was in the large 
llage of the Peorias, where Father Gravier, who had returned there for the 
cond time received a wound which caused his death." 

Having planned a journey to Mackinaw, in which it would be necessary to 
by way of the village of the Peorias, Marest on Friday of Easter Week in 
11, set out on foot from Kaskaskia, stopping one night at Cahokia. After 
veral days travel during which he endured intense suffering in his feet, he 
ached the Illinois river 25 leagues below the village of the Peorias. There 
3 dispatched one of his Indians to inform the Frenchmen at the village of 
s sad plight, and after two days, was met by them and taken into their 

Up to this time we have heard of no Frenchmen residing at Peoria, and it 
a question whether these were such. He hoped they, on their return, 
ould take him with them to his destination at the Straits of Mackinac, but, 
ere having been as yet no spring rains, they could not go by the river, so 
proceeded on his way by St. Josepn, going partly by water and partly by 
nd. It is to be fairly inferred that the reason why the Frenchmen could 
)t go likewise was that they were traders and were waiting for a rise in the 
:>per streams so they could carry their furs and peltries by water to the lake, 
hey may not therefore have been residents but merely temporary traders at 
soria Lake. 

After the lapse of several months Marest returned by the same route he had 
me. In describing his entrance into the village he says: "The greater 
irt of the men ascended to the fort, which is placed upon a rock on the 
ink of the river." Here occurs a grave enigma. Marest had said in the 
•st part of his letter that there were then only three villages of the Illiuois, 
le at Kaskaskia, one twenty-five leagues distant (Cahokia) aud a third one 
mdred leagues distant. This one at which he halted on his return must 
erefore have been the same village at which he had stopped on his way 
>rth. Yet there is not a rock on the shores of Lake Peoria nor on the river 
ink for miles above and below upon which a fort could have been erected. 

—4 H. 


The statement that the fort was placed upon a roek on the bank of the river 
raises a doubt which is very difficult of solution. May not the word translated 
rock admit of a wider interpretation than the English word "rock," so as to 
include a "mound" or "hillock" such as that upon which Fort Creve Coeur 
had been erected by La Salle 1 ? It must be admitted this passage is enveloped 
in obscurity. 

For the next ten years little is heard of the Peorias. That they were solely 
beset by hostile tribes is very apparent. Soon after the return of Marest to 
Kaskaskia, Father de Ville was sent to them as a missionary, but how long 
he remained does not appear. 

In the beginning of October of the year 1721, Father Charlevoix made a 
voyage down the Illinois River and found a village on the west bank of Lake 
Peoria, which he terms a second village of the Illinois, the first having been 
found at the rock; but his estimate of distances and the courses of streams 
is so very unreliable as to render its exact location impossible. His descrip- 
tion of the surrounding scenery, however, corresponds quite well with that at 
the old French village of Peoria. The most important statements made by 
him are that the village was called Pimiteoui, the same name the lake had 
borne from the time of LaSalle; that the Peorias were then at war with 
neighboring tribes, and that he found there four French Canadians apparently 
living with the Indians. If there had been more he would have certainly 
mentioned them, for he was sorely in need of their assistance. There the 
chief of the village invited him to a conference at a house where one of the 
missionaries had lodged some years before, and where probably they used to 
hold council. This account was written on the spot, at Pimiteoui. Nothing; 
is said about a church or a fort or the number or character of the inhabitants 

It is a matter of history that during the next year, 1722, the Peorias, being 
harrassed on all sides by their enemies, took their departure from the Illinois 
country and followed the Kaskaskias._ We, therefore, hear nothing further 
of the mission at Peoria. 

But information of a very popular kind comes from another source. The 
company of the Indies, the successor of the celebrated company of the west, 
having assumed jurisdiction over the Illinois Country, Philip Francis Ren- 
ault, the director of its mines, pushed his explorations as far as Peoria. On 
June 14, 1723, two years after Charlevoix's visit, "in order to make his es- 
tablishment upon the mines," as its preamble declares, he obtained a grant 
from the Commandant of Illinois as well as from the chief director of the 
company, of a tract of land described as follows: "One league in front at 
Pimitoui on the River Illinois, facing the east and adjoining the lake bearing 
the name of the village, and on the other side to the banks opposite the vil- 
lage, for a half league above it with a depth of five leagues, the poinl 
of the compass following the Illinois River down the same upon one 
side and ascending by the river of Arcary which forms the middle through 
the rest of the depth." 

This is the origin of the famous Renault claim which has been severa! 
times before Congress for confirmation, but which has always failed. If not 
wholly impossible, it is at least exceedingly difficult of location; the latesl 
claim of the Renault heirs being that it commences at the foot of the lowei 
lake, and extends three miles down the river to a point about a mile belo^ 
the mouth of the Kickapoo, which stream they claim forms its middle line foi 
the greater portion of the depth. The historical significance of the grant lies 
in the fact that the village of Pimiteoui, which Charlevoix had mentioned bj 
that name, was situated on Lake Pimiteoui, or Peoria, and not on the rivei 
below it; that the River Arcary, (called in other English and French copies 
of the grant Arescy and Arcoury; iu the deed from Darneille to Russell Car 
tineaux; in the Commissioners report Coteneau and Mallet's River; in tht 
report of Edward Coles Gatinan, and in recent times Red Bud and its Indiar 
equivalent, Kickapoo) was none other than the Kickapoo, for there is no othe: 
stream in that vicinity of sufficient length to answer the call of the grant. 

From the time of this grant until the year 1765, a period of forty years oi 
more, a gap occurs in the history of "Old Peoria" which has never yet beer 
filled. It is very evident that at the date of Renault's grant there were few 


any, Frenchmen residing- at the village. What influence that grant may 
ive had in attracting- a French population is not known, but it is certain 
at within that period of forty years, such a French population had centered 
ere as to make it one of the principal trading posts in the Mississippi Val- 



Slavery in Illinois. 

By Ethan A. Snively. 

As we look out from the north windows of the capitol and see, standin 
high above the surrounding forest trees, the monument erected to thememor 
of Abraham Lincoln; as we remember that less than three weeks ago thei 
was inaugurated as our chief executive the son of Illinois' great war governc 
at whose call more than a quarter of a million sons of our Prairie State rallie 
to the defense of the Union in a war brought on by the slaveholders of th 
South; as we reflect that, with the present generation, the name Illinois ha 
ever been a synonym of liberty, enterprise and progress, we can scarcel 
realize that our own State once tolerated slavery — that for more than 
quarter of a century Illinois was as absolutely a slave State as was Mississipp 
Cobb, in his most excellent work on slavery, defines it as the " condition c 
that individual over whose life, liberty and property another has unlimite 
control." That our State was, for years, cursed with the sin which th 
great lawyer so concisely defines will be new to many of those who havj 
failed to make a study of the early history of our commonwealth. 

In discussing the subject assigned me, I do not expect to offer anythin 
new to the student of our State history. The field has been closely gleane 
by the various historians — by some much more than others. All that I sha 
do will be to begin at the beginning and endeavor to present in chronologic, 
order, and in as concise a manner as possible the historicul facts relating t 
the establishment of slavery in both the Territory and State of Illinois, an 
the efforts to perpetuate the curse upon our soil. 

On April 23, 1615, Louis XIII issued an edict recognizing slavery in th 
French possessions in America, and the early French settlers who came 1 
this country from Canada brought their slaves with them. In March, 172' 
Louis XV published an ordinance re-enacting the edict of Louis XIII, whic 
among other things provided for the regulation of the traffic in Negro slave 
in the province of Louisiana, of which Illinois then formed a part. Africa 
slaves, so far as it is known, were first brought into that part of the territoi 
which comprises our State in 1720, by a Frenchman named Renault. Th 
man was the agent of a company which was possessed of a concession fro 
the French government to come to this country and deal with the inhabitant 
in the belief that the wealth of the western world consisted in its pea 
fisheries, its gold and silver and the wool of its wild cattle. Renault, on h 
way to America, stopped at San Domingo and purchased five hundred slave 
It is not known just how many of these slaves he brought to the territoi 
comprising our State. He founded a village, called St. Phillips, in what 
now the southeast corner of Monroe county, and from this point he sent oi 
exploring parties into the adjacent country to prospect for precious metal 
These slaves bought by Renault and those coming from Canada are known : 
history as the French slaves. 

By the treaty of peace concluded at Paris, February 10, 1763, this countr 
as a dependency of Canada, was ceded to Great Britain, and when Gener 
Gage took possession of the territory he promised that those who chose 
retain their lands and become subjects of Great Britain, should enjoy tl 
same rights and privileges and the same securities for their persons ar 
effects as the old subjects of the king. Aud at this period England recognize 


lavery in all her American colonies. In 1778 Virginia, by virtue of the suc- 
:essful expedition of George Rogers Clark in his conquest of Illinois, de- 
clared the entire northwestern territory within her chartered limits. Other 
tates came forward with charter claims, but that of Virginia was equal to 
heirs while in addition she asserted the claim of conquest. Finally, on De- 
jember 20, 1783, Virginia ceded the northwestern territory to the United 
States. The deed of cession contained the following: 

"The French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kaskius, 
St. Vincents, and neighboring villages who have professed themselves citi- 
;ens of the state of Virginia, shall have their possessions and titles confirmed 
o them and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights and liberties." 

An attempt was made to have Congress accept the deed of cession with a 
>roviso that after 1800 there should be neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
ude in any of the states to be formed out of the territory. This effort failed 
is it only received the vote of six states, whereas it required the vote of nine. 

Subsequently, on the 1st of March, 1784, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, 
Arthur Lee and James Monroe, on behalf of the state of Virginia, conveyed 
jid made over to the United States all the right, title, and claim of the state 

the territory lying northwest of the Ohio river, for the purposes and on 
onditions recited in the deed of cession. On the same day Congress accepted 
he deed. 

On the 13th of July, 1787, Congress passed an ordinance "for the govern- 
aent of territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio river." Article 
of that ordinance provided: 

\ "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in said territory, 
therwise than in punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been 

The apparent conflict between the proviso in the deed of cession, which 
onfirmed to the citizens their possessions, and the 6th article of the ordinance 
assed for the government of the territory, was a matter of great contention. 
>ne party claimed that the provision of the ordinance was invalid because it 
[ontravened the direct provision upon which the territory was ceded to the 
eneral government. The other party claimed that the United States, hav- 
ig come into possession of the territory, it was the duty of Congress to pass 
iws for the government of the same, and whatever laws were necessary must 
e binding upon the people and would supersede the conditions embraced in 
le deed of cession. 

i On May 7, 1800, the northwestern territory was divided into two separate 
overnments and the parts embracing what is now the State of Illinois and 
adiana were organized into a territory known as Indiana Territory. As the 
Dntention in regard to slavery continued, William Henry Harrison, the ter- 
torial governor, in November, 1802, issued a proclamation calling a conven- 
on for the purpose of memorializing Congress to suspend article 6 of the 
rdinance of 1787 and thereby end all controversy. 

Delegates to this convention were elected, in accordance with the call, and 
fa the 20th of December following, the convention met at Vincennes. Its 
^liberations resulted in the prepantion of a memorial to Congress to repeal 
I suspend the operation of the offensive article. The memorial was as in- 
anously prepared as the use of language would permit. It was contended 
lat a suspension of the prohibiting clause would not increase the number of 
arves; would meet with the approval of nine- tenths of the people of the ter- 
tory; that the real question of slavery was in no way involved, but the iu- 
oduction of slavery into the territory, where labor was scarce, and thus re- 
ccing the number of laborers where it was abundant, would be equally ad- 
,j mtageous to both sections. As a crowning reason for the repeal or suspen- 

1 on of the clause, emphasis was placed on the fact that the ordiuauce was 
d issed at a time when the territory was not represented in Congress— that 

le people of the territory had not been consulted, and the enforcement of 
Le provision as to the northwestern territory, while slavery was allowed in 
her territories, was a discrimination that was alike unjust and injurious to 
:e material progress of the territory. 


Congress referred the memorial to a special committee, of which John Ran 
dolph, of Virginia, was chairman. In March following, Mr. Randolph, a 
chairman of the committee, reported adversely to the prayer of the memor 
ialists. In submitting the report, Mr. Randolph must have been endowet 
with the spirit of prophecy, as he said: 

"The rapidly increasing population of the state of Ohio sufficiently evince 
in the opinion of your committee that the labor of slaves is not necessary t 
promote the growth and the settlement of colonies in that region. That thi 
labor, demonstratably the dearest of any, can only be employed to advantag 
in the cultivation of products more valuable than any known to that quarteb 
of the United States. The committee deem it highly dangerous and inexpe 
dient to impair a provision wisely calculated to promote the happiness an 
prosperity of the northwestern country, and to give strength and security t 
that extensive frontier. In the salutary operation of this sagacious and bene 
volent restraint, it is believed that the inhabitants will, at no very distan 
day, find ample remuneration for a temporary privation of labor and emigra 

No action, however, was taken on the report of the committee, but at th 
next session, the memorial was referred to another committee. This con 
mittee reported in favor of suspending the article for ten years, and allowin: 
the importation of slaves from the states only, and providing the mal 
descendants should be free at the age of twenty-five years, and the femalef or 
at the age of twenty-one. No action was taken on this report, and a lik 
fate was meted out to subsequent memorials. 

The majority of the people were pro-slavery. They desired immigratio 
from the slave states — they recognized slavery and wealth as synonymou 
terms. So long as there was uncertainty as to property right in slaves, s 
long there would be no immigration from slave states. It was evident Cor 
gress did not intend to give them any relief. They then resorted to legisis 
tive strategy and proceeded to do in an indirect way that which they couL en . 
not do directly. Lj 

The territorial legislature on the 17th of September, 1807, passed a law pre Ike 
viding that any person, being the owner of any negroes or mulattoes of anject 
above the age of fifteen years, and owing service and labor as slaves in arable 
of the states and territories of the United States, or any person purchasin 
negroes or mulattoes, might bring the same into the territory; provided, thi (quc 
owner or master within thirty days should take them before the clerk of th 
court and have an indenture between the slave and his owner entered upo 
record specifying the time which the slave was compelled to serve his mastei 
If, however, the negro or mulatto was under fifteen years, the owner ws 
given power to hold the males until they were thirty-five years of age and thFJ' 
females until they were thirty-two. Children born of a parent who owe 
service of labor, by indenture, were required to serve, the males until the ag h 1 
of thirty, and the females until the age of twenty-eight. The law furth* 
provided that when a slave was brought into the territory and refused to I 
indentured, the owner had sixty days in which to remove such slave to an 
state where such property could be legally held. The period of indentui 
was generally ninety- nine years. 

On February 3, 1809, congress passed a law dividing Indiana Territory b 
creating the territory of Illinois. The governor and judges who constitute 
the first territorial council, adopted the laws of Indiana Territory in regar 
to the indenture of slaves. The first territorial legislature, on the 13th ( 
December, 1812, readopted the law. 

At the session of the territorial legislature in 1817, an act was passed a 
pealing so much of the law as authorized the bringing of negroes and mula 
toes into the territory. The preamble to the repealing act declared that tl 
law was intended to introduce and tolerate slavery, under pretense of volui 
tary servitude in contravention of the permanent law of the land and tl erva 
ordinance of 1787. ut s 

This act was vetoed by Gov. Ninian Edwards, the territorial governo "a 
Though opposed to the principle of slavery, yet himself a slave-holder, I 


ontended that congress could not violate the deed of cession by which Vir- 
;inia ceded the northwestern territory to the United States. And he further 
ontended that the indenture system was founded upon the principles of law 
I well as common honesty. 

i It may not be out of place here, even at the risk of breaking the thread of 
fre narrative to quote two advertisements. The first is signed by John Rey- 
lolds, who was subsequently a judge of the supreme court and governor of 
he State. It is dated May 14, 1815, and is as follows: 

"Fifty dollars reward will be given to any person who will deliver to me in 
'ahokia a negro boy named 'Moses,' who ran away from me inCahokia about 
wo months since. He is about 16 years old, well made, and did belong to 
IcKnight and Brady, in St. Louis, where he has been seen frequently, and 
5 supposed to be harbored there or about there. He had on a hunting shirt 
rhen he left me." 

The second advertisement is signed by Ninian Edwards, then territorial 
overnor, and third governor of the State. It is dated Oct. 1, 1815, and is as 

"Notice: I have for sale twenty-two slaves, among them are several o* 
oth sexes between the years of ten and seventeen; if not shortly sold, I shall 

ish to hire them in Missouri territory. I have also for sale a full blooded 
orse, a very large English bull and several young ones." 

Apropos of this latter advertisement, under date of Aug. 19, 1825, I find a 
jtter from Gov. Edwards, written to Col. A. G. S. Wright, a prominent man 
l his day, and at that time, no doubt, a resident of Galena. The letter suffi- 
ently explains itself, and is as follows: 

"I have just received your letter of the 4th" inst., and lose not a moment in 
eplying to it. 

"Whatever may have been the conceptions you had formed from my de- 
jription, at Vandalia last winter, of the servants I have since sold you, I 
ell know there was no intention on my part of deceiving you or any one 
llse, and I should suppose your finding Charles so much better than you ex- 
ected, sufficient to free me from any such suspicion, since, as he was cap- 
ble of being the most valuable, if I had intended to deceive, I must have 
3ted most strangely in representing him so much worse, and the others so 
iuch better than they respectively deserved. The truth is, that 1 said nothing 
len, which I did not at that time, and which I do not now, believe to be true. 

"You remark that 'you are sorry to say also that Maria by no means tallies 
ith the description you had of her; she is not a first-class cook, neither is 
le any part of a seamstress.' I have read this part of your letter to several 
Ldies now at my house, all well acquainted with her, who are equally, with 
Lyself, surprised at it. She had been my only cook for seven years before 
sold her to you, during which time I have lived pretty well and entertained 
iuch company, all of whom, I believe, would agree with me that she de- 
jrves to be considered, in this part of the world, at least, as a first- class 
)ok. The ladies insist upon it that she is an excellent seamstress, and I 
now she has made and ruffled my shirts as well as I have ever been able to 
nd any other person capable of doing. I can also prove that she has done 
imost all kinds of fine work, and that she can cut out and make her own 
resses as well as any lady in this part of the country, It is true she has not 
Dne much sewing for the last seven years, and it is probable her present 
tuation may prevent her from discharging her duties with her usual ability, 
he is, however, a faithful and valuable seivant, whom no money could have 
Dt from me, if she had chosen to separate from her husband, and so far 
om having endeavored to enhance her value by any erroneous description, 
le has ten more years to serve than I represented to you at Vandalia. 

"I could have had no motive to deceive by any description I gave of those 
srvants, because I did not suppose anyone would have purchased them with- 
it seeing them and judging for himself. 

"As, however, the situation of your family prevented your coming your- 

1 >lf for that purpose, and you say you are disappointed in your expectations 

ad would not, if you could have come yourself, have been a purchaser, be. 


cause these servants 'by no means suited you,' I can not think of holding 
you to your bargain. 1 would rather lose myself than insist upon a contract, 
under such circumstances, with any man, more especially with a gentleman 
and friend whom I so highly esteem and respect, If, therefore, you choose 
to transmit to me by the return mail the transfers I made to you of those 
servants, I will promptly return to you the consideration 1 received foi 
them, and in the meantime you may hold them in your possession as security 
for my compliance with this proposition. 

"I would far rather return to you the whole consideration I received than 
accede to your proposal of transferring to you Nelson and Ellen upon the! 
grounds you urge, because by doing so it would be a tacit admission, at str 
least, that I had intended to impose on you, which is a thing I am incapable 
of doing with any man upon this earth." 

When Illinois was admitted into the Union, article 6 of the Constitution, in 
its first section, provided that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should 
thereafter be introduced in the State except for the punishment of crimes; 
and that no male person of the age of twenty-one years, or female of the age 
of eighteen years, shouid be held to serve any person as a servant under any 
indenture thereafter made. It also rendered invalid any indenture thereafter 
made of any negro or mulatto where the term of service exceeded one year. 
The third section of article 6 of the Constitution provided : 

"Each and every person who has been bound to service by contract or in- 
denture in virtue of the laws of Illinois territory heretofore existing, and in 
conformity to the provisions of the same, without fraud or collusion, shall be 
held to a specific performance of their contracts or indentures; and suehjPJj! 
negroes and mulattoes as have registered in conformity with the aforesaid 
laws shall serve out the time appointed by said laws: Provided, however, that 
the children hereafter born of such persons, negroes and mulattoes, shall be-f e 
come free, the males at the age of twenty-one years; the females at the age 
of eighteen years." 

On the 30th day of March, 1819, the first General Assembly of the State 1 
passed what was known as the "Black Laws." They provided that no negro 
or mulatto should settle in the State until he had first produced a certificate k 
of freedom under seal of a court of record, which, together with a description rej 
of the person producing it, and also his family, if he had one, was to be duly to 
recorded in the county in which he proposed to settle. The overseers of the of 
poor were empowered to expel such negroes or mulattoes whenever they de-4 
sired. Any person bringing slaves into the State with a view of emancipating act 
them was required to execute a bond in the sum of one thousand dollars as a 
guaranty that the person emancipated would not become a county charge, 
and if he neglected to execute the bond, he was liable to a fine of two hun- 
dred dollars. All resident free negroes and mulattoes, before the first day of 
June following, were to enter their names and every member of their families 
with the clerk of the circuit court, together with their evidence of freedom. 
No person was permitted to employ a negro or mulatto without such evidencef 
of freedom under penalty of one dollar and fifty cents per day for each daj 
employed. To harbor any slave or servant, or to hinder the owner in retak- 
ing any slave was made a felony punishable by a fine two-fold the value of 
the slave and a whipping not to exceed thirty stripes. Any negro or mulatto 
not having a proper certificate of his freedom was deemed a runaway slave 
subject to arrest; he was to be advertised for six weeks by the sheriff and if 
no owner appeared, he was sold for one year, at the end of which time hekli 
was entitled to a certificate of his freedom, which was good unless an owner ap- feq 
peared and claimed him. No person was permitted to trade with a servant 
or slave without the consent of the master. A slave found ten miles from 
home was subject to arrest and to be punished by thirty-five stripes; or, if 
he appeared at any dwelling without leave of his master, the owner of the 
dwelling was permitted to give him ten stripes. Unlawful assemblies bj 
slaves or servants were punished by thirty-nine stripes, while in all cases 
where free persons were punished by a fine, slaves were to be punished by 
whipping at the rate of twenty stripes for each eight dollars of fine, with the 
proviso that not more than forty lashes be given at any one time. 


At the election in 1822, Edward Coles was elected as the second governor 
of the State. Four candidates stood for the suffrage of the people. The pro- 
slavery men brought out Joseph Phillips, who was then chief justice of the 
supreme court; and subsequently, with a view to keeping Governor Coles 
from receiving a large number of votes in the southeast part of the State, 
Judge Thomas C. Browns, of the supreme court, became a candidate. And 
JMajor General James B. Moore, of the State militia, also announced his con- 
didacy. Phillips received 2,760 votes; Browns, 2,534; Coles, 2,810, and Moore, 
[522. Coles had only fifty more than Phillips. It was understood that Phillips 
land Brown, with a combined vote of 5,303, represented the pro-slavery 
(strength of the State, while Coles and Moore, with a combined vote of 3,332, 
[represented the opposite. 

Governor Coles had been private secretary to President Madison and had 
held a number of important positions. Desiring to come west, on the 5th of 
jMarch, 1819, he was appointed register of the land office, at Edwardsville. 
tBe was the owner of a number of slaves, but upon coming to the State, he 
bave them their freedom and provided them with homes, but omitted to have 

(them registered as was required by the laws of March 30, 1819. 
The legislature convened at Vandalia, on the first Monday in December, 
-1822. On account of the division of the pro-slavery vote between Phillips and 
prown, the anamoly was presented of a legislature containing a large ma- 
jority in favor of slavery and a governor opposed to the institution. When 
|he Governor delivered his inaugural address before the legislature, he called 
Attention to the fact that slavery really existed in Illinois notwithstanding the 
[provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and urged upon the legislature such rem- 
edial legislation as would lead to the emancipation of the slaves, a repeal or 
revision of the "black laws," and such legislation as would make Illinois a 
tree State in fact. 

1 In the senate this part of his message was referred to a special committee 
Consisting of Beaird, of Monroe; Boone, of Jackson; Ladd, of Johnson; Kin- 
liey, of St. Clair, and White, of White. 

I This committee reported to the senate, going over the entire history of the 
[lavery question, stating facts as I have given them. They concluded their 
ieport by the statement that "the people of Illinois have now the same right 
|o alter their constitution as the people of the State of Virginia, or any other 
f»f the original states, and may make any disposition of Negro slaves they 
rhoose, without any breach of faith or violation of compact, ordinance or 
l.cts of congress; and if the reasoning employed be correct, there is no other 
{bourse left by which to accomplish the object of this portion of the 
governor's message, than to call a convention to alter the constitution." 

t This was a most surprising turn of affairs for Governor Coles. In his 
I arnest efforts to make Illinois a free State, he now saw the danger that he 
yaight have been the means of laying the foundation for a plan whereby 
Jlavery might be fastened upon the State. In the preceding election, it was 
fully demonstrated that a very large majority of the voters of the State were 
*»ro-slavery, and it seemed certain, if a constitutional convention was held, it 
Jpould undoubtedly frame a pro-slavery constitution. 

| The Senate committee submitted, with their report, a joint resolution call- 
ing a convention. It required a two-thirds vote in each house to pass this 
resolution. The requisite two-thirds vote was at hand in the Senate, but 
lichen the resolution was presented in the House it lacked one vote of the 
Requisite number. 

I To secure the requisite two-thirds in the House, the convention partizans 
lesorted to proceedings which will, for all time, stand out in history as the 
fiost infamous ever known. When the Legislature convened, Nicholas Han- 
fen appeared holding a certificate of election from the counties of Pike and 
$ 'ulton. His seat was contested by John Shaw, both men being residents 
If Pike county. The contest was referred to the proper committee, and one 
j'eekfrom the day the Legislature convened, the committee unanimously re- 
ported, awarding Hansen the seat, and the report was adopted by the House 
I nd Shaw returned to his home. 


The Senate resolution was permitted to lie quietly on the table in the House 
because there was uncertainty as to the result in that body, Finally, an 
original resolution was introduced in the House and received twenty-three 
votes, one less than was necessary, but Hansen voted for it. One of those 
who voted against the resolution was won over, and on the 11th of February 
the Senate resolution was placed on its passage, but, to the consternation of 
those favoring a convention, Hansen voted against it. The indignation of 
the convention men knew no bounds. In order to secure the necessary vote, 
a motion was made to reconsider the vote by which Hansen was awarded a 
seat. This motion was adopted and the resolution was once more before the 
House. A member arose and presented to the House an affidavit made on 
the 28th day of January, in which the affiant gave it as his opinion that 
Shaw received twenty-nine more votes than Hansen. The majority of the 
House then struck out the name of Hansen and inserted the name of Shaw in 
the resolution which had awarded the former the seat. At this time Shaw 
was at his home in Pike county, utterly oblivious to the fact that he had 
been made a member of the House by virtue of an exparte affidavit, which 
merely expressed the opinion of one of his friends. A messenger was at once 
sent for Shaw, as the distance to his home was great, and the time prior to 
the adjournment of the Legislature was short. Shaw appeared in the House, 
was sworn in as a member, voted for the Senate resolution to call a conven 
tion. The pro- slavery men were wild over their victory — they resorted to 
every means then known to make public manifestation of their joy. As 
Governor Reynolds says, "there was at the seat of government a wild and 
indecorous procession by torchlight and liquor." 

Governor John Reynolds, who was a pro-slavery man, in his history says: 
"This proceeding in the General Assembly looked revolutionary, and was 
condemned by all honest and reflecting men. This outrage was a death blow 
to the convention." 

Under the Constitution, the vote for and against the convention could not 
take place until August, 1824. A campaign lasting for eighteen months was 
at once entered upon. It was not only the longest, but the most bitterly 
fought of any campaign in the history of Illinois. It was started by each 
party holding a public meeting at the State capital and issuing an address tc 
the people. 

There were only five newspapers in the State, and four of these were in 
favor of the convention. But the anti-convention people had raised the enor- 
mous sum of one thousand dollars to conduct the campaign, and they pur 
chased one of the four papers, and also established two others. Governoi 
Ford says "the contest was mixed up with a perfect lava of detraction. News 
papers, hand bills and pamphlets were scattered broadcast. These missive 
weapons of a fiery contest were scattered everywhere, and everywhere the] 
scorched and scathed as they flew. Almost every stump in every county nacfi 
its bellowing, indignant orator, on one side or the other, and the whole peo 
pie, for the space of eighteen months, did scarcely anything but read news 
papers, hand bills and pamphlets, quarrel, wrangle and argue with eacl 
other whenever they met together to hear the violent harangues of their ora 

Governor Reynolds said: "The convention question gave rise to two year! 
of the most furious and boisterous excitement, and contest that ever visite( 
Illinois. Men, women and children entered the arena of party warfare ancL 
strife, and the families and neighborhoods were so divided and furious an( 
bitter against one another that it seemed a regular civil war might be the re [, 
suit. Many personal combats were indulged in on the question, and thtt 1 ! 
whole country seemed at times to be ready and willing to resort to physica 
force to decide the contest. All the means known to man to convey ideas t< » 
one another were resorted to, and practiced with energy. The press teeine< i 
with publications on the subject. The stump orators were invoked, and th- 
pulpit thundered anathemas against the introduction^ slavery." J 

I have quoted from these two ex-governors and State historians in order t< ri 
show the intensity and bitterness of the strife. One of the greatest agencie 
in the contest was the pulpit, and the leader, Rev. Dr. Peck, a Baptist clergy 


man, who rode over all the southern half of the State, and for seven days in 
the week, raised his voice in favor of freedom and in opposition to the con- 

When the election occurred in August, 1824, it was found there were 4,!)50 
votes cast for the convention, and 6,822 votes cast against it. 

The strongest evidence as to the feeling on this question is found in the 
fact that the total vote for and against a convention, aggregated 11,612, and 
at the presidential election in the following November, only 4,707 votes were 

The convention men, however, secured some little revenge. As has been 
noted, Governor Coles had freed his slaves, but had omitted to have them 
registered. As a result he was sued for violation of the Black Laws, and 
fined two thousand dollars. Before this suit was finally disposed of, the 
legislature passed an act releasing all penalties incurred under the act of 1819, 
and this act the supreme court upheld. 

The question now presents itself, why did not the anti-slavery men make a 
test of the indenture laws in the courts. I presume the reason was that the 
judges, having been appointed by the legislature, which was pro- slavery, 
were presumed to hold the same views and would be controlled in their judg- 
ment by their political prejudices. However, at the December term, 1828, 
3f the supreme court, that tribunal was called upon to pass upon the validity 
3f the indenture law of 1807. The opinion of the court was delivered by Mr. 
Justice Samuel D. Lockwood, and it was held that the law of 1807 was void 
is being repugnant to the ordinance of 1787; but indentures executed under 
;hat law are made valid by the third section of the sixth article of the consti- 
tution. The court held that the constitution was supreme — that the people, 
represented in a constitutional convention, and in framing an organic law, 
30uld legally do that which a legislature could not do. It was held that ac- 
3epting the constitution, and admitting the State into the union by Congress, 
ibrogated so much of the ordinance of 1787 as was repugnant to the constitu- 
ion. In another case at this same term the court decided that registered 
lervants were goods and chatties and could be sold on execution. At the 
December term, 1831, of the supreme court, that tribunal decreed that the 
mildren of negroes and mulattoes registered under the laws of the territory 
)f Indiana and Illinois were free. 

At the May term, 1827, of the supreme court, of the state of Missouri, that 
jourt decided that children of negro slaves in Illinois, born after the ordi- 
lance of 1787, were free. Subsequently, another case was decided by the 
supreme court of Missouri in which the same doctrine was held. This last 
sase was removed to the supreme court of the United States by writ of error. 
Che latter court delivered a very elaborate opinion to show that it had no 
urisdiction, but reading between the lines it was easy to see that the majority 
)f the court agreed with the holding of the lower tribunal. 

The last legal struggle came before the supreme court of Illinois at the De- 
ember term, 1845, and the majority of the court decided that the descendants 
f the old French slaves, born since the adoption of the ordinance of 1787, 
md before or since the adoption of the constitution of Illinois could not be 
teld in slavery. 

The census of 1830 showed 747 slaves in the State, while the census of 1840 
howed only 331. 

When the constitution of 1848 was adopted, section 16 of the declaration of 
ights was as follows: 

"There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the State, ex- 
ept as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 

The adoption of the constitution with this section sounded the death knell 
o slavery, and from that hour Illinois tor the first time became, in fact, a 
ree State. 



Early Reminiscences. 

(By A. W. French.) 

The remarks I have thought to make to the Historical Society will perhap 
be not well pointed, not relevant to one another, possibly not intrinsically in 
teresting, but may serve to beguile a few moments and, it maybe, leavi 
something which will cling to the memory as part of our early history. 

Some of the reminiscences of my early life in Illinois grow brighter an< 
fresher in memory as they recede in the distance, and recur to the mind un 
bidden, but not always unwelcome. In 1847 I took steamboat at Buffalo fo 
Sandusky, from that place by stage to Mansfield, then by stage after a fe\ 
days' stay, to Columbus, a few days at Columbus, and then by stage t< 
Springfield, O., to which a little spur of railroad had reached from Cincin 
nati — by this railroad to the then ambitious emporium of Ohio. On Sunda; 
evening I took passage on a small steamboat for St. Louis. As was usua 
with the Ohio in October, it was more easily navigable on foot than by an 
craft larger than a canoe. There was little depth of water, and at frequen 
intervals the patient laborers on the deck had to get out the spars and appl; 
the power of the capstan to drag the vessel over the often recurring shallow 
to a little deeper water, on which it would float along a few miles until th< 
laborious operation had to be repeated. 

The Mississippi after passing Cairo, was little better, and on one occasion 
while lying stranded, diagonally across the stream, another boat, seeking th 
channel and coming too close to us, swept away our guard, on which three o 
four of our passengers were standing, dropping them into the river, wher 
they were left to float away with the guard and rail. It was while so lookinj 
over the side of a stranded steamboat that Mr. Lincoln conceived the idea o 
lifting the boat temporarily till it should pass the bar. He would place a: 
expansible contrivance beneath the boat on the water that should give a lif 
equal to the occasion and send the vessel on her way; but neither naturs 
philosophy nor mechanics was Mr. Lincoln's ''best hold," and he had no 
provided any power to expand the bag which was to do the lifting with 
power equal to the weight of boat and cargo. Mr. Lincoln had, however 
sufficient faith in his invention, to take out a patent on it. 

What he claimed, was, "a combination of expansible buoyant chamber 
placed at the sides of the vessel with the main shaft or shafts C, by mean 
of the sliding spurs or shafts D, which pass down through the buoyant cham 
bers and be made fast to their bottoms and the series of ropes and pullies 
or their equivalents in such a manner that by turning the shaft or shafts i 
one direction, the buoyant chambers will be forced downwards into the wate 
and at the same time expanded and tilled with air for buoying up the vesse 
by displacement of water, and by turning the shaft in an opposite directio 
the buoyant chambers will be contracted iuto small space, and secure 
.against injury. 


Mr. Lincoln had a small model of his contrivance made and I saw him in 
850 trying its working in the horse trough which then stood at ihe south- 
west corner of the square within a few steps of my office. 

The next Sunday evening brought St. Louis into view, seven days and two 
lours on the trip. As we neared the city the lead was constantly cast to 
:ive warning of shoals, and here I first learned the words which afterwards 
»ecame the nom de plume now known throughout the civilized world to desig- 
iate one of America's most pleasing and popular authors, '* Mark Twain " 
Iternating with the most dismal and depressing words, " no bottom " — "no 
•ottom, " as the lead sunk two fathoms or much more, screamed from the 
3wer deck for the instruction of the pilot aloft, Mr. Clemens was at that 
ime, I think, piloting boats up and down the river. The next day I took 
iassage to go up the river to stop at a place made somewhat famous by 
ales of another distinguished writer, Mr. Hay, in his " Jim Bledso " and 
ailed Gilgal. The island, so called made by the Smy Cante Slough which 
omes out of the Mississippi above Hannibal and returns to it near Clarksburg, 

distance of about 30 miles, was the home of many deer, and I saw them very 
ften. A spot on these swampy plains would rais^e tens of thousands of 
eese and ducks — enough to darken the sky for a few moments. 

In the spring of 1848 I spent a week or two in Beardstown. This was an 
mbitious place— had a brick tavern and a landing, and was the entrepot and 
tie outlet of nearly all of the saleable products of a large part of the State. 

traveler between Springfield and Beardstown would rarely be out of sight 
If heavily loaded wagons carrying out the productions or bringing in the 
lerchants' goods. Several religious societies existed in the town of Beards- 
Dwn and as many efforts had been made to erect places for worship but 
one of them had been brought sufficiently near completion to be used. So 
y common consent each church in turn used the courthouse as a place of 
'orship. The Episcopalians would meet in the morning, have their spon- 
taneous singing, responses, united oral prayer while sitting, responsive 
eading, etc. In the afternoon the Presbyterians would assemble, sing 
3rmal hymns first, read to them, rise for prayer, and sit during the singing 
nd enjoy a formal and well studied sermon all with marked due solemnity, 
a the evening, the Methodists took their turn in the use of the public build- 
ig, kneeled during prayers, stood in singing and as was their custom in 
lose days relieved any dullness which an observer might feel by individually 
ljecting into the ceremonies a little spontaneity by more than one speaking 
t the same time in the form ejaculatory agreement with sentiments uttered, 

Now, the queerest part of all this is, that with a half dozen exceptions in a 
i ill house, exactly the same men and women filled the seats and participated 
! l the worship morning, afternoon and night, adapting themselves so well to 
) hat was expected of them by the man in the pulpit, or rather on the ros- 

um, and fulfilling the requirements of each mode of worship. 

While in Beardstown I saw erected two tall masts on either side of the Illi- 
ois river for the purpose of conveying the telegraph wires across the river, 

not yet having been learned that the current could be carried under as well 
3 over the water. The telegraph was then being built across the State, for 
le first time and when I arrived in Springfield the first dispatch had been 
3ceived and been paid for by a collection on the square. 

On my way across Cass county I saw in a little place with a rather preten- 
ous name, one of the numerous churches which had little hope of ever be- 
ig completed. In my eastern home I had often heard from the pulpit ap- 
3als for aid for western, particularly Illinois churches, and there was a 
retty steady flow of contributions for that purpose and here was one of the 
roducts. The building had got itself inclosed, but if doors or windows had 
3en used they were now gone, and a flock of real sheep sought within a 
lade from the summer sun. A purer congregation is not conceivable, for 
b )t a goat was there. 


Mr. Ruggles, in his interesting paper read at the last meeting of the So- 
ciety, alluded to the nomination of Richard Yates to Congress in 1850. The 
districts in those days were so large, and the means of traveling so primitive 
and meagre, that it required some patriotism or some other powerful motive 
to bring a convention together. 

The place which had been selected for the convention was Pekin, sixty long 
miles from Springfield. The delegation from Sangamon county was com- 
posed of ten men. There was a sort of carryall in the city, a cheap vehicle 
with seats running along the sides like those in an omnibus, but far enough 
from possessing any of the comforts of that conveyance. This, supplied with 
four horses, was furnished us, and in it we were to spend three long days in 
the annual hot spell of July, and to travel one hundred and twenty miles. 
With an early morning start we arrived at Delavan, forty miles, in the even- 
ing. With the forecast which first settlers nearly always possess, someone 
had built at Delavan a large wooden tavern, in the fond expectation of seeing 
a great city grow up around it. Here we met the delegation from Morgan 
and another from Logan counties. 

Here were men enough to cover the floor of the house, as each laid down 
where he could. Early the next morning we were on the road to Pekin, 25 
miles away, where we arrived before noon. The convention was called to 
order and the business was soon dispatched by the unanimous nomination of 
Mr. Yates, that great man, for Congress, who, in another and more respon- 
sible office, undoubtedly saved this State from the shame and horror of pass- 
ing an act of secession from the Union. 

Dr. Boal, of Pekin, was the only other candidate mentioned, though there j 
was some expectation that the then last member, Mr. Lincoln, might be 
named. By the close of the day we had returned to Delavan, where the 
same agreeable experiences were enjoyed as on the previous night, and by 
four o'clock on the next day, we were on our way home. The prairie we { 
were now crossing was one of the largest in the State. Grass formed the 
horizon. Not a tree or a shrub obstructed the view as far as the eye could 
reach. The beaten path was the width of the wagon and the tall grass 
whipped the wheels as they passed. About a half hour after sunrise, as our 
team was trotting slowly along, one of our number who had chosen to ride on 
the top of the vehicle with the driver, discovered running along before us [ e 
one of those pretty (to look at) black and white little animals known as 
mephitis mustela (the English name is shorter), so adapting his pace to the 
speed of our team as to keep out of the way. This gentleman never was | 
lacking in valor or in personal vigor, but had often given his friends reason 
to question his discretion. The inspiration of a most glorious morning and 
of the charming scenes with which we were surrounded, together with a {, r 
fondness for the pursuit of game, disquieted him, and he sprang off and 
gave chase to the little animal, which kept the path rather than enter the 
dew laden grass. As missels are entirely wanting on the prairie, when he 
got near enough to his game he would throw his hat at it, then pick it up 
and cast again. This pursuit lasted till the tired creature took refuge in the 
grass and then our hunter came on board again. I need not draw out the 
story — the hat was left in the road, and our gentleman was requestsd to ride 
on deck the rest of the way home. Middletown was able to furnish a hat. 
The delegation arrived in Springfield late in the evening. 

The nomination of Mr. Yates was m accordance with an agreement among 
the Whig politicians of the district made some years before, on the removal J5 
of Gen. E. D. Baker to another district, that the succession should be, after 
Baker, Lincoln, then Stephen T. Logan, and next Yates. 

Major Harris, democrat, of Menard, coming into the field at this time 
covered with fresh laurels from the war in Mexico, defeated Judge Logan [J 
and interfered with the succession, but not with the whig nominations. 





The Oldest Civil Record in the West. 

By J. Nick Perrin. 

While it may come to pass that in the course of time a nationality will be 
stablished in America that shall be characterized by a preponderating- ele- 
ent of homogeneity, yet it is too soon to forget that we are the offshoot of 
uropean parentage; and in the midst of our national pride let us cherish at 
ast a kindly memory for the European pioneer and immigrant who helped 
■ build the foundation for our magnificent American superstructure. 

Three great European streams entered into the discovery, settlement, colo- 
zation and civilization of North America: The Spanish in the Southland, 
te English along the Eastern seaboard, the French in the Northeast. Of 
ese, the French and Spanish influences, constituting the Latin factor, have 
most entirely disappeared beneath the weight of the paramount Anglo- 
ixon influence, which has very largely impressed itself upon our institutions, 
the shape of language, customs and laws supplemented and modified 
>wever to a great extent (and salutary extent too) by healthy Germanic and 
3ltic reinforcement. No matter what reasons we may attribute for this 
rvival, the present fact is patent, that the survival has been accomplished; 
id the historic fact remains, that in the early stages of our history, those 
fluences which are now scarcely discernible, were potent contributors to 
e march of progress. Hence it is a matter of historic fairness to render 
ie credit to the Frenchman who in 1535 set foot in the Northeast and dis- 
vered the St. Lawrence River; for through this discovery, Canada was 
opled by a branch of the world's dominant race; and the great water- 
iy furnished a means to reach the great chain of lakes and thus the North- 
)st, as it was formerly termed, was opened up and Illinois became an off- 
ring of the new creation. Tracing our historic ancestry through this 
Leage, we would be remiss in our historic devotions if we did not worship, 
a sensible way of course, at the shrine whereon we find engraved the 
mes of Cartier and Champlain, of Marquette and Joliet and LaSalle. 

More than a hundred years had passed and the French domination was 
30gnized in the Northeast where Jacques Cartier had planted the regal 
ms. In 1670 a treaty was made between the Indians of the Northwest and 
e French in Canada by which the great Northwest passed to France in 
nsideration of the protection furnished to those northwestern tribes against 
3 encroachments of their eastern hostile neighbors. In this Indian cession 
is embraced the " Illinois country. " Three years later (1673) Marquette 
d Joliet and their companions made the discovery of the " Illinois country " 
d planted a mission station among the Kaskaskias in the present LaSalle 

in 1682 LaSalle descended the Illinois River and the Mississippi to its 
>uth where he took possession in the name of France, and thus completed 
I chain of title to the French possessions in North America. LaSalle 
led the country extending along the Mississippi and its tributaries — 
Louisiana. " The *' Illinois country " then became a part of Louisiana. 

n 1718 New Orleans was established and shortly thereafter a French ma- 
e station was established there and a marine officer was intrusted with the 
.nagement of civil affairs. This officer had oversight of the territory 


within his jurisdiction in which was included the "Illinois country." The 
village of the Kaskaskias had been removed from the upper Illinois river to 
its present site at the juuction of the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers. 

At Fort Chartres and Kaskaskia a notary was stationed whose business it 
was to look after the civil affairs of the "Illinois country." He kept a regis- 
ter in French. Some years ago I stumbled across this precious historic 
treasure in the archives of St. Clair county, where it had been buried for a 
century beneath a mass of documents, and I believe was never consulted by 
any historian except perhaps Governor Reynolds, whose "Pioneer History'" 
indicates a possibility that he might have had access to this record fifty yean 

In 1890 I was looking for matter from which to prepare a paper for the St 
Clair County Centennial Celebration. St. Clair county was established ir 
1790 by the Governor of the Northwest Territory — Arthur St. Clair. It em 
braced all that part of Illinois which extends from Pekin to Cairo and fron 
the Mississippi to the "banks of the Wabash far away." In October, 1795 
the county was divided by running a line east and west through the presem 
county of Monroe and all south became Randolph and the north remained St 
Clair until later divisions took place. In sorting out the papers, documents 
and records, this record seems to have been allotted to St. Clair and has evi 
dently remained in the possession of the successive clerks, though possible 
without receiving any attention from any except the first clerk who receivec 
it, and the present gentlemanly and efficient clerk, who since its rediscovery 
shows it with pride to the visiting stranger. 

It dates back to 1737 and its entries cover a period from 1737 to 1769. It i; 
bound in hog-hide, the cover having the appearance of being the skin of * 
pig, shaved and dried. The ends of the bristles are plainly discernible, li 
my judgment it is the oldest official record in the west containing civil entries 
It contains a record of gifts by will, marriage contracts and otherwise. While 
the entries are not numerous, the book was well kept by the notary and was 
inspected from time to time by a marine officer who added his approval afte 
examination. The writing is in a remarkable state of preservation. Some o 
the leaves, however, have been gnawed by the rats. It contains one hundre( 
and forty- six pages and is called Begistre des Insinuations des Donations aw 
Siege des Illinois. The first entry is a marriage contract between Louis Nor 
mand Labriere and Catherine Clement. There were six entries for the yea 
1737. The notary was Bertlot Barroir and he signed each one, attesting it 
genuineness after the French style by simply signing Barroir. There is ai 
approval at the end of each year by Louis Auguste Delalcere Flancour, cler] 
of the marine department under the French government. 

The record is exceedingly interesting in showing the existence of slaver; 
in Illinois in the very earliest times. Thus by entry of September 25, 1751 
Paul Bizet gave to Francoise Dizie, the wife of Josephus Braseau (a cousi: 
of Bizet's), at whose house he had been sick, for her services, an India: 
slave named Marianne. On November 18, 1751, Mr. and Mrs. Bourbonnai 
gave to Pierre Aubuchon, who was their son-in-law, an old negro slave, wh 
in the language of the transfer, could only do the ordinary kitchen work an 
chores. On June 15, 1755, Francois Lacroix gave his property to his childre 
on condition that they maintain him. He enumerates his slaves as om 
Indian man, two Indian women and one little Indian girl aged seven yean 
March 14, 1757, Joseph Guignon willed to Mr. Forget his house and negroe 
except a little negro named Francois aged about ten years. 

This in brief is a synopsis of our venerable historic friend, who, a hundre 
years ago, was buried in his hog-hide, but has recently been resurrected an 
now claims priority of rank, on account of age, over the civil records of th 
west. True, the baptismal records at Kaskaskia date back to 1695, and ther 
may be religious and military records which antedate 1737, but among th 
civil entries where are there any that antedate our hog-hide record*? Whil 
waiting for competitors to present their claims we shall insist on the prou 
distinction of having the oldest western civil record right here in Illinoii 
where we have everything that is great in every material, mental and mori 
sense. Where we have a domain which in its extent dwarfs the states an 


rincipalities of the old world into mere track patches; on which domain 
tere have sprung up in the short space of two centuries and a quarter 
lough cities and villages to dot our hills and valleys as thickly as the stars 
)t the heavens on a clear December night; where we have prairie farms 
ider the highest state of cultivation, whose beauty can not be surpassed by 
ly dream of the hanging gardens of Babylon; where we have rich alluvial 
)ttom soil along our great rivers which can not be equalled by the valleys 

the Nile, the Rhine, the Seine, the Danube and the Thames put together; 
here we have a teeming, pushing population of five millions of energetic 
;ople who have built up a commerce whose continuing growth shall outstrip 
e rest of the world in the next decade; where we have magnificent forests 
id inexhaustible coal beds; where, in the midst of our harvests, nature 
ailes upon our prolific grain fields, and upon our orchards and our gardens 
ith their choicest fruits resembling in their beauty that garden which was> 
anted eastward in Eden as the climax of creation; where the God of nature 
mself looks with favor upon the Jllinoisans as his chosen people; and 
here this chosen people has made a record which will fill the brightest page 

universal history; for as we search the register wherein the records of the 
ts of men are placed we find this page with its vast array of facts which 
ipeals to pride of home and state and whereon are written deeds of men of Illi- 
>is. The deeds of such as Lovejoy, who died for freedom's cause; Shields, 
iqo buckled on his sword, and wounded fell on Cerro Gordo's field, but rose 
:ain, and then in later years rode through the Shenandoah vale for his 
[opted country's weal; Douglas, who was called the "little giant;" Lincoln, 
j6 martyr- president; Grant and Logan, who fought the country's battles in 
| time of greatest need; and Eugene Field, whose tender notes are lullabys 

every home wnere childish forms are rocked to sleep at night. 

5 H 



Illinois During the Revolution. 

'By Mrs. Laura Dayton Fessenden.) 

While the revolting colonies were sending; "committees of gentlemen" t< 
"assist in adjusting, and framing certain articles of confederation," that por 
tion of the North American continent now bordered by Wisconsin, Lak 
Michigan, Indiana, the Obfio river, Missouri and Iowa (then part of th 
Northwestern Territory; now the State of Illinois), was for the most mad 
up of stretches of praire land broken here and there with forests, am 
touched by a great inland sea. (i 

The inhabitants were aborigines and a few French and Euglish settlers 
the latter — the French and the English — had in several localities formed vil 
lages, and established trading posts. The flag of Great Britain flaunted it 
colors over block house and stockade; and the Governor was a French -En 
glish gentleman, Chevalier de Rocheblaue by name; and he held office to 
the English crown in the Illinois and elsewhere from 1775 to 1781, when upo]| r [ 
his retirement he received from His Gracious Majesty, King George, twelv* 
hundred pounds sterling for his services. 

During his services in the Northwestern Territory, Chevalier Rocheblau J 
occupied, with his wife and children, a large log house within the stockade a^ 1 


Kaskaskia was founded in 1682 as a mission station. In 1721 the Jesuit | 
established a college and monastery there, and, by reason of liberal grant 
from France to the religious establishment mentioned, Kaskaskia soon be 
came the trade center of the central Mississippi valley. 

In the year 1778 — the year that brought our Illinois into the colonies, o 
states, of North America — Kaskaskia had two hundred and fifty dwelling 
and a Roman Catholic church. The college was even at that time becomin 
a memory — a memorial to those pious ones who, in Christ's name, and fc 
His dear sake, had come to the new world wilderness to seek and to savjjvj 

We all realize now much of purpose lives on when individual effort ha'N 
ceased to be; we all know that "all houses wherein men have lived and diep 
are haunted houses;" that "owners and occupants of earlier date from grave 
forgotten stretch their dusty hands, and hold in mortmain still their old es 
tates." 'Tis thus our little lives are kept in equipoise, by opposite attract. 
tiODS, from and through the influence of unseen stars, that form for us | 
bridge of light on which wander our thoughts. 

Marquette had tarried long in these solitudes teaching the only lesso 
Heaven has ever asked earth to learn, the Fatherhood of God, and tbff 
Brotherhood of man. Paul Alloues had left preferment and many honors i 
sunny France that he might lift from a dying saint's shoulder the mantle ( 
self-denial, and take from the bared head the crown of self-sacrifice. Ma 
not these consecrations have yielded untold, uncalculated spiritual harvests 


However that may be, the spirit of Kaskaskia was kindly enlightened and 
generous. The children attended a school, and any Indian thirsting for 
knowledge was cordially welcomed by the master — the priest of the settle 
nent, and was faithfully instructed. The Kaskaskians were not content to 
ake as the limit of their life the happenings within the stockade about their 
own; they were eager for news from beyond, and enjoyed discussing all that 
;ame to their knowledge of distant transpiring events with interest and intel- 

This attitude finally succeeded in alarming Monsieur the Governor, and be 
uade it his duty mirthful, scornfully mirthful, when reverting to the so-called 
federal uprising to the eastward. This in the beginning had some effect; for 
he Northwestern Territory was so remote from the revolting colonies that 
! or a year or more after the actual beginning of the American Revoluton, 
he people of Kaskaskia were content to accept Chevalier Rocheblaue's state- 
nents, such as that the Virginians were cannibals, and worthy the title of 
'Long Knives," and that the rest of the rebel crew were but a scattered com- 
>an# of ragged curs speedily to be whipped, by the English, into cringing 

With a certain amount of belief, but by degrees the truth began to dawn 
lpon. their minds, through narrations brought to them by new settlers, hunt- 
ers, traders and trappers, they came to know that there were grievous causes, 
n many given directions, calling upon the colonists for vengeance, and then 
,t came to pass that the younger men of the settlement were missing. 

j At this juncture it seemed best to Chevalier Rocheblaue to call the white 
nen and the Indian chiefs together for a conference. When all were assem- 
)led they were bidden to renew their individual oath of allegiance to King 
ireorge. This done, the white men were allowed to depart; the braves were 
Retained until the Governor should offer them gold for successful depratory 
ncursions upon any border settlement known to be friendly to the American 
ause. The Governor also offered a separate and much larger allowance, or 
eward, for all the scalps of men, women and children secured during these 
Slaughtering, pillaging and burning excursions. 

It is written that the Indians listened in silence to the Governor until his 
onclusion; that then the chief sachem arose and made this reply: "My 
Cnglish brother with a French name and title who calls himself in the Frencia 
ongue, an Englishman, has made his offer to us too late; for the American 
olouists will give us a much larger reward for live, unscalped English pris- 

The year 1778 was a memorable one, as our American histories show; let 
is most briefly recall the incidents. In February of 1778, the English parlia- 
aent passed two bills virtually conceding to the colonies all that had before 
>een refused them; and commissioners were appointed to be sent across the 
Ltlantic to make many concessions, and, if possible to adjust the existing 
ifferences. It was in February of L778, that France acknowledged the inde- 
endence of America, and concluded the treaty of commerce and alliance 
rith the revolted colonies. It was in June of that year, that the British army 
vacuated Philadelphia and retreated to New York, followed cautiously by 
Vashington with the main body of his army. In the same month the com- 
rissioners arranged for in February, in London, met with such a cool recep- 
ion in the new world. 

On the 21st of June the battle of Monmouth was fought, and disastrous as 
ras our failure at the outset, the British finally met with sigual defeat, and 
rith great loss retreated to Sandy Hook; and it was in and through that vic- 
Dry the tattered army of the Continentals took heart of grace and stirred up 
eserves of courage with which \o meet the bitter losses of Wyoming and 
avannah that were- to knell out the year. But there is still auother incident 
f 1778 to recall. On the 4th day of July of that year our Illinois was born, 
[er birth cry was the shout the American soldiers gave when the English 
ag was lowered, and Colonel Geerge Rogers Clark assumed command of the 
Dwn of Kaskaskia. 


In order to understand the detail of Clark's campaign, we must go back to 
the beginning of 1777, when it chanced that Virginia's attention was drawn 
to the fact that through some forgotten charter, now unearthed, she was 
entitled to claim, as part of her territory, all that is now the State of Illinois 
— and much more beside. 

Following the example of Israel's great lawgiver, Patrick Henry, governor 
of the province of Virginia, said: "We will send men before us, and they 
shall search out the land and bring us word again which way we shall go up, 
and possess this new Hebron." And the men went up and searched, and 
brought word again, saying: "It is a goodly land of forests and prairies. 
Rivers like silver ribbons thread the earth, and within its borders there is a 
great inland ocean. The prairies are treeless, save where one here and 
there comes upon a grove like an island in an emerald sea. The air is redo- 
lent with the fragrance of violets; thenas summer comes follows a train of 
brilliant blossoms; and when the flower queen abdicates her throne, and 
autumn stoops to secure the crown from nature's hands, the tall prairie 
grasses — often growing to the height of nine feet — turn to a dull yellow, and 
then, as far as the eye can reach, one looks upon an endless field of undulat- 
ing gold. Birds sing, bees hum, and through the glade wild things, both 
men and beasts, wander at will." 

This was in substance the report that the trappers brought back to Vir- 
ginia, and in consequence thereof, on the 10th day of December, 1777, Gover- 
nor Patrick Henry held grave converse with George Wythe, George Mason 
and Thomas Jefferson; the subject in question being, shall we, or shall we 
not, as the State of Virginia, and at our individual and personal expense, as 
a state, send out a regiment into the Northwestern Territory to capture, and 
then to hold, the town of Kaskaskia, and such other small settlements as shall 
be named; and proving successful in this encounter, shall we not then pro- 
claim Virginia the rightful owner of the entire territory? 

The decision was unanimously affirmative; and it was then resolved to 
make their intentions publicly known and to report it in such plain and simple 
wording that all would understand that the regiment to be raised was for the 
specified purpose thereof. It was not to be listed into the already too 
heavily burdened Continental army; and its officers and men were to be im- 
pressed with the fact that no pension could ever come to them, or to their 
legal survivors, for military services, from the United States government. 
Governor Henry and his associates were pleased to consider that "the pros- 
pects attending upon the adventure were encouraging because of the fact of 
Burgoyne's failure," and it seemed to them "that the proposed regiment 
might, with comparative safety, carry war into the enemy's country at a 
point so remote and so feebly guarded." 

The man selected as leader of this expedition, as we have said, was George 
Rogers Clark. Like Washington, Clark had been in his younger manhood a 
surveyor; then, with Boone and Crawford, he had seen active service during 
the western border warfare of 1775, '76 and '77, and perhaps more than any 
other Indian fighter, he realized what success in conquest would come in 
time to mean to the United States of America. In an old manuscript we find 
these words: "George Rogers Clark may compare with any general of our 
Revolution, except the 'Matchless One,' for he has decision, intrepidity, 
energy, forethought and good sense; he is the best soldier that ever led 
troops against the Indians, and he knows better than any other man living how to 
control these uncontrollable beings." And never before in all border war- 
fare, had the Indians been so hard to manage. You see, for a century and a 
half they had been fighting the power of Great Britaiu; now the red coats 
were with them, offering the tribes protection, lands and gold in exchange for 
the scalp of every white brother who wore the buff and blue. 

hi their bewilderment the Indians often mistrusted the Redcoats — as they 
called the British— and inclined to the "Bostonians," as they called the 
Americans. Thus they wavered, now towards the one, then towards the 
other. The cause of this was the loss of integrity of the tribes. Pontiac was 
dead. Tecumseh was a little child, and Brand lacked something in training, 
inheritance and tone to constitute him an efficient leader. It was this lack of 
guidance that Clark recognized and took advantage of. 


Colonel Clark was ordered to recruit seven companies, of fifty men each; 
and was to be allowed provisions for three months' service, and to be fur- 
nished with six hundred dollars in money. He was only able to obtain four 
companies. (You can easily understand why, when you recall how many 
Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution claim Virginia as their 
mother State.) The captains of these four companies were Joseph Brown, 
John Montgomery, William Harrod and Leonard Helm. On the 24th of June, 
L778, with 180 private soldiers, this unlisted regiment set out from Louisville 
and ascended the falls of the Ohio. This was done in keel boats with double 
manned oars, and by having relays of rowers; and so, not stopping night or 
lay, they reached, on the 28th of June, an island at the mouth of the Ten- 
nessee, upon which Clark landed his men. 

On that island they found a party of American hunters under the leader- 
ship of a man named John Duff. These men had only left Kaskaskia three 
lays previous to this meeting with Clarke's regiment, and much valuable 
nformation in many directions was elicited from them; and Col. Clark was 
?lad to accept the offer of one of the hunters, John Saunders, to guide them 
;o the town. So, on this same night Clark ran all his boats into a small 
;reek, about a mile from the then Fort Massac, and after a few hours rest, 
without horses, baggage, wagons, or artillery, he began the march across the 
country to Kaskaskia, 120 miles distant. 

The way lay through swamps and wilderness, but "wandering on by fra- 
grant tangle and drift-choked streams," came the pioneer guard, scorching 
he trees as they marched for the old bazed road, that settlers might follow, 
md following, so come with their wives and their worldly gear to live, to 
abor, to plant and to rear a solid base for our future State — small worth in 
he "gear," but hope made it great. They frightened the deer from his 
toonday lair; they scared the fox to his gloomy den; they ruffled the temper 
if the wolf and bear, and echoed the catamount's scream again; but midway 
n the journey Saunders lost the trail! Col. Clark's men, and most of his 
•ulcers, believed Saunders to be a British spy, and declared that he was 
j.ecoying them into a trap; but Clark, a student of human nature, laughed at 
(hese theories and would not listen to a majority suggestion of hanging 
launders on the first convenient limb. Happily for all concerned, Saunders 
roved not unworthy of Col. Clark's confidence, for, after much marching 
jnd counter-marching, the guide recognized a familiar object in the land- 
cape and rediscovered the trail. 

So it came to pass, that after a six days' tramp, with only four days pro- 
isions to subsist upon, the command arrived within three miles of Kaskaskia 
n the late afternoon of July 4, 1778. Little did Chevalier Rochablaue dream 
lat his power would so soon be a thing of the past as he sat beside his table, 
lk horn, drying sand, quill and paper before him, pouring out his woes to 
le Governor General at Quebec. His letter held such bits as these: "I am, 
lonsieur, discouraged. No words in English can fittingly express my dis- 
air. These settlers — Mon Dieu! what settlers they are! There is not one 
tnong them loyal to our great and good Majesty, King George; and they are 
old; they converse much concerning the Colonial troubles — ma fois, it is a 
ad trouble; but for all that, our young men are running away to join Mr. 
/ashington's army, helped thither by the Indians and traders. Why! this 
3ry day, Governor, I heard with my own ears my daughter singing a rebel 
>ng as she sat at her wheel. And when I questioned her as to where she 
3t the ballad she made answer that it had been writ by the priest and then 
y him set to a melody. Now if the shepard is so minded, what will the 
leep do / Viola! The sheep they follow, and that my Governor may be- 
}ld the spirit of Kaskaskia I copy the song. 


'Twas a day in May. the sky was fair, 

A wealth of fragrance filled the air. 

From wildwood blossoms on bush and tree 

All the birds were singing:; the drowsy bee 

Was abroad and taking his board 

From the deep-throated flowers of Kaskaskia. 


In a trapper's hut in a forest glade 
Beside her wheel sat a litle maid; 
She was singing a ballad quaint and sweet, 
And these are the words she did repeat. 
That morning in Kaskaskia. 

Dear heart, sweetheart, where e'er thou be 

'Tis dreaming ever I am of thee. 

Praying that love, like a guiding star 

May bear you this message where e'er you are 

'Tis this, sweetheart, I loved you here 

Here, in the woods of Kaskaskia. 

' 'Dear heart, sweetheart, where e'er thou be, 
'Tis dreaming ever [ am of thee. 
Praying that love like a guiding star 
Will bear you this message wherever you are: 
'Tis this, sweetheart, 1 love you dear, 
Love you there as I loved you here, 
Here in the woods of Kaskaskia." 

"Oh, Monsieur, there is, I fear me, more than billet d' amour in this sing- 
ing-. It comes to me that when sweethearts march to meet a foe to such love 
love-ladened encouragement that God alone can save those they go to do bat 
tie with. I must have more troops here to save my people; for, hark you, it 
is said the Spanish threaten Kaskaskia, and that Chevalier Willing, of Phila 
delphia, is somewhere on the Mississippi shouting for Liberty; and his fol- 
lowers are constantly increasing." 

As Rocheblaue thus wrote the twilight fell, and then deepened, and ere 
long faded into a night amid whose protecting shadows Colonel Clark and hi 
little band came to the river bank where stood the ferry house with its empty 
anchored boats — the ferry house just one mile above Kaskaskia. The ferry 
man and his family were taken prisoners, and in two hours from that time, 
the Colonel and his four companies had crossed the river and gained posses 
sion of the town. Let us hear Colonel Clark's own description of the encoun 
ter: "Upon landing I divided my regiment into two divisions, ordering halt 
to surround the town; with the rest I broke into the Fort and secured the 
Governor. In less than fifteen minutes after our arrival the place was ours 
My men went from house to house securing all firearms, and forbidding peo 
pie, on penalty of instant death, to come to either doors or windows. Before 
daylight we had possession of every implement of warfare that the town pos- 
sessed. Early in the morning I commanded all persons not bed-ridden to as- 
semble in the college, and then I told them the story of the American Revo 
lution, and in conclusion said: 'Virginia is giving her bravest and best tc 
the cause; the Virginia to whom from this hour you owe allegiance Througt 
me she bids you welcome; not as captives, but as brethren; through me she 
holds out the hand of fellowship to the Northwestern Territory.' Then th* 
Kaskaskians flocked about me, striving with one another who should be firs 
to take the oath of allegiance to Virginia. Thus we Americans have gainec 
a bloodless victory. 1 next sent a courteous note to his Honor, the Governor 
asking him to dine with me; but he was so deficient and wanting in courtesy 
that it seemed best in the interests of good government that the gentlemen ir 
question be sent at once from Kaskaskia to Williamsburg as a hostage o 

George Rogers Clark, the maker of Illinois, had no honor shown him or 
his victorious return to Virginia. This leader; this master spirit; this mai 
of gem rous energy and enterprise; this man who first saw the great beuefi 
it would be to the cause to meet the British beyond the mountains instead o 
suffering them to unite and concentrate the whole power of the Indians nortl 
and south upon the scattered positions along the mountain range, and by s< 
doing create a powerful diversion for the English troops who were then hunt 
ing the bleeding Continentals from Long Island to Germantown. This mai 
was set aside to give temporary place to many little lights long since blowi 
out and individually forgotten. 

Jt had been authoritavely stated that his lack of public appreciation was j 
bitter sorrow to Clark. Late in his life when the shadows of age were falling 
thick and fast; when he stood upon the sands of time that border the eterna 
ocean, when his life tide was going out, Virginia awoke to a realizing sens* 


f what this soldier had done for her, and, through her, for the United States 
f America. The legislature of Virginia voted him a splendid gold- hil ted 
Nord in recognition of his services, which he declined. To the messenger 
ho bore it to him, and found him in squalid poverty, the old hero said: 
Tell Virginia that when she needed a sword I furnished it. Now, I want no 
word, I want bread." 

George Rogers Clark did not live to know that his regiment was listed into 
le Continental army; that his officers and men were enrolled upon the pen- 
on lists. He could not dream that after many years there would be words 
I praise, and statues to his memory. The recalling of heroic men; of heroic 
mes; heroic deeds, can only be useful when considered from Emerson's 
andpoint. "The past," he says, "is for us; but the sole terms on which it 
in become ours is through its application to our present needs." 




Life and Public Services of Hon. John M. Palmer. 

By Euclid B. Rogers. 

It was once claimed that the genius of a nation was the creation of a sing] 
life; that remarkable ages were the outcome to remarkable individuals. To 
certain extent that claim was true, but this is no less true, that the individm 
of mark represents, as well as creates, a state, a people, an age. John jV 
Palmer was not only creator, generator, cause, but he was also fruit, effec 
result. There are books that nourish and strengthen; "pasturage of nob! 
minds" they have been called. Life is a great thing, to be a man is a bi 
thing, and that man who has been so much of a man as to have mastered thf 
art of living becomes leader, inspirer, helper. Intellectual freedom anf 
spiritual insight can only go and grow as they are lighted and guided. Ail 
ambitious spirits need men who hold lights close down upon the pathways I 
life; not soaring geniuses like Shakespeare, not philosophical giants lik' ° 
Spencer, but lives that beget such practical stuff as courage and force an 
nobility and common honesty. Such a man was John M. Palmer, and th 
service of his life in vitalization, inspiration and sustaining power of tfap 
largest and best in life is beyond expression. The subject is so large as I 
require no decking out, no working up. About him as the central figur 
there will cluster men, events, principles, history. It requires a large canvs 
on which to paint his life. A plain, simple recitation of fact, a condense 
biographical sketch, with here and there a glanee at conspiring cause an| 
natural result is the pleasant task of this hour. 

John McAuley Palmer, coming from Scotch Irish stock on his father's an 
English- Welch on his mother's side, was born in Scott county, Kentucky, o 
the 13th day of September, 1817. His parents were poor, pious and strong 
and they wanted their boys to grow up good, strong men. In 1819 the fauiil 
moved to Christian county, Kentucky. In 1829 or 1830 the neighborhood wi 
greatly excited over what was called a "rising of Ihe negroes," and patro 
were appointed to hunt them and chastise them. If found on any man 
premises without a pass signed by his owner the slave could be taken acl 
flagged. Saturday night was chosen by patrols for their visitation, as th 
was the time selected by negro men to visit their wives and sweethearts. TI 
Palmer family had a negro woman by the name of "America" whose husbai] 
"Abram" came one Saturday night to visit her, and about 9 o'clock the patn 
surrounded the house to which the kitchen was attached and prepared t 
force the door. Mr. Louis l). Palmer, the father of the house, met them an 
objected to their entering his premises, and he was so firm and decided th* 
they left the house threatening him with the law. The next morning he d< 
clared that he wouldn't live in a state where such scenes could occur, am 
announced his determination to leave Kentucky and remove to the free sta) 
of Illinois. In April of 1831 arrangements were perfected, and the famih 
consisting of seven boys and one girl, started for Illinois, John M. waitin 
until the fall of that year, and settled in Madison county, north of Edwardi 
ville, on Paddock's Prairie, about ten miles east of Alton. 


At 15 years of age young Palmer accepted General Sample's offer to accom- 
pany him on his campaign in the Black Hawk war, subject to the approval of 
his father. His father said "No," and that settled it; John didn't go. In the 
spring of 1833 he drove a prairie team, four yokes of oxen attached to a 24 
inch plow, at eight dollars per month, In 1834 the subject of his education 
came up and his father told him that he would "giye him his time," and he 
might go and get an education. That thrilled his heart and he was so ex- 
cited with the thought that he had to leave the room. (That's a sacred 
hour and that a hallowed spot where an aspiring young heart begins to sprout 
its wings for flight.) After recovering his composure he returned to the 
room where his father sat. There was sileuce for a time — (who knows what 
thoughts went through that father's mind, and what prayers went up from 
that father's heart?) — and then with tears in his eyes the father said: "I 
have no money to expend for your education but a healthy boy as you are 
needs no help. You may go tomorrow morning; I give you your time. 
Don't disgrace me; may God bless you." The student, the teacher, the 
lawyer, the judge, the general, the governor, the senator, never forgot that 
day and that place and that scene. 

Next morning he started on foot, without money or change of clothes. The 
brothers and the dogs went with him to the top of the hill a mile away, and 
yonder on the bluff stood the father, watching his seventeen-year-old bov as 
ae goes out to face the world. What prayers, what God bless yous, what 
aenedictions were showered on the boy who was leaving home — you fathers 
md mothers know full well. 

A manual labor school had been started at Upper Alton and that was his 
lestination. On entering the town he saw a new house going up and the 
plastering was being done. He applied for the job of mixing and carrying 
nqrtar. He got it, and when he had finished the work he bought a shirt and 
>air of socks and had five dollars left, and so he entered Shurtleff College, 
)aying his way for two years by cutting down and grubbing out a long row 
f trees, coopering, and doing odd jobs on Saturdays. 

In May, 1837, he began selling clocks for a Connecticut firm, and in Octo- 
ber, in Hancock county, while pursuing his business as a clock peddler, he 
irst met Stephen A. Douglas. You'll be interested in knowing how it hap- 
>ened. After Mr. Breed, his partner, and Mr. Palmer had retired to their 
oom, with two beds, the landlord went to the room with two gentlemen and 
ntroduced them as "Mr. Stewart" and "Mr. Douglas, opposing candidates 
or Congress." The landlord told Messrs. Palmer and Breed that they would 
lave to occupy one bed and these gentlemen the other. Douglas then asked 
^lmer and Breed their politics. Breed was a Whig, Palmer a Democrat. 
)ouglas replied, "Stewart, you are a Whig, you sleep with the Whig, and 

11 sleep with the Democrat," an arrangement which was pleasing to all con- 
erned. The next day Palmer heard Douglas speak, and in the August fol- 
Dwing cast his first vote for him, and was his devoted political friend until 
he Nebraska bill separation. 

On the 2bth of March he arrived in Carlinville, then a village of four bun- 
red inhabitants, where his brother, Rev. Elihu J. Palmer, was pastor of the 
baptist church. He had intended settling in Bloomington, but was persuaded 
y his brother to remain in Macoupin county. He began the study of the 
=tw; Blackstone and Coke on Littleton, with Hargrave and Butler's notes 
fere his text-books. Never wonder at the accomplishment of men with so 
meagre outward furniture. Some men are more of a college than any col- 

ge. They carry a university with a thousand doors and windows all wide 
pen on their shoulders. In speaking of Daniel Webster, Theodore Parker 
nee said: "It takes time and the sweat of oxen and the shouting of drivers, 
oading and whipping, to get a cart load of cider to the top of Mt. Washin<r- 
)n; but the eagle flies there on his own wide wings and asks no help. 
Janiel Webster had little academic furniture to help him — he had the moun- 
lins of New Hampshire and his own great mountain of a head.'' Not a bad 
lutfit. John M. Palmer had common sense, a brave heart and a big head. 
ualifications that no college can supply and no millionaire buy for his booby 
)n. His education did not depend on text-book and master. The world was 
is text-book and his own will his master. Thus equipped he entered the law 


office of Mr. John S. Greathouse. While a student he ran for county clerl| 
against the late John A. Chestnut, of our city, but was defeated. Decembe 
11, 1839, he was admitted to the bar, his license to practice in the courts bej 
ing signed by Thomas C. Brown and Theophilus W. Smith, the then justice 
of the Supreme Court. While here in Springfield at that time, he saw for th< 
first time Lincoln, Baker, Alexander P. Field and 0. H. Browning, all giant] 
of that gigantic era. His first cause in the circuit court was tried beforn 
Judge Sidney Breese, who afterwards played so distinguished a part in tin 
political and judicial annals of the State. 

Then came on the bitter political contest of 1840, when General Harrisoi 
and VanBuren were pitted against each other, with such leading Whigs a 
E. D. Baker, Lincoln, Browning, John Hogan, a Methodist preacher, whil 
Douglas, Breese, Lamborn and Calhoun championed the Democracy. Nt 
fight was ever more strongly contested. Young Palmer was a Democra 
from principle and voted for VanBuren. 

In 1842, December 20, Mr. Palmer married Malinda Ann Neely and they be 
gan housekeeping in a hewed log house which stood upon the ground no\ 
occupied by the Macoupin county court house. Ten children were born t< 
them, and on the 9th of May, 1885, the wife and mother died. In that earl; 
day law and politics were part and parcel of each other. Every lawyer wa 
a politician, and after court had adjourned speeches were made. The peopl 
expected it and demanded it, and there were always plenty of lawyer-politi 
ciaus to fill the bill. Popularity at the bar depended not so much on legal 
lore as on the ability to make a stump speech. In 1843 Mr. Palmer wa 
elected "probate justice of the peace," an office which was abolished by th 
Constitution of 1848. In June of 1847 he was a member of the constitutional 
revision convention and offered resolutions that showed he was a thinker oi 
great public questions. Banks, courts, education and other paraphernalia o 
state, on all of which matters Mr. Palmer had a well digested opinion. Oi 
the 25th of June a resolution was offered directing the committee on the "Bil 
of Rights" to report a clause for the new Constitution prohibiting free ne 
groes from hereafter settling in this State and to prevent owners of slave 
from bringing them here and freeing them. Mr. Palmer opposed any con 
stitutional provision whatever in regard to negroes, on the ground that 
would raise objection on the part of many men to the Constitution as a whole 
"Why," said he in his opposing speech, "why unnecessarily provoke a bat 
tie against the Constitution? Intemperance on one side is as objectionable a 
intemperance on the other. Every impulse of my heart and every feeling i 
in opposition to slavery, and if my acts or votes here would do anything t< 
ameliorate the condition of those held in bondage, no man would exert him 
self more zealously than I; no one would do more to remove the great stai: 
of moral guilt now upon this great republic." That speech had more of hea 
and heart in it than anything that was said during that session. He dared t 
take his stand on the rock of right back there in 1847. That speech cost hir 
his re-election for probate justice of the peace, but manly eyes began to b 
turned toward John M. Palmer, and manly hearts began to feel that John M 
Palmer was on the road to fame. 

In May of 1848, Mr. Palmer was elected to the vacancy of probate justic 
of the peace, and under the new Constitution he was elected county judge o 
Macoupin county. In 1851 he was elected to the State Senate and his nam 
appears on several committees and as the introducer of bills of importance 
In caucus and in joint session he voted for Douglas for United States sena 
tor. It was at this session of the General Assembly that John A. Logan in 
troduced "An act to prevent the immigration of negroes into this State," th 
provisions of which Mr. Palmer characterized as an example of barbarit 
which could only be excused by the prejudices of the people of Southern llli 

Now we're in the midst of exciting days. Great questions are on and the; 
must be grappled and settled by great minds. We are living in the year 1851 
A year ago last January Henry Clay submitted to the United States Senate 
seties of resolutions relating to slavery. On Thursday, the 7th of March, th 
Senate chamber was packed. Walker, of Wisconsin, and Seward, of Net- 
York, yielded the floor to their colleague from Massachusetts. They knet, 
and everybody knew that every man in that great audience was there to hea 


ie Massachusetts senator. Mr. Webster rose and began: "Mr. President. 
'wish to speak today not as a Massachusetts man, not as a northern man, but 
s an American, and a member of the Senate of the United States," and then 
ollowed that great oration which has been titled a speech "For the ConstitU- 
on aud the Union." Peaceable secession was in all the air, and Mr. Webster's 
esire was to drive it out. His claim was that it was poison to freedom, and 
*iat eventually it would choke the Union to death. Who will ever forget his 
'ords? "Peaceable secession! Peaceable secession! The concurrent agree- 
lent of all the members of this great republic to separate! A voluntary 
jparation with alimony on one side and on the other! What would be the 
ssult? Where is the line to be drawn? What states are to secede? What 
to remain American? What am 1 to be 1 ? An American no longer? Am I 
become a sectional man, a local man, a separatist, with no country in com- 
lon with the gentlemen who sit around me here, and who fill the other house 
I Congress? Heaven forbid! Where is the flag of the republic to remain? 
/^here is the eagle still to tower? or is he to cower and shrink and fall to the 
round? Why, sir, our ancestors, our fathers and our grandfathers, those of 
lem that are yet living amongst us with prolonged lives, would rebuke and 
jproach us, and our children and our grandchildren would cry out shame 
pon us if we of this generation should dishonor these ensigns of the power 
I government, and the harmony of that union which is daily felt among us 
ith so much joy and gratitude." Noble words from a noble mind! But 
ie speech as a whole was a disappointment. The south applauded, but 
rave hearts at the north felt that the Massachusetts Samson had been shorn 
I his locks. From that time on Daniel Webster was looked upon with sus- 
icion by many men whose watchword was "liberty for all." Men felt that 
lis native king had become somebody's peasant. They felt that social wells 
ad been poisoned by his compromise measures, and the imperial scepter 
ielded by the Massachusetts Jupiter shriveled into a common stick. For 
ays a silent, solemn sadness brooded over all. Men pitied, men wept, men 
lought and thought deeply, but felt 

"Dumb be passion's stormy rage. 
When he who might 
Have lighted up and led his age 
Falls back in night." 

For days, I say, there was a hush, and then the storm broke out. Faneuil 
ill spoke on the 25th of March, and then the great question was propounded, 
Shall we extend slavery or shall we shut it up?" 

Let's go back and rehearse our national history on the subject. In 1774 an 

jreement was made forbiddiag further importation of slaves. In 1776 we 

*omulgated our vital tenet that all men are created equal. In 1778 came the 

anfederacy with no provision for the surrender of fugitive slaves. In 1787 

n Jefferson's celebrated proviso forever shut out slavery from the North- 

est Territory. In 1788 the Constitution with its guarantees. In 1800 the 

■at of government was transferred from Philadelphia to the District of Co- 

mbia. Congress moved south and our federal government has its head- 

larters on slave soil. Through all the years that change meant much. In 

120 slavery was legally established in the territory west of the Mississippi, 

»uth of 36 degrees, 30 minutes. In 1845 Texas came into the Union as a 

ave state. In 1848, by conquest and treaty we acquired California and New 

exico with 204,383 square miles south of the slave line. And then in 1850, 

hen the author of the Missouri compromise of 1820 proposed to consolidate 

1 past compromises involving slavery, covering disputed subjects of terri- 

ry, partial abolition in the District of Columbia and the rendition of fugi- 

ve slaves, into one "omnibus bill" of thirty-nine sections, the excitement 

pew intense. Hearts began to beat fast; biood began to boil and lips to 

ime. Abolitionism began to take on flesh; lights began to kindle all through 

e north and east, and they blazed like stars in all our sky. 

| Some modern historians are wont to speak slightingly of the efforts of the 

holitionists of that elder day. Wendell Phillips, at Faneuil hall, and wher- 

rer he could get free speech, with heart of mercy and lips that had been 

fuched by coals from off the altar of liberty's great God, was thundering 

(id lightning against the governmental sin. Lloyd Garrison was pubhshiug 


the Liberator, defying mobs and using a trip-hammer that drove his sen 
ments home to the hearts of men. Theodore Parker rocked New Engla?kti 
from the rostrum of the Melodeon, and Henry Ward Beecher preached to tl yD 
continent from the pulpit of Plymouth church. No influence in shaping po 
cies? Halo too bright and too wide about their sacred forms? Never. Tl 
agitation of those days agitated, the movers of that era moved things ai 
moved men. They felt and made others feel that "They enslave their ch 
dren's children, who compromise with sin." Some men in Illinois were b 
ginning to say "Amen" to that sentiment. Neither nations nor eras are cr 
ated by acts of parliament or congress, nor are they made by treaties. N 
tions grow and ages grow from men, and out of the awful travail of the mor 
forces of these days in the '50's sprung men to form heroic purposes and < 
noble deeds. John M. Palmer heard the torrent and the storm, drew nea 
and about it all there was something large and sublime that appealed to som 
thing large and sublime within. Instead of shrinking before the majesty 
the occasion his mind and heart dilated — instead of fear he'll be a hero wh< 
the hour strikes. 

Eighteen hundred fifty-four and the Kansas-Nebraska bill came on apacfj 
""Let the citizens of the territory settle the question: if they want slavery 1 
them have it. If not, let it be prohibited." That was the gist of "squatt 
sovereignty," audits chief champion was Mr. Palmer's political idol, Stephe 
A. Douglas. At the special session of the Legislature, on the 9th day of Pel 
ruary, 1854, a resolution endorsing Douglas' action in the United States Set 
ate was introduced. Mr. Palmer was present and heard the resolution. B 
was a Democrat, and so much of a Democrat as that he'd follow no man, m 
even Douglas, and no party, not even his own Democratic party, against hi 
convictions of right and duty. That was John M. Palmer in 1854, and th<i 
was John M. Palmer to the day of his death. The time had come to act an 
he acted; he always took opportunities as vessels take the tides, as swimmei 
take the surf, and at once you see him on the very crest of the occasion. H 
prepares and presents a resolution as a substitute wherein he condemned an 
restrictions upon the introduction of slavery in the new territories impose 
thereon by the Missouri compromise. Mr. Palmer's resolution was lost, an 
differing from his party in regard to important measures, he held himsete 
aloof from its councils. y, 

But I must hasten. Events thicken. The months are packed with histor 
interest. Palmer, as an independent candidate, had beaten the regula 
Major Burke, for the Senate and was one of the Democrats who helped ijfo 
defeat Shields and Matteson and elect Judge Trumbull to the United Statt w 
Senate. Then came the "anti-slavery extension convention" at Bloominjjo 
ton, where all sorts of big men erot together and aired big views — Whigs aa 
Democrats and Abolitionists. In June of 1856, Mr. Palmer was present as 
delegate to the first national Republican convention, held in Philadelphia, ar 
placed in nomination for the vice-presidency the candidate who received till, 
largest number of votes given to any man except the successful nomine t 
William L. Dayton, of New Jersey. That candidate's name? Abraham Lir a 

The Democrat of Democrats was now a black, black Republican, and fro 
this time on his history is an open book. By his personal influence he coi 
tributed to the nomination of Mr. Lincoln for the presidency in 1860. The 
came the great division among men. Americans were divided into two part 
those who wanted slavery and wanted it to last, and those who hated it an 
meant it to die. The nation became a boiling gulf in which was perpetu 
conflict of acid and alkali, and the bubbles on the surface were men. A 
awful era. Men and principles were ground to powder, while other men an 
principles waxed sturdy and strong. Our sky grew black as night and the 
came Fort Sumter and the next morniug, the sublimest hour in history— 164 
in England, 1791 in France, 1775 in Colonial America were proud moment, 
but they meant their own freedom, there was self in them all, but 1861 mear 
utter and exact justice to an enslaved, helpless, hated race. Judge Palmer 
valued and valuable assistance to Governor Yates in raising troops, his recor 
as a warrior, his love for his men and his men's love for their general, ai 
matters of common knowledge. They're written in the history of our Stat '» 

1 10 


1 nation, and written large. Stone River, Lookout Mountain and Chicka- 
,uga will forever keep his military career green in the memory of his coun- 

n 1867 General Palmer removed to this city and began the practice of 
I in partnership with Hon. Milton Hay. In '08 he was 
cted Governor and set himself to the herculean task of re-estab- 
ling and maintaining orderly, constitutional government throughout the 
ite. He opposed many bills enacted by the Legislature on the ground of 
ir extravagance and recklessness, and his book of vetoes has become a 
ssic in that sort of literature. The Chicago fire and the subsequent friction 
ween himself, as governor, and Gen. Grant, as president, are incidents 
,t show the make-up of the man. He never contended for contention's 
:e. but when principle was involved he saw something worth fighting for 
1 he fought. 

n 1876 Governor Palmer, although favoring the resumption of specie pay- 
nt, felt that "tariff reform" was the prominent issue, and he accordingly 
ported Samuel J. Tilden for the presidency. On the 4th of April, 1888, he 
married to Mrs. Hannah L. Kimball, and their beautiful devotion to 
h other during these years has been remarked and admired by all their 

[is nomination for Governor by the democrats and his defeat by Gov. Fi- 
although he ran 10.000 ahead of his ticket; his canvas for the senatorial 
ee in 1890, and his subsequent election, are matters of recent history, 
wn to all. It took courage that was nothing shore of heroic to take his 
ad in '96 and permit his name to head the ticket for the Gold Democrats, 
d so his life was passed at work, busy to the last. Mr. Beecher in his ser- 
u on "A Completed Year," said: "I love those streams that run full 
ir to the ocean. Some men there are who are like mountain streams, tor- 
t fed, that boom in the spring with wondrous glory and fullness of power 
go rushing through the earlier months, but slacken their speed and by 
summer are only a trickling reminiscence of the river. I like to think of 
ams like the old Merrimac, that begin work up near their headwaters and 
er run a league without turnine* some mighty wheel of industry, and have 
vacation to the end, but go into the sea with the very foam on their sur- 
>." That was Senator Palmer, full-hearted and full-handed to the very 

ow let us take a stern, careful, critical look at this life. In the first place 
was a man and kept himself Antaeuslike full-stretched along the ground 
ommon things. The well-known line ot Terence well fitted him: "I am 
an, and nothing that concerns a man do I deem a matter of indifference 
ae." He was a real man and real men are rare. Most men are like other 
i. Only now and then does a man appear to be himself, and such a man 
Iways subject to remark, that is, he is remarkable — worth a second look. 

ave you heard Senator Palmer called politically inconsistent? What does 
nsistent" mean*? It means "to stand with;" with whom? the crowd? The 
vd doesn't stand — it wavers, vaccillates, oscillates, tosses and tumbles 
the sea. About consistency there is the idea of fixedness, compacted- 
5. It means to stand firm with one's self. In the spirit of defiance Pope 
s : 

"Show me one that has it in his power 
To act consistent with himself an hour." 

accept the challenge and point to John M. Palmer as the man who was 
dstent with himself for a life-time. He never trimmed, he never knuckled, 
lever rhymed with unstable men, but was always and everywhere pre- 
sently himself. He was the sworn friend of clean politics and inani- 
tions, and the instinctive and inveterate foe of sham and pretense. He 
so genuinely generous because he was so generously genuine. 

s a lawyer he was true to his clients and tried each cause for all there was 
. He went to the bottom of things. In his preparation he pitted himself 
nst himself. He was like the German badger dog, he'd hunt reason to 
ole and there he'd sit until the reason showed itself or else he'd burrow 


in after it and get it. To John M. Palmer law was law. His interpretatioi 
were not so much in accordance with its literal language as to rightly coi 
strne its purposss for the public good. He believed that constitutions wei 
made to promote the general welfare. He held with Rufus Choate that "Tl 
law is not the transient and arbitrary creation of the major will, it is not tl 
offspring of will at all, it is the absolute justice of the state, enlightened t 
the perfect reason of the state. 1 ' Law to this great lawyer was perfect justi< 
helping social nature to perfect itself by the social life. 

In the realm of eloquence he did not disport lightly and airily but he d 
ported himself grandly. His orations are noted for their saneness. Shall 
cite you some? His address to the colored people of Springfield on the 7 ! 
anniversary of Emancipation; at the re-intermeut at Oak Ridge of Gov. Bi 
sell, May 31, 1871. His address of welcome to your city of Gen. Grant, Mi 
5, 1880; his address on the "Life and Services of Gen. John A. Logan" d 
livered in the hall of the House of Representatives early in 1887; his speech^ 
in the Senate of the United States on such great questions as the "Electic 
of Senators by the People," "The Homestead Act," and "Against the Alte 
ation of the Constitution by Construction," are well worth the careful ar 
prolonged study of men who are seeking parliamentary honors. There 
landscape in them and a sweep of vision that writes him down a statesma 
His speech at Snodgrass Hill, September 19, 1895, on the dedication 
Chickamauga Park, and his oration at Galesburg, October 7, 1896, just foi 
years ago today, the 38th anniversary of their great debate, contrasting Li 
coin and Donglas, are models of platform effort. No man who is a stude: 
of the art of expression can afford to let them pass unread and unpore* 
Was Senator Palmer an orator 1 ? Yes — not glib of tongue. He thought h 
subject through and ideas laid all about his mind like crystals. He remec 
bered that "a straight line is the shortest distance between two points," ar 
spoke accordingly; he fed his hearers on bread and meat. He was not lil 
Clay of the past, nor like Depew of the present; he was like Luther — he d 
fled the conventional; in a right burly way he bluntly spoke his mind, ar 
when occasion required he was as bold as an arch-angel. He was not * 
actor; self conscious pose he detested, and he loathed anything that savor< 
of mere mob-hyptonization. He was always actually eloquent because 1 
was always factually strong. In some of his sentences there's enough polil 
cal wisdom to construct a political system from base to highest stone. H 
words will live long after 4 the speeches of men who have been intoxicate 
with their own phraseology have faded from the minds of men. 

John M. Palmer was a man of strong religious convictions. In nature 1 
saw a revelation of God's thought, and in Jesus Christ he saw a revelation 
God's heart. He studied the lower revelation for what it was designed 
teach and he studied the higher revelation for what it was designed. G< 
speaks in varied voices, and Mr. Palmer heard them all, and to his heart tl 
blended utterances made up a harmony that was beautiful and complete, f 
heard God the Creator speak in the majesty of the thunder, and he hea 
God the Father speak iu the pity of the Cross. He lived and grew to gre? 
ness in compliance with the Higher Law. 

John M. Palmer was a Baptist, as he was what he was, from convictio 
and he united with the Central Baptist church by letter from Carlinville, 
July, 1888. 

You'll be interested in these words of his former pastor, Dr. Fletcher: "I 
gave me cheer by his words of encouragement, and a completer view of li 
by his own outlook upon it. I always felt mentally exhilarated and more fa 
visioned after conversation with him. He contributed more to me than 
ever knew or I could tell." 

He held tenaciously to the Baptist tenets that make for freedom. I 
yielded every man the right to worship God according to the dictates of t 
own conscience. Theology to him was a matter of the head — heads may j 
wrong, and he gave men the right to go wrong; religion is a matter 
the heart, and he believed that the essential thing was all in the heart ai 
not. at all in the head. "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God 


Did the time permit I could cite you instance after instance of bis loyalty to 
riends, of perfect freedom from all malice, of his sympathy and help -why, 
,11 our air is full of stories of his kindly deeds. 

Were 1 asked to point out just the qualities that made John M. Palmer and 

aade him great, I'd put my right hand on his conscience and . i ay, 'By this 

le walked," and my left hand on his heart and say "With this he felt and 



General John A. McClernand. 

By Alfred Orendorff. 

When it is considered that without the wondrous story of Illinois, our 
country's history could not be properly written, a potent reason is shown for 
the existence of the State Historical Society, and emphasis is given to its im- 
portant feature of collecting and preserving all that relates to the public lives 
of those whose achievements are inseparably connected with the history of 
this commonwealth and nation. 

This importance is augmented when we find that the well-written biog- •' 
raphies of Lincoln, Grant, Douglas, Trumbull, McClernand and Palmer f 
would deal with most of the important civil and military events that have 
transpired in the United States since Illinois' admission to the Union. 

The limitations of this occasion preclude me from presenting more than an 
outline of the life and services of John Alexander McClernand. The value 
that may attach to this paper will be largely in the pointing out of the sources 
from which a biography of this distinguished citizen, jurist, statesman and 
soldier could be written. 

To those who would pursue the various matters referred to further, 1 refer 
them to Wheeler's Biography of Congress, Moses' History of Illinois, the 
History of Sangamon County, Blaine's Thirty Years of Congress, The Records 
of the War of the Rebellion. Gen. McClernand left comprehensive manu- 
scripts of his life and services which should be published. 


The McClernand family can be traced back to the reign of Malcomb the 
First of Scotland, and was then one of the stoutest clans, and the leader for 
his daring deeds obtained the name of Mac of the Clearlands, having cut his 
way to victory through the possessions of some of the most formidable chiefs. 
His crest was a hand, a dagger, and a bird in flight, signifying faithfulness, 
bravery and promptitude in action. These characteristics, so emphasized inL 
the subject of this sketch, are striking proof of the law of heredity. From 
Scotland the family emigrated to the county of Antrim, Ireland, but being 
more fond of war and adventure than of rural life, and disliking the forms of 
the British government, after becoming involved in the civil disturbances of 
that period, bade farwell to the land of their nativity and cast their lot with 
and gave their allegiance to the then new republic in America. 

The name of Mac of the Clearlands by gradual processes was contracted 
and changed to McClearnand. 

John Alexander McClearnand was born near Hardinsburg, in Brecken-jiicl 
ridge county, Kentucky, on May 13, 1812. His parents, when he was four 
years old, removed from Kentucky to Illinois and engaged in farming near 
Shawneetown, that place being the metropolis of this State. 

At the age of eight his father died, and, being the only child, at an early 
age much responsibility was placed on him. He commenced the study of 
law at sixteen and was admitted to practice before his majority. At the time 
of his death he was the oldest lawyer in the State. At the age of twenty 

81 , 

iars he exhibited his natural fondness for military life by volunteering in 
e Black Hawk war, and served honorably until its close. As an aid-de- 
,mp to the general in command, he carried a dispatch over one hundred 
iles through the country occupied by the hostile Indians. 
In 1835 he established the first democratic newspaper ever published in 
lawneetown and edited it with conspicuous ability. 


The following year he was elected a representative in the General Assembly, 
is chief service at this session was securing the adoption of a report vin- 
cating President Jackson from an attack made by Governor Duncan, and 
e advocacy of that mode of constructing the Illinois and Michigan canal 
lown as the "deep cut" plan, which was finally adopted. The Legislature 
ected him a canal commissioner, a position he acceptably filled. 

During this session the disastrous system of internal improvement by the 
:ate was adopted. McClernand, although opposed to it, was under instruc- 
ts from his constituents to favor it, and felt that he should execute the 
ill of the people who elected him or resign. In this dilemma he concluded 
at it involved a matter of policy rather than principle, and reluctantly 
)ted for the measure. It is a remarkable coincident that in this General 
ssembly Lincoln, Douglas, Baker and McClernand sat side by side and 
ten supported the same measures. A quarter of a century afterwards 
und them at Washington, at the inauguration of Lincoln as president, 
iker introduced him, and Douglas and McClernand joined in courteous 
nsideration, the former holding the hat of his successful opponent while he 
lad his address. 

iln 1840 he was elected a second time to the Legislature from the county of 

allatin. On account of some remarks by McClernand on the reform of the 

idiciary, Judge Smith, of the Supreme Court, sent him a challenge for a 

l.el, which was promptly accepted. He went to the appointed place but the 

Edge failing to appear no hostile meeting took place. At this time Gov. 

irlin had been elected chief executive and claimed the right to appoint the 

Icretary of State and named McClernand, who was rejected by the Senate. 

peter the adjournment of the General Assembly, he was again appointed, 

d on the refusal of the Secretary to vacate the office and transfer the State 

al a writ of quo warranto was sent out, and, on hearing, Judge Breese in an 

iborate opinion, ousted the Secretary from office. An appeal was taken to 

3 Supreme Court, where the decision was reversed. The two whig judges 

stained the whig secretary, one of the democratic judges sustained Mc- 

3rnand, while the other took no part on account of his relationship to 

iClernand. The decision caused great excitement, was discussed in the 

wspapers and at public meetings, and resulted in the reorganization of the 

preme Court and laid the foundation for the sentiment that secured the 

ction of the judiciary by popular vote. Ford's History of Illinois, and an 

dress of Hon. I. N. Arnold, before the Illinois State Bar Association, 

at of this matter with the accuracy and detail that its importance demands. 

McClernand was one of the leaders in the first formal organization of the 
(oaocratic party at Vandalia in 1837. 


Lie was nominated as a Van Buren elector and made an active canvass 
fich was protracted for months. He was elected by about nineteen hun- 
I id majority. Afterwards he made a speech reviewing this contest, from 
lien I quote a few sentences to illustrate his declamatory eloquence. He 
s d: 

I 'If there ever was a time that tried men's souls, that was one. The chaff 
Is winnowed from the wheat, the dross was purged from the pure gold, 
lousands and tens of thousands, professing the noble cause of Democracy 

I — 6H. 


went over to the tents of the enemy to swell the siren peans of a chieftain, c 
to secure on the side of numbers what they could not expect from the defez 
of principles. Where was I then? Did I not stand firm! Was not my voic 
heard loud and distinct, cheering on Democracy to duty and to combat? Di 
I not fight the good fight and keep the faith to the end? It is for you, fello 1 
citizens, not me, to answer. Illinois, I am proud to say, stood unscathed an 
unshaken in that terrible conflict. She loomed up amid the infernal chaol 
that rolled around a sturdy and towering rock upon which the scanty bif 
dauntless legions of Democracy have since rallied for renewed and victorion ' 

When McClernand entered the Legislature for the third time, he found th 
State laboring under the embarrassments resulting from the collapse of th 
internal improvement system, the failure of the chartered banks, and the sm 
pension of the work on the Illinois and Michigan canal. Governor Ford re< 
ommended drastic measures, and McClernand, as chairman of the Committe 
on Finance, introduced and succeeded in passing the remedial legislatio 
which enabled the State to emerge from its financial difficulties. 


During this term he was elected a Representative in the Congress of th 
United States, and made his first speech in support of a bill to remit the fie 
that had been imposed on General Jackson, growing out of the proclamatio 
of martial law at New Orleans. 

He remained in Congress for eight years. During this time he took hig 
rank and his name is connected with many important measures. He remaine 
in Congress during the Mexican war at the personal request of the Presiden 
He voted in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war by granting the requ 
site men and means and portrayed the benefits therefrom in an able and el< 
quent speech. 

The paramount issue at that time was the slavery question. He introduce 
a compromise measure, but the one supported by Mr. Clay in the Senate ha^ 
ing passed that body, he was made chairman of the Committee of the Who! 
during its consideration in the House, and delivered an able speech on th* 

He introduced and aided in the passage of several bills affecting the publi 
lands, making their entrance more easily secured, and bringing the miner; 
lands about Lake Superior subject to purchase. 

He drafted a bill granting land to secure the building of the Illinois Cei 
tral railroad and its Chicago branch. Senator Douglas being furnished 
copy, introduced it in the Senate and, with amendments, it passed bot 
houses and became a law. 

In 1856. having declined to be a candidate for re-election, he removed ifj 
Jacksonville, and from there to Springfield, and practiced law with great su> ' 

On the death of Hon. Thomas L. Harris, Representative in Congress fro 
this district, he was elected to fill the vacancy. u 

He regarded polygamy in Utah as a relic of barbarism, and during this se 
sion of Congress he introduced a bill repealing the law creating Utah arf 
merging that territory into the surrounding territories. His idea was that r. 
dividing the territory over which the Mormons had control they would be ui 
able to dominate the government of several territories, and thus he won 
have solved the problem of Morniom polygamy. 


He was re-elected to Congress, his opponent being Hon. John M. Palme? 
In January, 1861, he delivered in the House of Representatives a speech ( lr j 
"The Union and the Phantom of No Coercion." The speech had a mark<[ r ' 
effect on the country, and especially in Illinois it aroused the people witho 
distinction of party to the importance of the issue involved. Only two par 



raphs can be quoted, but the whole is commended as one of the most bril- 
'ant and conclusive arguments in favor of the preservation of the Union by 
lilitary force. He said: 

i "No, the Mississippi valley is a geographical unit. Its grand river with its 
itersecting tributaries reaching out in every direction to its utmost limits is 
ne hand of Almighty God binding it together in one homogeneous and com- 
lete whole. * * A higher law than the slave law must 

ontrol the destiny of the Mississipi valley, the law of mutual attraction and 

"Sir, is it coercion of a state for us to do that we are sworn to do — to sup- 
ort the Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States? Is it 
Dercion for us to maintain possession of the treasures and other property of 
United States'? To stay the violent and lawless that would tear down the 
oble structure of our government? Is it coercion for us to let the flag of the 
"nion stand upon the bosom of our country where our fathers planted it? To 
t the eagle of America sweep with buoyant wing the entire domain of this 
reat nation? Is this coercion? Why, sir, it is a perversion of all language, 
mocking of all ideas to say so. Rather is it coercion for a state to require 
5 to submit to her spoliation of the posts, arsenals, dock yards, custom 
ouses, postoflices, and the arms and munitions of the United States. 

"Such admission, sir, in my opinion, would be in the last degree reprehen- 
ble and disgraceful. Utter imbecility alone can tolerate it, and if that be 
le condition of our government, let us at once abolish it and proclaim to the 
orld the sad fact that the last and most auspicious experiment of free gov- 
•nment has signally failed." 


While still a member of Congress, at the request of Governor Yates, he ac- 
>mpanied an armed volunteer force from Springfield to Cairo, and occupied 
lat place. While there, the steamers from St. Louis, Louisville and from 
termediate points in Kentucky, were brought to at Cairo, and thus pre- 
mted delivery to the Confederate agents large quantities of munitions and 
•ms. While there he learned that there was no Confederate force at Mem- 
lis, Columbus or Madrid, and that the people in those localities were unde- 
ded as to their course on the pending conflict, and he believed that an op- 
)rtunity was still open to strike a decisive blow in favor of the Union. 

He promptly returned to Springfield and laid the facts before Governor 
ates, and he and the Governor proceeded at once to Washington to lay this 
an of operation before the President, and at Mr. Lincoln's suggestion, he- 
re General Scott. The neutrality of Kentucky seemed to have stood in the 
ay of this strategic movement, and the delay gave time for the Confederates 
garrison these important points from which they were only removed after 
any battles. 

In July, 1861, he took his seat in Congress, and was active in sustaining the 
resident and preparing the nation for the conflict, which he recognized would 
\ of vast proportions and long duration. 

In the following month he and his colleagues were called upon by the Presi- 
snt to recommend a list of persons to be appointed Brigadiers, and to fix 
,eir rank. His colleagues united in recommending him for appointment, 
it, refusing to recommend himself, and joining with the others in recom- 
ending Grant, the latter thus gained seniority of rank. 


He resigned his seat in Congress, returned home, and with written author- 
f to raise a brigade, more regiments were offered than he could accept, and 
Lring the same month he was ordered to Cairo, and within two hours of his 
rival there he provided the outfit and transports, which resulted in the 
cupation of Paducah by General Grant. 


His war record in the main is within the common knowledge of us all, an< 
can be found in every history of the civil war. No more gallant leader eve 
marshaled more gallant men than composed the brigade and the corps com 
manded by McClernand. He participated in many battles. After the battL 
of Fort Donelson, he was promoted to the rank of Major General. 

After an interview with the President, in which he urged the importance o 
opening the Mississippi river to commerce, he was authorized to organize i; 
the west a force for that purpose. 

Men rallied around the man who had distinguished himself in the halls o 
Congress as their representative and who had recently won well merite* 
glory on the battlefields of his country. In thirty- five days he raised fort; 
thousand men. 

He returned to the front and found that Gen. Grant had been placed i 
general command of the expedition and that he was to have the immediat 
command of the forces composing the same. He resolved to strike a blow a 
the enemy near the mouth of the Arkansas river, which resulted in the cap 
ture of Arkansas Post. It was McClernand's intention to follow up the vie 
tory by an attack on Little Rock, but General Grant peremptorily ordere 
him to Young's Point to dig canals. 


General McClernand participated in the siege of Vicksburg, and undoubl 
edly a portion of his command carried the ditch, slope and bastion of th 
fort; some of the men rushed into the fort, and the colors of the 130th Illinoi 
were planted on the counterscarp of the ditch; those of the 48th Ohio an 
77th Illinois waved from the bastion. 

He asked for reinforcements but failed to receive them in time, and dart 
ness coming on terminated the battle. 

Gen. Grant says that he did not see the invasion of the fort, although b 
claimed he occupied a better position for doing so than did McClernand. 

On the 30th of May General McClernand issued a congratulatory ordt 
which was inadvertantly not furnished by the adjutant to Gen. Grant, 
found its way into the newspapers of the north and on the 18th of June th: 
order was made the cause of the removal of Gen McClernand from his con 
mand. Gen. McClernand demanded an investigation with much persistency 
but failed to obtain it, the alleged cause being that the necessary office] 
could not be spared to form a court of inquiry. In a letter to the presidei 
he said: 


"I challenge an investigation both of General Grant's conduct and myowi 
If I was worthy to be trusted in leading the advance to Belmont, to Fo 
Henry, to Donelson, to Port Gibson, to Champion Hill and to Big Block; if 
planned the successful battles of Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champic 
Hill, and Big Black and gained the largest, perhaps the only measure of su 
cess at Vicksburg on the 22d; if in all these battles I either bore the bruif' 
or a material part; if only two days before my dismissal and banishmen 
Gen. Grant deemed himself justified in adding one division certainly and tv» 
other divisions contingently to my command, making it larger than the tv« 
others in my corps combined, why should I be prescribed at the momei 
when it was supposed Vicksburg must fall and the Mississippi river expec 
tion, which I had early advocated, if not originated, would soon be crownc 
with success." 

The controverted points between Gen. Grant and Gen. McClernand see 
to be the importance or non-importance of the victories of Donelson and A 
kansas Post and the justice or injustice of McClernand's dismissal. 

Gen. Grant's memoirs present his position fully and are accessible to all. 

Two letters to McClernand give the views of President Lincoln and Gove 
nor Yates. 


Mr. Lincoln, after expressing his thanks to Gen. McClernand and his 
rave troops "for this great victory gained at a time when disaster after 
isaster was befalling our armies," closed his letter of gratitude with this re 
larkable declaration: "Your success on the Arkansas was both brilliant 
ad valuable, and is fully appreciated by the country and the government." 

Gov. Yates said: "I regard the victory of Arkansas Post gained under the 
oergetic generalship of a distinguished officer and citizen of Illinois as 
Bcond in importance and consequence to that of Fort Donelson, in which 
lat officer also participated. Fort Donelson and Arkansas Post, my dear 
eneral, I regard as the two great positive victories of the war in the west," 

A letter from Senator Lyman Trumbull to McClernand said: "The presi- 
ent is aware that you have been unjustly treated and in reply to my sug- 
estion that he do something for you, stated that when he got another matter 
ft" of his hands (alluding to the Missouri trouble) he would see what could 
e done for you." 

Gen. McClernand then tendered his resignation which was not accepted, 
ut he was soon afterwards, by order of President Lincoln restored to com- 
land of his old 13th army corps. 

He reported in person to Gen. Banks at New Orleans, and remained in the 
3rvice until his resignation was accepted in November, 1864. 


He resumed the practice of law in Springfield, and, in 1870, was elected 
idge of the Thirteenth Judicial District. 

He was president of the Democratic National Convention in 1876. In 1882 
) was appointed a member of the Utah Commission, and his valuable ser- 
ces in this capacity secured his retention during a succeeding administration 
)t of his political faith. 

He advocated the Spanish war and encouraged the enlistment of soldiers in 
e cause of Cuban independence. 

He took an active interest in political affairs, and was the president and a 
gular attendant at the meetings of the Democratic Veteran Club of this 
ty until within a few days of his death, which took place in Springfield on 
e 20th day of September, 1900. His wife and children, excepting his son, 
)1. Edward McClernand, of the regular army, in active service in the 
hilippines, were with him when full of years and honors, the great volun- 
er general of the civil war passed from earth. The old general who never 
rrendered to any human foe, at last was overcome by that inevitable fate, 
at no antagonism can successfully resist. 

While General McClernand was an able lawyer and a profound statesman, 
jim persuaded that his fame will largely rest upon his military genius and 
i 1 hievements. 

The controlling element in his character was intense love of country. He 
is ever ready to fight for, and if need be, die in its defense. He was a 
hter. He marched and fought and fought and marched to other fights. 
3 was a volunteer soldier, and recognized no higher appellation. 

So long as loyalty and courage are appreciated and liberty held sacred, the 
eds of McClernand in defense of the integrity of the Union will be 
erished by all lovers of our free institutions. 



The Life and Services of General James M. Ruggles. 

(By P. L. Diffenbacher, M. D.) 

Since the last annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, om 
of its best known and most highly esteemed honorary members, Genera 
James M. Ruggles, has gone to his last rest in the fullness of years and plen 
titude of honors. At the annual meeting of this Society at Peoria, in Janu 
ary, 1900, he was present and entertained the assembled audience with a brie 
but intensely interesting paper of reminiscences, recounting some of the im 
portant political events in this State in which he had been a conspicuous par^ 
ticipant. He had then almost reached the eighty-second mile post on life'; 
journey; and though enfeebled by the decrepitudes of passing time, his im 
tellect was still luminous, and his memory wonderfully retentive. 

His physical powers failed somewhat during the following year, and unti 
near its close, when he fell a victim to the prevailing epidemic of catarrha 
influenza. While the annual meeting of this Society was in progress ii 
Springfield, in the closing days of January last, the life of General Ruggle^ 
was slowly ebbing away at the Hopping Sanitarium in Havana, Mason county 
and there his spirit took its flight in the morning of the 9th of February 
1901, terminating his earthly career of 82 years, 11 months and 2 days dura 


From a biographical sketch of James Monroe Ruggles, dictated by himself D 
and published in a history of Mason county some years ago, it is learned tha j 
he was born in Mansfield, Richland county, Ohio, on March 7, 1818, and cam \ 
to Illinois in 1837. In casting around for a life avocation, at the age of fifteen P. 
he chose "the art preservative of all arts," and learned to be a practical 
printer, and that art he practiced in country printing offices, in Winchester | 
and other towns, for some years after his arrival in Illinois. 

He was fairly well educated in the elementary studies, in the commq 
schools of his native state; and while engaged in the printing business i 
this State continued to store his active mind with a wide range of usefu 
knowledge by continuous reading and observation. In the meantime he com 
menced the study of law, which he prosecuted vigorously, and was in tim 
examined and admitted to the bar. 

In 1840 he settled in the town of Bath, then the seat of justice of Maso 
county; but did not then undertake the practice of his profession. Prefeif 
ing a more active — and lucrative — pursuit, he embarked in general mei 
chandising, and became a popular and prosperous merchant. 

All through the acrimonious contest waged by Havana to gain possessio II 
of the county seat, by its removal to that place, General Ruggles stood fin 
in defense of the claims of Bath, and contended against the strongest ir 
fluences in Mason county, until at last he was compelled, by a majority vot 
of the people, to capitulate to Havana. In political principles he was 
Whig, and deeply interested in the questions of public policy then agitatin 
the people, and by them generally discussed. In 1852 he was elected Stat 



enator in the district composed of the counties of Sangamon, Menard and 
^ason, and served through his term of four years with marked credit. 
mong his contemporaries in the Senate were John M. Palmer, Norman B. 
add, Burton C. Cook, Joseph Gillespie, John Wood, Ashel Gridley and J. 
. D. Morrison; and in the House, at the same time, were Ex Governor 
Dhn Reynolds, Wm. R. Morrison, James W. Singleton, John A. Logan, 
hauncy L. Higbee, Owen Lovejoy and Stephen T. Logan — men of superior 
ilents, and famed in their day as able leaders of public opinion. 

Mr. Ruggles was an ardent partisan, and always loyal to its principles and 
indidates. In the second session of his Senatorial term there occurred an 
ection, by joint ballot of the Legislature, of a United States Senator to 
lcceed General James Shields. Lyman Trumbull was the candidate of the 
emocrats, and Abraham Lincoln that of the Whig party. At the date of 
tat election Senator Ruggles was confined to his bed by a severe attack of 
ckness; but such was his personal friendship fcr Mr. Lincoln, and the 
-dor of his political enthusiasm, that he caused himself to be carried, on a 
)t, into the hall of representatives, and there cast his vote for his party 
ader, Mr. Lincoln, for whom he always entertained the warmest friendship 
id admiration. General Ruggles is entitled to the honor of having, alone 
id unaided, drafted the first platform upon which the Republican party in 
linois was founded. As a delegate to the convention of Whigs and anti- 
ouglass Democrats, in February, 1856, himself, Abraham Lincoln and 
benezer C. Peck, were appointed a committee on resolutions. The con- 
tention was held at Springfield before the close of the session of the Legis- 
ture. Messrs. Peck and Lincoln being otherwise engaged, the resolutions 
ere written and reported by Mr. Ruggles, and unanimously adopted. They 
>rmed the basis of the platform of principles promulgated by the first 
epublican State convention held in Illinois, at Bloomington, in the month 
May following. At that convention Mr. Ruggles was offered the nomina- 
m for Lieutenant Governor, but declined it. 

Upon making Bath his home, or probably a few years later, Mr. Ruggles 
immenced agitating the construction of the Illinois River Railroad, from 
)kin, in Tazewell county, down the river valley on its eastern side, to Alton, 
"ter his election to the Senate he wrote the bill providing for the incorpora- 
m of a company to build that road, and succeeded in having it adopted by 
th houses of the Legislature. He did not stop at that; but as one of the 
3orporators, continued his efforts for the enterprise until the requisite 
lount of stock was subscribed to put the road in operation as far as his 
wn. The influence and exertions of Dr. Charles Chandler, of Chandler- 
ile, on the soath side of the Sangamon, then effected a deflection of the 
iginal route, and the road was built on a line southward from Bath, through 
iiandlerville, to Jacksonville instead of to Alton. 

Prom the time of its inception until the rails were laid to Bath there was no 
taxation of Mr. Ruggles' interest in the road. He was consulted about it in 
ery stage of its progress; and even dictated the names of all the way sta- 
ins between Pekin and Havana, declining, with characteristic modesty, to 
7e to either one of them his own name. 

When the report of the rebel shot fired upon Fort Sumter reverberaied 
cough Illinois in 1861, it stirred the patriotic zeal of Mr. Ruggles; and, at 
3 first opportunity, he offered his services in defense of the insulted flag. 
j volunteered in the First Illinois Cavalry, and was appointed, by Governor 
-tes, its Quartermaster with rank of Lieutenant. This regiment was sent 
Missouri early in the war, and was for some time employed upon guard 
ty. Dissatisfied with the inactivity of that service, by his earnest solicita- 
n, Lieutenant Ruggles was transferred to the front, and, by order of Gen- 
ii Grant, was promoted to the position of Major in the Third Illinois Vol- 
teer Cavalry. For bravery displayed at the battle of Pea Ridge, in March, 
i2, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and for a time com- 
nded the regiment. For faithful service and gallantry on the field he was 
jveted Brigadier General, and, with his resriment, was mustered out of ser- 
e in 1864. The only public position he afterwards held was that of Master 
Chancery of his county. 


He several times, when urged to do so, led the forlorn hope of his part 
in the face of overwhelming democratic majorities, not prompted by aspir 
tioDS for public service, but to maintain the integrity of the organization 
which he belonged and believed to be right in principles. When publishir 
a paper in Winchester, Scott county, in 1844, the whig members of tl 
Legislature voted for him for Public Printer; and in later years he accept* 
the nomination of his party for high offices where no prospect of electic 

General Ruggles had broad, comprehensive views on all subjects; w 
active and energetic, enterprising and public spirited. The improvement 
the country and bettering of the people's condition always commanded b 
best and untiring efforts. In making wagon roads and building bridges 
pioneer days, and constructing railroads in later times, General Ruggles w 
always found in advance of the community in which he lived. He was tl 
author of the first drainage law enacted in Illinois, designed for reclaimh 
the swamp and overflowed lands of Havana and Bath townships in Masc 
county. This measure for local purposes was the model for the gener 
drainage laws of the State now upon our statute books. 

The record of General Ruggles' life well sustains the distinction of his a 
cestral lineage. His father, Judge Spooner Ruggles, ably represented Og 
and Winnebago counties in the Illinois Senate in the fourteenth General A 
sembly, 1844-1846, and was conspicuous for his strong, clear mind and inte 
rity of character, both in Ohio and this State. The brother of Genei 
Ruggles' grandfather, Brigadier General Timothy Ruggles, of sturdy Purit.* 
stock, was president of the first American Congress that met in the city 
New York in 1765, and was one of the most noted men of New England b 
fore the Revolutionary war. John Ruggles, another parental relative, w 
three times elected to the United States Senate in the State of Maine; ai 
Benjamin Ruggles was first elected United States Senator in Ohio in 1818, 
which body he served for eighteen years. 

General Ruggles was always deeply interested in the political issues of t 
day, and sought to support those lines of policy that he thought would 
most conducive to the welfare of the country and people. He was since 
and conscientious in hi- convictions, as he was in the discharge of all 1 
duties and obligations. His kind, gentle nature and affable disposition { 
tracted friendships in spite of the most radical differences of opinion, and t 
purity of his character, and probity of his every day life, commanded t 
respect and confidence of all. 

The bent of the General's mind and tastes was in the direction of literatui 
He was an incessant reader, and fluent writer; preferring, however, t 
lighter and more fascinating field of newspaper work, to which he had c 
voted several years, and in it achieved flattering success. A history 
Mason county from his pen, published some years ago, bears intrinsic e 
dence of his ability in the higher literary paths that require the inspirati 
of concentrated thought and serious application. 

General Ruggles' bright intellect was fortified with an exhaustless store 
general information and varied knowledge. He was a fair public speak 
an entertaining talker, and social, genial companion; but was singula 
devoid of ambition in those spheres of intellectual activity in which 
mental powers and natural aptitude would have enabled him to excel; name 
in the law and in literature. While well equipped for both, neither vocati 
tempted his aspirations, and he preferred the drudgery of active business 
either. Love of justice, benevolence and charity were his prominent trai 
and the suffering and misery of humanity, in all' forms, elicited his heart! 

By the death of General Ruggles Illinois lost one of her sturdy, honot 
pioneers who acted well his part in the upbuilding of the State, and left up 
the page of her history the enviable record of a long, useful life and i 
sullied character. 


This inadequate tribute to the memory of our venerable departed friend 
may very appropriately be supplemented by the notice of his death and 
burial that appeared in the paper published at his home, the Havana Bepub- 
lican, of February 15, 1901, as follows: 

"A student and soldier, General J. M. Ruggles died at the Hopping 
Sanitarium, on Saturday, February 9, 1901, at the age of eighty-two years, 
eleven months and two days. 

" It had been noticed by the General's nearest friends that for a year, or 
more, he had been gradually failing; and some weeks ago he was taken ill 
with la grippe, and was then removed for treatment to the sanitarium, 
where he remained until his death. 

" The General was a remarkable man in many respects. He was a student, 
a statesman and a soldier. In earlier life he was the colleague of such men 
as Lincoln, Trumbull, Yates and Palmer; and stood, apparently as well, in 
the Republican party, of which he was one of the founders, as any of those 
?reat leaders. Had he been aggressive in pushing his claims for supremacy, 
be would undoubtedly have mounted the ladder of fame, and stood as high 
in the councils of the nation as did his early associates, who passed from 
power and position to the grave years before he answered the last bugle call. 

" The General's burial was as unostentatious as was his life. A small com- 
pany of his former Grand Army comrades, with a few others, gathered at 
;he soldiers' headquarters, and after a short religious service conducted by 
t :he Rev. Mr. Britton, the coffin covered by the American flag, was placeo! in 
f :he hearse, and accompanied to the train, thence to Bath, where it was laid 
piway amidst the scenes of the General's early activities. 

' "The General leaves four sons and two daughters, viz.: Henry C. 
Ruggles, druggist, at Kilbourn, 111.; A. S. Ruggles, druggist, at Peoria, 111.; 
Mrs. Eloise R. Holmes, Bloomington, 111.; Mrs. Lucy M. Settle, Kansas 
3ity, Mo.; T. W. Ruggles, Chicago, III., and Captain James Ruggles, of the 
Jnited States Army, now stationed at Manila, P. I. n 


Original Papers Relating to Illinois History and Biography, 
Contributed to the Illinois State Historical Society. 


The Wood River Massacre. 

(By Volney P. Richmond, of Liberty Prairie, Madison county, Illinois.) 

Since my earliest recollection I have heard and read of the Wood river mas- 
sscre, by the Indians, and have often had the place pointed out to me where 
it occurred. I was early acquainted with Captain Abel Moore, and with sev- 
eral of Captain Moore's children. Major Frank Moore can not tell when he 
did not know me. I often stopped to hear his father tell pioneer stories. I 
knew, but was not intimately acquaihted with, the other members of the 
Moore family. 

Some years ago some one published an account of the Wood river massacre 
so very incorrect that I answered it and told what I knew about it. In that 
paper the scene was laid near where the two railways and wagon road cross 
Wood river, at a place called Milton, some two miles or more from where I 
knew it to have taken place. Not long after I met Major Moore, and after 
thanking me for making the correction, said that I was nearer to it than any 
one who had written before me; but that I was still somewhat off. I said I 
would try again, and with his help, and his sister's, Mrs. Lydia Williams, I 
thought I could get a correct history of it. There has been no account of it 
heretofore written (not even my own), that is perfectly reliable; as this, 
being a part of the early history of Madison county, should be. Of course, 
there is no one who can personally vouch for the facts of this Indian massa- 
3re, in 1814, during the last war with England; but the remaining children 
3f Captain Abel Moore would be able to come nearer to it than any one else. 
They have often heard the story from their father and mother; and I too, 
have heard it from their father. 

This Indian massacre occurred on the southwest quarter of section 5, in 
Wood River township, Madison county, Illinois, on the 10th day of July, 
L814. The persons killed were Mrs. Rachael Reagan and her two children, 
Elizabeth (or Betsey) aged seven, and Timothy, aged three years; two chil- 
dren of Captain Abel Moore's, William, aged ten, and Joel, aged eight years; 
ind two children of William Moore's, John, aged ten, and George, aged three 
pears. Mrs. Reagan and children went to spend the day at the house of 
William Moore, on the farm now owned by Mrs. William Badley. Returning 
n the afternoon by way of Captain Abel Moore's farm, now the property of 
Greorge Cartwright, two of whose children, William and Joel, started home 
ivith them to get some green beans. Miss Hannah Bates, Mrs. Abel Moore's 
sister, visiting there, also started to accompany them to remain at Mrs. Rea- 
gan's; but after going a part of the way, she suddenly changed her mind, as 
| f warned by some presentment, and against the earnest entreaties of Mrs. 
Reagan, retraced her steps and hastened back to Captain Moore's. At the 
point where she turned back she could not have been more than two or three 
hundred yards from where the dead body of Mrs. Reagan was found. Mrs. 
:i Reagan and the six children were all tomahawked and scalped, and they re- 
jjnained on the ground where they were murdered all night; the Indians 
(stripped them of all their clothing, as well as scalping them. 

William Moore having returned that day from Fort Butler, near the site 

j>f the present village of St. Jacob, where he was on military duty, to look 

[lifter the women and children at home, became alarmed as night approached 

Bind the children not returned, and went in search of them, first going to his 

mother's, Abel Moore's, place to see if they were there. His wife, who was 

Mrs. Reagan's sister, also started to look for them on horseback, taking a 


different route from the one her husband went. Although they did not meet 
until they both returned home, they both found the lifeless bodies in the 
darkness, lying by the wayside, and each placed a hand upon the bare 
shoulder of Mrs. Reagan. Mr. Moore returned as he went, by Abel's house, 
to notify the family there of the massacre, and warn them of possible danger 
that night. When Mrs. Wm. Moore found the children lyiDg by the road she 
thought they had become tired and laid down to sleep. She got down from 
her horse to pick up the youngest child, but just then a crackling noise and 
flash of light from a burning hickory tree near by alarmed her, and fearing 
Indians might be in ambush there, she sprang on her horse and reached 
home in advance of her husband. Mrs. Reagan and her two children were 
killed nearest Capt. Abel Moore's place: the other children were found lying 
farther on, two at a place. One, the youngest child, three years old, when 
found was still alive. A messenger was sent for the nearest physician, who 
came and dressed the wounds of the little one, but it did not survive the 

John Harris, a young man living at Capt. Abel Moore's, was sent that night 
to Fort Russell, near the present city of Edwardsville, where Captain Moore 
was in command, and to Fort Butler, commanded by Captain Whitesides, to 
notify them of the massacre. Leaving the latter post about one o'clock that 
same night, about seventy rangers from both forts, among whom were James 
and Solomon Preuitt, arrived at Moore's block house (on the farm owned by 
the late Wm. Gill, and now by a German named Klopmeyer), just as the sun 
was rising and proceeded on to the scene of the massacre. They soon found 
the trail of the Indians marked by broken bushes and trampled grass, with 
some stains of blood, made probably by the fresh scalps. In hot pursuit the 
rangers pressed upon the fleeing red devils, and overtook them about sunset 
upon a small stream in the northern part of Morgan county. One of the In- 
dians hid in the top of a fallen tree and was shot by James Preuitt; of the 
other nine (they being ten in number) but one escaped, and he got away by 
diving in the water. (The stream mentioned was called by the early French 
traders La Belleause, but after the occurrence narrated it has been known as 
Indian creek, and the spot where the Indian escaped is now known as 
Cracker's Bend.) The rangers, who were led by Capt. Whitesides, camped 
on the creek that night and returned to their forts next day. 

The morning after the massacre the friends and relatives prepared to bury 
the dead; and that was no small undertaking. There was nothing like any 
sawed lumber in the whole country; and besides axes and hoes they had but 
few tools of any description. They decided to bury the dead bodies where a 
few of the early settlers, who had died some time before, were buried, on 
Section 24, four miles east of the Moore settlement; and that was the first 
burying ground in that part of the country. Their only means to convey the 
bodies to the burying ground was on rough sleds drawn by oxen. The graves 
were dug with coffin-shaped vaults at the bottom, which were lined with 
slabs split from trees near by as nearly like plank as possible; and after the 
bodies weie placed in the vaults they were covered over with the same kind 
of split slabs. The seven were buried in three graves; Mrs. Reagan and her 
two children in one grave; Captain Moore's two children in another, and 
William Moore's two children in the third. 

When I first visited that grave yard, which was situated in a heavy growth 
of timber, there was an old church near by, built by setting poles in the 
ground and siding up with rough split boards, and covered with the same. 
" Moore's Settlement" in the forks of Wood river was commenced in 1808, 
by George, William and Abel Moore, William Bates, Ransom Reagan, Mr. 
Wright, Samuel Williams, Mr. Vickery, and a few others, and their families. 
On George Moore's farm was a block house fort where the settlers assembled 
when apprehensive of Indian attacks. At the time of the massacre of Mrs. 
Reagan and the children there was but one man in that fort. He was George 
Moore, a gunsmith, who made and repaired rifles, for the settlement. Of 
those who took refuge in the fort that night there is now (1898) probably but 
one living, Mrs. Nancy Hedden, a daughter of Captain Abel Moore's. She 
resides at San Diego, Cal., and was at that time about a year and a half old. 


Such is the true history of the Wood river massacre. I have taken much 
time to trace out all the facts here stated, and I believe them to be correct. I 
have often been over the ground where it occurred and well acquainted with 
the Moores and their descendents all of my life. 

(The writer of the foregoing- sketch, Mr. Volney P. Richmond, wno re- 
sided in Madison county from his early boyhood, died on the 14th of January, 
1901, at the age of eighty-four. — Ed.) 



The First Duel Fought in Illinois, at Belleville, in St. Clair 
County, on February 8, 1819. 

By James Affleck, !a citizen of Belleville at the time of its occurrence. 

The origin of the quarrel between the two men was a very trivial matter, 
growing out of Bennett's horse trespassing on Stuart's cornfield. The horso 
was a "breacby" animal, and repeatedly broke into Stuart's cornfield, which 
greatly enraged the latter, and he told Bennett if he didn't keep his horse 
out of his field he would shoot the horse. This threat was disregarded by 
Bennett, and the horse continued to break into the field, until one day Stuart 
carried his threat into execution — that is, he induced his hired man to shoot 
the horse with a gun loaded with powder and coarse salt, which he did, and 
the animal ran home bleeding and smarting with pain. Bennett became 
greatly enraged over the shooting of his horse, though the wound was but 
slight, and when he learned that Stuart was responsible for the shooting he 
was disposed to seek revenge. The animal was a great favorite with Bennett 
and the more he thought of how it had been treated the more his anger grew. 
While in this frame of mind he met with Jacob Short and Nathaniel Fike, a 
pair of young Bacchanalians, who made their haunt, and hibernated, at Tan- 
nehill's tavern, which then occupied the southwest corner of the public 
square on Main street, the site of the present National Hotel. 

Short and Fike, thinking to have some sport out of the affair, advised Ben- 
nett to seek satisfaction from Stuart by challenging him to mortal combat. 
They told him that Stuart had greviously injured and insulted him, and that 
the only proper course for him to pursue was to challenge him to fight a duel. 
Bennett readily assented to this, and the challenge was sent. In the mean- 
time Short and Fike saw Stuart and told him of their plan to have some sport 
out of Bennett, and they at once arranged for a sham duel. Short and Fike t 
who were to act as seconds, promised Stuart that the guns should be loaded 
with powder only. Although Stuart understood that it was to be a sham duel, 
and was only intended to enliven the monotony of life in the then small vil- 
lage, Bennett did not so understand it, and with him it was to be no mockery, 
as the sequel proved. 

The arrangements for the duel were made in the court house, where the 
parties all met. The court house was then located on the southwest corner 
of Main and Illinois streets, in front of James Tannehill's tavern, with whom 
the writer was then living and continued to live for eight or nine years 
thereafter. The young men of the town teased and plagued Bennett a good 
deal about the proposed duel by telling him that he would take the "buck 
ague" and couldn't shoot with accuracy; and Bennett, to show them that he 
was a sure shot, loaded his rifie and shot the head off a chicken that was in 
the yard close by. 

After the parties had made all arrangements for the duel, and were pretty 
full of Tannehill's whiskey, they repaired to the duelling ground, which was 
located about midway between Main street and the present mansion of the 
late Adam W. Snyder. The ground in that vicinity was all vacant then with 
only a few scattering trees. The principals were placed about twenty five 
steps apart, and just as the word "Fire," which was agreed on as the signal, 
was uttered, Bennett fired and Stuart fell, face downward, to the ground, 
shot in the region of the heart. He fell on his gun aud immediately expired. 


Fike, his second, went to him, and turning him over, took the rifle he had 
dropped and discharged it in the air, so that it was never known whether it 
contained a ball or not. There was a suspicion with many that the crack of 
the gun was that of one containing a ball. Bennett and both seconds were 
arrested immediately and committed to jail, the latter, however, soon being 
released on bail. The State had but lately (in 1818) been admitted into the 
Union, and, it appears from the records, that the State had neither law, nor 
officials, to try prisoners in St. Clair county. The Legislature being in ses- 
sion at the time, it proceeded at once to enact laws for the emergency and to 
appoint officials. A special term of court was called, and a bill of indictment 
was returned against all three for murder. On the eve of the trial Bennett 
succeeded in escaping from the jail, a log structure, by boring a series of 
holes in one of the logs, which he forced from its place and thus made his 
way out. Such was the sheriff's report when directed to bring the prisoner 
into court. Bennett fled into the wilds of Arkansas Territory, and was not 
heard from by the authorities for two and a half years. At the end of that 
time it was learned that he had been in communication with his wife; that be 
was at St. Genevieve, Missouri, and that he had arranged for her to meet and 
join him there, having sent a team and wagon for her and the children. A 
reward was still standing for his apprehension at that time. 

James Tannehill and others followed the team and family, and on arriving 
it the Mississippi river met Bennett, and arresting him brought him back to 
Belleville. He was again indicted, tried and convicted, and sentenced to 
ieath by hanging. The execution took place on September 3, 1821, in a 
vacant field on which a part of West Belleville is now located. The execution 
was public, and was witnessed by one of the largest assemblages ever brought 
:ogether in this county. 

Poor Bennett! he lost his life for the love he had for his family. He'stated 
>n the scaffold that he was willing to risk his life for the pleasure of once 
nore greeting |his wife and children. He also denied that he had put the 
mullet in the gun that killed Stuart. 

Bennett owned a lot and log cabin on North Illinois street (adjoining the 
present residence of Mr. Emil Feigenbutz) on the north, and was buried 
here. It was the current opinion on the street, however, that his body had 
>een turned over to the doctors, and had been used to advance knowledge in 
nedicine and surgery. Soon after Bennett's escape from the jail, the sec- 
nds had their trial, and were acquited by the testimony of Rachael Tanne- 
ull, a girl of nine or ten years, who was looking out of an upper window in 
he Tannehill tavern at the time the party was starting for the duelling 
round. She saw Bennett come around the court house, distant about seventy or 
ighty feet from her, and saw him put something into his gun which she and 
he jury construed to be a bullet. This testimony, together with their own, 
leared the two seconds and went far to convict Bennett. Stuart and Bennett 
rere both young men in the prime of life, each having a family. Alfonso 0. 
Ituart was an educated man, from the state of New York, and a lawyer by 
rofession, but unfortunately, his practice was more frequent at Taunehill's 
ar than at that of Judge Reynolds. He was buried about a hundred yards 
rom where he fell, northwest. 

John Reynolds, then residing in Cahokia, the then metropolis of the west, was 
hief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, and acting circuit judge; 
ohn Hay also of Cahokia, was circuit (as well as county) clerk, and William 
nderson Baird, a bachelor farmer, was sheriff. Samuel D. Lockwood, at- 
>rney general, discharged the duties of prosecuting attorney, and Bennett 
as ably defended by Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri. All the officials 
i this case were specially appointed by the Legislature to try these prisoners, 
ockwood, before entering upon the trial, took the following oath: "I do 
)lemnly swear that I will, to the best of my judgment, execute the duties 
oposed upon me by the act for the suppression of dueling, so help me God." 

—7 H. 


Scipio Baird, a younger brother of Sheriff Baird, was deputy sheriff, and 
performed the duty of executing poor Bennett, of which I was an eye wit- 
ness, and of which I never wish to see the like again. 

Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois, December 26, 1899. 


State of Illinocs,) 
St. Clair County, j 

In pursuance of an act of the Legislature of the said State of Illinois, now 
in session, passed the 24 of February, 1819, entitled "An act authorizing a 
special term of the circuit in St. Clair county, for the trial of certain prison- 
ers," be it remembered, that on Monday, the 8th day of March, being a day 
fixed upon by said statute of the said State, for holding a special circuit for 
the said county of St. Clair, John Reynolds, one of the Justices of the 
Supreme Court of the said State, by arrangement made to attend the said 
special circuit at the court house in the said county; and John Hay, by the 
said law, is authorized to act as clerk to the said court. And in pursuance of 
an act of the said Legislature passed the 2d of March, 1819, entitled "An act 
supplemental to an act entitled, 'An act authorizing a special term of the 
circuit court in St. Clair county for the trial of certain prisoners,' " William 
Baird is authorized to act as sheriff for the said special court. 

Monday, the 8th of March, 1819. Members present: the Honorable John 
Reynolds, Justice; John Hay, Clerk; Wm. A. Beaird, Sheriff. 

Names of the Grand Inquest: Benj. Watts, foreman; Solomon Teator, 
Robert Abernathy, James Marney, Francis Swares, Jacob Ogle, Jr., Wm. 
Padfield, Robert Lemen, Henry Hutton, Joshua Oglesby, Marshal Duncan, 
Cintes Moore, George Pricket, Wm. Bridges, Sam Everitt, Joseph Penn, 
John Leach, Theophelus M. Nicholas, James Walker, Odian Castleberry, 
William T. Kincade, Jeremiah Ham, — 23, — who all appeared and received 
their charge and retired to consult of presentments. Persons sworn to go 
before the grand jury, to-wit: Reuben Anderson, James Parks, James Kin 
cade, James Read, Andrew Million, Benj. Million, Peter Sprinkle and Rachel 
Tannehill. Nicholas Horner excused from serving on the traverse jury. 
The grand jury returned from their retirement and presented a bill of indict- 
ment against Timothy Bennett, Jacob Short and Nathan Fike, for murder. 

The People &c, . ) 

vs. > Murder. 

Timothy Bennett, Jacob Short and Nathan Fike. j 

And thereupon by order of the court, the clerk issued his process, directed 
to the sheriff of this county, to bring forth the body of the said Timothj 
Bennett; and thereupon the sheriff returns the following, to-wit: "The 
within named Timothy Bennett, has made his escape by breaking the jail, ol 
St. Clair county; therefore, I cannot bring his body in the court as I am 

Wm. A. Beaird, 

Sheriff of St. Clair county. 
Ordered that the court adjourn sine die. D; 

(Signed.) John Reynolds. m 

(The case was ca^ed again at the next term, Tuesday, June 15, 1819, anc 
the recognizances of James and Rachael Tannehill, witnesses, taken in th« 
sum of $100 each for their appearance on the following day to testify.) 
Wednesday, June 16th. The case against Jacob Short and Nathan Fikfl 
called. And thereupon comes as well the said defendants, to-wit: Jacot 
Short and Nathan Fike. As the Attorney General and the said defendants 
say, they are not guilty in the manner and form as in the indictment againsl 
them is alleged, and of this they put themselves upon the country, and thf 
Attorney General doth the like. Therefore it is commanded that a jury ol 
twelve good and lawful men who neither is, etc., because etc., and the juror! 



of the jury of which mention is within made, being called, to-wit: Isaac 
Clark, Eli Hart, Isaac Bairey, Daniel Phillips, Henry Stout, Patrick John- 
son, David Coons, Andrew Maurer, Peter Hill, William McNeal, Brice 
Virgin and John Cotton, who being duly elected, tried and swore the truth 
of and upon the premises to speak. 

Ordered that the court adjourn to tomorrow morning, 8 o'clock, Thursday, 
June 17, 1819. Trial had and the following order entered up: Upon their 
oaths do say, that the said defendants are not guilty in manner and form as 
in the said indictment against them is alleged; therefore it is considered by 
the court that the said defendants be acquitted and discharged of the charge 
aforesaid, and go thereof without a day, etc. 

State of Illinois, \_ q 
St. Clair county. J bb * 

At a special circuit court called and held in the court house in Belleville, 
for and within the county of St. Clair, on Thursday, the twenty-sixth day of 
July, in the year of Our Lord, Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-One, were 
present the Honorable John Reynolds, justice; Wm. A. Beaird, Esq., sheriff; 
John Hay, clerk. Names of grand inquest, William Glasgow, foreman, 
James Cohen, William L. Whiteside, Hosea Rigg, Richard W. Chandler, 
John Thomas, Archibald Allen, Henry Stout, John Leach, Thomas Gillham, 
John Scott, John Redei, David Sparks, Daniel Burky, James Marney, Jacob 
Whiteside, Daniel Phillips, James Pulliam, Joseph Willbanks, Daniel 
Million, Tilghman West, George Harris, John Glass, who all appeared and 
»vere sworn. Thereupon the grand jury having received their charge from 
the bench, retired to consider of presentments. The grand jury returned from 
their retirement, and presented the following bill of indictment: 

The People ) 

vs. y Indictment for Murder. 

Timothy Bennett. J 

Thereupon it was ordered that process issue, to the Sheriff of St. Clair 
jounty commanding him that he have the body of Timothy Bennett a prisoner 
low in gaol of the county aforesaid, under safe and secure conduct, before 
he court here immediately, to answer an indictment against him for murder, 
rhe Sheriff of St. Clair county, agreeable to a process to him directed, com- 
nanding him to have the body of Timothy Bennett a prisoner, confined in the 
*aol of the county aforesaid, brings into court here the said Timothy Ben- 
lett accordingly; and being demanded of him, whether he is guily of the fel- 
my aforesaid or not guilty: says he is not guilty; thereof, and for his trial 
juts himself, upon God and his country. And the Attorney General, in be- 
lalf of the People of the State of Illinois likewise. And thereupon it is or- 
lered by the court, that a jury come instanter, who neither is &c as well as 
fee and the jurors of the jury of which mention is within made being called 
o-wit: Noah Mathany, John A. Mauzy, James Simmons, Bunill Hill, John 

Ordered that the court adjourn to tomorrow 9 o'clock. John Reynolds. 

Friday, the 27th July, 1821. Court opened according to adjournment. 
D resent as before. 

James C. Work, George W. Jack, James Wilson, Joel R. Small, Elijah 
Davis, James Fox, and Zachariah Stephenson who being duly elected, tried 
md sworn the truth to speak of and upon the premises and having heard the 

Ordered that the court adjourn to tomorrow morning 7 o'clock. John Rey- 

Saturday, the 28th July, 1821. Court opened according to adjournment, 
^resent as before. 

Upon their oath do say that Timothy Bennett, is guilty of the felony afore- 
aid, in manner and form as in the indictment against him is alleged: and it 
>eing demanded of him, if anything for himself ne had or knew to say why 
he court, here to judgment and execution against him, if and upon the premi- 
ses should not proceed; he said he had nothing, but what he had before 


said: Therefore it is considered by the court, that he be hanged by the neck, 
until he be dead and that the Sheriff of this county, do cause execution of I 
this judgment, to be done and performed on him the said Timothy Bennett 
on Monday, the third day of September, next, between the hours of ten in! 
the forenoon and four in the afternoon, at or near the town of Belleville, &c. ' 

Samuel D. Lockwood, came into court, and took the following oath: "Ij 
do solemnly swear, that 1 will to the best of my judgment, execute the duties 
imposed on me by the act for suppressing duelling, so help me God." 

Ordered that the court adjourn sine die. 




I was born of Scotch parents, David and Ann (Gillespie) Affleck, at Dum- 
mies, Scotland, August 15, 1813. My father was a navigator, commander of 

sailing vessel, and traded between Glasgow, Scotland, and Kingston, 
amaica, West Indies. In 1814 my parents emigrated to the United 
tates, landing at Wilmington, North Carolina, and after a short sojourn 
aere he removed to Tennessee and settled on Stone river, not far from 
fhere Murfreesboro is now located. Here my father taught school for some 
me. When the Illinois Territory began to loom up and everybody was em- 
grating to that land of milk and honey, my parents followed the throng, 
oming to St. Clair county, where they purchased land and resided until their 

My mother's death occurred in 1818, and my father's the following year. 
1 younger brother and I were left orphans at a tender age in a new country 
ir from kindred ties. The probate court appointed guardians for us. I was 
laced with James Tannehill, who was to learn me a trade, with the essential 
ranches of a common school education. He didn't give much attention to 
re culture of his own children, much less to that of a bound boy. After re- 
taining with Tannehill until I was eighteen years of age, my guardian coin- 
lained to the court and had me released from the contract. I was again 
identured, to learn the art and trade of a cabinet or furniture maker, where 

remained until I was twenty-one years of age. 

November 12, 1835, I married a daughter of Wesley Coleman — Hester Ann. 
ive children were born of that union, but only two daughters remain, the 
dest the wife of Edwin Park^ a well-known lawyer of Decatur, Illinois, and 
te second the wife of Ex-Judge S. A. Wilderman of Belleville. After the 
3ath of my first wife, which occurred in 1857, I married again in 1863, my 
resent wife. The children of this union are Cora, wife of Frank L. Stewart, 
druggist of Carmi, Illinois; Estelle, wife of John A. Logan, of Carmi, a 
Native of the renowned soldier and statesman; Benjamin F., in business in 
t. Louis; Edward G., a machinist in the navy and who was on the flag ship 
ew York during the war with Spain in Cuba; and Susie, the youngest 
lughter, at home. 

Early in the spring of 1837 I visited my kindred in Scotland, and spent the 
immer with them. While there the king, William IV, died, aud Queen 
ictoria ascended the throne of the British realm, on the 20th of June, 1837. 
h! what a harvest, lady, now is yours. Empire and fame and a universe's 
ve. I attended the meeting in the Scotch kirk at this time with friends 
id assisted in singing some of David's psalms, and listened to the eulogy of 
e life of the king by the minister. He made no reference, however, to the 

h$ sons and five daughters, illegitimate children by his mistress, the eele- 

rated actress, Mrs. Jordan. 
After the services a Scotch toddy was served near by and all drank more 

■ an once to the health and longevity of the young queen, with little thought 
the time her reign would reach January, 1900. 

From 1852 to 1858 1 served as alderman for the southeast quarter of Belle- 
lie. 1 have served several years as a school director, both before and 
ace the free school law was in force. The lessons of my younger days were 


object lessons, observed in Tannehill's bar room, taught by experts, one of 
which I shall never forget. It was a terrible threshing Tannehill gave me 
for stealing whiskey for his wife. The old lady had an unquenchable thirst 
for liquor, so that it was necessary to keep the liquors locked in a small en- 
closure with a small opening for passing the drinks to the customers outside* 
I was a small boy of nine or ten years then. When the old lady's thirst 
could stand it no longer, she would poke me through that hole and I would 
after getting inside draw a teapot full of whiskey for her. Tannehill had 
forbid me, and threatened to whip me if I did that any more; but with the 
old lady's coaxing and bribing I still disregarded Tannehill's injunction until 
I was caught in the act and punished with a severity I shall always remember. 
Still, it did not entirely cure me; for I filled the teapot for the old lady 
several times afterward. 

After I became of age and accumulated a little money I attended school a 
little while with Rev. John F. Brooks, who taught school here for some 
time. I finally turned my attention to following a permanent occupation for 
life; and worked as a journeymen cabinet maker for a time; 'then commenced 
housebuilding as a contractor, which I followed until 1860, during which 
time I erected more houses in Belleville than any other builder here. I drove 
the first and last nail in the Harrison mill when it was rebuilt in 1844. In 
1860 I was employed by the Harrison Machine Works, where 1 remained for 
thirty-six years, eighteen years of which I was foreman of the woodworking 
department, and the latter eighteen years was a patternmaker for the 

I am a member of the Scotch-Irish society of America. The late Robbert, 
of New York, was the president of the society, and the late Judge John M. 
Scott, of Bloomington, 111., was the vice-president for Illinois. 

I have outlived every improvement that was in Belleville when I came 
here. The whipping post and pillory were in successful operation for some 
time after I came. The third court house and fifth jail are now in use 
since I saw the first of each. Two epidemics of that dread scourge, the 
cholera, that of 1833 and of 1849, visited here and carried off many citizens, 
for some of whom I made coffins and assisted in their burial. Some were 
covered up, while yet warm, such was the dread of that fearful plague. 

I have long been a member of the Presbyterian church, as were my 
parents in their native land. 

In conclusion, being in good health, I am thankful to a kind Providence 
and trust I may be spared to see the one hundredth anniversary of Jefferson's. 
Louisiana purchase, now near at hand. 

James Affleck. 

Belleville, St. Clair county, Illinois, January 18, 1900. 


John Kussell, of Bluffdale, Illinois. 

(By S.G.Russell.) 

Among the many that the tide of emigration swept from Vermont to the 
"far west," was John Russell, of Bluffdale, Greene county, Illinois. 

He was born at Cavendish, Windsor county, Vermont, on the thirty-first 
day of July, 1793. He was the son of John Russell and Lucretia Preston. His 
father was an old-fashioned Baptist preacher, severely Calvinistic in his be- 
lief and puritanic in practice. His mother, like Dorcas of old, was renowned 
for her piety and good works. He had one brother older than himself, Bliss 
iby name, and one younger, Elias, and three sisters, all of whom he survived, 
save one sister, Sally, who married David Perkins. Polly married Levi Jaek- 
jman, Eunice married Dr. Joseph Gray. His parents were in very moderate 
circumstances, and could give their children no educational advantages, save 
what they could gather at the common schools during the winter months. 
John, however, had an inordinate thirst for knowledge, as most of his ances- 
tors had been college graduates, teachers, preachers and writers; he deter- 
mined to try for a better life than that of a small-fisted farmer, on the moun- 
tain slopes and huckleberry hills of old Vermont. So, contrary to parental 
advice, and almost contrary to parental command, he entered Middlebury 
College, March 25, 1814. 

He had already commenced authorship, in order to acquire the needful 
funds for his collegiate education. His first literary venture was "The Au- 
thentic History of the Vermont State's Prison," a duodecimo volume of 
ninety pages; only one copy of which is known to be in existence, and that 
is in the archives of of the Vermont State Historical Society. In the preface 
of his modest volume, he says: "It is not the unpardonable vanity of becom- 
ing an author but necessity, the mother of invention, that produces the pres- 
ent volume." The sale of the copyright of this book, materially aided him in 
his first year in college. Without any parental assistance, aided by only a 
few benevolent hands and by the feeble efforts of his pen, he encountered 
difficulties and obstacles, which very few would have had the persistence and 
hardihood to have resisted. This little book was published at Cavendish, 
Vermont, in 1812, by Preston Merrifield, with whom he had in earlier years, 
served an apprenticeship at the bookbinder's trade. 

This book binding experience he very rarely referred to in after life, 
though he became a proficient in the business. Merrifield had a cow, and 
father said, "when the cow came up, they had mush and milk, and when the 
cow did not come up, they had mush." Yet his remembrance of Merrifield 
was always of the kindest. 

The sale of his book, and the never failing recourse of indigent students — 
school teaching, carried him through the freshman and sophomore classes. 
Through the other two classes, he was assisted by William Slade, a young 
lawyer of Middlebury, and for whom father always cherished the most grate- 
ful feelings. Slade afterwards became the Governor of the state. Many 
years afterwards, while father was living in St. Louis county, Missouri, and 
in prosperous circumstances, he repaid Slade both interest and principal for 
all of his timely assistance. 


During the interval between the junior and senior classes he taught school 
at Vergennes, Vt., where he not only became acquainted with my mother, 
but made a profession of religion and united with the Baptist church. He 
had hitherto been atheistic in his belief, led thereto by the rigid Calvinistic 
faith and stern puritanical practice of his father. 

Upon his return to college he found himself the only Baptist student con- 
nected with the college. 

He graduated in 1818. Soon after, he went to Mcintosh county, Georgia, 
and commenced a school, but on account of his anti-slavery views he ended 
his school rather abruptly. 

He had, during his teaching at Vergennes, Vt., become engaged to my 
mother, in fact, she was one of his scholars. On leaving Georgia he started 
after my grandfather and family, who were emigrating to the "far west," 
and overtook them at Whitewater, Harrison county, Indiana, where they had 
encamped for the winter, and here he was married to Laura Ann Spencer, on 
the 25th day of October, 1818, by one Mainwaring, who was a justice of the 
peace and a minister of the gospel. In the spring of 1819, he removed with 
his young wife to the Missouri Territory. Here, in St. Louis county, he be- 
came tutor to Augustus and Marcus Post, sons of Justus Post, then a prom- 
inent man in Missouri, for which service he received a salary of five hundred 
dollars per annum. Here he wrote his immortal "Venomous Worm," which, 
a few years after, John Pierpont, of Boston, Mass., introduced into his 
National Reader, as also did the McGuffies in their series of readers. After 
his tutorship had expired, which was about 1825, he taught school in the city 
of St. Louis, then only a small French town. In 1832 he taught a high school 
at Vandalia, 111., then the capital of the State. Here he became intimately 
associated with James Hall, author of "Harp's Head" and many other lit- 
erary works. Hall was then the editor of the Illinois Monthly Magazine, for 
which father contributed some of his best literary productions. 

In 1833 and '34 he taught in the Alton Academy, which afterwards, by the 
endeavors of John Mason Peck, became Shurtleff College. 

While living in " Bonhommie Bottom," Mo., he became intimately ac- 
quainted with John M. Peck, who was at that time at the head of the Baptist 
denomination in the west. The friendship was closely and warmly cherished 
during their whole lives. 

In 1828 he removed from Missouri to a farm in Illinois (now occupied by 
the writer of this sketch), to which he gave the beautiful name of Bluffdale, 
and in the following year, Oct. 9, 1829, he was appointed postmaster by Post- 
master General McLain, which office has continued on his farm ever since, 
decending from father to son (now 1900). 

On the 9th day of February, 1833, father was licensed to preach. His 
license is signed by Elijah Dodson and Sears Crane, ministers, and David 
Woolley, clerk. His natural timidity and retiring disposition prevented him 
from ever being ordained; he had no confidence in himself— only in his pen. 

In 1837, '38 and '39 he edited The Backwoodsman, at Grafton, Illinois, of 
which Paris Mason was the publisher and proprietor. For this paper he 
wrote " The Specter Hunter," "Cahokia," " Ellwood, the Outlaw," and 
" Sir William Dean; or, the Magic of Wealth." 

Id 1841 and '42 he was editor of The Louisville Advertiser; here he be- 
came intimately acquainted with Richard M. Johnson and George D. Pren- 
tice, the poet. At first he and Prentice were bitter political enemies. Pren- 
tice was editor of the Louisville Courier, which was intensely whig, while the 
Advertiser was democratic. Prentice threatened several times to challenge 
"Old Bluff," as he called father, but mutual friends interfered and he and 
Prentice became, as long as life, literary friends. 

Father was principal of Spring Hill Academy, at Clinton, Parish of East 
Feliciana, La., for about six years, also superintendent of public schools. 
For two years, (1849-50) he taught the High School in Carrollton, 111., when 
be retired from public life to his farm, and devoted himself exclusively to 
writing for the press. 


For the Baptist Publication Society of Philadelphia, he wrote, "Alice 
Wade, " " Going to Mill, " " Lame Isaac" and " Little Granite, " for the 
copyright of which, he received quite a sum of money. All of these have 
been stereotyped and may be found in a catalogue of their publications. 
About this time he also wrote " Clandine Lavolle" and " The Mormoness, " 
I The Drama of Human Life," " The Emegrant " and " The Lost Patent, " 
besides filling the Baptist papers week after week and year after year, with 
articles on all subjects, for which he hardly received thanks. 

From his early manhood he was a bitter opponent of African slavery and 
some of his vainest efforts were leveled at the "divine institution." His 
letters to " John Kelly, born in Massachusetts, " attracted national attention. 
John Kelly was a " Missouri Border Ruffian " in the Kansas troubles, and 
one of the most insanely devilish, of all of the cut-throats of that trying 
time; and publicly boasted that he was born in Massachusetts. Father more 
than •' skinned him alive, " along with others of his ilk. His articles were 
published in the St. Louis Intelligencer. Many attempts were made to dis- 
cover the author, but in vain, the editor kept the secret well. 

In 1843, he returned home from Louisville, Ky., and found that the " wolf 
of hell, " in the form of one Chandler a half Atheistic, half Universalist 
preacher, had broken into the little fold of the Baptist church, and badly 
scattered the flock. He began preaching to the remnant of the flock, and 
finally, preached a sermon against the Universalist Salvation, from the text 
" Thou Shalt Not Surely Die, " so hot and caustic that it made him so many 
bitter enemies, of those whom he had been accustomed to call brother, that 
he gave up preaching and went back to Louisiana, and went once more to 
teaching. I. M. Peck was at our house soon after the sermon was delivered, 
and father showed him the manuscript; Peck put the MSS. in his pocket, and 
its subsequent publication, with Peck as editor, was the outcome. The little 
book is entitled " The Serpent Uncoiled." It went through three editions 
m& was in its time popular. In Little Granite, he had Governor Bissell as 
bus hero. Bissell and he had long been friends. 

About 1831, he wrote for the Illinois Monthly Magazine an article entitled 
' Three Hundred Years Hence." It was in the form of a dream and set 
:orth what this country would be, three hundred years hence. Among other 
predictions, he dreamed that the river at St. Louis was spanned by a bridge. 
3e ends his dream by saying, that if any one did not like his dreaming, he 
?ave them full right to do their own dreaming. 

Thomas Lippencot, who wrote under the nom de plume of "Salem," as my 
ather did under that of "Bluffdale," in a criticism says, that he thinks that 
Bluffdale rather overdone the thing even for a dream, in dreaming a bridge 
icross the turbulent, boiling Mississippi at St. Louis! 

After that the Eads bridge became a foregone conclusion, Judge N. Ranny 
yrote to me to enquire if a copy of that dream was yet in existence, and if 
o, requested a copy for publication. 

I answered by sending him a copy. It was reprinted in the Missouri Re- 
•ublican and read at the dedication of the bridge. 

When the Mormons were driven out of Missouri in 1838, by mob violence, 
lidney Rigdon, Parley Pratt and a number of fugitives stopped at our house 
or shelter and hospitality. Father heard from them the heartrending stories 
|nd barbarity of the cut-throat Missourians, hence came the story of "Mary 
'ilaverick, the Mormoness." In this book he has not overstated or exagger- 
ated a single fact. The Rev. Mr. Merrick was a Baptist preacher and 
il reached in Missouri and Illinois in early times, but was finally led astray, 
I nd went over to the Mormom faith (the wife of whom was the Mary Maver- 
I ;k of the story.) In their retreat from Missouri, he and others being closely 
t|ressed, took refuge im a blacksmith's shop, but they were betrayed, and 
iiaptured, and shot down like dogs. His only son, a lad of eight years of age, 
Had hidden under the bellows, but was dragged out by a ruffian; the boy 
ravely cried out, "I am an American citizen! I am an American citizen! ! " 


but the Missouri barbarian put the muzzle of his gun to the brave boy's head 
and blew his brains out; the women they let go, and Mrs. Merrick came 
back to Illinois to her friends, and not to Nauvoo, for she was not herself a 
very bigoted Mormon. 

Now, to relieve the sadness of the story, I will relate an anecdote of this 
same Merrick. Like a great many at the present time, he was very boister- 
ous in his declamation, making much more noise than was absolutely neces- 
sary. Mother said, that one time after father had heard him preach, that he 
got up in the night and wrote something on a slip of paper. It was this: 

Good Brother Merrick may screech and may holler, 
As if his lungs wasn't worth more'n six bits or a dollar; 
But of his throat and his lungs he'd best have a care, 
For his church is too stingy to buy a new pair! 

In 1832 and '33 father was Sunday school agent, employed by some eastern 
society. He planted Sunday schools in almost all the counties in Southern 

My father was a small man, about 5 feet 6 inches in stature, with dark au- 
burn hair, large, deep blue eyes, and of a very light complexion; he was of 
a cheerful, jovial disposition, very fond of a good joke well told; some of his 
best productions were of a humorous nature. Only a few of his most inti- 
mate friends knew the whole worth of his generous heart, his pure manhood, 
his patriotism, and more than loyal friendship. His intercourse with the 
world was marked by the most childlike gentleness. His simple reliance 
upon Providence, his unshaken faith in tne power and efficacy of prayer r 
have marked with a ray of Divine light, his pathway down the rugged ways 
of life. His love for children was more than womanly in its tenderness; he 
never saw a child however humble and obscure, however unkempt or un- 
washed, but that he had a pat on the head for him, and a kind and cheerful 
word. He was the beloved playmate of all the ragged urchins in the neigh- 
borhood, and his kindness had left its mark upon their hearts; for many of 
them as they gathered around his coffin to take their last look upon a face 
that never met them without a smile — wept with a sorrow that would not be 

Kind hearted as a woman, he would not have needlessly set his foot upon 
a worm. The poor and unfortunate, whatever might be their character, he 
never turned empty away from his door. He was generous to a fault, im- 
poverishing himself that he might cast plenty into the lap of those he loved* 
Putting implicit confidence in the integrity of all mankind, |he was over- 
reached in almost every pecuniary transaction, as careless of worldly wealth 
as he was grasping after the wealth of science. 

Few have been more ardently devoted to the welfare of the whole world, 
more earnestly striving for the liberty and education of all that bear the 
image of God. 

He died on the 21st day of January, 1863. He died of old age; his close 
application to books and book making had worn him out prematurely. 

Though his illness was severe, yet his death was calm and serene, like flow- 
ers at set of sun. He died with all the confident hope of a true Christian; he 
was not afraid to trust that God whom he had loved and served for fifty years. 
His last spoken words were ''confidence! confidence!!" After he could no 
longer speak, ;he wrote upon a slate, "see that Brother Bulkley's children 
have some apples.'' Justus Bulkley, D. D., preached the funeral sermon 
from Ecclesiastes chapter 2, first and second verses. 

Bluffdale, Greene county, Illinois, May, 1900. 

P. S. — I should have said in this sketch that the old Chicago University 
conferred upon John Russell the degree of LL. D., with which he was in his 
old age much more gratified than he would have been in his younger days. 
Father told me that for a long time he had had the idea of the "Venomous 
Worm" in his head, but had not yet committed a line of it to writing. That 
he had agreed with the editor of the "Columbian" to write two or three 
articles for his paper, in payment of his subscription, and that the editor had 
called upon him for one of the promised articles, and that he sat down and in 


less than the quarter of an hour he committed "The Venomous Worm" to- 
paper; that it was but once copied from the original draft, and that at that 
time he had no idea that he had written an article that would outlive all else 
that he had written or would write. Mr. Brown, editor of the Alton Courier, 
told me that he read "The Venomous Worm" when a school boy in the High- 
lands of Scotland. It has been rendered into poetry several times, and the 
authorship attributed to several different ones; and it has been published in 
all the temperance almanacs, and many temperance papers, both in England 
and America. John Knapp, editor of the Missouri Republican, was very 
anxious that I should say that it was first published in his paper, and offered 
me a life subscription if I would so assert. The Columbian was a small paper 
published at St. Charles, Missouri, in early days. S, S. R. 


An Incident in the Early History of Morgan County, Illinois. 

By John Yaple. 

When I was a small boy, about five years of age, 1 witnessed an event that 
made a deep impression on my childish mind; and although more than 
seventy years have passed since it occurred, it is still retained vividly in my 

A few months before that time my father, Jacob Yaple, and his brother, 
John Yaple, had moved into the northeastern part of Morgan county, and 
taken up land on the headwaters of Indian Creek, that runs through the 
southern part of what is now Cass county, and empties into the Illinois river. 
They made improvements on the land, and each family (of the two brothers) 
occupied a cabin not far apart (in the present limits of Cass county), one on 
each side of the little branch, in order that they might use water from the 
same spring. 

We children of both families played together and had all things for our use 
or amusement in common. One day late in the fall, in the year of 1827, I 
think it was, while playing in the woods a few hundred yards from our 
cabins, we children were suddenly greatly frightened by seeing a lot of 
Indians coming through the woods and making straight for our homes. 
There was quite a number of them, men, women and children, with a few 
horses and some dogs. On one of their horses they had several wild turkeys 
they had killed that morning; and going to my father's cabin, after all 
hands drinking out of the spring, they proposed to my mother swapping the 
turkeys for her chickens. My mother, I remember, was not inclined to part 
with her much-prized fowls, on which she partly depended for the support of 
the family; but the Indians, seeing that no men were about, caught several 
of the chickens, and left in their stead an equal number of turkeys, and then 
proceeded on their way to the northward. These Indians were not on the 
war path, having their families along, and were very good humored and 
friendly. They were a party of Sacs who had left their tribe encamped on, 
or above, Peoria lake, and had gone down the Illinois river on a hunting ex- 
cursion, and were now on their return, traveling along the edge of the 

At the time they arrived at our place father and Uncle John were gone to a 
neighbors, eight miles away, to assist in a "house raising," as was customary 
in those days. The house to be raised was a log cabin, such as ours, to be 
raised by ''notching down" the corners as it was built up. We had no near 
neighbors, and my aunt had gone, a little while before, on horseback out 
into the prairie to look for the cows, leaving her baby, a few months old, 
asleep in its cradle. And I remember that cradle well — it was made of the 
bark of a large walnut tree with split board ends and rockers. 

We children were very much afraid of the Indians, and we ran to our house 
on seeing them, and huddled together in the corner under the bed. Mother 
went out and shut the cabin door to keep them from coming in, and we 
watched her with great anxiety from our hiding place, through the cracks 
between the logs. After the Indians left we felt greatly relieved at their 
departure and crawled out. We were running around, looking over the 
ground and watching to see if our unwelcome visitors might be coming back 
again, when a noise in the direction of Uncle's cabin attracted our attention 
that way. We had not seen my aunt get back, but just then I saw her come 
out of her cabin door, and screaming to my mother to come there, she fell to 


the ground as if shot. I ran into our house and told mother that Aunt Ellice 
had called her and then fell down dead. Mother rushed out and ran to her 
and caught hold of her, and seeing that she was not dead, went into her 
cabin for some spirits of camphor; and there she at once discovered the 
cause of aunt's distress. The cradle was empty, the Indians having stolen 
her child. 

Of course nothing could be done until the return of the men folks, which 
could not be expected until about midnight; and neither mother or aunt 
knew just where they had gone, and if they had known, there was no one to 
send for them; and aunt was too much prostrated to go, and mother couldn't 
leave her. So they could do nothing but cry and wring their hands. On the 
arrival of father and uncle, late in the night, they were soon informed of 
what had occurred. 

They were both resolute and fearless pioneers, and began right away to 
make arrangements to follow the Indians. Uncle John went for their two 
nearest neighbors, Daniel and Alex. Eobertson, who saddled their horses, 
and getting their rifles and ammunition, came with him. The four men, 
mounted on good horses, and Aunt Ellice on another one, with an extra 
horse to carry bedding and provisions required for the expedition, started 
about daybreak, taking a due north course. There were then neither roads^ 
ferries or bridges in this part of the State ; and the sun was their guide by 
day to the direction they desired to follow. It soon began raining, and when 
they got to the Sangamon river the water was up, and they were delayed 
some little time in finding a suitable place for swimming their horses across. 
Though the Indians were all afoot, with two or three horses to carry their 
traps, they traveled fast, and the rain made their trail hard to follow. Father 
and his party pushed on all the day time, and camped wherever night over- 
took them, when they would build a big fire, and dry their clothes and cook 
supper; then be off again before day light next morning. The high water in 
the Mackinaw gave them considerable trouble; but they got across it too by 
swimming; and continuing the chase they finally came to the main camp of 
the Indians at the lower end of Peoria Lake. Going at once to the chief's 
lodge they soon told him, by aid of a half-breed who could speak English a 
little, what they had come for. The chief said he knew nothing about it, 
and did not know that the band that went down the river hunting had yet re- 
I turned; and if they had returned he could not tell where they were, as the 
Indians of his tribe were scattered on both sides of the river from that point — 
at the foot the lake — to where Joliet now stands. He told them to hunt 
through the different camps, and if they could find the child to take it, and 
he sent an Indian with them for their protection. Then commenced the 
search in earnest. They crossed and recrossed the Illinois river several 
| times, paddling over in canoes and leading the swimming horses behind 
them. The child was stolen from its cradle by a young squaw who had, 
while down the river, lost her babe, by death, of about the same age as this 
3ne. Seeing the white baby asleep in the cabin, with no one about the 
place, her motherly feelings overcame her and she carried the child off. It 
aad replaced her dead babe in her affections, and she did not want to part 
vvith it; so, when she heard that its parents were in pursuit of it she hid it 
n a dark corner of one of the lodges. Father and Uncle John were very 
liligent in their search; and having the chief's authority, they looked into 
3very place about the Indian camps where the child could possibly be se- 
creted. At length their perseverance was rewarded. Looking in one of the 
odges behind a stack of dry deer skins they found the lost child securely 
strapped to a board after the Indian method of cradling their children. The 
I ;quaw-mother parted with the baby she had stolen very reluctantly, and 
vept piteously when its white mother took it away. 

The captured child, while showing great need of a white woman's care, ap- 

neared rugged and healthy. As a boy he was always conspicuous for his 

jirect figure; and we used to say that his straight back was the result of hav- 

ng been strapped to a board while in the hands of his Indian-mother. The 

mrty, having the additional care of the baby, and bad weather, had a rough 


trip back home; but arrived all well and very tired, much to they relief of 
my mother, who had remained in the cabin alone with the children of both 
families. The stolen babe mentioned is now, December 30, 1899, an old 
man, residing in Hancock county, in this State; and often tells of his infant 
experience — not from memory of course ; but as narrated to him by his 
courageous parents. 

Virginia, Cass Co., Illinois, December 30, 1899. 

Written by Dr. J. F. Snyder from the account given by him orrally by 
Mr. John Yaple. 



Some Old Letters by, and Relating to, the Distinguished 


(By Joseph Wallace, A. M.) 

The political history of Mr. Douglas is more widely known than that of any 
-other public man of Illinois, living or dead, with the single exception of Mr. 
Lincoln. But the beginnings of his remarkable career are not so familiar to 
the reading public; and it is for the purpose of throwing some additional 
light upon the earlier portion of his history that the writer hereof presents 
this series of letters. The first of these was written and addressed by Mr. 
Douglas to the editor of the "Illinois Patriot" (a Whig organ at Jacksonville) 
under date of March 8, 1837, and it is a very spirited defense of his course as 
& member of the Legislature from Morgan county, particularly with refer- 
ence to the question of the removal of the seat of government of the State 
from Vandalia to Springfield. The letter reads as follows: 

"Mr. Editor:— In your paper of the 22d of February last, there appears an 
editorial in which you make the specific charge that I had made an arrange- 
ment with the Sangamon delegation by which they were to use their influence 
to secure my appointment as Register of the Land Office [at Springfield], and 
that in consideration of their services I had abandoned the interests of my 
own constituents and was acting in concert with the Sangamon delegation in 
supporting Springfield for the seat of government. 

"Whilst I freely admit that the Representative who would be guilty of so 
flagrant an abuse of the trust reposed in him by a generous people would 
justly merit, as he would certainly receive, the execration of every honest 
man, I also hold that the man who would make and publish a false charge of 
that magnitude for the purpose of blasting the character of a political oppo- 
nent who was absent on public duty, and consequently unable to defend him- 
self, should meet with the same scorn and indignation of a virtuous people. 
Having made the charge, one which impeaches my integrity as a man and 
my fidelity as a Representative, you are bound by every principle of honor 
and honesty to exhibit the evidence to substantiate its truth, or publicly re- 
tract the slander, and the failure on your part to do so must be taken as con- 
clusive evidence of the falsity of the charge and malice in which it had its 
origin. Conscious of my own innocence and of the rectitude of my conduct, 
I am impelled to demand the proof, so that the people may see whether I 
have been the traitor or you the slanderer. 

" It is not true that any arrangement was made or any understanding ex- 
isted between the Sangamon delegation and myself in relation to a land office, 
the seat of government, or any other measure. It is not true that one solitary 
member of that delegation signed a recommendation in my favor, or was in 
jany way concerned in it. That recommendation was got up by my 
friends without my solicitation or knowledge, and when the fact was com- 
municated to me I told them that I did not desire that or any other appoint- 


ment under the government, that 1 looked to the people and not the govern- 
ment for any favor I might ask. So far from there being any arrangement 
or concert of action between the Sangamon delegation and myself, it was my 
misfortune to differ on almost every important question that came before the 
Legislature, and more especially on the location of the seat of government. 
That was the all-absorbing topic with them, and with that view they used 
every exertion and made every necessary sacrifice to secure the passage of 
the bill, which recently became a law, on that subject. To that bill I was 
opposed in every form and shape it assumed, from its first appearance in the 
House up to its final passage. My decided and uncompromising opposition 
to that bill, and to the object intended to be accomplished by its passage, ar- 
rayed the Sangamon delegation en masse against me. So notorious was this 
fact at the seat of government at the time your paper containing the above 
charge was received that no person of any political party who hesitated for 
an instant to pronounce it a base slander. I defy you to find any one of my 
colleagues, or any member of either branch of the Legislature, or any in- 
dividual who will, in the slightest degree, confirm the charge and become 
responsible for its truth. I make the statement with the more assurance and 
fearlessness, because I feel confident that each and all of them must know 
and will do me the justice to say that the whole charge is a mere fabrication, 
false as the heart that conceived it and the hand that penned it. I therefore 
call upon you to establish its truth or admit its falsity. 

"In relation to your remark that you had, 'before the last August election,, 
told the people that S. A. Douglas was an office hunter,' I will only say that 
when I shall have applied for and accepted an office at the hands of the gov- 
ernment, it will then be time enough for you to talk about office hunters. 

"S. A. Douglas. 
"Jacksonville, March 8, 1837." 

This vigorous and virile epistle is one among the earliest printed effusions 
from Mr. Douglas 5 pen, and for this reason it has a special significance for 
the reader. Considered with reference to his age at the time (he was a little 
under twenty-four) , the letter shows uncommon maturity of mind as well as 
command of language, and it is otherwise marked by certain of those excel- 
lencies and defects of style which distinguish his later published utterances,, 
whether written or spoken. 

Having taken up his residence in Springfield, Mr. Douglas, in April, 1840,. 
was nominated by the Democrats of Sangamon county as a candidate for Rep- 
resentative in the State General Assembly; but the great presidential cam- 
paign of that year, in which he took a prominent part, being then in active 
progress, he declined the nomination in the subjoined graceful letter: 

"Colonel Robert Allen. 

"Sir: — Your note, as president of the late Democratic county convention,, 
informing me of my nomination as a candidate for Representative in our 
Legislature is received. I feel grateful to the Democracy of Sangamon for 
their continued confidence and esteem. Considerations of a private nature, 
however, constrain me to decline the nomination, and leave the field to those 
whose avocations and private affairs will enable them to devote the requisite 
portion of their time to the canvass. You will accept my thanks for the very 
complimentary manner in which you have pleased to communicate the result 
of the deliberations of the convention. 

"I am, sir, very respectfully, 

"Your fellow citizen, 

"S. A. Douglas* 

"Springfield, 111., April 29, 1840." 


The following private and hitherto unpublished letter, written by Mr - 
Douglas while he was a member of the Lower House of Congress to CoL 
Archer G. Herndon, of Springfield, (father of the late Hon. Wm. Herndon,) 
may be perused with interest, as it contains an allusion to the Oregon bon- 
dary dispute, which was at that time a burning issue in Congress: 

"Washington, [D. C] April 14, 1846. 

" My Dear Sir: — I have delayed answering your several letters partly for 
want of time, and partly because I could not say with any certainty what 
would be done. But by this morning's 'Union' I see that you have been 
re-appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. I claim no 
credit for this appointment, for it was made without my knowedge. I had 
not supposed that it would be decided upon by the President for some time 
to come, and for this reason had never spoken to him or the cabinet on the 
subject. This statement is due to you, as well as to others to whom you are 
indebted for the appointment. 

" We are now engaged in the discussion of the bill to extend the laws over 
Oregon. The bill will pass in some shape on Thursday. I hope it will pass 
in a satisfactoey shape. 

" I shall be glad to hear from you often. 

Your friend, 

"S. A. Douglas." 
"Col. A. G. Herndon." 


In April, 1878, in answer to a letter of inquiry concerning the family and 
ancestry of Mr. Douglas, the writer of this paper received from Mr. Eugene 
J. Granger, of Clifton Springs, N. Y. (a nephew of Senator Douglas) an in- 
eresting letter, of which the following is the principal portion: 

"Clifton Springs, Ontario Co., N. Y., April 21, 1878. 

"Dear Sir:— In reply to your letter of the 17th I would state: 1st. That 
Senator Douglas' sister, who married my father, Julius N. Granger, was 
named Sarah Arnold Douglas, and she was married Feb. 14, 1830. There 
were three children — myself, sister Emma, now Mrs. Sidney D. Jackson, and 
Adelaide, afterward Mrs. J . F. Hoyt. Mrs. Hoyt died the 12th of April, 1860. 

"2d. The christian name of my grandfather Granger was Gehazi. He was 
married to Mrs. Sally Douglas, mother of Sarah A. and Stephen A. Douglas, 
Nov, 27, 1830. 

" Third— The occupation of Benajah Douglass (grandfather of the senator) 
was farming, after he came to Brandon, Vt., and he died there. Cannot say 
whether he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. 

" Fourth— Both of the grandmothers of Senator Douglass were named 
Arnold, and not known to be in anywise related. 

" Fifth — My mother's knowledge of matters embraced in your fifth inquiry 
consists of ancient memoranda, as follows: William Douglass (the first) was 
born in Scotland in 1610, and emigrated to America, date not known: but the 
birth of his son, William, is recorded in Boston, Mass., in March 1645. Wm. 
Douglas, born in 1610, was married in 1640 to Mary Ann, daughter of 
Thomas Marble, of Northampton, England. He died July 26, 1682, in his 
seventy-second year. 

"William Douglass (2d) born March 1, 1645, was married December 16, 
1667, to Abiah, daughter of William Hugh, of New London, Conn., where 
the father and family had removed from Boston. William Douglass (the 
second) had two sons and five daughters. His oldest son (also William by 
name) was born April 19, 1672, and removed to Plainfield, Connecticut. By 
his wife, Sarah, he had eight sons and three daughters. The youngest of 
:hese eight sons was Asa, born December 15, 1715, and died November 12, 
L792. He married Rebecca Wheeler, who was born Aug. 26, 1718, and died 
June 12, 1809. Asa Douglass had thirteen children, seven sons and six daughters. 

—8 H 


Benajah Douglass (the youngest of these sons and the maternal great grand- 
father of E. J. Granger), was born December 15, 1760, and died October 2, 

" My mother has no means of informing you when my great grandfather 
came to Brandon, Vt. Our records show that the first William known to us, 
resided in Boston, Mass., and moved from there to New London, Conn., 
with his family, — the second William afterwards removing to Plainfield, 

" I believe I have replied substantially to your inquiries, but will be glad to 
give you any further information in our power. * * 

" Yours sincerely, 

" E. J. Granger." 

It appears from the foregoing genealogical record that Mr. Douglas was of 
mixed Scotch and English blood, but with a predominance of the latter. It 
further appears from this record, as also from inscriptions on the old family 
tombstones in the cemetery at Brandon, Vermont, that the paternal ances- 
tors of the Senator spelled their surname with a double s, but he himself 
dropped the final s from his signature after coming to Illinois. 


In the spring of 1871, in passing by rail through western Vermont, the 
writer of this paper stopped for a short time at Brandon, the natal place and 
first home of Senator Douglas, and from that sequestered town he wrote and 
addressed to the "Illinois State Register" the following descriptive letter: 

"Brandon, Vt., April 14, 1871. 

"To the Editor of State Register:— The readers of the Register are mostly 
aware of the fact that the late Senator Douglas was born in Brandon, but 
few of them, perhaps, have any definite knowledge of the place. Having 
spent some hours in rambling about through this picturesque old town, I 1 
thought the result of my observations might be of interest to your many 

"Brandon lies on the Rutland and Burlington division of the Vermont Cen- 
tral Railway, seventeen miles north of Rutland (the county seat), in a beau- 
tiful valley on the western slope of the ever green Green Mountains. It was 
first settled in 1787, and now numbers a population of 3,500 souls. The 
streets cross each other at all possible angles, and are ornamented by grand 
old shade trees, which must render the place a delightful resort in the sum- 
mer season. 

"In this vicinity, and all along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, are 
extensive quarries of Vermont marble, of which the new wings of the capitol 
at Washington were built. In fact marble is so plentiful and so cheap, that 
it is used for almost every building purpose. 1 was shown today the pulpit 
in the old Congregational church here, which is built of the purest white 
marble, highly polished-, and was presented to the church by the owners of 
one of the quarries. It cost two thousand dollars. 

" There are two hotels in the place, one called the Brandon House and the 
other the Douglas Hotel, at either of which the traveler will find good ac- 

" The greatest curiosity in the town is its "frozen well," the only one of 
its kind, perhaps, in the whole country. Its depth to the surface of the 
water is twenty-eight feet, and it remains frozen for eleven months in the 
year. Scientific mem from Boston and elsewhere have examined this well, 
but have not been able to satisfactorily explain the secret of its almost per- 
petual congelation. 

" But to the Illinoisan Brandon is only of special interest from its connec- 
tion with the early life of Stephen A. Douglas. I strolled through the old 
cemetery adjoining the Congregational church where the father of the sena- 
tor was buried. On a plain stone of bluish marble at the head of his grave 


is this simple inscription: "Dr. Stephen A. Doug-lass. Died July 1, 1813, in 
the 32d year of his age. 1 ' By his side lie the remains of his father and mother, 
the former of whom deceased in 1829, aged 69, and the latter in 1818, in the 
56th year of her age. Benajah Douglass, the grandfather of the senator, 
was one of the earliest settlers of the village. He was a farmer by occupa- 
pation and accumulated considerable property for his day and place. I am 
told, however, by an old and well-informed resident of this town, that the 
senator's talents were supposed to be mainly inherited from his grandmother, 
Martha (Arnold) Douglass, who is said to have been a woman of more than 
ordinary intellect and force of character. 

" I also visited the house where Stephen A. was born, and where his father 
died. It is a plain little brown frame, one and one-half stories high, and has 
been owned and occupied by a family of the name of Hyatt for about forty 
years. The front portion of the house has undergone but little alteration 
since the time of Mr. Douglas' birth. It will be remembered that the widow 
of Doctor Douglass, soon after his death, removed to a farm a few miles in 
the country, which she and her brother had jointly inherited from their 
father, and there lived until her second marriage, in 1830, when the family 
removed to Ontario county, New York. 

"As I stood here in this quiet New England town, before the modest cottage 
where Senator Douglas first saw the light of day, I thought of the wonderful life 
of this wonderful little man, — how he was cradled and passed his childhood 
in obscurity among these verdant hills and mountains; of his transition hence 
to Canandaigua, New York, and schooling in the academy there; of his sub- 
sequent removal to Cleveland, Ohio, and entrance upon the study of law; of 
his tedious journey southward and westward, down the Ohio and up the 
Mississippi to St. Louis, and thence to Jacksonville, Illinois; of his advent in 
Winchester in the character of a village pedagogue; of the commencement of 
his marvelous public career at the early age of twenty-two; of the rapidity 
with which he ascended the rounds of the ladder of political distinction until 
he reached a seat in the Senate of the United States, and there, from that 
theatre of his great fame, for fourteen years, spoke to the toiling millions of 
his admiring countrymen with a power, eloquence and effect rarely equalled 
or surpassed. I thought, too, of his many journeys back and forth over the 
land; of the peculiar magnetism of his personal presence, and the talismanic 
touch of his hand; of his memorable senatorial campaign against his great 
rival, Lincoln, in 1858, and of his still more memorable canvass for the 
presidency in 1860; of his last great efforts in favor of peace and union in the 
Senate; of his return to his loyed Illinois in the spring of 1861, and his 
speeches (in Springfield and Chicago) on the eve of a gigantic civil war; of 
his final illness and death in the commercial capital of the State, which he 
bad helped to make great and famous, and of the sorrowing multitude that 
followed him to an honored grave. 

"A decade has now elapsed since the dauntless spirit of the 'Little Giant' 
passed from time to eternity. During that brief period great events have 
followed each other in quick succession, and great political changes have 
3ome over this and other and distant lands, the full influence of which can 
is yet be only conjectured. Many of the Senator's contemporaries sleep in 
;he house appointed for all living. Other men now stride across the public 
>tage, where he once moved with the proud and self-reliant air of a master. 
Another man now occupies his seat, though he may not fill his place in the 
Senate chamber. In the hurry of this advancing age, many of the incidents 
)f his checkered life are fading from the recollections of men; his great 
Dolitical speeches are comparatively seldom read or quoted; even his unfin- 
shed monument, emblematic of his unfinished career, is a ruin.* But, still, 
he name of Douglas will live in the story of his country's history, a bright 
exemplar for aspiring youth, and be transmitted with increased luster to 
ifter ages. 

"J. W." 


*Note— Shortly after the lamented demise of Mr. Douglas, in June, 1861, 
in association was formed and chartered in Chicago for the purpose of rais- 


ing money with which to erect a fitting monument to his memory. The cor- 
ner stone of this monument was laid on the lake shore at Chicago with im- 
posing ceremonies, September 6, 1866, and work on the same was continued 
until the sub-structure and vault were built. After this, for want of funds, 
the mausoleum was permitted to remain in an unfinished state for ten years. 
At length, in 1877, the Illinois Legislature appropriated fifty thousand dollars 
to complete the monument, and in 1879 a further appropriation of nine thou- 
sand dollars was made for that purpose. But it was not until some time in 
1881 that the Douglas monument was finally completed. The total cost of 
the structure, including the cost of the large lot of ground on which it stands 
(which was purchased by the State under an act passed in 1865, and appro- 
priating twenty-five thousand dollars for the purpose), must have amounted 
to something over one hundred thousand dollars. More recently the General 
Assembly, at the session of 1901, appropriated thirty-five hundred dollars for 
making needed repairs upon the monument. 




in Account of the Discovery of the Graves of the Men Who Fell 
in the "Battle of Stillman's Run," on May 14, 1862. 

By Rev. ft. W. Newlands. of Stillman Valley, Illinois. 

Illinois has always been ready to give of her sons for the defense of her 
ountry, yet unlike many other states, she has seen but few battles on her own 
oil. Not merely because Major Stillman's fight was one of those few, but 
•ecause of its far-reaching results, do I feel that the State should aid in 
ommemorating an event, the importance of which is not appreciated as it 
jught to be. For it is undoubtedly true that in this engagement the blood of 
Lmerican soldiers was shed for the first time in the Black Hawk war. It is 
lso true that the wild alarm that spread over Illinois on the defeat of Still- 
lan and his small force, because of the exaggerated reports as to the num- 
ber of Indians engaged, caused the calling out of several thousand of men, 
Abraham Lincoln being one of them), and the final result was the complete 
verthrow and expulsion of the red man, and the opening of the beautiful and 
3rtile Rock River valley for the settlement by the whites. The whole of 
orthern Illinois and southern Wisconsin was profoundly affected by this 

Having lived in Black Hawk's country for nearly six years, most of that 
me within twenty miles of what was once the chief town of the Sac nation, 
have since been interested in the struggles of that great chief to retain the 
md of his fathers, and I have at different times examined the chief author- 
ies on the subject. Coming to Stillman Valley nearly two years ago, I at 
nee resumed my study of the Sac warrior, and particularly the part he 
layed in the battle, if such it may be called, of " Stillman's Run." Putting 
)gether accounts in histories, and reliable statements made by some of our 
Idest settlers, I became convinced that it would not be difficult to get at the 
icts in the case. My interest naturally centered around the hill on which 
le fight took place, and where it was generally believed the dead were 
uried. But opinions varied as to the real place of burial, while some held 

ay were not buried on the hill at all, bat some distance to the south of it. 

no the number said to be buried there varied from five to eleven. It was 
enerally believed, however, that the spot has been regarded as the place of 
jpulture by Joshua White, who received the land from the government, and 
ad on that account refused to have the virgin soil broken by the plow. 

| A few years ago this ground was platted— Joshua White having died— and 
le property four years ago was bought by Dr. E. P. Allan, who, fifteen 
onths ago, offered it for sale at public auction. Feeling that it might 
3 bought by some one for building purposes, the sacred spot desecrated, 
I id perhaps finally forgotten, 1 determined, if possible, to locate beyond a 
ijradventure, the exact spot where the volunteers were laid. 

I On Tuesday afternoon, November 14, 1899, J. A. Atwood and I started for 
ie hill, spade in hand. We first examined the stratification of the hill as re- 
galed in the cut made for the road running east across the brow of the hill, 
be strata, as expected, were clearly marked. A loamy superficial soil about 
n inches deep, then a yellowish sandy sub-soil of about the same depth, fol- 
wed by a pea-gravel running into coarser gravel. With this information, 
e felt that if we located the graves, the spot would be identified by the 
ixed earth, sand and gravel, and particularly by the presence of gravel on 


the surface. We tested the ground at every place where the grave was sup- uii 
posed to be, but we found only the pure black loam in every case. I presume [re 
we tried from forty to fifty different spots without a clue. Then I went ovei 
to the western slope of the hill and tried in several places there, although nc 
one supposed the graves to be on that side. I noticed a little gravel on the 
surface at one place, but fancied it had fallen off some passing wagon, as [if 
wagon tracks were plainly visible, and the ground seemed somewhat uneven; 
In attempting to scrape the gravel off, I found it ran deeper, so, digging a 
hole some eighteen or twenty inches deep, and finding gravel still present, I 
was convinced that the ground here had been disturbed, and that in all prob- 
ability this was the long lost grave we sought. As evening was upon us, we 
decided to continue our excavations the next day. On the following morn- 
ing, November 15th, we were on the ground again. Enlarging the hole al- 
ready made, by scraping toward the south, I soon came to the end of the 
mixed earth. I judged that point to be the limit of the grave or trench, and 
proceeded to dig a hole about three feet square. After going down about two 
feet, I decided to take the earth out in thin layers, lest the bones might be 
broken. At a depth of about three feet I unearthed one of the phalanges of 
the right hand, then others, then the thigh bones immediately below, and I 
saw that we had alighted on the middle of the body of the man who had been 
laid at the end of the row in the trench. Every bone was carefully removed 
one by one without breaking. The suggestion that it might be the skeleton 
of an Indian was quickly set aside when several buttons and a vest buckle 
were discovered, and a minute later the skull was taken out, showing every 
tooth present, and without a single sign of decay. The skull had not the 
prominent cheekbones, nor the retreating forehead of the Indian. But the 
lower limbs and feet, which were removed last, dispelled any doubt that may 
have remained in the minds of the crowd of spectators who had by this time 
assembled; for it was found that the cavalry boots which the soldiers wore 
when killed, were still intact, and the blanket in which he had been wrapped 
for burial was plainly seen, although it had rotted too much to permit of its 
being removed from the grave even in very small pieces. The skeleton was 
evidently that of a man over six feet in height, as the femur measured 
twenty-two inches in length. The body had been buried on its back, but the 
face was turned downward, showing that he had been decapitated. For a 
skeleton that had been in the grave for over sixty- seven years, it was in a re- 
markably well preserved condition, doubtless owing to the sandy nature of 
the soil and the dry location. The bones were all replaced in a suitable box 
and reinterred in the same spot. The other bodies were not disturbed, but 
the extent of the trench was determined and the limits marked by posts. 
Since then the property has been bought by the "Battleground Memorial 
Association" which was organized immediately after the recovery of the 
graves, and duly incorporated under the laws of the State. The sacred spot 
was decorated for the first time last Memorial Day. 

It may not be inappropriate to recall the circumstances under which thosei 
men lost their lives. 

The treaty of 1804, by which certain chiefs of the Sac and Fox Indians 
ceded to the United States government their lands on Rock River and else- 
where, was confirmed by other chiefs of the same nations in 1815, but Black 
Hawk, who was a leader by nature but not a chief by birth, bitterly opposed 
the sale, and always declared that the Indiaus who ceded the lands had been 
intoxicated and bribed by the whites, and insisted that the lands were not 
sold with the consent of the nation as a whole. Black Hawk with his people 
were, however, compelled to leave the Rock River valley for a government 
reservation in Iowa. In 1832, egged on by the false promises of the Prophet 
Neapope, of support from the Pottawottamies and Winnebagoes, Black 
Hawk recrossed the Mississippi with his women and children and three hun- 
dred braves, and took possession of the old cornfields. He was warned by 
Governor Atkinson to return to Iowa, but he refused. A call was made for 
volunteers, and these, under General's Atkinson and Whiteside, marched to 
Dixon's Ferry, where a reconnoisance was decided upon. Two officers, 
Majors Stillman aud Bailey, neither of whom had ever seen any fighting, 
begged to be put forward on some difficult service. To gratify them, they, 


ith their two battalions or mounted volunteers consisting of 275 men all told, 
ere ordered up Rock River to spy out the Indians. Pursuing his way on the 
a,st side of the river, Major Stillman came to what is now called Stillman 
reek, on May 14, 1832, and encamped at nightfall in the timber on the north 
de of the stream. As the volunteers were preparing for supper, three In- 
ians appeared coming from the north, one of them carrying a white flag, 
hey were met on approaching the camp, and one was ruthlessly shot, while 
le other two escaped. Another party of five Indians who had been seDt to 
atch the truce party, on hearing the shots and seeing the others fleeing, 
:arted back with all haste to the camp of Black Hawk on the Kishwaukee 
iver to give the alarm. A party of fifteen or twenty whites, chiefly of Cap- 
lin Ead's company, without orders or commander, started in hot pursnit, 
nd succeeded in overtaking and killing two of the fleeing Indians. Nearing 
le Indian camp the war whoop was raised, and Black Hawk, with about 
)rty of his warriors — all that were in camp at that time, advanced to meet 
le whites. Ead's men, doubtless judging by the yells that they were greatly 
utnumbered, immediately turned and fled, followed by the Sacs on their 
onies. Instead of drawing rein when they regained their camp, the terri- 
ed whites gave the alarm that hundreds of savages were at their heels. They 
Duld easily have formed in the timber and defeated ten times the number of 
lose pursuing, but, panic-struck, the men sprang to their horses, many of 
lem cutting the hitching straps after they had mounted, ani in disorderly 
ibble crossed the ford and dashed southward. On reaching the rising 
round on the south side of the creek, an attempt was made to rally the men 
ut it was of no avail. Many of them never stopped until they reached 
fixon, twenty-five miles away. Captain John G. Adams, with a dozen or so 
ithers, heroically covered the retreat of their companions and checked the 
ireer of the Indians, and many thereby escaped who would otherwise have 
dlen. But Adams himself, with three of his own company and five others, 
aid the price with their lives. 

On the arrival of the routed soldiers at the camp at Dixon's Ferry, with ex- 
bgerated stories of the numbers of their pursuers, a council of war was held 
i the night, and early the next morning 2,000 men marched to the scene of 
ie disaster and buried the dead. The nine who died on the hill were found 
iialped and fearfully mutilated, while Captain Adams and Major Perkins 
jere also decapitated. These nine were laid in one trench. It is generally 
blieved that eleven whites fell in the stampede but only ten names are to be 
fund in the Adjutant General's report, and these are as follows: 

; Captain John G. Adams, Pekin, 111. 
'Major Isaac Perkins, Pekin. 
I Sergeant John Walters, Fulton county. 
[Corporal Bird W. Ellis, Fulton county. 
! Corporal James Milton, Decatur. 
I Private Joseph Draper, Bloomington. 
Private David Kreeps, Pekin. 
| Private Zadock Mendinall, Pekin. 
^Private Tyrus M. Childs, Fulton county. 
^Private Joseph B. Farris, Fulton county. 

: . This report is, however, admittedly incomplete and inaccurate. The records 
sfare not collected and published until fifty years after the battle occurred. 

The early settlers of Stillman Valley, (a few of whom still survive) found 
> idences of Stillman's camp in the remains of baggage wagons, whisky bar- 
Li Is, tents, tin cups and parts of hitching straps tied to trees. 

INo one can read the history of our Indian wars without feeling that many 
if them were far from being a credit to the nation. And the Black Hawk 
■»ir in particular, was characterized by many acts, happily seldom heard of 
■ civilized warfare. From the shameless shooting down of the bearer of a 
ttg of truce, which shooting led to the utter routing of Stillman's men and 
fcj doubtedly precipitated the war, down to the final corraling and massacre- 
|? of a worn-out handful of braves, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, 
rtween an overwhelming force of whites on the shore, and the armed steam- 
lip "Warrior' 1 on the river, the white man appears oftenest as the savage, 


and. perhaps it is well that full official details have not been preserved. 
Nevertheless, there were many brave men who shouldered a musket at the 
call of Governor Reynolds, and who shortly thereafter — in one case only six- 
teen days — yielded their lives that the white settler might live in peace and 
happiness in the beautiful country of the Sacs and Winnebagoes. And the 
student of history will feel that the remains of some of those heroes lie on the 
hillock in Stillman Valley, now happily in known and marked graves. 

Robert W. Newlands, 

Stillman Valley, 111., 15 Jan., 1901. Pastor Congregational Church. 

[Note.— In 1901 the Forty-second General Assembly of Illinois appropriated 
the sum of $5,000 for the erection of a monument near Stillman Valley, in 
Ogle county, in memory of the ten soldiers of Major Josiah Stillman's command 
slain by Black Hawk's Indians near the head of Old Man's creek, on the 14th 
of May, 1832, whose remains were discovered in 1900, as related in the fore- 
going paper. 




No. 1 — A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois prior to 1880. 
D repared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., Professor in the University of Chi- 
cago, assisied by Milo J. Loveless, graduate student in the University of 
Chicago. 94 pages. 8°. Springfield, 1899. 

Publication No. 2— Information Relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois 
passed from 1809-1812. Prepared py Edmund J. James, Ph. D., Professor 
n the University of Chicago. 15 pages. 8°. Springfield, 1899. 

Publication No. 3 — The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund 
r. James, Ph. D., Professor in the University of Chicago. 143 pages. 8°. 
Springfield, 1901. 

Publication No. 4— Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
he year 1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., Secretary of the Society. 
>5 pages. 8°. Springfield, 1900. 

Publication No. 5 — Alphabetic catalog of the books, manuscripts, pictures 
md curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, titles and sub- 
ects. Compiled under the direction of the Board of Trustees of the library, 
>y the librarian, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pages. Springfield, 1900. 

-9 H 



I. Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 5-6 

II. List of Officers and members of the Society 7-8 

III. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting: of the Society, January 30-31, 1901 9-12 

IV. Annual report of the Secretary and Treasurer 13-15 

V. Suggestions. For organization of State Historical Society. By Dr. J. F- Snyder 16-18 

VI. Annual Address. By Dr. Reuben S. Thwaites, Secretary of the Wisconsin State 
Historical Society ? 19-25 

VII. Tbe objects of the German-American Historical Society, of Chicago, by Hon. 
William Vocke, its President 26-29 

VIII. The Influence of Government Land Grants for Educational Purposes upon 
the Educational System of the State. Jonuthan Baldwin Turner, by Prof. Wm. 

L. Pillsbury 30-40 

IX. Old Peoria. By Hon. David McCulloch 41-51 

X. Slavery in Illinois. By Hon. E. A. Snively 52-59 

XL Early reminiscences By A. W. French, D. D. S 60-62 

XII. The Oldest Civil Record in the West. By Hon. J. N. Perrin 63-65 

XIII. Illinois During the Revolution. By Mrs. Laura Dayton Fessenden 66-71 


XIV. Hon John M. Palmer. By Rev. Euclid B. Rogers 72-79 

XV. Hon. John A. McClernand. By Gen. Alfred Orendorff 80-85 

XVI. General James M. Ruggles. By P. L. Diffenbacher, M. D 86-89 


The Wood River Massacre. By Volney P. Richmond 93-95 

The Bennett-Stuart Duel. By James Affleck 96-102 

Prof. John Russell. By S. G. Russell. Esq 103-107 

An Incident in the Settling of Morgan County, Illinois. By John Yaple 108-110 

Some Old Letters by. and Relating to Stephen A.Douglas. By Joseph Wallace, A.M. 111-116 

Discovery of the Graves of the soldiers Who Fell at Stillman's Defeat 117-121 

List of Publications of Illinois State Historical Library 122 


Judge Nathaniel Pope. 

Why Chicago is Not in Wisconsin. 

By Judge J. 0. Humphrey. 

It was through one of the really important events of history that! 
the fourteen northern counties of Illinois were included in the 

boundaries of the state an 
that we are permitted to cal 
the people of Chicago an 
vicinity . Illinoisans. 

In 1818, when the enablin 
act was being discussed in 
congress for the admission 
of Illinois into the union, 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate from 
the territory of Illinois, urged 
that the northern boundary of 
the new state be moved north- 
ward a distance of fifty-one 

As originally fixed the ter- 
ritory of Illinois had for its 
northern boundary a line 
running east and west through 
the southern bend of Lake 
' Michigan. Pope argued chat 
the metropolis of the Northwest 
must be developed on Lake Michigan; that Illinois, by her 
fertility of soil, location, her great length, her eastern shore 
washed for 150 miles by the Ohio River, about the same distance 
.by the Wabash, and her western shore bounded by the Mississippi, 
would be forever united by commercial ties to the Gulf of Mexico 
and influences of the South. He saw that the channels of commerce 
must eventually reach east and north through the great lakes and 
that if Lake Michigan or the southern portion of it belonged to 
Illinois it would bind the state to Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and 
New York, and thus create a rival interest against the southern in- 
fluence; that this would make the state of Illinois the keystone 
of the national fabric; the cementing link which would hold the 
South to the East and the North; that in the days to come a 
canal would be built, which in connection with the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers would unite the lakes and the gulf and that when- 
ever the question of the dissolution of the union should be raised, 
as he argued it would be raised, Illinois would be the great central 
power that would save the union. 

So in that early day in January, 1818, on the floor of the house 
of congress Nathaniel Pope presented these arguments with such 
power that they were adopted without division. The boundary was 
moved northward for fifty-one miles, taking in what is now the 
fourteen northern counties of the state and the act also established 
a perpetual fund for the encouragement of learning. How like the 
voice of prophecy does this argument now appear! In less than 
fifty years every word spoken by Judge Pope was verified in his- 
tory. But for this change the canal would not have been built. 
But for this change the Illinois Central Eailroad, the creation of 
which was a chief distinction of Senator Douglas, would not have 
been built. It was the vote of these fourteen counties in 1854 
which sent Lyman Trumbull to the senate, and turned the state of 
Illinois right-about-face on the great question of slavery. It was 
the voice of these same counties which, two years later, saved the 
state to the party of Lincoln and made possible his candidacy for 
president of the United States. I need not go farther by way of 
suggesting the momentous train of events which followed as a result 
of Judge Pope 's work. 

The man who made this argument and controlled the action of 
congress and crave Chicago to the state of Illinois was Nathaniel 
Pope, the man who afterwards became district judge of the United 
States for the district of Illinois and who was the first man to 
hold the distinguished office- whose duties are now divided betweem 
Judge C. C. Kohlsaat, of Chicago, and the writer. Thus has been 
recorded in history a perpetual call upon Illinoisans of every age 
to remember the sacred trust reposed in them as the special cham- 
pions and guardians of the union by the great and wise men who 
adorned the councils of the nation in the early days of the republic. 
No more far-reaching, no more beneficial legislation has ever been 
secured by any public servant at any time on behalf of the state, 
and historians generally accord to Judge Pope the distinction of 
having achieved more lasting benefits to the state of Illinois during 
his brief service of delegate than can be accorded to any other