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President of Illinois State Historical Society. 1899-1903. 



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For the Year 1903. 

mm M[[i(! OF 1 1I[TY 

Springfield, January 27 and 28, 1903, 

Published by Authority of the Board of Trustees of the 
Illinois State Historical Library, 1903. 

'« (^DE5M 'ii° HcOUNdr? >Bg 

Phillips Bros., Statb Pbimtbbs, 



H. W. Beckwith, President, Danville. 

E. J. James, Ph. D., Vice Prendent, Evanston. 

George N. Black, Secretary, Springfield. 


J. H. BuRNHAM, Chairman. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer We^er. 

E. B. Greene, Ph. D. 

Dr J. F. Snyder, President of the Society, ex-offlcio. 





Llstof officers of the Illinois State Historical Society V 

List of members of tiie Illinois State Historical Society VI 

Committees of the Illinois State Historical Society II 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society VIII 

Transactions of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, 

January 27 and 28, 1903 1 

Business meetinsT 1-6 

Committee reports 6-9 

Literary sessions 9-126 

Program of exercises 10 

Address of welcome, Hon. Wm. A. Northcott, Lieutenant Governor of Illinois 11 

Response to the address of welcome. Dr. J. F. Snyder, First Vice President of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 12-15 

Annual address. The Constitutional Conventions and Constitutions of Illinois, Hon. 

Adlai E. Stevenson 16-30 

The Mines of JoDaviess County, Hon. William Spensley 31-37 

Old Fort Massac, Mrs. M. T. Scott 88-64 

Men and Manners of the Early Days in Illinois, Dr- A. W. French 66-74 

Sectional Forces in the History of Illinois, Evarts B. Greene, Ph. D 75-83 

Decisive Events in the Building of Illinois, Hon. William H. Collins 84-96 

Edward Coles, Second Governor of Illinois, Mrs. S.P. Wheeler 97-104 

Fort de Chartres. Its Origin, Growth and Decline, Joseph Wallace, M. A 105-117 

A Few Notes for an Industrial History of Illinois, Bthelbert Stewart, United States De- 
partment of Labor, Chicago 118-121 

Necrologist's Report— In Memoriam 122-125 

Gen. Elisha B. Hamilton of Quincy 122-123 

James Affleck of Belleville, an Honorary Member of the Illinois 

State Historical Society 124-125 

Addendum— Papers Contributed to the Illinois State Historical Society, 1903 128-302 

Prairie du Rocher Church Records, with Translation by Rev. C. J. Esch- 

mann 128-149 

Travels in Illinois in 1819, by Ferdinand Ernst, Translation by Prof. E. P. 

Baker of McKendree College, Lebanon, 111 160-166 

The Army Lead by Col. George Rogers Clark in his Conquest of the Illi- 
nois, 1778-1779, Notes by Dr. J.P. Snyder 166-178 

An Early Illinois Newspaper, Extracts from its Files, by J. H. Burnham. 179-189 
Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois, Hon. John McLean— Hon. Thomas Sloo— 

Hon. Charles Slade 190-210 

Hon. John McLean, by J. H. Burnham 190-201 

Thomas Sloo, by Dr. J. F. Snyder 201-206 

Charles Slade, by Dr. J. F. Snyder 207-210 

The Attorneys-General of Illinois, Mason H. Newell 211-220 

Lincoln in Rushvllle. 1832-1858. Howard F.Dyson 221-233 

Early History of the Drug Trade of Chicago, compiled from the records of 
the Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association, by Albert E. Ebert, historian 


Jean Cabriel Cerr^, a sketch. By Judge Walter B. Douglas 275-288 

Report of the Committee on Historic Places in Illinois, Edwin E. Sparks. 

chairman 289-293 

Action of the Illinois members of the Society of Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution in relation to the purchase by the State of the site of Old 
Fort Massac, copy of the bill appropriating money for the purchase of the 

site of old Fort Massac 294-298 

Seventh biennial report to the Governor of the State of Illinois of the Board 

of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 299-301 

Copy of the bill amending the act for the organiz'ition of the Illinois State 
Historical Library, by which the Illinois State Historical Society is made 

a department of the Illinois State Historical Library 301-302 

Errata 303 

Index 304 


2 able of Cbw/ew^s— Concluded. 

List of illustratlong— 

1. Frontispiece. Portrait of H. W. Beckwith, president of the Illinois State Histori- 

cal Society, 1899-1903 

2. View of the site of old Port Massac 38 

3. Uniform of 42d or Highland Regiment of British troops 46 

4. Uniform of officers of U. S. Army 63,62 

5. Map of the Ohio river in the vicinity of Port Massac 50 

6. View of site of old Fort Massac 60 

7. Cut of engine and coach used on early railroads of the United States .... 65 

8. The old State House at Springfield 73 

9. Edward Coles, second Governor of Illinois 97 

10. Last relic of Fort Chartres, 1903 105 

11. Gen. E. B. Hamilton 12J 

12. Gen. George Rogers Clark 166 

13. John McLean memorial tablet 190 

14. Hon. Thomas SIoo 202 

15. Abraham Lincoln in 1858 221 

16. Schuyler county court house at Rushville 224 

17. The Sauganash hotel, Chicago 234 

18. Philo Carpenter, the first druggist in Chicago 268 

19. Jean Gabriel Cerr^ 275 

20. Lovejoy monument at Alton 289 

21. Chicago Wigwam of 1860 291 

22. English Colony Honse at Albion 292 


President y 
J. F. Snyder, Virginia, III. 

1st Vice President i 
H. W. Beckwith, Danville, 111. 

2d Vice President^ 
EvARTS B. GrREENE, Urbana, 111. 

3d Vice President, 
Wm. Vooke, Chicago, 111. 

Secretary and Treasurer, 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, 111. 

Board of Directors, 

The President; the Secretary; E. J. James, Ph. D., President 
Northwestern University, Evanston; Greo. N. Black, Springfield, 111.; 
David McCulloch, Peoria, 111.; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington, 111.; 
M. H. Chamberlin, President MoKendree College, Lebanon, 111. 

Honorary Vice Presidents, 

The Presidents of the following named local historical societies: 
Champaign County Historical Society, J. O. Cunningham, President, 
Urbana, 111.; Chicago Historical Society, J. N. Jewett, President, 
Chicago, 111.; DeKalb County Historical Society; Evanston Histor- 
ical Society, H. B. Hurd, President, Evanston, 111.; German Amer- 
ican Historical Association, Wm. Vocke, President, Chicago, 111.; 
Logan County Historical Society, James T. Hoblit, President, Lin- 
coln, 111.; McLean County Historical Society, George P. Davis, 
President, Bloomington, 111.; Maramech Historical Society, J. F. 
Steward, JPresident, Chicago, 111.; Massac County Historical Society, 
S. B. Kerr, President, Metropolis, 111.; Old Settlers Historical Asso- 
ciation, Randolph County, Frank Moore, President, Chester, III; 
Quincy Historical Society, Lorenzo Bull, President, Quincy, 111.; 
Stillman Valley Battle Monument Association, Lovejoy Johnson, 
President, Stillman Valley, 111. 





*Boal. Dr. Robert Lacon.Ill. 

Bradwell, Judgre James B Chicagro, HI. 

Edwards, Mrs. Benjamin S..Spring:field,Ill. 

Johnson. Hon. Chas. P St. Louis, Mo. 

*McClernand, Gen. John A... Springfield, 111. 
McClernand, Mrs. John A.... Springfield, 111. 

Morrison. Mrs. I. L Jacksonville, 111. 

♦Palmer. Gen. John M Sprlng:fleld,lll. 

Palmer. Mrs. John M Springfield, 111. 

♦Hugeles. Gen. James M Havana.Ill. 

♦Stuart, Mrs. John T Springfield. 111. 

Thwaites. R. G Madison, Wis. 

Yates. Mrs. Catherine (Mrs. Richard 
Yates, Sr.) Jacksonville, 111. 


(This list includes all members, including 
those who have joined the Society since 
the annual meeting, up to and including 
August 1, 1903.) 

Anderson, Horace G Peoria. III. 

Bangs, J.E Springfield. 111. 

Bangs. Margaret M. (Mrs. J. E.) 

Springfield. HI. 

Barker. H.E Springfield. 111. 

Barry, Hon. P. T. (life member) 

No. 77-79 Jefferson St., Chicago, III. 

Beckwith, Judge H. W Danville. III. 

Berry. D Carmi. 111. 

Black, Geo. N Springfield, 111. 

Black. Mrs. Geo. N Springfield, 111. 

Blanchard. Rufus Wheaton. 111. 

Breevoort, J. H Rutland, 111. 

Brown, Hon. C. C Springfield. 111. 

Brown, Mrs. C. C Springfield, 111. 

Brydges, W. R....227 Division St., Elgin. 111. 

Burnap. Prof. W. L., Lake Forest Uni- 
versity Lake Forest, 111. 

Burnham. Capt. J. H Bloomiuirton. 111. 

Bu?h. Hon. J. M Pittsfield. 111. 

Capen. Chas. L Bloomiugton. ill. 

Carriel, Mrs. Mary Turner (Mrs. H. F.) 
Jacksonville, 111. 

Chamberlin. M. H. (President McKen- 
dree College) Lebanon. 111. 

Clark. Prof. Olyuthus Eureka. 111. 

Clary. Prof. J. M. (President Greer Col- 
lege) Hoopeston, 111. 

Clendenin. Hon. H. W Sprinefleld. HI. 

Collins. W. H Quincy. 111. 

Congdon, Geo. E Waterman, 111. 

Conkllng. Hon. Clinton L..., Springfield. 111. 

Cook. J. S LeRoy. 111. 

Cooper. Hon. Jobn L Fairfield. 111. 

Crabbe. Mrs. Harriet Palmer (Mrs. E. G.) 
618 S. 8th St., Springfield, 111. 

Crandon, Frank P 

1414 Forest av., Evanston. III. 

Cunningham. Judge J. O Urbana, 111. 

Curry, J. Seymour E vanston, IlL 

Cushing, Prof. J. P New Haven, Conn. 

Davis, George P Bloomington, 111. 

Davis, J.McCan Springfield. IlL 

Davis, Mrs. J. McCan Springfield, III. 

Davis, W. W Sterling, 111. 

Dearborn, Hon. LutherM 

Title and Trust bldg.. Chicago. Ul. 

Degge, A. R Petersburg. Ill, 

Dieffenbacher, Philip L Havana. 111. 

Dilg, Charles A 

Lake View, 603 Diversy boul., Chicago, 111. 

Dilg, Philip H 

Lake View. 1727 Oakdale av., Chicago, IlL 

Dougherty, N. C Peoria, IlL 

Dunn. Mrs. Julia Mills Moline, IlL 

Edwards, Dr Richard Bloomington. IIL 

Engelmann, Mrs. Mary K LaSalle, HI. 

Eschmann, Rev. C. J..PrairieduRocher, IlL 
Fairbanks. Rev. John B — Jacksonville, IlL 

Faxon. Hon. E. W Piano. 111. 

Felmly, Prof. David Normal, IlL 

Fisher, Albert Judson (historian Illinois 
Society Sons of the American Revo- 

....No 604 Masonic Temple, Chicago. IlL 
Forbes, Prof. S. A.(University of Illinois) 

Urbana. IlL 

French. Dr. A. W Springfield, IIL 

Fuck, Hon. D. M Bloomington, IIL 

Funk, Hon. LaFayette Bloomington, IIL 

Garrett, T M 

No 301 Ontario, St., Chicago, IIL 

Gillespie. Mrs. David Lincoln, IIL 

Greece, Prof. Evarts B. (University of 

Illinois) , Urbana, IIL 

Gridley. J.N Virginia, HI. 

Gross, Lewis M Sycamore, IIL 

Gross. W.L Springfield, 111. 

Haint^s. Tames Pekin, 111. 

Hall Henry H 

W. College av., Jacksonville, 111. 

Hardy, H L Chicago. IIL 

Hatton, Frederick Hammond 

Rock Island, IIL 

Harvick, Arthur L Vienna, 111. 

Hay, Logan Springfield, HI. 

Helnl. Frank J Jacksonville, 111. 

Henderson. Judge John G 

..No. 416.417 Roanoke bldg.. Chicago. IIL 

Heuninger. Prof. J. W Macomb. 111. 

*Hood. Dr. H. H Litchfield. 111. 

Hood, Mrs. H. H Litchfield. 111. 

Hostetter. A. B Springfield. HI. 

Houston. J. W Berwick. HL 

James. Dr. Edmund J. (President North- 
western University) Evanston. IIL 

James, Prof. J. A. (Northwestern Uni- 
versity) Evanston. 111. 

Jayne. Dr. William Springfield, IIL 

Jones, Miss EmmaF Springfield. III. 

Kaue. Judge Charles P Springfield, 111. 

Kepley, Henry B Effingham, IIL 

♦ Deceased. 


List of Members — Continued. 

Kerrick. Hon. L. H Bloomlngton, 111. 

Kimball, Rev. Clarence LaJunta, Colo. 

Kirby , Hon. E. P Jacksonville. 111. 

Lewis, Hon. Ira W Dixon, 111. 

Little, Mrs. Helen. M, J.... Bloomlngton, 111. 

Lodge, William F Monticello, 111. 

McAdams, William, Sr 

R. R. No. 13, Kansas, Edgar Co., 111. 

Manny, Walter I Mt. Sterling, III. 

Marmon, Mrs. W. W Bloomlngton, 111. 

McConnel, G. M. (Chicago Chronicle) 
Chicago, 111. 

MeCormick, Prof. Henry (Normal Uni- 
versity) Normal, 111. 

McCulloch, Judge David Peoria, 111. 

McPike. H. (:^ Alton, 111. 

Meese, Hon. William A Moline, 111. 

Merritt, Hon. E. L Springfield, 111. 

Mills, Richard W Virginia, III. 

Miner. Dr. James. Winchester, 111. 

Moss, John R Mt. Vernon, 111. 

Norton, W. F , Alton, 111. 

OrendorfP, Hon. Alfred Springfield, 111. 

OrendorfC, Hon. John B — Bloomlngton, 111. 

Osborne, Miss GeorgiaL 

Jacksonville, 111. 

Page, Prof. E. C. (Normal School) 


*Palmer, Hon. John Mayo Chicago, 111, 

Palmer, Mrs. John Mayo Chicago, 111. 

Parker, C. M Tavlorville, 111. 

Pearson, J. M 'Godfrey, ill. 

Perrin, Hon. J. N Lebanon, 111. 

Primm, Enoch W ..Belleville, 111. 

Pierce, Frederick C. (vice president and 
secretary Sherman Historical Asso- 
ciation P. O. box No. 244, Chicago, 111. 

Pitner, Dr. T. J Jacksonville, 111. 

Prince, Ezra M Bloomlngton, 111. 

Putn&m. Prof. J. W. (Cornell University) 
Madison, Wis. 

Quincy Historical Society Qulncy, 111. 

Roosa, Mrs. S. V Springfield, 111. 

Sayler, H. L 

No. 138 Jackson bonl,, Chicago, 111. 

Sanders, Col. George A .Springfield, 111. 

Sattley. Miss Olive Springfield, 111. 

Schmitt, Dr. Otto L 

No. 3328 Michigan av., Chicago, 111. 

Scott, Edgars Springfield, 111. 

bcott, Julia Green (Mrs. M. T.) 

Bloomlngton, 111. 

Selby, Paul Chicago. IlL 

Sheets, J. M Oblong, 111. 

Sheppard, Prof. R. D. (Northwestern 
University) Evanston, 111. 

Smith, Col. D. C Normal, 111. 

Smith, George W. (Southern Illinois 
Normal University) Carbondale, III. 

Snively. Hon. E. A Springfield, 111. 

Snively, Katherine Dubois (Mrs E. A.) 
Springfield. III. 

Snyder, Dr. J. F Virginia, 111. 

SparKs, Prof. E. E. (University of Chi- 
cago) Chicago. 111. 

Spear, S. L Springfield, 111. 

Stearns, Arthur K 

...No. 112-114 Genesee St., Waukegan, 111. 

Stennett, Dr. W. H No. 

303 Linden av.. Oak Park, Cook, Co., 111. 

Stevens. F. E No. 1205 Cham- 
ber of Commerce bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Steward. John F 

No. 1889 Sheridan road., Chicago, 111. 

Stubblefield, Hon. Geo. W.. Bloomlngton, 111. 

*Stuve, Dr. Bernard 

No. 526 S. 7th St., Springfield, 111. 

Taylor, Mrs. Harriet Rumsey, LaGrange. 111. 

Thayer, Miss Maude Springfield, 111. 

Tomlin, Mrs. Eliza. I. H 

No. 904 S. Main st., Jacksonville, 111. 

Vocke, Hon. William (president German- 
American Historical Society) 

....No. 103-109 Randolph st., Chicago, 111. 

Waite, Dr. H. N Johnson, Vermont. 

Wallace, Joseph Springfield, 111. 

Weber, Mrs. Jessie Palmer.. Springfield, 111. 

Wertz, Miss Adda. P Carbondale. 111. 

West, Hon. Simeon H Leroy, 111. 

Wheeler, Mrs. Katherine Goss (Mrs, S. 
P) , Springfield. III. 

Wheeler, Judge S. P Springfield, 111. 

Wheeler, C. Gilbert 

No. 14 State st, Chicago, 111. 

Wightman, G. F Lacon, 111. 

Wiles, Alice Bradford (Mrs. Robert H.) 
No. 5711 Woodlawn av., Chicago, III. 

Willcox, B. S Peoria, 111. 

Worthington, Hon. Thomas 

Jacksonville, 111. 

Worthington, Miriam Morrison (Mrs. 
Thomas) Jacksonville, 111. 

Wyckoff, Dr. Charles T. Bradley Poly- 
technic Institute) Peoria. 111. 

* Deceased. 



(Organized June, 1899; Incorporated May, 1900. made a Department !of the Illinois:!State 
Historical Library. July 1, 1903.)! 


Article I. Name and Objects. 

Sec. 1. The name of this society shall be the Illinois State _ Historical 
Sec. 2. The objects to be sought by this society'shall be:' 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of the peo- 
ple of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the State, and of 
each county thereof, including the prehistoric periods and the history of the 
aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of distinguished persons 
who have rendered services to the people of the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use books, pamphlets, news- 
papers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 1 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions, as well 
as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest as may 
bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase books, libraries, 
museums, monies and real property and other property in aid of the aboye 

Article II. Membership. 

Sec. 1. Any person may become an active member of the society on pay- 
ment of the initiation fee of $1. 

Sec. 2. The annual fee for active members shall be $1. 

Sec. 3. Any person eligible for active membership may become a life 
member on payment of a fee of $25. Life members shall be exempt from the 
payment of annual membership fees. 

Sec. 4. Honorary membership may be conferred upon any person who has 
distinguished himself or herself by services or contributions to the society or 
the cause of hisstory, upon the nomination of the president and confirmation 
by the board of directors. 

Article III. Meetings. 

Sec. 1. The annual meeting of the society shall be held at such time and 
place in the month of January as may be designated by the board ofjdirectors. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings may be called by the president. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the society the attendance of ten members en- 
titled to vote shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. 


Article IV. Officers. 

Sec. 1. The officers of the society shall be a president, such vice presidents 
as may be deemed best by the society, a secretary, a historian, a treasurer, 
and a board of directors consisting of the president, the secretary and five 
other members of the society. 

See. 2. All of the officers of the society shall be elected by ballot, annually, 
at the regular annual meeting in January, except that the society may deaig 
nate particular officers to be elected for an indeterminate period. 

Sec. 3. The duties of the president, the vice presidents and the secretary 
and the treasurer shall be those usually appertaining to such officers. The 
secretary shall also act as secretary to the board of directors. It shall be the 
duty of the board of directors to prepare the programmes for the annual 
meetings of the society and to perform such other functions as may from time 
to time be entrusted to it by the society. 

Seii. 4. The board of directors shall at each annual meeting present 
through the secretary a report of the finances of the society, and on its work 
during the preceding year, together with such recommendations as may seem 
to them appropriate. 

Article V. Board of Directors. 

Sec. 1. The board of directors shall have general charge and control of all 
the property of the society, shall make and approve all its contracts, shall 
direct the librarian in the selection and purchase of books and other histori 
cal matter, shall see to the carrying out of all orders of the society and shall 
perform all duties prescribed b> the by- laws. 

-B H 



Fourth Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical 

Society Jan. 27 and 28, 1903, State Library Room, 

Capitol Building, Springfield. 

business meeting. 

Tuesday, Jan. 27, 10:00 a. m. 

Vice President J. F. Snyder in the chair, in the absence of Presi- 
dent H. W. Beckwith. The secretary made a verbal report, and 
asked further time to prepare a report for the records of the society. 
On motion of M. H. Chamberlin, seconded by George N. Black, the 
secretary's report was accepted and approved. 

J. H. Burnham, chairman of the committee on local historical 
Societies read the report of that committee. On motion of George N. 
Black the report was approved and accepted. 

Mr. George N. Black,chairman of the committee on legislation, asked 
that that committee be allowed further time, before making its re- 
port. Dr. Chamberlin moved that further time be granted. Dr. 
Chamberlin's motion was carried. 

The St. Louis Exposition Committee report was called for by the 
presiding oflBcer. Dr. E. J. James, chairman of the committee, being 
absent, the report of the committee was read by J. H. Burnham. 
Adopted and approved. 

Captain Burnham read a personal report of his visits to the his- 
torical societies of Wisconsin and Indiana, and of the meeting at 
Urbana of the sub- committee of the Illinois Commission to the 
Louisiana Exposition at St. Louis. 

Dr. Chamberlin moved that discussion on this report be allowed, 
motion seconded by Dr. William Jayne, carried. Dr. Chamberlin 
moved seconded by Dr. Jayne, that the thanks of the society be 
tendered Captain Burnham for his efforts in behalf of the society in 
thus traveling to other states in its interests, and for his able and 
instructive report of his visits, carried. George N. Black, chairman of 
the finance committee, read the report of that committee. The re- 
port was approved and accepted. 

The report of the committee appointed by the president to attend 
the ceremonies attendant upon the installation of Dr. E. J. James as 

president of the Northwestern University at Evanston, Oct. 19, 1902, 
was read by the secretary. It was moved by Mr, Black and seconded 
by Dr. Chamberlin that this report be accepted and placed on file in 
the records of the society. Adopted. (N. B. The report is in the 
form of a letter from Prof. E. C. Page of De Kalb, 111.) 

The secretary read an invitation to the society and its individual 
members to attend a meeting of the Chicago Historical society Jan. 
29, 1903. Dr. Chamberlin moved that the thanks of this society be 
sent to the Chicago Historical society for the invitation, and that the 
Chicago Historical society be asked to present this society with 
copies of the addresses delivered at the meeting. 

The secretary read a letter from L. R. Bryant of Princeton, repre- 
senting the Bureau County, Illinois, Old Settlers' association, sug- 
gesting co-operation with the State Historical society and asking 
suggestions. Discussion followed the reading of this letter. Cap- 
tain Burnham moved that a greeting and thanks be sent the society, 
through Mr. Bryant. Carried. 

Dr, J. F. Snyder, acting president and chairman, called Dr. A. W. 
French to the chair. 

Dr. Snyder addres=3ed the society on the subject of an amendment 
to the Constitution of the society. It was suggested that in the ab- 
sence of Judge David McCulioch, chairman of the Committee on 
By-Laws, that the matter of the amendment be continued, etc. This 
suggestion put in the form of a motion by Dr. Chamberlin was offered, 
seconded and carried. Moved that the Committee on By-Laws and 
matters connected with it be continued. Carried. 

Mr Burnham made a motion that 80 days' notice to the members of 
the society be necessary in cases where amendments to the Constitution 
are contemplated. This motion was carried and such 30 days' notice 
to the members of the society is now necessary before an amendment 
to the Constitution can be voted upon by the society. 

Dr. Snyder, chairman of the Program committee read the report 
of that committee. On motion of Dr. Chamberlin, seconded by Mr. 
Black, the report was approved and adopted. 

Necrologist's report. Dr. Snyder read memorial addresses on de- 
ceased members Gen. E. B. Hamilton of Quincy and James Affleck 
of Belleville. These memorial addresses were on motion of Mr, 
George N. Black, seconded by Dr. Jayne, accepted by thesociety, and 
the secretary directed to place them in the records, and publish them 
in the transactions of the society. 

Dr. Snyder read resolutions of sympathy for Judge David McCul- 
ioch in his recent bereavements. These resolutions were on motion 
of Mr, Black, adopted by a rising vote, and the secretary was directed 
to forward to Judge McCuUoch a copy of the resolutions. 

An expression of sympathy by the Illinois State Historioal society 
for Hon. David McCuUoch, a member of its Board of Directors. 

We have learned, with the deepest regret of the sad bereavement of our 
much esteemed associate, Judge David McCulloch, of Peoria, by the recent 
death of his onlv daughter and his wife. 

The cherished child vfho had filled his home with the sunlight of joy and 
love; the beloved wife, Mrs. Mary Hemphill McCulloch, whose gentle, faith- 
ful and inspiring companionship throughout his prominent career cheered 
him in adversity and rejoiced in his triumph; the angelic friend of the needy 
and distressed; respected and revered by the entire community for her ez- 
alted virtues, her piety, generous kindness and benevolence,— were, within 
the space of a few weeks, when in the enjoyment of health and all the com- 
forts and happiness of lite, stricken down, and after brief illness, taken from 
him and consigned to the grave. 

In the presence of such an overpowering affliction mere words can afford no 
consolation; nor avail in the least to remove the great burden of grief — hu- 
man efforts are powerless to dispel the gloom of its sorrow. Yet, the dictates 
of friendship and duty, and the high regard and esteem we entertain for 
our honored fellow-member of the Illinois State Historical society impel us 
to extecd to him, in his unspeakable loss, assurance of our profound sympa- 
thy, and sincere expressions of our heartfelt condolence. 

Captain Burnham made a motion that discussion on papers and 
addresses be left to the discretion of the presiding officer. 

Dr. B. Stuv6 moved an amendment to the motion before the society, 
(Burnbam's.) that the author or the person who reads the paper, or 
any member of the society may ask a discussion of the paper. 

Dr. A. W. French objected to any discussion or criticism of papers. 
The vote being put, Captain Burnham's original motion (the discre- 
tion of the presiding officer) was carried by a rising vote, 5 for the 
original motion, 2 for the motion as amended. 

It being announced that President H. W. Beckwith positively de- 
clined re-election; Dr. M. H, Chamberlin read resolutions of appre- 
ciation of the services to the society of Judge Beckwith, and its 
thanks to him for them. Doctor Chamberlin moved, seconded by 
Mr. Black, that these resolutions be spread on the records of the 
society, and that the secretary be directed to send a copy of them to 
Judge Beckwith. Carried by a rising vote. 


The State Historical Society of Illinois holds in profound esteem the em- 
inent services of Judsre H. W. Beckwith, who for the past four years — com- 
mencing with the origin of the society — has been its efficient president. Its 
members regret that his failing health should prove the cause of his refusal 
to stand for re-election. 

His eminent services to the State, his conspicuous efforts in behalf of the 
State Historical Library, his exemplary life as a citizen, call for unqualified 
esteem and admiration, and as evidence of the profound regard in which he 
is held by this association we recommend that this testimonial be adopted by 
a rising vote; and that the same be spread on the record of the proceedings 
of this meeting. 

Adopted by a rising vote. 

Doctor Chamberlin moved the acceptance by the society of an in- 
vitation to a reception to be tendered it on Wednesday, Jan. 28, 8:00 
p. m , by Governor and Mrs. Richard Yates. Carried. 

Doctor Snyder, in the chair, named Messrs. Burnham, Black, Cham- 
berlin and Jayne as a committee to nominate officers for the follow- 
ing year, Jan. 1903 to Jan. 1904. Mr. Burnham declined to act and 
the name of J. McCan Davis was added to the committee. The 
committee retired. 

During the absence of the Nominating committee Capt. J. H. 
Burnham made some remarks explanatory as to the situation of the 
Louisiana Purchase Commission, as to amount of funds, uses of 
same, requests for it, etc., and the plans of the society in asking 
future appropriations, etc., from the commission. 

Mr. H. E. Barker moved that a committee of the society be ap- 
pointed to solicit donations and loans to be exhibited at the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition. Carried. 

Capt. J. H. Burnham extended an urgent invitation to the society 
to hold its next annual meeting, January, 1904, at Bloomington, Ills. 
Referred to board of directors. 

Dr. A. W. French moved that papers read at annual meetings of 
the society and not in the hands of the secretary within 60 days fol- 
lowing the reading of the same, be published at the discretion of the 
secretary. Carried. 

The Nominating committee made its report of the following per- 
sons for officers of the society, January, 1903 to January, 1904: 

President— J. F. Snyder, Virginia. 

1st Vice President— H. W. Beckwith, Danville. 

2nd Vice President — E. B. Greene, Urbana. 

3rd Vice President— Hon. Wm. Vocke, Chicago. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, 

Board of Directors— B, J. James, Geo. N. Black, David McGuUoch, J. H. 
Burnham, M. H. ChamberUn (the president, the secretary.) 

Report signed, 

Wm. Jayne, 

M. H. Chamberlin, 

J. McCan Davis. 

On motion of Mr. H. E. Barker the secretary was directed to'oast 
the ballot of the society for the above named persons which he ;;did, 
and the persons named by the nominating committee were declared 

Captain Burnham moved that the presidents of local historical 
societies be honorary vice presidents of the society. This motion was 
carried, and Mr. Geo. P. Davis, President McLean County Historical 
Society; Mr. J F. Steward, President Maramech Historical Society; 
Hon. John M. Jewett, President Chicago Historical Society; Hon. 
Harvey B. Hurd, President Evanston Historical Society (and others, 
names to be supplied) be made honorary vice presidents of the 

Mr. Black moved that: This sooiety desires to express to its retir- 
ing secretary, Mr. J. MoCau Davis, its appreciation of his labors in 
behalf of the society during the past year, and to thank him for 
them. This motion was seconded by Dr. Wm. Jayne and adopted 
by a rising vote. 

On motion of Doctor Chamberlin the meeting adjourned at 12:15 
p. m., to meet in literary session at 2:00 p. m. 



Jo the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

At our last annual meeting it was suggested that our society endeavor to 
assist the IlUnois Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in decor- 
ating the Illinois Building, by introducing paintings of historic landscapes, 
portraits of our great men and women, photographs of State and county 
monuments, pre historic collections and various historical illustrations. 

At a later meeting of the board a committee was appointed to confer with 
the commission. This committee consisted of H. W. Beckwith, Prof. E. J. 
James, Dr. J. F. Snyder, George N. Black and J. H. Burnham, with power 
to act for the whole board of Directors. 

The entire committee, with one exception, met the members of the Illinois 
Commission at the Leland hotel in September, and presented a brief outline 
of the proposition, which was very favorably received by the commission. 
Want of time prevented immediate action, but the matter was informally 
turned over to the education and decoration committees. 

Thus far this may be considered as a report of the progress made by the 
above mentioned committee, but something further should be presented, 
mainly in the nature of my personal report. 

For the purpose of perfecting our knowledge of what is most desirable for 
a State Historical Society to possess as an historical museum, I was requested 
to visit some of the State societies of neighboring states, in order to be pre- 
pared to make a report to the directors, to be used as a basis for future 
action. I therefore visited the State Historical Society at Indianapolis, and 
the State Museum, Library and Society at Madison, Wis. As a result of 
these visits, I have gathered many ideas concerning what I conceive to be 
proper objects and subjects for our society to pursue and study, but as the 
enumeration of these matters would consume much time it has hardly seemed 
to me desirable here to attempt to do full justice to the whole matter. At 
another time this can be done, and a more definite statement than the present 
can be made in regard to the Louisiana Purchase project. 

After my visit to these societies, I was invited to meet at the State Univer- 
sity at Urbana, on December 13th, with the Education Committee of the 
State Commission. Several of the leading educatoi's of this State were also 
present. It was learned that of the $250,000 appropriated by the State, $100,000 
are set apart for the construction, decoration, care and maintenance of the 
Illinois building, and $150,000 for educational, agricultural, horticultural, 
mechanical and all other exhibits of the State, to be shown in various appro- 
priate parts of the exposition grounds. 

Our plans were set forth to the committee by a written statement from 
Professor James, one of our committee, with a very brief oral addition from 
myself and they were very well received by the members of the Educational 
Committee present. But inasmuch as our plans contemplate assisting the 

committee mainly by decoration of the building with maps, oil paintings and 
photographs, busts, and portraits, together with antiquarian and prehistoric 
relics, and so forth, it appeared that the decoration instead of the education 
committee would be most interested in our proposed work. 

I saw at the architect's office in Chicago, the plans which have been 
adopted by the commission for the Illinois building, and a contract will soon 
be let for its construction. Prom all I can learn, the cost of this building 
will absorb all or more than the money set apart tor its construction and 
decoration, but I found it was considered advisable to make an application 
for $10,000 of this amount for our use, with the distinct understanding, how- 
ever, that when the Committee on Decoration holds its meeting our applica- 
tion may be considered as being most appropriately in their department. 

It also appears to be the general opinion that the State of Illinois will need 
much more than a quarter of a million, in order to make an adequate display at 
St. Louis, and that the Legislature will be called upon to make a much larger 
appropriation, and that if this is done, an itemized application will be made, 
in which application a very generous sum should be set apart for the objects 
advocated by our society. 

It is therefore possible that we may have some reasonable share in the 
work, even if no additional appropriation is made, while if more money is 
allowed, our prospects are sufficiently promising to warrant this Board of 
Directors in following up the same line of action we have hitherto pursued. 

Our plans and objects have been well advertised through the press, and 
from letters received by myself, I feel satisfied ihat there is a very satisfactory 
public sentiment already aroused in our behalf, and that the way is open 
before us, if we are able to follow it, to carry our plans to a successful result. 

In conclusion, I wish to suggest that as we are at present organized, it 
appears to me almost impossible to go much farther as we are now proceed- 
ing, and that we must soon make more definite and reliable arrangements 
than we have at present, and place the care and management of this work in 
the hands of some competent person who can take all the time needed to study 
the subject, attend meetings of the Commission and of committees, and be 
fully prepared to follow out the aims of the society, through all the changing 
intricacies of the future. Whenever this may be done, or whenever the di- 
rectors may require it, I can soon be prepared with further details of what it 
has seemed to me desirable for us to attempt to accomplish. 


Inasmuch as the Illinois State Historical Society is totally destitute of 
funds to defray the cost of printing, the accumulated results of its labors; and 
is wholly indebted for the publishing of its annual Iransactions to the cour- 
tesy and liberality of the board of trustees of the State Historical Library 
— said Iransactions appearing when issued as publications of that board — 
your Committee on Publication necessarily has but a meagre report to offer. 

However, although relieved of all connection with, and responsibility for, 
the mechanical execution of our only publication of the past year, the" 1902 
Transactions of the Society, your committee found ample employment in col- 
lecting and properly arranging the various papers it contains and securing 
the illustrations accompanying them. 

The State Historical Society, in its brief existence, has compiled three 
volumes of annual Transactions, and your committee "points with pride" to 
the fact that each volume exhibits a marked improvement, in quantity of 
matter and its arrangement, upon the one preceding it — a fact, however, 
evincing progress and growth of the society and enlargement of its sphere of 
work, rather than increased efficiency of any means at the disposal of your 

The octavo form of the volume was adopted to correspond with that 
of the preceding publications of the State Historical Library; and the main por- 
tion of its contents comprises, in regular order, the proceedings of the last 

annual meeting of the society, held in Jacksonville on the 23d and 24th of 
January, 1902. The "Addendum'- department introduced in the volume in a 
valuable addition, enabling us to present to the public original contributions 
to Illinois history not before published, obtained from various sources. We 
would recommend special attention to be given in future to this department, 
and its enlargement with increased facilities for publishing our annual 
volumes hereafter. 

The 'In Memoriam" papers, eulogistic of deceased members, should here- 
after be placed in a defined "Necrological department" of annual volumes 
for biographical notices, more or less extended, of members of this society, 
and of old pioneers of our State, who have departed this lite since the last 
preceding annual meeting. The management of this suggested department 
should be entrusted to a special officer, provided for by our Constitution, to 
be known as the Historian of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Your committee regrets exceedingly the unreasonable delay in the publica- 
tion of our Transactions, and most earnestly condemn the small style of type 
employed in printing them; but under present conditions these grave short- 
comings are entirely beyond our control; and we can only hope— and pray- 
that the General Assembly will, in the fulness of its wisdom, relieve the State 
Historical Society from its present situation of helpless dependence . 

The portrait cuts and maps we have introduced in our latest volume is, we 
hope, an improvement that will be appreciated; and we doubt not, will be 
continued, and more fully amplified, in succeeding annual volumes. 

To Hon. Charles Aldrieh, secretary of the Iowa Department of History, to 
Mr. John A. Atwood, editor of the Stillman Valley limes, to the Wisconsin 
Historical Department, and to Mr. John F. Steward, of Chicago, your com- 
mittee is greatly indebted for the kindly loan of electrotypes. And for index- 
ing,proof reading and general superintendence of publishing the recently issued 
volumes of 1902 Iransactions, the society is under lasting obligations to Mrs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Librarian of the Illinois State Historical Library, and 
her assistant, Miss Georgia L. Osborne. 

J. F. Snyder, Chairman, 


J. McCan Davis, 

Committee on Publication. 
Springfield, Ills., Jan. 27, 1903. 


Your Committee on Program respectfully submits its report for the past 
year, as follows: 

Owing to its constitution requiring the regular annual meetings of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society to be held in midwinter, when the weather is 
usually unpleasant and traveling the most disagreeable; at that time also, 
when our senators and representatives in Congress, and other government 
officials, are engaged at the national Capitol, and when teachers in the uni- 
versities, colleges and other educational institutions of the State are employed 
with their routine duties which they cannot neglect, we have been unable to 
secure the presence and active co-operation at the society's annual meetings 
of a number of prominent citizens who would willingly and gladly contribute 
to our Iransactions the results of their historical researches and labors, were 
our meetings held at the time of their vacations, in the milder seasons of the 

In preparing the program of exercises for this meeting we extended invita- 
tions to several persons, profoundly learned in Illinois history and biography, 
to favor us with papers or addresses appropriate to the occasion; and those 
invitations were with few exception, courteously accepted; but after the lapse 
of some weeks, several of their recipients found, that for reasons above 
named, it would be impracticable for them to fulfill their promises, and— 
much to our regret and disappointment — cancelled their engagements, when 


too late to supply their places with others. Qaite a number, however, who 
signified their acceptance of our invitations, in compliance therewith — as is 
seen by our printed programs— will present to the meeting their much-prized 

In view of the fact that those ladies and gentlemen who kindly render to our 
society such valuable assistance, do so without compensation and at their own 
expense and loss of time, your committee would suggest — as a graceful ac- 
knowledgement—the society will testify to each, by written letter, or by an 
earnest expression of gratitude, by resolution or otherwise in open meeting, 
our high appreciation of their services. 

For the musical feature of our program of exercises the society is indebted 
to the ladies of Springfield, who, with their characteristic elegant taste, and 
kindness, arranged it to enhance the interest and attractiveness of the meet- 

A question has arisen in this committee of the propriety of varying 
the arrangement of exercises of our annual meetings from the course herto- 
fore pursued, by inviting general oral discussion of the subject treated of by 
each speaker or reader, immediately following said papers and addresses. 
And upon that question your committee is divided. While one, of the three 
composing the committee, is earnestl;^ favorable to this innovation, another 
member dissents, for the reason that— in his opinion— no discussion of that 
kind can be entirely free from some element of criticism; and that anything 
savoring of criticism of a paper or address, voluntarily and gratuitously con- 
tributed to the society in open meeting, and in the presence of the author of the 
paper or address, would be in exceeding bad taste, if not positively repre- 
hensible. As this question has before been mentioned in the society, or Execu- 
tive Board, meetings, it is now alluded to in this report that it may be duly 
considered by the present business meeting, if such action is thought to be 
expedient or necessary. 

Ts/JIn closing this report your committee begs leave to call the society's attention 
to the last exercise of our program, the cordial invitation you have received 
from Governor Tates— the first native born son of Illinois called by its people 
to the exalted position he now occupies, whose earnest interest in the welfare 
and success of our society has often been manifested— to attend his proffered 
reception at the Excutive mansion on tomorrow evening, the 28th inst. 

J. F. Snyder, Chairman, 


J. McCan Davis, 



Bloomington, III., Jan. 13, 1903. 

2o the Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Local Historical Societies was appointed late in the 
year, at the September meeting, and we have made but little effort in the 
line of our duty. 

In the month of October a county historical society was organized at Pitts- 
field, Pike county. We have had correspondence with parties at Eureka, 
Woodford county, where the preliminary steps were taken a few days ago to 
form an organization, and we have been informed that at Princeton, Bureau 
county, and also at Edwardsville, Madison county, it is probable that socie- 
ties will soon be organized and we are hoping to hear good reports from 
other localities. 

We believe there are already almost as many historical societies in Illinois 
as are to be found in any of the adjoining states. 

Of societies in cities, we can refer to one in Chicago, one in Evanston, one 
in Rockford, one in Elgin and one in Quincy. 

Of county societies we have had reported from first to last the following: 
Champaign, DeKalb, Jersey, Kendall, Logan, Pike and McLean. 


We believe if there is a general revival of interest this year in the work of 
the State Historical Society, that the societies already in existence will be of 
great assistance to the State society, and that our society can very readily be 
the means, if proper exertions are made, of calling into existence several 
more influential local societies. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 


J. O. Cunningham, 
J. MoCan Davis, 

Committee on Local Historical Societies. 

Literary Session — 2:00 P. M. 

Springfield, Jan. 28, 1903. 

The literary sessions were carried out according to the printed 
program, except that in the absence of President H. W. Beckwith, 
the response to Lieutenant Governor Northcott's address of welcome 
was delivered by Dr. J. F. Snyder, first vice president of the society; 
and on account of the absence of Prof. B= B, Grreene and Mr. Ethel- 
bert Stewart, their papers were read by Capt. J. H. Barnham. In 
the afternoon session Prof. B. B. Sparks asked permission to deliver 
a few remarks on the necessity for marking historic spots in Illinois. 
The permission was granted, and he delivered a brief address in which 
he made the suggestion that a committee of the society be appointed 
to report what has been done to mark historic spots in the State, and 
to suggest means by which the custom might be made general, or at 
least to aid in extending the building of such monuments. It was 
moved by Mr. H. E. Barker that the president appoint such a com- 
mittee, the motion was seconded and carried. 

The president named as the committee for marking historic sites 
in Illinois, Prof. E. B. Sparks, Chicago, chairman; Mrs, Thos. Worth- 
ington, Jacksonville; Mrs. Helen M, J Little, Bloomington; Dr. Wm. 
Jayne, Springfield; J. McCan Davis, Springfield. 

X At the close of the afternoon literary session, Hon. C. P. Kane 
moved that the thanks of the society be extended to the speakers for 
the most able, instructive, and entertaining addresses delivered be- 
fore the society; to the young ladies who furnished beautiful music at 
the sessions, Mrs. Kobert Jess, Miss Laura Fisher and Miss Mary 
Tiffany, and to Gov. and Mrs. Kichard Yates for their hospitality in 
inviting the society to a reception at the Executive masion, and to 
the committee of Springfield ladies, who as a Reception committee 
added comfort and pleasure. Carried by a rising vote. 

The evening session of Jan. 27, 190B, was held in the Supreme 
Court room. 

The reception given to the society Jan. 28, 1903, by Governor and 
Mrs. Yates was held at the Executive mansion. Governor and Mrs. 
Yates were assisted in receiving the guests by Dr. J. F. Snyder, 
the newly elected president of the society, and bj'- the ladies of the 
reception committee. 


The county judges of the State being in session in the city paid 
their respects to the Governor and Mrs. Yates, by calling at the 
mansion the same evening. 


Tuesday, January 27, 10:00 A. M. 

Business meeting of the society, secretary's report, reports of committees, 
•lection of officers for 1903; miscellaneous business. 

2:00 p.m. 

"The Mines of Jo Daviess County" Hon. Wm. Spensley, Galena 


"Old Fort Massac" ...Mrs. M. T. Scott, Bloomington 

8:00 p.m. 


"Address of Welcome" 

Hon. W. A. Northcott, Greenville, Lieutenant Governor of Illinois 

Response Hon. H. W. Beckwith, Danville, president of the society 

Annual Address, "The Constitutions and Constitutional Conventions of Illi- 
nois" Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, Bloomington 

Wednesday, January 28, 9:30 A. M. 

"Men and Manners of the Early Times of Illinois" 

Dr. A. W. French, Springfield 


"Sectional Forces in the History of Illinois, 1818-1865," 

Prof. E. B. Greene, University of Illinois 

"Decisive Events in the Building of lUinois" W. H. Collins, Quincy 

2:00 p.m. 

"Edward Coles, Second Governor of Illinois".. Mrs. S. P. Wheeler, Springfield 

"Fort Chartres" Joseph Wallace, Springfield 


"A Few Notes for an Industrial History of Illinois" 

Ethelbert Stewart, U. S. Department of Labor, Chicago 

8:00 p. m. 

Reception at the Executive Mansion by Governor and Mrs. Yates. 

Reception Committee — Mrs. John M. Palmer, Mrs. John A. McClernand, 
Mrs. John R. Tanner, Mrs. Wm. A. Northcott, Mrs. George N. Black, Mrs. 
S. P. Wheeler, Mrs. C. C. Brown, Mrs. Alfred Orendorff, Mrs. Clinton L. 
Conkling, Mrs. Wm. L. Gross, Mrs. E. G. Crabbe, Mrs. Wm. S. Jayne, Mrs. 
Charles P. Kane, Mrs. George A. Sanders, Mrs. E. A. Snively, Mrs. J. 
McCan Davis, Mrs. Thomas Worthington, Mrs. Logan Hay, Mrs. Joseph 
Wallace, Mrs. Edgar S. Scott, Miss Emma F. Jones, Mrs. Jessie Palmer 
Weber, Miss Mollie C. Stuve, Miss Effie French, Miss Georgia L. Osborne, 
Miss Maude Thayer, Miss Susie Merritt. 



By Hon, W. A. Northcott, Lieutenant Governor of Illmois. 

It affords me much pleasure, at the request of Governor Yates and as the 
representative of the chief executive of Illinois, to welcome to the capital 
city the members of the Illinois State Historical Society. This official wel- 
come is due you because of the great work you have accomplished in pre- 
serving so much of the traditions and early history of this State which has 
not yet found its way into print. 

There have been two great epochs in the history of the American republic. 
The first was the nation's building epoch, and had for its central figure 
George Washington. The second was the nation's preserving epoch, and 
had for its central figure Abraham Lincoln. 

Nations are not built; they grow. In the beginning of the republic our 
forefathers left two great questions for future generations to solve, and the 
discussion of these questions moulded the bullets that were fired in the war 
of 1861. 

The first of these great questions found an early expression in the Ken- 
tucky and Virginia resolutions, inspired, and probably actually written, by 
Thomas Jefferson, and which enunciated the doctrine that the right of the 
state was above the right of the federation. John C. Calhoun, the disciple 
of Jefferson, continued the contest on this idea of state sovereignty and 
joined with it the other great unsolved question of human slavery. This 
contest brought into action the masterly eloquence of Daniel Webster, whose 
defense of the federal government will always be a part of our national his- 
tory; and it found its most dramatic incident when Andrew Jackson raised 
his right arm and swore "by the eternal" that the right of the federation 
was above the right of the State. 

The storm that had been gathering for more than half a century threw its 
first shadow on Illinois soil, and at Alton, Elijah, P. Lovejoy died the death 
of a martyr to the great cause of human liberty. The man of this second 
great epoch came to the front in his great debates with Stephen A. Douglas, 
and the martyrdom of Lovejoy found expression in the immortal words of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

The history of Illinois forms the most important part of this great epoch. 
The man of its ideas was Abraham Lincoln; the man of its armies was Grant. 

As early as the election of Governor Coles, away back in the 20s, Illinois 
came to the front with its verdict in opposition to human slavery upon these 
broad prairies, and from that day until the emancipation proclamation, Illi- 
nois led in this great battle for human rights. 

Representing as you do the preservation of the history of such a State, 
your mission is indeed a great one, and you have the best wishes and co- 
operation of the good people of Illinois. 



Governor Northcott, Ladies and Gentlemen^-Io the absence of Judge 
Beckwith, the retiring president of the Illinois State Historical Society, it 
devolves upon me, the vice president, to attempt to express, in behalf of the 
members of our society, the gratification and pleasure afforded us by the 
flattering welcome tendered us this evening. 

We accept this cordial welcome to the State's Capital, so gracefully and 
eloquently extended to us, as evidence that our dUigent efforts are appre- 
ciated by the public, and assure you that it can not fail to inspire us with 
renewed zeal in the prosecution of the important purposes we have in view. 

I will here remark that we are also truly thankful for the uniform kindness 
and consideration accorded us, while engaged in our self-imposed labors, by 
the citizens of Springfield, and for the courteous attention and assistance we 
have invariably received from the State officials. 

Though but a feeble and inadequate expression of the fervor of our grati- 
tude, this brief, but heartfelt, response to Governor Northcott's elegant ad- 
dress is perhaps all that propriety would dictate should be said on this occa- 
sion by a representative of the State Historical Society. Yet the interests of 
that society seem to demand, in addition to our grateful acknowledgements, a 
public reiteration of the object and intention of its organization and contin- 
ued maintenance. 

The benefit that the people of Illinois may derive from the results of our 
investigations — alluded to in such complimentary terms by the eminent 
speaker who has just addressed us — may not be apparent to all. Many in- 
telligent persons who haye given the study of history but little, if any, seri- 
ous thought, fail to detect anything in it of tangible or practical value. To 
that class a State Historical Society seems but a mode of harmless diversion 
for a few fossilized scholars who dwell in the past, and of no utility to the 
people at large. Why, they ask, waste precious time in delving in the musty, 
lifeless long ago, when the stirring, all-important activities of the strenuous 
present have so many pressing demands upon every moment of our fleeting 

To them the dead past has buried its dead, and they can discern no mate- 
rial good to be derived from their resurrection. But to those who permit 
their minds to transcend the exactions of necessary daily pursuits, history 
has a peculiar charm. To them it is not merely a record of past events, and 
dry statistics, and necrological reports. It is much more than that. 

fe It deals with the actions and deeds of men and communities that have been 
instrumental in shaping and guiding the destinies of states and empires. It 
investigates the ethical principles and philosophy underlying and governing 
society. It treats of the origin and structure of political institutions; of this 
evolution of domestic, economic and industrial arts; of the growth and de- 
velopment of public morals and individual conduct, and of the various other 
complex forces constituting our civilization. It probes and analyzes the 
naotives and impulses of by- gone man— at once the creature and master of 
his environments— and traces in his progress and advancement in the past, 
the achievements of the present and the possibilities of the future. Ob- 


viously, then, history is one of the most important elements of comprehen- 
sive education, and serves as an invaluable guide in the highest and noblest 
aspirations of mankind. In the truest sense, the historian is the heir of the 
ages — the custodian o* an inheritance of accredited knowledge to be trans- 
mitted to posterity, without which education must be defective and civiliza- 
tion retarded. 

Consider for a moment the present greatness of the State of Illinois; its 
proud position as third in rank of all the states of this mighty republic; its 
millions upon millions of wealth; its vast system of interlacing railways ; 
its grand educational institutions; its marvelous industries, and immense 
agricultural and mineral resources! 

We can, it is true, emulate the example of a certain domestic animal, and 
feed in serene contentment upon the acorns of prosperity we find in pro- 
fusion on the ground before us without once looking up to the source from 
whence they come. But can the man or woman of intelligence, gifted with 
the power of thought, contemplate the grandeur and glory of Illinois without 
experiencing the desire to know something of the causes and forces that pro- 
duced such results? Can any educated person be entirely insensible to the 
fascination of that study which discloses the incentives, the hopes, aspirations 
and heroic efforts of our early pioneers who here vanquished the savages and 
subdued the asperities of Nature; who toiled and suffered to reclaim the wilder- 
ness and make it fruitful; who developed the hidden wealth of the prairies 
and hills, and whose persistent, well directed labors wrought from the primi- 
tive exuberance of its soil the evolution of this great State? 

To perpetuate the story of those people, and rescue from forgetfulness their 
trials and sacrifices when opening this region to the light of civilization ; to 
trace and record the social, political and industrial progress of the new State 
from its inception; and to collect, systematize and preserve that knowl- 
edge and love for future generations, is the chief function of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Can anyone doubt or discredit the value of the work we have undertaken? 
The importance — nay, the necessity — of this object was recognized by the 
thoughtful and studious among our early pioneers. In 1827, but nine years 
after Illinois was admitted as a state into the Union — the need of effective 
cooperation for preserving the State's history, brought together at Vandalia, 
then the capital, a number of pioneer citizens of education and literary tastes, 
who thereupon organized the first State historical society. Judge James 
Hall, the brilliant writer was chosen its president and Henry C. Eddy, sec- 
retary. On its roll of membership are inscribed the names of John Mason 
Peck, Governor Edwards, Prof. John Russell, John Reynolds, Sidney Breese, 
Peter Cartwright, Samuel D. Loekwood and others equally distinguished in the 
State's annals. They commenced the work with spirit and with commendable 
enthusiasm. Several meeting were held, at which valuable papers were con- 
tributed and able addresses delivered, upon special phases of the State's 
history and progress. 

But, the meetings ceased, and the organization was lost, for want of the 
cohesive element of financial support. To have looked to the State for that 
support was out of the question, as at that time it was all the State 
could do to support itself. And, unfortunately, most of the members of the 
society were in the same condition. To absent themselves from their voca- 
tions and travel to Vandalia, on horseback through trackless prairies and 
woods to attend the meetings of the society, and defray their own expenses, 
was a sacrifice that but few of them could afford to make. Considering the 
then undeveloped condition of the State, that attempt to establish a State 
historical society — a praise-worthy conception of the best talents of the 
times — was certainly premature for permanency. It was abandoned, and un- 
fortunately for those who came later upon the stage, the material relating to 
the State's history which they had gathered together was entirely lost. 

Ten years later, in 1837, a second effort was made, by prominent literary 
men of this State, to place its history upon record in permanent form. They 
met by agreement at Vandalia, the capital, and formed an association with 


Judge Samuel D. Lock wood as presiding officer and Walter B. Scates its 
secretary. A set of resolutions with amendments nmde by James Shields, 
Thomas J. Hewett and Jesse B, Thomas., Jr., reported by Thomas Ford, 
chairman of a committee appointed for the purpose, set forth the aim of their 
association to be the preparation of a complete history of Illinois from its earl- 
iest discovery down to recent times, which should be written without preju- 
dice for or against any sect, party or local interest. To Rev. John M. Peck 
of Rock Springs Seminary, was assigned the post of chief historian to carry 
out the grand scheme, with the aid of 21 coadjutors to collect data from all 
parts of the State. The members of that standing committee of assistants 
were: Sidney Breese, Nathaniel Pope, Wm. Brown, James Lemen, Wm. 
Kinney, Samuel McRoberts, Samuel D. Loekwood, Zadok Casey, Thomas 
Ford, Cyrus Edwards, John Reynolds, Prof. John Russeii, John Hay, 
Richard M. Young, James M. Robinson, Pierre Menard, John Kinzie, Wm. 
Thomas and Rev. Gideon Blackburn. 

But that magnificent, well planned project, like its predecessor of a decade 
before, had no financial support from either public or private source, and 
was, of course, barren of results. Had the movement been aided by a liberal 
State appropriation we can well imagine the priceless work that such an 
array of pioneers, combining the finest minds in the State, would have pro- 
duced. And though their meeting was without immediate fruition, it, no 
doubt, seemed to stimulate the laborious research and investigation to which 
we are now indebted for the valuable historic writings and compilations of 
Peck, Brown, Ford, Reynolds and Breese. 

With the social and educational progress of Illinois and its increase of 
population and wealth, there has been among its people a corresponding ap- 
preciation of taste for that kind of literature and a growing demand for 
organized agencies having for their object more expanded and more exhaus- 
tive historical work. 

Incited by that popular feeling the Chicago Historical Society was founded 
in 1856. It was a local, incorporated enterprise and highly successful, when 
its library and collections were destroyed by the great fire of 1871 that swept 
Chicago away. It was immediately re-established, and, maintained by the 
intelligent and opulent citizens of that wonderful city, it has grown to its 
present magnificence. Yet, the Chicago historical Society is a local institu- 
tion, in some respects falling short of the requirements of a State Historical 

Since the time when the State capitol crowned the picturesque bluffs of the 
romantic Okaw, at Vandalia, much has been written relating to the State of 
Illinois. Nevertheless, the necessity for a State Historical Society compre- 
hending in its scope of work every county, township and precinct in the 
State, is as imperative today as it then was. More searching and systematic 
investigation than ever before pursued is rewarded with multiplying facts 
unknown to former writers, and from the ancient, musty records of foreign 
countries are received revelations of hidden passages of Illinois history of 
incomputable value. With this constant accession of information new to us, 
and more intelligent interpretation of old facts, we are enabled to correct 
many erroneous statements of our earlier published histories, many of them 
transmitted from one to another down to the present time. 

To well and properly digest accreting new data, and purify the old from 
mistakes and errors, and place at hand for the future historian of Illinois the 
most trustworthy material for his work, is the mission of this society. The 
urgency of that mission being for some time apparent to us, we met, by 
agreement, at the State University in Urbana, on the 19th day of May, 1899, 
and inaugurated the movement— for the third time since the first effort in 
1827— to establish a State historical society. Having there taken the prelim- 
inary steps for that purpose, we again met at the State house in Springfield, 
in June following, when we completed the organization by adopting a consti- 
tution, electing officers, paying our dues and incorporating the society in ac- 
cordance with provisions of the State incorporation laws. 


We have since held regular meetings, gained some accessions of memberg 
and collected quite an amount of valuable historical material. In addition to 
that we have published three small volumes of annual transactions which il- 
lustrate the substantial character of our work. That much we have accom 
plished without a dollar of State aid, save expense of publication defrayed 
by courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the State Historical Library. 

And yet; after almost four years of successful management of this society, 
with marked improvement in its several departments each year, we must ad- 
mit that our efforts are still but an experiment dependent for permanent suc- 
cess upon public encouragement and support. To be placed upon an endur- 
ing basis, in ord. r that its benefits to the public may be enlarged and popu- 
larized in the future, it must have State recognition and the State's fostering 
assistance to the extent, at least, of providing it with a safe and commodious 
place of deposit for its archives and records, and financial aid suflBicient to de- 
fray expenses of publication and diffusion of the products of its labors. The 
Illinois State Historical Society may, it is true, be continued indefinitely, 
maintained, as now, solely by individual efforts and means, but the history 
of similar undertakings, both in this State and others, warn us that without 
the active sympathy and co-operation of the people of the State all our en- 
deavors and toil may end in dissolution and abandonment. 

To avert such a possible calamity we will apply to the General Assembly of 
the people's representatives now in session here, for needed assistance, and 
the cheering words of cordial welcome spoken to us this evening by the pre- 
siding officer of the Senate are to us full of promise that the people of Illinois 
correctly estimate the import and value of our organization, and will not per- 
mit it to languish and fail." 




Address of Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson before the State Historical Society, at Springfield 

Jan. 27, 1903.) 

As preliminary and pertinent to the subject to be discussed, some 
data of historic interest will be given. The veritable history of 
what is now "Illinois" begins with the coming of Marquette and 
Joliet. As messengers of the cross, as well as explorers, they were 
the first white men whose feet pressed our soil. Their expedition 
was by authority of the commandant at Quebec, the ancient seat of 
government of the French empire in the new world. The landing of 
these explorers, whose names are inseparably interwoven with our 
early history, was in the month of June, 1673, upon tbe east bank of 
the Mississippi. The inhabitants of the first village they visited 
were known as "the Illini," a word signifying "men." The euphonic 
termination added by the Frenchmen gives us the name "Illinois." 

The glory of having discovered the upper Mississippi and the val- 
ley which bears its name belongs to Marquette and Joliet. It was 
theirs to add the vast domain, under the name fof "New France," to 
the empire of the grand monarch. In truth it was a princely gift. 

But no history of the great valley and the majestic river would be 
complete which failed to tell something of the priest and historian, 
Hennepin, and of the knightly adventures of the chevalier, LaSalle. 
Much, indeed, that is romantic surrounds the entire career of the 
latter. Severing his connection with a theological school in France, 
his fortunes were early cast in the new world. From Quebec, the 
ancient French capital of this continent, he projected an expedition 
which was to add empire to his own country and to cast a glamour 
about his own name. In 1669, with an outfit that had cost him his 
entire fortune, with a small party, he ascended in canoes the St. 
Lawrence, and a few weeks later was upon the broad Ontario. Out 
of the mists and shadows that envelop much of his subsequent 
career, it is impossible at all times to gather that which is authentic. 
It is enough that, with Hennepin as one of his fellow voyagers, he 
reached the Ohio, and in due time navigated the Illinois, meantime 
visiting many of the ancient vilages. But his great achievement, 
and that with which abides his imperishable fame, was his perilous 
descent of the Mississippi, from the Falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf 


.of Mexico. On the 9fch day of April, 1682, upon the east bank of the 
lower Mississippi, with due form and ceremony, and amid the solemn 
chanting of the TeDeum and the plaudits of his comrades, LaSalle 
took formal possession of what was then called the Louisiana Coun- 
try, in the name of his royal master, Louis XIV of France. 

For the period of 92 years, beginning with the coming of Mar- 
quette and Joliet, Illinois was a part of the French possessions. 
Sovereignt}^ over the vast domain of which it was a part was exer- 
cised by the French King, through his Commandant and subordi- 
nate officers. First, the dependency of Canada, "the Illinois coun- 
try," by decree of the Royal Council, in 1717, passed under the 
government established for Louisiana, Subsequently, in 1721, it be- 
came, by virtue of the same authority, one of the separate provinces 
into which the Louisiana country was then partitioned. A Com- 
mandant and judge were appointed and the seat of authority trans- 
ferred to Fort Chartres. Population, meanwhile, gradually increased 
in the great American bottom, then embracing all of the French set- 
tlements in Illinois. A recent historian has truly said: "The 
French sought and claimed more than they had the ability to hold 
or possess. Their line of domain extended from the St Lawrence 
around the Great Lakes and through the valley of the Mississippi to 
the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of more than 3,000 miles." Truly, a 
magnificent domain, but one destined soon to pass forever from the 
French monarch and his line. 

The hour had struck, and upon the North American continent, the 
ancient struggle for supremacy between France and her traditional 
enemy was to find bloody arbitrament. Great Britain claimed as a 
part of her colonial possessions in the new world, the territory bor- 
dering upon the Great Lakes and the rich lands of the Ohio and 
Mississippi valley. 

Passing rapidly the minor incidents of the varying fortunes of the 
stupendous struggle, which had been transferred for the time from 
the old world to the new, we reach the hour which was to mark an 
epoch in history. The time, the thirteenth of September, 1759, the 
place, the Heights of Abraham, at Quebec. Here and then, was 
fought out one of the pivotal battles of the ages. It was the closing act 
in a great drama. The question to be determined: whether the Eng- 
lish speaking race or its hereditary foe, was to be master of the con- 
tinent. It was literally a struggle for empire, the magnificent 
domain stretching from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, The 
incidents of the battle, need not now be told. Never were English 
or French soldiery led by more knightly captains. The passing 
years have not dispelled tbe romance or dimmed the glory that gath- 
ered about the names of Wolfe and of Montcalm. Dying at the self- 
same moment, one amid the victors, the other amid the vanquished, 
their names live together in history. 

By the treaty of Paris, which followed, France surrendered to her 
successful rival all claim to the domain east of the Mississippi River. 
In accordance with the terms of the treaty, Gage, the commander of 

—2 H. 


the British forces in America, took possession of the recently con" 
quered territory. Proclamation of this fact was made to the inhab- 
itants of the Illinois country in 1764 and a garrison soon thereafter 
established at Kaskaskia. Here, the rule of the British was, for the 
time, undisputed. 

British domination in the Mississippi valley was, however, to be 
of short duration. Soon the events were hastening, the forces gath- 
ering, which were in turn to wrest from the Crown no small part of 
the splendid domain won by Wolfe's brilliant victory at Quebec, 
While our Revolutionary War was yet in progress, and its glorious ter- 
mination yet but dimly foreshadowed, Gen. George Rogers Clark 
planned an expedition whose successful termination has given his 
name to the list of great conquerors. Bearing the commission of Pat- 
rick Henry, governor of Virginia, with 200 followers equally brave as 
himself, the heroic Clark crossed the Ohio river and began his per- 
ilous march. After enduring hardships, the recital of which even 
now makes the heart sick, the undaunted leader and his little band 
reached Kaskaskia. The British commander and his garrison were 
surprised and quickly captured. This was on the 4th cfay of July, 
1778, 15 years after the treaty of Paris. The British flag was low- 
ered and "the Illinois country" taken possession of in the name of 
the commonweath, whose governor had authorized the expedition. 
Thus, on the anniversary of our historic day, the symbol of British 
authority disappeared forever from the Illinois country. In the 
month of October following the capture of Kaskaskia the House of 
Delegates of Virginia extended jurisdiction over what had previously 
been known as "the Illinois country." A law was enacted creating 
•'the county of Illinois," and a commandant appointed by Patrick 
Henry, who has, by one of our historians, been called ^^ex-officio, the 
first Governor of Illinois." 

The significant event which soon followed, one of far reaching con- 
sequence, was the cession by Virginia to the general government of 
the vast domain of which Illinois was a part. To the famous instru- 
ment by which Illinois became a part of the United States, were 
signed as commissioners, upon the part of Virginia, the illustrious 
names of Thomas Jefferson, Arthur Lee and James Monroe. The 
resolution of the Virginia House of Delegates preceding the act of 
cession, contained the important stipulation that the lands thus 
ceded should be for the common benefit of the United States, and 
should be formed into distinct republican states which should be- 
come members of the Federal Union and have the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other states. 

Another mile stone is now reached on the pathway of "the Illinois 
country" to the dignity and sovereignty of statehood. I refer to 
what is so well known in our political history as the Ordinance of 
1787. Not inaptly, has it been called the second "Magna Charta." 
It was Mr. Webster who said of the great Ordinance: "We are accus- 
tomed to praise the great law-givers of antiquity, we help to perpet- 
uate the fame of Solon and of Lycurgus, but I doubt whether one 


single law, ancient or modern, has produced effects more distinct, 
marked and lasting in character, than the Ordinance of 1787." By 
an eminent jurist it has been described as having been ''A jjillar of 
cloud by day and of fire by night in the settlement and government of 
the northwestern states." 

On the historic day, March 1, 1784, that Virginia ceded to the 
United States the vast domain mentioned, Mr. Jefferson proposed to 
the Continental Congress a plan for its government. His far-seeing 
statesmanship is unmistakably evidenced by two provisions in the 
plan he formulated. One, that slavery should not exist in the terri- 
tory after the year 1800; the other that the states to be carved from 
the territory were to remain forever members of the American Union. 
This plan failed to receive the sanction of that Congress, acd in later 
days, and by other hands, tha great Ordinance was destined to come 
into being. 

^he fact is significant that while the convention of 1787 was in 
.session and its great work, the Constitution of the United States, yet 
unfinished, the historic Ordinance for the government of the North- 
west territory was forrpulated by the Congress then convened under 
the Articles of Confederation. It can hardly be doubted that the 
advocates of the gr^at Ordinance, in some measure, caught the inspir- 
ation which, in the historic convention, was making possible "the 
more pertect Union," which had been the dream of Washington, of 
Hamilton and of Madison. In the latter body was held high debate, 
to which the world had hitherto been unaccustomed, touching the 
fundamental principles of human government. How best to garner 
up the fruits of successful revolution and crystallize into organic law 
the deathless principles of the Declaration of Independence, was the 
problem confronting the statesman of 1787. It was the period when, 
as never before, debate touched the very springs of political power. 
The result: The Constitution of the United States, declared by 
Gladstone: "The most wonderful work ever struck off at a given 
time from the brain and purpose of man." Even now, after the lapse 
of more than a century, its framers seem to have been inspired by 
wisdom more than human. It would have been strange if the Con- 
gress, the contemporary of the great convention, and itself controlled, 
in large measure, by signers of the Declaration and soldiers of the 
Revolution, passing strange indeed, if an assembly so constituted, 
had failed to establish suitable safeguards for the liberties of the mil- 
lions yet to occupy the vast western domain. 

Antedating the Federal Constitution, the Ordinance for the gov- 
ernment of the Northwest territory was enacted July 13, 1787. As 
this was indeed the Genesis of Illinois history under the Federal 
government, it may be well to note, briefly, some of the provisions of 
the great Ordinance. By its terms a government was established 
for the territory and a Governor, Secretary, and Judges duly ap- 
pointed, with power to adopt such laws of the original states as were 
most convenient; a Legislature was authorized when the territory 
should have 5,000 free, male inhabitants; religious freedom and civil 


rights — not to depend upon religious belief — were guaranteed; like- 
wise the writ of habeas corpus and trial by jury. Two of the pro- 
visions of this famous Ordinance possessed a value that cannot be 
measured by words. One, the states to be formed from said territory 
were to remain forever apart of the United States of America; the 
other that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should exist in 
the territory otherwise than for crime, whereof the party should 
have been duly convicted." The value of the great Ordinance to that 
generation — and to the millions who have since found homes within 
the limits of the vast area embraced within its provisions — cannot 
be overstated. 

Pursuant to the ordinance of 1787 — the Northwest territory having 
attained the requisite population — a General Assembly was con- 
vened in Cincinnati, in February, 1799. Illinois was now, for the 
first time, represented in a legislative chamber. Its delegates were 
men well known to our early history: John Edgar, from the county 
of Randolph, and Shadrach Bond, from St. Clair. During the 
sessions of this Assembly, all needed legislation was enacted for 
Illinois, then embraced within the boundaries of the two historic 
counties just named. 

By act of Congress in May, 1800, the Northwest territory was di 
vided and a political division created to be known as "the Indiana 
territory." The seat of government was located at Vincennes and the 
boundaries of the new division embraced the territory constituting 
the present states of Indiana and Illinois. Events were now leading 
up to the separation of Illinois from Indiana, and its own organiza- 
tion as a territory. From the time of the first petition to that end 
in 1806, the legislative chamber at Vincennes and the entire terri- 
tory, in fact, was the theater of excited controversy. Its culmination, 
however, was in February, 1809, when, by act of Congress, "The ter- 
ritory of Illinois" was duly organized. The seat of government was 
established at Kaskaskia — and henceforth Illinois has a history sepa- 
rate and apart. 

We have now noted something of the "political beginnings" of 
Illinois. We have briefly followed its thread of history for near a 
century and a half, until, in 1809, it was granted a separate territorial 
existence. We have seen it under the rule of the Frenchman, the 
Britain, the Virginian, and the various Territorial organizations es- 
tablished by Congress. We have seen its seat of authority at Quebec, 
at New Orleans, at Fort Chartres, at Cincinnati, at Vincennes, and 
finally at Kaskaskia. A chapter less romantic — but of deeper sig- 
nificance—now opens. 

The first decisive steps, preparatory to the admission of Illinois 
into the Union, were taken by the Territorial Legislature at Kaskas- 
kia in January, 1818. A resolution passed that body requesting the 
Hon. Nathaniel Pope, the delegate in Congress, to present the peti- 
tion of the Legislature for such action upon the part of Congress as 
would enable the territory to apply, in due form, for admission upon 
an equal footing with the original states. The petition having been 
appropriately referred by the House, the delegate was instructed by 


the committee having it in charge, to prepare a bill for the admission 
of the new state. On the 18th day of April thereafter, an enabling 
act was passed by Congress to the effect that "the inhabitants of the 
territory of Illinois be, and are hereby, authorized to frame for them- 
selves a Constitution and State government, and to assume such 
name as they should deem proper, and the said state when formed 
shall be admitted into the Union upon the same footing with the 
original states in all respects whatever." An election for delegates 
to a convention to formulate a State Constitution was ordered for the 
first Monday of July and the two days immediately following, 
throughout the several counties in the Territory. The qualifications 
of electors were defined and the manner of conducting the election 
indicated. The fourth section of the bill authorized the members 
thus elected to meet in convention at Kaskaskia in August there- 
after, and, if deemed expedient, to form a Constitution and State 
government; that the same should be republican in form and not re- 
pugnant to the ordinance of 1787, excepting so much thereof as 
related to the boundaries of the states therein to be formed. The 
clause last read containing the exception as to the boundary of the 
new State, was indeed significant. By an amendment proposed by 
Judge Pope, the northern boundry of the new State was extended to 
the parallel of 42 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, instead of 41 
degrees 39 minutes thereof, as reported by the committee. Judge 
Pope stated that the object of his amendment was "to gain for the 
proposed State a coast on Lake Michigan; that this would afford 
additional security to the perpetuity of the Union, inasmuch as 
Illinois would thereby be connected through the lakes, with the 
states lying to the eastward." As amended, the bill passed. The 
valuable service rendered by Judge Pope is enduring. But for his 
foresight and fidelity, the territory out of which 14 splendid counties 
have since been carved would have been detached from Illinois, to 
become in time a part of the state of Wisconsin. But for this timely 
amendment the world today, no doubt, would know much of "Chi- 
cago, Wisconsin" — "Chicago, Illinois," would have no place upon 
the map. Instead of being third, Illinois, with but 40 per cent of 
its present population, would be low down upon the list of States. 

In pursuance of the enabling act just mentioned, a convention of 
32 delegates, elected from the 15 counties of the Territory, assembled 
at Kaskaskia on the 3d day of August, 1818. Two of the members 
of this body — Jesse B. Thomas and Elias K. Kane — at a later day 
became well known to the country. The former was president of the 
convention and the latter the leading spirit in its deliberations. 
The convention adjourned after a session of 23 days, and the Con- 
stitution — the work of its hands — was formally presented to Con- 
gress on the 19th of November thereafter, by John McLean, the re- 
cently elected member from Illinois. Objection was made to the 
cath of office being administered to Mr. McLean, "in consequence 
of Congress not having concluded the act of admission of the State 
iato the Union." After much debate, the Constitution was referred 
to a special committee, which, upon the following day, through its 
chairman, Mr. Anderson of Kentucky, reported a resolution declar- 


ing the admission of Illinois on an equal footing with the original 
states. This report was earnestly antagonized by Mr. Talmadge of 
New York, on the ground that the Constitution failed to prohibit 
slavery, as required by the ordinance of '87. In substance, that the 
sixth article, providing that "neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude shall hereafter be introduced into the State," etc., was a recog- 
nition rather than an inhibition of the institution. The principal 
speech in reply was that of Representative Harrison of Ohio, at a 
later day President of the United States. General Harrison insisted 
that there had been a virtual compliance with the ordinance, and 
said he could assure the gentleman from New York that the people 
of Illinois would never alter their Constitution in order that slavery 
might be introduced. By a vote of 117 for to 34 against, the resolu- 
tion then passed the House. This resolution was concurred in by 
the Senate on the 3d day of December, and on the following day 
Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. Thomas duly admitted as Sena- 
tors from the State of Illinois. John McLean, the sole Representa- 
tive, was on the same day admitted to a seat in the House. 

Brief reference, at this point, to the two most prominent members 
of the Convention of 1818 will not be out of place. Jesse B. Thomas, 
the President of the Convention, had, as the Delegate in Congress 
from the Indiana territory in 1809, been instrumental in securing to 
Illinois a separate territorial organization. 

He then removed from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, where he held the 
office of territorial judge. Upon the expiration of his second term 
as Senator, he removed from the state, and his remaining years were 
spent in Ohio. 

The name of Senator Thomas is prominently connected with the 
slavery discussions in 1820, upon the application of Missouri for ad- 
mission into the Union. It was a period of intense excitement in 
Congress and throughout the country and serious apprehensions 
existed as to the possible fate of the Union. On the seventeenth of 
February of that year Senator Thomas proposed, by way of amend- 
ment to the Missouri bill, then pending, a prohibition of slavery in 
the territory ceded by France to the United States, lying north of 
86 degrees and 30 minutes, north latitude, excepting such part 
thereof as was included within the Missouri bouiidary. The pro- 
posed amendment was engrafted upon the bill for the admission of 
the new state and will live in our political history as "The Missouri 
Compromise of 1820." 

Governor Ford is authority for the statement that Elias K. Kane 
was the most prominent member of the convention of 1818; that his 
talents were both solid and brilliant, and that to him we are indebted 
for the peculiar features of our first Constitution. He was less than 
24 years of age when a member of the convention. He was the first 
Secretary of State, by appointment of Governor Bond, subsequently 
a member of the Legislature and was twice elected a Senator in Con- 
gress. His death occurred in Washington City, in 1835, while a 
member of the Senate. He was an able member of that body, had 


rendered valuable service to the state he represented and his name 
lives in honorable association with the important events of early Illi- 
nois history. 

By an examination of our first Constitution, it will be seen that 
its framers were little disposed to trust the people with power. No 
provision was made for submitting the Constitution to popular vote, 
for adoption or rejection. By its terms, the Supreme and Circuit 
Judges, as well as the Secretary of State, Treasurer and Auditor, were 
to be elected by the General Assembly. The Governor and remain- 
ing State officers were to be chosen by the people. Many provisions 
were copied from the Constitutions of the older states. The seat of 
government was to remain at Kaskaskia until the General Assembly 
made provision for its permanent location. Instead of vesting the 
Executive with a qualified veto power — as had been done in the 
Federal, as well as many of the state Constitutions — a Council of 
Revision was created. This council consisted of the governor and 
judges of the Supreme Court. By this provision, all bills which had 
passed the Senate and House were required to be submitted to the 
Council of Revision for approval or rejection. If approved, the bill 
at once became a law. If disapproved by the Council, the bill was 
required to be returned to the House in which it originated — with 
the written objections of the Council — for re-consideration. Upon 
re-consideration, however, the bill might become a law by a majority 
vote of each House, the objection of the Council of Revision to the 
contrary, notwithstanding. It will readily be seen that the Council 
of Revision, was, in reality, invested only with advisory powers to 
the General Assembly. All white, male inhabitants, above the age 
of 21 years, who had resided six months in the State, were granted 
the elective franchise. It has been said that this was the first Con- 
stitution to prohibit imprisonment for debt. For this, it is entitled 
to lasting commendation. No less is it to be commended for the 
provision against dueling. 

While the members of the first Constitutional Convention appar- 
ently distrusted the executive and judicial departments of the gov- 
ernment, their faith seems to have been unbounded in the General 
Assembly. The power of the Legislature was almost unlimited. 
One of the defects of this Constitution was the lack of a restriction 
upon the General Assembly in the matter of divorces. A defect yet 
more serious was the absence of a limitation upon the power of the 
Legislature in pledging the credit of the State to enterprises of a 
public or private character. The record of the baneful effect of this 
omission constitutes the most humiliating chapter of our history as 
a State. The ill-advised legislation relating to banks and various 
schemes for internal improvements culminated, as is well known, in 
the financial disasters which brought the new State to the verge of 
bankruptcy. The Constitution of 1818, however, contained many 
provisions well adapted to then existing conditions. Under it, with 
Bond as Governor, Menard as Lieutenant Governor and Kane as 
Secretary, Illinois, with a population of less than 40,000 souls, be- 
gan its marvelous career as a State of the American Union. 


This Constitution remained the organic law of Illinois for 30 years, 
and until the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. Meanwhile the 
State had gradually increased in wealth and in population. Many 
new counties had been organized, and the northern boundary of 
actual settlement extended from the county of Madison to the Wis- 
consin line. ChicagOj and other cities unknown to the framers of 
the first Constitution, bad sprung into being. To meet the exigency 
of largely increased population to the northward, the State Capital 
had been twice removed, first to Vandalia and later to Springfield. 

An attempt to procure the calling of a Convention to frame a 
Constitution to supplant the first was made in 182'6. By article 7 of 
the latter the General Assembly was empowered, by a two-thirds vote 
thereof, to submit to the electors of the State the question of calling 
a convention to alter or amend the existing Constitution. By the 
Legislature of 1823 there was such submission under this provision. 
The purpose of the originators of this movement unquestionably was 
to secure, bj^ constitutional provision, the introduction into the State 
of the institution of slavery. For more than a year this was the all- 
absorbing topic of debate, Political leaders and newspapers were 
divided and fierce personal antagonisms engendered. The discus- 
sions at the fireside, in the public press and upon the hustings 
touched all phases of the question, from the standpoint of material 
advantage as well as from the high plane of right. Today such a 
contention seems to have belonged to other countries and to mediseval 
times. But "the world moves," and marvelous indeed have been the 
advances along all lines of thought during the four score years which 
since have passed. 

The verdict of the people, overwhelming and final, was rendered 
August 2, 1824-, against the proposed convention and the introduc- 
tion of slavery into Illinois. The passing years have obscured the 
names of many of the prominent actors in the great struggle. Two 
names, however, come down to us out of the shadowy past, that will 
not be permitted to perish from the memories of the living. The 
one a Virginian, Edward Coles; the other a Kentuckian, Daniel P. 
Cook. The former, the Governor of Illinois; the latter, its sole Rep- 
resentative in Congress. Courageous and untiring they stood in the 
fore-front, the faithful advocates of a free State. A prosperous 
county near the Wabash, bears the historic name of Coles, while 
the great county to the northward, upon the lake, will hand down to 
coming times, the honored name of Cook. 

With the increase in population and in wealth, the necessity became 
urgent for a new Constitution or material amendments to the old. 
The question of calling a convention was again submitted, by the 
Legislature, to be voted upon at the general election in 1846, The 
returns showed a large majority favorable to the convention, and at 
a special election, delegates were duly chosen in April, 1847. The 
convention assembled in Springfield, on the 7th of June of that 
year. It consisted of 162 members and its sessions were concluded 
on the 31st day of August. Hon. Newton Cloud, of Morgan county, 
was elected president, and both the Whig and Democratic parties 

were represented in the body by men of well known ability. The 
Hon. Anthony Thornton, of Shelbyville, is now the sole survivor of 
that convention. Distinguished alike for high personal character 
and legal ability, he is still, at an advanced age, an ornament to the 
profession he has so long honored Some of the members of that 
convention were, at a later day, called to places of responsibility and 
honor in the State and Nation. One, John M. Palmer, became the 
Governor of the commonwealth, another, David Davis, a Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. Unlike the Constitution 
of 1818, this was submitted to the people. It met popular approval 
by a decisive majority, and, by its terms, went into operation on the 
iarst Monday in April, 1848. 

In the address to the people which accompanied the Constitution, 
the committee said: "Availing themselves of the lights furnished 
by a highly advanced state of political science, your delegates have 
sought to adapt their efforts to the demands of the growing interests 
and population of the State, consulting at all times the popular will 
whenever it could be ascertained." Some of the material changes 
from the old will be noted, In the Executive Department, the term 
of office of the Governor was fixed at four years, and he was 
rendered ineligible to consecutive re election. The Council 
of Revision was abolished and a qualified veto power lodged 
in the Governor. In the Legislative Department, the number 
of Senators was restricted to 25, and of Representatives to 75, 
and biennial sessions of the Legislature provided for. A yea and 
nay vote was required upon the passage of all bills. Legislation 
authorizing lotteries, or in any manner extending bank charters, was 
prohibited. The Legislature was virtually prohibited from borrow- 
ing money — exceeding $50,000 in amount — unless in case of insur- 
rection, invasion or war. The powers of the judiciary were devolved 
upon a Supreme, Circuit and County Court, and Justices of the 
Peace and the establishment of Municipal Courts permitted. The 
right of suffrage was restricted to all white, male citizens above the 
age of twenty-one years, who had resided in the State one year next 
preceding the election, and to such as should be residents of the 
State at the time of the adoption of the proposed Constitution. The 
time of holding elections was changed from three days in August to 
one day in November and the ballot substituted for the old system. 
A wholesome restriction was placed upon the creation of new coun- 
ties. The creation of a State bank was prohibited and all laws cre- 
ating corporations — not possessing banking powers — were required 
to be general. Acts authorizing corporations with banking powers 
could take effect only upon the approval of a majority of the electors, 
at a vote to be taken at some general election. Provision was made 
for the establishment of township organization, also for the election 
of judges and other officers, by the people. The salary of the 
Governor was fixed at $1,500, per annum, and that of judges of the 
Supreme and Circuit Courts, at $1,200 and $1,000, respectively. 

The fact, that the State and the people were, at the time, burdened 
with debt, -is the explanation why some of the provisions of this 


Constitution were adopted. They were the cause of serious embar- 
rassment at a later day and of many devices to evade plain constitu- 
tional provisions. Two articles of the Constitution were submitted 
to be voted upon separately. One was the provision for a tax of two 
mills upon each dollar's worth of taxable property, the proceeds to 
be applied to the discharge of the internal improvement debt. It 
was estimated that this debt of near 6,000,000 of dollars would 
thereby be discharged in 25 years. The other article separately sub- 
mitted was that prohibiting the introduction of free negroes into the 
State. Each of these articles was adopted and became a part of the 
Constitution; the latter — strange as it may seem to us now — by 
almost a two-third vote. 

As has been stated, the convention that formulated our second 
Constitution was held at a time of serious financial depression in the 
State. The evils resulting from a failure by the first convention to 
restrain the General Assembly, by appropriate constitutional inhibi- 
tion, were everywhere apparent. The pendulum now swung far in 
the opposite direction. The Convention of 1847 engrafted upon its 
Constitution much in the matter of details that should have been left 
to subsequent Legislatures. A grave error, unquestionably, was 
that of virtually limiting the sessions of the General Assembly to 42 
days, the compensation of members during that period being $2 per 
day. One dollar per day to be the sole compensation should the 
sessions be continued longer than the time indicated. The ill effect 
of this, as well as of the provision fixing the salaries of the Executive 
and judges, were soon recognized. Changed conditions soon ren- 
dered these provisions burdensome, and various legislative devices 
were resorted to for the purpose of evading them. One was that of 
allowing each of the judges of the Supreme Court a clerk, with a sal- 
ary exceeding that allowed the judge by the Constitution. In some 
of the counties the meagre salary of the circuit judge was supple- 
mented by unauthorized appropriations from the county treasury. 
The Constitution of 1848, however, contained many valuable provis- 
ions, and the well-known ability of many of its framers is conclusive 
evidence that it was the best that could be secured under then ex- 
isting conditions. 

The second Constitution remained in force from April 4, 1848, un- 
til Aug. 8, 1870. In the intervening years the increase in population 
and the commercial development of the State had been without par- 
allel. In addition, its geographical position and political power had 
given Illinois a place among the greatest of the states of the Union. 
Meanwhile, the defects in the organic law and the repeated evasion 
of its provisions became the subject of earnest discussion. In large 
measure the State had outgrown its Constitution. The words of 
Lord Bacon were fraught with deep meaning, "What men will not 
alter for the better, time — the great innovator — will alter for the 

In pursuance of an act of the General Assembly an election was 
held in November, 1861 for delegates to a new convention. This 
convention, consisting of 75 members, assembled in Springfield, Jan. 

. 27 

7, 1862. Its membership included distinguished representatives of 
both political parties. A former Governor of the State and the 
present Chief Justice of the United States, were of its members. 
The president of the body Hon. William A. Hacker, of Union county, 
and its secretary, Hon. William M. Springer, well known at a later 
day as an able representative in Congress. Inasmuch as the Con- 
stitution formulated by this convention, was, upon its submission, 
rejected by popular vote, there would be little profit now in specify- 
ing the features which distinguished it from that which it was in- 
tended to supplant. In the address accompanying it, attention was 
called to its manifold advantages over the old; to the insufficient 
checks upon legislation which the proposed Constitution would ob- 
viate. It was claimed that under the latter, "Efficiency would be 
combined with economy in all departments of State; legislation 
limited by wise restriction; judicial proceedings regulated in a man- 
ner economical and just; chartered corporations deprived of their 
unreasonable and dangerous power, and the happiness of the people, 
the promotion of morality and the consequent prosperity of the 
State regarded as the prime objects of government." 

By the rejection just mentioned, the Constitution of 1848 was 
granted a new lease of life. Time, however, only emphasized its 
glaring defects and the imperative necessity for its amendment. 
Upon this point, the words of a responsible committee are indeed 
suggestive: "'For years past, the machinery of our State government 
has been kept in motion only by continued violation of plain and 
positive constitutional provisions. And whenever it becomes neces- 
sary to violate a Constitution, it should be changed to meet and re- 
move the necessity which impelled to such violation." The latest 
Convention, that which formulated our present Constitution, assem- 
bled in Springfield on the 13th day of December, 1869, and concluded 
its deliberations on the 18th day of May, following. It consisted of 
85 members and was, in the highest sense, an able and representa- 
tive body, Hon. Charles Hitchcock, a prominent member of the 
Chicago bar, was its presiding officer. Its leading members had 
known much of public service, both to the State and the Nation. 
One had been a Senator and a member of the cabinet. The tem- 
porary president. Colonel Dement, of Dixon, had been a resident of 
Illinois during its entire existence as a State, and a member of the 
two conventions immediately preceding. 

The address of the convention, which accompanied the Constitu- 
tion to the people, contained these explanatory words; "Our State 
Legislatures are only restrained by the Constitutions of the State 
and of the United States. It is, therefore, necessary that State Con- 
stitutions should contain many regulations and restrictions, while 
the Constitution of the United States may be much shorter, for 
that is a government of delegated powers with only the incidental pow- 
ers necessary and proper to execute the powers granted." Therefore, as 
will be seen, manifold provisions were engrafted upon the new Consti- 
tution as barriers against the continuance of existing evils. The 
Constitution of no state probably contained more restrictive provisions 


upon the Legislative department. Every avenue was attempted to 
be guarded against the evils of special legislation. Wherever appli- 
cable, general laws were required. In addition to the subjects of 
divorce and lotteries, mentioned in the old Constitution, more than 
20 new subjects are enumerated upon which the General Assembly- 
was prohibited from legislating. Upon one, or more, of these, much 
of the special legislation complained of, had originated. As a pre- 
caution against hasty legislation, all bills and amendments, thereto 
were required to be printed before they were passed. Only one sub- 
ject was permitted to be embaced in each bill. The General Assem- 
bly was prohibited from releasing any liability to the State, or to 
any municipal corporation therein. 

A new departure in the organic law of a state was the mandatory 
provision specifying certain subjects upon which the General As- 
sembly was required to legislate In what manner this provision 
could be enforced, or what would be the penalty for non-compliance 
with this constitutional requirement, we are not advised. If, how- 
ever, regarded only as advisory, it was of value. Suitable laws for 
the protection of coal miners have been enacted and liberal home- 
stead and exemption laws passed. Added to the *'Bill of Rights" 
was the requirement that private property should not be taken for 
public use without just compensation, to be ascertained by a jury. 
And that "all irrevocable grants of special privileges or immunities 
are prohibited, to protect the people against privileged orders and 
dangerous monopolies." 

In the Executive Department, additional power was given and 
greater responsibility cast upon the Governor. The power to remove 
incompetent officers, or such as were guilty of malfeasence in office, 
was given. The negative power of the Governor over legislation 
was measured by that of the President over Congress, under the 
Federal Constitution. The provision in regard to suffrage was made 
to conform to that of the Constitution of the United States. Time 
has demonstrated the wisdom of other provisions, especially those 
relating to "corporations" and "state, county and municipal indebted- 
ness." To the end that the expense and inconvenience of future 
conventions to alter or amend the organic law, might be avoided, 
suitable provision was made for submission by the General Assem- 
bly of proposed amendments for adoption or rejection by the people. 

Lessons of value may be drawn from a study of the several Consti- 
tutions under which our State has had its political being. The first 
convention — distrusting the people — signally failed to limit the 
power of the Legislature, This omission was, at a later day, the 
prime cause of evils that brought the State almost to the verge of 
bankruptcy and dishonor. In this connection, the words of Webster 
possess deep meaning; "It is a fundamental rule in the structure of 
human society that mankind must not only limit the power of their 
rulers, but must limit themselves." 

The second convention — distrusting the Legislature — engrafted 
upon the fundamental law much that pertained exclusively to statu- 
tory enactment. There seems to have been little reckoning taken as 


to the possibility of changed conditions in human affairs, from those 
then existing. But all wisdom is not of one generation. It must be 
remembered that ''new occasions teach new duties." Something 
must be trusted to the future. 

The third convention— whose work failed to receive popular ap- 
proval — exercised, in a yet greater degree, the power of ordinary 
legislation. The position assumed by some of its members, that a 
convention was vested with extraordinary powers; that independent 
of existing law, it embodied the supreme will of the people, was un- 
tenable. The convention is a creature of the people, their chosen 
agency for a clearly defined purpose. Within its proper sphere, its 
powers are unmeasured. Brought into existence, not by revolution- 
ary proceedings, but under the arms of law, its powers are, of neces- 
sity, limited. To formulate the fundamental law anew, or alter and 
amend, as may seem most fitting, and submit the work of its hands 
to the judgment of that higher tribunal, the people, is the "be all 
and end all" of the high prerogative of the Constitutional Conven- 

Fundamental Laws — In the words of an eminent writer — "in poli- 
tics, are expressions of sovereign will in relation to the structure of 
the government, the extent and distribution of its powers, the modes 
and purposes of its operation, and the apparatus of checks and bal- 
ances proper to insure its integrity and continued existence." Stat- 
uatory enactments upon the contrary may be "tentative, temporary 
and pass with the occasion." The work of the Legislature may be 
for the hour; that of the convention — for time. 

From all this it may be inferred that the assembling of a convention 
to formulate a new fundamental law for the State, should be an 
event of rare occurrence in our history. In matters of government, 
as well as along humbler paths, it is sometimes better "to bear the 
ills we have, than to fly to others that we know not of." The neces- 
sity for the convention as an instrumentality in government is, in 
large measure, obviated by a wise provision of the Constitution, by 
which, through simpler and less expensive methods, public opinion 
can find expression upon proposed amendments to the organic law. 

The present Constitution of our State has been in operation almost 
a third of a century. It has answered well its purpose and is a monu- 
ment to the fidelity and ability of its framers. The great common- 
wealth, of which it is the fundamental law, is now the third in the 
Federal Union. In the light of the past, we stand appalled as we 
contemplate its marvelous future. 

In the remote — or the near future, it may be — a new convention 
will assemble and a new Constitution be formulated. When — will be 
determined by those upon whom the responsibility shall hereafter 
devolve. It will be strange indeed if changing conditions, aug- 
mented population, the growth of cities — especially of our great 
city — and commercial developement along all lines, shall not render 
some alteration in the organic law of the State, a necessity. The 
words of John Stuart Mill are significant: "No government can now 


expect to be permanent, unless it guarantees progress as well as 
order; nor can it continue to secure order unless it promotes 

But it must be remembered, that all change is not progress. The 
Federal Constitution — the nearest perfect of all the schemes of gov- 
ernment yet devised by man — has, with few material amendments, 
endured the stress and strain of more than a century. In its essen- 
tials, it meets the requirements of a people now far in the forefront, 
as it did those of a feeble Republic when struggling for place among 
the nations. 

It has been said that: "Today is the pupil of yesterday." Each 
age is "the heir of all which has preceded." We make progress as 
we profit by the lessons of the past. In all human affairs, experience 
is the sure guide. In the light of experience, we know that wise 
and stable government is one of the essentials to human happiness. 
Equally well, we know that whatever the safe-guard of Constitution 
or of statute, the public weal is, in large measure, dependent upon 
the clear head and clean hands of those to whom the administration 
of the laws is committed. There is something of truth — though not 
all truth — in the lines of the old poet: 

"As to forms of government, let fools contest, 
That which is best administered, is best." 

Let us never forget that in the outstretched years, the welfare of 
the State — and of the great Republic of which it is a part — will de- 
pend, not upon material power or wealth or splendor, but upon the 
intelligence, the virtue, the patriotism of the people In the State — 
as in the home — the nearer we keep to the land marks established by 
our fathers, the more surely are we in the pathway of duty and of 

We honor the memory of the men who set up the public defences 
and made sure the foundation of this great commonwealth They 
are to be judged, not in the spirit of criticism— not "by the knowl- 
edge that comes after the fact" — but by the conditions that sur- 
rounded, and by the lights that guided them. We are proud, and 
justly, of this great State — our home and the home of our children; 
proud of its prosperity and its position; proud of its historic past — 
of all it has contributed to the welfare and glory of the Republic. 
We, nor history, will forget how, when the life of the Nation was in 
peril, Illinois — true to her covenant under the great Ordinance that 
had given her being— gave one illustrious son to the chief magistracy 
of his country, another to the captaincy of its armies, and sent her 
heroes, by myriads, along every pathway of danger and of glory. 



By Hon. William Spensley. 

Until recently Jo Daviess county in a political sense was not on 
the map of the State. Being in the northwest corner it did not seem 
to be of much importance, either from a political or a more material 
standpoint. Now, however, I want to kindly suggest to the aspiring 
ones that politically Jo Daviess county is coming to the front, and 
they had better keep their eye on the present pro tempore President 
of the Senate or he may quietly slip into the Gubernatorial chair. 

It is well, however, that politics do not, of themselves, make a 
State, and when we consider Jo Daviess county from a more material 
standpoint and from what it has added to the nation's wealth in the 
past and what it will probably add to that wealth in the future, it 
will be found that it is one of the most important counties in the 
State, and I confidently assert that no county in the State of its size 
has natural resources superior to those of the county of Jo Daviess. 

It will produce anything that any. other county will produce in the 
same latitude, and produce it abundantly, and when you add to this 
its mineral wealth, it is unsurpassed, if equaled, by any other county 
in the commonwealth of Illinois. 

Just when its mines were first discovered is shrouded in mystery, 
although it is certain that a Frenchman by the name of La Seur saw 
mines in that county as early as the month of August, 1700. He 
was on a trading expedition to the Indians in what is now the State 
of Minnesota, and in his report of that expedition says he discovered 
a small river entering the Mississippi on the right side, and describes 
the river as running from the north, and that on that river seven 
leagues from the Mississippi is a lead mine. He named the river, 
thus discovered by him, "The River of Mines." It should be borne 
in mind that at that time Jo Daviess county, as well as other por- 
tions of the northwest, was French territory. The river so discovered 
by him was, beyond doubt, what is now known as Galena river, and 
there is a map of Illinois in the State House published in 1820, in 
which that river is named the River of Mines. 

The geography of the county at that time was but little known and 
afterwards, in 1712, Louis the XIV, of France, granted in perpetuity 
to one Anthony Crozat and his heirs all the property of the mines of 
Louisiana, which was then supposed to include the mines of what is 
now included within the bounds of Jo Daviess county. 


It is uncertain just what particular mine La Seur saw, but the 
best evidence obtainable points to the fact that the mine he visited 
is the one two miles north of the City of Gralena and has always been 
and still is known as the Buck mine. It is a lead mine and has been 
worked more or less from the time that La Seur is supposed to have 
seen it up to the present time, and it is claimed it is yet far from 
being exhausted. 

Tradition claims that there was at first in said mine a solid body 
of lead ore 100 feet high, varying in width from 6 to 10 feet, and ex- 
tending from east to west for nearly a mile, but I am strongly of the 
opinion that in this respect tradition is at fault because no such mine 
has since been discovered, and again, that description would give the 
lead ore a sheet formation. The old Buck mine is what is known 
as an east and west mine, and east and west mines do not form lead 
ore in that way; the sheet formations of lead ore being found in what 
is known as north and south crevices. The lead ore found in the 
east and west take on what is known as a cog formation, samples of 
such formation I have with me (exhibiting same), the north and 
south crevices producing lead ore in a sheet formation, samples of 
such formation I now hold in my hand (exhibiting same.) 

All of the lead ore produced in Jo Daviess County contains traces 
of silver but not enough to make it profitable to extract the same; the 
ore found in what is known as the north and south crevices and be- 
ing of a sheet formation will produce a trifle more lead than the ore 
found in the east and west, which is of a cog formation. Just why 
this is so has never been determined. It may be well in passing to 
say that the best lead ores found in the county, when reduced in a 
crucible, will produce about 80 per cent of lead, although in the 
primitive form in which our early smelters reduced the ore it would 
hardly produce 70 per cent of lead, or rather but 70 per cent of lead 
was saved. 

The lead ores are found at various depths, from the grass roots 
down as deep as explorations have been made, which is not very deep 
as mines are now considered. No mine in the county, with which I 
am familiar, has been to exceed 200 feet in depth. The ore is found 
in veins and flats, that is, in veins that are perpendicular or that 
open horizontally, the perpendicular veiss being known to geologists 
as gash veins, they are locally known as crevices and nearly all the 
ore is found in crevices, although a considerable amount is found 
out side of the crevices, the ore so found is known as float and is 
supposed to have drifted away from the main body of ore, just how 
this drifting away has been brought about, if it really occurred, is 
not known. 

The principal crevices run east and west, that is their general 
course is east and west although generally they vary slightly to a 
southeast and northwest direction and are locally known in the mines 
as "east and wests." Other crevices run north and south, that is 
their general courses do, and are locally known as 'north and souths." 
Besides these there are crevices known as quarterings which usually 


cross the east and west crevices diagonally. Some of these quarter - 
ings, so called, run from the northeast to the southwest and some 
from the southeast to the northwest and are locally called "ten o'clocks'' 
or "four o'clocks" according to the direction they assume. Besides 
these there are smaller crevices which usually cross the east and 
west crevices in various directions, these are locally called "swithers," 
just why they are so called I have not been able to ascertain. 

The crevices generally run in groups. A group consists of three 
or more crevices. The largest quantities of ores are found in the 
easts and wests. For some distance below the crevices are generally 
found to be perpendicular; then they frequently vary from such 
perpendicular, either north or south. When the variation is toward 
the north it is called "a north pitch"; when the variation is toward 
the south it is called "a south pitch." But those pitches generally 
return to a perpendicular. The east and west crevices form what is 
locally known as openins^s; that is, they widen out, and in these 
openings the largest body of lead ore is found. When the opening 
is horizontal it is called a '*flat opening," and when perpendicular a 
perpendicular opening. The crevices that run north and south sel- 
dom, if ever, make openings ; at least have not been found to make open- 
ings, so far as they have been explored, and they generally drop 
toward the east or pitch east as the "crow flies." The lead ore in 
these north and south crevices has the appearance of being molded 
in the crevice, and is generally found attached to what is locally 
called the wall rock. In each of these groups there is generally 
found what is known as a main crevice, and if lead ore be found in 
the group, the largest body is usually found in such main crevice. If 
lead ore be found in all the crevices of the group, it is not found 
directly north or south of the ore found in the main crevice, but in a 
diagonal course from it, and is supposed to be formed by the diagonal 
crossings of the group of crevices, which, as before explained, are 
locally known as "ten o'clocks" or "four o'clocks." 

As before explained, the lead ore found in the crevices that run 
east and west is generally known as cog mineral; that found in the 
veins running north and south is generally known as sheet mineral. 
Not all of the crevices that run either east or west or north or south 
contain lead ore, many of them are barren. Just why some crevices 
should contain lead ore and some not, geologists fail to inform us. 
It is a remarkable fact, however, that so far as I have been informed 
no ore is found in any crevice without such crevice having been 
crossed by some other crevice and the local expression is "you will 
not find lead ore until you strike a crossing." Just why this is so is 
not known. Some of the crevices are open almost to the grass roots, 
although they generally close as they go down and just before they 
make an opening, as it is called. Some are covered over with a 
limestone formation, the local name of which is the cap-rock. The 
wall rock on each side of the crevice is sometimes found to be 

3 H 


smooth and almost level and over the opening, nature has formed a 
covering of limestone almost as smooth as formed by the hand of 
man, and this, as before stated, is called the cap- rock. 

In some of the crevices the walls come together much the same as 
the two sides of a vase. 

The first work done in the mines was beyond doubt performed by the 
Indians, generally by the squaws, their method of extracting the ore 
from the ground where ft was found attached to the rock was to build 
a great fire on the rocks and when the rocks had become sufficiently 
heated threw water upon it and caused the rock to crack, thus separ- 
ating the ore from the rock. After the ore had been taken from the 
earth the Indians would make a slight excavation in some hillside, 
fill that with wood and place the ore thereon, would set the wood on 
fire and in this way reduce the ore to lead; these are called Indian 
furnaces, some of them have been seen until recently. 

The early method of melting the ore by the white man was almost 
as inartistic. They would dig a pit; over this pit would be placed a 
quantity of logs, and upon these lay the ore; setting the logs on fire 
the ore would be reduced, filling the pit with lead. These were called 
log furnaces. Afterwards the Drummond furnace was introduced; 
also the cupola and the blast furnace, which is the one now used, and 
which is nothing more or less than the old Scotch hearth. It is a 
little remarkable that in the lead mines of JoDaviess county during 
the last 50 years little or no improvement has been made in the 
method of reducing lead ore, and the quantity of ore that has been 
wasted or lost since the discovery of the mines is almost incalculable. 

It is to be regretted that no very accurate account has been kept 
of the product of the lead mines ot JoDaviess county. For years the 
shipping point was Galena, and from the year 1821 up to and includ- 
ing the year 1^57, from the best data that I have been able to gather, 
there was shipped from Galena, during that time, the enormous sum 
of 820,000,000 pounds, the estimate value of which was over $30,- 
000,000. From the mines at Elizabeth, which is 15 miles from Ga- 
lena, but yet in JoDaviess county, the Hon, Henry Green, who was 
good authority and formerly represented JoDaviess county in the 
State Senate, states that up to 1875 there was shipped from those 
mines at Elizabeth 75,000,000 pounds. And the late H. H. Hough- 
ton, who, at the time of his death, was the oldest editor in the State, 
in an article published in his paper just before his death, which oc- 
curred in 1873, states that the output of the mines of Vinegar Hill, 
which is five miles north of Galena, but in JoDaviess county, has 
reached the enormous sum of 300,000,000 pounds. A writer from 
Galena, whose name I have not been able to ascertain, in Harper's 
publication for the month of May, 1866, states that the value of the 
lead ore produced by the mines of JoDaviess county up to that time 
was $40,000,000. 

The discovery of gold in California and the War of the Rebellion 
both had a marked influence upon the productiveness of the mines 
of Jo Daviess county, the first by drawing away most of the miners 

85 140382 

to what was deemed more profitable fields of labor and the latter by 
taking a large number of the young men to the field of battle. As 
near as can be ascertained Jo Daviess county furnished nearly one- 
tenth of its population to the army. 

Lead ore has been found in every township in the county, and 
how little the county has been explored will be understood when I 
state that if all the crevices in which discovery of lead ore has been 
made in the county were placed side by side they would not cover 
more than a section of land. This may seem almost incredible, and 
yet this is the candid judgment of all those with whom I have talked 
and whose judgment is of value. 

Thus far I have spoken of the mines of Jo Daviess county with re- 
ference to lead ore alone, but it is estimated by those competent to 
judge that prolific as Jo Daviess county has been and is in lead ore 
it does not compare with what zinc ore it has and will produce. Up 
to 1860 the zinc ore was of little or no value and many a time while 
hauling lead ore to my father's furnace have I heard the presence of 
zinc ore with the lead ore bitterly denounced, both by the miners 
and the men employed in the reduction of the lead ore, the two ores 
did not mix well, the miner claiming when he would find zinc ore, 
that it ''burned the lead ore out" and the smelter would declare that 
the zinc ore prevented the reduction of the lead ore, the latter I 
know to be true from experience. The zinc ore is found in two 
forms, locally known as black-jack and dry bone, these are shortened 
into jack and bone. The black jack or sulphide of zinc is such as I 
now hold in my hand (exhibiting same), it is generally understood 
to be found at a greater depth than the lead ore, it is also found in 
crevices somewhat like the lead ore and when it is at its best it is 
found in sheet formation, whether it be in an east and west or a 
north and south crevice. The best zinc ore, or as we locally call it, 
the best jack is from 60 to 66 per cent pure, sometimes we find the 
lead ore and the zinc ore and limestone all mixed together as though 
each separate particle had been stirred in nature's pot to- 
gether and suddenly hardened. The dry bone so called, which is 
properly a carbonate of zinc, a specimen of which I now hold in my 
hand (exhibiting specimen) is an inferior quality of zinc ore. It is 
found under like conditions as the black-jack but not so deep and 
some have supposed that it is simply the better ore leached out by 
nature's process. 

Just now the trend of mining in Jo Daviess county is toward the 
discovery of zinc ore and thousands of dollars are now being spent 
in the discovery of that ore. One mine in the city of Galena within 
the last 60 days, has been sold to a foreign syndicate for $80,000 
and that syndicate is now preparing to further develope the mine on 
a large scale, putting up buildings and machinery, which at a low 
estimate will cost $30,000. The manager of the company informs 
me that it is the purpose of the company to develope the mine to 
its lowest depths, expecting that when the mine will reach a depth 
of 300 feet that the deposits will be much larger than have now been 
discovered. Beside this zinc mine, just three miles north of Galena, 


is another zinc mine operated by a company with improved ma- 
chinery and it is now turning out vast quantities of finished ore. 
Many other companies have within the last six months commenced 
operations and it is confidently expected that within the next two 
years the zinc mines of Jo Daviess county will eclipse the zinc mines 
of Missouri. 

I desire to state further for the benefit of such as may be inter- 
ested, that the development of the mines in Jo Daviess county, 
whether it be for lead or zinc ores, can be brought about by the use 
of comparatively small amount of capital. Our mines are so exten- 
sive that the ground can be leased at almost a nominal rental and no 
charge is made for such leases until results are obtained, and then 
the royalties paid therefor are generally less than one-half of the 
royalties paid for gold, silver or copper mining properties. The 
mining interests are so extensive that little or no trouble is experi- 
enced in securing leases upon good mining properties. I make this 
statement deliberately and after consultation with parties who are 
thoroughly informed upon the subject and I ask a candid investiga- 
tion into the statements I make. 

Some idea of the interest that is now being taken in the develop- 
ment of the zinc mines in Jo Daviess county may be gathered from 
the fact that there was not a mill for the reduction of the ore within 
the bounds of the county three years ago. I have the statement of 
Mr. R. Barrett, who is president of the Little Corporal and also 
president of the Hazel Green Mining company and who is also our 
leading wholesale merchant, that within the next six month includ- 
ing those now in operation, there will be 25 mills within the mining 
district of which Galena is the center, 17 of which are now either in 
active operation or contracted for. It will be noted that this is a 
remarkable fact when it is considered that in the mining district of 
which Galena is the center, zinc mining is only in its infancy. 

Aside from the lead and zinc mines we have another ore that is 
just now coming into prominence. It is locally known as sulphur, a 
specimen of which I now hold in my hand (exhibiting specimen). 
A few years ago this had no commercial value whatever, now it is 
worth about $6 per ton, although it is but little sought after. It is 
used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid and I have been informed 
that experiments are being made with it for fertilizing purposes and 
it is just possible that by its use Illinois may again become a great 
wheat growing State, as it is supposed by some that the reason wheat 
cannot now be grown as successfully in Illinois as in other portions 
of the Union is lack of sulphur in the soil, but upon this point I do 
not hazard an opinion. 

Aside from all the foregoing ores produced by Jo Daviess County 
I want to say that it also produces iron ore. There is one iron mine 
in that county that has produced large quanties of iron ore but not 
yet in sufficient quantities to be profitable and just at present the 
mine is not in operation. 


I have to say also that it is within the range of possibilities that 
gold may yet be discovered in that county. I am aware of the fact 
that geologists claim that such a thing could not be but we are learn- 
ing every day that Dame Nature does things that have not yet been 
written down in the books. In a spring situated near the village of 
Hanover in Jo Daviess County, I have personally washed out what 
is known as black sand. It is the same kind of sand in which gold 
is found in many of the placer mines of the West. I also gathered 
near said spring quite a quantity of quartz, which to the unpracticed 
eye is similar to quartz in which gold is found in the West, although 
I did not discover any gold but I intend at no distant day to further 
prospect the property. 

I can say in conclusion and a personal inspection of our mineral 
resources will justify the statement, that the mines of Jo Daviess 
County, prospectively, offer as good returns, if not better, for capital 
invested than any mines in the United States. North of us in the 
village of Platteville, in Grant County, is a big mine which, I am 
told, is paying a monthly dividend of 5 per cent. Near the village 
of Benton, in LaFayette County, which is just north of Jo Daviess 
County, are several zinc mines that are paying large dividends an- 
nually. No lead mines anywhere in the United States have been in 
the past better producers than the lead mines of Jo Daviess County, 
not one- tenth of the county has been explored for lead ore. The 
zinc mines of the county are in their infancy and those best com- 
petent to judge give it as their candid judgment that untold wealth 
lies below the surface of Jo Daviess County, awaiting only the wise 
use of capital for its development. 



Mrs. Mathew T. Scott. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Illinois State Historical Society : 
Authorized to do so by the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
a widespread and growing organization, extending into every state 
of our Union, and whose sole object is the strengthening and glory of 
our beloved country and the restoration of a full fraternal spirit of 
patriotism, I am before you to submit a memorial upon Old Fort 

In its preparation, I have used the material preserved by the plain 
people, who for generations have lived near the old fort. The writ- 
ten history prepared by eminent men, also, the authenticated records 
of the War Department. I have been particularly fortunate in hav- 
ing access to the records of the War Department through the courtesy 
of Mr. S. A. McCarthy of the Record Division of the office of the 
Chief of Engineers. You will notice that at various points of this 
narrative I have given various statements on such immaterial points 
as the origin of the name, etc., but not otherwise, for there is no dis- 
puting testimony on national matters, and I am the more emboldened 
in my cause from the fact that before I appeared here, I sub- 
mitted my material and references to your own distinguished Presi- 
dent and have heard from him no word of dissent as to my authorities 
and conclusions and so as a woman representing this great body of 
women may I claim his support and the support of the Illinois His- 
torical Society, in all gallant and knightly fashion for my cause — the 
preservation and renaissance of Old Fort Massac. 


In Illinois near the old city of Metropolis still exists one of the 
most ancient and interesting historical monuments on this continent. 
Around Old Fort Massac, overlooking a noble sweep of the Ohio 
river, cluster memories as heroic as those which enrich any page of 
our western annals. History, legend and tradition have associated 
this old fort indissolubly with thrilling occurrence in Illinois' "storied 
past." Here transpired events of far reaching importance during 
the great historical epoch known as the Illinois campaign — a scheme 
for conquest of the British forts northwest of the Ohio river, devised 
by the military genius of George Rogers Clark, approved by Patrick 
Henry, then Governor of Virginia, and his confidential advisers, 
George Mason, George Wythe and Thomas Jefferson — men who 
grasped both the vast possibilities and herculean difficulties in- 
volved in this undertaking. 

We have no time to dwell upon this expedition, nor upon the 
splendid victories of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes — victories 
which wrestina: the Illinois and Wabash countries from the British, 
and against the Spanish, vindicated the foresight of Jefferson, who 

* A bill passed the Legislature, session of 1903, appropriating money for the purchase of 
the site of Fort Massac. 


said from the beginning that "Clark's expedition into the Illinois 
and Wabash country would, if suocessful, have an important bearing 
ultimately, in establishing our northwestern boundary." This proph- 
ecy triumphed in the acquisition of the territory out of which has 
sprung the great states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin and in part Minnesota, forcing the British frontier back to 
Mackinaw, Detroit and the lakes. 

Governor Reynolds in describing the start for this "march from 
Fort Massac across the wilderness," says: 

"The country between Fort Massacre and Kaskaskia at that day, 
1778, was a wilderness of one hundred and twenty (120) miles and 
contained much of it, a swampy and difficult road. 

"In very ancient times a military road was opened and marked 
each mile on a tree from Massac to Kaskaskia. The numbers of the 
miles were cut in ciphers with an iron, and painted red. Such I 
saw them in 1800. This road was first made by the French, when 
they had the dominion of the country, and was called 'the Old Massac 
road,' by the Americans." 

"It is not likely, however," continues Governor Reynolds, "that 
there was much if any trace of the road, at the time Clark's little 
army passed across this wilderness." 


Tradition still marks tbis old site as a temporary fort used by 
DeSoto's men to protect themselves from the Indians so early as 
1542, Fort Massac has been successively in the hands of the Span- 
ish, French, English, Indians and Americans. It has figured in the 
great historical events of the southwest and is richer in historical 
interest than any point on the Ohio river. It is itself an epitome of 
the early history of Illinois. 

This old fort, these old earthworks yet remain. Their ruins re- 
plete with interest to the patriotic student of our country's progress. 
Here Juchereau traded, and Father Mermet preached in 1701 to 1705. 
Here the French established a mission and fort, the "French genius," 
says Governor Reynolds, "for the selection of sites for forts, being 
eminently sustained in the choice of Fort Massac." Here the south- 
ern Indians coming in their bark canoes down the Shawnee (Cum- 
berland) and the Cherokee (Tennessee) rivers; first heard the gospel 
preached. Here after the evacuation of Fort du Quesne in 1758, 
and the withdrawal of the Lilies of France, from Ticonderoga, 
Crown Point, Fort Niagara, Quebec, indeed the whole of Canada. 

The French falling back in rafts down the Ohio river under Mon- 
sieur Aubry, (La Belle Ohioiere) stayed their retreat. 

Here trod that gallant French officer whose memory still is cher- 
ished in Illinois. St. Ange de Belle Rive here halted every expedi- 
tion from Canada down the Wabash , and still onward to the French 
settlements in lower Louisiana. 

Around this old fort Tecumseh hunted buffalo, and here the brave 
Lieutenant Pike commanded, only to fall, nobly leading his men in 


Canada. Here Wilkinson, Sebastian, Powers and others, with 
Spanish, French and Oreoie women plotted to dismember the Ameri- 
can Union. Here the gifted Aaron Burr rested, refreshed himself, 
and planned his southern expedition; his plot, to make an empire 
out of the southwest and if events favored, to set himself on the 
throne of the Montezumas, and here the beautiful wife of Blenner- 
hasset first learned of the gigantic enterprise her husband was in- 
volved in, that swept away a fortune, and rendered her a wanderer 
from her home in the dead of winter. 

Burr arrived at Fort Massac in June, 1805; here he found General 
Wilkinson and spent four days with him. 

The garrison at Fort Massac then consisted of about 40 men; there 
were no cannon there. Captain Daniel Bissel was the officer in com- 
mand. The rumors of Burr's projects so rife throughout the western 
country, do not appear to have reached this secluded spot. It was 
not until Burr's arrival at Bayou Pierre above Natchez that she 
learned of Wilkinson's treachery. With their subsequent afPairs we 
have nothiug to do, except to say that Burr was arrested at Fort 
Stoddard by Captain E.P.Gaines,who afterward commanded Fort Mas- 
sac, and subsequently reached high rank in the United States army. 

History relates many instances in which the fort figured up to 
1794, when Washington in a special order dated March 31, directed 
that the fort be rebuilt and re-occupied. The necessity of rebuilding 
was brought about by the plan of certain dissatisfied settlers to in- 
vade the possessions of Spain in Louisiana. The settlers had become 
exasperated by the failure of the government to enforce the free 
nayigaticn of the Mississippi. To be more definite, the mouth of 
the Ohio river was discovered by Marquette and Joliet in the pro- 
gress of their exploration of the Mississippi in 1673. 

In 1699 the French, having made a settlement at the mouth of the 
Mississippi river, opened communication between that place and 
Canada by means of the Illinois river. They began to form a design 
to join these two colonies together. They assigned the river Illinois 
to be the boundary between them, and denominated all the country 
southward to the Gulf of Mexico by the name of Louisiana, in honor 
of their king, Louis XIV. They began in the infancy of this south- 
ern colony to build forts along the Mississippi, and by degrees to 
enter into the Ohio, at whose mouth they built a fort also; by which 
river and the Wabash they found a much shorter and more conven- 
ient route to and from Quebec thnin by that of the Illinois. Mean- 
while the English continued their intercourse and traffic with the 
Indians of the Ohio country, so much to their advantage that in 1716 
Colonel Spotswood, then Governor of Virginia, got a law passed there 
for erecting a company to trade with them. (State of the British 
and French colonies in North America; London, 1755.) 

Thus, at this early date the historic rivalry of France and England 
manifested itself, even in this far off wilderness, While England 
was colonizing the Atlantic coast, France was establishing a new 
empire in the heart of the continent along the St. Lawrence, the 
Great Lakes and in the Mississippi valley. Each had its Indian al- 


lies; the English had the Iroquois, the French had the Algonquins. 
The French paved the way by sending zealous missionaries of the 
Jesuit and other orders to win the Indians to Christianity; the trad- 
ers gave them a fair value for their furs, and the soldiers shared their 
hardships and repelled their enemies. Wherever a village of Indians 
was found, the French established a fort and a mission. The posts 
were either trading stations or built to protect the traders and the 
Indians. We have descriptions of many of them; a palisaded house 
or two, a little guardhouse and a cabin to serve as storehouse. Of 
such a type was probably Assumption, the first post erected upon this 
historic site. Details of much of its history are lacking. After hav- 
ing served a useful existence for many year0,its occupancy appears to 
have been abandoned by the French for military purposes, about 1750. 
During its later existence it was known variously as the "Old Fort" 
and as the ''Old Cherokee Fort." (So says Van Cleve, 1794.) Dur- 
ing the crisis in the French and Indian war, when the English had 
determined to drive every vestige of French power from this conti- 
nent, the old post was rebuilt and made quite a respectable fortress. 
This was in 1758, and the fort was called by the French "Fort Mas- 
siac," no doubt in honor of the French minister of the marine, M. de 
Massiao, under King Louis XV. It was known by the French from 
1758 to 17()5 as Massiac. It was one of a chain of forts, beginning 
with Fort Niagara, which were intended to confine the English col- 
onies to the strip along the Atlantic coast. During the short period 
when Spain owned the French claim to the Northwest territory, it is 
said that the fort was occupied by Spanish soldiers. 

After the surrender of the French possessions to the English the 
fort is known in the reports of the latter as Fort Massac, from 1763 
to 1778. Since 1778 it has always been known by the Americans as 
Fort Massac (sometimes unauthorizedly as Fort Massacre, but never 
officially by that name). The earliest authentic recital of the legend 
of the "massacre" is made by Collot, 1796, and Baily, 1797, both of 
whom received it directly from the Canadian habitants residing in 
the vicinity of the fort. The first publication of it was made, how- 
ever, by F. Cuming in "Sketches of a Tour in the Western Country," 

Again according to the authorities of La Harpe, and the later 
historian, Charlevoix; the French, in the year 1700, established a 
trading post for the purpose of securing buffalo hides near the mouth 
of the "Ouabache" which discharges into the Mississippi. 

In August, 1702, M. Juohereau de St. Denis, accompanied by 34 
Canadians, including Father Mermet, departed from the Mission at 
Kaskaskia, in the Illinois, on his expedition to form a settlement at 
the mouth of the Ohio, where he proposed to engage in the fur trade 
with the Indians. Count de Pontchartrain, then chancellor of 
France, was very desirous that this post should be established. 

Juchereau appears to have enlisted sufficiently powerful friends in 
his behalf, although Governor de Callieres and Intendant de Cham- 
pigny protested Oct. 5, 1701, to the ministry at Paris that the loss of 
the castor trade would result in the destruction of the colony of Can- 


ada. They also presented a protest against the concession which 
had been already granted to Juchereau for the fur trade along the 
Mississippi, but through the iafluence with the king of Madame 
la Comtesse de Saint Pierre, his petition was granted. 

A letter of Count de Pontohartrain dated Versailles, June 4, 1701, 
addressed to M. de Callieres, governor of New France and M. de 
Champigny, intendant of police, notified them of the concession 
which had been granted to Juchereau, by authority of the king. The 
license describes- Juchereau as being a lieutenant general in the juris- 
diction of Montreal, and gave him the right to pass to the Mississippi 
river with 24 men in eight canoes for the purpose of establishing a 
tannery. This was an unusually liberal concession. La Hontan 
states (New Voyage to North America) that the licenses were usu- 
ally limited to two canoes. 

M. Juchereau was accompanied by Father Jean Mermet, who acted 
as chaplain to the French and missionary to the Indians; the neigh- 
boring Mascoutins, who were later associated with the Kickapoos — ■ 
as was customary with the Indians — Laving soon gathered about the 
post for the purpose of barter. 

Farther Mermet established a branch mission which was called 
Assumption It was the pious custom of the period to dedicate to 
the patronage of some saint such works and enterprises as this. The 
feast of the Assumption is celebrated in the Catholic church on 
August 15, so that it is probable that the post and mission of the 
Assumption was founded August 15, 1702. 

It thus appears as a matter of history, that the first religous dis- 
course ever preached on the Ohio river was preached on the site of 
the later Fort Massac over 200 years ago by the learned Mermet, he 
being the first preacher of any Christian church who discoursed the 
gospel of Christ in this part of the present State of Illinois. 

An interesting example of the efforts of this devoted missionary to 
convert the savages at Assumption is preserved for us in the letter 
of Father Marest to Father Grermon from Kaskaskia, Nov. 12, 1712. 

* 'Father Mermet believed that he ought also to labor for the con- 
version of the Mascoutens, who had set up a village on the borders 
of the same river; thig is a tribe of savages who understand the 
Illinois language, but who, because of the extreme attachment which 
they have for the superstitions of their Charlatans, were not very 
much inclined to listen to the instructions of the missionary. 

"The course that Father Mermet took was to perplex in the pres- 
ence of this people, one of these Charlatans, who worshipped the ox 
as his great manitou. After having led hitn insensibly so far as to 
avow that it was not the ox which he adored, but an ox manitou 
which was under the earth, which animated all oxen, and which re- 
stored life to his sick people, he asked him if the other animals — 
like the bear, for instance, which his comrades worshipped — were 
not likewise animated by a manitou which is under tlie earth, 'With- 
out doubt,' answered the Charlatan. 'But if this be so,' returned 
the missionary, 'men ou!:^ht also to have a manitou which animates 
them.' 'Nothing is more certain,' said the Charlatan.' 'That is suf- 


ficient for me to oonvinco you that you are not ver)^ reasonable,' re- 
plied the missionary, for, if man, who is on the earth be the master 
of all animals, if he will kill them, if he eat them, it must be that 
the manitou which animates man, is also the master of all the other 
manitous; where then is your intelligence, that you do not invoke 
him, who is the master of all others?' " 

M. Juchereau died at the fort about two years after its establish- 
ment; probably in 1704. 

In 1705, the establishment was broken up on account of a quarrel 
of the Indians among themselves, in which, unfortunately, the French, 
in trying to keep the peace, became involved to the extent that, their 
lives were endangered and they fled for safety, leaving behind all 
their store of trade and barter, together with 13,000 buffalo skins 
which they had collected for shipment to Canada. 

Tradition is insistent that there was a mission and fortified trading 
station on this site from 1710 or 1711, to guard the French fur 
traders from the marauding Cherokees, and that it remained only a 
small fort until the French and Indian war in 1756. 

September 12, 1712, Louis XIV granted to Anthony Crozat, the 
monopoly of the trade of Louisiana; this concession included the Illi- 
nois country and placed it under the jurisdiction of Louisiana. La- 
mothe Cadillac was appointed Governor of Louisiana; having re- 
ceived positive instructions to assist the agents of Crozat in estab- 
lishing trading posts or settlements on the "Ouabache" or Ohio and 
the Illinois, he wrote back to the ministry: 

"I have seen Crozat's instructions to his agents. I thought they 
issued from a lunatic asylum and there appeared to be no more sense 
in them than in the Apocalypse. What — Is it expected that, for 
any commercial or profitable purpose, boats will ever be able to run 
up the Mississippi into the Wabash, the Missouri or the Red River. 
One might as well try to bite a slice off the moon. Not only are 
those rivers as rapid as the Rhone, but in their crooked course, they 
imitate to perfection snake's undulations. Hence, for instance, on 
every turn of the Mississippi, it would be necessary to wait for a 
change of the wind, if wind could be had, because this river is so 
lined up with thick woods that very little wind has access to its bed." 

Louisiana at this time, in French geography, included the entire 
valley of the Mississippi and its tributary streams; all west of the 
Alleghany mountains was regarded by France as part of her do- 
main. The English colonies along the Atlantic coast claimed that 
the ambitious designs of France interferred with the grants made by 
th9 British crown. Their division by local jealousies and lack of 
cohesion prevented any concerted action between them to coun- 
teract the aggressions of the French. France was, therefore, per- 
mitted to establish her influence throughout the whole valley of the 
Ohio river, and to build strong houses for the Indians, without 
molestation. The Shawneess were met by Canadian traders, and 
their chiefs invited to visit the French Governor of Montreal. Hav- 
ing done so, Joncaire, a wily emissary from New France descended 


"the Ohio with them, and the whole tribe put themselves under the 
protection of Louis XV. Brown, in his history, of Illinois attributes 
the erection of Fort Massac to this period, about 1731, and gives the 
following very doubtful legend for the origin of the name afterward 
given to it: 

*'The savages, becoming dissatisfied with the French, by a curious 
stratagem effected its capture. A number of Indians appeared in 
the day time, on the opposite side of the river, each of whom was 
covered with a bear skin, and walked on all fours; the French supposing 
them to be bears, crossed the river with a considerable force, in pur- 
suit of the supposed bears and the remainder of the troops left their 
quarters, and resorted to the bank of the river in front of the garrison, 
to observe the sport. In the meantime, a large body of warriors who 
were concealed in the woods near by, came silently up behind the 
fort, and entered it without opposition; and a few only of the French 
garrison escaped the carnage.'' 

"The French afterward built another fort on the same ground, and, 
in commemoration of the disastrous event, called it Fort Massac or 
Massacre, which name it still retains." 

This legend is only introduced at this point in connection with 
the construction of 1731, because it is so mentioned by Brown. 

The encroachments of the English traders on the territory of the 
French, continued and increased. The Ohio river valley was debat- 
able ground and incursions and reprisals were continually being 
made by both sides. Alliances were made with the Indians and 
these were encouraged in their atrocities on the settlements of the 
opposing coloniea. 

Indubitable testimony of the map-makers might be produced to in- 
definite lengths, to show a historical connection between the site oc- 
cupied by Juchereau, the fur trader, and the site known as Massac 
or Massiac, during the French and Indian war. 

Conflicts between the French and English soon brought evil days 
to the French colonies in America. France claimed all the country 
watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries. England claimed all 
the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, on the ground 
that the discovery and occupation of the seacoast entitled her to the 
possession of the country. War soon followed these rival claims, 
but for a long time, Illinois, by its remoteness, escaped the harass- 
ments of the conflict: In 1752, the French burnt down the first 
English trading house established west of the Alleghany mountains, 
reprisals were made, and thus, in 1756, the war began. Braddock 
was defeated in 1755, near Fort DuQuesne. 

The French flotilla dropped down the Ohio for nearly a thousand 
miles, passing on the way the mouths of the Shawnee (Cumberland) 
and Cherokee (Tennessee) rivers. Arriving at the site of the old 
fortlet. Assumption, on the northern bank of the river, about 36 miles 
above its mouth, M. Aubry, the French commander, halted and 
landed his troops. 


They were well acquainted with the country; many of them, 
notably St. Ange de Belle Rive and his followers, having gone from 
Illinois to Fort Du Quesne, to help in the defense of the latter 
place It was only 120 miles by land to Kaskaskia, and but a little 
further to Fort Chartres. In four days one could go hence to the 
Illinois. They determined, upon the elevated embankment over- 
looking the mouth of the Cherokee river, ten miles above, and com- 
manding a view of the ''beautiful river," eighteen miles below, to 
erect a fort and make a stand against their English foes. The stand 
was final, and from the day — sad day (to them) — when, by order of 
their superiors, the French garrison at Massiac retired to Fort Char- 
tres, no French garrison has trod this classic shore. 

Having determined to erect this "new fort on a beautiful eminence 
on the north bank of the river," the work was speedily accomplished. 

This new stronghold was but an enlargement of the old fortlet. 
However, it was made quite a respectable fortress, considering the 
wilderness it was in. 

It is described as a stockade, with four bastions and eight pieces 
of cannon. It would contain 100 men. 

It has been stated by many historians, (Wallace, History of Loui- 
siana and Illinois; President Roosevelt, Winning of the West; Winsor, 
Mississippi Valley, and many others) , that the fort was constructed 
by a young French engineer, M Massac or Marsiao, and that the 
name. Fort Massac, was bestowed in his honor for having directed 
the work; by some, that it was he who first commanded there. 

I have not been able to find any contemporaneous reference to any 
French officer named Massac or Marsiac. 

In a letter from M. de Vaudreuil. governor of Canada, June 24, 
1760, from Montreal to M. Berryer, minister of war at Paris, com- 
municating reports from the commandant at Fort Chartres, and in 
reports of the latter, the name is given as Fort Massaiao. 

Monsieur de Massiac was minister of the marine and colonies un- 
der King Louis XV, from the 1st of June, 1758, to the 1st of Novem- 
ber, 1758; during this period the fort was constructed or rebuilt. Un- 
til the commencement of the French and Indian war as it is known 
in this country, all colonial affairs were placed under the jurisdiction 
of the ministry of the marine and colonies; after this war com- 
menced, the ministry of war appears to have exercised jurisdiction 
over such affairs. Unfortunately, many of the archives of both de- 
partments were wantonly destroyed by the revolutionists in Paris in 
1793 throwing into hopeless confusion many historical facts relating 
to American history. 

However, to resume our story. One hundred men were left at the 
fort for garrison duty; with thejrest and most of his cannon, M. Aubry 
returned to Fort Chartres. 

Massiac was the last fort erected by the French on the Ohio river 
and was occupied by the French garrison until the country was sur- 
rendered to the English. 


During the month of June, 1759, 300 soldiers and militia, and 600 
Indians marched from the Illinois country via Fort Massiac for the 
relief of Fort Niagara. 

In June, 1759, M. de Macarty, commandant at Fort Chartres, placed 
a party of Chaouanon Indians near Fort Massiac, with provisions. 
"They were more useful and less dangerous there," he said, 

Early in 1760 the governor of Canada ordered that Fort Massiac be 
rebuilt and strongly fortified. 

April 12, 1760, M. de Macarty, in referring to the operations of the 
English at Pittsburg, states that he has "caused Fort Massiac to be 
terraced, f raized and fortified, piece upon piece, with a strong ditch." 

M. Hertel, who had maintained his ground among the Indians on 
the Scioto, reported that numerous English prisoners from Carolina 
were brought to him by the savages. Though they seemed friendly, 
Hertel recommended an early removal of the Scioto Indians to a point 
near Fort Massiac. 

The French were vanquished in the war and peace was concluded 
by the treaty of Paris, Feb. ]0, 1763. They ceded to the English the 
whole of Canada and all of that part of Louisiana east of the Missis- 
sippi river, together with the French posts and settlements on the 

In "An account of the French forts ceded to Great Britain in Louis- 
iana by this treaty of 1763, written by an officer well acquainted with 
the places he described," is the following: 

"Thirteen leagues from the Mississippi, on the left bank of the 
Ohio, is Fort Massac, or Assumption, built in 1757 or 1758, a little 
below the mouth of the Cherokee. It is of consequence for the Eng- 
lish to preserve it, as it secured the communication between the Illi- 
nois and Fort Pitt." 

The French garrison was directed to give up the fort by a special 
order of April 21, 1764, but they continued to hold it for another 

I have a list of the French commandants of the Illinois country, 
with headquarters at Fort Chartres. They exercised more or less 
direct command over old Fort Assumption and the later Fort Mas- 
siac, They must have made many reports regarding these old posts, 
which, though at present inaccessible, may yet turn to light. 

They were: Pierre Duque de Boisbriant, 1718-1725; Captain du 
Tisne, temporary, 1725-1726; Sieur de Liette. 1726-1730; Louis St. 
Ange de Belle Rive, 1730-1734; Pierre d'Artaguette, 1734-1736; Al- 
phonse de la Buissoniere, 1736-1740; Benoist de St, Clair, 1740-1743; 
Chevalier de Birtel, 1743-1749; St. Clair again, 1749-1751; Chevalier 
de Macarty, 1751-1760; Neyon de Villiers, 1760-1764; St. Ange 
again, 1764-1765. 

Captain Thomas Stirling, after the treaty of 1763, embarked in 
boats at Fort Pitt with 100 veteran Highlanders of the Forty- second 
English regiment and descended the Ohio to its mouth, accepting 
the surrender of Fort Massiac en route. 

Uniform of an officer of the 42d Royal Highlanders or "Black Watch," British troops. 
Served in America, 1756-1767. 


England does not appear to have made any attempt to repair and 
occupy the fort then given up by the French, though urged to do so 
by her military agents in the west. Had they held and garrisoned 
Fort Massiac, no doubt Clark's expedition to capture the great north- 
west might easily have been nipped in the bud. 

In 1766, Captain Harry Gordon, chief engineer in the western de- 
partment in North America, was sent from Fort Pitt down the Ohio, 
etc., to the Illinois. He states that on the 6th of August he "Halted 
at Fort Massiac, formerly a French post. The French," he says, 
* 'fixed a post here to protect their trades against the Cherokees, and 
it would be proper for the English to have one on the same spot, to 
prevent an illicit trade being carried on up the Wabash." 

Captain Thomas Hutchins of the 60th regiment of Foot, made re- 
connaissances of the country of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers be- 
tween 1764 and 1775, while acting as an engineer officer. The 60th 
Foot was also known in the British army as the "Royal American 
Regiment." He afterwards joined the Americans in the Revolution 
and was appointed geographer of the United States and invented 
the system of laying out lands by township lines run on the true 
meridian, six miles apart, at right angles east and west, parallel to 
the equator; under his plan, our government lands have been sur- 
veyed to the present day. He visited the "remains" of Fort Massac, 
and stated that the situation was high, healthy and delightful. His 
map, 1778, is the earliest published which shows the road between 
Massao and Kaskaskia, 

It will be noted that, in the French official correspondence of 1759- 
60 already cited, the name of the fort is given as Massiac; by these 
British officials, the letter *'i" is omitted from the name, and it be- 
comes Massac; this mutilated form has survived to the present, prob- 
ably giving rise to the legend of massacre. 

The names of the English commandants of the Illinois Country 
are herewith; like the French, some important reports by them may 
yet be brought to light: Capt. Thomas Stirling, 1765; Maj. Robert 
Farmar, 1765; Col. Edward Cole, 1766: Col. John Reed, 1768; Lieut. 
Col. John Wilkins; 1768; Capt. Hugh Lord, 1771; Capt. Matthew 
Johnson, 1775 to 1781. 

The occupancy of the country by the British lasted 13 years. 
Nothing of note appears accessible during this interval. As before 
stated, the British made no use of the post, and this disregard of the 
advice of her military agents, no doubt, cost the British government 
dear; as it was, Clark's approach and occupancy of Illinois territory 
was comparatively easy. It was here upon this expedition that the 
flag of the new union of the colonies was unfurled within the terri- 
tory now constituting the State of Illinois. 

Fort Massao was not occupied by troops again, until the trouble 
began with Spain and France in 1794, when it was rebuilt and occu- 
pied under the special orders of President Washington, March 31, 


When the French agent, Genet, was fomenting his scheme for 
capturing Louisiana and Florida from Spain, by the aid of western 
filibusters, old Fort Massae was thought of by the conspirators as a 
rallying place and base of supplies. 

The condition of affairs along the Mississippi during 1794, became 
alarming, and had not some military measures been taken to check 
the excitement, war with Spain, which then held the posts from New 
Madrid to New Orleans, was highly probable. Genet, the French 
minister to the United States, had deliberately planned two expedi- 
tions to invade the Spanish dominions in Florida and Louisiana; the 
latter was to be carried down the Ohio from Kentucky, and he 
granted commissions to American citizens who privately recruited 
troops for the proposed service. 

The governor of Kentucky, Shelby, in effect, declined to interfere 
with the proposed expedition; President Washington, March 24, 1794, 
issued his own proclamation, apprizing the people of the west of the 
unlawful project and warning them of the consequences of engaging 
in it. March 31, 1794, he ordered General Wayne, who had military 
jurisdiction over the region, to send a detachment to Fort Massac 
"to erect a strong redoubt and block-house, with some suitable can- 
non from Fort Washington (Cincinnati), for the purpose of stopping 
by force, if peaceable means should fail, any body of armed men who 
should proceed down the Ohio, and threaten hostilities with Spain." 

General Wayne, accordingly sent a detachment from his already 
depleted legion under the command of Major Thomas Doyle, to serve 
as a garrison at Fort Massac. This was its first occupancy by the 
military forces of the United States. 

Fortunately the voluminous journal of Benjamin t Van CI eve,* an 
intelligent pioneer, guide and trapper, has been preserved, by which 
many of the details of the rebuilding can be learned. 

These prompt measures by the American officials had the effect of 
preventing the expedition from passing down the river, and with the 
ending of the conspiracy Genet left the country. 

Fort Massac, thus rebuilt and garrisoned, was a post of con- 
siderable importance and remained such until after the collapse of 
Burr's conspiracy. 

The firm interference of President Washington in prevent- 
ing the violation of Spanish territory by American filibusters 
and French Jacobins, was ill requited by the Spanish authorities. 
Almost as soon as his apprehensions for Louisiana were relieved, 
Baron de Carondelet recommenced his favorite machinations to 
detach the west from the Union and ally it to the Spanish possessions 
west of the Mississippi. Among other things, Fort Massac was to 
be captured by the adventurers, whom Spain was to supply with 
the sinews of war. Among the proposals of Baron Carondelet was 
the following: 

** Immediately after the declaration of independence, Fort Massac 
shall be taken possession of by the troops of the new government, 
which shall be furnished by His Catholic Majesty, without loss of 

♦Van Cleve's Journal, last article in appendix to this paper. 


time, with 20 field pieces, with their carriages and every necessary 
appendage, including powder, ball, etc., together with a number of 
small arms, and ammunition sufiicient to equip the troops that it 
shall be necessary to raise. The whole to be transported at his ex- 
pense to the already mentioned Fort Massac. His Catholic Majesty 
will further supply the sum of $100,000 for the raising and main- 
taining of said troops, which sum shall also be conveyed to, and de- 
livered at Fort Massac." 

Finally all these intrigues failed to produce their expected effects. 
Time, Washington's administration and prudence, and a concourse 
of favorable circumstances, had served to consolidate the Union. 
This government having secured from Spain by treaty, Oct. 20, 1795, 
the right to the free navigation of the Mississippi, which was the 
absorbing topic of the period, the principal object of contention of 
the western people was gained and this interesting episode in west- 
ern history was practically ended. 

With the close of the Revolutionary war, a rush of immigration 
came down the great Ohio river. It was more or less checked by 
border warefare which lasted until about 1794. During that year 
there was a rising of the southwestern tribes of Indians. Many 
dreadful depredations were committed by them upon the settlers 
along the Tennessee, Cumberland and Ohio rivers. It became neces- 
sary to send relief to Major Doyle, then in command at Fort Massac. 
This was afforded by a detachment of Kentucky militia under Lieu- 
tenant Bird, who arrived at the post October 19 and served there 
until Dec. 81, 1794. Major Doyle stated, in October, 1794, that the 
relief would be necessary in order to protect the valuable settlement 
and the trade along the river as his own force, from the smalJness of 
the force and the number of sick, could only be expected to defend 
the fort. The final victory of Mad Anthony Wayne, at the battle of 
Fallen Timbers, however, broke the back of savagery east of the Mis- 
sissippi, but it was not until the treaty of Greenville, Aug. 8, 1795, 
the result of Wayne's brilliant dash into the wilderness, that the 
war of the Revolution may properly be said to have ended in the 

By the treaty of August 8, 1795, at Greenville, between Gen. An- 
thony Wayue and the chiefs of eleven tribes of Indians, by its 4th 
article, "the said Indian tribes relinquished all the title acd claim 
which they or any of them have" to "The Post of Fort Massac, to- 
wards the mouth of the Ohio." 

The various intrigues of the period, by the French, the Spanish 
and the English, trying to secure the control of the western country, 
induced a number of agents, military and civil, to make tours of in- 
vestigation, the reports of many of which have survived. One of 
the most interesting and valuable of these is a military memoir by 
Gen. Victor Collot. He served during the American Revolution, on 
the staff of the French army under the command of Marshal Roch- 
ambeau. M. Adet, the minister of the French republic at the United 
States, in Philadelphia, *'24th Ventose, 4th year of the French re- 
— 4H 


public, one of the indivisible," confided "to the citizen Victor Collot, 
general of brigade, the duty of making a report on the state of the 
western part of this country." His survey of the Ohio river was 
made in 1 796, but the report, which is a minute description of the 
military resources and the fortifications of the western country, was 
not printed until 1826, In his interesting and valuable description 
of the Ohio he states: 

"Fort Massac is so called by the Americans, and Fort Massacre by 
the Canadians. It is a post anciently established by the French and 
abandoned at the time of the cession of Louisiana; it has lately been 
repaired, and has been occupied two years by the Americans." 

Francis Baily, the noted English astronomer, made a tour of the 
West in 1796 and 1797. In his journal he says of Fort Massac: "It 
takes its name from a cruel massacre of the garrison by the Indians, 
when the French had possession of it." 

"The Fort is still kept up by the Americans as a guard to the 
frontiers against any attack from this quarter. There are about 30 
families settled round it, and the garrison consists at this time, of 83 
men commanded by Captain Zebulon Pike, an experienced officer, 
who behaved to us with the greatest politeness and attention." 

The troubles with the foreign powers, particularly France, continu- 
ing Sept. 4, 1799, Gen. James Wilkinson submitted to General Hamil- 
ton a project for the defense of the western frontier contiguous to the 
territories of Spain and Great Britain; this was to include the 
change of station of some companies of artillery then at Fort Massac, 
its strength, however, to remain the same number of men, that is, 
100, consisting af artillery and infantry; this was approved by Gen- 
erals Hamilton and Washington, but the unexpected accommodation 
of our differences with France and the sudden reduction of our army 
rendered the proposed changes unnecessary. 

Generals Anthony Wayne and James Wilkinson, when com- 
manders-in-chief of the United States army, occupied the fort and 
for periods of time made it their headquarters. 

Governor John Reynolds in his history of "My own Times," states 
that when he was a child, his family emigrated from Tennessee and 
reached Illinois in 1800, crossing the Ohio river and landing at Fort 
*'Massacre." At that time, there were two companies of the United 
States army stationed there and perhaps a few families resided near 
the Fort and were dependent on it. This was the only white settle- 
ment between the Ohio and the Mississippi. 

During the summer of 1801, "Cantonment Massac" was inspected by 
Major Jonathan Williams; while he was engaged on this tour of in- 
spection, he was ordered to West Point, N. Y., to command the em- 
byro military school, now the United States Academy, of which he 
was the founder. 

A treaty of peace was concluded at Vincennes, in the then Indiana 
Territory, Aug. 13, ]803, between Gov. William Henry Harrison, 
.superintendent of Indian affairs, commissioner plenipotentiary of 


the United States, etc., and the head chiefs and warriors of the Kas- 
kaskia tribe of Indians, Among the provisions was one that part of 
the annuity to be paid to the Indians might be paid to them at Fort 

So late as 1812 this fort was repaired and used for defensive pur- 
poses during the war with Great Britain, when it was furnished with 
a new stockade, and occupied by the Illinois mounted rangers, who 
were entrusted with the defense of the border against the incursions 
of hostile Indians, or still more hostile British soldiers. 

During the summer of 1812, Col. E. P. Gaines recruited a regi- 
ment in Tennessee. During the following winter it was stationed at 
Fort Massac, where it was drilled and received military instruction; 
the next spring it made its appearance on the Canadian frontier, 
where it, General Gaines and the other oflScers gained immortal honor 
in the battles they fought with the enemy. 

For fully 40 years there was agitated in and out of Congress, a 
proposition for the establishment of a national armory on some one 
of the western waters. Oct. 14, 1841, a board of army olBBcers was 
appointed by the Secretary of War for the purpose of selecting a 
suitable site for the establishment of this armory. The board was 
oomposed of Gen. W. K. Armistead, president, and Surg.- Gen. 
Thomas Lawson and Lieut. -Col. S. H. Long of the topographical 
corps, as members. After examining 48 sites, a majority of the board 
made a report to the Secretary of War, dated Harper's Ferry, Jan. 28, 
1843, and recommended Massac as the most suitable site for the 
armory. However, the project finally fell through, and the armory 
was subsequently located at Rock Island. 

Gov. John Reynolds visited Fort Massac in 1855, and he thus de- 
scribes it in his "My Own Times:" The outside walls were 135 feet 
square, and at each angle bastions were erected. The walls were 
palisaded, with earth between the wood. A large well was sunk in the 
fortress; and the whole appeared to have been strong and substantial 
in its day. Three or four acres of gravel walks were made on the 
north front of the fort, on which the soldiers paraded. These walks 
were made in exact angles, and are beautifully graveled with pebbles 
from the river. The site is one of the most beautiful on La Belle 
Riviere, and commands a view that is charming. There are the re- 
mains of the unstoned well near the center. The ditch surrounding 
the earth works is still some 2^ or 3 feet below the surrounding level, 
and the breastworks about 2 feet above the inner level. The grav- 
eled sentry walk may also be traced." 

It was a commanding view indeed of land and river which was en- 
joyed by the different garrisons of old Fort Massac. Up stream, 
there is a stretch of 11 miles to the mouth of the Tennessee; both up 
and down, the shore lines are under full survey, until they melt away 
in the distance. No enemy could well surprise the holders of this 
key to the Lower Ohio. 

It is the Illinois Daughters of the American Revolution who have 
assumed the responsibility of taking the initiative in seeking to kin- 


die renewed interest in this "Old Romance of the Wilderness." It 
is for the purpose of preserving and beautifying old Fort Massac, so 
rich in historic associations, that we have asked the State authori- 
ties, through our representatives in the Legislature, for the appro- 
priation of an amount, needed for the restoration and repair of this 
spot, perpetually.* 

This noble policy of preserving the ancient landmarks of our na- 
tional growth and struggles, besides fostering a spirit of gratitude to 
the self-sacrificing heroes of earlier days, teaches its own lessons of 
patriotism and duty, to the great youth of the land, with whom rests 
its future, and for whom, we would fain preserve unlowered and un- 
tarnished standards and ideals. 

I have been asked time and again, why, in this material age, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution should yield to a mere senti- 
ment, in this matter of marking old graves and restoring old historic 
sites, and have been advised that these two century old by-gones, 
should be relegated to the past, in behalf of more urgent interests of 
the day and hour. 

I admit it is a sentiment and merely a sentiment, but a patriotic 
sentiment, strong and ineradicable as a law of nature, which has led 
the Daughters of the American Revolution to set their hearts 
and minds to do something which shall redound to the permanence and 
glory of Americanism. 

In the east there are many landmarks of the great struggle that 
made us a nation, and it is the patriotic privilege of our society in 
these states, to inaugurate, by state and other available means, suc- 
cessful measures for the preservation of the sacred relics, of a van- 
ished age, and point to them as object lessons in patriotism. Are 
landmarks of Illinois' heroic era less sacred than those in other parts 
of America? We trust not, and it is in this hope that the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution in Illinois are striving to accomp- 
lish a similar patriotic service for our great commonwealth, in pre- 
serving at least this one monument of the romantic era of our his- 

Difficulties in this task we have set ourselves — of course there are 
difficulties. Would we succeed in this effort, we women must enlist 
arms stronger than ours, feet swifter to run and shod with tempered 
metal — experience in fields we have not entered, and a skill we have 
wisely not mastered in legislative arenas. To the Illinois State Histor- 
ical society and to the men who make, interpret, and administer our 
laws, must our plea be made. Without their chivalrous help, no appro- 
priation for the purchase and care of old Fort Massac can be secured. 
For this reason it is that the memorial and bill affixed to this paper 
have been presented to members of the 48d General Assembly of the 
State of Illinois, and in this modest effort we are making to preserve 
under State supervision one of the most ancient and historical monu- 
ments in the west, if not the most ancient and historical, we are 
simply fulfilling our tacit pledge as Daughters of the American Revo- 

*A copy of the bill as passed will be found in the "Addendum" to this volume. 

Uniform of United States Army. 1783-1796. Infantry and Artillery. Reproduced from 
the records of the War Department by permission of the Quartermaster General of the 


lution' "to perpetuate the spirit of the men and women who achieved 
American independence by the acquisition and protection of historic 
oal spots and the erection of monuments." 

It is our hope, and prayer too, that upon this old site, which, 
though mutilated and in ruins, remains the noblest and most beauti- 
ful landmark of the early pioneer history of the west — tablet or shaft 
may yet rise commemorative of George Rogers Clark and his heroic 
comrades, and add its inarticulate tribute to the patriotism and de- 
votion of the Illinois Daughters of the American Revolution. 


The following is the description by the Board of Army OflBcers of 
Fort Massac at the time of their personal examination and published 
in their report dated Jan. 28, 1843. House Doc. 133, 27-3: 

Massac, or Massacre, (so-called from the slaughter by the Indians 
soon after the occupancy of this part of the country by the French), 
is situated on a beautiful plain on the northern side of the Ohio 
river, 38 miles from its mouth; LO miles below Paduoah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee river, 22 miles below Smithland, at the mouth of 
the Cumberland river; 67 miles below the coal fields in the neigh- 
borhood of Casey ville; 293 miles below Louisville; 870 miles below 
Wheeling and 960 miles below Pittsburg. 

It includes the site formerly occupied by a fort of the same name 
and commands an extensive view of the river, both above and below. 
The fort stood upon the highest part of the plain, elevated about 20 
feet above the reach of the highest freshets. From this position 
which is near the margin of the river, the surface of the plain de- 
clines very gradually, both above and below, and especially in the 
rear; its dip in these directions being so slight that it is hardly per- 
ceptible. With the exception of a few small valleys and several 
ravines, that serve as drains and passways between the plain and the 
river, no part of the tract has an elevation less than ten feet above 
the range of the highest freshet, or 50 feet above extreme low water- 

The river in this vicinity has a width varying from five- eighths to 
three quarters of a mile, and presents favorable landings along the 
Illinois shore from Massac to the head of the Grand Chain ten miles 
below. Through this distance, and, indeed, for an equal extent be- 
low, the uplands approach so near the river that bottoms or flats of 
any considerable area are excluded. A little above the old fort is a 
cove-like recess, of small dimensions, at the mouth of a run into 
which the water of the river in a high stage is backed. Three- 
fourths of a mile below the same point is another similar recess of 
larger extent, at the mouth of another run. Through these depres- 
sions and the runs leading to them every desirable facility is afforded 
for draining the surface of the extensive plain on which Massac is 
situated. The entire width occupied by the river at this place, even 
when swelled by a freshet to its greatest magnitude, does not exceed 
a mile; there being no bottom land on the northerly side, and a strip 


three or four hundred yards wide only on the southerly side, subject 
to overflows. The valley becomes wider both above and below Mas- 
sac, and the bottom lands included within it become much more ex- 
tensive. The valley is bounded on both sides by gently sloped hills, 
rather than bluffs, the summits of which are connected with exten- 
sive upland regions, of a rolling aspect and of moderate height, 
reaching far to the north and the south, and uniting in the former 
direction with the Illinois prairies, and in the latter with the barrens 
of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

The Grand Chain is a rocky bar, commencing at a point ten miles 
below Massac, and extending downward eight miles to a point two 
miles above Caledonia, or seventeen miles above the mouth of the 
river. At the head and foot of this chain, or bar, the extreme low 
water depth in the deepest channel is only three feet; while at all 
intermediate points on the bar a much greater depth prevails. So a 
low stage seldom occurs, the ordinary low water depth being usually 
not less than four feet. The rocks that occur at the chain are a 
coarse, hard sand stone, fragments of which, in the shape of bowlders, 
pebbles, and gravel, are strewed in considerable profusion along the 
Illinois shore, from the head to the foot of the chain. 

At Massac, the river shore presents a coarse conglomerate of sand, 
gravel, and pebbles, strongly cemented with iron, which here and 
there occurs in large masses, but for the most part is reduced to frag- 
ments which cover the surface of the beach, and form a handsome 
and firm escarpment, sloping from the surface of the plain to the 
margin of the water in the lowest stage, thus contributing to form 
an easy and commodious landing. 

The plain at Massac extends northwardly and westwardly more 
than a mile and a half, and presents a surface remarkably uniform, 
here and there interrupted by ravines or runs of moderate depth, 
which serve as drains to carry off the water that falls upon its 

The land may be regarded as second rate only, and is mostly un- 
improved, sustaining an open growth of white and red oak, post oak, 
poplar, elm and maple, white walnut, etc. When cleared and culti- 
vated it yields tolerable crops of corn, wheat and other esculent 
plants and vegetables. 

The neighboring bottom lands of the Ohio, both above and below, 
are exceedingly prolific and yield abundant crops of all the varieties 
of products reared in this part of the country. 

A tract of 700 acres, including the site of Fort Massac, was form- 
erly reserved by the United States for military purposes; but a few 
years since the Government was induced to relinquish the reserva- 
tion, and authorize the sale of the land at public auction. It was 
bid off' and purchased by the present proprietors, Messrs. J. Hynes, 
of Massac, J. M. Robinson and William Wilson, of Carmi, and A. 
Kirkpatrick and H. Eddy, of Shawneetown, at $7 per acre. A portion 
of the tract has been surveyed and laid off in town lots, and consti- 
tutes a considerable part of the town of Massac, which has a square 


form, extending half a mile along the river shore, and an equal dis- 
tance duo north from its margin. The southeast angle of the town 
is situated at a point on the bank of the river, about one fourth of a 
mile below the site of the old fort, from which its eastern boundary 
extends due north about half a mile. 

The site deemed most suitable for the armory in this neigborhood 
is on the east side of the town, and in its immediate vicinity, and 
embraces the following parcels, viz: 

1st. A tract, including the site of old Fort Massac, bounded on 
the west by the town of Massac, on the north by a line running due 
west half a mile from a line from the northeast corner of said town ; 
on the east by a line running due south from the termination of the 
northern boundary just mentioned, and on the south by a line pur- 
suing the margin of the river downward to the southeast angle of 
said town. This tract or parcel contains 147 acres. 

2d. A tract situated on the north side of ihe tract just mentioned, 
and of the town site of Massac; its width from south to north being 
half a mile and its length from east to west being such that the tract 
will contain 453 acres — the southerly boundary of this tract being 
coincident with the northern boundary of the town site, and also 
with that of the tract first described. 

3d. A tract of uniform width, containing 13 acres, may be added 
to the parcel first described, in contact with the eastern boundary of 
the same. 

4th. A tract of 27 acres may be added to the second tract described, 
in such manner as may be required for the purpose of giving the most 
convenient form to the several parcels when combined ; it being un- 
derstood that no encroachments ere to be made upon the town site 
for the purpose of making up the entire tract. 

The aggregate of the several tracts above designated will amount 
to 640 acres, or one section of land, which, we are authorized by 
Colonel Haynes (who is agent for the proprietors above named) to 
state, may be purchased at a rate not exceeding $10 per acre for the 
several tracts above described; all of which may with propriety be 
comprehended in the site. 

Other sites deemed less eligible than that above pointed out are to 
be met with in this vicinity. For example: A site having a front 
of half a mile on the river, and situated between the town of Massac 
and another incipient town, called Metropolis, of about the same 
area, one mile below Massac, may be regarded as worthy of some at- 
tention. It may be extended back from the river far enough to em- 
brace an area safficiently large for the accommodation of an armory. 
It has very favorable landings along its entire front, but presents a 
surface less elevated and more divided by ravines and gullies than 
the plain of Massac. The grounds in this direction being similar in 
all respects to those in the rear of Fort Massac, the cost of this site 
will probably not exceed $8 per acre. 

Immediately below the town of Metropolis is another site, having 
a front of a mile on the river and an equal extent inland from the 

river, and including about 600 acres of ground, a little less elevated 
than either of the sites before considered. The landings are here 
quite as favorable as those above, the surface quite as level and the 
soil somewhat richer than at either of the above sites. The entire 
tract under consideration is in an unimproved state and covered with 
a woodland growth. It may be purchased as a site for the armory at 
a rate not exceeding $10 per acre. 

In comparison with the site at Fort Massac, the two localities I 
last described may be regarded as less favorable, on account of their 
reduced elevation, their liability to the encroachments of high 
freshets upon their margins, their nearer proximity to tracts of bot- 
tom land and their exposure to a more humid atmosphere. 

The position of Massac, and the aspect and character of the sur- 
rounding country, seem to indicate as complete exemption from the 
causes of disease as those of any other position on the Ohio River 
from Wheeling to its mouth. 

Intermittent and bilious fevers have sometimes prevailed, which is 
also true of all other points on or near the river; but here as well as 
at almost every other locality in the West, in proportion as the popu- 
lation increases, and improvements of all kinds are multiplied, the 
condition of the country, with regard to its healthfulness, will be 

The plain of Massac is generally dry, inclining to aridity, except 
when drenched with copious rains, the water of which may be readily 
conveyed from its entire surface, by drains of easy formation. No 
stagnant pools or marshy grounds are to be found upon it, or in its 
neighborhood. The river passes it with a steady and gentle current, 
from shore to shore. Pure and wholesome water is supplied in suf- 
ficient abundance from springs along the shore, and may be obtained 
on the plain from wells sunk to the depth of 30 or 35 feet. 

Inexhaustible supplies both of stone and cannel coal may be ob- 
tained from the coal fields near Caseyville, 55 miles above the site; 
and bituminous coal of equal value may be obtained from Muddy 
River, on the Mississippi, by water conveyance through a distance of 
190 miles. Appearances justify the conclusion that the southern 
margin of the great Illinois coal field passes northwardly on this 
point, at a distance not greater than 20 or 25 miles. 

Sandstone, adapted to the purpose of building, may be obtained 
from the river hills on the Kentucky side, a few miles above Massac. 
Limestone abounds within a distance of 20 or 30 miles, and copious 
supplies of building stone, of a superior quality, may be derived 
from the Tennessee River at numerous points six miles and upward 
from its mouth. Brick clay, of a good quality, may be had in abund- 
ance at and near the site. 

The iron fields of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers lie at the 
distance of 20 to 30 miles to the southeast, from which abundant 
supplies of castings, pig metal, bar, boiler, hoop, sheet, nail iron, and 
nails may readily be obtained. 


' The forests in the neighborhood of the site abound in timber of 
the following varieties, viz: post, red, burr, and white oak, hickory, 
yellow poplar, gum, white ash, maple, wild cherry, yellow birch, 
black walnut, elm, cypress, cotton wood, sycamore, etc., and lumber 
of all kinds may be procured in abundance by water transportation 
from the Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

Provisions of all kinds can be furnished at Massac in as great pro- 
fusion and on as favorable terms as at any other point on the western 

Massac is accessible all seasons of the year, and in all stages of 
the river, to steamboat navigation — the depths across the bars at the 
Grand Chain, in extreme low water, being at least 3 feet; which is 
the minimum depth not only from the mouth of the Ohio to this 
place but to Paducah, ten miles above; and thence up the Tennessee 
to the Chain, fourteen miles further, where abundant supplies of 
building stone may be obtained for purposes of construction. 

ExTKAOTS From the Maegey Papers. 

' The following information has been found in the Margry Papers — 
"D^couvertes et Etablissements des Prancais dans rAm6rique Sep- 

Feb. 27, 1700, at Paris, Juohereau de Saint Denis applied to 
Jerome Pontchartrain for authority to establish a colony on the Mis- 

Juchereau appears to have enlisted sufficiently powerful friends in 
his behalf, among them Madame la Comtesse de Saint Pierre is 
named, and his petition was granted. In a letter of Count de Pont- 
chartrain dated Versailles, June 4, 1701, addressed to M. de Callieres, 
governor of New France, and M. de Champigny, Intendant of Police, 
notified them of the concession which had been granted to Juchereau 
by authority of the King. The license describes Juchereau as being 
a Lieutenant General in the jurisdiction of Montreal, and gave him 
the right to pass to the Mississippi river with 24 men in eight canoes 
for the purpose of establishing a tannery. This was an unusually 
liberal concession. LaHontan states (New Voyages to North 
America) that the licences were usually limited to two canoes. 

Upon receipt of the notice of this concession, Governor de Cal- 
lieres and Intendant de Champigny protested, Oct. 5, 1701, to the 
ministry that the loss of the castor trade would result in the destruc- 
tion of the colony of Canada, and prayed that the Ohio be established 
as its boundary and for the establishment of posts upon the Missis- 

The Company of the Colony of Canada was organized to trade at 
Detroit, but found the charges imposed upon them for the privilege 
too heavy. The couriers de bois and the savages having ascended 
the Ohio to the Carolinas and established a trade in peltries with the 
English, the company prayed for the establishment of posts on the 
Miami, the "Wisconsin, the country of the Sioux, and "a la riviere de 


Ouabaohe dans le lieu ou elle se desoharge dans le Mississippi," in 
order that the trade might be preserved for the French. (Quebec, 

Nov. 10, noi.) 

They also presented a protest against the concession which had 
been granted to Juchereau for the fur trade along the Mississippi. 

Juchereau, in a memoir addressed to Madame la Comtesse de Saint 
Pierre, defended himself against the charges brought against him by 
certain people in Canada, jealous of the privileges granted him by 
M. de Pontchartrain at the solicitation of the Countess, and related 
the obstacles put in his way by the governor of Canada to prevent 
compliance with the terms of the contract. 

Sept. 6, 1704, M. de Bienville reported to the minister that Juch- 
ereau de Saint Denis died the preceding autumn (1703) , and that 
his band had been dispersed. 

Sept. 6, 1710, M. de Remonville proposed, if the colony at Detroit 
were abandoned, that the habitants be sent to Mobile and Natchez, 
and one party "a la embouchere de la riviere d'Ouabache sur la Mis- 
sissippi," there to prepare an establishment that, he predicted, would 
not, after a little time, be of mediocre consideration, on account of 
the abundance of copper and the number of buffaloes. 

In a letter dated "Au Fort Massacre,* 12 Fevrier, 1710," Dirion 
d'Artaguette complained to Jerome Pontchartrain against the treat- 
ment accorded by M. de Lamothe, commandant at Detroit, to those 
coming to the Illinois country. 

Bienville stated, Oct. 27, 1711, that the Mascoutins established 
along the Ohio continue in their attachment to the French. 


George Rogers Clark certainly carried the American flag on his 
expedition for the conquest of the Northwest. 

The flag of the United States was adopted by the Continental 
Congress, June 14, 1777. 

His troops were never regarded as part of the Continental estab- 
lishment; the funds for their military equipment were furnished by 
the State of Virginia; the men were recruited by Clark and his aids. 

Clark landed at Fort Massac June 24, 1778; Kaskaskia was cap- 
tured July 4. The first explicit mention of his flag by Clark is in 
his Memoir. After the capture of Kaskaskia, he determined to send 
Mr. Gibault with an address to the inhabitants of Post Vincennes. 
Mr. Gibault and his party departed from Kaskaskia on July 14 — 
(only ten days after its capture, and only 19 days after leaving 
Massac, the entire time having been occupied by the labors of the 
campaign.) To quote from the Memoir: 

♦ I have not yet been able to identify i this Port Massacre. If it be old Fort Massac, i* 
nefiratives ray former statement that it had never been known as Fort Massacre. Pierre 
d'Artagruette commanded the Illinois country, 17341736.— J. G. S. 


"Mr. Gibault and his party arrived safe, and after spending a day 
or two explaining matters to the people, they universally acceded to 
the proposal (except a few emissaries left by Mr. Abbott, who im- 
mediately left the country,) and went in a body to the church; where 
the oath of allegiance was administered to them in the most solemn 
manner. An officer was elected, the fort immediately garrisoned, 
and the American flag displayed, to the astonishment of the Indians, 
and everything settled far beyond our most sanguine hopes." 

Again, at the siege of Vincennes, Feb. 23, 1779, before its retaking 
by the Americans, he reports the adroit use of flags to deceive the 
English garrison, as follows: 

"In raising volunteers in the Illinois, every person who set about 
the business had a set of colors given him, which they brought with 
them to the amount of ten or twelve pairs. These were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 
not a perfect level, but had frequent raisings in it seven or eight feet 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water, and as 
these raisings generally ran in an oblique direction to the town, we 
took advantage of one of them, marching through the water under 
it, which completely prevented our men being numbered. But our 
colors showed considerably above the heights, as they were fixed on 
long poles procured for the purpose, and at a distance made no des- 
picable appearance; and as our young Frenchmen had, while we lay 
on the Warrior's Island, decoyed and taken several fowlers, with 
their horses; officers were mounted on these horses and rode about, 
more completely to deceive the enemy. In this manner we moved, 
and directed our march in such a manner as to suflPer it to be dark 
before we advanced more than half way to the town. We then sud- 
denly altered our direction, and crossed ponds where they could not 
have suspected us, and about 8 :00 o'clock gained the heights back of 
the town," and so forth. 

These extracts are from Clark's Memoir, reprinted in "Conquest of 
the Northwest" by William H. English, 1896, pages 488 and 580. 


In the summer of 1806, Theodosia spent some weeks with her 
father at Blennerhasset's island and on the Cumberland. In the 
fall they parted, he to plant his colony on the Washita and, if events 
favored, to set himself on the throne of the Montezumas; she re- 
turned to South Carolina to wait. ("The True Aaron Burr," by C. 
B. Todd, page 67.) 

December 10, 1806, Blennerhasset left his island home under cover 
of the night with his batteaux, leaving Mrs. Blennerhasset with the 
two little boys to follow. 

December 22, 1806, Burr dropped down the Cumberland from 
Nashville and at the mouth of the river the two parties met, Dec. 24, 
1806; he made an address to the filibusters, visited Fort Massac, the 


fleet passed the fort Dec. 29, and passed out of the Ohio into the 
waters of the rapid Mississippi, and moored at Bayou Pierre, Jan. 
5, 1807. 

December 16, 1806, Mrs. Blennerhasset returned from Marietta 
and found her home destroyed by the riotous militiamen; Dec. 17, she 
departed therefrom, her boat being lashed to that of A. W. Putnam 
of Bel pr6; in the latter part of December they passed the mouth of 
the Camberland, where it had been expected that she would join her 
husband. Early in January, 1807, she was restored with her chil- 
dren to Blennerhasset, at Bayou Pierre, who received them with that 
deepfelt affection which a parent and husband only can appreciate. 
(William H. Safford's "Life of Blennerhasset," Chillicothe, 1850.) 

Extracts From Official Records. j 

Compiled from old records of the offices of the Purveyor of Public 
Supplies and the Commissary General of Purchases as they were 
called — now the Depot Quartermaster in Philadelphia. These show 
the old Fort was continuously garrisoned as late as 1814. That year 
may, I suppose, be considered the year of its abandonment. 

1797. Supplies were despatched from the United States Arsenal 
on the Schuylkill near Philadelphia by various "waggoners" ad- 
dressed to Major Isaac Craig at Pittsburg, to be forwarded by him 
to the posts on the frontier. 

Such a shipment of supplies of clothing was made Oct. 12, 1797, 
to the Commanding Officer at Fort Massac; the goods were sent to 
Major Craig at Pittsburg, by him to Col. R. J. Meigs at Fort Wash- 
ington, now Cincinnati, and by the latter to Fort Massac; from Pitts- 
burg they were sent down the Ohio in "galleys." The goods con- 
sisted of uniform clothing for infantry soldiers: hats, stocks and 
clasps, coats, vests, linen overalls, woolen overalls, and shirts for 
privates, musicians and sergeants, white linen epaulettes, shoes and 
blankets, in quantity sufficient for 159 men. The uniform in use at 
the time was of the general revolutionary style, cocked hat, long 
frock coat and knee-breeches. 

September 24, 1799, more clothing supplies were sent; for infantry 
and artillery this time. 

November 22, 1799, "hospital" supplies were sent, consisting of 
allspice, barley, coffee, chocolate, mustard, pepper, raisins, rice, loaf 
sugar, brown sugar, lemon juice, bohea tea, brandy, vinegar, port 
wine, sherry wine, and molasses. 

December 17, 1799, medicines were sent for the garrison. 

1801, March 18, subsistence supplies were issued for Fort Massac. 

1802, it is stated that one company of infantry is alloted to Fort 

1803, March 7, and Feb. 3, 1804, the Secretary of War states in 
letters that there are stationed at Fort Massac, one company of artil- 
lerists and one company of the first regiment of infantry. Lieut. 
Wm. Swan or Swain was the Assistant Military Agent at Fort Massac. 


In December, 1804, a subaltern, corporal, sergeant and 23 men 
VQTe ordered from Kaskaskia to Fort Massac preparatory to descend- 
ng the river to Fort Adams on the Mississippi in the spring. 

In December, 1804, Capt. Russell Bissell was the commanding 
)fficer at Fort Massac. 

1805, March 11 — Lyman's company of the First regiment of infan- 
ry was stationed there at this time. 

1808, January, Capt. D. Bissell's company of the First regiment 
)f infantry was stationed there. 

The United States army at this time consisted of 20 companies of 
irtillerists and two regiments of infantry (20 companies of infantry.) 

April 7, 1809, medical and hospital supplies were ordered to be 
lent to "late Capt. D. Bissell, C. O. Fort Massac." 

1809 to 1812, Capt. Sam Price, of the light artillery, was the com- 
nanding officer there. 

1810, Feb. 6. One company was stationed there at this time. 

1810, March 14. It is stated that one company is stationed there, 
;he late Captain Gano's. 

1810, April 7. Medicine sent. 

1810, April 12. More medicine sent. 

1810, April 16. Hospital stores and medicine sent to Captain 

1810 to 1812. Henry Skinner was the physician at Fort Massac; 
le was rated as Surgeon's Mate. 

1811, May 4. Supplies of clothing, subsistence and medicines 
lufficient for one company of artillery was sent. 

1812, Aug. 14. Medicines and subsistence supplies sent. 

1812. In August and September Colonel William P. Anderson 
y&s assigned to the duty of recruiting the Twenty-fourth regiment 
)f United States infantry, and to the command of the regiment. 
Nashville and Knoxville were indicated to him as the most advan- 
ageous positions for his principal rendezvous. He was also directed 
,0 recruit for Captain Philips' company of artillery. 

Oct. 9 he was directed "to take charge of the defense of Fort Mas- 
lac," and to send there such part of his regiment as was organized. 
^ few days later he was directed to order Captain Philips' company 
)f artillery to the fort. 

No doubt his efforts at recruiting met with great success, for on 
L)ec. 11, 1812, a large quantity of supplies were sent from the arsenal 
m the Schuylkill to Fort Massac for the use of the Twenty-fourth 
Jnited States infantry (addressed to Colonel Anderson) and for the 
ise of the two companies of the Second United States artillery (ad- 
Iressed to Captain Philips) . They were in quantity sufficient for 
512 infantrymen and 90 artillerymen, and this is the largest garrison 
ihat probably ever was quartered at the old fortress. The supplies 


consisted of hats, coats, vests, linen overalls, wool overalls, for pri- 
vates, sergeants and musicians of infantry and artillery; cockades 
and eagles' feathers, epaulettes, shoes, stockings, socks, gaiters, trou- 
sers, frocks, buttons, blankets, hat bands, gunslings, musket flints, 
brushes and wires, cord, packing casks, knapsacks, colored thread, 
company books, printed books, papers of ink powder, foolscap paper, 
quarto post paper, quills and wafers in boxes. 

The Twenty-fourth infantry remained at the fort during the winter 
of 1812-1818, and on March iO, 1813, the Secretary of War ordered 
Colonel Anderson to move to Cleveland, O. This was done accord- 

Captain Joseph Philips remained at Fort Massac with one com- 
pany of the Second regiment of artillery, and in June, 1813, clothing, 
medicines and subsistence supplies for 90 men were shipped to him. 

Early in 1814, Jan. 22, Colonel Anderson of the Twenty fourth in- 
fantry was ordered, at Nashville, "to immediately collect all the frag- 
ments of his regiment, wherever found, and with such recruits as 
have been found, march to Erie on Lake Erie." At the time the reg- 
iment was scattered in detachments from Erie to Detroit. In the 
fall the regiment was ordered south to join General Andrew Jack- 
son at New Orleans, and it probably participated in the famous bat- 

Journal of Benjamin Van Cleve, 1794. 

"May 16, 1794. Engaged in the contractor's employ. Started on 
the 24 th, with two contractor's boats loaded with provisions, in com- 
pany with a detachment of soldiers, consisting of Captain Guion's 
company of infantry and a sergeant and six men of the artillery under 
Major Thomas Doyle, to descend the Ohio to within 12 leagues of 
the Mississippi, to the site of the old Cherokee fort, built by the French, 
and sometimes called Fort Massac. We also had with us eight Chick- 
asaw Indians on their way home. On the 29th, landed at Fort Steu- 
ben, opposite Louisville. Passed the falls on the next day, and re- 
mained until the 4th of June, preparing the boats to resist attacks, 
by lining them in order to make them bullet proof. On that day, 
Major Doyle arrested Captain Guion and sent him back. Mrs. Doyle 
was left at Louisville, and the expedition proceeded. The boats were 
ordered to keep in exact order — the major's boat. No. 1 ; his kitchen 
boat. No. 2; the surgeon's boat. No. 3; the artillery boat, No. 4; boat 
with hogs and forage. No. 5; Wilson's boat, No. 6; our own, No. 7; 
the Indians, No. 8; cattle boat. No. 9; Lieutenant Gregg, in the rear, 
No. 10. Our own boat was heavily loaded and weak in hands, so that 
when all were rowing we could not keep up, and when all were drift- 
ing we outwent the others. We ought, perhaps, to have made a 
proper representation of these circumstances to the major at the 
time, but he had sustained the character of being haughty, arbitrary 
and imperious, so that he was called King Doyle when he commanded 
the post at Hamilton. We, therefore, thought^that it would be n s^ 

Uniform-of thelUnited States Army, 1802-1810. Infantry and Artillery. Reproduced 
from the records of the War Department by permission of the Quartermaster General, of 
the UnitedjStates. 


nd we kept the current at night, which sometimes took us ten miles 
ihead against morning. It would then take the other boats, with 
lard rowing, half the day to overtake us. The men by that time 
^ould be pretty much fatigued, and we could manage pretty well to 
leep our place until night. We generally received a hearty volley 
Df execrations for our disobedience of his orders; we returned mild 
sxcuses, and determined to repeat the offense. 

"June 8. Passed the Yellow Banks. Three families had settled 
here. This is the first settlement below Salt river, and there are only 
Ifcwo others below, the one at the Red Banks and the other at Diamond 
jlsland Station. June 9, passed the Red Banks and Diamond island. 

I "June 10. Began to stop occasionally and cut pickets and put 
them aboard to be ready to set up on our arrival at Massac. 

''June 11. Cut more pickets. Met a Mr. Sela and family and 
three young men going up from the mouth of Cumberland to the Red 
Banks. They concluded to turn back with us. Passed the Wabash 
at dark. At Saline observed a fire on shore, when two Canadian 
French hunters came to us with their canoes loaded with skins, bear's 
oil and dogs. One of them had passed 26 years in the wilderness 
between Vincennes and the Illinois river. Before morning we found 
three others, who went along with us to hunt for us. 

"June 12. Passed Cumberland and Tennessee rivers and landed 
at Massac in the evening. The soldiers put up pickets in a circular 
form at the upper corner of the old works and brought up the artil- 
lery and the ammunition, and we were in a good posture of defense 
before daylight next morning. 

"We were detained at Massac unloading until the 8d of July. 

"On the 26th of June, a number of men enlisted in Tennessee un- 
der officers commissioned by citizen Genet, the French Ambassador 
to the United States, as they said, having nothing else to do, they 
had volunteered to escort some salt boats from the mouth of the Ten- 
nessee to Nashville, and through curiosity, had come down to see us 
Their real object, perhaps, was to examine our force and posture of 
defense. My comrades were acquainted with one of the men. They 
solicited us to go up with them, and, although it was a circuitous 
route, we concluded to take it, believing it to he the safest, and not 
knowing when another opportunity might offer for us to get home. 
Connor had a public rifle and went up to give it to the major. He 
cursed Connor, struck him, and ordered him under guard, and at the 
same time, ordered a corporal and file of men to bring us out of the 
boat to the guard house. The orders were given in our hearing. 
The corporal came with his guard into the boat, and having been 
acquainted with me some time, delivered his orders to me. The 
Major was walking backward and forward on top of the bank. With 
my gun in one hand, tomahawk in the other, and a knife 18 inches 
long hanging at my side, dressed in a hunting frock, breech cloth 
and leggins, my countenance probably manifesting my excitement, I 
leaped out of the boat and with a very quick step went up the bank 
to the Major. I looked like a savage, and the major mistaking my 


intention was alarmed and retired as I advanced. At length, as I ap- 
proached him, he turned, and assuming a gentle voice and manner, 
bid me good morning. I stopped and paid him the same compli- 
ment and asked him if he wanted me. He observed that he under- 
stood that we were going to leave him. He said that his boat was 
going to start in eight days to the Falls to bring down Mrs. Doyle, 
which would afford us a better opportunity of getting home, that his 
party was weak and had service to perform in building the fort, and 
that we ought to stay until our boat was unloaded. I told him that 
our instructions from the contractor were to return by the first op- 
portunity, if it should even offer as soon as we had made our boat 
fast; that we considered that we were obeying his instructions, and 
that we had known of no other opportunity likely to offer. As his 
boat would offer a safer and more direct passage I was willing to 
stay. By this time, Gahagan, one of my comrades, was ascending 
the bank under the guard, the major told the corporal to let him go 
and to discharge Connor, who was in the guard house. We accord- 
ingly staid until the Major's boat started for the Falls on the 8d of 
July, and came that day above the mouth of the Tennessee with some 
of the soldiers, whose company he found disagreeable and accordingly 
left the boat at Red Banks and finished the journey to Cincinnati by 
land, where some of the spies had come in for ammunition." 

Cut of enffine and car which was taken, to&rether with minute specifications as to mode 
£ construction, etc., of early railroads, from an advertisement for contractors to build 
le Northern Cross Railroad, 1836. 

A. W. P. 



Dr. A. W. French, Springfield, for the State Historical Society, 1903. 

I have sought to bring back to the memory of the aged, and to 
secure for the instruction and amusement of those who have come 
later upon the stage of life some of the incidents of the early hap- 
penings in the social, religious and political experience of the men 
and women who preceded us in the occupancy of this prairie land. 
Some of the events related have received notice before and descrip- 
tions are to be found in the now musty records of the early years of 
the nineteenth century — records known to few, and familiar to only 
a minute part of even reading people. Other matters, perhaps of 
little importance have come under the observation of the writer and 
may not be deemed wholly unworthy of preservation. It has not 
escaped the notice of the reader of history, indeed it is ineradically 
statnped upon his mind before he has finished the first chapter, that 
human life is but the conscious experience of a swift succession of 
little occurrences which make up the sum of what we do, and what 
we are. A recital of some of the struggles and some of the disasters 
which are part of the history of the settlement of a new country can 
but enhance the appreciation of our inheritance derived from the 
early settlers of Illinois. Some of them with an almost prophetic 
eye caught a glimpse of the grandeur which to us is a daily spectacle. 
It was their part to plant, it is ours to reap. It will ever be our 
duty and our pleasure to honor them, and not less to profit by their 

Railroads had been experimented with as early as 1822 and even 
to a very limited extent before that year, but very crude notions in re- 
gard to their construction prevailed at the time when, in 1888, and 
some subsequent years the Legislature of Illinois, strongly backed 
by the whole people, determined to construct a sufficiency of them 
to cross almost every township and to get the full benefit of the con- 
trivance and to have that benefit equally distributed over the State 
without partiality or favor. Canals were also in much favor, and 
either one or the other seemed so nearly within the grasp, and there 
was so little to choose between them that when a member arose to 
offer a bill for instance for the incorporation of the "Springfield and 
Beardstown Canal Company," a slip naming a railroad company in- 
stead would probably not have been deemed worthy of correction. 
— 5H. 


As local jealousies, or perhaps it would be fairer to say local am- 
bitions, necessarily existed, and to a great extent dominated the peo- 
ple, all bills organizing railroads or canal companies required that 
construction should begin at each end and sometimes at other points 
so that no county could get much ahead of any other in the enjoy- 
ment of these improvements. 

A committee says, *'that all of the works having been commenced 
in various sections in the State, the people of these sections are com- 
petent to judge of the value and utility of the system to them re- 
spectively, and that so long as they are unwilling to surrender their 
respective claims the irresistable conclusion is that the system is not 
too large." 

To give some idea of the operation of this distribution of improve- 
ments, I will cite some of the details: Grading — From Galena south- 
ward, from Peru northward, from Cairo northward, from Peoria west- 
ward, from Warsaw easterly, from Shawneetown to Equality, from 
Shawneetown to Silver Creek, from Shawneetown to Quincy, from 
Shawneetown to Danville, from Shawneetown to Meridocia, from 
Shawneetown to Naples, from Alton to Edwardsville, from Mt. 
Carmel to Alton, from Viaduct to Okaw, from Alton eastward , from 
State line westward, from Embarrass river, from Pekin to Tremont, 
from Cairo to Vandalia, from Shelbyville, from Decatur to Louisiana, 
Mo., from Bloomington to Mackinaw, from Bloomington to Peru, 
and many others. Total estimated cost $11,000,000, exceeding esti- 
mates, but the committee remarks, "that this is mainly owing to the 
fact that the roads upon actual measurement are found to be longer, 
and they will consequently accommodate more inhabitants and sup- 
ply the wants of a greater extent of country than was at first con- 
templated." - 

A committee of the House in 1839 made a quite exhaustive report 
on the feasibility of railroads, on the chance of getting business and 
particularly on their power to compete with other modes of trans- 
portation in respect to expedition, costs, etc. 

They say, "A journey of one hundred miles on horseback for the 
purpose of transacting business at Alton, Chicago or St. Louis or 
any other place, would require three days' travel in each direction, 
making six days' expenses f >r man and horse at $1 per day is $6; 
two days' time and expenses of horse whilst attending to business of 
the journey, $1 50; six days' time of man and horse at $1 50, $9 — 
$16 50. By railroad — Fare, 200 miles, $10; one day's time on jour- 
ney each way, $2; two meals on the journey, $1 — $]B." 

"Making $3.50 in favor of the railroad conveyance, by putting the 
journey on horseback, which is the cheapest mode of private convey- 
ance, at the lowest rates and valuing the time of the person at the 
small sum of $1 per day." The committee concludes gravely, "If 
these views of the subject can be correct, there cannot exist a doubt 
of the entire ability of the railroads to come into the most suooess- 
f al competition for a large share of the travel of the country." The 
last inquiry the committee desires to institute into the financial abil- 


ity and business capacity of railroads is in reference to the tonnage, 
which it has been shown will exist in the State at the time of their 

The minimum average rate of transportation over common roads 
is not less than $1.00 per hundred pounds, per hundred miles, or per 
ton $20.00. 

The ordinary rates of toll and transportation on railways being 5 
cents per mile, per ton for one hundred miles $5.00; balance in favor 
of railroads $15.00. 

"Thus at the lowest possible rates that a common team during the 
season of best roads can perform the transportation, there would be 
a clear saving of money of $15.00 a ton besides the advantage of 
superior speed, certainty and safety of the railway conveyance." 

"Take for instance the article of corn, which is the cheapest of all 
our productions compared with its tonnage it will be found that even 
this article will bear transportation on the railways to the rivers." 
"From an inspection of the map it will be seen that if the present 
system of railroads is carried out the roads will bring most portions 
of the State within 70 or 80 miles of a navigable stream." 

This was the dream of the time. 

"Then the transportation of one ton of corn at 34 bushels a dis- 
tance of 80 miles at the rate of 5 cents per ton per mile would be per 
ton $4.00, or per bushel 11 J cents, the cost of a bushel of wheat for 
80 miles 11 cents, of 100 pounds of tobacco 20 cents, on other 
products the same rate." 

"The Springfield & Jacksonville Railroad with the Naples branch 
about 60 miles, is cited to show what reasonable expectations may be 
in the near future," 

"Twenty passengers in each direction at 5 cents per mile or $3.60, 
$144.00. Ten tons of imports and exports in each direction at 5 
cents per ton, $120.00. U. S. Mail, $25.00. Deduct repairs, power, 
etc., and other expenses, $131.00. Net daily profits, $158.00." 

A committee of an earlier Senate had been instructed to make a 
reliable comparison between the utility and practicability of canals 
and railroads. Though without a dollar in the treasury they had 
only to choose what they would have. They report: 

"The first proposition that presents itself is, as to the relative ex- 
pediency of making canals or railroads. The railroads would cost 
less to construct, but for heavy transportation of cumbrous articles 
canals are preferable, but for lighter articles and especially for travel, 
railroads would have the preference. They arrive at the conclusion 
that either would facilitate and cheapen commerce and travel. The 
dubiety and uncertainty in regard to the kind of improvement 
which should be chosen continued long and is brought to mind anew 
by Act of Congress." 


I find in the archives of Congress that on March 2, 1827, a strip of 
land a mile wide on each side of the Illinois & Michigan Canal sur- 
vey was granted to the State to aid the construction of the canal. 
Nothing had been done with the grant when on March 2, 1833, six 
years after the donation had been made, Congress passed the follow- 
aot: * "Enacted, that the lands granted to the State of Illinois by 
the act to which this is an amendment may be used and disposed of 
by said State for the purpose of making a railroad instead of a canal, 
as in said act contemplated, and that the time for commencing and 
completing said canal or railroad, whichever the State of Illinois 
may choose to make, be, and is extended five years: Provided, that 
if a railroad is made in place of a canal the State of Illinois shall be 
subject to the same duties and obligations, and the government of 
the United States be entitled to the same privilege on said railroad 
which they would have had through the canal if it had opened.' " 

"With a railroad across the State to St. Louis the committee is 
prepared to state, from the best information obtainable, that the dis- 
tance from St. Louis to New York can be made in 16 to 20 days. 
Voyage from New York to Buffalo five days; Buffalo to Chicago 
by steamboat seven to eight days; Chicago by rail to foot of rapids 
ten hours; from foot of rapids to St. Louis two days. 

"Making the whole 16 days and deducting probable hindrances, it 
may be placed with tolerable accuracy at 20 days, which is at least 
ten days sooner than by any other route." 

Jln 1835 the committee on internal improvements in a long report said: 
*'The only question unsettled is the kind of communication and the 
means of accomplishment. As to the kind of communication the ques- 
tion lies between railroads and canals." So hope and confidence ran 
ahead of capacity to perform until dishonor and disgrace seemed the 
inevitable fate of the State. Under natural law mistakes and 
blunders incur the same penalties as wilful wrong doing. The pun- 
ishment comes also to states and nations whenever an error is com- 

The people by 1839 had involved the State in debt that would 
have been a heavy burden to the oldest of the Union. Fourteen 
million dollars at that time was a vast sum. 

But what assets were there? Owing to the scattered condition of 
the investments, no part was of use. A ridge of earth thrown up here 
and there all over the State, and a few scores of tons of iron in New 
Orleans awaiting freight money. Frantic efforts had been made to 
get money by the sale of bonds. The rate of interest fixed by law 
was 6 per cent. The bonds were discounted 20 or 30 per cent, or 
lower still. 

The fund commissioner and other agents had been sent to New 
York and then to Europe to find money, but were coldly received. 
Bonds deposited in London for sale were sent back as the credit of 
the State was greatly shaken, Rumors of repudiation were prevalent 
and it was the opinion of a large part of the people that nothing 
could be done — of a large portion, that nothing ought to be done! 

The Governor called a special session of the Legislature in 1839. 


He says: "Our system of internal improvements presents a sub- 
ject of deep and absorbing interest in which the destiny of our State 
is involved and when compared with its prosperity and resources is 
truly alarming — the public credit has been and continues to be 
extended to exhaustion with a view of increasing the enormous debt 
which has been incurred. The revenue law passed at the last 
session has been a subject of animadversion and dissatisfaction, and 
some of the counties I regret to say have resisted it by refusal to as- 
sess their taxable property." 

R. F. Barrett was for some years fund commissioner, and as such 
was sent to New York and sometimes to Europe to endeavor to raise 
money on State bonds on any State indebtedness. His wailing is 
pitiful to hear. He says: "New York, December, 1840: I reached 
here yesterday, and have inquired around what could be done for 
January interest, I find prospects worse than I expected, every paper 
here and elsewhere is abusing and misrepresenting our policy, and 1 
find the best friends of the State heretofore, now in doubt and 
despondency. I am afraid I shall fail to get the money. The credit 
of our State will go down, and I out of oflSce in disgrace. I was a 
fool to come and I knew it at the time, but if I had resigned another 
fund commissioner would have failed to get the money most certainly, 
then I would have been charged with deserting the State in time of 
greatest need. I accepted the office with no hope of reward for I told 
my friends, that I should charge nothing for my services. But as it 
is, the faith and credit of the State may sink in my hands and my rep- 
utation sink with it. If we fail here we shall go to Boston the next 
day and use every means till Monday 3:00 o'clock, when the thing 
will be up with us, and the State; if we are unsuccessful — God forbid 
that such should be the result, but such it may be — young and pros- 
perous Illinois will be the first State in this great Confederacy to 
fail to pay her public debts. She will be cursed from one end of the 
Union to the other, and by every civilized power on earth — My God! 
talk to the members, and do not suffer our State to be the first to go 
down in disgrace." 

On New Year's day he wrote: "I shall neither eat nor sleep nor 
rest till the money is procured, and if I fail I will make my escape 
from the State as quick as possible, as she will be disgraced and I 
shall forever be the disgraced instrument of her disgrace. The 
difficulties have been a thousandfold greater than I expected and 
ultimate failure may be the result." 

A minority report on finances 1840, reads like this: 

"The undersigned would ask the House, that, burdened with a 
debt of nearly $14,000,000, the annual interest of which exceeds 
1700,000, a prostrate bank, $400,000 of youB bonds already pledged at 
one- third of their value, part of which are now forfeited and the bal- 
ance shortly will be, upward of $600,000 lost or in immediate danger 
in New York by the bad management of your agents; between one 
and two millions in Europe in like condition — your interest falling 
due before the Legislature meets again ; unprovided for — an extra 


session in consequence inevitable—your bonds selling at 60 or 70 
cents on the dollar; a bankrupt treasury and an oppressed and 
dispirited people; the State so poor that she cannot pay the door- 
keepers, much less her members: your commissioners knocking at 
the door of every pawnbroker and shaver, begging them to lend 
money on our bonds — Illinois bonds." 

R. M. Young, State financial agent, writes: 

"I do deplore exceedingly the present condition of things, and see 
nothing but mist and gloom in the prospective; and regret exceed- 
ingly that the last Legislature did not do something effectual to place 
the credit and integrity of the State on some substantial basis. July 
interest should at all events be provided for with certainty and not 
left to depend on remote probabilities." 

The Committee on Finance in 1840 also rendered a report not free 
from bitterness. Among other suggestions and complaints they say, 
''By the clamors of those who frequently prefer personal popularity, 
no matter how acquired, to the ultimate good of the State, and who 
seek to ingratiate themselves in the special favor of the public by 
abusing and misrepresenting those who may have contribted to 
create the State debt, which in its inception met with almost univer- 
sal approval, the people have been made to suffer, unnecessarily, feel- 
ings of pain and distrust. They have heard so much of millions of 
indebtedness, the horrors of which have been portrayed in such dis- 
mal lamentations of despair that each man is involuntarily led to feel 
in his pocket to ascertain if he has any hundreds or thousands in 
his possession with which to pay off his part of the debts." 

The mode of construction of railroads in the early days will excite 
a smile by those who have never seen any other than that now in 
use. I have copied from proposals for a contract on the Northern 
Cross railroad published in 1848. A road had been built on this 
line many years before on a very imperfect grading but had been 
abandoned. "The crossties 5x10 inches are to be prepared 
for the superstructure by boring two holes in each tie at the guaged 
distance assunder for the intermediate ties 1^ inches in size. The 
string pieces 5x6 are to be prepared for the work by boring a hole 
within 3 inches of the end 1^ inches, and at intervals of 30 inches." 
The old iron rails which were about the weight of a wagon tie, were 
to be taken up and straightened and then spiked down on the middle 
of the stringer, the end joints to be strengthened by a piece of wood 
spiked down on the ties. To make room for the flange of the wheels 
the string piece was to be beveled down with an adz. 

Here you have woodsills first, then ties across them and then wood 
stringers to be pegged down to the ties with wooden pins, and last, a 
little strip of iron nailed to the top. This looks like a light structure 
but the great New York Central railroad was first made in this man- 
ner. I passed over it in 1845 when the speed was 15 to 20 miles per 
hour. One of the perils of this kind of track was that the thin bar 
under constant rolling got loose and the end would rise to the top of 


a wheel and be thrust up through the floor of the car to the great 
peril of the passengers. Many travellers lost their lives in this 

The furore in the early 30's for State improvements in the mode 
of transportation which was one of importance, but not the only one 
by any means, has often been referred to and commented upon. But 
in this state of excitement, and the recklessness accompanying it, 
Illinois was not alone, nor did she lead, but simply participated in 
an unreasoning craze which originated in the eastern and central 
states. Confidence, so useful in intercourse between men, was un- 
bounded and nothing seemed necessary to the enhancement of 
values and the promotion of enterprises but a free and vivid imagi- 
nation. I remember well when in 1835 and 1836 an emigration fever 
seized the people of the eastern states, and the rude and rough high- 
ways which led westward were dotted thickly with hundreds of emi- 
grant wagons headed towards Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio and Illi- 
nois, or anywhere towards the setting sun. All of the inhabitants 
could not go, however willing they might be, but all who had any 
money could share in the sure rewards of enterprise by sending it 
along to be invested in the soil which soon would enrich them by its 
swiftly increasing values, 

Inspection was hardly thought of, and the swamps and bays of 
Michigan compared successfully in price with the choicest lands. 

The spirit of speculation swept around the lakes and Illinois re- 
ceived large accessions to her population, and her lands passed 
swiftly from government ownership to private hands but a small part 
only to actual settlers. Money invested in this sure way was better 
than settlers, and the enthusiastic had only to wait. 

Lands bought then at $1.25 per acre, within my knowledge, 30 
years after, had scarcely doubled in value. But the immense bubble 
reached its full expansion in 1837 and many who had sent to the 
west all of their available means, from eager buyer became urgent 
sellers, and financial distress took the place of the late exuberant 
prosperity and bankruptcy prevailed in the whole country. 

In many cities of the eastern states bankruptcy was universally 
present. In some lines of trade not a single merchant or manufac- 
turer stood up, and when the storm had swept by nearly every busi- 
ness man was prostrated. All are not idiots! but we are so helpful 
to one another when any great folly is to be perpetrated that each 
gives up the better part of his judgment under the influence of 
others, and the opinion of the combination is the reverse of the 
units composing it. 

Illinois was traveling along as well as so isolated a people could 
expect to do. Settlers were coming in pretty fast, considering the 
great distance, from the ever teeming east and from the bordering 
slave states, and there was no unusual lack of individual prosperity 
when she felt the spirit of unrest. 

In 1834 a committee of the House reported the State practically 
free from debt, but schemes had already been devised which would 
greatly alter this state of affairs. As in all new settlements, means 


of communication were required. One of the first necessities is a 
road. Let us have enough roads or canals so that we can go every- 
where and carry our products with us. The population was widely scat- 
tered, 200,000 on 45,000 square miles of territory. The Legislature, as- 
sembled from every part of this varying and vast field, were men 
who were bom in many different states and in foreign lands, and 
who held very divergent views in regard to most human interests, 
but on one there was nearly perfect agreement, all thinking that 
facilities for inter communication must be bettered. Without any 
available resources on the part of the State or its inhabitants, with- 
out seemingly to ask one another the question how are these benefits 
to be paid for, together with a stubborn resolve not to submit to any- 
thing like adequate taxation, the construction of more miles of rail- 
roads than then existed in the whole world was decided to be feasible, 
and these, too, to be supplemented by a few hundred miles of canal. 

The Illinois and Michigan canal had already been begun, but this 
had some, though very inadequate resources in the large grant of 
land by the general government. Many other canals were perfected, 
and bills for their immediate construction had become laws. Of 
course this could not go on forever. One House passed a bill re- 
pudiating the entire debts, but it failed in the other by a not large 
majority. The State faced bankruptcy and dishonor. More than 
enough money could be seen, (in imagination) to carry out these 
vast schemes. In 1839, in regard to the gift of money to counties not 
classed by any surveys, the committee on internal improvements 

"First that the $200,000 appropriated by the 18th section of the 
internal improvement act to be distributed to the several counties 
through which no canal or railroad was authorized by the act to be 
constructed, is vested in the original counties and cannot be justly 
withdrawn from them in whole or in part for the purpose of being 
granted to other counties " It seems that new counties put in a 
claim to share in the bounties granted, and were told they must 
look to the counties from which they were severed, and that as it was 
through their own wrong, that they cannot now claim to redivide the 
original grant; precautions taken that the gift should fall into the 
right hands of the mere bagatelle of 1200,000, which should equalize 
the benefits of State improvements This large bounty which was 
already an object of discord between the counties that remained in- 
tact and those created by subdivision was as likely to be paid as the 
other obligations. 

It is a pleasure to note that literature was encouraged. In 1888 the 
Legislature passed a resolution with reference to a forthcoming Illi- 
nois book, now much sought after. 

"Whereas, J. M. Peck has set forth by his petition that he is en- 
gaged in making a gazetteer of Illinois, and also collecting material 
towards a history of the State and that it would aid him greatly in 
these labors to have free accession to the printed laws, journals, etc." 


Picture of the old State House at Sprinerfield, as for some years it was carried at the 
head of the Illinois Journal. 

A. W. F. 


" Resolved f that the Secretary of State be authorized to furnish said 
J. M. Peck, one copy of each of the laws and journals, Territorial 
and State." 

The people who are now called early settlers were possessed of 
great theoretical piety. This was perhaps manifested more markedly 
in their legislation than in their private lives, and daily conduct. 
The laws in respect to the observance of the Sabbath were rigid 
and penalties for violation were severe and would not have done dis- 
credit to Connecticut under the pilgrims. 

Their abhorrence of gaming was intense, and the laws pertaining 
to it were fully abreast of the lives of the people in respect to the 
practice. I will give a sample from the third session: ''If any per- 
son shall hereafter bring into the State, or cause to be brought or 
imported into this State for sale, or shall sell or offer for sale any 
pack or packs of playing cards, or any dice, billiard tables, billiard 
balls or any other device or thing intended, or made for the purpose 
of being used at any game; shall, on conviction be fined in the sum 
of not exceeding $25." 

I was cognizant of one conviction for selling a pack of cards under 
this law. 

Another law should be preserved for its unique English, and for 
other reasons. 

•'To prevent unlawful driving of stock," enacted: "That no indi- 
vidual or individuals who may be driving stock through the country 
or to market, (should any stock or fat hogs falling into their drove 
be left at the place where they may stop for the first night, after said 
stock have fallen into their drove) shall be subject to the penalties 
of this bill, and that no persons who may be driving other stock, 
(should any stock falling into their drove) be left at the first premises 
on the road having (suitable lot or inclosure for separating them 
from the drove) shall be subject to the penalties of this bill." 

THE senators' BALL. 

Few are now living who have a personal recollection of a custom 
about as old as the State, which ought not to pass altogether from 
human memory. It may be said to have had a flavor of its own, and 
belonged only to the time and the then condition of society. Though, 
as intimated, there had been a succession of these events, I have 
chosen for this brief description, one at which I was an invited guest, 
and was privileged to be present. I refer to the operation of an un- 
written law which required a newly elected Senator to give a public 
ball in the State House immediately after bis election to that high 
office. It was not to be a "nobby," or exclusive, party where satins 
and diamonds were to magnify the light and compete with the tallow 
candles which crowded one another in the huge chandelier and wide 
branching candelabra, which decorated the dancing hall and sent 
their drippings down impartially upon the gay costumes of the ladies 
and the plain jeans of the law-makers and the laborers, but cards of 


invitation had been distributed, in the absence of a directory, by the 
poll list, as all men found in the city were supposed to rejoice over 
the election of a Senator, so all should participate in this manifesta- 
tion of joy, and join hands in the dance and partake of the feast. 

Judge Douglas had been elected a Senator. 

With characteristic generosity and self-abnegation and following 
old precedents he placed in the hands of his local friends the sum of 
$1,500 with which they were to get up the affair on the most ap- 
proved lines. When the evening arrived the State House at an 
early hour was crowded so that not a midget could get in. When 
the music was ready to begin the first difficulty encountered was to 
get space sufficient to form a cotillion. As there was no elephant 
present to press back the crowd, some of the leading politicians and 
statesmen who for one reason or another were in attendance on the 
occasion, assisted, and after some delay a space somewhat larger 
than a family dining table was cleared in the center of representa- 
tive hall, and a dance was begun by the few who gained access to 
the ring. If "joy was unconfined," this could not be said of the 

The Senate chamber had been reserved as the refreshment room, 
and long tables were well supplied with the elements of a supper. 
This chamber was opened about half past ten o'clock and the com- 
pany invited in. As a considerable part, not to say a large majority, 
of the assemblage had been in attendance since dark in one of the 
short days of winter, and music and dancing could not well begin in 
good earnest before it was bedtime for many of the guests, these good 
people, pressed on by impatient appetite, lost much of that degree 
of self-restraint which is always necessary under such circumstances, 
and the orderly march to the table, which was attempted, was broken 
up, and the strongest and hungriest getting first within reach, the 
viands were very unequally distributed among the guests of the ball. 
This was soon followed by the departure of many of the guests, 
chiefly of those who had inadvertently left at home their dress suits. 
This celebration of a Senatorial election by some was called a fiasco, 
by others as only the exemplification in practice of the beauty of the 
theory that the enjoyments of life should be shared by all alike, and 
especially by those best able to obtain them. 

The next Senator to be elected was Judge Trumbull. In regard 
to celebrating the event by a ball, he felt the necessity of yielding 
something to precedent, but being of a somewhat fastidious nature 
he could not contemplate with any degree of composure the celebra- 
tion of two years before as being repeated in his name and at his ex- 

Like the thoughtful man he was, he proposed to steer clear of the 
Scylla of popular disapprobation on one hand and the Charyhdis of 
popular misconstruction on the other by avoiding the State House 
and hiring a hall, to which his friends were invited, and where a 
social talk was had. 

This ended the custom, and Senators-elect have since that time 
escaped this popular initiation into office. 



Evarts B. Greene, Ph, D. 

The strongly sectional character of Illinois politics during the first 
half century of its existence as a State is familiar to even the casual 
student. There have also been detailed studies of particular phases 
of the sectional struggle. Thus we have the very useful volume by 
E. B. Washburne on Governor Coles and the slavery controversy of 
1822-1824. For the decade between 1850 and 1860 there is, of course, 
the great mass of Lincoln literature. On the other hand, the conflict 
of sectional forces during the whole period from 1818 to 1861 has 
never had any thorough and comprehensive treatment. It is the 
purpose of this paper merely to survey the field and to suggest oppor- 
tunities for special research by students of local history. On the 
foundation of such intelligent local studies it may be possible to 
build up finally an adequate account of Illinois sectionalism. Such 
a study will in turn be indispensable to every one who wishes to un- 
derstand the political history of the nation. 

One important factor in Illinois sectionalism is the geographical 
situation of the State. The parallels of latitude which include Illi- 
nois included on the one hand the abolitionist centers of New Eng- 
land and on the other the capital of the Southern Confederacy. The 
importance of this great north and south extension, which would 
have been evident in any case, was greatly increased by the success 
of Mr. Pope's amendment to the enabling act, which modified the 
ordinance lines of 1787 and gave us our present frontage on Lake 

In 1818, however, Illinois was far more open to northern than 
to southern influences. The easiest lines of approach for many 
years were the river routes of the Mississippi and the Ohio which 
were most accessible to the people of the down states from Pennsyl- 
vania southward. The portions of the State which were first settled 
lay close to these great waterways in contact with the slaveholding 
commonwealths of Kentucky and Missouri. 

These geographical facts determined in large measure the consti- 
tuent elements of the population. The French inhabitants, pic- 
turesque but politically of minor importance, may be passed over 
briefly, noting only that the perpetuation or slavery among them 
tended to produce a southern bias. Of the American born immi- 
grants, we have no definite statistical knowledge, but contemporary 
testimony indicates a preponderantly southern origin. This some- 


what indefinite conclusion is corroborated by more tangible facts 
with regard to the political leaders of the new State. The territorial 
delegate who carried through the enabling act was a Kentuckian by- 
birth and education. The first Governor, the first two Representa- 
tives and the first two Senators were all natives of southern or border 
slaveholding states* 

Soutiiern birth did not, however, always mean sympathy with the 
^'peculiar institution." The ordinance of 1787, though so construed 
as to permit the retention of slaves previously held in the territory 
and though doubtless evaded by loose indenture laws was undoubt- 
edly effective to check the movement into Illinois of a really slave- 
holding class. If it had not been so, there would not have been 
such frequent and strenuous efforts to secure its repeal. There were 
among the social and political leaders of the State a few representa- 
tives of this class, but numerically, they were in a small minority. 
Even within this group, men of anti- slavery convictions were occa- 
sionally to be found, as, for example. Governor Coles who brought 
his slaves to Illinois only to set them free. 

The southerners who came to Illinois belonged, therefore, mainly 
to two classes, the "poor whites" and the more substantial, but often 
forgotten, small farmer class. Between the small farmer and the 
large planter, there has been in the history of the southern states an 
antagonism of long standing, varying somewhat in intensity, but 
almost never wholly absent. f Some of these poorer whites were, 
doubtless, willing to become large slave owners themselves in a new 
country, but we are told of at least some others that they came to 
Illinois in order to escape slavery with its inevitably depressing in- 
fluence upon the poorer whites. ff 

The net result as to slavery may be summed up in two facts. The 
first is the census return of 1820, which shows 917 slaves, about one 
in 60 of the total population. The other is the first State Constitu- 
tion which refused to prohibit slavery altogether, but barred the way 
for its future development. J 

The first six years of statehood are marked by the unsuccessful 
efforts to secure a constitution more favorable to slave property. The 
story of this conflict has often been told and need not be repeated 
here. A few facts should, however, be emphasized. The first is a 
clear division of the popular vote along geographical lines. The 
older southern countries were, as a rule, strongly for the convention 
to amend the constitution. The heavy majorities against it came 
from the newly organized counties more remote from Kentucky and 
Missouri influences, It is equally clear, on the other hand, that 
there was no sharp line of division between men of northern and 

♦These facts a^ to place of birth were drawn from various sources but mainly from Moses, 
Illinois Historical and Statistical, and Bateman and Selby Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

t See e. s. W. A. Schaper, Sectionalism and Representation in South Carolina, in Annual 
Report of the American Historical Association. laOO, Vol. I. 

tt Ford, History of Illinois. 38: Patterson, Early Society in Southern Illinois. 104-105, 
113-114: Brown, Early History of Illinois, 82. 

X CouMt. of 1818. Art. VI. This constitution was attacked by the anti-slavery men in the 
National House of Representatives and defeated by William Henry Harrison, then a con- 
gressman from Ohio. Annals of Congress, 15th Cong., 2d session, I, 297-298, 305-311. 


those of southern origin. In a test vote on the convention resolu- 
tion, at least half the anti- convention votes came from men of south- 
ern birth. Two of the most apcgressive anti-slavery leaders, Coles 
and Cook, were born in slave- holding states. Clearly then, the great 
decision which finally closed the door to slave importation was largely 
due to the leadership and the votes of southern men* 

Section II. 

By 1824, Illinois had definitely rejected the "peculiar institution," 
but the dominance of southern men and the strength of southern 
sympathies were still conspicuous factions in the life of the State. 
Every one of the first six Grovernors of the State came to Illinois 
from the south, and all but one were natives of slaveholding states. 
During the same period, the State elected eight men as Senators and 
eight as Representatives in the Federal Congress. Of the eight Sen- 
ators, one was born in Illinois, one in New York, and the rest in the 
states of Maryland, North Carolina and Kentucky. Of the eight 
Representatives, all, with possibly one exception, came to Illinois 
from the states of Kentucky and Tennessee. It has been observed 
too, that the prominent advocates of the convention, though defeated 
upon that particular issue, did not generally love their political lead- 

One result of this southern predominance is to be seen in the poli- 
cal status of the negro in Illinois He was not to be held perma- 
nently as a slave, but he was not, on the other hand, regarded as a 
citizen. The right to vote was restricted to whites, and the negro's 
testimony could not be admitted in the courts against a white man. 
In short, the status of the free negro in Illinois was not very differ- 
ent from that of his southern brother.* 

A similar conservatism was shown in the attitude of Illinois people 
on all questions of national policy affecting slavery. Though they 
did not want slavery at home, they generally disliked the "Yankee 
abolitionist." In 1837, both Houses of the General Assembly passed 
resolutions condemning anti- slavery legislation, and but one member 
of the House joined Lincoln in his famous protest against them.f 
The same year saw the assassination of Love joy at Alton. Such con- 
servative leaders as Grovernor Duncan condemned the murder, but 
they generally considered Lovejoy himself as distinctly censurable J 

A similar attitude on sectional issues was taken by Illinois men in 
Congress. In May, 1836, the National House of Representatives 
forced the first of the so called "gag resolutions" intended to prevent 
the consideration of anti- slavery petitions. This Pinckney resolu- 
tion of 1886 provided that "all petitions, memorials, resolutions, 

* See on this subject E. B. Washburne, "Governor Coles and the Slavery Struggle in 

♦Constitution of 1818. Art. II, §27; The Public and General Statutes of Illinois (1829) 201. 

tLincoln. Works (Nicolay and Hay, eds.) 1, 15. 

JKirby. Life of Joseph Duncan. 43, (Letter to Rev. Gideon Blackburn.) 


propositions or papers relating in any way, or to any 3xtent what- 
ever, to the subject of slavery, be laid upon the table and that no 
further action whatever shall be had thereon," This resolution was sup- 
ported by Messrs. Casey, May and Reynolds, the three members 
from Illinois.* 

In December, 1844, John Quincy Adams finally secured the repeal 
of a still more stringent rule, which had been in force during the 
previous session. Public opinion in the north, generally, had by 
this time been thoroughly aroused against this supposed violation of 
the right of petition. The Illinois representatives, however, stood 
with the south against repeal. Of the Illinois members only 
two supported Adams, These were John Wentworth and John J. 
Hardin, representing the Chicago and Jacksonville districts. Doug- 
las, then a member of the House, is not recorded as voting, but in 
a later speech he recorded his opposition to the consideration of 
anti-slavery petitions. The remaining four members voted against 
Adams and for the "gag resolutions.! 

The position of the Illinois members on the question of territorial 
expansion to the southwest is interesting in the same connection. The 
annexation of Texas and the Mexican war were regarded by a large 
element in New England as simply parts of a conspiracy to shift the 
balance of power in favor of the south. New territory was to be 
secured in order that new slave states might be represented in Con- 
gress, As Lowell put it, the southerners were seeking "nigger pens 
to crown with slaves." j 

This policy was comparatively weak in Illinois. The State as a 
whole strongly favored Texan annexation, and gave enthusiastic sup- 
port to the Mexican war. On the joint resolution of 1845 for the an- 
nexation of Texas, both of the Illinois Senators and six out of seven 
Representatives voted "aye." The single negative vote was cast by 
Hardin of Jacksonville. J On May 11 and 12, 1846, the Illinois men 
in the Senate and House supported unanimously on test votes the 
war policy of the administration, including the famous preamble de- 
claring that war existed "by the act of Mexico " § 

Other illustrations might be given to show that while slavery re- 
ceived a crushing defeat in 1824, the politics of the State were largely 
dominated by southern men, and southern feeling showed itself in 
the inferior legal status of the negro and in a general dislike of 
"Yankee" abolitionism, whether in Illinois or at the Natiotial Cap- 

Section III.— The Growth of Northern Influences, 1847-61. 

The new Constitution of 1847-8 marks in a convenient way the be- 
ginning of a new era in the history of the State. One important fact 

*Cong:. Globe, 24th Cong., 1st session 505-506. 
tCong. Globe, 2nd session, 28th Cong. 
J Cone:. Globe, 28th Cong., 2d Sess., 191. 362. 
g Ibid, 29th Cong., 2d Sess., 794, 804. 


of this new period is the gradual passing of frontier conditions. At 
the same time it was becoming clear that the controlling forces of 
the mature commonwealth were to differ largely from those which 
had dominated its youth. In the conflict of sectional forces, those 
of the north were steadily gaining and gradually making of Illinois 
a distinctly northern State. 

One important factor in this development was improved means of 
communication between Illinois and the states of the northeast. The 
building of the Erie canal, the improvement of steam navigation on 
the lakes, and finally, the rapid railroad building of the fifties — all 
these things opened the way for a large "Yankee" immigration into 
northern Illinois. The commercial development of Chicago, resting 
upon the larger growth of the whole northwest, was bringing into the 
life of the State an aggressively northern spirit of business enterprise, 
quite in contrast with the civilization of the rural south. 

The census returns of 1850 and 1860 show clearly the growing im- 
portance of the northern immigration, particularly in the statistics 
of nativity. The New Yorkers stand first with about one- sixth of 
the total American born immigration.* The next states in order 
are Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Indiana, Virginia, 
North Carolina and Vermont. 

The next census shows a still more marked northern prepondrance. 
According to the nativity statistics of i860 the three slave- holding 
states which had contributed most largely to the population of Illi- 
nois were Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. In 1850, the aggre- 
gate number of natives of this group was slightly larger than the 
total for New York and New England. By 1860 the ratio had 
changed radically. While the gain in immigration from the three 
slave states was less than 25 per cent, those from New York and New 
England had increased about 75 per cent or three times as fast. 

In reckoning the forces working against the old southern tradition, 
we must not forget the foreign immigrant. The foreign born popu- 
lation originally small, had increased by 1850 to about one- eighth 
and by 1860 to about one- fifth of the total population of the state. 
Of these the Germans were the most numerous and probably the 
most important politically. This foreign population had gathered 
about a few centers in the central and southern parts of the State, 
as around Quincy and in the counties opposite St. Louis, but was 
mainly to be found in the northern counties.f Since the greater 
volume of foreign immigration had been one of the most striking 
characteristics of the northern states as compared with the southern 
states of the Union, the influence in IllinoiQ of her large foreign 
population was to differentiate her still more from the south. 

Like the foreign born immigrants, the new settlers from the north- 
east generally settled in northern Illinois. In 1818 the three north- 
ern counties were Madison, Bond and Crawford. By 1810, 57 new 

* It should be remembered that many of the New York immigrants were of New Eng- 
land stock. 

t Compendium of Seventh census (1850). 116-118, 218-225; ei^rhth census (1860). I, (Popula- 
tion), 102-103, 616-623. 


counties had been organized farther north which had come to include 
a large majority of the total population of the State. By the same 
year the Territory added by Mr. Pope's forethought in 1818 had 
been organized into 14 new counties, only one of which appears on 
the map of 1880. In 1850, these counties had about 21 per cent of 
the population of the State, and by 1860 they had nearly one-fourth 
of the total.* 

By this movement of immigration largely along parallels of latitude, 
the northern and southern sections of the State were sharply differ- 
entiated in spite of some fusion of northern and southern elements 
in the central counties. Until the building of the Illinois Central in 
the fifties, this differentiation between northern and southern Illinois 
was intensified by the comparative difficulty of communication be- 
tween the sections. We are told, for example, that when the Chica- 
go division of the Illinois Central was first built, it passed for over a 
hundred and thirty miles through "an almost unbroken wild."* 

Let us now examine the working of these social forces in the poli- 
tics of the State. One interesting result is to be seen in the person- 
nel of the political leaders. In place of the preponderate southern 
leadership of the first two decades, we now find the northern men 
making their way to the front. Between 1840 and 1862, 46 different 
men were elected as Senators, Congressmen and Governors. Omit- 
ting ten men whose nativity could not readily be found, we find that 
nine of the remaining 36, or just one-fourth, come from slaveholding 
states (Kentucky, 7; Tennessee, 2.) An exactly equal number came 
from New England. Eight were born in Ohio or Illinois, and seven 
in the middle states. One each came from Canada, England, and Ire- 
land. In some instances, men of New England origin represented 
southern districts, but the extreme northern constituencies wer^ 
generally represented by New England men. Familiar examples of 
this class are *' Long John" Wentworth, Elihu B. Washburne, Jesse 
Norton and Owen Lovejoy.f 

As northern men came to hold positions of leadership, northern 
ideas gradually made themselves felt in the politics of the State. 
Striking evidence of this is to be found in the convention of 1847. 

The most important victory of the "Yankee" element was on the 
question of township organization. The settlers from New York and 
New England had been accustomed to some kind of township organ- 
ization and favored its adoption in Illinois. The older communities of 
the State had , however, worked under the southern system of local gov- 
ernment which took the county as its unit and vested its government in 
the county court. When the decisive vote was taken in the conven- 
tion, township organization received the almost unanimous support of 
delegates from the northern third of the State, while the southern 
third gave a decisive majority against it. A few representatives from 
the extreme southern counties voted for the township clause of the 

* See statistical table in Moses, Illinois Historical and Statistical,— Appendix. 

*Ackerman. Early Illinois Railroads (Fergus Historical series No. 23.) 42. 

tList«i in "The Illinois Blue Book." 1900; with bloffraphical data, mainly from Moses. 
Illiuois Historical and Statistical, and Bateman and Selby Encyclopedia of Illinois. 


Constitution, but their constituencies had never adopted the system. 
On the other hand, every one of "Mr. Pope's" 14 northern counties 
bad been organized on the new plan, and in the next decade a large 
lumber of the central counties followed their example.* 

More striking in its relation to national politics was the sectional- 
ism shown in the discussion of the race question. The final aboJition 
Df slavery in the State was accepted as a matter of course without 
iivision. The status of free negroes was, however, an exciting 
;opic and led to divisions along roughly sectional lines. The convon- 
;ion finally agreed upon an article requiring the Legislature to prohibit 
;he immigration of free negroes or the bringing in of slaves for the 
purpose of setting them free. The 14 northern counties gave a de- 
cisive majority against this article in the convention, but the old 
counties voted almost solidly for it and the votes of the central re- 
gion turned the scales in its favor. This article was submitted to 
;he popular vote separately and ratified in spite of majorities against 
it in the northern counties.f 

Another evidence of conservatism on the race issue is to be seen 
n the Constitutional provision which reserves the full legal and 
political privileges and responsibilities of citizenship to men of the 
w^hite race. Many of the southern delegates desired even more ex- 
plicit assertions of the inferiority of the colored race. Thus the 
lorthern victory on the township question had a set off in the oonser- 
rative treatment of the race problem. J 

Let us now turn again to the position of Illinois on questions of 
aational politics. The period from 1847 to 1861 was one of intense 
sectional feeling centering about the question of slavery in the ter- 
ritories. In Illinois, the growth of anti-slavery feeling had been 
3omparatively slow. Though numerous anti- slavery societies had 
3een organized, particularly in the northern counties, the radical 
iberty party had only an insignificant following in the State. In 
L848, the union of Genuine Free Soilers with Van Buren Democrats 
tiad given the Free Soil ticket a somewhat deceptive appearance of 
strength in the presidential contest. In 1852, however, with a clearer 
ssue between conservative and radical Free Soil views the weakness 
jf the latter seemed very clear. In accordance with its steadily 
Democratic traditions the State gave Pierce a heavy majority. In 
more than one-third of the counties of the State extending from 
Cairo to Champaign no Free Soil vote whatever was returned, and 
in several more it was infinitesimal. On the other hand, there were 
seventeen counties, all with one exception north of Springfield, in 
j^hich the Free Soilers mustered 10 per cent, or more of the total 
irote of the county. § 

* Journal of the convention, Dassim; M. H. Newell, Township Government in Illinois. 
[Manuscript thesis in Library of University of Illinois.) 

t Journal of the convention, 453-456: Const, ©f 1848, Art. XIV. 

tConst. of 1848, Arts. VI, VIII, IX. (Elections, Militia, Revenue). 

iStatistical tables in Moses, Illinois Historical and Statistical. T. C. Smith, Liberty and 
Free Soil Parties in the Northwest; passim. 

— 6H 


Free soil feeling was not, however, confined to the third party. It 
was to be found in both the old parties and particularly among the 
Whigs. There was, indeed, a strong Democratic organization, led 
by Douglas, and, in spite of his New England origin, strongly in 
sympathy with the old conservative traditions. Yet there were al- 
ready indications of a revolt. 

The condition of Illinois feeling is well illustrated by the contro- 
versies over slavery in the territories and over the fugitive slave law, 
which received their supposed final settlement in the compromise 
measure of 1850 In March, 1847, the votes of the Illinois mem- 
bers in the House of Representatives were evenly divided on the 
Wilmot proviso, but four members failed to vote.* In 1849 the State 
Legislature declared in favor of the Wilmot proviso.f Douglas him- 
self, though opposing the proviso in other ways, felt obliged to obey 
the letter of his instructions by an affirmative vote.J On the other 
hand, when the vote on the fugitive slave bill was taken in the House 
of Representatives, five of the seven Illinois Congressmen supported 
it, including Bissell, who was so soon to become the anti-slavery can- 
didate for Governor. The two negative votes were cast by Went- 
worth of Chicago and Baker of the Galena district. § Douglas' sup- 
port of the fugitive slave law made him for a time extremely unpop- 
ular in Chicago, but the Legislature of 1851 accepted his leadership 
and repudiated the Wilmot proviso resolutions of 1849. Finally, the 
weakness of the Free Soil vote in 1852 seemed to indicate general 
acquiescence in the conservative policy of compromise on the slavery 
question. II 

The next four years, however, brought radical changes in Illinois 
politics. In 1855 Douglas had to accept an anti-slavery colleague in 
the Senate, and in 1856 he saw his party defeated for the first time 
in a gubernatorial contest, by a new organization bearing the name 
of Republican, but maintaining essentially Free Soil principles. 
Four years later this same party carried the State against him in a 
Presidential contest, and gave to an Illinois man the responsibility of 
directing the northern forces in the great struggle with the south. 

In the familiar s^tory of this period of our political history, a few 
aspects only will be noted for special emphasis. The rapid rise of 
the Republican party was, of course, due in the first instance to the 
influence upon modern anti-slavery men, of the repeal of the Mis- 
souri compromise. They had refused to follow the abolitionist agi- 
tators or even the more moderate free soiler, but the increasing ag- 
gressiveness of the pro-slavery party gradually brought moderates 
and radicals together in the new party. Counties in which the free 
soil vote had been insignificant were carried for Fremont in 1856, ^f 

* Coug:. Globe. 29th Cong., 2d Sess., 573. 

t Laws of Illinois, 1st Sess., 16th Gen. Ass., 234. 

X Sheahan, Douglas. 136-137, 163-168. 

2 Cong. Globe. 31st Cong.. 1st Sess., 1807. 

B Sheahan, Douglas, 158-163, 225-226; Laws of Illinois. 17th Gen. Ass., 205-206. 

II Moses, Illinois Historical and Statistical, Appendix. 


Among the moderate voters brought over to the republican party 
in this way was a considerable body of German democrats, of whom 
Koerner* may be taken as a good representative. One of the Ger- 
man democratic strongholds was the Belleville district. In 1854 this 
district elected Lyman Trumbull, an anti-Nebraska democrat, as its 
congressman. Ten years later St. Clair county, which had not given 
a single free soil vote, in 1852 was carried for Fremont. Still more 
striking changes appeared four years later, when Lincoln succeeded 
Fremont and the native American vote had been largely eliminated. 

A second factor in Republican Buocess was the steady stream of 
immigration from the northeast during the 50's which has already 
been noted and which constituted a heavy handicap for the Douglas 
Democracy in its struggle to retain political control. 

In the meantime the extreme southern counties remained almost 
wholly unmoved. Eleven of them gave Fremont in 1856 a total of 
only 146 votes and even in 1860 their vote for Lincoln was insignifi- 
cant. With the single exception of St. Clair, no county organized 
before 1824 gave its vote to Fremont. The old State was holding 
pretty steadily to its conservative traditions, but was being over- 
powered by the immense volume of northern immigration. Partly 
through the influence of Douglas and Logan, this section held to the 
Union in the crisis of 1861, but the force of old traditioiis was shown 
in an opposition to Republican policies during the war which has 
been somewhat too sweepingly condemned as simple disloyalty. 

One fact of curious interest may be noted in conclusion. Though 
the northern farm population had come to predominate in the affairs 
of the State, the new sectional party of the north found its most con- 
spicuous leaders in men of southern birth. To this class belong Pal- 
mer, Yates, Oglesby, and Lincoln himself. 

EvARTS B. Greene. 

* Ibid, cf, Koerner, Das Deutsche Element, Chap. XII. 



Hon. Wm. H. Collins of Quincy, 111. 

Professor Creasey of the London University wrote a book en- 
titled, "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World." He attempted 
to show that each of the battles named was a pivoted event in history. 
He very plausibly argued, that a contrary issue of battle in each case, 
would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subse- 
quent scenes. 

Prompted by the suggestion of this book, I have selected for my 
theme, certain events which I regard as decisive in shaping the his- 
tory of Illinois. I do not attempt any special originality of treat- 
ment, or to contribute any new historical material. My purpose is 
simply to group these events about a central line of thought and 
trace their logical relations. 

There is a chain of causes and effects which has contributed to 
the making of us what we are, and the time, place and manner of the ,. 
welding of the links, open an inviting field of historic study. || 

An anlyeis of the events of history discloses an endless manifesta- 
tion of creative and directive power. There are endless manifesta- 
tions of energy, often apparently unrelated, yet in their action and in- 
teraction there is discernible the operation of selection and plan. 
Every line in Hamlet is part of the play. The first scene has a rela- 
tion to the last. A cosmic drama is on the stage of history, and there 
is unity in its mighty sweep of events. Man is related to plans 
which have been in process of development through inconceivable 
millions of years. He was anticipated and provided for untold eons 
before he appeared. There were definite provisions for him in the 
various transformations which at different epochs, have been built 
into the physical structure of the globe itself. 

In the light of this thought, I name first the deposit of the coal 
measures as a fundamental and decisive event in the making of Illi- 

If we cut down through the portion of the earth's crust, which 
forms, geographically, the State of Illinois, we find that each stratum 
bears a definite relation to every other one from the primary rock to 
the alluvial soil at the top. If these strata are pictorially represented 
upon a chart, colored to distinguish their various relations, one of 
them is seen to have an intimate and commanding relation to the life 
of the millions of human beings who make the population of the 


State. Upon the chart one or more black bands appear, of varying 
thickness, covered by from 50 to 300 feet of conglomerate shales, 
sands and clays, topped by a soil of rare fertility. These seams of 
coal are of incalculable value in the development of the State. Won- 
derful was the plan, which, untold ages ago, planted the vast forests 
of sigillaria, lepidodendra and gigantic ferns to draw poison from the 
heavy air, crystallize the sunbeams and so imprison and preserve for 
future use, the solar energy. It was certainly an epochal period, 
which put into permanent form an infinite store of solar energy 
which, in the far future would enter intimately into the material, in- 
tellectual and moral life of a great State. The link that connects 
great epochs may be long in the order of time but it is short in the 
order of life. This energy is part of the daily life of the people. 

There are 40,000 square miles of coal deposits in the State. About 
40,000 men and boys are engaged in the mining industry. Thirty 
millions of tons were mined in 1902. Two tons of coal will furnish 
power for a 40-horse power engine for ten hours. Imagine 1,000,000 
horses working all day, many of them working by night as well as by 
day! If this power could be concentrated and brought within vision, it 
would present a phenomenon of energy, something like that of the 
Falls of the Niagara. 

This coal helps to produce and distribute the products which sup- 
ply the almost endless diversity of human wants among more than 
5,000,000 people. It touches life at all its levels. In the beginning 
of the life of a State, it helps make the axe, the rifle, the hoe, the 
wagon, the sickle, the primary tools of civilization. It helps cut 
the tie, make the spade, pick, scraper, steel rail, telegraph wire, 
pump and the locomotive. It is the power upon which modern pro- 
duction and transportation depend. It drives away the rigor of 
winter from the home. It makes ice to cool the beverage of summer. 
It moves the press to print newspapers and books. It kindles the 
electric light and transforms night into day. It makes the cradle, 
builds the house, prepares the coflSn, quarries the marble, and carves 
the headstone which bears the epitaph. So it touches the lives of 
all, high and low, rich and poor, all sorts and conditions of men. 

The Power which directs all energy, might have made different 
dipositions. The carbonic acid of the atmosphere could have been 
combined with lime and made into limestone. We cannot conceive 
what the collective life of the State would have been, had there been 
no coal deposit. It is easy to trace the connection between the coal 
and a state checkered with interlacing railroads, large cities trem- 
bling with the rumble and roar of machinery, multiplying the indi- 
vidual energy of thousands of busy workers, and making Illinois as 
an agricultural and manufacturing state, a leading state of the Nation. 

Defeat of the French. Treaty of 1763. 

Though Illinois had no place on the map as a political sub-division 
in the 18th century, its future was largely determined by the result 


of the struggle between France and England for the possession of 
the continent which culminated in the victory of General Wolfe and 
the provisions of the treaty of 1763. 

Though Spain claimed a title to the country based upon the author- 
ity of a Papal Bull, she spent her energy in the search for gold and 
the passing glory of conquest over the comparatively harmless 

The stuggle for the possession of North America was between the 
Latin and the Anglo-Saxon with a reinforcement of Teutonic blood. 
The significance of the movements and policy of nations, lies in the 
ideals wich inspire their action. The early French explorers and 
colonists had two motives in seeking to explore and take possession of 
the country. They desired to enrich the treasury of their king and 
promote his glory by exploiting the material resources of the new 
territory. They also held a curious theory of physical religion, and 
believed that by putting officially prepared water upon an Indian 
baby's head, his soul would be saved from endless torment in the 
place of departed spirits, a punishment incurred by the sin of being 
born. There was a visible and tangible value in a beaver pelt which 
they obtained in exchange for a few glass beads, a few yards of 
bright calico or a drink of brandy, and there were indefinite credits 
on the ledger of final account in the world to come, in return for 
Indian baptisms. 

Notwithstanding the puerilities of their faith inherited from the 
medieval ages when rational thought was in eclipse for a thousand 
years, the leaders were men of indomitable courage and energy. Their 
minds were aglow with bright visions of imperial expansion. As 
their rude maps grew under the touch of new discovery, they saw 
that the St. Lawrence, the great lakes, the Ohio, Illinois, Wabash 
and Mississippi rivers, would become highways for the transporta- 
tion of material and men, and thus give them the military control of 
the vast regions opening towards the west. They founded a few 
feeble colonies. They organized upon a sort of feudal system. They 
had seigniories with their dependents. They laid off areas of land 
for cultivation by arpents, as a rule, having a frontage upon river or 
lake, the survey extending back toward the high lands. Lands were 
so surveyed about Kahokia and other French settlements in Illinois. 
In the deeds of record of an early date in Monroe, St. Clair and 
other counties, * 'arpents" are named instead of acres. 

They easily fraternized with the Indians. They intermarried with 
them. They were not equal to the severe drudgery of agricultural 
labor with its slow and uncertain returns. 

They took to the woods. They became trappers, hunters and 
"couriers du bois." They loved wild ard adventurous life. They 
cared but little for the glory of their distant king and his schemes of 
imperialism. In the depths of the forest, with his traps, or in the 
Indian village, with his dusky squaw wife and his half -breed children, 
his fiddle and the dance, what cared he for a distant king or a suc- 
cessful colony in America? 


The French leaders were tactful and enterprising. They secured 
the alliance of the savage tribes in war. They were brave soldiers. 
They were tenacious of purpose and the martial ardor and enthusiasm 
which in after years, made the armies of the "little corporal" the 
terror of Europe But the genius of the Latin race was not for suc- 
cessful colonization. It did not develop self-dependent and self- 
governing bodies of men. It failed to develop public spirit, indi- 
vidual responsibility and love of country. Men will not work and 
make sacrifices for a seignior or king as they will for themselves. 

On the other hand, the English colonist came to the country to 
escape from what he regarded as tyranny. His conscience in coKflict 
with throne and church, needed a new and larger world for the de- 
velopment of his ideals. He desired a home where he could enjoy a 
high measure of civil freedom. He desired to found free institutions 
and a self-governing state. He traded with the savages and got the 
best of the bargain probably, but he did not intermarry with them. 
He surveyed land and established individual ownership. He took 
root in the soil. He did not waste much energy in baptizing In- 
dians or teaching them the "fine points" of Calvinistic theology. He 
became a farmer, a fisherman, a sailor, a hunter, a trader; but he was 
ever a home builder. He built his home and his neighbor built a 
home, so there came to be many homes and a commonwealth in 
which all had a common interest. He learned to take pride in his 
colony. He had a share in its government. He learned to cherish 
the sentiment of patriotism. His religion gave him a profound sense 
of responsibility. It gave a serious and earnest tone to his life. He be- 
lieved that the moral law, which was to him the highest law, was 
sustained by sanctions that reached into eternity. He believed that 
every man is responsible for his conduct in life, directly to God. 
Whatever may be the result of the progress of human thought upon 
Calvinism as a system of theology to explain life, the mystery of be- 
ing and destiny, it does produce strong character. 

Settling along the Atlantic border, the English colonist did not 
dream of the conquest of the continent. As his numbers increased 
and new swarms came in from the old hive in England, he pushed 
the Indians a little further westward. When he found that the sav- 
ages had allies who furnished them guns and ammunition from Mon- 
treal and Quebec, he saw that oontiict with the French was inevit- 
able. It was only a question of time when the control of the west- 
ern slope of the Alleghanies would have to be fought for and decided 
by the wager of battle. The inevitable conflict came, with varying 
fortunes upon the battlefield. Louisbourg was captured, but Brad- 
dock was defeated. At last, after battle on many fields and cruel 
massacres in many settlements on the frontier, Wolfe won his vic- 
tory on the plains of Abraham. This was a decisive victory. It de- 
termined the fate of all the vast territory from the Alleghanies to the 
Mississippi and north of the Ohio. The shot that killed Montcalm 
was heard by the French at Starved Rock, Crevecoeur, Cahokia and 
Kaskaskia. The country of which the Illinois of the future would 
be a part passed from under French to English dominion, from Latin 

to Anglo-Saxon ideals. A decisive ev^ent in the laying of the foun- 
dation of a great state had taken its place in history. By the treaty 
of 1763, France relinquished her claim, and the great western terri- 
tory, including what is now Illinois, was opened to the immigration 
of home-building pioneers. The pioneer with axe, rifle, plow, school 
house and meeting house was now invited to take the place of the 
habitans "courier du bois," trapper and savage. 

The next decisive event was the passage of the ordinance of 1787. 

Twenty years after the victory of General Wolfe and the treaty of 
1763, and after the War of the JElevolution, by the treaty of 1788, the 
English commissioners recognized the right to the territory north 
and west of the Ohio, as vested in. the United States. The prize won 
by the English at Quebec was transferred to a new sovereign power. 
This was the first recognition of the new nation as distinguished from 
a cluster of states, each a sovereign. 

There was a question as to ownership of parts of this territory, 
arising out of the claims of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Virginia. 
It was under the direction of Governor Henry of Virginia that Gen- 
eral Clark had undertaken his brilliant and successful campaign by 
which he won Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and thus obtained military 
control of the country. But Virginia relinquished her claims, and 
the question was settled. The title was vested in the United States 
as a nation. Provision was made that the land should be platted by 
rectangular surveys made on and from proper base lines and merid- 
ians. Individuals who bought land received their patents direct 
from the general government. 

This recognition of the national government as owner of the land 
was of great importance. As is well known, there was in the conven- 
tion which framed the Constitution radical differences of opinion re- 
specting national as opposed to state sovereignty, as well as respect- 
ing the ethics and economics of the institution of slavery. 

The action of Congress in regard to the Northwest territory was 
destined to have a decisive influence in the final settlement of these 
questions, and in which the future State of Illinois would have a 
prominent if not a commanding part 

To provide for the organization of this territory. Congress passed 
the ordinance of 1787. 

In 1784 Jefferson was chairman of a committee to draft an ordi- 
nance for the Territory. He reported a bill proposing to divide it 
into seven states. 

The bill contained a provision that after the year 1800, "there 
shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any of said 
states otherwise than in the punishment of crime where of the party 
shall have been duly convicted." This report was not adopted. It 
is worthy of note that Jefferson framed his bill assuming the power 
of the national government to keep slavery out of the Territory. 
Though he is regarded as a strong advocate of de-centralized govern- 


ment he evidently did not believe in this disposition of slavery by 
squatter sovereignty, as was advocated at a later date, in the contro- 
versy over Kansas and Nebraska. 

p^!An appeal was afterwards made from Kaskaskia, seconded by the 
Ohio Land company, which resulted in the passage of the ordinance. 

^ ' This ordinance made provision for the temporary government of 
the people but set forth certain fundamental principles, which have 
been characterized by some thoughtful students of statesmanship as 
a second Declaration of Independence. 

^^;These assert: (1) The right of freedom of worship and religious 
opinion; (2) The right of trial by jury, proportionate representa- 
tion, protection in liberty and property; (8) That religion, morality 
and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happi- 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever 
encouraged; (4) That "the states formed within the Territory shall 
forever remain a part of this Confederacy of the United States of 
America, subject to the Articles of Confederation and to such altera- 
tions therein as shall be constitutionally made; (5) Prescribe the 
boundaries of the states to be formed and the conditions of their 
admission into the Union; (6) Provided that * 'there shall be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in said Territory, otherwise than 
in the punishment of crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, provided always that any person escaping into the same 
from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the 
original states, such fugitive may be lawfully claimed and conveyed 
to the person claiming his labor or service as aforesaid." 

The provisions of the ordinance expressly deny the right of seces- 
sion and assume the sovereignty of the national government and the 
right to prohibit slavery in the Territory of the nation. 

^^The passage of the ordinance invited and stimulated immigration 
from all parts of the country, but especially from that portion of the 
country north of Mason and Dixon's line. It appealed to those who 
believed in national sovereignty and in liberty as the right of all 
men. Many came from the slave states south of the Ohio. The 
rich land and forests of valuable timber had their attractions, but 
many of them desired to get away from the institution of slavery. 
The people who settled in the northwest in numbers sufficient to 
give it its distinguishing characteristics, had no sympathy with 
"8tate rights," so-called, or with slavery. 

The fathers builded better than they knew. Men who were from 
the slave states and who believed in state sovereignty and in slavery, 
voted for the ordinance, not knowing, though possibly fearing, that 
they were laying the foundations of seven great states, which would, 
in a supreme struggle on the battlefield, be on the side of the nation 
as a nation, and freedom as opposed to slavery. It was thus, that 
the ordinance of 1787, indirectly possibly but effectively contributed 
to make Illinois a free, instead of a slave State Had this check 
upon the introduction of slavery not been accomplished by the ordi- 
nance, it is reasonably sure, that immigration from south of the 


Ohio bringing slaves would have gained political control of the Ter- 
ritory and the states, afterwards organized. Pro- slavery leaders 
afterwards gained control of the general government, to such an ex- 
tent that the preservation, the propagation and perpetuation of 
slavery was its vital and animating spirit. The men who repealed 
the Missouri compromise in later years would never have voted for 
the ordinance of 1787. It came at an opportune time. 

Equally influential with the passage of this ordinance in deter- 
mining the history of Illinois was the fixing of the northern boundary 
of the State. 

The original plan proposed in the ordinance of 1787 was that the 
northern boundary of the State should be a line drawn east and west 
on the southern bend of Lake Michigan. While the bill for an en^ 
abling act was before the committee of the whole in Congress, Judge 
Pope, the territorial Delegate, offered an amendment advancing the 
northern boundary to latitude 42°30\ This amendment was accepted 
without division, and became a law. The magnitude of the results 
of this amendment can only be realized by careful study of the growth 
of a disposition on the part of those who held the seats of political 
power to either destroy the Union or nationalize the institution of 
slavery. Judge Pope saw the drift of things clearly. He argued 
that the effect of his amendment would gain to the new State a coast 
line on Lake Michigan, including the mouth of the Chicago river. 
This would bring it into commercial relations with the states east of 
it, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York. "Thus," to use his own lan- 
guage, "affording additional security to the perpetuity of the Union." 
He argued that the location of the State between the Wabash, Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers, all flowing to the south, would bring it into 
intimate communication with the southern states, and that in the 
event of an attempt to disrupt the Union, it was important that it 
should be identified with the commerce of the lakes, instead of being 
left entirely to southern outlets. "Thus," he said, "a rival interest 
would be created to check the wish for a western or southern confed- 
eracy." He foresaw the building of a great city about the mouth of 
the Chicago river. He saw the desirableness of a canal connecting 
it with the Illinois river, and thus with the Mississippi. If his 
amendment had been rejected, the great city by the lake would have 
been in Wisconsin. Indeed, effort was made by the state of Wiscon- 
sin to secure the establishment of the northern boundary at the line 
at first proposed. The territory added to the State, as originally 
bounded, included 14 counties, all north of the north line of LaSalle 
county, and containing 8,500 square miles, one- seventh of the area of 
the State. 

But the main significance of this additional territory was the qual- 
ity of the people who settled in it. The population of these 14 
counties was loyal to the Union by overwhelming majorities. They 
were true to the great ideals of national unity and freedom. 

Judge Pope seems to have had a gift of pre- vision; that, at least, 
which belongs to a keen insight into facts and a capacity to discern 
clearly their logical relations. The demonstration of his wisdom and 


prophetic vision came years after his death, in the position the State 
was able to assume, by reason of the large majorities for the Union 
in the vote of these 14 counties determining the political com- 
plexion of the State. It was this vote in the northern part ot: the 
State, dominating the vote of the southern part of the State, that 
sent Lyman Trumbull to the Senate in 1854 and in 1860, and made 
Illinois overwhelmingly loyal and strong in the great crisis of the 
civil war. It made Illinois prominent in the national convention. 
It enabled Illinois to nominate and help elect Abraham Lincoln to 
the Presidency, giving him a majority of 12,000 votes over his com- 
petitor. One of these counties (JoDaviess) also had the honor of 
sending one of its citizens to the head of the army which overcame 
the forces of the rebellion. General Grant was a citizen of Galena 
when he tendered his services to the Governor of Illinois. 

Men are largely influenced by their business interests. If Illinois 
had been compelled to send its products exclusively down the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers and found its best market among those en- 
gaged in raising cotton with slave labor, it would have been tempted 
to compromise, weaken and possibly make common cause with them 
in their effort to disrupt the Union. In the absence of a controlling 
devotion to high ideals, material interests usually sway the political 
action of large masses of men. Wealth in the large cities and com- 
mercial centers studied the secession and pro-slavery agitation, in the 
light of their ledgers and bank accounts. With goods to sell, they 
would conciliate a hostile market by concealing their principles or 
by having none. The commerce of Illinois with the east and north 
by the lakes was immeasurably greater than that which sought a 
southern outlet. The fixing of the northern boundary was a decisive 
event in the history of the State. Judge Pope was wise and had a 
great opportunity. 

Another pivotal event was the defeat of the effort to make Illinois 
a slave state in 1824. 

The French settlers had slaves as early as 1722, and they were 
protected in their possession by the treaty of 1763. In the discus- 
sion of the ordinance of 1787, some held that while it prohibited 
the introduction of slaves, it recognized property relations in slaves 
and their descendants already in the territory. Others contended 
that the anti-slavery provision of the ordinance was unconstitutional 
and that Congress exceeded its power in making it. 

While, as has been stated, the passage of the ordinance of 1787, 
stimulated immigration largely from the New England states, New 
York and Pennsylvania, there were many who came in from the 
country south of the Ohio river. Of these there were two classes. 
One of these sought the Dew territory, not only to get new and fertile 
land and make their homes, but to escape contact with the influences 
of a system which they believed to be economically inexpedient and 
morally wrong. The other class came because they were too poor to 
own negroes. They would have owned them if they could. They liked 
a clever "nigger" just as they liked a good coon dog, but they hated 


a black man. Most of those who had emigrated from North Carolina, 
Tennessee and Kentucky were in sympathy with the slave holders. 
Experiencing the trials and coarse labor of opening up a new 
country, they began to think the provision of the ordinance prohib- 
iting slavery was a grave mistake and that it should be repealed. Hence 
various efforts were made to secure its repeal. Petitions were sent 
to Congress. General Harrison himself, territorial Governor, favored 
the repeal. So widespread was the desire, that he called a conven- 
tion to promote it. In March, 1803, John Randolph, chairman of 
the committee to whom had been referred the petition for repeal, 
reported "that the labor of slaves is not necessary to promote the 
growth and settlement of colonies in that region; that the committee 
deemed it highly dangerous and inexpedient to impair a provision, 
wisely calculated to promote the happiness and progress of the 
northwest country and add strength and security to that extensive 

At the next session, however, a report was made recommending 
the granting of the request and the suspension of the provision for 
ten years. On this no action was taken. The pro-slavery party in 
1812, secured the passage of an act, providing for the introduction 
of slaves to be kept in servitude under certain limitations. The 
effect of this was to increase rapidly the number of slaves. In 1818 
the anti slavery element which during this pro-slavery agitation had 
not been idle, succeeded iu forming a free State constitution for 

This success stimulated pro-slavery zeal. The fact that Illinois 
had adopted a Constitution making it a free State, made all the 
stronger the determination of the pro-slavery politicians to make Mis- 
souri territory a slave state This they did in 1820, and the result 
was that the wealthier immigrants from south of the Ohio, passed by 
Illinois and made their homes in Missouri. This added strength to 
the contention that the free Constitution of Illinois kept out rapid 
settlement, wealth and negro labor which was necessary to the de- 
velopment of the resources of the State. So keenly was this felt, so 
active and persistent was the pro-slavery agitation, that effort was 
made to call a convention to change the Constitution and make 
Illinois a slave State. 

This brought on a desperate conflict and a fight to a finish. The 
controversy was deep and bitter — slavery was assailed and defended, 
in behalf of the State's economical interests and in behalf of religion 
itself. By a gross fraud upon parliamentary usage a number of 
votes were secured sufficient to make legal a call for a convention. 
It remained to defeat it at the polls. The features of this conflict 
ought to be familiar to all readers of Illinois history. No question 
had ever before so stirred the people. The wildest and fiercest pas- 
sion raged. Every possible threat as well as acts of violence was 
used to intimidate the friends of freedom, the pro-slavery element was 
carried to a pitch of insane frenzy. The blind rage of this element 
in the fight is a study in pschycology. The passion has slowly spent 
itself, It disgraced our statutes with the "black laws." It threw 
the printing press of Lovejoy into the river and assassinated him, 


trampling upon the saored right to life and property and free speech. 
It repealed the Missouri compromise to make Kansas and Nebraska 
slave states. It made some men eager to be hounds and fasten their 
fangs into the flesh of the fugitive slave, caught on his way to free- 
dom. It survived in the State to discourage enlistments and en- 
courage desertion in the mortal struggle of the slave holder's war. 

Today about all that is left of it is a remnant "survival of the un- 
fittest" and a recollection of the Knights of the Golden Circle, who 
sit in silent shame at the feet of wasted patriotic opportunity bathing 
them in tears penitential but vain. 

The friends of freedom won the fight, and the calling of the con- 
vention was defeated by a majority of 1 ,834 in a vote of 11,764. 

The 14 counties added by the boundary line amendment, and in- 
deed, all of Northern Illinois were without inhabitants at this time. 
Sangamon was the northernmost county in the State. 

This was the first defeat of the pro-slavery propaganda which had 
become dominant in National politics. 

This failure to make Illinois a slave State, contributed to an ex- 
tent which can hardly be overestimated, to the maintenance of the 
Union when the question of maintaining the Union was submitted 
to the arbitrament of war. 

The geographical position of the State with its railways and rivers 
and its large capacity to furnish the material of war, gave it funda- 
mental importance. Cairo was a most advantageous strategic point. 
From this point, at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, 
the Union army and navy could command the Cumberland and Ten- 
nessee rivers. From this point the first important attack was made 
upon the Confederate lines, resulting in the capture of Forts Henry 
and Donelson, the city of Nashville and opening a way into the 
heart of the state of Tennessee. Commanding the Mississippi, the 
Union troops passed into Missouri by the Hannibal & St. Joseph 
railroad and up the Missouri river, turned the extreme left flank of 
the Confederate army, and practically gained control of the state. 

From Chicago down the canal, seen by Judge Pope and foretold 
as a tie to bind together the Union; came steam tugs which were 
useful in naval operations from Cairo to the gulf. The lumber and 
coal which built gunboats came from the forests and mines of Illi- 
nois. Illinois was the point of the wedge, which entering at Cairo 
split the Confederacy in twain, opening the Mississippi to the sea. 

But above and beyond all material forces is the moral energy 
which organizes and directs them. The result of the victory of 1824 
stimulated migration. The northern part of the State was rapidly 
settled by people who believed in liberty for all men and who were 
loyal to the Union. The majority were true to these ideals. It was this 
ideal and the patriotic consecration which it inspired, and which the 
victory of 1824 had made dominant in the State, which enabled Illinois 
to send a quarter of a million volunteer soldiers into the army of the 
Union. It was this victory which enabled the State 87 years afterward 



to give to the Union Army its great leader who achieved a standard of 
military skill beyond the precedents of history. It was this victory 
which enabled the State to educate and train in the arena of debate 
on the question of union or disunion, freedom or slavery, the man 
whose inspired spirit of wisdom and love destroyed slavery and saved 
the Union of the states making them a nation. 

If the pro-slavery party had succeeded in the struggle of 1824, the 
drama of our State and history would have been greatly 
changed, The destruction of the institution of slavery would have 
been indefinitely postponed and the task of maintaining the Union 
incalculably more difficult if not impossible. Imagination falters in 
trying to conceive what might have been the result. It was an 
event decisive in its effects upon both the State of Illinois and the 

Another event decisive in its influence upon the history of the 
State was the purchase of Louisiana in 1808. 

At the close of the war of the Revolution the major part of what is 
now the Territory of the United Similes, was in the possession of 
Spain. She claimed all of east and west Florida up to the 31st de- 
gree of latitude and all west of the Mississippi river, known as the 
Louisiana purchase. Both France and Spain who were with us in 
our war with England, when the treaty was made in 1782, were more 
hostile to us than to England. The representative of Spain forsaw 
and stated that the future expansion of the new nation, would be at 
the expense of Florida and the vast region beyond the Mississippi, 
and he proposed to make the Alleghanies the western boundary. 
France, though our ally, as between us and Spain, was disposed to 
favor the latter and she proposed that the United States should em- 
brace such of the territory west of the Alleghanies as lay around the 
head waters of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers north of the 

Spain, organizing a small expedition in St. Louis and Cahokia had 
made an attempt at invading Illinois in 1781, and in negotiating the 
treaty of Paris in 1783 she made a claim to the Illinois county by 
the right of conquest. She attempted to levy duties upon the pro- 
ducts which came down to New Orleans from Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, and regions about the upper river. But it was not long before 
she found that she would be unable to hold the country against the 
enterprise, adventure and audacity of the frontier men. She resolved 
to rid herself of the burden and the Spanish king made a private 
arrangement with the first Consul, by which he exchanged the vast 
Louisiana territory for the petty kingdom of Etruria. 

Meanwhile Congress had begun to debate the propriety and expe- 
diency of taking New Orleans and Florida by force. Livingston and 
Monroe were negotiating with Frgince for their cession, Napo- 
leon saw the wish and purpose of the United States. He foresaw the 
difficulty of holding the territory. He was about to go to war with 
England. "They have," he exclaimed to his minister, "20 ships of 
war in the Gulf of Mexico. I have not a moment to lose in putting 
it out of their reach. They only ask of me one town in Louisiana 


but I already consider the colony as lost." He afterwards said to 
Marbois, ''Let them give you 100,000,000 francs, pay their own claims 
and take the country," When the minister said something about 
the rights of the colonists, Napoleon replied, "Take your maxims to 
the London market." He also said, "I know the full value of Louis- 
iana but the English wish to take possession. They have taken 
Canada, Cape Breton, New France, Nova Scotia and the richest por- 
tion of Asia, but they shall not have the Mississippi which they 

The sale was made and when Marbois, Livingston and Monroe 
signed the treaty, April 30, 1803, they rose and Livingston said, "We 
may have lived long but this is the noblest work of our lives." The 
territory had changed hands six times in 91 years. It was now the 
property of the United States.* 

The effect of this transfer of sovereignty upon the United States 
as a whole, and especially on the states that in future would lie along 
the river, opens up a field of speculative study. If the first Consul 
had not sold the territory it would have been seized by England. 
Those 20 battleships would have passed up the river, and English 
fleets would have patroled it while English troops would have forti- 
fied strategic points from its mouth to the Falls of St. Anthony. 
Illinois being on the pathway from the Mississippi to Lake Michigan 
via the Illinois river, would have been the most important field for 
military operations in case of war between Grreat Britain and the 
United States. 

Nine years later British soldiers captured Detroit, Mackinac and 
practically held the line from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the 
site of Chicago. 

If at this time England had had command of the Mississippi she 
had only to force her way up the Illinois and make a short portage 
to the lakes to have had an uninterrupted line from New Orleans to 
Quebec. To open and command this line was of such fundamental 
military importance, that it would surely be attempted in case of 

Happily for Illinois, though then but a sparcely settled territory, 
the nation of which it was a part controlled the Mississippi river. 
Had it been otherwise, it would have been a central theatre of war 
waged upon the settlers by the British and their Indian allies. 

If the Louisiana territory had been under the English flag, all of 
the border states east of the river, including Illinois, would have 
been constantly exposed to the menace of war by reason of the escape 
of slaves who would have sought British protection. Those who are 
familiar with the efforts made by the pro-slavery states to sec are a 
fugitive slave law, which would be effective as between the states, 
can readily believe that the easy escape of slaves who could swim 
the river in a night or transport themselves across in a "dug out," 

* It was turned over to the commercial dominion of Anthony Crozat in 1712 by Louis 
XIV. From Crozat it passed in 1717 to the Compagnie de rOccident: from this company 
in 1731 to Louis XV; from him in 1762 to Spain; from Spain in 1801 back to France; and in 
1803. from France to the United States. 


would inflame a passion that would surely have provoked a war. 
Between the states south of the Ohio and Canada, the free states 
served as a buffer, and to make war upon the Dominion would have 
been premature at that stage of the game. But if the Union Jack 
had sheltered the fugitive within plain view where he could defy his 
owner it would have become a symbol of what he hated most, and war 
would have been inevitable. In this Illinois would have had a cen- 
tral share. 

Furthermore, even if the institution of slavery had not been an 
influential factor, the pressure of emigration westward would have 
filled the LouisiaDa country with stalwart pioneers. Some of them as 
early as 1808 had found homes on the Mississippi river. The drift of 
emigration followed the lines of latitude. There was no disposition 
to go to Canada. The line of movement was westward. This move- 
ment would have been so vigorous, as to be resistless. Carrying with 
them their love of politics, of organizing and of freedom, they would 
have soon absorbed the few colonists which England might have 
planted and the few French already in the country. 

This would have led to agitation, revolution and conflicts which 
would have overthrown English dominion, but it would have been 
at heavy cost. A struggle of this character would have involved all 
contiguous states. So I think that the peaceful purchase of Louisana 
was a decisive event in the building of Illinois. She was not left a 
border state upon the western limit of the nation. It secured for 
her the position of a central and keystone state, in a mighty family 
of states reaching from ocean to ocean. 

Edward Coles, second Governor of the State of Illinois. 



Mrs. S. P. Wheeler. 

"A painting upon one of the wails of the corridors of this building* 
represents two flatboats lashed together. Upon one of them stands 
a man of commanding presence. He is surrounded by his slaves as 
they gently float down the Ohio river. It is a calm, and lovely 
morning in May, the sun shining brightly, the heavens without a 
cloud, and the verdant foliage of spring, just budding out, on the 
picturesque banks. He, with his slaves and his property, has left 
the old home in Virginia, and is seeking in a new county, a land of 
freedom. He is telling the slaves that he has thought much of his duty 
and their rights, and that they were no longer slaves but free — free as 
he was — and were at liberty to go ashore or continue the journey with 
him. The efPect on them was electrical. In breathless silence they 
stood unable to utter a word, but with countenances beaming, with 
expression which no words can convey and no language describe. 
After a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed in tears 
they gave vent to their gratitude and implored the blessings of God 
on their benefactor." f 

Upon this picture hangs the story of our hero Edward Coles, and 
the destiny of Illinois. 

•'He was one 

Ot many thousand, such as die betimes 
Whose story is a fragment known to few." 

He was born, in the year 1786, upon the old family estate, Ennis- 
corthy, Virginia, amidst slaves, and slaveholders, rocked to sleep 
upon the breast of the faithful southern mammy, while her soft negro 
voice crooned sweet lullabies, and spent his boyhood in the compan- 
ionship of her dusky descendents. He was one of ten children, and 
in this fact is foreshadowed the strength developed in later years, for 
as a rule, it is not the pampered only child who achieves great things 
in life, but he who grows sturdy under the friction of a large family. 

His father was John Coles, a colonel in the Revolutionary War, 
and allied to some of the most distinguished statesmen and politicians 
of the day. His parents were near neighbors and intimate friends 

* state House, Springfield. III. 

t Sketch of Edward Coles by Washburne. 

-7 H. 


of Thomas Jefferson. For Mrs. Coles, who was a woman of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual attractions, Jefferson showed great affection, 
which was inherited by her son. He was a protege of Jefferson, and 
was assisted by him to obtain an education, In 1805 he entered 
William and Mary College, and while there young Coles had first 
presented to his mind the abstract question of slavery. He found 
that his past life and his views on the subject were greatly at vari- 
ance. He had imbibed, through association with Thomas Jefferson, 
the views of that great statesman, who said that "I tremble for my 
country when I reflect that God is just and that His justice can not 
sleep forever;" and when a bill abolishing slavery was lost by one 
vote, he said: "Thus we see the fate of millions unborn hanging on 
the tongue of one man, and Heaven was silent in that awful moment." 
After much study and research, young Coles formed the opinion that 
a man had no property right in his fellow men, and that the princi- 
ples of slavery were fundamentally wrons:, alike injurious to the mas- 
ter and the slave, and that he might more fully study the subject and 
determine in what part of the non-slave holding portion of the Union 
it would be best for him to settle, he accepted the appointment as 
private secretary to President Madison, a position at that time of 
much dignity and importance, and while a member of the Presidential 
household for six years made himself very useful to the President 
and popular with the people. The pleasure and freedom of the home 
life in the White House beiDg greatly enhanced by the fact that 
Dolly Madison, the President's wife, was a cousin of his, and when 
pressing duties prevented the President, young Coles was the es 
cort of the gracious little woman, who sallied forth in her 
imported gowns, upon which she paid a duty of $2,- 
000. His brother, Isaac Coles, was private secretary to Jefferson, 
and his sister married Hon. Andrew Stevenson, who was afterwards 
Minister to Great Britain and was the first American, I believe, who 
was ever voted the freedom of London. Washburne describes Ed- 
ward Coles at this time as a young man of 23, the proprietor of a 
plantation which his father had bequeathed him the previous year, 
and a certain number of slaves; of a polished education, fine personal 
appearance, good manners and irreproachable character, well fitted 
to adorn the position of secretary, and at the same time enjo}' the 
companionship of the great men of the period. Such as Patrick 
Henry, his kinsman, Monroe, Madison, Jefferson to whom he was 
allied by so many ties of friendship, Wirt and the Randolphs. The 
bond between Jefferson and himself was their similarity of views on 
the question of slavery, and one has only to read the correspondence 
between young Coles and Jefferson in regard to the holding of slaves, 
to realize with what prophetic vision Jefferson alludes to the eman- 
cipation, brought about by Abraham Lincoln half a century later. It 
is a fact not generally known, that in writing the Declaration of In- 
dependence, the paragraph denouncing slavery which Jefferson had 
prepared with so much care, and which pleased Adams, was omitted 
because a majority of CoDgress thought it unjust to hold George 
III responsible for a slave trade, carried on by New England ship 
masters, for the benefit of the cotton and tobacco planters of the 


south. While acting as secretary, youn^ Colos was sent to Russia 
on a mission requiring great diplomacy and sailed on the Prometheus, 
the first vessel of our navy that went up the Baltic, and so successful 
was he that the Czar offered to make proper amends, even to sending 
the offending minister to Siberia. But the life at the capitol only 
strengthened the determination that he would neither hold slaves nor 
live in a state that upheld the institution of slavery. Accordingly in 
the year 1819 he resigned his position and left Virginia with all his 
slaves and their offspring, for Illinois, traveling through pathless 
forests, following the water courses and Indian trails, and subsisting 
upon the game so abundant throughout the country. This brings 
our hero down to the time when his history and the attempt to fasten 
slavery upon the State of Illinois are so closely interwoven that they 
cannot be separated, he being the chosen head of the anti-slavery 
party, the Moses who was to lead them on to victory. 

His first official position in the State was registrar of the land of- 
fice, where, by his suavity of manner and thoroughly intelligent dis- 
charge of his duties, he made many friends. He, like Governor Ed- 
wards, rode through the wilds of the country in his own carriage, 
driven by his negro, and the people, impressed by his ruffled shirt 
front, knee breeches and silver buckles, to say nothing of his courtly 
manner, thought it an honor to vote for a gentleman to the manor 
born. Two years later he was elected Grovernor, serving in that ca- 
pacity from 1822 to 1826, The affairs of the State were at this time 
wholh controlled by pro- slavery men, who seemed bent on making it 
a slave State. It is said that it was through Jefferson's influence 
that Edward Coles was made a Governor of Illinois; others attribute 
his election to the accident of three candidates. There were at this 
time no distinctive parties in Illinois, and the road was free to all. 
But did not the same over-ruling Providence that made Abraham Lin- 
coln President of the United States place Edward Coles in the gub 
ernatorial chair? 

In his inaugural as Governor he earnestly invoked the interposi- 
tion of the Legislature in the cause of humanity. He declared that 
justice required a general revisal of the laws relating to the negro, 
and that there should be more effective laws preventing the kidnap 
ing of free blacks, a crime committed with impunity. This address 
as regarded slavery, a subject always dear to his heart, opened up a 
controversy, says Washburne, involving consequences which can not 
be measured by human ken. There were at this time (1822) about 
1,000 slaves held in the form of indenture in Illinois, and the ques- 
tion naturally arises, had not Edward Coles stepped into the breach 
would not Illinois have harbored slaves within her borders until I860? 

It may well be asked how it was possible that a state of slavery 
could exist upon a soil that was supposed to have been consecrated 
to freedom, by the ordinance of 1787, but the condition is easily un- 
derstood when we recall, that Illinois, being originally a part of Vir- 
ginia, there were naturally quite a number of slaves in the Territory 
when it was ceded to the IJnited States in 1784, and it was then stip- 
ulated that persons who claimed to have been citizens of Virginia, 


prior to the cession should be protected in the right to hold their 
slaves, but in 1787 Congress passed an ordinance which declared that 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, should exist in the north- 
western territory of which Illinois was a part, and the framers of the 
Constitution of 1818, when the Territory became a State, also 
endeavored to carry out the will of Congress, and it was generally 
conceded that a state formed out of the northwestern territory could 
not be admitted into the Union contrary to the provisions of the 
ordinance of 1787 which prohibited slavery but the slave propa- 
gandist contended that it could be done, and that Congress had no 
more right to abolish slavery in Illinois than in Virginia, and that 
the future prosperity of the State demanded the existence of the 
traffic in human souls. The times were hard, the farmer could find 
no market for his abundant crops, manufactories languished, im- 
provements were at a standstill, and the mechanic was without work. 
The flow of emigration to the State, had in a measure ceased, but a 
great emigration passed through the State to Missouri; numbers of 
well-to-do emigrants from the slave states, taking with them their 
slaves, were then leaving their homes to find new ones west of the 
Mississippi, who avowed their only reason for not settling in Illinois 
was that they could not hold their slaves there, and people denounced 
as unwise the provision of the Constitution prohibiting slavery and 
thus prevecting a large influx of population to add to the wealth 
of the country. 

The scheme was devised by the pro-slavery men to call a conven- 
tion to amend the Constitution that had been in force scarcely four 
years, and that served all the needs of a rapidly increasing popula- 
tion for more than 80 years. No objection was openly made to the 
Constitution of 1818, or to any of its provisions, but the covert ob- 
jection lay in the fact that this instrument provided that neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, 
should exist in the State of Illinois. Secretly the pro slavery ele- 
ment carried on the struggle, and in 1822 the General Assembly 
voted to submit to the voters of the State a proposition for calling a 
convention to amend the Constitution. This proposition was there- 
fore submitted to a popular vote, and Aug. 2, 1821, was the time 
fixed for the election. The agitation for a convention commenced 
and was favored by every pro-slavery elector of the State, the con- 
vention party never dreaming of any result than in their own favor. 
The day had now arrived when the will of the people of Illinois must 
decide. Should a convention be called, there was no question that 
the then existing Constitution prohibiting slavery would be changed, 
and a Constitution authorizing slavery would be adopted. Then the 
naked question was presented: Shall Illinois be a free or a slave 

The contest was a bitter one, from the first hour it was mooted 
and grew in bitterness as the canvass progressed. The question was 
discussed for 18 months, at the fireside, on the stump and at the 
cross roads; the press teemed with publications on the subject; the 
pulpit thundered anathemas against slavery, and Reynolds says: 


"Men, women and children entered the arena of party warfare and 
strife, and families and neighborhoods were so divided and bitter 
against one another that it seemed as if a civil war was inevitable. 
The religious community coupled freedom with Christianity which 
was one of the most powerful levers used in the contest." Judge 
Anthony says: "Each anti-convention member of the General As- 
sembly contribued $50 for the common fund, Governor Coles gave 
his four years' salary, amounting to $4,000, to the work, and Samuel 
D. Lock wood resigned his position as Secretary of State, with its 
meager fees, and accepted a larger salary, as receiver of public 
moneys, devoting all his surplus income to the cause. The conven- 
tion men formed secret clubs, with grips and signals, and adopted as 
a password, 'Convention or die'; but it was of no use; there was a 
God in Israel." The anti-convention and anti slavery party became 
thoroughly united, and were led by men that knew no fear, whose 
convictions were so strong that they would have gone to the scaffold 
or the stake singing hosannas to God. They belonged to the class 
of martyrs that have worshipped God and died for the old cause. 
Coles threw into the contest his soul, IiSb conscience, his money and 
estate, and in return he was harrassed by malicious law suits, a vic- 
tim of the prejudices of unjust judges, mobbed by a rabble, maligned 
and misrepresented in every possible way, but conscious of right and 
justice, and battling in a great and holy caus€, he was not dismayed 
or discouraged, The battle was fought and won, the anti-slavery 
men winning the day. 

For the proposed convention there were 4,972 votes, and against 
6,640, or a majority of 1,668 against a convention, and it may not be 
out of place to state, that of this majority against, Sangamon county 
gave 569, the largest majority given by any one of the 30 counties in 
the State. 

Thus ended one of the most wonderful political dramas ever en- 
acted, either State or National, and the generations that came after 
Governor Coles have reaped the fruit of his toil and sacrifice, but no 
monument in Illinois has ever been reared to his memory, and his 
name is almost forgotten. The only recognition being the painting 
on the walls of one of the corridors of this building* and the naming 
of a county for him. Can Illinois longer refuse justice to that 

Washburne in his sketch of Edward Coles says: "We regard Mr. 
Coles as John, the forerunner in his course and career, and we have 
no doubt he had more or less influence upon the life and destiny of 
the immortal Lincoln, who was thoroughly acquainted with his perse- 
cutions, his sacrifices and his martyrdom to make Illinois a free 

Governor Coles had freed his slaves before entering the State, 
giving the head of each family 160 acres of land, but after his arrival 
at Edwardsville for their better protection he gave separate papers 
of manumission to all his former slaves, not knowing of the law of 
this State previously passed prohibiting any person from bringing 
into the State any negro for the purpose of emancipation, unless he 

♦Capitol building:, Springfield. 


should give bonds in the penalty of $1,000 that the negro should not 
be a county charge, and that if the emancipator neglected to give his 
bond he should forfeit and pay the sum of |200 for every negro 

The pro-slavery men glad of an opportunity to harass, and punish 
him, instituted a suit against him. The verdict rendered was $2,000, 
but judgment was afterwards reversed. The administration of 
Governor Coles was an eventful as well as an excellent one for the 
State. He took great interest in public afPairs and attended to the 
minutest detail of his oflfice as the correspondence in his own hand 
will attest. During his administration the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal was incorporated and school and road laws enacted. But he 
was not a popular man "a man of strong convictions must always 
have enemies" but even they in later years expressed the highest 
respect for his character, and gratitude for his services. 

Edward Coles while acting as second in several cases of so-called 
honcr. prevented bloodshed by reconciling the parties, notably the 
case of Thomas KandoJph's in his quarrel with Edward Randolph. 
He also reconciled President Adams and President Jefferson. 

Notwithstanding the fact that he was brought up under the Vir- 
ginia code, in which a man, says Curtis, might debauch his neighbors, 
rob them at the gaming table, impoverish his own family and fall 
under the table in a drunken stupor without injury to his social po-" 
sition but if he allowed himself to be called a liar, or a coward his 
reputation could only be repaired with the sword. 

While traveling in Europe, Edward Coles was presented to Louis 
XVIII and also made the acquaintance of the distinguished French 
General LaFayette who, while making the tour of the United States 
seven years later, was induced to include Illinois in his itinerary, 
and was delighted to find in its Governor the young friend he had 
met in France. The Legislature had extended the invitation and 
had been liberal in making provision *for the expense of the enter- 
tainment which amounted to $6,473, about one-third of the tax re- 
ceipts for the State treasury that year. A large delegation from Mis- 
souri accompanied the General from St. Louis to Kaskaskia where a 
reception was held at the residence of. Colonel Edgar. Governor 
Coles delivered the address of welcome, to which a feeling response 
was made in very good English by the honored guest; the enter- 
tainment concluding with a grand ball at the stone mansion of Pierre 
Menard. At Shawneetown his path was carpeted from the landing 
to the mansion of General Rawliugs and flowers were showered upon 
him by little girls arranged along the way. This house still stands. 

No history of Governor Coles would be complete which failed to 
mention the part taken therein by the Lieutenant Governor. Gov- 
ernor Coles being obliged to make a trip east, and as the only motive 
power was the horse, he notified Lieutenant Governor Hubbard that 
he would be absent from the State three months, Hubbard being act- 
ing Governor for ten weeks and being pleased with the position, 
concluded it would be a good thing to hold on to it, he therefore set 



up the claim that Governor Coles by absenting himself had forfeited 
the office, and that he was Governor, but after a fruitless effort to 
make the State view it in the same light, he retired. 

After his retirement from office Governor Coles did not mingle in 
politics, although in the spring of 1831 he was invited by a large 
number of hig friends to become a candidate for Congress at the 
election to take place in August. He accepted the invitation, but 
declared that he did not oflPer himself as a candidate of any party 
but if elected he should be faithful to the trust imposed upon him. 
That he would not be a creature of party nor the humble follower of 
any man, but guided by republican principles he would endeavor to 
promote the best interests of the State. The late Judge Breese also 
came out as a National Republican candidate, but both were over- 
whelmingly defeated by Joseph Duncan, the candidate of the Jack- 
son party. Some one has said: ''Historic truths ought to be no less 
sacred than religion. If the precepts of faith raise our souls aVjove 
the interests of this world, the lessons of history in their turn inspire 
us with the love of the beautiful and just, and the hatred of what- 
ever presents an obstacle to the progress of humanity," and I should 
fail to do justice to the memory of those men of heroism, who so 
valiantly aided Governor Coles by word, and pen, in his endeavor to 
make Illinois a free state should I not mention first the English- 
man, Morris Birkbeck, who wielded such an influence under the 
nom-de-phtme of Jonathan Freeman. It was he who designated 
slavery as theleprosy of the United States, a foul blotch which more 
or less contaminates the entire system, in public, and private, from 
the president's chair to the cabin of the hunter. Samuel D. Lock- 
wood of whom Beecher said: "He was a man of unwavering devotion 
to sound principles, and the public good in every position he held. 
His services to the cause of liberty deserve warm recognition." 

"The calm and philosophic George Flower, and no one enlisted 
with a truer heroism than be in the cause of humanity. The fear- 
less John M. Peck, a minister of the gospel, who fired his brother 
preachers with an ardent love for liberty, kindred to that which ani- 
mated his own breast, George Forquer, Thomas Mather, William H. 
Brown, and Daniel Cook the attorney for Governor Coles. The 
descendants of some of these men are now living in our midst, and it 
is the consensus of opinion that the English oolony saved the day 
for Illinois." 

Illinois was fortunate in the beginning in having for her founders 
a race of great men and the real history of the State must be 
found in their lives. All honor to them and to those sturdy, 
pioneer historians, Peck, Morris Birkbeck, Brown, Reynolds and 
Ford, who amidst the vicissitudes and privations incident to the early 
life stopped to chronicle the passing events and to hand down to us 
their fame, and I reiterate, a man who could step out from his environ- 
ments as did Edward Coles and calm the heated passions of man, pre- 
venting bloodshed; the man who could sway the opinions of the giants 
of the day, who could claim kinship to Patrick Henry and Dolly Madi- 
son and who enjoyed the intimate companionship of Thomas Jefferson, 


Madison, Monroe and LaFayette, must have been, to use the good 
old colonial expression, a "man of parts," the peer of his fellowmen. 
At the close of his term of oflfice as governor, Coles removed to 
Edwardsville and engaged in cultivating his farm, he was fond of 
agriculture and was the founder of the first agricultural society in the 
State. Ten years later we find him in Philadelphia where in the 
full strength of years *'he fell asleep." He rests from his labors but 
how truly can it be said of him "his works do follow him." 

Edward Coles was a giant in the land; his character an unique 
one, standing out alone; in the light of today with the principles of 
freedom so fully established, it is diflSicult for us to realize the bravery 
necessary for Edward Coles to take the stand he did. No Wendell 
Phillips had thrilled the the country with his eloquence on the sub- 
ject of slavery. No Lovejoy had laid down his life for his fellowmen. 
It was before Harriet Beecher Stowe with her Uncle Tom's Cabin 
had aroused the conscience of the people that Edward Coles imbued 
with the principles of the Declaration of Independence, that all 
men are created equal, and true to his convictions, first freed his own 
slaves and in the face of bitter opposition, fought the battle that 
saved our State from the blighting curse of slavery. 

The commonwealth of Massachusetts produced a Phillips and a 
William Lloyd Garrison, but it remained for the glorious State of Illi- 
nois to give to the world two such kindred spirits as Abraham Lincoln 
and Edward Coles and "though his ashes do not lie mingled with the 
soil of the State he served so faithfully, yet his name and memory 
shall live so long as the State shall have a place in history." Nor 
should we forget that the first great triumph of anti- slavery, in a 
political contest, after the Declaration of Independence was fought 
upon the soil of Illinois, our mighty State, whose phenomenal prog- 
ress has been a source of pardonable pride to all her citizens and the 
heart of the Frenchman should feel no greater thrill at the sound of 
his favorite Marseillaise than we at "Illinois, Illinois." 




Joseph Wallace, M. A. 

Illinois, as seen in the light of today, is modern, new and prosaic, 
and it is difficult for the present geoeration to realize that ii has any 
history dating beyond the time of the American pioneers Within 
the territorial confines of this State are found but very few buildings 
or other works of civilized man that bear the stamp of age and 
around which cluster historic memories. What little remains to us 
of the distant past must be carefully sought for in out of the way 
and neglected spots or corners of the State. Such is the case with 
the old and well nigh obliterated fort whereof I am now to treat, the 
ruins or debris of which lie in the American Bottom, in the extreme 
northwestern corner of Randolph county. 

Fort Chartres, or Fort de Chartres, was the seat of French power 
and authority in the upper Mississippi valley for five and forty years, 
and of the British authority for seven years; and any full and faith 
ful account of it would necessarily include very much of the early 
history of Illinois during that extended period. The subject is a 
large one, fraught with a strange and romantic interest; but the lim- 
its of the present occasion will preclude me from attempting more 
than a clear and connected summary of the principal facts and occur- 
rences in the long and checkered story of this famous fortress. 

Fort Chartres was the creation of the Company of the West, or 
Mississippi company, which was organized by the celebrated John 
Law, in August, 1717, immediately after the surrender by the Sieur 
Antoine Crozat of his patent and privileges in Louisiana to the French 
crown. This commercial company and its early successor, the Royal 
India company, held sway in the province of Louisiana, of which 
Illinois formed a part, for 14 years. 

On the 9th of February, 1718, three ships of the Western com- 
pany — the Dauphin, Vigilante and Neptune — arrived at Dauphin 
island with officers and men to take possession of Louisiana. On 
one of these vessels, or on the frigate La Duchesse de Noailles, which 
arrived at Ship island on the 6th of March following, came Pierre 
Duqu6 de Boisbriant, a French Canadian, who had been commis- 
sioned first king's lieutenant for the province of Louisiana, and who 
was the bearer of a commission appointing his cousin, Le Moyne de 


Bienville, governor and commandant general of the province, in place 
of M. L'Epignay, removed. [See Pennicaut's Annals of La. from 
1699 to 1722.] 

In the early part of October, 1718, Lieutenant Boisbriant, with sev- 
eral oflBcers and a considerable detachment of troops, departed by 
hateoMx (boats) from Biloxi, through Lakes Pontchartrain and Mau- 
repas and up the Mississippi, to regulate affairs in the Illinois coun- 
try and to establish a permanent military post for the better protec- 
tion of the French inhabitants in that northern district of the prov- 
ince. Arriving at Kaskaskia late in December of that year, he there 
established his temporary headquarters, which was the first military 
occupation of the village. This, however, was continued for only 
about 18 months. 


Having selected what was considered a convenient site for his post, 
some 18 miles above and to the northwest of Kaskaskia, de coisbriant 
sent thither a large force of mechanics and laborers to work in the 
forest. By the end of the spring of 1720 they had built and practi- 
cally completed the fort, which was henceforward the headquarters 
of the company and commandants and the center of both civil and 
military authority in the Illinois. The fort stood on the alluvial 
bottom about three quarters of a mile from the Mississippi river and 
near to an older fortlet that had been erected by the adventurers 
under Crozat. Midway between it and the bluffs on the east ex- 
tended a bayou or lake which was supposed to add to the strategic 
strength of the place. It was named Fort de Chartres, presumably 
in compliment to the Regent of France from the title of his son, the 
Due de Chartres. The fort was built of wood and was of very con- 
siderable dimensions, but whether it was furnished with bastions or 
not is uncertain. It is described as a stockade fort, fortified with 
earth between the rows of palisades. Within the enclosure were 
erected the commandant's house, the barracks, the large storehouse 
for the company, etc., the same being constructed of hewed timbers 
and whip-sawed plank. Although not a strong fortification, except 
as against Indian attacks, it was made to answer for a full genera- 
tion the needs of its builders and the military commandants who 
successively ruled here. It formed, moreover, an important link in 
the lengthened chain of French posts stretching from eastern Canada 
to the Gulf of Mexico The idea of this long line of military and 
trading posts appears to have originated in the fertile brain of that 
great explorer, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. 

Upon the completion of the fort, a village began to grow up on the 
bottom between it and the river. Here the company erected its 
warehouses and the enterprising Jesuits built the church of St. Anne 
de Fort Chartres. With the advent of de Boisbriant and his asso- 
ciate officers, there was introduced in the district of the Illinois a 
more settled form of government than the French colonists had pre- 
viously known, and they were now able to secure titles to their lands 
which had hitherto been held at the sufferance of the Indians. 



The most notable of the early arrivals at the fort was Philippe 
Francois de Renault, a man of fortune and director-general of the 
mining operations of the western company. He had lef r, France in 
the spring of 1719 with 200 miners and laborers and everything need- 
ful for the prosecution of his enterprise. On his voyage to Louisiana 
he stopped at St. Domingo and purchased some 500 Guinea negroes 
to work in the mines. A number of these were brought by him to 
Illinois and thus African slavery was introduced here, though the 
enslaving of Indian captives was already in vogue. Arriving at Fort 
Chartres early in the year 1720, he made it his principal head- 
quarters, from which ho sent out prospecting parties into various 
parts of Illinois and Missouri in search of the precious metals. But, 
after spending a large amount of money and three or four years of 
time, he had to content himself with dull lead which he found in 
abundance. In June, 1723, de Boisbriant, as the representative of 
the king, and Marc Antoine de la Loire des Ursins on behalf of the 
India company, granted to Renault a tract of land a league in width 
and two leagues in depth, situated in the southwestern part of what 
is now Monroe county and fronting on the Mississippi. On this 
land the latter laid out a small village to which he gave the name of 
St. Philippe, and which was located about five miles above Fort 

During these years several other large concessions of land were 
tnade by the company to prominent personages in Illinois, including 
Dne to Boisbriant himself, on which was afterward established (by 
bis nephew, Langlois) the still existing village of Prairie du Rocher. 

On the 12th of October, 1721, Father Xavier de Charlevoix, accom- 
panied by an armed escort, arrived at Kaskaskia in the course of his 
nemorable journey through the French possessions in North Amer- 
ica, In the published journal of his travels, referring to Kaskaskia 
md Fort Chartres, he writes: ^'I arrived next day at the Kaskas- 
^uias. The Jesuits had here a very flourishing mission, which has 
Lately been divided into two, because it was thought proper to 
lorm two villages of savages instead of one. The most populous is 
3n the side of the Mississippi. * * Half a league below is Fort 
25hartres, about a musket shot from the river. M, Duquet de Bois- 
briant, a Canadian gentleman, commands here for the company to 
fvhich the place belongs; and all the space between the two places 
begins to be peopled by the French," 

From the above extract, it appears that the principal village of the 
Kaskaskia tribe was then located a short distance above Fort Char- 
tres. One of the escorts of Charlevoix through the Illinois was a 
i^oung Canadian officer named Louis St. Ange de Bellerive. He be- 
jame stationed here, and was destined in later years to twice exercise 
command at the Fort. 

In 1725 Governor Bienville was recalled to France, and Boisbriant, 
IS first Lieutenant of the province became acting governor of Louis - 
ana, with headquarters at New Orleans. His position as major- 


commandant at the Illinois was in no long time filled by the Sieur 
de Liette, a captain in the royal army. The latter, during his term 
of office, was much harassed by the Renard or Fox Indians from the 
north, who frequently made predatory incursions in the neighbor- 
hood of the French settlements, 

In 1730 deLiette was succeeded in command at Fort Chartres by 
Capt. St. Ange de Bellerive, who held the possition for four years. 
During his incumbency, in 1731, the India company (successor to 
the Company of the West) retroceded its patent and vast privileges 
in Louisiana to the king; and on April 10, 1782, by proclamation of 
Louis XV, the jurisdiction and control of the government and com- 
merce of the country reverted directly to the crown. Another gov- 
ernment was at once organized for the Province of Louisiana, which 
separated it from Canada, but retained Illinois as a dependency. 
Early in 1784 Bienville resumed, by royal appointment, the governor- 
ship of Louisiana, In the same year he appointed Capt. Pierre 
D'Artaguette as major-commandant at the Illinois, in place of St. 
Ange de Bellerive, who was transferred to another post, possibly 


Pierre D'Artaguette had served with gallantry in the Natchez war, 
and afterwards held command of the new fort at Natchez. He was a 
younger brother of Diron D'Artaguette, a Canadian and an able man, 
who went to Louisiana at an early day and held various high posi- 
tions under the colonial government. 

In 1735 Governor Bienville planned a military expedition against 
the hostile Chickasaws, in Northern Mississippi, and Major D'Arta- 
guette was ordered to get in readiness the troops under his command, 
together with such Illinois Indians as could be induced to join the 
expedition, and to meet the commandant-in chief in the Chickasaw 
country by the 10th of May following. D'Artaguette accordingly 
left Fort Chartres in the last week of February, 1786, with 80 regular 
soldiers, 100 volunteers and 200 Indians. Dasoending the Missis- 
sippi to near the Third Chickasaw Bluff, he was there joined by the 
Sieur de Vincenne or Vincennes, with 20 men and 100 Indians from 
the Wabash. Marching thence inland, they reached the appointed 
rendezvous in the vicinity of the Chickasaw villages on the 9th of 
May. Not being able to restrain his impatient allies, the leader ad- 
vanc3d to attack the enemy in his stronghold before the arrival of 
Governor Bienville with his forces from New Orleans. In the battle 
that ensued D'Artaguette was severely wounded and captured, to- 
gether with the Sieur de Vincennes, Father Sanat a Jesuit priest, a 
younger brother of Capt. Louis St. Ange, and about 15 other French- 
men. In the meantime their Indian allies beat a hasty and cowardly 
retreat. The prisoners were held for some time by the Chickasaws in 
the hope of receiving from Bienville a large reward for their release, 
But this not being forthcoming, the unfortunate captives were tied 
to stakes and burned to death by slow, remitting fires. The news of 


the unhappy fate of D'Artaguette and his brave associates cast a 
gloom over the entire French colony of the Illinois, and produced a 
painful and lasting impression on the minds of the inhabitants. 

La Buissoniere and de Bertel. 

After the cruel death of Major D'Artaguette, Alphonse de la Buisson- 
iere was sent to command at Fort Chartres. During his official term in 
1739, he led from the fort a second expedition composed of French- 
men and natives, to take part in another and somewhat more success- 
ful campaign against the stubborn Chickasaws. In 1740 La Buis- 
soniere was succeeded in office by Capt. Benoist de St. Clair, who 
commanded at the post for something over two years. 

In 1742 Bienville was finally recalled from Louisiana, and the Mar- 
quis de Vaudreuil Cavagnal was appointed governor of the province 
in his stead. Under the administration of the latter, in 1748, the 
Chevalier de B^rtei was sent to command at Fort Chartres of the Ill- 
inois. In 1744 war was again declared between France and England, 
and their trans- Atlantic colonies soon became embroiled in the con- 
flict. The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, gave both nations a 
breathing spell, but it was not of long duration, At this period the 
duties of the Illinois commandant were somewhat trying. The fort 
had become out of repair, was poorly supplied and its garrison was 
depleted by desertions. Some of the old time Indian allies of the 
French had been won over by British agents, and the fear that the 
English might gain a foothold in the Mississippi valley was ever 
present to the minds of the more intelligent French inhabitants. De 
Bertel, in his correspondence with Governor de Vaudreuil^ suggested 
that additional means of defense were required for the protection of 
the Illinois. Mr. Mason, in his elaborate essay on Fort Chartres, 
[juotes the Marquis de Galissoniere, governor general of Canada 
(1747-1749) , as having sent a memorial on the subject to the king, 
in which he said: "The little colony of Illinois ought not to be 
.eft to perish; the king must sacrifice for its support. The 
principal advantage of the country is its extreme productiveness; and 
ts connection with Canada and Louisiana must be maintained." 
STothing, however, appears to have been done at the time except to 
jnroU companies of militia and to provide for the increase and fur- 
;her maintenance of the garrison at the fort. 

In 1749 de Bertel relinquished hia command at Fort Chartres to 
2/aptain St. Clair, who is said to have signalized his return to the 
3ost by marrying the daughter of a Kaskaskia citizen. In the sum- 
ner of 1751 he was superseded by the Chevalier de Macarty, an 
irishman by descent and a major of engineers. It was during his 
)rotracted term of office, and under his supervision, that 

the second fort chartres 

aims erected. It was built according to plans and specifications 
; rawn by Lieutenant Jean B. Saussier,* a French engineer, and a 

* Lieutenant Saussler (or Saucier) afterward settled in Cahokia, where he died toward 
16 close of the I8th century. 


maternal ancestor of Dr. J. F. Snyder, the president of our State 
Historical Society. At this period the fort was the scene of much 
bustle and activity, and these were truly its halcyon days. In one of 
his Letters of Travel Through Louisiana, dated '"At the Illinois, the 
15th of May, 1753," Captain Bossu of the French marines, in refer- 
ring to the fort, says: "The Sieur Saussier, an engineer, has made 
a plan for constructing a new fort h*=re according to tht< intention of the 
court. It shall bear the samu uame as the old one, which is called 
Fort de Chartres." 

From this letter it seems that the actual building of the new fort 
was not then commenced, though preparations had no doubt been 
made for the work. The site chosen for this structure was perhaps 
a mile above the old fort and half a mile distant from the river, 
Surprise has been often expressed that the French authorities should 
have erected so laro:e and expensive a fortification on such a low and 
ineligible site, but it was in accordance with their settled practice, 
Nearly ail the old French villages were located as a matter of con- 
venience on river bottoms, as near the wp.tor as they could well place 
them, and New Orleans, the metropolis of Louisiana, was founded in 
a swamp. 

This second fort was built of limestone quarried from the bluffg 
some four miles to the eastward. According to a modern authority, 
"the finer stone with which the gateways and buildings were faced 
was brought from beyond the Mississippi." This huge structure oi 
masonry, comprising an area of four acres, was estimated to have 
cost over 5,000.000 livres, or about $1,000,000. "As a means of de- 
fense" (writes Breese, in his Early History of Illinois) , "except as a 
citadel to flee to on any sudden attack of the savages, the erection 
was wholly unnecessary. Official emolument must have prompted it, 
and some of the many millions of livres it is said to have cost must 
have gone into the commandant's pocket, or into those of his favor- 
ites, and they enriched by this mode of peculation." 

This extensive fortification was constructed while Louis de Ker- 
lerec was the provincial executive of Louisiana, and he probablj 
shared in the profits of the erection. In June, 1768, he was ordered 
to return to France, and was accused of various violations of dutj 
and assumptions of power, and particularly with having spent 10,. 
000,000 of livres in four years under the pretext of preparing fo: 
war. Upon his arrival in Paris he was imprisoned for some time ii 
the Bastile, and is said to have died of vexation and grief not lorn 
after his release from that old state prison.* 

By the middle of the summer of 1756 the fortress was so far ad I 
vanced toward comipletion that it was occupied by the commandan I 
and garrison, and the archives of the local government were de 
posited therein. This fact is indicated in a letter of Captain Bossu j 
dated "At the Illinois the Sist of July, 1756," wherein he writes: " 
came once more to the old Fort Chartres where I lay in a hut till 

* See Gayarre's Hist. o£ La.. Vol. II, pp. 23-4. 


jould get a lodging in the new fort which is now almost finished . It 
s built of freestone, flanked with four bastions and capable of con- 
aining 300 men." 

With the rebuilding of Fort Chartres on a new site there sprang 
ip at its main gate a thriving village which soon absorbed nost of 
he population of the old village adjacent to the old fort, and which 
eceived the name of New Chartres, in the parish of St. Anne. No 
'■estige of this village exists at the present day. 

The Seven Years' War with Great Britain was now being vigor- 
jrously waged and the demands upon Fort Chartres for men and 
naterial aid were frequent and pressing. Commandant Macarty 
abored steadily to meet these demands and several expeditions were 
lent out from the fort to take part in the great struggle, About the 
jlose of the year 1760, the veteran Macarty, after nine years of la bor- 
ons service at this post, retired from the command and was suc- 
leeded by Captain Neyon de Villiers, a brother of Jumonville de 
iT'illiers who was killed in May, 1754, in the skirmish at Little 
Meadows, Pa., with a company of Virginia militia led by Lieutenant 
]Jolonel George Washinscton. 

Before taking leave of Major Macarty, I may remark that with all 
lue deference to those modern writers who spell his name with a "k" 
Makarty), I prefer to follow the older spelling which accords more 
itrictiy with both the French and Irish usage. I have learned by 
lome experience that it is necessary to step among these old French 
lames and dates as "carefully as a <jat among crockery," and even 
hen one is liable to stumble and fall. 

But to return from this digression. During the incumbency of 
!^eyon de Villiers on Nov. 3, 1763, there arrived at Fort Chartres, in 
L store- boat heavily laden with goods, Pierre Laclede Liguest of the 
irm of Maxent, Laclede & Co., merchants of New Orleans who, in 
.762, had obtained from Governor de Kerlerec a special license to 
rade with the Indians on the Missouri river. After spending most 
)f the winter at the fort, Laclede proceeded up the river in Febru- 
iry, 1764, and established a trading post on the site of the present 
dty of St. Louis. 

In the month of June, 1764, Captain de Villiers having become 
mpatient at the delay of the British conquerors in arriving (after 
he treaty of 1763) to take possession of Fort Chartres, resigned his 
•ffice of commandant, and accompanied by several officers, a company 
>f soldiers and a number of the French inhabitants of the Illinois, 
leparted down the Mississippi to New Orleans. The command of 
his stronghold now devolved once more upon the veteran St. Ange 
ie Bellerive who had come from Post Vincennes to assume it. With 
nly a small garrison to support him, his position was both difficult 
nd dangerous to fill. But he showed rare skill and address in pro- 
acting the French settlers and in dealing with the restless savages 
^ho, from time to time, importuned him for arms and supplies to 

elp them in carrying on their futile struggle against the English. 



At length, in the first week of October, 1765, Captain Thomas Stirl- 
ing, under the orders of General Gage, arrived from Fort Pitt, with 
100 Highlanders of the Forty-second British regiment, to receive 
possession of Fort Chartres. And on the 10th of that month St. Ange 
formally surrendered the post in a lengthy document, describing in 
detail the fort, its buildings, appointments and guns. Then the 
white banner of old France, with its royal fleitr de lis, v^as drawn 
down from its staff, and in its place was displayed the red cross of St. 
George. Thus was ended the splendid dream of French conquest 
and dominion in North America. After the performance of this sad 
act, St. Ange took his departure by boat, with his little company of 
30 officers and men, and proceeded up and across the Mississippi 
river to the new French trading post of St. Louis, which was then 
in Spanish territory.* 

Captain Stirling remained only a short time in charge of Fort 
Chartres, and probably returned up the Ohio to Fort Pitt. He after- 
ward fought his way to distinction, and died in 1808 a general and a 
baronet. On the 4th of December, 1765, Major Robert Farmer, with a 
strong detachment of the Thirty fourth British foot, arrived from 
Mobile and took command at the fort. In the following year he was 
succeeded by Colonel Edward Cole, a native of Rhode Island, who 
had commanded a regiment under Wolfe at the siege of Quebec. 
Colonel Cole remained in command here about 18 months, but the 
position was not congenial to him, and the climate proved unfavor- 
able to his health. He was accordingly relieved, at his own request, 
early in 1768. 

During the year 1766 Captain Philip Pittman, of the Royal Brit- 
ish engineers, reached Fort Chartres in pursuance of his orders to 
examine the European posts and settlements in the Mississippi val- 
ley. In his official report or book, printed at London in 1770, he 
describes the fort and its buildings very fully and clearly, and con- 
cludes by saying: "It is generally allowed that this is the most com- 
modious and best built fort in North America." He further tells us 
that at the time of his visit the current had worn away the river 
bank until it was only 80 paces from the fort. By his valuable work 
Captain Pittman conferred a great boon upon the students of early 
Illinois history, and it would be a matter of interest to know what 
became of him after his return to England in 1768. | 

Colonel Cole's successor in the command was Colonel John Reed] 
who became so notorious for his arbitrary oppressions of the French j 
settlers that he was soon deposed, and gave place to Lieutenant Col- 
onel John Wilkius, of the Eighteenth or Royal regiment of Ireland 
The latter arrived from Philadelphia and assumed command at the 
fort Sept. 5, 1768. He brought with him seven companies of hi{ 
regiment for garrison duty, but many of these soldiers succumbed t( 
the malarious diseases of the country. Colonel Wilkins' governmen 
of the Illinois eventually became unpopular, and specific chargef 

* Captain St. Ange died at St, Louis in December, 1774. 


vere preferred against him, including a misappropriation of the pub- 
ic funds. He was accordingly removed from office in September, 
771, and sailed for Europe in the course of the following year. Dur- 
ng his administration the first court of common law in Illinois was 
stablished here, though it did not prove a success. 

Colonel Wilkins' successor at Fort Chartres was Captain Hugh 
Liord, of the Eighteenth British regiment, who continued in com- 
aand of the country until 1775. During his tenure of oflBice, in the 
pring of 1772, a great freshet occurred in the Mississippi, which in- 
mdated the adjacent bottom and undermined and tore away one bas- 
ion and a part of the river wall of the fort.* The commandant and 
arrison then hastily deserted the place and took up their quarters 
t Kaskaskia, which was thereafter the seat of British authority 
mtil the arrival of Colonel (ieorge Rogers Clark and his Virginia 
ailitia in July, 1778. 


The story of the subsequent decadence and ruin of Fort Chartres 
emains to be told. After it was evacuated and dismantled by the 
British, in 1772, the fort was never again occupied, except occasion- 
lly by small bands of Indians. In 1778 Congress reserved from en- 
ry or sale a tract of land one mile square on the Mississippi, includ- 
Qg Fort Chartres and its buildings. This enactment simply pre- 
ented any legal settlement on the reservation. 

Major Amos Stoddard, who took possession of upper Louisiana for 
he United States government under the treaty of purchase with 
I'rance in March, 1804, visited Fort Chartres about that time, and 
escribes it in his "Historical Sketches of Louisiana," published in 
812. Of the fort he writes: "Its figure is quadrilateral, with four 
•astions, the whole of which is composed of limestone well cemented. 
Cach side measures about 840 feet. The walls are 15 feet high, 
bout three feet thick and still entire (except the west wall) . The 
tone walls of a spacious square of barracks are also in good preser- 
ation, as likewise a capacious magazine and two deep wells very lit- 
le injured by time. Each port or loophole is formed by four solid 
locks of what is here called freestone, worked smooth and into proper 
bape. All the cornices and casements about the gates and buildings 
re of the same material, and appear to great advantage. The area 
f this fort is now covered with trees from 7 to 12 inches in diameter. 
n fine, this work exhibits a splendid ruin. The inhabitants have 
iken away great quantities of materials to adorn their own build - 
igs." t 

Judge H. M. Brackenridge, of the United States district of Louis- 
ma, in a work published as early as 1817, has the following brief 
ocount of an excursion he made to the venerable ruin: "Fort de 

* It is related that the water rose to the height of seven feet in the fort, 
t Major Stoddard died at Fort Meigs. Ohio, in 1813. 

—8 H. 


Chartres is a noble ruin, and is visited by strangers as a great curi 
osity. I was one of a party of ladies and gentlemen who ascendec 
to it in a barge from St. Genevieve, nine miles below. Tbe outwar( 
wall, barracks and magazine are still standing. There are a numbe: 
of cannon lying half buried with their trunnions broken off. Ii 
visiting the various parts, we started a flock of wild turkeys whicl 
had concealed themselves in a hiding place." 

The broken cannon above mentioned were probably iroi 
cannon. In a recently published pamphlet relating to Fort Chartres 
by Dr. J. F, Snyder, we are informed that "five cannon were takei 
from the ruins of Fort Chartres in 1812, by Grov. Ninian Edwards 
and mounted on Fort Kussell, a mile and a half from the presen 
city of Edwardsville, 111. One of them was bursted when fired ii 
celebration of Gren. Jackson's victory at New Orleans, in January 
1815. Of the other four, no trace can be found." 

In 1820 Dr. Lewis C. Beck and Nicholas Hansen, of Illinois, mad 
a careful survey and drawing of the plan of the old fortress, for in 
sertion in Beck's "Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri." At that tim 
many of the rooms and cellars in the building, and portions of th 
outside walls showing the opening for the main gate and loop-hole 
for the musketry, were still in a fair state of preservation. Accordin 
to their measurements, the whole exterior line of the walls and bag 
tions was 1447 feet. The walls, built of solid stone, were in som 
places 15 feet high, and the area of the fort embraced about fou 

In the summer of 1829 James Hall, that gifted writer of earl 
Illinois, visited the ruins of Fort Chartres, which, in the first volum 
of his "Sketches of the West," he thus portrays: "It was with som 
difficulty that we found the ruins, which are covered with a vigorou 
growth of forest trees and a dense undergrowth of bushes and vinei 
Even the crumbling pile itself is thus overgrown, the tall trees reai 
ing their stems from piles of stone, and the vines creeping over th 
tottering walls. The buildings were all razed to the ground, hw 
the lines of the foundations could be easily traced. A large vaulte 
powder magazine remained in good preservation. The exterior wa 
was thrown down in some places, but in others retained somethin 
like its original height and form. One angle of the fort and a 
entire bastion had been undermined and swept away by the rive: 
which having spent its force in this direction was again retiring, an 
a narrow belt of timber had grown up between the water's edge an 
the river bank. It was curious to see in the gloom of a wild fores 
these remnants of the architecture of a past age."* 

Gov. John Reynolds appears to have twice visited the ruins c 
Fort Chartres, the first time when he was but a youth. In his "Hie 
tory of My Own Times," published in 1855, he thus writes: " 
examined this fort about 30 years after it was abandoned; and, it i 
strange! the large trees could grow in that short time, which I sa^ 
in the houses and within the walls of the fortification in man 

* Judffe Hall died in Cincinnati, O., in 1868, aged about 75 years. 


jplaces. * * The south and east walls when I first saw them were 
remaining in their original shape, and they seemed to be about 15 
Eeet high, and were constructed to secure strength and durability. 
The gateway was open and the jams and cornices were of nicely cut 
rook. The powder magazine as it is called was constructed in the 
most substantial manner. * * This magnificent fortress, built at 
3o much expense in the wilderness of America, has been declining 
:or the last 80 odd years." 

"I visited this fort on the 10th of October, 1854, and found it a pile 
of mouldering ruins. In places the walls were torn away almost even 
iWith the ground. * * * Thus perish the works of man." 

In 1879 the late Edward Gr. Mason of Chicago made a pilgrimage 
ito the ruined fort and viewed it with the eye of an antiquary. From 
ihis exhaustive paper on this subject, printed in 1880, we make a few 
pertinent extracts, as follows: "The Fort Chartres reservation was 
opened to entry in 1849, no provision being made concerning what 
remained of the fort. The land was taken up by settlers, the area of 
the works cleared of trees and a cabin built within it, and the process 
of demolition hastened by the increasing number of those who re- 
|Sorted there for building material." 

Referring to the changes in the channel of the Mississippi and the 
isolation of the fort, he writes: "The channel between the fort and 
(the island in front of it, once 40 feet deep, began to fill up, and ulti- 
jmately the main shore and the island were united, leaving the fort a 
mile or more inland. A thick growth of trees speedily concealed it 
.from the view of those passing upon the river, and the high road 
[from Cahokia to Kaskaskia, which at first ran between the fort and the 
river, was soon after located at the foot of the blufiPs, three miles to 
the eastward. These changes, which left the fort completely isolated 
and hidden, gave rise to the report of its total destruction by the 
river. * * * But this is entirely erroneous. The ruins still re- 
main; and had man treated it as kindly as the elements, the old fort 
would be nearly perfect today." 

Of the powder magazine he gives us this interesting description: 
*'Yet, though so much is gone of the ancient surroundings, and of 
the fort itself, it was an exceeding pleasure to find the old magazine 
still almost complete, and bearing itself as sturdily as if conscious 
that it alone is left of all the vast domain of France in America. It 
stands within the area of the southeastern bastion, solidly built of 
stone, its walls four feet in thickness, sloping upwards to perhaps 12 
feet from the ground, and rounded at the top. It is partially cov- 
ered with vines and moss, and one might travel far and wide in our 
land to find an object so picturesque and so venerable. But for the 
loss of its iron doors and the cut stone about the doorway, it is well 
nigh as perfect as the day it was built. Within, a few steps lead to 
the solid stone floor, some feet below the surface, and the interior, 
nearly 30 feet square, is entirely uninjured. You may note the 
arched stone roof, the careful construction of the heavy walls, and 
the small apertures for light and air curiously protected against in- 
jury from without." 


In a later publication I find a short description of the old maga- 
zine which is here introduced as supplementary to that of Mr. Mason. 
It reads as follows: "The northeastern bastion having the flag staff 
was higher than the others. In the southeastern bastion was situ- 
ated the magazine of stone, laid in cement, now as hard as flint. It 
is yet in sound preservation, its vertical end walls 25 feet in height 
closing the arch between. Its floor, seven feet below the surface, 
and its interior wall plastered with cement, measuring 25 feet by 18, 
and 20 feet from the floor to the apex of the arch." * 

At the present day we are told that nothing of the great old struc- 
ture remains, save one angle of^the outer wall a few feet in height, 
and the magazine. The latter seems to be proof against time and 
decay, and barring accidents, may last for an indefinite period. If 
by some convulsion of nature, or a gradual subsidence of the land, 
the Mississippi valley should again be covered by the sea, then this 
vaulted magazine might become imbedded in the strata, and if dis- 
covered in after geologic times would perhaps be cited as a proof of 
the high antiquity of man. 

*'It is much to be regretted," says a writer familiar with the sub- 
ject, "that so few of the records and official documents of old Fort 
Chartres have been preserved to reveal to us the story of its various 
occupants in the daily life, and of the stirring events and strange, 
thrilling scenes that transpired there." 


I have now, somewhat concisely and imperfectly, traced the event- 
ful history of Fort Chartres from its beginning in 1719 down through 
its varying stages of growth and decay to recent times. As we pass 
in review the long array of noted men — French, English and Ameri- 
can — who were either actively associated with or were visitors to and 
describers of the old fortress, it is melancholy to reflect that they all 
long ago departed to the silent land, and that some of their names 
have been with difficulty rescued from oblivion. And yet they one 
and all seem to have left, or sought to leave, some footprints as they 
passed that succeeding generations might discern they once had been 
on earth and acted something here. 

With students of our western history, it is to be deplored that this 
large and commodious fortress — the only great architectural work of 
the French in the entire basin of the Mississippi — over which floated 
in succession the flags of two powerful nations, should not have been 
erected upon a firmer and more elevated site, where it might have 
been preserved intact as an impressive and instructive monument of 
the past even unto the present time. 

Something, however, may yet be done to safeguard the memory of 
this ancient citadel. The State of Illinois can, and I think it should, 
purchase the site of the fort, clear and enclose the ground, trace out 
as far as possible the lines of the exterior walls and the foundations 

Vide Dr. Snyder's booklet relatlne to Fort Chartres. printed In 1901. 


f the principal buildings, and transform it into a historic little park. 
Lnd thus this relic and legacy to us from the remote past might be, 
some material form, handed down to posterity. 

It is worthy of remark here, that the memory of Fort Chartres 
locally preserved in the name of the river landing and ferry in 
hat vicinity. 

Perhaps the latest contribution to the literature of Fort ChaY- 
res is found in a recent series of short yet interesting articles 

the Quincy (111.) Whig, descriptive of the ruined fort and its en- 
irons as they appear today — written by Dr. Homer Mead of Schuy- 
er county, 111. 




Ethelbert Stewart, United States Department of Labor, Chicago. 

We have but to look at the passing moment to see that the politics 
of today grows out of and reflects the economic and industrial con- 
ditions of today. When history records tomorrow what politics did 
today, it may or may not note the fact that under it all was a social 
condition, growing out of a still deeper economic and industrial con- 
dition, which compelled history to be what it was. 

The tendency to ask "why?" has reached the historian. We want 
"interpretations of history." We hear much now of the "economic 
interpretation of history," and will hear more as intelligence ad- 

Industrial conditions shape the economic life out of which social 
conditions grow. The civic and political life grows out of and takes 
shape from economic conditions. Pay-rolls and price-lists make 
history. The fur of the beaver, and the difference between the price 
paid the Indians for that fur and its price in London was the attrac- 
tion which drew the star of empire westward. 

The time is rapidly approaching when it will be impossible to se- 
cure sufficient data for an adequate history of the industrial and 
economic development of Illinois. Each year, with the destruction 
of each old account book, old pay-roll, old price-list, the difficulty in- 
creases. All possible haste should be made to collect and transcribe 
as many of these as still exist. Back of the old settler is the ques- 
tion why he came to be an old settler? That question must be set- 
tied by his old ledger, not by his picture. I have no doubt that a 
fair number of old grocery accounts and farmers' income ledgers can 
yet be secured to make a fairly complete and connected history of 
this economic growth, But we must be quick about it. The task is 
not so easy here as in colonial New England where the prices of 
farm products and labor were fixed from time to time by the courts. 
In New England the courts fixed the exchange value of beaver skins, 
wampum beads, corn and wheat. In Illinois, coon skins, wampum, 
and general barter likewise prevailed, but we must learn exchange 
values from old letters, diaries, and account books, rather than court 
records which will not aid as much save in rare instances. 

The pay-rolls of the American Fur company for 1818 and 1819 are 
obtainable, and show that the company was just beginning to operate 
in Illinois, which is spoken of as a "dependency" of the Milwaukee 


ranch of the company's business. A study of these pay-rolls shows 
bat much higher wages were paid for like services in Illinois than 
btained either in the Mackinac district or on the Mississippi below 
t. Louis. The rates of pay mentioned in these pay-rolls is in the 
epreciated currency of that time and no attempt will here be made 
give present equivalents. If boatmen received but $500 and $600, 
he rate paid in other districts in 1818, in 1819 they received $1,000 
ler year in Illinois with no increase for boatmen elsewhere. Inter- 
>reters, men who could talk with the Indians, were paid $8,000 a 
ear in Illinois, whereas $1,200 and $2,000 were the rates elsewhere. 
In interpreter who was getting $2,000 a year at Wabash, Indiana, 
^as transferred to the Kankakee, in Illinois, July 13, 1819, at $3,000 
, year. The company paid $700 a year for a tailor in Illinois, which 
ras more than double the wages paid at Mackinac. A carpenter 
7ho "was left at Chicago" was on the pay-rolls at $1,200 a^year. A 
trader," presumably a man well versed in the quality of furs, was 
)aid $3,000 in Illinois, while below St. Louis $1,500 was the rate. 
Certainly this larger pay would cause a rush to Illinois of all the 
aen the company could be induced to use. 

In 1821, the company rated wampum at $5.50 per 1,000 
)ieces, or beads, and that year sent 20,100 pieces of wampum to 
Chicago to be exchanged for fur. This treasure came on the Schooner 
^nn, along with five dozen scalping knives at $1.20 per dozen; and 
43 blankets of various qualities and prices. Duck shot was sold 
or 20 cents a pound. Salt was worth more per barrel than flour, the 
ormer being $6, the latter $5. Salt had to come from New York, 
,nd its price was the economic reason for the early development of 
alt wells on the Illinois river, and on the Wabash. The result of 
hese wells, together with Michigan developments, was that salt 
^hich, transported from New York, sold in Chicago for $6, dropped 
o $1.87J a barrel at the Illinois wells, and the wages of coopers rose 
o $1,200 per year. 

It is not, however, in Cook county, nor in the enterprises of the 
American Fur company that the substantial early industrial deveiop- 
nents are to be sought. Cook county is not mentioned in the census 
•eturns until 1840, and then it was the eleventh in population. That 
jensus showed Morgan county with almost double the population of 
Jook; Sangamon had 14,716; Adams, 14,476; Madison, 14,433; while 
Dook had but 10,201. The economic trend of things which was to 
'ive to Cook county its impetus, and make Chicago the wonder of 
;he world, set in between 1880 and 1840. Prior to that the solid 
ievelopment in the State had been in the central and southwestern 
3ounties. It is in them must be sought the economic data desired. 

We may never know what Mathew Duncan paid his printers on 
bhat first newspaper in Illinois which he started in Kaskaskia in 
1815; but we ought to be able to get the wages of printers pretty well 
back in the century. Detroit has the records of printers' wages back to 
1837. The best I have been able to do in Illinois is 1852, when the 
union was formed in Chicago, wages being $12 per week. 


We know the salary of the first school teacher of the first school 
supported entirely and directly by public taxation in the history of 
the world. This school was opened in Dedham, Mass., in 1644, and 
the teacher received $67 per year. Inasmuch as Illinois did not 
seriously undertake a public school system until 1840, would it not 
be worth an effort to ascertain the salaries of teachers in at least 
gome of the counties, back to the beginning? We know the fees of 
the first colonial lawyer in 1638, and whether each particular fee was 
paid in money, wampum or cord wood; and there may be lawyers' 
diaries and note books lying around in dusty chests that would be of 
as great interest to the historian of Illinois as is Thomas Lechford's 
note-book to the historian of Massachusetts. When he tells us he 
paid $17 a year rent on his living rooms, and $1.87| to have a dress 
made for his wife, the relation of expenditures then and now becomes 
not less interesting than his frantic efforts to defend the followers of 
Ann Hutchinson before hostile courts. 

Before many years our descendants will be as far away from the 
early days of Illinois as we are from the Mayflower, and they will 
wonder why we did not do something to preserve for them some 
record of the human interest, the-every-day-life-side of our history. 

In 1885 an official but inadequate census of the industries of the 
State was taken. This showed, 339 manufactories, 916 mills, 87 
manufacturing machines, and 142 distilleries in the State. If the 
original data or schedules used in that census can be secured they 
will afford clews through which a very complete picture of economic 
conditions at that date may be restored. 

Doubtless many documents of great value are still in the hands of 
the descendants of those who began the industrial development of 
Adams, Morgan, and Sangamon counties, and the counties further 
to the south. 

The lead fields of Galena played an important part in the develop- 
ment of the northern part of the State. Politically they were the 
cause of the threat of secession made by the Chicago Journal in 
1846. They gave the first stimulus to Chicago, and furnished, to- 
gether with the growth of Chicago, the economic incentive to Wis- 
consin in seeking to annex to her territory the northern counties of 
Illinois, thus dismembering the State. At least one Illinois Con- 
gressman was offered the United States Senatorship if he would 
secure a change in the northern line of Illinois from its present po- 
sition to one direct from the lowest point of Lake Michigan. This 
would have given Wisconsin the lead fields, and Milwaukee's then 
rival for lake trade, the growing Chicago. 

In 1743, there were but 20 miners in the Galena field, and at sur- 
face operations were barely making a living. In 1788 some of them 
were taking out $30 a day for weeks together. Wages of common 
labor was $1 a day and board in these fields, or more than twice the 
wages of New England at the same time. Even then there was no 
great rush to the lead fields until after July 1, 1825, because the 
American Fur company was offering better inducements. A report 
to Congress states that July 1, 1825, there were 100 miners in the 


lead fields of Galena; Deo. 31, 1825, there were 151; March 31, 
1826, there were 194; June 30, 1826, their number had increased to 
406, and by Aug. 31, 1826, to 453. This was the beginning of the 
rush. Wildcat schemes and speculations followed, of course. The 
hard times of 1837 which, by restricting consumption, produced that 
"optical illusion" we call over-production, finally ruined the business. 
Flour which was bought in Milwaukee for $2.50 a barrel in 1841 was 
hauled to Galena by wagon and sold for $7. The profits of transpor- 
tation aad trade drew large numbers who were not miners into the 
mining region, and began that movement which was to make great 
the northern end of the State and its great metropolis. The trade of 
the southern end of the State was with the south, the trade of the 
northern end of the State through Chicago was with the east; and 
these ledger balances manifested themselves in the sectional views, 
and legislative opinions in 1860. 

The Illinois Historical Society should be able to find some of the 
pay-rolls and account books of the contractors of the Illinois and 
Michigan canal; a stupendous work which vitally afPected economic 
C5onditions for a period of several years, not only Jin its influence 
upon wages and employment, but also in securing better prices to 
the farmer for his products, and through these attracting larger and 
larger influx of people to the northern part of the State: Did you 
Bver stop to think what the history of this country would have been 
had the Erie Canal been finished to Philadelphia as originally in- 
tended, instead of being deflected to New York. To get a good idea 
of the "economic interpretation of history," imagine the Illinois and 
Michigan canal leading to St. Louis instead of Chicago, with New 
Orleans as our final sea-board market instead of New York, then try 
to find some familiar faces in a mental picture of 1860. 

Railroad building in Illinois began in 1852, and many roads retain 
their first pay-rolls, and earliest schedules of freight and passenger 
rates. The men who built the Illinois Central through DeWitt and 
Macon counties paid $2.50 per week for their board to the farmers 
along the road; and the graders or common laborers got $1.00 a day; 
bridge-carpenters, $2.50. 

The pay-rolls of the first road to run a train into Chicago are in 
the possession of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company. 
They show wages of locomotive engineers to have been $65,00 a 
month in 1856, the year the road was completed. A few received but 
150.00 a month. Firemen were paid $35.00 a month. In the shops 
of the company, blacksmiths were paid various rates, $2.00, $2.25 and 
12.50 a day, according to the work performed. Carpenters the same. 
Painters received $1.60, and all common labor $1.00 a day. 

If I have interested its members in this matter, or successfully 
pointed its importance, I would suggest that a committee of your so- 
ciety can much more readily find and secure access to the documents, 
diaries, and account books, revealing early economic conditions than 
any individual can. While few would be willing to part with such 
treasures most people would gladly let the society copy such facts as 
are essential, and later these facts can be brought together into a sys- 
tematic review. 



In Memoeiam. 

elisha b. hamilton. 

In obedience to the sad duty of reporting and recording the death 
of members of the Illinois State Historical Society that have oc- 
curred since its last annual meeting, we are pained to announce 
that General Elisha Bentley Hamilton of Quincy, Illinois, died sud- 
denly of heart disease, near that city, on the afternoon of March 28, 
1902, at the age of 68 years, 5 months and 23 days. 

He was a native of IlliDois, son of Artois and Atta (Bentley) 
Hamilton, born in Carthage, Hancock county, on the 5th of October, 
1838, at the village tavern kept there for several years by his parents. 
He was the youngest of six children. His boyhood experience was 
similar to that of ma.ia.y other distinguished men of our State, pass- 
ing the springs and summers at work on the farm, and attending 
school during the winter. In the fall of 1856, at the age of 18, he 
entered Illinois college at Jacksonville and graduated therefrom in 
June, 1860, receiving the Bachelor of Science degree, and in June, 
1878, the college conferred upon him the further degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. 

Full of the martial spirit from his infancy, General Hamilton, 
when a grown boy was a member of the famous old Carthage Guards. 
In August, 1862, the second year of the Civil War, he enlisted in 
company "B", 118th Illinois Volunteer Infantry and served with 
that regiment until the fall of 1865, winning in many important en- 
gagements distinction for bravery and superior soldierly conduct, 
For gallant and meritorious service he was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant in November. 1863, and near the close of the war was pro- 
moted to assistant adjutant on the staff of General Fonda, at Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana. After the termination of the Civil War, retain- 
ing his interest in military matters, he aided in organizing the 
Quincy Guards of which he was elected captain. In 1877 he was in 
command of the 8th Illinois infantry during the great strike at East 
St. Louis, and, for the valuable services he there rendered the State, 
he was commissioned by Governor Cullom a brigadier general. He 
then served as Inspector General of the Illinois militia under Gov- 
ernors Cullom, Hamilton and Oglesby, resigning in 1887. 

General Hamilton became a resident of Quincy in 1866, entering 
the office of Warren & Wheat as a law student, and was admitted to 



H-:- •• 

General Elisha B. HamiltoTi, Quincy. 111. 


the bar in January, 1869. He was successively a member of the law 
firms of Warren, Wheat & Hamilton; Wheat, Ewing & Hamilton; 
and Ewing & Hamilton. From the summer of 1887 to the spring of 
1891 he practiced law in Kansas City, and for a number of years he 
was the senior member of the law firm of Hamilton & Woods in 

He was an active politician and always an aggressive Republican, 
but not of the office seeking variety. Though frequently urged to 
accept nominations he invariably declined; yet he accepted the ap- 
pointment of surveyor of the port of Quincy in 1868, and was reap- 
pointed by President Grant in 1872. He also served as deputy 
United States marshal under both Marshals Tanner and Wheeler. 
He was an enthusiastic member of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
and served a number of terms as commander of the local (John 
Woods) post and as senior vice commander of the Illinois Depart- 
ment in 1893-4, and he was also a member of the Society of the 
Army of the Tennessee and of the Loyal Legion. 

He was a Mason of high degree, in Lodge, Chapter and Com- 

General Hamilton and Miss Mary E. Fisk of Quincy were united 
in marriage on the 10th of September, 1878, and she survives him 
with two children, Elisha Bentley Hamilton and Miss Lucy A. Ham- 

In stature the general was tall, well proportioned with military 
bearing and handsome features. In disposition he was kind, genial 
and affable, with courteous, polished manners. He was fond of ease 
and quietude, but public spirited, and always ready to aid in any 
cause having for its object the educational, moral and material up- 
lifting and bettering of the community in which he lived. 

With the natural gift of oratory, a fine voice, keen humor, spark- 
ling wit and a limitless fund of anecdotes, combined with virile ear- 
nestness and force, he was a superior and very popular speaker. 

To him the city of Quincy is largely indebted for her splendid 
public library, its foundation having been laid by the proceeds of a 
series of lectures he was chiefly instrumental in having delivered for 
that purpose. He was also active and efficient in founding the 
Quincy Historical Society, serving until his death as its vice presi- 
dent. The Qaincy schools 4iad no better friend than General Ham- 
ilton, and for Illinois College he always retained a strong affection 
and was one of its most zealous supporters. 

Loyalty, patriotism and honor were his distinguishing traits. He 
was loyal to his country, to his friends, to his home and to every 
principle of right and justice. In politics he was a partisan, firm in 
his convictions, always steadfast, fair and manly, devoted to his party 
and generous and honorable to its adversaries. 

General Hamilton was a valued member of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society. He is gone, and we join the citizens of Quincy and 
the people of the State in sincere sorrow for the loss of the gallant 
soldier, the able lawyer and highly worthy citizen. 



James Affleck, of Belleville, 111., an honorary member of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, departed this life, at his home near 
that city, on the 24th of April, 1902, at the age of 88 years, 8 months 
and 2 days. 

A sketch of his biography, written by himself, was published in 
the transactions of this society for 1901, from which it is seen that 
he was a native of Scotland, born at Dumfries on the 15th day of 
August, 1813. When he was scarcely a year old his parents came to 
America, landing in North Carolina, and in 1818 they brought him 
to St. Clair county in this State. For 83 years he was continuously 
a resident of Belleville, and witnessed its growth from a small village 
of 200 or 300 inhabitants— in the log cabin and "tallow- dip" era — to 
a thriving, busy, city of 20,000 people, with all the material and 
social accessions of modern times. 

Mr. Affleck was a skilled and industrious artisan, in earlier life a 
cabinetmaker, then a contractor and housebuilder, and later, for 36 
years, superintendent of the wood department, and patternmaker, of 
the Harrison machine shops. 

He was a very intelligent man, self educated and self elevated to an 
honorable position in society where all gave him the tribute of their 
respect and esteem. A Presbyterian for three score years, he was a 
Christian in fact and belief, a gentleman of pure character and ex- 
emplary habits. 

He was always deeply interested in the history of Illinois, nearly 
all of it having been made under his personal observation. He 
had met, and shaken hands with every Governor of the State from 
Shadrach Bond to the present Chief Executive, Eichard Yates the 

When Governor Edwards was stricken down with cholera, in July, 
1833, and his life rapidly ebbing away, a messenger was sought 
among the terrified villagers to go at once to Edwardsville, 25 miles 
distant, for the Governor's brother, Dr. Benjamin Edwards Mr. 
Affleck volunteered to go, and leaving Belleville, on horseback, about 
sunset on the 19th inst., he rode to Edwardsville, and, with the 
Doctor, returned immediately, arriving in Belleville early next morn- 
ing, the 20th, a few minutes after the Governor had breathed his 

Mr. Affleck served for some years, with credit, as city alderman, 
and also as a member of the board of education; but far preferred 
the quietude of his home to the duties of public life. 

His memory, to the last, was remarkably clear and retentive; and 
he wrote for various publications many interesting and historical 
sketches and reminiscent papers relating to early Illinois, that well 
entitled him to honorary and deserved recognition by this society. 


Mr. Affleck was twice married, and is survived by his wife, two 
daughters and two sons. 

His was a useful, valuable and well-rounded life, though unmarked 
by extraordinary deeds or startling events. He acted well his part 
in every duty of the humble sphere he occupied, ever conscientious 
and honorable; and when finally he passed away in the fullness of 
years and the confidence and esteem of the entire community, he left 
an enviable record for probity, integrity and fidelity to principle. 




With translation by Rev. C. J. Eschmann. 


L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le dix neuf d'octobre j'e sou- 
signe J. Gagnon prestre jebaptisse a la Chapelle de St. Philyppe 
uue enfant nee du meme jour de Legitime mariage de Jean Chavin 
et de Agniece Lacroix. Ses pere et mere on lui a donne Le nom de 
Agniece. Le parrain a ete Jean Jacque Domen6 demeurant en dit 
Lieu. La mareinne Jeanne Potier femme de Jacque Millet habitant 
de la ditte prairie. Le parrain a declare ne Savoir, Signer; La mar- 
einne a signee avec moy de oe interpelle. 

J. Gagnon, prestre. Jeanne Potier Millet. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le vingt Six d'octobre est 
decedee dans cette paroisse Theresse Buchet agee dans virons cinq 
ans edemy. Son Corps a ete inhume Le meme jour dans Le Cime- 
tier de cette paroisse avec les ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere 
La Ste Eglisse en presance de son pere, qui a signe avec moy de ce 
interpelle. J. Gagnon, prestre. Buohet. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le vingt Six d'octobre est decede 
dans cette paroisse un enfans a la prairie du Roches appartenant a 
Francois Bastien habitant de la ditte paroisse agee dans virons dix 
huit mois. Son Corps a ete inhume Le meme jour dans Le Cime- 
tier de La Chappelle de la ditte prairie avec les ceremonies prescrittes 
par nostre mere La Ste Eglisse en foy de quoy j'ay signe de ce 
interpelle. J. Gagnon, prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois est decede dans cette paroisse 
un petis ponis (?) age dans virons cinq ans, appartenant a Michel 
Lejeune. Son Corps a ete inhume Le lendemain dans Le Cimetier de 
cette paroisse avec Les ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere La 
Sainte Eglise en presance du bedeau qui a signe avec moy. 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarant trois Le trente un octobre est decedee 
dans cette paroisse un enfant agee dans viront 14 mois appartenant 
Ansiems Joubert sergent des troupes. Son Corps a ete inhume Le 
meme jour dans Le Cimetier de cette paroisse avec les ceremonies 
prescrittes par nostre mere La Ste Eglisse en foy de quoy j'ay signe. 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 

♦Accenting: of French vowel? is omitted because the printer could not procure the 
necessary type. 



In the year one thousand seven hundred and forty-three, on the 
nineteenth of October, I, the undersigned J. Gagnon, priest, have 
baptized in the chapel of St. Philip, an infant born on the same day 
of the legitimate marriage of John Chavin and Agnes Lacroix. Its 
father and mother gave to it the name of Agnes. The godfather has 
been John James Domen6, living in said place. The godmother, 
Jane Potier, wife of James Millet, living in the said prairie. The 
godfather declared not to know to sign. The godmother signed with 
me upon this request. J, Gagnon, Priest. Jane Potier Millet. 

In the year 1743, on the 26th of October, there died in this parish 
Theresa Buchet, aged about 5J years. Her body was buried on the 
same day in the cemetery of this parish with the ceremonies pre- 
scribed by our mother, The Holy Church, in presence of her father 
who signed with me upon this request. J. Gagnon, Priest. 


In the year 1743, on the 26th of October, there died in this parish 
an infant of Prairie du Koches, belonging to Francis Bastien, living 
lin the said parish, aged about 18 months. Its body was buried on 
the same day in the cemetery of the chapel in the said prairie with 
the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, The Holy Church, in 
witness whereof I have signed as required. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1743, there died in this parish a little (?), aged 

about 5 years, belonging to Michael Lejeune. Its body was buried 
on the following day in the cemetery of this parish with the cere- 
monies prescribed by our mother. The Holy Church, in presence of 
Bedeau who signed with me. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

(Signature not made.) 

In the year 1743, on the 30th of October, there died in this parish 
an infant, aged about 14 months, belonging to Anselm Joubert, ser- 
geant of troops. Its body was buried on the same day in the ceme- 
tery of this parish with the ceremonies prescribed by our Mother, 
The Holy Church, in witness whereof I have signed. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

-9 H. 


L'an mil Sept cent quarantes, trois le dix novembre est decede dam 
cette paroisse, Antoine Maguim dit L'esperance, age dans vironi 
trente cinq ans; il est mort apres avoir reou tousles sacrements. Soi 
Corps a ete inhume Le onze du meme mois dans Le Cimetier d( 
cette paroisse apres avoir dit La messe Sur Le Corps aveo Les cere 
monies prescrittes par nostre mere La Ste Eglisse Le meme jou 
et ans que dessin en foy de quoy jay Signe. J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarante trois Le douze de novembre est deced( 
dans cette paroisse a onzes heurs du soir francois devillier age dan 
virons quatorzes mois. Son Corps a ete inhume Le landemain dan 
L'Eglisse de cette paroisse avec Les ceremonies prescrittes par notr^ 
mere La Ste Eglisse en foy de quoy j'ay signe. J. GtAGNON, Prestre 

L'an mil Sept cent quarante trois Le Seize novembre est decede< 
dans cette paroisse une Esclave f emme elle agee dans virons trente an 
appartenant a M Le Chevallier Deberlet Major Commandant de 
Illinois. Son Corps a ete inhume Le landemain dans Le Cimetier d 
cette paroisse avec Les Ceremonies prescrittes par notre mere L 
Ste Eglise as presensance de Silom qui a signe aveo moy de ce in 
terpelle. J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le vingt quartre de novembr 
j'e sousi J. Gagnon prestre missionnaire de la paroisede Ste Anne j'a 
baptise une enfans ne de la veille du legitime mariage du M f rancoi 
devillier Enise officierdes troupes detachee; de la marienne et dam 
Elizabett St Ange. Ses pere et mere on lui a donne Le nom de Mari( 
Le parrian a ete M. Joseph Buchet Garde Magazine du roy. La me 
reinne Marie hebert. Le parrain a signer aveo moy; La mareinne ; 
declaree ne Savoir signer a fait La marque. 

Buchet marque de 

Marie hebert. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 


In the year 1743, on the 10th of November, there died in this 
parish Anthony Magnien, called Lesperance, aged about 35 years. 
He died after having received all the sacraments. His body was 
buried on the eleventh of this same month, in the cemetery of this 
parish, after mass had been said over the body with the ceremonies 
prescribed by our mother, The Holy Church, on the same day and 
year as above. In witness whereof I signed. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1743, on the 12th day of November, there died in this 
parish, at eleven o'clock at night, Francis Devillier, aged about 14 
months. His body was buried on the following day in the church 
of the parish, vvith the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, The 
Holy Church. In witness whereof I have signed. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1743, on the 16th of November, there died in this par- 
ish a female slave, aged about 30 years, belonging to M. Le Cheval- 
lier Deberlet, Major Commanding of Illinois. Her body was buried 
on the following day in the cemetery of this parish, with the ceremonies 
prescribed by our mother. The Holy Church, in presence of Silam, 
who has signed with me upon this request. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

(Signature not made.) 

In the year 1743, on the 24th of November, I, the undersigned, J . 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Anne's parish, baptized an infant 
born in the village (?) of the legitimate marriage of M. Francis De- 
villier, ^rmVe (?) officer of the troops detached from the marine, 
and the dame Elizabeth St. Ange. Her father and mother named 
her Marie. The godfather was M. Joseph Buchet, Guard of the 
King's Magazine; the godmother, Marie Hebert. The godfather 
signed with me, the godmother declaring herself unable to sign, 
made her mark. 

Buchet. mark of 

Marie Hebert. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 



L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le trente novembre je sousigne 
J. Gagnon prestre missionnaire de la paroise de Ste anne je baptisse 
deux entans ne de la vielle d'un Exclave negre infidel et dame 
sauvagesse ponis, aussi infidele tous deux appartenant a madame St, 
Ange veuves defer (?) M de St Ange Capitaine informe on a donne 
a un Le nom de pierre Igniace, a L'autre ce lui de Magdelainne. Le 
parrain du Garcon a ete M de Lafernne Sargien Major du poste 
La mareinne Mademoisselle Cathrine Delessant, Le parrain de La fiUe 
a ete Le Sieur Andre Chaverneau. La mareinne Magdelaine Chassic 
femme de jean baptiste malet, Les parrains et mareinnes avout signi 
avec moy ou fait Leur marque ordinaire qui est une oroix. 

Signatures Toferng 
marque de marque de marque de 

Andre Chaverneaux Madelaine Chassen Mallet Cathrine de Lessarl 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le 2 Desbre 1743 je sousigne J 
Gagnon prestre missionnair de la paroisse du fort de Chartres Jj 
baptisse un enfan ne du meme jour du legitime mariage de Maturir 
pineaux et de Marie Illinoisse. Ses pere et mere on lui a donne Le 
nom de marie. Le parrain a ete Lessieur huber finet. La mareinne 
Marie francoisse Millet femme de dodie, Le parrain a singne avec moy 
La mareinnne a declaree ne savoir signes a fait La marque ordinain 
qui est une croix. 


marque de 
Marie francoisse 
Millet Dodie 
J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarante trois Le second de dessembre esl 
decede dans cette paroisse Marie pineaux agee de deux jours Son 
Corps a ete inhume Le lendemain dans Le Cimetier de cette paroisse 
avec Les ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere La Sainte Eglifc«se 
en presance dussieur huber finet qui a signe avec moy. 


J. Gagnon, Prestre. 



In the year 1743, on the 30th of November, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Anne's parish, baptized two infants 

born in the village (?) of an infidel negro slave and a savage ? 

also an infidel, both belonging to Madam St. Ange, widow of the late M. 

St. Ange, Captain ?. The one they named Peter Ignatius, the 

other Magdalen. The godfather to the boy was M. de Lafernne 

? major of the post; the godmother, Miss Catherine Delessant 

The godfather of the girl was Sir Andrew Chaverneau, the god- 
mother, Magdalen Chassin, wife of John Baptist Malet. The god- 
fathers and godmothers have signed with me or made their ordinary 
mark, which is a cross. 


Mark of Mark of Mark of 


Andrew Chaverneaux Magdalen Chassin Mallet Catherine de Lessart 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1748, on the 2d of December, (1743) I, the under- 
signed, J. Gagnon, missionary priest of the parish of Fort Chartres, 
baptized an infant born on the same day of the legitimate marriage 
of Maturin Pinneaux and Marie Illinois. Its father and mother 
named her Marie. The godfather was Sir Hubert Finet; the god- 
mother, Marie Francis Millet, wife of Dodie, The godfather signed 
with me, the godmother declaring herself unable to sign made her 
ordinary mark which is a cross. 

Finet. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

Mark of 


Marie Francis, 

Millet Dodie. 

In the year 1743, on the 2d of December there died in this parish 
Marie Pineaux aged 2 days. Her body was buried on the following 
day in the cemetery of this parish with the ceremonies prescribed by 
our Mother, The Holy Church, in presence of Sir Hubert Finet, who 
signed with me. 

Finet, witness. J. Gagnon, Priest. 


L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le Sept de descembre est decedee 
Marie Illinoise femme de Maturin pineaux habitant dans cette paroise 
elle etait agee dans virons quarant ans, elle est mort apres avoir ete 
confesse et apres avoir recu le St. Viatique et Le Sacrament de 
I'extreme onction. Son corps a ete inhume Le meme jour dans Le 
Cimetire de Cette paroisse avec Les ceremonies presrittes par nostre 
mere La Ste Eglise en foy de quoy jay Signe de Sconehis( ?) sauiivant 
I'ordannance Le meme jour et ans que dessus(?) 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le dix Sept du mois de 
descembre Je sousigne J. Gagnon prestre missionnaire de la paroisse 
de Ste Anne Jay baptise un enfant ne du Seize du meme mois du 
Legitime marriage de Louis de populus, officier des troupes de La 
marine et de dame Marie Jachim Longlois. Les pere et mere 
on lui a donne Le nom de Joseph. Le parrian ete M. Joseph bucket, 
Guarde de Magazin du Roy; La mareinne Marie hebert fille de M. 
Igniace hebert, Captain de milice, Le parrain a signe avec Moy, La 
marionne a declaree ne savoir Signer de ce aucuns ? a faite La marque 
ordinaire qui est une croix. 

Bucket. [Buchet.l Marque de Marie. 


J, Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes trois Le vingt trois Desbre a dix 
heur du Soir est decedee Ceccilee Bourbonnoi femme de Antoine 
heneaux habitant dans cette paroisse; elle etoit agee dans virons trente 
deux ans. Elle est morte apres avoir ete confessee plussieurs fois 
pendant Sa maladie et apres avoir recu Le St Viatique et Sacra- 
ment de L'extreme onction en pleine Connoissance. Son Corps a ete 
inhume Le lendermain dans Le Cimetier de cette paroisse avec Les 
Ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere La Ste Eglise en presance des 
Sieurs Silam rotand qui ont Signe avec moy de ce interpelle. 

Silam. J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

Rotand. Bubois. 



In the year 1748 on the 7th of December there died Marie Illinois, 
wife of Maturin Pineaux, living in this parish. She was about 40 
years old and died after having confessed, received the holy viaticum 
and the sacrament of extreme unction. Her body was buried on the 
same day in the cemetery of this parish with the ceremonies of our 
mother, The Holy church. In witness whereof 1 have signed 

(?) following the ordinance on the same day and year as 

above. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1743 on the 17 of the month of December I, the under- 
signed, J. Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Anne's parrish baptized an 
infant born on the 16th of this same month of the legitimate marriage 
of M. Louis de Populus, oflScer of the marine troop, and the dame 
Marie Joachim Longlois. The father and mother named him Joseph. 
The godfather was M. Joseph Bucket, Guard of the King's Magazin, 
the godmother Marie Hebert, the daughter of M. Ignatius Hebert, 
Captain of the militia. The godfather signed with me, the god- 
mother declaring herself unable to sign (?) made her 

ordinary mark, a cross. 

Bucket, mark of Marie 


J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1743 on the 23 December at 10 o'clock at night there 
died Cecilia Bourbonnoi, wife of Anthony Heneaux, dwelling in this 
parish. She was about 32 years old and died after having confessed 
frequently during her sickness, and after having received the holy 
viaticum and the sacrament of extreme unction in full consciousness. 
Her body was buried on the following day in the cemetery of this 
parish with the ceremonies prescribed by our Mother, The Holy 
Church, in presence of Sirs Silam, Rotand, who signed with me upon 

Silam. Bnbois. 

Rotand. J. Gagnon. Priest. 


B 1743. 

L'an mil sapt cent quarantes trois le vingt sept de Decbre, J'ay, 
sousigne, J. Gagnon, prestre, certifis avoir enterre un enfans exclave, 
age dans virons six semennes, ie meme jour et an que dessu avec les 
ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere, la Ste. Eglis, en presance dei 
Siiam Bedeau de la ditte paroisse. En foy de quoy jay signe, 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil sept cent quarantes trois le vingt huitieme de Decembre 
de la meme annee, Je Sousigne N. Laurent, prestre, missionnaire 
apostolique, Jay baptise en I'absence de M. J. Gagnon, missionnaire 
de la paroisse de Ste. Anne du Fort de Chartres, une fille nee du, 
meme mois et jour que est dessus, du legitime mariage de Andre 
Thomas des Jardins et de Marie Joseph Lorette. Les pere et mere 
ou lui a donne le nom de Marie Joseph. Le parrain a ete Antoine 
Lorette, habitant de la sus paroisse, et la maraine Helene 
Danys, femme de Ignau Hebert, capitaine de milice. Le parain 
a signe avec moy, et la marainne ajouter declare ne savoir signer, a 
fait sa marque ordinaire qui est une croix. 

Marque de 

X Antoine Lorette. Laurent, | 

Heleinne Danys. P. M. Ap. 

L'an mil sept cent quarantes (?), le treizes Janvier, Je sousigne, 
J. Gagnon, prestre mis. de la paroisse de Ste. Anne, ay baptise un 
enfant, ne du douzesdu mesme mois, d'une negresse exclave. Negresse 
appartenant a M. Du Claud (Emille), officier des troupes detachee 
de la marine. Le pere est inconu. On lui a donne le nom de Fran- 
cois. Le parrain a ete Joseph Baron le fils; la mareinne a ete 
Mademoiezelle Elisabeth Pu Claude. Le parrain et la marienne ont 
declares se savoir signer, ou fait leur marque ordinaire qui est une 

Marque de Marque de 

X X J. Gagnon, 

Elisabeth Du Claud, Joseph Baron, le fils. Ptre. 


B 1743 

In the year 1743, on the 27th of December, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, prie ft, testify to have interred a slave infant, aged about six 
weeks, on the same day and year as above mentioned, with the cere- 
monies prescribed by our mother, the Holy Church, in presence of 
Silam Bedeau of the said parish. In witness whereof I have signed, 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 174H, on the 28th of December of the same year, I, the 
undersigned, N. Laurent, priest, missionary apostolic, I baptized, in 
the absence of M. J. Gagnon, missionary of St. Anne's parish of 
Fort Chartres, a daughter, born in the same month and day men- 
tioned above, of the legitimate marriage of Andrew Thomas des Jar- 
dins and of Marie Joseph Lorette. The father and mother named 
her Marie Joseph. The godfather was Anthony Lorette, living in the 
above said parish, the godmother Helen Danis, wife of Ignatius 
Hebert, captain of the militi^i. The godfather signed with me, and 
the godmother, having declared herself unable to sign, made her or- 
dinary mark, a cross. 

Mark of 

X Antoine Lorette. Laurent, 

Helen Danys. P. M. Ap. 

In the year 1740 (4?), on the 18 th of January, I, the undersigned, 
J. Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Anne's parish, baptized an in- 
fant, born on the 12th of this same month, of a negress, a slave be- 
longing to M. Du Claud (?), officer of the troops, a detachment 

of the marines. The father is unknown. It was named Francis. 
The godfather was Joseph Baron, le fils, the godmother was Miss 
Elizabeth Du Claud. The godfather and godmother declared them- 
selves unable to sign, and made their ordinary mark, a cross. 

Mark of Mark of 

X X J. Gagnon, 

Elizabeth Du Claud. Joseph Baron, le fils. Priest. 

138 • 


L'an mil Sept cent quarante quartes Le deux fevrier est decedee 
Le Sieur obrooh de pinquel natifs du bourque de onarville en bosse 
Evechee de Chartres; il etoit ageedans virons 70 ans. II est mort de 
mort de mort Subite, il avoit ete confesse deux jours avant. Son 
corps a ete inhume le landemain dans Le Cemetrier de cette paroisse 
avec Les Ceremonies presorittes par notre mere La Sainte Eglise 
en presance des Sieurs Robilliard, Dubois, Hennet qui ont signes 
avec moy de ce intepelle. 

Dubois. Hennet. Robbilliard. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes quartres Le huit feuvrier j'e sousigne 
J. Gagnon, prestre missionnaire de la paroisse de St Anne ay baptisse 
une enfant ne de La veille d'un Exclave negresse appartenant a Son- 
schasfrin on lui a donne Le nom de Charlotte. Le parrain a ete 
Francois Hennet Les fils, La marienne Charlotte Chassin. Le par- 
rain a signe avec moy, La marienne a declaree ne scavoir signer a 
faite sa marque ordinaire qui est une croix. J. Gagnon, prestre. 


L'an mil Sept cent quarante quatres Le vingt de fevrier j'e sou- 
signe, J. Gagnon, prestre, missionnaire de la paroisse de Ste Anne 
j'ay baptise un enfant exclave ne de la ville du legitime marriage de 
Joseph negre et de Marie Anne negresse. Ses pere et mere apparte- 
nant a M Roy Siergien, Major; on lui a donne le nom de Louis. Le 
parrain a ete Francois, negre exclave appartenant a M de Lafenne, 
La marienne Louise, negresse, appartanant a M DeGrin , officier des 
troupes. Le parrain et La marreinne ou declaree ne savoir signer 
ou fait leur marque ordinaire qui est une croix. 

Marque de Francois Marque de Louise 

X X 

Negre. Negresse. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes quartres, Le vingt Cinq de fevrier, 
j'e sousigne, J. Gagnon, prestre, missionnaire de la paroisse de Ste 
Anne au Fort de Chartres ay baptise un enfant ne de la ville du 
legitime mariage de Jean Baptiste Holande et de Charlotte Marchand. 
Ses pere et mere on lui a donne le nom de Louis. Le parrain a ete 
M Louis St Ange, officier; La marrienne Madame Elisabeth St 
Romin, veuve de feu M de St Ange Capitaine reforme. Le parrain 
et La marreinne. 

(Pages 7, 8, 9, 10 are lost.) 



In the year 1?44, on the 2nd of February, there died Sir Obroch 

de Pinquel, a native of ( ?), bishopric of Chartres. He was 

about 70 years old, he died the death of sudden death, he had con- 
fessed two days before. His body was buried on the following day 
in the cemetery of this parish with the ceremonies prescribed by our 
mother, The Holy Church, in presence of Sirs Robilliard, Dubois, 
Hennet, who have signed with me upon request. 

Dubois. Hennet. Robilliard. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 8th of February, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Ann's parish baptized an infant, 
born in the village (?) of a negress slave belonging to Sonschagrin. 
They named it Charlotte. The godfather was Francis Hennet Le fils; 
the godmother Charlotte Chassin. The godfather signed with me, the 
godmother declared herself unable to sign and made her ordinary 
mark, a cross. 

(The sign was omitted.) Hennet. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 20th of February, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Ann's parish, baptized a slave infant, 
born in the town (?), of the legitimate marriage of the negro Joseph 
and the negress Marie Anne. The father and mother belonged to 

M. Roy (?) Major, and named him Louis. The godfather 

was Francis, a negro slave belonging to Lefernne, the godmother, 
Louisa, a negress belonging to M. De Grin, an officer of the troops. 
The godfather and godmother have declared themselves unable to 
sign and made their ordinary mark, a cross. 

Mark of Francis Mark of Louise 

X X 

Negro. Negress. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 25th of February, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Ann's parish at Fort Chartres, bap- 
tized an infant of the village (?), born of the legitimate marriage of 
John Baptist Holandi and Charlette Marchand. The father and 
mother named him Louis. The godfather was M. Louis de St. Ange, 

an officer, the godmother. Madam Elizebeth St. Romin, widow ? 

of M. de St. Ange, Captain (?). The godfather and godmother 

(Leaves 4 and 5, i. e., pages 7, 8, 9 and 10 are lost.) 



L'an mil sept cent quarantes quatres le vingt sept de juUiet je 
sousigne, J. Gagnon, priest, missionaire de la paroisse de Ste Anne, 
j'ay baptise un enfant ne du meme jour du legitime mariage de 
Michel Lejeunee et de Madeleine Hennet. Ses pere et mere demeur- 
mant en cette paroisse; en lui a donne le nom de Michel. Le parrain a 
ete Francois Hennet Sanschagrin le fils, la Mareinne Marie Hebert 
jQlle du Sieur Igniace Hebert, capitane de milice. le parrain a signe 
avec moy; le pere et la mareine ont declare ne scavoir signer de ce 
auchis (?) Suivant L'ordannance ont fait leur marque ordinaire qui 
est une croix. 


du pere 

hennet marque de 

Marie hebert 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 

L'an mil sept cent quarante quatres le second aout apres avoir 
publie trois de mariage auprone de messes paroissialles de L Eglisse 
de Ste Anne du Fort de Chartres le premier le jour de St. Pierre 
vingt neufs juin le seconde le premier Dimanche de Julliet le 
troisieme le second Dimanche Julliet entre Francois Hardy fils de 
feu Francois Hardy et de Marie Francoise Clontier natif de la par- 
oisse de St. Brieux Eveschee; deson pere Corrantin d'une part et de 
Helaine Zibert fiUe de Antoine Zibert dit la Montague, sergent de la 
compagnie de Mimbret (?) et de Jeanne Gessie demeurant en cette 
paroisse ne setant trouve ancun empechement legitime je sousigne, 
J. Gagnon, prestre, missionnaire de la paroisse de Ste Anne du Fort 
de Chartres ay recu leur mutuel consequement de mariage et leur 
ay donne la benediction nupsialle avec les ceremonies prescrittes 
par nostre mere la Ste Eglise en presance de Janne Gessie la mere 
de la fiiles, de Jean Hanrions de Silam et de Francois Dianyois De- 
mar Hanrion qui eut tout signer avec moy de ce interpelle. 

marque du 
Mario francois hardy 
Dubois thimorss 
Guillamme Ragry 

marque de 




de gare tersie 

marque de 


helaine Zibert 

Jean Genrion 

marque de 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 



In the year 1744, on the 27th of July, I, the undersigned, J. Gag- 
non, a missionary priest of St. Ann's parish, baptised an infant born 
on the same day of the legitimate marriage of Michael Lejeune and 
Magdalen Hennet. His father and mother living in this parish 
named him Michael. The godfather was Francis Hennet Sansacha- 
grin, Le fils; the godmother, Marie Hebert, daughter of Sir Igna- 
tius Hebert, captain of the militia. The godfather signed with me, 
the father and the godmother declared themselves unable to sign, 

? following the ordinance they made their ordinary mark, 

a cross. 

I Mark Hennet Mark of 

X X 

of the father. Marie Hebert. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 2d of August, after the marriage bans be- 
ing published thrice during the parochial masses at the church of 
St. Ann of Fort Chartre. The first time on the Feast of St. Peter, 
Jane 29; the second time on the first Sunday of July; the third time 
on the second Sunday of July, between Francis Hardy, son of the 
late Francis Hardy and of Marie Francis (Jlontier, native of the 

parish of St. Brieux (?), bishopric of '■ (?) of the one part; 

and Helen Zibert, daughter of Anthony Zibert, called La Montague, 
sergeant of the company of Mimbret (?) and of Jane Gessie, living 
in this parish. No legitimate impediment having been discovered, 
I, the undersigned, J. Gagnon, a missionary priest of St, Ann's 
parish at Fort Chartre, have received their mutual consent of mar- 
riage and gave them the nuptial blessing with the ceremonies pre- 
scribed by our mother, The Holy Church, in presence of Jane Gessie, 
the mother of the bride, John Hanrions, Silam and Francis Diony- 
sius, Demar Hanrin, who all signed with me on request, 

Mark of Marie Mark of 

X X 

Francis Hardy. Helen Zibert. 

Jean Genrion. 
Dubois Tjornoir. Mark of 

William Ragry. Jane Gessie. 

Mark of Mark of 

X X 

Gregnire. Demar. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 


L'an mil sept cent quarante quatres le cinq: spbre de Septembre, 
est decedee d'uns cette paroisse a dix heurs du soir, Reneo Hebert, 
agee dans virons huit ans fils du Sieur Igniace Hebert, capitaine de 
miiice, et de Helaine Dany. Son corps a ete inhume le lendemain 
dans le cimetiere de cette paroisse, avec les ceremonies prescrittes 
par notre mere, la Ste. Eglise. En foy de quoy j'ay signe. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil sept cent quarantes quatres le huit de Spbre est decede 
dans cette paroisse une exclave femmelle, agee dans virons cinq ans 
appartenant a Baron, habitant Des Kohos, Son corps a ete inhume 
dans le cimetier de cette paroisse, avec les ceremonies prescrittes par 
notre mere, la Ste. Eglise. En foy de quoy j'ay signe. 

J. Gagnon. 

L'an mil sept cent quarantes quatres le vingt Sepbre est decedee 
dans cette paroisse une exclave adulte appartenant aux enfans de 
Loissel, habitant dans cette paroisse. Son corps a ete inhume dans 
le cimetier de cette paroisse, avec les ceremonies prescritte par notre, 
la Ste. Eglise. Watrin, Jesuiste Pr. 

L'an mil sept cent quarantes quatres est decede dans cette paroisse 
une enfant, age dans virons, unan; appartenant a Aug'tin Longlis, 
habitant de la Prairie du Roches. Son corps a ete inhume le meme 
jour dans le cimetier de cette ohapelle, avec les ceremonies prescrittes 
par notre mere, la Ste. Eglise. En foy de quoy j'ay signe. 

Watrin, Jesuiste. 



In the year 1744, on the 5th of Septembre, Keneo Hebert died in 
this parish at ten o'clock at night, aged about eight years, son of Sir 
Ignatius Hebert, captain of the militia, and of Helen Dany. His 
body was buried on the following day in the cemetery of this parish, 
with the ceremonies prescribed by our mother. Holy Church. In 
witness whereof I have signed. J. GtAGNON, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 8th of September, a female slave died in 
this parish, aged about five years, belonging to Baron, living in 

(?) Her body was buried in the cemetery of this parish, with 

the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, the Holy Church. In wit- 
ness whereof I signed. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 20th of September, an adult slave died in 
this parish, belonging to the child of Loissel, living in this parish. 
Her body was buried in the cemetery of this parish, with the cere- 
monies prescribed by our Holy Church. 

Watein, Jesuit Priest. 

In the year 1744 an infant died in this parish, aged about one year, 
belonging to August Longlois, living in Prairie du Roches. Its 
body was buried on the same day in the cemetery of this chapel, 
with the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, the Holy Church. 
In witness whereof I have signed. Watrin, Jesuit. 



L'an mil Sept cent quarante quatres Septieme Le quatre octobre 
est decede dans cette paroisse une Exclave enfant appartenant a M. 
Deberlet Major Commandant de La province des Illinois. Son corps 
a ete inhume Le meme jour dans Le Cimetier de cette paroisse aveo 
Les Ceremonies prescrittes par nostre mere La Ste Eglisse enfoy 
de quoy jay Signe. Watrin, p. M. J. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarante quatres Le trente aout est decede 
dans cette paroisse Jean pare avoir ete confesse nayant pas en Le 
temps de lui administrer d'autres, Sacrament; il etoit age dans virons 
oiaquante ans. Son corps a ete inhume Le meme jour dans Le 
Cimetier de cette paroisse avec Les ceremonies prescrittes par nostre 
mere La Ste Eglise en presance de Silam et de hennet Senschagrin 
qui ont signes avec moy de se onchis (?) Suivant I'ordinance. 

Selam hennet. Waetin, p. J. mis. 

L'an mil Sept cent quatres Le dix Sept octobre je sounigne J. 
Gagnon prestre missionaire de la paroisse. Ste anne ay baptise un 
enfans ne de La ville du legitime marriage de Jacque Silam et de 
Marie Madeleine Collerat. Ses pere et mere en lui a donne Le nom 
de Joseph. Le parrain a ete Joseph Laroche, La mareine helaine 
Danis femme du Sieur Igniace Hebert Captaine de milice Le 
parrain et La mareine on declare ne savoir Signer en fait Leur 
marque ordinaire qui est une Croix. 

Silam. marque de marque de 

X X 

helaine Danis. Laroche. 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes quatres Le dix heurs du Soir est 
decede en cette paroisse Ethienne gevremon age dans virons quarante 

cinq: un natifs de la paroisse de la vil a Chanplain, et 

est mort sans Lai administrer anqun sacraments d'allieur 

11 viyoit asse(?) Chretiennement. 





In the year 1744 on the fourth of October an infant slave died in 
this parrish belonging to M. Deberlet, Major Commandant, of the 
Illinois Province. Her bodj^ was buried on the same day in the 
cemetery of this parish with the ceremonies prescribed by our Mother, 
Holy Church. In witness whereof I have signed. 

Wartin, p. M. J. 

In the year 1744 on the 30 of August John Pare died in this 
parish having confessed, there remained no time to administer the 
other sacraments to him, he was about 50 years old. His body waa 
buried the same day in the cemetery of this parish with the cere- 
monies prescribed by our Mother, Holy Church, in presence of vSilam 

and of Hennet Sonscha^rin who signed- with me (?) 

in accordance with the ordinance. 

Silam, Hennet. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744 on the 17th day of October, I, the undersigned, 
J Gagnon, a missionary priest of St. Ann's parish, baptized an 
infant of the village (?) born of the legitimate marriage of James 
Silam and of Marie Magdalen Collerat The father and mother 
named him Joseph, The godfather was Joseph Laroche, the god- 
mother Helen Danis, wife of Sir Ignatius Hebert, Captain of the 
of the militia. The godfather and the godmother declared them- 
selves unable to sign and made their ordinary mark, a cross. 

mark of mark of 

X X 

Silam. Helen Danis. Laroche, 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744 on the 18th of October about six o'clock in the 
evening, Ethienne Gevremon died in this parish, aged about 45years, 
a native of the parish of the ( blurred) . . . . ? ? in Chan- 
plain. He died without any sacrament being administered, other- 
wise he had lived in a Christian manner. 

—10 H. 


Son corps a ete inhume le lendemain dans le Cimetier de La 
Chapelle de La Concession avec Les Ceremonies prescrittes par notre 
mere La Sainte Eglisse en presance de Gabriel Dodie de Jacque 
Millet qui ont signes avec moy de Ce onclii8(?)Suivant L'ordonanoe. 

J. GrAGNON, prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes quatres Le vingt deux d'octobre Je 
sousigne J. Gagnon prestre missionnaire de la paroisse de Ste Anne 
du fort de Cbartres ay baptisse un enfant ne de la veil du Legitime 
mariage de M. Joseph Buchet Garde, des magazine du roy et dame 
Marie francoisse potier. Ses pere et mere on lui a donne Le nom de 
Alexandre. Le parrain a ete M. Alexandre du Claud officier des 
troupes; La mareinne damoysselie Marie hebert fille de M. Igniace 
hebert Capitaine de milice. Le parrain a Signe avec moy, La mareine 
a declaree ne Savoir Signer a fait Sa marque ordinaire qui est une 


Marque ^ 

de Marie Hebert. J. Gagnon, prestre. 

L'an mil Sept cent quarantes quatres Le vingt quatres d'octobre Je 
sousigne J. Gagnon prestre ay baptisse un enfant ne de La veil du 
Legitime mariage de Antoine Zibert dit La montague Sergent de la 
Compagnie de M. de Mimbret et de Jeanne Le gueder. Ses pere et 
mere on lui a donne Le nom de Thomas. Le parrain a ete Thomas de 
mare; La mareinne marie barbe fem de Jean hanrion habitant dans 
cette paroisse. Le parrain et La mareine on delares ne Savoir signer 
ny Ecrive de ce onkis (?) suivant L'ordonance on fait Leur marques 
ordinaires qui est une croix. 

Marque Marque 

X X 

de Marie de Demar 

J. Gagnon, prestre. 


His body was buried on the following day in the cemetery of the 
!])hapel of the Concession with the ceremonies prescribed by Our 
lliother, the Holy Church, in presence of Gabriel Dodie and James 
Iklillet who signed with me ? following the ordinance. 

(Signatures neglected.) J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 22d of October, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, missionary priest of St. Ann's parish of Fort Chartres bap- 
ized an infant born in the village of the legitimate marriage of 
foseph Buchet, guard of the King's magazin and Dame Marie Fran- 
lis Potier. The father and mother named him Alexander. The god- 
father was M. Alexander DuClaud, an officer of the troops, the god- 
aother, Miss Marie Hebert daughter of M. Ignatius Hebert, captain 
)f the militia. The godfather signed with me, the godmother de- 
ilared herself unable to sign and made her ordinary mark, which is a 
iross. J. Gagnon, Priest. 



Mark of 
ilarie Hebert. 

In the year 1744, on the 24th of October, I, the undersigned, J* 
jagnon, a priest, baptized an infant born in the village, of the legiti- 
aate marriage of Anthony Zibert, called LaMontague, sergeant of 
he company of M. de Mimbret, and Jane Le Gueder. His father 
,nd mother named him Thomas. The godfather was Thomas De- 
aar, the godmother, Marie Barbe, wife of John Hanrion, living in 
his parish. The godfather and godmother declared themselves ua- 

ible to sign or write ? obeying the ordinance they made their 

•rdinary mark which is a cross. 

>Iark of Mark of 

X X 

Marie. Demar. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 



L an mil sept cent quarantes quatres le huit d'Octobre, Je, sou- 
eigne, J. Gagnon, prestre missionnaire de la paroisse de Ste. Anne 
ay baptise un enfant, ne de la ville, du legitime mariage de M. Alex 
andre du Claud, officier des troupes, et de Dame Elisabeth Philyppe 
Les pere et mere on lui a donne le nom de Marie Joseph. Le par 
rain a ete le Sieur Jean Baptiste Martigny de la paroisse Vowenne ii 
Canadas, la mareine Dame Janne Boulogne, fern me de M. Louvier 
demeurant en cette paroisse. Le parrain et mareine ont signer ave( 
moy de ce aupres (?), suivant I'ordonance. 

Jean Batiste Martigny. Duclos. J. Boulogne de Louvier. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil sept cent quarante quatre, le 7 Dbre, est decedee dam 
cette parois une exclave rouge, appartenant a Augustin Longlois, agi 
dans virons 16 ans. Son corps a ete inhume le lendemain daDS L 
cimetier de cette paroisse, avec les ceremonies prescrittes par nostri 
mere, la Ste. Eglise. En foy de quoy Jay signe. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 

L'an mil sept cent quarante quatre est decede dans cette paroisse 
Antoine Pli, dit La Plume, age dans viront, soyesant ans natifs di 
village Ville Evesch^s de M. Homer. Son corps a ete inhume L 
lendermain dans le cimetier de cette paroisse, avec les ceremonie 
prescrittes par nostre mere, la Ste. Eglise, en presance de Sieur 
Hennet, Dubois, Deneau, qui out signes avec moy de ce interpelle. 

Dubois. . Hennet. J. Gagnon, Prestre 


L'an mil sept cent quarante cinq: le cinq de Janvier, est decede i 
dix heurs, du Sir Denis Baron, agee dans viron vingt aas. II est mor 
apres avoir ete confesse plussieur fois et apres avoir recu le Ste 
viatique et le sacrament de I'extreme onction. Son corps a ete in 
hume le lendemain dans le cimetier de cette paroisse, avec les cere 
monies prescrittes par nostre mere, la Ste. Eglise, en presance d( 
Hanrion, de Hennet Sonschagrin, qui ont signe avec moy de c« 
aupres (?) suivant I'ordonance. 

J. Gagnon, Prestre. 



In the year 1744, on the 8th of October, I, the undersigned, J. 
Gagnon, a missionary priest of St. Ann's parish, baptized an infant, 
born in the village (?) of the legitimate marriage of M. Alexander 
Da Claud, officer of the troops, and the Dame Elizabeth Philyppe. 
Its father and mother named it Marie Joseph. The godfather was 

Sir John Baptist Martii^ny of the parish (?) in Canada, the 

godmother Dame Jane Boulogne, wife of M. Louvier, living in this 

parish. The godfather and godmother signed with me (?) 

obeying the ordinance. 

John Baptist Martigny. Duclos. J. Boulogne de Louvier. 

J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, on the 7th of December, a red slave died in this 
parish, belonging to August Longlois, aged about 16 years. The 
body was buried on the following day in the cemetery of this parish, 
with the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, Holy Church. In 
witness whereof I have signed. J. Gagnon, Priest. 

In the year 1744, Anthony Pli, called La Plume, died in this par- 
ish, aged about sixty years, a native of the village Ville, diocese of 

(?) His body was buried the following day in the cemetery 

of this parish, with the ceremonies prescribed by our mother, Holy 
Church, in presence of Sirs Hennet, Dubois, Deneau, who signed 
with me upon this request. 

Dubois. Hennet. J. Gagnon, Priest. 


In the year 1745, on the 5th of January, Denis Baron died at 6 o'clock 
in the evening, aged about twenty years. He died after having con- 
fessed many times, and after having received the holy viaticum and 
the sacram nt of extreme unction. His body was buried on the fol- 
lowing day in the cemetery of this parish, with the ceremonies pre- 
scribed by our mother, Holy Church, in presence of Hanrion, of 

Hennet Sonsohagrin, who signed with me (?), following the 


(Signatures neglected.) J. Gagnon, Priest. 



Ferdinand Ernst. 

I The following pages are taken from a small book, printed in the German language » 
now in the public library of Belleville, 111., entitled, "Observations Made Upon a Journey 
Through the Interior of the United States of North America in the Year 1819, by Ferdinand 
Ernst " It was published at Hildesheim, in Hanover, in 1823, and is now translated into 
Enelish in 1903. for thp first time in this country, for the Illinois State Historical Library, by 
Prof ti. P. Baker of McKendree College. The extracts here presented embody the obser- 
vations of the traveler in the State of Illinois and vicinity of St. Louis in Missouri. The 
trustees of the State Historical Library contemplate publishing the entire work in the near 
future. J. F. S.] 

Toward noon of the 29th of July, (1819) , I came upon the so-called 
English meadow where the Englishmen, Birkbeck and Flower, have 
been established for three years. These men who have selected a region 
not remarkable for its fruitfulness and appear to show, on the other 
hand, but little industry in the cultivation of the land, have, never- 
theless, already attracted to themselves such a colony of people that 
a little town. New Albion, is being built, and in spite of the very un- 
favorable local circumstances this region will soon be well populated. 

Birkbeck's "Notes on a Journey in America, Etc.," I have at all 
times found to be in conformity with the truth, but his "Letters 
from Illinois," the accounts asserted will appear to every unpreju- 
diced farmer not sufficiently well founded, to say nothing of a man 
who investigated and tested the matter on the spot for an economic 
purpose and found in the broad meadow lands not a single acre 
either of Indian corn (maize) especially necessary in the first year 
of culture, nor of wheat; but many hundreds of these aie introduced 
into the accounts. Likewise there has come to my notice not a 
single fruit farm so essential from an economic standpoint, and in 
this climate so wholesome; yet the peach begins to bear fruit in the 
third year and can therefore be cultivated quickly and easily. 

It was not possible to go from here directly across the Little Wa- 
bash to Kaskaskia. Therefore I saw myself obliged to continue my 
wanderings southward to the confluence of the great and Little 
Wabash whither a very fine road leads toward Carmi. This city lies 
upon the Little Wabash about 30 English miles above its union with 
the great Wabash. It conducts rather lively trade in wares which, 
on account of the shorter and very fine road, arrive here for the most 
part by land from Shawneetown. 

Before one reaches Carmi the road leads through several very well 
cultivated farms where the eye is delighted by luxuriant fields of 
maize. Here is the strip where, in the year 1813, a fearful hurricane 
produced terrible devastation. The road leads through a forest in 
which all trees have, from seven to ten feet above the ground, been 


twisted like willows, and their tops often cast to the ground in the 
opposite direction. Upon the Ohio this hurricane picked up a boat 
and threw it on land far from the bank. It traversed almost the 
entire continent of America, in width about one English mile and in 
direction from west to east. 

Not far from Carmi the road leads into a meadowy expanse (Big 
Prairie) in which, on account of its great fertility, a considerable 
number of settlers have already located. 

Many of these so-called prairies are found in the State of Illinois, 
and one could probably assume that they amount to a half of the 
entire area. According to the nature of their fertility they are cov- 
ered with tall or short grasses and shrubs and, indeed, no more in- 
viting thing can be imagined for a stranger than to settle here and 
to live and move in this abundance of nature. He needs to do noth- 
ing more than to put the plow once into these grassy plains, which 
are for the most part quite level, and his fields are splendid with the 
richest fruits and the most abundant harvests. How much easier is 
here the beginning of a planter than in the dense forest on the 
Ohio! In proof of this I venture to bring forward the fact that of 
all lands which till now have been offered for sale in the State of 
Illinois not a spot remains unsold where good water and timber are 
found together in fertile plains. But, alas, the good water is all too 
scarce in the southern part. The rivers have here no strong current, 
which circumstance, along with many others, produces each year 
many fevers; but one finds that this evil decreases in the same degree 
in which the land is brought under more extensive cultivation. A 
number of these evils as flies, mosquitoes, etc., likewise dissappear 
with increased cultivation. 

The flies become exceedingly troublesome to the traveler on horse 
in the great plains during the summer months of July, August and 
September; yes, it is even asserted that these insects in very hot 
weather are able to kill a horse in a short time. There are two 
kinds of these flies; the little green ones and the large horse fly. The 
first are the size of a common fly, the second often as large as a 
hornet. Since they almost always attack the head, neck and breast 
of the horse, a covering of canvas suffices to protect these parts. If 
one, in addition to this, uses the precaution of traveling, for the 
most part, before sunrise and after sunset then this nuisance is of 
but slight significance. 

What the flies are to the horses, the mosquitoes are to man. The 
mosquito is probably nothing more than the European gnat; at least 
I have found no differene between the mosquitoes in the States north 
of the Ohio and our gnat. Their bite is by no means more painful; 
their size, form and the fact that they make their appearance only 
in wet places and in the night time; all these things they have in 
common with the gnat. They are found in large numbers upon the 
low lands of the rivers and in uncultivated swampy regions, Every- 
thing that I have ever heard or read, be it good or bad, concerning 
these insects as well as everything concerning America is, for the 
most part, somewhat exaggerated. 


Upon the other side of the Little Wabash one finds much forest 
and fewer settlements. The nearer one comes, however, to Kas- 
kaskia the more the grass lands with alternating forests increase, 
which often form the most lovely views. If there were not too great 
lack of water here then these regions could be considered among the 
most beautiful and pleasing. 

On the other bank of the Kaskaskia (Okaw), a very important 
river here, lies the town Kaskaskia where at present the seat of the 
State government is located. It was founded more than 50 years 
ago by the French Canadians and is nevertheless not very important; 
it appears, likewise, not to have a very healthy location, sioce it lies 
in the valley of the Mississippi (American bottoms) which is recog- 
nized as very unhealthful in every part. Yet, this evil which pro- 
ceeds from the overflowing of the Mississippi and from the damp 
ground improves gradually with lime. It has been observed that 
from year to year this valley dries out more, and at present, is very 
seldom overflowed by the river, and that only in the lower parts. 
Kaskaskia has not been inundated for 30 years. In the Catholic 
church at that place I found a rather large congregation assembled. 
The young, well dressed minister edified us in the French language 
with such rare eloquence and such an excellent pronunciation that I 
was greatly surprised because it was quite unexpected to me. 

After dinner I had the honor of being invited to tea at the home 
of Governor Bond where I, for the first time in the new world, found 
myself in a company of distinguished ladies. On the whole I was 
shown great attention and agreeable kindness, That which stands 
the stranger in good stead — who is usually too little acquainted with 
the language of the land and its customs — is the banishment from 
higher aud lower society of all so-called etiquette and unnecessary 
compliments. The American never greets one by taking off the hat, 
but by a cordial grasp of the hand. One steps up to the most dis- 
tinguished persons with covered head. He is urged little, or not at 
all, to eat and drink according to the measure of his appetite. Never- 
theless in all companies the greatest order and decorum prevails, 
and great respect and attention is shown the ladies present. 

As. in a free state, the distinction of classes does not come into 
consideration, so is this also the case here between the Governor and 
his guests, 

From here I took a walk to the Mississippi, 1^ English miles dis- 
tant. This powerful stream, which collects all the waters of the great 
interior of North America in its monstrous bed, was at that time 
very low; nevertheless its swiftly flowing waters inspired astonish- 
ment in me. Its water is turbid and the beauty of the stream is 
greatly dimished by the many tree trunks projecting here and there 
in its bed. By high water the stream tears these trees out of its 
banks and leaves them resting: upon shallow places until a higher 
flood carries them farther. Nevertheless it often happens that the 
trunk with its roots weighed down with earth, sinking down to the 
bottom of the river, remains lodged there sticking in the mud; then 


the trunks having become lighter through the loss of their branches 
rise and project out of the water like posts driven in. A short time 
ago they had an example of the dangerous effects of such a tree, 
pointed through the breaking ofip of its top, when a steamboat re- 
ceived one in its side and sank in a short time. 

In order to avoid this danger they are now beginning to provide 
steamboats with a double bottom, so that when the first is penetrated 
the second will furnish the desired security. Those tree trunks, dan- 
gerous to navigation, the Americans call logs, or snags. 

All towns founded by the French have usually a common pasturing 
place, as well as several other pieces of ground held in common Up- 
on this common pasture before Kaskaskia I saw for the first time in 
America that beautiful green grass plot which Europe produces so 
perfectly in so many varieties, delighting the eye, and the existence 
of which, as is well known, is due simply to the teeth of the cattle 
pasturing upon it. 

Edwardsville, July 30, 1820. 

At Kaskaskia begin the so- called American bottoms which form 
the valley of the Mississippi. Immediately above Kaskaskia the 
valley stretches out seven miles, as far as the village of Prairie du 
IRocher, and is shut in upon the east by steep rocky walls from which 
frequently the finest springs gush forth. The river is fringed com- 
pletely with forests, then up to the foot of the rocks extends level 
grassy plains the fruitfulness of which exceeds anything which one 
can imagine. 

Here I saw fields of maize in which grain had been grown for 30 
years and that, too, without any fertilizer. They left nothing to be 
desired for the stalks grow luxuriantly to the height of 15 feet. This 
soil consists of very rich black slime mingled with sand which is at 
times dun colored and, on account of the superfluity of humus, very 
light. The hills above the steep rocks are adorned, in part, by forest, 
in part by beautiful green sward. The valley hereby receives a very 
pleasing setting as that, on the whole, it produces one of the most 
charming regions of the State of Illinois. 

Above Prairie du Kocher the steep overhanging rocky walls lose 
themselves in the high hills Here I saw the beginning of the de- 
struction which the above mentioned tornsdo produced, and how it 
had taken its way, by Harrisonville, over the Mississippi. But its 
strength appeared not to have been so destructive as on the Wabash. 

On the 27th of July I crossed the Mississippi to St. Louis, a city 
situated upon the right bank of the river on elevated ground the 
substratum of which consists of rock. In these rocks (limestone) 
are found most remarkable impressions — for example, perfect im- 
pressions of feet, hands, bows and arrows of the Indians — so that 
one is inclined to believe this stone was in earlier times such a soft 
mass that it could receive such impressions, whereupon then these 
hard masses of stone have been formed by nature and time. There 


is such a stone at (New) Harmony which the colonists of that place, 
at great cost, caused to be transported thither, 180 English miles, on 
account of its strangeness.* 

A fine spring which gushed from the rocky bank, together with 
the elevated region free from forest, was presumably the inducement 
for the first settling of the city of St. Louis. Its founding falls 
within the period in which Philadelphia was established. Only 
since the mouth of the Mississippi and the surrounding region came 
into possession of the United States has St. Louis entered upon a 
period of prosperity. Therefore one cannot reproach this important 
place with its relatively advanced age. At present the city is ex- 
panding upon the heights of the river bank outside the district at 
present occupied, and this part will soon excel in beauty the older 
part which was a failure in the very outset. One finds here various 
quite handsome buildings, and the inhabitants are employed on every 
hand in the construction of new houses; hence, the many saw-mills 
in the vicinity among which is one driven by steam. 

St. Louis is situated in 38° 39' north latitude, and may easily have 
4,000 inhabitants. The surrounding region inland is meadow land 
which is, however, not so fertile as are usually the lands in the State 
of Illinois. This city is the seat of the territorial government of 
the Missouri territory. The motion to be advanced to a state and to 
have its own constitution met with difficulties in Congress, since 
Congress wished to impose the condition that slavery should be 
abolished in the state of Missouri. Now one finds most every day in 
the newspapers paragraphs concerning this subject, the majority of 
which are almost always zealously opposed to the introduction of 
slavery in the state of Missouri. Everywhere much is being written 
now concerning the possibility of getting rid of slavery as an 
acknowledged evil in the entire compass of the free states, so that 
people in general actually entertain the hope of seeing even the 
southern states soon freed from this plague. f 

The left bank of the river is quite liable to cave and wash, while 
upon the right bank are stones and rock which ward off these effects 
of the swift current. This washing away of the bank often amounts 
to 10 or 12 feet in a year, so that not seldom whole plantations are 
lost thereby. Two small towns, lUinoistown and Jacksonville, which 
are located opposite St. Louis, run the risk of finding their grave in 
the Mississippi in the course of time, 

In general, one may assume that all river banks in America are 
unhealthy places of abode, and especially the banks of the larger 
rivers. This year the ague is found in St. Louis more frequently 
than is usual. They attribute this to the great heat of this summer, 
because all kinds of fevers appear more frequently this year. 

* Those "impressions" on the limestone ledgre overlooking: the river, described by the 
author, it has long: been known, were representations of objects carved there by the Indians. 
They have been observed in similar outcrops of rocks aloutf streams in several localities in 
Illinois, as elsewhere In the Mississippi valley. In a few instances ihey bear evidences of 
totemic Hignificince; and some may have been records of important events; but the greater 
numPer were only evidences of idle fancy.— J. P. S. 

tThe Missouri bill passed the House of Representatives on the 1st of March, 1820. After 
much debate concerning slavery in that territory. 


When I had returned across the Mississippi and found myself 
igain in the State of Illinois, I turned up stream to travel through 
this valley as far as the mouth of the Missouri. 

A few miles from Illinois City I found the mill of Mr. Jarrott, a 
Frenchman, which has in its construction the peculiar feature that 
ihe water wheels run while lying in the water, and turn the shaft 
?rhich projects upward from them. It is said that through this dis- 
jovery the movement of these wheels is not hindered even in the case 
)f from 7 to 10 feet of backwater. 

Several small towns are found located in this valley, which, how- 
ever, are not especially prosperous, and, too, on account of the un- 
lealthy location. For example, St. Marie, just opposite the mouth 
)f the Missouri, has, indeed, four or five houses, but without a single 
)ccupant. It is greatly to be regretted that this region, so fruitful 
md so admirably located for trade, is so unhealthy. But every year 
ihe ground, here and there swampy, is becoming firmer and drier, 
md one may yield to the hope that even here time will remedy this 

In another town, by the name of Gibraltar, three miles farther up> 
[ found a good many inhabitants, and they were employed in build- 

From Gibraltar I took the road to Edwardsville. One finds be- 
iween here and the bluffs some large farms, and, what was still more 
igreeable to me, everybody was in good health. 

Towards evening of the 27th of July I reached Edwardsville, a 
jretty town about six or seven miles from the bluffs of the Missis- 
lippi and 25 miles from St. Louis. This fertile region is covered 
nth fine farms, where one has opportunity of admiring the astonish- 
ng productiveness of the soil. I found the maize from 12 to 15 feet 
ligh on an average. The gardens which have sufiicient age for fruit 
lettings are luxuriant with peach trees and other fruit trees. The 
)each is a kind of fruit which flourishes admirably here; the seed- 
ing producing fruit in four years, and, almost without exception, 
)ears every year afterward so full that its branches have to be prop- 
)ed. Peach brandy and dried peaches are very common here. 

On the other hand I have seldom in all America found the plum 
ree except in (New) Harmony; but there are apples in great quan- 
ities, excellent in all old orchards, and I have met with many fine 
varieties among them. Moreover the gardens produce melons, espe- 
dally watermelons, in great quantity and of unusual size — the latter 
ire regarded as a more healthful food than the others. That all other 
dnds of garden fruits will thrive here may be supposed from what 
las been said. The pumpkin at times reaches the gigantic size of 3 
'eet in diameter. Brown and red cabbage I have found nowhere in 
America, and the ground seems to be too rich for potatoes and many 
)ther growths. Potatoes, for example, cannot be planted until very 
ate, often not until July; early planted ones almost never thrive. 
Vlaize wheat and oats grow excellently, barley and rye I have not 


Here, in Edwardsville, I met again my traveling companion, Mr. 
Hollmann, and it may not be disagreeable to the reader to receive 
some report of his journey. I shall therefore give here a brief extract 
from his diary. 

"On the 11th of July, (1819) I, in company with ten travelers on 
horse, crossed the Wabash and entered the State of Illinois. If 
the traveler from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to this point has 
grown weary of the endless journey in the forests then he believes 
himself transferred to another region of the world as soon as he 
crosses the Wabash and beholds those great prairies alternating with 
little wooded districts. Yet, this is one of the largest prairies and, 
on account of the scarcity of wood, not very well adapted to cultiva- 

**After a journey of 22 miles through these prairies were ached the 
tavern; it was full of travelers. Nevertheless each one was served 
well enough, the horses were well cared for, and only with respect to 
the lodgings was the comfort not great. Each one had to prepare 
his own bed upon the floor as well as he could, and even here the 
American shows a peculiar ease which is the result of his noble 
freedom. Everything is done without ado and without ceremony. 
This manner of living, which was to me at first very strange and dis- 
agreeable, soon received my entire approval — little by little one feels 
himself free among free, honest people. The character of the Amer- 
icans, which at first was so little agreeable to me, is, nevertheless, on 
the whole, good. This opinion may be due to the fact that my liv- 
ing with them has, little by little, changed my judgment, or that the 
people themselves here are better than in the eastern states. 

''The road leads through prairies where one all day long sees no 
house, no, not even a tree, so that protected from the burning heat 
of the sun, one could rest in its shade. In the middle of this prairie, 
24 miles wide, an axle of my wagon broke, whereby I got into no 
small difficulty. My mounted traveling companions could not help 
me and had to leave me; but two pedestrians, who had made the 
journey afoot from Baltimore in this manner, proved friends in need. 
They went back three miles to get a tree trunk which we had seen 
lying there by the road. With great difficulty we then took the 
wagon to the next house. These honest Americans repaid me evil 
with good. They had been in our company for some time, and at 
the crossing of the river I did not wish to permit them to take a 
place in my wagon. 

"When we arrived at the next tavern the remaining traveling com- 
panions had already sent for a wheelwright, and thus through the 
kind aid of my comrades it was possible for me to continue the 
journey with them on the next morning. Toward noon the heat 
became oppressive and the flies so intolerable that we resolved to make 
a halt. Not until towards 6:00 o'clock did we continue our journey. 
Traveling at night time in these prairies is very much to be pre- 
ferred. One can, without the aid of the moon, find the beautiful 
level road, and the horses are not tormented by either heat or flies. 


"The landlord at the next tavern received us with the remark that 
tavern keeping was only a secondary matter with him, and he re- 
quested of his guests that they accommodate themselves to his 
wishes, and whoever would not consent to this might travel on. The 
company of travelers regarded the words of the landlord as very 
strange, but resolved to put up here as the next tavern was quite a 
distance oflF, and men and horses were very tired. After supper the 
landlord with his family began to pray and sing so that the ears of us 
tired travelers tingled. Many of the travelers would have gladly re- 
quested them to desist from this entertainment if the landlord had 
not taken the above precautions upon our entrance. After prayers 
the landlord related to me that he had often been disturbed in his 
religious exercises, and even been shamefully ridiculed by travelers; 
he therefore had been obliged to make that condition upon the 
reception of guests. He was a Quaker. 

''On the 23d of July I entered Edwardsville. The most remarkable 
curiosity which met me here was the camp of the Kickapoo Indians 
who were now sojourning here in order to conclude a treaty with the 
plenipotentiaries of the United States, whereby they renounced all 
their risfhts and claims to the lands on the Sangamon, Onaquispa- 
sippi, and in the entire State of Illinois; ceding the same to Congress, 
and to immediately vacate the State of Illinois. Their color is 
reddish-brown; their face irregular, often horribly colored with 
bright red paint; their hair is cut to a tuft upon the crown of the 
head and painted various colors. Very few are clothed, in summer a 
woolen covering, in winter a buffalo skin, is their only covering. 
They seem to be very fond of adornments, as of silver rings about 
the neck and arms. They likewise carry a shield before the breast." 

Vandalia, Sept. 10, 1819. 

Immediately after I had joined my traveling companion, Mr. Holl- 
mann, in Edwardsville, we visited our countryman, named Barensbach, 
whose farm was about four miles from the village, to ask him to show 
us the lands which are to be sold at public auction, at the land office 
in Edwardsville, on the first of August this year. He granted our 
request not only with the greatest readiness, but to this excellent man 
we owe for many other courtesies and much information. His experi- 
ence and his advice we have found at all times very helpful. So 
greatly is he respected in this entire region that we have almost never 
heard his name mentioned by the inhabitants without its being ac- 
companied by great praise. In spite of his disinclination for every 
public service they have called him to the important office of judge. 

The 24 townships which are to be sold lie between this place and 
Edwardsville on Shoal creek and Sugar creek and Silver creek. 
There are many good lands among them, and we would certainly 
have purchased land at this auction if it had been possible to 
get anything really as good in the vicinity of the town of Vandalia, 
that is now about to be laid out. 


According to the Constitution of the State of Illinois this town is 
to be the seat of the government of the State, and the lots will be pub- 
licly sold on the 6th of September of this year. In the vicinity of 
this town is a large amount of fine lands; but everyone is full of 
praise for those which lie about 60 to bO miles northward upon the 
river Sangamon. The Indians have concluded their treaty with 
Congress, and the latter is now in full possesion of these so highly 
prized regions. In consideration of all this we regarded it more ad- 
visable to wait, and resolved for the present to settle in the town, 
Vandalia, and then from here purchase land in time. In order to 
use the interval to as good advantage as possible, we began to 
build a little house here from logs, after the manner of the Ameri- 
oans^the logs are laid one upon another, the ends let down into 
grooves. As soon as the building was far enough advanced so that 
my companion was able to finish it alone, I started upon a journey 
to view the wonderful land upon the Sangamon before I returned to 
Europe. On the 27th of August I, accompanied by a guide, set out 
upon this little journey. We were both mounted, and had filled our 
portmanteaus as bountifully as possible with food for man 
and horse, because upon such a journey in those regions, 
one can not count upon much. A fine, well-traveled road leads 
thither from Edwardsville. In order to reach this we rode out from 
Vandalia across Shoal creek, and then northward into the prairie. 
We left the forests about the sources of Sugar and Silver creeks to 
the south, and in the vicinity of the groves about the sources of the 
Macoupin we came upon this road. We now touched upon 
points of timber on some branches of this river, and then came into 
that great prairie which extends from the Illinois river through the 
greater part of the State from west to east and disappears about the 
source of the Okaw (Kaskaskia) and upon the bauks of the 
Wabash. This great prairie is the dividing line of the waters flow- 
ing southward to the Mississippi and northward to the Sangamon; 
but is, however, of no considerable height (elevation). East of the 
road are some lakes or swamps from which the two branches of 
Shoal creek receive their first water. The entire region south of this 
prairie elevation is especially distinguished by the elevation of the 
prairie and by the smoothness and fertility of the land; however, no 
spring or river water is to be found anywhere in it. In general the 
few springs which may possibly be there occur only in the bordering 
timber. The banks of the rivers are very high and hilly, upon 
these alone are found the patches of forest. All rivers here have but 
little fall and form many stagnant bodies of water, while in dry sea- 
sons the rivers dry up almost completely, and thereby are produced 
those vapors which make the air unhealthy. 

As soon as one arrives upon the elevation and northern side of this 
prairie the grass of the prairie changes and the ground becomes visibly 
better. The river banks decline in a gentle slope from the prairie to the 
water, and are likwise covered with woods, which also shows the greater 
fertility of the soil. We find here in the State of Illinois almost the 
same variety of woods that are found in Ohio; and I found, in addi- 


on to the soft maple, the sugar tree which, in its leaves differs but 
ttle from it. The inhabitants regard the latter as far better for the 
roduction of sugar. 

On Sugar creek, where we passed the second night, we found, 
ght at the point of the timber, a family who had not yet finished 
leir log cabin. Half a mile farther three families had settled near 
a excellent spring, and here we passed the night. Upon this little 
ream, which about 15 miles to the north of its source empties into 
le Sangamon, about 60 farms have already been laid out and indeed all 
nee this spring of 1819 They have only broken up the sod of the 
rairie with the plow and planted their corn, and now one sees these 
jlendid fields covered almost without exception with corn from ten to 
5 feet high. It is no wonder that such a high degree of fruitfulness 
itracts men to bid defiance to the various dangers and inconveniences 
lat might, up to this time, present themselves to such a settlement, 
.nd one can therefore predict that possibly no region in all this 
road America will be so quickly populated as this. Nevertheless, 
ae must regard as venturesome daredevils all settlers who this 
irly have located here for they trespassed upon the possessions of 
le Indians, and ran the risk of being driven out, or killed during 
le great annual hunt of the Indians,* if that treaty at Edwardsville 
ad not fortunately been made. But now how many will migrate hither 
nee everything is quiet and safe here! Let us consider these pres- 
ent farmers in respect to their property right upon these their 
lantations. How extremely dangerous is their position in this re- 
ard! The land is not even surveyed, and therefore cannot be offered 
)r sale for three or four years. And then, when offered for sale, 
lyone is at liberty to outbid the present settler for his farm which 

already in cultivation. If now all these considerations and actual 
angers could not restrain men from migrating to this territory, this 
len is the most convincing proof of its value and that it is justly 
;yled "the beautiful land on the Sangamon." 

From Sugar creek we turned immediately westward with the inten- 
on of reaching the point where the Sangamon empties into the 
ilinois, and there crossing the former to the north bank. We 
rossed Lake creek, then the two branches of Spring creek, both of 
hich flow in the open prairie— a thing which I had never before 
)en here in America. On the other side of Spring creek is a camping 
round of the Indians, whence the prairie rises io gentle hills where 
e found two fine springs shaded simply by a few trees. The water 
' these brooks flows swift and clear through the luxuriant prairie, 

* Every autumn the Indians within the entire circuit of their possessions hold a errand 
nt. They then set fire to the dry grass of the prairie, and the flame with incredible 
pidity spreads over all the country. Before it all wild game flees, havine: been frightened 
)m the>r safe retreats, and fall victim to the fatal shot of the red hunters This de- 
•uctive custom of burnine: off the prairies Is the reason that timber is cnflned to the 
nks of streams and a few other places The heat of the fire not only prevents entirely 
rther extension of the forests but even diminishes their area. Upon these annual hunts 
i Indians forcibly eject all white settlers from their territory. 


the high grass of which often reaches above the head of the horse- 
man. From these two little brooks rises a plain which extends tc 
Richland creek. 

Here we passed the night at the home of farmer Schaffer, who wat 
just then employed in breaking up more prairie. It was a pleasure tc 
me to see that this first plowing produced arable ground like th( 
best clover field. I advised him to plant at least a small part to wheat 
which from appearances must undoubtedly be the best and most suit- 
able grain for this soil. He, however, asserted that maize plantec 
upon it the next spring would be more profitable. Nevertheless, h( 
promised to make a trial with wheat; but he had already intend ec 
this year's corn field for the wheat. Maize, turnips and melons wen 
the products which he expected this year upon the first breaking u{ 
of the prairie. 

That this region leaves nothing: to be desired with respect to healtl 
was sufficiently demonstrated to me by the healthy appearance of iti 

Further on in the prairie we again found some springs, and coa 
tinuing westward, about noon reached another small river * upon 
which we found three or four farms. The timber on this river bant 
consisted almost exclusively of sugar trees, and gave those people th( 
most promising prospect of a harvest of sugar the coming spring 
From all reports which we gathered it appeared to us that no one upor 
the bank of the Illinois river had ever been to the mouth of the Sanga- 
mon; prevented from doing so by the difficulty of penetrating the 
intervening woods and underbrush; but they estimated the distance a1 
about 25 or 30 miles. 

Since the heat was oppressive and the flies unendurable we were 
obliged to give up further progress to the Illinois river, we therefore 
turned again to the Sangamon, and toward noon reached its forests 
Here, also, we found three farms, but we could not pass the river at 
it was very high. This river (the Sangamon) is rather large, and 
must be navigable the greater part of the year for medium sized 
vessels. It differs very advantageously from all the other rivers ol 
western America in that its clear water even in this dry time main 
ains a moderate height, and it is uncommonly well stocked witt 

We were now obliged to proceed farther up the river, and betweei 
the mouths of Sugar and Spring creeks we found a crossing when 
there was a canoe in which we crossed and let the horses swim along 
side. The bank of the river is here about 50 feet high, measurec 
from the surface of the Sangamon, where a broad plain is formed— j 
grand spot for the founding of a city. Below, upon the river bank 
I found a very good clay for pottery and tile work. As soon as w( 
had left the timber of the Sangamon, upon the other bank we cann 
into another large prairie where a not insignificant hill covered witl 
timber attracted our attention. It was the Elkhart (Grove.) Thi 

♦Richland creek, in Cartwright township, in the northwestern part of Sangamo 
county.— J. F. S. 


Lce is renowned on account of its agreeable and advantageous 
uation. A not too steep hill about two miles in circuit pro- 
led with two excellent springs, is the only piece of timbered 
id in a prairie from six to eight miles broad. Its forest trees show 
) great fertility of the soil. 

L found on it sugar trees from 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and the far- 
r settled here, Mr. Latham, had 80 acres enclosed by the wood of the 
leash. This hill is lost toward the Sangamon, as well as northward 
^ard the Onaquispasippi in alternating hills without forest, which, 
me, judging from the kinds of which grass they bore, seemed very 
11 adapted to sheep grazing or vineyards. Eastward, at the foot of the 
I, is a level, rich prairie. Here Mr. Latham had planted 30 acres 
corn this spring which thrived beyond all expectation. From this 
1 1 took a small sample which seems to consist of loam and an in- 
nificant admixture of sand. In the surrounding prairie the two 
ings reappear which were lost in the ground at the edge oi the 

Dowards the south there are several springs in the prairie, some 
ivhich form little waterfalls often three or four feet high. All these 
3umstances make the Elkhart not only a beautiful, but— from an 
[cultural point of view— a very valuable possession. For whoever 
as the woodlands of the Elkhart controls at the same time the 
ater part of the large and rich prairie surrounding it, where, 
account of the scarcity of wood, it would be difficult to establish 
irm. This farm is, up to the present time, the one situated far- 
rest north in the whole State of Illinois — except, perhaps, in th© 
itary lands on the other side of the Illinois river. However, it 
1 not remain so much longer, since 15 miles farther, where for- 
rly stood the Kickapoo Indian capital, some corn fields have been 
I out, and a farm will be established there towards spring. 

Ve countinued our journey northward and soon reached the charm- 
banks of the Onaquispasippi.* (Satz) Alas! this river was like- 
e too high to be crossed on horseback. Here a rather passable road 
ls northward to Fort Clair, (Clark) on Lake Peoria. The soil north- 
:d on (of) the Sangamon has far more sand in it than in the remaining 
t of the State; and the only thing that might be feared would be 
t, on that account, its exceptional fertility in time might decrease, 
t this point of time is certainly very far off. The Onaquispasippi 
still a more beautiful river than the Sangamon, for it has all 
characteristics of the latter but in a higher degree. It is like- 
e navigable for medium sized vessels. 

n this prairie I found many rattlesnakes; but all small, of gray color, 
I of one species. During my entire journey I have heard of no 
ility produced by their bite. Unable to get across the river we 
•e obliged to forego examination of the locality of Kickapoo town, 
I we started on our return journey. We had, however, seen 
lugh to be able to assert that this region is one of the most im- 
tant in the State of Illinois; or rather, will become such in a 

'■ Salt creek in Logan county.— J. F. S. 

— IIH 


short time. One of the greatest obstacles that may retard the rapi 
population of this district is the scarcity of wood; yet, there is suff 
cient timber for a moderate population, and the stock of forest wi 
soon greatly increase now that the destructive prairie fires will l 
stopped. Likewise the rivers Sangamon and Onaquispasippi ca 
greatly facilitate the importation of this article. These two rivei 
will not only open up a market for all produce in the direction of S 
Louis and New Orleans, but their proximity to the Illinois river wi 
in time furnish this region with another very promising prospect b 
the lakes to New York City by means of the canal now in progrej 
connecting that city and Lake Erie. 

It is, also, a very easy thing to unite the Illinois with Lake Michiga 
by a 12 mile canal-even now, in the case of high water, the transit thei 
is now made. By means of this canal thsn, inland navigation would I 
opened up from New York to New Orleans, a distance of 3,000 Englis 
miles Such an internal waterway not only does not exist at the presei 
time in the whole world, but, it will never exist anywhere else. B( 
sides, this State enjoys the navigation of its boundary and interni 
rivers amounting to 3,094 miles, and all are placed in communicatio 
with each other through the Mississippi. In short, I do not belie\ 
that any one State in all America is so highly favored by nature, i 
every respect, as the State of Illinois. 

The entire length of the Sangamon is still unknown; yet we kno 
that it is navigable for at least 300 miles from its union with the 111 
nois. About 60 miles from its mouth it separates into two arms, ( 
which the southern one bears the name Mooqua, which, in th 
language of the Kickapoo Indians signifies "wolf's face." This an 
is up to the present time the best known, and its borders are alread 
rather well occupied with farms. Above the source of the Sangt 
mon is tound a rook 50 feet high which has a fissure in its middl 
In this fissure the Indians placed tobacco, maize, honey and oth( 
products of the land as a thanks offering to the Great Spirit. 

The Indians, for the most part, cultivate some maize, and are gret 
reverers of this useful grain. As soon as the first ripe ears of maiz 
are brought to the chief he institutes a grand feast where music an 
dance delight the company, and where the pipe of peace is indm 
triously smoked. The benefits of the maize to the white settlers ai 
manifold. As soon as the ears have attained some maturity it furnishe 
a good healthy food. The ears are either boiled in water, or roaste 
by the fire. From its meal, bread is prepared, and they make 
porridge from it which with milk is an excellent dish. Besides th 
it is fed to all cattle, especially horses and pigs. Even its dry stalk 
are carefully preserved in stacks to serve as fodder for horses an 
cattle during the winter. * * * 

After an extremely tiresome day's journey we reached, about 11 :C 
o'clock at night the first farms on Shoal creek where we spent tl 
night. Here the ague was raging, especially among those who ha 
come here this year from the eastern states. This sickness is owin 
very much to the manner of life of these people; for they live in pa] 


upon dried venison, water melons, etc., and often expose themselves 
to wet weather. Such a manner of life must of necessity produce 
sickness. The wholesome effect of quinine is striking in the treat- 
ment of these fevers. I had brought a quantity of it with me from 
Baltimore, and this remedy very soon helped everyone to whom I 
administered it. 

On the 5th of September I arrived at Vandalia. This place, in 
accordance with the Constitution, is to become the seat of govern- 
ment of the new State. It is 50 miles from Edwardsville, and about 
60 from the Wabash; so that it is located about in the middle of the 
State. Its situation is well chosen, upon a bank of the Kaskaskia, 
50 feet high, and richly provided with wood for building, and with 
good spring water, as well as with a vicinage of excellent land. The 
river, which is navigable to this point, here describes a sharp curve 
which amounts very nearly to a right-angle, coming from the east 
and going to the south. 

The plan of the town is a square subdivided into 64 squares, and 
the space of two of these squares in the middle is intended for public 
use. Every square, having eight building lots, contains 320 square 
rods; each building lot is 80 feet wide 152 feet deep. Each square is 
cut from south to north by a 16- foot alley; and the large, regular and 
straight streets, 80 feet wide, intersect each other at right-angles. 

Only four weeks ago the Commissioners advertised the sale of 
these lots (it will take place tomorrow) , and there is already consid- 
erable activity manifested. Charles Reavise and I were the first 
who began to build. How difficult it was at that time to penetrate 
the dense forest which embraces the entire circuit of the future city. 
At present there are several passable roads leading hither. Now the 
most active preparations are being made for the construction of 
houses, and we are daily visited by travelers. But how it will have 
changed in 10 or 20 years! All these huge forests will have then 
disappeared and a flourishing city with fine buildings will stand in 
their place. A free people will then from this place rule itself 
through its representatives and watch over their freedom and well- 

St. Louis, on the Mississippi, Sept. 26, 1819. 

When the lots in Vandalia were sold I purchased four of them, 
and after I had made the necessary arrangements for completion of 
my house, I set about preparing for my return to Europe. When I 
arrived in St. Louis the steamboat "Harris" had been gone several 
days, and another was not expected for eight days yet. To avoid 
passing the time uselessly here, I took a seat upon the post-chaise to 
St. Charles on the north bank of the Missouri river. * * * I 
here (Portage des Sioux) entered a canoe in which a Frenchman 
took me up the Mississippi. The further banks of that river, in the 
State of Illinois, consist of rocky walls in which are found some 
large caves, two of which I visited. We reached the Illinois river 


towards evening and ascended it about three miles , where we passed 
the night with a Frenchman who lived upon the military land on 
the right bank of the river. 

There is certainly no river in North America better adapted for 
navigation up stream than the Illinois. Its quiet water has every- 
where sufficient depth and is clear of snags which make the Missouri 
and Mississippi so dangerous. From its mouth up stream the Illi- 
nois receives the followina: rivers: From the east (1) the Fouche, 
(2) the Marais, (3) the Macoupin (navigable nine miles), (4) Negro, 
(5) the Sangamon (navigable 250 miles), (6) the Mackinaw (navi- 
gable 90 miles). Nineteen miles above this last river the Illinois 
forms Lake Peoria, 20 miles long and one and one-half miles wide 
except in the middle where the banks approach each other within a 
quarter of a mile. This lake is deep, its water clear, and it has an 
abundance of fine fish. Above this lake the Illinois receives (7) the 
Vermilion, (8) the Manon,(9) the Fox (or Du Page) , (10) the Riviere 
des Plaines, and (1 1) the Kankakee. 

In the level prairie where the Kankakee rises is a little lake about 
five miles long and 40 paces broad whereby the Kankakee is united 
with the Chicago river, which is really a bay of Lake Michigan. 
From this lake it separates into two arms, of which the southermost 
empties into Lake Michigan six miles from its separation, the 
northernmost joins the lake 80 miles farther west, and on the way 
takes up some small streams. This union of the lakes with the Illi- 
nois through the little lake or canal at the source of the Des Plaines 
appears to have been made by the French and Indians in order to 
get into the Illinois river with their boats during high water. With 
very slight trouble this passage could be established for larger ves- 
sels. The Indians and French have to carry their boats only 12 
miles during the dryest time, and just on that account this distance 
is called a portage. 

On the west the Illinois receives (1) the McKees creek, (2) Crooked 
creek, (3) Spoon river, and the Kickapoo. These rivers are of no 
particular significance, and all rise in the military lands. This land 
embraces the entire region between the Illinois and the Mississippi 
from 38° 47' to 41° 47' north latitude. It is said to contain close to 
15,500,000 acres. 

On the following day I returned to the Mississippi and Portage 
des Sioux. 

The Missouri river may possibly at some time become the channel 
through which the Americans will carry on their commerce in the 
Pacific ocean towards China. There is already much talk about the 
government putting in shape the not very long road between the sources 
of the Missouri over the White mountains to the headwaters of the 
Columbia which empties into the Pacific ocean. Even this year the 
government has sent a military detachment in two steamboats up 
the Missouri to establish military posts there for the security of nav- 


igation. In any event this road to the Pacific will be the shortest 
and, in the future, the safest and most passable. What flourishing 
ities St. Louis and New Orleans will become! 

The hazel nuts were ripe here, and bear with astonishing abund- 
ance. They mature here about a month later than in Germany. 
The pawpaw is also now ripe and is found here especially frequent. 
This fruit resembles a large kidney potato, very delicious and health- 
ful, often grows like a bunch of grapes upon the ends of the branches. 
Before maturity it is green in color, and as it ripens changes to a 
greenish yellow. As we were crossing the Missouri we often saw 
mud turtles sunning themselves on logs, but dropped into the water 
as soon as they perceived anyone. 

Opposite the ferry lies Jamestown, a place in which, however, only 
two or three houses have yet been erected. What is commonly re- 
lated about the extremely healthy climate of the Missouri I found to 
be by no means confirmed, for upon the banks of that river I found 
the ague as prevalent as on other rivers. ******** 

On the next morning I, with my hospitable host, went to St. Louis 
in a pirogue. To my great disappointment I there learned that the 
steamboat had arrived but would not at present proceed to New 
Orleans. To hasten my return as much as possible I purchased a 
skiff, and in company with a Pennsylvanian, started down the 
Mississippi from St Louis on the 27th of September. [They reached 
New Orleans in safety on the 24th of October.] 



A list of the ofl&cers, non-commissioned officers and private sol- 
diers constituting the "Illinois Regiment of Volunteers" who served, 
in varying numbers and at di£Perent dates, under the command of 
Col. George Rogers Clark during the revolutionary war, with memor- 
anda of the land bounty granted to each by act of the Virginia As- 
sembly and confirmed by the general government. 




George Rogers Clark.... 

John Montgomery 

Joseph Crockett 

Brigadier general .... 
Lieutenant colonel.. . 

He received 10>000 acres, January. 1784 

He received 6.000 acres, February. 1784 

He received 9,110 acres March 1783 

George Slaughter 

Thomas Quirk 

.. do 

He received 5.333^ acres as major. He is en- 
titled as lieutenant colonel 

He received 5,333^ acres, July, 1783 . 


George Walls 

.:do ..:.... .::..: 

He received 7,110 acres, July, 1784 '.'.'.. 

.. do 

years and four months, and is not entitled 
as brigade major 

He received 6,0C0 acres, December, 1830 

Dr Andre Ray . ..... 


Entitled to land for a service of three years. 


Richard Brashear 


.. do 

Benjamin Fields 


He received 4,000 acres, August, 1832 

.. do 

He received 4,000 acres, April, 1784 !..!.. 

He received 4,000 acres, March, 1784 

John Gerault 


., do 

He received 4.000 acres, July, 1785 

Richard McCarty 

. do 

He received 4,000 acres, April. 1784 

Michael Perault 

.. do 

He received 4,000 acres, March. 1784 

John Rogers 

. do 

He received 4,000 acres, February, 1783 

Benjamin Roberts 

.. do 

He received 4.000 acres, July, 1830 

Thomas Mark 

.. do 

Fe received 4,000 acres, November, 1830 

Isaac TayloT* 


He received 4 000 acres, March 1784 

Robert Todd 

.. do 

He received 4,000 acres, February, 1784 

John Williams 


He received 4 000 acres, December, 1791 

.. do 

He received 4,000 acres, June, 1783 

William Cherry 


He received 5.000 acres, November, 1783 

.. do 

He received 4.000 acres, June. 1783. Entitled 

♦Benjamin Kinley 


to land for seventh year 

He received 4,000 acres, March, 1784 

. do 

He received 4,000 acres. May, 1789 

Peter Moore 


He received 4,000 acres, January, 1832 

Thomas Young 

.. do 

He received 4,000 acres, February, 1788 

Jesse Evans . 


Entitled to land for three years 

Edward Worthington ... 
Lieonard Helm 



Indian agent 

Entitled to land for a service of three years. 

Richard Harrison 


(This claim was among those referred by 

the executive to the agent and reported on.) 

Entitled to the difference between a lieuten- 

aut's and a captain's bounty. He has re- 
ceived a lieutenant's bounty for a service 
of three years 

* Died. t Killed. 

GeneraUGeorgre Rogrers Clark. 





Ichard Clarke 

Lieutenant . 

He received 2, 666^i acres March 1784 

71111am Clarke 

.. do , 

Ichard Harrison 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, April, 1784 

ames Montgomery 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, March. 1784 

ames Robertson 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, August, 1783 

.. do 

He received 2.66623 acres, July, 1830 

arrets Williams 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, March, 1784 

,. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, January, 1805 

ice Bullock 

. do . ... 

He received 2,66623 acres, June 1784 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, August, 1784 

homas Walls 


He received 2,66623 acres, January, 1831 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

hos. Valentine Dalton . 

.. do 

.. do 

ospph Ramsey ,... ..... 

. do 


.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

oseph Slaughter 

do . 

.. do 

7illiam Roberts 


Entitled to the difference between 1,882 acres. 

ames Merriweather 

., do 

which he has received, and a lieutenant's 
bounty for three years; about 784 acres now 
due him 

He received 2.66623 acres of land, January,1784 

William Asher 


He received 2,66623 acres. March, 1831 

awrence Slaughter. ,... 


He received 2,66623 acres. April, 1783 

.. do 

He received 2.66623 aeres, November, 1784,... 

Sugh McGavock 

: do ... 

He received 2,66623 acres, September, 18S1. .. 

.. do 

He received 2,66623 acres, September, 1831.... 

oseph Kincaid 

do ..... 

He is entitled to land for three years 

obert Green 

., do ,..,. 

He was commissioned Dec. 1779; resigned 

ohn Thurston 

1780. In October, 1780, he was ensign in the 
6th Virginia regiment. In July, 1781. he 
was lieutenant and was in the service in 
May. 3782, and probably to the end of the 

war. He is entitled to land for the war 

He received 2.66623 acres. August. 1831 






llery. Joseph 

Private - 

Entitled to land f 01' the war 

Hen, John Sr , 

., do 

lien. John Jr 

.do .... 

.do. . . .. 

sh, John 

,. do . „ 

bbott, William, Sr 

.. do 

bbott, William, Jr 

,. do ... 

nderson. John 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years. Deserted 

Sergeant. . . 

in 1781..... 

lien. Samuel 

Entitled to land for the war ... 

Lpperson, Richard 


Jlen, David 

.. do 

isher, Bartlett 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

illen, Isaac 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

ilonton, Jacob 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

idams, Francis 

.. do 

indree, Jean 


Entitled to land for the war 

lUtier. Francis 


ell, William 

.. do 

allinger, Larkin 

.. do 

Hair, John 

.. do 

alley, David 

.. do 

treeden, Richard 

.. do 

5rown, James 


Entitled to land for three years 

5erry, William 



Jentley, James 

,. do 

Jentley. John 

.. do 

5razer. Peter 

.. do 

Jush, John 

., do 

Entitled to land for the war 

lush. Drury 

.. do 

irown. James 

.. do 

ioston. William 

.. do 

toston. Travis 

.. do 





Baxter, James 


Entitled to land for the war 


Brown, John 

Private . .. 

(He received 200 acres of land) . .. 

.. do 

Entitled to land for service during the war.. 

Biron, J . B 


Entitled to land for three years 

Brown, Colin 


Barry, William 

. do 


Blancher, Pierre 

, do 

Bouche, John 


Breasie. Richard Thos... 

., do 

Blein. Pierre.... o 


Benton, or Bemton,Thos. 


Breedon, John 

Sergeant. . . 

Bird, Samuel 



Butcher, Grasper 

Back, John 

.. do , 

Ballard, Bland 



Entitled to land for the war 

Ballard, Proctor 

Bowen, William 

Ballard, James 


Bush, Thomas 


Ballard, Wm. Bland 

.do .... 

Barber. John 


♦Burnett. Robert 

. do 

Bryant, James 


Blankenship, Henry 

.. do 

Bowman, Christian 


BurK, Gfeorge. 

.. do 

Binkiey, William 

do . . 

Balliager, James 


Burris, John 

. do ... - 

Bender, Robert 

.. do 

♦Burbridge, John........ 

,. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

*Burb ridge. Wm 


JButts, William 

.. do 

♦Bender, Lewis 


Beckley, William 

.. do 

Buskey, Francis 


Boyies, John 

.. do 

Bowing, Ebenezer 


Brown, Asher 


Bingoman. Adam.... ... 

1 do 

Bass, Adam 


Blackford, Samuel 

. do ]' 

Bnmey, Simon 


Brown, liowis 



Bond, Shadrach 

Illinois Volunteers; entitled to 400 acres of 

Blearn, David 



Illinois Volunteers; entitled to 200 acres of 

Brown, Collin 

• do . . 


Entitled to land for a service of three years.. 

Burne, Pierre 

Bolton, Daniel 


Illinois Volunteers; entitled to 200 acres of 

. do 

land. He. after serving as a volunteer, en- 
listed in the Illinois regiment and deserted. 
Nevertheless, he is entitled to the bounty 
promised to the Illinois volunteers 

Bush, William 

Reported as a deserter 

Clarke, Andrew 

Sergeant • 

Kntitled to land for the war 

Crump, William 

Entitled to land for three years 

Creae (or Cmze, or 
Craze), Noah 



Corneilla, Patrick 

do - 

Chapman, Edward 

.. do 

Chapman William 



Cros«ley, William 



Cowan (or Co win) John 


do ... 


Entitled to land for the war 

Camper, Tillman 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Cogar, Peter , 


Cogar, Jacob... ... 



ClifUm, Thomas 


Clarke, John 



Cannon (orCanore), An- 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

* Died, t Prisoner. 





Cabbage, Joseph 


Entitled to land for three years 

.. do 

Conroy , Patrick 

.. do 

Cure, Jean Baptiste 

.. do 

Corus, John 

.. do 

Crawley, John 

Cooper, Joseph 

.. do 

Cooper, Ramsey • ... .. 



Costa, J. B. de 

.. do 

Clairmont, Michael 

.. do 

Cabbassie, B 

Coffee, Samuel 

.. do 


Coun, John 



Campo, Lewis 

.. do 

Campo, Michael 

.. do ! 

Campbell, George 


Cowdry, John .... 

Private . 


Cowan. Andrew.... ...... 

.. do 

Cowan, Mason 

.. do , 

Calvin. Daniel 

.. do 

Corder(or Corden) James 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Campbell, John 

, do 

Curtis. Hice 

,. do 

Chambers, Ellick 

. do 

Cockran, Edward. 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Cockran, George 

. do 

Coheron, Dennis 

.. do 

Carbine, Henry 


Entitled to land for the war 

Cameron, James 


Cowgill, Daniel 



Crutcher, Henry 

Volunteer and Q.M.. 

Crane, St. J ohn 

Entitled to land for three years 

Certain. Page 

.. do 

Compera, Lewis, 

do .. .. 


Compera, Francis 

.. do 

Convance, Paul 

.. do 

Contraw, Francis 

.. do 

Coontz, Christopher 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Cox. James 

.. do 

Ooeles, Andrew 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

])amewood, Boston 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war , . 

Dewett. Henry 

Donne, John 

CM. S 


Not entitled to land ., 

Donovan, John 

Entitled to land for the war 

Davis, Robert 



Darnell, Cornelius 

.. do , 

Dawson. James 



Detering, Jacob 

.. do 

Dohertv, John 


He received 200 acres of land ... 

Drust, Daniel 


.. do 

Decker. Jacob 

Davis, James 

.. do , 

DeCosta, J. B. (noticed 
above under letter C) . . 


Dulhonean, Pierre 


Decrand, P... 

Dusablong, B 

.. do 

Dnselle, Mons 

., do ...... 

Darby, John 

.. do 

Darby. Baptiste 

. do 


Dolphin, Peter 

.. do 

Day. William 

do .. 


Durrette, James 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war r 

*Doherty, Frederick 

.. do 

Doherty, Edward 

.. do 

Dawson, James 


Entitled to land for the war, a James Daw- 

Denton, Thomas 

.. do 

son has received 200 acres of laud; ^\xo- 

posed to be another person 

Entitled to land for the war; 400 acres re- 

.. do 

ceived by a Sergeant of this name 

DeNeichelle, Lewis 

Entitled to land for three years 

Duncan (or Duncom). 

.. do 

Duncan (or Duncom), 



Doyle, John 

.. do 

.do .. . 

Duncan (or Duncom), 






Duncan (or Duncom), 

. Private 

Entitled to land for three years.. 

Duncan (or Duncom), 

.. do 

Duncan (or Duncom), 

.. do 

Dudley, Armistead 

, do 

Doud, Roger 

., do 

Duflf, John 

.. do 

Donow, Joseph 

.. do 

A volunteer in Captain Worthington's cav- 

. do 

alry, and entitled to 200 acres of land 

Entitled to land for the war 

Duncan, David 

.. do 

*Dean. James 

., do 

Darnell, Cornelius 


Davis, Joseph 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Elms, William 


Entitled to land for the war. He re<'eived 


200 acres of land, and is now entitled to 
200 acres • 

Evans, Charles . ... 

Entitled to land for the war. He received 

Elms, James , 

.. do 

100 acres of land, and is now entitled to 


Entitled to land for the war. He also re- 

ceived 100 acres of land, and is entitled to 
200 more 

♦Elms, John. 

Entitled to land for the war 

English, Robert 


Evans. Stanhope 

., do 

Estis, James 

. do 

Prazer, Abraham 


Entitled to land for three years. He served 

. do 

three years, afterwards he probably re- 
enlisted and deserted. He should have 
land for his faithful service of three years 
Entitled to land for the war 

Plandegan, Dominick ... 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Floyd. Isham 

. do 

Freeman, William 

.. do 

Fair, Edmund 

.. do 

Fever, William 



Funk, Henry 

. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Fache, Louis 


JPield, Lewis 


do . 

*Pield. Daniel 


Freeman, Peter . .. - 



do . 

Frost, Stephen 



, do 

Entitled to land for the war r 

Gagnia, Lewis 



Grimes. John 


do .. . 

Grolet, Francis, Sr .... 


Grolet, Francis, Jr 

.. do 

Gaskins, Thomas 


Guion, Frederick S 



Germain, J. B 


Entitled to land for three years 

Grimshire, John 



Gagnia, Jacque 



do .. .... 


Gavuldon(or Ganchdon), 

. do 

Gagnia, Pierre . 



Goodwin (orGoodam), 
Wm ....... 


Goodloe Henry 


Entitled to land for the war 

Glass, Michael 


*Gwinn William 




Goodwin, Amos 



.. do 


Gaines (or Garner), Wm, 
Gordon John 




do ... 

Gomier ( or Gannln ), 






Garrett, John 


Gibhnnci S!nTniiAl 



Glenn. David 

.. do ...!!!;!!!!!!'!.. 


* Died. 

t Prisoner. 






Entitled to land for three years 

nftsm .fohn ....... 

,. do 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Gfreen, James 

.. do 

.. do 

Illinois volunteers. Entitled to 2C0 acres of 

[ardin Francis 

do . 


Entitled to land for the war 

[orn, Christopher 

Hooper T'homas. .•...•• 



.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

[ollis Joshua 


Entitled to land for the war 

Luff man, Jacob 

.. do 

[arrison, Richard 


Entitled to land for three years 

[azard, John 


Entitled to land for three years. He deserted 


after having served three years 

umphries, Samuel .... 
[olmes, James 

Entitled to land for three years 


[upp, Philip 

opkins, Richard 

. do . 

Lite George 


.. do 

[arrison, James 



uin, Wm . 




[igjfins, Barney 



[art. Miles. 

.. do 

Lays James 



[allpr, Francis 

.. do 

. . do 

Sicks, Mordecai .... 



orton A.din .. 


Entitled to land for three vears 

[awley , Richard 

., do 

[icks David 



[all, William 


[owell Peter 



Ley wood. Berry. ........ 

,. do 

.. do 

[ouse, Andrew 

. do 


.. do 

Eieldebrand, James 

. do 


.. do 

[ico. Peter, Sr 


.do .... 

[ico, Peter, Jr 

.. do 

[atten, Christopher. ... 


Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 

ohnston, John 


do • 

., do ! 

arrell James 



.. do 

ones, Edward. 



. do 


ewell, Charles 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Entitled to land for the war - 

ones, John 



ones, David.... 

do . . 

do . 

.. do 


. do 


Entitled to land for the war. Received lOO 


acres .. . 


Illinois volunteer. Entitled to 200 acres of 

land . . 

teller, Isaac 

ling, George 


Entitled to land for three years 

[ennedy, David 

.. do 

ling, Nicholas 


Entitled to land for the war. A. Nicholas 

,. do 

Tfinfl' hn.«i vftp.ftived 200 nrtrps of lATid 

[incaid, James 

Entitled to land for three years 

[endall, William 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

[irkley, James 

. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

[irk, Thomas 

.. do , 

. . do 

[err, William 


do . . . 

[idd, Robert 

.. do 

[ey, George 

Entitled to land for the war 

*Died. tKilled. JPrlsoner. 





Key, Thomas 


Entitled to land for the war 

Kemp, Reuben 

.. do 

Kina. Christopher 

.. do 

LiUnsford, Anthony...... 

.. do 

Lunsford, Mason 

.do ... , 

Lunsf ord, George 

.. do 

Lasley, John 


Laugfhlin, Peter 

.. do 

Lowell, Richard 

Levinston, George 


Luzader, Abraham 

.. do 

tLenay, Thomas 

. do 

tLewis, Benjamin 

.. do 

Larose, Francis 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Laventure, J 


Laflour, Pierre 


Lamarch, Lewis 


Lamarch, J. B 

.. do 

Laviolette. Baptiste 

, do 

Lamarch, Beauvard 

.. do 

Leney, Thomas 

L'Enfant, Francis 


Lafont:, John 

,. do 

Lavigne, Joseph , 

. do , 

Laviolette, Louis 

.. do 

LaBell, Charles 

,. do 

Leney, John 


Lyon, Jacob 

., do , 

Long, William 

do . .. . 

Lyon, John 

.. do 

Loekert (or Locket) 

.. do 

Loakbart, Archibald.... 

, do 


LaPaint, Louis 

.. do 

LaCasse, Jacque 


Lasoint, Joseph 

.. do 

LaFaro, Francis , 


Laf arton, Francis 

.. do 

Illinois volunteer. Entitled to 200 acres of 

Logan, Hugh 

.. do 


Entitled to land for three years 

Lewis, James 

, do 

Missio, Bernard 


Entitled to land for the war 

Murray. Edward. .'. 

.. do 

Montgomery, John 

.. do ,. 

McDermott, Francis 


Entitled to land for the war ... 

Mayfield, Micajah 

do . 

Entitled to land for the war. He received 

May field . James 

. do 

100 acres of land and is entitled to 200 more. 
Entitled to land for the war 

Mayfield, Isaac..., 

.. do 

Morris, Jacob 

,. do 

tMaid, Ebenezer 


Entitled to land for three years 

Mayfield. Elijah 

.. do 

Moore, John 


to 200 acres ... 

McMivkle, John 

*Morris, James 


"Miller, Abraham 

Montgforaery, John 


McLockland, Charles 

.. do 

Marsh, John 


Mathews, Edward 

Morgan, Charles 

McG uire, John 




.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

do . . . . 

Monet, J. B 


do . . . 

Mailone, J. B 

, do 

Maurisette, M ... 



Mason. Charles 

Mulby. William 

Gunner . 


Marr, Patrick 

Corporal and Sergt.. 



McMullen, James 



'.'. do .'......'. 

* Died. t Killed. 





(falroof Joseph 


Entitled to land for three years 

.. do 

IcClure Patrick 

., do 

lerriwether, William... 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 

(Turf in Plha.rlfts 


1' Donald, David 

., do 

Murshen Nathaniel. .. 


.. do 

fAndnTVR .Toaiah. 


Entitled to land for three years 

lilton(or Wilton) Daniel 

.. do 


Tnrrav 'Phmnas 


I'Claln, Thomas 


Entitled to land for the war 

Lunrony, William 

[unrony, Sylvester 

['Quiddy, Thomas 

I'Daniel, Thomas 


Entitled to land for three years 



.. do 

['Donald James 



lartia, Elijah 

.. do 

[ummillv Joseph ... . 


.. do 

I'Kin James ......... 


,. do 

lalbeff Joseph 


,, do 

Entitled to land for the war ^ -- 

.. do 1 

These were Illinois volunteers who are 
law entitled to 200 acres of land each 

Entitled to land for three years 

Lartin, Pierre 

.. do 

[orris, William 

.. do y 


[oore, Thomas 

.. do 1 

[arshall. William 

.. do J 

L'Donald, Thomas 


r'(4sTin .1 oVin . .. 

Gunner . 

ewton, Peter 


Entitled to land for the war 

ftl^nn Flnop.k . 

do - - 

elson. Moses 

. do 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

elson, John 


Entitled to land for the war 

,. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

are, Conrad 


.. do 

aslow Charles 


Entitled to land for the war 

liver John ............. 


Entitled to land for three years 

.. do 

Entitled to land forth- war 

ater Samuel 


Entitled to land for three years 

.. do 

wditt (or Odett), Lewis 


Entitled to land for the war 

fin, James 

,. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 

zburn (or Osborn), Eb- 
enezer .. ... 


.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Illinois volunteer, and entitled to 2(K) acres 

erie. William 

. do 



.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Entitled to land for the war 

atterson. William 

.. do 

nlf nrd .John .. .. 


ayne, Adam 

.. do , 

rie?t. Peter 

.. do 

ritchett (or Pritcher) 



Entitled to land for three years. He has 
ceived 200 acres of land 



urcell (or Pursley)Wm. 

Entitled to land for three years 

. do 

a.nthftr .Tn^pnb 


.. do 

arisienne. Baptists 

. do 

.. do 

■*fiTiir .Tft*«« 


.. do 

nnf>rji,SQ Ffranp.lfi 


.. do 

aguin, Francis 

* Died. t Killed. 





Powell, Micajah 


Entitled to land for three years 

Payne, William 

.. do 

Deserted , *" 

Pagan, David 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Porter, Ebenezer 


Entitled to land for three years. . . 

Potter, William 

,. do 

Peaters, John 

.. do 

Philips, Henry 

.. do 

Paroult, Peter 

.. do , 

Pickens, Samuel 


Illinois volunteer, and entitled to 200 acres of 

.. do 

land, by law 

Poores, Archer 

Fifer. . . .. 

Entitled to land for three years 


200 acres of land; he is entitled to 200 acres 

Ryan, Andrew 

He deserted, rejoined the regiment and 

served his time, and is entitled to land for 
three years 

*Rubido, Francis 

Entitled to land for three years , . 

Ruddell (or Riddell), 
Cornelius .„ 


Ryan, Lazarus 

.. do .., 

Entitled to land for the war 

Ramsey, James 

. do 

Entitled to land for the war. He received 

. do 

100 acres of land and is entitled to 200 acres 

Rector, John 

Eiititled to land for three years 

Roy, Julien , 

.. do 

Ranger, J. B 

.. do 

Robertson, John.. 



Ross, James 

.. do 

Rice, John 


Rogers, David 

.. do 

Rutherford, Larkin 

Private .... 

Rogrers, Joseph 

.. do 

Richards, Dick 



Robinson, Richard 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Ross, Joseph 


Roberts, Benjamin 


Entitled to land for three years 

Roberts, Eliab 


Russell, Benjamin..,..., 

.. do 

Randall, Robert 


Roberts, Joseph 

.. do 

Russhare, Francis.. 

. do 

Rabey, Cader 



Riley, Patrick 

., do 

*Rolli8on, William.., 


Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Shepherd, Peter 

Corooral . . 

Entitled to land for the war 

Shepherd, George 


Smith, William 

. do 



Entitled to land for three years 

Shoemaker, Leonard.... 

Smith, Joseph 



Setzer, John 

.. do '. 

Slack, William 

. do . 

Snellock, Thomas 


Entitled to land for the war . . 

Smithers (or Smothers), 



Smith, George 

.. do 

Smith, Josiah 




Entitled to land for three years 


Sills Samuel 


do . . . 

Smith, David 


Smith Randal 


do . 

.. do 

Searav John. 



., do 

Ship, William 



.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Seare, William 



Siburn Christopher 


Entitled to land for three years 

Sennitt, Richard 

.. do 

Scales, David 



Savn.cft Rrvftn 



Stoball, Thomas 

.. do 

Entitled to land *f o*r the war* I 






Sowers, Frederick 


Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Shannon, William 

. do 

Stephenson, Samuel 

Stephenson, John 

Savage, Dominick 

Soverins, Ebenezer 

. . do 

Sergeant - 



Private . .. 


St. Mary, Baptiste 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Sworden, Jonathan 

:: do ::::::::::::::]!!: 

Se veridge, J ohn \ 

Sharlock, James J 

.. do f 

.. do 1 

,. do 

Illinois volunteers, and are entitled by law 
to 200 acres of land each 

Entitled to land for the war 

Trent, Beverley 


Tuttle Nicholas 


Tygard, Daniel 

. do . ... 

Trantham, Martin 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Taylor, James .. 

do . . 

Entitled to land for the war. He has received 

.. do 

100 acres of land, and is entitled to 200 acres 
in addition 

fTurpin, Richard 

Entitled to land for the war 

Tompson, James 


Triplett, Pettis 

.. do 

Entitled to land for three years 

Tillis, Griflln 

do ... 

Taliaferro, Richard C... 

.. do 

Thomas, Edward 


Taylor, Edward 

.. do 

Taylor, Benjamin 


Tolley. John 

., do 

Tvler, William 


Tolly. Daniel.... 

. do 

Taylor, Abraham 


Thoorington. Joseph .... 

.. do 


Entitled to land for the war 

Thompson, William 

Entitled to land for the war. He received 200 


acres and is entitled to 200 acres in addition 
to his former allowance 

Taylor, Thomas 

Entitled to land for the war (300) 

Voushiner, Thomas 


tVilliers, Francis 


Underhill, James 


Entitled to land for three years 

Villard. Isaac 

. do 

Veale, Peter 

.. do 

Whitehead, Robert 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Whitehead. William 

.. do 

Whitten, Daniel 


White, Randal 

., do 

White, Robert.... 

do . . . . 

Welton, Daniel 

.. do 

Ward, Thomas 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war. He received 100 

.. do 

acres of land, and is entitled to 200 addi- 

Walters, Lewis 

Entitled to land for the war 

Watkins, Samuel 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war. A Samuel 

.. do 

Watkins has received 200 acres of land; 
possibly this individual 

Williams. John 

Entitled to land for the war. A John 

.. do 

Williams has received 200 acres of land; 
perhaps this individual 

Waters, Barney 

Entitled to land for the war 

Walker, John 


Wheat, Jacob 


Wallace, David 


Whiteacre, David 

.. do 

White, William 

. do 

♦Waggoner, Peter 

.. do 

Wood, Charles 


Entitled to land for three years. . 

Wheel, Jacob 

.. do 

Wilkerson, William 

. do 

Wray, Thomas 

.. do 

Ward, Lewis 

. do 

Williams, George 

.. do 

Windsor, Christopher... 

. do 

Wheeler, John 

.. do 

Waddington, John 







Wright, William 


Entitled to land for three years 

Wethers, Beuiamin 

.. do 

West, John 

.. do 

White, Randolph 


White, John 


Workman . Conrad 


Wemate, J. B 


White Lad^n 

.. do 

Williams, Zachariah,... 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 

Williams, Daniel 

.. do 

Wilson John 


Entitled to land for three years 

Wray Thomas 


Yates Isaac ., 

.. do 

Entitled to land for the war 


Entitled to land for tbree years 

Zuekledz William 


Entitled to land for the war 

.. do 


The act of the Assembly allowing bounty land to the Illinois 
volunteers, made no special provisions for the officers. They are 
therefore only entitled, as privates, to 200 acres. Captain, Francis 
Charloville; lieutenant, Antyear Joneast; ensign, Baptiste Joneast. 






Entitled to 200 acres of land 

.. do 

.. do 

R*»«nvpmif» .. 

.. do 

. do 

DnnAv rJ-proTin . .... 

.. do 

.. do 

,. do 

DrnixT ftflri* 



Frev Daett 



.. do 

Ijarkhouse Nicholas.... 

. do 

., do 

.. do 

1V1 nf pnn Dnrn 



.. do 


T?.nr»mmn Pan! 


.. do 

T?i*>harfl Aiirv . . 

.. do 

.. do 

Tow Pres 

,. do 



♦Captain Francois Charloville's company numbered 60men, who volunteered at Cahokia, 
January, 1779. for eight months' service, a little prior to the departure of Col. Clark's expe- 
dition to capture Vincennes. and served with him through that memorable campaign. Only 
28 of that number are comprised in the foregoing list; and. with few excepiitns, their 
names are so wretchedly spelled— or misspelled— as to be scarcely recognizable. 

J. F. S. 


A pay-roll of Oapt. Joseph Bowman's company, from the 24th day 
of January, 1778, under the command of Colonel G. Rogers Clark. 




to go 


due the 


Captain Joseph Bowman 

First Lieutenant Isaac Bowman 

Second Lieutenant Abraham KelJar. 

Daniel Dust, sergeant 

Isaac Kellar, sergeant 

Promoted, Jacob Speers, sergeant... 

Michael Sester 

Aibraham Miller 

William Slack 

|-Ligey Huste 

[•Thomas Perrey 

[•Robert McClanihan 

f^Barney Master 

John Sester. 

John Bentley 

Benry Honaker 

Frederick Honaker 

Benry Funk 

[Jeorge Liviston 

Benry Chrisman 

Samuel Strode 

Edward Bulger 

^.brm James.. 

Silexander Mclntire 

Philip Orben 

rhomas Clifton 

iVilliam Berry , 

3arnabay Walters 

?V^illiam McGumrey 

racob Cogar.. 

Peter Grogar 

•Jacob Speers , 

Dhos. B. Vance 

Fames Bentley 

George Miller... 

i*atrick Doran 

3enry Traylar 

saac McBride 

Sdward Murrey 

Pos Simson 

i*hili p Long 


roseph Pan grass 

rrancis Pangrass , , 

lichael Pangrass 

jharles McCiock 

Nathan Cartmill ..- , 

James Gouday , . 

Samuel Dust , 

William Berrey , 

Zebeniah Lee , 







1. 150 












" '75 


t Deserted, t Jan. 28, deserted. 

♦ Jacob Speers appears twice on the pay-roll; but evidently only one man of that name 
ms in the company, and he was promoted July 4, 1778, from the ranks to the position of 
Sergeant. Twelve of Captain Bowman's men discharged at Kaskaskia August 8, re-en- 
Isted in the other companies that remained with Colonel Clark, namely, William Slack, 
Lbraham Miller, John Bentley, Henry Funk, Thomas Clifton, William Berry, James Bent- 
ey, Edward Murrey, George King, Francis and Joseph Pangrass (or Puncrass), and Peter 
Joger. J. F. S, 

Note.— The foregoing list of officers and private soldiers of Colonel Clark's Illinois 
Lrmy. with exception of the pay-roll of Captain Bowman's company, is a copy of "Docu- 
aent No. 32" addressed to the Executive of the State of Virginia, dared at Richmond. Va., 
n the 19th of August, 1833, and signed by "John H. Smith," presumably a state official. 

As is generally known. Col. George Rogers Clark entered Kaskaskia in the nieht of July 
, 1778, with four companies of volunteers, all afoot, aggregating less than 200 In number; 
,nd that he immediately captured the town, including the old Jesuit building transformed 
ly a surrounding stockade into "Fort Gage." and Lieut Gov. Philip de Rastel, Chevalier de 
iocheblave, the renegade Frenchman, in command of its British garrison. 

—12 H. 


The identity of the men constituting that band of rugged patriots— with exception of 
Captain Bowman's company— is lost in this "List of the Illinois Regiment" numbering 62 
names and including all those who enlisted in his service after he had captured both Kas* 
kaskia and Vincennes and the recruits sent to him later from Virginia. 

On the 8th of August, thirty-five days after he took Kaskaskia, two of Colonel Clark's 
four companies— one of which was Captain Bowman's— were discharged and returned to 
Virginia with the exception of about twenty-five of the privates who re-enlisted in the two 
companies that remained at Kaskaskia. 

In the following winter, when Colonel Clark had determined to attack Governor Hamil- 
ton at Post Vincennes, his force of about 100 true and tried veterans who had followed him 
from Virginia, was re-enforced by volunteers gathered in the Illinois, enlisted for eight 
months, in most part, organized in two companies commanded respectively by Captains 
Francois Charleville and Richard McCarty. 

On the 4th day of February, 1778, Colonel Clark having completed his preparations for 
moving on Post Vincennes with his four companies, despatched one of them— that of C!apt. 
John Rogers, numbering 47 men— by keel boat (armed with a small gun and several swivels 
taken from the old Jesuit building and originally brought there from Fort Chartres In 1772 
by the English), to proceed down the Mississippi and up the Ohio and to a point up the 
Wabash there to await his arrival. On the next day, February 5, with the residue of his 
"army," 170 men, he commenced his march eastward, across trackless prairies and over- 
flowed streams, upon his desperate venture. 

With exception of the 28memberslof Captain Charleville's company, separately recorded, 
the identity of the 217 heroic men in that expedition— a hundred of whom came into the 
Illinois with Colonel Clark— is also lost in the "List of the Illinois Regiment." 

All the volunteers who served with Colonel Clark in his conquest of the Northwest- 
gaining by his genius and their valor an empire of territory for the struggling republic— are 
deserving of the highest meed of honor and praise that can be bestowed by a grateful 
people. But as Illinois— as now defined— was the principal theatre of Colonel Clark's most 
brilliant and valued military achievements, the sturdy sons of Virginia, Maryland, Georgia 
and Kentucky who landed with him at the mouth of Massac creek, a mile above the old 
Massac fort, on the 30th of Juae, 1778, and trudged with him, in heat of midsummer, a hun- 
dred miles through an unknown wilderness to attack a fortified enemy surrounded by 
swarms of treacherous Indian allies; with those valiant citizens of Kaskaskia and Cahokia 
who joined the veterans, and with them marched, in the rigors of midwinter, against the 
English at Vincennes, must always claim priority in the special admiration and homage ot 
all Iliinoisans. But no history of Illinois yet written records their names; nor has any ef- 
fort yet been made by this State to ascertain who they ware, or to commemorate in fitting 
manner the glory of their deeds. 

The original muster rolls, pay-rolls and other documents of Colonel Clark's little army 
from its organization are still extant. Illinois should long ago have secured and published 
copies of them. To longer neglect doing so the State will be shamefully recreant to a 
sacred duty. That duty the State Historical Society will accurately, expeditiously and 
gratuitou"ly discharge if the State will defray unavoidable expenses incurred in the work. 

J. F. S. 



Extracts from its files. By J. H. Burnham. 

The Illinois Herald was the earliest newspaper in Illinois Terri- 
tory. It was published at Kaskaskia, either in 1814 or 1815. A 
f^ery few copies of this early newspaper are in existence^ but the 
eldest bound newspaper files extant, are those of the Western Intel- 
.igencer, which, in 1816 became the successor of the Illinois Herald. 

Through the courtesy of the officers of the Mercantile Library at 
5t. Louis, Mo., I have been permitted to peruse the columns of this 
orecious, early newspaper, whose contents are now very interesting 
;o students of Illinois history, and these extracts appear to be worth 

This bound volume is not complete. It commences May 15, 1816, 
md six of its later issues are absent, so that in all, about one-half of 
;he year is missing. 

It is a very small four-page journal, with only four columns to a 
page. Its typographical appearance is very respectable, considering 
:he times and the scanty fonts of type available. 

It was published weekly by Daniel P. XDook, and appears to have 
oeen edited by him. Its price was $2.50 a year, if paid in advance, 
md $3 if paid at the end of the year. Its subscription list must have 
Deen small indeed. It was published in the English language, in a 
sown where French was the language spoken by the majority of the 
inhabitants. Very few of its residents, aside from the Territorial 
officers and their associates, were English speaking people, while the 
scattered inhabitants of the newly organized counties in the territory, 
may well be supposed to have furnished few subscribers outside of 
the lawyers, merchants and county officials, and this will perhaps ex- 
plain why the columns of the Intelligencer were so meagerly furnished 
mth local and territorial news, as will appear plainly in the course 
Df these extracts. 

Advertisements and the publication of official orders and laws, all 
Df which we may well believe was paid matter, took up most of the 
space, but we glean occasionally something of value. 

The latest United States laws are printed on its first page, signed 
by James Madison, president, approved April 16, 1816. On the 
second page Wm, H. Crawford, secretary of war, makes his annual 
report to Congress on affairs in the Indian department, which we 
can well believe was important information to a people who were 
most emphatically a frontier population. 


The war with England had been over but little more than a year^ 
and in July, 1815, less than a year previous, peace with Indian tribes 
had been finally established by a conference which took place below 
Alton, between Indian chiefs on one side and Grovernor Clark of 
Missouri Territory, and Governor Edwards of Illinois Territory on 
the other side. None knew whether this was to be a lasting peace, 
or a mere truce. The war with Great Britain had closed with the 
British in possession of the region around Rook Island, even as far 
south as near Quincy, on the Mississippi; and in all of the northern 
and western part of the territory, there was no security for settlers, 
and no settlements were as yet attempted excepting perhaps a few 
families in Pike county. 

It will thus be seen that whatever pertained to the Indians must 
have been of deep interest to the readers of the Intelligencer. 

In this first issue the editor very naively tells us that "The East- 
ern mail brought us news, much later than the news of the week 

The Hon. Benjamin Stephenson was then territorial delegate in 
Congress. Here is an extract from one of his letters to a friend in 

"I have the pleasure of informing you that I have succeeded, with 
the aid of my friends, in getting all of the bills relating to Illinois 
passed without an exception. No man could have been more for- 
tunate than I was. The following is the list of them as reported 
viz.: A bill making the Wabash the line of division between Illinois 
and Indiana until a line due north from Vincennes will cross the 
Wabash for the last time. 

"A bill extending the time of leasing the United States Salines from 
three to seven years. A bill respecting the Judiciary of Illinois. 

"A bill respecting settlers and extending the right of pre emption 
to those who settled on lands reserved for the use of schools. A bill 
to appoint a surveyor of the public lands of Illinois and Missouri. 
A bill to open a road from Shawneetown to Kaskaskia, for which ob- 
ject $8,000 are appropriated. A bill to establish a land office at 
Madison county court house, (which is now Edwardsville.) 

"All of which bills have passed both houses and become laws. 
Other laws of a general nature have passed, whose beneficial in- 
fluence will be experienced by the people of Illinois. I have also 
procured a post route from Shawneytown, by White and Edwards 
counties, to Vincennes. 

"The foregoing bills passed in the same shape in which they were 
reported by the committees. I flatter myself that the result of my 
labors will convince my constituents that I have been zealously en- 
gaged in the promotion of their interests. 

"B. Stephenson." 

Michael Jones, register, and Shadrack Bond, receiver, of the 
United States land office advertise that on, "The first Monday in 


August they will receive jjroposals for leasing the lead mines belong- 
ing to the United States in the lead mines (the Pimantoui* Grant 
to Renault on the Illinois river excepted,) Parties leasing are no- 
tified that they must survey and mark their lands, so as to enable 
other lessees to locate safely." 

As the first comers were required to do the surveying for later 
prospectors, as the lands were not properly described, and as the 
Indians were not yet known to be peaceable, we need not be sur- 
prised to find that later issues of the Intelligencer do not report that 
leases were made or that any development of the lead mines took 

Congressional news takes up a little over one column of space, and 
there are two columns and a half of advertisments in this issue. 

The executors of the late Thomas Todd advertise to sell the home- 
stead and all of the other property on May 23rd. 

Ninian Edwards, then Governor of Illinois Territory, offers "to 
sell or rent for a term of years, tracts of land, amounting in all to 
1,468 acres and including the farm on which I lately resided, 388 
acres of the farm on which I now reside; 400 acres six miles above 
Kaskaskia; and 1,500 acres one mile above Prairie Du Rocher. I 
also wish to purchase rails and I will give $3 per acre for plowing." 

This shows the Governor to have been a man of large means for 
those days, and we do not wonder that he appears in our early his- 
tory as able to dress expensively and ride in a fine carriage. Inci- 
dentally this also proves that plowing must have been a difficult part 
of farming, if it was worth |3 per acre in those times of low values. 
Bat as we are aware that steel plows had not yet been invented, we 
must conclude that the Governor simply offered ordinary prices. 

Daniel P. Cook, the publisher, afterwards congressman and states- 
man, for whom Cook county was named, was at this time Auditor of 
Public Accounts of Illinois Territory, and as such officer, gave his 
paper a little over a column of advertising matter, relating to the 
listing and taxing of lands of non-residents. We find in this first 
issue no local or Kaskaskia news. 

In the next issue we have more laws liberally published, more con- 
gressional news, no local news, but a very important announcement 
from the editors, endorsing Nathaniel Pope for candidate for dele- 
gate to Congress. He was elected. Russell E. Heacock is also 
announced as a candidate, with a statement that his circulars will 
appear in a few days. 

The lead mine advertisement appears, also the Auditor's advertise- 
ment, also a lengthy notice, paid for of course, of a public letting to 
take place at Belleville, St. Clair county, for a new county court 
house. This same notice appears in full on another page, but we 
can scarcely believe it to have been paid for twice, and one is left to 
wonder whether the shrewd political editor repeated the notice to 

*This supposed lead mine was thongrht to be In the neighborhood of Peoria, which was at 
one time called Fimantoul, by the French. The Renault Grant at or near Peoria, is one of 
our historic puzzles. 


curry favors with the St. Clair county officers, or whether the printer 
preferred to run the type in twice rather than take the trouble to fill 
the space with the live reading matter so woefully needed. 

Two intentions to start new ferries are advertised, one on the Miss- 
issippi, and one on the Kaskaskia river, giving evidence of increas- 
ing emigration. 

Peculiarly illustrative of the times, is an ofPer of $100 reward for 
the apprehension of a negro slave named David "who ran away from 
Glasgow, Ky., who can read and write, and has probably provided 
himself with a pass calling himself a free man," and it is stated that 
he will probably try to enter some of the northwestern territories." 

The third issue of the paper continues the publication of laws and 
official advertisements and offers $50 for another runaway slave. 
This one appears to have been claimed by Josiah McClenahan, of 
Wine Shibboleth, Washington county, state not named but most 
likely the territory of Missouri is meant. 

The citizens of Shawneetown are said to have given notice through 
the newspapers of Kaskaskia, Frankfort, Ky., and Nashville, Tenn., 
that they will apply to the Legislature of Illinois, for the establishment 
of a bank. The committee in charge of the bank project is stated to 
consist of John Caldwell, John McLean and James Weir. This is 
one of the earliest intimations we have of the commercial progress 
of Shawneetown, where an elegant stone bank building was afterwards 
constructed by the State Bank, which structure is still in existence. 
It also gives us a hint that the newspapers of Frankfort, Ky., and 
Nashville, Tenn., must have had quite a circulation in Illinois at 
this period. 

Incidentally it might be worth mentioning, that John McLean of 
this bank committee, who came to Shawneetown in 1815, afterwards 
became Congressman and United States Senator. On his death in 
1830, the new county of McLean was named in his honor. 

One of the paper's advertisements should be quoted as follows: 

"D. P. Cook Counsellor and Attorney -at- Law respectfully tenders 
his services to the people of this territory, and assures them that 
business confided to him will be punctually attended to, His ar- 
rangements for editing the W. Intelligencer will not interfere with 
his professional business. He keeps his office in the east end of the 
frame occupied by Wm. Morrison, Esq., as a store, where he also 
keeps the auditor's office. Kaskaskia, April 20, 1816." 

On Wednesday, June 5, the paper comes out as being published 
by Cook & Blackwell; Robert Blackwell, a practical printer, having 
been taken into partnership by Mr. Cook. 

Real news is now given in the editorial column as follows: 

"By information received from St. Louis, we learn that treaties of 
peace were concluded on Saturday the 1st., between the United 
States and 8 bands of the Sioux who reside above Prairie Du ChieUjH 


(which was then within the northern limits of Illinois Territory.) 
The most of these are those who have heretofore been denominated 
Dickinson's Indians." 

This news was of almost national importance and we can easily 
imagine that anything which promised to open the fertile region of 
northern Illinois and what is now southern Wisconsin to settlement, 
was of the greatest possible local interest. 

The Intelligencer also tells us that it was "supposed that another 
treaty would be concluded with the Winnebagoes who were nearest to 
Prairie Du Chien who have separated themselves from the balance 
of the tribe which live on Rock river, and do not yet seem disposed 
to bury the tomahauk." 

Monroe county is believed to be the only county in this State 
whose boundaries exist today, as originally marked oat by the Leg- 
islature of Illinois Territory, and it is with special pleasure we find 
the Intelligencer giving us this bit of local news, which we may very 
well call historic. 

"A number of citizens met at Harrisonville on the first day of 
June, 1816, being the day fixed by territorial law for the county to 
assume its name. The meeting took place at McClure's tavern where 
an elegant repast was partaken of, after which toasts were drank, 
each accompanied with a discharge of cannon. One toast was " 'The 
Illinois Territory,' may its fertile soil never want cultivation so long 
as liberty pervades the Western Hemisphere." Three cheers. 

" 'The Mississippi,' may its majestic stream continue to waft the 
produce of the west, and its steam navigation increase so as to 
furnish a sufiicient supply for the western country," Seven cheers, 
(and the cannon of course.) 

In the issue of June 19, Michael Jones, register of the land office at 
Kaskaskia, publishes an official advertisement of great interest to 
the settlers and pre-emptors, which now appears like ancient history, 
but which was then of the highest importance, and must have been 
read and studied with the greatest care. We are told in history that 
the subsequent prosperity of the whole west depended in a great 
measure on the impetus given by the government's policy towards 
settlers as inaugurated at this period. 

The same number contains a detailed statement from the Hon. B. 
Stephenson, delegate in Congress, carefully written, explaining to 
his constituents what had been accomplished by the last session of 
Congress in the direction of territorial legislation. Much of this has 
been given in a previous extract published in this article He men- 
tions his success in procuring speedy payment to the 700 to 800 ter- 
ritorial rangers, mainly from Illinois and Indiana, who had rallied to 
the defense of the frontier in the Indian troubles of 1812. Four 
companies of these were known as "Governor Edwards' Rangers," and 
as these were Illinoisans, it will be seen that the payment of their 
claims must have been an event of the deepest interest. He also 
procured the land for Mrs. Ann Gilham, in compensation for her 


sufferings from the Indians, and states he could no doubt have pro- 
cured more, (probably relief in more cases) had the proofs been 
properly prepared. 

As Mrs. Gilham's case is now historic, we can only lament that 
proper proofs were not prepared for other sufferers. Mr. Stephen- 
son's report covers nearly a whole page, and I regret that this im- 
portant document cannot be reproduced here in fulL 

The editors apologize for not giving news on account of the length 
of Mr. Stephenson's article and the great number of advertise- 
ments which had been sent for insertion. 

The editor meant by "news," mostly reprints from the eastern and 
foreign journals of events which had occurred from a month to three 
months previous. Some of the most important transactions in 
European modern history were thus given to the western world. 

The Journal takes a few lines to tell us that Col. Pierre Menard is 
a candidate for the Legislative Oourt (Council) from Randolph 
county, and Dr. George Fisher for the House of Representatives from 
the same county, and gives them both a few words of commendation. 

Before this date we have been favored with notices of the proposed 
sale of town lots at the town of Carmi, White county, and we are 
now told that there will be a sale at the town of Brownville. The 
town site is not located, but as the "plan of the town may be seen at 
the Saline on Big Muddy river," it is likely the site was in that vicin- 
ity. Deeds were to be executed by Conrad Will, and Susanna, his 

Another negro tried the hospitalities of Illinois by crossing at 
Smelser's Ferry, from St. Charles county, Missouri. His name is 
given as Rendal, and $25 reward is offered for his recovery or for 
placing him in jail. This poor fellow would appear to have a slim 
chance for escape, x^rovided the public were readers of this Kaskas- 
kia Journal, but as probably the public saw very few copies, he ran 
much less risk than we might suppose. He is described as being 
"knock kneed, turns his toes out; crippled in his right hand" and 
"stutters in talking," and has "two or three fingers growing to the 
inside of his hand." His "shirt and overalls of deer skin" were very 
likely not much of a distinction for those days, but a glance at the 
inside of his hands and the nerve to capture him, would easily have 
been worth $25. 

Important Indian news is given June 25th, where we are told that 
Brigadier General Smith, "with about 1,000 regular troops ascended 
to Rook river a few weeks ago to erect a Fort; he chose a position on 
Rock Island, the most commanding spot in that quarter, and im- 
mediately commenced building. The Indian chiefs pressed him to 
desist declaring that they could not be held responsible for the con- 
duct of thv^ir warriors, who disapprobated building a fort in their 
neighborhood. The general treated them very civilly but went on 
with his work, and no doubt by this time has a fortress of great 


strength completed. Three hundred of the Rifle Regiment have 
sailed from Belle Fountaine to join him."* 

On July 9th, we are told more European news than hitherto, we 
have account of a steamboat explosion at Wheeling, Va. ; appeals to 
v^oters, as the August election is near; but we look in vain for any- 
further news of the 300 neighbors who have gone to fight Indians. 

Bellefontaine was at that period the government Western head- 
quarters for military rifles, about ten miles above the St. Louis of 

July 24th, we are told that "the voters of the District of Maine 
s;^oted on the question of separation from the State of Massachusetts, 
ind setting up as a state and that the vote was 17,075 in favor, and 
L0,548 against." Also, "that the Federal candidate for governor of 
ihe state of New Hampshire was defeated by 2,344 votes." Also, 
'that the people of the Territory of Indiana in convention, assem- 
3led. adjourned, after determining to go into the Union as an inde 
pendent state, and that on motion they decided to name the new 
jtate Indiana, by a vote of 34 to 6," 

We obtain a glimpse of the troubles of the free negro by an adver- 
isement signed Josiah Millard of St. Genevieve, Mo.» just across the 
•iver from Prairie Du Rocher, who has taken up a negro supposed 
;o have ran away from his master. "He came there in a boat, and 
passes himself as a free man." His clothes were good enough to be- 
ong to a free man, as "he has with him a pair of velvet or corded 
pantaloons, a pair of buckskin do, a pair of linsey do, faced with 
leer skin, a black casimere roundabout, a striped cotton vest, buck- 
ikin hunting shirt, and white hat." Let us fervently hope that Tom, 
IS he called himself, was allowed the benefit of all doubts and suffered 
;o go free, but we fear the poor fellow fellow, without funds was sold 
;o pay charges and forced into slavery. 

But this same issue contains an offer of the large reward of $300 
'or the apprehension of a Tennessee negro, who has a forged pass 
vith permission to hire himself, and it is thought likely he is in Illi- 
lois or some adjacent territory. 

The same advertisement offers |50 for the return of a Kentucky 
legro, and we are inclined to believe that these territories offered 
•ather more attractions to negroes than did the territories to the 

July 31st furnishes the same tedious advertisements, tells the same 
legro stories, but flashes a new light by stating that Benjamin Munn 
las 150 barrels of Kanhawa salt for sale, while Thomas Cox adver- 
:ises at Kaskaskia, a tavern on the bank of the river, where he in- 

*The Rifle Regiment referred to above, must have been one of the Territorial militia 
regiments of the times. 

Quite possibly a record of this volunteer expedition to Rock Island may be found in our 
^tate archives, but I have not been able to learn anything: more than the above statement. 
!^ot another reference to this expidition can be found in the files of the Intelligencer, which 
L consider remarkable. 

I recently wrote to the Secretary of War at Washingrton, and received a reply that it wag 
;ontrary to the policy of the War Department to furnish information from its flies. Who 
',an give a further account of this expedition?—.!. H. B. 


tends keeping the best viands the country affords, not forgetting to 
state that he is "well supplied with the best liquors." 

There is still no news of the volunteers, but we are given nearly a 
whole page of reprinted reading matter. This looks as if the editor 
was off on business or political trip, and had left the printer in 
charge. He, or whoever it may have been, gives an article on ' 'Brit- 
ish Arrogance," an "Anecdote of the United States Navy," and a 
long article on a "Matrimonial Lottery," with other reprinted arti- 
cles. There is an article of down river news, however, as we are told 
of the 7th of July, ''the water has entirely receded from New Orleans 
and that the damage will be trifling to what was expected and that 
never in the recollection of the most aged person, has the Mississippi 
been known to fail so soon." 

Peter Bean, in an advertisement, shows a glimpse of old laws, by 
giving notice from the jail in Johnson county that ''he has petitioned 
to take the benefit of the insolvent act, and hopes to be liberated 
from imprisonment." 

The year 1816 is known in history as the year of the cold summer, 
when the corn crop failed throughout the country. It would be 
of great interest to be told something of the weather in the Missis- 
sippi valley, but the nearest approach is news from the east, in the 
issue of August 27th as follows: 

"Extraordinary Weather — At Watertown, Jefferson county, New 
York, on June 7th, the cold was so severe as to produce ice f of an 
inch thick, and the thermometer was down to 30 degrees. At Hallo- 
well, Me., June 12th an account states that snow fell three days in 
succession and the earth was frozen half an inch deep. Many birds 
were so benumbed as to be taken by hand and numbers had actually 
perished with the cold." Oh, for an item telling us how the corn 
crop was in the American bottom ! 

For the first time we have a notice of preaching, "to take place 
Tuesday, the 13th, at the court house by Rev. M. E. Walker, who 
will attend to baptizing children." (This was Rev. Jesse Walker, 
the pioneer Methodist.) 

By accident, it almost seems, a matter of local interest appears in 
the United States laws published on August 21st, when an act for 
the relief of the late P Maxwell and Hugh H, Maxwell, of Kaskas- 
kia, was published along with other laws. Hugh Maxwell was the 
original of the famous Maxwell land grant of the west, which has 
caused so much litigation in the last half century. 

A writing on the margin of this number says "Robert Blackwell, 
his file," and leads us to believe that we are indebted to the printer 
Blackwell, for the preservation of this, the oldest Illinois newspaper 
file known to be extant. 

An address to the voters of Illinois signed "Aristides," begins to 
give a slight view of political writing such as would naturally be 
looked for in this file of early newspapers. Among other statements 
he says — 


**The colonial and degraded states of this country under the gov- 
ernment of the Ordinance, that accursed badge of despotism, which 
withholds from the people, the only true source of all power, a par- 
ticipation in those rights, guaranteed by the constitution of every 
state in the Union, seems to have the effect of chilling every spark 
of political disquisition, and to have sunk man beneath the dignity 
of his nature, a poor fallen creature from that proud station, the 
destiny of freemen." 

"The present rapid influx of population; the growing and prosper- 
ous state of the country, justifies the belief that it will not be more 
than three or four years before we will burst the chains of despotism, 
by which we are now bound, and stand a sovereign and independent 

"It therefore becomes necessary that the public mind should be pre- 
pared for the event. It is high time to begin to think and talk about 
the form of State government that so soon must take place." 

Matthew Saucier publishes an affidavit showing that * 'while hunt- 
ing with his nephew, Baptist Beaurbien, his nephew observed a box 
lying in the water on the Marais Sassafrax, through which passes 
Prairie Du Puert creek, which when examined, proved to be iron 
moulds for casting money, and further, that he found the cover to the 
box about 80 yards from the main road, and from thence to the yard 
gate of Mr. Foster's dwelling place it was about 40 yards and further 
the deponent sayeth not." 

Nothing more is stated, the publishers being content to publish 
the advertisement, and to leave the reader to guess what became of 
the box of moulds and whether any counterfeiting was heard of in 
the neighborhood of Prairie Du Pont. A young man advertises for 
a situation in a dry goods store, but there is no notice or advertise- 
ment or other intimation that Kaskaskia or any other town in Illi- 
nois possessed a dry goods store in 1816. 

No marriages or deaths have yet been noticed, but on August 28th 
we find Margaret Lord gives notice that she wishes a divorce from 
her husband, James Lord, who has left her bed and board. 

Education begins to be noticed, as Benjamin Sturgess gives notice 
*'that he has opened a school at Prairie Du Rocher, where he will 
teach the usual branches of English Education, viz: Writing, Read- 
ing and Common Arithmetic, also English Grammer, Geography, 
Surveying, Astronomy^ Latin and Greek languages. He thinks 
Prairie Du Rocher is as healthy as any place in the American Bot- 
tom," which may have been understood at the time as not a very im- 
probable statement. He declares that **good board can be obtained 
at moderate terms and so forth." 

October 2d, "A Foe to Religious Tyrany" publishes No. 3, of his 
arguments against tyranny. His trouble appears to be mainly, that 
the Rev. Jesse Walker, of historic fame, brings politics into his pul- 
pit. The article is quite spicy, and seems to portend further contro- 


A list of letterslremaining in the postoflfice at St. Genevieve, Mo., 
is published on Oct. 23d, and seems to show that over fifty letters 
were detained. Does this indicate that the addressees were not will- 
ing to pay postage, wich was enormously high? 

"Justitia" replies at length to the "Foe to Religious Tyrany," and 
in a temperate manner, denies that there is among the Methodist 
preachers, any such combination as has been intimated for the pur- 
pose of influencing the last election. 

The Intelligencer of Nov. 20, 1816, tells us that "Col. John Edgar 
has received from the President of the United States his commission 
as Brigadier General of the Militia of this territory, which appoint- 
ment he has accepted." 

Here is almost the only one item of Kaskaskia local news which 
has been discovered in this file and no doubt this was not published 
on that account, but because it was of Territorial interest. 

The Intelligencer also mentions that a "boat crossing the river 
opposite St. Louis carrying eight persons was upset by a high wind, 
and five persons in the boat perished, among the number, Major 
Starks, formerly of the United States Army." 

Cook & Blackwell give notice they will publish a copy of the Mili- 
tia laws of the Territory, provided 120 subscribers can be procured. 

On November 27th, a long editorial, the longest yet seen on Edu- 
cation, winds up as follows: 

'And we do fondly trust that the sons of Kaskaskia, a place, which 
must at some day be a towering city, (instead of towering, it is now 
a deep hole in the bottom of the Mississippi) will no longer be com- 
pelled to spend their days from morn till eve in ' ^leness and de- | 
bauchery." « 

A new store in Edwardsville, and a new store in St. Louis appeal 
for business, and a sale of 100 Merino sheep are advertised in this 


December 4th, a whole page of post routes just authorized meets 
our eye, and Illinois Territory has but one of these routes from 
"Shawneetown by White Court house and Edwards Court house to 
Vinceunes, Indiana," ^ 

On Monday, December 2d., the Territorial Legislature met at Kas- 
kaskia, and this issue briefly tells us that a quorum of each house 
was present, and on December 8d, Col. Pierre Menard was chosen as 
President of the Council, and Dr. George Fisher, Speaker of the 

The Council then elected Joseph Conray, secretary thereof, and the 
House of Representatives elected Daniel P. Cook, clerk thereof. 
Robert K. McLaughlin was elected engrossing and enrolling clerk, 
and Major Ezra Owen, doorkeeper. 


"December 18th, the flock of 100 Merino sheep is put up at a lot- 
tery, at Goshen, 111., tickets on sale at this office, and at several stores 
in St. Louis." 

Want of time has prevented further extracts, but perhaps this 
article is already too long. Should it be deemed of public interest, 
further quotations may be published in future volumes. 




Hon. John moLean 

The dedicatory exercises of the McLean memorial tablet took 
place Dec. 6, 189rf, at, which time the McLean County Board of Su- 
pervisors, with the McLean County Historical Society, held public 
exercises in the court house. Mr. Gooigo P. Davis, president of the 
McLean County Historical Society, presided, and gave a short in- 
troductory address. 

Hon. LaFayette Funk of the board of supervisors delivered an 
appropriate address, in behalf of the board and the Hon. James S. 
Ewing, who read General McClernand's letter, added some very in- 
teresting remarks. Mr. J H. Burnham read the McLean County 
Historical Society's memorial to John McLean, which is published 
in this volume. 

The memorial tablet was placed on the south wall of the east 
entrance to the first story of the court house. It is of bronze, three 
feet in height and four feet in width, It cost $160 and of this the 
county paid $125, and the MoLean County Historical Society $35. 
It is considered highly artistic, and the placing of this tablet has 
given great satisfaction to the public. The tablet was not injured 
in the great fire of June 19, 1900. 

It has recently been placed in the new court house. 

The article which follows, though re-written to some extent since 
its publication a few months ago by the McLean County Historical 
Society, contains much that was given on Dec. 6, 1898. 

J. H. Burnham, Bloomlnston, Illinois.* 


It is almost impossible for those who have grown up to manhood 
or womanhood under recent conditions, to understand the environ- 
ments existing in this State over 50 years ago, while to estimate the 
conditions prevalent 80 years ago, is still more difficult. There was 

♦Authorities conaultod— Governor Reynold's "My Own Times," Moses' History of Illi- 
nois. Davidson and Stuve's History of Illinois, Ford's History of Illinois. Consrressional 
Record, Illinois Territorial Records, Chicago Historical Society Vol. Ill, Illinois Gazette 
of Shawneetown, and persons whose names are griven in various notes herewith published. 

The John McLean memorial tablet, in the Court House of McLean County. 


then an utter absence of all historical publications, none of our great 
standard historians having become famous, while the daily newspa- 
per was scarcely in existence west of the Alleghanies, and the weekly 
newspaper of new states like Indiana, Missouri and Illinois,, were of 
diminutive size, containing the most meagre information concerning 
public measures and public men. It was most emphatically the day 
of stump speeches and of personal intercourse between statesmen 
and the general public 

The meagre details relating to the early great men of Illinois now 
to be found in the few tiles of old newspapers extant, fall far short 
ot furnishing enough information to gratify our curiosity, and we 
ire forced to investigate closely in order to obtain anything like an 
accurate understanding of the capacities and characters of our early 

The great county of Mr.Lean waB named for one of the ablest men 
the State of Illinois had produced up to the date of its organization, 
md its present citizens have hitherto been unable to learn as much 
is they would like to know in relation to the individual whose name 
s inseparably connected with the name of our home, and the pres- 
ent article is an effort to throw some light upon the history of the 
3on. John McLean. 

The Hon. E. B. Washbarnej in a sketch prepared for the Chicago 
Sistorioai Society, says: 

"Perhaps less is known at the present day of John McLean than 
iny other public man of his day, who occupied such a distinguished 
Dosition. His name and memory seems to have almost died out in 
he State, and it is now practically impossible to gather much of his 
)ersonal history.'' 

This is an effort to bring together in a reliable shape all of the most 
mportant facts of his public and personal history with a view to 
heir preservation for the use of those of our future generations who 
nay be most likely to be interested in their possession. 

John McLean was born in North Carolina, Feb. 4, 1791. His 
ather emigrated to Logan county, Ky., when his son was 4 years 
>ld, arid was able to give him but a limited education. He was a 
)lood relation to the well known Ewing family which originated in 
Pennsylvania. The famous Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, descended from 
his stock. A branch of the family emigrated to North Carolina 
rom Pennsylvania, and from these descended the Ewings of Ken- 
ucky and of this section. John McLean was related to the Hon, 
^m. Lee D. Ewing, one of the early distinguished men of this 
Jtate, and this gentleman was a second cousin to the father of the 
Ion. James 8. Ewing of this city, (Bloomington 111.) and thus we 
race a local relationship to the man whose memory we are honoring 

It would be interesting could we possess a full genealogy of the 
kIcLean family and it is quite probable that future researches will 
eveal all of the desired information. 


McLean county does not carry off all the honors of the family name 
of McLean, as is shown by the following extract from the history of 
Hamilton county, 111., whose county seat is named McLeansboro. 
"The first house in McLeansboro was a log one built by Dr. William 
B. McLean, a brother of John McLean of Shawneetown." 

The McLean family has been more honored in Illinois than has 
been generally known in this region, as its local historians have 
never been informed of the fraternal relationship existing between 
McLean county and McLeansboro. 

When John McLean was 24 years old, having studied law, he 
emigrated from Logan county, Ky., to Shawneetown, III, settling 
there in 1815 and there he was admitted to the bar in 1816. 

Shawneetown was then the commercial and political rival of Kas- 
kaskia, and the two towns were the most important in the Territory 
of Illinois. He at once took a high position at the bar, so high that 
in 1818*, soon after his admission to the bar of the territory, he was 
appointed to one ofjthe judgeships of its highest court, and he de- 
clined the appointment. This declination is quite good evidence 
that the ambitious young man at that time had very high aims, as we 
find that on the admission of Illinois into the Union a few months 
later, he was candidate for the honorable position of Representative 
to Congress. 

History informs us that the canvass was one of the most exciting 
ever known in this State. The great Missouri question was then 
looming up and a far more important local question was beginning 
to absorb public attention, which was the question of slavery or 
freedom for the State of Illinois, and which came to a head six years . 
later in the famous convention campaign of 1824. j 

McLean's opponent was the famous Daniel P. Cook. The latter 
was not in favor of slavery in Illinois, but Mr. McLean, being a 
native of the slave states, was conscientiously and honestly a pro- 
slavery man. Both of these gentlemen were remarkably eloquent, 
and both were among the intellectual giants of these days. 

Hon. E. B. Washburne says; 

"Of all the early settlers of Illinois the names of three men will 
always stand out pre-eminent, John McLean, Benjamin Mills and 
Daniel P. Cook, all dying young, but leaving memories worthy to 
be cherished by every loyal son of our state." 

*Mr.McLeari must have given brilliant promise as a lawyer, for we are told in tlie Illinois 
Territorial records that on January 13,1818, less than a year before Illinois Territory became a 
State, that John McLean was appointed judgre of the "eastern circuit." which appointment 
he declined. When it is considered that he was admitted to the Territorial bar in 1816, and 
the had barely two years' practice, it will be seen that he must have been thought to be a 
remarkably promisiner youngr lawyer. The fact that he declined the appointment, may be 
taken as a proof that his prospects of being elected Congressman in the coming State 
election, were deemed by himself of more importance than the legal promotion offered. 

His military record in the "Indian wars" with General .Taekson, mentioned by his kins- 
man, the Hon. J. D. Walker, published herewith. Is perhaps accessible, but the writer is not 
at present able to present the record. There is some proof that this record was credible, aa 
I find from the Territorial Records that Aug. 22. 1817, he was appointed captain of the com- 
pany of artillery attached to the Second bridade. 


Illinois had been admitted into the Union as a free State, but a 
rery large proportion of its inhabitants were of the opinion that, 
aking everything into account, it would be to the interest of this 
i>tate to cast its fortunes with Kentucky and the southern stales. 
rhe question, in one form and another, agitated our pioneers till after 
he famous campaign of 1824, and it was the principal question be- 
ore the public in the canvass between Cook and McLean in 1818. 
mioses' history of Illinois has this to say of the contest: 

"McLean was on the side of slavery and Cook on that of freedom, 
►oth being singularly well equipped by study, experience and incli- 
lation for public debate and each of them feeling confident in the 
astice of his respective side, joint discussions were held by them in 
11 of the principal counties. Hon. Orlando B. Fickiin, who heard 
hese, as also, many years afterwards, the debates between Lincoln 
nd Douglas, involving the same question, 'awarded the palm' for 
ratory and interest to the former. McLean, though of lighter com- 
(lexion, was said to resemble the great Charles Fox in person, and 
Q his style of oratory." 

The short hand reporter and the big blanket sheet newspaper were 
lot on hand during their great debate, and we shall never be able to 
o more than vainly attempt to imagine how these able men handled 
be great question, but it is entirely safe to assume that its treatment 
ras not hollow and superficial. 

Mr. McLean triumphed at the election by 14 votes. His term in 
Jongress lasted only from December, 1818, to March B, 1819, but 
uring this time he cast several votes on the side of slavery in 
be preliminary questions which were being acted upon in Congress, 
nd we might also state that he was defeated for Congress at the 
text two elections by D. P. Cook, who voted in Congress against the 
lissouri compromise of 1820, and who in 1824 cast the vote of Ilii- 
ois for John Quinoy Adams for President, by which act Cook's 
opularity suffered so severely that he was unable to secure another 

On Mr. McLean's return from Congress, in 1819, he returned to 
le bar of Shawneetown, but was elected to the Legislature in 1820, 
^here he served as speaker in the Second General Assembly and 
:om all accounts, must have been about the ablest politician in the 
oung State. 

That he was more than a mere politician, and was also a statesman, 
'e have the best proof possible in the following extract from Moses' 
listory of Illinois: 

*'The most exciting subject of discussion was the law to incorpo- 
ate a State bank. The times were hard. Over trading and specu- 
iting induced by the too abundant issue of paper currency by the 
anks of adjoining states had brought every one into debt. To pro- 
ide a way to escape the existing evils, the Legislature chartered the 
itate bank. There was strenuous opposition to the bill, led by 
Ipeaker McLean. By a singular provision of the rules the Speaker 
13 H 


was not permitted to participate in the debates except when the House 
resolved itself into a committee of the whole; nor, indeed to vote 
on any question except when a tie occurred. In order to deprive the 
eloquent Speaker from exposing the objectionable features of the 
proposed measure, the House, which contained an assured majority 
in its favor, refused to go into a committee of the whole. McLean, 
indignant at such treatment, resigned his position, and upon the 
floor of the House, made a powerful argument against the bill, in 
which he prophetically predicted all of the evils which ultimately 
resulted from the operations of the bank. But the bill passed, nev- 
ertheless, and when the council of revision returned it, pointing out 
the objections to its provisions, and showing how it was inexpedient 
and unconstitutional, it was again enacted by the requisite majority." 

The references made to his debate with Daniel P. Cook and this 
evidence of his standing in the second General Assembly, sufficiently 
prove that Mr. McLean was one of the great men of the early days 
of Illinois, and we must always lament the fact that the newspapers 
of that day were so small as to be unable to hand down to posterity 
the glowing words of him whose memory we wish to preserve and 

The subsequent history of the failure of this State bank and of 
the distress it brought upon the people of Illinois is positive proof 
of the statesmanship of Mr. McLean in his vigorous but fruitless 
opposition to the bank. 

Mr. McLean remained out of the Legislature for a few years, but 
we may be sure he was no idler. He took a leading part in the great 
slavery contest in 1824, being on the pro-slavery side, which was de- 
feated, From all that we can now learn of this historical contest it 
was the most excited and bitter ever known in Illinois. 

(rovernor Reynolds, in "My Own Times", says: 

"Men, women and children entered the arena of party warfare and 
strife; and the families and neighborhoods were so divided and 
furious and bitter against one another, that it seemed a regular civil 
war might be the result. Many personal conflicts were indulged in 
on the question, and the whole country seemed at times to be ready 
and willino; to resort to physical force to decide the contest." 

Notwithstanding the bitterness engendered in the great campaign 
of 1824, we find Mr. McLean emerged from the strife with almost the 
universal good will of both parties, which may be taken as an evi- 
dence that the public gave him credit for favoring slavery purely 
from what might be called honestly mistaken views of its ex- 

This is fully proven by the fact that in the fall of 1824, on the eve 
of all this excitement, when the Legislature balloted for United 
States senator to fill the short term caused by the resignation of 
Senator, formerly Governor Edwards, McLean was chosen on the 
third ballot. This Legislature was fresh from the great slavery and 
presidential contest of 1824, during which Mr. McLean had been one 


of the most active and eloquent of the pro-slavery orators, but there 
appears to have been but little opposition to his election. He went 
to Washington at once, and served from Dec. 20, 1824, to March 3, 
1825. There was a senator to be elected at the same time for the 
long term of six years, and we are told that Senator McLean was 
also a candidate for that position, but being absent on duty in the 
United States Senate, his friends were not able to rally enough 
strength for his election and the position was secured by Ellas Kent 
Kane. Of Mr. McLean's senatorial career we have little report, but 
it was entirely satisfactory to his constituents. 

While he was in Washington on this service, the presidential elec- 
tion of 1824, when there was no choice of the people, came to a head 
by the election in February, 1825, by the National House of Repre- 
sentatives, of John Quincy Adams. Illinois had given one electoral 
vote to Adams and two to Jackson. Daniel P. Cook, in the House, 
now cast the vote of the State of Illinois for Adams, thereby making 
it the thirteenth state to vote for Adams, exactly a majority of the 
states, and thus electing Adams. The excitement must have been 
tremendous and we obtain a glimpse of the indignation of such an 
intense Jackson man as was Mr. McLean, by the following brief 
item which he sent to the Shawneetown paper, the Illinois Gazette : 

"Senate Chamber, Feb. 9, 1825. 
"Sir— The votes for president are as follows: 'Mr. Adams, the 
six New England States, New York, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Alabama and Kentucky.' He is elected. The mail starts. I 
have time to write no more. Great God deliver us. 

"John MoLean." 

It will be remembered that when the electoral vote of 1824 was 
returned, there were four candidates, Adams, Clay, Jackson and 
Crawford, neither one of whom had a majority. 

It then devolved upon the House of Representatives at its meet- 
ing in February, 1825, to vote for president by states, as required by 
the constitution. Illinois was one of the small states in the House, 
having but one vote, that of its representative, the Hon. Daniel P. 

It happened that the vote of Illinois made John Quincy Adams 
president, and this vote having been cast by one man, it must cer- 
tainly have happened that the excitement was most tremendous, and 
there is no wonder that in the days when there was no telegraph, Mr. 
McLean was exceedingly anxious to mail the earliest possible news 
to his home newspaper, the Shawneetown Gazette. 

It may be proper to add that the people of Illinois were too 
friendly to Jackson to entirely forgive Mr. Cook for his vote, and he 
was defeated at the next election. His death occurred Oct. 16, 1827, 
while he was still a young man. 

His name was given to Cook county, Jan. 15, 1831, almost a year 
after McLean county was organized, and we thus find the names of 


these two great political rivals attached, the one to the most wealthy 
and populous county in the State, and the other to the most fertile 
and the largest in territory. 

On Mr. McLean's return to Illinois in 1825, he was elected to the 
Legislature from Gallatin county for two terms in succession and 
during both of these terms he was speaker of the house. Here he 
was one of the most influential and valuable members, as we have 
the most abundant testimony. Ex-Grovernor Reynolds, who served at 
the same time, gives him high credit, most especially for his share in 
the revision and adoption of the laws of 1827, which all old lawyers 
know was a remarkable work to be performed by a legislative body 
in the time of an ordinary session, and this volume of the laws is in 
part one of the existing evidences of the ability of John McLean. 

Governor Reynolds, in "My Own Times", gives an amusing inci- 
dent showing evidence of McLean's influence as follows: 

"In the legislature of 1826 and 1827, a county was organized, em- 
bracing the mining district, which was called Jo Daviess county, I 
proposed the name of Daviess in the General Assembly, and John 
McLean, with much Kentucky enthusiasm, added the name of Jo to 
it, and it succeeded. It could not be severed in that legislature, as 
we tried it often." 

The county was named in honor of Colonel Joseph Hamilton 
Daviess, of Kentucky, who fell at the battle of Tippecanoe, in 1811. 

But two men have ever been speaker of the Illinois House of Rep- 
resentatives for three terms; they are William Lee D. Ewing and 
John McLean. 

Correspondence published in the transactions of the Chicago 
Historical Society and other sources of information too lengthy for 
quotation, prove that Speaker McLean was actively engaged in 
pushing his canvass for election to the position of United States 
senator when the next vacancy should occur. He had set his heart 
on winning this prize, and this canvass was watched with deep 
interest by his political friends and enemies, Public sentiment had 
by this time become overwhelmingly in favor of General Jackson, 
and Mr. McLean's services in behalf of his party were unquestioned. 

We can form a good estimate of the strength of Mr. McLean at 
this period, the crowning point of his influence on Illinois politics, 
by the simple announcement that when the legislature met in the 
fall of 1829, it unanimously elected him United States senator for 
the term of six years from the 6th day of December, 1829. This 
unanimous election is an honor never before nor since conferred on 
any other lUinoisan and of itself proves his high standing in the 
public estimation. But it seems disease was wasting his strength, 


and after the close of the long session May 81, 1830, he came home 
to Shawneetown, where he died Oct. 14, 1830, in the fortieth year of 
his life. 

On the 9th day of December, 1880, his colleague in the United 
States Senate, Hon. Elias Kent Kane, pronounced his eulogy, in 
the course of which he said; 

"In private life he was remarkable for his benevolence, frankness 
and independence of character. No one in the circle in which he 
moved had a larger share of the confidence and affection of his fel- 
low men. He was by profession a lawyer, possessed of a vigorous 
mind, and a rapid but easy elocution. These qualifications, added to 
honesty of purpose universally accorded to him, raised him to the 
front rank of his profession and there sustained him. As a states- 
man, the people of Illinois would long remember him as the author 
of the most valued portions of their statute books, and as the able 
and acute presiding ojQ&oer over the most numerous branch of their 

Ex-Governor Reynolds, in his book, contended that no man in 
Illinois before or since his day surpassed him in pure, natural elo- 

He describes him as "a man of gigantic mind, of noble and manly 
form, and a lofty, dignified bearing. His person was large, and 
formed on that natural excellence which at once attracted the atten- 
tion and admiration of all beholders. The vigor and compass of his 
mind was exceedingly great and his eloquence flowed in torrents, 
deep, strong, and almost irresistible." 

No wonder that when the legislature assembled a few weeks 
after his death, presided over by Hon. Wm. L. D. Ewing, his imme- 
diate friend and relative, it was easily influenced by the speaker to 
bestow this loved name upon the large new county to be organized 
in this region. 

Tradition informs us that our pioneers had decided to name this 
cjounty for Judge Hendricks, of Indiana, but through Mr. Ewing's 
influence and advice, they accepted the name so greatly desired by 
the many friends of the late Senator McLean. 

Much that pertains to this portion of our subject relates more 
strictly to the history of McLean county, and little more need be 
added in this connection It should be stated, however, that the 
city of Shawneetown, where Senator McLean lived, holds his 
memory in grateful recollection. His body is buried on the high 
ground, about two miles from the ill-fated city, where may be 
found the following inscription on the slab over his vault: 





Born in North Carolina February 4, 1791. He was 
raised and educated in Kentucky, whence he emigrated 
to Illinois in 1815, where he held a conspicuous stand 
at the bar, and in society, for talents and a generous 
and amiable nature. A representative and senator in 
the congress of the United States from Illinois; he died 
while in the latter office, October 14, 1830, lamented 
by all. 

Death loves a shining mark, a signal blow; 
A blow, which, while it executes, alarms, 
And startles thousands with a single fall. 

— Young. 

He was buried among a number of noted men of southern Illinois, 
such as General Posey, who was aide to General Washington, and 
was United States Senator of Louisiana, and Governor of the north- 
western territory — Illinois, Indiana, etc , etc., also Judge Hardin, 
John Marshall, Henry Eddy, and many others. 

Owing to ill health and worse weather, Gen. John A. McClernand 
could not be present. The following extract is from his letter, read 
by Hon. J. S. Ewing: 

"Mr. McLean emigrated from Kentucky to the Territory of Illi- 
nois and settled in Shawneetown in 1815, where he began the prac- 
tice of his profession as a lawyer, residing there for 15 years, and 
until his untimely death in 1830, He and I were contemporary 
residents of Shawneetown for 15 years. I often saw him in my boy- 
hood and afterward formed an acquaintance with him. 

"His personality interested and impressed me. The image of it 
still lingers in my memory. Physically he was well developed, tall, 
strong and stately. When walking the streets his admiring observers 
would whisper ' there goes the great lawyer, the great orator.' His 
confident step and appearance denoted him a man of energy and 

* 'Socially he was affable and genial; his conversation sparkled with 
wit and humor. He married an educated and accomplished young 
lady in Kentucky a short time before his death. 


"Mr. McLean was not an academic scholar. During his early life 
there were no common schools in Kentucky or Illinois, and there was 
not a college in all Illinois. His only resource for instruction was 
the wandering pedagogue and his own assiduity. Like many others 
he was for the most part self-educated, not a few of whom rank 
among the most learned of the ages. 

"As a lawyer, Mr. McLean was both analytic and logical, combin- 
ing argument with extraordinary eloquence. He was persuaBive 
with the judge and well nigh resistless with the jury. In his pro- 
fession he was eminently successful. The compensation it brought 
would have enriched him but for his exceeding liberality toward his 
friends and the needy. His mind was practical as well as creative 
and versatile. The union of these qualities marks the distinction of 
the great leaders of human progress and amelioration. 

*'Mr, McLean was an actor on the public stage in Illinois for 15 
years. He led a political movement in Illinois which on the wider 
stage of the nation resulted in the reorganization of political parties 
and the election of General Jackson to the presidency. What must 
have been the energy and influence he contributed in the effectua- 
tion of so stupendous a result? Alas ! He died with the harness of 
public duty upon him. He died while comparatively young, realiz- 
ing the fate which so often overtakes the brave, the active and in- 
spiring. Peace to his ashes; honor to his memory. 

John A. McClernand." 


Shawneetown, March 8, 1896. 

J. H. Burnham, Bloomington, III. 

Dear Sir— Your letter of March 8 is at hand and read. My rec- 
ollection of John McLean was on his little farm when he kept his 
horses and hounds and had a man hired to take care of his horses 
and hounds. He did not, as I ever knew, hunt with a gun; it was 
for chasing with hounds. My recollection is, he was a lawyer; bui; I 
have no recollection of his practicing law. We did not have any 
court house in Shawneetown, the courts were held in a warehouse. 
Since writing you before, it came to my mind that General John A. 
McClernand of Springfield, Illinois, was raised here and knew John 
McLean. He is older than I am and can possibly give you more 
information than I can. He was spoken of in best terms by every- 
body who knew him. He never went out of the county hunting 
as I ever knew. President John Cook, of the University of Normal, 
always reminded me when I met him, of John McLean — quick 
action and speech; but McLean was not so fleshy. 

I don't know of any other person now living that knew him but 
General McClernand. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. B. Bargeb. 


Letter from Hon. J. M. Eddy, a son of Henry Eddy, who published 
a paper at Shawneetown, 111,, as early as 1817, called the Illinois 
Emigrant, and who also pabiished other newspapers at an early day. 
Some of these papers are preserved to the present time. Mr. 
Eddy furnished information from these old files: 

Shawneetown, III., Nov. 19, 1896. 

J, H. Burnham, Esq., Bloomington ^ III. 

Dear Sir — I will give you my impressions of the personality of 
Judge McLean, which were formed by conversing with many 
people who knew him well, while I was a youth from 10 to 15 
years of age. My father bought our old homestead from Judge 
McLean, and moved his family on to it in 1832, when I was but 
2 years old, and I spent the early part of my life there among 
the country people, several of whom were tenants on the place 
and so remained for several years. 

From these and others living in the neighborhood, I got the 
impression that he had the happy faculty of adapting himself to the 
ways and customs of all sorts of people. For instance: When 
overworked or depressed in spirits he would go out onto his farm 
where a Mr. Holly kept for him a pack of hounds and spend a 
week or more hunting foxes, in which sport the whole neighbor- 
hood joined. 

He would go to all the log rollings, corn huskings, house raisings 
and country frolics, and would make a full hand at any or all of 
them. I have heard these people tell how he would beat all 
comers at running, jumping, wrestling, and lifting; and he would, 
to use a modern phrase, "just turn himself loose." In fact the 
people almost worshiped him All this, I think, accounts for his 
great popularity among the plain people. When at home, though, 
he was an entirely different man. There he was the personifica- 
tion of dignity and courtesy, rarely unbending, never harsh or cruel 
or insulting, a perfect Chesterfield in courtly manner to all. 

Yours truly, 

John M. Eddy. 


Fayetteville, Ark., Dec. 10, 1898. 

Capt. J. H Bitrnham, Bloommgton, III.: 

Dear Sir — I read with great pleasure a special to the St. Louis 
Republic of the 7th iust., a notice of the proceedings of the McLean 
County Historical Society in reference to the memory of John 
McLean, and extracts from your address on that occasion. 

Allow me to express to you my sincere thanks and gratitude, as he 
was my uncle, the oldest brother of my mother, who was the wife of 
Coi. J. V. Walker, late of Logan county, Kentucky. 


He came from Logan county, Kentucky, to Shawneetown, accord- 
ing to the family record. The father and mother of John McLean, 
Ephriam McLean and Elizabeth Byert, the former of North Caro- 
lina and the latter of York district, South Carolina, were married in 
1788, and emigrated to Kentucky in 1796, when John McLean must 
have been a small boy, and settled about 12 miles west of Russellvilie, 
Logan county, Kentucky, where in 1808, my mother, Susan Howard 
McLean, was born. The father of John McLean, Rev. Ephriam 
McLean, according to the history of the C. P. church was its first 
ordained minister. The McLean record further states, that "the 
oldesfc son John, after returning from Indian wars under General 
Jackson, studied law under the instruction of Judge McLean in 
Greeneville, Kentucky, and settled in Shawneetown to practice law 
when Illinois was a territory." 

My grandmother fondly cherished the memory of her son and 
often exhibited presents made by him when in Congress. 

Should you meet Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, who I believe still 
resides in your city, present my regards. I knew him when in Con- 

Again thanking you, 

I am truly and respectfully, 

J. D. Walker. 

P. S. — It may be of interest to state that the grandfather of John 
McLean, Charles McLean, came from Scotland to North Carolina in 
1750, and was a major in the American army in the Revolutionary 
War. J, D. W. 

[J. H. B.] 


Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

Among the public men of prominence in Illinois in the first decade 
following its admission into the Union, was Thomas Sioo, Such, 
however, is the evanescence of human fame that all of his history 
that survived the lapse of time since bis departure from the State, 
three-quarters of a century ago, until very recently, was his name 
and the recorded facts that he was at one time a State Senator, and 
was defeated in 1826 for the office of Governor of Illinois by Ninian 

In searching out his genealogy the first one of his name discovered 
was a native of Wales who accompanied Sir Phillip Sidney when 
appointed governor of Flushing by Queen Elizabeth in 1585 and 
fought the Spaniards with him in the Low countries in defense of 
the Hollanders, then the allies of England At some time in the 
first third of the seventeenth century the descendants of that ances- 
tor left Holland with other emigrants and settled on Manhattan 
island, now New York city. Thomas Sloo's father, also named 
Thomas, and his grandfather, William Sloo, who married Charity 
Benson and lived in New York city in 1771-1771:, were soldiers in the 


Revolutionary War, and are said to have done valiant service under 
Anthony Wayne in the recapture of Stony Point from the British 
on July 16, 1779. 

After the Revolutionary struggle was ended. Thomas Sloo, having 
married Elizabeth Roe, migrated from New York to Pittsburg, Pa. 
There he and wife joined a party of emigrants in charge of General 
Guinot and proceeded, in keel boats, to Cincinnati; but the Indians 
there were so troublesome he did not lemain long, and crossing the 
Ohio over to Kentucky, settled in Mason county and built the first 
house in Limestone, where Maysville now stands — probably on a 
land grant obtained from the government for his services in the 
Colonial army. Daniel Boone was an early resident of MaysviJle, 
first settled by Mr. Sloo. and they were intimate acquaintances. 
In Collins' ''History of Kentucky," describing Washington, "the 
oldest town in then Bourbon, now Mason county it is stated, "in 
1790, by amended act, the boundaries of the town were described, 
and Alex. D. Orr, Thomas Sloo and Richard Corwine made trustees 
in place of Daniel Boone and Edward Waller, who had removed from 
the country." Mr. Sloo, removing from Maysville became one of the 
earliest residents of the town of Washington, and there his sou, 
Thomas Sloo, Jr., was born on the 5th of April, 1790, Among bis 
other children born there also, were Albert Gallatin Slco and James 
C. Sloo. 

The boyhood of Thomas Sloo, Jr., the subject of this sketch, was 
passed principally at school, resulting in the acquirement of as lib- 
eral an education as could he obtained in the rural districts of Ken 
tucky in that era, But before his school days were ended he was 
left an orphan with the care of the younger children of the family. 
He thereupon went to Cincinnati and engaged in merchandising, in 
which he prospered. There, on the 14th of July, 1814, he was united 
in marrisge to Miss Harriet Irwin, who was born at Mercersburg, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania, in the year 1792. Though young in 
yearp, Mr Sloo occupied a very prominent social position in his new 
home and was on terms of intimate friendship with Gen. Wm. Henry 
Harrison, who was often a goest at his residence. But, too soon, he 
was overwhelmed by heavy misfortunes. 

In about a year after their marriaofe his young wife died and was 
consigned to the grave in one of the Cincinnati cemeteries, leaving 
an infant that survived her but a short time. Time having measur- 
ably assuaged his grief, he again tried the matrimonial lottery on the 
25th of August, 1819, leading to the altar his second bride, Miss Re- 
becca Smith Findlay, also a native of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, 
born there in 1795. About that time the financial stringency of 1818 
and 1819 set in, causing Mr. Sloo such serious reverses in busi- 
ness that he was compelled to close his store and retire. 

Having liquidated in full all of his liabilities, Mr. Sloo, in 1819, 
changed his location from Cincinnati toShawneetown, Illinois, where 
he remained but a short time, and moved to the western part of 
White county, in which the formation of a new county was being 
agitated. The act of the legislature organizing that new county, 

Thomas Sloo, candidate for Governor of Illinois. 1826. 


named Hamilton, was passed on the 15th of February, 1821, and in 
the selection of officers to start its legal machinery, Mr. SIoo was 
elected county surveyor. In that capacity he surveyed and platted 
McLeansboro, its county seat, the place he had chosen for his future 
home. He there again established himself in the mercantile busi- 
ness and also in farming, with great success, and soon, by his genial 
disposition and uprightness of character, became one of the most 
popular men in that part of the State. 

In 1822 he was elected to represent Hamilton and Jefferson 
counties in the State Senate, and in the memorable session of the 
Legislature following was one of the twelve senators who voted for the 
convention resolution, the other six senators opposing it. He also 
supported the convention scheme at the State election in 1824. In 
that course he was consistent, having been born, reared and educated 
in a slave state. But the fact that the overwhelming defeat of the 
slavery convention at the polls served to increase the popularity o f 
the public men who favored it and labored for it, is one of the 
strangest anomalies in Illinois history. The two United States sena- 
tors next elected, John McLean and Elias K Kane, were' perhaps 
the ablest and most uncompromising leaders of the slavery party, 
and in the legislative reorganization of the judiciary at the same ses- 
sion a majority of the judges selected were among its most prominent 

As evidence of Mr. Sloo's prominence among the public men of 
Illinois at that time it may be stated that four votes were cast for 
him for United States Senator on Nov. 80, 1824, when Elias K. 
Kane was elected by joint ballot of the Legislature. 

Congress having granted to Illinois in 1823 permission to con- 
struct a canal connecting the Illinois river and Lake Michigan, the 
Legislature provided for a board of canal commissioners to consider 
ways and means to accomplish the work. That first canal board con- 
sisted of Emanual J. West, Erastus Brown, Thomas Sloo, Theophilus 
W. Smith and Samuel Alexander. 

When the term of Governor Coles was nearing its close and the 
choosing of his successor was discussed among the people, Gov. 
Ninian Edwards, as early as June, 1825, announced himself a candi- 
date and began making an active canvass of the State. The lieuten- 
ant governor of the Cole's administration, a freak named Augustus 
Frederick Hubbard of Shawneetown, also announced himself a 
solicitor for the position. Urged by his friends who favored neither 
Edwards nor Hubbard, Mr, Sloo consented to enter the contest for 
the high honor. What effort he made to succeed is now not known. 
Though locally very popular, and a fair speaker, of fine appearance, 
his acquaintance throughout the northern and western portions of 
the State was very limited. A writer in the (Vandalia) Illinois In- 
telligencer of July 6, 1826, a month before the election, said, among 
other things: 

"It is true that, like most o? us in Illinois, Mr. Sloo was, at an early 
age, thrown upon the world without the advantages of education, or 
of pecuniary means, since which time he has depended upon his 


own exertions and his own industry. If he has any reputation, or 
property, it is alone the reward that awaits the exertions of an indus- 
trious and honest man. It is equally true, that in the general wreck 
of 1818 and 1819, Mr. Sloo was unfortunate in business, in Cincin- 
nati; but I have yet to hear the first reproach cast upon his character 
in consequence of his misfortune. That Mr. Sloo came among ub 
poor, is well known to all his acquaintances in this country; but by 
his industry on his farm, together with some public services per- 
formed, he has not only been able to support his family genteelly, 
but to better his condition in a pecuniary point of view." 

From this communication it must be inferred that Mr. Sloo was a 
farmer and not a merchant; but Grovernor Reynolds, who knew him 
well, says in his "Life and Times," in writing of that contest for the 
governorship: "In this canvass, three candidates appeared in the 
field — Ninian Edwards, Thomas Sloo and A. F. Hubbard. The last 
named candidate had been elected Lieutenant Governor, and he 
supposed it was a matter of course to elect him Governor." 

''The contest was between the two first named candidates. Mr. 
Sioo had been a member of the General Assembly for four years, 
and was a gentleman of agreeable manners and irreproachable char- 
acter. He had by his urbanity of manners and gentlemanly 
deportment obtained many friends throughout the State. He had 
bee.i employed in business as a merchant, and in it he had not been 
in the habit of public speaking, which operated against him, partic- 
ularly when Governor Edwards was his opponent, as Edwards was 
an accomplished orator." 

"The Jackson party, which was then not properly organized, sup- 
ported Sloo. If the party had been trained then, as it was some 
years afterwards, Sloo no doubt would have been elected." 

At the election in August. 1826, Governor Edwards was elected by 
a small majority, defeating Mr. Sloo by a less number of votes than 
Hubbard received, leaving room for speculation as to what the result 
might have been had Hubbard, from a county adjoining Mr. Sloo's, 
not been in the way. 

The votes cast were 6,280 for Edwards, 5,834 for Sloo, and 580 for 

Disgusted with public life by his defeat, and desiring a more ex- 
tended business field, Mr. Sloo disposed of his property in Illinois 
in 1828 and moving to New Orleans there engaged in the commis- 
sion business, in which he continued with success for the succeed- 
ing twenty years. A few years before the expiration of that period 
his happiness was again clouded by the death of his wife. Of the 
children born to them none lived to be grown. Depressed by his 
domestic misfortunes, and weary of his long years of slavish appli- 
cation to the same occupation, to effect a change he closed out his 
interests in New Orleans in 1848 and sought a new home and new 
associations in Havana, Cuba. 


There he found employment, both pleasant and profitable, in es- 
tablishing a gas plant for lighting the city. And there also he em- 
barked on a third matrimonial venture by wedding, on the 24th of 
May, 1849, Miss Maria Frances Campbell, who was born in South 
Carolina in 1826. She was the daughter of Robert Blair Campbell, 
who was for several terms in Congress a Representative of South 
Carolina and then of Alabama, and of Mary Ann Lee, his wife, the 
daughter of Ludwell Lee and grand daughter of Richard Henry Lee, 
of Virginia. After a few years residence in Havana, Mr. Sloo re- 
turned to New Orleans and remained there the balance of his life. 
Shortly after his arrival in the Crescent city he was chosen presi- 
dent of the San Mutual Insurance company, and remained with it 
until his deaih, which occurred in New Orleans on the 17th of Janu- 
ary, 1879, at the ripe age of 88 years, 9 months and 12 days. Twenty- 
two years later Mrs. Sloo departed this life, on Jan. 17, 1901, aged 
75 years. Six children survived her, of whom three are still living, 
namely, Maria Frances, widow of Dr. John Bridges Johnson, Laura 
Campbell, wife of Charles M. Whitney, an i Thomas Sloo. 

While at the head of the Sun Mutual Insurance company, Mr. 
Sloo served several years as city treasurer of New Orleans and as a 
member of the board of education from the organization of the city 
public schools to about the year 1860. In stature he was a striking 
figure, tall, thin and erect, with dark silky hair (when young) , and 
dark eyes and kind, benevolent expression of face. He was always 
clean shaven, neatly dressed, with courtly, dignified manner and 
affable disposition. To the last he retained the attire of the old 
school gentleman of the preceding century, habitually wearing a high 
silk hat, dress coat and stock. He was very prominent in religious 
and charitable organizations and was for many years a member of 
St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal church. Though he voted for the 
convention resolution when a State Senator in the Third Greneral 
Assembly of Illinois, and was classed with the pro-slavery party, he 
would never own slaves; his last wife, however, was a slave owner 
when he married her and retained her house servants until the Civil 
war emancipated them. 

When he was a candidate for Governor political parties were not 
well defined in Illinois, and all three of the candidates were pro- 
fessedly Jackson men. The followers of Adams in the State were in 
such a hopeless minority that none of them qualified for the higher 
offices would consent to offer themselves as candidates for them. Con- 
sequently Jackson men, of different degrees of Jacksonism, antagon- 
ized each other in the scramble for office. Governor Edwards was a 
"milk and cider," or very moderate adherent of "Old Hickory," while 
Mr. Sloo was a "whole hog" Jacksonian, as was also Mr. Hubbard. 
While a resident of New Orleans Mr. Sloo, probably still a Demo- 
crat, took no active part in politics and, before the civil war, paid 
but little attention to parties and elections. After the civil war, 
however, though still not a politician, he was a decided and out- 
spoken Democrat. 


The New Orleans Picayune of Jan. 18, 1879, the day following Mr. 
Sloo's death, contained the following obituary notice: 


This old and respected citizen passed away yesterday at the ripe 
age of 89, leaving an interesting family and a large circle of friends 
to mourn his loss. 

Mr. Sloo was born in Washington, Mason county, Ky., April 5, 
1790. At an early age he removed to Cincinnati, where he remained 
until 1820, when he removed to Illinois to engage in agricultural 
pursuits. Taking a lively interest in public affairs, he was several 
times elected to the Legislature of that State. On one occasion he 
was nominated as candidate for Governor in opposition to the cele- 
brated Ninian Edwards. In 1828 he came to New Orleans and es- 
tablished himself as a commission merchant, maintaining a high 
reputation for honor and integrity. For several years he filled the 
responsible office of city treasurer, and served as a school director 
from the organization of the city schools until the war. When the 
Sun Mutual Insurance Company was incorporated Mr. Sloo was 
selected as its first president, a position he filled with fidelity and 
ability until advancing years compelled him to retire from its 
arduous duties, retaining, through the liberality of the directory, 
a handsome pension. 

No man was more remarkable for courtly manner, uniform polite- 
ness and eminent purity. In his long life no one was ever heard to 
utter a word against his character. In religion he was a strict 
Episcopalian, being a regular attendant at St. Paul's church, also 
filling, we believe, a place in its vestry for a number of years. 

Mr. Sloo belonged to a class of men rapidly passing away. He 
was trained in the old school, and was as courteous to a beggar as to 
a millionaire 

His funeral will take place from St. Paul's church this afternoon 
at 3 o'clock," 

Two brothers of Mr. Sloo are known to have settled in the west 
about the time he came to Illinois, but of his other brothers and 
sisters, all trace is now lost. 

Albert Gallatin Sloo was an extensive farmer near Vincennes, 
Ind. , and became quite wealthy with large interest in shipping and 
other branches of business in New York City. 

James C. Sloo was for some time one of the principal merchants 
of Alton, at the head of the firm of Sloo & Co., a firm mentioned in 
some of the Illinois histories as having, with other Alton firms, God- 
frey, Gil man & Co., and Stone, Manning & Co., borrowed large sums 
of money from the State Bank to '* corner" the output of all the 
Galena lead mines and incidentally "boom" Alton in its rivalry with 
St. Louis for commercial supremacy in the west. James C. Sloo 
subsequently located in Cairo, Ills., and, it is said, the indebtedness 
of his Alton firm to the State Bank was settled by his brother, 
Albert Gallatin Sloo. J. F. S. 


Dr, J. F. Snyder. 

Of the stature and personal appearance of Hon. Charles Slade ab- 
solutely nothing is now known. The most diligent inquiries among 
the oldest settlers of Clinton county have failed to reveal anything 
of his features, temperament, disposition, or other individual charac- 

It is known that he was a native of England, and was brought to 
the United States when quite young by his parents who settled in 
Alexandria, Va. There he grew up to manhood, and acquired a fair 
common school education, together with habits of thrift and indus- 
try. In 1816, with two brothers, Richard and Thomas, he came west 
in search of a country more fertile than the gravelly Potomac hills, 
that might offer better opportunities for aspiring enterprise than did 
the Old Dominion. They were all three young unmarried men; 
Richard and Thomas remaining single all their lives. Captivated 
by the picturesque beauty of the romantic Okaw, and the richness of 
the soil through which it meanders, they pitched their camp in the 
eastern part of (then) St. Clair county, where the town of Carlyle 
was, in 1824, founded by Charles Slade. Having brought with them 
some means, the three brothers purchased land, or land claims, and 
were among the earliest pioneer settlers of that locality. Charles 
Slade bought the claim of John Hill, who entered land near by un- 
der the $2 an acre act of Congress, and set in vigorously to improv- 
ing it. 

John Hill, probably the first white resident of Carlyle township 
in Clinton county, came there in 1812. He built a block house of 
large logs, known to the later settlers as "Hill's fort," and established 
a flat-boat ferry across the Kaskaskia river not far from where the 
suspension bridge at Carlyle now spans it. 

In their migration to Illinois the Slade brothers fell in on the way 
with John Kain, a native of Virginia, who had, a few years before, 
moved to Ohio, and was then seeking a new home farther west for 
himself, wife and five children. He bought land in the neighbor- 
hood of the Slades, and in time became a wealthy and substantial 
citizen, and died there, at an advanced age, in 1833. Charles Slade 
married one of his daughters, probably, in 1819. 

The meagre profits of agriculture gained by the primitive methods 
of farming at that day, failed to satisfy Mr, Slade, and he sought 
other channels for the exercise of his business energies. He formed 
a partnership with a friend, named Hubbard, and engaged in mer- 
chandising. They built a store room not far from Hill's fort, on 
what is now Fairfax street in Carlyle, and were the first merchants 
in that section of the country. Commencing on a small scale thej'^ 
gradually enlarged their stock as demanded by the growing wants of 
the people, and for several years did a very flourishing business. 

The first mill of any pretentions in that region was built by Charles 
Slade in 1829. It had but one run of burrs for grinding corn and 
wheat, and was moved by water power. Though a very modest affair 


it was for that time, and for a long time, the best mill within many 
miles around it. In 1831 it was destroyed by fire, and immediately 
rebuilt by Mr. Slade, with increased capacity. 

On Jan. 2, 1818, the Legislature struck ofip a large scope of territory 
from the eastern portion of St. Clair county and organized it into a 
new county which was named Washington — after the Father of his 
Country. Then on Dec. 27, 1824, it detached from the northern part 
of Washington a considerable district, to which it added a smaller 
amount taken from the southern end of Bond county, and formed 
another new county named Clinton — in honor of Gov. DeWitt Clin- 
ton, of New York. The act of the Legislature creating Clinton 
county designated Carlyle for its county seat, provided the citizens 
of that village would donate to the county, for public use, a tract of 
land of not less than 20 acres. The land required was at once donated 
by Charles Slade and wife, Mary D. Slade, and the deed for the same 
was placed on record July 4, 1825. 

In a few years after Mr. Slade's arrival in Illinois he became an 
extensive land owner, and was one of the most prosperous and pop- 
ular citizens in the southern part of the State. In 1820 he was 
elected a member of the lower house of the legislature, in the Second 
General Assembly, to represent Washington county, and was then 
chiefly instrumental in securing the organization of Clinton county. 
He was again elected to the lower house in 1826 — in the Fifth Gen- 
eral Assembly — to represent Washington and Clinton counties. On 
President Jackson's election, in 1828, he appointed Charles Slade 
United States marshal for Illinois, in which position he served for 
four years. 

By the United States census of 1830 the population of Illinois was 
ascertained to number 157,445. To that time the State had but one 
representative in the lower house of Congress; but the largely in- 
creased population entitled it then to three. On tbe 13th of Febru- 
ary, 1831 , the legislature, in reapportioning the State for representa- 
tion, divided it into three congressional districts. The First com- 
prised Gallatin and Macoupin counties, and all others west of them 
and west of Jefferson and Montgomery counties. The Second dis- 
trict included all the territory in the State east of the counties 
named and south of Sangamon and Iroquois. All north of tbe two 
last named counties, to tbe Wisconsin line, constituted the Third 
district. Immediately after that action of the legislature aspirants 
began to announce themselves as candidates for Congress in the 
three districts. In the First district Sidney Breese, one of the most 
chronic office seekers of early times, as usual was the first in the 
field. Charles Dunn, who had twice been elected clerk of the Illinois 
House of Representatives and once a member of the legislature, soon 
announced his candidacy. Then Governor Ninian Edwards, Charles 
Slade, and Henry L, Webb also entered the contest. At the elec- 
tion, on the first Monday in August, 1832, Mr. Slade was the 
successful candidate, receiving 2,470 votes, to 2,078 for Governor 
Edwards, 1,670 for Breese, 1,020 for Dunn, and 551 for Webb. Mr. 


Blade's defeat of Governor Edwards, admittedly the ablest and most 
brilliant public man in the State, was regarded by the people a high 
iistinctioD, and gave him among politicians a position of leading 

On the first Monday in December, 1833, he took his seat in the 
23d Congress, and throughout the proceedings of that first session 
sustained himself well, guarding the interests of his constituents and 
State with fidelity and ability. After adjournment of Congress, on 
March 3, 1834, Mr. Slade spent some time attending to business in 
;he departments at Washington, and visiting relatives aijd friends 
it Alexandria, then started on his return to Illinois about the 1st of 
July. At Cincinnati he was suddenly attacked with sickness, from 
vhich he soon rallied, and hastened on homeward. He had pro- 
5eeded almost the entire distance across the State of Indiana when 
le suffered a relapse that prostrated him with all the symptoms of 
Asiatic cholera. In the eastern part of Knox county, at, or near, 
iVheatland, about 12 miles from Vincennes, the disease had made 
luch rapid progress that he could travel no farther. In a roadside 
lavern, where all possible care was given him, and a physician hastily 
lummoned to attend him, he breathed his last, on the 11th day of 
Fuly, 1834. He was quickly buried there, and the exact locality of 
lis grave is now unknown.^ 

A year before, on the 20th day of July, 1833, his competitor in the 
jongressional election, Grovernor Edwards, died of the same disease, 
it his home in Belleville, 111. 

Mr Slade was survived by his wife and five children, three sons 
md two daughters. His eldest son and daughter, long since dead, 
ire buried at Carlyle; his youngest daughter, Virginia, is still (in 
L903) living. His second son, Charles A. Slade, who married a 
laughter of Judge Sidney Breese, enlisted for the Mexican war in 
he regiment of Illinois Infantry Volunteers commanded by Col. E. 
W. B. Newby, and was made Quartermaster's Sergeant. Shortly 
ifter the arrival of the troops at Santa F6, he was taken sick, and 
lied there, on the 8th of June, 1847. 

James Alfred Slade, youngest son of Congressman Charles Slade — 
nade famous by Mark Twain in chapters IX, X and XI of his vol- 
ime entitled, "Roughing It" — when about 22 years of age, killed a 
nan in Carlyle and escaped arrest by flight. He made his way out 
)f the State and to the western plains where he was employed as 
livision superintendent by the Overland Stage company and was for 
lome time one of their most eflicient agents. Later he drifted 
arther west to the mountains of Montana and became the most des- 
)erate and notorious outlaw of that lawless period and region. He 
7as credited with having committed in his time 26 murders. Defy- 
ng with contempt all processes of the civil law he was finally arrested 
n one of his wild, reckless sprees, and on the fourth day of January, 
.862, hung, by the vigilance committee of Virginia City, Madison 
jounty, Montana. 

—14 H. 


Charles Slade left a large estate much entangled by debts and 
complications in which his brothers and others were connected, fol- 
lowed by protracted litigation that absorbed the greater part 
of it. 

His widow, a few years after his death, married Elias S. Dennis, 
who was several years younger than herself. From Mr. Slade's estate 
she secured the mill, the ferry and homestead, but died about the 
close of the Civil war in reduced circumstances. Dennis, a man of 
fair education and ability, served in both branches of the Illinois 
Legislature, 1842 1846, and as United States Marshal in Kansas during 
President Buchanan's administration. He went into the Civil war 
as lieutenant colonel of the 30th Illinois Infantry Volunteers, was 
promoted to the rank of colonel, then brigadier general and brevet 
major general. He died a few years ago and is buried at Carlyle. 

J. F. S. 



Mason H. Newell. 

Under the provisions of the act of Congress organizing the Terri- 
tory of Illinois, (2 Stat, at large, 514) the power given to the gover- 
nor of the North West Territory to appoint civil officers not speci- 
fically provided for in the ordinance of 1787, was vested in the 
Grovernor of Illinois Territory. 

On July 24, 1809, Governor Edwards appointed Benjamin H. 
Doyle the first attorney-general to serve "during the pleasure of the 
Governor for the time being." Doyle had emigrated from Knox 
county, Tennessee, and settled at Kaskaskia in 1805. (Moses, Illi- 
nois Historical and Statistical. 287.) He practiced law in Randolph 
and St. Clair counties and possessed a good address, but probably 
busied himself too much with politics to become proficient in his 
profession. (Reynolds' Pioneer History, 2 Ed., 360.) 

His successor, John Jourdon Crittenden, was appointed Dec. 30, 
1809. He soon grew tired of frontier life, if, in fact, he ever entered 
the territory at all, and sent bis resignation from Russellville, Ken- 
tucky, Feb. 24, 1810. (History of Illinois and Life of Ninian Ed- 
wards, 36.) 

He was born in Woodford county, Kentucky, about 1785. While he 
was still young his father who was a farmer, was killed by the fall of a 
tree, leaving the mother to bring up with slender means a large family 
of children, among whom several were afterward noted for intellectual 
ability. John commenced life as a lawyer in Hopkinsville, but soon 
moved to Frankfort, where he enjoyed a large practice. In 1816 he was 
elected from Franklin county to the Kentucky house of representa- 
tives, of which he was for several years the speaker. He took his seat 
in the United States Senate, Dec. 1, 1817, and served for two years. 
From 1819 until 1885 he practiced law at Frankfort. President John 
Quincy Adams nominated him for judge of the United States Su- 
preme Court in 1828 but the Senate refused to confirm him. In 1835 
he was chosen United State senator, served a full term and was re- 
elected but in 1841 resigned, having accepted the post of attorney- 
general under President Harrison. Upon the President's death he 
tendered his resignation to President Tyler and was elected to the 
senate for the residue of Mr. Clay's term, the latter having resigned. 
Mr, Crittenden was again re-elected for a full term from March 4, 
1 1843. In 1848 he retired having received the Whig nomination for 


Governor of Kentucky, to which office he was elected by a large ma- 
jority. From July 20, 1850, until the succession of President Pierce 
he was attorney-general in President Fillmore's cabinet, and in 1855 
was re-elected to the Senate. 

As a Senator he was opposed to the expunging of the vote of cen. 
sure passed upon Jackson and was one of the few southerners who 
opposed making Kansas a slave state. He was father of the scheme 
to restore the Missouri compromise and extend it to the Pacific in 
1861. Although a southerner, he was not a secessionist, but was the 
spokesman in the Senate of a large body of loyal citizens who felt 
deeply that the war ought not to impinge in the least upon the great 
institution of the south. 

He had been a great friend of Henry Clay's, but lost his favor in 
1848 by failing to support him for the presidency. He was an excel- 
lent extemporaneous debater and never lost the fire and spirit of his 

On March 4, 1810, Mr. Crittenden senl his brother Thomas from 
Russellville with a letter of introduction to Grovernor Edwards. 
Thomas intended to settle at Kaskaskia for the practice of law. (His- 
tory of Illinois and Life of Ninian Edwards, 520 ) On April 7, he 
was appointed attorney general. He resigned soon after and like his 
brother returned to Kentucky. 

Oct. 29, 1810, the Governor appointed Benjamin M. Piatt, who in 
turn was succeeded by William Mears, June 23, 1813. 

Mears served until Feb. 17, 1818, when he was appointed judsje of the 
Territorial circuit court, which was established by an act of that 
year. He was born in Ireland in 1708 and emigrated to Cahokia in 
1808. Reynolds says (Pioneer History, 306) he came "as if he had 
dropped down from the clouds— without horse, clothes, books letters 
or anything except himself — a rather singular and uncouth looking 
Irishman." He had read law while he taught school in Pennsylvania. 
When the county seat was taken to Belleville from Cahokia in 1814, 
Mears moved with it and remained in that place during his life. He 
was the last Territorial Attorney General, but served a short time 
under the State government by appointment of the Governor in the 
recess of the Legislature. 

Section 10 of the schedule of the Constitution of 1818 provided 
that " * * * ''an Attorney General and such other officers for the 
State, as may be necessary, may be appointed by the General Assem- 
bly, whose duties may be regulated by law." 

Daniel Pope Cook, the first Attorney General under the Constitu- 
tion was elected by the Legislature March 5, 1819, and resigned on 
being elected to Con^^fress Oct. 15, 1819. (Breese xvi) He was 
born in Scott county, Kentucky, in 1793. His parents were farmers 
and he, being a sickly and weakly child, his education was not much 
attended to. When a young man he visited Ste. Genevieve, Mo., 
and was employed as a clerk in a shop for several years. In 1813 he 
commenced studying law with Judge Pope in Kaskaskia and ob- 
tained his license in 1815. He moved to Washington, D. C, in 1817 


,nd was appointed bearer of dispatches to John Qaincy Adams, 
Minister to England. He returned with Mr. Adams and was ap- 
jointed judge of the western circuit of the State in 1818. The same 
ear he was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress against John 
/EcLean, but succeeded him in 1819 and served for nearly nine years 
mtil March, 1827. 

Cook was small in stature and frail in health, but mentally he was 
ne ol the strongest men of his day. He was a modest diffident man 
^'ith a soft melodious voice and a ready fluent speech. His style of 
ress was faultless and charmingly neat. As a criminal lawyer he 
ad no superior at the early Illinois bar. Reynolds says that he was 
t one time the idol and darling of the people, so that many an old 
[me pioneer, when his name was mentioned, would almost involun- 
irily cry out, "When is the election?" (Reynolds, Pioneer History, 
d Ed., 895.) 

His extreme generosity was proverbial. It is said that in one of 
is journeys to Washington upon the Ohio river, as the steamer ap- 
roached Wheeling, the point of debarkation, a well dressed person 
ccosted him, a perfect strangor, and apologizing for his intrusion 
aid, "Sir, I am yet some distance from my home and am out of 
loney, I know no one on the boat; I have cloaely scanned the coun- 
3nances of my fellow passengers and have discovered no gentleman 
lore likely to assist me than yourself. Will you please sir, make 
le a loan of $50.00?" "Certainly," Mr. Cook said, and suiting his 
ction to the word, opened his pocketbook and handed him the de- 
ired sum. (Edwards, History of Illinois and Life of Ninian 
Edwards, 253.) 

During the slavery agitation of 1822-1824 he was an extreme pro- 
[avery man, but was always loyal to the government and that in the 
lidst of a people intent on its destruction. 

He bore a prominent part while in Congress in securing the dona- 
ion of lands for the construction of the Illinois and Michigan canal. 
)uring his first Congressional campaign stump speaking was in- 
roduoed into the State. He died of consumption in Kentucky Oct. 
6, 1827. 

William Mears, his successor as well as his predecessor, was ap- 
lointed by the Governor in the recess of the Legislature, Deo. 
4, 1819, (Breese, xvi) and was succeeded by Samuel Drake Lock- 
rood elected by the Legislature Feb. 6, 1821. (Breese, xvi.) Born 
a Poundridge, Westchester county, New York, Aug. 2, 1789, Lock- 
rood was left fatherless at the age of 10. After spending a few 
lonths in school in New Jersey, he went to live with an uncle at 
V^aterford. N. Y., with whom he studied law. He was admitted to 
lie bar at Batavia, N. Y., in 1811 and removed to Auburn in 1813. 
n 1818 he descended the Ohio river on a flat boat with William H. 
Jrown, afterward of Chicago, and walked across country from Shaw- 
eetown arriving at Kaskaskia in December, but finally settled at 
:)armi in 1821. 

As attorney-general he prosecuted William Bennett who killed Al- 
ihonso Stewart at Belleville in 1820, in what is said to be the first 


and last duel ever fought in this State by its citizens. In spite of 
enormous pressure brought to bear in favor of Bennett, he was con- 
victed and hanged, and to Lockwood's talents and success as a pro-^ 
secutor the people are indebted for this early precedent. (Ford's 
History of Illinois, 48.) 

Lockwood turned his attention principally to office seeking, which 
seems to have been a mania with lawyers at that day. He was a 
warm political and personal friend of Governor Coles and supported 
his policy with great zeal and ability. In return Governor Coles ap- 
pointed him Secretary of State, Dec. 28, 1822, and he resigned ae 
Attorney-General on that day. He resigned the office of secretary 
to accept the appointment by President Monroe of receiver of public 
money at Edwardsville, April 2, 1823. Upon the reorganization of the 
Judiciary in 1825, he was elected by the General Assembly, Jan. 19, 
1825, one of the associate justices of the Supreme Court. The ten- 
ure was for life or during good behavior from the reorganization un- 
til the new constitution was adopted, and he held the office until 
Dec. 4, 1848. During his term as Justice of the Supreme Court he 
lived in Jacksonville. 

He was the chief compiler of our first criminal code, which he 
adopted from the Kentucky statutes. 

He was tall and spare in form, graceful in bearing, with hair 
turned white before he was 50, though he lived to be 85. 

With a high forehead and clear-cut features, his aspect was at 
once benevolent, venerable and intellectual. His appearance on the 
bench was the very personification of dignity, learning and judicial 
acumen. (Scott, Illinois History, 290 ) He was not an exceedingly 
ambitious man, and made no enemies and many friends. 

Though anti-slavery in principle he was an anti-'*convention" man. 

In 1847 he was a member of the Constitutional Convention and in 
1851 was made State trustee of the Illinois Central Railroad, which 
office he held until his, death, April 23, 1874. 

James Turney, the fourth Attorney General, was elected by the 
legislature and commissioned Jan. 14, 1823. (Breese, xvi.) He was 
a native of Tennessee and after moving to Illinois he lived in 

He was a man of commanding eloquence and majestic appear- 
ance, and is said to have been a man of great natural but of little 
acquired ability. While Attorney General, such was the reputation 
which had preceded him when traveling the circuits, that many men 
who had been indicted came into court and confessed their guilt 
rather than stand a trial with him as prosecutor. He was a candi- 
date for Congress against Cook and Duncan, but received only 824 
votes out of a total of over 12,700. 

During the Black Hawk war he served as paymaster general. 

George Forquer of Monroe county, who succeeded James Turney, 
was elected by the Legislature Jan. 23, 1829. (Breese, xvi.) He 


was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 1794, the son of a Revolu- 
tionary soldier; moved with his mother and half-brother, afterward 
Governor Ford, to New Design, Illinois, in 1804, and went to St. 
Louis, where he learned the carpenter's trade, after which he returned 
to Illinois and purchased the tract where Waterloo now stands. He 
seems to have been unsuccessful in business and embraced the legal 
profession, where he attained great success 

He was appointed Secretary of State by Governor Coles, Jan. 15, 
1825, which office he resigned Dec. 31, 1828. He held the position 
of Attorney General until Dec. 3, 1832, when he took his seat in the 
State Senate as a representative of Sangamon county. During the 
first session of the Ninth General Assembly he was chairman of the 
committee on Internal Improvements and made a report on the Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal. It was an elaborate report in favor of a 
loan of half a million dollars on the credit of the State. Ford says 
that it was perhaps the most able of any similar document submitted 
to any of the western legislatures, containing evidence of vast re- 
search. (Ford's History of Illinois, 180.) It was the first efficient 
movement in favor of the canal. 

He was appointed register of the land office in Springfield in 18S5. 

It is said that he originated the expression "to die in the last 
ditch." (Edwards Papers, 518.) 

While a young man he had traveled through the south on foot and 
became so favorably impressed with their style of architecture that 
when he built his residence in Springfield he followed it. The house 
still stands on the corner of Capitol avenue and Second streets, the 
property of G. R. Prickett. When built it was the finest house in 
town and boasted the only lightning rod in the community — the first 
one Abraham Lincoln ever saw. Forquer died in Cincinnati, Sept. 
12, 1838. 

James Semple, of Madison county, was his successor, being com- 
missioned Jan. 30, 1833 (1 Scam. ix). He was a native of Green 
county, Ky., born Jan. 5, 1798. His parents came from Virginia and 
were descendants of a Scotch family of Renfrewshire. In his youth 
Semple learned the tanner and currier's trade; later he was a law 
student at Louisville. He emigrated to Illinois in 1818, but re- 
moved to Chariton, Mo., where he was admitted to the bar. Return- 
ing to Illinois in 1828 he settled in Edwardsville for the practice of 
law and later became a resident of Alton. 

He was one of the prosecutors in the impeachment of Theophilus 
W. Smith, a judge of the Supreme Court. 

In 1834 the House of Representatives elected him Speaker without 
opposition. He was a candidate for the United States Senate against 
Wm. L. D. Ewing to succeed E. K. Kane in 1835 and again Speaker 
of the House in 1836; was appointed Minister to New Grenada, now 
Columbia, South America, in 1837, and on Jan. 14, 1843, he was 
elected Justice of the Supreme Court to succeed Sidney Breese, who 


had been elected to the United States Senate, but he resigned Au- 
gust 16 of the same year upon his appointment to the United States 
Senate, vice Samuel MoRoberts. 

Entering the Black Hawk war as a private, he rose to the rank of 
brigadier general. 

He WHS six feet three inches tall and greatly distinguished for per- 
sonal presence and bearing He at one time aspired to the role of 
historian, having compiled an elaborate history of Mexico which has 
never been published (Davidson & Stuv6, 685), and was withal 
something of an inventor, being the projector of a "steam wagon" 
which lay for years a wreck on the prairie south of Springfield. He 
died Dec. 20, 1866. 

The Legislature in 1881 passed an act providing that the Attorney 
General should be elected bj^ joint ballot of the two houses for a 
term of four years commencing with 1834. (Laws 1831, 18, Sec. 5.) 
But in 1833 the term was changed to two years to take effect in De- 
cember, 1834. (Laws 1833, 103.) 

Ninian W. Edwards, the next incumbent, was a son of Ninian 
Edwards, the Territorial Governor. He was born April 15, 1809, 
near Frankfort, Ky. His father at that time was Chief Justice of 
the Kentucky Court of Appeals, but receiving the appointment of 
Governor of Illinois Territory he removed to Kaskaskia. Ninian 
W. graduated from the law department of Transylvania University 
in 1833, after which he commenced the practice of law. Governor 
Reynolds appointed him Attorney General Sept. 1, 1834, and he was 
elected by the Legislature and recommissioned Jan. 19, 1835. 
(1 Scam, ix.) The law requiring the residence of the Attorney 
General at the capital and not liking Vandalia, he resigned Feb. 7, 
1835, and moved to Springfield. 

He was elected representative to the Legislature in 1836 and was 
the last survivor of the "long nine." 

In 1847 he was a member of the Constitutional Convention and 
was appointed in 1854 the first Superintendent of Public Instruction 
by Governor Matteson, which office he retained till 1857. 

As a parliamentarian he enjoyed an enviable reputation. 

Linder, who confessed that he was not an unbiased critic, declared 
in his reminiscences that Edwards' manner and deportment were not 
calculated to win friends; that he inherited from his father so much 
vanity and egotism that it made him offensive to most of his 
acquaintances, and that he was constitutionally an aristocrat. 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., of Madison county, succeeded Ninian W. 
Edwards. He was a nephew of the statesman of that name and was 
born in Lebanon, Ohio, July 31, 1806. He qualified Feb. 12, 1S35, 
resigning the office Dec. 8, 1835, (1 Scam. ix). His home was in 
Edwardsville. July 20, 1837, he was commissioned circuit judge for 
the first circuit and served until 1839, when he resigned. Aug. 6, 
1843, he was appointed judge of the Supreme Court to succeed 


Stephen A. Douglas, resigned. He was elected to the same office 
by the General Assembly Feb. 17, 1845, and resigned Aug. 8, of the 
same year (2 Gil. iii). He died in Chicago, Feb. 21, 1850. 

Walter Bennet Soates, of Jefferson county, succeeded Thomas, 
Jan. 18, 1886, (1 Scam. ix). Born in South Boston, Halifax county, 
Virginia, Jan. 18, 1808, he was taken in infancy to Hopkinsville, 
Kentucky, where he resided until 1831. He learned the printer's 
trade at Nashville and studied law at Louisville. In 1831 he moved 
to Frankfort, Franklin county, Illinois, and upon his appointment as 
Attorney General moved to Vandalia, but resigned Dec. 26, 1836, to 
become judge of the circuit court for the third circuit and moved to 
Shawneetown. In 1841 he was one of the five new judges added 
to the Supreme Court and held this office until 1847, when he 
resigned to take up the practice of law. 

He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 
1854 he again became a judge of the Supreme Court being elected to 
succeed Lyman Trumbull. He resigned in 1857 and resumed the 
practice of law in Chicago 

During the Civil War he served as a member of General MoCler- 
nand's staff after which he was collector of customs at Chicago. He 
died at Evanston, Illinois, Oct. 26, 1886. 

Usher F. Linder, Mr. Scate's successor, was born March 20, 1809, 
on a farm in Eliza bethtown, Hardin county, Kentucky, within ten 
miles of the place where Abraham Lincoln was born. He removed 
to Illinois in the summer of 1835, settling at Greenup, Coles county. 
The next year he was elected to the House of Kepresentatives and 
on February 4, 1837, he was elected Attorney General on joint bal- 
lot. (1 Scam, ix) . 

Although the law required a residence at the capital, he moved to 
Alton where he lived for a couple years, moving back to Coles coun- 
ty in 1838. He resigned as Attorney General on June Uth of that 

As an orator he had few equals. Quick in repartee, few cared to 
encounter him in debate. He was a man of very extensive general 
reading and a profound lawyer, although his forte was in addressing 
a jury. 

In politics he was at first a Jackson man, afterward a Whig and 
being of strong southern proclivities, he was a pro- slavery man and 
War Democrat. While he did not believe in slavery, he considered 
the abolition of it to mean the ruin of the white race. (Linder's 
Reminiscences.) He died in Chicago June, 5, 1876. 

George W. Olney of Madison county, succeeded Linder June 26, 
1838, and served until February 1, 1839. (1 Scam, ix) 

Wickliff Kitchell of Crawford county, assumed the duties of the 
office March 5, 1839. (1 Scam, ix) He was born in New Jersey 
May 21, 1789. In 1812 he emigrated west, coming down the Ohio 
on a flat boat from Pittsburgh and settled near Cincinnati. From 
there he moved to southern Indiana in 1814, and from 1817 until 


1838 he made Palestine, Crawford county, his home, at the end of 
which time he moved to Hillsboro, and the next year was elected 
Attorney General, but resigned Nov, 19, 1840, to take his seat in the 
House of Representatives of the Twelfth General Assembly. Be- 
tween 1846 and 1854 he was a resident of Fort Madison, Iowa, after 
which he returned to Hillsboro. A Democrat until the passage of 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill; he afterward became an earnest Republi- 
can. He died Jan. 2, 1869. 

Josiah Lamborn, his successor, was one of the most picturesque 
characters at the early bar. He was a native of Kentucky, possessed 
high social qualities, and his conversational powers were of the 
highest order, but he was inclined to be vindictive and very resent- 
ful of any slight offered him by an opposing attorney. He was one 
of the most able, untiring, yet merciless prosecutors of the times, 
and in his anxiety to add another scalp to his belt, says Moses 
(Illinois, Historical and Statistical 967), he sometimes allowed him- 
self to be carried so far as to jeopardise his own. 

In the famous trial of Archibald and William Trailer for the 
murder of an old man named Fisher, the details of which are 
familiar to all the old residents of Sangamon county, he had ex- 
torted a confession from a brother of the defendants, and though 
it was false, he succeeded so well that in the minds of jury and 
spectators the guilt of the accused was proved beyond a doubt. 
When at the close of the State's case. Judge Logan brought Fisher 
into court alive and well, the indigrration of the crowd was so intense 
that Lamborn narrowly escaped being lynched on the spot. 

He served as Attorney General for two years from Dec. 23, 1840 
(2 Scam. v(, and died at Whitehall, Green county. 

James Allen McDougall of Morgan county, the next incumbent, 
was born at Bethlehem, Albany county. New York, Nov. 19, 1817. 
He settled in Pike county in 1837 and assumed the duties of the 
office Jan. 12, 1843. (3 Scam, iii.) After the expiration of his 
term he engaged in engineering and lead an exploring expedition 
to Rio del Norte, Gila and Colorado rivers, afterward settling in 
San Francisco, where he began the practice of law. He was 
Attorney General of California in 1850; represented the state in 
Congress in 1852, and April 2, 1861, he was elected to the United 
States States Senate where he served as a war Democrat until 1867, 
gaining the reputation of being a brilliant and efiPective speaker. He 
died at Albany, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1867, 

David B. Campbell of Sangamon county succeeded McDougall and 
was the last Attorney General under the Constitution of 1818. His 
term began Dec. 21, 1846. (3 Gil. iii.) Born in New Jersey, he 
came west with his brother about 1838. At the expiration of his 
term of office he was elected prosecuting attorney of Sangamon 
county, dying in office in 1856. It is said that he would never prose- 
cute one charged with crime unless thoroughly convinced of his 


The Constitution of 1848 made no provision for the office, and 
from 1848 until 1867 the State had no Attorney General. In the 
latter year the legislature by enactment revived the office and fixed 
the term at four years. (Laws 1867, 46.) 

Robert Green IngersoU of Peoria county was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Oglesby, Feb. 28, 1867, to serve during the unexpired term of 
the Governor, after which by the terms of the act the office was to be 
filed by popular election. 

IngersoU was born at Dresden, Oneida county. New York, Aug. 
11, 1838. His father was a Congregational minister. They moved 
west in 1843 and Robert, with his brother Eben, opened a law office in 
Shawneetown. In 1857 he removed to Peoria. He was the unsuc- 
cessful Democratic candidate for Congress in 1860, and in 1864 after 
returning from the war he became a Republican. 

As an orator he won great distinction. He nominated James G. 
Blaine for President in ]876, and for twenty years was the most 
popular stump speaker in the west. To the country at large he was 
chiefly known through his atheistic writings and speeches. 

His death took place at Dobb's Ferry, Long Island, July 21, 1899. 
(Bateman and Selby's Encyclopedia.) 

Washington Bushnell of LaSalle county, the only incumbent 
elected under the new law, was born in Madison county, New York, 
Sept. 30, 1825, and came with his parents in 1837 to Lisbon, Kendall 
county, Illinois. He graduated at the State and National Law 
School in Poughkeepsie, was admitted to the bar in 1853 and estab- 
lished himself in practice at Ottawa. He died June 30, 1885. 

James K. Edsall, his successor, was born in Windham, Greene 
county, New York, May 10, 1831. While attending school he sup- 
ported himself by working upon a farm. He read law at Prattsville 
and Catskill and was admitted to the bar at Albany in 1852. During 
the next two years he lived in Wisconsin and Minnesota and in 1854 
moved to Leavenworth, Kan. He was elected to the Kansas Legis- 
lature in ]856 and was a member of the Topeka (free soil) body 
when it was broken up by the United States troops in 1856. In 1856 
he returned to Illinois, settling at Dixon> and began to practice law. 
He was elected Attorney General in 1872, the Constitution of 1870 
having made the office a constitutional one on the same footing as 
the other State offices. He served two terms and then moved to 
Chicago, where he practiced until his death, June 20, 1892. 

James McCartney, successor of Edsall was born in Ireland of 
Scotch parentage, Feb. 14, 1835. He was brought to the United 
States in infancy and lived in Pennsylvania until 1845, when his 
parents moved to Trumbull county, Ohio, where he spent his time 
at farm work. He began the study of law in 1856 at Warren, Ohio; 
moved to Monmouth, 111., in 1857, and upon being admitted to the 
bar moved in 1859 to Galva. Entering the army he became a cap- 
tain. He was elected Attorney General in 1880. While in office he 
instituted the * 'Lake Front suits." In 1890 he moved to Chicago 
where he is still engaged in the practice of law. 


George Hunt was born in Knox county, Ohio, in 1841 and came 
with his uncle to Edgar county 111. in 1855. He entered the army in 
1861, and retired with the rank of captain. Locating at Paris, he 
was elected Attorney General in 1884. Daring his incumbency he 
conducted the famous "Anarchist cases" — in the State Supreme 
Court against Gen. Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts, John R. 
Tucker of Virginia and Roger A. Pryor of New York, as opposing 
counsel, and upon an appeal in one of the cases being taken to the 
United States Supreme Court, he appeared there for the State. 

Maurice T. Moloney of LaSalle county, who succeeded Mr. Hunt, 
was born in Ireland Jaly 26, 1849, and came to this country in 1867. 
While Attorney General he began proceedings against the Pullman 
Palace Car company which terminated in its abandonment of the 
ownership of the town of Pullman which it had operated by usurping 
the powers of a municipal corporation. 

Edward Clay Akin, elected in 1896 to succeed Mr. Moloney was 
born in Will county in 1852 and was admitted to the bar in 1878. 
He was the first native born Illinoisan to hold the office. He was 
succeeded in 1901 by the present Attorney General, Howland J. 
Hamlin of Shelby county. 

Abraham Lincoln in 1858. 



Local Incidents in the Cakeer ojp Abraham Lincoln, which 
Happened During the Years from 1832 to 1858. 

Howard F. Dyson. 

Abraham Lincoln as a character in state and national history is 
familiar to all students of political history. Today there is no per- 
sonage in the whole of American history more exalted than that of 
Lincoln. North and South unite to honor his memory and review 
the rugged grandeur of his personality, all forgetting the bitterness 
and hate engendered during the stirring days of the early sixties, in 
the admiration of Lincoln — the man. 

It was in the years from 1882 to 1858 that Lincoln was laying the 
foundation for the marvelous career that brought him so conspicu- 
ously before the people in the presidential campaign of 1860. Dur- 
ing these years Lincoln was brought into close relation with the 
people of central Illinois as soldier, lawyer and politician. He came 
in contact with men in all stations of life and it is noted that his 
great heart was ever in play in his intercourse with men. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to detail the history of the times 
in which Lincoln played a prominent part, but simply to chronicle 
a few local happenings dealing with his visits to Rushville and his 
associations with Rushville people. The little local incidents of the 
career of any man who has figured prominently in the administration 
of his country's affairs can not be devoid of interest, and in the case 
of Abraham Lincoln they are particularly so, as local personages ac- 
tively participated in the scenes which we will here relate. 

It is our purpose to show how the life of Lincoln was connected 
in its varying stages with that of Rushville people. How in the cor- 
responding periods of his intellectual development he was associated 
with local personages. This relation continued through the span of 
Lincoln's life. As early as 1815 in his old Kentucky home Lincoln 
was the playmate of a lad who was afterwards a citizen of Rushville, 
and continuing on down until he had reached the zenith of his career 
he was associated on terms of intimacy with people from Rushville. 


Lincoln First Visited Rushville in 1832. 

Lincoln visited Rushville on several occasions, and especially is it 
noted that these visits, separated by a lapse of years, marked distinct 
epochs in the development of his powers and his illustrious career. 
In viewing separately the six or seven visits of Lincoln to Rushville 
it is not possible to always give exact dates, for the personal details 
of his early visits are forever lost and the men who took an active 
part in affairs are gone, and some of the incidents recorded may have 
passed from the realm of fact into fiction for aught we know. 

It does not appear that any of these hardy old pioneers, who lived 
the stirring life of hardship, ever anticipated Lincoln's place in his- 
tory. They regarded him as a jovial, sociable companion, whose suc- 
cess in politics up to the time of the Lincoln-Douglas debate was no 
more illustrious than that of the favorite sons of Schuyler county. 

Lincoln's introduction to Rushville was in the line of military 
duties. It was the first period of a public career which was destined 
to end most gloriously. At this time Lincoln was a young man 23 
years of age. He had responded^to Governor Reynold's call for troops 
to march against the Indians, who were on the war path in the north- 
ern part of the State under the leadership of Chief Black Hawk. 

The volunteer troops were ordered to be at Beardstown on April 
22, 1832, and Lincoln, who had been elected captain of a Sangamon 
county company, was ?ittached to the Fourth Regiment, Whiteside 
Brigade, along with Capt. Wm. Ralls and Capt. Mose Wilson of 
Rushville, who was afterwards promoted to major. 

The troops left Beardstown April 27, 1832, and marched to Rush- 
ville, where they went into camp north of town. The weather was 
cold and the roads heavy in mud, and the second day only three miles 
were covered. 

In Captain Ralls' and Major Wilson's companies were many Rush- 
ville young men, who were soon on terms of intimacy with Lincoln. 
The volunteer organizations were conducted on purely democratic 
principles, and officers and men met on an equality in every sport 
and pastime. 

One of Lincoln's biographers says: "Lincoln entered with great 
zest into the athletic sports with which soldiers love to beguile the 
tedium of camp. * * * His popularity increased from the begin- 
ning to the end of the campaign, and those of his comrades who still 
survive him, always speak with hearty and affectionate praise of his 
character and conduct in those rough yet pleasantly remembered 

"Billy" Wilson Wrestled With Lincoln. 

In the adjutant general's report of Illinois, published in 1882, we 
find the following communication from the late Wm. L. Wilson of 
this city: 


"Wm. L. Wilson, who was a private in Capt. Mose G. Wilsons 
company, writes to this office from Rushville, under date of Feb. 3, 
1882, and after detailing some interesting reminidcences of Stillman's 
defeat says: 'I have during that time had much fun with the after- 
wards to be President of the United States, A. Lincoln. I remember 
one time wrestling with him, two best in three, and ditched him. He 
was not satisfied and we tried a foot race for a $5 bill and I won the 
money, and 'tis spent long ago. And many more interesting remi- 
niscences could I give, but I am of Quaker persuasion and not much 
given to writing.' " 

John Brown was another Rushville resident who was on terms of 
intimacy with Mr. Lincoln during the years he conducted a store at 
Salem, Menard county, and engaged in rafting on the Sangamon and 
Illinois rivers. In fact the relation was so close in those pioneer 
days that Mr. Brown could never believe that Lincoln had made the 
marvelous progress in mental growth necessary to fit him for the 
presidency and he voted for Douglas. 

Some twenty years ago when the writer was a lad he would sit for 
hours of an evening at Mr. Brown's home on West Lafayette street list- 
ening to stories of his adventures as a pilot on the Illinois river and 
his experiences of warfare in the campaign against Black Hawk, and 
the name of Lincoln was closely associated with thrilling stories of 
adventure told. The details as outlined by Mr. Brown have long ago 
passed from memory, but the fact remains that he knew Mr. Lincoln 
in the days from 1830 to 1835 as few men were privileged to do. 

We next find Lincoln aspiring to political honors as a candidate 
on the Whig ticket for a seat in the Illinois Legislature. He was 
defeated in 1834, but two years later was successful and took his seat 
in the lower house of the General Assembly at Vandalia. 

Tarbell's Life of Lincoln says: "There was a preponderance of 
jean suits like Lincoln's in the Assembly, and there were occasional 
coon skin caps and buck skin trousers. Nevertheless, more than one 
member showed a studied garb and courtly manner. Some of the 
best blood of the south went into the making of Illinois and it 
showed itself from the earliest time in the Assembly." 

In the Legislature with Sohuylerites. 

Among the men that Lincoln met in Vandalia during the years he 
was in the Legislature, 1834-1842, many were destined to become 
famous in State and nation. One among the number was Wm. A. 
Richardson, then a young man like Lincoln, who went to the Legis- 
lature from Schuyler in 1836. "Dick" Richardson, as his Rushville 
friends were wont to call him, was ever after on terms of intimacy 
with Lincoln, though opposed to him politically. As member of the 
Illinois Legislature, congressman and United States Senator, Wm. 
A. Richardson was second only to Stephen A. Douglas as a leader 
of the Illinois Democracy, and played a prominent part in State and 
national politics. 


One other Schuyler citizen served with Lincoln in the Legislature 
at Vandalia. We refer to John Brown, father of Hon. Robert 
Brown. He succeeded Mr. Richardson and served in the Illinois 
Assembly from 1888 to 1840, and was afterward re-elected, and in 
1848 served a term in the State Senate. 

Even at this early day Lincoln was taking his place among the 
Whig leaders of the State, as the following from the Quincy Whig 
of May 28, 1840, indicates: "Mr. Lincoln, one of the presidential 
electors for this State, is ' going it with a perfect rush ' in some of 
the interior counties. Thus far the Locofocos have not been able to 
start a man that can hold a candle to him in political debate. All of 
their crack nags that have entered the lists against him have come 
off the field crippled or broken down. He is now wending his way 

But it was not until 1846 that Lincoln first impressed his old sol- 
diers comrades of Schuyler, who had served with him in the Black 
Hawk war, with his importance as a politician. In that year he de- 
feated Peter Cartwright, the itinerant Methodist preacher, for Con- 
gress, and Cartwright was the idol of the Schuyler Democrats, 

As A Lawyer in Schuyler Courts. 

Lincoln served but one term in Congress and on his return to Illi- 
nois resumed the practice of law Following the customs of the 
times he traveled about from town to town, and several times ap- 
peared as attorney in the Schuyler Circuit Court. At the old tavern 
kept by Alex, Campbell, where the Jackson block now stands, Lin- 
coln became a warm friend of the proprietor, who was a Kentuckian, 
and on one occasion after he had quitted the hotel Lincoln and 
Douglas were entertained at an evening company given at the Camp- 
bell home north of town. 

In those days such lawyers as O. H. Browning and Calvin A. War- 
ren of Quincy; T. Lyle Dickey, Wm. A. Minshall, Stephen A. Doug- 
las, Wm. A. Richardson and P. H. Walker of this city, all intellectual 
giants and men who afterwards won renown on the bench or in the 
political field, were to be heard in cases at the old brick court house. 

T. Lyle Dickejr, who in the early thirties was a Rushville editor, 
and later a practicing attorney here, was elected to the Illinois 
Supreme Bench from Ottawa, and from the earliest times he and 
Lincoln were great friends. 

When P. H. Walker of this city was elected to the circuit bench, 
and afterwards (1858) to the Supreme Bench, Lincoln appeared as 
counsel before him on numerous occasions. 

In looking over the papers of his father, a few years ago, George 
E. Walker brought to light three letters written by Lincoln recom- 
mending young attorneys for admission to the bar. They read as 

"Springfield, III., Jan. 31, 1859. 

"The undersigned, having in pursuance of the within appointment, 
examined the said applicant, Henry I. Atkins, touching his qualifi- 

Court House of Schuyler County, Illinois, at Bushville. 


cations to practice law, respectfully report that having performed the 
said duty, they find the applicant qualified to practice law, and 
recommend that he be licensed. 

M. Hay, 

A. Lincoln, 

B. S. Edwards." 

"Springfield, III., Jan. 28, 1860. 
'•We, the undersigned, report that we have examined Mr. Henry 
8. Grreene and find him well qualified to practice as an attorney and 
counselor at law. We therefore recommend that he be licensed as 

A. Lincoln, 
L. W. Koss, 
O. H. Browning." 

"We take pleasure in certifying that Hon. Elias T. Turney is a 
gentleman of good moral character. 

A. Lincoln, 

Ward H. Laman." . 

When Judge Bagby Met Lincoln. 

Judge Bagby's first meeting with Lincoln, with whom he was later 
to be closely associated in politics, was in 1847. He was on his way 
to Beardstown to appear before the presiding judge with a view of 
being admitted to the bar. The horse he was riding was a spirited 
one, and when near that city it became frightened and was careering 
backward, when from the side of the road a man stepped forth and 
called out, 'Wouldn't you make faster progress, my young friend, if 
you turned that horse's head the other way?" The tall, lank stranger 
was Abraham Lincoln, and he followed up his suggestion by taking 
hold of the horse's bridle and walking along side. In the conversa- 
tion that followed Mr. Bagby told Lincoln he was going to Beards- 
town to appear before Judge Purple and stand an examination for 
admission to the bar. Lincoln again volunteered his assistance, and 
when Beardstown was reached Mr. Bagby was introduced to Judge 
Purple and members of the bar by Lincoln and received his license 
to practice law in Illinois. In later years Judge Bagby was an ar- 
dent supporter of Lincoln, and was a candidate for the Illinois Sen- 
ate in that memorable campaign between Lincoln and Douglas in 

Befriended by Lincoln in 1840. 

r. r. randall had his clothes stolen in springfield by 
chicago whigs. 

R. R. Randall, one of the founders of The Rushville Times, now a 
resident of Lincoln, Neb., has personal knowledge of the goodness of 
heart of the great Lincoln through a favor extended to him in a time 
of gloom and despair. 
— 15H 


Away back in the year 1840 Mr. Randall was taken from Rush- 
ville to Sprinpjfield by his father and apprenticed to Simeon Francis, 
then editor and proprietor of the Springfield Journal. The boys in 
the ofl&ce good-naturedly named him "Devil Dick," the former ap- 
pellation being always applied to apprentices in printing offices. 

When "Dick" saw the legal documents made out, which bound 
him for a term of years to the Journal editor, he felt that his per- 
sonal liberty was being taken away from him forever. He was a 
strong, rugged, good-natured lad, and longed as only a boy can for 
the comforts of home. But homesickness was not the only sorrow 
that came to him during his first week's stay in Springfield. The 
Whig convention had met in the city that week and the Chicago 
delegation had driven down and stored their baggage in the Journal 
office. "Dick" had all his worldly possessions stored away in an old 
hair trunk, and with the departure of the Chicago delegates it had 
mysteriously disappeared from the office. 

With no one to comfort him "Dick" wandered out to the front of 
the office and there gave way to tears. Editor Francis, with preoc- 
cupied mind, had walked out the door past the boy without asking 
the secret of his tears, but it was left for a greater soul to administer 
balm to his desolate heart. 

A tall, awkward man came ambling down the street. A homely 
hand touched "Dick" on the shoulder. The very touch was full of 
sympathy, and fuller of sympathy was the voice that inquired: "My 
son, what is breaking your heart?" And then between sobs "Dick" 
told his story. 

The great man who volunteered his sympathy, however, had seen 
the shadows as well as the lights of human experience. He guessed 
the trouble at once and said: "Those rascally Whigs have stolen 
your clothes. Never mind; dry your tears and I will have you more 
and better clothes." The man who had noted and consoled the lad 
was Abraham Lincoln, and the following letter brought new clothes 
and great joy to "Devil Dick." 

"Springfield, III., June 16, 1840. 

Jonathan G. Randall, Rushville, III 

My Dear Sir — Your son Richard has just told me of his great loss. 
The rascally Whigs, through a mistake, took his trunk containing all 
his clothes off to Chicago, and his heart is almost broken. Make 
him up some new ones just as you know he needs and make his heart 
glad, iours respectfully, A. Lincoln." 

Mr. Randall ever afterwards was a great admirer of Lincoln, and 
for four years delivered the Journal to his home in Springfield. To- 
day he wears the little bronze button in the lapel of his coat which 
marks him as one of the veterans who served in the war at the call 
of President Lincoln to remove the yoke of bondage from the negroes, 
that they might be free. 


"Joe" Angel and Lincoln. 

When in Rushville on his last visit Lincoln showed most strongly 
a trait of character, which had always endeared him to the common 
people. The fact is Lincoln was plebian in his social habits and 
tastes as he was in his origin, and was never more happy than when 
in the society of plain and unpretentious people. 

While here some one said: "Mr. Lincoln, there is a man here who 
once knew you when you were boys together." 

"What is his name?" said Lincoln. 

"Joe Angel" 

*'Tell him to come; I want to see him." 

A messenger was dispatched for Mr. Angel, but he refused to go, 
as he had not the courage to thrust himself on a candidate for 
United States Senator, whom he knew and remembered as a boy 
wearing jeans pants and driving an ox team. 

"Well, said Lincoln, "if Joe will not come to see me I must go to 
see him," and suiting the action to the word walked to the place 
where he was at work and extending his hand in the most friendly 
way, said; "How are you, Joe?" 

He responded, "How are you, Abe?" and instantly the wide chasm 
of intervening years since they were boys was bridged, and they 
stood on the same level as mutual friends and talked of their old 
Kentucky homes and of the days when they drove an ox team into 
Springfield in the early thirties. 


The Republican party in Schuyler county dates from the year 1856, 
and of the five men who took active part in its inception two are 
still living — James E. Scripps, editor of the Detroit News, and 
Maxon Frisby of this vicinity. In a letter to the writer, jajiving some 
facts in connection with Lincoln's visit to Rushville, Mr. Scripps 

"The first Republican gathering ever held in Schuyler county as- 
sembled one evening in the fall of 1856 in G. W. Scripps' school 
house, formerly the old tannery, which stood where Hal Scripps' 
house now does. There were present G. W. Scripps, Rev. John Clarke, 
Wilhelm Peters, Maxon Frisby and myself. I remember Mr. Clarke 
saying that for many years he had been without a political party, 
and he rejoiced that one was now organized with which he could 
conscientiously affiliate. The subject of the approaching State con- 
vention at Bloomington was talked over, and Mr. Clarke finally 
elected delegate to represent the embryo Republicanism of Schuyler 
county. We chipped in a trifle for his expenses — perhaps enough 
altogether to pay his hotel bill at Bloomington. I presume he drove 
over to the convention in his buggy or rode on horseback." 

228 I 

The generation born since President Lincoln died know little of 
the political events which are associated with the greatest of Illinois 
statesmen. In the memorable campaign of 1858, in which Lincoln 
and Douglas took the leading part, the prairies of Illinois were 
literally afire with partisan enthusiasm. Stephen A. Douglas, sena- 
tor from Illinois, talented, famed and eloquent, was a candidate for 
re-election. Abraham Lincoln, who, by a speech at the Blooming- 
ton convention two years before, had made himself the leader of the 
newly formed Republican party, was his opponent. The nature and 
importance of the issue made Illinois the battle ground of the nation, 
and though Douglas won the senatorship, Lincoln, who up to this 
time had scarcely been known outside the State, through his mas- 
terly debate with Douglas, won the presidency and imperishable 

In the senatorial district composed of Hancock, Henderson and 
Schuyler counties this county furnished three candidates. Rev. J. 
P. Richmond was a candidate for the senate, and Hon. L. D. Erwin 
was a candidate for representative on the Democratic ticket and John 
C. Bagby was a candidate for State senator on the Republican ticket. 


Lincoln opened his campaign of that year at Beardstown on Au- 
gust 12th. Douglas had spoken there the day before and from there 
gone northward, the two meeting at Ottawa on August 21st in the 
series of joint debates in which Lincoln's great fame as an orator 
attracted the attention of the country. 

At the Beardstown meeting Schuyler was represented by a delega- 
tion numbering several hundred. They crossed the ferry with ban- 
ners flowing and lively music, and were given an address of welcome 
by Mr. Sturtevant. to which response was made by G. W. Scripps. 
In the afternoon Lincoln was escorted to the stand by the Rushville 
band and our military company beaded the procession 

Now that the Lincoln-Douglas senatorial campaign has become an 
historic one, and rightly, too, for it was that that gave Lincoln the 
presidency, the Rushville people who participated so prominently in 
the ceremonies of the opening should be proad of the fact that they 
gave Lincoln enthusiastic encouragement in the contest, which, 
though lost, made him the logical candidate for president on the Re- 
publican ticket two years later. 

. Schuyler county having three senatorial candidates in the field in 
that memorable campaign was deemed important territory by both 
Lincoln and Douglas. No other county in the State had such a rep- 
resentation, and both candidates refrained from speaking here until 
late in the campaign. Lincoln came on October 20th and a few days 
later he was followed by Stephen A. Douglas. The joint debate, 
which had astounded the nation by its scope and the eloquence of 
the principals, had been brought to a close, and all other political 
speakers had been made mere pygmies compared with Lincoln and 


Schuyler people had followed the contest closely through the pa- 
pers, and as the campaign progressed partisan feeling became more 
bitter. The slavery issue was coming to the front with irresistable 
power, and the newly reformed Republican party, with Lincoln as 
the leader in Illinois, was striving to wrest the governing power of 
the State from the Democrats. Schuyler was a Democratic county 
and Douglas was the idol of the party, and in the rehearsal of the 
local incidents here recorded one may get an idea of the temper of 
the people of that period. 

Lincoln Visited Rushville in 1858. 

his greeting was a most enthusiastic one, even if schuyler 

was democratic. 

It has been more than 44 years since Lincoln visited Rushville for 
the last time, and yet there are scores of people living in and about 
the city who well remember the incidents of the day. For a time it 
seemed a hopeless task to the writer to locate for certain the date of 
Lincoln's last visit. No one in Rushville could give the information 
and the files of old papers in Springfield, Canton, Lewistown and 
Oquawka were carefully scanned, and though in some oases comment 
was made on the speech here, no date was given . For the last four 
years, during which time the material for this sketch was collected, 
numerous inquiries were made as regards the date of Lincoln's visit, 
and finally by rare chance the writer came into possession of a 
Schuyler Citizen, edited by G. W. Scripps, now in possession of Mrs. 
M. A. Bagby, to whom we are indebted for this and other valuable 

Abraham Lincoln came to Rushville for the last time on Wednes- 
day, Oct. 20, 1858. He was driven across the country from Mt. Ster- 
ling by Charles H. Sweeney, now of Des Moines, la., who was then a 
law student in Judge Bagby 's office. Mr. Sweeney says he remem- 
bers it was a cold raw day, but that the ride did not seem a long one, 
for Lincoln was an entertaining companion. What impressed him 
most, however, was Lincoln's abnormally long legs which were hang- 
ing over the dash board most of the way. 

Great preparations had been made to welcome Lincoln, and at an 
early hour wagons, horsemen and people on foot began pouring into 
town. As they entered they were taken in charge by marshals on 
horseback and escorted to the rendezvous north of town. At 12:30 
the delegations from Beardstown and East Schuyler, headed by a 
martial band, arrived. 

The united procession, under direction of Chief Marshal Levi 
Lusk, then moved forward to the square, then down Washington 
street to Jackson and east on Lafayette to St. Louis street, and on 
returning to the square the wagons, carriages and footmen dispersed, 
and the horsemen, headed by the Rushville band, marched to the 
home of Wm. H. Ray, where Mr. Lincoln was entertained. 


As the horsemen approached Lincoln appeared and at the cries of' 
"speech!" "speech!" he stepped down from the veranda and mounted 
a high flower pedestal, which stood in the yard, and from this lofty 
position addressed the crowd. "Boys, this is a shaky platform," 
said Lincoln, "But the Republican party has a strong foundation." 
The pedestal on which Lincoln stood was a frame of wood surround- 
ing a stump, and the stump was allowed to stand in front of the Ray 
homestead until it rotted off at the base, and it is still preserved as 
one of the local Lincoln relics by Mrs. L, A. Jarman. Another relic 
associated with Lincoln's visit to Rushville is owned by Mrs. Jennie 
L. Ray. Her husband, Dwight E. Ray, then a small lad, was greatly 
interested in the proceedings of the day, and when Lincoln offered to 
give him 10 cents if he would hurrah for the Republican party he 
did it right lustily. Mrs. Ray kept the 10 cent piece and had it 
mounted on a pin as a keepsake of Lincoln's visit here. 

A reception was given by Mr. and Mrs. Ray to Lincoln on the 
evening of the day he spoke here, and he met a large number of our 
people there. Mrs. A. R. Anderson was one of the number and she 
was asked to assist in entertaining the guests. Mrs. Anderson took 
her place at the piano and Lincoln soon strolled over that way and 
stood beside her. He appeared to be passionately fond of music and 
during a lull in the festivities said to Mrs. Anderson, "I'd give a 
farm if I could sing and play like you can." « 

Lincoln's views on slavery. | 

The crowd that greeted Lincoln at that afternoon meeting was 
estimated by Mr. Scripps in the Citizen at 3,000, which was a large 
gathering for that early day. The speaker's stand was erected on 
the north side of the old court house, east of the door, and at 2:00 
o'clock Mr. Lincoln was introduced by Joseph W. Sweeney, then 
one of Rushville's leading attorneys. 

In the series of joint debates between Lincoln and Douglas, which 
had been concluded at Alton on October 15th, the issues of the cam- 
paign had been thoroughly discussed, and in his Rushville speech 
Mr. Lincoln added no new argument to those already made. He 
devoted the opening of his speech to the opinions and policy of 
Henry Clay on the slavery question, showing that his views and 
Clay's coincided exactly. 

On the question of slavery we quote the following extract from 
his speech as given in the Citizen, which strongly indicates that 
Lincoln's wish at that time was to regulate and not abolish 
slavery, but rather to confine it within the territory where it had ex- 
isted up to the time of the Kansas-Nebraska agitation: 

"I have intimated that I thought the agitation would not cease un- 
til a crisis should have been reached and passed. I have stated in 
what way I thought it would be reached and passed. I have said 
that it might go one way or the other. We might, by arresting the 
further spread of it, and placing it where the fathers originally 


placed it, put it where the public mind should rest in the belief that 
it was in the course of ultimate extinction. Thus the agitation 
might cease. It may be pushed forward until it shall become alike 
lawful in all the states, old as well as new, north as well as south. I 
have said and I repeat, my wish is that the further spread of it may 
be arrested, and that it may be placed where the public mind shall 
rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction. I 
have expressed that as my wish. I entertain the opinion upon evi- 
dence sufficient to my mind that the fathers of this government 
placed that institution where the public mind did rest in the belief 
that it was in the course of ultimate extinction. Let me ask why 
they made provision that the source of slavery — the African slave 
trade — should be cut off at the end of 20 years? Why did they 
make provision that in all the new territory we owned at that time it 
should be forever prohibited? Why stop its spread in one direction 
and cut off its source in another, if they did not look to its being 
placed in the course of ultimate extinction? * * * * 

"It is not true that our fathers, as Judge Douglas assumes, made 
this government part slave and part free. Understand the sense in 
which he puts it. He assumes that slavery is a rightful thing within 
itself — was introduced by the framers of the constitution. The ex- 
act truth is, that they found the institution existing among us and. 
they left it as they found it. But in making the government they 
left this institution with many clear marks of disapprobation upon 
it. They found slavery among them and they left it among them 
because of the difficulty — the absolute impossibility, of its immediate 

*'And when Judge Douglas asks me why we can not let it remain 
part slave and part free as the fathers of the government made it, he 
asks a question based upon an assumption which is itself a falsehood, 
and I turn upon him and ask him the question, when the policy that 
the fathers of the government had adopted in relation to this element 
among us, was the best policy in the world — the only wise policy — 
the only policy that we can ever safely continue upon — that will ever 
give us peace unless this dangerous element masters us all and be- 
comes a national institution — I turn upon him and ask him why he 
could not let it alone? I turn and ask him why he was driven to the 
necessity of introducing a new policy in regard to it? He has him- 
self said he introduced a new policy. He said so in his speech on 
the 22d of March of the present year, 1858. I asked him why he 
could not let it remain where our fathers placed it? I ask, too, of 
Judge Douglas and his friends why we shall not again place this in- 
stitution upon the basis on which the fathers left it? I ask you 
when he infers that I am in favor of setting the free and slave states 
at war, when the institution was placed in that attitude by those who 
made the constitution, did they make any war? If we had no war 
out of it when thus placed, wherein is the ground of belief that we 
shall have war out of it if we return to that policy? Have we had 
any peace upon this springing from any other basis? T maintain 
that we have not. I have proposed nothing more than a return to 
the policy of the fathers." 



While Lincoln's reception in Rushville was a most enthusiastic 
one it was marred by partisan demonstrations of the most flagrant | 
kind. As has been previously stated, party feeling ran high and it 
showed itself in a most unfavorable light at the Lincoln meeting. 

On the night before Lincoln came, some one climbed to the top of 
the old court house and hung a black flag from the steeple, and dur- 
ing the speaking the sheriff was required to clear the court house 
roof of boys who made such a din as to drown the speaker's voice. 

In one of the court house windows, directly over the stand from 
which Lincoln spoke, was a crowd of young ladies who waved aloft 
a nigger doll, to which was attached a banner bearing the inscrip- 
tion, "Hurrah for Lincoln!" Growing more bold when they saw they 
were detracting attention from the speaker, they cheered for Douglas 
and publicly announced that he would speak in Rushville in the near 
future. Mr. Lincoln stopped in the midst of his great speech and 
turning to the window politely asked the young ladies to be still 
until he had finished his speech, when he would yield the stand to 
them. The kindly rebuke administered by Lincoln restored order 
and he was allowed to finish his speech without further disturbance. 

First Life op Lincoln. 

john l. scripps, a former rushville citizen, wrote first life 

of lincoln. 

In the audience that greeted Lincoln on that day was a Rushville 
gentleman who at the time was one of the Republican leaders of the 
State, and was afterwards instrumental in securing for Chicago the 
national convention in 1860, the one thing needed to secure Lincoln's 
nomination for president. We refer to John Locke Scripps, brother 
of Mrs. M. A. Bagby and Mrs. Lydia Little of this city. 

In 1858 Mr. Scripps was editor of the Chicago Press and Tribune, 
the recognized organ of the Republican party in Illinois. As editor- 
in-chief Mr. Scripps wielded all the influence at his command 
towards bringing Lincoln before the country as a presidential candi- 
date W, H. Milburn, the blind chaplain of Congress, in a letter to 
Mr. Scripps' daughter, Mrs, B. F. Dyohe of Evanston, says: "I sup- 
pose your father's influence did more to secure Mr. Lincoln's nomi- 
nation for the presidency than that of any man." Lincoln knew and 
appreciated these services, and after his election Mr. Scripps was 
named as postmaster of the city of Chicago. 

Soon after Lincoln was nominated it was decided to publish a 
story of his life and Mr. Scripps was selected for the task. This 
was the first authorized life of Lincoln and was circulated in 
pamphlet form as a campaign document. That Mr. Scripps had the 
confidence of Lincoln to a remarkable degree is shown by the follow- 
ing extract from Jesse W. Weik's Life of Lincoln: 


"When John L. Soripps, then editor of the Chicago Press and 
Tribune, oame down to Springfield to secure data for the authorized 
campaign life of the presidential candidate, Mr. Lincoln was more 
than ever brought face to face with the demands for the facts. 
Just how he met and disposed of the question the world will 
probably never know, for he locked himself up in a room with his 
biographer one afternoon and there communicated certain facts re- 
garding his ancestry and early history which Scripps so long as he 
lived would never under any circumstance disclose." 

This early life of Lincoln printed and circulated during the cam- 
paign of 1860, was soon forgotten by the public in general, but it 
forms the basis of all standard works on the life of Lincoln published 
since then. 

Several years ago Mrs. B. F. Dyche of Evanston, secured a copy 
of the biography her father had written from John Hay, now Secre- 
tary of State in President Roosevelt's cabinet, and the work was 
reissued in permanent form and as a model of typographical art by 
the Cranbrook Press of Detroit, Mich. 


A letter written by Mr. Scripps to Lincoln's law partner, Mr. 
Herndon, in which he welcomes the news that Mr. Herndon was 
about to write a book on Lincoln, shows how accurately he had guaged 
the future reputation of Lincoln. After modestly remarking that he 
might improve his own sketch if he had it to do again, he continued: 

"It is gratifying, however, to see that the same qualities in Lincoln 
to which I then gave greatest prominence are those on which his 
fame ever chiefly rests. Is it not true that this is the leading lesson 
of Lincoln's life — that true and enduring greatness — the greatness 
that will survive the corrosion and abrasion of time, change and 
progress — must rest upon character? In certain showy and what are 
understood to be most desirable endowments, how many Americans 
have surpassed him! Yet how he looms above them now! Not elo- 
quence, nor logic, nor power of command, nor courage — not any or 
all of these have made him what he is; but these, in the degree in which 
he possessed them, conjoined to those certain qualities comprised 
in the term character, have given him his fame, have made him for 
ail time to come the great American man — the grand central figure 
in American (perhaps the world's) history." 

This eloquent summing up of Lincoln's character is not only as 
true today as it was 85 years ago, but it will be far more universally 
accepted now than it was then. 



Compiled from the records of the Chicago Veteran Druggist's AsiOiiation, by Albert E 

Ebert, Historian. 


It is proposed in these pages to outline the early history of the 
drug trade in Chicago from 1832 to 1871, inclusive. It was between 
these dates that the city laid the foundation of its greatness, and up- 
on what was done then the superstructure has been reared. In the 
introductory pages it is our purpose to outline the geographical lim- 
its of the city, its relation to the surrounding country and to give 
such facts and data as will lead to a measurably clear understanding 
of the commercial conditions of the times, especially with relation to 
the subject directly under consideration. The eerly druggist is our 
subject. It is with him we shall have to deal, but we find him so 
alert and progressive a fellow, so interested in the affairs of the com- 
monwealth of which he was a part, that to write his history it is 
necessary to write some of the history of other affairs as well. It 
was in the drug store of a pioneer that the first meeting was held, 
which resulted in the incorporation and organization of the village 
of Chicago. It is not generally known that Chicago was born in a 
drug store, but such is the fact. It may also be of interest to state 
that when the seal of the city of Chicago was adopted it was upon 
the suggestion of Dr. David Brainerd, a pioneer physician, that the 
little, fleecy cloud floating above the other figures was made the 
cradle of a naked, new-born babe. Thus it was that the future 
giant was ushered into the world, surrounded by all that loving care 
and skilled professional attention could bestow. 

Until 1330 Chicago had but a mythical existence . The name was 
applied rather indiscriminately to the river and to the little settle- 
ment on its banks. Some say that the name signifies in the Indian 
dialect "great, mighty, powerful." and others find authority for the 
statement that the name comes from the Indian term "Chicagou," 
meaning wild onion or leek, from the fact that so many of these 
plants grew along the banks of the river. These two meanings may 
not be altogether irreconcilable. 

In 18e50 the little settlement began to take on the appearance of 
a town. The Illinois and Michigan canal had obtained its land grant 
a few years previously, and under the terms of their authority the 
canal commissioners began laying out towns on the canal lands. One 
of the first towns to be thus platted was Chicago. According to the 

>^-, - •^-^^, 


Philo Carpenter's Drug: Store was in small log building to the left of the Hotel. 


instructions of the commissioners, James Thompson, the canal sur- 
veyor, laid out the townsite, and a plat of it was published on the 
4th of August, ISelO. The first canal commissioners were Dr, Gershom 
Jayne, a druggist and physician of Springfield, Edmund Roberts of 
Kaskaskia and Charles Dunn. At this time there was but little order 
in the arrangement of the town. 

The business district was largely confined to the south side of 
South Water street, the business houses facing the river, which pur- 
sued its clean, though somewhat sluggish, way toward the lake, met 
a sand bar near the present location of Rush street bridge and was 
deflected southward, entering the lake opposite the present terminus 
of Madison street. Those dwellings which were not on South Water 
street were sparsely scattered along Lake street and the intersecting 
north and south streets, such as Franklin, Wells, LaSalle, Clark and 
Dearborn streets. The north side of the river was virgin prairie 
save for the Kinzie homestead and a few isolated log cabins of other 
pioneers. The west side was in the same condition except for a little 
settlement opposite what was then known as Wolf's Point, between 
the forks of the river and across from the postoflBce at the junction 
of Lake and South Water streets. The south side extended only to 
Madison street. In the Thompson plat of 1830 the north side is 
laid out as far north as Kinzie street, the west side as far west as the 
present location of Des Plaines street, the south side was bounded on 
the north and west by the river, on the east by what is now State 
street, east of and including which was Fort Dearborn reservation, 
and on the south by Madison street, but at the time neither State, 
Madison nor Des Plaines streets were named. The main portions of 
the town, therefore, so far as the business and residence parts were 
concerned did not go much farther east than Dearborn street, nor 
farther south than the south side of Washington street. Indeed, 
until later on in the thirties the size of the city was even less than 
the limits laid down in the original plat. 

Business drifted from the west end of South Water street east- 
ward to Dearborn street, from thence around upon Lake 'street, 
working up both sides to the junction of Lake, South Water 
and Market streets where it first began. During this time 
the intersecting streets got their share of the new stores which 
were started as the population of the city grew, the residence por- 
tions being forced gradually southward. At the beginning of the 
forties both Lake and South Water streets and those intersecting 
them were liberally sprinkled with stores, with here and there a 
dwelling house. During the period from 1830 to 1840 there were a 
good many inns and boarding houses to accommodate the transient 
population, and in the early days of that decade there were scattered 
dwellings on the cross streets with plenty of ground around them 
for the customary "garden patch " 

Houses on South Water and Lake streets, if more than one story 
high, were often used as combination stores and dwellings after the 
fashion of the modern store and flat, but, without the modern con- 
veniences. Those who lived outside the immediate vicinity of Lake 
and South Water streets usually had enough ground to do some 


farming. In the early 'forties the present site of the Auditorium 
hotel was a potato patch and was considered to be some distance 
from town. 

These small, kitchen gardens scattered around the village helped 
out during the financial crisis of 1887 and the succeeding years, when 
no one had any money and everyone was in debt, and the community 
had to depend to a considerable extent upon what the soil could im- 
mediately produce. 

Mr. Philo Carpenter, the first druggist of the town, states that in 
1882, when he came to Chicago, the streets had been partially staked 
out, but no grading had been done, and not even a dirt road had been 
thrown up. The main road was along what is now South Water 
street, and proceeded from the fort near the present mouth of the 
river, westward to Russell Heacock's log house on the bank of a deep 
gully about where State street now crosses the river. Mr. Heacock 
had a foot log on which to cross the gully, but the public road swung 
around the end of the swale and proceeded northwest to the log 
house of George W. Dole at South Water and Clark streets, thence 
west again to P. F. W. Peck's frame building, the first of its kind in 
Chicago, at the corner of LaSalle and South Water streets. From 
here the road continued in the same direction to a point opposite the 
forks of the river, where the postoffice was located at that time in 
charge of Postmaster John S. C. Hogan. The postoffice was at the 
junction of South Water, Lake and Market streets; and directly south 
on the opposite side of Lake street at the corner of Market and Lake 
stood a little log house owned by Mark Beaubien and used for a time 
as an inn. It was only 16 feet wide by 20 long and had been erected 
by James Kinzie. When the town was laid out it was found that this 
log house was in the middle of the street, so Mr. Beaubien moved it 
back upon the corner. Here is our first definite landmark, for in 
this little log hut begins the real pharmaceutical history of Chicago. 

The business center of the town at this time and for some time 
after was located near the fork of the river. The streets were nothing 
more than country roads and poor ones at that. The traffic on them 
consisted mostly of farm wagons loaded with produce. A familiar 
sign was the warning on a board stuck up in the mud, "No Bottom 
Here." G. Sproat, the schoolmaster of Chicago at this period, in a 
letter to the Chicago Tribune some years ago, described the streets 
of early times in the following language: 

"The streets of the village in the fall soon became deluged with 
mud. It lay in many places half a leg deep, up to the hubs of the 
carts and wagons in the middle of the streets, and the only sidewalk 
we had was a single plank stretched from one building to another. 
The smaller scholars I used to bring to school and take home on my 
back, not daring to trust them on the slippery plank. One day I 
made a misstep and went down into the thick mire with a little one 
in my arms. With difficulty I regained my foothold, with both over- 
shoes sucked off by the thick, slimy mud." 


At the time to which Mr. Sproat refers there was but one road 
from the town to the lake This was laid off by a surveyor and ex- 
tended from the junction of South Water and State streets east 
through the Fort Dearborn reservation to the lake. 

Concerning the appearance of Chicago in 1838 the "Rambler," an 
English writer and traveler, had this to say: 

"This little mushroom town is situated upon a perfectly level tract 
of country, for the most part consisting of prairie lands, at a point 
where a small river, whose sources interlock in the wet season with 
those of the Illinois, enters Lake Michigan. The upstart village 
lies principally on the right bank of the river, above the fort. Next 
in rank to the oj95cers and commissioners may be noted certain shop- 
keepers and merchants, residents here, looking either to the influx 
of new settlers establishing themselves in the neighborhood or those 
still passing further to the westward for custom and profit. Add to 
these a doctor or two, two or three lawyers, a land agent and five or 
six hotel keepers. These may be considered stationary and proprietors 
of the half hundred clapboard houses around town." 

It was in 1888 that the mouth of the river was cut through by a 
force of men in charge of Major Handy. This work made the har- 
bor possible, the depth of the water on either side of the bar being 
sufficient for harbor purposes. It was necessary, therefore, at first, 
only to cut through the sand bar at the present outlet of the river 
and provide against a subsequent accumulation of sand in the chan- 
nel. This work was one of the utmost importance, and the citizens 
appreciated fully what a good harbor meant for the future of the 

The population of Chicago in 1831 consisted of 60 persons, exclu- 
sive of Indians and half-breeds; in 1832 there were five stores and 
250 inhabitants, and in 1883 the population had risen to the grand 
total of 850. Two of the five stores were drug stores, but they, like 
the others, carried a general assortment of goods of all kinds. All 
of these general stores, including the two drug stores, carried grocers' 
drugs and dyestuffs. 

We are indebted to the files of the early newspapers for much of 
the information we have been able to obtain concerning pioneer 
druggists and drug stores. These merchants were among the prin- 
cipal- patrons of the newspapers as advertisers, contributors and sub 
scribers. The founding of the first newspaper in Chicago is and 
was, therefore, an event of much importance. The first newspaper 
in Chicago was the Chicago Democrat, which was founded Nov. 26, 
1888, by John Calhoun, editor and publisher. The paper was first 
known as the Chicago Weekly Democrat and its first office was at 
the corner of Clark and South Water streets. In 1836 the paper was 
sold to "Long" John Wentworth, who continued its publication. 
The second newspaper in Chicago was known as the Chicago Weekly 
American, and was established in the summer of 1835 by T C. 
Davis as a Whig paper. Both papers later on began the issue of 


daily editions. It is interesting to note that during the period from 
January 1 to May 20, 1885, the publication of the Democrat was sus- 
pended on account of the lack of paper, the needed supply of which 
did not come to hand prior to the close of navigation. 

The first public ferry was operated at the foot of Dearborn street 
and was opened in September, 1883. Prior to this time Mark 
Beaubien owned and conducted a ferry at the junction of Lake street 
and the river. Other ferries came into existence later on, one being 
at Clark street and another at Lake street after Mark Beaubien's in- 
cumbency. The first draw-bridge in Chicago was built in 1834 at 
Dearborn street. Another device in use as a bridge was made of 
planks in the form of a float extending between low piers on either 
side of the river. On the float was a windlass with ropes attached 
so that the bridge could be turned down stream or up stream as 
might be desirable. 

It was in 1834 that the great land boom began which ended with 
the panic of 1837. The cession of the Indian lands, the removal of 
the Indians, the projected Illinois and Michigan canal and the 
marketing of the canal lands together with the floods of paper money 
issued by the Bank of Illinois and its Chicago branch, and the paper 
of other banks in the east and south, induced a spirit of recklessness 
and speculation which raised the land in and around the newly or- 
ganized town of Chicago to preposterous prices considering the 
times. Lots sold at from $1,000 to $15,000 each and the whole 
country near Chicago was platted off on paper into town lots. The 
knowledge concerning the rich and fertile territory to the west and 
the constant passage of emigrants to the new lands for which Chicago 
was the forwarding station and supply depot were other factors which 
brought on the boom. When the bubble burst lots sold for what the 
seller could get, and often he could get nothing. One hundred dol- 
lars for a lot that cost ten times that sum was looked upon as a 
fortunate deal for the seller. 

Peter Pruyne & Co., Dr. Valentine Boyer and others were in- 
terested as contractors and purveyors of supplies in the building of 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The venture caused the failure of 
those gentlemen and of nearly everyone else connected with it. 

The first hotel in Chicago was the log cabin of Mark Beaubien al- 
ready mentioned. The Sauganash hotel was erected in the early thirties 
beside the little log cabin and adjoining it. The inns of the period 
were quite numerous, but it is not necessary to go into details con- 
cerning them. The Tremont House, however, may be mentioned 
with propriety, since it has now an intimate connection with the 
educational side of pharmacy by reason of its purchase by the North- 
western University as a home for its professional schools. This hotel 
was built in 1833 at the northwest corner of Lake and Dearborn 
streets, diagonally across from its present location. It was bought 
by the Couch family soon after. It burned in 1839, was rebuilt in 
1840 on its present corner, burned again in 1849, was rebuilt in the 
same location in 1850, burned again in 1871, and again was rebuilt. 


The first census of the inhabitants of Chicago was taken on July 
L, 1837, and showed a population of 4,170 people. There were 398 
iwellings, four warehouses, 29 dry goods stores, five drug stores, 10 
taverns, 26 grocery stores, five churches and two book stores. There 
were 20 doctors, 17 lawyers and 25 mechanics' shops, one brewery, 
3ne saw mill and one flour mill, It took from twenty to thirty days 
to get from Chicago to New York and the regular freight rate be- 
tween the two points was $1.50 per 100 pounds via the Hudson river, 
Brie canal and lakes to Chicago. 

It is not definitely known when the first stock of medical supplies 
s^as shipped to Chicago. So far as the records show, however, they 
were probably brought by Dr. John Cooper, who was surgeon's mate 
it Fort Dearborn in 1810. Doctor Cooper left the fort the following 
jrear and was succeeded by Dr. Isaac Van Voorhis, who was one of 
those slain at the Fort Dearborn massacre, Aug. 15, 1812. The next 
member of the medical profession to appear upon the scene was Dr. 
A-lexander Wolcott, who was appointed Indian agent at Fort Dear- 
born in 1820. Doctor Wolcott performed the duties of physician and 
[ndian agent as well, having a small store of medicines among his 
Dther effects. These he dispensed himself as occasion required. 
Doctor Wolcott remained at his post until the time of his death in 
1830. During the period of his incumbency three other surgeons 
«v-©re connected with the post at different times. In 1823, Dr. Thomas 
P. Hall was assistant surgeon, but remained only a year. From Oct. 
3, 1828, to Dec. 14, 1830, Dr. C. A. Finley was assistant surgeon, 
3oming with two companies of troops and bringing, in the language 
of the order, "suitable hospital supplies for the posts to be estab- 
lished and re-occupied." In May, 1830, Dr. Elijah Dewey Harmon 
arrived in Chicago, and in the absence of Doctor Finley, took that 
gentleman's place as post surgeon. Doctor Harmon, after whom 
Harmon Court was named, came west to better his financial condi- 
tion, and appears to be the first medical man who ever came to Chi- 
sago of his own free will and accord. On the 15th of July, 1881, P. 
P. W. Peck came to Chicago and opened a general store. Among 
the articles he offered for sale were aloes, alum, borax, copperas, 
Grlauber salt, Epsom salt, sulphur and dye stuffs. 

Assistant Surgeon G. I. DeCamp arrived on June 17, 1832, with 
two companies of troops, and on July 10th of the same year came 
Greneral Scott with his command on board the schooner "Sheldon 
Thompson." Then began the real pharmaceutical history of Chi- 
cago, and we are brought back to the little log cabin of Mark Beau- 
bien at Lake and Market streets, whose four rough walls sheltered 
the first real drug store in Chicago. 

When the troops of General Scott arrived they brought with them 
the cholera. Those already in the fort were immediately isolated 
and placed in charge of Dr. Harmon, who ascribed his success in 
treating the few cases which appeared among the troops under him 
to the fact that he did not use calomel in their treatment. Dr. 
DeCamp, who remained with the main body of troops, said that of 
the 1,000 men in the fort 20 per cent had the cholera. 


Eight days after the arrival of General Scott and his troops camt 
a young man from New England, who was destined to make his marl 
as one of the founders of the coming city. He came to Chicagc 
from a drug store in Troy, N. Y., having previously closed out hit 
business there and shipped a stock of drugs to Fort Dearborn. H( 
came by rail to Schenectady, by canal to Buffalo, by steamboat tc 
Detroit and by mud wagon to Niles, Michigan, from whence he pro 
ceeded by lighter to St. Joseph where he and a companion, George 
W. Snow, began an adventurous journey around the head of the lake 
in a canoe. The circumstances of this journey will be describee 
more fully in another place. The hero of it was Philo Carpenter 
pioneer and pharmacist, and he reached the present limits of Chicagc 
in a canoe towed by two Indians on July 17, 1882, arriving at For 
Dearborn the next morning in an ox wagon. He at once began hij 
ministrations for the relief of the cholera sufiPerers. He detected life 
in one young man supposed to be dead and by prompt and elficien 
work rescued him from a premature burial. During this trying time 
the assistance of Mr. Carpenter as nurse and pharmacist was invalu 
able. Being a man of powerful and wiry physique, great sympathiei 
and indomitable perseverance and courage, no duty was too hard fo] 
him to undertake for the sake of the sick and the suffering. 

When his goods arrived in August, 1832, Mr. Carpenter openec 
the first drug store in Chicago in the log cabin above described 
This cabin, it will be remembered, was owned by Mark Beaubienanc 
was situated at the northeast corner of Lake and Market streets. A 
the time Mr. Carpenter rented it for his drug store it was the onl] 
vacant structure in Chicago, and although it was small and rougl 
and next door to the public bar of the Sauganash hotel, it was taker 
as a last resort. Mr. Carpenter was strict in his temperance prin 
ciples and hated the use or sale of alcoholic liquors. Being also i 
man of profound religious convictions and some austerity, it maj 
well be imagined that he found the merry crowd at the Sauganasl 
with the best fiddler in town as the host rather too lively for hij 
tastes. The cabin of which we speak had originally been used bj 
Mr. Beaubien as an inn on a small scale, but was abandoned whei 
he built the Sauganash hotel early in 1882. The Sauganash was i 
two story frame structure painted white, with bright blue blinds anc 
was a very pretentious building for the times. It stood on Markei 
street adjoining the little log house, which presented the singular ap- 
pearance of a "lean to" occupying one of the most prominent cornen 
in town. Early settlers will remember that the corner was the sit( 
of the old Wigwam where Lincoln was first nominated for president 
while more recent arrivals in the city will recognize the location Rt 
the present site of Reid, Murdoch & Company's wholesale grocerj 
house. Mr. Beaubien relates that sometimes when the Sauganast 
was full of guests he used to put the overflow in the log house. Fur- 
niture and bedding were scarce, so the late comers had to take 
blankets and sleep on the floor. If still later guests came he would 
quietly remove the blankets from those who were asleep and give 
them to the last arrivals. 


In the latter part of 1882 or the first of the following year Mr. Car- 
penter removed his store to the log cabin of George W. Dole at South 
Water and Clark streets previously used by Newberry & Dole as a 
commission house, where he remained until the autumn of 183^. 
Prior to this time he had bought two 20-foot lots on South Water 
street 80 feet east of Wells street. For these he paid $75. Here he 
erected some time in 1833 a two-story frame building covering both 
lots, the lumber for which double store was hauled from Indiana on 
ox wagons, and in the fall of that year he moved his drug stock into 
the west apartment and rented the east store to Russell & Ciift as a 
book store. It may be well to say here that the book stores of the 
period were the authorized agents for a number of patent medicines. 
Thus, Stephen F, Gale, one of the early booksellers, advertised that 
he was the sole agent for Brandreth's Pills and that their sale was 
not entrusted to druggists. Russell & Clift had the agency for Mor- 
rison's Vegetable Pills. Book stores also sold tooth brushes, combs 
and a general line of druggists' sundries. 

The original intention of Mr. Carpenter was to run a drug store 
exclusively, but owing to the peculiar conditions with which all mer- 
chants at that time were surrounded, he found himself compelled to 
broaden the scope of his business. For this there were several rea- 
sons. Another drug and general store had been started in 1833 — 
that of Peter Pruyne & Co. — and the town was not yet large enough 
to support two stores dealing exclusively in drugs, nor was it large 
enough properly to support one store of that class. The population 
in 1838 was estimated at about 350 people, so that in order to make 
any money druggists had to branch out into general lines. The 
other stores carried grocers' drugs and dyestuffs, and, owing to the 
scarcity of currency, a large part of the business done was by a sys- 
tem of barter called "store pay." Farmers and others who needed 
goods took what they had to sell and traded it at the stores for what 
they needed. The storekeeper then had to dispose of the goods so 
left in whatever way might be most advantageous. In this manner 
every merchant in a short time was compelled to become a general 
storekeeper unless he was inclined to do a credit business entirely. 

To illustrate the stock kept by the early druggists it is interesting 
to note that in the Chicago Democrat of Nov. 26, 1833, Vol. I, No. 1, 
Mr. Carpenter advertised a general assortment of drugs, medicines, 
oils, paints and dyestuffs; also dry groceries, window glass, nails, 
hardware, boots and shoes, ready made clothing, leather and every- 
thing found in a general store. The store was designated by the 
sign of the golden mortar and bore the legend conspicuously placed, 
"Established in 1832." The other competitor in the drug line car- 
ried a similar stock. 

The scarcity of currency has been spoken of in connection with 
the system of store pay, and it was this scarcity that was responsible 
for the system. During the period of which we speak very little 
American gold was in circulation. What gold coins there were con- 

-16 H. 


sisted of English sovereigns and half-sovereigns and the French 
Louis d'Or. The silver mone}^ was principally, made up of Mexican 
coins, and were called the New York sixpence, the shilling and two 
shilling piece. If coins were much worn, a scratch in the form of 
an X was made across them and then the sixpence, shilling and 
double shilling pieces passed for 5, 10 and 20 cents each respectively, 
instead of for 6, 12J and 25 cents each. 

Thompson's Bank Note Reporter was the authority as to the value 
and genuineness of all money, whether of metal or paper. Prior to 
1885 practically the only currency available was the silver coin just 
referred to and traders' scrip which was good for merchandise. 
About 1884, however, when the land boom began, the necessity for 
more currency became acute and the banks began issuing paper. 
The State Bank of Illinois issued paper money and opened a branch 
in Chicago, of which branch bank Peter Pruyne was a director. 
Eastern and southern banks also issued paper, which found its way 
to the west. The town issued scrip good for taxes; merchants issued 
scrip good for merchandise, or good for about anything from a night's 
lodging to a drink at the bar. Canal scrip was much used and State 
Auditor's scrip was popular. Of all this paper, some was good and 
the rest ranged downward in all degrees of badness to atter worth- 

The Chicago branch of the State Bank was opened in December, 
1835, and the bank and all it branches suspended payment and failed 
utterly in 1837. Such were a few of the conditions with which early 
merchants, druggists as well as others had to contend. 

The question of freight and transportation was one of great mo- 
ment. There were no railroads and nearly all the lake traffic was in 
sailing vessels. Steam craft were few and far between. It took 14 
days undf r good conditions for a letter to go from Chicago to New 
York. For freight to come from New York required a much longer 
period, the date of its arrival being an uncertain quantity depend- 
ent upon the caprice of wind and wave. The first shipment of 
western produce left the port of Chicago for the east on the schooner 
"Napoleon" April 17, 1888. It consisted of beef tallow and hides, 
and 210i pounds of beeswax. This shipment was made by George 
W. Dole. In the latter part of the same year he shipped a quantity 
of ginseng and flax seed. We find that in 1847 drugs and medicine 
were imported to Chicago to the amount of $92,081.41. In tl^e same 
year was exported 5,390 pounds of beeswax, 2,262 bushels of flax 
seed, 520 bushels of mustard seed and 3,625 pounds of ginseng root, 
One of the standing want ads of a Chicago wholesale drug house a1 
this time (1847) was as follows: "Wanted— 1,000 lbs. beeswax; 1,000 
lbs. ginseng root; 500 lbs. saffron; 1,000 lbs. Senega snake root." 

In July, 1888, a public meeting was held to decide whether oi 
not the town should be incorporated, and here a druggist becomes a 
factor in the political affairs of the town. In the drug store of Petei 
Pruyne & Company this important meeting was held, and Dr. Edward 
S. Kimberly, the druggist of the firm, was secretary of the meeting. 


There were 12 votes for incorporation and one against. At the election, 
?^hich was held the following month, it was found that there were 28 
qualified voters, of whom 18 were candidates. The trustees elected 
fvere T. J. V. Owen, George W. Dole, Madore B. Beaubien, John 
Miller and E. S. Kimberly. Philo Carpent' r was a candidate and 
received one vote, but several other -worthy citizens fared no better, 
[t may have been the general impression that Mr. Carpenter's scru- 
ples against the sale and use of alcoholic beverages might cause a 
jertain awkwardness if he were a member of the governing body of 
1 young and flourishing city. The suggestion is our own. We find 
10 reason stated in the records for his defeat. 

The drug store in which the meeting noted above was held was the 
iecond drug store in Chicago. The house of Peter Pruyne & Co., 
IS already noted, was not an exclusive drug store. It was a general 
itore with a drug department under the charge of Dr. Kimberly. 
Peter Pruyne appeared as managing partner of the general business 
md to save the ethical standing of Dr. Kimberly, who furnished the 
capital, but could not properly appear at the head of a mercantile es- 
iablishment while engaged actively in the practice of medicine. 

As Philo Carpenter was the first druggist in Chicago and Peter 
?ruyne & Co. the second druggists; W. H. & A. F. Clarke were the 
ihird, Frederick Thomas the fourth; L. M. Boyce the fifth; Erastus 
Dewey the sixth; and Sidney Sawyer the seventh. Each of these 
dll be spoken of more fully in another part of this chronicle. 

From 1834 to 1860, several druggists were members of the board of 
lealth during various years. Among them were Dr. E. S. Kimberly, 
^. C. Hargaman, F. A. Bryan, F. Mahla and Ambrose Burnham. 

Botanic remedies "the herbs and roots'' were in vogue during the 
JO's, for in 1835 a druggist named W. Gr. Austin advertised botanic 
md Thompsonian medicines. Another, John J. Keenan, advertised 
'^apor baths, botanical and Thompsonian medicines. 

The second decade in the history of pharmacy in Chicago, that 
rom 1840 to 1850, was one of progress and development. The finan- 
lial crisis of 1837 had left business enterprises of all kinds stranded 
ind helpless, and it was not until the early 40's that commercial 
lotivity began again to re-assert itself. At the opening of the decade 
here were four drug stores in Chicago that had, with more or less 
luccess, weathered the financial storm. These were the houses of 
Philo Carpenter, Clarke & Co., L. M. Boyce and Sidney Sawyer. 
Each one kept also a general line of goods. By the operation of a 
general bankruptcy act passed by Congress in 1842, general pros- 
jerity began to revive and with it the prosperity of the four drug 

In 1845 a drug store appeared without the lines of a general store. 
Drugs, chemicals and medicines and the usual other lines of an ex- 
jlusive drug establishment were carried. This store was owned by 
ihe firm of Stebbins & Reed, who had been encouraged to locate 
lere by the advice of L. M. Boyce, who, when approached by Mr. 
Reed, told him that Chicago was the right place to which to come to 


begin the drug business, and gave Mr. Reed every assurance of hi 
sympathy and practical assistance should he and his partner decide 
to locate here. Before the end of this decade we find other firme 
such as Brinckerhoff & Penton; F. Scammon; Sears & Bay; Loui 
Warlich; Henry Bowman &Co. ; Frederick Rosemerckle ; and Georg 

The exterior of the drug stores of early days was not imposing 
There was no plate glass for the windows and the panes were smal] 
The windows usually set out a little on the sidewalk and at nigh 
were covered with board shutters with an iron strap passing arouni 
the boards and fastening to the wall to hold the whole togetbei 
Fanciful names and signs were in common use, such as the sign o 
"The Golden Mortar," "The Good Samaritan," "The Checkere( 
Drug Store," "Apothecary Hail," "The New York Cheap Cash Druj 
Store," etc. 

The furniture of the early drug stores was simple and plain, th 
prescription case being then as now a prominent feature of the store 
The drawers then in use were much larger, the shelf bottles wer 
not so generally glass stoppered and their arrangement was the re 
verse of that now in vogue, the larger ones being on the top shelves 
Wide mouthed, glass-stoppered bottles were not common, but a spe 
oie jar with a tin cover was used. The labels of the drawers and th 
glass shelf ware were of bronze paper. Glass show cases were ai 
almost unknown quantity, and shelving enclosed by glass doors wa 
not even dreamed of. The show bottles for the windows were thei 
about as they are now, except that they were larger and consisted o 
more pieces, the lower one holding from three to five gallons o 
water. The ponderous iron mortar, a tincture press and a Swift' 
drug mill were the ever present dread of the apprentice. 

There were some differences between the stocks kept by earl; 
druggists and those now found in modern drug stores. There wer 
more drugs, chemicals, paints, oils, varnishes and dye stuffs thei 
than now, for people came to the drug store for about every thin| 
they could not get at the dry goods or grocery stores. 

Druggists did a large business aside from furnishing medicine 
for the saddle bags of the country physicians, They not only sup 
plied the country merchants, but also the newly opened lumbe 
camps with such things as castor oil, sweet oil, essence of lemon 
peppermint, cinnamon and wintergreen; with British oil, Bateman' 
drops, Turlington's balsam, Godfrey's cordial, condition powders 
seidlitz powders, soda powders, quinine, calomel, blue mass, aloee 
opium and the common roots and herbs such as boneset and hore 
hound, not forgetting the then known patent or proprietary medi 
oines, and the grocers' drugs so-called, such as borax, epsom am 
glauber salt, copperas, sal soda, saleratus, alum, etc. Much stuf 
such as above described was also sold in packages to peddlers wh< 
made the rounds of the country districts in covered wagoDS Th( 
farmers brought in beeswax, ginseng root, flax seed, hemp seed, etc, 
which they used in trade along with other produce in lieu of cur 


In the early days there was a great demand for English and French 
Irugs and chemicals, such as English calomel and French quinine. 
Dhis calomel was not always free from corrosive sublimate and dur- 
ng the 60' several deaths resulted from this cause. 

Patent medicines played a prominent part in the business of the 
Irug stores during these times, but as we have already noted, the 
)ook stores enjoyed exclusive privileges on many of these brands. 
Che patents sold by drug stores were of great variety, however, even 
hen, and included such goods as Bristol's Sarsaparilla, Sawyer's Ex- 
ract of Bark, Morrison's Hygeian Pills, Lee's English Vegetable 
Skills, Dewey's Cholera Elixir, Doctor Egan's Sarsaparilla, etc. 

Among the many things sold was rattlesnake oil, which came by 
he barrel and was supposed by laymen to bo a prime specific for 
heumatism. Elephant oil was reputed to give a strong light, as 
;ood as that of sperm oil, and it sold at about a third less than the 
atter commodity. In February, 1841, Sidney Sawyer advertised 
hat he had just received six barrels of corn oil. We know what corn 
il is now, but at that period what was it? In 1852 John Sears ad- 
vertised Sea Serpent Oil as a preparation highly recommended by 
he London, Edinburgh and United States pharmacopoeias for the 
lure of coughs, colds, etc. Was this Cod Liver Oil? 

The proprietors of the early drug stores of the West were men of 
ducation and strong personality. They conducted themselves with 
becoming dignity, were looked up to by their fellow citizens and have 
eft a record of which their descendants may well be proud. The 
irst druggist in Chicago was foremost in ail charitable and philan- 
hropic movements, the second was one of the founders of Rush 
/[edical College and was a leader among the men who had the politi- 
al and economic welfare of the community at heart. Another was 
irominent in organizing the first fire department, still another was 
oremost in the advocacy of sanitary measures for minimizing 
jymotic diseases and was one of the founders of the Academy of 
Jciences and of the Chicago Historical Society, and there was still 
nother who originated the present system of tunnels and cribs for 
upplying Chicago with potable water from the lake. Another be- 
amo prominently identified with Chicago's manufacturing interests, 
md so citations might be multiplied. 

Coming to the clerks, we find that they also were men of sterling 
^orth. Those who are still alive are to be found as leaders of the 
)rofession in this city or wherever they may be located between here 
md the Pacific coast. The salary of a drug clerk in those days did 
lot depend on how many nostrums he sold, but upon what his knowl- 
)dge and skill were in preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines. 
Dhese qualifications fixed his compensation and his employer's esti- 
nate of him. 

With regard to apprentices, while it was not customary to make writ- 
en indentures of apprenticeship, yet there was invariably a contract, 
verbal or written, to the effect that the apprenticeship should cover a 
period of four years. The compensation was usually fixed at the rate of 


$100 for the first year with an additional raise of $100 for each suc- 
ceeding year. To be an apprentice in the drug business in those 
days was any thing but an enviable position; in fact, the work re- 
quired from the apprentice deterred many from continuing in the 
business until they had served their full time and become competent 
to assume the position and duties of a clerk. Very few retail stores 
had a porter to do the hard work, hence it was a continual grind for 
the apprentice from morning until night. He had to sweep out the 
store and dust the shelf-ware daily, mop the floor and wash the 
windows weekly, wash the bottles, grind in the mill or powder in the 
mortar all the drugs, roots, barks, etc., not omitting to mention the 
tedious process of making mercurial ointment. He powdered the 
gum resins in the cold winter days, ran all the errands and made him- 
self generally useful to everybody and did everything that he was 
able to do. When the evening came it was expected that he would 
study the dispensatory, beginning with A and going through to Z, 
and later, when the soda fountain was added to the equipment of 
the store, he was entrusted with this additional work. Many fell 
by the wayside and took up other occupations, but those who had 
the courage to remain received a training which made them leaders 
in their profession. 

The literature of the pioneer druggist was very meagre, his pro- 
fessional library being a copy of the United Slates Dispensatory or 
Coxe's American Dispensatory, sometimes a stray copy of the Lon- 
don, Edinburgh or Dublin Dispensatories, and possibly a copy of 
Kane's or Fownes' Chemistry. The American Journal of Pharmacy, 
the first publication in the English language devoted to pharmacy, 
reached us in the 40s and in 1856 the Druggists' Circular and Chem- 
ical Gazette became a monthly visitor in the more progressive stores. 
The real lore of the drug business, however, was confined to the 
private formulary of the store. In this important time was found a 
collection not only of private formulas, but also of official formulas 
and processes of the pharmacopoeias and other standard works. 

The earliest educational efforts of a scientific character made in 
Chicago date back to the winter of 1840, when Dr. John T. Temple 
gave a public course of lectures on chemistry, supplemented in 1843 
by the regular course in Rush Medical College. The following 
extract from the Chicago Daily American of May 16, 1842, may not be 
devoid of interest in this connection: "We understand that Doctor 
Brainard has accepted the appointment of Professor of Anatomy in the 
St. Louis University, but will not be absent from Chicago except 
during the continuance of the winter courses." 

In 1853 the American Pharmaceutical association issued a circular 
letter making inquiry into the condition of pharmacy as it existed in 
the various sections of the country. A correspondent member was 
appointed for Illinois, the result of which action was that three Chi- 
cago druggists became member of the association. From this time 
on there was a rapid advance in the professional sice of the drug 


business, and the names of Charles Ellis, William Procter Edward 
Parrish and other members of the national organization became 
familiar shop words. 

A movement was started for the establishment of a school of phar- 
macy and was so well received by members of the trade that the Chi- 
cago College of Pharmacy was organized and incorporated, and in the 
winter of 1859 a complete course was given and continued until the 
breaking out of the war in 1861. 

As we have already seen, the first attempts to maintain a drue: 
store pure and simple ended in failure, the pioneers who started with 
drug stocks only having later to add the goods sold in general stores. 
It was not until the '40s that an exclusive drug store was successful, 
and not until 1850 did the drug stores part company with the lines 
of the general stores. But it must not be assumed from this that 
business was generally poor, for quite the reverse seems to have been 
the case. Chicago has always been a great grain market, and in the 
early days the farmers from a radius of from 50 to 100 miles around 
the city brought in their grain and other produce by wagon and re- 
ceived in exchange their necessary supplies. Business was therefore 
unquestionably good in these days, as is evidenced by the following 
extract from the diary of one of Chicago's earliest druggists, who 
commenced business in October, 1839, with a $2,000 drug stock. 

**I had no trouble in selling nearly everything for money at a great 
profit during the course of the winter In December, 1838, or Jan- 
uary, 1839, I purchased a lot of drugs and medicines bought laie in 
the fall from the east, amounting to about $300, These also I sold 
in the course of the winter at a fair profit, although they were bought 
high. About January , I sent an order to Boston for about $500 
worth of goods to be shipped to this place via. New Orleans. They 
arrived about the 20th of April and by the middle of the next month 
they were mostly sold." 

In 1852 the first railroad entered Chicago from the east. It was 
pushed through from Niles, Mich., and was known as the Michigan 
Southern & Northern Indiana railroad. The next one to come in 
was the Michigan Central. After these roads were built goods were, 
of course, much more readily obtained from the eastern markets. 
The freight charges were high, however, hence most of the heavy 
goods were shipped via the Hudson river, Erie canal and lakes by 
steamer to Chicago, the lighter goods coming through by rail. It 
was the custom for the wholesale merchants and the larger retailers 
to visit the eastern markets in the fall and early spring for goods. 
The railroads early learned a way to increase their earnings, for as 
soon as navigation closed in the fall, up went the freight rates to be 
hauled down again to more moderate figures as soon as navigation 
opened up again in the spring. 

Goodb came principally from New York and Boston — drugs from 
New York and sundries from Boston. New York bills were figured 
at eight shillings to the dollar and Boston bills six shillings. In the 
early days there was much trade with St. Louis, which was then the 


metropolis of the west. We find among the files of a paper of this 
period the advertisement of Joseph Charles & Co., St. Louis, im- 
porters and wholesale dealers in drugs, medicines, paints, oils and 
dye stuffs. 

The financial stringency which brought on the several financial 
crises caused Chicago merchants to adopt various expedients for less- 
ening or avoiding the high rate of exchange charged by eastern 
banks. Not the least interesting of these expedients was the pur- 
chase of alcohol to be used in the payment of debts. Other local pro- 
ducts such as beeswax, ginseng, saffron and senega snake root were 
used for the same purpose. In order to save the amount of the high 
exchange charged, as well as the discount on western bank bills, these 
products, especially alcohol, were purchased by western merchants 
and shipped east in payment of accounts. The alcohol thus used 
was purchased from the local distilleries It was crude alcohol, all 
of the refined article we got being bought in New York. High wines 
cost from 7 to 8 cents a gallon, and alcohol from 17 to 20 cents. We 
exported both high wines and alcohol. 

During the early '50s the first chemical works of which we have a 
record was established by Dr. J. V, Z. Blaney, professor of chemistry 
in Rush Medical College, in conjunction with Dr. Gerhard Christian 
Paoli, who later became a well known physician of Chicago and died 
only recently. The company made pure spirits from crude alcohol, 
which was manufactured here, but had not before been rectified in 
this city. Dr Paoli's process was a superior one and he was awarded 
several medals for it. Dr. Paoli in 1856 severed his connection with 
the company and took up the practice of medicine His position as 
chemist of the company was taken by A. Beno Hoffmann, a German 
apothecary from Dresden, who increased the number of products 
made by the company. The works were located on the east bank of 
the river, at Chicago avenue. Mr. Hoffman afterwards went into the 
drug business and remained in it until his death, which occurred 
after the fire. There were several chemical manufacturers in the 
'60s, among whom were Mahla & Chappell; J. Rosenheld & Co,; 
Dietz, Blocki & Co., Henry Biroth, etc. The manufacturers of lin- 
seed oil and lard oil included a number of early apothecaries, such as 
the Clarkes, Boyce, Scammon, Sears and others. 

Side lines in the '40s and '50s included surgical instruments and 
optical goods, opera glasses, daguerreotypio and photographic goods. 

During the '40s most of the drug stores moved from South Water 
street on to Lake street. There were, however, three German stores 
in different localities, one being on North Clark street, one on East 
Randolph street and a third on Wells street (now Fifth avenue). 

Few physicians in the first decade of the city's history wrote pre- 
scriptions, but bought the remedies at the drug stores and dispensed 
them themselves. The public got at the drug stores simply the com- 
mon drugs, household remedies, dye stuffs, patents, paints, etc., but 
in 1845 Stebbins & Reed entered the field and went more exclusively 
into the prescription business. A set of prescription books was 


started by this firm in May, 1845, and was continued through the 
successive firm changes until the time of the fire in 1871. They 
were saved from the fire by W. K. Forsyth, E. B. Stuart and W. H. 
Maynard. The books are yellow with age, but are in good condition 
and all the old formulas and prescriptions can be read easily. It is 
evident that in the early days business was not brisk, for when the 
books were first started there was an average of only two or three 
prescriptions a day. The prices were not materially different from 
those which prevail today, but were expressed in shillings and pence. 
As a rule prescriptions were simple, consisting usually of not more 
than three ingredients. Quinine leads in popularity, with calomel 
and blue mass close behind, and decoctions and infusions are fre- 
quent. Not a single proprietary remedy is found to have been pre- 
scribed. Such old terms as James' Powders, Hepar Sulphuris, Sac- 
charum Saturni and Tris Nitrate Bismuth, Tr. Lyttse, Emplastrum 
Epistastricum, are found. Lupulin was frequently prescribed as an 
anodyne instead of opium, and phosphate of ammonia was often 
used. Iodide of potassium was often designated as *'hyd. potassa." 
The more prominent prescribers are men whose names are familiar 
to those who know the history of this section of the country. Among 
them are Dr. Boone, grandson of Daniel Boone and once mayor of 
Ohicago; Charles V. Dyer, one of the great abolitionists; Dr. J. V. 
Z. Blaney, the chemist; Dr. Brainerd, Dr. Herrick, Dr. Knapp and 
Dr. Kimberley. Dr. Blaney and those whose names follow his were 
the founders of Hush Medical College. Among others Drs. J. J. 
Stewart, Egan, Duk, Banks, Bird, Maxmeyer, Maxwell, Marshall, 
Eldredge, Beardsley, were frequent prescribers. Among the patients 
were the Rev. Mr Patterson, Rev. Mr. Bascom, Mr. Walter C. New- 
berry, who gave the Newberry library: P. F. W. Peck, father of the 
commissioner general to the Paris exposition; Andrew Nelsoi^ and 
Ever Lawson, prominent among the pioneer Norwegians; Mayors 
Grarrett and Wentworth and others. 

Soda water first became a feature of drug store trade and was by 
the drug stores first introduced in the thirties. It was first adver- 
tised by Sidney Sawyer and Clark & Co., in 1839, The fountains of 
that day were not as those of the present. Then the coolers and 
tanks were under the counter with the draught arm projecting up 
through it. The syrup was in bottles and the variety of flavors was 
hardly so great as at present. An advertisement in a Chicago paper 
dated July 15, 1851, says that A. J. Miller's soda fountain in his 
store on West Lake street is doing a great business and that the 
water is charged with carbonic gas up to 578 pounds to the square 
inch, or nearly 40 atmospheres. (?) It is related that during the 
fifties, when J. H. Reed & Co's. fine store on Lake street was the 
rendezvous of all the fashionables, a negro came in one day and 
called for a glass of soda water. The clerk refused to serve him. 
The co'ored man left in high dudgeon and from that time on the 
store was tabooed by the colored population and their sympathizers. 
The firm tried to make matters right by putting in another draught 


arm on the other side of the counter for colored people only, but the 
scheme failed to work and the additional space was finally fitted up 
for ladies and children. 

The stores of this period were as a rule far superior in their fur- 
nishing and equipment to the earlier drug stores. In this connec- 
tion we note the following announcement of J. H. Reed & Co. in 
the Chicago Daily Democrat of Oct. 29, 1851: 

"Splendid Store. — Messrs. J. H. Reed & Company, Druggists, 
have removed their business from their old stand at 159 Lake street, 
to the spacious and handsome block at 144 Lake street, erected this 
season by Mr. J. Price. The store is fitted up in the most magnifi- 
cent style, with marble mosaic floors, Italian marble counters, etc, 
while tastefully arranged around are statuary, vases, urns, etc. In 
fact, the fitting up is not excelled by that of any similar establish- 
ment in the country." 

"Messrs. Reed & Company intend doing an exclusively prescrip- 
tion business at their new store, the back and upper alone being 
used for the wholesale trade." 

It was during the decade of which we speak that the shelve- 
glassware of the stores began to take on a finer finish and quality. It 
was uniformly glass stoppered, the saltmouthed bottles being used. 
Glass labels such as are now used came in about this time also. At 
first nothing but the green glassware of Pittsburg consisting of the 
short and long round prescription vials was used but later Boston 
and Philadelphia entered the field and the flint glassware of today 
came into general use. 

The labels of the early days were very plain in character, any job 
printer being able to set them up. Later on the Gibsons, a firm of 
lithographers, opened an establishment in Cincinnatti and for a 
long time supplied the country at large with lithographic labels. 

It was during the '50s that gas first came into general use as an 
illuminant. It was first turned on as a test on Wednesday, Sept. 4, 
1850, in the stores of J. fl. Reed & Co., druggists at 144 Lake street, 
and William B. Keene & Co., booksellers, 146 Lake street. The test 
was made during the day and that night the gas throughout the city 
was turned on, producing an illumination, if one may believe the 
press reports of the period, equal to that of the sun, or, as they said, 
turning night into cay. The new illuminant was the exciting topic of 
the times. Persons, however, who did not have gas had to continue 
using the old methods, which ranged from tailow dip and smoking 
sperm or lard oil lamps of the '30s up to the most improved quality 
of camphine or burning fluid. The camphine was a rectified oil of 
turpentine The burning fluid was one part camphine and four 
parts alcohol. Both were higbiy explosive and imflammable and many 
accidents occurred in the careless use of them. Tailow dips, lard oil, 
sperm oil, elephant oil, camphine and burning fluid were used for 
lighting until ]858, when they were to a great extent replaced by 
kerosene, which was distilled from cannel coal, hence the name "coal 


oil." This first was made in Maysville, Ky. The word kerosene 
was originally a trade mark. In 1858 the substance known by that 
name retailed at $1.50 per gallon. When petroleum began to be 
found in quantities in Pennsylvania, it was found that it could be 
refined and sold for a less price than the patented article, hence 
come into more general use. Kerosene can now be bought at retail 
for one-tenth the same it brought 43 years ago. 

Speaking of petroleum recalls the fact that crude petroleum in 
the early days of pharmacy was known as Seneca oil, stone oil, rock 
oil, etc., from the fact that it was originally gathered by the Seneca 
Indians from the surface of rivers and streams in the oil bearing dis- 
tricts. Finding a stream whose surface was covered with oil the 
Indians would spread their blankets upon it. These were wrung out 
as soon as they had absorbed all the oil they would hold and the oil 
was sold to the white men to be used as medicine. This traffic was 
carried on a long time before petroleum wells were discovered. 

During the '50s business spread south on State, Clark, Wells and 
Canal streets to Twelfth street, westward on West Lake, Madison, Van 
Buren and Harrison streets to Halsted street, and north on Clark 
and Wells streets to Division street. 

During this decade there were 11 wholesale druggists doing busi- 
ness in Chicago. Their names were J. H. Reed & Co.; O. F. Fuller 
& Co.; F. Scammon & Co.; Bay & Baldwin; Sears & Smith; Bockee, 
Innes & Co., Lurton & Harris; Barclay Bros.; Penton & Robinson; 
Sawyer, Paige & Co ; Shipman & Goodrich; and their successors 
during the decade. 

At the close of the 50's there were ten wholesale and 73 retail drug 
stores in Chicago. Business and prosperity were beginning to revive 
after the panic of 1857 and the outlook seemed bright for prosperous 
times, when the darkening shadow of the coming civil conflict began 
to make itself apparent, and turned the attention of business men 
and others to the great conflict which was impending. Upon the 
breaking out of the war in 1861, all other thoughts were swept away 
and in place of hope and confidence came turmoil and confusion, as 
a result of the appeal to arms many druggists and clerks enlisted for 
the defense of their country. Among them we find the names of 
William H. Gale of Gale Brothers; John W. Ehrman; Lucius S. Lar- 
rabee; Henry Biroth, Thomas Whitfield; W. C. Scupham, William 
F. Blocki, Luther F. Humiston, T. J. Bluthardt, C. F. Pfannstiel, H. 
D. Garrison, J. M. Woodworth, J, J. Siddall, C. Lewis Diehl, Capt. 
J. C. Borcherdt and Capt. W. G. Morris. Most of the foregoing gen- 
tlemen were clerks at the time of their enlistment, and since the war 
took so many young men away from the profession it became very 
difficult to run or dispose of a drug store on account of the scarcity 
of clerks. Many a man would have gone to the front if he could 
have gotten rid of his business, but could neither get anyone to buy 
it nor to run it. 

During the war the unsettled condition of the country, the depre- 
ciation of the currency, the tendency to speculation, the large de- 


mand for medical supplies and the cutting off altogether of such sup- 
plies as came from the territory where the war was raging, such as 
those known as naval stores, forced prices up to almost prohibitive 
figures. The prices of some of such supplies during the war were 
as follows: Oil of turpentine rose from 50 cents to $3.00 and $4.00 
per gallon, and resin from $1.00 per barrel to $50 and $60 per barrel. 
Ipecac was $6 per pound, jalap, $3.50 per pound; opium, $15 per 
pound; rhubarb, $3.50 per pound; senega, $1.50; serpentaria, $2.50; 
spigilia, $3.50; quinine, $3.50 per ounce, and morphine, $11 per 

J. H. Reed & Co. became the purveyors of medical supplies for the 
armies of the west and southwest, and this gave the firm an im- 
mensely increased business. Chicago became the general supply de- 
pot for all the troops in this section or adjacent to it. These condi- 
tions continued throughout the war and made war times prosperous 
ones for the merchants of Chicago. Of course, there were also some 
hardships, which remained long after the war closed. These especi- 
ally affected the drug business and included the tax on alcohol, the 
stamp tax on proprietary remedies, perfumery, etc., and the special 
internal revenue tax on druggists as vendors of spirits. 

During the war there seems to have been but little to record of 
direct interest to the drug trade. The great conflict overshadowed 
all else in the public prints and affairs of minor moment received 
scant attention. At the close of the war, however, matters which 
had claimed attention before began to re-assert themselves. The 
Chicago College of Pharmacy was re-organized and the publication of 
"The Pharmacist," a monthly periodical was begun. The close of 
the war and the disbanding of the army brought about a great in- 
crease in the number of those engaged in the drug business. There 
was no pharmacy law and anyone might conduct a drug store who 
wished to. There were 30 more drug stores in Chicago in 1865 than 
in 1861. Numbers of young men, who in the army had to do with 
the dispensing of medical supplies or had acted as nurses, and thus 
acquired some slight familiarity with the leading drugs and medicines 
in use for the treatment of disease, entered the drug business from 
lack of any other remunerative vocation. Some of these young men 
had entered the army without any trade, and on being discharged, 
had to earn a living in some way; so, having dispensed drugs in the 
service, they continued the practice in private life. The conditions 
became such soon after the war that the newspapers of Chicago and 
of the country at large began calling editorial attention to the many 
mistakes made by incompetent persons engaged in the drug busi- 
ness, and stringent laws regulating the practice of pharmacy were 
urged. An editorial in the Chicago Times of May 9, 1869, by the 
editor, Wilbur F. Storey, himself a former druggist of education and 
experience, states the situation and the remedy in the following 

•'The country is overrun with druggists one-third of whom gradu- 
ated in the business after having served no more than six months as 
students. One effect of increasing the standard of qualifications in 


prescription clerks would be to drive out three-fifth of those in the 
business into some other calling. With a scarcity of experienced 
druggists would come a thinning out of drug stores. With the lat- 
ter would come better drugs Now, the cheapness of men who have 
only a smattering of the business enables and encourages everybody 
to start a drug establishment. The great number thus in operation 
leads to a competition in business, which leads to adulteration of 
drugs. Thus the vicious system of employing incapable men reacts 
disastrously through the whole depfitrtment. To make the business 
one attainable only by experienced men is equivalent to lessening 
materially the chances of being poisoned directly by the wrong 
drugs, or indirectly by inferior onos." 

The agitation by the press of the country became so great that in 
several states, notably in New York, pharmacy legislation was 
enacted. These laws were drawn by unauthorized persons, not 
skilled in pharmacy and it is not strange that the situation was not 
understood by them and the laws were failures. In order, therefore 
that the public should be adequately protected and the interests of 
pharmacy be conserved, the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
at its meeting in Chicago in 1869, listened to the report of a com- 
mittee appointed the preceding year to draft a model pharmacy law 
to be presented to the legislatures of the several states. The report 
of the committee embodied a draft of a bill which was in many 
respects original. It is not here necessary to go into its provisions, 
but it is sufficient to say that since the promulgation of this model 
bill, all pharmacy legislation in the United States has been modeled 
on the same general plan and embodied some of the more important 
features of the proposed law. The report of the above mentioned 
committee was, however, not adopted, for upon discussion, it was 
deemed inadvisable to commit the association directly to the propo- 
sition that pharmacy legislation was necessary; but the report was 
accepted as stating the general principles upon which pharmacy 
legislation should be based in case the several states should at- 
tempt it. 

The druggists of Chicago, having noted the injudicious law passed 
in New York, and fearing an attempt at like legislation here, met in 
the early part of 1871 and appointed a committee to draft a suitable 
law to be presented to the Legislature, which was to meet that year 
in Chicago. This committee consisted of Messrs. George Buck, 
Thomas Whitfield and E. H. Sargent, who made a draft of a bill, 
which was discussed, amended and finally adopted by the druggists 
of the city as a model to be submitted to the Legislature. The prin- 
ciples emphasized in the proposed bill have in the main been adopted 
in subsequent laws of the State. The measure was to have been 
presented to the Legislature, which had intended to meet in Chicago 
during the winter of 1871-'72, but the fire of the former year drove 
every other consideration out of mind and no pharmacy law was 
passed until the winter of 1880. 


We now come to the great fire of October, 1871, which in two days 
swept out nf existence the entire business part and much of the resi- 
dence portion of Chicago. We have thought it advisable here to 
quote verbatim from "The Pharmacist" of November and December, 
1871, giving in some detail the results of the calamity in so far as 
they affected the drug trade of Chicago. "The Pharmacist" said: 

"The great calamity of the 8tli and 9th ultimo, which henceforth 
will constitute the hegira of Cbioago, overtook us with so many other 
thousands. The whole machinery which kept 330,000 people mov- 
ing, suddenly stopped, overwhelmed by a catastrophe unprecedented 
in history. Chicago, peerless in the rapidity with which she has 
mounted up the heights of prosperity, in the magnitude of her woe 
still leads the world. Never did two sides of a picture stand so 
sharply contrasted as the past of yesterday and the present of today 
for this proud city. As contrasted with the other great fires of his- 
tory, that of Chicago, in the gross value of property consumed and 
the area devastated is beyond question the most overwhelming that 
ever overtook a city. All our readers are familiar with the outlines 
of Chicago's calamity. There are 2,500 acres burnt over, and on 
what other 2,500 acres was there ever garnered a richer harvest? In 
what other locality has there ever grown such persistent energy, such 
daring enterprise, such bold activity, such far reaching plans? 

"Twenty thousand buildings have been destroyed, and 100,000 peo- 
ple have been turned into the streets and thrown out of employment. 
A list of the leading business houses destroyed in the conflagration 
filled four columns of the Tribune, small print. This list did not 
embrace 5,000 houses doing a partial wholesale business and the long 
array of retail establishments. 

"All that the traveler recognizes of Chicago is destroyed Its fam- 
iliar hotels and trade palaces, magnificent churches, and library rooms, 
and public halls, and art galleries, and colossal manufactories, and 
imperial depots are all swept away. The ruins of Heroulaneum and 
Pompeii could but inadequately represent this sudden and over- 
whelming calamity. 

"We can not dismiss this subject without a word concerning the 
great wave of sympathy which has set toward Chicago from every 
part of the world. Such a going forth of help, instant and mighty, 
was never before known in human history. While the hungry flames 
were still devouring our beautiful city help came from every city 
from Maine to the Gulf. St. Louis and Cincinnati, our rival sisters, 
opened their hands widely for our relief. Swifter than bird ever sped 
to its nest came the relief which was never more greatly needed. 
Europe, even, was awake to our calamity; and from London, Liver- 
pool and Frankfort- on- the-Main came immediate and tangible help. 

"No department of our mercantile interests suffered more generally, 
or in proportion to the capital invested, more severely, in the great 
fire than did the drug trade. Of the 160 retailers of drugs in the 
city, 50, or more than one-third of the whole number, lost their all 
by the widespread devastation. It would be difficult or impossible 


to give an aoourate estimate of their losses, but it may be confidently 
asserted that the sum total would not fall short of $400,000. These 
figures allude to losses of the retail druggists only. Among the suf- 
ferers were all the larger establishments whose location in the heart 
of the oity, requiring large and varied stocks and expensive fixtures, 
secured to them a most exteasive and valuable trade. Not only have 
our druggists lost their material possessions, but in many instances 
the advantages of a good reputation secured by long years of toil in 
certain localities were also wrested from them by the sudden depopu- 
lation of whole districts and the scattering of population The suc- 
cessful druggist, however, has not secured that distinction without 
labor and hardship, and hard as it is to be thus cast adrift, he will 
be able to reach a safe anchorage, where many another mortal would 
sink to rise no more. A majority of apothecaries will be able to so 
arrange affairs as to recommence business. 


"Below we give a list, nearly complete, of the druggists whose estab- 
lishments were burned during the great fire. A few whose names 
we have been unable to ascertain, probably eight or ten, have been 

"Retail — Henry Biroth, Blinn & Johnson, Bliss & Sharp, A. R. 
Bodney, Thomas Braun, Henry Bronold, W. S. Brown, Hanson C. 
Brock, F. A. Bryan, Buck & Rayner (two stores), J. F. Christian, C. 
F. Class, Dale & Heiland, D. R. Dyche & Co., Victor Erich, Ludwig 
Fernow, Calvin J. Fiske, L. Foss, Grale & Blooki, C. H. Gardner, 
Grarrison & Murray (store and drug mill), Greenewald & Hoffman, 
James J. Harrington, H. W. Heuermann, A. Beno Hoffman, J. H. 
Hooper (two stores), Anton Hottinger, Huyck Bros., S G, Israel, 
A. C. Knoelcke, B. H. Leavenworth & Company, T. J. Letourneaux, 
Moenoh & Reinhold, W. H. Mueller, C. D. B. O'Ryan, John Parsons, 
Henry Renter, A. Rohde & Company, E. H. Sargent (store and 
laboratory), E. T. Schloetzer, Noble Schroeder, Henry Sherman, 
Joseph Sobey, E. L. Stahl, A. C. Vanderburg, Walker & Mann, 
White & Sohoen, Thos. Whitfield & Company, C. M. Weinberger & 

"Wholesale— E. Burnham & Son, Hurlbut & Edsall; Lord, Smith 
& Company, Rockwood & Blocki; Tollman, King & Company, Van 
Schaack, Stevenson & Reed. 

"Druggists' Sundries — Jones & Torrey. 

"It will be seen that upwards of 50 retail druggists were burned 
out; such was the rapidity of the destruction that scarcely anything 
was saved, but few being fortunate enough to rescue even their books 
and prescription files. Those who were located on the North Side 
lost their dwellings and personal effects also. When we add that 
insurance will give an average return of perhaps 15 per cent, our 
readers can imagine the extent of the losses sustained. With the 
energy characteristic of Chicago several of the druggists whose stores 


had been destroyed were located in new quarters before the expira- 
tion of the week, while others had equally early made arrangements 
for resuming business as soon as buildings could be procured. 

The only business block in the region desolated by the fire which 
stands today unscathed is that known as Lind's Block, on the west 
side of Market street between Randolph and Lake; the buildings on 
the opposite side of the street suffered the common fate, but Lind's 
Block, favored by the unusual width of the street, and the direction 
of the wind, escaped. Occupying Nos. 20, 22 and 24 of this block, 
our fortunate friends, Messrs. Fuller & Fuller, wholesale druggists, 
were left intact, excepting a severe scorching and the loss of the 
numerous signs which formerly decorated their establishment. 
Their stock was uninjured; their immense business, amounting to 
$1,250,000 annually, suffered no serious interruption, though their 
stock for a brief time was well nigh exhausted by the unprecedented 
demand which followed the fire. 

The following resume of the wholesale firms which were burned 
out will be of interest as given in the Pharmacist: 

' 'Hurlbut & Edsall. This firm is well known throughout the 
country. Mr. Hurlbut having represented the drug business in the 
present firm and its immediate predecessor, J. H. Reed & Co., for a 
period of 28 years. Their annual business before the fire amounted 
to $800,000; stock carried about $180,000; was insured for $123,000, 
of which probably $70,000 will prove good. They are located at 
present at 619 State street, but will remove to a large brick store at 
the head of River street early next spring. The firm is prepared to 
do as heavy a business as formerly. 

"E. Burnham & Son are temporarily located at Nos. 157-159 Canal 
street; they expect before long to regain their former business 
amounting to $500,000 a year. On their stock of $100,000 they hope 
to realize $40,000 from insurance. 

"Van Schaack, Stevenson & Reed have located in the old Baptist 
church, corner of Wabash avenue and Eighteenth street. Their 
business has been very large and constantly increasing, requiring a 
stock on hand valued at $170,000. They have a complete stock and 
facilities for transacting their immense trade with their usual 

"Lord, Smith & Co. are in temporary wooden quarters on Wash- 
ington street; will rebuild on their old site, 86 Wabash avenue, with- 
out delay. Their business has averaged for several years $700,000. 
They will be able to collect about 40 per cent of their insurance. 
The firm is fully prepared to honor the calls of all their old and 
many new customers. 

"Tollman, King & Co,, have resumed business at 53 West Lake 
street with ample facilities for trade. Their loss on stock was 
$120,000, one-half of which may be recovered from their policies. 


Among the matters relating to the fire of 1871 we find the follow- 
y in Rufus Blanchard's History of Chicago: 

"In its early stages, after the flames had crossed the river and 
re rapidly devastating the business portion of the city in the south 
asion, Lind Block, on the west side of Market street, between Ran- 
Iph and Lake, by dint of great exertion on the part of some ten- 
ts, successfully resisted them. The well known house of Fuller 
Fuller occupied the central portion of this block; and in reply to 
3 writer's inquiry as to how it was saved, Mr. O. F. Fuller stated that 
ile the fire was burning on the West Side and approaching toward 
3m, they took the precaution to provide an abundant supply of 
ter on each floor of their premises, and constantly applied it to 
3 most exposed portions of the building when the fire reached 
3ir immediate vicinity, having previously cut away wooden signs 
any other combustible material outside. During the greatest heat 
) outside walls of the block were too hot to bear the hand on, but 
11 every man remained at his post inside on each floor, subject to 
3 order of a sentinel, whose business it was to call them away if 
3 building ignited. Three times a retreat was ordered under an 
pression that combustion had taken place, but happily this im- 
jssion was a false alarm, growing out of the lurid glare from adja- 
it flames reflected from the windows of the building, and each time 
> men returned to their posts, where they continued to ply water 
the heated windows while the fire was raging." 

5aid Mr. Fuller: "The fire, viewed from the roof of the Lind 
)ck at this time, presented phases of thrilling interest. At 2:00 
lock a. m. Market street and the approaches to the Lake and Ran- 
ph street bridges were crowded with loaded vehicles hurrying to 
the West Side, and this retreat grew into a stampede when the 
rden City hotel and the buildings on the east side of Market 
set, from Madison to South Water, ignited. After burning 
•cely for but a brief space of time, they fell in quick succession in 
I general ruin." 

'At night the soldiers detailed to guard the bank vaults in the 
rned district were quartered on the premises of Messrs. Fuller & 

Jeverting to the account in The Pharmacist, that journal said 

'One of the saddest things connected with the late fire, and pecu- 
•ly unfortunate as bearing on the interests of the science of phar- 
cy in the west, is the total loss of property belonging to the Chi- 
;o College of Pharmacy. This loss includes, of course, all its valu. 
e furniture and appliances, apparatus and library — the most 
uplete on chemistry and pharmacy to be found in the west — and 
irge and valuable cabinet, the labor of many years in selecting 
i accumulating. 

—17 H. 


"The course of lectures in this school (session of 1871 and 1872) 
commenced on Monday evening, October 2d. The course was 
inaugurated by an able introductory address by Mr. E. H. Sargent, 
president of the college. The lectures continued on the succeeding 
Wednesday, and on Friday evening Professors Ebert and Hambright 
delivered the last lectures ever given in the old rooms, endeared tc 
the members of the college from the memories and associations oJ 
many years. With the destruction of the college all the appliances 
and means of illustrating lectures were lost and these cannot b( 
instantly replaced. The Chicago Medical College, with characteris- 
tic generosity, tendered the use of their lecture room and chemica: 
apparatus for the continuance of the contemplated course. In vie^ 
of the fact that but a small portion of the class (numbering some 50) 
could be brought together, the absence of the proper means of illus- 
trating a good course in pharmacy and materia medica, and lastly 
the serious illness of Professor Hambright, forced the members oi 
the faculty to abandon the course of the present season." 

The College of Pharmacy of the City of New York and the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy adopted resolutions of sympathy foi 
the members and faculty of the Chicago Colle2:e of Pharmacy anc 
tendered their courses of instruction without charge to the students 
of the Chicago College of Pharmacy. Quite a number of the stu 
dents availed themselves of this invitation and finished their coursee 
in New York or Philadelphia. 

New York and San Francisco contributed a large sum of mone] 
for the relief of the suffering druggists and this was duly distributee 
by the Chicago College of Pharmacy and by Mr. J. H. Reed. 

Immediately upon the receipt of the news in England concerning 
the disaster which had befallen the people of Chicago and the Chi 
cago College of Pharmacy, a committee of English chemists and 
pharmaceutists was appointed, consisting of many of the most promi 
nent men in the profession in England, to collect money, books anc 
apparatus to be fowarded to the Chicago college. The executive 
arm of this committee consisted of Prof. John Attfield, Joseph Inet 
and Henry B. Brady. Mr, Brady had visited Chicago just previouj 
to the fire and was therefore better able to judge the extent of th( 
loss and the requirements of the college. The value of the books 
apparatus, instruments and specimens for cabinets of materia medica 
botany and chemistry thus contributed amounted to about $25,000 
Contributions also came to the college from Paris and other cities o\ 
France, from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Russia, Italy, as wel 
as material contributions from colleges of pharmacy, pharmaceutioa 
associations, firms and individuals in our own country. 

Philo Carpenter. 

Mr. Carpenter opened the first drug store in Chicago. He wai 
born in Massachusetts in 1805, learned the drug business in Troy 
N. Y., and came to Chicago on July 18, 1832, during the cholera epi 
demio of that year, doing splendid service among the cholera strickei 

Philo Carpenter, first Drusrgist in Chicagro. 


soldiers of Fort Dearborn. On Aug. 6, 1832, he rented a log cabin 
situated adjacent to and north of the Sauganash hotel and east of 
the Lake street bridge. We make this statement for the reason 
that we can find no record of any other log cabin in that vicinity- 
similar to the one in which Mr, Carpenter opened his first store. 
Mr. Edward Hildreth, a son-in-law of Mr. Carpenter, makes, how- 
ever, the following statement: ''He opened his store on Monday, 
Aug, 6, 1832. This was in the little log house, which, as he used to 
tell us, stood not far from the eastern end of Lake street bridge. 
He never, so far as I can remember, located it on any street, but it 
must be remembered that it had been built and occupied for some 
time previous and that there was no survey — at least, no platting — 
before 1830. While there is the barest possibility that this log 
building was at one time occupied and even owned by Mark Beau- 
bien — though if so, I think he (Mr. Carpenter) would at some time 
have mentioned it — I am confident that it was not, certainly, the log 
building occupied by that historic boniface of early Chicago, to 
which was afterward added a frame structure. This latter, as told 
me by Father Carpenter and noted down at the time, was a two- 
story log house, and to use his own words in locating it (and be it 
remembered that his own little log building, 16 x 20, leased, of 
course, where he opened out his first stock of drugs, was within a 
stone's throw of this location) : "Mark Beaubien's log house hotel 
stood about midway between Randolph and Lake streets, fronting 
the river near the present middle of Market street." 

There is no historic record of any log cabin near this location ex- 
cept that built by James Kinzie and afterward owned by Mark 
Beaubien. The Beaubien cabin was one-story high and was 16x20 
feet — the same size as that of the cabin occupied by Mr. Carpenter. 
The Beaubien log cabin was found by the surveyor to be about the 
middle of Market street, and was therefore moved back upon the 
southeast corner of Market and Lake streets by Mr. Beaubien. When 
Mr. Carpenter arrived in Chicago Mr. Beaubien had just completed 
the new Sauganash Hotel, so that it is not improbable that the little 
log building was vacant when Mr. Carpenter got ready to open his 
store. No historian has spoken of another cabin of the kind in this 
vicinity. We have, therefore, taken the liberty to infer that it was 
the Beaubien cabin which Mr. Carpenter first occupied. Some addi- 
tional weight may, perhaps, be lent to this theory by the fact that 
the moment that the Dole log building at the southeast corner of 
South Water and Clark streets was vacant, although it was in the 
midst of the winter of 1832, Mr. Carpenter moved his store into it, 
notwithstanding the fact that by so doing he moved away from the 
business center of the town. The Beaubien cabin was adjacent to 
the Sauganash Hotel, which contained a public bar and enjoyed a 
presumably hilarious patronage. Mr. Carpenter was a leader in 
church circles and was unalterably opposed to the use of alcoholic 
liquors as a beverage, and could not, therefore, have found the 
Sauganash crowd the most acceptable next door neighbors. 


Mr. Carpenter remained in the Dole building during a part of 
1833, in which year he bought two 20-foot lots on South Watei 
street, just east of Wells street, at what is now designated as Nos. 197 
and 199 South Water street. For these two lots he paid a total oi 
$75, here he ereoted a double store, the east part of which he rented 
to Russell & Clift as a book store, and himself occupied the wesi 
part as a drug and general store. This was in 1833, so that he re- 
mained in the Dole building only a few months. The new stors 
which was opened in the fall of that year, was known by the sign oi 
the ''Gold Mortar" and bore over the door the legend, "Established in 
1832." Mr. Carpenter advertised in the Chicago Democrat of Nov, 
26, 1833, "a general assortment of drugs, medicines, oils, paints, dye 
stuffs, also dry groceries, glass, nails, hardware, boots, shoes, ready 
made clothing, leather, etc." In 1839 he advertised himself as a 
wholesale and retail druggist and general dealer in staple groceries 

About July 17, 1840, Mr. Carpenter moved to 143 Lake street, 
where he opened what was known as the "Checkered Drug Store.' 
Here he remained for about two years, selling out in 1842 to Dr 
John Brinckerhoff. 

The record of Mr. Carpenter's clerks is scant. Abel E. Carpenter 
a brother, came in 1833 and remained until 1836. Ezra Batchellei 
was with Mr. Carpenter in 1836 and later on it is recorded that he 
moved further west and became mayor of Lyons, Iowa. A Mr. Ladd 
probably followed Mr. Batchelier, in the clerkship. There was alsc 
a boy, referred to as Cornelius, whom Mr. Carpenter brought from 
the east in 1834. Cornelius seems to be the only name by which thie 
boy is known to history. 

Peter Pruyne & Company. 

The firm of Peter Pruyne & Company, Dr. Edmund S. Kimberlj 
being the partner, commenced business in 1832 at No. 133 South 
Water street, between Clark and Dearborn streets. 

The members of the firm came from Troy, N. Y. Doctor Kim- 
berly came first and looked over the field, afterward bringing his 
family and Peter Pruyne, a young man of ability in commercial pur- 
suits. They arrived in May, 1832, and in the fall of that year the 
store was opened, it being the second drug store in Chicago, 

Doctor Kimberly furnished the capital that went into the business 
and he took charge of the drug department, which was probably 
little more than an annex to the doctor's office. While Doctor Kim- 
berly practiced medicine, Mr. Pruyne busied himself in a general 
oversight of the business. This drug department was in the front 
part of the store. The main store was on the south side of South 
Water street, about 80 feet east of Clark street. On the opposite 
side of the street was their dock, the first one built on the Chicago 
river, excepting only the United States government dock and ware- 
house at Fort Dearborn. (This dock property was disposed of by 
the trustees of the village for 999 years, for a nominal sum, the 
annual rental being one barleycorn !) 


The store of Peter Pruyne & Company was not only commercially 
prominent in the early history of the city, but as we have already 
seen, it was well-known as a political rendezvous for the early and 
ambitious settlers of Chicago, the first meeting to discuss the advis- 
ability of incorporating the new town having been held in this store 
in August, 1838, Both Doctor Kimberly and Mr. Pruyne were at 
different times prominent politically. In 1838 Doctor Kimberly was 
elected a member of the first board of trustees of the newly incor- 
porated city. Later he was a member of the board of health, in 1847 
he was elected recorder of deeds and from 1850 to 1854 he served as 
county clerk of Cook county. Mr. Pruyne, aside from being promi- 
nent in all movements looking to the advancement of the city, held 
such oflfices as director of railroads, director of the State Bank of 
Illinois, clerk of the school board and was a State Senator at the 
time of his death. 

In the second number of the Chicago Weekly Democrat, published 
by John Calhoun, under date of Dec. 3, 1833, the following adver- 
tisement appears: "Peter Pruyne & Company's store, on South 
Water street between Clark and Dearborn streets, has received a 
large addition to its former stock of drugs and medicines, groceries, 
hardware, crockery, glassware, boots and shoes, iron and steel, win- 
dow glass, stoneware, pails, brooms, etc. Cash paid for all kinds of 
country produce." 

From this time on we find in the issues of the Democrat frequent 
advertisements of the firm, relating to drugs, chemicals and medi- 
cines. Many of the then well-known patent medicines advertised 
designate the firm of Peter Pruyne & Co. as their Chicago agents. 
These advertisements continued until the cessation of the newspaper, 
in June, 1836. 

The following letter shows that Peter Pruyne & Co. did a whole- 
sale drug business in connection with their regular retail trade. The 
writer of the letter was a Joliet druggist. It is as follows: 

"Juliet, June 25, 1835. 

"Dear Doctor — I have directed my brother to call on you for 
such articles as he wants, and if you can do as well by us as others, 
which I do not doubt, I shall be glad to send you orders occasionally 
.as my assortment becomes broken. 

Truly yours, 

To E. S. Kimberly, M. D." 

The following invoice of proprietaries and sundries purchased 
April 28, 1837 , by Peter Pruyne & Company, may not be without 
interest. The original is in Doctor Kimberly's handwriting: 

**An invoice of medieines purchased April 28, 1837. 

Ih, doz. Soda Powders, 10 $ 3 73 

2doz. Ballards' Oil Soap, 16 4 00 

^ doz. Imperial Dye, $5.00 2 50 

2 doz. Catarrh Snuff, 10 2 50 


h, doz. Hygean mixture, 12 $ 6 00 

i2 " " " 32 2 00 

^ " West's Cosmetic, large, $12.00 6 00 

^ "• *' " small, $6.00 3 00 

1% doz. Rawson's Itch Ointment, 12 1 50 

9-12 " Artificial Nipples, $4,50 6 75 

2 doz. Lavender Soap, 6 1 50 

1 " Digestive Elixir, $4.50 4 50 

^ doz. Green Plaster, 12 75 

H *• Mastic Varnish, 18 1 13 

9-12 ' • Bleaching Fluid ,10 94 

% •♦ Indelible Ink, 18. 1 13 

1-2 " Sick Headache, 20 1 25 

20 Porcelain Teeth, 6I4 1 25 

^ doz. Metallic Corn Digester, 10. 63 

2 I2 doz. Morrison's Hygean Pills, $9, , 22 50 

%, doz. Burnham's Drops, 18 1 13 

X *' China Cement, 10 63 

Vz " Horse Medicine, $3.00 150 

% " Scudder's Eyewater, 12 75 

3 " Lee's Pills, 10 6 00 

I •* Bear's Oil, 10 1 25 

I2 " Ward's Hair Oil, $8.00 4 00 

2-12 " New England Cough Drops, 18 2 25 

1 " Weaver's Eye Salve, 10. 125 

2 1^2 " Roach Bane, 10 25 

I2 ' ' Razor Strops, 4 25 

4 12 " Milk Roses, 12 38 

5-12 " Elixir of Life, $4.50 2 00 

1 12 '* Jewett's Water Proof, 24 4 50 

1 * ' Peleg White's Salve, 15 1 88 

1 ♦♦ Conklin's Salve, 8 1 00 

I2 *' Little's Lotion, 10 63 

1 ' ' Hewes Liniment 3 00 

1 " Oldridge's Balm Columbia 4 50 

I2 " Elixir of Life, 24 1 50 

^ " Arabian Balsam, 12 75 

1^12 " Butler's Magnesian Aperient, $5 7 50 

2 " Medicamentum, 8 16 OO 

3 Trusses, 6 2 50 

^ doz. Anderson's Cough Drops, small, 18 1 13 

I2 *' " " " large,36 2 25 

The firm of Peter Pruyne & Co. did a large and lucrative business 
in 1833, 1834, 1835 and 1836. It was in the last year that Doctor 
Kimberly suggested winding up the business, although it was not 
outranked at that time by any firm in the city. But the financial 
sky throughout the United States began to look dark; Illinois was in 
bad shape financially; the bank notes in circulation were from "wild- 
cat banks," were hard to get and unsafe to hold, even for a few hours 
and the State itself was on the verge of bankruptcy. But it was not 
until 1839 that the business was wound up. The firm had taken a 
number of contracts on the Illinois and Michigan canal and had 
opened supply stores at Romeo and other towns along the canal. 
The business was successfully conducted until the time of Mr. 
Pruyne's death in 1838. This, of course, ended the firm of Peter 
Pruyne & Co. and its affairs were wound up, the general store being 

sold. Doctor Kimberly took the drug department and moved it into 
the Tremont house building, at the northwest corner of Lake and 
Dearborn streets, where no doubt it was destroyed in the fire of 1839. 

The clerks of the firm of Peter Pruyne & Co. from 1832 to 1839 
were as far as we have a record: Marcus C. Stearns, who had charge 
at various times of their branch stores along the canal, at Romeo, 
Lockport and other points. Oscar C Lange, who is said to have 
been the first Swedish settler in Chicago, who likewise was detailed 
to look after the supply stores along the canal, and remained with 
the firm until its dissolution, when he went with Doctor Kimberly, 
taking charge of the store in the Tremont house, after which he 
went to Milwaukee and was in the employ of A F. Clarke & Co. , of 
that city in the early '40s. George L. Grray, O. L. Beach, A. H. 
Hamilton and Henry Knight were other employes of this firm. 

W. H. & A. F. Clarke. 

This firm consisted of William Hull Clarke and Abram F. Clarke, 
who came from Watertown, N. Y. They opened a drug store at 218 
South Water street, near Franklin, May 23, 1835. They were the 
third drug firm to establish themselves in Chicago. In the Weekly 
American of that time we find an advertisement dated Nov. 7, 1835, 
stating that the firm had moved to the southeast corner of South 
Water and Clark streets, previously occupied by Kimball & Porter, 
dry goods merchants. About Dec. 1, 1835, the firm moved to 128 
Lake street, at the northwest corner of Clark, where they remained 
until November, 1840, when they moved to 102 Lake Street, known 
as the Tremont House building, northwest corner of Lake and Dear- 
born streets, remaining in this location until 1851, when the retail 
department was moved to the Tremont House at 33 Dearborn street, 
southeast corner of Lake and Dearborn, and was run under the name 
of F. A. Bryan; Samuel C. Clarke, another one of the Clarke brothers, 
being a silent partner. During 1842 the original firm changed to 
Clarke & Co., W. H. and Samuel C. Clarke making up the firm, and 
A. F. Clarke going to Milwaukee, where he opened a store under the 
firm name of A. F. Clarke & Co. On Oct. 24, 1842, John C. Shaw, 
of Boston, was admitted as a special partner of the firm of Clarke & 
Co. and the firm continued in business until 1851, when the whole- 
sale department was taken to 213 South Water street, where it was 
sold by E. C. Larned, the assignee, in the early part of the following 
year. This sale was advertised in the Weekly Democrat of March 3, 
1852, sale to be had at New York cost with transportation added. 

William Hull Clarke became city engineer for Chicago in 1855, 
after the Clarkes had gone out of business, and remained in the 
employ of the city until his death, which occurred here on August 
5, 1878. He was 65 years, ten months and 10 days old. 

A. F. Clarke was a resident of Milwaukee from 1841 to 1879, when 
he went to Marietta, Ga., where he died on March 2, 1886, aged 71 
years, 4 months and 7 days. 

: I '■ 


Samuel C, Clarke, the active pharmacist of the firm, known as 
"the lame Clarke," also removed to Marietta, Ga., in 1871 after the 
business was discontinued and died there about (?) 

W. H. & A. F. Clarke did the principal wholesale and retail busi- 
ness during the latter 30's and early 40's. We find their advertise- 
ments during this period in the daily papers of the city. Aside from 
their drug business, they were manufacturers of lard oil and candles 
on the North Side between Wolcott and Cass streets. They were 
the early dispensers of soda water, and in June, 1839, we find an ad- 
vertisement to the effect that soda water was on draught at their 
store, corner Lake and Clark streets. They advertised the fact also 
that they made their own soda water. 

Among the employes of the Clarkes were F, A. Bryan, Thos. B. 
Penton, who afterward became a member of the firm of Brinckerhoff 
& Penton, Geo. P. Clarke, another brother, John M. Howard, George 
Graff, Leonard Wilson and John Miller. 

Frederick Thomas. I 

The fourth druggist to open a store in Chicago was Frederick 
Thomas, who came from New York city and started a drug store 
on South Water street in June, 1835. The present number of the 

location is about 121. 

On the 8th of June, 1885, the following advertisement appeared 
in the Chicago Weekly American: 

^^Chicago's New Drug, Medicine and Paint Store — Frederick 
Thomas, late of the city of New York, has taken a store a little west 
of the drawbridge. Water street (two doors from the American 
oifice) where he intends keeping a full and general assortment of 
articles in the above line, together with chemicals, perfumery and 
dyestuffs and hopes with his experience of more than 12 years in the 
business and a determination of strict personal attention, to merit 
the patronage of the citizens of Chicago and its vicinity. 

" Imong the articles he offers for sale are the following, viz. : Seidlitz 
and soda powders, ginger beer powders, wafers and sealing wax, Epsom 
salt, Rocheile salt, smelling salt, French quinine, Lee's pills, quinine 
pills, tooth drops, cough drops, Bateman's drops, Dole's eye water, 
Thompson's eye water, diamond cement, Godfrey's cordial, bear's 
oil, otto rose, bronzes all kinds, essential oils, paint brushes, copal 
varnish, window glass, lamp wicks, black lead, camel's hair pencils, 
sand paper, letter paper, black and red ink, ink powders, hair 
brushes, tooth brushes, fancy soaps, Poland starch, pink saucers, 
Spanish indigo, Prussian blue, pepper sauce, spices all kinds, court 
plaster, lucifer matches, patent groats, cologne water, lavender water, 
dyes of all kinds, Chinese vermilion, sash tools, boiled oil, lamp oil, 
white lead, fine glue, lemon syrup, etc. 


Physicians' prescriptions and family recipes accurately dispensed. 

Bleeding, leeching and tooth drawing. 

Boy wanted. Apply at above. 

Chicago, June 8, 1835." 

On the 24th of June Mr. Thomas advertised a cholera elixir, and 
on the 26th of the same month, in addition to the stock enumerated 
above, he announces the schooner "President" had brought him a 
supply of paints, drugs, perfumery, oils and dye stuffs. 

Frederick Thomas was evidently an Englishman, for in the Weekly 
American of June 27, 1835, he advertises for information about his 
brother, an Englishman, six feet tall, 22 years old, dark complexioned, 
largo features; last heard of as a clerk in Louisville, Ky. 

Mr, Thomas, no doubt in opening his store, expected to do a drug 
business entirely, as the advertisement of his stock and statement 
concerning himself attests. We find, however, that he carried out 
the idea just six months, but must have found it unprofitable, as on 
Jan. 11, 1836, he formed a copartnership with Thomas Jenkins, his 
next door neighbor, who was operating a general store with crockery 
and groceries as its main features, the firm being known as Jenkins 
& Thomas. This firm lasted until March 24, 1836, for in the Weekly 
American of that date we find a notice of dissolution of the firm, Mr. 
Jenkins succeeding to the entire business and settling all accounts. 

On the 11th of July, 1836, the store was advertised as the Chicago 
New Drug and Medicine store, no mention being made of Mr. 
Thomas or his former connection with the store. 

Mr. Jenkins announced on July 30, 1836, that he had just received 
a new addition to his stock of crockery, dry goods, groceries, drugs, 
etc. On August 27 of the same year Mr. Jenkins announced that he 
had moved his store to Lake street one door west of Clark, and states 
that he carries crockery, groceries, dry goods, drugs and medicines. 
A month later another advertisement appeared announcing a co- 
partnership between Messrs. Jenkins & Lovell, who would carry a 
stock of crockery, groceries and dry goods. No reference is made in 
this or later advertisements of this firm to drugs. No doubt this was 
the last of the Thomas drug stock, and even after the time of the 
dissolution of Jenkins & Thomas we can find no further record of 
Mr. Thomas. 

We have no record of anyonfe ever having clerked for Mr. Thomas. 
He probably carried on the business himSelf with the help of a boy. 

Leroy M. Boyoe. 

The entrance of L. M. Boyce into the drug business in Chicago in 
October, 1838, marked a step toward the beginning of a legitimate 
exclusive drug store. The stock which he bought in New York and 


Boston oonsisted of drugs, chemicals, medicines and druggists' sun- 
dries, and amounted to about $2,000 worth This line of goods con- 
tinued in kind almost intact through the successive changes of loca- 
tion up to the time of Mr. Boyce's death in 1849. 

Mr. Boyce learned the drug business with Doctor Merchant, known 
as the manufacturer of Merchant's Gargling Oil, at Lockport, N. Y. 
Here he remained until he was of age. He then went to Hamilton, 
Canada, where he was employed for a year by a Mr. Winer, a drug- 
gist there, coming to Chicago in July, 1838, and securing a location 
for a store on the south side of South Water street, one door west of 
Dearborn street. The present number of that location is 117. 

Mr. Boyce says in his diary: 

"I hired a store from William Jones for eight months at the rate 
of 1300 per year. This was a small wooden building two stories 
high, about 26 feet front and 30 feet in depth. 

In the Daily American of April 9, 1839, Vol. 1, No. 1, we find the 
following advertisement dated Dec. 15, 1838: 

"New Establishment.— L. M. Boyce, Druggist and Apothecary, 
takes this method of informing the inhabitants of Chicago that he 
has recently commenced business in South Water street a few doors 
west of Dearborn, where he offers for sale a full line of drugs, medi- 
cines, paints, perfumery, patent medicines. Shakers' roots, herbs, 
horse and cattle medicines, dye stuffs, etc., and respectfully solicits a 
share of public patronage. Physicians and country dealers are par- 
ticularly invited to examine his stock. Particular attention will be 
paid to his retail business, and no article will be permitted to leave 
his shop unless perfectly pure and of the best quality. Prescriptions 
put up with neatness, accuracy and dispatch, and any article not 
usually kept furnished on short notice," 

Independent of his regular display advertising, giving the location 
of his store and the advertisements of proprietary medicines giving 
Mr. Boyce as their Chicago agent, he was a frequent advertiser in 
other ways, as the following announcement in the Chicago Daily 
American of May 8, 1839, shows: 

"I have just removed to Lake street, No. 3 Saloon Buildings, from 
my old stand on South Water street. I have just received a fresh 
supply of drugs and medicines and invite the attention of physicians 
and country dealers to my stock of quinine, Peruvian bark, sarsapa- 
rilla, morphine, piperine, kreasote, castor oil, Rowland's Tonic, etc. 

113 Lake street, No. 3 Saloon Building." 

Another announcement advertises Shakers' herbs for sale and says 
that Mr. Boyce wants to purchase 100 pounds of Ladies' Slipper and 
100 pounds of Golden Seal for cash. 

Mr. Boyce remained at the above location until the time of his 
death in 1849. 

The following is a description of his store by Henry Bowman, who 
was a clerk for Boyce from 1845 to 1848 and is now a resident of 
Oakland, Cal. Mr. Bowman says: 


"There were two bay windows containing a very meagre display, 
which consisted of two ordinary two gallon show bottles in each, 
filled with red and blue water. Behind these bottles were small oil 
lamps. The store was lighted with oil lamps, which it was my duty 
to trim. There were four of us and we took turns at the sweeping 
out and washing windows. At that time Augustus D. Boyce, brother 
of L. M., was with him, but he went away the following year. Boyce's 
drug store in the Saloon building was 160 feet deep. The main 
building was either 80 or 100 feet deep and three stories high, with a 
good garret above in which empty boxes were stored. From the 
main building a one- story rough brick addition extended to within 
20 feet of the alley. It had a flat tin roof in which was a skylight. 
The rent of the store was $600 a year. 

"As you entered the store immediately to the right against the wall 
was a place for putting up prescriptions. A perfumery wall case 
came next. Then there were three rows of drawers for drugs, with 
closets under them for packages of essences, proprietary medicines, 
Haarlem oil, opodeldoc, Bateman's Drops, Turlington's Balsom, etc., 
in dozens for wholesaleing and others for retailing. The bottom of 
the oases of drawers was about the height of the counters. There 
were two rows, I think of quart tincture bottles and perhaps two 
rows of quart specie jars above the tinctures. Above them as I 
recollect were half gallon packing bottles, such as aq. ammonia 
FFF, sp. ether nitros FFF, etc., acid acetic No. 8, etc, and I think 
some wide mouth packing bottles with original contents. On the 
shelf was an assortment of packing bottles, quarts, pints and half 
pints. There was "ens. veneris." crocus martis, seed lac oowhage, 
oastoreum and a lot of other stuff that was seldom called for. I do 
not think there were counter and show cases except a square one 
about three or four feet high for trusses. There were counters on 
both sides of the store. On the left hand side I think the shelves 
had gallon and half gallon tincture bottles and salt mouth or specie 
jars. There were half gallon tincture bottles on the lower shelves. 
On the upper shelves were the essential oils in quart bottles and I 
think also in original packages. Where the counters ended on the 
right hand side there was first the stove and then the main desk 
placed at right angles with the wall, and beyond that was the 
work table upon which we filled the country orders, and in quiet 
times we sat there putting up Bateman's and Godfrey's drops, Brit- 
ish and Haarlem oils and essences in dozens for peddlers, and black 
and blue inks, etc. Against the wall, opposite the table were barrels 
of stuff. There was port wine with logwood chips, I think, in the 
bottom of it, a barrel of Stoughton's bitters, a barrel of ink, made 
from the formula in Ure's Dictionary, a barrel of whiskey costing 50 
cents a gallon, a barrel of 80 per cent alcohol, etc. Very little 90 
per cent alcohol was used. I think the whiskey was made from corn. 
There were shelves above these barrels with packages on them. 

"On the left side of the store as you entered, I do not so well re- 
member the arrangement, as we waited on customers mainly on the 
other side. I think there was a row of gallon specie jars on the 
lower shelf, containing Scotch oat meal, very acrid, for gruel. They 
were then just beginning to make it in America, for in 1849 I got a 


barrel of it from Brookville, Canada. Pearl barley, sago, starch, 
nutmegs, cloves, mace, cassia, arrow root, etc., formed also a part of 
the contents of these shelves. On the floor was a keg of tamarinds 
and one of Zanti currants, and on the second counter was an original 
package of citron. 

'"On the end of the first counter stood the square glass case I spoke 
of, with trusses hanging in it, and on top of it was a two gallon 
specie jar of camphor from which we retailed. There were drawers 
in each of the back counters for vials. All the vials used were long, 
round, green ones, a little wider and thinner at the shoulder, made by 
McCuiley & Company, Pittsburg. I think that one ounce was the 
smallest size. There were divisions in the drawers for vials up to 
eight ounces and a division at the left end for mixed corks. These 
bottles were quilled out and not washed, and they served for prescrip- 
tions also. There must have been some wide mouthed vials, as I 
had the job of putting up eight ounces of Cowhage in one ounce 
wide mouthed vials. This feat I have a distinct memory of, as well 
as the powdering of some aloes and bloodroot for prescription use 
and horse balls. This was just before Haskell & Merrick of 10 Gold 
street, New York, commenced putting up their ''Select Powders," 
whiah were a great blessing ever to be gratefully remembered. 

"I think the herbs in packages, got of Fowler & Gates, New Leba- 
non, N. Y., and the Shaker solid extracts were kept on the left side 
of the store. Very few English extracts were used. 

"There was an upright perfume case against the wall near the front 
door, but I do not remember upon which side of the door it was. 
We put up "Rose Hair Oil" in four ounce flint fluted vials. It was 
made of castor oil and linseed oil mixed and perfumed with berga- 
mot, lemon and cinnamon oil. 

"My memory is not at all clear as to the internal arrangement of the 
shelving or the disposition of the goods upon the shelves. At the 
end of the shelves on the left were the stairs leading up forward from 
the rear of the main store. At the foot of the stairs and beyond 
were the fall and trap doors up to the garret, ropes, tackle blocks, 
etc., and the second and third stories had windows in the rear that 
let light down on the work table, desk and rear of the store. The 
trap doors remained open except in very cold weather. The windows 
faced the south. I think there were three windows at each end of 
the rooms up stairs. 

"On the floor of the second story were rows of barrels of goods that 
came in flour barrels. There were several barrels of camphor that 
Boyce laid in on speculation, but the price continued to fall and 
never rose again. There were boxes of licorice extract in bay leaves, 
and other boxes of goods such as Farr's quinine in 100 ounce boxes, 
and proprietary goods, Indian oholagogue, etc. At the front or 
north end of the room was the clerks' bedroom, containing two beds, 
a wardrobe and a table. Two clerks slept in each bed. 

"The third floor must have contained barrels and boxes the same as 
the second, but I do not recall it. There was no cellar or basement. 


On the ground floor at the end of the main store there was an open- 
ing with two sash doors into the back room. This room had no win- 
dows, but was lighted by a skylight. It was from 60 to 80 feet deep 
and in it were many barrels of oil of different kinds, boxes of 
MoCully & Company's window glass in small and medium sizes, and 
of their vials in boxes, a barrel of putty in bladders, white lead and 
other paints. There were no small cans of paint that I remember. 
There was a row near the entrance of 40 gallon cans of different oils, 
including one of tallow oil, sold for neatsfoot and it would not run 
out of the molasses gate without poking in a stick— and then the 

"A man named Bay, brother of the Bay of Sears & Bay, my fellow 
clerk and bedfellow as well, manufactured the boiled linseed oil. 
We boiled it in a potash kettle in the adjoining vacant lot, with 
sugar of lead or lithrage, or both until it would scorch a feather. 

"I think some of the patent medicines in original packages were 
also stored in the back room. 

*'Boyce's business was mostly wholesale and very few prescriptions 
were filled there. There was no pill machine, but we used a pill 
tile and rolled the pills with our fingers. For some time I used to 
put one of the pills in the palm of my hand and roll it around with my 
right forefinger. A year or so afterwards Boyce hired a man named 
Leonard as a kind of overseer, and he taught me how to roll a pill 
between each thumb and forefinger, so as to make them more quickly. 

"We put up a good many of Sappington's pill and it was slow work. 
Of graduates and mortars we had but two or three of each in use. 
We had a good assortment of printed labels for all the ordinary 
articles, Boyce had learned the business with G. W. Merchant of 
Lockport, N. Y., and I think that Merchant did about the same 
kind of a business. 

"I think that Clarke & Co. did the largest prescription business, 
perhaps, until J. H. Reed & Co. came and Bryan started, then it was 
divided up. We had a pair of fairly good prescription scales, which 
were mounted on top of a drawer and there was no case to them. 
Our counter scales were the old fashioned kind with black marble 
column and beam, and the weights were, I think, the ordinary 
brass pile. The apothecary weights were all square brass. 

"The labels on the furniture bottles were put on with gold leaf and 
lettered. There were few, if any, salt mouths. They were mostly 
specie jars with lacquered covers. 

"Boyce furnished physicians and small drug stores throughout the 
country and did a profitable business, getting good prices all around. 
He did a good business in the city with livery stables and stage lines 
and also had a good family trade. He put up but few proprietary 
articles and they were mostly horse medicines. He put up Mer- 
chant's Gargling Oil under the name of Arabian Oil, and a green 
ointment for horses' hoofs. I have still the book into which I copied 
all his formulas, but I think I never used any of them but "hirra 
piora," composition powder and inks. 


"When I was there glycerin was first introduced and Boyce sent to 
New York for an ounce of it to cure deafness ! Chloroform was also 
then first manufactured, and Boyce got out a dozen or so ounces of 
it in one ounce vials. Each vial was half full of water— to keep the 
stuff down, I suppose. Boyce had a sense of humor and he laughed 
most heartily when he got the first dozen of Allcock's porous plas- 
ters. In my rummaging through the drawers I found a round thing 
about four and one-half inches in diameter with a hole in it like a 
doughnut I asked him what it was for. He laughed until I got 
quite red in the face and said he didn't wonder I did not know what 
it was for. He thought he would put it on a post and use it as the 
sign of the Mammoth Pessary. When I was a small boy I used to 
buy squirts at the apothecary's to play with. I saw a lot in a drawer 
marked P. P. syringes, and I asked him what ''P. P." stood for. He 
told me in two words and I was careful afterwards about asking 
questions. There were no syringes of rubber, either hard or soft 
when I went there, but they were introduced a year or so afterwards. 
We sold the French "Clysopompe" and pewter syringes of different 

"About 1847 Tilden began to put up reliable solid extracts in green 
cartons and glass vials, and afterwards he put up fluid extracts, but 
it was sometime before the latter came in use. Ayer's Cherry Pec- 
toral was first introduced in 1847 or 1848. Before that Jayne's med- 
icines were the principal proprietary remedies. Bristol's Sarsaparilla 
was the one that made a reputation for sarsaparilla about that time. 
It was not known that iodide gave it its main value. The case was 
similar to that of Sappington's pills that had such a sale about 1840 
and after, before it was known that quinine was their principal med- 
icinal ingredient. 

"Next the store on the west was a stairway. Doctor Pitney, a ven- 
erable looking homeopathist, had an office up stairs. I think I have 
written of him before — of his snow white and coal black horses and 
his gig. I was greatly indebted to the old doctor. I had been tak- 
ing Upham's Pile Electuary every morning for a month or two as a 
cathartic. As he stood drawing on his gloves in the doorway one 
day I asked him if there was anything else I could do. My medical 
knowledge was scant. He said that I should live on Boston brown 
bread and eat nothing else. The prescription cured me in a few 
days, and how many times have I given the advice to others in the 
last 55 years I cannot tell—but this has no relevancy to the inside 
arrangement of Boyce's drug store. 

"In 1843 we find that Mr. Boyce went into the manufacture of lin- 
seed oil. The firm name was Peck & Boyce, In 1846 a branch drug 
store was opened in St. Charles, 111. , under the firm name of Free- 
man & Boyce. 

"Among the clerks of Boyce were August D. Boyce, a brother, who 
was with him from 1839 to 1849, leaving for California prior to Mr. 
Boyce's death. Edwin R Allen came to Chicago with Mr. Boyce 
from New York, where he had been a fellow clerk in Dr. Merchant's 
store in Lockport; he was Mr. Boyce's first clerk, remaining with 


him several years, but later moving to Aurora, where he died in the 
summer of 1897; he was a prominent citizen of Aurora and left a 
large estate. Edward Walcott came in 1839 and remained until 1843; 
he died in Nice, France, Feb. 2, 1884, at the age of 62 years. Will- 
iam E. Bowman, elder brother of Henry Bowman, clerked in the 
Boyce store from 1840 to 1843; he went to Montreal, Canada, and 
engaged in the drug business, his firm being known as Workman & 
Bowman; later on his partner dropped out; after running the store 
alone for a while he became a physician and was for some time editor 
of the Canada Lancet; he died in 1868. Edwin R. Bay was with Boyce 
from ]844 to 1849; he, in partnership with John Sears, Jr., bought 
Boyce's business at the latter's death; the new firm was called Sears 
& Bay; after two years Mr. Bay sold his interest to Mr. Sears and 
established himself in the wholesale drug business at 139 Lake 
street; he was associated with a Mr. Baldwin sind the firm name be- 
came Bay & Baldwin, continuing until 1855, when the business was 
sold to Thomas Lord. D. H. Cunningham clerked for L. M. Boyce 
in 1844; Philip Freya from 1844 to 1845; Charles J. Ames during 
1845 and 1846. Henry Bowman learned the business with Boyce, 
entering his drug store in 1845 and remaining until 1848, when he 
left and formed a copartnership with Dr. Henry Ritchie, at 133 Lake 
street; the firm became Henry Bowman & Co., and was burned out 
in 1851; Mr. Bowman then went to Oakland, Cal., where he is now 
in business. George T. White clerked for Boyce in 1845; he, too, 
went west and was in business for some years in Colton, Cal. Mr. 
Leonard, who clerked in the Boyce store during 1847 and 1848, was 
general overseer in the retail department, and was the expert who 
taught the boys how to roll pills. A. H. Woodruff came in in 1848. 
Isaac Wells was also a clerk for Boyce about this time; he was a 
middle aged, easy going man, and afterward clerked for Sears & 
Bay; it was said that he spent most of his time telling stories; he 
went to California in 1851 and the next year he visited Henry Bow- 
man's store in Sacramento; he had been mining and was almost ex- 
hausted with the weight of the gold he was carrying in a belt around 
his body." 

Sidney Sawyer. 

Mr. Sawyer came to Chicago in 1839 from Albany, N. Y., and ac- 
cording to an advertisement in the Daily American of May 20, 1839, 
he opened a drug store on Dearborn street on March 20th of that 
year. In this advertisement he announced that he had just opened 
up an addition to his stocky consisting of a choice assortment of 
drugs, medicines, paints, oils, perfumery, groceries, etc., having made 
arrangements with large manufacturing houses in New York city for 
a constant supply of their goods. 

The store was on Dearborn street at the north end of the alley 
between South Water and Lake streets at No. 14. It was near the 
Tremont house and was called the New York Cheap Cash Drug and 
Medicine store. It was afterward moved to 124 Lake street. Before 
Mr. Sawyer took in a partner and the house became that of a firm 


the tendency of the stock was toward fancy groceries, fruits and 
liquors. In 1855 the firm name was changed to Sawyer, Paige & 
Company. In 1856 the business was moved to 70 Lake street in 
April, 1861, the stock was sold at public auction, 

Mr. Sawyer was a constant advertiser in both the Daily American 
and the Democrat. Under date of May 24, 1839, we find an adver- 
tisement saying that soda water is constantly on draught at Sawyer's 
New York Cheap Cash Drug Store. Sawyer's extract of bark was 
also advertised, this medicine obtaining more than a local reputation 
as a remedy for fever and ague and is still on the market today. 
Another advertisement of a later date announces the receipt of large 
quantities of quinine, Peruvian bark and Rowland's Tonic Mixture. 
Still later he announces that he has just received six barrels of corn 

The first big fire of Chicago, to which we have referred in the 
introductory part, took place Oct. 29, 1839. It was stopped on Dear- 
born street at the south side of the alley next to Sawyer's store, 
Sawyer losing only by the removal of goods and by smoke and water. 
In a card soon after published in the press of that time, he thanked 
the citizens for their prompt assistance in saving his stock from pos- 
sible loss in the fire. He thanked the insurance company also, for 
its prompt payment of his loss which amounted to about $800. 

After he removed to 124 Lake street he advertised in the Daily 
Democrat (successor to the American) of 1842 that he is the agent for 
Hewes' Nerve and Bone Liniment and that he has just received a 
stock of fresh lemons, prunes, raisins, currants and pears. In a 
later advertisement he announces that he is agent for Bradley's 
Ointment and Taylor's Balsam of Liverwort. The advertisement of 
Sawyer's Extract of Bark runs through the '40s. 

In 1849 we find a public notice in the Journal that Mr, Sawyer 
has been elected health officer. 

The members of the firm of Sawyer, Paige & Co. were Nathaniel 
Sawyer, Nathaniel Paige and Dr. Sidney Sawyer, who was announced 
as special partner. 

The store of Doctor Sawyer and of Sawyer, Paige & Co. while on 
Lake street in the '50s, had developed into a wholesale and retail 
drug store similar to those of the time. The retail department was in 
front and the wholesale in the rear, occupying the whole of the 
building exclusive of the retail department. The building was a 
three story and basement structure and occupied a lot 20 feet wide. 
The old fixtures of Sawyer's Dearborn street store were used in the 
retail department, but had been somewhat modified and improved, 
giving the store a neater appearance. The store was on the north 
side of Lake street, one door east of Clark, and was then in the 
heart of the business district of Chicago. 


The firm was not known as doing a large prescription business, be- 
cause they gave more attention to pushing proprietary goods, of 
which the Extract of Bark was a leaderj yet the retail store had a 
considerable patronage, especially with the north side residents 
among whom Doctor Sawyer lived and was an old settler. 

The retail department was presided over by Nathaniel Sawyer, a 
younger brother of the doctor. Nathaniel Paige looked after the 
wholesale and financial part of the business. Their trade was prin- 
cipally confined to country stores in the northern part of Illinois and 
parts of Wisconsin and the lumber districts of Michigan. 

The arrangement of the wholesale department was similar to that 
of Boyce's drug store already described by Mr. Bowman. The paints, 
oils and other crude goods, such as putty, window glass, etc, were 
stored in the basement; drugs, chemicals and proprietary medicines 
on the first floor; dye woods, roots, barks and herbs on the second 
floor, and the third floor was used as a receptacle for druggists' glass- 
ware, packing boxes, etc. 

After the removal of the business to 70 Lake street in 1856 the re- 
tail part of the business was discontinued and with the hard times 
that set in in 1857 during the financial crisis of that year, the firm 
found it unprofitable to continue business, hence the stock, on April 
11, 1861, was sold at auction. It was sold at a great sacrifice conse- 
quent on the depression in all branches of business just before the 
beginning of the Civil War. The firm had occasion to regret its 
precipitancy, however, as three or four months later everything ad- 
vanced in price greatly. 

On retiring from business. Doctor Sawyer gave his attention to his 
private affairs. He died in Chicago July 12, 1894. 

Nathaniel Sawyer moved to Lake Forest, where he died on Nov. 
13, 1890, at the age of 67 years. 

Mr. Paige moved to Washington, D. C, where he still lives. He 
studied law and has acquired a national reputation as a constitu- 
tional lawyer. 

We will now mention the clerks of the store from its beginning. 
Nathaniel Sawyer was associated with the store from the first. In 
1848 W. J. Hamilton became a clerk in the store; J. Deming Hanks 
came in 1844; Henry Burgess in 1846; George M. Tourtelot in 1851; 
Nathaniel Paige in 1851 (he was a relative of the Sawyers); in 1855 
we have H. P. Dusinberry, who clerked for Sawyer, Paige & Co., 
also George McPherson, who came in about this time and is still 
living in Chicago, and James D. Smith, who became a minister and 
moved to Loda, Wis. 

Erastus Dewey. 

Erastus Dewey opened a drug store at 19 Dearborn street on the 
east side between South Water and Lake streets in the latter part of 

—18 H. 


October or the first of November, 1838. In the Chicago Democrat 
of Nov. 15, 1838, is an advertisement dated November Ist, in which 
Mr. Dewey announces the opening of Apothecary Hall, the sign of 
"The Good Samaritan," one door south of the Eagle store on Dear- 
born street. Engine company No, 18 now occupies this location. 

At that time he advertised a full stock of drugs and medicines, 
Dewey's Tonic Tincture, Bristol's Extract of Sarsaparilla, Balsam of 
Horehound, Rev. Dr. Bartholomew's Expectorant, Pink Syrup, 
Gregory's Bilious Pills, Dr. Shubael Hewes' Rheumatic Nerve and 
Bone Liniment, Dr. S. Phinney's Anti-Dyspeptic or Bilious Pills, 
Kleins's Toothache Drops, the advertisement continuing: 

"Blow Ye The Trumpet, Blow. Fever and Ague. Look out for 
your Shakes-istn. Just received — A fresh supply of Dr. Sapping- 
ton's Fever and Ague Pills " 

In an advertisement in the Daily Democrat and Daily American, 
June 15, 1839, Mr. Dewey announces that he is the agent for 
Moffatt's medicines. 

On the 6th of April, 1889, he announced through the press that he 
had just received 50 ounces of quinine. We find nothing further 
about him in any way, except an announcement dated March 5, 1841, 
of an executors' sale signed by F. A. Howe and L. M. Boyce as 
executors of his estate, There is no record obtainable of the time of 
Mr. Dewey's death, who he was, where he came from or what became 
of his stock. 

This completes the history of the drug firms established in Chi- 
cago from 1882 to 1840. 

Jean Qabriel Cerr6, of Easkaskia and St. Louis. 



Walter B, Douglas. 

[Only for valid and sufficient reasons is there permitted any departure from our rule, to 
admit no paper in the Addendum to our annual Transactions that has appeared in other re- 
cent publications. 

Our deviation from that rule, in this reprint from the April, 1903 number of the Missouri 
Historical Society Collections of ihe valua^)]e biographical sketch of Jean Gabriel Cerr6 
here presented, is made for the following reasons: 

1st. Because the career of Mr. Uerr6 was in great part identified with an interesting 
period of Illinois history. For many years he was ihe wealthiest, most enterprising and in- 
fluential ciHzen of Kaskaskia; he whs married there, and for a long time conducted an ex- 
tensive business tht-re. and ihere rendered Col. George Kogers Clark material service in his 
campaigns for conquest of the Illinois. 

2d. Bpcause he is entirely unnoticed in all of the published histories of Illinois— save a 
bare mention of his name in Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois." * 

3d. Because the admirable paper here copied contains facts relating to the early history 
of this Stale difficult of access elsewhere; and, in diction that cannot be excelled, rescues 
from oblivion the memory of a most worthy and sterling pioneer o* Illinois. 

For permission to reprint this sketch we acknowledge our obligations to the courtesy of 
its author, Judge Walter B. Douglas, of St. Louis. President of the Missouri Historical 

Committee on Publication.] 


That portion of the life of Gabriel Cerr^ which was spent in the 
valley of the Mississippi covered the whole period of its shifting 
nationality. He came as a Frenchman to a French country. He 
here became by turns a British subject, a citizen of Virginia, a 
Spanish subject, a subject of the French Empire, and an American 

He administered the laws as a Virginian judge, and made laws as 
a Spanish syndic. 

Could the full story of his life be written it would be a document 
of surpassing interest. It would show a gallery of portraits such as 
is seldom brought together: Canadian noblesse, voyageurs. coureurs 
du bois^ British Generals and Governors, Spanish dons, Virginian 
soldiers, American backwoodsmen, intermixed everywhere with In- 
dians. The central figures of this portrait gallery would be, perhaps, 

* The only mention of Mr. Cerr6 by Gov. Reynolds occurs in his sketch of James Moore 
(p. 114, "Pioneer History," 2d edition), where he -states that not long after Mr. Moore's ar- 
rival in Illinois Territory "he was employed by Gabriel Cerr6, a wealthy merchant of St. 
Louis, to take goods and trade with the Indians of Western Tennessee." It is plain that 
Reynolds had not re«d Col. George Rogers Clark's journal, and did not know that Mr. Cerr6 
had ever resided in Illinois. 

Edward G. Mason, in his monograph on "Col. John Todd's Record Book," copies an order 
by Col. Todd "To Gabriel Cerr6, &c., Esqrs., Judges of the Court for the District of Kas- 
kaskia," dated July ;nst, 1779. 

With above exceptions Mr. Cerr6 has been entirely ignored by all writers of Illinois hls- 
*tory.— J. F. S. 


George Rogers Clark Daniel Boone, Saint Ange, and the great 
Ottawa chieftain Pontiac; heroic figures that would glorify any 

In addition to the portraits, the story would show scenes of mingled 
civilization and barbarism, such as will never again exist. French 
Canada would be shown in its bloom; Illinois with its line of French 
villages and the interminable wilderness of Indian haunted woods on 
every side; Missouri in its happy days, when its people in the vil- 
lages of St. Louis, St. Genevieve and the few outlying settlements 
were the neglected children of the Spanish King, and thanked the 
saints for the neglect. We would see in Tennessee and Kentucky 
the daring explorers who spied out the land, and the eager swarm of 
commonwealth-builders who followed them; in Ohio and Indiana the 
wary bands of rival traders whose quarrels were the prelude to the 
contest that drove France from North America. 

Unhappily, however, the story of the things that he saw and the 
things of which he was a part can never be written. A few personal 
anecdotes preserved in family tradition, and a few references to him 
in contemporary documents is all that remains. Cerr6 was born at 
Montreal, 12th of August, 1734. At that time Louis XV was King, 
and the Marquis de Beauharnois was the Governor- General of 

The country was then, nominally, at least, at peace. The govern- 
ment, observing with apprehension the growth of the English 
colonies to the southward, was endeavoring to meet it by encouraging 
agriculture, mining and manufactures among the people of Canada. 
But the spirit of the two peoples was unlike. To the Canadian 
youth the call of the woods, the waterways, and the distant plaine 
was irresistible. Cerr6 was about 9 years old when the brothers 
La V^rendrye returned from the journey in which they had discov- 
ered the Rocky Mountains. 

The English colonists considered themselves as having a foothold 
in a country which was under the dominion of the devil, and thej 
pushed forward only as they were able to subdue and hold the land 

Of Cerr^'s childhood and early youth we have no information. He 
was well educated for his time, but whether his education was ob- 
tained in Canada or in France is not known. Just when he begar 
the life of adventure which lasted into his old age we cannot tell. T 
is known, however, that as early as 1755, when he was in his 21s 
year, he was established at Kaskaskia, that "little Paris in the wilder 
ness." Though but a few weeks older than Daniel Boone, Cerr( 
was in the Mississippi valley 12 years before Boone made his firs 
expedition in this direction. It is a tradition in the family that h( 
was back in Canada and took part in the fighting about Quebec jus 
prior to its surrender; whether or not this is well founded it is imii 
possible to determine. 1 

A story of one of Cerr^'s adventures related by the late Gurdor| 
Hubbard is without date, but the incident probably occurred prio] 


to 1765. It is as follows: "Ise la cache' (in the river Desplaines) 
took its name from a circumstance in the life of Mr. Cerr6,* a trader, 
who, when on his way with loaded canoes from Montreal to St. Louis 
(Kaskaskia) with goods for the Indian trade on the Ohio river, 
Damped at this point. 

"A band of Indians demanded of him some of his goods as a tribute 
for the privilege of passing down the river; this was refused. The 
Indians then returned to their village, a short distance below, held 
a council, and determined to stop his canoes as he passed their vil- 
lage, and take by force what he had refused to give. 

"Some of them, however, opposed this robbery, and one of the band 
reported the action of the council to Mr. Cerr6. 

"The night was dark and misty, and Mr. Cerr6 determined to pass 
if possible by strategy, but to fight rather than accede to their de- 
mands. Fearing that he might be overcome by numbers and thus 
iose his goods, and in order to lighten his canoes, so that he could 
pass rapidly over the shoal places in the river, he ordered the most 
valuable portion of his goods removed to a grove, about a mile dis- 
tant on the prairie, and there hid them in holes dug in the ground 
(caches) , removing the surplus earth to a distance, and carefully 
smoothing over the spot, so that no trace of the hiding place could 
36 seen. He then armed his men with guns, tomahawks and knives, 
md at daybreak started on his way down the river 

"Stopping at the village, he stationed his men so as to guard the 
janoes, and then called on the Indians for a talk, which was granted; 
le told them that he should defend his goods; that the great father, 
;he French king, had given him permission to go to the Ohio river, 
md showed them a parchment ornamented with ribbons and large 
•ed seals; he said to them 'here is my evidence, the king has made 
ihis writing, and it tells you that I must not be stopped or disturbed 
n passing through the nations of his red children; if any harm shall 
)ome to me he will revenge it by sending an army to destroy them 
md take possession of their country.' This speech and demonstration 
lad the desired effect, and the Indians were glad to excuse themselves; 
;hey, however, said that they were poor, and needed clothing and 
;obacco; that they had no powder and but few guns, and were pre- 
paring to send a delegation to St. Louis to see their great father's 
3aptain to state their condition and make known their wants. 

"Mr.Cerre replied that he was authorized to give them a present from 
their great father, and that he should have done so but for their demand 
md threat, but as they had repented he would now give it to them, 
f^hereupon he handed them a small bale which he had previously pre- 
pared for that purpose and ornamented with ribbons and sealiag wax. 
Ihe bale contained a few pieces of calico, powder and shot, tobacco and 
flints and steel for striking fire, which delighted them exceedingly. 
He then said to them, 'You see my canoes are light; I have but little 
in them, but when I camped last night you saw them heavily loaded. 

* Mr. Hubbard spells the name Sara. 


I had a dream; the Spirit told me you held a council and determined 
to rob me when I passed your village this morning; that is why you 
see my men with guns, tomahawks and knives, with which to defend 
themselves; we did not fear you, though there are many of you and 
we are few; we are now friends, and I want you to help us; go with 
my men, take your pack horses and bring the goods I have left be- 
hind and help us down the river with our boats until we reach the 
deep water below the shoals, when I will give you another bale of 
goods in token of my friendship and bid you farewell.' To this they 
consented; the goods were removed from their hiding place and 
traosported on horses to the confluence of the DesPiaines and 
Kaskaskia rivers, and again loaded in the canoes." 

Mr. Hubbard is in error as to ''the Great Father's captain" being 
at St. Louis; he was at Fort Chartres when the captain (St. Ange) 
went to St. Louis in October, 1765, the French King had become 
powerless and landless in America. 

In 1764, Mr. Cerr6 married at Kaskaskia, Catherine Giard, a na- 
tive of that town. 

The claim of the Giards to be of the ''first families" of Illinois 
could iiot be disputed, as there is record evidence that they were 
established there in 1729; the date of their arrival is not known. 

Mr. Cerr^'s marriage, and the coming of his little family, though 
he was devoted to his wife and children, did not cause him to abandon 
the life upon which he had entered, and become a villager. 

A story is told which illustrated the wifely faith of Madame Cerr6, 
and the sure -foundation she had for such faith. Mr. Cerr6, leaving 
his home to make the long and perilous journey to Montreal, prom- 
ised his wife that he would return in time to join with her in the 
festivities of the new year. The jour de Van drew nearer and nearer 
and nothing was heard from him. Friends offered condolences, and 
hinted at things not to be spoken of to her, but Madame Cerr6 was 
unmoved, Mr. Cerr^ had given her his promise; and as to the dangers 
to be encountered, what were wild beasts or wilder men as against 
Gabriel Oerr6? Her trust was justified. Almost at the last hour 
Mr Cerr6 returned, alone. Pursuing their homeward journey by 
way of the Maumee portage and the Wabash river, his party had 
been delayed by accidents of travel. Leaving his men to follow with 
their burdens, Mr. Cerr6 made his way unaccompanied across the 
wintry wastes that lay between the Wabash and Kaskaskia. He 
traveled upon snow shoes and dragged behind him a sled loaded with 
presents for his family and friends. 

The winter of 1776 and 1777 he spent among the Indians. In the 
Canadian Archives there is a paper containing a "declaration Sieur 
Gabriel Cerr^," which has been translated and printed thus: "Hav- 


ing been among the Peorias on the River of the Illinois, the above 
name stated that last winter, having been wintering with the Kicka- 
poos and Mascoutens at a place called the bad land*, there arrived 
there two savages, Kiokapoos, and that these went to a person called 
'fair weather,' likewise chief of the said savages, of the village of the 
Raven on the River of the Illinois, to engage him to send hither 
these young men in response to my invitation. To which message 
the before mentioned 'fair weather' replied that he would not stir; 
that he had been the winter before at St. Louis to the Spaniard to 
drink there and to see his father the Spaniard, who had before prom- 
ised him a medal, a chief's coat, etc.; that the commaodant showed 
him all these articles, but told him he would not give them to him 
until the commander sent word; that he thought the time of the ar- 
rival of the message from the Sea would be about the time of grass; 
adding that he would not tell him the contents because it was yet a 
secret known only to him; that the inhabitants of St. Louis were 
ignorant of it, but that as soon as their father had awakened from 
his sleepiness he would make it known to them, and would be prompt 
with his word, and would give them what he promised; advising 
them not to mix themselves with the troubles of the Bostonians and 
the Eoglish." 

fThis "declaration" was made by Mr. Cerr6 to Rocheblave, the 
British commandant at Fort Gage, 29th of April, 1777. 

In view of the traditional manana policy of the Spaniards, it may 
well be that the secret of the commandant was the project of the 
expedition from St. Louis across Illinois to St. Joseph, which was 
successfully made under the leadership of Don Eugenio Pourre 
(Beausoliel) nearly four years later. 

It was Mr. Cerr^'s fortune, only a little more than a year after his 
declaration, to find himself seriously mixed in the troubles of the 
* Bostonais" with the British. George Rogers Clark, telling in his 
journal the story of the taking of Kaskaskia, July, 1778, says: 
"Several particular persons were sent for in the course of the night 
for information, etc., but we got very little beyond what we already 
knew except from the conduct of several persons then in town, there 
was reason to suppose they were inclined to the American interest; 
that a number of Indians had been, and was then, in the neighbor- 
hood of Kahokia, 60 miles from this; that a Mr. Cerr^ a principal 
merchant, one of the most inveterate enemies we had, left the place 
a few days past with a large quantity of furs for Michili Mackinac, 
from thence to Quebec, from whence he had lately arrived; that he 
was then in St. Louis, the Spanish capital; that his lady and family 
were then in town with a very considerable quantity of goods, etc. 
I immediately suspected what these informers aimed at — that of 
making their peace with me at the expense of their neighbors My 
situation required too much caution to give them satisfaction. I 
found that Mr. Cerr^ was one of the most eminent men in the coun- 

* The Mauvais Terre running through Scott and Morgan counties, Illinois. 
+ IV Chicago Historical Society's Collections, p. 3S9. 


try, of great influence among the people. I had some suspicion that 
his accusers were probably in debt to him and wished to ruin him; 
but, from observations I had made from what I had heard of him, 
he became an object of consequence to me; that perhaps he might 
be wavering in his opinion respecting the contest, that if he should 
take a decisive part in our favor, he might be a valuable acquisition. 
In short, his enemies caused me much to wish to see him, and as 
then he was out of my power, I made no doubt of bringing it about 
through the means of his family, having them in my power. I had 
a guard immediately placed at his house, his stores sealed, etc., as 
well as all others, making no doubt but that when he heard of this 
he would be extremely anxious to get an interview. * * * * 

"Mr. Cerr6 ***** (who) was yet in St. Louis, and pre- 
paring to prosecute his journey to Canada, was stopped in conse- 
qence of the information. After learning the situation of things, 
agreeable to my expectations, he resolved to return ; but learning that 
there was a guard kept at his house and at no other, and that several 
had attempted to ruin him by their information to me, as you were 
advised (he thought it best) not to venture over without a safe con- 
duct, so he applied to the Spanish governor for a letter to that pur- 
pose, and came to St. Genevieve, opposite to Kaskaskia, and got 
another from the commandant at that post, and sent them to me; 
but all the interest he could make through the Spanish oflficers, and 
the solicitation of his particular friends, which I found to be a great 
majority of the people, could not procure him a safe conduct. I ab- 
solutely denied it, and hinted that I wished to hear no more on the 
subject; neither would I hear any person that had anything to say 
in vindication of him, informing them that I understood Mr. Cerr6 
was a sensible man; that if he was innocent of the allegations against 
him he would not be afraid of delivering himself up; that his back- 
wardness seemed to prove his guilt; that I cared very little about 
him. I suppose a rumor immediately gave him this information. 
In a few hours he came over and before visiting his family presented 
himself before me. I told him that I supposed he was fully sensible 
of the charges that were exhibited against him, particularly that of 
inciting the Indians to murder, etc., a crime that ought to be pun- 
ished by all people that should be so fortunate as to get that person 
in their power; that his late backwardness almost confirmed me in 
his guilt. He replied that he was a mere merchant; that he never 
concerned himself about state affairs further than the interest 
of his trade required; that he had, as yet, no opportunity so fully to 
acquaint himself with the principles of the present contest as to 
enable him finall}' to settle his own opinion to his satisfaction; that 
his being generally so far detached from the seat of affairs that he 
was always doubtful of his only hearing one side of the question; that 
he had learned more in a few days past than he ever before knew; 
that it only confirmed his former suspicion. I read him part of a 
letter from Governor Hamilton of Detroit to Mr. Eocheblave, wherein 
he was alluded to with much affection. He said that when he was 
there he behaved himself as became a subject; that he defied any 


man to prove that he ever encouraged an Indian to war; that many 
had often heard him disapprove the cruelty of such proceedings ; that 
there was a number in the town that was much in debt to him — per- 
haps the object of some of them was to get clear of it by ruining 
him; that it would be inconsistent in him, in his present situation, to 
declare his present sentiments respecting the war, but wished to 
stand every test, as that of encouraging the Indians is what he ever 
detested. He excused his fearing coming over the Mississippi as 
soon as he could have wished. I told him to retire into another 
room, without making him any further reply. 

"The whole town was anxious to know the fate of Mr. Cerr6. I 
sent for his accusers, a great number followed them — and had Mr. 
Cerr6 called. I plainly saw the confusion his appearance made 
among them. I opened the case to the whole — told them that I 
never chose to condemn a man unheard: that Cerr6 was now present; 
that I was ready to do justice to the world in general, by the punish- 
ment of Mr. Cerr^j if he was found guilty of encouraging murder, or 
acquit him if innocent of the charge that they would give in their 
information. His accusers began to whisper to each other, and re- 
tire for private consultation; at length but one of six or seven was 
left in the room. I asked him what he had to say to the point in 
question. In fact I found that none of them had anything to say to 
the purpose. I gave them a suitable reprimand, and after some gen- 
eral conversation I informed Mr. Cqty6 that I was happy to find that 
he had so honorably acquitted himself of so black a charge; that he 
was now at liberty to dispose of himself and property as he pleased. 
If he chose to become a citizen of the Union, that it would give us 
pleasure; if not, he was at full liberty to dispose of himself (other- 
wise) . He made many acknowledgments, and concluded by saying 
that many doubts that he had had were now cleared up to his satis- 
faction, and that now he wished to take the oath immediately. In 
short, he became a most valuable man to us. As simple as this may 
appear, it had great weight with the people, and was of infinite ser- 
vice to us, everything in this quarter having a most promising ap- 

The fact that Colonel Clark devoted nearly a twenty- fifth part of 
his memoir (which gives not only an account of his expedition to 
and capture of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes, but also of the 
Indian troubles in Kentucky) to his experience with Mr. Cerr6 
shows that he must have considered the acquisition of Cerr6's good 
will to have been of the greatest importance. Cerr6 was also ap- 
pealed to by the other side. In October of that year, Governor 
Hamilton, afterwards captured by Clark at Vincennes, wrote to Gen- 
eral Haldimand "that Mr. Montforton, late of Michilimackinac, had 
done what was in his power to open the eyes of the French people 
at the Illinois, who have lately taken the Rebels by the hand, by a 
letter written to Mr. Cerr6 of Kaskasquias." Hamilton adds that 
for this good act Montforton should be compensated by the British 
government of Canada. 


The Virginia commandant, Col. John Todd, caused polls to be 
opened for the election of magistrates by the people, and of the 
judges elected, Mr. Cerr6 headed the list. A letter from Colonel 
Todd to these judges, perhaps justify the belief that they did not 
observe the ancient maxim, ^^honi judicio est ampliare jurisdic- 
tionem.'^ The letter reads: 

"To Gabriel Cerr6, etc., Esqrs., Judges of the Court for the Dis- 
trict of Kaskaskia. You are hereby authorized and required to hold 
and constitute a court on Satterday, the 21st of July, at the Usiall 
place of Holding Court, within yr district, any adjournment to the 
contrary notwithstanding. Provided that no suitor or partey be 
compeled to answere any prosess upon said unless properly sumoned 
by the Clark & Sherriff. 

Given under my hand and seal at Kaskaskia, 

John Todd." 

But it was not for Mr. Cerr^ to play the part of a justice. * Long 
before this time he had turned his face to the westward. The earliest 
hunters in the Missouri river country, aside from an occasional 
party of adventurers, were men sent by Cerr6 from Kaskaskia. 

"Note this," says Scharff, "of the founding of New Madrid by 
Cerr6, from the narrative of Godfrey Lesueur, whose father Fran- 
cois, with Joseph, a brother, started away in youth from Trois Riv- 
ieres, and found themselves two penniless adventurers in St. Louis.'^ 

They sought and found employment with Gabriel Cerr^, a fur 
trader and the father-in-law of Auguste Chouteau. He was a Kas- 
kaskian, but his business took him to St. Louis as did that of all the 
enterprising people of that section. 

Cerr^ set the two youths to classifying and baling furs and pelts 
for market, and this one fact gives an idea of the extensive scale 
on which the business was then carried. After remaining about a 
year with Mr. Cerr6, they were both sent in a canoe down the 
Mississippi river, and instructed to find the most suitable place for 
the establishment of a trading house among the several tribes of 
Indians then inhabiting the country. The first place they found 
which afforded the greatest advantage and inducements was a large 
Delaware Indian town, where New Madrid now stands. There were 
also on the margin of the Louis prairie and Big prairie, several other 
large Indian villages. They quickly returned to St. Louis and re- 
ported to Mr. Cerr6 all they had seen, portraying to him the results 
that would, in their opinion, be derived from starting a house at the 
place mentioned. The year following they were sent by Mr. Cerr6 
to build a house, and taking with them a lot of goods suitable to the 
Indian trade, were successful beyond expectations, making large col- 
lections of furs and peltries. In a few years competition reduced 
the profits, whereupon Cerr6 sent them to build a house at some 
other point. "f 

* See note on last page of this paper, 
t Scharflf's History of St. Louis. 287. 


The establishment of Cerr^'s trading house by the Lesueurs was, 
according to the best authorities, in 1780. The place was first 
called V Anse-a-la-graisse. It was not until the coming of Col. 
George Morgan's colony, in 1787, that it received the name of New 

In 1781, Mr. Cerr6 employed James Moore to take goods and 
trade with the Indians in Tennessee. The headquarters of this trade 
was at the French Lick, on the Cumberland, the site of the present 
city of Nashville. This was probably a country familiar to Mr. 
Cerr6, the Kaskaskia trade with the Tennessee Indians having be- 
gun early in the century. Mr. Charleville had a store near the 
junction of the French Lick creek with the Cumberland as early 
as 1714. 

On the 17th of June, 1779, Mr. Cerr6 bought from Louis Perrault, 
block 18 of the village of St. Louis, being the block bounded by the 
Mississippi river and what are now Main and Vine streets and Wash- 
ington avenue. On this ground there was a dwelling and a ware- 
house, which had been erected either by Perrault or by Labuxiere, 
the property having been originally granted to the latter by St. 
Ange — the first formal grant of land in St. Louis. 

Just when Mr. Cerr6 removed his home to St. Louis is not known. 
ScharflP says that he was a resident of the village at the time of the 
coup, 26th of May, 1780. In 1781 he acted as an arbitrator, at the 
instance of Charles Gratiot, in a controversy between Gratiot and 
the crew of a barge belonging to him which had been captured by 
the Indians. In a paper in the possession of the writer, signed by 
Mr. Cerr6 and dated 10th of October, 1782, he describes himself as 
"Gabriel Cerr6 vecino de esta Pueblo de Sn. Luis^' — inhabitant of 
this village of St. Louis. 

In the same year he was one of the eight Syndics appointed by the 
assembly of the inhabitants which was held in the government hall 
on 22d of September, for the purpose of establishing fixed and unal- 
terable rules for the construction and repair of streets, bridges and 
drains of the village. 

At St. Louis he continued and increased the business which he 
had prosecuted for so many years. Some of his kinsmen from Can- 
ada followed him to his new home. Some of his wife's people crossed 
the river and took up their abode in the Spanish village His two 
younger daughters married St. Louis men of high character and 
commanding positions and ability. His family connections and his 
numerous band of employes constituted him the patriarch of a con- 
siderable portion of the inhabitants of the settlement, and gave him 
a great influence in the management of its affairs. In addition to 
his house in the village, in block 13, he had a grant of a large tract 
south of the village, which he improved with a house, garden, or- 
chard and fields and used as a country place. The house stood on 
the east side of what is now Broadway near Soulard street, 


Of the many grants obtained by Mr. Cerr6 the following specimen 
may not be without interest. I quote from a translation by Mr. 
Julius De Mun: 

"To Don Charles Dehault Delassus, Lieutenant- Colonel, attached 
to the stationary regiment of Louisiana, and Lieutenant-Governor of 
the upper part of the same province — Gabriel Cerr6, father of a 
family, owner of slaves, and one of the most ancient inhabitants of 
this country, has the honor to supplicate you to have the goodness to 
grant to him, to the north of this town on the Buisseau de Pierre 
(Stony Creek) , an augmentation of 800 arpens of land in superficie 
to a tract of land he purchased several years ago, so as to give him 
the enjoyment of a sprinsf, the owning of which he thinks very im- 
portant, according to his views of improvement. The said augmen- 
tation to be bounded as follows: On the north by the line of the 
land I purchased, the title of which, with the ratification in form, 
has been delivered to me; on the south and east by the lines of Mr. 
Labaume's land, and on the west by the vacant lands of the domain. 
The petitioner hopes so much the more to obtain the favor which he 
claims of your justice, because the public road passes now on his 
first piece of land through a hilly and diifficult place for carting, and 
that he intends, as soon as he obtains the augmentation solicited, to 
make the said road pass in a more suitable place; but this «\rill re- 
quire the construction of a bridge which he shall cause to be built 
immediately over the said creek. The petitioner, full of confidence 
in your justice, hopes that you will be pleased to do justice in such 
a manner as to fulfill his views. Cerr]&. 

. St. Louis, Jan. 3, 1800." 

"St. Louis of Illinois, Jan. 3, 1800. 

Considering the petitioner is one of the most ancient inhabitants 
of this country, whose known conduct and personal merit are recom- 
mendable, and being satisfied as to the truth of what he states in his 
petition, the surveyor of this upper Louisiana, Don Antonio Soulard 
shall put the interested (party) in possession of 800 arpens in super- 
ficie, which he solicits, for him to enjoy the same under the bound- 
aries that he asks; and the survey being executed, he (the surveyor) 
shall make out the corresponding certificate of the same, with which 
the interested party shall apply to the Intendency General of these 
provinces, to which alone corresponds, by order of his majesty, the 
granting of lands and town lots belonging to the domain. 

Carlos Dehault Delassus." 

In addition to his trade and his planting, Mr. Cerr6 had a stock 
farm on the Meramec, and besides acted frequently as guardian for 
young persons, and as neqociant or attorney-in-fact for non-residents 
of the village. In 1788, he represented Colonel Maxent in the set- 
tlement of the affairs of Maxent, Laclede & Co. 


His visits to Canada were frequent. A letter from Manuel Gayoso 
de Leemos, the then Governor of Louisiana, which is still preserved 
in the family, refers to one of them. A translation of this letter 
from the French original is as follows: 

"New Orleans, April 25, 1798. 

"Sir — Your letter of the 7th of last March has been delivered to 
me. Yes, sir, it is with pleasure that I have learnt by the letter 
which you have written to Mr. Zenon Trudeau, on the subject of 
your journey to Canada, which letter has been forwarded to me, that 
you had returned to St. Louis. No one better than myself can feel 
how many inconveniences you must have experienced in this journey, 
and how many difficulties you had to surmount, and that it required 
nothing less than your intelligence and knowledge, your activity, 
j&rmness and courage, to extricate you from the embarrassments into 
which your zeal for the service of the King, and your attachment to 
our Government, precipitated you. Penetrated with this conviction, 
and kaowing how to appreciate your merit, your uncommon disin- 
terestedness, and the services which you have rendered, and which, I 
am persuaded, you will always be disposed to render to the King, you 
will find me at all times ready to seize the occasion of testifying to 
you how much I do desire to be of some utility to you, and making 
it available in case of need. 

With respect to the affair between you and Mr, Lorimier, of which 
a statement has been submitted to me by Mr. Zenon Trudeau, it is 
with very sensible pain that I see myself compelled to announce to 
you that my judgment upon it willnot be, perhaps, exactly comform- 
able to your wishes. The immutable principles of justice, whatever 
may be the interest I take in you in my inward thoughts, do not per- 
mit me to pronounce a decision different from that which will be 
officially communicated to you by the Lieutenant Governor Don 
Zeno Trudeau. You have too sound an understanding and too much 
discernment not to comprehend that a public man ought never to 
suffer his affections or his feelings of private friendship to make him 
deviate from the path which his reason points to him as that of 
equity and impartiality. On all other occasions put my friendship 
to the test and reckon on the attachment of him who has the honor 
to be, with all the consideration which is due to you on so many 

Sir, your very humble and obedient servant, 

Manuel Gayoso de Lemos. 

Monsieur Gabriel Cerr6." 

A subsequent visit to Canada is spoken of in the testimony in sup- 
port of the petition for conformation of the grant of land on Stony 
Brook, spoken of above: 

"Pascal L. Cerr6 duly sworn, says that Gabriel Cerr6 was his 
father, that he knows the coiditions of said grant to have been, on 
the part of his father, to build a bridge on the Buisseau de Pierre; 
that his said father having gone to Canada previous to Delassus' 
signing the grant, he the deponent, remained charged with his busi- 

ness in this country, when Delassus, who had not yet signed the 
grant, hurried him to go on with the bridge, but the deponent would 
not do it until the grant was signed; which Delassus having done, 
be sent his bands immediately to work, having already all the ma- 
terials on the spot, and soon completed the bridge." 

This was in 1800 or later. 

On the 21st of July of that same year, Madame Cerr6 died. She 
was buried accordiDg to the directions of her will "en la yglesia de 
esta vilhC — in the church of this village — but, perhaps, not "co7Z la 
mayor humilidad'' as she also enjoined. 

Her husband survived her five years. It was permitted to him to 
live again, though but for one day, under the flag of his own country. 
He saw that flag go down for the last time in North America, and 
the flag of that power, from which he had retreated but which had 
followed him, rise to forever occupy its place. The New France 
which, in hia early manhood, it was believed would grow to be the 
right arm of the old, had long been but of memory. Yet old recol- 
lections must have been wakened and old regrets become more 
poignant, to see a new and alien nation, of less than half his years, 
advance and take from his own land and empire that which she had so 
recently regained. With what grace he acquiesced in that last 
change we caanot tell. He lived less than a year and a month after 
the transfer of the country, dying on the 4th of April, 1805. 

His active business life of fifty years as a merchant in the fur 
trade had produced what was at that time a handsome fortune. His 
adherence to correct principles and his accurate judgment of men 
and things, based upon great native ability, a well instructed mind 
and an experience such as falls to the lot of few men, had won for 
him the respect and admiration of all who knew him. His courtesy, 
his humor and unfailing kindness of heart, his active benevolence to 
those who made up his family circle — for these things he was loved 
during his life and sincerely mourned at his death. 

[Note— The following questions propounded by a committee of 
Congress, in July, 1786, to Mr. Cerr6, and his answers thereto, con- 
stitute perhaps the best source of information as to the conditions 
prevailing in "the Illinois" subsequent to Clark's conquest: 

"Mr. Cerr6 will to answer the following inquiries: 

•'1. Were the people of the Illinois heretofore governed by the 
laws of Canada, or by usages and customs of their own, or partly by 
one and partly by the other? 

"2. By what tribunals or judges was criminal and civil justice 
heretofore administered in that district? 

"8. By what laws or usages and by what judges is criminal and 
civil justice dispensed at this time? 

"4. In what mode and in what quantities were grants of land 
heretofore made to individual settlers? 


"5. To what extent is the whole district appropriated by grants? 

"6. To what extent is the tract or tracts granted to the settlers in 
common for religious or other uses? 

"7. What is the computed number of inhabitants in the whole 
Illinois district, and what proportion of them were slaves? 

"Answers to the queries: 

'^1. The people of Illinois were governed before the conquest of 
Canada by the same laws as the people of Canada, which were of the 
same nature as those of old France, adapted to the particular circum- 
stances of the country. They had local customs which were equally 
binding as the laws, and after the conquest the British commandants 
were civil judges who governed by the same laws and customs as the 
people lived under before the conquest of Canada; all public trans- 
actions and records being recorded in French by notaries public, and 
orders issued in English were translated into French for the in- 
formation of the country. Criminal cases were referred to England. 

*'2. In civil causes, before the conquest of Canada, there was an 
Attorney General — Procureur du Roy who gave sentence in all 
cases that were brought before him by his own personal decision, 
in trifling matters, but in cases of importance it was customary for 
each party to name two arbitrators, the Attorney General a fifth, 
and he ratified their sentence. An appeal might be made to New 
Orleans where there was a superior judicature, called counsel su- 
perior. The criminal causes were referred to and decided by this 
counsel superior at New Orleans. During the British government 
the commandants decided justice as in the first article. 

"3. In 1779, when Colonel Todd went into that country, the people 
chose six magistrates to govern them according to the old French 
laws and customs, which magistrates were empowered by Colonel 
Todd to judge in criminal cases. After the troops were withdrawn 
the power of the magistrates was annihilated and everything fell into 
anarchy and confusion — the state of affairs at this time. 

"4. Before the conquest of Canada the French commandants had 
power to make grants, and did grant to every person who petitioned, 
as much land as the petitioner chose to aek for, on condition of 
cultivatiog part of the same within a year. The English followed 
the same mode. If the land was not cultivated as above it returned 
to the king's demesnes. 

"5. The question is very difficult and not in Mr. Cerr^'s power to 
answer, but great quantities have been granted. 

"6. A large quantity of land was reserved in the neighborhood of 
the town for commons, and a very small portion for religious uses, 
and none for other purposes. 

"7. There may be in the towns on the Mississippi about 800 white 
inhabitants, including American settlers who may number about 50. 
There are moreover about 250 slaves. So that according to Mr. 
Cerr6 the population of the Illinois amounts to 550 or 600 souls, but 
he does not appear to be well acquainted with their numbers." 


Mr. Cerr^'s answers were given in French, and were referred to 
John Pintard for translation. 

The document is to be found in the State Department (Washington 
City) MSS., vol. 48, p. 49. 

It may be here mentioned that the Kaskaskia church records show 
the burial of ^^ Marie Louise, esclave Saiivage, appartenant an Sr, 
Cerr6i'^ and "wn negre au Sieur Gerr6 age d' environ 19 ansJ^\ 



Your committe appointed to consider the places of historic interest 
in the State of Illinois, with the thought of encouraging efforts to 
preserve or properly mark them, begs to make the following report: 

We are so accustomed to think of historic events in the United 
States as occurring in the older states bordering on the Atlantic and 
bo think of historic places being, therefore, located in that quarter, 
that public sentiment will be difficult to arouse to the importance of 
undertaking any enterprise in connection with historic places so far 
west as Illinois The inhabitants of this State are descended almost 
mtirely from the older states and claim a share in their traditions, 
rhey view Bunker Hill, Valley Forge, and Yorktown as national 
possessions and are satisfied with what has been done to commem- 
orate the events at these places. National pride is thus gratified and 
national duty is thought to be fulfilled in the common heritage, 
igain, the events which are connected with historic places in the 
)lder states are sufficiently removed in time to make them undoubt- 
edly historic, and to surround them with the reverential halo of age. 
Events in Illinois under the English speaking people are of such re- 
lent occurrence that they become, by contrast, events only. 

If we take into consideration the old French period, Illinois his- 
:oric places outrank in age many of the venerated spots in the older 
jtates; even the capture of Kaskaskia during the Revolutionary War 
occurred before the surrender at Yorktown. But the fact that the 
arger number of the early events took place under the French regime 
ieprives them of a certain veneration. We are fond of delving in 
;he old records of Kaskaskia, but we allow the last remnant of Fort 
[3hartres to be destroyed without a sigh of regret. A private citizen 
erects a tablet to commemorate Fort Dearborn, planted under the 
American rule, but we turn the rock of Tonty's fort, St. Louis, into 
i kind of summer resort and do not manifest sufficient interest in 
Fort Crevecoeur to determine beyond question its exact site. 

It is true that reverence for departed persons is a stronger senti- 
ment than reverence for deserted places. This is illustrated by the 
iction ot the State in appropriating a sum for removing the bodies 
of the French from the encroaching river at Kaskaskia. Not only 
WBiS this done, but a suitable monument was erected at State expense 

— 19H. 


over the remains of these pioneers in their new resting place on the 
higher ground. In this connection one may mention the praise- 
worthy contribution of the State, which enabled the people of Alton 
to erect a fitting monument to Elijah P. Lovejoy, the advocate of a 
free press in the sectional conflict which marred the early history of 
the State. 

Closely akin to the monuments which mark the Revolutionary 
battle fields of the east is the shaft erected by the State over the 
remains of the pioneers who fell at Stillman's Valley in the Black 
Hawk War. They were men of the frontier, men of our tongue and 
blood, slain by their savage foemen. Sentiment does not incline 
toward the Indian. He was the weaker element and he succumbed 
to the stronger white man. Yet there are not wanting among white 
men those who sympathize with the conquered. This is exemplified 
in the labor of love performed by John F. Steward, president of the 
Maramech society of Kendall county, who has cut upon a boulder a 
suitable inscription for the tribe of Fox Indians who were besieged 
and destroyed by the French and their Indian allies in 1730. 

Monuments to celebrated citizens are not uncommon in any state. 
Illinois has honored in this way the foremost of her illustrious sons, 
Abraham Lincoln, by a shaft not unworthy of the illustrious dead or 
the State of which he was a citizen. The State has similarly hon- 
ored Stephen A. Douglas, his great rival. The statue of Pierre 
Menard standing in the State House yard at Springfield may be 
added as another phase of this honor to the departed. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous example of marking an historic 
place is the site of the Lincoln- Douglas debate at Ualesburg in the 
senatorial campaign of 1858. Upon the side of one of the buildings 
of Knox college against which the speaker's stand had been erected 
on that celebrated occasion, an artistic tablet has been placed. The 
inscription on this tablet is so well chosen that attention may here 
be called to this very essential feature in such undertakings here- 
after. The inscription should first of all be short and exact; the let- 
tering should be large and the sentiment should explain the motive 
of the tablet. No one has stood near the Menard statue at 
Springfield, on an occasion which brought many strangers to view 
it, without a feeling of regret that it contains no information con- 
cerning the subject. It may be said that Menard ought to be suffi- 
ciently well known for his services in connection with the State to 
make any inscription superfluous; but the fact remains that few who 
see the statue understand what he did to merit such honor. 

The Lincoln- Douglas debate at Freeport was the most important 
of tbe series from a political standpoint. The Woman's club of that 
city has placed on the corner of a square a huge granite boulder on 
which a tablet is placed, setting forth that in the grove, of which the 
city square is now a part, was erected the platform upon which the 
debates took place. No sieps have been taken, so far as your com- 
mittee could learn, to mark the places of the other five debates in 
the series, viz.: Charleston, Ottawa, Jonesboro, Qaincy and Alton. 
Several instances may be mentioned in which the remains of Revolu- 


tionary soldiers in the State have had deserved monuments placed over 
their last resting places. By popular subscriptions, secured mainly 
by Mr. Lewis M. Gross, county superintendent of schools of DeKalb 
county, a monument was unveiled on July 4th last, over the grave 
of Abner Powers at Lily lake. The Daughters of the American 
revolution have performed a similar service at the grave of a Revo- 
lutionary soldier at Ottawa. Others no doubt have occurred but are 
Qot known to your committee. 

A movement has been set on foot from time to time in Chicago 
for several years past to place a monument over the unmarked grave 
of "Father" Kennison, who claimed to be the last survivor of the 
Boston tea party. He died in Chicago in 1852 at an advanced age 
and was given the honor of a public funeral. The cemetery in which 
the city purchased a lot for him was afterwards abandoned and be- 
came a part of Lincoln park. His remains were never removed, and 
It is claimed that the place of his burial can be pointed out in the 
park. It is proposed to bring a granite boulder from his native state, 
Vermont, to be placed upon it. From Vermont he enlisted in the 
Revolutionary war. It is also proposed in Chicago to place a tablet 
on the wholesale house occupying the site of the ^'wigwam" in which 
Lincoln was nominated. The site is doubly memorable because on 
it stood in early days the famous "Sauganash" tavern. Not far dis- 
tant stands the only worthy tablet in the great city of Chicago. It 
oaarks one of the corners of the blockhouse of Fort Dearborn, the 
building of which in 1803 was the beginning of the city. The 
Chicago Historical society a few years ago placed a small tablet upon 
the place of the origin of the great fire of 1871. Mr. George M. 
Pullman made the location of the "massacre tree" of 1812 memorable 
by replacing its dead trunk with a spirited group in bronze. It 
wrould be a matter of surprise to the people of the United States to 
learn that the statue to the Chicago policemen who fell at the 
charge upon the Anarchist meeting in Haymarket square a few years 
since has been removed from the square to a distant place in a park 
«vhere it has absolutely no meaning and becomes simply grotesque. 
[ts entire disappearance is only a matter of time. The sentiment 
against the policemen for attempting to break up the meeting or, 
rather, sympathy for the men executed in connection with the riot, 
is undoubtedly the real reason for removing the reminding statue, 
although the ostensible reason is that its space is wanted for the 
market in the square. Public sentiment should be strong enough to 
condemn adjacent land for the market place in order that a reminder 
of men who heroically did their duty might not be removed. Here 
is a fresh evidence of the need of some kind of agency or organiza- 
tion to keep up public sentiment. 

Turning from the past to the future, from what has been to what 
should be preserved or marked, your committee finds abundant field 
for such work. The prime difficulty arises not so much from a 
paucity of places of historic interest within the State as the sugges- 
tion of a proper agency to undertake or to foster the task of properly 
marking them. The preservation of any memorial of the past is 


always the most difficult task, since the march of progress and the 
demanus of business have slight regard for sentiment. The Green 
Tree tavern, probably the oldest building in Chicago, has recently 
given way to the "march of progress." But the most important 
relic of the past from an historic and an educational point of view is 
the powder house or magazine at Fort Chartres. As an illustration 
of one part of fortijQcation building nearly two centuries ago, it can 
be compared only with the block- house at Pittsburg, one of the few 
evidences of the kind to escape destruction. The comparison of a 
photograph taken during the past six months with any previously 
taken will show how rapidly the work of disintegration goes on. The 
total disappearance of the ruin is a matter of a few years only. It 
is remote from any business demand for space, and lacks only the 
proper public sentiment to stop the work of destruction and to re- 
store it to its former proportions and appearance.* 

The remains of Fort Massac, on the Ohio river, are not so much 
in evidence as those at Fort Chartres. The latter was a French fort, 
and the former was occupied by American forces at various times. 
That there is more sympathy with our own people than with the de- 
parted French is evidenced by a measure passed by the recent ses- 
sion of the State Legislature for the purchase and restoration of 
Fort Massac. This is to be done under the care of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution. 

In addition to these places, Hon. Wm, Jayne, as a member of the 
committee, suggests the law office of Abraham Lincoln and the home 
of Peter Cartwright as sites worthy of some mark. Here legends 
might recall to the passer-by remembrances of the struggles of a 
great heart between popularity and sense of duty, and the likely to 
be forgotten story of the eccentric but courageous missionary of 
pioneer days. 

Another member of the committee, Mrs. Thomas Worthington, has 
suggested the possibility of enlisting the interest of the local literary 
clubs throughout the State in such enterprises. The work already 
accomplished by some such organizations in various parts of the 
State is some indication of the reasonableness of such hope. The 
unusual number of clubs devoting the year's program to a study of 
Illinois history is further proof of interest if it can be turned in this 
practicFil direction. The site of the cabin of ''Father" Dixon in the 
city bearing his name has been indicated by a tablet at the hands of 
the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Only a dead nation loses sight of its legends and early history- 
Both national and local pride is engendered and preserved by these 
reminders of the men and women who have made the American peo- 
ple the heirs of all that is best in past ages. Not the slightest inci- 
dent which went to make up the story of State progress and which 
tended to the betterment of mankind should go without some mark 
to recall it to memory if at all possible. In a kind of vision one may 
see told in imperishable letters on the beautiful public square of 
Galesburg, for instance, the hardships endured by the pioneers who 

•See article by Mr. Joseph Wallace on Tort Chartres. page 105 of this rolume. 

English Colony House at Albion, 111. 


oame to plant civilization of a high type on the western prairies. By 
the same vision one may see the passing of Nauvoo, the story of the 
Mormons and the Icarians, so imperishably told that future genera- 
tions may be impressed by the folly of "separatism" in a republic. 
Upon the site of the vanished town of New Salem, the traveller 
should read the story of the hardships and self-training of the store- 
keeper and postmaster, who was to rise to the highest office in the 
^ift of the people. Back even of recorded history, the delightful 
legends of early days should be told on the summit of Black Hawk's 
Watch Tower at Rock Island, and the best judgment of archeologists 
3oncerning the life of the mysterious artisans of pre-historio times 
ghould be told for the benefit of visitors to the mounds of Cahokia. 

A complete historic survey of the State is not attempted in this 
report. The task should be undertaken in a comprehensive manner. 
[t was to be hoped that the State exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition would have afforded the opportunity; but it is difficult to 
overcome traditional ideas of a State exhibit. Individual residents 
in various parts of the State will at once add to the historic places 
Qamed in this report. Residents of Galena, proud of what has been 
done to associate the name of Grant with their city, will not consider 
the work complete. Citizens of Rock Island know that the site of 
the Confederate camp of the Civil war is known only by memory, as 
is the site in Chicago of a similar prison and recruiting station, 
Damp Douglas. 

In thus for the first time, it is believed, calling the attention of the 
the people of the State to a task so fully accomplished in the older 
states, your committee can hope only to arouse public sentiment or 
at least to attempt to arouse it. Whether it is wise for the Illinois 
State Historical Society to add this activity to the many purposes it al- 
ready has in view, or whether it is best to form a new society for 
the specific purpose, or whether it is best to use existing agencies, 
simply trying from time to time to encourage such work, the com- 
mittee leaves to the Society to determine. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edwin E. Sparks, 
Miriam M. Worthington, 
William Jayne. 






The papers enclosed contain the action of the State Committee of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution, on Fort Massac, en- 
dorsed unanimously by the State Conference of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, in session at Springfield, Oct. 14, 1902: 

To the Honorable the General Assembly of the State of Illinois — 

OENTLEMEN~We, the undersigned, respectfully represent that we 
are members of a society organized in recent years for the purpose, 
among other objects, of restoring the memorials of the American 
Revolution and the early days of American history. Believing that 
as President Lincoln said in his first inaugural address: "The time 
has come when the mystic chords of memory stretching from every 
battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone 
all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when 
again touched, as surely they will be, by the angels of our better 

In the spirit of that historic address we have attempted the work 
which has been set before us. Our sisters working in all the states 
of the Union, south and north, have restored many of the memorials 
of the great Revolutionary War, and many memorials of the strug- 
gles of the American people of later days. 

In all ways we have devoted ourselves to the purpose of our declar- 

Among all the states of the Union, none have a much older and 
certainly none a more heroic history than the State of Illinois. The 
busy spirit of commercialism has obliterated many of the marks of 
the pioneers. Fort Dearborn is covered by business houses; the re- 
morseless march of time and the elements has left historic Kaskas- 
kia and Cahokia unmarked. 

But there is one place, the oldest and most famous of them all, 
which has been spared to us for now two centuries. 

* See page 64 of this volume. Address of Mrs, Matthew T. Scott. 


At the edge of the city of Metropolis, the county seat of Massac 
county, are the ruins of a fort, the first foundations of which were estab- 
lished in 1702, and which was then occupied by the French voyagers. 
It is upon the banks of the Kiver Ohio on a high and sightly blufp, 
overlooking a wide range of Kentucky and Illinois shore. The 
French were succeeded in its possession by the Spaniards, and they 
yielded its control to the Indians. 

It was again occupied by the French and then by the English 
troops, and finally it was surrendered to the American forces during 
or about the time of George Rogers Clark's famous Kaskaskia expe- 

It occupied a very considerable place in the attention of Congress 
and of the President. An expedition was dispatched at one time 
from Carlisle, Pa., under General Forbes to recover its possession 
when it was held by the British. Washington, when President of 
the United States, himself directed its restoration and occupancy. 

While the Ohio river was used as the great channel of communi- 
cation between the further west and the east, it was a conspicuous 
landmark, but in later years, owing to the building of railroads far 
distant from it, changing the lines of travel, it has ceased to have the 
prominence it once possessed. 

But it is still marked as the frontiersmen and voyagers and the 
older soldiers marked it— a simple bastion fort, with its magazines 
and water supply all provided for. The lines of the ramparts, while 
much reduced, have been, owing to the protection of the grass, fairly 
well preserved. All in and around this fort are growing forest trees 
of stately magnitude. 

Old Fort Massac is so intimately associated with that which is 
heroic and great in the early settlement and conquest of the north- 
west from the savage and from foreign foes, that we believe it is only 
necessary to present the facts in this case to your honorable body in 
order that you will take steps to rescue it from decay or the spoilia- 
tion of private ownership. 

We have been in communication with the owner of the land, the 
Hon. Reed Green, and we believe that that gentleman will ask no ex- 
tortionate price for his property. Estimates that have been made 
assure us that for the first two years of the ownership by the State 
and the restoration of Fort Massac to its former condition and ap- 
pearance, no greater outlay will be needed than $10,000 and we 
earnestly and respectfully request that your honorable body will 
cause the said fort to become the property of the State of Illinois; 
will cause it to be set aside and preserved forever as a memorial of 
the older days of the State and the Republic, and a monument to the 
greatness and sacrifices of the men who obtained it for our people 
against all holders, under the supervision of the proper trustees. 

We append hereto a copy of preamble and bill to which we re- 
spectfully invite the attention of your honorable body, and ask that 
it may receive your favorable consideration with such modifications 
in the text and amount, as may seem best to your wisdom. 


Whereas, the ancient landmarks of American settlement and de- 
velopments, and in particular of the struggle of the American Col- 
onies for independence are being sought for, restored and preserved 
by the patriotic men and women of our country as sacred object les- 
sons in patriotism for the education of the youth of America; and 

Whereas, beginning two hundred years since, the site of old Fort 
Massac, situated in Massac county, Illinois, was occupied alternately 
by the French, the Spanish, the English, the Indian people and the 
pioneers of our own people; and 

Whereas, the remaining earthworks thereof are associated with 
the American strugsjie for independence and especially with the ex- 
pedition of George Rogers Clark and 151 companions in which Illi- 
nois and the great Northwest was conquered to the Union and saved 
to the United States; and 

Whereas, on this spot, old Fort Massac, the flag of our country 
was first raised over Illinois soil; and 

Whereas, afterward during our threatened trouble with France 
and Spain, said fort was repaired and garrisoned by order of Presi- 
dent George Washington, the father of our country; and 

Whereas, the said fort was made headquarters of the army under 
Gen. Anthony Wayne and during the war of 1812 was garrisoned 
and occupied by the territorial militia of Illinois for the protection 
of the American borders against the incursions of hostile Indians in 
league with Great Britian; and 

Whereas, the vestiges of this historic fort must disappear unless 
rescued and preserved by patriotic hands; and 

Whereas, it is the sole remaining original monument in Illinois 
of all our border struggles and growth ; and 

Whereas, the Daughters of the American Revolution in Illinois 
and elsewhere have manifested a strong desire to restore and pre- 
serve old Fort Massac as an object lesson in patriotism; and 

Whereas, the City of Metropolis in said Massac county, through 
its city council, has expressed a willingness to contribute liberally to 
the expense of caring for and preserving the fort and surrounding 
grounds as a memorial park for the enjoyment of the citizens of our 
State and country; and 


Whereas, the Daughters of the American Revolution in Illinois 
and elsewhere have petitioned this General Assembly in this behalf. 

With sentiments of highest regard, 

Mrs. Charles W. Fairbanks, 
President General Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Mrs. Charles H. Deere, 

Illinois State Regent. 

Mrs. Adlai E, Stevenson, 
Honorary President General. 

Mrs. Richard Yates, 
Honorary Member of Springfield Chapter. 

Mrs. Julius A, Coleman, 

Regent of Chicago Chapter. 

Mrs. Charles Ridgely, 
Ex-Regent of Springfield Chapter. 

Mrs. Matthew T. Sgott, 

Vice-President General. 

A bill for an act appropriating money to purchase and perpetuate 
the historic Fort Massac as a State park. 

Be it Enacted by the People of the State of Ulinois, Represented in 
General Assembly: 

Section 1. That the Governor, Secretary of State, and Auditor 
of the State of Illinois, and the State Regent of Illinois of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and two Illinois daughters 
appointed by State Regent, all to serve without remuneration, and 
their successors in office, shall constitute a board of trustees , and by 
the name and style of the Fort Massac Trustees shall have power to 
receive a conveyance from the Hon. Reed Green or other owner or 
owners thereof, of the property, not less than ten (10) nor more than 
forty (40) acres in extent, extending from the northwestern edge of 
the Ohio river at low water mark in the county of Massac and State 
of Illinois, lying as near square in form as possible, containing the 
site of old Fort Massac; and to hold the same in perpetuity, but in 
trust for the State of Illinois; to execute in said name and style and 
deliver to the said Reed Green or other owner or owners as may be 
determined by investigation, a contract covenanting with the said 
Reed Green, and his heirs and others aforesaid, if any, and their 
heirs, that said old Fort Massac shall be forever kept in good repair 
and free of access to the public under such regulations as they may 
deem wise for the proper preservation of the property aforesaid. 

§ 2. Said board shall have full authority over and control of said 
property; shall have power to contract with reference to the proper 
care and custody thereof, and all such articles of antiquity and curi- 
osity as may there be collected, and with reference to restoration and 
repair of said old Fort Massac and proper care of said property; to 


the employment of a suitable person to care for the same and to 
exhibit it to the public; and in eaid name and style may sue or be 
sued in reference to any matter pertaining to the powers and trusts 
hereby created. 

§ 3. It shall be the duty of said trustees to use the moneys that 
may from time to time be appropriated by the General Assembly, so 
far as can be done with such moneys, to keep said premises in good 
repair; to keep the same open and free of access to the public at all 
seasonable hours; to authorize the erection on said premises by the 
Illinois organizations of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
and their associates in the nation at large, a monument commemo- 
rative of the history of Old Fort Massac and of their connection with 
the restoration and care of the same; and to authorize the inscription 
upon said monument of such reasonable and proper inscription as 
will fully set forth the facts referred to in the preamble to this act. 

§ 4. There is hereby appropriated the sum of ten thousand 
(10,000) dollars to defray the expenses of purchasing said premises, 
and employing a custodian and carrying out the purposes of this act, 
for the period of two years after the approval of this act and to be 
paid out of any moneys of the treasury of the State not otherwise 
appropriated; on warrants of the Auditor upon the Treasurer ap- 
proved by the Governor on the direction of a majority of said board 
from time to time as the same may be required for the purposes of 
this act. 

§ 5. Said board shall report to each General Assembly before the 
twentieth (20th) day ©f each regular session a detailed account of 
all their transactions and of all expenditures made by them, and also 
such recommendations as they may deem proper for the considera- 
tion of the General Assembly. 

Approved May 15, 1908. 


TORICAL LIBRARY, 1901-1902. 

State Histoeioal Library Rooms, 

Springfield, III., Dec. 24, 1902. 

To the Hon. Richard Yates, Governor of Illinois: 

Sir — The undersigned board of trustees of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library hereby submits this, its seventh biennial report, as 
follows : 

First. Since its last report of Dec. 24, 1900, there has been quite 
an accretion of volumes and manuscripts, by purchase, gifts and 
exchanges to the library. These additions are more fully shown in 
a detailed report of our efficient librarian, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 
and made a part of this document. Newspaper files, maps, manu- 
scripts, pictures, portraits, engravings, cuts and other illustrated 
matter do not appear. 

Second. The storage, book cases, wall space, tables, etc., required 
to keep this rapidly accumulating mass, leaves hardly room for 
consultation or the transaction of the ordinary business of the board 
in relation thereto. In view of this crowded condition of the small 
room used until now, may not this board again ask your excellency to 
call the attention of the Legislature to the fact, in order that some 
means may be speedily devised to give more ample quarters in the 
State house for the Historical Library audits rapidly growing needs? 

Third. It has long been apparent to the board of trustees that 
under the law provided for its organization and the management of 
its affairs, it can not cover a most interesting field that affects 
the local history of every school district, township, county and neigh- 
borhood of the State. This can only be done through a State His- 
torical Society, with its auxiliary societies in the area named. The 
means to command this essential matter lessen with the death of 
each old settler. There are no archives of deposit from whence we 
can draw the desired information. Who was the first minister of the 


gospel of a given neighborhood? Where was the first church formed? 
Who were its members, and from whence came they? Where was 
the first school taught, and by whom? What were the social cus- 
toms, the manner of living, the peculiarities of the first settlers? 
Who were the prominent men and women who had to do with the 
progressive growth in these neighborhoods? 

To gather up the scattered grains of this necessary phase of our 
history, the State Historical Society was organized June 30, 1899, 
the outgrowth of a preliminary meeting of May 19th, of the same 
year, at the University of Illinois. The first annual meeting of the 
State society was held in Peoria, Jan. 5, 1900. Its second annual 
meeting of Jan. 30, 1901, was at Springfield, before then fixed as its 
permanent headquarters. 

The historical society, so far, has been conducted wholly at the 
expense and time of prominent citizens of the State who have felt 
the need of such an organization. Without funds or recognition by 
the State, its proceedings have been published by the State Histori- 
cal Library from its publishing fund. 

At a late meeting of the historical society a committee was ap- 
pointed to prepare and present to the Legislature, the draft of a bill, 
to establish the State Historical Society and provide a f and to de- 
fray the expense necessary to collect and preserve the local history 
of various sections of the State, as far as that can be done at this late 

There is a rapidly growing interest relative to the history of Illi- 
nois that may well be encouraged by our Legislature. The president 
of the society is lately in receipt of a communication from Adolph 
Moses, the eminent Illinois author and publisher, who says in this 
connection that "too little has been done to elucidate the history of 
Illinois." Also later, a letter from J. M. Clary, A. B., president of 
Greer college, Hoopeston, Illinois, equally known as a man of 
scholarly research, who refers to the wide interest in the work of the 
State Historical Society. Letters of like import to the president, or 
other members of this body, could be multiplied here at great length 
were it deemed necessary. 

At the last session of the Legislature, a bill approved May 10, 
1901, was passed, which appropriated the sum of $2,500 for the pur- 
pose of procuring documents, papers, materials and publications re- 
lating to the northwest and the State of Illinois, and publishing the 
same, which fund was to be expended by the trustees of the State 
Historical Library with the sanction of the Governor. This act has 
acquired the name of the ''Stubblefield Bill," in honor of Hon. 
George W. Stubblefield, the name of the Senator from McLean 
county, who introduced the measure. Under this act, the board of I 
trustees of the State Historical Library has ordered material to be 
gathered and collated with a view to publication of the same. This 
work and the editing of it was assigned to H. W. Beckwith, by his 
associate trustees. Accordingly he has collected, arranged and! 
edited matter for the forthcoming volume which is now ready to be] 


printed. The board is also ia communication with a number of 
book publishers, from among whom a selection will soon be 
made to do the publishing The board will keep the expense 
within the limits of the appropriation, but in doing so has been 
forced to scan and carefully curtail the selection of matter and 
the number of copies to be published, and at the same time give the 
various sections of the State their fair proportion of representation 
in the volume. The matter prepared is original and authentic, and 
places within the reach of the average reader what he could not 
otherwise acquire without an expense and research in which most 
private students could ill afford to indulge. 

In conclusion, Governor, the board of trustees thanks you most 
sincerely for the interest you have taken in this important depart- 
ment of the State which you have placed in charge of the board. 

H. W. Begkwith, 
Edmund J. James, 
George N. Black, 

Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 

Springfield, 111., Dec. 24, 1902. 

Since the date of above last biennial report of the Board of State 
Historical Library Trustees, the historical volume therein mentioned 
as having been authorized by the '^Stubblefield Bill," has been pub- 
lished and the edition of copies distributed to libraries and the mem- 
bers of the Legislature and of the State Historical Society, and others 
throughout the State who are specially interested in Illinois and 
western history. 

At the late session of the Legislature the law organizing the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library (approved May 25, 1889) was amended 
by addition of a section constituting the State Historical Society **a 
department of the State Historical Library," a copy of the bill 
amending the above mentioned law is appended as follows: 

A bill for an act to add a new section to an act entitled, **An act 
to establish the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for 
its care and maintenance and to make appropriations therefor," ap- 
proved May 25, 1889, and in force July 1, 1889. 

Whereas, said act, among other things, contemplated that "there 
be collected and preserved in some permanent form before it is too 
late to rescue from oblivion the memory of its earlier history and 
those who founded it, as well as those who have been connected with 
its rise and progress in later days," and 

Whereas, this latter feature of the preservation of the history of 
the State of Illinois can best be secured through an Illinois State 
Historical Society with auxiliary branches organized in the various 
counties of the State, and 

Whereas, there is already such an Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety duly organized under the laws of the State of Illinois. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois ^ 
represented in the General Assembly: That there be added to the 


act of May 25, 1889, entitled, "An act to establish the Illinois State 
Historical Library and to provide for its care and maintenance and 
to make appropriations therefor," approved May 25, 1889, and in 
force July 1, 1889; an additional section to be numbered section 6, 
and which shall read as follows: 

Section 6. That the Illinois State Historical Society be and the 
same is hereby declared a department of the Illinois State Historical 
Library, and the board of trustees of the said Illinois State Historical 
Library is hereby authorized to pay for the necessary stationery, 
postage and other like incidental expenses of the said Illinois State 
Historical Society, out of any fund the Legislature may appropriate 
to the said Illinois State Historical Library, for such purposes; and, 
also to pay the expenses of interviewing old settlers of the State of 
Illinois, examining county, church, school and the like records, at 
the discretion of the board of trustees of the said Illinois State 
Historical Library and the auditing of the accounts of which shall be 
subject to the approval of the Governor of Illinois. And, provided 
further, that all such material shall be the property of said Illinois 
State Historical Library and shall be deposited among its archives 
for reference and safe keeping. 

Approved May 16, 190B. 




On page 29, for "Arms of the Law," read "Forms of the Law. 
On page 106, for "Coisbriant," read "Boisbriant.' 




Abbott. Lieut. Gov. Edward— Ensrlish commandant, mention 59 

Abbott, Wm., Jr.— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services 167 

Abbott, Wm.. Sr.— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services 167 

Abolitionists in Illinois— public sentiment against, mention 77 

Academy of Sciences, Chicago- mention , 245 

Ackerman, Wm. K.— author of "Early Illinois Railroads," mention, footnote 80 

Adams County, 111.— population in 1840, mention 119 

Adams, Francis— private In the Illinois Regiment of Volunteers under Clark; receives 

land for services 167 

Adams, President John— mention 102 

Adams, President John Quincy— excitement attending election of by U. S. House of 

Representatives 195 

Daniel P. Cook of Illinois casts deciding vote in U. S. 

House of Representatives 193,195 

Illinois casts decisive vote for 195 

mention 78 

Ministerto England, mention 213 

vote for by states in U. S House of Representatives, 
described in letter of John McLean of Illinois, pub- 
lished in the Illinois Gazette. Shawneetown 195 

Addendum to this volume— papers contributed to the Illinois State Historical Society, 127-302 

mention 7 

Address of Welcome to the Illinois State Historical Society- delivered by Hon. Wm. A. 

Northcott, Lieut. Gov. of 111 11 

Adet, M. Pierre Auguste— French Minister to the United States, 1795-1796, directs Gen. 
Victor Collot to visit western part of the United States and 

make report on it 49 

Affleck, James of Belleville, 111.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety; memorial sketch of life of 124,125 

mention 2 

personally acquainted with all Governors of Illinois 

from Bond to Richard Yates the younger, mention 124 

African Slavery— introduced into the Illinois country by Renault 108 

Ague— prevalent in western country; causes of and treatment for relief of 162,163 

Aix-laChapelle— peace of 1748, mention 109 

Akin. Edward Clay— Attorney General of Illinois 1897-1901; first native Illinoisan to hold 

this office 220 

Allere, Bazelle— private soldier in Capf Charioville'a Company Illinois Volunteers: en- 
titled to land for services 176 

Alabama— state of, mention 205 

vote of. cast for J. Q. Adams in U. S. House of Representatives 195 

Albany, N. Y.— mention 218,219 

Aldrich, Hon Charles— Secretary of the Iowa State Department of History, mention 7 

Alexander, Samuel— member of the first Illinois Board of Canal Commissioners for the 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 203 

Alexandria* Va.— mention 207.209 

Algonquin Indians— early allies of the French in North America 41 

Allen, David— private in Illinois Volunteer Regiment under Clark, entitled to land for 

services 167 

Edwin R.— clerk in driig store of L. M. Boyce, Chicago; later citizen of Aurora, 

111.; mention 270-271 

Isaac— private in Illinois Regiment Volunteers under Clark, entitled to land for 

services ...167 

John, Jr.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 167 

John, Sr.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 167 

Samuel— sergeant in Illinois Volunteer Regiment under Clark, entitled to land 

for services 167 

Allery, Joseph— private in Illinois Volunteer Regiment under Clark, receives land for 

services 167 

Alonton, Jacob— private in Illinois Volunteer Regiment under Clark, receives land for 

services 167 


Index — Continued. 

Alton, 111.— business firms of, borrow large sums of money from the State Bank of 
Illinois to corner output of lead from the Galena mines, and to promote 

growth of Alton as a rival of St. Louis : 206 

conference with Indians held at, mention 180 

Lincoln-Douglas debate at, mention 230 

place of unmarked 290 

Lovejoy monument erected at, mention. 290 

Lovejoy murdered at by mob, mention 206 

mention 66,215.217,290 

proposed early railroads to, mention 66 

rival of St. Louis as chief city of the west 206 

America— all tales told of the country much exaggerated by travelers and writers 151 

mention 115 

American Backwoodsmen— mention 275 

American Bottom— Port Chartres ruins lie in 105 

mention 186.187 

population in increases 17 

American Bottoms— mention 152 

American Citizen— first one to be given the freedom of London (Hon. Andrew Steven- 
son) 98 

American Citizens— plan to Invade Spanish possessions — ; 48 

American Fur Company— Illinois a dependency of 118-119 

offered better inducements to labor than the lead mines of 

Galena 120 

pay rolls of the company, quotations from, for years 1818-1819, 

mention 118-119 

American Journal of Pharmacy (The)— first publication in the English language devoted 

entirely to the interests of pharmacy 246 

American Pharmaceutical Association— meeting of in Chicago, 1869. considers the neces- 

ity for pharmacy legislation 253 

issues circular letter 216 

American Republic— fathers of, leave important questions to be solved by their des- 
cendants 11 

two great epochs in the history of, mention 11 

American Revolution— French soldiers in, mention 49 

American settlers in the Illinois country— mention 287 

Americans— characteristics of, mention 156 

mention 164 

American Union— plotters against, meet at Fort Massac 40 

States to be admitted from new territory; enactments for and require- 
ments of 18 

"Anarchist Cases"— conducted for the State of Illinois by George Hunt, attorney general 

of the State 220 

Anderson, Mrs. A. R.— plays piano for entertainment of Mr. Lincoln in Rushville, 111.... 237 

Anderson, John— private in Illinois Reg't Vol. in Clark's army 167 

Anderson, Richard Clough Jr.— member of Congress from Kentucky, reports the resolu- 
tion admitting Illinois into the Union as a State 21,22 

Anderson, Col. Wm. P., U. S. A.— appointed recruiting officer and ordered to Nashville 

and Knoxville, Tenn 61 

Andree, Jean— sergeant in Illinois Vol. Reg't in Clark's army 167 

Anecdotes and stories of Jean Gabriel Cerr6 276-278 

Anecdotes of the U. S. Navy— in Western Intelligencer 186 

Angel, "Joe"— boyhood friend of A. Lincoln. Their later meeting in Rushville, Illinois, 

anecdote of 227 

Annual address delivered before the Illinois State Historical Society by Hon. A. E. 

Stevenson, Jan. 1903 16-30 

Antere, Michael— private soldier in Capt. Charloville's Co,, entitled to land for services. 176 

Anthony, Judge Elliott— quotations from his "Constitutional History of Illinois" 100 

Anti-convention and Anti-slavery parties in Illinois— united 101 

Anti- Slavery Party in Illinois— Gov. Edward Coles recognized leader of 199 

mention 101 

Antier, Francis— private in Illinois Vol. Reg't in Clark's army 167 

"Apocalypse" (The)— mention 43 

"Apothecary Hall"— sign used by early drug stores of Chicago 244 

mention 274 

Apperson, Richard— private in Clark's army 167 

"Arabian Oil"— manufactured by L. M. Boyce. druggist 269 

Archeological remains near St. Louis— mention 153,164 

footnote 154 

Archives at Paris, France— reference to 45 

"Aristides"— pen name of political writer signed to article published in the "Western 

Intelligencer" 186 

Armistead, Gen. W. K.— president of the board of army officers which recommended 

Fort Massac as site of proposed J. S. armory 61 

Army of the Tennessee— mention 123 

Arpents— used as the measure of land instead of acres in early French settlements in 

Illinois 86 

Artaguette, Dlrion d'— mention 58 

-20 H. 


Index — Continued. * 

Artaguette, Pierre d'— French ccmmandant in the Illinois country, 1734-1736, mention.... 46 

mention, foot note 58 

Articles of confederation of the U. S. A., mention 89 

Ash, John— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services 167 

Asher, Bartlett— private in the Ills. Vol. Reg't, under Clark 167 

Aaher, Wm.— Ensign in Ills. Vol. Reg't under Clark, receives land for services 167 

Asia— English possessions in considered by the French in selling Louisiana to the U.S.A. 95 
Assumption, Fort— mission established on the Ohio river by Father Mermet, mention.. 44, 46 

Attorneys General— laws relating to changed, mention 216 

Attorneys General of Illinois— a paper contributed to the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety by Mr, Mason H. Newell; published in annual 

transactions 211-220 

constitution of 1848 made no provision for the office 219 

State without such an oflScer 1848-1867 219 

oflBce made a constitutional one by constitution of 1870.. 219 
Atkins, Henry I.— candidate for admission to the State Bar of Illinois; certificate signed 

by A. Lincoln 224-225 

Atlantic Coast— English colonies on, mention 40-41 

Attfleld, Prof. -John- mention 258 

Atwood, John A.— editor of the Stillman Valley Times, mention 7 

Aubry, Charles Philippe— French commandant at Fort Massac 44-45 

leaves for Fort Chartres with hia soldiers 45 

mention 39 

with his French troops selected site and built Fort Massac. 45 

Auburn, N. Y.— mention 213 

Austin, W. G.— druggist in Chicago;i835, advertisement of , mention 243 

Austria— druggists of send money to aid Chicago druggists after the great fire of 1871... 258 

Back, John— private under Clark, received land for services 168 

Bacon. Lord— quotation from „ 26 

Bad Lands (The)— Mauvais Terre— mention and footnotes 279 

Bagby, John C— Ardent supporter of Lincoln 225 

Judge John C— candidate for Illinois State Senate from Schuyler Co., 1858, on 

Republican ticket 228 

Judge John C— first meeting with Abraham Lincoln. Anecdote of 225 

Mrs. M. A.— gives interesting historical information in relation to Lincoln's visit 

to Rushville 229 

Bailey, David— private Illinois Reg't Vol., Clark's army 167 

Capt. John— Illinois Reg't Vol., Clark's army, receives land for services 166 

Baily, Francis— historical writer, gives account of massacre at Fort Massac, mention.... 41 

Francis— noted English astronomer, visits Fort Massac 50 

Baker, E. D.— member of Congress from Illinois, Galena district, votes against fugitive 

slave law 82 

Baker. Prof. E. P.— of McKendree College, translates Ernst's Travels in Illinois 150 

Ballard, James— corporal under Clark, receives land for services 168 

Proctor— sergeant under Clark receives land for services 168 

Wm. Bland— private soldier under Clark, receives land for services 168 

Ballinger, James— private soldier under Clark, receives land for services 168 

Larkin— private, Illinois Reg't Vol., Clark's army 167 

Baltic Sea— mention 99 

Baltimore— mention 163 

Bankruptcy Act— passed by U. S. Congress 243 

Banks, Dr— mention 249 

Barbe, Marie— wife John Hanrion, godmother of child of Anthony Zibert 146,147 

Barber, John— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Barclay Bros— wholesale druggists. Ch'cago, 1850 251 

Barensbach- a German settler in Illinois, his characteristics, mention, etc 157 

Barger, J. B— letter from to J. H. Burnham on John McLean 199 

Barker, H. E— makes motion in meeting of Illinois State Historical Society that a com- 
mittee be appointed to solicit donations and loans to be exhibited at the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition 4 

moves that the secretary of the society cast the ballot for officers for 1903. 4 

mention 9 

Baron, Sir Denis— death of 148.149 

Joseph— godfather at baptism of child of slave of St. Anne's parish 136,137 

Barrett, Mr. R.— his opinion as to prospects of mining in JoDaviess Co., Ill 36 

R. F.— Illinois State Fund Commissioner, his attempts to borrow money for the 

State. 69.70 

Barry, Wm— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Bascom, Rev.— noted early minister of Chicago 249 

Bass. Adam— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services 168 

Bastien, Francis— child of, burled at Prairie du liocher 128,129 

Bastile, (The) Paris— Louis de Kerelec imprisoned in. mention 110 

Batavia. N. Y— mention 218 

Batcheller, Ezra— clerk in drug store of Phllo Carpenter in Chicago, later mayor of 

Lyons. Towa 260 

Bateaux (boats)— mention 106 

Bateman & Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois— quotations from 76-80.219 

Baton Rouge. La —mention 122 

Bay & Baldwin— drug firm. Chicago 271 druggists. Chicago. 1S50 261 

Bay, . brother of Edwin R. Bay— clerk In drug store of L. M. Boyce, mention 269 

Index — Continued. 

Bay, Edwin R.— clerk in druff store of L. M. Boyce; later buys Boyce'a business; firm 

became Sears & Bay 271 

Bayou, Pierre— Aaron Burr visits 40 

mention 60 

Baxter, James— corporal under Clark; received land for services 168 

Beach, O. L.— clerk in drug store of Peter Pruyne & Co. , Cb icago, mention 26J 

Bean, Peter— advertisement In the "Western Intelligencer," mention 186 

Beardsley, Dr.— mention 219 

Beardstown, 111.— Lincoln's visit there Aug. 12, 1858, mention 228 

mention 222.229 

Beaublen, Madore— mention 243 

Beaubien, Mark— anecdote of his provision for the guests at his hotel 240 

conducts public bar in Sauganash HoteFnext door to Philo Carpenters' 

drug store 240 

early settler and hotel keeper of Chicago, proprietor of the inn Sauga- 
nash, later the hoteM832 236-240 

kept first hotel in Chicago 238 

location of his log house hotel and the building of the Sauganash hotel 259 

owned and operated a ferry in Chicago 238 

Beanrbien, Baptist— nephew of Matthew Saucier, finds box containing molds for casting 

money 187 

Beauharnols, Marquis de— Governor General of Canada, mention 276 

Beausoliel (Don Eugene Pourre)— mention 279 

Beauvenue, private soldier Capt. Charloville's company volunteers, entitled to 

land for services 176 

Beck's Gazetteer of Illinoia and Missouri— reference to 114 

Beck, Dr. Lewis C— makes careful survey and drawings of Ft. Chartres 114 

Beekley, Wm.— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Beckwith, H.W.— Absence of from State Historical Society meeting, mention 1,9 

appointed on committee to confer with Illinois Commissioners to the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition 6 

declines re-election as president Illinois State Historical Society 2 

editor of book published under "Stubblefield" bill 300 

elected first vice president Illinois State Historical Society for 1903.. 4 
greetings and resolutions of respect and esteem for passed by Ills. 

State Historical Society 3 

president Illinois State Historical Society, absence of at fourth an- 
nual meeting 1,9 

president Board of Trustees Illinois State Historical Library, signs 

biennial report 301 

Beckwith, Hiram W.— mention 12 

Bedeau, mention as signing record with J. Gagnon, priest 128-129 

Silam— mention 136-137 

Beecher, Henry Ward— pays tribute to Samuel D. Lockwood 103 

Begraw, Alexander— private soldier under Clark, receives land for services 168 

Bell, William-private. Ills, Vol. Reg't, Clark's army 167 

Belle Rivers (La)— Ohio, mention , 51 

Belleville, Ills.— Bennett-Stewart duel fought at 213-214 

German book in public library, translation of 150-165 

German democratic stronghold, mention 83 

mention 2,124,212 

public letting to take place at for a new county court house 181 

Bellefontaine— U. S. Government western headquarters for military rifles, situated 

about ten mi:es above St. Louis, of 1816 185 

Bellerive, Louis St. Ange de— accompanies Charlevoix through the Illinois country 107 

commands at Ft. Chartres 107-111 

dies at St. Louis December, 1774, see footnote 112 

mention 276 

Capt. St. Ague de— succeeds Sieur de Liette in command at Ft. Chartres 108 

Bender, Lewis— died; private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Robert— private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 168 

Bennett, Wm.— killed Alphonso Stewart in a duel, was convicted of murder and 

hanged 213-214 

Benson, Charity— wife of William Sloo, mention 201 

Benton, LaPayette Co., Wis.— mines of = 37 

Benton or Bemton, Thomas— private under Clark, received land for services 168 

Bentley. James— in Capt. Jos. Bowman's Co. when enlisted, when discharged, miles to 

go home, rations due 177 

Soldier under Clark, discharged from Bowman's company, enlisted in 

another; foot note 177 

John— Capt. Jos. liowman's Co, when enlisted, when discharged, miles to go 

home, rations due 177 

private Illinois Reg't Vol,, Clark's army 167 

soldier under Clark, discharged from Bowman's company, enlisted in 

another 177 

Berrey, William— Deserted Jan. 28, Capt. Jos. Bowman's company 177 

Berry, William— In Capt. Bowman's Co. when enlisted, when discharged, miles to go 

home, rations due 177 

private, Illinois Reg't Vol., Clark's army 167 

soldier under Clark, discharged from Bowman's company, enlisted in 
another; footnote 177 


Index — Continued. 


Berryer. M.— French minister of war, mention i 

Bertel, Chevalier de— commands at Ft. Chartre s » K 

suggests, means of defense for Ft. Chartres IC 

Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y., mention 21 

Bevard, private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 16 

Bienville, Gov. Le Moyne de— Governor and commandant general of the province of 

Louisiana 105, IC 

mention 68, IC 

recalled from Louisiana province IC 

recalled to France 10 

resumes governorship of Louisiana, 1734 10 

Big Muddy River— Salines on, mention 18 

Big Prairie, near Carmi, 111 15 

mention 28 

Billiards— early Illinois laws against the game '. 7 

Biloxi. La. (now Miss.)— mention.* 10 

Bingoman. Adam— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 16 

Binkley, Wm.— private soldier under Clark; received land for services ' 16 

Birkbeck, Morris— his Illinois home, his historical writings, etc 16 

historian of Illinois, mention 10 

opinion on slavery 10 

writes under non-de-plume of Jonathan Freeman, mention 10 

Bird, Dr.— mention 24 

Bird, Lieut.— commanded detachment Kentucky militia 4 

Bird, Samuel— private under Clark; received land for services 16 

Biron, J. B.— sergeant under Clark; received land for services 16 

Biroth, Henry— Chicago retail druggist, burned out in fire of 1871 25 

Chemical manufacturer of Chicago, 1860 24 

mention 26 

Birtelor Bertel, Chevalier de— French commandant in the Illinois, 1743-1749 4 

Blssel, Capt. Daniel— in command at Port Massac 4 

Bissell, Capt. D.— stationed at Fort Massac 6 

Capt. Russell— commanding oflScers at Fort Massac 6 

William H.— anti-slavery candidate for Governor of Illinois 1856— his previous 

course in Congress 8 

Black, George N.— appointed on committee of Illinois State Historical Society to confer 
with Illinois Commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

chairman of the committee on legislation, asks for further time 

chairman of finance committee, report of 

makes motion in meeting Illinois State Historical Society that memo- 
rial addresses be accepted 

member board trustees Illinois State Historical Library signs report. 30 

mention 1, 

named as one of the nominating committee to nominate officers of 

State Historical Society for 1903 

Black, Mrs. George N.— mention 1 

Blackford, Samuel— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 16 

Black Hawk War— James Semple's services in 21 

James Turney, paymaster in 21 

mention 222,223,29 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower at Rock Island, 111. -mention 29 

"Black Jack"— or sulphide of zinc 3 

"Black Laws" of Illinois— mention 9 

Blackburn, Rev. Gideon— member of standing committee early Illinois State Historical 

Society to assist in collecting data of Illinois history 1 

mention, foot note 7: 

Blackwell, Robert— printer, preserves the files of Western Intelligencer 18i 

publisher with Cook of the Western Intelligencer 18 

Blaine, James G.— mention 211 

Blair, John— private Ills. Reg't, Clark's army 16' 

Ballard, Bland— Sergeant under Clark; received land for services 16( 

Blanchard, Ruf us— author of History of Chicago; his account of the Chicago fire of 1871. 26' 

Blancher, Pierre— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 161 

Blaney. Dr. J. V. Z— Chemist 24! 

one of the founders of Rush Medical College 24! 

professor of chemistry in Rush Medical College 241 

Blankenshlp, Henry— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 161 

Blearn, David— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 16( 

Blein, Pierre— Corporal under Clark; received land for his services 161 

Blennerhassett, Harmon— his connection with Aaron Burr 69-61 

Life of, by Wm. H. Saflford, mention 6( 

Island— mention 59, 6( 

Margaret Agnew— wife of Harmon Blennerhassett; account of her 

travels and sufferings 69-6( 

at Ft. Massac, learns of her husband's connec- 
tion with the Spanish conspiracy 4< 

Bllnn and Johnson— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out In fire of 1871 261 

Bliss and Sharp— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 26£ 

Blockl, William— mention 251 

Index — Continued. 


Hoomington, Ill.-Fire of June 19, 1900. meutlon 190 

invitation extended to Illinois State Historical Society to hold 

annual meeting: at 4 

mention 9 

proposed early railroads to 66 

Republican convention of 1856, mention 227 

tlouen, Daniel— private soldier, Capt. Ctiarloville's company volunteers, entitled to 

land for services 176 

lluthardt, T. J.— mention 261 

loard of Health of Chicago— from 1834 to 1860. members of 243 

lodney, A. R,— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 235 

ockee, Innes & Co.— wholesale druggists, Chicago, 1850 251 

oisbriant, Pierre-Duqu6 de— acting governor of Louisiana, headquarters at New 

Orleans, arrives at Ship Island 105 

French commandant in the Illinois country, 1718-1725 48 

commissioned first king's lieutenant of the province of 

Louisiana 105 

establishes military post in the Illinois country 106 

Ft. Chartres built under direction of 106 

Ft. Chartres, under Boisbriant, and his successors ....107,108 

grant of land to, in the Illinois country 107 

olton, Daniel— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

end County, 111.— mention 79 

end. Gov. Shadrach— appoints Ellas K. Kane Secretary of State 22 

entertainment at his house attended by P. Ernst, description 152 

end. Shadrach— first Governor of State of Illinois, mention 124 

Governor of Illinois, mention 23 

receiver of the United States land office 180 

representative from St. Clair Co 20 

sergeant under Clark, received land for services 168 

look Stores— authorized agents for patent medicines in 1833 241 

cone, Daniel— early resident of Maysville, Ky 202 

in the Mississippi valley, reference 276 

mention 249,276 

oone. Dr. Levi D.— once mayor of Chicago, grandson of Daniel Boone 267, 249 

orcherdt, Capt. J. C— mention 261 

ossu, Capt.— letter from the Illinois Country, dated July 21, 1756, quoted 110 

letters of travel through Louisiana, dated at the Illinois the 16th of May, 

1753, quoted 110 

visits Ft. Chartres 110 

oston— goods shipped to Chicago in early days, principally from 247 

mention 69,247 

oston, Travis— soldier under Clark; received land for services 167 

oston, William— soldier under Clark; received land for services 167 

Bostonians" Indian— French name for Americans ,.. 279 

ostonians (Americans)— mention 279 

Dtanic Remedies— used by the early druggists 243 

Duchet, J ohn— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

julogne, Jane— wife of M. Louvier, godmother of the child of Alex. DuClaud 148,149 

3urbon Co., Kentucky— Washington, the oldest town in— mention 202 

)urbonnoi. Cecilia— wife of Anthony Heneaux. mention 134,135 

Dwen, A. W— early druggist of Joliet, 111 261 

Wm.— corporal under Clark, received land for services 168 

)wing, Ebenezer— private under Clark, received land for services 168 

)wman, Capt. Joseph— date of enlistment, discharge, mileage and pay for services 

under G. R. Clark 177 

military company of discharged 178 

pay-roll of his company under G. R. Clark 177 

12 men of his company discharged at Kaskaskia, re-enlisted in 

other companies, foot note 177 

^wman, Christian— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

First Lieut. Isaac— date of enlistment, discharge, payment and mileage for 

services under G. R. Clark 177 

George— drug store in Chicago, mention 244 

Henry— druggist in Chicago, later in Sacramento and Oakland, Cal 271 

clerk in drug store of L. M. Boyce, describes the store and the busi- 
ness methods, 266-271 

clerk in drug store of L. M, Boyce, later himself druggist in Sacra- 
mento, Cal 271 

Henry & Co.— Drug store in Chicago 244 

(Henry Bowman & Dr. Henry Ritchie), drug firm, Chicago 271 

mention 273 

Wm. E.— brother of Henry Bowman, clerk in drug store of L. M. Boyce, Chi- 
cago; removed to Montreal; his career, death of 271 

ce, August D.— brother of L. M. Boyce and clerk in his drug store. Chicago 267,270 

Leroy M— branch drug store of, at St. Charles, 111., under name of Freeman & 

Boyce 276 

encourages the firm of Stebbins & Reed to locate in Chicago 243-244 

executor of the estate of Erastus Dewey, mention 274 

extract from diary of 266 

fifth drug store in Chicago 243 

financial crisis of 1837 does not affect 243 

mention 248 


Index — Continued. 


Boyce, Leroy M.— death of 266 

drug store of; description of his drug store and his business methods. 

by Henry Bowman, a clerk in his store 266-271 

druggist of Chicago, 1838; his entrance into the field an epoch in the 

business 265 

druggist and apothecary, advertisement of 266 

manufactures linseed oil under name of Peck & Boyce 270 

Boyer, Dr. Valentine— mention 238 

Boyles, John— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Brackenridge, Judge H. M— visits the ruins of Ft. Chartres 113-114 

Braddock, Gen. Edward— defeat of, mention 44 

defeat of 87 

Brady, Henry B.— English druggist, member of committee to collect momey to aid Chi- 
cago College of Pharmacy after fire of 1871; had visited Chicago 

shortly before fire 258 

Brainerd, Dr. David— mention 234,249 

professor of anatomy in the St. Louis University ,..^246 

Brashear, Richard— Captain under Ciark; received land for services 166 

Braun, Thomas— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Brazer, Peter— private; received land for services under Clark 167 

Breeden, Richard— private. 111. Regt. Vol., Clark's army 167 

Breedon, John— Sergeant under Clark; received land for services 168 

Breese, Sidney— candidate for Congress 103,208 

daughter of; the wife of Charles A. Slade 209 

early history of Illinois, Quoted in reference to Ft. Chartres llfl 

historical writings of, mention 14 

member of the first Illinois State Historical Society 13 

member of standing committee to assist in collecting data of Illinois 

for early Illinois State Historical Society 14 

mention ...215 

reference to Illinois reports of 212,213 

Bressie, Richard Thomas— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Brinckerhoff & Penton— druggists in Chicago, mention 244,264 

Brinckerhoff, Dr. John C— bought drug store of Philo Carpenter 26C 

British— arrogance, article on, in "Western Intelligencer" 186 

colonies in North America, mention 40 

flag, mention 18 

generals, mention 276 

occupancy of Illinois, duration of 47 

rule in the Illinois country 18 

rule in the Mississippi Valley of short duration 18 

Broadway- street in St. Louis, mention 283 

Brock, Hanson C— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Bronald, Henry— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Brown, Asher— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Mrs. C. C— mention 10 

Collin— private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 168 

Erastus— member of first board of commissioners of the Illinois and Michigan 

canal 203 

Henry— "Early history of Illinois." mention, footnote 76 

Quotation from his early history of Illinois 44 

James— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 167 

sergeant Illinois volunteers, Clark's army 167 

John— of Rushville, early friend of A Lincoln 228 

served in Illinois Legislature from Schuyler county; friend of A. Lincoln 

mention 224 

soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Lewis— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Low— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Robert— mention 224 

William— historical writings of, mention 14 

member of standing committee to assist in collecting data of Illinois.. 14 
William H.— of Chicago, comes to Illinois in company with Samuel D. Lockwood 213 

historian of Illinois, mention 103 

W. S— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 265 

Browning. Lieut. Isaac— Illinois regiment volunteers, Clark's army 167 

O. H.— signs license of applicant for admission to Illinois bar 225 

mention 224 

Brownville— town site not located but probably in the vicinity of the Saline on Big 

Muddy river Jo* 

Brossard, Pierre— sergeant under Clark received land for services 1^ 

Bryan, F. A.— clerk in Chicago drug store of the Clarke Bros 264 

druggist in Chicaero ^^'-^^o 

member of Board of Health, Chicago 24S 

retail druggist of Chicago, burned out In fire of 1871 265 

Bryant, James— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 1^ 

L. R.— letter from suggests co-operation with Ills. State Historical Society * 


Index — Continued. 


Bubois, mention 134,135 

Buchanan, President James— administration of, mention 210 

Buchet, mention 128.129 

Alexander— son of Josepii Buchet, baptism of 146,147 

Joseph—child of, baptised 146,147 

M. Joseph— ffuard of the King'^magrazines, mention 134,135 

godfather at baptism of child in St. Anne's parish 130,131,134,135 

Theresa— mention 128,129 

Buck, George— drufifgist of Chicago, member of a committee to draft pharmacy laws for 

presentation to Legislature of Illinois 253 

Buck Mine— near Galena, 111., described 32 

Buck & Rayner— retail druggists of Chicago, two stores burned in fire of 1871 255 

Buffalo, N. Y.— mention 68 

Buissoniere. Alphonse de la— commands at Ft, Chartres 109 

French commandant in the Illinois country, 1736-1740 46 

leads second expedition against the Chickasaw Indians 109 

Bulger, Edward— Capt. Jos. Bowman's Co. when enlisted, when discharged, miles to go 

home, rations due 177 

Bullock. Lieut. Rice, Illinois Regt. Vol., Clark's army 167 

Bumey. Simon— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Bunker Hill Monument— mention 289 

Burbridge, John (died)— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Wm. (died)— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Bureau Co.— Historical Society soon to be formed at Princeton, 111 8 

Illinois Old Settlers' Association, cooperation with Illinois State Historical 

Society suggested 2 

wholesale drug store of Chicago, amount of annual business, loss 

by fire, insurance, etc 256 

Burgess, Henry— clerk in drug store of Dr. Sawyer, Chicago, 1846 273 

Burk, George— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Burnett, Robert (died)— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 168 

Burnham, Ambrose— member of board of health, Chicago 243 

Burnham, (E) & Son— wholesale druggists burned out in fire of 1871 256 

J. H.— article on John McLean published by the McLean County Historical 
Society re-written and contributed to— Illinois State Historical Society 

transactions in "Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois " 190-201 

Burnham, J. H.— addresses the society as to the situation of the Louisiana Purchase 

Com i 

appointed on committee to confer with Illinois Commission to the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition 5 

Barger. J. B— letter from, on John McLean 199 

chairman of the committee on local historical societies, reads report of 8,9 
consults files of early newspapers. Western Intelligencer, in the mer- 
cantile library, St Louis 179 

, contributes paper on "An early Illinois newspaper; extracts from its 

files" to the Illinois State Historical Society transactions 179-189 

declines to act on nominating committee to nominate ofiicers for 1903... 4 

Eddy, John M.— latter of, on John McLean, addressed to 200 

extends invitation to the society to hold its next annual meeting at 

Bloomington 4 

letters on John McLean, addressed to 199-201 

McLean County Historical memorial to John McLean, read by 190 

makes motion that 30 days notice to the members of the Illinois State 
Historical Society be given in cases where amendments to the con- 
stitution are contemplated .. 2 

makes motion that thanks be sent to the Bureau County Historical 

Society 2 

member board of directors Illinois State Historical Society for 1903 — 4 

member of the committee on publication '7 

member of committee on local historical societies 9 

member of the program committee 8 

moves that discussion on papers and addresses be left to the discre- 
tion of the presiding ofBlcer 3 

motion of, regarding discussion on papers, addresses, etc., carried 3 

moves that the presidents of local historical societies be made honor- 
ary vice presidents 14 

named as one of the nominating committee to nominate officers for 1903 4 

reads reports of his visits to historical societies 1 

visits various State societies, makes report 5 

Walker, J. D.— letter of on John McLean, to 200.201 

Burr, Aaron— arrested at Fort Stoddard 40 

his ambitions and plans 69-60 

meets members of the Spanish conspiracy at Fort Massac 48,58-60 

visited Blennerhassett's Island with his daughter 69 

Theodosia— visited Blennerhassett's Island - 59 

Burr's (Aaron) Conspiracy— mention 48 

Burris, John— private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 168 


Index— Continued , 

Bush, John— private Illinois Regiment; received land for service as soldier under Clark 167 

Wm.— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Thomas— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Bushnell. Washington— Attorney General of Illinois, 1869, sketch of. mention 219 

Business Meeting— Illinois State Historical Society Tuesday, Jan. 27, 1903 1 

Buskey, Francis— private soldier under Clark; received land for services. 168 

Butcher, Gasper— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 163 

Butler, Gen. Benj. F. of Massachusetts— mention 220 

John— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Butts, Wm,— prisoner; private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Byert, Elizabeth— wife of Ephriam McLean of York district. South Carolina 201 

By-laws— committee on; and matters connected with^the constitution;of the Illinois State 

Historical Society 2 

Cabbage, Joseph— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services 169 

Cabbassie, B,— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Cadillac, LaMothe— governor of Louisiana, mentions Crozat's instructions to his agents. 43 

Cahokia, 111.— conquest of , mention 38 

French at, mention 87 

mention 115,212,281,294 

mention, see foot 176 

Spanish expedition, organized at 94 

Cairo, 111.— bank; plana for organization of advertised, 1816 182 

its importance as a strategic position in civil war 93 

mention 81 

proposed early railroads to, direction, etc 66 

Sloo, James C , locates at 2G6 

Caldwell, John— member of committee in charge of Cairo bank project 182 

Caledonia— mention 54 

Calhoun, John C— disciple of Thos. Jefferson 11 

John— founder of the Chicago Weekly Democrat, the first newspaper pub- 
lished in Chicago 237 

California— discovery of gold in 34-35 

mention 270 

Callieres, M. de. Governor General of Canada— opposes plans of Juchereau 41-42,57-58 

Calvin, Daniel— private soldier Clark; receives land for services 169 

Camp Douglas— (see Douglas) mention 293 

Camp, Reuben— private soldier under Clark; received laud for services 168 

Campbell, Alexander of Rushville— friend of A Lincoln; entertained Lincoln and 

Douelas 224 

Campbell, David B.— Attorney General of Illinois, 1846; last Attorney General under 

Constitution of 1818; sketch of 218,219 

Campbell, George— Sergeant under Clark; receives land for services 169 

Campbell, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Campbell, Maria Francis— wife of Thomas Sloo, Jr 205 

Campbell. Robert Blair— U.S. Representative to Congress from North Carolina, mention 205 

Cameron, James— Corjporal under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Camper, Tillman— private soldier under Clark; receives land for services *.... 168 

Campo, Lewis— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Campo, Michael— private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 169 

Canada— Beauharnois, Governor General of, mention 276 

ceded to England by Treaty of Paris 46 

government of, encourages agriculture, mining and manufactures among the 

people 276 

Illinois country a dependency of 17 

Lancet, (The)-Medical journal edited by Dr. Wm. E. Bowman 271 

Louisiana; province of, separated from 108 


Canadian archives— paper in containing a declaration of Sieur Gabriel Cerr^, quotation 

from - 278.279 

Canadian habitants of the neighborhood of Ft, Massac tell story of the massacre at the 

fort 41 

Canadian noblesse— mention 276 

Canadians— accompany Juchereau 41 

Canal— between Mississippi and Illinois rivers and Great Lakes; its desirability 90 

Commissioners appointed for the Illinois and Michigan canal 203 

Illinois and Michigan 68 

Canals in Illinois— early movements in favor of 66 

Canals much talked of in Illinois in early days 65 

Cannon (or Canore) Andrew— private soldier under Clark; received land for services... 168 

Cannons— taken from the ruins of Ft Chartres in 1812 114 

Canton, Illinois- early newspapers of. mention 229 

Chapman, Capt. John— Illinois Regiment Volunteers, Clark's' army; received land for 

services 166 

Cape Breton— mention 95 

Capitol Bnildlng. Springfield. 111.— (See foot note page 101.) 101 

Carbine, Henry— Sergeant under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Carbonate of Zinc— mention 85 

Carlisle. Pa.— mention 295 

Carlyle, Illinois— founded by Chas. Slade, 1824 207 

homeof Chas. Slade and family 209 

mention 210 

Slade (Chas.) builds first mill in 207 


Index — Continued, 


Carlyle Township. Clinten Co , 111— "Hill's Port" at 207 

Carmi, White Co., 111.— mention 213 

sale of town lots in, advertised in the Western Intelligencer"... 184 

visited by P. Ernst in 1819 and described 150-151 

Carolinas (The)— mention 57 

Carondelet, Baron de— Spanish oflScer, plan to detach the west from the U. S., details.. 48-49 
Carpenter, Abel E.— brother of PhiJo Carpenter and clerk in his drug store in Chicago... 260 

Philo-first druggist in Chicagro; sketch of life of 258,259,260 

arrival at Chicago, how he traveled; his aid to Cholera sufferera; 

opens a drug store 240 

arrival at Chicago, method of traveling, etc., his stock of goods, his 

store, etc 236 

financial crisis of 1837 does not affect business of 243 

his service to the people of Chicago in cholera epidemic of 1832 268.259 

lumber used in buildings erected by, in Chicago, in 1833, hauled by ox 

teams from Indiana 241 

opens drug store in log building of Mark Beaubien.nextto Sauganash 

hotel. 1832 259 

opposed to use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage 240,259 

purchases lots on South Water st , Chicago; price paid for. mention... 241 
removes drug store to the log cabin of Geo. W. Dole, South Water and 

Clark sts., Chicago 241 

rents log store room from Mark Beaubien 240 

scruples against the sale of alcoholic beverages 243 

shipped stock of goods from Troy, N, Y., to Port Dearborn, 1832 240 

Carthage Guards— Elisha B. Hamilton member of 122 

Carthage, Hancock County 111.— mention 122 

Casey, Zadok— member of standing committee, to assist in collecting data of Illinois 14 

Caseyville. 111.— mention 53 

Cartwill, Nathan— deserted .Jan. 28, Capt. Joseph Bowman's company 177 

Cartwright, Kev. Peter— defeated for Congress by A. Lincoln 224 

home of, should be marked with suitable tablet 292 

memberof the first Illinois State Historical Society 13 

Cartwright Township, Sangamon Co., 111.— mention footnote 160 

Cavagnal, Marquis de Vaudreuil— appointed governor of the province of Louisiana 109 

Catholic Church in Kaskaskia— its eloquent young French priest 152 

Catskill.N. Y.—mention 219 

Cerr6 (Madame) Catherine— wife of Jean Gabriel Cerr^: anecdote of her trust in her 

husband 278 

Cerr^ (Madame) Catherine. Giard— wife of Jean Gabriel Cerr6; death and burial of 286 

Ceri6, Jean Gabriel— accused of inciting Indians to murder 280 

charge proved false 281 

Jean Gabriel— administers law in the Mississippi valley 275 

anecdotes and stories of 276-278 

appointed one of the syndics of St. Louis 283 

born at Montreal, August 12. 1734 276 

buys property in St. Louis, removes his family to that city 283 

death of 286 

declaration of. made to Rochblave 279 

early childhood and youth, no history of 276 

education of 276 

elected magistrate In the Illinois country 282 

encounter with the Indians on the Desplalnes river 277,278 

established at Kaskaskia In 1755 276 

father in-law of August Chouteau, mention 282 

his answers In Prench language, to questions asked by Congress- 
ional committee 288 

Hubbard relates adventures of 276,277 

Hubbard spells name Sara; see foot note 277 

ignored by writers of Illinois history; see foot note 275 

In Mississippi valley twelve years before Daniel Boone 276 

influential man, his friendship much desired by George Rogers 

Clark •••• 279.280,281 

Judge of the court for the district of Kaskaskia, mention; see foot 

note 275 

Kaskaskia church, records show records of two slaves, belonging 

to. burials of 288 

life in the Mississippi valley 275 

makes frequent visits to Canada 285 

i part in the fight at Quebec prior to its surrender, mention 276 

petition for grant of land, ofladal action upon, etc 284,285,286 

questions asked of, by a committee of the U. tf. Congress 286,287 

replies of Mr. Cerre 287.288 

renders valuable service to Geo. Rogers Clark 275 

Reynolds' history of Illinois', mentions name of; see foot note 275 

sketch of by Judge Walter B. Douglas 275-278 

takes oath of allegiance to U. S 281 

Todd (Col. John), order to, mention: see foot note 275 

wealthy merchant of St. Louis; see foot note 275 

verr^, Pascal L— son of Jean Gabriel Cerr^, mention 285,286 

Jertain, Page— private under Clark, enti led to land for services. 169 

Index— Continued. 

Chamberlain, M. H— makes motion that the matter of amendment to the constitution of 

the Illinois Slate Historical Society be continued 2 

motion made that thanks be extended to the Chicago Historical So- 

eiets for invitation to attend a meeting 2 

member Board of Directors Illinois State Historical Society for 

1903 1 

mention 174 

reads resolution of appreciation of the services of Judge Beckwith 3 

Chambers. E Hick— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Champaign County Historical Society reported from 8 

Champaign, Ills.— mention 81 

Champigny, Intendant of Canada— opposes plans of Juchereau 41-42 

Champigny, M. de, Intendant of New i^'rance— opposed plans of Juchereau 57-59 

Champlain— mention 145 

Chaouanon Indians— party of placed near Fort Massac by Macarty 46 

Chassin. Charlotte— Godmother to child of negress slave baptized at parish of St. 

Anne's 138-139 

Chassin, Magdalen— Godmother at the baptism of slaves belonging to Madame St. 

An^e 132-133 

Wife John Baptist Malet 132-133 

Chaplin, Captain Abraham— Illinois Regiment Volunteers, Clark's army 166 

Chapman, Edward— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Chapman, Wm.— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Chariton, Mo— mention 215 

Charlatans— Indians, priests or charlatans, anecdote of 42-43 

Charles. (Joseph) & Co., St. Louis— importers and wholesale druggists, mention 248 

Charleston, Ills.- mention ■. 290 

Charleville, Mr.— had a store on the French Lick Creek, 1714, mention 283 

Charlevoix, Father Xavier de— arrival at Kaskaskia 107 

Charlevoix. Francois Xavier de— mentions existence of a French fort near site of Fort 

Massac 41 

Charlevoix, Father Xavier de— visit to Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres, mention 107 

Charlotte— Slave, baptism of, mention 138-139 

Charloville— Capt. Francois company of volunteers, Clark's army, list of 176 

Charloville— Capt. Francois military company of, mention 178 

Charloville's— Capt. Francois, number in company of volunteers of; see foot note 176 

Charloville— Capt. Francois serves with Geo. Rogers Clark; see footnote 176 

Charney Gaiot— private soldier Capt. Charloville's company of volunteers, entitled to 

land for services 176 

Chartres Fort. See Fort Chartres 289 

Chaverneau, Sir Andrew— Godfather at the baptism of slaves, belonging to Madame St. 

Ange 132-133 

Chaverneau, Andrew— mention 132-133 

Chavin, Agnes— child of John Chavin and Agnes La Croix 128,129 

Chavin, .John 128.129 

"Checkered Drug Store"— sign of Philo Carpenter's drug store; later than "The Gold 

Mortar" 260 

Checkered Drug Store (The)— sign used by early drug stores, mention 244 

Chemical Works— establishment of in Chicago in 1850, mention 248 

Cherokee Fort (The Old)— name by which the fort on site of Fort. Massac was early 

known 41 

Fort Massac, mention 62 

Cherokee Indians— near Fort Massac, mention 43 

mention 47 

Cherokee River— early name for Tennessee river 39.44,45 

Cherry, Capt. William— Illinois Regiment Volunteers, Clark's army 166 

receives land for services 166 

Chesterfield— McLean. John, compared to by John M. Eddy 200 

Chicago and Northwestern R. R. Co.— pay-rolls of the first road to run a train into Chicago 

still in possession of the R. R. Co 121 

Chicago— Board of Health of, 1834 to 1860. members of 243 

Boone, Dr. Levi D. (grandson of Daniel Boone), once mayor of 249 

Chicago Branch of the Bank of Illinois— opened in December, 1835 242 

mention 238 

Chicago— chemical works at, first established 1850 248 

cholera brought to Chicago by troops at Fort Dearborn. 1832, treatment of 239 

Chicago College of Pharmacy— forced to close for the term on account of the Chicago 

fire of 1871 258 

reorganized after the civil war 252 

its losses in the Chicago fire; aid given it by friends. .257, 268 

Chicago— civil war; list of names of druggists and clerks who enlisted in 251 

commercial development of, mention 79 

Chicago Daily American— advertisements in 271, 272 

Chicagy Daily American May 16. 1842— extract from, in reference to Dr. Brainard 246 

Chicago Democrat— first called the Chtcae-o Weekly Democrat; founded Nov. 26, 1833, by 

John Calhoun: the first newspaper published in Chicago 237 

Chicago Dally Democrat— advertisements in 272 

Chicago Delegates to Whig Convention 1840, Springfield 226 

Chicago Democrat— contains advertisements of Philo Carpenter's drug business 260 

Chicago Democrat 1833— contalued advertisement of the business of Peter Pruyne & Co.. 261 
Chicago Daily Democrat of Oct. 29, 1851. mention 26a 

Index — Continued. 


Chicago Democrat of Nov. 19, 1838— mention 276 

Chicaeo Democrat of Nov. 26, 1833— Vol. 1, No. 1. mention 241 

ChicagfO— Dietz, Blocki & Co., chemical manufacturers In. 1860 248 

Chicago Druggists— appointed committee to draft bill for pharmacy legislation; names 

of members of the committee 263 

Chicago Druggist- becomes a factor In the political affairs of 1833 242 

Chicago Druggists— partial list of those who were burned out in fire of 1871 255 

their losses in the fire of October, 1871 254,256,256 

Chicago Drug Trade— during the civil war, effect on, etc 252 

Chicago— Drugs and medicines imported to In 1847, amount of , etc 242 

Chicago— early drug stores of. apprentices of, salary, etc.; clerks of, salary, etc 245,246 

early drug stores of, list of 248 

early drug stores of; proprietors of. men of education and strong personality. 246 

early druggists of, active in charitable and philanthropic movements 246 

early druggists of, educational efforts of a scientific nature, literature of 246 

early druggists of. extracts from the diary of one 247 

early druggists, German stores, location of, etc 248 

Early history of the drug trade of Chicago by Albert E. Ebert 234-274 

early mayor of, mention 249 

epidemic of cholera in, in 1832 258.259 

exclusive drug trade in begun by LeRoy M. Boyce in 1838 256-266 

exports of and Imports of in 1833,'mention 242 

Father Kennison.last survivorof "Boston tea party''buried in; grave unmarked 291 

freight rates to and from New York, 1837 239 

fire of 1839. mention 272 

fire of 1811, account of from Rufus Blanchard's history of Chicago 257 

fire 1871, its extent, number of acres burned over, number of buildings des- 
troyed, etc 254 

fire of October, 1871, its magnitude and results 253, 254, 255. 256 

fire, mention 14 

fire of 1871, ruins of the city compared to ruins of H«rculaneum and Pompeii.. 254 

fire 1871, Stebbins & Reed's prescription books saved, now in geod order 249 

first census of taken, July 1. 1837, population 4, 170 people 239 

first drawbridge in, at Dearborn street, 1834, description of 238 

first drug store in. its location, description of the building 259 

first hotel in, kept by Mark Beaubien, later the Sauganash Hotel 238 

first newspaper in, the Weekly Democrat, founded Nov. 26, 1833. by John Cal- 
houn 236 

first physician. Dr. Elijah Dewey Harmon 289 

first private dock in. built by Peter Pruyne & Co., location of, rental of land.. 260 

first public ferry in 1833, at foot of Dearborn st 238 

first railroad in, 1852 247 

first shipment of western produce from, for the east in the schooner "Napo- 
leon" April 17, 1833. mention 242 

first Swedish settler in, said to have been Oscar C. Lange 263 

gas used as an illuminant in, 1850. other illuminants, etc 260 

general supply depot during civil war 252 

harbor of improved, 1833 237 

Chicago Historical Society— formation of, local institution, loss of in fire of 1871, re-ea- 

tablishment of 14 

invitation from to the members of the Illinois State Histori- 
cal society 2 

marks historic spots in Chicago 291 

mention 2,4,8,14,190,191,196.245 

sketch of John McLean, prepared for, by E. B. Washburne, 

extract from 191 

Chicago Historical Society's collection, vol. 3. mention, see foot note 190 

Chicago— history of the early drug trade in. compiled by Albert E. Ebert 234 

in 1833, described by an English writer, "The Rambler," quotation 237 

incorporation of, mention 261 

increase of drug stores after 1865, incompetency of clerks, etc 262 

Chicago Journal— mention 272 

Chicago Journal of 1846— mention 120 

Chicago— Lawson (Iver). pioneer Norwegian of, mention 249 

location of early drug business by streets, etc., list of 251 

Mahla & Chappell, chemical manufacturers of 1860 248 

mail facilities between Chicago and New York in an early day 242 

meaning of the word, original Indian spelling of it 234 

meeting held to decide whether the town should be incorporated 242 

medical college at (Rush), list of founders 249 

Chicago Medical College offers use of its rooms and apparatus to Chicago College of 

Pharmacy after Chicago fire 258 

Chicago— mention 6,7,27,66,119,217,219,247,273 

Chicago National Republican Convention of 1860— mention 232 

Chicago— Nelson (Alexander), pioneer Norwegian of, mention 249 

Chicago Newberry Library — gift of Walter C. Newberry, mention 249 

Chicago New Drug, Medicine and Paint Store— advertisement of Frederick Thomas of 

1S35 ...264,265 

Chicago Newspapers— early files of furnish much historical information 237,238 

Index — Continued. 


Chicago— number of drug stores, retail and wholesale, at the end of 1850 251 

Pharmacy in, record decade of 1840 to 1850 one of progress 243 

Policemen who fell in Haymarket riot; statue to, its present location 291 

present names of the streets of 235 

present site of Auditorium hotel a potato patch in 1840 236 

Press and Tribune, edited by John L. Scripps 232,233 

printer's union formed in 1852 119 

population of, in 1831— mention 237 

Pullman (Geo. M.), marks site of "massacre tree" 291 

river— mention 164,235 

Rush Medical College at, list of founders of 249 

School of Pharmacy, organized and incorporated in the winter of 1859 247 

seal of the city adopted 234 

signs used by early drug stores in 244 

State Bank of Illinois open branch at, mention 242 

Illinois State Legislature, session of 1871-72, had been expected to hold session 

in Chicago, plans changed by Chicago fire of Oct., 1871 253 

statue to the Chicago policemen who fell at the time of Haymarket Riot 291 

Stebbins & Reed, early druggists of; prescription books in good state of pre- 
servation, saved from the Chicago fire 249 

stringency in money market, expedients adopted by Chicago druggists to meet 

payments and reduce interest 248 

time necessary for making trip to New York from Chicago, computed 68 

Times, May 9, 1869 Knewspaper), Wilbur F. Storey, editorial on incompetent 

persons employed in drug stores, evil effects in, etc 252,253 

V town site of. platted by James Thompson, canal surveyor, plat published Aug. 

4,1830 234,235 

Tribune, its account of the Chicago fire, mention 254 

Tribune, mention = 236 

value of town lots in 1834-1837 238 

Veteran Druggists' Association. "History of early druggists of Chicago," com- 
piled from record of, by Albert E Ebert 234-274 

Weekly American; advertisements in 265 

Weekly American. 1835, contains advertisement of drug business of Frederick 

Thomas 264 

Weekly American (1835), contains advertisement of removal of W. H. & A. P. 

Clarke 263 

Weekly American, second newspaper published in Chicago. A Whig paper 

published by P. C. Davis 237,238 

Weekly Democrat 263 

wholesale druggists. 1850; list of 251 

wigwam in which Lincoln was nominated; historic spot in Illinois, marking of 291 

Chicagou— original Indian spelling of the word Chicago, its signification 234 

Chicasaw Bluff (Third)j D'Artaguette joined by Sieur de Vincennes at, on his expedition 

against the Chickasaw Indians 108 

hold prisoners with the hope of reward 108 

mention 62 

second expedition against, led by Buissoniere 109 

villages— mention 108 

Chillicothe, Ohio— mention 60 

China— mention 164 

Chripman, Henry— in Capt. Joseph Bowman's Co. when enlisted, when discharged 177 

Christian, J. P.— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Cholera at Chicago, 1832; number of deaths, treatment of patients, etc 239 

Cholera— epidemic in Chicago, 1832 258,259 

Chouteau, Auguste— sonin-iaw of Jean (3^abriel Cerr6. mention 282 

Cincinnati— formerly Fort Washington, mention 48 

General Assembly of N. W. territory convened at 20 

mention 20.60,64,114,202,209,215,217 

sends aid to Chicago after the fire of 1871 254 

Sloo, (Thomas. Jr..) removes from, to Shawneetown, 111 202 

Civil War- effect on the drug trade; demands for supplies, etc., prices 252 

list of names of druggists and clerks of Chicago who enlisted in 251 

mention 205,247.273,293 

northern counties of Illinois helped to hold the State for the union; soldiers 

furnished by Illinois 91,93,94 

service in,of Walter B. Scates 217 

Clair (Clark)— fort, on Lake Peoria, mention 161 

Clairmont, Michael— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 169 

Clark, Col. George Rogers— account of his capture of Kaskaskiaand Vincennes — 18,177,178 

and the American flag 68,69 

army of, in conquest of the Illinois list of names and allot- 
ment of lauds 166-178 

Brigadier General, received land for services 166 

captu re s Eas k as k ia 18 

Cerr6 (Jean Gabriel), of St. Lou'.s. renders valuable service to 275 

conquest of the Illinois country by, mention 47,166-178 

devotes large portion of his journal to account of his rela- 
tions with Cerr^ 281 

Index — Continued . 


Clark, George Rogers- expedition of 18 

expedition to the Illinois and Wabash country, importance of ...38,39 

expedition to Vincennes, mention; see foot note 176 

extract from his journal, telling of his dealings with Gabriel 

Cerre, at Kaskaskia 279,280,281 

his plans for further conquest 38 

journal of , mention, see foot note 275 

list of oflScers and private soldiers in Illinois army of, except 
pay roll of Captain Bowman's Co., copy of document No. 32 of 
Virginia, signed by John H, Smith probably a state oflacial and 

addressed to the Governor of Virginia, footnote 177,166,178 

memoir of. quotation from 58,69 

mention 117,276.296 

muster rolls of army still extant, duty of Illinois to publish 178 

propriety of erecting a monument in his honor at Fort Massac... 298 

soldiers under, mention 166-178 

Clark, Gov. William— of Missouri territory (brother of Geo. R.) mention 180 

Clarke.Abram F.— of W. H. & A. F. Clarke, druggists of Chicago, their business, and his 

later career, death of 263 

later, of Milwaukee, and Marietta, Ga,. death of 263 

Clarke & Co.— Druggists of Chicago, largest prescription business, mention 263,269 

financial crisis of 1837. does not affect the Clarkes 246 

soda fountain, introduced, in early drugstore by, 1839 249 

Clarke, A, F. & Co.— druggists in Milwaukee, mention 263 

Clarke. Andrew— sergeant under Clark; received land for services 168 

Clarke, George P.— brother of W. H. & A. F.llClarke, and clerk in their drug store in 

Chicago 264 

Clarke John— private soldier under Clark ; received land for services 168 

Clarke, Rev. John— attended first Republican meeting ever held at Rushville, delegate 

to Republican convention at Bloomington. 1856 227 

Clarke, Lieut. Richard— Illinois Regt. Vols., Clark's army 167 

Clarke, Samuel C— druggist of Chicago, known as the "Lame Clarke" afterwards of 

Marietta, Ga , death of 263-264 

Clarke, W. H. & F. A.— third druggists in Chicago, principal wholesale druggists 

mention 243,263,264 

mention 248 

Clarke. Lieut. William— in Illinois Regt. Vols., Clark's army , 167 

Clarke, Wm. Hull— druggist of Chicago 1835. later city engineer of Chicago, death of 263 

of W. H. & A. F. Clarke druggists of Chicago 1836, his business, 

future career, death of 263 

Clary, J. M., A. B.— president Greer college, Hoopeston, III., mention 300 

Class, C. F.— retail druggist of Chicago burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Clay, Henry— mention .:...211,212 

Clerks— (drug) of Chicago, civil war, list of names of clerks who enlisted in 251 

Cleveland, Ohio— mention 62 

Clifton, Thomas— Capt. Joseph Bowman's Co., when enlisted, when discharged, miles to 

go home, rations due 177 

soldier under Clark, discharged from Bowman's company, enlisted 

In another company 177 

private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Clinton Co., 111.— Carlyle county seat of, citizens donate tract of land for public use 208 

Clinton County, 111.— Formed from Washington and Bond counties, Dec. 27, 1824 208 

mention 207 

Clinton, Governor De Witt— Clinton Co., Ill, named for 208 

Clontier, Marie Francis— wife of Francis Hardy, mention 140-141 

Cloud. RevH Newton— president of Illinois Constitutional convention of 1847 24 

Coal Fields of Illinois— description of; development of etc., their extent their in- 
fluence on the growth of the State, uses of, etc 84-85 

mention 53-56 

CoalOil— first made in Mays ville, Ky 251 

Cockran Edward— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Cockran. George— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Coeles Andrew— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Coffee, Samuel— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 169 

Cogar Jacob— Capt, Joseph Bowman's Co , when enlisted, when discharged, miles to go 

home, rations, due 177 

Cogar. Peter— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 169 

Coger, Peter— soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services, discharged from Bow- 
man's company, enlisted in another, foot-note 177 

Cooheron. Dennis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Cole, Col. Edward— commands at Ft. Chartres 112 

commands regiment at the seige of Quebec, mention 112 

English commandant in the Illinois country 1766 47 

Coles County. 111.— mention 101,217 

Coles, Edward— second Governor of the State of Illinois 

acts as second in dueling affair 102 

Address on, before the Illinois State Historical Society by Mrs. S. P. 

Wheeler 97-104 

and the slavery controversy, 1822-1824, mention 75 

anti- slavery leader in Illinois 77 

arrival at Edwardsville, 111 101-102 

Index — Continued. 


Coles, Edward— association with Thomas Jefferson, iinfluence of 98 

attends William and Mary college 98 

birth place of 97 

brings his slaves to Illinois to set them free, mention 76 

candidate for congress 103 

chosen head of the anti-slavery party 99 

Coles Co., 111., named for , 24,101 

companionship with noted men, mention 98 

compared by Washburne to John the Baptist 101 

contributes four years salary for effective work in the Anti-slavery party 101 

correspondence with Jefferson on the slave question, mention 98 

death of. at Philadelphia 104 

elected Gorernor of Illinois 99 

engages in farming after term of oflBce as Governor of Illinois 104 

frees his slaves before entering the State of Illinois, etc 76, 101 

friend to Samuel D. Lockwood 214 

Henry (Patrick), kinsman of 98 

Illinois and Michigan Canal incorporated during administration of 102 

inaugural address of, comments on 99 

in the capacity of a peacemaker 182 

leaves Virginia with his slaves, 1819, for Illinois 99 

mention 11,203 

no monument to memory of, in the State of Illinois 101 

opinions formed on slavery 98 

persecution of, by the pro-slavery men 102 

presented to Louis XVIII, King of France 102 

private secretary to President Madison 98 

proteg6 of Thomas Jefferson 98 

registrar of the land office in Illinois 99 

removes to Edwardsville after term of office as governor 104 

road laws in Illinois enacted during administration of 102 

school laws of Illinois enacted, during administration of 102 

sent on diplomatic mission to Russia 99 

Virginian, advocate of a free state on the slavery question 24 

Washburne's, (E. B.), description of 98 

Coles. Isaac— private secretary to President Thomas Jefferson 98 

John— father of Edward Coles 97 

Mrs. John— mother of Edward Coles; mention 98 

Colerat, Marie Magdalen— wife of James Silam. child of, baptised 145 

Collot. Gen'l Victor— French traveler and writer, gives an account of massacre at Ft. 

Massac; mention 41 

Collot, Gen. Victor— sferved in Kevolution under Rochambeau; sent by French minister 

to visit western country; visits and describes Fort Massac 49,60 

Collins'— "History ol Kentucky," describes Washington! the oldest town in Bourbon 

county 202 

Hon. Wm. H., address before Illinois State Historical Society, entitled "De- 
cisive Events in the Building of Illinois" 84-96 

Coleman, Mrs. Julius A.— Regent Chicago Chapter D. A. R 297 

Colombia, South America— formerly New Grenada 216 

Columbia River— mention 164 

Colonial Lawyers— Fees of in 1638 120 

Colorado River— mention 218 

Commandants of the Illinois Country— English 47 

French 46 

Committee Reports— Illinois State Historical Society 5-9 

Company (The)— of the Colony of Canada, organized to trade at Detroit 67,58 

Compagnie de L'Occident— mention foot note 95 

Compera, Francis— private under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Lewis— private under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Confederacy of America— mention 89 

Congress of the United States— passes ordinance on slavery 100 

Congressional News— printed in the Western Intelligencer published in 1816 181 

Congressional Records— consulted, see footnote 190 

Conkling, Mrs. Clinton L.— mention 10 

Connolly, Thomas— flfer under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Connecticut— claimed ownership of part of western territory 88 

mention 73 

Connor— a man employed with Ben j. Van Cleve, quarrels with Mai. Thos. Doyle 63,64 

Conquest of the Northwest— by George R. Clarii, history of by Wm. H. English, quota- 
tion from 58,59 

Conray , Joseph- secretary territorial legislature, council elects, mention 188 

Conroy, Patrick— private soldier under Clark, received land for services 169 

Constitution of 1818— framersof endeavor to carry out the will of Congress, etc 100 

reference to 100 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society— an amendment to, discussed 2 

Constitution of the United States— great work of the convention of 1787 19 

Gladstone's opinion of 19 

Index —Continued. 


"Constitutional Conventions and Constitutions of Illinois"— annual address delivered 

before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society by Hon. Adlal 

E. Stevenson 16-3 

Consul (First) of France— Napoleon, mention 94, 95 

Continental Conjrress— Jefferson's plan for government of new territory proposed to.... 19 

Contraw, Francis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Convance, Paul— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Convention of 1787— "Constitution of the United Stages," great work of 19 

1818— two most prominent members of, Jesse B. Thomas and Jno. McLean 22 

Cook & Blackwell— publishers of the Western Intelligrencer 182 

Cook County— first mentioned in the census returns of 1840— population of 119 

Cook, Daniel P.- advertisement as attorney at law. etc., in the Western Intelligencer 182 

anti-slavery leader in Illinois, mention 77 

anti-slavery man, McLean opponent, mention 192 

attorney for Governor Coles 103 

Auditor of Public Accounts of Illinois territory. Cook county named for 181 
cast vote of Illinois for J. Q. Adams for President of the United States 193 

clerk of the House of Representatives, territorial Legislature 188 

Cook county. 111., named after, Jan. 15, 1831, mention 24,195 

death of, Oct. 16,1827 195 

mention 213 

debates between Cook and McLean on the slavery question, 1818 193 

defeated for re-election to Congress 195 

editor and publisher of the Western Intelligencer, 1816 179 

elected to Congress 193 

first Attorney General of the State of Illinois, sketch of 212-213 

his generosity, anecdote of 213 

Kentuckian by birth, but an advocate of a free State for Illinois 24 

mention 192,214 

votes against the Missouri compromise of 1820 193 

President John— of the University of Normal 199 

Coontz, Christopher— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Cooper, Dr. John— surgeon's mate at Fort Dearborn, 1810, probably brought first medical 

supplies to Chicago '. 239 

Joseph— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Corder (or Corden) James— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Corn (Indian corn or maize)— mentioned by Ernst 150, 151, 153, 159 

crops in the American bottom 1816, the year of the cold 

summer ,., 186 

Corn Oil— Sidney, Sawyer, advertises 245 

Cornelius— a boy who clerked in drug store of Philo Carpenter in Chicago not known by 

other name 260 

Cornelia, Patrick— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Corns, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Corwine, Richard— mention 202 

Costa, J. B. de— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Couch Family (The)- mention 238 

Coun, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services: 169 

Counterfeiting in the Illinois Territory— mention 187 

County Judges of the State of Illinois— attend reception to Illinois State Historical 

Society 10 

"Couriers du bois"- mention 275 

their habits of life, etc 86,88 

Cowan, Andrew— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Cowan (or Cowin) John— private soldier under Clark; received land for services 168 

Cowan, Mason— private soldier under Clark ; entitled to land for services 169 

Cowdry, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Cowgill, Daniel— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Cox, James— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Cox, Thomas— tavern keeper at Kaskaskia. ..185,186 

Coxe's American Dispensatory— mention 246 

CrabbMrs. E. G.— mention 10 

Craig, Ma j. Isaac— goods sent to him to be forwarded to the frontier 60 

Cranbrook Press, Detroit, M ich.— mention 283 

Crane, St. John— private under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Crawford County, 111.— mention 79,217 

Crawford, Wm H.— U. S. Secretary of War, mention 179 

Crawley, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Creasey's, (Professor)— "Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World," quotations from 84 

Creole women at Fort Massac, 40 

Crevecoeur, Fort— exact site of, questioned, mention 289 

mention 87 

Cre«e (or Cruze or Craze), Noah— private soldier under Clark receives land for services, 168 

Crittenden, Major John— received land as soldier under Clark 166 

John Jourdan— appointed Attorney General of 111. territory, 1809, sketch of. 211-212 
appointed judge U. S. Supreme Court, elected to U, S. Senate, 

Attorney General United States 211-212 

Thomas— appointed Attorney General of Illinois Territory, 1810, mention 212 

Crockett, Lieut. Anthony— 111. Regt. Vols., Clark's army, receives land for services 167 

Joseph— lieutenant colonel, received land as soldier under Clark 166 


Index — Continued. 


Crooked Creek— mentioD 164 

Crossley, Wm.— private soldier under Clark received land for services 168 

Crown Point— mention 39 

Crozat, Anthony— commercial monopoly in Louisiana granted to by Louis XIV, foot note 95 

granted by Louis XlV monopoly of trade in Louisiana 13 

receives grant from king of France of lands and mines 31 

Sieur Antoine— mention 105 

old fortlet built under, mention 106 

Crump, Wm.— sergeant under Clark, receives land for services 168 

Crutcher, Henry— volunteer and Q. M. under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Cullom, Shelby M.— mention , 122 

Cumberland River— formerly called Shawnee river, mention 39,45 

mention 28,56,57,63.283 

settlers on, mention 49 

Presbyterian Church— Rev. Ephriam McLean, a minister of 201 

Cuming, F.— in his "Sketches of a Tour of the Western Country," first publishes the ac- 
count of the "massacre" at Fort Massac 41 

Cunningham, D. H.— clerk in drug store of U. M. Boyce, Chicago 271 

J. O.— member of Com. on Local Historical Societies of 111. State. His. Sec. 8 

Cure, Jean Baptiste— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Currency— Auditor's scrip ; scrip good for taxes, etc., used in Illinois 242 

scarcity of , 1833, mention 241 

used prior to 1835, mention 242 

Curry, James— private soldier under Clark, receives land for services 169 

Curtis, Rice— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Curtis— quotes from the Virginia Code of Honor (dueling) 102 

Czar of Russia— mention 99 

Daily American, Chicago American, June 15, 1839. mention 274 

Dale & Holland— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out in great fire of 1871 255 

Dalton, Lieut, Thomas Valentine— soldier In Ills. Reg't Vol. under Clark, entitled to 

land for services 167 

Damewood, Boston— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Daney, Gerom— private soldier in Captains Charloville's Co. of Ills. Vols., entitled to 

land for services 176 

Daney Joseph— private soldier of Captain Charloville's Co. of Ills. Vols., entitled to land 

for services 176 

Daney Michael— private soldier in Captain Charloville's Ills. Co. of Vols., entitled to 

land for services 176 

Danis, Helen (Helaine)— godmother of child baptised in the parish church at Prairie du 

Rocher. mention 136-137 

godmother of child of James Silam 145 

wife of Ignatius Hebert. mention 136-137 

Dany, Helen— wife of Sir IgnatiussHebert, death of son of, mention 142-143 

Danville, 111— proposed early railroad to 66 

Darby, Baptiste— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169" 

Darby John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Daring, Henry— ensign in Ills. Vols, under Clark, entitled to land for services, mention. 267 

Darnell. Cornelius— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169-170 

D'Artaguette, Dirion (or Diron)— held position under the French colonial government, 

mention 108 

D'Artaguette, Captain Pierre— French commandant of the Illinois country 1734-1736, men- 
tion 46 

D'Artaguette, Pierre— appointed major commandant of the Illinois country 108 

burned at stake by Chickasaw Indians 108-109 

expedition of against Chickasaw Indians 108 

serves in the Natchez war .....108 

See Artaguette. 

Dauphin Island— French ship and men arrive at, to take possession of Louisiana 105 

Daughters of the American Revolution— mark grave of revolutionary soldier at Ot- 
tawa. 111.. 291 

National and Illinois Societies of, their interest 
and influence in the purchase and preserva- 
tion by the State of Illinois, of the site of Old 

Fort Massac. 38,51.52 294-298 

David, Negro Slave— advertised as escaped from Glasgow, Ky., reward offered for his 

capture 182 

Davidson & Stuv6— authors of "History of Illinois," quotation from "the History," foot 

note 190 216 

Davis, David— Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, mention 26 

Davis. George P— president of McLean County Historical Society 4,190 

Davis, James— sergeant-major under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Davis, J. McCan— member of committee on historical places in Illinois, of Illinois State 

Historical Society 9 

member of committee on local historical societies of Illinois State His- 
torical Society 9 

member nominating committee 4 

member of program committee 8 

member of the publication committee 7 

J. McCan— secretary Illinois State Historical Society, declines re-election, so- 
ciety by resolution expresses appreciation of his services 6 

Index — Continued. 


Davis, Mrs. J. McCan— member of Springfield local reception committee for meetinsr of 

Illinois State Historical Society 10 

Joseph— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Robert— private soldier uuder Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

T. C— founder of the Chicasro Weekly American 237,238 

Dawson, James— private sold ier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Day, Wm—privare soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dean, James— (died) private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Debates of Daniel P. Cook and John McLean on the slavery question, mention 193 

Debates of Lincoln and Douglas. See Lincoln-Douglas debates. 

Deberlet, M. le Chevalier— major commandant of the Illinois 130,131 

death of a slave the property of, mention US 

Decamp, G. I.— assistant surgeon at Fort Dearborn. June 17, 1832, mention 239 

Decatur, 111.— proposed early railroads to, mention 66 

Decisive Events In the Building of Illinois— address before the Illinois Historical So- 
ciety by Hon .Wm Collins 84-96 

Decker. Joseph— sergeant major under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Declaration of Independence of the U. S. A.— mention. 19,104 

omission of slavery, paragraph in 98 

DeCosta, J. B.— (noticed above under the letter "C") corporal under Clark, entitled to 

land for services 169 

D^couvertes et Etablissements des Francis dans L'Am^rique Septentrionale; by Pierre 

Margry— extracts from 57,68 

Decrand, P.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dedham, Mass.— first school in the world supported by public taxation, located at 120 

Deere, Mrs. Charles H.— Illinois State Regent D. A. R., signs memorial 297 

DeKalb County, 111.— historical society formed at, sends greeting to Illinois State His- 
torical Society 8 

mention 2,291 

Delassus, Don Charles Dehault Delassus- lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana, pe- 
tition to, official actions of, etc 284-286 

Delaware— Indian town once located where New Madrid now stands , 282 

Delessant, Miss Catherine— godmother of child baptised in parish church at Prairie du 

Rocher 132,133 

Demar, Thomas— godfather of child of Anthony Zibert 146, 147 

Dement. Col. John— temporary president of Illinois constitutional convention of 1869-70. 27 
Demun, Mr. Julius— copy of his translation of Gabriel Cerr^'s petition for a grant of 

land 284 

Deneau, Sir— signs church record at Prairie du Rocher as a witness 148, 149 

DeNeichelle, Lewis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dennis, Elias S.— In Civil War. in Legislature of Illinois, marries widow of Chas. Slade, 

dies at Carlyle, 111 210 

Denton, Thomas— private soldier under Clark ; entitled to land for services 169 

DesMoines, Iowa— mention 229 

DesPlaines river— mention 164,277,278 

DeSoto, Ferdinand— tradition that DeSoto's men once occupied Fort Massac 39 

Detering, Jacob— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Detroit. Mich.— captured by the British in the war of 1812 95 

colony of, mention 58 

mention 39,57,62,119,240,280 

printers' wages, In 1837, record of 119 

trading post for the Indian trade , 57 

"Devil Dick"— nickname given to R. R. Randall of Rushville when printer's apprentice, 

mention 226 

Devllliers, Francis— record of burial of in parish of St. Ann, Prairie du Rocher, 111.,.. 130. 131 
DeWar— sergeant-major in Captain Chalorville's Co. 111. Vols.; entitled to land for 

services 176 

DeWitt, Henry— sergeant under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Dewey, Erastus— sixth druggist of Chicago, began business 1838 243,273,274 

announcement of executor's sale of his estate, in Chicago Democrat, 

Nov. 15, 1838, the only record of his death to be found 274 

DeWitt County, 111.— mention 121 

Diamond Island Station— mention "*• 68 

Dickey, Judge T. Lyle— mention 224 

Dickinson's Indians— mention 183 

DIehl, C. Lewis— mention 261 

Dietz. Blocki & Co.— manufacturing chemists, Chicago, 1860 248 

Dionysius, Francis— witness at marriage in St. Ann's church. Fort Chartres 140,141 

Dionysius, Silam— witness in church of St. Ann of Fort Chartres 140,141 

Dixon, Father John— D. A. R. mark site of cabin of 292 

Dixon, 111.— mention 219 

Dobb's Ferry— Long Island, N. Y., home of Robert G. Ingersoll, mention 219 

Dodie, Gabriel— signs church record as witness 146,147 

Dodie, Millet— mention 132,133 

Doherty , Ed ward— private soldier under Clark ; entitled to land for services 169 

Doherty, Frederick (died)— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Doherty, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for servicea 169 

Dole, George W.— early resident of Chicago, built log cabin occupied by Philo Carpenter 
as a drug store when he removed his stock from cabin belonging to 
Mark Beaubien 236,241,259,260 

—21 H. 

Index — Continued. 

Dole, George W.— mention 243 

ships first invoice of western produce from Chicago to the east by 

lake schooner "Napoleon" 212 

Dolphin, Peter— entitled to land as private soldier under Clark 169 

Domen^. John James— godfather of an infant baptized in the chapel of St. Philip 128,129 

Donne, John— C. M. S. under Clark; found not entitled to land 169 

Donovan, John— private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 169 

Donow, Joseph— entitled to land as private soldier under Clark 170 

Doran, Patrick— in Capt. Joseph Bowman's Co.,dates of enlistment,discharge,mileage,pay 177 

Doud, Koger— entitled to land as private soldier under Clark 170 

Douglas, (Camp)— mention 293 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— ball given by him in Springfield, 111., in celebration of his 

election to the U. Senate 73,74 

candidate for re-election to U. S. Senate in 1858; his debates 

with A. Lincoln in campaign 228 

debates of 1858 with A. Lincoln (see Lincoln-Douglas debates) 11 

his Influence in holding Illinois for the Union in 1860 83 

in Congress U. S., attitude on slavery question 78,83 

mention 223, 224 

monument erected to, by the State of Illinois— mention 290 

resigns from seat on Illinois Supreme Bench 216,217 

visits to Rushville, 111., much admired by Democrats of 

Schuyler Co 228,229.232 

Douglas, Judge Walter B.— president of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, his 

"Sketch of Jean Gabriel Cerr^" 275-288 

Doyle, Benj. H— first Attorney General of Illinois territory, sketch of 211 

Doyle. John— entitled to land as private soldier under Clark 169 

Maj. Thomas— commands first U. S. troops stationed at Fort Massac, sent there 

by Gen. A. Wayne 44 

commandant at Fort Massac, mention 49,62-64 

overbearing disposition of, known as "King Doyle" 62-64 

Mrs. Thomas, wife of Major Thos. Doyle, mention 62.64 

Dresden, Germany— (Saxony), mention 248 

Oneida county, N. Y., mention 219 

Drow, Garr— private soldier in Capt. Charloville's Co. of 111. Vols., entitled to land for 

services 176 

Drugs and Medicines— imported to Chicago in 1847, value of 242 

Druggists— country overrun with, after the close of the civil war. dangers from, neces- 
sity of pharmacy legislation, editorial comment in Chicago Times by Wil- 
bur F. Storey 262-253 

"Druggists' Circular and Chemical Gazette," monthly publication of , 1856, mention 246 

Druggists of Chicago— accounts and sketches of. S»« Chicago Druggists 234-274 

Drug Stores of Chicago- descriptions of. See Chicago 234-274 

Trade of Chicago— early history of, compiled by Albert E. Ebert. See Chicago. .234-274 

Drumgold, J ames— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Drummond Furnace or Smelter— described 34 

Drust, Daniel— sergeant major under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dry Goods Stores of Illinois— young man advertises for a position in a dry goods store, 

published in Western Intelligencer, 1816 187 

Dublin Dispensatory— mention 246 

Dubois. Sir— mention 138.139 

signs church record at Prairie du Rocher as a witness 148-149 

Due de Chartres— son of the regent of France, Fort Chartres, named in honor of 106 

DuGlaud,M. Alexander— military officer, child of baptised. ., 148-149 

godfather ot the child of Joseph Buchet 146-147 

slave, the property of. mention 186-137 

Miss Elizabeth— godmother of a child of a slave baptized at Church of St. Ann, 

Prairie du Rocher, 111 136-137 

Marie Joseph— sou of M. Alexander DuClaud, baptized 148-149 

Dudley, Armistead— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Dueling in Illinois— the Bennett-Stewart duel, its lesson to the people 213-214 

Duff, John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Duk, Dr.— druggist of Chicago, mention 249 

Dulhonean, Pierre— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dumfries, Scotland— mention 124 

Duncan (or Duncom), Archibald— private soldierSunder Clark.entitled'toland for services 170 
Benjamin— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 
Charles— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services,. 170 
David— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services... 170 
Joseph— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services.. 170 

Duncan, Gov. Joseph, of [llinols— mention 77. 103, 214 

Matthew— printer to Illinois territory, mention 119 

(or Duncom), Nlmrod— private soldier under (.Mark, entitled to land for services 169 
Samuel— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services. 169 

Dunn, Charles— Canal Commissioner of Illinois 235 

■^::^ candidate for Congress 208 

DuPage River— mention 164 

Durrette. James— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Dusablong. B —private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 169 

Du8elle,Mona.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to Und for services 169 

Duslnberry, H, P.— clerk In drug store of Sawyer, Paige & Co., Chicago, 1855, mention 278 

Index — Continued. 


Dust, Daniel— sergfeant in Bowman's company, dates of enlistment, discharere, milea&re, 

pay 177 

Samuel— deserted from Capt. Jos. Bowman's company under Clark 177 

Dyche, Mrs. B. F.— of Evanston, 111., (Grace Locke Scripps Dyche) daughter of John 
Locke Scripps, secures a copy of 'ycripps' Lite of Lincoln," has 

it reprinted, with introduction and notes 232,233 

Dyche, (D. R.) & Co.— retail drug-grists of Cbicbgo, burned out In fire of 1871 255 

Dyer, Charles V.— noted abolitionist of Ch1cag:o, mention 249 

Dyson, Howard F.— author of "Lincoln in Rushville." a paper contributed to the Illinois 
State Historical Society, and published in its annual "transac- 

s*^?^^???? tions" 221-233 

Eagle Store— Dearborn street, Chicago, mention 274 

Early history of the drug trade of Chicago compiled by Albert E. Ebert, contributed to 

P-' Illinois State Historical Society and published in the society's annual volume 234-274 

Early Illinois Railroads; by Ackerman, mention, foot note 80 

E ast Schuyler, Illinois— mention 229 

Ebert, Albert B.— historian of the Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association, compiler of 

r^iiS s vis Early History of the Drug Trade of Chicago 234-274 

Ebert, Professor— delivers lecture to Chicago College of Pharmacy just previous to the 

fire of 1871 258 

Eddy, H.— of Shawneetown, mention 54 

Eddy, Henry— buried at Shawneetown, mention 198 

publisher of Illinois Emigrant. 1817, newspaper at Shawneetown, 111 200 

secretary of the first Illinois State Historical Society 13 

John M.— information from old newspaper files on John McLean, letter of 200 

Edgar County. Illinois— mention 220 

Edgar, Col. John— LaPayette entertained at the home of 102 

receives his commission as Brig.-Gen. of the militia from the Presi- 
dent of the U. S., mention 188 

John— representative from Randolph county 20 

Edinburgh Dispensatory— mention 246 

Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias 245 

Edsall, James K.— Attorney General of Illinois, sketch of 219 

Education fostered by the ordinance of 1787 89 

Education in Kaskaskla- editorial on, in the Western Intelligencer, 1816 188 

Educational Committee of the Illinois State Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 

^position, mention 5 

Edwards, B. S. (Benjamin Stevenson)— signs certificate of applicant for admission to 

the Illinois bar 225 

Dr. Benjamin— mention 124 

Edwards County. 111.— mention 180 

Edwards Court House— post route, mention 188 

Edwards, Cyrus— member of Standing Committee of early Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, to assist in collecting data of Illinois 14 

Gov. Ninian— Governor of Illinois Territory, third Governor of Illinois, makes 

appointments 211,212 

admitted to be the most brilliant man in the State 209 

candidate for Congress 208 

death of, from cholera, mention 209 

defeats Thos. Sloo for Governor of Illinois, mention 201 

has cannons removed from the ruins of Ft. Chartres 114 

member of the first Illinois State Historical Society 13 

Governor of Illinois, mention 124 

mention 180,204,212 

property of, sale of lands, etc 181 

territorial rangers known as "Governor Edward's Rangers," 

mention 183 

United States Senator from the State of Illinois 22 

Edwards Ninian. U. S. Senator— resigns, mention 194 

Vote received for Governor of Illinois 204 

Edwards, Ninian Wirt— son of Gov. Ninian Edwards, Attorney General of Illinois 1834, 

sketch of 216 

first State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Illinois, ap- 
pointed by Gov. Joel A. Matteson. 1854 216 

quotations from his "History of Illinois and Life of Ninian Ed- 
wards." 211,212,218 

Edwards Papers (The)— edited by E. B. Washburne, quotation from 216 

Edwardsville, III., Madison Co.— description of surrounding country, 1819 166 

Edwardsville, 111 —Edward Coles' arrival at 101-102 

Edwardsville, Madison Co.— Historical Society to be formed at 8 

Edwardsville, III.— Indian treaty at. mention 157,169 

mention 114,1^4,153,156,158,163,188.214,215,217 

proposed early railroad to 66 

treaty made at between United States and Kickapoo Indians 167, 169 

Egan Dr.— mention 249 

Ehrman, John W,— mention 261 

Eldredge, Dr.— mention 249 

Elgin, 111,— proposed Historical Society in 8 

Elizabeth, Jo Daviess Co.. 111.— shipping point for ore, statistics, etc 34 

Elizabeth— queen of England 201 

Elliabethtown, Hardin Co., Ky.— mention 217 



Elkhart Farm— situated farthest north of any farm in the State of Illinois in 1819 161 

Elkhart Grove (The)— in Illinois, mention 160 

Ellis. Charles— mention 247 

Elms, Jas.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services. (Died) 170 

Elms, Wm.— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for military services 170 

Emancipation Proclamation , 11 

Embarrass River, 111.— proposed early railroad to start from 66 

Engrland— colonial policy and possessions of 40-41 

druggists of, send money to aid in refitting the Chicago College of Pharmacy. 258 

her victories in America. Napoleon's views and plans in regard to 94,95 

Victory in America over France 86 

War declared between France and England, mention 109 

and France, historic rivalry of 40 

English Colonies— French plans to confine them to the Atlantic coast 41 

Growth of. in New France, mention 276 

English Colonists— their characteristics 87 

English commandants in the Illinois country, list of 47 

English colony, (The) saves the day for Illinois 103 

English drugs-Great demand for, in early days 245 

Indian allies, the Iroquois 40,41 

meadow, Edwards Co., 111., visited by Ernst 150 

mention 279 

once occupied Ft. Massac 39 

Robert— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

sovereigns and half sovereigns, gold coins used in 1833. mention 242 

trade with the Indians of the Ohio county 40 

Wm H.— author of "Conquest of the Northwest".. 69 

Enniscorthy. Virginia— birthplace of Edward Coles 97 

Equality, 111.— Proposed early railroad to 66 

Erich, Victor— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Erie Canal— building of it, its influence, 79 

mention 247 

original intentions of in regard to 121 

Erie, Lake— mention 162 

Erie, Pa.— mention 62 

Ernst, Ferdinand— first to build in town of Vandalia 163 

"Travels in Illinois," 1819 150-165 

visits caves on the Mississippi river 163 

"Eririre." de M.— Francis Divillier; mention 130,181 

Erwin, Hon. L. D.— candidate for Illinois House of Representatives. 1858, from Schuyler 

county on Democratic ticket 228 

Eschmann, Rev. C. J.— translator of the Prairie du Rocher church records 128-149 

Estis, James— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Etruria, kingdom of. exchanged by Napoleon with Spain for Spanish North American 
Tlo^^ft^^1ons ... ••••• • . >•• qa 

Eureka, Woodford Co, 111.— County Historical Society organized at V........ a 

Europe— cities of, send aid to Chicago after fire of 1871 254 

druggists, send aid to druggists of Chicago after the fire of 1871 258 

grass plots of, beauty of 158 

Illinois State agents attempt to borrow money in Europe 68,69 

Europe- mention 102,113 

European History— important events given in the Western Intelligencer 185 

News— mention 186 

posts and settlements in the Mississippi valley, Pittman (Capt. Philip) report on 112 

Evans, Charles— private under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Capt. Jesse— 111. Regt. Vols., Clark's army, received land for services 166 

Stanhope— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Evanston,Illinois— Historical Society, mention 4,8 

111.— mention. 217 

Ewing Family of Pennsylvania— John McLean related to 191 

Hon. James S.— reads letter of Gen. McClernand at McLean county memorial 

exercises 190 

related to John McLean, mention 191 

Thomas of Ohio— mention 191 

Hon. Wm, L, D.— friend and relative of John McLean, through whose influence in 

the Legislature McLean county was named 197 

mention 216 

Speaker of the House of Representatives of 111. for three terms. 196 

Executive Mansion of 111.— mention 8 

reception to the Illinois State Historical Society held at 9 

Fache. Louis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Fair.Edmund-sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Fairbanks. Mrs. Charles W.— President General D. A. R 297 

"Fair Weather"— name of an Indian chief , mention 279 

Fallen Timbers— battle of . mention 49 

Falls of St. Anthony— mention 16,95 

the Ohio- Louisville, Ky., mention 64 

Farmar.Maj. Robert— English commandant in the Illinois country,1765 47 

Fathers of the Republic— their wisdom 89 

Favers, John— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170- 


Index — Continued. 


Fayetteville, Ark.— letter written J. D.Walker to J. H. Burnham on John McLean.200-201 

Feast of St. Peter— mention 140-141 

Federal Constitution— mention 19 

RJiS'tifi nearest perfect of all schemes of government 30 

Federal Union— lands ceded to by Virginia, to be used in forming Republican states for 

the Federal union 18 

Illinois third state in 29 

mention 18 

Fernow, Ludwig— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Fever, William— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Few (A)— notes for an industrial history of Illinois, Address before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, by Ethelbert Stewart 118-121 

Ficklin, Hon. Orlando B.— Compares Cook and McLean debates on slavery with those of 

Lincoln and Douglas 193 

Field, Daniel (died)— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

•^ifif* Lewis (prisoner)— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Fields, Capt. Benjamin— Illinois Reg't Vol., Clark's army, received land for services 166 

"Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World," by Creasey— quotation from 84 

Fillmore, President Millard— mention 212 

Findlay. Rebecca Smith— wife of Thomas Sloo, Jr 202 

Finet, Sir Hubert— godfather to child of Maturin Pinneaux and Marie Illinois 132,133 

Finley , Dr. C. A.— assistant surgeon at Fort Dearborn, 1830 239 

First Consul of France— Napoleon 94,95 

Fisher, an old man of Sangamon county, said to have been murdered by Trailer 

RiK'>Jjg! brothers; anecdote of 218 

Fisher, Dr, (BJeorge, of Randolph Co., Ill.—Candidate for the House of Representatives, 

mention 184 

Fisher, Dr. (George— Speaker of the House, territorial legislature 188 

Fisher, (Miss) Laura— thanks of the society extended to, for music 9 

Fisk, Mary E.— wife of Gen. E. B. Hamilton 123 

Fiske, Calvin J.— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 255 

Flag of the United States, adopted June 14, 1777— carried by Clark 58,59 

Flandegan, Dominick— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Flies— annoying to travelers on the prairies of Illinois, method of protecting horses 

from, etc 151 

Florida— mention 48 

Flour— High price paid in Galena 121 

Flower, George— his Illinois home on the English Meadow (English Prairie), mention... 150 

mention 103 

Floyd, Isham— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

"Foe (A) to Religious Tyrany"— article published in the "Western Intelligencer" of 

F -'« 1816 187 

Fonda. General— mention „ 122 

Ford, Governor Thomas— chairman on resolutions and amendments at second attempt 

to organize Illinois State Historieal Society 14 

kistorian of Illinois, mention lOJ 

history of Illinois, written by quotations from, mention, foot 

notes 76,190 

member of standing committee to assist in collecting data of 

Illinois 14 

mention , 22,215 

quotations from his "History of Illinois" 214,216 

"Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois"— Hon. John McLean, Hon. Thomas Sloo, Hon. Charles 

Slade, sketches of 190-210 

Porquer, George- half brother of Gov. Thomas Ford, Secretary of the State of Illinois. 

mention 215 

death of 215 

elected Attorney General of Illinois 1829, sketch of 214, 216 

his house in Springfield, etc 215 

mention 103 

his report on Illinois and Michigan canal 215 

Fort Adams— on the Mississippi river, mention 61 

Fort Assumption— site of, mention 44 

Fort Chartres— abandoned by the British, seat of government transferred 113 

articles on. by Dr. Homer Mead in Qulncy (111.) Whig, mention 117 

Bellerive. (Louis St. Ange de.) commands at Fort Chartres, mention... 107, 108 

Bertel, Chevalier de, commands at Fort Chartres 109 

Bertel, Chevalier de, suggests to authorities means of defense for Fort 

Chartres 109 

Bossu, (Captain) again visits, July 21. 1756. mention 110 

Brackenridge, Judge H M.. visits ruins of 113-114 

Breese's, (Sidney,) "Early History of Illinois" quoted 110 

building on the fort, situation of. etc 106 

Buissoniere, Alphonse de la, commands at 109 

Charlevoix. Father Xavier de, visits to. mention 107 

church of St. Ann at, marriage in 140,141 

Cole (Col. Edward) commands at 112 

Congress reserves right on land on the Mississippi iaciuding Port Char- 
tres and its buildings 113 

Index — Continued. 


Fort Chartres— creation of the company of the West or Mississippi company, mention.. 105 
demands upon for men and aid in the "Seven Years' war with Great 

Britain" Ill 

description of 106 

distance from Fort Massac , 45 

erection of the second Port Chartres 109 

Farmar (Major Robert), commands at 112 

few of the records and ofiBcial documents of, preserved 116 

first court of common law in Illinois, established at 113 

five cannons taken from ruins of, in 1812, mention 114 

Galissoniere (Marquis de), governor of Canada (1747-1749), quoted in re- 
gard to defense needed for 108 

guns taken to Kaskaskia from 178 

Hall (James), description of 114 

important link in the French posts from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.. 106 

Jesuits build church of St. Anne de Fort Chartres in village 106 

Liette (Sieur de), commandant of 108 

list of French commandants at 46 

Lord (Capt Hugh), succeeds Colonel Wilkins at 113 

McCarty (Chevalier de), commands at 109 

Mason (Edward G.), essay on, quoted 109 

Mason (Edward G.), visits to in 1879, extracts from paper on 115 

mention 20,45,132,133.136,137,278,289,292 

Mississippi river undermines walls of 113 

neglect of 289 

never again occupied after its abandonment by the British 113 

npw fort of, average cost, location, plans, etc 110 

official enriched by building of the second Fort Chartres 110 

Pittman (Capt. Philip), report on 112 

powder magazines at, description of by Mason 115 

suggested for an historic park, purchase of the site by the State of 111.116, 117 

Randolph county, Fort Chartres in 105 

Reed (Col. John) commands at 112 

Renault (Philipe Francois de) arrives at. 1720 107 

Reynolds (Gov. John) description of, visits twice 114,115 

river landing and ferry in vicinity named for * 117 

ruins of, lie in the Americim bottom, mention 105 

St. Ange commands again at Ill 

St. Clair (Capt. Benoist de) commands at 109 

seat of authority transferred to 17 

seat of British power in Mississippi valley 105 

seat of French power in the Mississippi valley 105 

second one built after plans of Lieut. Jean B Saussier 109 

Stirling (Capt. Thomas), commands at 112 

Stoddard(Amos)de8cription t>f in his "Historical Sketches of Louisiana" 113 

surrender ot the fort to the English 112 

survey and drawings made of the old fortress for Beck's Gazetteer of 

Illinois and Missouri 114 

Villiers (Capt. Neyon de) commands at Ill 

water rises to a height of seven feet in, see footnote 113 

Wilkins (Lieut. Col. John) of the 18th, or Royal Regiment of Ireland, 

commands at 112 

Fort Clair (Clark)— on Lake Peoria, mention 161 

Fort Crevecoeur— neglect of, history of 289 

Fort Dearborn— government dock and warehouse at 260 

memorial tablet commemorates site of 289 

mention, 294 

reservation, Chicago 235,237 

soldiers in, stricken with cholera 258,259 

tablet erected, to commemorate, massacre at, mention 289 

Fort De Chartres— its origin, growth and decline; address delivered before the Illinois 

Historical Society, by Joseph Wallace, M. A 105-117 

named for the son of the Regent of France the Due de Chartrea (See 

Fort Chartres 106 

Fort Donelaon— capture of, mention 93 

Fort Du Quesne- evacuation of mention , 89 

mention — , 44 

Fort— erection of one, at Rock river by Brigadier General Smith, mention 184 

Fort Gage— mention 279 

the old Jesuite building at Kaskaskia 177 

Fort Henry— capture of, mention , 98 

Fortlet— old fortlet, built under Crozat. mention 106 

Fort Madison, la.- mention 218 

Fort Massac (Massiac)— built and named in honor of M. Massiac, French Minister of the 

marine 41 

Fort Massac— name first officially spelled Massiac, but gradually changed to Massac 47 

named in honor of M. de Massiac, French Minister of the Marine and Col- 
onies 41 

action of D. A. R. on purchase by State of Illinois of site of; memorial and 
law 294-298 


Index — Continued . 

Port Massac— an address before the Illinois State His. Soc'y, by Mrs. Mathew T. Scott.. 38-64 

board of trustees, law directinar v?ho shall constitute; duties of, etc 297,298 

Clark's arrival at 58 

description of site and surroundings, by board of army officers appointed 

to select site for U. S. armory 53,64,56 

designated as base of supplies for Spanish troops in plans of Spanish con- 
spiracy 49 

different nations occupying 39 

distance from Fort Chartres and Kaskaskia 46 

first religious discourse in limits of State of Illinois preached by Father 

Mermet, on site of 42 

flag of new republic unfurled there, first time on Illinois soil 47 

Gen. Anthony Wayne sends garrison to 48 

interest in. by the people; site purchased by the State , .... 292 

last French garrison leaves 46 

mention 178 

necessity for its rebuilding caused by dissatisfaction of western settlers, 

who planned to invade the Spanish possessions 40 

number of troops stationed at ... , 60, 61, 62 

ofiicial records of supplies sent to, by U. S. commissary general 60,61,62 

once (1800), only white settlement between the Ohio and Miss, rivers 50 

or Assumption, described 46 

plans that it to be rallying place and base of supplies for Spanish con- 
spirators 48 

reasons why it should be purchased and cared for by Illinois 61,52,53 

rebuilt and occupied by order President Geo. Washington 47,48 

recommended by board of army officers as best site for armory 51 

repaired during war of 1812 and occupied by Illinois militia and rangers... 51 

700 acres reserved at, by U. 8. government for military purposes 64 

site of. purchased by Illinois for State park 297,298 

site selected and fort built by French under Aubry : description of the fort 46 

Spanish plans to take possession of it 48,49 

visited and described by Gen. Victor Collot 60 

visited by Aaron Burr 59,60 

visited by Gov. John Reynolds when he was a child, again later 50,61 

visited by Francis Baily 60 

Port Massacre— Fort Massac sometimes so called, never oflicially so named 41 

mention and footnote 68 

the story of.... 41,44 

Port Massiac— built and named in honor of M. de Massiac, French minister of the marine 41 
name of fort so spelled in French correspondence, but gradually changed 

to Massac 48 

Port Niagara— first of historical "chain of French forts," mention 41 

mention 89 

Fort Pitt-mention 46,112 

Fort Russell— cannons from Fort Chartres mounted on 114 

Fort St. Louis of the Illinois (Tonty's fort)— unmarked 289 

Fort Steuben— opposite Louisville, Ky., mention 62 

Fort Stoddard— Aaron Burr arrested at 40 

Fort Washington (Cincinnati)— cannon sent from to Port Massac 48,60 

Forty-Second or Highland Regiment of British Troops— mention 46 

Foss, L.— retail druggist of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 265 

Poster, Mr.— mention 187 

Poster. Henry— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Pouche River— mention 164 

Fowler & Gates— druggists, Lebanon, N. Y., mention 268 

Powne's Chemistry— mention 246 

Pox, Charles— John McLean compared to 193 

Pox Indians (or Renard)— mention 108 

Steward, John P., president of the Maramech Society of Kendall county, 

marks historic spot of the massacre of 290 

Pox (orDuPage) River— mention 164 

Prance— aided United States in Revolution, but was unfriendly later 94 

Prance and England— historic rivalry of, mention 40 

Prance — banner of, reference to 112 

causes leading to the contest that drove Prance from North America, mention.. 276 

claims in the Illinois country 17 

claims of territory of Mississippi valley 44 

colonial policy and possessions 40,41 

colonization plans of 48 

druggists of, send aid to Chicago druggists after fire of 1871 268 

flag of, raised at St. Louis (1804) for one day, then taken down to rise no more 

in North America 286 

ladies of, mention of 89 

Louis XIV, king of, grants lands and mines to Crozat 81 

mention 16,47,102,116 

struggle for mastery of the new continent 17 

surrenders claims to North American possessions 17 

war declared between Prance and England, mention 109 


Index — Continued. 


Francis, Marie— mention 132,138 

;-^, (uegrro) godfather at baptism of child of slave in parish of St. Anne.. 138, 139 

negro slave of Lefernne, mention 138,139 

Francis, Simeon— editor Springfield Journal, mention 226 

Frankfort, Franklin County, Illinois— mention 217 

Frankfort, Kentucky—.. 211 

&5 newspapers of . mention 182 

Frankfort on the Main, Germany— aends aid to Chicago after fire of 1871 254 

Franklin County, Illinois— mention , 212 

Frazer, Abraham— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Freeman & Boyce— druggists at St. Charles, 111 270 

Freeman, Jonathan— nomde-plume of Morris Birkbeck 103 

Freeman, Peter— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Freeman, William— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Preeport, Illinois— Lincoln and Douglas debates, spot where the debates occurred 

f <ti marked by woman's club 290 

Free Sellers in Illinois— mention 81,82,83 

Free Soilers in Topeka. Kas.— mention, 219 

Fremont, John C,— mention 82,83 

presidential vote for, in Illinois 83 

French, A. W.— called to the chair by acting president of the Illinois State Historical 

Society 2 

L li .-i£<*i:S - motion in regard to papers read at annual meeting of historical society.. 4 
i M;^ - ,^j -'T,, objects to any discussion or criticism of papers read before historical 

P^ /.,^'f^j^ - ) society 3 

French, Dr. A, W.— delivers address before Illinois State Historical Society, "Men and 

manners of the early days of Illinois" 65-74 

French and Indian War— mention 41,43,45 

French at Port Massac— quarrel with Indians 48 

French Colonies in North America— mention 40 

French Colonists— secure titles to land in the Illinois country 106 

French— commandants of the Illinois country, list of 46 

French Colony in the Illinois— mention 109 

French Defeat in America— treaty of 1763, effect of upon the development of Illinois.... 85, 86 

French Drugs— great demand for in early days 245 

French, Miss Efiie— mention..... , 10 

French Empire— in the new world, reference to 16 

French expedition planned to invade Spanish possessions in the Mississippi valley; 

Genet, French, minister to the United States, the agent — 48 

French explorers and their plans and religious views and their achievments 86,87 

French genius for selection of sites for forts— mention 39 

French forts along Mississippi and Ohio rivers 40 

French— Indian allies, the Algonquins 40, 41 

French King (The)— loses all his possessions in North America 278 

French King— mention 17,277 

French— laws and customs prevailed in Illinois 277 

Lick creek, mention 288 

Lick (The) on the Cumberland, site of present city of Nashville. Tenn 283 

Louis d'or, gold coins used in 1833 242 

method of colonization and dealing with Indians 41 

monarch, mention 17 

not successful as colonists 87 

once occupied Fort Massac 39 

people at the Illinois, mention 281 

possessions in America, surrender of, to England, mention 41 

settlement at mouth of Mississippi river, mention 40 

settlers in Illinois, their method of dividing lands, dealings with Indians, etc., 88 

French Territory— Illinois once a part of 31 

French— women at Fort Massac 40 

Frey, Daett— private soldier, Capt. Charloville's Co Vols.; entitled to land for services. 176 

Freya, Philip— clerk in drug store of L. M. Boyce. Chicago 271 

Frisby. Maxon— attended first Republican meeting held In Schuyler county. 111 227 

Frost Stephen— private soldier under Clark; enlirled to land for services 170 

Fuller & Puller— wholesale drug house in Chicago, escaped destruction in Chicago 

tire of 1871 256,276 

Fuller, O. F.— of Puller & Puller, Chicago druggists, gives an account of the preserva- 
tion of their building In Chicago fire of 1871 267 

Fuller, O.H. & Co.— wholesale druggists, Chicago, 1850 251 

Fundamental Laws- definition of 29 

Funk, Henry— In Capt. Joseph Bowman's Co.; when enlisted, when discharged, miles to 

go home, rations due 177 

private soldier under Clark; entitled to land for services 170 

soldier under Clark; discharged from Bowman's Co.; enlisted in another, 

foot note 177 

Fank, Hon. LaPayette- delivers address at McLean County Historical Society's memo- 
rial to John McLean 190 

Furnaces or Smelters— early ones described 84 

"Gag Resolutions" In Congress U. S.— mention 77,78 

Gage, Gen. Thomas— commander of British forces in America 17.18 

mention 112 

Qagnia, Jacque— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 


Index — Continued. 


Gagnia, Lewis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Qagnia, Pierre— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land tor services 170 

Gagnon, J.— missionary priest at Prairie du Rocher, 111., 1743-1744, signa records of the 

church 128-149 

missionary priest of St. Anne's parish of Ft. Chartres, mention 128-149 

Gahagan— man employed with Benj, VauCleve at ij'ort Massac 64 

Gaines, Capt. E. P., U. S. A.— arrested Aaron Burr at Port Stoddard, afterwards com- 
manded at Fort Massac 57 

regiment of stationed at Fort Massac 67 

Gaines John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Gaines (or Garner) Wm.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gale & Blooki— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 265 

Gale Stephen P.— early bookseller of Chicago, mention 241 

Gale Wm of Gale Bros.— mention 251 

Galena, 111.— early proposed railroad to, direction of same, etc 66 

home of Gen. U. S. Grant 91 

lead fields of, number of miners in 1743, mention 120 

lead mines near described (The Buck Mine) 32 

lead mines, mention 206 

mines in and near 35,36 

shipping point for ore, statistics etc 34 

Galena River— once called river of mines 31 

Galesburg, 111.— marks in fitting manner place of holding Lincoln-Douglas debates 


Galissoniere, Marquis de— governor general of Canada. 1747-1749, quoted in regard to de- 
fense needed for Port Chartres 109 

Gallagan Owen— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gallatin Co., 111.— John McLean elected to Legislature from 196 

mention , 208 

Galva, 111.— mention 219 

Gano, Capt. (the late)— company of at Ft. Massac 61 

Gardner. C. H.— retail druggist of Chicago burned out in fire of 1871..., 255 

Garden City Hotel— burned in Chicago fire of 1871 257 

Garrett, Augustus— mayor of Chicago, mention 249 

Garrison & Murray— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out (store and drug mill) In fire 

of 1871 255 

Garrison, H. D.— mention 251 

Garrison, Wm. Lloyd—mention ,. 104 

Gas— as an illuminant, first came into general use in 1850 250 

Gaskins, Thos.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gavuldon (or Ganchdon), Baptiste— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for 

services 170 

Gayarre's History of Louisiana, vol. 3— quoted. See footnote 110 

Gayoso de Leemos, Manuel— Governor of Louisiana, letter of to Gabriel Cerr6 285 

General Assembly State of 111.— assistance asked of by 111. State Hist. Soc 15 

John McLean, Speaker of, mention 193 

Genet (properly Genest), Edmond Charles— French ambassador to the United States, 1793, 

enlists men in French service 63 

mention 48 

Genrion. Jean— mention 140-141 

George. John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

George, Capt. Robert (Robin)— captain 111. Regt. Vols., Clark's army; receives land for 

services...., 166 

George III of England , 98 

Gerault,Capt. John— captain 111. Regt. Vols,, Clark's army, received land for services 166 

Germain, J. B.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

German Stores— early drug stores in Chicago, location of 248 

Germans in Illinois—their influence and location 79 

Germany— druggists of send money to aid Chicago druggists after the fire of 1871 258 

mention 165 

Germon, Father Barthel6imi— writes a letter relating anecdote of Father Mermet and 

Indian charlatans 42 

Gessie Jane— wife of Anthony Zibert, mention 140-141 

Gevremon, Ethienne— death of 145 

Giard, Catherine— wife of Jean Gabriel Cerre, her wifely faith, instance of 278 

Giard Family of Kaskaskia—amoBg earliest settlers of the Illinois 278 

Gibault, Rev. Pierre— French priest at Kaskaskla and Cahokia 58,69 

assists G. R Clark 58.69 

Gibbons, Samuel— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gibralter, III.— town of, mention 155 

Gila River— mention 218 

Gilham. Mrs. Ann— land granted her in compensation for her sufferings from the In- 
dians •••• 183-184 

Gilman— Illinois Reports— reference from 317 

Gladstone. Wm, E.~his opinion of the Constitution of the United States as a state paper 19 
Glasgow, Ky.— negro slave named David, ran away from, offer of reward for, in Western 

Intelligencer 182 

Glass, Michael— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Glenn, Lieut. Bernard— 111. Regt. Vol., Clark's army, receives land for services 167 

Index — Continued. 


Glenn David— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services ITO" 

Godfrey Francis— private soldier nnder Clark, entitled to land for service 170 

Godfrey, Gilman & Co.— firm at Alton. 111., borrows large sums of money from the State 

Bank to attempt to corner output of the lead mines at Galena. 208 
Gogar Peter— in Capt. Jos. Bowman's Co., when enlisted, when discharged, miles to go 

home, rations due 17T 

Gold— discovery of in California, mention. 34-35 

probability of its discovery in Jo Daviess Co , 111 37 

"Gold Mortar" (the)— sign over Philo Carpenter's drug store in Chicago 260 

sign used by early Chicago druggists 211,244 

Gomier, (or Gannin) Abraham— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Good (The) Samaritan— sign used by drug store, mention 244 

Goodloe, H enry— sergeant und er Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Goodwin Amos— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Goodwin, Edward— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for service 170 

Goodwin, (or Goodan) Wm.— priv^ate soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services.. 170 
Gordon. Capt. Harry— chief engineer in western department of America, visited Port 

Massac and described it 47 

Gordon, John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Goshen, 111.— Merino sheep put up at lottery at 189 

Gouday, James— deserted Jan. 28 from Capt. Joseph Bowman's company 177 

Governors of Illinois— first six, of southern birth 77 

Graff, Geo.— clerk in drug store of Clarke Bros., Chicago 264 

Graham, James— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Grand Army of the Republic 123 

"Grand Chain" (The)-described 54 

mention 53,57 

Grant Co., Wis.— mention 3T 

Grant, Ulysses S.— Illinois' greatest soldier 11 

mention 128 

reference to 30 

resided at Galena at opening of war, enlisted from there 91 

Gratiot. Chas.-has controversary with the crew of his barge, mention 283 

Gratiot, Jean— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Gray, Geo L.— clerk in drug store of Peter Pruyne & Co,, Chicago 263 

Great Britian— claims of in the newworld 17 

seven years' war with Prance, mention Ill 

struggle for mastery in the new continent 17 

war with, mention 180 

"Great Father's Captain"— Indian name for French commandants 278 

Great Lake 8— French colonies on 40 

mention 17 

Green County, Ky.— mention 215 

Green, Hon. Henrys-gives statistics of shipment ot lead ore 34 

James, (died)- private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

John— sergeant under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Hon. Reed— owner of site of Ft. Massac 294,297 

Robert— ensign, Illinois Vol., Clark's army, receives land for services 167 

Samuel Ball— ensign, Illinois Vol., Clark's army, receives land for services 167 

Greene, E. B.— absence of, from meeting of Illinois State Hist. Society 9 

Evarts B., Ph. D.— address before Illinois State Historical Society, "Sectional 

Forces in the History of Illinois" 76-83 

Greene, Evarts B.— elected 2d Vice-President Illinois State Hist. Soc. for 1903 4 

Henry S.— applicant for admission to Illinois Bar, license signed by A. Lincoln. 225 

Greenup, Coles Co., Illinois— mention 217 

Greenville, Ky.— McLean records state that John McLean studied law witn Judge 

McLean in 201 

Ohio- -Treaty of, Aug. 3, 1795. real ending of Revolutionary war 49 

Qreenewald & Hoffman— retail druggists of Chicago, burned out in fire of 1871 265 

Greenwood, Daniel— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Greer, Chas.- surgeon, received land as soldier under Clark 166 

Greetings and resolutions of respect and esteem for H. W. Beckwith, passed by the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 8 

Gregg. Lieut.— mention 62 

Gregnire— mark of, as witness to church record 140-141 

Grimes, John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Grimshire, John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Grolet, Francis, Jr.— private soMier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Francis, Sr.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gross, Lewis M.— county superintendent of schools, DeKalb county, 111., mention 291 

Mrs. Wm. L.— mention 10 

Gubernatorial Chair of Illinois— mention 81 

Guess. John— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Gulnot, Gen. Thomas Sloo and wife join party of 202 

Gulon. Captain— mention 62 

Frederick S.— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Gulf of Mexico— mention 16,17,40,94,95,106 

Gwlnn, Wm. (died)— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 170 

Habeas Corpus— writ of, mention 20 

Haoker, William A.— president of Ills. Const, convention of 1862 27 

Haldlmand, Gen. Fred— Gov. Hamilton writes letter to, mention 281 


Index — Continued. 


Hall, James— describes Fort Chartres 114 

Hall, Judge James— died in Cincinnati in 1868, footnote 114 

president of the first Illinois State Historical Society 13 

"Sketches of the West," mention 114 

visits Fort Chartres in 1829 114 

Hall, Dr. Thomas P.— assistant surgeon at Fort Dearborn, 1823 239 

Hall, William— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Haller, Francis— private soldier under Clark, entitled to land for services 171 

Hallowell, Maine— weather reports from 1816, the year of the cold summer 186 

Hambright, Professor— delivers lecture before Chicago College of Pharmacy just pre- 
vious to the Chicago fire, serious illness of 258 

Hamilton, A. H.— clerk for Peter Pruyne & Co, Chicago druggists 263 

Hamilton, Alexander— mention 19,50 

Hamilton & Woods— law firm, Quincy. Ills 123 

Hamilton, Artois— father of Elisha Bently Hamilton 122 

Hamilton, Atta Bently— mother of Elisha Bently Hamilton 122 

Hamilton, Canada 266 

Hamilton County, 111.— county seat of named McLeansboro, mention 19;J 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., elected county surveyor of 203 

Hamilton, Elisha Bently— memorial address on life and character of by Dr. J. F. Snyder 

read at meeting of Illinois Stale Historical Society 122, 123 

assistant adjutant on staff of Gen. Fonda at Baton Rouge, La. 122 

commands 8th 111. infantry in East St. Louis strike 122 

enlists in Civil War in company B 118th 111. Vol. infantry 122 

in memoriam 122 

law partnerships 122.123 

marriage of 123 

member of the famous old Carthage Guards 122 

member of Illinois State Historical Society 123 

mention.. 2 

military service in Civil War 122 

official positions of 128 

Hamilton, Elisha Bently, Jr.— son of Gen. E. B. Hamilton 123 

Hamilton, Gov. Henry— Clark attacks and captures at Vincennes 178 

of Detroit, writes letter to Rocheblave in reference to Gabriel 

Cerr6 , 280,281 

writes letter to General Haldimand, mention 281 

Hamilton. John M.— Governor of Illinois, men