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Publication Number Fourteen 





Illinois State Historical Society 


Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 111., 
May 13, 14, 1909 

Published by Authority qt the 
Board of Trustees of the 


Springfield, III. 
State Journal Co., State Printers 


Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous years, 
this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the papers read 
at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter contributed 
during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to State History" 
may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their title, and form 
an increasingly valuable part of the society's transactions. The contri- 
butions are intended to include the following kinds of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected with 
great care ; for memories and reminiscences are at their best an uncertain 
basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now out 
of print and not easily accessible. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public author- 
ity. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking that 
this society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools or 
colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this publica- 
tion the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the various 
papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily those 
of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to receive 
such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear to be 



General Information, Editorial Note 3 

1 — Officers of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1909 7 


1 — Minutes of the Society 11 

2 — Report of Secretary and Treasurer 17 

3 — Minutes of the Board of Directors 21 

4 — Reports of Committees 26 


1 — Oliver A. Harker. Efforts to Divorce Judicial Elections from Politics in 

Illinois 37 

2 — Mrs. Eleanor Atkinson, The Winter of the Deep Snoio 47 

3 — Clinton L. Conkling, How Mr. Lincoln Received the News of His First 

Nomination 63 

4 — Mrs. Harriet Taylor, Genealogy and the West 67 

5 — J. McCan Davis, The Senator from Illinois 86 

6 — William A. Meese, Rock River in the Revohition 97 

7 — Clarence M. Burton, Augustin Mottin de La Balm 104 

8 — Walter B. Douglas. The Sieiirs de Saint Ange 135 

9 — Cora Agnes Benneson, The Quartermaster's Department in IllinoiSj 1861- 

1862 147 

10 — James A. James, Detroit the Key to the West during the American Revo- 
lution 154 


1— John F. Snyder, Alfred Cowles 167 

2 — Edward L. Merritt. Recollections of the Part Springfield had in the Obse- 
quies of Abraham Lincoln. (By a Participant.) • 179 

3— John T. Campbell, The Hayes-Tilden Contest 184 

4 — Zimri Enos, Description of Springfield 190 

5 — B. A. Beinlich, The "Latin" Colo7iists of Illinois 209 


1 — G. J. Koons, Extracts from the Records of the Jackson County Commis- 
sioners' Court 217 

2 — The Diary of Edward Crippin. Illinois Volunteers, 1861-1863 — Edited 

with notes and introduction by Robert J. Kerner 220 


1 — George Nelson Black, by Jessie Palmer Weber 285 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society 291 

Officers and Committees of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, May 1909 to May 1910 


(ten. Alfred Orendorff Springfield 

First Vice President. 
Hon. Clark E. Care , Galesburg 

Second Vice President. 
Hox. Smith D. Atkins Freeport 

Third ]'ire Presidint. 
Hon. \j. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Board of Directors. 

Edmund Janes James, President of the University of Illinois. . .Urbana 

M. H. Chamberlin Lebanon 

Hon. Richard Yates Springfield 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

Evarts B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Hon. William H. Collins ^ . . . Quincy 

Hon. J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

Hon. Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal University .... Carbondale 

W.,T. Norton Alton 

Hon. William A. Meese Moline 

Hon. Jesse A. Baldwin Chicago 

Mr. J. W. Clinton Polo 

Rev. C. J. EscHMANN Prairie dn Rocher 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 


Record of Official Proceedings 



Supreme Court Boom, State Capitol, 
Springfield, III., May 13, 1909. 
Business Meeting, Thursday, May 13, 1909, 10:00 a. m. 

The tenth annual meeting of the Illinois State. Historical Society was 
held in the Supreme Court Room of the State Capitol, May 13-14, 1909. 

The session opened on Thursday morning at 10:00 o'clock with the 
business meeting. 

President Alfred Orendorff presided. 

President Orendorff spoke of the progress and growth of the society, 
the importance of preserving the history of the State, the interest the 
State Historical Society and the local societies are promoting, and the 
influence of the Lincoln-Douglas Debate celebrations on the public in 
arousing their interest and enthusiasm. 

The report of the secretary was read and a motion made to adopt and 
place it on file. Motion carried. 

Mr. Eussel moved that the recommendations made by the secretary in 
her report be referred to a committee of two. 

Motion was seconded and voted upon. Carried. 

President Orendorff appointed on this committee Mr. Andrew Eussel 
aud Mr. William A. Meese. 

The report of the treasurer was next read and the motion to adopt and 
place it on file was made. Carried. 

The report of the Committee on Lincoln-Douglas Debates was called 
for, and Col. Clark E. Carr responded. He said he had made no written 
report and did not know he was expected to do so, but he told how he 
visited the different towns where the celebrations were to be held and 
sought to awaken the interest of the people of those localities. He told 
of the plan of organization of committees in each town and the great 
success everywhere. 

The president announced that the reports of these celebrations of the 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates would be published in book form. 

The president next called for the reports of any local societies that 
might have a representative present. 

Captain Bumham of Bloomington responded. He said that on account 
of the business before the society it would be better not to attempt 
a lengthy report. He also said that last year it was recommended by 


the committee of their local society that they come in closer touch with 
the State Society by the reports of the secretary. He spoke of what the 
Journal of the Society has done as a means of bringing the local societies 
in closer contact with the State Society. He would submit a brief report. 

President Orendorlf said the request of Captain Burnham would be 
complied with. Moved and carried that the report of Captain Burnham 
be adopted. 

The report of the Committee on Periodical Publication was next 

called for. 

Mr. Eussel responded, saying that the periodical that has been pub- 
lished is largely the work of Mrs. Weber and she should be entitled to 
almost all the credit. 

Motion made that the report of Mr. Russel be adopted and placed on 
file. Motion carried. 

The report of the Committee on Genealogical Affairs was next in 
order. It was read by Miss Georgia L. Osborne, the chairman. The 
report was adopted and placed on file. 

The name of Prof. E. B. Greene was called to give a report on publi- 
cations, but, as he was not present, Mrs. Weber said that the book was 
in the hands of the printer and would be a very valuable book. She said 
the legislative year always delayed such publications as so much time 
was taken up with legislative printing. 

In the absence of Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, General Orendorff made a 
few remarks about the marking of historic spots in Illinois. He said 
the subject was receiving considerable attention over the State and the 
General Assembly had the subject under consideration and would prob- 
ably make some appropriations for that purpose. 

Mr. E. C. Page of DeKalb county made some remarks on the subject, 
telling how some people one would not think would be interested in such 
matters would be the very ones to go ahead and place markers at their 
own expense and trouble. 

The president .next called for reports on the subject of cooperation 
with libraries throughout the State. 

Mr. E. S. Willcox of Peoria told of the progress they were making in 
their library at Peoria, and how many people came there to work on the 
books on genealog}' and how they found material they could not find in 
Boston or Chicago. He said their library was second in the State, the 
Newberry library being the first. 

The president remarked that the value of the cooperation with libraries 
throughout the State was that it gives a correspondent in each library 
that can be written to and consulted, and they are always ready to assist 
in anything that they can. 

Colonel Carr said if there was any one present from a locality where 
a Lincoln-Douglas celebration had been held, that the society would like- 
to hear from that person. 

Hon. William H. Collins from Quincy responded, and told how Colonel 
Carr came to their town and aroused the interest of the people, how 
enthusiastic they became, how they spent four or five hundred dollars in 


preparing for the event, the successful program, etc. He then gave an 
account of what the historical society at Quincy was doing. They had 
bought the mansion of Governor Wood and spent about $1,10U in fitting 
it up and collecting material and also putting up marlale plates, on 
which are engraved names of old settlers of Adams county and Qumcy. 
He further told what an interest the society at Quincy had taken in 
securing a monument to George Sogers Clark, and of their success in 
getting it, the location of the monument and the beauty and size of it. 

Mr. Perry Ellis, of (Quincy, who was in the city on business, being 
present, President Oreudorlf called upon him to make some remarks. 

Mr. Ellis told of his own interest in the society and unexpected 
pleasure at being able to attend the meeting. He expressed his feelings 
toward Mr. CoUms' speech, which, he said, left nothing to be said — it was 
like painting a lily, you could add nothing to it. He also expressed his 
appreciation of the work of Colonel Carr, who had done so much for 
their celebration of the Debates, and thanked the society and the people 
generally for their assistance. He concluded by saying that if he did not 
stop, he would become excited and would be making a speech. 

Captain Burnham made a motion that a committee of five be appointed 
to represent the society at the dedication of the monument at Quincy. He 
added that he did not wish to be on that committee, as he had the honor 
of representing the society at the Black Hawk War monument dedication, 
at the Shabbona Park Monument in LaSalle county, he had represented 
the society at Rock Island, and went to the Fort Massac dedication last 
fall, and thought he had done his share. 

The motion was seconded and voted upon. Carried. 

Mr. Ellis arose and invited the committee to be their guests when 
they came to Quincy, on behalf of the G. A. E., the Chamber of Com- 
merce, and the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Mr. Carpenter moved that the president appoint a committee of five 
to nominate officers. Motion put and carried. 

President Orendorff appointed on this committee Mr. Carpenter, Gov- 
ernor Yates, Mr. Clendenin, Colonel Carr and Mr. Meese. The committee 
was assembled in the back part of the room. 

President E. J. James then read the memorial address on Mr. George 
ISF. Black, which was prepared by Mrs. Weber, and also made a few 
remarks about his relations with Mr. Black, his love for him, and his 
loyalty to the society. 

The Committee on Nominations was now ready to report. No changes 
were made with the exception of the nomination of a director to fill 
Mr. Black's place. The list of officers recommended for the year 1909 
was as follows : 

President, Gen. Alfred Orendorff, Springfield. 

First Vice President, Col. Clark E. Carr, Galesburg. 

Second Vice President, Smith D. Atkins, Freeport. 

Third Vice President, Hon. L. Y. Sherman, Springfield. 

Board of Directors Edmund J. James, TJrbana; M. H. Chamberlin, Leb- 
anon; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington; E. B. Greene, Urbana; Jessie Palmer 
Weber, Springfield; Hon. William H. Collins, Quincy; Hon. J. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Urbana; Hon. Andrew Russel, Jacksonville; George W. Smith, Carbon- 


dale; Hon. W. T. Norton, Alton; Hon. William A. Meese, Moline; Hon. Jesse 
A. Baldwin, Chicago; Mr. J. W. Clinton, Polo; Rev. C. J. Eschmann, Prairie 
du Rocher; Hon. Richard Yates, Springfield. 
Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

.The vote was taken and the officers elected. 

Mr. Terry Simmons of Marseilles having come in late, the president 
called on him for a report of liis local historical society. 

Mr. Simmons gave an extemporaneous report of the LaSalle county 
historical society, how it started, the celebration of the Lincoln-Douglas 
Debates and the work of the society in regard to it, what the society 
was doing in trying to get an appropriation for making Starved Rock 
and its surroundings a State park. He asked the support of the State 
Society for the State park measure noted. 

Captain Burnham made a short talk in regard to a plan for grouping 
several societies together and thus securing a stronger body of workers, 
and these societies to be grouped with the State Society as its head. 

Colonel Carr announced that the many excellent papers they had heard 
read at the Knox county historical society would be printed in book form. 

Adjourned until 3 : 30 in the afternoon. 



This is the tenth annual meeting, a sort of " tin wedding " celebration. 
The origin of the Illinois State Historical Society was in " a call issued 
for an Illinois Historical Society " issued ten years ago, which called a 
meeting of interested persons for Friday, May 19, 1899. 

The call was signed by H. W. Beckwith, E. J. James and George N. 
Black, the trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library ; Dr. J. F. 
Snyder, the officers of the McLean county historical society, George P. 
Davis, E. M. Prince and J. H. Bumham ; Judge G. W. Young of Marion, 
William E. Sandham of Wyoming, 111., Judge J. 0. Cunningham of 
Urbana, and President A. S. Draper; Professors William L. Pillsbury, 
David Kinley, Herbert J. Barton, and E. B. Greene, all of the Illinois 
State University. 

In response to this call there assembled on the day set in the physics' 
lecture-room, Engineering Hall, University of Illinois, among others, 
Judge H. W. Beckwith, Prof. E. J. James, Dr. J. F. Snyder, Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer Weber, W. E. Sandham, George P. Davis, J. 0. Cunningham, 
Ezra M. Prince, E. C. Page, Dr. C. T. Wyckoff, President A. S. Draper, 
and Professors Kinley and Greene of the University of Illinois. Judge 
Beckwith was made chairman of the meeting, and Professor Greene 

The first annual meeting was held in Peoria at the Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute. Papers were given by Judge Beckwith, Hon. Eichard Ed\\ards, 
Dr. J. F. Snyder, J. H. Burnham, G. M. McConnel and George N". Black. 
Most of these speakers were the founders and pioneers of the society, to 
whom we owe all honor. 

At the second annual meeting held at Springfield, January 30-31, 
1901, the secretary reported about sixty members at the close of the first 
actual year of work. We now have about 800 members, including all 
classes of members. 

The meetings have been held in Springfield, except the one of 1902 
at Jacksonville, the one of 1904 at Bloomington, and the first already 
mentioned at Peoria. 

There have been but three presidents of the society: H. W. Beckwith, 
J. F. Snyder and Alfred Orendorff. Prof. E. B. Greene, J. W. Putnam, 
J. McCan Davis and Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber have served the society 
as its secretaries. 

There are about sixty members of the society who are members under 
an agreement with the Illinois Press Association, by which editors send 
copies of their papers to the society and in return become members of 
the society without further payment of dues. This has been an excellent 
arranirement and these members are amone the most active of our field 
workers; they publish our notices,, advertise our meetings, etc. 

We have another class of members, honorary members, who reflect 
credit upon the society : John M. Palmer, John A. McClemand, James 
B. Bradwell, S. M. Cullom, Bichard Yates, Charles S. Deneen, Jane 
Addams, and many others. 

The society was recognized by the State by an amendment to the Act 
organizing the Illinois State Historical Librarv, making the societv a 
department of the librar}-. This amendment bore date of the Grovemor's 
approval May 16, 1903. It carried no appropriation, but authorized the 
library trustees to pay the nec-essary expenses of the society. This plan 
is a reversal of most plans for organization of state historical societies, 
and seemed to some of the members an exemplification of the old expres- 
sion '' the cart before the horse," but the library was already in existence 
and tiie scheme has worked fairly well, though it is not without its 
drawbacks. Subsequent legislatures have made small appropriations for 
the benefit of the society. The publications of the society are in demand, 
and are rated high by historians; it does reference work, advises local 
societies, etc. 



SpKECGFiEiD, III, Mat 13. 1909. 
To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Sodekfj 

GEXTLEirEX — ^I beg to submit to rou mj report of the actiTities of tbe 
society from Jan. 30, 1908 to May 13, 1909, a period longer by four 
montibs than that embraced in former reports. This girteen montibs has 
been one of nnparalleled actiTitr in erery branch of tiie aoaeiy's wort 
We have now 800 members indnding all classes, Hfe, hononur, pr^ 
association and actiTe members, and they are all, I think, mndi inter- 
ested in the work. I hare been accused of taking rose colored riews uf 
the society and its prospects, but I think the most pessimistic can feel 
encouraged by the growth of the society for the past year, and its present 

The society is now so large that I think we should hold meetings 
oftener than once a year, and while I fully beliere that tibe ^miiial meet- 
ings should be held at Springfield the home of the society, I believe we 
ought to assist our local societies or members by holding meetings or 
assisting in them, to commemorate local historic erents. The aid whidi 
the society gave in the celebration of the semi-centeimial of tiie lincoln- 
Douglas debates of 1S5S, is a splendid illustration of what may be 
accomplished along that line. While I hardly beUere or espect that any 
of us will lire to see another sudi a ^lendid series of historical cdehra- 
tions as those held in the seven debate cities, and which were attaided 
by the President and Secretary of the society, still we can accept th^ 
success as an evidence of what concerted work can do, and as an object 
lesson and an evidence of how much our people are really intero&ted in 
our own history. The society hopes to publ^ a full account of tiieee 
celebrations, under tiie general editorship of CoL Clark E. Carr, and tlie 
special editorship, for his own town, of the chairmen in chaig^e of ihe 
local celebrations. I have often suggested &e need of a period&ral, and 
during the last year the publication of such an organ las been began 
and promises success for the future. 

The amendment to our constitution changJTig flie time of our anninil 
meeting came on an appropriate year, because the celebration of tiie 
centennial of the birth of Abraham Lincoln was held in Fdmiary, and 
as the society took an active part in that cel^ration. it in a measore 

— 2 H S 


took the place of our January meeting. An account of the celebration 
has already been printed in the Journal of the society, and need not be 
repeated here. In spite of the fact that the celebration was general and 
wonderfully inspiring, the fact remains that the State of Illinois has not 
made an enduring memorial of this great historic year. It is not yet 
too late. Cities and associations have done their part, but the State of 
Illinois has done little or nothing. 

The society has lost a number of its valued members by the hand of 
death since our last meeting, they are, as far as known to me: 

George R. Baker, Chicago, March 6, 1908. 

George N. Black, Springfield, April 22, 1908. 

Horatio C. Burchard, Freeport, May 14, 1908. 

Walter E. Carlin, Jerseyville, 111., July 18, 1908. 

Mrs. Benjamin S. Edwards, Springfield, 111., March 18, 1909. 

Dr. Richard Edwards, Bloomington, 111.. March, 1908. 

Rev. J. C. Elliott, Swanwick, 111., June 29, 1908. 

Miss- Catherine I. Enos, Springfield, 111., February 8, 1909. 

Dr. A. W. French, Springfield, Hi., April 27, 1909. 

Dr. Marcus P. Hatfield, Chicago. 

Herman Justi, Chicago. 

E. B. McCagg, Chicago, August 2, 1908. 

A. C. Matthews, Pittsfield, 111., June 14, 1908. 

Richard W. Mills, Jacksonville, 111., January 18, 1908. 

Ezra M. Prince, Bloomington, 111.. August 27, 1908. 

Peyton Roberts, Monmouth, 111., January 12, 1908. 

H. C. Todd, Oak Park, 111. 

Mrs. Catherine G. Yates, Jacksonville, 111., October 6. 1908. 

As the society grows, naturally the number of deaths we have to report 
is each year larger. I again ask the members to notify the secretary of 
deaths of our members coming to their knowledge. 

The president of the society has been very ill, and we have been much 
concerned about his condition, but he is happily much better, and we 
hope is on the road to complete recovery. 

The secretary of the society as the secretary of the Fort Massac Com- 
mission, took part in the dedication of the monument at Fort Massac 
Park. This was one of the largest and most impressive historical meet- 
ings ever held in that section of the State. A full account of the cere- 
monies has been published in the Illinois State Year Book of the 
Daughters of the American Eevolution. 

Bills are now pending before the General Assembly, asking protection 
for the sites of the frontier forts or posts, particularly Fort Chartres, 
Fort Eussell and Fort Clark, and another proposing to constitute a com- 
mission looking toward the preservation of Starved Rock and adjacent 
land, and to ascertain the expediency and feasibility of preserving other 
historic spots in the State. 

This last bill (Starved Eock) had its origin with the LaSalle County 
Historical Societv, though the Geographic Society of Chicago is doing 


all in its power to advance it. This is a worthy and important work for 
the historical interests of the State, and I beg to offer a plea for the 
Great Cahokia or Monk's Mound, which is being neglected. This is one 
of the most wonderful archaeological relics in the country, and arch- 
aeologists from other states, do not understand our ignorance of, or 
indifference to this important historic pyramid, which is exposed to dis- 
integration and other dangers of obliteration. The preservation of this 
mound is a great work, and it is before us. We must face it. What can 
we do about it? 

Historical activities are increasing in all parts of the State, and we 
may surely claim a share in awakening this interest. The reference work 
in the library increases at the same rate, and we try to meet it, though it 
often means many additional hours of labor. 

There are now in press, published by the Library Board under title of 
Vol. 4 of the Illinois Historical Collections, the official letters and 
papers of the first four governors of Illinois: Bond, Coles, Edwards and 
Eeynolds. This work is edited by Prof. E. B. Greene, which insures 
its value. No. 5 of the same series will be the Kaskaskia Eecords, a 
companion or complement to the Cahokia Eecords and edited by Mr. 
C. W. Alvord. 

Professor J. A, James is still at work upon the George Eogers Clark 
papers, which will in time be published in the same series, and will 
probably make three volumes. 

There are also plans for other publications. The demand for the 
publications is very great, and most of them are out of print. It is to 
be regretted that we cannot supply them to new members. I am still 
urging our members to assist in the collection of manuscripts and other 
historical material. 

A circular letter was published in the Journal enumerating the kinds 
of material which we desire. Our committees have, as a rule, done 
exceptionally good work this year, and will report upon their own activ- 

The work of the Library and Society progresses. This year large 
purchases of books and pictures relating to Mr. Lincoln have been made 
and we have made long strides in our genealogical collection. We are 
now subscribing to nearly all of the current American periodicals, as 
we found that we were often missing excellent historical articles, by 
failing to procure the magazines. 

We are in very crowded quarters, but as the appropriations asked for 
by the various interests were so large, the directors of the society have 
not made concerted efforts toward a new building. Two bills have been 
introduced with such an object in view, but as it is so late in the session, 
it is not likely that they will be passed, although there is no question 
as to their merit. 

The society is growing in all its branches, and we have concluded a 
most successful year. 

Very respectfully, 

Jessie Palmer Weber. 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 





Balance on hand from 1908 

Amount received from dues of members of the society, 1908. 

Total receipts. 


Expenses of Mr. Horace White 

Expenses of Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson 

Maldener & Son, supplies 

R. L . Berry, supplies 

E. Saltzenstein, carriages furnished speakers 

R. A. Guest, ser\ices 

Annie G. Springer, stenographer 

Bell Miller, supplies 

Grace Fish, services 

Vernor Henshie, services 

Springfield Gas Light Co 

Springfield Transfer Co., services 

Connelley & Co., supplies 



Total expenditures . 

S77 75 

18 00 
38 50 

4 00 
6 00 

10 00 

2 00 

19 50 

5 00 

3 50 

2 50 

3 00 
16 20 
27 00 

S 14 55 
.365 CO 

$379 55 

233 83 

$145 72 



The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in the secretary's office on Thursday morning, May 13, 1909, at 9 :30 

There were present: 

President Alfred Orendorff, who presided, Messrs. Burnham, Cun- 
ningham, Collins, Eussel, Meese and the secretary .of the society, Mrs. 

Tlie secretary's report was offered, read and accepted. It was directed 
that it be read in the business meeting of the society. The report of the 
treasurer was read and accepted, and it was directed that it be read in 
the business meeting of the society. 

Mr. Eussel moved that the financial year of the society run with the 
dates of the annual meeting, that is from one meeting to the next. This 
motion was carried. 

The meeting then adjourned to meet later during the session of the 
annual meeting. 

The Boaed of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society 
Met Friday Noon, May 14, 1909. 

The newly elected directors of the society, organized by the election 
of President Alfred Orendorff, as chairman of the board, and Jessie 
Palmer Weber as secretary and treasurer. 

There were present: Messrs. Eussel, Meese, Clinton, Cunningham, 
Mrs. Weber and President Orendorff, officers re-elected. 

The question of the sale of the publications of the society was dis- 
cussed, but no decision was reached and the matter was postponed for 
further consideration. 

Captain Burnham spoke on local historical societies in the State, and 
asked that his former report be omitted. 

Mr, Meese reported that he had received fram the Hon. Frank 0. 
Lowden an offer of a gift of $750.00, for the purpose of marking the 
route of Lincoln's army from Beardstown to the Eock river country. It 
was moved that this offer be reported to the society. 

It was moved that Hon. Walter B. Douglas, Miss Cora A. Benneson, 
and Hon. C. M. Burton, distinguished persons from other states who 
have come to this annual meeting to give papers and addresses before 
the society, be recommended to the society for honorary membership in 
the society. This motion was voted upon and carried. 


A special committee on the periodical was appointed, consisting of 
Andrew Eussel, J. H. Burnham, Jessie Palmer Weber, and the president 
of the society. Captain Burnham moved and Judge Cunningham 
seconded the motion, tha.t a special committee to plan some work along 
the line of State archaeological investigation be appointed. This motion 
was carried. Mr. Eussell spoke of Professor Udden of Augustana Col- 
lege as a person who might give assistance along this line. 

Mr. Eussel moved that the salary of the secretary of the society be 
$600.00 per annum instead of $500.00 as in the past year. This motion 
was seconded and carried. 

A special committee, Mr. Eussel and Mrs. Weber, were appointed to 
procure a suitable sign to have placed over the door of the library rooms, 
carrying the name of both the historical society and the library. 

The following committees were named for the ensuing year: 

Publication Committee. 
Evarts B. Greene, University of Illinois, Urbana, Chairman. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

J. McCan Davis, Springfield. 

Geo. A. Dupuy, Chicago. 

C. W. Alvord, Urbana. 

M. H. Chamberlin, Lebanon. 

Geo. W. Smith, Carbondale. 

Stephen L. Spear, Springfield. 
John L. Cooper, Fairfield. 
Walter Colyer, Albion. 
Mrs. Harry Ainsworth, Moline. 
Judge Farlin Q. Ball, Chicago. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Pkoqram Committee. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Chairman. 

J. H. Burnham, Bloomington. 
J. A. James, Evanston. 

E. S. Willcox, Peoria. 
Wm. A. Meese, Moline. 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago. 
Mrs. Catherine Goss Wheeler, 

Paul Selby, Chicago. 
Charles P. Kane, Springfield. 

F. J. Heinl, Jacksonville. 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, Jackson- 
Logan Hay, Springfield. 
Clinton L. Conkling, Springfield. 
Wm. G. Edens, Chicago. 
Mrs. Martha K. Baxter, Pawnee. 
Prof. J. H. Collins, Springfield. 
Chas. G. Dawes, Evanston. 
Mrs. Geo. H. Davidson, Oak Park. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Finance and Auditing Committee. 
M. H. Chamberlin, Lebanon, Chairman. 

E. J. James, Urbana. 
Andrew Russel, Jacksonville. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 


Committee on Legislation. 
M. H. Chamberlin, Lebanon, Chairman. 

E. J. James, Urbana. 
E. A. Snively, Springfield. 
0. F. Berry, Carthage. 
Samuel Alschuler, Aurora. 
R. V. Carpenter. Belvidere. 
Henry McCormick. Normal. 
Andrew Russel, Jacksonville. 

Charles E. Hull, Salem. 
R. S. Tuthill, Chicago. 
Lee P. English, Chicago. 
Prof. David Felmley, Normal. 
O. A. Harker, Champaign. 
Campbell S. Hearn, Quincy. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Special Committee to Makk Route of Lincoln's Army Trail from Beards- 
town TO Mouth of Rock River. 

Wm. A. Meese, Moline, Chairman. 

Robert H. Garm, Beardstown. Henry S. Dixon, Dixon, 111. 

John S. Bagby, Rushville. 0. M. Dickerson, Western Illinois 

Dr. T. W. Burrows, Ottawa, Normal School, Macomb. 

Luke Dickerman, Stillman Valley.' 


J. H. Burnham, Bloomington, Chairman. 

J. Seymour Currey, Evanston. 
George W. Smith, Carbondale. 
Elliot Callender, Peoria. 
J. 0. Cunningham, Urbana. 
Mrs. Charles A. Webster, Galesburg. 
Horace Hull, Ottawa. 
Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel, Jackson- 

L. J. Freese, Eureka. 

Gen. John I. Rinaker, Carlinville. 

J. W. Clinton, Polo. 

J. J. Mclnerney, Alton. 

Miss Louise Maertz, Quincy. 

Emil Mannhardt, Chicago. 

J. Nick Perrin. Belleville. 

Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Committee on Membership. 

Judge J Otis Humphrey, Springfield, Chairman. 

W. H. Stennett, Oak Park. 
Charles L. Capen, Bloomington. 
Daniel Berry, M. D., Carmi. 
John M. Rapp, Fairfield. 
Mrs. C. C. Brown, Springfield. 
Wm. Jayne, M. D.. Springfield. 
Geo. E. Dawson, Chicago. 
A. W. Crawford, Hillsboro. 
Mrs. E. M. Bacon, Decatur. 
Mrs. I. G. Miller, Springfield. 

Wm. F. Fowler, Aurora. 
R. H. Aishton, Evanston. 
Andrew L. Anderson, Lincoln. 
Sumner S. Anderson, Charleston. 
Smith D. Atkins, Freeport. 
Miss Alta Baltzell, Centralia. 
S. W. Baxter, East St. Louis. 
Mrs. Inez J. Bender, Monticello. 
Charles Bent, Morrison. 
Mrs. Geo. D. TunniclifE, Macomb. 

Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 


Committee on the Marking of Historic Sites in Illinois. 
Mrs. M. T. Scott, Bloomington, Chairman. 

Harry Ainsworth, Moline. 
Francis G. Blair, Springfield. 
John E. Miller, East St. Louis. 
J. S. Little, Rushville. 
J. H. Collins, Springfield. 
Charles B. Campbell, Kankakee. 
Miss Lottie E. Jones, Danville. 
Mrs. LeRoy Bacchus, Springfield. 
Terry Simmons, Marseilles. 

H. S. Hicks, Rockford. 

Miss Sarah M. Gough, El Paso. 

Clarence Griggs, Ottawa. 

Lewis M. Gross, Sycamore. 

Mrs. Lee J. Hubble, Monmouth. 

C. F. Gunther, Chicago. 

Miss Ada D. Harmon, Glenn Ellyn. 

John H. Hauberg, Moline. 

J. W. Houston, Berwick. 

Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne, Springfield, Chairman. 

Mrs. E. S. Walker, Springfield. 

Mrs. Thomas Worthington, Jack- 

Mrs. John C. Ames, Streator. 

Miss May Latham, Lincoln. 

Mrs. G. K. Hall, Springfield. 

Mrs. E. G. Crabbe. Corpus Christi, 

Norman G. Flagg, Moro. 

Rev. Chas. W. Lefiingwell, Knox- 

Richard V. Carpenter, Belvidere. 
Oliver R. Williamson, Chicago. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

Special Committee on the Publication of the Journal of the Illinois 

State Historical Society. 

Andrew Russel, Jacksonville, Chairman. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 
J. H. Burnham, Bloomington, 

J. McCan Davis, Springfield. 
Alfred Orendorff, ex officio. 

There being no further business presented^ the meeting of the Board of 
Directors adjourned. 

Special Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, Dec. 2, 1909, at 10 :00 o'clock A. M. 

The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met in 
the room of the secretary of the society on the morning of Dec. 2, 1909, 
at 10:00 o'clock. There were present: 

Messrs. Burnham, Chamberlin, Smith, Norton, Russell, Weber, Esch- 
mann, and by invitation Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, and a little later in the 
morning President E. J. James came into the meeting for a short time. 

Dr. Chamberlin was asked to preside. 

Resolutions were presented and passed upon the death of Gen. Oren- 
dorif, late president of the society. 

The secretary read a telegram from Col. Clark E. Carr, the acting 
president, stating that he was on the way from his home in Galesburg, 
but had been delayed on the way and would arrive later in the day, 
which he did. The question of the publication of the periodical of the 
society, the Journal, was discussed. The secretary said that an attempt 


had been made to follow the style of the Iowa Journal, but that it was 
proving very expensive. Prof. Geo. W. Smith, Captain Burnham, Mr. 
Eussel and others spoke of the fine appearance of the magazine. Pro- 
fessor Smith moved, and it was seconded by Father Eschmann, voted 
upon and carried, that the Secretary is hereby directed to continue the 
magazine in its present style, and to endeavor to keep up its present 
standard. The secretary spoke of the difficulty of procuring suitable 
material for the magazine. This matter was discussed at length. Pro- 
fessor Smith moved, seconded by Captain Burnham that the secretary 
be elected editor-in-chief of the magazine, with power to select four or 
five associate editors, and that the names of the editorial staff appear in 
each number of the magazine. 

It was moved, and the motion was voted upon and carried, that County 
Historical Societies be called upon to make contributions to the Journal. 
Captain Burnham spoke at length upon the need of an active committee 
on archaeology. Plans were discussed as to securing aid and cooperation 
^from the new State Park Commission in the preservation of historic 
spots in the State. 

The directors desire that Dr. Snyder be chairman of the committee 
on archaeology if he will accept it, and the secretary and Captain Bum- 
ham were asked to find out from Dr. Snyder, whether or not he will 
accept the chairmanship of the committee. 

Professor Smith asked if maps of historic spots in the State were to 
be procured, containing descriptions of camps, drains, etc. 

Mr. W. T. Norton was asked to contribute a paper on old Fort Belle 

It was suggested that the society ought to have a paper on Camp 
Douglas near Springfield. It was decided that Mr. Lincoln Dubois of 
Springfield be asked to prepare such a paper for the annual meeting of 
the society. 

It was decided that the secretary call the attention of the State Park 
Commission to the Great Cahokia Mound in the south part of Madison 
county, and that the suggestion be made that such historic spots or sites, 
camps, forts, etc., not suitable or available for State parks be marked 
in some manner. 

It was voted that the secretary be authorized to ask some competent 
person to prepare and read at the coming annual meeting, an address 
on the life and character of Gen. Alfred Orendorff, the late president 
of the society. There being no further business presented, the meeting 



liEPORT OF Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publica- 
tions, Illinois State Historical Society, May 13, 1909. 

To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Comniittee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications begs 
leave to report as follows : 

There has been a steadily increasing interest in this department of 
the society's work. As an evidence of this we point to the hearty coopera- 
tion of this comniittee, with the chairman of the Program Committee, in 
securing for this annual meeting of the society a valuable paper on 
Genealogy and the West, by Mrs. Harriet Taylor of the Xewberry' 
Library, Chicago, which library has one of the largest genealogical 
collections in the west. 

We have recently published in the Jotirnai of the society, for July- 
August, 1908, a partial list of some of our rarest and best works on 
genealogy. Since this publication was issued, we have added quite a 
number of valuable publications along this line, namely, the South 
Carolina Historical Collections, and their Historical and Genealogical 
Magazine; the Georgia Historical Collections; the Annals of Augusta 
County, Va. ; History of Albemarle County, Va.; Hayden's Virginia 
Genealogies; the Colonial Virginia Eegister, which contains a list of 
governors, councillors and other higher officials, and the members of the 
House of Burgesses from 1619-1776, and the Eevolutionary Conventions 
of the Colony of Virginia ; Historical Collections of Georgia by Rev. 
George White, published in 1854." Additions also have been made to our 
Pennsylvania Archives, Pennsylvania in the Eevolution, 1775-1783 ; 
names of persons who took the oath of allegiance to the state of Penn- 
sylvania, 1776-1794. 

As a large percentage of the population of central and southern Illi- 
nois is comprised of families of fither Virginia, Kentucky or Carolina 
ancestry, a large part of our work has been along these lines. We have 
been trying to secure all available material on these states. 

As yet we have not succeeded in securing the works on genealogy from 
the State Library; we have not given up the idea, however, but think at 
some future time this can be accomplished. As the libraries are now 
situated on the same floor in the capitol building, when it is necessary 
to use a work which is in the State Library, we refer our students to 
that department, and they can avail themselves of its resources without 
great inconvenience. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman Committee on Genealogy 

and Genealogical Piihlications. 




At the 1908 annual meeting of the society it was decided to begin the 
publication of a periodical by the society, and a committee was appointed 
for that purpose. 

This committee consisted of Mr. Andrew Russel, Capt. J. H. Bum- 
ham, the president and the secretary, and it now begs to report to the 
society that it has performed the duties assigned to it, and with pride 
it begs to refer you to the result of its labors. 

Its members feel that they have made a creditable beginning and they 
beg that the members express their opinions and wishes as to the future 
work of the Journal. 

The beginnings of the venture were small, but we feel that the fact 
that the society actually has an organ is a great step forward. The 
Journal is issued quarterly, and we hope that each number will be an 
improvement upon the ones preceding it. 

We have with the April Journal begun the second volume, and we 
beg for communications from the members upon matters of historical 
interest, such as the celebration of historical anniversaries, notices of 
books by Illinois authors, or about Illinois persons, places or events, or 
information as to the deaths of members of the society. 

The committee acknowledges its indebtedness to Dr. J. F. Snyder for 
much assistance, kindly and helpful advice and valuable contributions, 
without which it could hardly have achieved so great a measure of 
success. The articles of Dr. Snyder on Illinois Archseolog}^ are valuable 
contributions to that neglected branch of Illinois history. 

They have received high praise from competent critics, and they are 
in request by persons who are interested in archseology. 

The third paper of the series will be published in the July number of 
the Journal. We hope the members of the society approve of the plan 
of the Journal, are pleased with its improved appearance and interested 
in its future. 


Andrew Russel, 
j. h. burnham, 
Alfred Orendorff, 
Jessie Palmer Weber. 






The annual report of an organization which has held but one regular 
meeting in the twelve months succeeding the last annual meeting, that 
of January 23, 1908, need not be lengihy or tiresome. 

Certain events of the past year, however, in connection with which 
the oflficers and members of this society have borne an important part, 
deserve especial mention. 

The year 1908 is distinguished as having been the fiftieth anniversary 
of the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates, one of which, and one of the 
most important of which, from a political and historical standpoint, was 
held in Galesburg. 

The date of the debate in Galesburg was Oct. 7, 1858 ; the place, the 
Knox college campus, and the speakers occupied a platform which was 
erected on the east side of the building now designated as "Old Main." 

The celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of this event by Knox 
college and the city of Galesburg, on the same day of the month, and 
upon the same spot upon which the debate occurred, marks the year as, 
historically, the most important in the annals of Galesburg, with the 
exception perhaps of the year of the great debate, a half century ago. 

Your president, Colonel Carr, as chairman-at-large of the committees 
promoting these celebrations at different points throughout the State 
where the debates occurred and who, as general promoter, was himself 
largely responsible for their conspicuous success; your vice president, 
Mr. Shumway, as mayor of Galesburg, bearing his share of responsibility 
in the carrying out of the very successful celebration in this city ; and 
your secretary, as the medium of the historical society, in furnishing 
valuable information and material to the daily papers for their souvenir 
editions of that date, have each contributed in no small degree to the 
making up of history, as it concerns our city and our county during this 
eventful year. 

Nor have their efforts been entirely without compensation, for not 
only was it their pleasure to share, with others, in the interest and 
pleasure of the notable occasion, but by thus sharing in it they have 
helped to secure much valuable historical material for the archives of 
this society. 


At the beginning of the campaign for the making up of the souvenir 
editions of the daily papers, your secretary was frequently and persist- 
ently interviewed for such historical data and incident as might be 
produced by reference to her own private collection, and to the contents 
of our historical library, which, meagre though it may be, is each year 
becoming more valuable. 

The favor of a ready response to these repeated demands upon the 
time and strength of a busy woman was granted, upon the condition that 
whatever of new material might be gathered in following out the lines 
of research suggested by your secretary, should revert to the historical 
society whenever it had served its purpose in making up the special 
editions of the daily papers. 

In this way much material which will be of great value to the future 
historians of Galesburg and Knox connty is now preserved in our library. 
Not only were the photographs and prints of historic personages and 
places turned over to us, but many negatives, some of which had not 
been printed, came into our possession. 

In ready response to the suggestion of your secretary, Mr. Wagoner 
of the Mail Printing Company also gave into the custody of the society 
the plates and photographs used by himself in his valuable historical 
numbers of the Weeh's Review. 

Your secretary would urgently and earnestly recommend that, now, 
with these added materials in hand, and with the memory of the year's 
notable events freshly and vividly in mind, immediate, definite and 
determined effort should be made to preserve these materials, and the 
memorios connected with them, which are but too rapidly vanishing, in 
some permanent form as a history of our community. Only a few of 
those remain who have seen, and have been a factor in the events which 
have made up the history of Galesburg since its beginning. 

During the year your secretary has preserved, as heretofore, news- 
paper clippings relating to persons and events which make up our current 
history, and which, thus preserved, will sometime become a valuable 
contribution to the history of the past. 

Two manuscripts have been added to our collection during the year. 
The one, a copy of the original preserved in the State Historical Library 
in Springfield, and written by the lamented Mary Allen West in 1872, 
who, had she but lived, would undoubtedly have served as the Galesburg 
historian for whom we are now looking. The manuscript is entitled 
"How Galesburg Grew," and was evidently written for some public 
anniversary occasion in our city. 

The other manuscript embodies the address delivered by Mr. Eay M. 
Arnold on the occasion of the first observance of Knox-Galesburg day 
last September, in which he reviews the history of the town, the college 
and the church and pays a high tribute to the founders. 

Both of these papers will be of service to our future historian. 

An old volume has also been added to our collection whose imprint 
bears the date 1833 and the place of publication New Haven, Conn. Its 
somewhat unique history as a book is a matter of interest. During last 


spring an old house on Waters street was remodeled. Fifty years ago, 
from 1856 to 1858, the house was occupied by Dr. Edward Beecher, then 
pastor of the church which worshipped in the building now known as 
Beecher chapel. 

When tearing out one of the partitions of this house the workmen 
found a little book which had slipped down between the walls. 

It is a book of Sunday evening lectures, delivered in his church in 
New Haven by Dr. Leonard Bacon, one of the most famous divines of 
the past century. Upon the fly-leaf is the inscription, scarcely legible, 
" Eev. Edward Beecher, from the author, Leonard Bacon." 

The book came into the possession of Dr. G. S. Chalmers, and he 
kindly presented it to the historical society, and should receive our 

Such souvenirs of the Lincoln-Douglas celebration as could be secured 
have been preserved by your secretary. They include a window hanger 
advertising the event, a program issued by the People's Trust and 
Savings Bank, and buttons bearing pictures of the two men, which were 
sold upon the street. 

Great effort was made to secure the official badge, program and 
invitation, but without success. 

We have received very few relics during the past months, probably 
on account of the infrequency of our meetings. The public naturally 
loses sight and knowledge of an organization which does not make itself 
manifest. So far as the secretary is informed, the old carriage reach,* 
mentioned in the Minutes of the May meeting, is the only recent addition 
to our collection of relics. 

The typewritten records of the society up to date of the last annual 
meeting have been made secure in a permanent binding for the purpose 
of preservation and reference. 

Your secretary wishes to express her deep obligation to Mr. S. A. 
Wagoner for valuable assistance rendered by him in identifying and 
labeling the photographs and negatives to which reference has been 
made. Without his assistance many of them would have been entirely 
without historical value to us. 

This completes the year's summary and the report is respectfully 

Martha Farnham- Webster. 
Secretary Knox County Historical Society. 

Annual meeting, January 16, 1909. 

* From carriage in which Lincoln rode from Knoxville to Galesburg on the morning of Oct. 7, 1858. 



Yesterday, too briefly for its real importance, 1 advocated county and 
then township organization of historical societies. There should be such 
a society in every county of the State, and to bring it about ought to be 
not only the pleasure, but the duty of the parent body, the State society. 
This can be done by a competent, persistent committee, through a well 
compiled, printed folder, stating purpose and great need of preserving 
past and present making of history, for in the rush of to-day it is but a 
breath from the actual now to the past. In such a folder outline a plan 
of organization, and add a form of constitution and by-laws. Be earnest, 
intense in suggestion, giving popularity to the movement. Make of 
county organization a "fad" if no other plan that is feasible wins. Time 
will bring about the better and wiser, more true and lasting. 

Since 1876 I have been the publisher of the Marseilles Plaindeaier, 
and have bound files of it to date. To me these files are of very great 
value, in fact they are not for sale at any price. Not to be selfish and 
believing that my readers should partake with me in the past of local 
history published, I very carefully and thoroughly compiled from these 
bound volumes a "Quarter Century History of Marseilles." Making the 
type up into pages of usual book size, and numbering each consecutively, 
an installment was printed week by week in my paper, making it pos- 
sible for the readers to cut them out and paste in a scrap book, thus 
having the whole history, when done. If any other publisher ii> this or 
other states has done this, I have yet to know of it. Somehow the 
secretary of the State society heard of what had been done and wrote to 
me, asking for a copy of the production for preservation. I could not 
spare the file of papers with the hook pages in, nor yet the one pasted 
"scrap book" I had made up. To refuse the request of the secretary was 
a hard task, but no other recourse remained. Let me add that in time, 
in some form of publication, it is my intention to bring that local history 
up to date. 

Your only historians are your newspapers, as nearly reliable as it is 
possible to be in the whirl of today, and, anyhow, away ahead in accur- 
acy of the histories based on rumor or memory productions which evolve 
one thing today and another and mayhap totally different tomorrow. 

As helpful in society organization let me quote from an address I 
made at the annual meeting of the Manlius-Eutland Township Histor- 
ical Society of which I am president, prefacing it by stating that the 
purpose of the township society is to begin a systematic collection of the 
first things in the two townships, such as manuscripts, letters, photos, 


printed sketches, etc.; these will include from start to date village 
presidents, city mayors, postmasters, ministers, station agents, editors, 
school principals and superintendents, bankers, physicians, etc. Also 
all who have attained prominence politically and otherwise. These will 
be filed at the public library at present for safety. All interested are 
asked to assist the historians in their work of preservation. 


Feb. 13, 1908, the two township historical societies of Eutland and 
Manlius were each one year old. An auxilliary of the county society, 
with no dues except the one dollai for membership and one dollar an- 
nually paid to the county society, the members have attended as best 
they could the quarterly meetings at Ottawa of the parent body. Such 
as have done this can but feel amply repaid for the time spent, and have 
more fully realized the great need of preserving history for the influence 
it exerts towards the welfare of those now living, and those to come as 
time goes on. Only through comparison can progress be determined. 
What of helpfulness the careers of those preceding us may give, we cer- 
tainly need and in turn we are alike answerable to those who succeed us. 
Failure of the past to preserve records need not be repeated by us. 

Your president has done what he could by attendance, suggestion and 
addresses, to build up the county society, and is grateful for the appreci- 
ation it has brought him. At its first annual meeting those present felt 
that the year gone by had been an encouraging one, and that the outlook 
for the new year was excellent. It will be well for our township societies 
to aid in all possible ways to maintain this interest not only, but increase 
it, for growth only is evidence of life worthy of mention. 

In view of the coming half century celebration at Ottawa of the Lincoln 
and Douglas debate, which is to take place Aug. 21, 1908, our societies 
should do their part in getting out to it all now living in the two town- 
ships who were at the original debate. Let us make a showing to be 
proud of, as we hope every other township will also do. It means very 
much to have been of the number on that eventful day so long ago, and 
what it brought of association with the greatest man of our magnificent 
country. The heroes of our nation are not kings in name or nature, but 
there is a kingship in what they stand for, and it is to this, no homage 
too great can be paid. Abraham Lincoln, in the flesh, was but mortal 
like you and I, but the principles he stood for are undying, he was but 
another form of old glory, the flag essentially but cloth, but in what it 
means of life and liberty for all who own allegiance to it, mighty in 

The erection of a county historical building at Ottawa, with contri- 
butions to its cost from the county as a whole, is advocated and urged. 
It may take some time to awaken the interest to attain this result, but 
in the meanwhile it is possible for each township to begin the preserva- 
tion of historical matters, for without these individual collections, a 
county one would be of but limited interest. Photos of persons, places 
and incidents, old letters, deeds, early bibles, books, and the like, once 
lost or destroyed, can never be regained. These should be given to some 



one reliable in the township, and be by him carefully placed for safe 
keeping, the public library, where there is one, being a most suitable 
place. Once so deposited they belong, of right, to the whole people of 
the community. As a part of their duties our township historians should 
make these collections in person not only, but urge others to bring them 
to them. One most convenient means of preservation is to clip all items 
from the county papers of a historical nature, file away and paste in a 
book for reference, always of course seeing that as far as possible they 
have a local bearing on the community for which they are being secured. 

It is essentially the mission of our township societies to partake in, 
and encourage all public doings of a historical nature. These come in 
when those within public notice have in any way or at any time been a 
part of the life of our townships. One distinct feature in this regard is 
the home coming now so justly popular in many sections. It is well to 
recall what has been a part of the life of our communities and what part 
in the honor of the outside world those who have lived their lives in 
other sections now occupy. 

Township, county and State historical societies are all links in the 
chain of the life we live, each the greater only as the other is greater. 
In preserving history each must do his part. Do yours and you will have 
the satisfaction of reaping what of local reward it offers not only, but 
the influence it cannot fail to exert on the people of other townships 
within the county. 

In view of the excellent paper on "Genealogy and the West," by Mrs. 
Harriet Taylor, of the Newberry Library, Chicago, the close of Mr. Sim- 
mons' address has a more forcible application. He said: 

"A speaker at a recent banquet maintained that ancestry has little to 
do in shaping one's life, perhaps intending only to refer in such con- 
nection to the life of Lincoln, whose ancestry is conceded to have fore- 
shadowed but faintly the great life the emancipator lived. If such 
a statement be true, how intensely it narrows the average career of a 
parent, and how it falsifies that oft quoted poet when he said, 'It is not 
all of life to live, or all of death to die.' If the achievements of a parent 
are to end at his death, so far as those of his flesh are concerned, he is 
answerable in this life largely only to self, is that far but a few degrees 
removed from the animal. Aspiration, hopes, desire that in his children 
he may live again in a betterment of existence, that his struggles to 
climb upward and achieve will be only those of his so short life, the 
incidents of but a passing breath, are chilled and killed if ancestry is 
but delusive in the shaping of life. 

What is all history but a record of the deeds of our ancestry, and do 
they play no part in our lives? Lincoln's was an isolated experience, 
if we narrow the influences of ancestry to those of his parents only, but 
in his career culminated the heroic and everlasting right principles of 
the ages as lived in the best men of the era to which thev belonged; in 
him the great Creator designed that their expression should see the 
light. Thus truthfully regarded, well may we say, 'Oh; for the ancestry 
of a Lincoln.' " 

— 3 H S 


Papers Read at the Annual 
Meeting, 1909. 




By Oliver A. Marker. 

A court is a tribunal established for the public administration of 
justice, and composed of one or more judges who sit for that purpose at 
fixed times and places, attended by proper officers. While its organiza- 
tion and power to act depend upon constitutional provision and legisla- 
tive enactment, it is wisely provided that when organized, it shall 
exercise its functions over the parties and subject matter before it, free 
from interference by the executive or legislative departments of govern- 
ment. It is the exclusive depository of all judicial powers. Legislation 
must provide the means for bringing judicial questions before the courts, 
the compensation of their officers, the expenses of their sessions and the 
places for holding them. It may within constitutional authorization 
provide what jurisdiction the different courts may exercise. In some 
states the chief executive, also, by virtue of his appointive power, may 
be required to act, and in some instances he may, by virtue of his police 
and military power, be called upon to aid and protect the courts. But 
as to how the courts shall deal with and decide the question before them, 
neither the legislature nor the governor shall have a voice. The inde- 
pendence of the judiciary, national and state, has ever been the pride 
of a liberty loving and peace desiring people, and every attempted 
encroachment upon it by other departments of government has been 
looked upon with alarm. It is the glory of the English constitution to 
have led in establishing this most important principle. It did not exist 
in England prior to the Revolution of 1688, and its introduction gave 
new character to the courts. 

History is replete with the evils experienced in that country from 
judges depending upon the will and favor of the crown. When the 
destruction of chartered rights was attempted by Charles the Second, 
and his brother after him, the mode was by judgments obtained in the 
courts. After the prosecution against the city of London to secure a 
forfeiture of its charter had been commenced, and while it was pending, 
the judges were changed. Saunders, who had been consulted, and had 
advised the proceeding on the part of the crown, was made chief justice 
for the very purpose of giving judgment in favor of the crown, his pre- 
decessor being removed to make place for him. The cause for the pro- 
ceeding was the making of scandalous reflections on the king in the 
petition against the prorogation of parliament in 1679. It was in vain 
that the advocates for the city argued, that even if the facts complained 

of were pimisuaiiie. tne persons who had eoumutted them should be 
punished and not the innocent corporation. The judges were the mere 
tools of the crown, and judgnvent was given '^hat the franchise and 
liberty of the city of London should be taken and seized into the king^s 
hands." What had succeeded in T ' was tried all orer the kingdom. 

Quo Warrantos were issued in u ace: through judgments of the 

courts, presided over by dependent and time-serving judges, cities were 
deprived of their charters, and citizens of their liberties, until the abuse 
- the leading factor in the Revolution of 16S8. English judi- 
...:..., then t«x»k on a new character. The judges became independent, 
and that independence has been the pride and the boast of the English- 
man ever since. 

That justic-e was a'l ministered by judges dependent on the will of the 
British crown, was a prominent topic of c-omplaint in the American 
Colonies for years before the Revolution. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendenc-e set forth as a prominent grievanc-e. and one justifying the 
Revolution, that the British king "had made judges dependent on his 
will alone for the tenure of their offic-es." It was but natural,, therefore, 
when they had secured their independenc-e. that the states, in the estab- 
lishment of their own governments shoidd make the independence of 
the judiciari- a prominent feature. Some of them made greater, and 
other less piwvision upon the subject. But as new states were admitted 
and the growth of the old ones increased, as the nation advanc-ed in 
population, wealth, and industrial development, as problems of politic-al, 
commercial and social life became enlarged and more complicated, the 
- "° ;"■ trds about the c-ourts became stronger and more numerous. A 
lison of the older constitutions with the newer will show the con- 
stantly growing desire of the people to keep the departments of govern- 
ment as distinct as possible, and to impose restraints designed to have 
that effect. Bec-atise of the peculiar nature of our government, state 
and national, it has been necessary to imp«>se greater restraints upon 
the legislative than upon the executive department. The tendency of 
legislation is to augment the power of that department in its relation to 
try. Composed of a large number of men, the most of them 

:- al politicians, in constant contact with their c-onstituents, it 

nec-essarily c-arries along with it the force of public opinion. It would 
s€em apparent then that without c-onstitutional restraint, fixed and cer- 
tain, such department, in times of excitement would be able to encroach 
on the judiciary. Then it is, that a security of judicial independence 
becomes nec-essar%-. 

The first section of article I. of the Constitution of 1818 provided 
that the power of the government of the State should be divided into 
three distinct departments and each of them c-onfided to a separate body 
of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative to one: those which 
are executive to another ; and those which are judiciary to another. And 
by the next section it was provided that '^o person or collection of 
^"'•- '^^ "--'^sr one of those departments," should exercise any power 
rsrinsT to either of the others except as in the Constitution 


directed or permitted. In tiie Ccmstitntioii of 184S there is the same 
distribution of govem mental powers, and. Tsith the exception of one 
word, which does not alter the meaning, in the same identical language. 

There is a substantial embodiment of these two sections in article III. 
of the present Constitution which reads as follows: "The powers of 
the government of this State are dirided into three distinct departments : 
the l^islative, executive and judicial; and no persons, being one of 
these departments, shall exercise anv of the powers properly ' /^ 
to the otheK, except as hereinafter expressly .iirected or pernv.-r.. 

I crave indulgence for this somewhat lengthy introduction to th-e 
subject of this paper. Its purpose has been to show what has been and 
what is now the public temper upon the pn^position of keeping matters 
judicial aloof from matters legislative and executive — fr -:: r ~rT? 

I hope, also, that I may be pardoned for seeming digression if I, in 
addition to narrating some of the most c-onspicnous efforts which, from 
time to time, have been made to div - -- : ; rions from politics, 

shall volunteer personal views which - -.-- liose efforts. 

In this connection we diall use the ter dc^ in its popular sense — 

the management of a politic-al party and the advancemait of its candi- 
dates to ofiBc-e. We all tm"- >' 1 the prin ^ . ' * ~m. t*5 
be "the science of govemnic^: . i^at part oi _:_ r :. .- with 
the regulation and government of a nation or state, : servation of 
its safety, peace and prosperity: the defense of its existenc-e and rights 
against foreign c-ontrol. the augmentation of its f " . ! . and res-^nrces 
and the protection of its citizens in their rights. .:_ Jae preservation 
and improvement of their morals." But it is in no such sense that I 
use it in this paper. 

At the time Illinois was admineii as a State, and for iiie nrsi ten 
years of its existence as such, political maneuver er' "-^ '- r~- "^^ 
feasts and ac-complished its greatest feats. The Co-- . . >«i 

that the judicial power of the State should be invested in one Supreme 
ci3urt and such inferior c<>tirts as the L _ - ~ire should, from time to 
time, establish. It provided that the >u^.:T-_e c'~~~ ;- -" i-Ist of 
one chief justic-e and three ass^x-iates, all to be ap: . -allot 

of both branches of the General Assembly. In addition to discharging 
the duties of an appellate court of review the judges were required to 
hold circuit court, there being no circuit judges. They were to hold 
oflaee durin^r srood behavior tintil the end of the session of the General 
Assembly in 1824. After that date judges of the Supreme court were 
to be given a life tentire of oflBce. subject to good behavior. When we 
taie into account the office seeking mania of the peri<>3. the mad passi<n 
which rushed men into the whirlpool of polities and the uniqoe method 
provided by the Constitution for filling the judgeships c-an we wcnder 
that of the fotir first judges of the Supreme court only one was at atU 
fitted for judicial work ? Two of them although admi"* ' the baa- 
were without legal attainment. They were machine f .: ..ans pure 
and simple. The other man. William T. Foster, was a politic-al adven- 
turer of polished manners, pleasing address and unbounded assurance. 


He was not admitted to the bar and had never studied law; but so 
skillful was he as a political manipulator that he succeeded in capturing 
one of the highest judicial otlices in the State. He absented himself 
from the court and never considered a case, either in bank or upon tiie 
circuit. The only service performed by him was to draw one year"? 
salary and resign. Joseph Phillips, the only one of the four fitted for 
the position, was a man of strong native ability and a lawyer of supe- 
rior attainment. But he was a politician, well versed in the arts of 
the game. There is not an entire revolution wrought in the mind of the 
politician by making him judge. He is still a politician, and if he find 
but little to do as a judge he will find more to occupy him as a politician. 
At that time the business of the courts was light. There was but little 
for the judges to do on the circuit and consequently less for them to do 
as a Supreme court. Judge Phillips found plenty of time for politics 
and a field with abundant possibilities for a man of his shrewdness and 
attainments. He was not idle. An ambition to become governor seized 
him, and soon after his induction to the high office of chief justice he 
began "laying wires" for a nomination for governor. He was successful 
to that end and within four years after receiving his commission resigned 
as judge, under the firm belief that he would be elected governor. In 
that he was disappointed, however. The idea of the modern political 
judge to hold fast to his judgeship until after his election to the other 
office evidently did not occur to him. To his associate. Judge Thomas 
C. Brown, also a candidate for governor at the same time, it did ; because 
he carried on his canvass without resigning and when the two were 
defeated at the polls by Governor Coles, he was able to go back to 
his courts. The pattern set by him is scrupulously followed by the 
judge who today goes in quest of another office. This was the last 
venture made by Judge Brown for a political office, but he was re- 
appointed judge by the General Assembly the year following and 
continued in that office until the Constitution of 1848 made it elective 
by the people. He was a man of moderate ability and scant legal attain- 
ment. He delivered no opinion upon any important question and did 
nothing worthy of note on the bench or as a member of the council of 
revision. But his "pull" with the Legislature was such as to secure 
his reappointment in 1825 and a retention of the office when an effort 
was made, in 1843, to have him removed for incompetency. 

John Eeynolds, the other member of the first Supreme court was 
one of the most adroit politicians of his day. He came to the office when 
but 30 years of age. Although a man of strong intellect he was a lawyer 
of small attainment. There was in him the material for a good lawyer 
and an able judge; but legal investigation and study did not appeal to 
him. He wanted the office of Supreme judge because of the prominence 
it gave him and not because of any love he had for the work. He was 
the superior of any political manipulator of that time. From 1818 to 
1848 he held more offices and of greater variety than any man who has 
ever held office in the State. To use his own expression there were 
few offices in sight that he did not "go for." Able to forget political 
ditforences and mistreatment, he was ever readv to make terms with his 


political enemies, even if it required him "to break" with those who had 
been his political friends. Selfish and grasping in the attainment of 
his ambition, gratitude for past favors had no influence with him when 
in the scales against prospective political advancement. In a word, he 
was a past master in political maneuver and for that reason attained 
the office of governor in 1830. 

Such was the character of the men who composed our first Supreme 
court. If it was the purpose of the framers of the Constitution of 1818 
in making the office appointive by the Legislature instead of elective by 
the people to take the selection of judges out of politics then the record 
shows a signal failure. For the thirty years during which that method 
of selection obtained more politicians were placed upon the Supreme 
bench than have been elected to it during the sixty years which have 
followed. Furthermore, those selected by the former method seem to 
have continued in the game while those elected since have, with rare 
exception, been so impressed with the dignity and responsibility of the 
office that they have refrained from further participation in political 

The Constitution of 1818 required the judges of the Supreme court 
to hold circuit court in the several counties of the State until 1825, but 
authorized the appointment of circuit judges at that time. So in that 
year the General Assembly created five circuits and appointed five 
circuit judges. At the next session, however, four of them were legis- 
lated out of office, and the remaining one, with the members of the 
Supreme court, performed the circuit court work of the State until 
1835, when an Act was passed providing for eight circuit judges. By 
an Act passed February 10, 1841, all the circuit judges were legislated 
out of office. The Constitution authorized an increase of the number 
of Supreme judges, and the same Act which abolished the circuit judges 
added five more judges to the Supreme court and required the nine to 
do the circuit court work of the State, in addition to holding the 
Supreme court. 

The facts and causes of this change are somewhat interesting and 
serve to show how potent politics was at that time in its relation to 
matters judicial. They serve to show, also, as I think, that that method 
of selecting judges is not satisfactory. 

The election of Harrison to the Presidency in 1840 and the triumph 
of the Whig party in national afi'airs, with the prospective loss of federal 
offices in the State, caused great bitterness among the Democrats of 
Illinois. They were in control of the Legislature, however, the Senate 
standing 26 Democrats to 14 Whie's; the House, 51 Democrats to 40 
Whigs. The Supreme court stood 3 Whigs to 1 Democrat. It had 
decided two cases in which the Democratic party was interested. To 
the Democrats the decisions were offensive. To change the political 
complexion of the court was determined upon. It could not be accom- 
plished by impeachment, for two reasons: the Democratic majority was 
not sufficient, and there were no grounds on which impeachment could 
be based. Under the Constitution they were subject to removal for any 
reasonable cause not sufficient for impeachment, but to effect a removal 


iu that way required a two-thirds majority of each branch of the General 
Assembly, and that the Democrats did not have. But their ingenuity 
was equal to the occasion. A bill was introduced to reorganize the judi- 
ciary by wliicli the eiglil circuit judges were to be legislated out of office 
and provision made for the appointment by the Legislature of five 
additional judges of the Supreme court, who, together with the four 
existing members, should liold the circuit courts. The bill provoked 
bitter discussion which lasted for weeks, its ])assage being opposed not 
only by tlie Whigs but by a few of the Democrats. Naturally, the circuit 
judges, who were to be decapitated by it, were opposed to its passage and 
their friends in the Legislature started a campaign to accomplish its 
defeat. But the four Democratic circuit judges were w^on over by 
promises to appoint them Supreme judges in the event of the bill 
becoming a law. The bill finally passed and, although returned with 
objections by the council of revision, it was ratified by a majority of 
one vote in the House. The five additional judges elected w^ere : Thonuis 
Ford, Sidney Breose, Walter B. Scates, Sanniel H. Treat and Stephen 
A. Douglas, all Democrats. The political complexion of the court then 
stood 6 Democrats to 3 Whigs. 

Although the five selected were men of transcendent ability and all 
of them, with the possible exception of Douglas, eminently fitted for 
judicial work, the high-handed means by which the selection was accom- 
plished so shocked the public conscience that it called forth bitter 
denunciation from all parts of the State. Governor Ford, although he 
owed his election to the Supreme bench to the law, a few years afterwards 
characterized the action of the Legislature in passing it as "a confessedly 
violent and somewhat revolutionary measure which could never have 
succeeded except in times of great political excitement." It did more 
than all else to render unpopular the provision of the Constitution 
relating to the judiciary. Democrats united with Whigs in demanding 
a change that would take from the politicians the right to name the 
judges. The temper of the people upon this matter was a potent factor 
in securing the Constitution of 1848. 

With the adoption of the Constitution of 1848 departed, never to 
return, it is to be hoped, the right of the Legislature to elect the judges. 
It may be regarded as the greatest of all efforts that have been made in 
the direction of divorcing politics from judicial elections. And yet 
there are those who think the old method superior to the present and 
profess to believe that we would have better judges and a more satisfac- 
tory administration of the laws if the selection were left to the Legislature 
rather than to the people. In addition to the concrete cases mentioned, 
which serve to show that the method when put in operation is not 
satisfactory, T think it unwise and wrong on ])rinciple. One of the chief 
objects of written constitutions is to keep the departments of government 
as distinct as possible, and U^r that tliey im])Ose restraints designed 
to liavc tliat effect. It Avill be conceded that there is no department on 
which it is more necessary to impose restraints than the Legislature. At 
the same time the other departments are in one sense dependent upon 
it. The Legislature holds tlu^ purse strings. It fixes the compensation 


of the judges and of the officials in all other departments. It provides 
all the moans for raising revenue. In a word^ the judges, with the other 
|)ublic officials, are at the mercy of the Legislature so far as relates to 
physical sustenance. And yet the judges in a conscientious discharge 
of duty are sometimes brought in conflict with the Legislature. The 
Constitution, being the supreme law of the State, it follows that every 
Act of the Legislature contrary to it must be void. The decision of 
whether it is void rests with the court. The judge is under oath to 
decide according to the Constitution. Any Act inconsistent with the 
Constitution must yield to it; and any judge seeing the inconsistency, 
and yet giving effect to the law would violate his oath. The power of 
passing upon the validity of legislative Acts, to be useful, must be 
lodged in independent hands. Evidently it is not, if it rests Avith those 
who are dependent upon the Legislature for their appointment and 
who are subject to removal by the same body for a cause not sufficient 
as a ground for impeachment. 

There is another view of the matter. Nothing is more important to 
the individual citizen than an honest administration of justice. To that 
he must look for protection to life, liberty, reputation and property. No 
state does its duty to its people that does not make ample and permanent 
provision for the exercise of that protection. That the State of Illinois 
has undertaken to do in the establishment of its courts for trial and 
appeal. It is but fair then that he should have a direct voice in the 
selection of the men who are to preside over the courts and through 
their machinery administer that protection. 

The framers of the Constitution of 1848 had' in mind not only the 
taking of the election of the judges out of the hands of the politicians 
but the keeping of the judges out of politics. Not only did they provide 
for the election of the three Supreme judges and the nine circuit judges 
by vote of the people but they made the following additional provision, 
"The judges of the Supreme and circuit courts shall not be eligible to 
any other office of public tiiist or profit in the State, or the United 
States, during the term for which they are elected, nor for one year 
thereafter. All votes for either of them for any elective office (except 
that of judge of the Supreme or circuit court) given by the General 
Assembly or by the people shall be void." Because of it the judges were 
precluded from becoming candidates for United States Senator or any 
other political office during the term for which they had been elected — 
the Supreme judges for nine years, the circuit judges for six years. It 
is to be regretted that the Constitution of 1870 does not contain a like 
provision. It was also provided that the election for judges should be 
held at a different time from that provided for other elections. The 
purpose was to prevent the judicial office from being used as an article 
of traffic in political conventions. The date fixed was June — a time of 
the year when the public mind is least agitated by politics and less 
influenced by political questions. 

The various constitutional provisions mentioned serve to show how 
the unseemly political activity of the early judges, and the scandalous 
action of the General Assembly of 1840-41 to change the political 


complexion of the Supreme court, wrought upon the public mind. 
Xothing short of a reform involving a complete reorganization of the 
eutire judicial system could satisfy it. 

The framers of the Constitution of 1870 do not seem to liavo been so 
deeply impressed with the importance of the matter as those who framed 
the second Constitution ; for while they continued the provision requiring 
the judges to be elected and the one requiring the election to be in June 
they refused to embody the one precluding the judges of the Supreme 
and circuit courts from any other office during the term for which they 
had been elected. 

Slight effort has been made through legislative enactments to keep 
judicial elections from politics. This is not to be wondered at. The 
legislature is composed largely of professional politicians, and with 
the politician "To the victor belong the spoils" is a potent consideration. 
There are instances where judicial apportionment Acts have been passed 
solely for the purpose of advancing political interests, as I shall show 
later. The people at large and the bar of the State have been the guards 
of the judiciary in the assaults and the attempted assaults against it by 
the politicians. 

The people have never taken kindly to mixing matters political with 
matters judicial. Evidence of that may be found in the fact that during 
the entire period when the Constitution of 1848 was in force two of the 
three Supreme court judges were Democrats, although for the most of 
that period the State was Eepublican. The Constitution of 1870 pro- 
vided for the election of seven Supreme court judges. From 1870 to 
1888, although the State was largely Eepublican, five of the seven judges 
were Democrats. ' For a period of twenty-seven years Judge Alfred M. 
Craig, a Democrat, was the judge from the fifth district although the 
district was largely Eepublican. In 1888 David J. Baker, a Eepublican, 
was elected from the first district in the face of an aggregate Democratic 
majority of the counties of the district in the Presidential election 
immediately preceding of over five thousand. His election followed a 
heated Democratic convention in which five or six prominent Democrats 
of Southern Illinois sought the nomination. The nomination was sought 
and made on strictly political lines. 

Where political tactics have been resorted to to secure the nomination 
of a candidate for judge the people have not hesitated to repudiate it, 
especially if the defeated candidate was a worthy man. In 1894 at a 
Democratic convention called to nominate a candidate for Supreme judge 
in the fourth district one of the ablest jurists of the State, Judge Lyman 
Lacey, was presented as a candidate. He had had fifteen years' expe- 
rience upon the appellate bench and was a man of unquestioned integrity 
and of great vigor mentally and physically. He was well equipped in 
every way to the discharge of the duties of the office to which his friends 
undertook to nominate him. There were a number of other aspirants ; 
the politicians had control of the convention, and Lacey was defeated. 
The district was overwhelmingly Democratic, but so displeased were the 
people with the manipulation of affairs at the convention that a large 
number of Democrats refused to vote for the nominee and voted for the 


Eepublican candidate, Joseph N. Carter, Carter was elected. The 
district was composed of the counties of Fulton, McDonough, Hancock, 
Schuyler, Brown, Menard, Morgan, Cass, Scott, Adams, Pike and 
Mason. These counties constituted the district until 1903. At that 
time there was a good working Eepublican majority in the General 
Assembly. A scheme was put on foot to change the political complexion 
of the district and to accomplish that a bill was passed taking the 
Democratic counties of Pike and Scott out of the district and adding 
to it Rock Island, Mercer, Warren and Henderson. The change made 
by the enactment gave the Republicans a decided majority in the district. 
The evident purpose of the Act was to secure the reelection of Judge 
Carter. Judge Carter, a man of high character and with a record upon 
the Supreme bench of which any man might feel proud, became the 
nominee of his party. But the people felt so incensed at the action of 
the Legislature that many of them repudiated the nomination and Judge 
Guy C. Scott, a Democrat, was elected in his stead. 

Another evidence of the desire of the people to keep politics out 
of judicial elections may be found in elections for circuit judges. When 
the Appellate Court Act of 1877 combined the old twenty-fifth and 
twenty-sixth circuits and made it the first judicial circuit of the State 
the territory was Democratic, but at the election held in August, 1877, 
John Dougherty, a Republican, defeated Andrew J. Duff for circuit 
judge. In the same circuit, two years following, the Democrats with 
a majority of 700 held a convention and nominated three judges on 
strictly party lines. The Republicans made no nomination but three 
Republicans were presented at the polls for election. Two of the Repub- 
licans were elected, the one receiving the lowest vote having a majority 
of about 700 over the highest defeated Democratic candidate. One 
Democratic candidate was elected by a majority of about 700 over the 
defeated Republican candidate. 

Notwithstanding the fact that for the greater portion of the time 
within the last thirty-two years the political complexion of the third 
circuit has been decidedly Republican, Democrats, with one exception, 
have been the judges during the entire time. Other instances could be 
given in proof of the proposition, but the limits of this paper will not 

Considerable effort has been made to take party politics out of judicial 
elections through the various local bar associations of the State. The 
Chicago Bar Association has been the most conspicuous in its efforts 
along that line. 

So far as I have been able to learn, the first substantial attempt of 
the members of the Chicago Bar to act in a body with regard to the 
election of judges took place twenty-three or twenty-four years ago. 
Very poor nominations by the Republicans and Democrats had been 
made at that time and considerable feeling was aroused. A general bar 
meeting was called to consider the matter. A large committee was 
appointed to select candidates to be voted for at a general bar primary. 
It was directed to select a considerable number of men quite largely 


exceeding the number of judges to be elected. The movement excited 
considerable interest, and from the candidates then selected the judges 
were subsequently eh'clcd by tbe })eopli'. Encouraged by the result, the 
Bar Association subsequently took up the subject and from time to time 
bar primaries have been held. For a number of years the association 
has had a snbconimittcH3 when a judicial election was to occur, charged 
with the duty of learning quite fully as to the standing and qualifications 
of candidates. An opportunity has been given to the members to cast 
a secret ballot after being furnished with such information, and the 
members may be said to have voted according to their best judgment 
without being confined to either one of the political parties. A choice 
tlius made has had considerable influence with the people, as it ha? had 
witli tbe metropolitan press. The number of judges to be elected in 
Cook county has made it more dillicult than elsewhere in the State to 
get the desired information as to the character, standing and qualifica- 
tion of candidates, and more special efi'orts to advise the voters are 
necessary than is the case in the country where the lawyers in each 
circuit presented as candidates are likely to be well known. The fact 
that there are so many of such places to be filled and that a large number 
of persons present themselves or are taken up by party leaders makes 
it more probable there than in the country that partisan politics will, 
notwithstanding the efl:orts of the Bar Association and the influence of 
the press, be a strong factor in the election, especially when there is 
anything approaching a full vote. 

There has been a disposition in Cook county as in other parts rf the 
State to retain in office the judges who have from seiTice obtained the 
approbation of the bar, the public and the press. This disposition has 
Ijeen such as to insure reelection in the absence of a tidal wave of politics, 
likely to submerge any candidate not attached in some way to the pre- 
vailing party. Such was the case with the late Judges Gary and Tuley. 
These men, though of opposite party affiliation, were sure of election 
at any time they were ofl^ered. It is doubtful whether any condition at 
a June election could have existed sufficient to work their defeat. Judge 
Henry M. Shepherd, another popular judge, although a Democrat, was 
supported the last time he stood for election by both Eepublicans and 

The Chicago Bar Association is entitled to umch credit for its eff^orts 
to elect judges free from political obligation. Tt is to be hoped that it 
will ultimately occupy a position as influential as that of the Municipal 
Voters' League, and, by its influence on the independent voter, compel 
the party primaries to name suitable candidates. 



By Eleanor Atkiuson. 

Very recently the Federal Weather Bureau published a compilation 
of official and other meteorological data of the United States, for the 
half-century ended with 1904. This table disposes of the theory of old- 
fashioned winters, at least within that period. A Chicago newspaper 
that gave a summary of this report, commented upon it as follows : "As 
to what happened in the way of weather more than fifty years ago, cold 
science is ill-equipped to combat warm fable. Here the fields for pic- 
turesque contrasts is free." 

In tlie face of this discouragement, it is proposed to show here, both 
by reliable data and by cold science, that we had a real old-fashioned 
winter in 1831 — the kind your grandfathers all had when they were 
boys and, as evidence of good faith, I will begin by using a bit of in- 
formation supplied by the Federal Weather Bureau, and vouched for 
by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Semi-official weather records were kept at Marietta, Ohio, from 1804 
to 18.5}), for the United States Government Survey office. After 182.'), 
observations of temperature were made three times a day by Dr. Samuel 
P. Hildreth, together with notes on the barometer, precipitation, direc- 
tion and velocity of wind and other phenomena. These reports Dr. 
Hildreth tabulated and published annually, for many years, in the Amer- 
ican Journal of Science, and they were finally charted and republished 
in the Smithsonian Institution's "Contributions to Knowledge." The 
mean temperature of the winter montlis of 1831, at Marietta, was 30.75, 
and for P>l)ruary was 26.02, five to six degrees lower than the average 
for the quarter of a century preceding. The precipitation of rain and 
melted snow for the year was 53.54 inches, the average for the previous 
2.") years being only 41 iuclics.^ Under date of Feb. 15. 1831, occurs 
this interesting entry: 

"The winter thus far has been one of unexampled severity since the 
first settlement of the Ohio Company at Marietta in 1788. The ther- 
mometer has been for a number of mornings at zero, and once or twice 
5 degrees l)elow, since the 22d of December last. The great snow storm, 
which seems to have visited tlie entire length of the United States, com- 
menced here on Fridav, the 14th of Januan^ 1831, at 4:00 o'clock, P. 
M. and continued until Saturday, 11:00 o'clock A. M. There fell 15 
inches in depth of snow, very level and even over the face of the earth. 

' Dr. Samuel P. Hildretli; Pioneer History of tlie Ohio Valley. 


In 1832, the following summary of the year 1831, is recorded: Depth 
of snow in 1831, -18 inches. The past year has been marked with many 
singular features, and the extremes in moisture and temperature have 
been great. ' The winter months were attended with a degree of cold 
found only in Artie regions, and the summer months with floods of rain 
peculiar to tropical climates. There seems to have been a belt of clouds 
encircling the Western States for the last six months, opening at such 
distant periods, and for such short spaces of time, to the rays of the sun, 
that solar heat, since the great eclipse of February last, has done but 
little warming the surface of the earth."^ 

With this to fortify, one may, without apology, plunge into "warm 
fable," saving the cold science to clinch the argument. In the course 
of researches on another subject of the same period in Illinois, so many 
tall tales of experiences in the winter of the deep snow were encountered, 
as to excite curiosity. The references to this exceptional season were 
so many and so widely scattered in localit)', as to proclude the idea of a 
consj)iracy of invention by old settlers, and so consistent in dates and 
data, as to carry some measure of conviction. To carry this conviction 
to a critical public, however, it was necessary to reject everything anony- 
mous, everj^thing unsupported or of obscure origin and of vague 
generalization. That a season of unusual severity had occured in 1831, 
admitted of no further doubt, when detailed facts w^ere found to have 
been set down soberly by a man of the conservative character and trained 
powers of observation of Dr. Julian M. Sturtevant, for more than 20 
years, president of Illinois College in Jacksonville.^ Xor was he likely 
to exaggerate from inexperience of cold and storm. Having been brought 
up in N"ew England, where long, severe winters were the rule, and where 
the practical disposal of great depths of snow had been reduced to a 
science, it would take extraordinary weather conditions indeed, to baffle 
his powers of solution and to test his endurance. 

Dr. Sturtevant came out to Jacksonville in the Spring of 1829, to 
begin the erection of college buildings, to find a prosperous town of 400 
people, on an elevated knoll above a beautiful prairie. The hill-site 
chosen for the new institution of learning was above the village and a 
mile away, with a grove of forest trees behind it. The people were 
mostly southerners, and their log cabins, while substantial and neat, 
were much less warmly built than the houses of New England. For 
comparison with the historic winter of 1831, Dr. Sturtevant had the 
experience of a typical winter of Southern Illinois in 1830. 

For the first time in his life he saw cattle pastured in the open the 
greater part of the season, with little or no shelter provided for them; 
wheat and corn standing in stacks in the fields, to be husked and threshed 
at leisure; fuel left in the woods, to be brought out as it was needed. 
In the memory of the oldest inhabitant the winters in that region had 
been uniformly mild and open — rthe grass fairly abundant until 

• American Journal of Science for 1831-32. 

^ Autobiography of Julian M. Sturtevant, pp.ll78-181: C. M.Eames quotes Dr. Sturtevant and a Mr. 
Anderson Foreman to the same effect in his "Historic Morgan and Classic Jacksonville." 


January; then light falls of snow^ an occasional storm with zero tem- 
perature that moderated in a few days; thaws to start the pastures, and 
early springs. 

In 1830 winter set in unusually early. Cold rain began to fall by the 
20th of December, — Dr. Hildreth dates it from the 22d, in Marietta — 
occasionally changing to snow or sleet, until the earth was saturated 
and frozen. The day before Christmas the rain turned definitely to 
snow, falling in large, soft flakes that soon covered the earth to the 
depth of 6 inches. The most was made of this by the young people in 
holiday frolics of snow-balling, coasting and riding in hastily contrived 
bob-sleds. The wildest imagination could not have dreamed that this 
first fall of snow was merely the overture to a winter of continuous storm. 
The first white mantle still lay unsullied on the frozen prairie, in a 
profound hush of nature, when the meteorological opera opened with a 
crash on the 30th of December. 

A furious gale, bitter cold, a blinding, swirling blur of snow, and 
leaden, lowering skies, combined to make this storm a thing to paralyze 
that prairie country. It seems to have continued for days, unabated — a 
wonder, at first, then a terror, a benumbing horror as it became a menace 
to life of men and animals. The food was in the fields, the fuel in the 
woods, the cattle huddled and perishing of cold and starvation, in the 
open. How long this first storm continued is unknown. In one sense 
it did not end at all; it merely changed in character, from time to time, 
for the next sixty days. All accounts of the winter in Illinois agree with 
Dr. Sturtevant's that the storm began in the last days of December. 
The date was impressed upon his mind by anxiety for the fate of Dr. 
Edward Beecher. 

This first president of the new college had been in Vandalia, trying 
to get a charter for the institution from the legislature. He was re- 
turning from the capital in the Christmas holidays, when overtaken by 
this storm. Dr. Beecher, with a fellow traveler, Mr. Charles Holmes, 
took refuge for some days in the house of a settler on the prairie. When 
the storm abated its first fury, it seemed impossible to cover the remain- 
ing distance of 40 miles to Jacksonville, for the snow lay 3 feet in depth 
over the prairie. It seems probable, from the depth of snow, that they 
Avere detained until after the storm of January 14 and 15 which, as Dr. 
Hildreth reports, had visited the entire length of the United States. A 
driving rain, freezing as it fell, formed a crust on top of this snow, not 
quite strong enough to bear a man's weight. On top of this crust 3 
more inches of snow fell, as light and fine as ashes and as hard as sand. 
Then a bright, cold sun shone on the dazzling landscape, to threaten the 
eyesight. To add to these difficulties a strong, northwest wind arose, 
to fill the air with flying snow, so stinging, blinding and choking that 
men could not long make headway against it. But Dr. Beecher was 
reared on Litchfield hill, Connecticut, and was not easily dismayed by 
weather. He and Mr. Holmes hitched a horse to a light, improvised 
sleigh and, in some incredible way, accomplished the perilous task of 
crossing that 40 mile prairie, where the horse broke every step through 

— 4 H S 


ice-crusl aud 3 I'eet of suuw, ami in the I'acu oi' the blizzard. There is 
no record of any other men having performed such a feat in Illinois, 
tliat winter. That many must have attempted such journeys and 
IH^rished, is jn-oven by the finding of the bodies of strangers in many 
places when the snow went oif in the spring. 

In Jacksonville Dr. Sturtevant had l)een forced to abandon his cabin 
in tlie town and to camp out in one of the unfinished college buildings. 
There Dr. Beecher was forced to remain with him until March, when 
he returned to Boston. And the two, with other New Englanders in 
the place, gave of all their experience to help the marooned settlement 
battle with the elements. It was impossible to In-eak roads in the New 
England fashion. There were no traps oi' ravines and forests, few fences, 
even, to catcli and hold the drifts. The wind was a steady, fierce gale, 
day and night, for many weeks, and the snow drifted before it all winter. 
It snowed almost daily, up to the middle of Feliruary. Often it was not 
easy to determine whether new snow was falling or only old surface snow 
being driven before the icy blast. For nine weeks snow covered the ground 
to the average depth of four feet. No morning dawned for many days at 
a time when the thermometer registered less than 13 degrees below zero. 

"The situation of the people,'' says Dr. Sturtevant. ''was somewhat 
alarming. It was not at first apparent that sufficient food and fuel 
could be got to keep everybody from starving and freezing." The shocks 
of grain were entirely under frozen snow, the lower limbs of trees were 
lying on the surface, making it impossible to drive teams into the groves. 
A road was finally made from College Hill to the town, by driving 
repeatedly through one track until the snow was rounded up and packed 
down like a turnpike. Such roads were opened all over the country and 
were kept open only by ceaseless vigilance and labor. Food and fuel 
were got, somehow; famishing deer and small game were easily obtained, 
but crops were lost, much of the live stock perished, and many kinds of 
small game were very nearly exterminated. ]\Iail was interrupted for 
weeks at a time, carriers Ijeing unable to make the trip to Springfield. 

In Sangamon county experiences of pioneers were identical. In 
S])ringfield^ and Xew Salenr snow lay four feet in depth on the level. 
There was the same ice-crust; the same incessant, biting gale; the daily 
fresh falls of snow; the deer breaking through the crust with their sharp, 
liounding little hoofs and falling easy victims to hunters, wolves and 
dogs. It took a man an entire day to dig enough corn out of frozen 
shocks to keep a few cattle alive for two or three days. Stake-and-rider 
fences, corn shocks, low out buildings were buried; streams could be 
traced only by half submerged and snow-lnirdened lines of woods. All 
the familiar features of the ]andseai)e were ol)literated in that smother 
and blur of snow. It was beyond human ]iower to do more than to keep 
at bay the twin spectres of cold and stan-ation. Many and ingenious 
are the devices described to ward away freezing and famine. \ 

One cannot but admii'e tlie scholarly detachment and stoic self-control 
of the newspa|")ers of Illinois of that day. Statecraft was the thing of 
pennanent interest — speeches by Webster and CMay, political moves by 

' Powers' "Early Settlers of Sangamon County," pp. ()2-()-l. 
" T. G. Onstot's "Pioneers of Mason and Menard." 


General Jackson, continued to engage the editorial mind. Weather was 
a thing that today is, and tomorrow is cast into the limbo of things for- 
gotten. The entire country had been in the grip of that nitiless winter 
for two months, l)eforo the inuwis Intelligencer of Vandalia, conde- 
scended to notice it. Then, in an editorial paragraph of two sticks full 
of type, the subject was summed up and dismissed: 

"The newspapers that reach us from every direction, are filled with 
accounts of severely cold weather, and immense falls of snow. In no 
part of the continent has this been felt more severely than in Illinois. 
We have had an extraordinary season. The cold has been intense and 
uninterrupted. The whole country has been blocked up with snow- 
banks, that have covered the earth since December. Several travelers 
have perished on the prairies near here. Such a winter has never been 
known in this region."^ 

The Edwardsville Advocate shows a still greater restraint of style, an 
economy of adjectives that is commended to our yellow press : "We have 
issued no paper for the last two weeks, owing to the excessively cold 
weather, and our office being too open to resist the rude attacks of the 
northern blasts."^ It was a relief to discover, in Missouri, a newspaper 
that betrayed interest, if not excitement, in that phenomenal weather. 
But now for northern Illinois. 

Eighteen Thirty-one, it should be remembered, was the year before the 
Black Hawk War. Chicago was only a frontier fort and trading post, 
whose first newspaper did not appear until nearly three years later. The 
region between the Desplaines river and the Mississippi was held by the 
Sacs and Foxes, and the only permanent white settler appears to have 
been John Dixon, at Dixon's Ferry, on Rock river. The mining town of 
Galena had communication with the outer world only over the Mississippi. 
In southern Wisconsin, at the point that is now Portage City, Ft. Winne- 
bago was encompassed liy the wilderness. But for the circumstances that 
tliere was, at Ft. Winnebago, a somewhat willful little lady, recently come 
from the east as the bride of John H. Kinzie, United States Indian 
agent at the post, and determined on a visit to her unknown mother-in- 
law in Chicago, the record of that winter and spring in northern Illi- 
nois would be meager, indeed. The bride took the journey, and lived 
to tell of the dangers she had passed through ; to tell of them in the life- 
time of people who shared its perils; to tell the story graphically, for 
she had the gift of literary expression. Juliette M. Kinzie was Chi- 
cago's first author, and some of us trail a long way behind her "Wau 
Bun" today. So much for the authenticity of this account.^ 

The continuation of the wedding journey was planned for the Christ- 
mas holidays. But in Wisconsin, too, winter set in early and with 
severity. There was rain and wind and snow ; then sleet and bitter cold 
and snow again. The storm of December 30 must have fallen on the 
frontier fort with greater fury than it did farther south, for earlv in 
January the snow was reported to lie five and six feet deep in the lead 

1 niinois Intelligence of Vandalia, Feb. 26, 1831. 

' Edwardsville Advocate, Feb. 23, 1831. 

^ " Wau Bun" by Juliette Magill Kinzie, pp. 123-135. 


mining regions — an unheard of, unl)elievable depth. The mail-carrier 
and dispatch-bearer to Chicago, had to lie over in an Indian lodge on 
tlie prairie for three weeks, and went nearly blind from the sun aYid 
fl3'ing snow. 

Young Mrs. Kinzie had all the pluck of inexperience. She insisted 
on making the start to Chicago, in sledges lined with buffalo robes; but 
the commanding officer of the fort flatly forbade any such foolish under- 
taking threatening, at last, that if they started he would order the senti- 
nels to fire on them. The station was storm bound all winter. Early 
in March the snow suddenly went off in a great flood. By the 8th the 
marshes and water courses were fringed with green, promising an early 
and genial spring. The start was made on horseback, with servants, an 
Indian guide, and a camping outfit on pack ponies. The journey to 
Chicago was usually made in five or six days; but it was necessary to go 
out of the way, somewhat, to cross the Eock river at Dixon's Ferry, for the 
Indians were all gone on the hunt, and there would be no canoes at the 
usual crossings. Young Mrs. Kinzie consented to wear a habit of heavy 
military broadcloth, but kept her kid gloves, and blithely donned the 
latest confection in straw bonnets, a part of her wedding finery. 

The first day a canoe was upset, and the bride was tumbled into an 
icy stream. Her riding habit froze stiff and stood upright until it was 
thawed by the camp fire hastily built. The ground froze so hard that 
night that it was difficult to drive tent pins. In the morning a dazzling 
white blanket lay on the prairie, as if winter had taken a fresh start, 
and they rode all day in a freezing sleet. It took the party five days to 
reach Dixon's Yerry. On the 15th of March water left in a coffee-pot 
froze solid over night. They crossed a wide marsh, frozen as hard as 
iron, in an artic gale. Another snow-storm impenetrable to the eye as 
a fog at sea made even the Indian guide lose all sense of direction, and 
they wandered from their course in the blizzard. 

When still fifty miles from Chicago, their food gave out. In the nick 
of time one lone Pottawatomie lodge was found, but game had been made 
so scarce by the terrible winter that the Indians had nothing to share 
with them but wild artichokes. Presently some ducks were shot, for a 
hurricane swept down from the north, and myriads of waterfowl that 
had migrated northward only two weeks before, fled southward from a 
land of famine. The leaden sky above ice-locked streams was black with 
them, screaming before the blast. The little band of travelers were 
sobered by the sight Their own escape from the perils of that frigid 
plain was by no means certain. 

Setting up their tents in the doubtful shelter of a belt of woods, trees 
crashed around them all night long, while the world seemed rocked in 
the tempest. Fifty forest giants lay around their tents in the morning, 
and it was with difficulty that the horses picked their way out, over 
prostrate trunks. They were dazed to find themselves and their animals 
uninjured. The fury of the storm was over, but the weather was intensely 
cold. Mrs. Kinzie beat her feet against her saddle, until they were 
bruised, to keep them from freezing. Streams that had been in flood 
were frozen over again, but not thickly enough to bear the weight. They 


had to break up the ice and swim the horses across. They were over the 
east fork of_ the Desplaines no more than an hour, fed and sheltered 
in a white man's cabin, when the ice broke up again, with thunderous 
crashes, and the floods fell, the wild, ice-blocked torrent carrying forest 
trees down with it. One hour's delay and the already exhausted little 
party would have been marooned, and must have perished on a prairie 
that was an arctic desert. The time is not definitely stated, but the 
journey is figured out from the narrative as having taken thirteen or 
fourteen days. 

Nor was this incredible weather yet ended for northern Illinois. 
Leaving his wife with his mother, John H. Kinzie, after a three weeks' 
visit, started back to Fort Winnebago in the second week of April. He 
was overtaken by a storm, so severe and prolonged, that he and his men 
had to lie over in an Indian lodge for three days. In Chicago, young 
Mrs. Kinzie records that only twice, during the two months of her stay 
(until late in May), did the sun shine out through the entire day. The 
weather continued inclement beyond anything that had ever been known 
at Fort Dearborn. Some young men who went out to the Calumet 
region in April to hunt were given up for lost. They were saved from 
freezing to death only by having two blankets apiece with them, and by 
taking refuge in an empty cabin on the marsh. ^ 

In southern Illinois there was the same sudden thaw, in early March, 
caiising the waters to rise "higher than they had been since Noah's 
flood."- But the temperature fell again, not so low that another freeze 
was recorded, but the snow-turnpikes that had been made along main- 
traveled roads, remained long after the great body of snow had melted — 
shining ribbons of white across the green spring prairie. Dr. Hildreth 
at Marietta says that a belt of clouds encircled the western states for six 
months after the "great eclipse" of the sun in February,, making a cold, 
dark, stormy summer. Corroboration of that was received from Ken- 
tucky.^ Inquiry of the Nautical Almanac Bureau in Washington as to 
that eclipse, resulted in the information that it was only the annular 
eclipse, and of no importance. Peculiar meteorological conditions attend- 
ing it probably made it appear as a "great eclipse" at Marietta. 

Of the high floods of the spring of 1831, there is very convincing 
proof in the fact that Lincoln had engaged to meet Denton Offutt in 
Springfield, as soon as the snow should go off, to take a boat load of 
merchandise, that Offutt was to have ready at Beardstown, down to 
New Orleans. When the snow did go off travel by land was impracticable, 
so Lincoln, John Hanks and John D. Johnston came down the Sangamon 
in a big canoe. Offutt had been unable to procure a flatboat in Beards- 
town. The water promised to remain so high, however, that Lincoln 
and his two relatives took timber out of the woods and built a boat at 
Sangamon Town, seven miles north of Springfield.* 

They had a misadventure there in launching a dug-out that nearly 
ended in a drowning,^ Thus, in the middle of April, the Sangamon is 

1 Wau Bun, p. 260. 

• T. Or. Onstot's "Pioneers of Mason and Menard." 

^ Collin's History of Kentucky, vol 1, pp. 36-37. 

•* Ida M. Tarbell's Life of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 1, p. 51. 

' Nicolay and Hay "Life of Lincoln," vol. 1. 


described as "fairly boomiug," "running with the speed <if a mill-raco" 
and with siuli a roaring sound that the voices of the men on. shore failed 
to carry to the men struggling in the flood. Lincoln straddled a log, 
paid out with a rope tied to a tree, and rescued two men from jxirilous 
perches in the branches of a drifted giant of the forest. 'J'his flood, says 
Miss Tarbell, in a footnote to her "Life of Lincoln," followed the 
"Winter of the Deep Snow," from which early settlers of Illinois calcu- 
lated time. Nieolay and Hay give two pages to the deep snow of 1831 
and the subsequent flood. 

If further ])roof were needed that there was an exceptionally severe 
season in Illinois, ample evidence is readily forthcoming from neighbor- 
ing states. In Indiana "the weather was steadily and severely cold. The 
snow fell from 12 to 18 inches in February, and the temperature to 
18 and 20 degi-ees below zero, at the settlement of Indianapolis, by far 
the coldest weather ever known. On the 11th of x\pril, the steamboat 
Eobert Hanna arrived, the only steamboat that ever came up to that 
point on the White river."^ 

]\Iissouri keeps up its reputation by "showing-" real weather. There 
was sleighing in St. Louis on iSTew Years day, and the river was closed 
by ice both above and l)elow the city.- In February the weather was so 
severe that public and private charity was taxed to prevent suffering and 
death. ^ The files of the Missouri InfeUigencer of Columbia for 1831 
yielded an alumdance of evidence.* In the issue of Christmas day, 
1830, mention is first made of the severity of the weather. On January 
8, 1831, the following occurs: "We are infonued that the snow in the 
upper counties of Missouri is 41 inches deep, and, what is very remark- 
able, the falling was accompanied by frequent and tremendous peals 
of thunder and vivid blue streaks of lightning. It was an awful scene, 

The issue for January 15th is only a half-sheet. The little settlement 
was cut off from the world. "Have no news. Last three mails brought 
only one Washington paper, no paper from Jefferson City. (Distance 
about thirty miles). St. Louis Times reports eight to 10 inches of snow 
in last storm. Here it was not less than 20 inches, and most of it 
remains, for the weather has been intensely cold." February 5, report 
from Eock Spring, 111. (near Alton), dated January 19, says: "Have 
had northern winter for four weeks. Snow lies three feet deep on the level 
in IMorgan and Sangamon county. Around Vandalia it is one glaze of 
ice. Still snowing." February 12 — On Monda}-, 9 or 10 more inches 
of snow ; Wednesday, two or three more ; five degrees below zero. The St. 
Lonis Times quotes eastern papers as having accounts of 18 inches of 
snow at Baltimore. February 19 — Accounts of snow-storms in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, ISTew York, etc. Severity of temperatures and gi'eat depth 
of snow, extending from Missouri to Maine, presents an extraordinary 

> Bro-mi's History of Indianapolis, written for the City Directory of 186S, pp. 22-23; Reported by Jacob 
P. Dunn, Lib'n. Indiana State Historical Society as from original sources and very reliable. 

= St. Louis Times, Jan. 1, 1.S31. 

3 Missouri Republican, Feb. 8, ISU; St. Louis data supplied by Miss Idress Head I-ib'n. of the Mo. 
Historical Society of St. Louis. 

■■ Files of Mo. State Historical Society at Columbia, Mo. data supplied by the Librarian, Mr. F. A. 
Sampson . 


winter. Another "^old-fashioned" snoAv storm gripped Missouri on the 
14tli. March 5 — An extract from the Illinois Pioneer, Eoek Spring 
(near Alton), announces the general thaw and adds this: "'French 
settlers along the river say that about fifty years ago the winter was as 
severe as this one." May 21 — Many and long-continued rains are 

Those rains were the special grievance of Kentucky. As Colonel Wat- 
terson once plaintively remarked, after a Democratic defeat: "jSTothing 
but weather and elections." On May 10, 1831, there was an extensive and 
violent hail storm in several counties, with hail stones three inches in cir- 
cumference. July 22d, a tremendous electric storm did incredible damage 
to property. Finally the Ohio river was frozen over solid, from Decem- 
ber 11, 1831, to January 8, 1832. When the ice broke up, nine steamboats 
were destroyed. In February, 1832, there was the greatest flood ever 
known, with violent gales that capsized steamboats.'^ 

Dr. Hildreth at Marietta confirms the fact that inclement weather 
extended over the entire year of 1831. He says: "There were 160 
cloudy days, fifty-seven more than in 1830. Fruit trees were three weeks 
late in blossoming. Heavy rains commenced falling late in June and 
continued all summer. Crops were beaten down and destroyed.''- The 
Mississippi was so swollen that the largest steamboats were able to como 
up to St. Louis in mid-summer.^ The steamboat Yellowstone went u]) 
to the mouth of the Little Missouri, above Bismarck, IST. D., 600 miles 
farther than any steamer had navigated before, returning to St. Louis 
safely, in the middle of July.* Throughout July there were heavy rains 
in the Mississippi bottoms that destroyed crops and washed away bridges. 
On the 30th of June, a destructive tornado, accompanied by hail and 
torrents of rain, was reported from Port Gil^son, Miss.° Late in 
October the St. Louis mail coach, in crossing the Elm river, was over- 
turned l)y the force of the swollen current, and sunk in 10 feet of 
water. "^ At Marietta, 0., there were only eight or ten days of Indian 
summer, instead of three or four weeks, and winter set in with vigor, 
late in November. By December 4, the rivers were full of ice. On 
the 10th the Ohio could be crossed by the heaviest teams. The Mississ- 
ippi w^as reported frozen over solid for 130 miles south of the mouth of 
the Ohio and there Avas skating in ISTew Orleans. The winter was very 
severe, but less snow fell than in 1831, only six or eight inches. The 
temperature fell to .18 at Nashville, Tenn.''' 

On the winter of 1832 we have the evidence of the Sangamo Journal 
that Avas established in Springfield in November, 1831. In the issue of 
December 15, 1831, this occurs: "We are now taking the cold at the 
rate of 22 degrees below zero." On January 19th the thaw is reported 

• Collin's History of Kentucky, Vol . 1 , pp . 36-37. Also the St . Louis Times and the Sangamo Journal 
give accounts of floods in the Ohio, quoting Cincinnati and Louis\ille paper-. 

^ Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in Pioneer History of the Ohio Valley, and in the American Journal of Science 
for 1831-32. 

^ Illinois Gazette, Jul.y 2, 1831 (no town given. Item supplied by Miss Head of St. Louis.) 

' St. I-ouis Times, July 16, 1831. 

'• AVestem Ploughbov of Edwards\ille, quoted bv St. Louis Times. 

" Galena (Ul.) Miner, July 27, 1831. 

■^ St. Louis Times, Oct. 29, 1831. 

' American Journal of Science for 1832. 


in the Sangamon, and the Ohio and Mississippi are expected "to follow 
suit." "Had some beautiful days that made uj) for long severe cold of 
a month before."^ 

In the middle of January there was no mail from Vincennes for 
St. Louis, due to the seven or eight feet rise in the Ohio. Navigation of 
the Mississippi was closed. The river was open between the mouth of the 
Ohio and Grand Tower but was frozen over to Randolph, 200 miles 
below.^ The latter part of the month the weather was again intensely 
cold, the thermometer down to 13 degrees below, and the river frozen 
over, both above and below the city.^ The Baltimore Gazette is quoted 
by the Sangamo Journal as saying that the price of fuel in New York 
and Philadelphia had been doubled. In Baltimore the increase was only 
10 per cent, owing to the railroad. Good wolf hunting weather — cold 
and snow — is reported on the 2d of February. Here, also, begins reports 
of the floods in the Ohio. By March 1 an extract is made from the 
Cincinnati American of February 14, the river was then rising three 
inches an hour, and lower Allegheny was literally afloat. Nineteen 
houses were seen in the river, Lawrenceburg, Ind., was cabled to trees 
on the bluffs; the dove would have found no resting place above the 
water in Marietta. Cincinnati's chief industry was moving to higher 
ground — the entire bottom was under water, and the raging river full 
of floating wreckage.* The severe cold and high floods of 1832 resulted 
in wide-spread distress. Seed corn was frostbitten, and corn from the 
south was $3 a bushel, a prohibitive price. Large areas of farming land 
went uncultivated that season.^ 

If I seem to be wandering, both in time and space, from the main 
theme, have a little patience. Numerous straws of meteorological data 
showed that many winds were abroad, the terrestrial envelope of atmos- 
phere in an explosive state for a much longer period than the winter of 
1831. In New England the spring equinox of 1830 was marked by 
a violent storm along the coast, with waves that beached shipping and 
destroyed wharves and warehouses. The water rose higher than had been 
recorded in a half century.® Hard-headed Yankees in Massachusetts, 
and unlettered French settlers on the Mississippi, both harked back fifty 
years for comparison with the weather. We'll see what that means 
presently. The summer of 1830, in New England, was cold and wet, 
suddenly changing to the hottest July ever known, with electric storms, 
floods of rain and freshets that changed the channels of rivers. August 
17, 1830 ushered in six weeks of stomi. The first one swept the coast 
from Cape Hatteras northward. On the 27th occurred another of three 
days' duration. In September there were three storms, on the 20th, 24th 
and 29th, of the violence of hurricanes, and another in the first week of 
October. On the 6th of December a terrific northeast snow storm again 

' Data supplied by Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Lib'n. of Illinois State Historical Society, from files 
' Missouri Republican, Jan. 17, 1832. 
^ Missouri Republican, Jan. 31, 1832. 

■• The Sangamo Journal and the Missouri Republican, both have this report of the flood. Reported 
by Mrs. Weber from Springfield, and Miss Head from St. Louis. 
* Missouri Republican, June 12, 1S32. 
^ Perley: Historic Storms of New England, p. 249. 


swept the coast.^ Winter set in early with great depth of snow, and 
again there was a hot mid-summer in 1831, the temperature averaging 
five degrees higher at Brunswick, Me., than for the previous years. - 

On August 13, 1831, beside the summer storms noted in Kentucky 
and confirmed by Dr. Hildreth, a West Indian hurricane, such as 
destroyed Galveston, swept from Barbadoes, in a wide arc, through the 
Windward islands, Porto Kico, Hayti, Jamaica and Cuba to Mobile, a 
distance of 2,300 miles, spending itself in heavy rains in the gulf states.^ 
As a precursor of this storm a peculiar appearance of the sun was noted 
in New York City and in Mobile and New Orleans. The Mobile Register 
of August 17, 1831, contained an account of this that was thought worthy 
a place in the American Journal of Science. 

"On Saturday last the sun gave off pale blue and violet rays. A large 
spot the size of a dollar visible to the naked eye cast a bluish shade on 
objects. At 6 : 00 o'clock Monday the entire disc was a pale gTeen. In 
the night a violent storm set in from the southeast." 

In the summer of 1831 there was extensive famine in the western 
counties of Ireland, due to excessive rains rotting the potatoes.* In 
India, on the contrary, there were years of plenty in the early '30s 
because of abundant and evenly distributed rains. 

It was in India that the first clue to the scientific explanation of all 
this weather was picked up. Put an Englishman down anywhere on 
the globe under the Union Jack and a pith helmet, and he will straight- 
way begin to gather statistics. Long before the Imperial government 
had organized relief for famines, British colonial officials, had learned 
to expect drought in minimum sun-spot periods. Quietude of the sun, it 
had been observed, was usually associated with a weak monsoon.^ In 
the early '30s a maximum sun-spot period was indicated in India. In 
Mobile, New Orleans and New York City an enormous sun-spot was 
observed in August, 1831. Other observations of sun-spots will be noted 

In New England another scientific clew was picked up. Weather 
reports were kept by Prof. Parker Cleaveland, of Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Me., from 1807 to 1859, that were tabulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution." In September, 1830, while continuous storms swept 
the Atlantic coast. Professor Cleaveland made note of a sudden increase 
in the number and brilliancy of the displays of the aurora horealis. The 
same phenomena were reported by Gen. Martin Pield who, for a long 
period, kept meteorological reports at Fayetteville, Vt.^ The auroras 
observed in that latitude had for years averaged eighteen, but from May, 
1830, to May, 1831, General Eield saw fifty-six, several of them of 
unusual brilliancy. On the 9th of March he noted a perfect arch, a rare 

' "Prevailing Storms of Atlantic Coast," American Journal of Science, 1831. 

= Prof. Parker Cleveland's Meteorological Reports, kept at Brunswick, Maine, from 1807 to 1859, 
Tabulated in Smithsonian Institutions Contributions to Knowledge. 

^ Illinois Intelligencer of Vandalia for Oct. 7, 1831, had a report of this hurricane. 

■* W. P. O'Brien's: "Great Famines in Ireland." 

"^ Rev. J. E. Scott's, "In Famine Land, " p. 14. Also articleon India in the Encyclopedia Britanuica. 

■^ Smithsonian Institution: Contributions to Knowledge. 

■ American Journal of Science, Oct. 1831. Gen. Field also made annual report on meteorology to 
the American Journal of Science for many years. 


sight in so low a latitude. Some of these auroras were seen as far south 
as Maryland, in latitude 39. A remarkable one observed there is described 
as magnificent. 

"It began as early as 6 : 00 o'clock in the evening, in a blush along 
the northern sky. This was soon bounded, to east and west with crimson 
columns which wavered and flowed like drapery, sent up streamers, and 
finally focussed at the zenith in a characteristic corona, that broke up 
and formed again. In the south the sky was a dark slate color, brilliant 
Avitli stars, and the stars appeared as electric points through the trans- 
parent folds of crimson light in the north. Innumerable spindles of 
silvery luster darted from the blood-red drajjery. Universal stillness 
reigned. The barometer rose, the temperature fell. Nature was in a 
profound hush. The snowy landscape was stained a lovely flickering 
rose by the reflection." 

It does not seem improbable that the long arctic winter in the Miss- 
issippi valley was relieved by an occasional display of northern lights, 
for these auroras were seen and marvelled at all over Europe. Dalton's 
catalogue of auroras records thirty-two for Great Britain in 1830 and 
twenty-three in 1831. The report of the Regents of the University of 
New York shows that from April, 1830, to April, 1831, auroral displays 
in middle latitudes were very frequent and of unusual brilliancy.^ Many 
of them were seen simultaneously in the old world and the new. Such 
a one was seen December 11, 1830, ushering in the stormy winter. That 
of January 7, 1831, was seen from Paris to Niagara Falls. It lasted 
from sunset until dawn, and ran the gamut of auroral phenomena. On 
the 19th of April another aurora apparently girdled the hemisphere in 
about latitude 40. 

Loomis and Wolf's tables of sun-spots and auroras, covering the cen- 
tury and a quarter from 1750 to 1879, show high energy of both in the 
American Revolutionary War period.- Then there was a dropping off 
until about 1827. A chart showing the likeness between auroral fre- 
quency, sun-spot frequency, and the magnetic range, between 1780 and 
1870, shows a sudden leap upward of all three at 1830, after a period of 
calm from the beginning of the century. This period of quietude of the 
sun, and abeyance of auroras in lower latitudes, coincides with the long 
period of "mild winters" that had given early settlers in Illinois theiv 
sense of security in the climate. 

The most inclement season in the United States, previous to that of 
1831, was in 1777-78. the famous bitter winter, that tested endurance 
and patriotism of Washington's soldiers at Valley Forge. The recol- 
lections of New Englanders and of the French on the Mississippi were 
accurate as to there having been as cold a winter "about fifty years 
l)efore." In that winter long-continued low temperatures and heavy falls 
of snow were accompanied l)y sun-spots and auroral displays. The 
northern lights Avere of such unusual brilliancy as to excite the super- 
stitious fears of unlettered colonials. "The battles in the clouds" were 

' American Journal of Science for 1832, reviewingthe .^Jinals of Philosophy of London, and the report 
of the Regents of the University of New York. 

» Article on meteorology in Encyclopedia Britannica. 


looked upon as omens of disaster or of Divine disapproval, and may 
very easily have added to the difficulties of a successful conduct of 
the war. 

After 1778, both sun-spots and auroras gi'adually declined and, from 
1800 to the late '20s, were almost completely in abeyance. The sudden 
revival of solar activity and auroral displays, tliat reached a climax in 
the early '30s, was marked by a return of extreme temperatures and 
precipitation, and by violent magnetic storms. It seems pertinent to 
inquire as to what connection there may be between solar activity and 
terrestrial meteorology. 

Por the latest scientific pronouncement on this point, Milton Upde- 
graff, professor of iiiathematics in the United States ISTaval Observatory, 
and director of the Nautical Almanac in Washington, referred the 
writer to "Problems in Astro-Physics" by Agnes M. Gierke. I venture 
to do nothing more than to quote to the point, verbatim, with special 
reference to the jjeriod under consideration :^ 

"The sun is subject to a rythmic tide of disturbance, ebbing and flow- 
ing in a period of eleven years ; but this period is irregular and spasmodic. 
Both the intervals and the intensity (of activity) vary, and the period 
is involved in others. One, there is reason to believe, comprises a term 
of sixty-five years (which also varies). Prediction remains at fault. 
Spot maxima are delayed or fettered; are languid or energetic. The 
eleven year cycle ran to sixteen years, from 1788 to 1804, while the 
cycle was compressed into a little more than seven years, from September, 
1829, to Fehruary, 1837. 

"Terrestrial meteorology, as a whole, is certainly embraced in the sun- 
cycles, but the details of conformity baffie pursuit. Only in the magnetic 
field is there no room for doubt. The earth is circled by an auroral belt 
around the pole, which advances into temperate latitudes at epochs of 
cosmic disturbance, but retires toward the pole as it quiets down. Indi- 
vidual outbreaks on the sun are often unmistakably associated with 
commotions of the terrestrial magnetic system. These so-called magnetic 
storms are world-wide in their nature, and bear witness to some sudden, 
vital spasm, attacking the world as a whole. Auroras and earth-currents 
make part of these mysterious affections, which commonly reach their 
lieight when a large sun-spot is nearly central on the disc. On November 
17, 1882, the photosphere of the sun was, to the naked eye, visibly rent, 
and the coincident magnetic storm and auroral display, 'beggared 
description.' The transit of another enormous sun-spot created a mag- 
netic turmoil in February, 1892, that seriously interferred with tele- 
graphic and telephonic communication. An auroral pagaent completed 
the program. Variations of the earth's orbit, even, are held by many 
astronomers to coincide with the sixty-five year period of climax in 

That is as far as science is prepared to go at present. Incidentally, it 
may be remarked that sun-spots and auroras have been under intelligent 
observation since Galileo and Kepler, three hundred years ago. Scien- 

^ "Problems in Astro-Physics," by Agnes M. Gierke, Chap. XIII, pp. 150-160. Published in Lon- 
don 1903. Copy in John Crerar Library of Chicago. 


tists indulge in no snap judgments. While it is accepted that "terrestrial 
meteorology, as a whole, is certainly embraced in the sun-cycles, the 
details of conformity still baffle pursuit, and only in the field of magnet- 
ism is there no room for doubt." As regards the effect on temperature 
and precipitation, and the extension of influence over entire seasons and 
years, science goes only so far as to confess to the open mind. 

The authority quoted notes that the eleven-year sun-spot cycle was at 
this time compressed into seven years and a fraction, from September, 

1829, to February, 1837. It would also appear that the sixty-five-year 
cycle, counting from 1777-78 to 1830-31, was contracted to fifty-three 
years. It is, perhaps, not surprising that there were explosions. Cer- 
tainly, a prolonged vital spasm seems to liave attacked the world as a 
whole in 1831, with separate individual outbreaks as early as March, 

1830, and as late as March, 1832, a period of two years. 'Wlien Captain 
John Ross returned from his second Polar voyage, he extended those 
extraordinary weather conditions, at least in the Arctics, from 1829 to 

The record of Polar explorations, from the period of the American 
Eevolution to the early '30s, confirms the character of the seasons in 
lower latitudes. In 1778-79 two expeditions were turned back by ice- 
barriers in latitudes of 65° to 70°. In 1806 Captain Scoresby, a famous 
whaler, reached latitude 81° 12', and he reported the Polar seas remark- 
ably open in 1817. During the following ten years there were four 
successful voyages undertaken, by Franklin, Parry, Beechey and Eoss. 
Captain Parry went over the ice to latitude 82° 45' in 1827. In 1829, 
however, a Danish expedition was turned back in latitude 65°, by "an 
insurmountable barrier of ice."- 

In the same summer, Captain John Eoss worked up through Baffin's 
bay to latitude 74°, turned westward through Lancaster sound and then 
dropped southward to the Gulf of Boothia, in latitude 70°. By exam- 
ining a continental map you will find his winter quarters on the 90th 
meridian, about 2,000 miles due northward from St. Louis. There, in 
a fairly sheltered, almost land-locked gulf, within fifty miles or so of 
the north magnetic pole which he succ-eeded in locating. Captain Eoss 
passed the next three winters. The kind of weather this expedition 
encountered is very pertinent to this inquiry. 

• The winter of 1829-30, the entire year, indeed, was much colder than 
on his former voyage, but in retrospect it seemed mild. It was marked 
by brilliant auroras, more regular, splendid and durable than had been 
noted by other explorations. Christmas day was celebrated by a display 
of great magnificence that filled the entire vault of heaven and ran the 
gamut of auroral phenomena. At another time a broad arch of the 
argent color and radiation of a full moon, "exactly as the rings of Saturn 
must appear to that planet" was recorded. And, before the sun disap- 
peared below the horizon, they saw an enormous sun-spot, so fairly 
centered on the disc as to present the appearance of an eclipse, with a 
belt of dazzling brilliancy, shooting rays like the star of the order of the 

' Narrative of the Second Polar Voyage of Sir John Ross. 
* Article on Polar Regions in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 


Bath. It was too incredible, too absurd to be believed, and did not admit 
of representation in the then undeveloped state of photography. Ver}' 
great magnetic disturbance was thus indicated in the Polar regions in 
1829, and it was accompanied by lower temperature. 

September, 1830, opened with severity, the thermometer falling three 
degrees below the freezing point, and the cold was attended by gales of 
wind and snow. This was the time the sudden increase in the number 
and brightness of auroras was noted in Maine and Vermont. By the 
24th, when the sun crossed the equator, the ship was frozen in a foot 
of ice. Weeks were consumed in cutting the vessel out, and moving it 
to a safer position; but less than a quarter of a mile was gained, and 
further efforts were abandoned. By the 10th of October the thermometer 
registered minus degrees, and all the Polar regions seemed to be sending 
in their stored up icebergs. By November the new ice was four feet thick. 
On the 29th the mercury froze in the thermometer at 39 degrees. New 
Year's day, 1831, when the first storm was raging in the Mississippi 
valley, the arctic explorer recorded a temperature of 52 degrees. 

A splendid aurora was seen on Boothia on the 13th of January. The 
great storm that Dr. Hildreth reported as extending over the entire 
United States occurred on the 14th. A week before, on January Tth, the 
extraordinary aurora that lasted from sunset to dawn was seen in both 
hemispheres down to latitude -39. The magnetic pagaent, which Miss 
Gierke has led us to expect, was complete. Another remarkable phe- 
nomenon was observed January 11th at Oneida Seminan-, ^ISTew York. A 
brilliant halo formed around the sun which was of an electric whiteness, 
blinding to the eye. This changed to an elongated parhelion, colored 
prismatically and finally forming an arc. The thermometer fell from 
23 degrees above to 11 degrees below in the night, with a heavy fall of 

The aurora of Januar\^ 13, 1831, was the last one of any note that was 
seen by these Arctic explorers. Thereafter the Polar regions were 
shrouded in gloom. The auroral belt that, "in periods of great magnetic 
disturbance, descend into lower latitudes," had migrated, .for a series of 
years, to a zone between the 60th and 40th parallels. Its descent to the 
south was announced, whether perforce or coincidently. by gales of wind, 
paralvzing storms, and bitter and long-continued cold, making an historic 
season. Captain Eoss missed the midnight splendor of the aurora bore- 
alis, but he too was in the grip of icy blasts and ice-locked seas. The 
latter half of February in his winter quarters, averaged 42 degrees. This 
was the time when the editor of the E'dwardsville Advocate was driven 
from his sanctum by the northern blasts. 

•^^y the 20th of March," as Captain Eoss remarks with commendable 
restraint in his narrative, "the continuance and degree of cold began 
seriously to attract our attention. On the 21st the sun crossed the 
equator at -49 degrees, a temperature that was imparalleled in all former 
voyages." This corresponds to the date that Mr. and Mrs. John H. 
Kinzie crossed the Desplaines in temperatures unparalleled for Chicago. 

' American Journal of Science for 1831, p. 1S9. 


The mean tempera tare for March, in hititiule 70, was -35 degrees, eleven 
degrees lower than the lowest previous record. It was the end of April 
before the crew could travel at all. In May the average was still 16 
degrees below freezing point, and no open water was seen. It was in 
April that some young men were thought to have perished of the cold on 
the Calumet marsh, and up to late in May the sun shone out only two 
entire days in Chicago, during the inclement spring of 1831. 

Captain Eoss never did get his little ship out of the ice. In the spring 
of 1832 it was abandoned there, and the explorers made tlieir way 
overland, to their buried stores on Fury Beach, Barrow Strait, in lati- 
tude 74. There they spent another year of unbroken winter, seeing open 
water for the first time in three years, late in the summer of 1833, Avhen 
they were picked up by a whaler from Baffin's Bay. The party had long 
been looked upon as lost. 

The professional ethics of arctic exploration forbids the use of superla- 
tives. Few comments are made on the most frightful experiences. 
Temperatures that congeal the blood are recorded, unmoved ; mountain? 
of immemorial snow; frozen wastes of continental expanse; unfathom- 
able darkness of stellar spaces; legions of spectral bergs that crash 
around their beleaguered ships in the Polar midnight. Captain Eoss 
had commanded a previous expedition, and had gone back undismayed. 
In March, 1831, the continuance and degree of cold merely "attracted 
our serious attention," but by June, 1832, the unmitigated rigor, the 
incessant gales, the universal ice and snow, had become an obsession. It 
was a physical torment and a mental depression that tested all their 
powers of endurance. They fled northward in terror, to lie in the track 
of whalers, to be companioned there, also, by menace of death and obliv- 
ion. The world seemed to have swung into some catacylsmic cycle — to 
lie there stark, and sepultured in snow^ — geologic ages to pass, mayhap, 
before their crystal prison should be unlocked. The slate-colored strip 
of water, opening tlirough Lancaster Sound, was the first sign they had 
in three years, that the northern hemisphere had not congealed. 

Captain Eoss confessed, with picturesque vigor and "without shame, 
that he had had enough to last a lifetime. Here is his sober indictment 
of the North Polar regions, from 1829 to 1833 : 

"It is very certain that no traveler, under any circumstances, nor any 
navigators, among all those who have wintered in northern latitudes, 
have ever encountered winters more severe, in temperatures and storms, 
nor in duration and frequency of storms. It was one long winter of 
four years, when the freezing point w^as our summer heat, and cold meant 
from 50 to 80 degrees below zero. Four years of snow and ice, uninter- 
rupted and unceasing, was more than enough to suffice for admiration."^ 

As the Illinois InieMigencer so justly observed, "the winter of the deep 
snow" was, at least, continental in extent. The historical and other data 
collected in this inquiry, cover too small a field, in time and space, 
perhaps, to lead to scientific conclusions, but they are submitted in the 
hope that the whole cosmic story of a phenomenal period may be searched 
out and analyzed. 

^ Narrative of the Second Polar Voyage of Sir Jolin Ross, oiigiiial quarto edition^ vdtli plates, p. 543. 



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By Clinton L. Conkling. 

The Republican National convention met in Chicago, May 16, 1860. 
The interest thronghout the country in the results of the meeting was 
intense. The general opinion, especially in the East, was that William 
H. Seward of New York would be nominated, although Horace Greeley 
and others from New York were opposed to liim. The Republican State 
convention on the ninth day of the same month had declared Abraham 
Lincoln to be the first choice of the Republican party of Illinois for the 
presidency. Many delegates and politicians thronged the city several 
days before the convention. Mr. Lincoln's friends were early on the 
ground working earnestly and effectively to create a sentiment in his 

Mr. N. M. Knapp, then of Winchester, 111., wrote to him from Chi- 
cago, as follows: 

Tremont House. 
Gage, Bro. & Drake. Proprietors. 

Chicago, Monday May 14, 1860. 

Dear Sir — Things are working; keep a good nerve — be not surprised at 
any result — but I tell you that your chances are not the worst. We have 
got Seward in the attitude of the representative Republican of the Bast — you 
at the West. We are laboring to make you the second choice of all the 
delegations we can where we cannot make you first choice. We are dealing 
tenderly with delegates, taking them in detail, and making no fuss. Be not 
too expectant but rely upon our discretion. Again I say brace your nerves 
for any result. 

Truly your friend, 

N. M. Knapp. 

Mr. Lincoln was present at the State convention at Decatur but did 
not go to Chicago. He remained in Springfield, went to his law office 
as usual, received reports of the progress of events by telegrams, letters 
and from persons returning from Chicago, visited his friends to discuss 
the situation and prospects and, occasionally, as was his wont, joined in 
a game of hand ball, the then favorite pastime of the professional men 
of the town. 

The only wires into Springfield in 1860 were owned and operated by 
the Illinois and Mississippi Telegraph Company and were called the ''"Ca- 
ton Lines" after Judge John D. Caton of Ottawa, Illinois, president of 
the com.pany, and one of its organizers. Its principal office was at St. 
Louis. John James Speed Wilson, afterwards known as "Col. Wilson,"' 
was superintendent of the Eastern Division with headquarters at Spring- 


field. E. D. L. Sweet was superintendent of the Western Division witli 
his ofiice in Chicago. These divisions were afterwards called the South- 
ern and Xorthern divisions, respectively. 

C. F. Mclntire, with an operator named J. B. Pierce, was in charge 
of the local office in Springfield which was then on the north side of 
the Public Square (but at what number I have been unable to learn). 
I have no further information about these operators. A year or two 
afterwards the telegraph office was moved to the rooms previously oc- 
cupied by James C. Conkling'as law offices, being the second floor over 
Chatterton's jewelry store, now No. 121 South Fifth Street, on the west 
side of the Square, where it remained for some years. The first tele- 
graph office in this city was in the second story over Pease's hardware 
store, now Xo. 506 East Adams Street on the south side of the square. 

Upon the absorption of the Illinois & Mississippi Lines by the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company in 1866, Mr. Sweet was appointed super- 
intendent of the latter company, and upon his resignation in 1868, 
Colonel Wilson succeeded him and removed to Chicago. He continued 
in that position until 1879, when he resigned to go into other business. 
He died a few years afterwards. ]\Ir. E. D. L. Sweet is still living in 
Chicago at the advanced age of eighty-six years. D.iring the convention 
he had charge of all the telegraphic arrangements. There was only one 
wire into the '"'Wigwam" and this was connected in the main office with 
the eastern wire of the Western Union — it being the general opinioji 
that the nomination would go to an eastern man, Seward being the one 
most often mentioned in that respect. Mr. Wilson was in Chicago 
during the convention and divided his time between the main telegraph 
office, at the southeast corner of Lake and Clark streets, and the con- 
vention in the "Wigwam," a building erected for the occasion at the 
comer of Market and Lake streets. Most of the personal messages from 
delegates to Illinois points were sent from the convention hall to the 
main office of the Caton Company by messenger boys. 

On Friday morning. May 18, 1860, the third day of the convention, 
the delegates met at ten o'clock to ballot. James C. Conkling of Spring- 
field who had been in Chicago several davs but was called back unex- 
pectedly, arrived home early that morning. George M. Brinkerhoff, Sr., 
of this city was reading law in Mr. Conkling^s office, which was then 
over Chatterton's jewelry store. About half past eight o'clock Mr. 
Lincoln came into the office and asked Mr. Brinkerhoff where Mr. Conk- 
ling was, as he had just heard on the street that the latter had returned 
from Chicago. On being told that Mr. Conkling was not in but prob- 
ably would be in an hour, Mr. Lincoln said he would go out on the 
street and come back again as he was anxious to see Mr. Conkling. 
Presently Mr. Conkling came in and later Mr. Lincoln again called. 
There was an old settee by the front window on which were several 
buggy cushions. Mr. Lincoln stretched himself upon this settee, his 
head on a cushion and his feet over the end of the settee. For a long 
time they talked about the convention. Mr. Lincoln wanted to know 
what had been done and what Mr. Conkling had seen and learned and 


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wliat lie believed would be the result of the convention. Mr. Conkling 
replied that Mr. Lincoln would be nominated that day; that after the 
conversations he had had and the information he had gathered in regard 
to Mr. Seward's candidacy,, he was satisfied that Mr. Seward could not 
be nominated, for he not only had enemies in other states than his own, 
but he had enemies at home; that if Mr. Seward was not nominated on 
the first ballot the Pennsylvania delegation and other delegations would 
immediately go to Mr. Lincoln and he would be nominated. 

Mr. Lincoln replied that he hardly thought this could be possible and 
that in case Mr. Seward was not nominated on the first ballot, it was 
his judgment that Mr. Chase of Ohio or Mr. Bates of Missouri would 
be the nominee. They both considered that Mr. Cameron of Pennsyl- 
vania stood no chance of nomination. Mr. Conkling in response said 
that he did not think it was possible to nominate any other one except 
Mr. Lincoln under the existing conditions because the pro-slavery parr 
of the Eepublican party then- in the convention would not vote for Mr. 
Chase, who was considered an abolitionist, and the abolition part of the 
party would not vote for Mr. Bates, because he was from a slave state, 
and that the only solution of the matter was the nomination of Mr. 

After discussing the situation at some length, Mr. Lincoln arose and 
said, "Well, Conkling, I believe I will go back to my office and practice 
law." He then left the office. 

I was present during a part only of this interview and depend largely 
for the details of this conversation upon what Mr. Conkling and Mr. 
Brinkerhoff have told me. In a very few moments after Mr. Lincoln 
left I learned of his nomination, (just how I do not now remember) 
and rushed after him. I met him on the west side of the Square before 
anyone else had told him and to my cry, "Mr. Lincoln you're nomina- 
ted" he said, "Well, Clinton, then we've got it," and took my out- 
stretched hand in both of his. Then the excited crowds surged around 
him and I dropped out of sight. 

In my possession are five original telegrams received by Mr. Lincoln 
on the day. he was nominated. All are on the Illinois and Mississippi 
Telegraph Company form. 

The first one sent was from the telegraph superintendent Wilson, and 
shows signs of haste and bears no date. It reads, 

"To Lincoln: 

"You are nominated." 

"J. J. S. Wilson." 

Mr. Pierce, the operator who received this message at Springfield, 
writes from Young America, Illinois, under date of June -i, 1860, to Mr. 
Lincoln saying that this was the first message for him announcing his 

A moment after this message was sent a messenger boy brought to the 
main office in Chicago a message addressed simply "Abe'" and which 
read "We did it. Glory to "God," "Knapp." The receiving clerk brought 
the message to Mr. Sweet, calling his attention to the address, and also 

— 5 H S 


to the expression "Glory to God." Mr. Sweet directed thai the words 
"Lincoln, Springfield" be added and that tlie message be sent at once. 
This message is probably the first one to Mr. Lincoln from any person 
who was actively at work in his behalf in the convention and without 
doubt was from Mr. N. M. Ivnapp who wrote the letter of May four- 

The next tw^o telegrams are from J. J. Richards who was well known 
in earlier days in Springfield. lie was connected with the Great West- 
ern Kailroad Company and was its agent for some time at Naples, which 
was then the end of the road. Owing to the great amount of freight 
then brought to Naples by boat from St. Louis and other points down 
the river, and which was there re-shipped to Central Illinois points, the 
position of agent required a man of good business ability, and for this 
reason he was stationed there. He subsequently went to Chicago. 

These telegrams are as follows : 

By Telegraph from Chicago 18 1860. 
To Abraham Lincoln: 

You'r nominated & elected 

May 18, 18G0. 

J. J. Richards. 


By Telegraph from Chicago 18 18 

To Hon. A. Lincoln: 

You were nominated on 3rd ballot. 

J. J. Richards. 

Mr. J. J. S. Wilson followed his first message, probably within a very 

few moments, by another w^hich reads : 

__ 18 

By Telegraph from Chicago 18 1860. 
To Hon. A. Lincoln: 

Vote just announced. Whole No 466 necessary to choice 234 Lincoln 
354 votes not stated on motion of Mr. Evarts of NY the nomination was 
made unanimous amid intense enthusiasm. 

J. J. S. Wilson. 

For kindly assistance in compiling this paper I am indebted to Hon. 
Eobert T. Lincoln; Mr. Charles S. Sweet, his Secretary; Mr. John W. 
Bunn and Mr. George M. Brinkerhoff, Sr. 

Also see Williams' Springfield Directory for 1860, p. 42, and the Di- 
rectory for 1863 under individual names; How Abraham Lincoln Be- 
came Pl-esident, by J. McCan Davis; Illinois State Register, Feb. 13, 
1903, p. 8 and the issue of the same paper of Feb. 12, 1909, p. 9, in 
which T. W. S. Kidd tells what Mr. Lincoln himself told him about 
where he was when nominated and who first brought him the news. 


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By Harriet Taylor. 

The best public genealogical collections in the United States are in 
iBoston, New York City, Albany, Washington, D. C, Madison, Wis., and 
Chicago. The official publication of the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Society gives Boston first place. The Eegister is now in 
its sixty-third Volume and is the standard authority for all matters 
pertaining to genealogy. Many Massachusetts towns have preserved in 
their libraries manuscripts, certificates of military service, receipts from 
early public officials, fragments of company records, and other manu- 
script documents of the utmost importance in determining claims to 
colonial and revolutionary military service. The largest libraries publish 
monthly bulletins, or lists of new genealogical works acquired. 

The most complete materials bearing on the German element in 
America are at the New York Public Library. They also have much 
on the Eoyalists who, during the Eevolution, fled to Canada and Nova 
Scotia. The Pennsylvania-German Monthly Magazine, edited by Kriebel, 
is another resource for German- American genealogists. 

The Wisconsin State Historical Society Library, at Madison, antedates 
the Newberry Library by many years. It contains great and unique 
resources in manuscript, including certain colonial and revolutionary 
military muster rolls and orderly books, not to be found at Washington, 
and the extensive Draper Collection of trans-Allegheny pioneering 
history. The Wisconsin Sons of American Eevolution are cooperating 
with the Society in publishing some of their important manuscripts. 
In 1905, Vol. 1 of a "Documentary History of Dunmore's War" was 
issued, and in 1905 Vol. 2 of "The Eevolution on the Upper Ohio, 
1775-1777" appeared. The Wisconsin State Library also has 15,000 
bound volumes of newspapers and is especially strong in town and 
county histories. 

The Newberry Library Genealogical Department has the advantage 
in efficiency over all larger collections on account of its genealogical 
index, containing at present 1,300,000 references to different names, in 
books analyzed in that library. For this reason it is the most conve- 
nient, as well as expeditious, working place in the United States. The 
surnames in this immense index are variously spelled, as found and 
grouped under places, and, according to intermarriages, occasionally 
new entries are inserted, keeping pace with the growth of the library. 


Visitors from the Atlantic to the Pacific consider the Newberry Library 
a center of genealogical information, and frequently sojourn in Chicago 
awliile to look np family history. 

The Chicago Historical Society, and all other associations of similar 
character, have preserved historical data, manuscripts, memorials, por- 
traits and relics pertaining to pioneers within a certain limited range. 
'These learned institutions are proper places al which to apply for any 
information of early date in their locality. 

With few exceptions books purely genealogical containing lineages 
and vital records of Western born people, are as yet unknown. Powers' 
Sangamon County is one Illinois production of this kind. The most 
\oluminous resources we now possess for Western family history are 
found in the State and county portrait and biographical records, 
histories, memorials, or reviews, as they are variously entitled, issued 
during the last forty years in large numbers by the biographical pub- 
lishing companies. Such works have been published on the Pacific 
states, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma and for most of the states in the 
Mississippi valley. These sketches include many families of foreign 
extraction, but, strange to relate, few of them reach back into the 
fatlierland of Jinrope, so that as family trees they are rootless. A few 
pioneers have published memoirs or reminiscences, and writings of early 
travelers in the West mention some names with descriptions of early 
home life in the West. 

A work on the Western territories published in 1797 by Imlay, com- 
missioner for laying . out lands in the ''Back Settlements," takes in 
Cahokia, 111., and St. Louis, Mo., but more particularly deals with 
Kentuck3^ There arc similar travels by Brissot de Warville, 1792 j 
Kendall, 1807; Birkbeck, 1817; Darby, 1818, and others giving a glimpse 
of the West at those periods. The first State Gazetteers frequently 
mention names of founders of towns. In several of the largest cities a 
few wealthy individuals have formed clubs for the purpose of reprinting 
very old and rare books relating to the pioneer history of the nation. 

But, we cannot repeat too often in connection with genealogy that 
vital records are alone reliable as authorities. Everybody has been born 
or gets married, and few people will live forever, although twentieth 
century experts in mental therapeutics or scientific gymnastics insist 
upon it that eternal physical existence is a possibility. If this idea 
becomes practical, it is likely to complicate future genealogical work. 
However, let us not borrow trouble. 

Historical Societies and Genealogical Associations. 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C, has recently issued 
a "Handbook of Learned Societies and Institutions of America." This 
work includes a brief account of all historical and genealogical associa- 
tions in our country. All of them respond to inquiries by mail. 

The American Antiquarian Society Library at Worcester, Mass., has 
130,000 volumes, including manuscripts, portraits and relics of pioneers. 
The wealthiest of eastern societies is, of course, the New England 


Historical and Genealogical Society of Boston, with 60,000 manuscripts, 
and museum of portraits, curios and antiques. At Eichmond, Va., there 
is the Confederate j\Iemorial Literary Society Library, with many books, 
manuscripts and relics relating to Southerners previous to 1860. 


It' we should attempt to give here a bibliography of genealogy, we 
can inuigine there would soon be no listeners. Nor is it necessary to 
]uime works wherein to look for certain family data, because any one 
attempting to compile a lineage will find it necessary to go to some 
genealogical library, or to all of them in turn, where well trained attend- 
ants witji unlimited patience and courtesy will bring any books inquired 
for and suggest others to suit the case. Of course, the history, of the 
family wanted is most important, if it has been published; after that 
there are innumerable resources for discovering proofs of identity, or 
relationships lineal or collateral. 

Many states have established depai'tments of archives and history. 
Public offices preserve records and historical libraries possess certain 
l)owers of examining these official records for historical purposes. In 
many of these local libraries, all deeds, wills and other personal docu- 
ments of the State are deposited, and they may there usually be examined 
l)y searchers for family clata. Nearly all of the original thirteen states 
printed colonial records. 

Practical Suggestions. 

Interest in genealogy has hardly kept pace with general progress in 
tlie West. When a native of Illinois, or Ohio, achieves distinction, 
everybody asks, "Who is he?" They want to know just where, among 
his progenitors the same lofty tendency may be found, or from, what 
combination of ancestors such a wonderful character could have 
emanated. Cultivated people in the West are beginning to realize keenly 
tliat noble lineage is the best legacy for children. But whether or not 
it contains great names, one's make-up should be among the first lessons 
in education. Thrice blessed were our forefathers who committed to 
writing important family events. "Words are the only things that live 
forever." Let this remind us, ancestors of the future, to put on record 
without delay whatever is of permanent interest in our experience. Just 
think of it; fifty, sixty, seventy years, or more, of life, with all its daily 
liappenings, and not a line to show we ever existed ! Nothing to pass 
on in the way of honor, wealth or even one written page of family 

It is natural that we should be hero-worshippers, proud of kinship 
with genius and worth, the desire for sympathy and esteem is universal. 
Yes, we are all happy in the approbation of our fellow men. Here, 
proliably, is the strongest incentive to hunting up distinguished connec- 
tions, and getting a coat-of-arms. We can hardly imagine man or 


woman, shipwrecked on a desert island, where was the finest genealogical 
lil)rary in the world, ferreting out illustrious progenitors. There would 
be no one to astonish by the revelation. 

Hereditary Patriotic Societies. 

Filling out application papers for membership in the hereditary socie- 
ties is often the first enticement to genealogical work; but after the 
i)iitial steps are taken, the subject itself grows intensely interesting. A 
passion for this labor of family love develops with amazing rapidity 
in many cases, and zeal never flags until, with infinite patience, the 
lineage is completed, or the chart filled up back to the Eevolution, to 
colonial wars, or to the "Mayflower," of unlimited carrying capacity. 
Some tribe tracers undertake to go back as far as they can. They cross 
the Athmtic (in books, not boats) and follow the trail, with ancestor 
fire blazing in their eyes, keeping on and on, day after day, haggard 
with fatigue, going through docket, deed and "Domesday Boke," through 
many an ancient tome, dry cartulary, tiresome chronicles, desperately 
stale documents, always seeking one name. When found, everybody 
within hearing is notified of the fact; or if some great honor is 
unearthed, they utter exclamations of joy, and the incunabulum wherein 
it was found becomes to them a fairyland of delight. 

To the distiuterested observer, one of these explorers appears much 
like a dance seen through a tiny opening in a wall. The music within 
unheard, and his companions invisible, the dancer's antics and the 
genealogist's blissful drudgery seem equally ridiculous. The observer 
does not see the lovely forms of the past beckoning him mentally on, 
nor does he realize the love of kindred which charms and lures him 
onward, with such terrible tenacity of purjDOse. 

The whole world rings with accounts of celebrations, receptions to 
distinguished visitors and patriotic achievements of the sons and daugh- 
ters of the American Eevolution, and numerous other hereditary societies. 
A Cincinnati lady of wealth and culture, wearing the society badge of 
the "Daughters" was recently heard making this remark as she signifi- 
cantly touched the little blue wheel : "I've traveled enough to know 
that this is a badge of ladyship." She then explained that when in a 
strange town she met a woman wearing that emblem, she felt perfectly 
safe in addressins: her without a formal introduction. If it became 
necessary, for any political reason, to appeal to natives of the United 
States exclusively, where, but in such associations, could they be found 
together ? 

As far west as the home of the Latter Day Saints, and the Pacific 
Coast people are waked up and anxious to make their title clear to 
membership in these commemorative societies. Eecently, at Xewberry 
Library, a young man, bent upon finding a military ancestor, after 
hours of fruitless search, exclaimed in despair: "My grandfathers were 
all preachers and professional men, not one of them carried a gun." He 
might win distinction at the next peace convention. A woman with a 
German name, through which she hoped to become a "joiner" recently 


made out her application papers on account of descent from a Hessian 
grenadier, who, of course, liad sold himself to the British, and was one 
of those convention troops in the habit of pinning American soldiers 
to the trees with their bayonets. 

Some wealthy ximericans who have bought coronets for their daugh- 
ters, or old families enriched by royal grants, claim descent from 
Loyalists, and refuse to joiii the patriotic societies; but they do not 
belong to the West. 

There were about 400,000 continental and militia men in the Eevo- 
lutionary War, and every man of them badly wanted by somebody today 
as an ancestor. Our published war records are not yet complete, 
although we have Hamersley, Heitman and Powell's Lists of Revolu- 
tionary Officers of almost every state, and military records and rosters 
of all wars. 

The Roll of Honor of Revolutionary men in the D. A. R. Lineage 
Books is a boon to seekers of ancestors. When other resources fail, we 
are permitted to' write to the United States Commissioner of Pensions, 
War Department, Washington, D. C, or if the one we seek was not 
pensioned, we may write to the U. S. Adjutant General at the same 
War Department, and ask for the military history, or certificate of 
service of the Revolutionary soldier sought. For colonial warriors we 
have Hubbard's Indian Wars, Bodge's Soldiers in King Philip's War, 
books on the French and Indian Wars, or records of the colonial 

Selecting a Working Plan or Form. 

There are several patented devices for holding notes, or preserving 
family records. Bookstores keep them in stock. A chart square, radical 
or fan-shaped, where the entire compilation may be seen at one view is 
not as popular as it once was ; and the natural tree, with trunk, branches 
and twigs has completely gone out of fashion, the written-in names being 
too small, too numerous and bewildering. Many adopt the note book of 
loose, perforated leave?, capable of indefinite expansion, with a binder 
to hold them. Another plan is to have a hox full of paper cut of uniform 
size, with the letters of the alphabet, or different surnames pasted on and 
elevated a little above the top edge of the paper. This when completed 
forms an index. The New England Register system of denoting rela- 
tionships by figures, paragraphing, and difference in type, is the standard 
in printing material. 

We have seen works typewritten and very elegantly bound in velvet, 
silk embroidered, or hand painted leather, profusely illustrated with 
coats of arms, drawings of old homesteads, photograplis of heirlooms 
and interesting portraits. This makes an edition de luxe. One such 
production contained a daughter's picture taken every birthday, except 
the first, the series forming a progressive study in heredity and evolution 
when compared with other portraits in the book. According to the taste 
of the owner these very precious volumes are kept in view for visitors 
to admire or they are hidden away to be seen only by near relatives. So 


many fanciful family romances are afloat that certain people liave grown 
incredulous in regard to genealogically derived superiority. They find 
listening to recitations of family eulogies, or lineages compiled from 
Browning and Burke tiresome, to put it mildly, unless they intend to 
marry into the family. 

There are a few eccentrics, successful men proud of their own strength, 
who freely own that all before them in their family were, from a worldly 
standpoint, human failures. They are the Napoleons of their tribe. We 
liave also heard some brave souls admit that their great-grandfathers 
were steerage passengers, buccaneers or marooners, or otherwise led a 
lurid life among free-booters. 


Publishing a book is a long story. None but an experienced publisher 
of such works (found in all large cities) can produce the tables, charts, 
and special forms in satisfactory shape. Typographical errors in dates 
or spelling are disastrous and misleading to future compilers. 

'I'he first family history ever printed in America is said to be the 
"Genealogy of Samuel and^ Hannah Stebbins/' Hartford, 1771, reprinted 
in Boston, 1879. It consists of 31 pages, and a folded sheet. 

We frequently hear people lamenting the loss of valuable manuscript 
records by fire or carelessness. The New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Society now has a department of Eegistration of Pedigrees; 
and for $15.00 they offer to edit and publish any family records, which 
will appear in periodical book form. 

Time Required to Complete Work. 

The time necessary for compilation depends, of course, upon the object 
in view. A blank application for membership in one of the societies may 
sometimes be filled out in one hour. Some lines can be traced farther 
back in a day than others in a year for obvious reasons. But few people 
try to travel back of ten generations unless a complete family history 
is planned ; in that case, twenty or thirty years may pleasantly pass 
away ere the task is completed. 

One lineage is the ordinary undertaking, but genealogy in its broadest 
sense is made up of a chain of lineages, all springing from ancestor 
number one. Each generation (33 years) is reckoned one degree nearer 
the inquirer. In ten generations a wedded pair might be the ancestors 
of more than 500 'souls, and it has been estimated (See Journal of Amer- 
ican History, Vol. 3, page 146) that one's ancestors in twenty-five genera- 
tions are apparently over sixteen millions (16,000,000). That word 
"ancestor" in England means any person from whom an heir inherits 
property. In America it is synonymous with "progenitor" or "fore- 
father." We had two parents, four grandparents. Going back at this 
rate, it has been calculated one man's ancestors at some point in ancient 
history equalled the entire population of the globe. Every individual, at 
that indefinite time, was a progenitor (except the childless) of everybody 
in this generation. There have always been kings or chiefs. It therefore 

• . '^3 

follows that everybody is of royal descent. To be sure, kings have not 
always been noblemen, which, through heredity, accounts for the low and 
vicious "submerged." 

Preliminary Investigations. 

There is a well-known aphorism, "You get out of a thing what you 
take to it." This applies beautifully to the beginning of genealogical 
search. You must know the individuals you are looking for. If you are 
hunting up your great-grandfather, you ought to ascertain his given name 
from some member of the family, otherwise he might appear before you on 
a page and you perchance would pass him by as a stranger. A starting 
point two or three generations back, therefore, is necessary with a clue 
here and there and sufficient vital records (if such a thing were possible) ; 
persistence will do the rest. When told that they must interview all old 
people in the family, nearly everybody says : "Oh, I never thought of 
genealogy. I took no interest in such work until my grandparents were 
gone. They often told me the story of my great-grandfather in the 
Kevolution, and the tradition about, etc., etc." It is all vaguely remem- 
bered now, but they" expect to resurrect it in books. These oral tradi- 
tions are always unsafe to build family history upon, but many an airy 
superstructure is erected on just such visionary hilltops. 

Occasionally, nothing is indexed on an uncommon name. In such 
cases, as a last resort, it may be looked for in city "Blue Books," in 
"Who's Who in America," or in city directories. This may possibly lead 
to profitable correspondence. Information must inevitably be gained 
under great difficulties, when nothing whatever has previously been done 
towards compiling a family history. The genealogical columns of certain 
newspapers, like the Boston Transcript, or New York Mail and Express, 
and others in London, Paris and Berlin (the names can be obtained from 
consuls) are often used to bring together by correspondence persons inter- 
ested in the same family. Where vital records of any town are not 
published, the recorder of such records in that town, on being written 
to, will, for a consideration, copy and forward what is needed. 

Question Sheets. 

We heard one man say he had sent 10,000 question sheets to people 
throughout the country, supposed to be interested in the genealogy he 
was compiling, and he expected very few of these sheets would be 
returned properly filled in with names, dates, residences and other 
particulars requested. Errors are unavoidable unless the statements thus 
collected by mail are verified ; which accounts for the fact that family 
histories are never trustworthy authorities for succeeding compilers to 
copy from. Nevertheless these histories are the first books to be consulted. 

After interviewing relatives orally or by letter, collecting home 
documents, and exhausting all original resources, the next step in the 
process is to visit libraries, historical societies or any convenient collec- 
tion of genealogical works; for, it is currently reported, that everybody 
on earth is rounded up, classified and labeled in books. 


Thu building of a lineage from scattered materials is a veritable 
Panama Canal of an undertaking. Digging is the word, first and last. 
But we promise all who work with absolute honesty of purpose a noble 
ancestry, because it is in their blood. Once aroused, visitors to a genea- 
logical collection need no encouragement. They are invariably ablaze 
with zeal and persevere in the face of little or no success. They take 
up book after book, examine the index for the name they want, copy a 
date from the page referred to, discard that volume for another, and 
another, and an unlimited number of others. Books, books, and more 
books ! they cry. Chancing upon some unexpected material, on they go, 
as in seven-leagued boots over enchanted ground. If interest is awakened 
in the setting, or historical background of the characters in the story, 
then one class of books leads to another, history points to geography, 
geography to seats of noblemen, or architecture. This suggests social 
life of the period, art, and all associations making the past realistic. 

Guide Books for Searchers. 

There are several published manuals of practical Fuggestions by 
veteran genealogists, like Henry E. Stiles or W. S. Mills, intended to 
give counsel, assistance, or hints to amateurs. But any visitor to the 
large genealogical collections will probably find in shape persons to act 
as guides at the start. After a good beginning is made, one thing leads 
to another and certain cases need special treatment. 

Difficulties on the Way. 

Diflficulties meet one all- along the way in genealogy; abbreviations 
only understood by the experienced, old English texts unfamiliar except 
to specialists, technicalities in original sources, obsolete phrases, manu- 
scripts in court handwriting, dates in old style and new style, not to 
mention the celebrated "lost links." All these troubles are among the 
wickedest of time, strength and money consumers. 

It is at once pitiful, laughable and admirable to witness the crucifixion 
of toil amateurs endure in pursuit of names to supply 'lost links." A 
volume the size of Webster's Dictionarv, and just as interestinsr, might 
be written on this subject of '%st links." These exasperating gaps 
are verv often filled up in desperation, with some similar name and 
approximate date, not exactly matching the rest of the lineage and 
forever after protesting against the misfit ; but something must be done, 
otherwise the American part of the lineage will be left hanging in the 
air, as it were. 

A woman is frequently a "lost link." American aborigines traced 
relationship through the mother only, but Englishmen trace only the 
male line through whom the family name and fortune is transmitted. 
Early American genealogists imitated Endish ancestors. As a rule 
the maternal side ranks socially highest in this country, because men 
try to better their position by marriage and women must wait to be 


Professional Genealogists. 

Personal attention to genealogy is far preferable to employing a 
compiler, but insurmountable difficulties or other reasons may compel 
us to visit the professional genealogist. He does not possess that 
inward light as to collaterals, he cannot have love for our subject, nor 
has he that mysterious, unexplainable psychological power of attraction, 
with which every soul is charged to draw his very own to him. Emerson 
thus expresses it: 

"All that nature made thine own. 
Floating in air, or pent in stone. 
Will rive the hills, and swim the sea. 
And, like thy shadow, follow thee." 

If a member of the family is working and comes unexpectedly upon, 
some indirectly related honor, he recognizes and secures it, while the 
professional not fully informed would naturally pass it over. 

Then there is the expense. Faithful tracing cannot be obtained for 
less than living prices, 50 or 75 cents an hour, whether anything is 
found or not. TVo dollars per day, and $5.00 or $10.00 in advance 
for Inmting up Eevolutionary or colonial ancestors are the lowest charges 
for reliable work, which means giving authorities for every important 
statement made, so that each point may afterwards be verified. A certain 
Delaware genealogist charges $5.00 per day and expenses, with a fee of 
$25.00 in advance. 

The scholarly, experienced, laborious and critical genealogist, often 
trained in Europe, will charge $100 per day for expert service in tracing 
difficult lines. He expects to travel from library to library, is familiar 
with unusual resources, and, if possible, carries the lineage to Europe. 
Our well known multi-millionaires have all employed these wonderful 
genealogical acrobats. Eockefeller has been traced through the Averys 
to Duncan I, King of Scots, 1033. J. Pi'erpont Morgan was told (but 
he did not believe it) that his lineage ran to Eoderic the Great, King 
of Wales. John Jacob iVstor of Waldorf was found to be a descendant 
of Hugh Capet, King of France (about 900 A D.). According to 
Browning there are thousands of Americans of royal descent. William 
the Conqueror alone has in America an immense army of alleged 

The Mormons have a pretty idea that each name we resurrect, revere 
and transcribe in genealogy represents a living spirit, who thus hon- 
ored and, as it were, invoked, ever after becomes one of our guardian 
angels. Think of having thousands of such beneficent spirits as pro- 
tectors. We are told that in ten generations or 300 years of genealogy 
there may be 500 different surnames. It is important to know the 
origin and meaning of these names. Books by Anderson, Bardsley, 
Lower, and many others show sources and signification of family and 
given names. 

Sometimes it is necessary to look up changed names. Surnames did 
not come into use until the beginning of the twelfth century; as we 
see in the Bible and Classics and first ages of the world, personal names 


t-ntlicrd. Even today the church in bapiism ignores the family name, 
and kings still cling to the old custom. To the professional genealogist 
any name conveys a certain weight of character, according to its historical 
association. 'J'lie charm of certain names is felt by all. One comes with 
a hai)[)y suggestion, another evokes the opposite emotion. 

If parents gave all children for a middle name the surname of the 
mother, it would be an easy means of identification of descendants. The 
Puritans had a sensible custom of naming the oldest son after the father, 
a fact often depended upon as a link between generations. Varieties in 
spelling surnames create difficulties for lawyers as well as genealogists. 
Names are changed on account of succession to property, by will, to 
perpetuate a family name otherwise extinct in the male line, to honor 
some admired person, or through more whim. Fifty dollars has often 
been ])aid to the circuit court for permission to assume a more pleasing 
name than — for instance — Zschuppe, or Proschowsky. It is common to 
find two persons of one name and occupation in the directories of large 
cities; time sweeps away all other evidence of identity. Here is a 
j)itfall for present and future genealogists. 

In hunting up Smiths, Johnsons, or Browns, they must be localized 
or a niixup is inevitable. A lady recently entered a genealogical depart- 
ment and said, ''My father's name was Jones. I want to trace back to 
Admiral John Paul Jones." She was somewhat disconcerted when told 
that Jones was an assumed name. 

This deliberate choice of a hero, statesman, or some person of wealth, 
genius, or celebrity of the same surname, is a common method of begin- 
ning the work of building a lineage. Whether the illustrious shades 
feel flattered or not by such imposition of descendants, who can say, 
but they were never known to complain. 

Family Antiquity Desired. 

Voltaire has said, "A^o family on earth knows its founder, no nation 
knows its origin," but a pioneer has the deed of greatness in his nature. 
Antiquity is the goal and 1066 in England is the date most American 
genealogists aim to reach, though it is said only 111 lineages in Burke's 
Peerage run back to the Norman C!onquest, and few British parish 
records antedate 1500. The very earliest Herald's Visitation was in 
the reign of Henry IV about 14i3. It was called "Visitatio facta per 
marischallum de Norry," and is preserved in the Harleian Library. 
Kegular visitations did not begin until 100 years later and they are no 
longer made in England. 

As a rule Americans, in their journey towards antiquity, are obliged 
to start into the unknown with the name of their grandparents, but one 
woman, trying to substantiate her claim to an estate, hoped to learn in 
library books the given name of her own father. She explained that 
her mother died and her father remarried and followed his first wife 
to a better world while she was an infant; nevertheless, she expected to 
find her family tree, with its deeply planted roots, flourishing at ISTew- 
berrv Library, with her own name and portrait conspicuous in the top 


branches. Another woman, more fortunate as to antiquity, recently 
said to an attendant, "I find I have blood 700 years old in my veins," 
the person she addressed gazed at her with awe and consternation. 


Hotten's Emigrant book, Drake's Founders of New England, Rupp's 
Immigrants, in Pennsylvania, and Water's Gleanings in England, also 
Savage's Genealogical Dictionary of Settlers in New England (nearly 
all emigrants before 1640, the date when Hutchinson tells us immigra- 
tion ceased) are the indispensable reference works in which to look 
for the first mention of settlers. We find scattered ship lists in the 
Pennsylvania Magazine, in Essex Institute Historical Collections and 
other periodicals, but of later date. Ships left England for America 
nearly every day during the early period of our history; but no record 
of their passengers remains and many such lists, yet among the mass 
of papers at the London Eecord Office, are still uncatalogued. 

Very valuable lists of emigrants were destroyed in 1831 at Bristol 
when rioters burned the Custom House there. For late comers Lloyd's 
Shipping Register, and Records of the Emigration Office in London, 
might be serviceable. There is also an "International Register of 
Shipping" in New York. We have referred to the different classes of 
"settlers," persons to whom royal land grants were made. Palatines and 
Lords Proprietor, well born political refugees, younger sons of impover- 
ished nobility, religious fanatics, Puritans, Hugenots, Quakers, Cove- 
nanters, etc., and outcasts, who, let us hope, reformed before their 
descendants appeared. To these we might add, as a distinct class, the 
everlasting "three brothers who came over'^ so often that the mere 
mention of them causes a smile; but they really must have landed, 
because their descendants are found among the pioneers of every state. 
All of these emigrants, except those with land grants, arrived in our 
country under adverse circumstances, and this explains our present diffi- 
culty in connecting American lineages with the old world and antiquity. 


The advantages of our nation are distributed among all races of the 
earth represented now in the United States. We have at present an 
intermixture in business and society of more than 2,000,000 Germans, 
1,000,000 Irish, 500,000 Swedes and less of other nationalities of western 
states. Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin have attracted most 
foreigners. Births among these transplanted families are nearly double 
those of native Americans. In Chicago, ranking sixth among cities of 
the earth in population, many descendants of foreign born emigrants 
visit the libraries, anxious to gain some clue to European ancestors. 
Foreign names in available books now in western libraries relate chiefly 
to nobility. Vital records of European cities, except in Great Britain, 
are not to be found. In such cases the only resource is to apply to 
foreign embassies, legations or consuls. In Chicago there are now 


thirty-three consuls, able to furnish addresses in their own country of 
persons wlio nii^ht investigate homeland records and report on genea- 
logical subjects. 

Directories of all large cities in the Unitetl *Stutes aL the public service 
ill libraries may also be searched for addresses of persons of the same 
surname, who through correspondence might afford information about 
the origin of the family. For Irish genealogy the keeper of Parochial 
Registers in the county wanted should be addressed or for deeds and 
wills. The Four Courts, on King's Inn Quay, Dublin, or the Librarian 
of the National Library, Leinster 8t., Dublin, may be applied to by 
letter. Few wills are to be found previous to the seventeenth century. 
As to Scotland, the records of the entire kingdom are at the General 
Register House, Princess St., Edinburgh. Again periodicals and news- 
papers, either wholly or in part devoted to genealogy, are convenient 
in bringing persons together through correspondence; by this means 
distant relatives often become acquainted. 

Next of Kin — Estates. 

Numerous people are impelled to work out their lineage by the legal 
necessity for establishing lines of descent, in order to decide questions of 
inheritance, or to trace titles to real estate. There are some twenty or 
more well known phantom estates constantly affording opportunities to 
rapacious claim lawyers, who urge their victims to chart plainly their 
line of heirship, after notifying them of the alleged fact that their al- 
leged ancestor had died intestate. Who has not heard of the Anneke 
Jans claim of many millions; the Jennings Estate of four hundred mil- 
lions awaiting heirs; the Lawrence-Townley five hundred millions to be 
divided among only 1,000 heirs? We are all reminded of Dicken's Jarn- 
dyce vs. Jarndyce. 

There are people of the following names entitled to shares in mythical 
estates: Baker, Mosher, Chadwick, Edwards, Ingraham, Hyde, Hedges, 
Kern, Leak, Mackey, Merritt, Shepherd Trotter, VanHorn, Webber, 
Weiss, and others. 

Property rights in England are cruelly strict; but occasionally heirs 
of persons who have died intestate are advertised for in English news- 
papers, and several firms in London (Dougal, Chambers, Usher, Gun, 
Bernerdy & Co.) have periodically published names of Americans sup- 
posed to be entitled to this unclaimed wealth. Lawyers make it their 
business to keep track of these claims, and send hundreds of people 
yearly to genealogists. An enormous amount of money is wasted, and 
much futile ransacking of books is the result. 

A woman entered the library one day and said to an attendant in a 
whisper, "I want to look up my family history." '"'What name, please?" 
"Oh, I don't want to tell you the name. Can't I get at the books my- 
self?" She was referred to the alphabetical index, and presently she 
was obliged to impart the important fact that a lawyer had advised her 


of her heirship to a million or so from the Anneke Jans Estate. She 
feared to speak of it, lest somebody should take premature advantage of 
her in some way. 

EoYAL Descent. 

Genealogy is a delight when it contributes to self-esteem. In the 
middle ages, the word "gentleman" indicated one not dependent on a 
weekly wage. Today the English "gentleman" of coat-armor is a man 
of inherited wealth, education, and certain superficial accomplishments. 
The quality of "gentleman" in America is inherited, often without 
wealth, but his antecedents are usually not hard to find in this country. 
As a nation, we have emerged from the backwoods, without hatchet or 
hoe, and now seek all that makes for the highest civilization. 

Pupils in fashionable schools of the West are busy with Burke, Debrett, 
Jacobs and Edmondston, to make sure of a titled grandsire, in addition 
to ordinary accomplishments. Many tricks are being played with rank, 
heraldry, and regal flummery. It is another matter to verify charts con- 
taining names which scintillate like fixed stars in the foreign or local 
historical heaven. Celebrities as well as obscurities, attract more atten- 
tion dead than when living, so it is a consolation to know that when 
needed, we are sure of future resurrection, at least by some anxious 

Not only do we see an endless procession of untitled natives at New- 
berry Library, but among our visitors to the genealogical department, 
there have recently been a countess and marquis from France, several 
Lords and Ladyships from England, a Baron or so from Geraiany, and 
a few choice Italians, amusing themselves with the outfit on Heraldry 
and foreign lineage. 

Time effects wondrous changes. In Burke's Vicissitudes of Families, 
we read that a butcher and a toll gatherer had a right to quarter the 
royal arms of Edward I. Edward III had a sexton among his posterity 
and a cousin of James VI stood in the streets of Edinburg, hat in hand, 
begging for sixpence. Trade uproots aristocracy and causes genealogi- 
cal eccentricities. Entailment of property in England, leaving younger 
sons a mere pittance, caused families to emigrate and descend in the 
i-ocial scale. Munro in his "Story of the British Race" says, "Who 
shall deny that the beggar at his door, may not descend from Kings." 
This very day we saw in our newspaper the picture of a handsome 
Countess who has adopted a humble trade in Paris as means of support. 
To many Americans in the- West affiliation with illustrious ancestors, 
however remote, is not only gratifying but inspiring. This yearning 
reveals to each of us our awful responsibility in regard to the happiness 
of descendants. 

Edward III has 6,000 descendants and many Americans can be 
honestly charted into. his lineage. We hear much of the reproach sup- 
posed to be due to self-respecting individuals in a republic, who claim 
aristocratic English ancestors or who stamp their stationary with a 
coat-of-arms. In 1904, a so-called "hoax" appeared in the shape of a "Bul- 
letin" containing names of Americans of "exalted rank" who had been 


officially notified of their uudoubted social supremacy in the United 
States. Although finally admitted to be a huge joke, the families named, 
with few exceptions, were really of historic and social eminence. The 
clever cartoonist McCutcheon seized upon the situation of course, and 
his illustration of how "society'^ was alfected, created considerable amuse- 
ment among certain classes. 

When some socially ambitious Westerner tabulated as. he believes a 
clear line to the family of an English nobleman, he sometimes tries to 
realize his happiness by addressing the lord of the castle, with manu- 
script evidence of his kinship. The recipient probably smiles scornfully 
at the audacity of his long lost American cousin, ("in trade") some 20 
times removed, and proceeds to remove him still farther by strict silence, 
but we heard of one courteous response from a feal English nobleman 
thus saluted; and the American was courteously invited to visit his 
lordship in England. 

As time passes, new reference books appear, like Browning's ''Ameri- 
cans of Royal Descent" and "Americans of Gentle Birth." The preface 
to the latter states that, "Thousands of American women bear in their 
veins the best blood of the most nol)le and royal lines of Europe, and 
their fitness for the seats of the mighty, in which many have been in- . 
stalled, is merely a racial inheritance." We learn by recent notices that 
it is easy to get coveted orders and decorations from various courts in 
Europe and Asia, if yon can afford it. 

The prices quoted from a newspaper are about as follows: 

A German patent of nobility $65,000 

Spanish noble 5,000 

Portuguese Marquis 5,000 

Title of "Prince" from the Vatican 15,000 

Duke 10,000 

Count 1,250 

Baron 800 

Turkish Osmanje Order 2,500 

Turkish Crefakat Order 5,000 

but we understand there are no "bargain days" for these choice goods. 

Eelics and Heirlooms. 

Heirlooms are the most genuine patents to gentle birth and stability 
of fortune. Pioneers wlio lived in i)lock-house coiunumitics or in log 
cabins were heirs of misfortune and sacrifice. If they possessed valu- 
ables, they were sulijected to accidents or bartered for necessities. Pro- 
tected by vigilance committees or councils of safety, often journeying 
in emigrant wagons drawn by oxen, their most precious treasure was 
likely to be a flint-lock musket, and many of these grim evidences of 
heroism have passed into possession of families whose ancestors never 
owned a gun. 

But in the seventeenth century wo know some of the best blood of 
England .was transplanted to our country, and these English gentlemen 
created stately mansions in the new world named after their ancestral 
hall. They were among onr early statesmen, financiers and capitalists. 
Their residences were furnished with mahogany, high post court bed- 

. 81 

steads and dressing tables, high cases and chairs ornamented with oronze 
scroll work, richly carved oak screens, cabinets, chests and settles with 
candle stick holder. Their dining rooms were brilliant with sterling 
silver plate, each piece of the set engraved with the family coat of arms, 
tankards, tea-kettles in silver stands, etc. 

Elsewhere about the home were luxurious smaller objects, which have 
drifted into curiosity shops or historical societies, when family fortunes 
declined or the line died out, and the mansion perhaps was turned into 
a museum or tavern, as we see it today. Such articles are always eagerly 
]n'cked up by peo])le of means who find these rich antiques significant 
as indicating social position. 

For this purpose a second hand Bible is sometimes purchased in Eng- 
land, the older the better ; and if records copied therein are not found to 
antedate the publication, all is well. But of all heirlooms, the most 
highly prized is the gallery of ancestral portraits, painted in oil. Not 
many such collections are found in the West. There is a world of pathos 
in heirlooms. This very day a woman came to the Library, carrying a 
large package, which being unfolded, we saw a door which had been 
unhinged from a writing desk, 300 years old. The door was of the most 
beautiful woods, and in the center was an inlaid coat of arms, which 
must have been constructed by some European workman with great 
skill and patience. There were some letters also inwrought. The 
woman said she had rented a room to a mysterious and reticent man, 
who when dying told her the desk was a family heirloom, the last pos- 
session of a man who had inherited title and fortune; but he told her 
no more and she came with this relic to try and learn its probable origin. 


Young people and many older ones begin genealogical work MMtb 
heraldry. Their first remark is, "I want to get my crest," not knowing 
the difference between a "crest^' and "arms." Up to the fourteenth 
century only three crests had been used. They belong only to men and 
reigning queens, though English ladies sometimes use them as book 

In feudal times, at tournaments when competitors appeared, the 
Herald sounded a trumpet and explained the- bearing or figures on the 
shield carried by each knight. The shields were then given to retain- 
ers disguised as lions, tigers or other animals. This is the origin of 
supporters. The shield they held for their masters, was made of wood, 
metals and furs, with buckler of leather and brass. 

The use of arms was very limited for the first hundred years of our 
history, but colonists brought their seals with them. The arms of George 
Washington were forever honored in "Old Glory" our national emblem. 
Before 1760, arms were seen sculptured on New England tombstones 
in chasings upon plate, on candlesticks, watches and silverware, seals, 
wills, deeds and letters painted on canvas, or wrought by the needle in 
tapestries. In the New England Register, vol. 45, page 187, we find a 

^(i H S 


list of authorized arms of New England Settlers, although a previous 
issue stated that none of the Mayiiowei' passengers were arm bearers. 
Of course, in America, we liave no Heraldic College, Court, or Earl 
Marshall, and there is no law forbidding indulgence in taste as to 
heraldry. If one has a perfect title to bear arms, doubtless they are 
iiupressive under certain circumstances. Tliere are peers of the realm 
in England without arms from choice, believing that true nobility is not 
in heraldry l)ut in the heart and head. 

The English College of Heraldry was granted a charter by l^ichard 
III, in 1483. Its officers, the Earl Marshall or President, (hereditary 
in the Howard family), the King at Arms, six Heralds and several 
pursuivants or assistants are all attached to the King's Household, and 
from His Majesty receive a nominal salary, but their income is derived 
mainly from fees. The giant of arms from the King is patented and 
recorded at Herald's College. The grantee's son pays another large fee 
to have his father's arms confirmed to him, with proper label added as 
first son. This makes a cost of arms lawful in England and Wales, 
although doubtless many unrecorded grants are genuine. There are few 
entries of descent from the grantee beyond the next generation. A man 
in the street cannot obtain from the College of Heraldry a grant of 
arms for a fee. It is a matter of favor from the sovereign. 

In Germany any citizen may originate a coat of arms, have it properly 
recorded with description and it becomes hereditary in his family. The 
blazoning memorializes in picturesque history the character of the one 
who adopts it, or of his ancestor. Every picture tells a story and that 
on a shield testified to the heroism or nobility of its first bearer. All 
lineal descendants mav use it. 

In the United States we have a system of ensigns in our flag seals, 
society badges, buttons and medals of honor granted by Congress instead 
of by a king, and each symbolizes the achievements of our ancestors in 

But English, or old world, heraldry carries the idea of cliivalry and 
pomp of courts; and coats of arms are important to us as evidences of 
connection between families of the two continent* who have long used 
the same device. 

The symbolism of coats of arms, and the motto, which was the war 
cry of bearer is to most people, the most fascinating part of heraldry. 
It would be tedious to go into details, but we will remind vou that color 
which had the same significance among all ancient people has the same 
meaning in heraldry. 

Argent, or silver, is purity ; azure, loyalty ; red is a royal and martial 
color and also signified the martyr; gold typifies M^ealth ; orange or 
tawney represents ambition; purple belongs to majesty; green shows 
strength and black, fame. 

One of the most charming emblems of the crusader is the red rose, 
which was brought about 1270 from the Holv Land by the Count of 
Champagne. He planted it in his castle garden at Provence, France. 
His daughter married an Englishman who carried this oriental plant to 


England, and from that single bush all red roses in Europe have de- 
scended. Its symbolism is that inner essence, or character, transcends 
all outer grandeur. 

The sun means gior}-. The cross and escallop shell, star, crescent, 
bezant, water bougets, and pilgrim's staves were imported into heraldry 
in token of crusaders. The lion so frequently used in various specially 
significant positions in general indicates courage, majesty, and strength. 

Previous to 1500, arms were used as signatures to documents and as 
seals upon legal papers, dated the year of the reigning king. English- 
men pay large fees to the College of Heraldry, and a Small one yearly 
to the national revenue for exclusive right to a certain combination of 
figures and colors. They regard it as a kind of piracy, for any one of 
doubtful kinship to use the same. In Tudor times heralds went about 
defacing arms on tombs and elsewhere, not rightfully used. Dugdale 
allows any claim to arms used uninterruptedly for 100 years. 

There are British-American clubs in London intended for American 
millionaires who wear a special cockade or badge. "The Amphitryon," 
"Atlantic" and one recently organized called "The American Club," 
which admits as members only those whose family has possessed a coat 
of arms for 100 years or, as they style it, "he must have a name 100 
years old." This is supposed to insure inherent gentility. Lowell tells 
us it takes three generations to make a gentleman. The name signifies 
nothing. An American Courtenay, Buckingham, Howard or Granville 
nnist show his pedigree. 

The Herald's Office preserves with great care the records of English 
gentry transplanted to America before the revolution. Many of them 
emerged from their sometimes obscure positions, and became substantial 
planters, or rich merchants, famous in the social history of colonial 

For the benefit of "assumers" of coat armor, we quotfe Sir George 
Sitwell in "The Ancestor," vol. 1. He says, "The Eoyal Proclamation 
of 1417 (Eeign of Henry V) admits unreservedly that long usage gives 
good title to arms assumed without authority. Any subject may law- 
fully assume arms of his own mere notion." Please note that this was 
before the London College of Arms, with its enormous fees, was founded. 
Lord Hetherly also tells us that nine-tenths of the present English arm 
bearers can show no better title to their armorial devices than long usage. 

The "Book of St. Albans"' 1486, is said to be the earliest English 
printed treatise on heraldry. Today "Burke's General Armory" stands 
first among many such reference books. The Fox-Davies publications 
are issued in the interest of the College of Heraldry, and in the 
"Armorial Families" the so-called "Bogus" arms are printed in italics. 

From the foregoing we gather that if an American citizen's social 
position justifies such redundance, and he has a right by inheritance or 
long use to bear arms, or if he frankly admits that his coat-of-arms is 
merely assumed as a memento of the past, or as a previous relic of foreign 
antecedents, in such cases heraldry in the United States is as inoffensive 
as any other luxurious fashion. When the matter is taken seriously, 
cultured persons apply directly to European officials, at the College of 


Heraldry, for authority to l)L'ai- arms. A Icttrr dated January 13, 1908, 
from H. Farnhani Burke, Somerset Jlerald and Jve<>ister at the College. 
London, ?ayp, in reply to a (|uestion about legal American heraldry, that 
such work as Ci-oziers', Mattliews", and others supposed to he ivlialtle 
as registers of verified American Heraldry, are "no authority for ascrib- 
ing the arms to the persons to whom they attribute them." 

This leaves us nothing to do but apply to Herald's College, or to 
J>urkc's forthcoming work on "Prominent Families in the United States 
of America." He who finds not his arms and lineage there, will prob- 
ably be a crushed man. 

We must cautiously hint liore that indications show coats-of-arms are 
becoming too popular here. Their use in certain quarters is founded 
on the idea that all persons of similar name are probably related, near 
or far, and honor conferred on an English knight named, for instance, 
Tracy should reflect dignity on all Tracys in America. Such was the 
plea of a recent visitor to a genealogical department in Chicago. The 
coat he wore which should have been in the rag bag, was as m\ich mis- 
placed as the coat-of-arms he assumed. His bare feet were plainly 
visible through openings in his boots. All he wanted he said was his 
coat-of-arms painted large in brilliant colors. It was executed (mark 
that word) at bargain rates, and we gazed in admiration at that noble 
westerner marching merrily away with the big roll under his arm. 

Another individual, looking at heraldry from a commercial stand- 
point, interviewed a librarian as to the probable profit in selling at 
department stores, heraldic bearings, in form of plaster plaques, illustra- 
ting arms connected with the commonest names found in city director- 
ies. His scheme met with disapproval but we believe it would pay — for 

American Bureau oe Genealogy. 

An American Headquarters for accurately tracing, from vital statis- 
tics and official documents, and for officially recording, family history 
is imperative. 

It is becoming customary for persons interested in such compilations 
to journey from town to town in New England, copying vital records, 
wills, and deeds from manuscripts in public offices, churches or still 
scattered about in attics, lumber rooms and dust chests of old home- 
steads. Of course, all of these will some time be published. Massachu- 
setts and Ehode Island have taken the lead in this useful work. 

A department of similar records of foreign countries is needed. 
Scholarly officials would be necessary to superintend and translate for 
visitors. Connected with the Bureau might be a training school for 
genealogists, wdio, when qualified, would have a diploma as evidence. 

There also all American badges of personal distinction conferred by 
Congress, or otherwise, and all verified coats-of-arms might be registered, 
as in London. The library would contain histories of mankind; works 
on the origin, growth and decline of nations; scientific volumes on 
heredity and human nature; manuals of heraldry, nobility, orders, seals, 
medals, badges, and other decorations; but especially would it be head- 


quarters I'or all govermueut publieatioiis useful iu studying personal 
history, serial i^ublications of genealogical associations, \'ear books of 
hereditary societies, histories of nationalities in America, in short, all 
classes of works for exact sorting of souls. 

The founder of such an institution would be entitled to universal 
gratitude as a national benefactor for all time; and the Congressional 
Library, Washington, D. C, where all copyrighted works published in 
America ai'e deposited, seems to he its destined home. 

It seems strange that the temporary inhabitants of a planet, rolling 
through space and torn l)}^ storm and earthquake should value fame so 
much and be so strenuous in hunting up and recording their lineage. 
Weird and wonderful it appears to library attendants who view the end- 
less procession and witness the tireless energy of man's efforts to discover 
"lost links." But back of all this labor is eternal wisdom; therefore we 
know that the placing of one date may be of as much importance in 
God's plan, as the commemoration of an Empire. Morever, we realize 
that each man is unique, descending, as he does from totally distinct 
lines of ancestors. No one will ever be exactly like him again. At the 
time and place of his brief existence, he must be indispensable, as part 
of an intricate machine. Thus we justify our right to exist and preserve 
our family histories, as part of the annals of the universe. 




By J. McCan Davis. 

Prior to 1847 the senator from Illinois was of less importance than 
he became in the years that followed. In the first twenty-nine years 
of our statehood eleven men held the office of United States Senator 
from Illinois. They were for the most part able men, men of honorable 
distinction in their own state and in their own time. But with perhaps 
one or two exceptions none was to be considered a national character; 
none left a lasting impress upon national legislation; and such is the 
oblivion that comes even to men who are adjudged great by their con- 
temporaries that the average student of Illinois history will probably 
have difficulty in recalling off-hand the name of any of the eleven 
senators from Illinois who served during the period mentioned. 

Since 1847 a relatively smaller number of men have received senatorial 
honors (the number being onl}'- fourteen in this period of sixty-two 
years, against eleven in the preceding twenty-nine years), but the number 
has included several of the most distinguished statesmen of the 19th 
century- — some of whom have risen to colossal stature in our heroic 
annals, and several of whom have had a large part in shaping the 
destinies of this republic. What I say on this occasion, therefore, will 
relate mostly to the senators of this second epoch. 

In the early days men were ambitious quite as much as now, and it 
rarely happened that the office of United States Senator was secured 
by any man without a contest. In those early days there was not the 
rigid party organization that developed later on, and when a senator 
was to be elected the Legislature convened in joint assembly and the 
names of candidates were presented without the preliminary of a caucus 
nomination. The first senatorial contest of note may be said to have 
been that of 1824, when two senators were to be elected. It required 
three ballots to elect John McLean for the short term ending the fol- 
lowing March, and ten ballots to elect Elias Kent Kane for the full 
term beginning on the 4th of March. It was not until 1830 that the 
honor was conferred upon a candidate by a unanimous vote of the 
assembly — John McLean being reelected without opposition. 

The party caucus made its appearance for the first time in a sena- 
torial election in 1840. The Democratic members of the legislature 
held a caucus, nominating Samuel McRoberts, and he was elected at 
the joint session December 16 of that year. The custom thus introduced 
by the Democrats was subsequently adopted by the Whigs, and later by 


the Eepublicans, so that since 1840 the party caucus has decided almost 
every senatorial election in advance of the formal ballot in the (Jenerai 
Assembly. The first notable contest in a senatorial caucus occurred 
Dec. 9, 1842. It was the second senatorial caucus held by the 
Democrats. Eichaixl M. Young was the senator whose term was to expire. 
He was a candidate for reelection. The other candidates were Stephen 
A. Douglas, then not quite 30 years of age; Sidney Breese, and John 
A. McClernand. The caucus began at 7 :00 o'clock in the evening and 
continued six hours, adjourning at 1 :00 o'clock a. m. The contest nar- 
rowed down to one between Douglas and Breese. On the 19th ballot 
Judge Breese was nominated, the ballot resulting: Breese, 56; Douglas, 
52 ; McClernand, 3. The election of Breese by the General Assembly 
followed by a party vote. 

Four years later, Stephen A. Douglas, who had thus almost captured 
the senatorship, was practically the unanimous choice of the Democratic 
caucus. He was elected United States Senator Dec. 13, 1846, and his 
election was followed by a spectacular celebration — a banquet in the 
senate chamber and a ball in the House of Representatives in the old 
State house. 

The election of Douglas marked the beginning of the new senatorial 
epoch in Illinois. Douglas, who had come to Illinois only thirteen years 
before, an unknown, penniless youth from A'ermont, had risen with 
marvelous rapidity, and now, at the age of 33 years, after service in 
the Legislature, on the bench of the Supreme Court, and in the lower 
House of Congress, he found himself the recipient of the higliest honor 
within the gift of liis State — the office of United States Senator. Althougli 
he was viewed with jealousy and with some alarm by the older politicians, 
Douglas moved forward in the Senate as rapidly as he had climbed in 
the politics of his State. His tirelees energy, his keen intellect, and his 
persuasive eloquence soon made him one of the leading members of the 
Senate. He performed a most important part in tlie framing and the 
passage of the compromise measures of 1850. By 1852, before the end 
of his first term in the Senate, he was a formidable candidate for Presi- 
dent of the United States. In 1854 he became the most talked-of man 
in the country by reason of the passage of his Kansas- Xebraska bill, 
founded upon his doctrine of "popular sovereignty." In 1856 Abraham 
Lincoln paid this high tribute to Douglas: 

"Twenty years ago Judge Douglas and I first became acquainted. We 
were lioth young then — he a trifle younger than I. Even then we were both 
ambitious — I perhaps quite as much as he. With me the race of ambition 
lias been a failure — a flat failure. With him it has been one of splendid 
success. His name fills the nation and is not unknown even in foreign 
lands. I affect no contempt for the high eminence he has reached. So 
reached that the oppressed of my species might have shared with me in 
the elevation. I would rather stand on that eminence than wear the 
richest crown that ever pressed a monarch's brow." 

It may be said, without any reflection upon any senator who served 
before him, that Douglas was the first great senator from Illinois. He 
gave Illinois a new place in the councils of the nation. Prior to Douglas, 


Massachusetts, Kentucky and South Carolina, represented in tlie senate 
respectively by \\'ebster, Clay and Calhoun, luul attained a higher pres- 
tige than was enjoyed by other states. Political power Avas reposed in 
the East and in the SoiAh. Illinois was then a far western state. Doug- 
las, by the force of his genius, compelled attention and recognition. He 
rapidly became the foremost statesman of his time, and he gave to 
Illinois a distinction and a prestige which this State never before had 
enjoyed, but which it has maintained to the present day. I may say 
here, that, although in the past fifty years, some of the great men of the 
nation have served as senator from Illinois, the highest rank in ability, 
in reputation and in achievement must be conceded to the "Little Giant." 
Whatever may be the judgment of history upon the political principles of 
Stephen A. T3ouglas, all must admire the "splendor of his combat," his 
magnificent ability and his lofty patriotism. 

'J'he first great senatorial contest which this State has witnessed 
occurred in 1855. The term of General James Shields (Dem.) was to 
expire. The Kansas-Xebraska bill had shattered the foundations of the 
old parties. The Legislature was composed of straight Democrats, anti- 
Nebraska Democrats, old line ^Yhigs, Know-jSTothings, Free Soilers and 
Abolitionists. On the Kansas-Nebraska question the anti-Democrats 
were slightly in the majority, but they were without organization. One 
of the members-elect of the lower House was Abraham Lincoln, who had 
previously served in the Legislature from 1834 to 1842. After the 
election, when it became apparent that the straight Democrats probably 
would be in the minority in the Legislature, and that the opposition 
would unite on Lincoln for United States Senator, he resigned as a 
member of the House, supposing, of course, that a Whig would be elected 
to succeed him. At the special election which followed the over-confi- 
dence of the anti-Xebraska men in Sangamon county permitted the 
election of a Democrat, Jonathan McDaniel, as Lincoln's successor. This 
event had a most important bearing upon the senatorial election. The 
Legislature was so close that if Lincoln had not resigned and if a Demo- 
crat had not been elected to succeed him, it is altogether probable that 
he would have been elected United States Senator. The balloting occurred 
on the 8th of February. The first ballot gave Lincoln 45 votes; Shields 
(Dem.), 41; Lyman Trumbull (anti-Nebraska Dem.), 5; Gustavus 
Koerner, 2; and William B. Ogden, Gov. Joel A. Matteson, William 
Kellogg, Cyrus Edwards, 0. B. Ficklin and William A. Denning 1 each. 
This was Lincoln's nearest approach to election. His election was made 
impossible by a compact entered into by five anti-Nebraska Democrats 
to stand by Judge Trumbull in all emergencies. These were Senators 
Palmer, Cook and Judd, and Eepresentatives Allen and Baker. It is 
interesting to note that all of these men subsequently became prominent 
Eepublicans and that at least three of them were most instrumental in 
securing the presidential nomination for Lincoln in 1860. But at that 
time they could not accept this old line Whig for United States Senator. 
When Lincoln saw that if he persisted in his candidacy. Governor Mat- 

- 89 

tesoii, a jS'cbraska-Democrat, was almost certain to be elected, he with- 
drew and threw his suj^port to Trumbull, and thus Trumbidl was elected 
on the 10th ballot. 

The second great senatorial combat in Illinois occurred in 1858, and 
of this so much has been written that I shall dismiss it in a few words. 
Between 185-1 and 1858 the Republican party had sprung into existence. 
Abraham Lincoln had become its recognized leader. The Republicans, 
remembering the divisions which had marked the senatorial contest of 
1855, decided that in order to assure united action by the Republican 
members of the Legislature to be elected in 1858, a senatorial candidate 
must be selected in State convention. Mr. Lincoln was the unanimous 
choice of the convention. It was the first time in the history of the State 
that a State convention had nominated a candidate for United States 
Senator. Of the campaign which followed, or, more specifically, of the 
Lincoln-Douglas debate, 1 need only say, what is now generally recog- 
nized by students of American history, that in the momentous impor- 
tance of the issues discussed and in its far-reaching results, the Lincoln- 
iJouglas debate was the greatest forensic combat ever witnessed upon the 
American continent. Stephen A. Douglas was reelected to the Senate; 
Lincoln, grown accustomed to defeat, was again beaten; but his debate 
with Douglas had defined the issues of the greater battle yet to come 
and had paved the way for the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President in 1860. 

In 1865 Richard Yates, who had achieved national fame as the 
war governor of Illinois, was elected United States Senator, after an 
acrimonious caucus contest with Elihu B. Washburne. 

The six years that followed were tremendously important, for they 
embraced the reconstruction period of our national history, and Illinois 
was fortunate in being represented in the United States Senate by two of 
the ablest men of that time — Lyman Trumbull and Richard Yates. 
Trumbull's term expired in 1867. The wide-spread sentiment in favor 
of bestowing political honors upon the heroes of the Civil War developed 
formidable opposition to Trumbull. General John M. Palmer received 
strong support, many of the party leaders, including Governor Oglesby 
and General John A. Logan, favoring his election. In the caucus Trum- 
bull was triumphant, receiving 48 votes to 28 for Palmer, and Trumbull 
was elected senator for the third time. 

Several years ago I visited Colonel William R. Morrison at his home 
in Waterloo, 111., and he devoted an entire day to reminiscences of men 
and events. Colonel Morrison, I may say, was a participant in three of 
the great senatorial combats which have been fought out in Illinois. In 
1855, when Lincoln was defeated by Trumbull, Morrison was a Demo- 
cratic member of the Illinois House of Representatives. In 1859, when 
the Lincoln-Douglas contest culminated in the reelection of Senator 
Douglas, Morrison was speaker of the House. Years afterward he him- 
self was a senatorial candidate in the memorable contest of 1865. Speak- 
ing of Lyman Trumbull and Richard Yates, Colonel Morrison gave me 
this interesting reminiscence: 


"Trumbull and Yates wore in the Senate together. Trumbull was a 
very studious, methodical iiiiui and was very conscientious and pains- 
taking in the discharge ol' liis senatorial duties. Yates was no less con- 
scientious, but from the promptings of generosity he would do things 
which Trumbull would not do. TJiere was a man from Illinois, whose 
name 1 do not recollect, who had invented and constructed a gunboat 
during the war. After the war he claimed that the original design had 
been changed by the government and that a large additional expense, 
something like $1UU,UOO or $150,000, had been incurred by him in 
performing the contract. He had a bill before Congress for several 
years reimbursing him for the money he claimed to have expended. The 
bill passed the House and was hung up in the Senate. There was nothing 
particularly wrong with the bill; the claim probably had little founda- 
tion, but there were so many others like it and so many were allowed, 
that it was quite respectable ; yet it was not the kind of a bill that either 
Yates or Trumbull cared to push vigorously. Yates probably would have 
voted for it had Trumbull been willing to do so; but Trumbull avoided 
it on one pretext or another. Finally the claimant died in Washington. 
1 happened to call on Yates when he and Trumbull were together dis- 
cussing whether or not they should attend the funeral. Neither of them 
wanted to do so, and yet neither seemed to feel that they could properly 
remain away. Finally Y'ates said. 'I'll tell you what we'll do, Trumbull ; 
let's go over to the Senate and pass his bill; that will be better than 
going to the funeral.' And that is what they did. They went over to 
the Senate, the bill was called up and was passed without diflfieulty, and 
the man's widow received the money." 

The year 1877 found a peculiar situation in the Illinois Legislature. 
In the Senate there were 21 Republicans, 32 Democrats and 8 Independ- 
ents, and in the House there were 79 Republicans, 67 Democrats and 7 
Independents, making on joint ballot 100 Republicans, 89 Democrats 
and 15 Independents. Thus the Republicans, although numbering 11 
more than the Democrats, still lacked 3 of having a constitutional 
majority of both houses. The Independents held the balance of power. 
General Logan, whose term as senator was to expire, was the choice of 
the Republican caucus. Senator John M. Palmer was nominated unani- 
mously by the Democrats. The initial ballot was taken January 16. The 
assembly remained in a deadlock until January 25. Xeither of the old 
parties was able to elect its candidate and the Independents came forward 
and offered Judge David Davis, then on the bench of the United States 
Supreme Court. Judge Davis had been an old line Whig; he had been 
one of the founders of the Republican party, and he was one of the able 
and resourceful politicians from Illinois who. at the Republican national 
convention in 1860, had brought about the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln for President. In the old circuit riding days, he was the circuit 
judge before whom Lincoln, a circuit riding lawyer, tried most of his 
cases; and when Lincoln became President he appointed Davis a justice 
of the United States Supreme Court. After the war, on the question 
of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, Judge Davis became 
estranged from the Republican party, and so was sufficiently independent 


to command the support of the fifteen Independent members of the 
Legislature. The Democrats, to forestall possible Eepublican success, 
decided to support Davis, and thus on the 40th ballot he was elected. In 
the United States Senate Judge Davis was not a partisan; he acted 
with the Republicans quite as frequently as with the Democrats. In 
1881, when Vice President Arthur succeeded to the presidency upon 
the death of President Garfield, Senator Davis was made president of the 
Senate, and he continued to hold this place until the close of his term. 
David Davis must rank among the greatest men who have sat in the 
United States Senate from Illinois. 

I come now to the prolonged and intensely dramatic senatorial contest 
of 1885. In 188-1 the Democrats for the first time in twenty-five years 
had carried the country and had elected Grover Cleveland President. 
In Illinois the Republicans had elected the State officers by a small 
majority, but had failed to secure control of the Legislature. The Senate 
stood 26 Republicans, ^4 Democrats, and 1 Greenback Democrat. The 
House was composed of 76 Republicans, 76 Democrats, and Elijah M. 
Haines, who called himself an Independent. Mr. Haines, by reason of 
his peculiar position in the House, thus became the largest individual 
factor in the Legislature. He was elected first temporary speaker and 
then permanent speaker of the House. 

The second term of General John A. Logan as United States Senator 
was to expire March 4. He was renominated by the Republican caucus 
with little opposition. The Democratic caucus nominated Colonel Will- 
iam R. Morrison. Owing to the delay in the organization of the House 
the first ballot was not taken until February 10; and there was no ballot 
in joint assembly until February 18. On this ballot Logan received 101 
votes, Morrison 94, Haines 4, with 3 scattering. Thus Logan lacked one 
vote of election. On the 19th and 20th the result was practically the 
same. But during the remainder of February and during the months 
of March and April, there was no time when both parties voted for 
senator on the same ballot. The view prevailing that only the majority 
of a quorum, and not a majority of all members elected, was necessary 
to an election, there was a constant fear that the absence of some member 
would enable the other side to elect a senator; with the result that first 
one side and then the other refrained from voting in order to break the 
quorum. There was a peculiar fatality in this assembly; three members 
died during the session. Representative Robert E. Logan, Republican, 
of the 19th district, died February 26th; Senator Frank M. Bridges, 
Democrat, of the 37th district, died March 20th; at special elections 
Representative Logan was succeeded by a Republican and Senator 
Bridges by a Democrat; so that the political completion of the assembly 
was not changed. Then on April 13th occurred the death of Representa- 
tive J. Henry Shaw, Democrat, of the 34th district. This district was 
overwhelmingly Democrat, having given Cleveland at the last election a 
plurality of 2,060 votes. It was taken for granted that the successor 
of Shaw would be a Democrat; and it was in this situation that a few 
shrewd Republican politicians found the opportunity for a bit of strategy 
which brought victory to their candidate for senator. A special election 


in the 34th district was called for May Gth. The Democrats nominated 
Arthur Leeper for Shaw's successor. The Republicans made no nomi- 
nation, and to all outward appearances had concluded to allow the 
election to go by default. But over at the old Leland Hotel one night a 
few astute politicians in the Logan camp quietly laid a plan by which 
they hoped to carry the 34th district. It is said that the idea was first 
suggested by Henry Craske of Eushville in a letter to General Ix^gan. 
However that may be, a plan was worked out by General Logan, Daniel 
H. Shepherd, secretary of the Eepublican State Committee; Jacol) 
Wheeler, then United States Marslial, and formerly of the 34th district; 
Samuel H. Jones, of Springfield, and perhaps others. "Sam" Jones had 
been in politics a long time and he recalled how the anti-Xebraska men, 
through their over-confidence, Irnd permitted a Democrat to be elected 
to the Legislature from Sangamon county to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Abraham Lincoln, and thus had lost the senatorship 
in 1855. Xow, why could not that old trick be played on the Demo(;rats? 
The decision was to give it a trial. Every circumstance seemed to con- 
tribute to the success of the plan. There was a truce in the senatorial 
contest. Speaker Haines and many members of the Legislature journeyed 
to New Orleans to visit the exposition May 1st. Colonel jMorrison made 
a trip to Washington. The Democrats were completely at ease, having 
no doubt that their candidate for representative from the 34th district 
would be elected. 

A few days before the senatorial election, pursuant to the plan arranged 
in Springfield, trusted emissaries were sent through the 34th district, 
some in the guise of stock buyers, others as insurance agents, others as 
sewing machine agents — all with plausible excuses for being in the 
neighborhood. They visited Eepublicans whom they could trust with 
the secret and left with them tickets bearing the name of Captain William 
H. Weaver, a Republican of Menard county. Instructions were given 
that the Eepublicans were to manifest the utmost indifference and were 
to remain away from the polls until 3 o'clock or later in the afternoon 
of the day of election. Then they were to go quietly to the polls and 
deposit the Weaver tickets. 

The plan was a perfect success. When the Democrats awoke it was 
too late. The polls were closed — the battle was lost. When the vote was 
canvassed it was found that Weaver had been elected by a majority of 
336 votes. It was several days, however, before the Democrats were fully 
convinced that they were really defeated. The surprise, chagrin, and 
vexation of the Democrats is indicated by. an interchange of telegrams 
between Colonel Morrison and E. A. D. Wilbanks, clerk of the Illinois 
House. Colonel Morrison wired Wilbanks from Washington as follows : 

"Is there no doubt of the election of a Eepiiblican successor of J. 
Henry Shaw? (Signed) William E. Morrison." 

The answer was as follows: 
- "To Colonel William R.. Morrison, Washington. D. C. : Not a d d 


bit. (Signed) E. A. D. Wilbanks. 

The election of Weaver virtually ended the senatorial contest. The 
rest was but a matter of form. Weaver was to be sworn in Mav 15th, 


aud on May 14th the Democrats, still hoping, made a final "supreme 
effort." Every Democrat was present and Morrison received 101 votes. 
On a later ballot the Democrats concentered on Judge Lambert Ttee, 
but with no better success. The next ballot was taken on May 19th. It 
was the 130th ballot and General Logan was elected, receiving 103 votes 
to 96 for Lambert Tree and 5 scattering. 

General Logan, in a speech before the assembly extending thanks for 
his election, said : 

"In this contest, as it has progressed, I am proud to say that nothing 
has transpired to mar the friendly relations tbat have existed for the 
past thirty years between Colonel William R. Morrison, the gentleman 
chosen by the Democratic side of this assembly, and myself. * * * 
I say to you that I respect Colonel Morrison as a man. Although we 
differ politically, we are friends and I hope we may forever be friends." 

In a conversation of several years ago, to which I have already referred. 
Colonel Morrison, speaking on the senatorial contest of 1885, said to me: 

"In the senatorial contest of 1885, my relations with Senator Logan 
were personally quite friendly. * * * There was an element in his 
party that intended that he should be defeated, just as there were men 
in my party that intended that I should be beaten for senator. Some of 
the Eepublicans expected the fight to drag along until both Logan and 
myself would be dropped, and then a Cook county man would be elected. 
Logan was fully aware of the combinations that were being made to 
defeat him. He and I talked about them between ourselves during the 
contest. * * * J -^r^g j^qI i^i Springfield at the time the 'still hunt' 
was made in the 34th district by the Republicans. I had gone to Wash- 
ington to see if something could not be done to secure some Democratic 
appointments for Illinois. There was a great hue and cry out here 
that, although a Democratic President had been elected, no Democrats 
had been appointed to office, and I went to urge the appointment of 
somebody^ — no matter whom — but of some Democrat. I doubt that the 
result in the 34th district would have been any different had I remained 
in Springfield. The Republicans carried out their game so well that 
nobody was to be blamed for failing to detect it." 

No senatorial contest in Illinois since 1858 attracted such wide-spread 
national attention as that of 1885. The Democratic victories in other 
states had made the United States Senate exceedingly close, and it was 
generally understood that the defeat of Logan would possibly mean 
Democratic control of the Senate. The receipt of hundreds of telegrams 
of congratulation bv General Logan were evidence of the joy felt by 
Republicans throughout the nation over the reelection of John A. Logan. 

In the year 1890, for the first time since 1858, a candidate for United 
States Senator was nominated in State convention. This time, however, 
it was the Democratic party that made the nomination, following a 
precedent established by the Republicans. The nominee for senator was 
General John M. Palmer. General Palmer had left the Democratic 
party in 1854 on the Kansas-Kebraska question. Ho had been one of 
the founders of the Republican party in Illinois, having been chairman 
of the first Republican State Convention, held at Bloomington in 1856. 


He had been a distinguished general in the Civil War, and in 1868 had 
been elected Governor of Illinois. In 1872, in company with many 
others, he had left the Kepublican party and thenceforward had been 
affiliated with the Democrats. Several times he had received the caucus 
nomination of the Democrats for United States Senator. Now, upon 
receiving the nomination for senator by the Democratic State Conven- 
tion, he went upon the stump and presented liis case to the people. 

The Legislature elected tliat year was almost the same in its political 
composition as that which had caused the famous senatorial deadlock of 
1885. In joint assembly there were 101 Democrats, 100 Republicans, 
and 3 Independents, elected as representatives of the F. M. B. A., a 
farmers' organization. These three independent^, Moore, Cockrell, and 
Taubeneck, held the balance of power. The Republican caucus nomi- 
nated Richard J. Oglesby, a former senator and three times Governor 
of Illinois. The three Independents chose A. J. Streeter as their candi- 
date. The balloting continued with practically no change from January 
20 to February 11, 1891, thus— Palmer, 101; Oglesby, 100; Streeter, 3. 
Then the Republicans substituted for Oglesby the name of Cicero J. 
Lindly, president of the F. M. B. A., the organization to which the 
three Independents acknowledged allegiance. Lindly was a Republican, 
however, and the three Independents would not support him. At the 
same time the Republican joint steering committee submitted to the three 
Independents a long list of proposed candidates, some of whom had 
been prominent in the labor or farmer movement. Later the Republi- 
cans switched to A. J. Streeter, the candidate of the Independents. 
Streeter had long been an Independent in politics; a greenbacker, a 
farmers' alliance man, etc. Several Republicans refused to vote for 
Streeter. Streeter's "high-water mark" came March 5th, when he 
received 98 votes — just five short of election. A couple of days later 
there were newspaper stories that the five Republicans who had persist- 
ently refused to vote for Streeter were weakening. The Republican 
State Committee had virtually indorsed Streeter and it began to look 
as if he might be elected. 

On the night of the 10th of March Moore and Cockrell, two of the 
three Independents, joined in a public statement declaring their intention 
to vote for Palmer on the following day. Palmer, accordingly, was 
elected the next day, March 11, on the 154th ballot. On this ballot, 
the entire Republican strength of the assemblv was thrown to Cicero J. 
Lindly, the ballot resulting: Palmer, 103; Lindly, 100; Streeter, 1— 
Taubeneck of the "big 3" sticking to Streeter to the end. I have known 
many defeated candidates for office, but I never have witnessed any 
disappointment as bitter and as inconsolable as that of Mr. Streeter when 
the election of Palmer became an accomplislied fact. As a newspaper 
correspondent I called at his room at the Leland Hotel that afternoon. 
As he lay upon a sofa he vehemently denounced the "damnable 
treachery," as he called it, which had caused his defeat. Streeter had 
really believed that he was going to be elected and Palmer's election was 
a crushing blow. 


The outcome of this contest was a most fortunate and creditable one 
for the State. As between Palmer and Streeter, even many Eepublicans 
preferred Palmer, for Streeter had little in common with the Eepublican 
party and his election would have been a party misfortune. Senator 
Palmer, on the other hand, was a distinguished and able statesman, a 
man of broad views and of independent action, and his term of service 
in the Senate reflected great credit upon himself and upon his State. 

I shall not attempt to bring my story of senatorial contests "down 
to date." Since the deadlock of 1891, we have had five senatorial 
elections, each involving a contest — some of them a fierce and desperate 
contest. But the limited time at my disposal will not permit me to 
speak of them. The contest now in progress in the General Assembly 
has already broken all previous records in point of duration; but it is 
"another story" that must be reserved for some future occasion. 

In this brief sketch, I have not attempted to mention by name all of 
the really great men who have served Illinois in the United States 
Senate. I have endeavored more particularly to note some of the memor- 
able contests for the senatorship that have occurred iir this State. I may 
add that although the governorship has ever been regarded as the natural 
stepping-stone to the Senate, only six of the twenty-five men who have 
served as senator since 181S were also governors of the State. Of this 
number Ninian Edwards, one of the first two senators, became Governor 
after his retirement from the Senate, although he had been previously 
Governor of the territory. W. L. D. Ewing, elected Lieutenant- 
Governor, was Governor only two weeks. So that in reality only four 
men, first elected Governor, have afterwards become senator. The first 
Richard Yates, upon retiring from the office of Governor, was im- 
mediately elected to the Senate. Eichard J. Oglesby and Shelby M. 
Cullom, each resigned the office of Governor to become senator; John 
M. Palmer was elected senator eighteen years after the close of his term 
as Governor. 

It will be a matter of surprise to many, no doubt, that although nearly 
all have sought re-election only eiglit senators from Illinois have suc- 
ceeded themselves. These were Ninian Edwards, Jesse B. Thomas, John 
McLean, Elias Kent Kane, Stephen A. Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, John 
A. Logan, and Shelby M. Cullom. Only four senators have been able 
to secure, election three times — Stephen A. Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, 
John A. Logan, and Shelby M. Cullom. The record for length of service 
is held by Senator Cullom, whose first election occurred in 1883. He 
has served continuously since then, having been elected in all five times. 
He has now entered upon the 27th year of his service, and by the end 
of his present term will have completed thirty years of continuous serv- 
ice as senator from Illinois. These have been years of honorable and 
efficient service, and Senator Cullom, in the calm and deliberate judg- 
ment of posterity, will rank among the great constructive statesmen of 
the period in which he served the State and jSTation. 

All in all, Illinois, in a period covering almost a century, has been 
ably and creditably represented in Washington; and taking that period 


as a whole, in the average ability, integrity and inlluence of its senators, 
it has been unsurpassed by any other state. Let us hope that the high 
standard set by Douglas, Trumbull, Yates, Oglesby, Palmer, Logan, 
Davis, Cullom and others, will be maintained by Illinois as long as this 
republic shall endure. 


By William A. Meese.' 

The winter of 1779 and '80 was the most severe in many years in 
the Illinois, and the spring of 1780 was indeed a gloomy one to the 
small American army quartered in the three French villages of Kas- 
kaskia, Prairie du Eocher and Cahokia. Colonel George Rogers Clark 
had departed with most of his troops to a place called the Iron Mines, 
near the mouth of the Ohio river, where he was engaged in erecting 
Fort Jefferson. The commandant of the Illinois was Lieutenant 
Colonel John Montgomery, an Irishman born in 1748 in Bottecourt 
county, Virginia, who in the year 1771 was one of the celebrated 
"Long Hunters'' in Kentucky; from there he joined Colonel Chris- 
tian's regiment and took part in the Point Pleasant campaign in Dun- 
more's war. When Colonel George Rogers Clark was enroute to cap- 
ture the Illinois settlements in 1778 at "Corn Island" he received what 
his biographers say was "an important accession to his little army, of 
twenty "volunteers from Kentucky under Captain Montgomery," ^ who 
was described as "an Irishman full of fight who engaged in the 
enterprise with great ardor." Clark in the fall of 1778 was promoted 
to a full Colonelcy and Captain John Montgomery was made Lieu- 
tenant Colonel and siven the. title "Commander-in-Chief of the Vir- 
ginia Troops in the County of Illinois." ^ 

A letter written by Colonel Montgomery to Clark in September, 
1779, shows the condition the American army was in. He says: "I 
can't tell what to do in Regard of clothing for the Soldiers as the 
Goods you wrote to me is gone — and I would Be Glad that if it is in 
your power to Send me a Relefe to me for the Soldiers if it is onley 
As Much as will make them A little Jump Jacote and a pear of over- 
alls I think they Mite Scuffle threw." ^ The time of service of most 
of the troops had expired. Desertions were almost a daily occurrence 
and the American army was rapidly diminishing in numbers. 

Early in the spring of 'SO Clark, who had now l^-^en made a gen- 
eral, decided to concentrate his troops at Fort Jefferson.* The sol- 
diers at Vincennes were recalled, and Colonel Montgomery was given 
orders to retire most of his troops from the Illinois villages. Governor 

^Monette's Mississippi Valley, Vol. 11, p. 101. 
-Butterfield, Conquest of the Illinois, p. 270. 
^Draper Mss. 49 J. 74. 
•'Virginia State Papers, 1-358. 

H S 


Patrick Honrv having written General Clark that it would l)e nec..'S- 
sary to withdraw as many of the troop? as possible from the territory 
north of the Ohio : for he, "need expect no help or supplies from the 
State." ^ Before Montgomery could carry out his orders, news was 
received that an army of British and Indians was on its way to attack 
the Illinois settlements. Instead of retreating with his few soldiers 
and thus virtually obeying the orders from his commander, this "Irish- 
man full of fight," did not desert the weak French settlements, but at 
once set about fortifying Cahokia, the most northern settlement where 
he was stationed. Montgomery also consulted the Spanish Command- 
ant at Pencour (St. Louis) and together they sent a joint message to 
Greneral Clark at Fort Jefferson, notifying him of the threatened 
British and Indian invasion. Clark at once set out for Cahokia and 
arrived the night before the British and Indians made their attack on 
St. Louis. 

In 1779 Spain had declared was against England, and it was sup- 
posed that British officers planned this attack on the Spanish posts on 
the Mississippi in retaliation, but it seems that the British designs 
were not merely to attack the Spanish posts. A letter written by Patt 
Sinclair, Lieutenant Governor of Michilimacinac, to General Haldi- 
mand sometime between Febmary 17th, 1789, and the last of May 
that year, shows that this movement was but part of a general plan 
of attack. Captain Charles de Langlade, with a chosen band of In- 
dians and a party assembled at Chicago, was to make an attack by the 
Illinois river. Another party was sent to watch the plains between 
the Wabash and the Mississippi, and the expedition against Pencour 
(St. Louis) and Cahokia was under a Mr. Hesse, a British trader 
(formerly of the 60th regiment), who witli seven hundred and fifty 
men. including traders, servants and Indians, the latter had assembled 
at La Prairie du Chien, came down the Mississippi and made "an at- 
tack on the Spanish and Illinois." Still another body of British were 
to -attack the Spanish settlements at the mouth of, and along the 
lower Mississippi.^ The Indians in Captain Hesse's party were Me- 
nominees. Sioux, Winnebagoes and Sacs and Foxes, most of the latter 
joining the party at the mouth of the Rock river near their village. 

On May 26th, the British and Indians attacked St. Louis. They 
killed a number of the inhabitants, but failed to capture the place. A 
part of the army, mostly Indians, on the next day crossed the Missis- 
sippi and attacked the post at Cahokia, but were equally unsuccessful. 
The Britisli and Indians then commenced a retreat north, one part go- 
ing by wav of the Mississippi, the other by way of the Illinois river. 

General Clark, after this engagement, at once returned to Fort Jef- 
ferson to guard against an expected attack on that place, but before 
leaving, ordered Colonel ^Montgomery to pursue the enemv. distress 
them, and attack and destrov their towns. Montsromerv was ordered 

'Dr. Mss.29 J. 14. 

^Canadian Archives, Series B. Vol. 97. Pt. 2, p. 349. 


to follow the enemy up the Illinois to lake (Peoria) and then cross 
the country and attack the town of the Sacs and Foxes on Eock river 
near its mouth. 

The attack by the American army on the Rock river town of the 
Sacs and Foxes is the only event in the Eevolutionary war that l^rought 
the American Army so far north, and the Sac village being- the ob- 
jective point, it is well worth the time to know what the '"'Ancient" 
village of the Sacs and Foxes was. 


The Sac and Fox Eock Eiyer Village. 

To the historian that part of our State now Eock Island county 
offers a fruitful field. Here, about 1722 or some ten years later, the 
allied tribes of the Sac and Fox Indians settled, and along the north 
bank of the Eock river, near its confluence with the ]\Iississippi, built 
a village, which they continuously inhabited until driven beyond the 
Mississippi by United States soldiers in 1831, — a habitation of one 
hundred and nine years, a longer period than the occupancy of any 
other village of the Xomadic Eedmen of Xorth America. Much has 
been written concerning this village; some writers have described it .is 
'^being in the shape of a right angle," and said that the houses 
"were built as a general rule, facing or fronting upon the public 
squares, or other streets." Others have said the village was laid out in 
"lots and blocks," much like our modern cities ; luit from all that I 
am able to learn, the Sac wigwams or houses were built facing the 
river and extended from the high bluff (now called the Watch Tower) 
down within a mile Avhere the Rock river empties into the Mississippi. 
From about the year 1800 the Eock Eiver village was inhabited almost 
solely by the Sacs and such of the Foxes as were under the leadership 
of the War Chief Black Hawk, and were generally known as the 
"British Band." The Foxes maintained a village on the Mississippi 
river where the City of Davenport, Iowa, is now located, and opposite 
the lower end of the Island, known as Eock Island.^ 

That the Sacs and Foxes loved their villages and surroundings is 
no wonder. A noted writer who had travelled much in this country, 
on coming up the Mississippi river and landing at Fort Armstrong on 
Rock Island, some eighty years ago, Avrote, "Setting down a pair of 
compasses large enough to extend thirty-five miles around the lower end 
of Rock Island and taking a sweep around it, you would have within 
the circle, the handsomest and most delightful spot of the same size, 
on the whole globe, so far as nature can produce anvthing called beau- 
tiful." 2 

The Sac wigwams Avere "very much the shape of a New England 
barn, sixteen or eighteen feet wide, and from twenty to fifty or sixty 
feet long. The largest were calculated for from two to four families. 
They were built by setting posts in the ground, and siding Avith bark 
from elm trees. This bark, cut about seven feet lonsr. varied in Avidth 

^Morse's Report of Indian Affairs, p. 124. 
=Tourto Prairie du Chien. Caleb Atwater, p. 64. 


from two to four feet, according to the size of the tree taken from. 
They had rafters, and on these were laid small poles, upon the poles 
was placed bark, making a roof that turned rain very well. These 
wigwams made a very comfortable summer house. Their wigwams 
for fall and winter use were very different, being of flags woven into 
matting, which could be rolled up, and enough to cover a wigwam 
carried on one horse. They made a frame of small poles, one end 
sharpened and stuck in the ground, the other bent over so as to form 
a circle of ten or twelve feet, then they placed the matting around and 
over the poles, leaving a small opening in the top for the smoke." ^ 
The Sacs inhabited the Kock Kiver village only in the summer and fall 
while cultivating their crops of corn, beans and squashes. This de- 
scription is by an early pioneer who lived among these people some 
three years before they were driven across the Mississippi. 

A traveler in Wisconsin in October. 17fifi,^ speaks of one of the Sac 
towns as being composed of aljout ninety houses, built of hewn plank 
neatly joined and covered with bark, and that the streets were regular 
and spacious. 

Refusal of the Sacs to give up their ancient home on Eock river, 
their corn fields, their fishing and hunting grounds, and the burial 
grounds of their ancestors, resulted in the Black Hawk war, and their 
forced removal toward the setting sun. 

The Attack on the Sac Village. 

In no history of the early Upper Mississippi or of Illinois is there 
any mention of the attack upon and the destruction of the Sac village 
on Eock river during the Eevolution. My attention was first called 
to this event some years ago, while reading Pike's account of an Expedi- 
tion to the Sources of the Mississippi, in the year 1805. In speaking 
of this town of the Sac nation. Lieutenant Pike said: "which (I was 
informed by a Mr. James Aird) was burnt in the year 1781 or 2 by 
about 300 Americans, although the Indians had assembled 700 war- 
riors to give them battle." ^ 

James Aird mentioned by Pike was a British trader whose head- 
quarters were at Prairie du Chien at which place he had located in 1778, 
and he with other British and French traders came semi-annuallv to 
trade with the Sac and Fox nations. An island in the Mississippi river 
about a mile above where the Eock river empties into the Mississippi 
was the trading ground. It was near both the Sac and Fox villages. 
Here the traders gave the Sacs and Foxes credit for goods, and as early 
as 1780, this island was known as Credit island, a name it kept until 
within a few years. 

Had it not been that complaints concerning Colonel John Montgomery 
were made to General Clark, the former would probably never have made 
anv mention of his march from Cahokia at the head of an American 

'Reminiscences of Pioneer Life, J. W. Spencer, p. 12. 

'Carver's Travels (1779), p. 42. 

'■Pike SDurces of the Mississippi. Appendix to Part 1, p. 43 


Army in June 1780, and his attack on the Sac village at the mouth of 
Eock river. But fortunately for posterity, the jealousy existing among 
the officials in the early Illinois, was the cause of this complaint, which 
forced Colonel John Montgomery to write a letter in his own defense, 
in which he mentions his part in the attack on the Sac village at the 
mouth of Eock river ; and I am pleased to say that in an examination of 
his record, although some writers have accused him of dishonesty, I am 
fully convinced that this "Irishman full of fight" was not only an honest 
man, but one of the most loyal subjects of the then new American 
Government. In a letter dated February 22nd, 1783, to the . Honorable 
the Board of Commissioners, for the Settlement of Western Accounts, 
Colonel Montgomery after reviewing his official conduct, says: 

"In the Spring 
of 1780, we were threatened with an Invasion. Genl: Clark being in- 
formed of it Hurreyed his departure with a small body of Troops to the 
Falls of the mouth of the Ohio, when he receiving other expresses from 
the Spanish Comm'dts and myself, luckily joined me at Cohos, time 
enough to save the country from Impending ruin, as the Enimy appeared 
in great force within twenty-four hours after his arrival. Finding that 
thev were likely to be disappointed in their Design, they retired after 
doing some mischief on the Span'h shore, which would have prevented, 
if unfortunately the high wind had not prevented the signals being heard. 
In a few days a number of prisoners and Disarters left the Enemy Con- 
firming a report that a body of near thousand English and Indian Troops 
ware on their march to the Kentucky Country with a train of artillery, 
and the Genl : knowing the Situation of that Country appeared to be 
alarmed and resolved to attempt to Get there previous to their arrival. 
At the same time he Thought it necessary that they Enimy was retreat- 
ing up the Illinois Eiver, should be pursued so as to atact their Towns 
about the time the might have been disbanded, distress them, convince 
them that we would retaliate and perhaps prevent their joining the 
British Emisarys again. Previous to my knowledge of the above Eesolu- 
tion I had informed Genl: Clark of my Desire of Leave of absence for 
sometime, in order to return to my family. It was then he informed 
me of his resolution ; and that the Publick Interest would not permit of 
mv request being Granted, that I must take command of the Expedition 
to Eock Eiver. while he would attempt to interrupt the army marching 
to Kentucky, and if they got them before him Except the weakened the 
country too much he would raise an army and atempt to play them the 
same Game in the Miami Country, as he hoped I would go towards 
Miskelemacknor, and if we should be Tolerable suksessful and the busi- 
ness properly arranged, I might absent myself for four or five months 
in the fall or winter. After Given me Instructions he left Kohos the 
forth of June with a small Escort for the mouth of the Ohio on his 
rout to Kentuckey. I immediately proceeded to the Business I was 
order'd and march'd three hundred and fifty men to the Lake open on 
the Illinois Eiver, and from thence to the Eock Eiver, Destroying the 
Towns and crops proposed, the Enimy not Daring to fight me as the 
had so latelv Been disbanded and thev could not raise a sufficient force. 


After returning, takeing every method in mv power to regulate business, 
I was resolved to return home, but after Deliberating sometime, was 
convinced that the Eisque by land was Great without a Guard, which our 
circumstances would not admit off, and that I could posably as soon 
or sooner return by Water than land. What might also induce me in 
a great measure to Take my rout by Orleans, was the probability of 
Recovering some deserters from the Spanish Governor, and put a stop 
to that pernicious practice, which I in a great measure effected as that 
Gentlemen appeared willing to comply with any proposition in his power 
to promote our interest." ^ 

Colonel Montgomer}' gives no detailed account of the march from 
Cahokia _or of the Rock river engagement. He merely refers to it as 
showing how his time was employed while in the Illinois, and it possibly 
was but a minor matter to this "fighting Irishman." Aird, who un- 
doubtedly received his information by being at Credit island near by, 
or else from the Indians soon thereafter, says the Sacs had some 700 
w^arriors to defend their town. It is possible they made but a feeble 
resistance. If so it is the only instance that history records of the Sacs 
running from an enemy. Black Hawk in his autobiography does not 
mention this event, but that is natural, an Indian tells only of his 

In this expedition the Spaniards from St. Louis sent two companies 
each of fifty men and the French of the Illinois also furnished two. 
The latter it seems expected to capture rich booty from the Indians and 
it seems were grievously disappointed. In a lengthy letter to one M. 
Mottin de la Balme, pensioner of the King of France, French Colonel 
etc., who was then in the Illinois, the Cahokians made a complaint they 

"Oh, Colonel Clark, 
affecting always to desire our public welfare and under pretext of aveng- 
ing us, soon formed with us and conjointly with the Spaniards a party 
of more than three hundred men to go and attack in their own village 
the savages who had come to our homes to harass us, and after substi- 
tuting Colonel Montgomery to command in his place, he soon left \is. 

"It is, then, w^ell to explain to you, sir, that the Virginians, who never 
employed any principle of economy, have been the cause by their lack 
of management and bad conduct, of the non-success of the expedition 
and that our glorious projects have failed through their fault : for the 
savages abandoned their nearest villages, where we have been, and we 
were forced to stop and not push on further, since we had almost no more 
provisions, powder and balls, which the Virginians had undertaken to 
furnish us." " 

I have found only one other mention of this northern Invasion, and 
that is an account made to Dr. Lyman Draper by Captain John Rogers, 
who was one of Clark's captains and commanded a Company in the 
Rock river expedition who said: 

'Calendar Virginia State Papers. Vol. Ill, p. 441. 
»Dr. Mss.51 J. 75. 


"April, 1780, 
proceeded to Falls of Ohio, from Fort Pitt, 670 miles; find orders to 
continue on to the Iron Banks of Mississippi, 530 miles. Here I explore 
the country on both sides of the Ohio, by orders of Gen. Clark to find 
an eligible place to build a fort thereon. The General now received an 
express informing him of an intended invasion of the Village of Kaho- 
kias. I am ordered with my company for its protection, where I arrive 
200 miles; soon after besieged by a large force; on their raising the siege, 
join our forces to those of the Spaniards of St. Louis, who had suffered 
much by said army; and follow the enemy to their towns upon the river 
de la Rouze (Eocke?) distant 400 miles out and 400 in. We burn the 
towns of Saux and Eeynards." ^ 

It is more likely the Sacs made little or no resistance, yet it was at a 
time of the year when the fighting men were at home. It was the time 
when this nation always engaged in cultivating their fields of corn, beans 
and squashes, comprising some eight hundred acres. 

The Sacs thus were the only ones punished for the attack on St. Louis 
and Cahokia. Yet their conduct in this expedition was severely con- 
demned by the British. Lieutenant Governor Sinclair in making his 
report on the failure of the St. Louis-Cahokia expedition, said, "The 
two first mentioned Indian Nations (Winnebagoes and Sioux) would 
have stormed the Spanish lines, if the Sacs and Outagamies (Foxes) 
under their treacherous leader Monsr Calve, had not fallen back so 
early, as to give them but too well grounded suspicion that they were 
between two fires." " 

No mention is made how Montgomery's army returned but it is safe 
to presume they went as they came, by land. If the Indians deserted 
their village they undoubtedly departed in their canoes down to the 
Mississippi, and thence across that stream. 

Perhaps somewhere there is more in detail an account of this northern 
invasion, which, when found, will undoubtedly prove interesting. 

'Dr. Mss.28 J.3. 

"Canadian Archives, Series B., Vol. 97, Pt. 2, p. 389. 



By Clarence M. Burton 

The name of LaBalm should be a household word as familiar as that 
of George Rogers Clark, Francois Vigo, or Pierre Gibault in the homes 
of Michigan, Illinois and Indiana. That LaBalm lost his life in an 
effort to secure freedom to the territory of the West, should add a crown 
of glory to his name not possessed by the others with whose achievements 
we are more familiar. 

His name indicates his French descent though the annals of his time 
do not inform us where or when he was born. He is first mentioned as 
a citizen of France, and that was probably his native counti}'. We are 
not informed as to his participation in the war between France and 
England, that ended in the absorption of Canada by the latter country 
in 1763, but if he was of sufficient age to have been in the army at that 
time, there is little doubt of his engagement in it. His name first occurs 
on his commission as quartermaster in the Gendarmerie, which is dated 
at Versailles, February 23, 1766.^ 

As he had chosen the life of a soldier, the succeeding years were passed 
in the army in France, but when the war of American Independence 
broke out, he sought to participate in it in behalf of the Americans as 
against the hereditary enemy of his country. He applied to his own 
government for permission to go to America, but Count de Vergennes 
refused his consent. He based his refusal upon the impropriety of 
France letting its soldiers go to America to engage in war against a 
nation with which, at that time, it was at peace. The refusal was so 
worded that LeBalm considered it an encouragement to go, if he would 
not involve France by so doing. Seeking Silas Deane, who was at that 
time the agent in Paris for the United Colonies of America, he placed 
before him evidences of his ability in military affairs, and obtained a 
letter of recommendation, dated October 17, 1776, and addressed to' 
John Hancock, as one who would be of service to the Americans in 
training cavalry. He prepared also a general plan or proposal for work 
he would undertake in America in the line of instruction in cavalry 

He also obtained from Benjamin Franklin, who. had lately arrived in 
Paris, a recommendation and introduction, dated January 20, 1777. 

With these recommendations, LaBalm set out for America and at once 
made application for a position in the cavalry. Washington, in his 

'British Museum Mss. 21844. 

^ See Appendix 1 . Many of these pajrers are too long to be attached as notes and as they have never 
been printed, it was concluded to put them in an appendix. 


letter that accompanied LaBalm's recommendation says : "I am afraid 
we shall never be able to find places equal to the expectations of the 
French gentlemen who are now here, much less for those that will fol- 
low. The high rank conferred upon those who first came over, many of 
whom had no pretensions, either from services or merit, has naturally 
raised the expectations of those who come properly recommended, to 
such a pitch that I know not what will satisfy them." ^ 

The feelings of this country were very friendly to the French nation 
in general, and particularly affectionate towards the French soldiers 
who were coming so willingly and freely to assist us in our contest for 
liberty. There was a somewhat different feeling among the officers of 
the army. The French officers were frequently given positions over the 
heads of our own soldiers. This bred a discontent, that soon appeared 
on the surface, and the Americans resented the seeming partiality for 
the foreigners. 

James Lovel, Secretary of Congress, expressed these ideas of the dis- 
appointed or discontented Americans in a letter to Franklin of July 4. 
1777. "It is not to be doubted," he wrote, ''but that a multitude of 
foreign officers, by no means deficient of merit, are willing to come over 
and supersede such of ours as have been constantly in the field, and have 
borne innumerable hardships when our poverty in arms and ammunition 
would have terrified the stoutest Europeans who have been accustomed 
to systematic campaigns." 

Whether LaBalm was an exception to the general rule and was seek- 
ing an office where there was much labor and little compensation, or 
because the position he wanted was one that had not been and could not 
be properly filled by any person then in the army, is uncertain, but it 
appears that this general dislike of foreign officers did not extend to him, 
for Lovel stated that "Mr. De laBalm may be Inspector-General of 
Cavalry without umbrage given to any of that corps." - 

He had alreadv been appointed Lieutenant Colonel of Horse on the 
26th of May, 1777, and was nromoted to CoIoupI and Inspector-General 
of Cavaln- on the eighth of the following July.^ 

'This letter is not printed in full in Ford's Washington, Vol. V., 364. 

- Franklin in France, 1-80; Franklin's Works. (Sparks-Stevens) VIII, 195; Wharton s Dip. Cor. 
II, 251; Bigelow's Franklin, 55; Smyth's Franklin, Vol. VII, 12 and note. The recommendation of 
Deane was found on the person of LalBalm when he was killed. A copy is in the Library of Congress. 
(C. C. 152, 4, 169). It was sent bv Washington to Congress. ^. ,. ,. 

In Smyth's Franklin (note oh p. 12, Vol. VII) is an extract from a letter of Vergennes in which he 
says that he is glad permission has not been granted LaBalm to go to America. He bases this refusal 
upon the impropriety of the government of France letting its citizens go to America to take part in that 
war against a nation which was at peace with France . The very terms of this letter indicated that Ver- 
gennes was willing that LaBalm should go if he would not involve France. 

^Heitman's Officers in the Continental Armv, 73; LaBalm's original commission as inspector-general, 
now in the British Museum, is dated Julv 8, 1777. His pay as Lieutenant Colonel was to commence 
Jan. 20, 1777. Journals of Congress VIII, pp. 385, 539; Mag. of American History, III, 366. 


He continued to exercise the office of Inspector-General until the 
following October, when he resigned his position, much to the regret 
of Congress.^ 

He made plans now to return to Paris and receive a grant from 
Congress of one hundred dollars to pay his traveling expenses to Bos- 
ton or Charleston and a further sum of nine hundred livres for trav- 
eling expenses to Paris.^ These sums were granted to him in response 
to his repeated petitions to Congress for that purpose. 

'He resigned Oct. 11, 1777. Journals of Congress IX, 797; Canadian Archives B., 182-84, p. 186; Papers 
of Continental Congress, 91, 81. 

Papers of the Continental Congress. 
41. Vol. 1, folio 144. Translation. 

Gentlemen— The Love of Liberty, join'd to the hope what I entertained of raising, forming, disci- 
plining and leading to Action a Corps of Cavalry have been the only motives wliich have induced me to 
this Continent, where I imagined (afterthe Promises of Mr. Deane) I should have been received inaman- 
ner somewhat gracious. Tliree Months having elapsed before I was invested with my present Employ- 
ment (and which I accepted in order that I might not appear deficient in point of Respect tothose who 
seemed to take an Interest in my belialf, con-\-inced me too sensibly of how small a consideration my 
Zeal for the Cause of America, and the particular Knowledge I had acquir'd in the Art of Cavalry were 
consider'd in this Country. The Persons who were interested in knowing me, have not thought it an 
Object worthy their Considerati (on), much less to employ me, another evident Proof of a Studied 
Indifference with Respect to what concem'd me, or my Profession 

In the Department I at present hold, there still remain 'd the Hope of rendering your Cavalry fit for 
Action, and to ask of you, in case I should be happy enough to merit your Approbation, a Rank which 
would nave given me the Right to lead it to Action. You would then have seen Gientlemen that I did 
not come over to America merely to procure Rank; you would have known what Art united with Courage 
could have aflected: But this Hope, my only Recourse in this Matter, you have entirely annihilated 
by giving the Command of your Cavalry to the Baron de Polasky. After this Step, Gentlemen, you 
will easily judge. Gentlemen, that I cannot think of exerting myself to form a Corps which is to be under 
command of another Person; a Person who has perhaps much less Experience, less true Zeal, not more 
Courage, and without Doubt infinitely less vers'd in this Branch than myself +In consequence of these 
Reflections, I entreat you Gentlemen to order me Payment of what is due me, to accept of my Resig- 
nation, and of my Wishes for the Prosperity of your Arms— I am with Respectful Consideration, 

Gentl'n Your Obed't Hble. Serv't, 

Le Col. La Balme Inspe'r Cava. 
3d, Oct., 1777. 

(Endorsed) Memorial of Mons. La Balme to Congress — Resignation accepted and arrearages ordered 
to be paid . 
Oct. 3, 1777— No. 2. 

Memorial of Lt. Col. La Balme Insp'r of Cavalry— Resignation accepted. Arrearage ordered to be 

^Journals of Congress IX, 878. 

Papers of the Continental Congress. 
41. Vol. 1, folio 150. 

Sir— You are so good a Patriot, and also so Kind, that it would be very difficult for one to resist the 
great ascent which those precious qualities give you over sensible minds. 

Ever since my intellectual faculties, have been improved to the Knowledge of what's good from what's 
ill I always pai'd a due honnourto those virtues, and I dare assure, that it would be difficult to find a 
man in the World of more Republican principles, or more fond of independence, and consequently more 
eager than I'am in defending the cause of every true American . Therefore I have only a thing to desire, 
I mean the means of being usefull, and the security that my designs won't be thwarted if they are well 

I brought over with me to America, nor fastuous titles, neither wealths, but I brought morals, with 
some learning in the Art of War, and the desire of making my-self eminent in the rank which I would 
be trusted with. If some other quahty is necessary to repell tlie Ennemy, I must confess I'm ignorant 
of it. Such are my dispositions, but now I'm to speak of my pecuniary means. 

By the considerable time I have been in this Country -nithout any Commission, by my travels, and 
by the great expences in which a stranger is engaged, specially when he has somebody living at his ex, 
pences (I brought over two Officers with me) I have been compelled to sell the remains of my bagages 
part of which had been stolen from me, by the Waggoner Samuel Park. I say I have been obliged to 
sell them for Uving. Now I don't fear to own, that some books, a small sum of money, an horse, a cloak 
and a Sword, make all what is my property in the Continent of America. You perceive Sir, by that 
account, which is exactly true, that my expences being greater than my means it was prudent for me to 
look for sliifts somewhere else. 

Since you will Keep me here, and give me an occasion for making use of my zeal for the service of the 
United States, I desire that you would grant me, that the full pay of my rank be continued to me, without 
any interruption. 

Then I'll make the best endeavours for answering your Patriotical designs, and for con\Tnclng you of 
the respectuous consideration with which I'm, 

Sir, Your most obedient and humble servant, 
'^~ Col. La Balme. 

Yorktown^ December 25th 1777. "■"""' 

To the Right Honnourable Collon' Lawrens, President of the Honnour. Congress, Yorkto'wn. 

6 Dec. 25, 1777, N. 3. A memorial from mons. de la Balme, read 27, Dec, 1777. Consideration post- 


On the eleventh of January, 1778, he wrote to Congress, calling at- 
tention to his previous letter regarding the conquest of Canada and 
asking that he be not condemned unheard. He said that the English, 
seeing the Americans attempt nothing on Canada and leaving only 
feeble garrison to guard it, are giving all of their forces to General 
Howe, thus permitting him to act vigorously in other parts of the 
continent. "Deprived in part," he continues, "of the advantages 
of commerce; irritated by the vague promises of an obstinate King 
and Parliament overcharged with taxes, and burdened with a war which 
they are forced to carry on against countries too distant for a people 
whose credit is already exhausted, the English nation will soon by their 
joint clamor extort orders to their generals to use artifice, force, and 
violence, which commonly degenerates into cruelty." ^ 

A few days later (Jan. 22d) he again wrote to Congress, offering 
his personal services. He said he had made the same offer on a previ- 
ous occasion, but had heard nothing from it. "However it be," he 
wrote, "if you think I'm able to undertake something useful to the 
United States, give me the means of showing my zeal in this occasion 
and of employing my leisure frutuously. It is what I wish the most." ^ 

These frequent applications to Congi-ess assumed the aspect of im- 
portunities and displeased the members of that body. In reply to a 
communication in February, 1778, the following resolution was passed: 
"Eesolved, That 910 dollars be paid Mons. de la Balme, in full of all 
claims and demands against the United States and that the Committee 
on Foreign applications inform Mons. de la Balme that Congress have 
no further occasion for his services." ^ 

At this time he was in Philadelphia, but being without an occupation, 
he obtained leave from General Gates to go to Albany. He did not re- 
main long in that place, but returned to Philadelphia and planned the 
opening of a workshop twenty-eight miles from that place. He issued 

'See Appendix 2. 

= See Appendix 3. 

^(Journals of Congress, X, 157.) (Chicago Hist. Soc, Vol. V, p. 3.3.) 

Papers of the Continential Congress. 41. Vol. 1, folio 168. Jany. 1, 1779. N. 4. 
Memorial from Col. De la Balme,, read 4, Jany., 1779. Referred to the board of treasury. Passed at 
Treasury, 7th Jany. 
To the Honourable the Continental Congress: 

The Memorial of Colonel de la Balme most respectfully sheweth That when in the Year One Thousand 
Sevenhundred and Seventy Seven Your Honorable House was pleased to grant Your Memorialist his 
Discharge form the Service and at the same time to allow his Account of 120 Louis d'or, he received on 
Your Order, at the Treasury the Sum of 576 Continental Dollars, that is 4 4-5 dollars pr. Louis d'or: which , 
considering the Depreciation of that Money he then took as on account of his demand And nowwith 
due Submission to Your Honours he conceiveth "that by his replacing into Your Treasury the said 
Sum of 576 Dollars in the same Specie as he received it, he would by \irtue of some Stipulations before 
his Departure from France made with your Commissioner Mr. Deane be intitled to receive a Bill of Ex- 
change for2SS0 Livres Tumois payable in France equal to his Demand of 120 Louis d'or at 24 Livres pr. 
Louis d'or"— It would have been extremely flattering if in consequence of the Motives which brought 
Your Memorialist over to this Continent, lie had been put in a way to compensate America by some 
or other Act of eclat in her favor for any Expences She should be put to on his Score as it was with great 
Reluctance that he presented his moderate Account of 120 Louis d'or, whereof he would rather have 
made a Sacrifice to her Cause if Fortune had placed him in a degree of Affluence to aflord such like Sac- 
j^flces— As Your Memorialist and his case mav be unknown to some of the Members of Your Honorable 
House He begs leave to mention that last Spring when he returned from Albany where he had served 
as Volunteer, He offered to HisJExcellency General Washington to exercise 300 Horse and to teach the 
Men their Manoeuvres in Battle without requiring any Rank or pay for his Service. 

Col. De La Balme. 
Philad. Jan. 1st 1779. 


notice? in tlic En2;lis'.., French and German languages, requesting all 
persons who had deserted from the army or navy of any other nation 
than the United States or French, to find shelter and employment at 
his workshops. 

The intention was to give temporary relief and to induce these de- 
serters to join the army.^ 

In March, 1780, he applied to Washington for permission to visit 
the southern states.^ This expedition was either very brief or was not 
undertaken at all, for in June he was at Fort Pitt.^ From this writ- 
ings, from this place, we find his first plans to collect an army and 
attack and capture Detroit.* 

An effort has been made to show that in this project LaBalm was 
working to regain the western country for France and that he was 
not working in the interest of the United States.^ It is certain, how- 
ever, that his movements were known to the Americans and were car- 
ried on with their approval, though not with their official consent. The 
invasion of the western country was the dream of Colonel Brodhead, 
who was in command at Fort Pitt. His frequent applications to in- 
vade the Indian country and capture Detroit had been constantly met 
with refusals because he could not be allowed a sufficient support to 
warrant the undertaking. 

A Detroit Frenchman, M. Godfroy, or Linctot as he is usually re- 
ferred to, was fitting out an expedition, at Fort Pitt, and Brodliead 
sent notice of it to the President of Congress, and with it sent his 
expressions of regret that he was not as favorably situated as Linctot. 
"Xow, had I but men and provision, I might do something to gain 
a laurel, but in my present circumstances, it is probable I may lose my 
reputation for what shall not be a fault in me." ^ 

Linctot was a French Canadian, who had been all over the western 
countrv. He was attached to the American cause and was disliked and 

' See Appendix 4. 

Letters to Washington, Vol. 36, folio 87. 
Mons. De Balme, 5, March, 1780. Ansd. 14. 

Sir— Though I have not been happy enough as to give your Excellency proofs of my zeal for the Amer- 
ican cause, you So honourably defend, I no less dare flatter meself that His Excellency has not been in- 
sensible to it, and will be So good as to grant me the following asldng. 

I intend to travel within a little towards the Southern States of America, where I maj- be confounded 
with many adventurers, because Mr. Lovel one of the honorable the Congress has lost the recommending 
letters, I intrusted with, when I moved for an employment in Phyladelphia. 

Some of those letters were exhibited to your Excellency at the time of my arrival in this Continent 
I Hope thas, (that?) in consequence of the good Character they gave me, you will be pleased to give me 
one of yours to idemifyme of their being lost. 

I entertain a too high Idea of the equitable proceedings of your Excellency towards the foreigners 
not to expect with a Secure Confidence Such a favor of yours. 
I am with the greatest respects of his Excellency, 

The most obedient and humble servant, 
De la Balme. 
Philadelphia the V. Mch., 1780. 

='ni. Hist. Col., Vol. II, p. LXXXIX. Also \'ol. 5, p. 161. 

^La Balm was fairly well versed in the English language, and many of the letters from him are in 

■^F. J. Turner in Am. Hist. Rev. X, 255. 

"Penn. Arch. 1st, Series VIII, 559, Sept. 17, 1780. It would appear that Lincot was paid by Vir- 
ginia or by the general government. See a letter from Thomas Jefferson to Col. Todd, March 19, 1780. 
'^'The draughts from yourself and Col. Clarke on Pollock, those presented us by LaGrass and Linctot, 
others for about 50,000 dollars presented by a Mr. Nathan * * * have rendered us bankrupt here. 
Early Chicago and Dhnois, 358. 


feared by the British. His acquaintance among the Indians and his 
power over them was great. His plan for invading the country in con- 
junction with the friendly Indians and with a body of French Cana- 
dians was acceptable to the Americans, though they were powerless to 
assist him. In the early part of 1780, both LaBalm and Linctot were 
in Fort Pitt making arrangements for a concerted attack on Detroit. 
Linctot, with about thirty Indian followers, left Fort Pitt od the 
seventh of May to visit the Indian nations and ask them to join the 
French in an attack on the British.^ 

LaBalm contemplated going down the Ohio river and meeting 
Linctot at the French settlements in Illinois. Linctot was to proceed 
across the country, visiting the Indian tribes on the way. That this 
undertaking was in the interest of the Americans is evidenced '^y 
LaBalm's report to the Minister of France, for he says that Linctot's 
visit to the different nations is, "so as to secure them for the United 
States, to which the French unanimously adhere." 

A letter of Colonel Daniel Brodhead to President Eeed, not dated, 
but probably in June, 1789, says: "It is near four weeks ago, since 
I sent a French gentlemen with speeches to the Indians, threatening 
them with the force of France, Spain and America, if they did not 
immediately desist from further hostilities. This gentleman is in the 
service of the state of Virginia. He speaks several of the Indian lan- 
guages to perfection and his address is well calculated to influence 
them. When he returns, I will write you what success attends the 
messages. Some of the Indian nations certainly merit a total extir- 
pation, but whilst we want the means to chastise them, it may be good 
policy to amuse them, as they have us, and I have directed the French 
gentleman (Major Lanctot) to do it as much as in him lies." ^ 

LaBalm's report of his transactions up to the time of his departure 
for the West explains his attachment to the iVmerican cause and gives 
some indications of his future undertakings. It was sent to the Min- 
ister, Lucerne, and is as follows: "Monsieur: Before proceeding 
further on my course, I believe I ought to report to 5four Excellency 
without waiting for a more favorable opportunity. My arrival at 
Fort Pitt, perhaps rendered me useful to United States, especially as 

iQan. Arch. B. 181, p. 275. This day probably should be July 7, as on that day Brodhead directed 
Linctot to go to Cooshocking and induce the Indians to adhere to the American cause and inform them 
that unless they made peace with the United States their country would be invaded. Penn. Arch. 
XII, 246. 

There are other letters from Brodhead which indicate that Linctot was working in the interest of the 
United States. lb, 258, 259. Kocheblave, the former French Governor at Kaskaskia, in his letter of 
Sept. 9, 1780, (Can. Arch. B. 122, p. 545) says that Linctot is a Canadian whose head has been turned 
by a letter from d'Estaing or promises from Congress. 

It is possible that Linctot was sent first on May 7th and that he returned and was sent a second time 
on July 7th. This would agree with the letters of LaBalm and Brodhead, (Penn. Arch. VIII, 300). 

= Penn. Arch. Vol. VIII, p. 300. Major Lanctot left Fort Pitt shortly after May 4, 1780, to carry a 
message to the Indian Council at Coochocking. He carried a message to Rev. John Heekenvelder, the 
Moravian teacher. Penn. Arch. XII, 228. He Also carried a letter to the Rev. David Ziesberger, another 
Moravian teacher. This letter is dated. May 8, 1780, indicating that Lanctot did not leave Pittsburg 
before that date. Penn. Arch. XII, 231. Lanctot was at the Delaware towns in August, sending mes- 
sages to the Indians to prevent them from working in unison with the English. Penn. Arch. XII, 258. 
263. Letters of Brodhead, dated Aug. 21, 1780. Broadhead wrote to Lanctot, who was then, (Aug, 
23, 1780) at the Delaware Council, to return to Fort Pitt as soon as possible. Penn. Arch. XII, 259. Lanc- 
tot was still in Coochocking in September and wrote to Brodhead that the Indians from Detroit were 
preparing to attack the frontiers. Penn. Arch. XII, 269, 270, 271. 


they were threatended with a general Indian war. A French officer, 
bom in Canada, Monsieur Godefroi de Linctot, a wanderer (for sev- 
eral years) among the savages because he refused to serve under the 
British flag, followed by about thirty trusty Indians, left that place 
the 7th of last ]\Iay, to visit the Nations, in order to ward off the 
Loups, who threatened the frontiers of the United States. The strings 
of wampum which he gave, and the Avords of peace were welcomed bv 
the Loups, the Shawanes, the Hurons, etc. Several of the Indians re- 
turned with Monsieur de Lintot to give pledges for the others. On tbat 
occasion I passed for a French officer who had come to learn the true 
inclinations of the children of the French King, their benefactor. Af- 
ter holding council, the Indians delegated came to assure me of their 
lasting affection and complete obedience to the will of their Father, 
and to tell me that they M'ere ready to follow the French M-arriors, 'lO 
raise the tomahawk and strike to the death the enemies of their oon- 
erous protector, 'HDut," they added, "if our Father is allied with the 
Americans, why do they let us want for everything? Must we die with 
our women and our children because we reject the offers which the 
English make us? We do not love them. We are ready to strike, 
but our urgent needs will force us in the end to give an ear to their 
proposals, if they persist in refusing us that aid here, without which 
we cannot exist. The deer, which ought to provide us with food and 
procure for us. in exchange for their skins, the clothing to which we 
have become accustomed, are much wilder than they were before we 
made use of fire-arms. We need, then, powder, guns, clothes, while 
they give us only burning liquors, which kill our young men. They 
made us a thousand promises at Philadelphia last year. In reality, 
they do not rememlDcr more than a part. We are forgotten, abandoned, 
besoucfht bv another race and sometimes threatened bv the Encrlish. 
Under such circumstances, what can we do? What should we do?" 
"You should remain peaceful and quiet," I said to them, "unless you 
wish to fall under the displeasure of your Father, to expose yourselves 
to his vengeance and to that of the Spanish and of the United States, 
his allies, and to see yourselves abandoned by the English, who are 
threatened on all sides, even in their own country." I added such argu- 
ments as seemed to me most suited to convince them. Then they 
withdrew to their camp, telling me that they were ready to march 
against the enemies of their Father and his allies when it would be 
required of them. We have several times served liquor to the=e gen- 
tlemen, who, well painted and plumed, have dnmk immoderately of 
the most powerful liquors. I hope that their promise will 1)e well 
kept, but I confess that I have not a great deal of confidence in it, be- 
cause he digs a pit for his feet who makes promises in regard to the 
conduct of those frontiers folk, for, with the exception of the command- 
ant of Fort Pit, they have all behaved abominably toward the Indians. 
While the treaty was being negotiated at the Fort, a party of eight men 
visited the Nations and murdered some of the Indians. Some others 
stole four horses near their camps. From all these tricks and this 


treacliery, there must result a great depth of hatred which necessarily 
generates the warfare of which several families are the victims. Thi? 
then is the result of the disorders and inconsistencies which in many in- 
stances appear to characterize the English colonists. We set out, my- 
self the fourth, a Frenchman, to navigate the Ohio, well armed, and to 
proceed to the Illinois, accompanied by a somewhat elderly Shawnee 
princess. As for Monsieur Godefroi de Lintot, he set out for the same 
place by land. He will visit the Nations, whose different languages 
he speaks very well, with the view to strengthening their attachment 
to the cause of the United States in which the French unanimously take 
a vital interest. That officer is indeed worthy of the greatest praise. 
His zeal in that respect has led him to give to the Indians, his horses, 
his personal effects, and often his clothing to strengthen their attach- 
ment to the French. One would think in considering his generosity 
that France would heap favors upon him. Instead, she ignores the 
nobility of these acts. This is the testimony that I do not begrudge 
him together with all those who know him, and which I hope sincerely 
will be of benefit to him. I hope that the French scattered over the 
two hemispheres will draw from this a knowledge of the good feeling 
which exists between them and the Indians, so that being strongly 
united they will be able, far from receiving, to make the law for any 
one authority, because I learn that all who are independent or even on 
the verge of becoming so, are ready for a paternal hand to be ex- 
tended, an omen of their future happiness. Time will lift the veil 
which hides the future from the curious and attentive observers of 
catastrophies and revolutions. 

"In whatever place I set my foot, it will give me a true pleasure lo 
inform your Excellency of whatever I deem worthy of his attention 
and I assure him of the respectfiil consideration with which I am ever, 
"Your Excellency's very humble and obedient servant, 

"Colonel La Balm." 1 

Thomas Bentley was the first person to give information to DePey- 
ster, who was in command at Detroit, of the advent of LaBalm at Yin- 
cennes. Bentley was a trader who had been in the Illinois country 
and had passed through the various villages and settlements there and 
in Michigan, even as far north as Mackinac. For some time he had 
been suspected of being too friendly to the Americans, and the suspi- 
cion had become so strong that he was taken into custody by orders of 
Lieut.-Govemor Sinclair, of Michillmacinac, and was confined in 
Detroit for several months. His property and papers were taken from 
him. There was no trial, for there was no provision, in law, for such 
a proceeding. His offence was of a military character only and his 
case was one of many that occurred in Detroit at this time. There was 
a disposition on the part of DePeyster to let him go free, at one time, 
but on further consideration he was still kept confined and was sent 
to Quebec as a dangerous person. He managed to escape and enter the 
American lines. 

'This article was prepared before Vol. 5, of the HI. His. Collections was issued from the press and 
some of the papers in this article are printed in that volume. 


Makino^ his wav westward, the first information we liave from him 
is a letter from Vincennes, dated August 17, 1780.^ He had for- 
given the injuries inflicted upon him by DePeyster and now bogs that 
he will pennit the Macombs, who were exlensivo traders at Detroit, 
to send him some bales of goods that he might sell to retrieve liis lost 
fortune and to repay his creditors. In this letter he says: "Since my 
return to this place, I have been informed that belts have been iont 
off from this to tlic Shawnese and other nations, by a French colunel, 
who came here about a month ago, which belts, from what I can under- 
stand, import that the savages should remain quiet and not go to war 
any longer, as the French are coming again among Ihem, who are to 
drive both the Americans and the English out of the country and are 
to possess themselves of Canada and its dependencies and 1 am well 
informed that other French emissaries have been sent to difEerent na- 
tions, probaly for the same purpose. Thinking that this might be in- 
teresting for you to know, I have thought it necessary to give you this 
intelligence." So little credence was given to this information that 
DePeyster made no note of it in his official reports and undertook no 
investigation to ascertain whether it was true or false. 

On reaching Vincennes in July, LaBalm ascertained that the acts of 
the Virginia troops had created in the French citizens a feeling of 
antipathy against the United States which was similar to the feelings 
already entertained by the Indians. The Virginians had been insolent 
and overbearing and there was a feeling that the British rule was milder 

Post Vincennes, 17, Augt., 1780. 
' Sir— Since my return to this place I have been informed that Belts have been sent off from this to 
the Shawnese and other Nations by the French Colonel who came here about a month ago which Belts 
from what I can understand import that the Savages should remain quiet and not go to war any longer 
as the French are coming again amongst them, who are to drive both the Americains and English out 
of the country and are to possess themselves of Canada & its dependencies and I am well inform 'd that 
other French emmissaries have been sent to different nations probably for the Same purpose thinking 
that this mi^ht be Interesting for you to know have thought it necessary to give you this intelligence 
The great injustice done me by Rocheblave and others and the losses to wliich that has subjected me 
induce me to hope that you would be kind enough to Permit Messrs. Macombes to send me a few Bales 
of goods this Fall as it would be the means of enabling me to recover myself in some manner from the 
heavy looses I sustain'd during my detention in Canada. You may rest assured that the goods will 
not be made a bad use of being intended for the Savages and inhabitants only and I can moreover inform 
you that the Savages and inhabitants are so discontented with the Americains both here and at Illi- 
nois that regular troops would be received with open arms particularly if runner were sent before to assure 
the inhabitants that no evil would befall them. I cou'd wish to communicate anything essential for you 
to know from this but I shall be fearful to write. If Messrs. Macombes send me any goods you can easily 
Convey a letter in a piece of goods marking the piece in the invoice with a X signifying therein in what 
manner I can be of use and you may depend upon everything in my power. By the batteaus just ar- 
rived from New Orleans we "are inform'd the Spaniards have taken Mobile (a place of no consequence) 
But they have not yet attacked Pensacila: Don Galvez. the general had some disagreement with the 
admiral of the Squadron which cause the latter to quit tne expedition and return to Havannah. I sin- 
cerely hope they wUl not succeed against Pensacola. If an expedition of 3,000 men could be sent by way 
of Presqu'isle they would take fort Pitt and the Ohio communications leaving garrison therein and sasily 
possess themselves of New Orleans. Give me leave most earnestly to request that you will be pleased 
to suffer me some goods to be sent me this Fall; it will relieve the distresses of my mind which are beyond 
all measure great and enable me to quite the country next year. I feel most Sensibly for a widow sister 
and six small children who look'd up to me for support bereft of which by my misfortunes for these three 
years I am convinced are in want of the Very necessaries of life; These call for my utmost exertions 
to put myself in a Situation to send them some relief, which depends on you alone to enable me to do. 
You need not be under the least apprehension whatever that such goods will fall into the hands of the 
Americans who I can inform you are preparing to evacuate this post in a few days and wUl I doubt not 
evacuate the Illinois altogether in the course of twelve months more. They have 100 say one hundred 
men at the Illinois (what they call troops) without the least discipline badly cloth'd, badly fed and 
worse paid . You may judge therefore how small and feeble would be their exertions against the reg- 
ular troops FalstaS's men all-t-I beg leave to refer you to two letters I have already wTote you and remain 
with the utmost respect Sir, 

Your most obed't & very hble. Serv't, 
T. Bentley. 
From Mr. Bentley, Post Vincennes, 17, Aug., 1780. Can. Arch., Series B., Vol. 185, p. 62. 


and more preferable. McCarty, in his report, says that the people of 
Cahokia sent by LaBalm to Congress an account of their grievances and 
of the "enormities committed in this country by our troops." "I must 
confess many things have been done which should not." ^ 

LaBalm believed that the Canadians in the Illinois would join him 
in the expedition against Detroit and that the Canadians at Detroit 
would rise to a man when it was ascertained that he was on the road 
to that place. He now first learned that the undertaking must be made 
by the French and Indians and that he could get little assistance from 
the Americans because of the feeling of the former against the Virginians. 

A message from Brodhead, accompanied by another from a French- 
man at Fort Pitt, advising the Indians to join the Americans, was sent 
to the Delawares. This Frenchman appears, from the text, to have 
been Linctot. The Indians concluded that the Virginians, French and 
Spaniards were now arrayed against the English. - 

From Vincennes LaBalm went to St. Louis and presented an address 
(dated Sept. 17, 1780) to the French; thence to Cahokia where, on 
September 21, an address was presented to him by the French inhabit- 
ants setting forth their grievances against the Virginians. They detailed 
many of the causes of their complaints against the Virginian officers 
and troops and referred to the King of France who, they said, would 
not permit his subjects to be so treated if he knew of their condition. 
"It is then, sir," they conclude, "with all the affection and zeal which 
we promise you, that we ask you to be willing to interest yourself in our 
grievances and speak in our favor. May the heavens bring it about 
that by your intervention we may be able to attain that to which we 
aspire, which is nothing less than the happiness of seeing ourselves 
again all French. We have nothing to offer you in hostage except the 
greatest fidelity of heart which we shall never cease having." ^ 

'Dl. Hist. Coly Vol. II, p. 621. 

^Mich. Pion. Hist. Soc. X, 427. The charges made by Bently against LaBalm, in 111. Hist. Col., 
Vol. II, p. 618, should be taken cum grano salis. Bently had been a prisoner at Detroit and had escaped 
and returned to Vincennes. He was still much inclined to the British side as his correspondence in- 
dicates. Pierre Prevost was with LaBalm, HI. Hist. Col., Vol. II, p. 477. 

Extract from a letter from Linctot to Pres. Reed, dated Stpt.l3, 1780. "Ihopethat my wishes may be 
accomplished, that at present you may have sufficient provisions to carry on an expedition which will 
be the only method to stop the Nations. If they have not faith I lose entirely their confidence. I have 
already lost a party. (Here is something particular). They were twelve days coming from Coehoquin 
and the moravians went to meet M. Deplanteur that was sick. A party paid by the English have stopt 
me and I dare not follow them; a great quantity of the party were in search of me and would have taken 
me to Detroit . I hid myself till the party separated . ' ' Penn . Arch . X, 551 . 

Dejean a Haldinand. Monsieur+I have at last (at the request of M. Benthley, who has rendered 
me great services) obtained permission to come this far, but you will perceive by the letter which the 
Commandant will send you, that I cannot come to Detroit. Moreover being advised that the House of 
Commons at London, the advocates of the province of Quebec and the Grand Jury charge me with the 
faults of Governor Hamilton, whtther committed by him or by myself in obedience to his orders, I wUl 
wait till he has been to England to put forward the defence which he claims to have, as I do not wish 
(after having borne the chains at Williamsburgli for a hundred and twenty-nine days) to be his scape- 
goat . I have requested the Commandant to send you the parole which I have accepted . You may judge 
for yourself whether in signing it I have failed in my duty. Moreover General Philips and General 
Hamilton have signed a similar one. After Captain La Motte and myself had accepted the parole, he 
refused to assist us, saying that before leaving the prison we must foresee from what side would come 
our aid. I have written to the Commandant at Detroit asking him to permit Madame Dejean to joiti 
me with my children. Seeing for myself the dire necessity of exile (after my sufferings) for the faults 
of another, The circumstances of the time and my present situation prevent my saying more. I have 
honor to be with the most profound respect, your very humble and obedient servant. Vincennes, July 
28, 1780. P. Dejean. 

^Translation in El. Hist. Col. 2, 551. The address of Sept. 17th is in Vol. V, on p. 181. 

— 8 H S 


He next appears at Kaskaskia on the 24th of September, making 
preparations for his expedition. He estimated that he would be at 
Vermilion on the 10th day of October and would there meet those who 
were to join him from Vincennes. He remained nearly a month at 

Eichard McCarty reported on October 14th that LuBalm had been at 
Kaskaskia raising a party to go against Detroit and that the people had 
sent memorials by him to Congress and to the French envoy at Phila- 
delphia. LaBalm told the people that French troops would be there 
in the spring.^ 

Among other preparations for an advance into the country controlled 
by the English, LaBalm undertook to ascertain the disposition of the 
French citizens and others whom he might meet on the road to Detroit 
and at that place. At Miami he reported a thousand pounds of powder 
with lead, arms, blankets and other merchandise in the storehouse of 
Beaubien and in charge of Lafontaine. Beaubien and Lafontaine were 
both from Detroit and the former was closely connected with the British, 
and in their employ. He was greatly disliked and distrusted by LaBalm 
and his followers. The inhabitants at this post w^ere "inclined to the 

At Eoche de Bout there were stored ammunition and provisions and 
some cannon. At Sandusky there were stationed some British soldiers. 
At Detroit, on the south side of the river, were many Frenchmen, a 
few only of whom were ill-disposed. He reports that Monforton (who 
was register of deeds at a later time) should be watched; that Adhemar 
was a dangerous man; Gregoire (Gregor McGregor, a sheriff at a later 
date), an Englishman, was a thorough scoundrel; that Navarre (the 
royal notary under the French) was a treacherous man; and Anthony 
(probably George Christian Anthon, surgeon at Detroit, son-in-law of 
Adhemar, and father of the Greek scholar Charles Anthon) amounts 
to nothing. Alexis Maisonville was a dog to hang. Others bore better 
characters in the estimation of LaBalm and his informers. A rough 
map of the country was made to guide the men on their travels or to 
show them the villages and posts they were to visit or avoid, as circum- 
stances would dictate.^ 

Before starting LaBalm issued to his followers the following address 
to increase their enthusiasm in the enterprise : 

■ Va. St. Pap. 1, 380. McCarthy, in his journal, says: "Col. De la Balme is arrived here from Au- 
poste (Vincennes) with an escort of 30 men. French and Indians and is now at Cahos and St. Louis. 
111. Hist. Soc. Col., Vol. 2, p. 620. "Got permission in \\Titing from Col. Montgomery to go to Cahos 
and St. Louis on my private business, the 30th sett off for Cahos; arrived Sun. 1st Oct. 2nd went to St. 
Louis to see my uncle; came back the 4th, when I found Col. de la Balm raising a party for Detroit, of 
volunteers, with those from Cascaski, Capt. Plassy at their head, our little doctor Ray with them." 
Richard Winston, also at Kaskaskia wrote at the same time: "There passed this way a Frenchman, . 
called himself Colonel de la Balm, he says in the American service. I look upon him as a malcontent, 
much disgusted at the Virginians, yet I must say he done some good, he pacified the Indians. He was 
received by the inhabitants just as the Hebrews would receive the Messiah, was conducted from the post 
here by a large detachment of the inhabitants as well as different tribes of Indians. He went from here 
against Detroit being well assured that the Indians were on his side. Got at this place and the Kahos 
about fifty volunteers. They are to rendezvous at Quia." Va. St. P. 1, 381. 

-Manuscript in Haldimand papers. Can. Arch. B. 184= p. 494. See appendix 6. 


"Address to the Canadians; to the Friends of Liberty! 

"Canadians, it is time to take sides. The measure is filled to over- 
flowing. Morally as well as physically there exists bounds beyond which 
that which was good becomes evil. 

"Up to this moment, the excessive patience with which you have 
armed yourselves against oppression has appeared solely dictated by 
prudence, by sanity, by worldly principles. It is thus that one judges 
the men Avho are watchful of the progress of events. Xow that your 
o^jpressors preserve no government but humiliations, outrages are the 
reward of your submission. Now that punishments, torments of all 
sorts, even death, the most ignominous are offered you as a reward, if 
you refuse to be the tools of tyranny, it would be stupidity, it would 
be infamous cowardice to wait longer to throw off the yoke. Do not 
allow them to bow you down with this terrible yoke. Meet, unfortunate 
colonists, the evils with which you are threatened and while there yet 
remains to you a safe resource, make precious use of it. Deprived of 
the advantages which a vigorous commerce provides, burdened with 
the enormous expenses which the war in the Indies necessitates, the 
EnglisTi nation, a nation shaken, with credit exhausted, will find herself 
more and more obliged to resort to violence, to exactions the least 

Little scrupulous over choice of means, the government will force you 
in common with the other inhabitants of America, who have unfolded 
the standard of liberty, to waste your forces, your blood, your life, in 
order to forge for each other chains. Then unhappy and innocent 
victims, you will need to use all your powers to provide for the need of 
your tyrants. Then you will all be nothing but mean slaves, deprived of 
the smallest pleasures of life. The authors of your misery will no longer 
maintain the standard of courage of their forefathers, having humbled 
themselves, fearing to unite with you; your wives in tears will sigh 
without respite over their pains and their misery, your children will 
reproach you for their existence. The whole world, whose envy you 
can excite, and whose admiration you can arouse, will at last look upon 
you with the greatest contempt. 

"Oh ! unfortunate people ! what a horrible calamity, what torments 
await you, if you do not employ a prompt remedy for the evils which 
are about to be heaped upon you. 

"Touched to the quick by your misfortunes, we bring you anns, muni- 
tions of war, we come as compatriots, as friends, as brothers, to offer 
you our arms, to fight our common enemies. We come- to conquer or to 
perish, arms in hand. We come to free you, if you will second our 
efforts and our daring. 

"Hardened by your harsh climate, you can do all in combat. With 
arms and with determination y-ou can overthrow, crush to atoms, your 
oppressors, as the north wind bends or breaks the fragile reed. 


"Canadians, remember your origin, remember that the blood which 
flows in your veins took its source among people kind, gentle, generous, 
yet proud and brave. Be men, a colony which can easily muster sixty 
thousand foot soldiers is a nation to be feared. 

"Ministers of the Savior, be on your guard to avoid conniving at the 
enslaving of your fellow-citizens, by pernicious insinuations by unwise 
discourse. Your office authorizes you to watch over your parishioners 
as to their spiritual needs, but not as to their temporal. 

"Oh ! you, who pride yourselves on your ships, do not allow yourselves 
to be dazzled by vague promises, by ridiculous fictions. Do not forget 
that you are French and that in spite of your rights, you will shortly 
become the slave of a power which has been perpetually a war with your 
illustrious ancestors. 

"The mother country reaches out to you her arms in aid. She wishes 
not to conquer but to rule you by wise laws in order to make you happy. 
She aspires only to unite herself to you, only to send back to your 
country the abundant streams of products of her soil. From the other 
side no aid can come to the English. The winds of the north have 
hardened the surface of the rivers which bathe the wall of your capitol 
on their majestic way to empty their watersjnto the great ocean. They 
present to navigators a resistance unconquerable. They will be ploughed 
only by the ships of your friend. 

"Hasten, Canadians, to end your troubles, you can do it, uniting all 
in that happy and brilliant era. With what joy, with what prosperity, 
with what happiness will not your success be followed. My friends, all 
nature will become briarht. She will take on another form to your 
eyes. Insular European, you must use moderation and justice; you 
must appreciate the great advantages that you derive from the New 
World that your arms have fertilized. You need not resort to extreme 
and foolish measures with the men who furnish you support and make 
of their wealth an ofEense. In fact you would enjoy the comforts of 
peace. While you are in a fatal crisis, you seek to make victims, you 
proclaim a despotism toward a peaceful people. And far from being 
submissive or frightened you will have inspired nothing but hatred and 
a sovereign contempt. 

"You have thought to stun, to take by force, the world. Y^'ou may 
instead become its support and prey. In a word, America is for England, 
a country of proscription. Such are the stubborn Ensflish. The effects 
of an ambition without limit; such are the results of false combinations; 
such is the reward destined for the infamous tyranny." ^ 

It will be noted that in this address, while all mention of the United 
States is omitted, his complaints are all directed against the British" 

The company left Cahokii on the third of October witli fo"tv-one 
men, expecting that others would meet them at Ouia.- The journal 
or orderly bock, of LaBalm begins on tlic ISth dav of October. ITSO. 

'aEndorsed "address to the Canadians," found in the papers of Colonel de la Balms. 
=bMich. Hist. Society X., 44S. 


On that date he was at Ouia, devising rules for the orderly march of 
his little army, and making preparations for an immediate advance. 
With 103 men he proceeded to the Miami town, where was located the 
store house of Beaubien. They were well mounted and were only four 
days on the road. His journal contains the rules he laid down for 
the preservation of order and the prevention of plundering and other 
disgraceful actions of soldiers not under proper control.^ 

He remained twelve days at Miami, waiting for troops that were ex- 
pected to arrive from Vincennes. He hoped to assemble there a body 
of four hundred Canadians and Indians. Looking upon Beaubien as 
an enemy to their cause, La Balm seized his goods, provided his follow- 
ers with such articles as they needed, and ordered the rest divided into 
three parts. One portion was to defray the expenses of the levy of the 
legion. Another portion was reserved for the Indians, both those with 
the army and those who were to join them. The remaining portion 
was reserved for the "French, including the officers, except, of course, 
those who return from Miami, with the exception of the interpreter, 
will have only a half share, because it would not be fair for them to be 
treated as well as those who are destined to free their compatriots at 
Detroit and the other French." 

At the time of LaBalm's entry into the Miami towns, most of the 
Indians were absent, and it was not until he had been there twelve 
days that they began to return. After waiting so many days without 
word from the remainder of his troops, LaBalm feared that they would 
not arrive in time to proceed with him, and he withdrew with the plun- 
der that he had collected, to Aboite Creek, some sixteen miles. The 
different accounts all agree that here he was attacked in the night by 
the Indians under Little Turtle, urged on by Beaubien and Lafountaine, 
who had returned to their home only to find their home robbed and 
had followed up the maurauders. LeBalm was taken by surprise by the 
night attack, and was soon defeated in the engagement that followed. 
LaBalm and many of his followers were killed, and many others taken 
prisoners and carried to Detroit. 

The first news of LaBalm's battle, although imperfect in some par- 
ticulars, contains some information not in the subsequent reports. 
DePeyster wrote, on November 13th: "A detachment of Canadians 
from the Illinois and Post Vincent arrived there (at the Miami's 
town) about ten days ago, and entered the village, took the horses, de- 
stroyed the horned cattle, and plundered a store I allowed to be kept 
there for the convenience of the Indians, who soon after assembled 
and attacked the Canadians, led by a French colonel, whose commis- 
sion I have the honor to enclose. The Miami, receiving the fire of the 
enemy, had five of their party killed, being, however, more resolute 
than savages are in general, they beat off the enemy, killed thirtv and 

'See Journal. Appendix 5. 


took LaBaliii prisoner, with his papers which I also enclose. I expect 
the colonel in every hour." "You will see from this that this excur- 
sion was no less an attempt on Detroit, independent of the rebels." ^ 

La Salle's storv of LaBalni is sli.irhtly diffin-ent and irivos other de- 
tails. He says that LaBalm took possession of the Miami village with- 
out resistance, and remained there some days ti-ying to win over the 
six or eight French traders to his cause. After plundering Beaubien's 
storehouse, he retired to near Aboite Creek and encamped. Beaubien 
and Lafontaine incited the Indians to follow and attack LaBalm. They 
soon collected the warriors under their chief, Little Turtle, and fell 
upon the French in the night time, killing nearly all of them.^ 

That LaBalm succeeded in raisino; an armv and ijroceedin^ so far 
on his way to Detroit without a note of warning being sent to DePey- 
ster, the officer in charge of that place, was a matter of surprise to the 
military department. DePeyster wrote concerning it: "But what 
astonished me was that they were near twelve days at Miami, before 
we got the account of it here." Haldimand said that "it was cer- 
tainly the beginning of a general attack planned against the province." 
He thought, however, that the Miami Indians were acting from inter- 
ested motives, in not conveying notice of LaBalm's approach to the 
British.^ The Indians, themselves, said it was because LaBalm's sol- 
diers would not permit them to leave their village. 

It was some time before information of the affair reached Governor 
Haldimand, but when the news came to him, he immediately wrote 
to DePeyster, as follows: "I have received your letter of the 15th 
of November, reporting the defeat of _Mons. LaBalm, and transmit- 

'Mich. Hist. Soc. XIX, 581. LaBalm's aide, Rh6, (or Rey) said there were four hundred men 
under LaBalm, but only tliree hundred of them reached the Miami town. Ibid 582. Dr. Rey. "Our 
little doctor," as he is called in one place, was carried to Detroit, and there gave an account of the en- 
tire exploit. Mich. Hist. Soc. X, 448. It is to be regreted that Rey's account was not reduced to writing 
for preservation. 

Quebec, 3rd, Deer., 1780. 
Lord Geo. Germain, 

My Lord— "I retarded the sailing of the last vessel from this Post in hopes of the Arrival of an Express 
from Halifax wth the Dispatches which were on board the "Garland" Frigate for me, & with a -s-iew 
to give Your Lordship account as late as possible from this Country. 

"The Vessel would have sailed yesterday had it not been on shore for want of Precaution of the master 
in not bringing it to the proper Wharf, the weather has set in so very cold & the Ice forms so fast that there 
is a risk of the vessel not getting away, however its stay has given me time to receive this day letters from 
Detroit & Niagara which confirms the loss of the armed ship "Ontario, " upon the lake of the same name 

Inclosed is a return of the officers & others wlio perished on that occasion. 

"I likewise sent your Lordship a copy of a letter from Major de Peyster ofthe 8th Regiment who com- 
manded at Detroit, I consider this atteriipt of Colonel Balme as in part ofthe execution of that Plan which 
the Enemy has formed — I am sorry to find the Canadians in the Upper Country are so lost to a sense 
of their Duty & are so much inclined to favor the Plan ofthe Enemy— The necessity of a strong Force 
in order to guard so extensive a Country is e\ident. Your Lordship will likewise" observe how very 
incumbent it is upon the Commanding Officer at Detroit to take care what kind of men he allows to 
go as Traders into the Indian Country— The present is not the time for pushing Commerce, it is that 
of Defence, & nothing will more tend to keep the Indian Allies to their E)uty than to make them feel 
a Dependence upon the King their Father for such goods as have now become in some manner neces- 
sary to their existence . I know that the Traders, either ignorant of the necessity, or indifferent to every 
Consideration but that of interest, will not fail to complain against the Commanding Officer as being 
influenced by Partiality in the choice ofthe Traders, whom he sends there, but such is the Misfortune 
in this distant Country, that an Officer who does his Duty, must sufEer trie abuse of Popular clamor 
till such time as experience will discover his motives & justify his conduct. 

I have the Honor to be, &ca. &ca., 

(Signed) Fred Haldimand. 
Can. Arch. Series B^ Vol. 57, pt. 2, p. 316. 

-Brice's Hist. Fort Wayne, p. 104. The Aboite was a small stream emptying into the Wabash 
above Fort Waj-ne. Law's Hist, of Vincennes, where there are several notes on LaBalm, p. 133. Dil- 
lon's Hist. Ind., Vol. I, p. 189. 
'Mich. Hist. Soc. IX, 641. 


ting his commission, etc. I consider this event as a very fortunate 
circumstance, and recommend strongly to you to study every means 
by which it can be improved. It was certainly the beginning of a 
general attack planned upon this province, which, from different in- 
telligence, I have received, I have every reason to think will be attempted 
in the spring against the upper posts.^ 

The affair was a sensation to the officers and commandants. It con- 
veyed a threat of something of more importance yet to come and put the 
posts on the lookout. The logical point for an attack on Canada was 
Quebec, as the capture and retention of that stronghold would have put 
all the western posts at the mercy of the Americans, but it appeared 
now that the attack was to come from the west and that with the aid 
of the Canadians, Detroit and Mackinac would soon be taken and filled 
wiith troops friendly to the rebels, who would soon sweep down upon 
Montreal and Quebec. How thankful Avere the British that the first 
attack had met with so severe a repulse ! 

Every precaution was made to prevent a further surprise. Addi- 
tional troops were sent to Detroit. The store house of Beaubien was re- 
plenished. Disaffected people at Detroit and Mackinac were ordered 
from the county, or were forcibly carried as prisoners to Quebec. 
DePeyster was a capable commandant and he was retained in his posi- 
tion at Detroit until after the war was ended. The states were too poor 
in money and men to make an attack on Detroit that could carry it. 
Bird, McKee, Elliott, and the Girtys, with their Indian companions, 
invaded the southern country time and again and carried back to De- 
troit plunder and scalps and prisoners, and no resistance of any im- 
portance was ever offered them. 

In the summer of 1780, DePeyster had sent several detachments with 
Indians to annoy the settlers on the frontier and in Kentucky. McKee 
and Bird had returned from one of these expeditions in August, and 
McKee had immediately set out to arouse the Indians for another at- 

He was to receive the support of the rangers and Chabert's Canadian 
Volunteers. Eumors were afloat that the Americans were coming from 
Fort Pitt and the Creoles were about to attack Mackinac, but Lhere is 
no mention in any of the official reports that there was anything wrong 

'Misc. of an ofScer. 250. Letter dated Jan. 6, 1781. 

"In vain shall medicine kettles boU, 
They'll not repay the juggler's toil; 
Each path would soon be covered o'er 
With brains, stones and human gore, 
While troubled waters lash the shore, 
Observe the wretched Kickapoose: 
What have they gained bj' Lenctot's news? 
The Ottagams, Pioreas and Sacks, 
Have scarce a blanket on their backs." 
Miscellanies of an Officer. (Arent Schuyler DePeyster.) Original edition, (1813), p. 20. Reprint, 
p. 7. 

In one of his letters to the Indians, DePeyster says: " Send me that little babbling Frenchman, named 
Monsieur Linctot, he who poisons your ears, one of those who says he can amuse you witli words only. 
Send him to me or be the means of my getting him, and I will then put confidence in you. I then will 
deal with you as with the other Indians whom I call my friends, my brothers and my children, and 
to whom I request you to give free passage and kind entertainment. If you have not an opportunity 
to bring me the little Frenchman, you may bring me some Virginia prisoners . ' ' Misc. of an officer, p . 252 . 
=Mich. Hist. Soe. X, 420. 


in the direction of Kaskaskia. The proceedings of LaBalm were 
entirely unknown to the British Military Department, and no informa- 
tion concerning him or his enterprise was conveyed to Detroit, except 
the letter from Bentley, elsewhere mentioned. The Indians from St. 
Joseph to the number of 200, came to Detroit with Dequiodre in the 
last of August.^ 

There lias been some claim uiade that LaBalm planned the sacking 
of St. Joseph, which took place some time after the battle of the 
Miamis. This would seem to be hardly probable as that affair occurred 
after LaBalm's death and resulted from an incursion led by a half- 
breed French-Indian, Hamelin, and an Irishman, Thomas Brady. It 
was organized for plunder only. The robbers retreated up the lake 
shores until they were overtaken by the Indians, who had returned io 
St. Joseph. Several of them were killed. Brady was taken a prisoner 
to Detroit, where he informed DePeyster that he no longer wished to 
live under the American flag. He subsequently escaped and returned 
to his old home. 

It was Dequindre who led these Indians when they defeated the 
raiders Hamelin and Brady after they had sacked St. Joseph. The de- 
feat at St. Joseph and Miamis encouraged the Indians to adhere to the 

Perhaps it was just as well, for the final result of the war. that 
LaBalm met defeat at the time he did, but we are inclined to think 
as the Spanish Governor at that time wrote concerning him : "I am 
very sorry for what has happened to Monsieur LaBalme, and that, in 
my opinion, the same had a great part in having, perhaps, attempted 
with improduence, an undertaking which needed more time, more 
strength and better circumstances.^ 

LaBalm's Proposal. 

Colonel de laBalme proposes to enter the American service. 

Considering the advantage which the Americans can have over the 
Eoyalists, it is in their power to provide themselves with cavalry. That 
branch of the service is the most active and the most destructive when 
given free rein, is a source of great strength in battle, where it nearly 
always determines the result, and especially in a close campaign. That 
is a fact generally admitted. 

M. de la Balme offers to get ready, in three months, four hundred 
horse and some Indians, as it will be necessary to instruct some men to 
direct them with effect against the enemy and to execute the necessary 
evolutions dependent on circumstances, he asks: 

'Can. Archives, B. 122, p. 537. 

=Mich. Hist. X, 465. Clark attempted ,in 1779, to raise troops to attack St. Joseph, destroy the 
fortifications and return with the stores to Louisville. The party to lead this expedition was J'ames 
Selby. • DePeyster reported that Selby was unable to obtain volunteers for this expedition, for they 
had no shoes, and consequently could hot undertake it. Can. Arch., B. 1S4, p. 131. 
= Letter of Martin Navarro, translated in Wis. Hist. Col., XVIII, 423. 


1st. To be chief of that corps, to command it under the orders of 
the general, to advise the council in those matters which it appears to 
him are most suited for that kind of service. 

2nd. To have the expenses of the journey defrayed as well as those 
of one or two persons of his suite. 

As to equipment M. de la Balme does not ask that it be considerable. 
It is not as a mercenary that he would use his arms and the talent with 
which he is perhaps endowed, but as a zealous and intrepid defender of 

Notice M. de la Balme names many persons of the first rank who will 
bear witness to the honesty of his character and his military capacit}^, on 

Papers of the Continental Congress. 
78. VII, f. 155 

Eegulation of the Honourable the Congress for the Troops of the 
Continent of America, which the United States maintain, to defend their 
respective Eights against the unjust Encroachments of the British King 
and Parliament. 




Chapter the First 

Dispositions for a Campaign. 2 of Provisions, 3 of Magazines 4 of Subsistance 5 o 
Distributions 6 Deposits and 7 of Carriages and Equipages. 




Chapter the Second. 

1 of Levies 2 of the Assembling of Troops. .3 of cloathing them 4 of the Formation of 
different Corps 5 of their Duty, 6 of the order of Battle either for the Offensive part or for 
a Defencive. 




Chapter the Third. 

1 of the Manual of the Gun 2 of the Attack or the Defence of the Post 3 of Evolutions 
4 of the Charges 5 of the Retreat 6 of the Duty of O fficers in General and that of a Soldier. 




Chapter the Fourth. 

1 of Flying Camps 2 of Detachments 3 of Corps of Observation 4 of Guards 5 of the Parole 
6 of Order. 



Chapter the Fifth. 

1 of Marches 2 of lying on their Arms 3 of Encamping 4 of Quarters 5 of Leave of Absence 
6 of Furlows limited or absolute and 7 of MUitary Rewards or Punishments. 

37 Articles in 
5 Chapters. 

'Note. These 5 Chapters containing but 37 Articles, it will be very 
easy for every military Person to instruct himself in the Principles 
of War, which it is indispensably necessary for him to understand well 
in order for him to be entitled to success in Arms. As to the Evolutions 
of the different. Troops I shall give Plans of them with an E'xplanation 
which will make them easy to be understood by every one; And by 
simplifying them and adapting them to the Nature of the Country in 
which the War is carried on, and to the learning and genius of the 


Individuals which compose the American Army relative to the duty of 
different Corps, I doubt they may be perfectly learned in less than two 
Months by only exercising the Troops once or twice P week, two hours 

each time. 


Papers of the Continental Congress. 
Xo. 78 YII folio 149. 

Letter from Mons. de la Balm, 
read 13 Jany. 1778 

referred the board of war 
Colo, de la Balme 

no date Eecd. & ansd. 
11 Jany. 1778. 

In Consideration of the Zeal for the American Cause which animates 
me, suffer me to remind you, that there is already some considerable 
time elapsed since I had the Honour of communicating to you a Hint 
concerning Canada. In War, Success is frequently merited by a timely 
Attention, especially in Expeditions which require the Assistance of 
particular Seasons. 

I know not whether the Eevolution which I propose to excite in that 
Country, is thought of little Importance. Upon a simple State of the 
Business, such as that which I gave in, it is very possible to entertain 
an unfavourable idea of it. But let me beg it as a favour, not to be 
condemned unheard. I have such Eeasons to oppose to the Objections 
which may be made to my Proposal as will I dare hope, sufficiently 
justify it. 

Without entering here into the Detail necessary to discuss my Opin- 
ion with Judgment I may in the mean time say. That the English 
seeing us attempt nothing on Canada, and leaving only feeble Garrisons 
to guard it may from thence afford Genl. Howe considerable Eeinforc- 
ments, and act vigourously in Concert with him in any other Part of 
the Continent 

Deprived in part of the Advantages of Commerce, irritated by the 
vague Promises of an obstinate King and Parliament, over charged with 
Taxes, and burthered with a War which they are forced to carry on 
against Countries too distant for a People whose Credit is already 
exhausted, The English Xation will soon by their Joint Clamour, 
extort orders to their Generals to use Artifice, Force and Violence which 
commonly degenerates into Cruelty. Carleton then will quit his mild 
manner and use his Authority. He in the last Campaign forced 500 
Canadians to take up Arms against America. In the ensuing he may 
perhaps enroll 5 or 6000, whose Assistance, with a little Foresight we 
might have to combat the Enemies of Libert}' to more advantage. 


I hope Sir you will not disapprove of Eeflexions occasioned by the 
real Attachment which I have to a Cause equally to you, and that you 
will accept of the respectful Sentiments with which 

I am Sir 

Your very hble. Servant . 
De La Balme. 
I take the Liberty of begging you would inform me whether the Hon- 
ourable Congress have determined any thing concerning the Continuance 
of my Appointments 


Papers of the Continental Congress, 

No. 78. VII folio 15L 

The Bt. Honourable 

CoUonel Lawrens — 
Presidt. of the Honn'e. Congress. 
Colo. La Balme 

Letter from Col. de la Balme 

Yorktown 23 Jany. 1778. 

read 26. 

referred to the board of war. 

Always in hopes of concurring to the good success of the American 
arms, I have the honour to offer you my services for working concur- 
rently with any other Officer, about a military regulation, of which a 
succinct plan is hereby inclosed. As soon as I've been able to examine 
attentively your troops and your Army, I've been sensible of the urging 
necessity you are in for drawing a general Plan concerning the Capital 
Operations, and the duty which every individual ought to perform 
according to the place which he occupies. 

The Eomans were always repeating: It is not from the number, nor 
from a blind Valour; that the Victory is to be expected; but it is from 
a good order and from the Knoivledge of ^Yar. In fact, nothing is more 
like a Cahos, specially in an engagement, than an Army without order, 
and unacquainted with the greatest part of the military principle. 
Therefore, as all the Nations who alternatively subdued the Known 
world, always paid a particular regard to the precepts of the Art of 
War, and as people who have no notion of the Laws can't be considered 
as infraction of them, T think that it would be essential in this rising 
State to prescribe what the American Soldiers are to learn and to 
perform exactly. 

I have already made that proposal, to one of the members of the Honn'e. 
Congress a long while ago, but he did not take any notice of it, I 
suppose by some well groimded motives which I don't know, and which 
I never tried to hear. However it be, if you think I'm able to undertake 
something usefull to the United States, give me the means of shewing 
my zeal in this occasion, and of employing my leasure fructuousl}''. It 
is what I wish the most. 


My request is not caused by a blind presumption. I've made my 
own study of the Art of War a long while ago, and I ask to work only 
in competition with every other Oiliccr, persuaded that the writings of 
those whose opinions are more right and conform to your interest will 
be preferred. It is in that manner that it should be acted when it is 
question of important projects, in requiring the superior Officers to give 
up their advice by writing. Nothing would be more proper for con- 
taining a great many people, who question nothing, when they are only 
to speak, and for getting out of conceit with those with a foolish pre- 
sumption, try to impose upon other people. For, it may be remarked 
that in this age, in everything and every Country, selfish interest makes 
great progress, and that the pernicious spirit of gulling is creeping in 
every where. 

I've the honour to be, with a respectuous regard. 


Your obedient and humble Ser'v't. 
Col'o. La Balme. 
Yorktown 22'd. Januarv 


Librarv of Congress. 

In "Old Washington Calendar." George Washington, 1732-1799. 

Manuscripts, Vol. 6, folio 235. 

Colo. De la Balmes, 

(Endorsed). Explanation of the dutv of Inspector General of Cavalry. 

Colonel de la Balme has the honour of exposing To vour excellency, 

The duty of an inspector General is to learn a troop of horses how 
to manage Their horses and dress them well, to look over Their arms 
& reimplace new one's if it is wanted, to have. The charge of The 
accoutrements, furniture & generally of every article belonging 1o 
troop of cavalry as well to The horses, to discipline & exercise all The 
different regiments of light horses. 

Colonel la Balme shall address himself to his excellency every Time 
he shall think proper to make some alterations in order to have The 
approbation and orders of The commander in chief. 
Nota. Colonel la Balme intentions are to simplifv everv Thins; con- 
cerning The light horse troops & to render The exercises only useful 
to the present war That his excellency carries on on This continent, 
he and no other views in coming to america, but to be useful & live 
well with all The good people of This Country, he desires nothing ^o 
much as conciliating The hearts and friendship of all The gentlemen 
with which he is to serve in order That he might contribute to The good 
of america by union & conCord which are so necessary among officers 
That defend so good a cause. 

Colonel la Balme beseech your excellency to be sensible of it till he 
be in a position to give positive proofs of his behaviours accordinglv. 



To the Puhlic— 

Soon doth the war, that Scourge of Man exert its poignant Eigours 
over the Country, where it has fixed its Seat — Even by that War which 
the United States of America have waged to defend their Eights, 
against the Ambitious and unjust attempts of the King of Great Bri- 
tain and his Parliament, many Men, as well Americans as strangers, 
have been reduced to dire Miseries. 

Colonel de la Balme, a French officer, sympathizing with their dis- 
tresses, has begun to erect about 38 miles from Philadelphia a Eow of 
Workshops, where such of those Sufferers who are destitute of any other 
expedients, may honestly, if they incline to Work, by means of their 
own Labour, overcome the difficulties of their Misfortunes. 

Soldiers, Sailors, Deserters from any Troops (except the American 
Army and French Navy) Carpenters, Bakers, &c, of any Number, 
shall be employed if possible in such sort of Business as is most suita- 
ble to their Constitution, Trade and Faculties. They shall have good 
wages, victuals, lodgings, Fuel Candles and Washing at the Expense 
of the Ulidertaker, and if he be satisfied with their conduct they shall 
be sufficiently cloathed so as to Eepel the Eigours of Winter. 

Note — The Diet is to be: Before going to Work a Crust of Bread, 
& a Biscuit, and a glass of the best Eum; Breakfast, Fruit, Potatoes 
and broil'd meat; For Dinner, Soup and boil'd meat; Supper, Soup 
and roasted meat. Fresh meat will be served as much as can be, and 
from time to time some Beer or Cyder.'' 

Mons: de la Balm has taken and always shall take great care to 
chuse for his Working places such as have a wholesome Air and pure 
Waters; and in General, he will use all means that can be devised by 
Man for the Preservation of Health of the Persons to be employed 
by him — an advantage which is very valuable to everybody, but more 
especially to those who are cast upon a strange Country. 

Any person wanting Employ may enquire of Mr. Charles Berger, 
who will acquaint them with the particulars of the hereinbefore pro- 
posed Settlement. He lodges with M. Panet, master of the French 
Language, in Cherry Alley, at Philadelphia. 

Those who will agree and be of good Morals, in good Bodily Health 
and Strength, and willing to make the best use thereof. Drunkards, 
Men of quarrelsome and Licentious Dispositions, stupid and slothful 
Fellows, must be discharged as soon as they discover any of these fail- 
ings; For a Watchful eye will be kept over all, that each may do his 
work at the best of his abilities, and live in Peace with everyone. And 
as order is absolutely requisite where a certain Number of Persons are 
Collected, and the success of their Enterprises most always depends 
thereon, so certain Eegulations are made to which every Man must 
oblige himself to submit. 

Whatever be the success of this Undertaking, the author shall con- 
sider himself doubly recompenced for his trouble if oh one side he can 


give some Relief to infortunate Men, and if, on the other, he can in 
greater abundance procnrc such Articles as the Public stands in need 
of, and of which Philadelphia is in the greatest want. 

Note — Shortly will be mentioned in the Public Papers the Place in 
the City of Philadelphia where a Magazine is to be kept of Timber & 
Wood for Carpenters, Turners. Joiners, Wheelwrights, Firewood and 
Cedar prepared for making Inclosures, which will be sold rather cheap- 
er than the ordinary prices. 
Philadelphia, Printed by Henry Miller, 1778. 

— Canadian Archives, B. 18-i, pt. II, p. 398. 


Order given today the 18th of October, 1780, by Colonel de la Balme 
to his division. 

Colonel de la Balme orders all the young men who have come with 
him to the Ouyas, to conduct themselves properly, to overhaul their 
arms so that they will lack nothing on the expedition which he proposes 
to make, to keep their arms in the best condition possible, not to wander 
aside at their leisure without his permission : to use fair means in their 
treatment of the inhabitants of Ouyas, who are well disposed to enter- 
tain us in their homes among them, to care for their horses, taking good 
care that they do not stray off, to live among them on friendly terms, to 
conduct themselves as becomes soldiers, to impart to Col. de la Balme 
whatever information they can obtain conducing to the success of the 
expedition which he proposes, to observe the most careful secrecy regard- 
ing it, to bring along with them the leaden bullets which were distributed 
among them, not to wander ofl: at night, to hold themselves ready to be 
called, because the small number of men, and their fatigue, will not 
permit a guard to be posted. 

Colonel de la Balme has too good an opinion of the young men who 
have been willing to follow him not to expect that they will conform 
to this, his order. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order given the 18th at Ouya. 

The soldiers of the expedition under project are ordered to hold them- 
selves in readiness for instant departure. To that end M. Plasq will 
distribute provisions necessary for twelve days and forty rounds of 
powder and ball to each. They will assemble at three o'clock at the 
house of M. Magnau in order to have the time needed to prepare for 
departure or try to assist the foot-soldiers as much as possible. 

Colonel de la Balme commands constant observance of the silence 
and secrecy so necessary to the success of the enterprise and and he asks 
them to inform him concerning all matters conducive to it. The inhabit- 
ants of Ouya who propose to join the detachment are invited to meet at 
the rendezvous announced above, in order that their names and number 


may be obtained. The more there are, the better things will go. All 
the French have the same interests. It is the cause of all which has 
induced us to march against our common enemies. Accordingly we 
have the same reason to end our troubles and expose the cruelties which 
have tormented us every day, by vigorous action. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 19th given at Ouya. 

Captains Plasq and Cravoin are requested by Colonel de la Balme to 
make arrangements necessary to have twelve young men mount guard 
today. They will assemble at ten o'clock precisely before the house of 
M. Magnau for inspection by the Colonel who expects that his young 
soldiers will be in good military order. 

A sentinel will be placed outside of each of the gates of the fort, 
who will be on duty two hours, and each of the others will do the same 
to complete the twenty-four hours. Their orders will be to cry "Qui 
Vive" to all men they can see when they are within hearing, whether 
they be friends or enemies. The sentinels will cry "Halt there," and 
immediately summon the guard to come and investigate. He will detail 
five men who will march two by two preceded by the officer of the guard. 
When they are within hearing they will cry also "Qui Vive," ordering 
a halt to the troops whether they are friends or enemies. They will 
detail one man to advise the commandant or any other officer of the 
garrison. The rest will fall back to the sentinel to fire together upon 
the enemy. In case they advance, they wall load their guns promptly 
after having closed the gate of the fort, crying out in a loud voice '^To 
arms ! To arms !" Then all the soldiers will betake themselves to the 
point where the guard calls for aid, while the sentinel on the opposite 
side will enter the gate, and close it quickly if the enemy have not come 
upon him. If that has happened, he too, will call out loudly, "To arms !" 

The officers will preserve the most exact order possible to avoid the 
confusion which usually occurs at such a time. 

The officers are requested to make a copy of this order, and indeed of 
the preceding ones in a little book designed for the purpose, in order to 
read them several times to the troops that each soldier may engrave them 
on his memory and inform himself of the military principles which will 
make for their own safety and for the success of our undertaking. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 21st, given at Ouya. 

The soldiers of the detachment are requested to hold themselves ready 
to mount their horses before the gate of the fort at two o'clock preciselv. 
Delitalieu much desires to take upon himself to distribute to the soldiers 
of post Vincennes provisions sufficient for twelve days, to refill the 
powder horns, and to give to each forty bullets, of course to those who 
shall be willing to come with us to our friends in arms. 

Colonel de la Balme expects that they will all hasten to the post 
without losing an instant at Ouya because the briefest moments in war 


are always very precious, and since the Colonel is persuaded that it is 
not their fault that they have not come sooner, he will preserve for them 
their share of the booty which he hopes to seize from the accursed Baubin. 

If the men of Post Vincennes make as good time as I hope, they will 
join us at the first arming, or Ave will be compelled to wait for them a 
while in order to set together for La Eoche debout where provisions and 
goods await us to change hands. . 

It is expressly enjoined that each man shall keep his distance, march 
in good order without much noise, in a word in military order. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 22nd. 

The officer of the mounted guard will march preceded by the light 
infantry to compose the advance guard. That officer and his troop will 
regulate their march so that they will be only about two thousand paces 
from the army, being constantly on the lookout for the enemy, to prevent 
surprise. He will moreover take care not to let any one pass in advance 
without permission in writing from the Commandant. He will place 
under arrest all those whom he finds on his route whenever it is possible 
for him to do it. 

Those who are henceforth found in advance of the ordinary guard will 
be arrested and will be tried as deserters or spies, and will be dealt with 
according to the decision of the Council. 

The march will be made at a pace so regulated that the foot-soldiers 
laden with supplies can follow, and not fall prey to the enemy. 

A= for those who are compelled to stop perhaps from some accident, 
let them remove themselves a little from the line of march in order not 
to hinder those Avho follow them, and if there is a had passage or they 
are stopped by the precedino- file, let them turn to right and left, and 
do their best not to stop the rest of the column and to pass in succes- 
sion, and file through as promptly as possible. 

It is enjoined to each to start only when so ordered, and to live to- 
gether peaceably and on good terms. 

On the march, let great attention to rules be given, preserving a dis- 
tance of five paces only between the men. They will follow the column 
at a distance of a thou-and paces. 

The greatest silence is enjoined always. It is expressly forbidden to 
fire arms. If we are attacked by night, let every man station himself 
quickly on the left side of the camp, in good order and silently, in as 
close a formation as possible, in order not to fire on our troops, and to 
avoid the confusion, which is always too great on such occasions. If it 
is necessary to retreat, the men of Ouya and Vincennes post will set 
out promptly to station themselves a hundred paces in the rear in order 
to place themselves advantageously and to hold themselves ready to 
fire immediately after the soldiers have retreated a hundred paces in 
order to station themselves better. At the first order, load promptly in 
order to fire when the others have passed them. Then all alternately 


when they are advised of the same. If it is necessary to advance, let 
them do it, passing always at the same distance, and marching always 
as far as possible under the shelter of the trees. 

The officers of the guard will keep to the rear in order to give the 
alarm as soon as possible, while the officers of the mounted guard will 
command the advance guard, and when he has information to give he 
will detail a man instead of quitting his post, and in case he (discovers) 
the number of the enemy to be superior to his own, he will withdraw 
his troop quickly without discharging their guns. 

If we are attacked at the head of the column let the word be passed 
to form a line of battle at the front. If it is (at the rear) of the 
column, in that case one will stay in the rear. If it is on the flank, let 
it cry to the other "In battle array !" 

The officers are particularly charged to preserve good order, and see 
that no one 

They must not forget that they should set a good example on all 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 23rd. 

Colonel de la Balme who according to strict military procedure should 
not leave the body of his army, wishes indeed to promote the success of 
our enterprise by going on the advance to surround the post of Quia. 
He asks therefore the foot-soldiers and the cavalry who have the 
strongest horses to accompany him and help to carry out his purpose. 

The officers of the guard will remain to watch at their post to preserve 
carefully good order in the guard, to prevent disturbance in the camp 
and to make frequent rounds to see that the sentinels are obeying 

It is an example which they must set and a duty which they cannot 
in any way escape. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 25th. 

An exact observance of the order of march, silence particularly in 
approaching the Ouias, good order on entering that post is strictly 
enjoined. The sentinels outside as well as within will take great 
care to arrest anyone who is about to wander away, and will see espe- 
cially that no one carries anything away. They will warn the com- 
mandant if they perceive troops or Indians who are assembled to a 
certain number and stop them by a challenge, close to where they have 
been discovered. 

In camp likewise let great care be taken to prevent confusion and 
tumult in order to hear distinctly the orders which it may be necessary 
to give in case of unforseen events and that we may be able (to act) 
with diligence in collecting our baggage. 

I enjoin all and especially the officers to treat with consideration the 
French who would not yield to the infamous solicitations of the English, 

— 9 H S 


while as to those inhabitants who have stirred up the Indians to spill 
tlie blood of their compatriots, let them be seized. If they resist take 
them at once imder guard to tlie house of Srs Marts, that they may be 
prevented from seizing arms imder pain of death and leaving the place 
where they shall have been confined without any sort of protestations 
until the Commandmant has given them permission. 

We are all French, therefore, civilized, honorable intercourse and 
pleasantries are permissible between us, but outrages, violence, par- 
ticularly toward women, are entirely forbidden to us. The sex more 
wortliy of our compassion tlian our anger demands from us every sort 
of consideration. 

The greatest favor tliat the soldiers who have wished to join the 
volunteers and Colonel de la Balme could give to him the best proof 
they could furnish him of their regard lies in acting in obedience to 
his orders. 

It suffices that the decent men have their faces in their hands in order 
not to succeed. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 26th. 

Immediately after dinner the young men will continue to mount a 
guard of sixteen men. Colonel de la Balme to be inspected solely as to 
their arms which should be in good order and loaded or carried along 
with their l^elongings, which are elsewhere at the house of Mr. Coutures 
where Mr. Prive is, to pass order. The officers must take great pains 
in that respect. 

Colonel de la Balme would be denying himself a great satisfaction 
were he not to inform the young men who have followed him, that their 
great activity and their resolution has given him the greatest satisfac- 
tion and that he views that circumstances in the light of a certain 
presage of the success of our expedition. 


Col. de la Balme. 
Order of the 27th. 

The soldiers arrived at Miami and those who are coming are advised, 
as they have already been to hold themselves ready to depart at the first 
command. After this every one must have his arms in readiness and 
prepare provisions for twenty days, he must go to the tailors who will 
make the clothing necessary to withstand the rigors of winter. 

All the young men except those who form the guard will assemble 
before the house of Baubin with their arms and their equipment. 

M. Newson is charged (to deliver) to the Americans the orders which 
are given. He will assist as well as M. Saint Core and Bapti de Lisle 
as well as the officers in the distributions and other necessary details. 

The officers are enjoined to exercise kindness and civility in their 
commands which should have reference only to what concerns the order 
and service, and when it happens that those who are ordered to do 
such and such thinsfs that mav be necessarv, shall refuse io obev the 


order, the officers instead of using violence in any form, will report to 
Colonel de la Balme who after having given the order himself without 
being obe3'ed, will pronounce the person a rebel as being a very bad 
example and consequently being more hurtful than useful to the pro- 
jected enterprise. 

We are all working in the same cause, we are all friends, but it is 
necessarjr that officers command any body of men assembled, if they 
do not wish to be regarded as brigands, if they do not wish to make 
themselves hated by himself, one succeeds at nothing. Here is what 
each soldier must do and he must conform himself to that absolutely. 


Col. de la Balme. 

It will be necessary in spite of their fatigue, for the late arrivals to 
auginent the guard by six men in order to place a sentinel outside the 
post within hearing, to prevent some evil minded person from carrying 
off some of our canoes, and who will notify the guard if any such thing 
is attempted. 

The gentlemen will report to Colonel de la Balme concerning the 
condition in which they find affairs. 

The young men who propose to continue their career in this enter- 
prise which has brought us together will declare their intentions in 
that regard. It is proposed to all those of Ouia, and other young men 
of good will and resolution, that they make known their intentions. 
They will enroll therefore tomorrow morning or sometime later in 
the day. 

After the food and ammunition, the arms and effects which belong 
to the Indians and the necessary clothing as well as the stuff destined 
to clothe them is deducted, the effects which are still at Baubiens will 
be distributed and divided according to the announcement made above. 
The goods will be divided into three parts. 

One of the portions is intended to defray the expenses of the expedi- 
tion and for the pay of the legion. The two others will be distributed, 
the one to the Indians as presents except to those who are absent, and 
the other to the French, including the officers, except of course that 
those who return from Miami, with the exception of the interpreter, 
will have only a half share because it would not be fair for them to 
be treated as well as those who are destined to free their compatriots 
at Detroit and the other French. This will entitle them to a double 

The persons named for the distribution as well as the officers will 
come tomorrow morning from nine to ten o'clock to the lodging of the 
Colonel to distribute the necessary salt and corn to the young men. 

It is very important that about forty or fort^^-five men set out at 
the earliest moment to stop the loaded canoes which are coming from 
the Ouia, before those who conduct them are warned of our arrival. 
The Colonel will give to this detachment such written instructions as 
will contribute to the success of that very important measure. 


The officers will take great care from this moment to obtain the names 
of those persons who will willingly march, and report their condition 
to the Colonel tomorrow at guard mount. 

The Colonel observes that considerable time has already elapsed since 
his arrival at the Quia, If he had had men the detachment would have 
set out before this. Every one ought to perceive that the least delay is 
harmful to his interest. Every one ought to consider this in order to 
receive his courage in consequence. 

Col de la Balme. 


Information concerning the Miamis, etc., etc. 

What is the quantity and nature of the merchandise which is at 
Miami ? 

A thousand pounds of powder and of lead in proportion, arms, 
blankets, cloth, shirts, and other merchandise of trade value at about 
Fifty Thousand livres, the whole in the warehouse of Beaubien in 
charge of Monsieur Lafountaine and an old man. x\nother warehouse 
of M, Montou, an associate of Beaubien valued at about Fifty Thousand 

"Who are the inhabitants to whom it is entrusted and their names? 
their character? 

Mons. Barthelemy, M. Eivard, Mons. Sevrance, M. Guoin, of Detroit, 
M. Lascelle, M. Pottervin, M. Paillet, M. Duplessy and other individ- 
uals, equally inclined toward the cause, an American named George, 
who is moreover a Jew. 

What are the posts, where there are traders with merchandise? 

LaEoche du Bout, Twenty-four leagues from Detroit, a depot where 
there are ammunition, provisions and a trader. There must not be 
forgotten the canons which are disposed in different places about this 

Where are the stations to which the English look for help for the 
expedition of the Chatouinons? 

Sandoisque thirty leagues from Detroit by Lake Erie where they can 
get soldiers who support the Chatouinons above that place and Grand 

On the south side. 

M. Labelle, father, the Beaubiens, north and south, M. Magantel, 
Godet, kinsman of M. de Placey, Father Potier, a good old man, speak- 
ing Huron (Morrisceau mistrusts him), Melosche, a good Frenchman, 
Drouillard at the wind-mill, Monforton to be watched, L'Angolis, an 
honest man. Baby a merchant at the fort, Admer, merchant, a dangerous 
man, M. Gregoire, English, a thourough scoundrel, Navarre, a treacher- 
ous man, and Antonny amounts to nothing, Beaubien, a profligate. 


On the north side. 

Messierus Chacehton, merchant, three fourths of a league from the 
fort, to whose house the proud Commandant goes now and then to 
take his 

When he invites him to dine he would find good company there. 

The distance to these posts ? Who are the Captains of the Militia and 
their character? 

On the side toward the Poux (or the north) 1st., M. Gamelin, 2nd 
Campeaux, 3rd., Battiste Campeaux, son, Campeau whose company has 
refused to march is responsible for it. 

On the south side. 

How many companies of militia are there at Detroit? 

1st., Alexis Maisonville, a dog to hang. 

2nd., M. Bondy, Bondy whose company has refused to march and who 
likewise is responsible for this. 

The extent of the south side by and large, that is to say the distance 
one must traverse to go through the settlement? 

On the south side five leagues are settled, four leagues below the fort, 
and one above. 

On the north side an extent of three leagues, and one toward the 

After having traversed the southern shore can not one cross to the 
Isle aux Cochons to gain the north shore? 

Yes, above from the east. 

Where are the Americans? 

It is reported that they are in -the fort. 

How far can one approach under cover in order to gain the fort? 

What are the Nations and their number to be found around Detroit 
who are to be feared, or to whom can they be attached? 

The Outaouis to the number of Two Hundred fifty are for us. A 
small village of Hurons within sight of the Fort, who are to be mis- 
trusted, and who may be won over. It is supposed that they have gone 
into winter quarters. 

A man, Pierre DesauUiers, interpreter for the Hurons, and Isadore 
Chesne, also interpreter, Tiicker, English, from the Fort is the inter- 
preter for the Outaoiiais and the Poux. 


A. — Settlement at Detroit. 

B. — Isle au dinde. 

C— Isle au Bois Blauu. 

D. — Michilimackinas, whence the expedition can set out. 

E. — Fort Erie, near Niagara where there is a portage. 

F. — Chicago, portage where the British troops may be, falls into the 
little river, then into the Illinois, then into the Mississippi. 

G. — The river whence one can go from Detroit to Fort Duquesne, 
where there is a portage from presque ile of seven leagues. 
From the Miss one can go to the Lake six leagues across on the 
lake, twelve leagues from the lake to the fort of Detroit. It is 
called six leagues to the Detroit Eiver. 

F. — Isle au coehon Lac St Clair. 

G.— Lac St Clair. 

H. — Catoroconi. 

J. — Xiagara. 

K. — The deer route, the provision post, which comes from Canada. 
Chonagin where one can step the passage, or where one can sur- 
prise the fort on the Isle du H. 


By Walter B. Douglas. 

I have undertaken to piece together the story of the lives of three 
men of one family all of whom were leaders among the first white in- 
habitants of the Illinois country. 

The story takes its beginning at a time when Illinois was on the 
border of Canada and Louisiana, nearly two hundred years ago. It 
closes at a time Avhen the Mississippi Eiver had come to be the boun- 
dary line between the possessions of Great Britain and Spain, fifty- 
four years later. It relates to three men who were called by the name 
of St. Ange, a name which they have inefEaceably interwoven with the 
liistory of Illinois, of Missouri, of Kansas, of Mississippi and of In- 

The story is necessarily a short one because of the dearth of ma- 
terials. The early Illinoisans did not take themselves so seriously as 
did the Pilgrims and Puritans of Massachusetts. It never occurred to 
them that they were the chosen of God for the founding of a new em- 
pire. So they left no written accounts of their doings except such aS 
were required by official duty, and many of those still remain buried 
in European archives. Bits of information are to be picked up here 
and there, and when they are put together in like manner as a child 
assembles the sections of a puzzle map, there are many gaps which 
cannot be filled. 

These men were called St. Ange probably after a district in Canada 
known as la cote de St. Ange. Names among the French at that time 
liad not the stability that they had among the English ; they seemed 
to be personal or territorial rather than family designations. For in- 
stance, the last Spanish governor of Upper Louisiana was a French- 
man named De Lassus; his father was called Deluziere and his brother, 
de St. Vrain. ^ 

The family name of the St. Anges, if they had one, was Groston. 
The eldest of the three is designated in some of the Canadian records 
as Eobert Groston, sometimes Groston dit St. Ange, but generally de 
Ange. Whether the particle de properly indicates that the family was 
of the nobility, has been questioned. I know of no record of any fief 
or seigniory which belonged to it. But in a memoir of the King of 
France, Robert Groston is spoken of as the Sieur de St. Ange, and that 
may well justifv the belief that he was not assuming a rank to which 
he was not entitled.^ 

'17 Wisconsin Historical Collections, 155. 


"A King can mak' a belted knight, 
A marquis, duke and a' that," 
and for a King to call a man such, is at least persuasive evidence that 
he is what he is called. 

Kobert Groston de St. Ange appears to have been an European 
Frenchman, from the province of Champagne. When he came to 
Canada is not known. Bienville said,^ in 1736, that he had served 
tiie King for fifty years, and from this we may infer that he was in 
Canada as early as 1686. He must, therefore, have come to America 
and entered the military service at an early age. He is said to have 
been a sergeant in the Company of Noyan, but that he should have 
held siTch a rank is not in accord with the knowTi facts of his later 
history, and is not to be credited in absence of satisfactory evidence. 
He married in 1692, Marguerite Crevier. The name Crevier is upon 
the roll of an assemblv of twenty of the principal inhabitants of Can- 
ada in 1678.^ According to the great Genealogical Dictionary of the 
Abbe Tanguay,^ Marguerite Crevier was forty-seven years old at the 
time of this marriage, and had been three times widowed. Eight chil- 
dren were born of this marriage, six sons and two daughters. Madame 
Marguerite died in 1708, leaving seven St. Ange children surviving, 
the youngest being six years old. In 1718. St. Ange married for his 
second wife Elizabeth Chorel de Saint Eomain,* who was born about 
the year 1693. Of this marriage there was one daughter, Elizabeth. 

The father; the eldest son, Pierre, who was born 17 November. 1693; 
the sixth son, Louis, who was bom 20 February, 1702; the second wife 
and her daughter, became inhabitants of Illinois, and all died here ex- 
cepting the two sons ; the others remained in Canada. 

jSTeither the name of Groston or of St. Ange appears in history 
otherwise than in connection with Eobert de St. Ange and his two 
sons. It is a notable thing how out of the throng of human beings 
which exists with no more apparent historical significance than the 
weeds by the roadside, there springs unheralded some man — a Shakes- 
pere, or a Lincoln — who fixes the attention of the world for all time. 
For the St. Anges no such rank can be claimed, but they were memora- 
ble figures, well worthy of a place in the fore front of the histor\^ of 
the great commonwealths of the Mississinni Valley. 

The connection between St. x'Vnge and Illinois began in 1721. 

Father Charlevoix, a French Jesuit, was charged by the King of 
France with the duty of discovering the sea of the West — the Pacific 

'6 Margry, Decouvertes et Etablissements des Fraucais Vol. 6, p. 448. 

-Rapport de M. Edouard Richard, Supplement des Archives Canadiennes 1899, p. 67. 

^Dktionnaire Genealoqique des Families Canadiennes, Par L'Abbe Tanguay, Vol. 4, p. 382, Vol. .■?, p. 
199. Christophe Crevier a native of Rouen, passed over to Canada and established himself at Three 
Rivers. Hisdaughter Jeanne married, in 1652, Pierre Boucher, Sieurde Boucherville. His sons, taking 
names from concessions of land made to them, came to be known as Crevier de St. Francois, Crevier Duv- 
emav and Crevier de Bellerive. They contracted alliances with the best families of Canada. One of 
tlie Crevier's was nephew of Hertel deChambly. Historie des Grandes Families du Canada, pp. 2.30, 402. 

In a letter from Mr. Benjamin Suite, than whom there is no greater authority on Canadian history, 
he says that the name was taken from ttie isle of Bellerive at the embouchure of the Saint Maurice, which 
Island still bears the name, 

It is likely that the Marguerite Crevier who became the wife of Robert Groston de St. Ange was the 
granddaughter of Christoplie Crevier, and the daughter of his son Crevier de Bellerive, instead of the much 
married lady indicated by the Abbe Tanguay. 

■•The St. ftomains were also a family of distinction. See Rapport de M. Edouard Richard, pp. 68, 97, 
where they are included in a list of twenty of the principal inhabitants of Canada. One of them — Gabriel 
, St. Romain-^ied at St. Louis, in 1780. 


Ocean.^ He came to America in 1720, spent the winter in Canada, 
and in the spring of 1721, he started on his travels with two canoes, 
eight voyageurs, and such merchandise as was necessary for use in se- 
curing the good will of the natives. He journeyed in a leisurely way 
through the lakes, stopping for a considerable time at Mackinac, at 
Green Bay, at St. Joseph in Michigan, carried his boats to the Kanka- 
kee river and came down the Illinois, making a stop at Peoria, and 
reached Kaskaskia in October, 1721. He wrote long gossipy letters 
from each of his stopping places to a Duchess in France, and the 
volume into which these letters were gathered constitutes a store house 
of interesting information concerning the country and the charactjr 
and methods of life of the people. In a note to a letter dated at Kas- 
kaskia, October 20, 1721, he says: — 

"M. de St Ange, who has since much distinguished himself against 
the Eenards, commanded my escort," ^ 

This is his only mention of St. Ange, in this book. Charlevoix con- 
tinued his voyage to the gulf, where St. Ange no doubt accompanied 

On May 30, 1722, St. Ange was commissioned Ensign,^ but, like 
so many of the French officers in America, with only half pay. The 
King seemed to have the idea that money was a superfluity with his 
American officers. They were dignified by being called ojficiers re formes, 
instead of half pay officers. 

It was about this time that St. Ange's wife, daughter and two sons 
came to Illinois. But the family was not allowed to remain long to- 
gether. St. Ange and his younger son, Louis, who took from his 
mother the name of de Bellerive — that being the name of an island 
owned by her family at the mouth of the Eiver St. Maurice in Can- 
ada — were sent on an expedition up the Missouri river. 

In 1719, the Spanish of New Mexico, guided by L'Archeveque, a 
renegade Frenchman, who was one of the murderers of La Salle, sent 
an expedition to the northeastward to block the progress of the French 
in their direction.* There are many different stories about this expe- 
dition, and its fate. The fact is, that it was destroyed by the Indians 
and almost every man killed ; where and by what nation they were 
killed is not yet finally determined. The news was carried far and 
wide. Charlevoix met at Green Bay two Indians who had in their 

•Rapport de M. Edouard Richard p. 530. 

'^Letters to the Dutchess of Lesdiqueres, London, 1762, p. 289. 

Writers wtio have mentioned St. Ange, have not distinguished between the father and the son. This 
confusion of persons appears in Parlcman's Conspiracy of Pontiac, Vol. 2, p. 275 ; in Le Pantheon Canadien, 
1858; under Bellerive; in Wallace's Illinois and Louisiana under French Rule, p. 361 : in Mason's Chapters 
of Illinois History, p. 217, and in the notes to the Jesuit Relations, vol. 70, p. 317. The first printed cor- 
rection of this error was made by J. P. Dunn, Jr. in his history of Indiana in the American Common- 
wealths series. And see also article by Mr. Dunn in publications of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
No. 10, on " Father Gibault, the Patriot Priest of the Northwest." 

^Report on Canadian Archives 1904, Appendix K. p. 10. 

*Bandelier, The Expedition of Pedro de Villazur, Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America 
Series V.;Margry, Decouvertes et Etablissements des Francais, Vol. 6, pp. 385-452; Le PageduPratz, 
Histoirede la Louisiane, Vol. 1, p. 324, Vol. 2, pp. 141-221; Dumont, Memoires Hisioriques sur la Louisiane, 
Vol. 2, p. 74; Bossu, Nouveaux Voyages, Vol. 1, pp. 161-178; Parkman. A Half Century of Conflict, Vol. 
1, pp. 360-366. 


possession articles taken from the Spaniards.^ La Harpe heard the 
news on Ked river; and many of the trophies were carried by the In- 
dians to Fort Chartres. 

The French, in order to forestall any further attempt by the Span- 
iards to cstablisli themselves in tlie Missouri country, sent an expedi- 
tion under Bourgmont — the same probably who was for some years 
commandant at Detroit — to build a fort on the Missouri river.- 

Bouroniont's party went up the river in 17^3, and erected a palisade 
fort with barracks for the men on the north side of the river in what 
is now Carroll county, Missouri, opposite to Avhat is now called the 
Teetsaw (Petitsas — Petit Osage), plain, in which at that time there 
was a village of the ]\lissouris 'and a village of the Osages. One pur- 
pose of the building of this, fort, which was named Fort Orleans, was 
to establish peace among the neighboring tribes. Consequently, in the 
summer of 1724, an expedition was sent out from the fort to visit the 
Kansas Indians in the East and the Padoucas in the West of what is 
now the state of Kansas. Both the men and the officers suffered with 
such a plague of fever and ague that this expedition had to be given 
up. A few weeks later, a second attempt was made, which was suc- 
cessful. A portion of the expedition went by water and a portion by 
land. A journal was kept of the march overland, telling of each day's 
journey, and describing the beautiful and fertile country through which 
they passed. They made the journey, about one hundred miles, in 
four days, to a point on the river opposite the Kansas village which was 
situated in the neighborhood of the present city of Atchison, Kansa.^. 
After a ten davs' march to the westward from the Kansas village, thev 
reached the Paduocas, a tribe which has been variously identified as 
the Kiowas or the Comanches. They staid at the Padouca village for 
four days. Their reception was of the most friendly nature and the 
time of their stay was one continual powwow. Presents were ex- 
changed, speeches were made by both parties, and the Paduocas swore 
eternal friendship for the French and their allies, and hatred to the 
Spanish. On the first journey both of the St. Anges were of the party, 
but on the second the elder St. Ange was left in command of Fort 
Orleans, and the younger w^ent as second in command under Bourgmont. 
The elder St. Ange is spoken of in Bourgmont's account of his expedition 
as ensign, though in December, 1722, he was commissioned lieutenant 
with half pay. It may be that news -of his promotion did not arrive at 
Fort Chartres until after his departure. 

Bourgmont speaks of Louis St. Ange, whom he calls de St. Ange 
and Bellerive, indifferently, as cadet dans les troupes. The party reached 
Fort Orleans on the return from the Padoucas November 5, 1724. 

The next sjiring Bourgmont made up a partv of the neighboring In- 
dians, including a "princess" of tlio Missouri?, and took them for a 

^Letters to the Dutchess of Lesdigukres, p. 204. 

-Maxf^, Decouverteset Etahlissementsdes Francais,'p. 387ff; Le PageduPratz. Histoiredela Louisiane, 
Vol. 2, 141-221; Parkman, A Half Century of Conflict, Vol. 1, pp. 360-366. See, for sketch of Bourgmont, 
Heinrich's Louisiane Sous la Compagne des Tndes, p. 127., JV. 


visit to the King of France.^ The ekier St. Ange was left in command 
of the fort. A couple of years later we find him again in service in 
Illinois. The old records show that in 1729, he hought a house in the 
prairie near Fort Chartres. And in 1730, he was appointed to the 
command of the fort,- succeeding De Liette, a nephew of Henri de 
Tonty. Fort Chartres was not at that time the magnificent stone for- 
tress "that it became in later years. It was only a little palisade fort, 
liut its commander was the chief officer of an extent of country greater 
than that of most of the great empires of the world. It was St. Ange's 
fortune in the first year of his incumbency to conquer in battle the 
great enemy of his country. In their dealings with the Indians, the 
French methods were very different from the English. The English 
crowded against the Indians until a conflict was inevitable and then 
crushed them. The French lived among them, intermarried with them 
and treated them with something of the consideration to which a com- 
mon humanity entitled them. The French wars with the Indians 
were few. But from the beginning, there was a radical antagonism 
between the nation of tlie Eenards or Foxes and the French. The Fox 
Indians were the aristocrats of the northwest. They have some of the 
great ("lualities of the Jewish race. They are a distinct people to this 
day. This is not the time to talk of the history of the Foxes, but T 
want to speak of one thing. ]\Iany years later than the time which we 
are considering, the Foxes were driven by the power of the United 
States from their country east of the Mississippi to a new and strange 
land beyond the Missouri. They were all unhappy, and their women 
began to starve themselves to death. A council was held and it was 
determined to return to the eastward. In Iowa they succeeded in in- 
ducing the then Governor to hold for them, as their trustee, land 
bought with their money. The United States government denied them 
their annuities and there was another starving time, but at last they 
overcame all opposition and have for many 3^ears lived their own lives 
on their own ground.^ The war between the French and the Foxes 
had been going on for many years when St. Ange undertook the com- 
mand in Illinois. 

The Foxes were implacable enemies; and though they were much 
weakened by massacres of their people, men, women and children suf- 
fered together; they never failed to strike the French or their Indian 
allies when opportunity offered. The French government had deter- 
mined that nothing but their extermination would bring a peace. Early 
in 1730 it was reported that they had resolved to abandon their country 
and go eastward to join the Iroquois who were friends of the English. 
St. Ange was urged to attack them but his militia were unwilling. 
Finally a deputation of Cahokia Indians visited St. Ange at Fort Char- 
tres and reported that the Foxes had captured some of their people 

' Dumont, Memoires Historiqttes Vol. 2, p. 75: Mercure de France, December, 1725, (copy in library o f 
Missouri Historical Society, Gift of Edward A. K. Killian, Esq.) Bossu, Nouveaux Voyages, Vol. 1, p. 161. 

^See articles on " Meskwakia," and " The Meskwakia People of To-Day" in 4 Iowa Journal of History 
and Politics, pp. 179, 190: See also " Lost Maramech and Earliest Chicago" by John F. Steward. And 
see also The Folk Lore of the Musquakies, by Mary Alicia Owen. 

^Mason, Chapters of Illinois History, p. 220; Illinois in the Eighteenth Century (Chicago Historical 
Society Papers) p. 28. 

••17 Wisconsin Historical Society Collections, p. 110. Letter from Beauhamois and Hocquart to the 
French Minister. 


near the Eock (afterwards Starved Eock) on the Illinois river and had 
burned the son of their principal chief. The demands of the allies 
could not be resisted, and on August 10, 1730, St. Ange marched out 
from Fort Chartres with about one hundred soldiers and militia men. 
They marched to the northeastward, reinforced by various bodies of 
Indian allies on their way, until the army consisted of about five hun- 
dred men. 

They found the Foxes in what is now La Salle county. They had 
built a fort in a small grove of trees on the bank of a little river (now 
Covell Creek) which then ran through a prairie, about four leagues in 
circumference, without a tree except two groves about sixty arpents 
from one another.^ The fort was built on a gentle slope in such a man- 
ner that it was exposed to fire from the higher ground. St. Ange posted 
his men in such a w-ay as to command the fort and also the access to the 
river, intending to cut off the Indians from the water, but the Foxes 
emulated their namesakes and burrowed in the ground so that they were 
hidden from the view of the enemy, and they tunnelled to the river, so 
that their supply of water was abundant. St. Ange was joined by 
De Villiers from St. Joseph with fifty or sixty French and five hundred 
Indians, and by De Noyelle from the post of the Miamis with ten 
Frenchmen and two hundred Indians, making the attacking army to 
consist of about fourteen hundred men. Among this number, however, 
were a detachment of Saukees who w'ere at heart the well-wishers of the 
Foxes and some three hundred Cahokias who could not be trusted and 
who finally deserted. The Foxes made sorties both by day and by night; 
they parleyed with the French and wdth the Indians. St. Ange was 
disposed to make terms with them, but some of his Indian allies would 
not hear to it and an order came from the Governor in Canada for- 
bidding it. The Foxes held out for twenty-three days. Their food was 
exhausted and they lived on the skins which constituted their gannents 
and their quivers and gun cases. The French were not in a much 
lietter condition. Though their hunters brought in such game as could 
be found; game soon became scarce and the Indians began to fall away. 

The eighth of September was a beautiful day, the skies were blue, 
the air was soft and all nature seemed at its best, but about an hour 
before sunset black clouds arose and brought a terrible storm of wind 
and rain which lasted until nightfall, and the night was very dark and 
foggy. St. Ange set special guards, but favored by the darloiess the 
Indians evaded them, and evacuated their fort. Their movements were 
betrayed, however, by the crying of the children, who being aroused 
from their sleep could not be quieted. The French and their allies were 
on the qui vive and at daybreak set out in pursuit of the fugitives. The 

'That the exact site of the Fox fort will ever be discovered is imlikely. Mr. John F. Steward, who has 
given much careful study to the subject, is of the opinion that it was on the north side of the Illinois 
river at Maramech hill in Kendall county. The authority for the location suggested is a letter from 
Hoequart to the French Minister of date i.5 .January, 17.31. In that letter it is said, " T have no doubt, 
Monseigneur, that you have learned by wayoftheMississippiof the defeat of the Renard savages that hap- 
pened on September 9th last, in a Plain situated between the River Wabache and the River of the illinois. 
About 60 Leagues to the South of The Extremity or foot of Lake Michigan to the East South East of le 
Rocher in the Illinois country." 17 Wisconsin Historical Collections, p. 129. For statements of Mr. 
Steward's views see " Lost Maramech and Earliest Chicago," and Publication of The Illinois State His- 
torical Library, No. 13, p. 251. 


women, children and the old men M^ere leading in the flight and the 
warriors had posted themselves in the rear to protect them. An imme- 
diate onset was made which was bravely opposed by the Foxes, but 
weakened as they were by long fighting and fasting they were soon 
scattered, and an indiscriminate massacre began; more than two hun- 
dred warriors were killed and many wounded and made prisoners. The 
women and children were nearly all destroyed. Not more than fifty 
or sixty men escaped and they were without weapons or means of pro- 
curing subsistence.^ 

The Foxes never again made head against the French, but they were 
followed by them with persistent hate, their villages were surprised 
and their people massacred until it seemed as if they were wholly 
exterminated. Yet in the course of about forty years they had so 
recuperated that they were able to wreak a bloody vengeance upon the 
Indians of Southern Illinois, and to enact near the scene of their 
ruinous defeat the tragedy of the Starved Rock. 

St. Ange governed the Illinois country for four years, uneventful 
years they appear to have been after the battle with the Foxes, for no 
record of them has been found. They were years in which the colony 
was taking firm root in the land, and growing in numbers and in 
strength, while their traders and voyageurs were searching out the 
country even to the greater northwest of the upper Missouri. St. Ange 
retired from the command in 1734, and was succeeded by Pierre 
D'Artaguette,^ who sprang from an ancient family of the Province of 
Beam, of which it is said that "the family has always been large, and 
never wealthy, on account of the great number of their children.'^ ^ 

In April, 1738, Saint Ange received his commission as Captain, with 
half pay. He had then served the King for fifty-two years. It was a 
service crowded with difficulties and dangers and hardships. He received 
the highest honor that the service afforded — the command of the country, 
but otherwise it would seem that his only reward was the consciousness 
that he had done his work well. 

The church records of the parish of St. Anne de Fort Chartres are 
missing for the time between the 30th July, 1736 and the 19 October 
1743. In the extant records, under date 30 November, 1743, there is 
the entry of the baptism of two children born of slave parents, the 
•property of Madame St. Ange, and she is described as the widow of 
the late Monsieur de St Ange, Capitaine. 

The daughter Elizabeth was married, probably in the year 1739, to 
the Chevalier Francois Coulon de Villiers, of a Canadian family of 
great distinction. One of his brothers was Jumonville who was killed 
by a party of Virginia militiamen under the command of Washington, 
and another brother was Louis Coulon de Villiers, usually called Le 
Gravd Villiers, who took Washington prisoner at Fort Necessity July 

'The original sources of information concerning this affair are to be found in 17 Wisconsin Historical 
Society Collections, pp. 109-130. 

=In 1732, the friends of d' Artaguette were urging his appointment to the place held by St. Ange. " He 
will make more progress there," they said, " than Sieur de St. Ange, the father, who commands there, 
and whom the Indians find too old.'' 3 Indiana Historical Publications, p. 299. 

^Manuscript sketch of the d' Artaguette family in the library of Missouri Historical Society. 


3, 1754. Elizabeth St Ange do Villiers died at Fort Chartres, March 
G, 3 755, leaving several children^ and some of her descendants are still 
living in Missouri and Louisiana.^ 

Madame St Ange, the widow of Hobert Groston de St Ange, died 
suddenly at Fort Chartres February 23, 1763, aged about seventy-nine 

Of the life of I'ierre de St Ange liltlc is known, liis place in history 
is fixed by his death rather than by his life. He was a soldier in Illinois 
as early as 1733, he was commissioned as ensign December liUh of 
that year. It is recorded tliat a party of which he was in command 
was attacked by the Indians in 1734 and one of his soldiers was killed.^ 
Then for a period of twelve years nothing is to be fonnd concerning 
him, except the record of his presence at a wedding in Kaskaskia 1737. 

In the south the French became involved in a war with the Chicka- 
saws, and a great expedition was planned which should attack them in 
their own country and put it out of their power to make further 
trouble. Bienville was to march with an army from Xew Orleans, and 
the colonies in Arkansas, Illinois, and on the Wabash Avere to furnish 
their quotas. A place of meeting was appointed and an attack was 
to be made in force. On February 20, 1736, the northern contingent 
set out from Fort Chartres, under the commandant Pierre D'Artaguette. 
He had under him many distinguished officers, among them Pierre de 
St Ange, who appears to have been second in command, and Vincennes, 
the commandant of tlie post on the Wabash. There were forty-one 
regular soldiers and ninety-nine militiamen. In addition there were 
thirty-eight Iroquois, thirty-eight x\rkansas Indians and about two 
hundred Illinois and Miamis. They went down the river to the neigh- 
1)orhood of ]\Iemphis and from there marched southeastward to the 
Chickasaw village in what is now Lee County, Mississippi. Bienville 
had been detained, and had written D'Artaguette to wait for him, but 
the Indians forced the fighting. D'Artaguette attacked them with great 
vigor, and a desperate battle was fought. Early in the action the 
Illinois and Miami Indians had run away. The Iroquois and Arkansas 
remained loyal and it was only by their aid that any of the attacking 
party escaped alive. D'Artaguette received three severe wounds but con- 
tinued to fight, leaning against a tree, until another shot stretched him 
upon the earth. St Ange took command and continued the fight until 
they were overwhelmed by numbers. The Chickasaws had five or six 
hundred fighting men and were aided by aliout twenty English. Xearly 
one hundred of the French were killed, twenty escaped and twenty-two 
were captured. Among the prisoners were D'Artaguette, St. Ange, Vin- 
cennes, Dutisne, a Jesuit, Father Senat, and several other officers. 
Seventeen of the captives, including all of those named, were burned by 
the Chickasaws on the day of the fight. They were tied to stakes at 
about three o'clock in the afternoon; slow fires were built around them 
and the torture continued until midnight. An Indian woman carried 

^ Notes stir la FnmUle Couloir de Villiers, Par I'Abbc Amedee Gosselin, Levis, 1906. 
=16 Wisponsin Historical Society Collections, p. 454. 


to New Orleans the story of their deaih. They faced their enemies to 
the last, and, in tlie midst of the flames, they "sang as is the fashion 
among the Indians, who thereby judge of the valor oi^ men." ^ 

Louis de St Ange was at this time in eom.mand of a post on the 
Missouri. Fort Orleans had been destroyed by the Indians some time 
before and another fort had been built near the mouth of the Kaw or 
Kansas river, and it was there that St Ange was stationed. His father 
wrote to Bienville asking that he might be given the position left vacant 
by the death of Vincennes.- The request was granted and Louis de 
St Ange was in July, 1736, transferred from the Missouri to the 
Wabash. He remained in command of the post which is now the City 
of Vincennes for twenty-eight years.^ The white population was small 
and he was the beneficent pater familias of the village. He advised 
them in their troubles, adjudged their controversies, danced at their 
merry makings, and signed the church register of their births and mar- 
riages. Though his village was small the field of his activity was widely 
extended. His correspondence shows that he kept in touch with the 
movements among the Indians from the Hudson river to the Missis- 
sippi; no continental diplomat ever had such burdens put upon him 
as fell to the lot of St Ange. But the intricacies of the Indian character 
were to him as an open book and there was no serious trouble with the 
natives in his territory in all the period of his command at Vincennes. 

It was during this time that the British Americans were crowding 
into the Ohio valley and that the final contest for its ownership took 
place.* We do not know the details of St. Ange's actions, but we do 
know that he was actively engaged in military service against the 
British. It is frequently stated that he was at Braddock's defeat, but 
there is no evidence that such was the case. 

When the war was over, and the French flag had gone down in defeat, 
the final act of surrender was left to St Ange. Neyon de Villiers who 
was in command at Fort Chartres was ordered to New Orleans and St 
Ange was put in his place. Neyon de Villiers is generally spoken of as 
the brother-in-law of St Ange. He was not such. He was not even of 
the same family as Fraugois Coulon de Villiers who married Elizabeth 
St Ange.^ 

St Ange's incumbency at Fort Chartres was full of difficulties. The 
Indians were excited and aroused, and determined that the British 
should not take possession of the country which they consirlered to he 
theirs. The British had great difficulty in getting troops to Fort Char- 
tres. Finally one officer, Lieutenant Eoss. reached there. A council 

'Report Concerning Canadian Archives for the Year 1905, Vol. 1, pp. 457, 458. 
-Marary, Decouvertes et Etablissements des Fravcais, Vol. 6 p. 448 note. 
^Indiana Historical Society Publications, Vol. 2 p. 27. 
^See Parlcman, Montealm'and Wolfe, Vol. 1, p. 87. 

= For a sktch of the life of Neyon de Villers, see De Villiers du Terrage, Les Dernieres A nnees de la Louis- 
lane Francaise, p. 190. 


was held made up mainly of Indians from the West side of the Missis- 
sippi; Missouris and Osages. One of the chiefs addressed Ross as 
follows : 

"Go ! and leave us with our French father. It is he who opened the 
eyes of our ancestors and has made us live. Adieu! Go away, and 
think no more of returning hither, because our warriors who are giddy 
brained might throw you in the water if you try to return. Tell your 
chief to remain on his lands as we will on ours." ^ 

The great Pontiac came, raging like a demon. He cajoled and 
threatened. He appealed to St Ange on the basis of their ancient 
friendshiiJ, recalling all the campaigns that they had made together 
against the misguided Indians and those dogs of English, and offering 
to himself drive back the English, if St Ange would but give his 

To the Illinois Indians he said: "If you hesitate one moment I wiii 
destroy you like a fire which passes through a prairie." ^ 

But St Ange was firm and faithfully endeavored to obtain for the 
British the peaceful possession of the country. He remained at Fort 
Chartres about fifteen months before he was relieved. Finally on the 
ninth day of October, 1765, Captain Thomas Sterling with a detach- 
ment of the famous Black Watch, a regiment still existing and having 
a more notable career than any military organization known in history, 
reached Fort Chartres, and on the next day the French flag disappeared 
forever from Illinois. Some wrecks later St Ange with his handful of 
soldiers moved across the river to St Louis. ^ 

A good part of the white residents of Illinois went with him or had 
preceded him. The secret treaty which had transferred the west bank 
of the river, known until 1796 as the western part of the Illinois, from 
France to Spain had been made known in October 1764, but it was the 
duty of France, and so recognized by the French government, to govern 
the country in the customary way, until Spain came to take possession.* 
And the jurisdiction which St Ange had possessed over that territory 
was unimpaired by the transfer of the east bank to the British. A 
curious fiction set on foot by some imaginative writer has often been 
repeated and accepted as true. 

•Renort Coneenim°: Canadian Archives for the Year 1905, Vol. 1, p. 473. 

=Colonel Au<2:nste Chouteau, Narrative of the Foiindin/i of St. Louis, x^. 8. 

^'Captain Stirllnsr wrote, on 15 December, 1765, to General Gae;e as follows — 

"Mons. St. Ana;e withdrew on the 23d with all the French troops in this country to a villaB:e called 
St. Louis on the Spanish side, opposite to Caho [Cahokial, havin?; orders to that purpose from Monsr. 
Aubry, he had nosoldiersinany of the PostseKcept this, a reduced Officer [de Belestre] acted as Comman- 
dant at Cascaskias, and another at Caho fde Volsay], they both left this side likewise. " 12 Publications 
of Illinois State Historical Library, p. 216. 

Aubry wrote, 27 January, 1766, of the surrender of Fort Chartres, and said— 

" Apres avoir proteste, M. de Saint .\n2e est passe sur I'autre bord avec deux officiers et ses trente-cinq 
hommes. II s'est etabli a Paincourt f St. Louis], pres de Sainte Genevieve, et m'a renoye quince hommes 
par suite de peu de farine que les anglais lui ont laisse. " De Villiers du Terrage, Les Demieres Annees 
de la Louisianc Franeaise, p. 223. 

'" With resneet to the cession of places or territories by a treaty of peace, thoua;h the treaty operates 
from the making of it, it is a principle of public law that the national character of the place aorreed to be 
surrendered by treaty continues as it was under the character of the ceding country, until it be actually 
transferred. Full sovereignty cannot be held to have passed by the mere words of the treaty without 
actual delivery. To complete the right of property, the right to the thing and the possession of the thing 
must be united." 1 Kent's Commentaries p. 177. 


The people of St. Louis, it is said, recognizing St. Ange's great 
abilities and fitness for rule voluntarily chose him for their governor 
and installed him in office. 

Such a thing was of course impossible, and such action was wholly 
foreign to the ideas of those people. They were not accustomed to be 
consulted about their governors, and did not bother their heads about 
such matters. 

Another story equally unfounded is told by Governor Eeynolds in his 

He says that when Captain Stirling died a few months after Fort 
Chartres had been sun-endered to him by St Ange, leaving the fort and 
the country without a ruler, St Ange returned, took command, and 
held the reins of government until a British officer was sent to relieve 

How such a story originated 'it is impossible to imagine. Aside from 
its intrinsic impossibility, the fact is that Captain Stirling did not die 
a few months after taking possession of Fort Chartres. He subse- 
quently had a distinguished military career in Europe, reached the 
grade of General, and departed this life in the year 1808. 

The Spanish were in no hurry to take possession of their new do- 
main. St. Ange was continued in the government, and when the 
Spanish Captain Eui was sent in 1767, to build two forts on the Mis- 
souri river near its mouth, he was instructed that, "upon the arrival 
of the expedition at Illinois, every thing that had been outlined will 
be carried out and the French commander for that place, Mr. St. Ange, 
will arrange for ever^'thing with the experience he has had." It was 
not until 1770, that Don Pedro Piernas came with a commission as 
governor, and relieved St. Ange, who then took service in the Spanish 
army with the rank of captain, but with the inevitable half pay. He 
was then about sixty-eight years old, he .remained at St. Louis and 
was depended upon by Piernas as a wise counsellor," and by the people 
as their friend and intercessor. He died December 26, 1774,^ at 
the house of Madame Chouteau, one of the principal inhabitants of the 
village. He made his will on the day of his death.* He provided 

'John Reynolds, The Pioneer History of Illinois, Fergus Edition, p. SO. 

'-" The lieutenant governor shall preserve the best of relations with Monsieur de St. Ange, whose prac- 
tical knowledge of the Indians will be very useful to him. He shall do whatever he can to gain his friend- 
ship and confidence, and shall listen to his opinion attentively on all matters, and shall defer to him so 
far as possible without prejudice to the service." O'Reilly's Instructions to Piernas 17 Feby 1770, 1 
Houck's Spanish Regime in Missouri p. 83. 

When Piernas was at St. Louis in 1769, he came into conflict with St. Ange regarding some debts which 
has been contracted by the Spanish storekeeper at the fort on the Missouri river, to enforce the payment 
of which it was proposed by the French offlcials " to lay an embargo on the effects of the King. " Piernas 
threatened St. Ange, but he paid the debt. In his report to O'Reilly, Piernas speaks "of the good for 
nothing Monsieur St. Ange," and " the good intentions of his respectable old age." The weight placed 
by O'Reilly upon Piernas' statements may be inferred from the Instructions above quoted. After the 
return of Piernas to St. Louis he and St. Ange appear to have been the best of friends. The report of 
Piernas to O'Reilly is printed in 1 Houck's Spanish Regime in Missoiu-i, page 66. 

^In the Register of the old Cathedral of St. Louis is the following entry^ 

" L'an 1774, le 27 xbre, je soussigne ai inhumee dans ce cimetiere de cette paroisse le corps de Messire 
louis de Ste Ange, Capitaine a la Suitte du bataillon de la louisiane, administre des sacremens de I'eglise 

fr Valentin." 

*A translation of St Ange's will, containing some inaccuracies, however, is printed in Billon Annals 
of St. Louis 1764-1804, p. 125. Three introductory lines are so printed as to appear to be a part of the will . 
The original has no such caption. 

—10 H S 


for the payment of his debts and the eollectiou of the debts due to 
him, for the freedom of his slaves, and distributed his estate among 
the children of his sister Elizabeth. In liis will, he declared that he 
had never contracted any marria^ue up to that time. 

He was buried in tlie churchyard of the village on what is now Sec- 
ond street. I am indebted to j\rr. Pierre Chouteau for an interesting 
story as to tlie disposition of his remains. The growth of the town 
induced the abandonment of the ancient burv'ing ground and the re- 
moval of the bodies to a new cemetery at Franklin and Jefferson 
avenues. After a few years the town crowded upon this place and 
another change was made to the present Calvary cemetery. Mr. Chou- 
teau says that when this second change was made, his father was ab- 
sent from home and the duty of supervising the removal of the bodies 
in the Chouteau vault was cast upon his mother. She identified the 
remains of all but one person; there was one coffin in excess of the 
number called for in the family records. When Madame Chouteau 
returned home from her errand to the cemetery, she told her father-in- 
law, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., who was then blind, of what had happened 
and asked him whose was the unidentified coffin. He exclaimed with 
surprise that it was a remarkable coincidence. That when the first 
removal was made from the original burying ground, his father was 
absent and his mother had attended to the removals; that she had been 
puzzled at the unidentified remains, and that he remembered that when 
his father came home, he explained that the unmarked coffin was tliat 
of Monsieur St. Ange de Bellerive. 

So his remains now rest, it is to be hoped forever, upon a hill over- 
looking the turbid stream of the Mississippi witli which he was so 
familiar in his life time, and than which no jilace could be more fitting. 

One street in St. Louis bears the nann' of St. Anoe, and one village 
m Illmois, that of Bellerive. 

He has no other monument. But in time to come, it is not to \)G 
doubted but that in the City of St. Louis a fitting statute will be 
erected to preserve the memory of his virtues. 

From what we know of his life and from tradition, we are justified in 
believing that he was a good man, kindly, loyal, faithful to his duties, 
and capable in their performance; that he was wise in council and 
brave in action. 

As a Missourian, it is to me the source of much pleasure to be able 
to pay to the memory of our first governor who lived amongst us, and to 
that of his father and brother, this slight tribute of respect. 





By Cora Agnes Benneson. 

In No. 10 of the publications of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
pages 230-236, may be found Edward Everett's account of the opera- 
tions of the QuaTter-master's Department of the State of Illinois dur- 
ing 1861-'62, but since no man can speak unreservedly of his own 
work, especially one of Mr. Everett's modest temperament, a supple- 
mentary account gathered from materials I have found Avhile settling his 
estate may further elucidate the subject to which he has called at- 

In the confusion incident to the outbreak of the Civil War, when 
more volunteers were pouring into Springfield than were needed for 
the six regiments President Lincoln called upon Illinois to furnish, 
the Quarter-master General, John Wood, found himself in great per- 
plexity. No provision had yet been made for the food, shelter or equip- 
ment of the soldiers and no system of accounting had been established 
for the supplies voted by the State and donated by individuals. John 
Wood, although upright and honorable in all his dealings, was not 
systematic and the fact that he w'as left-handed, led him to avoid writ- 
ing. He mentioned his difficulties to an old friend in Quincy, my 
father, Eobert S. Benneson, who said to him : "Edward Everett is the 
man you need." Certainly no one could have been found better quali- 
fied to assist him. Mr. Everett had served for over two years as clerk 
in the Quarter-master's Department at San Antonio, Texas, during 
and after the Mexican War and, in addition to this experience, had 
exceptional ability and insight, w'as painstaking and accurate. 

A brief description of the characteristics and circumstances of these 
two men, John Wood and Edward Everett, may help to a correct un- 
derstanding of the relations that arose between them. 

John Wood, born in Moravia, Cayuga county, New York, Decem- 
ber 20, 1798, the son of a surgeon, who was also a captain during the 
Bevolutionary war, in 1822, built a cabin on the present site of Quincv, 
where he lived alone for some months. In 1824, when the question 
was to be determined whether Illinois should be a free or a slave state, 
he canvassed the greater part of the military district from Fulton and 
Hancock counties south and was rewarded by having ninety-nine votes 
for the freedom ticket out of one hundred three cast, at a meeting 
held in Pike county by tlie assembled voters of the Bounty Lands. He 
secured amidst considerable opposition a separate organization for 


Adams county, wliich previously had been a part of Pike county, and 
had Quincy made the county seat while it numbered only six residents. 
He saw the town grow up around hira and felt a paternal interest in all 
that concerned it. When the children in one of its mission Sunday 
schools were asked, "Who was the first man?" they replied, without 
hesitation, "John Wood." Although he was very dignified, no child 
was ever afraid of him. His cordial face, glowing with health and 
framed by snowy hair and flowing beard, forms one of the earliest 
pictures in my memory. He was a town trustee, and, after Quincy 
l^ecame a city, often a member of the council and mayor. In 1832 he 
volunteered in the Black Hawk war. In 1852 he was elected to the 
State Senate and in 1856 was made Lieutenant-Governor. When pre- 
siding over the Senate, he was "The type of an old Eoman senator," 
said his legislative associates. After the death of Governor Bissell in 
1860, John Wood filled the chief executive office for the remainder of 
the term satisfactorily. The qualities that made him a successful and 
fearless pioneer, rendered indoor life irksome to him and caused him 
to be venturesome in business. In his position as Quarter-master it was 
fortunate that he had for his assistant one whom he knew he could 
implicity trust to keep his accounts, whether he was present or absent, 
with the exactness essential to the success of his department. 

Edward Everett came from a distinguished family. He was born 
of American parents in England, March 31st, 1818. When an infant 
he was baptized in London by his father's cousin, the statesman, Hon. 
Edward Everett, then on his way to Greece and Eome in preparation 
for his professorship at Harvard college, who gave him his o^^ti name. 
In 1840, Charles Everett, the father of Edward, left London, where 
for twent}'-four years he had been buying and shipping goods to the 
United States and China, and with his wife and six children, settled 
in Quincy, Illinois. There he built a roomy mansion, which became a 
centre of hospitality. The three sons, Charles, Edward, and Samuel, 
all served their country in times of war. They were among the Quincy 
Eiflemen who quelled the Mormon troubles in Hancock county in 1811- 
'46. Charles went to the Mexican war as sergeant major of the 
Fourth Illinois, later was appointed Adjutant and virtually commanded 
the regiment after that time, being with it throughout its term of 
service and present at the siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro 
Gordo. Upon the breaking out of the Civil war, he formed a com- 
pany in the District of Columbia to defend the Capitol and, later, in 
command of a battery of light artillery, joined the expedition under 
General Butler for the attack on Xew Orleans. x\t Port Hudson. 
May 21, 1863, he was severely wounded in the leg. On his recoverv, 
he accompanied General Banks on the Eed River expedition in com- 
mand of cavalry. At the close of the war, he was honorably discharged 
with the rank of Brigadier-General. 

Samuel Everett, the youngest of the three brothers, became a skill- 
ful surgeon. During the Mexican war he joined his brother, Edward, 
in Texas, was given charge of the medical supplies and was frequently 
called upon to attend the sick in distant Hanger camps. In the Civil 


war he was appointed Surgeon of the Tenth Eeginient of Illinois Vol- 
unteers, commanded by General Prentiss, and was later promoted to 
Brigade-Surgeon. At the battle of Shiloh, April . 6, 1862, he saw 
a body of soldiers retreating, rallied them, led them back into the thick 
of the fipht and fell from his horse mortally wounded. His loss wns 
keenly felt throughout the West. 

Edward continued with the Quincy Eiflemen as one of the sergeants 
when they were mustered into the service of the United States at 
Alton, June 18, 1846, for the Mexican war, as Company A, First 
Illinois Volunteers under Colonel J. J. Hardin. At San Antonio de 
Bexar in Texas, where they were ordered to guard the stores and sup- 
press disturbances, on September 11, 1846, Edward Everett was shot 
by a desperado whom he was attempting to arrest, and received a wound 
just above the knee that lamed him for life. After being thus dis- 
abled for active service, he was taken in his cot to the office of Captain 
J. H. Ealston, a newly appointed Assistant Quarter-master, where his 
services proved so valuable that after recovery, he was made chief clerk 
and forwarded supplies from San Antonio to General Wool's army in 
the field and to the troops guarding the northwestern frontier of Texas. 
In December, 1848, he accompanied Captain Ealston to Washington 
for the final settlement of their accounts. The knowledge thus gained 
in Texas and Washington proved of inestimable value to him in his 
new position in Springfield thirteen years later. 

As John Wood and Edward Everett, beside several appointees en- 
gaged bv the Qunrter-master as clerks, agents, etc., were from Quincv, 
it was deemed advisable to avoid sectional jealousy by giving the posi- 
tion of First Assistant to a Chicago m^an who was stationed at Cairo. 
He proved, however, inefficient and the entire control of the depart- 
ment under John Wood fell upon Edward Everett, who was Second 

While the Volunteers were arriving rapidly at the State fair grounds, 
about two miles from Springfield, many of them poorly clad and all 
needing- camp outfits. General McClellan telegraphed to the office of 
the Adjutant-General of the State as follows : 

Cincinnati, May 31, 1861. 

Col. J. B. Wyman: I would suggest that the State Quarter-master Gen- 
eral should proceed to uniform and equip the Illinois troops with the least 
possible delay. 

G. B. McCleixan, 

Before the Legislature could be called together to appropriate funds 
for the extraordinary expenditures demanded by the occasion, consid- 
erable money was voluntarily loaned the State by banking institutions 
for the immediate purchase of supplies. 

Edward Everett at once ordered blanks printed in proper form for 
filling out as vouchers for payment for purchases, services, etc., and for 
requisitions and receipts for articles to be issued. He rented offices 
and warehouses, engaged clerks and storekeepers, and gradually intro- 
duced system by assigning specific duties to subordinates and instruct- 
ing them therein. 


The duties of a (Quarter-master's Department ordinarily consist in 
the purchase and supply of tents, camp equippage, tools, means of trans- 
portation, clothing; forage, fuel, etc., etc., in short, everything needed 
by an army except subsistence, medicines, and ordnance. In Spring- 
field there was no -ordnance officer, hence also the work of supplying 
arms and ammunition fell upon the Quarter-master. 

Mr. Everett printed a list of the articles the soldiers were entitled 
to draw from the Quarter-master's department and sent copies to the 
diiTerent companios. whic'li they found of much use. That their value 
was also appreciated in other states appears in a letter written to Mr. 
Everett from Jefferson, Indiana, September 17, 1861, by Major W. H. 
SidcU, then in a Kentucky regiment. Ue wrote as follows: 

"General W. T. Sherman (regular army) showed me an excellent 
document, signed by yourself, for the convenience of Illinois volunteers, 
exhibiting the necessary outfit and equipment of companies and regi- 
ments of the several arms, with some instructions of a general nature, 
the document dated Springfield, 23d August, 1861. General Sher- 
man gave me permission to copy the paper, but I would like to get "t 
least a dozen of the printed papers and I will take it as a great favor 
if you will send them to me." 

Governor Yates was freely consulted in regard to the quantities and 
kind of clothing purchased and with his approval and under his in- 
struction a superior quality was bought. He considered the best not" 
too good for the volunteers. Generals McClellan, Hunter and Sher- 
man, when in Springfield, inspected the goods in store and expressed 
their unqualified approval of the articles and of the way in which they 
were distributed. Indeed, many of the things thus furnished were 
superior to those provided l)y the United States Government and often 
regiments in distant fields of service sent back for the Illinois supplies. 

The Illinois Legislature, foreseeing the need of more troops, author- 
ized the formation of ten additional regiments of infantry, one of 
cavalry and a battalion of artillery to be in readiness for a second call. 
As they were ordered to encamp at ten different points, their locations 
added to those of the regiments already enlisted, made fourteen places 
to be supplied by the Quarter-master's department. Mr. Everett hired 
special agents to distribute these supplies and he testified with appre- 
ciation to the integrity with which they performed their duties. 

Agents were also sent out to collect what arms could be found be- 
longing to the State that had been issued to amateur soldiers and to 
those called out to suppress disturbances in past times. These arms 
were old fashioned muskets, rifles, pistols with flint locks, sabres and 
some pieces of field artillery. Workshops had to be established to put 
them in order and to make cartridges. The Quarter-master's depart- 
ment also had to take charge of the arms received from the United 
States and of those purchased by commissioners appointed by the State. 
In volume 10 of the Illinois State Historical publications, Mr. Evereit 
has given a graphic account of the way in which Captain James H. 
Stokes of Chicago, aided by a few others, captured twenty-one thous- 
and stand of new Enfield rifles and other valuable ammunition at 


Jefferson Brracks, Missouri, just wlieu tlie enemy was about to seize 
them, and conveyed them to Alton by the steamer City of Alton on the 
Mississippi river, thence by train to Springfield, in time to arm the 
Union soldiers for the defense of the important post at Cairo, Illinois, 
commanding the Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 
On December 10th, 1861, the Adjutant-General issued a report, show- 
ing that up to that date Illinois had furnished for the Civil war 
60,540 soldiers. Of these, at least three-fourths were clothed and 
equipped by the Quarter-master's department at Springfield. Its ag- 
gregate amount of purchases was $3,714,132.38, spent as follows : 

Tents $ 141,247.10 

Camp equipage 45,294.89 

Clothing 2,727,849.77 

Equipments 115,745.73 

Accoutrements 68,550.40 

Boolvs, blanks and stationery : 11,678.08 

Horse equipments 400,763.94 

Sundries for cavalry 15,518.12 

Medicines and hospital stores 47,465.67 

Lumber and hardware 21,803.71 

Camp and office furniture 7,257.45 

Ordnance purchases, etc 67,419.42 

Mules, wagons and harness 2,371.00 

Fuel 14,658.62 

Bedding 5,058.54 

Forage 21,439.94 

These statistics are taken from a printed report signed by John Wood 
and Edward Everett in reply to resolutions of enquiry of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of Illinois, Feb. 10, 1862, a copy of which I have 
the pleasure of placing on file with the Illinois State Historical Society. 

In transacting this immense business Edward Everett divided the 
duties and made each employe personally responsible. For instance, 
when goods were delivered by a contractor to the storekeeper the latter 
was required to certify on the bills to the correctness of the count and 
that the articles were equal in quality to the samples provided when 
the contracts were made. The chief clerk then made out the bills 
in proper form, comparing them with the contract and seeing to their 
correctness in all particulars. They were later handed to Mr. Everett 
for supervision and signature to the certificate. A similar system was 
used with regard to bills for services, expenses, etc., and with all requisi- 
tions made upon the department; agents placed in positions of trust 
were made rigidly to account for what had been placed in their hands. 
All vouchers were prepared in accordance with army regulations with 
a view to making up a full set of accounts, both financial and propei'ty 
returns, the latter showing whether articles were received by purchase 
■ or otherwise and whether they were severally issued, disposed of or lost. 

The auditing committee of three appointed by the Governor to audit 
all state bills pertaining to the war annoyed Mr. Everett by consolidat- 
ing the certified bills of the quarter-master's department with other bills 
due to the same parties and gave warrants on the treasurer for their 
payment, a process that destroyed the identity of his vouchers and their 
correspondence with his property accounts. 


In the spring of 1862 when the quarter-master's department at Spring- 
field was relieved of its duties by officers commissioned by the United 
States, John Wood left Edward Everett to finish the work of the 
department. As the task was likely to be tedious and his personal pres- 
ence was no longer required in Springfield he asked permission to take 
the work to Quincy in the following letter to ex-Governor Wood : 

"Feb. 21, '62. 
Col. John Wood, Q. M. Gen'l, 

Dear Sir — Your sudden departure without any notice or intimation of your 
intention to me, has prevented me from consulting with you as I had 
intended with respect to the manner in which the business of our Depart- 
ment is to be closed up and its accounts settled. There are also many points 

which require your decision and instructions. 


It will not be convenient for me, in respect to the condition of my private 
affairs, to remain many weeks longer in Springfield. And as the greater part 
of the business yet to be transacted consists in making up the property re- 
turns for presentation to the State and General Government, it can be done 
elsewhere as well as here. I therefore propose with your permission to re- 
turn to Quincy as soon as matters here can be got into the necessary state 
of preparation and (provided my services for completing this business are 
considered essential) with the assistance of one or two of the clerics, to pro- 
ceed to make up the property returns, etc., with as much dispatch as possi- 
ble, together with a full and comprehensive report of the proceedings of the 

It may be necessary that some one should remain here for a short time 
longer to complete the outstanding business, but this need not interfere with 
the arrangement spoken of. 

Please reply at your earliest convenience unless you intend to return 

Yours respectfully. 

Your Obt. Servt. 

Edward Everett, 
Ass't. Q. M. Gen'l." 

The reply to this letter is dated at Cairo, March 4, 1862 : 
''Major E. Everett: 

Dear Sir — Your two letters of February 21st handed me today. With re- 
gard to the disposition of Q. M. Stores you will con- 
sult with Gov. Yates. It is my understanding, however, that everything we 
have is to be received and receipted for without reserve or discrimination. 

You will take such action as if you were in my place, 
which in fact you are in my absence. You are chief in the office and all 
are required to report to you. This is to you authority for doing so if you 
desire anything of the l^ind. .... 

I should much prefer that the entire work of closing up our affairs be 
carried on and completed at Springfield, and I hope you will so arrange 
your own matters as to be able to remain there and give it your superin- 
tendence to the end. 

If with this you cannot get along without me, telegraph me and I will 
return as soon as possible. I have an invitation from Gen'l Grant to accom- 
pany him South and have promised to go some way yet with him. I desire 
much to go to Memphis and shall do so unless it is absolutely necessary to 

The flag of the Union was raised over all that remains of Columbus today. 
I was the first to set foot on the sacred soil of Memphis from the Federal 
Army, hunted up our wounded and found 74, the names of whom, with that 
of the regiments' to which they belonged, I have forwarded to Gov. Yates. 


The people were glad to see us In Nashville, not from any love for us, 
but because their own soldiers were plundering them. The talk about the 
strong Union feeling is all bosh. 
Our steamboat burst after our arrival. 

John Wood, 

Q. M. Gen'l III." 

Soon after this letter arrived in Springfield and when Edward 
Everett with the advice of Governor Yates was about telegraphing the 
Quarter-master General to return, a dispatch was received announcing 
his departure for Tennessee. As he did not consent to the removal of 
the papers from Springfield and remaining from home longer would 
subject Mr. Everett to much inconvenience, he resigned his position and 
returned to Quincy. Still retaining his position as Quarter-master 
General of the State, in 1864, ex-Governor Wood took command as 
colonel of the 137th Eegiment of Illinois infantry with which he served 
until the period of enlistment expired. 

It was a disappointment to Mr. Everett that the final settlement with 
the United States Government was made by others when he was so 
well prepared to give full returns for the vast amount of property that 
had passed through his hands. The success of the Quarter-master^s 
Department at Springfield, of which Illinois has just reason to be proud, 
was undoubtedly due during the first year of the Civil War to his 
vigilance, wisdom and hard work.^ 

^Based upon manuscript papers of Edward Everett. 




By James Alton James. 

From the opening of the Revolutionary War, American leaders looked 
to the conquest of Detroit, tlie headquarters of the Britisli jiosts and key 
to the fur-trade and control of the Indian tribes to the northwest of the 
Ohio river. Throughout the war this post continued, as Washington 
wrote, "to be a source of trouble to the whole western country." ^ 

Three hundred miles away was Fort Pitt, the only American fortifica- 
tion (1775) guarding the long frontier stretching from Greenbrier in 
southwestern Virginia to Kitanning on the upper Allegheny. - 

From these two centers, in council after council, were to be exercised 
all of the diplomatic finesse of white men in attempts to gain control 
over the Indians of the Northwest. Assembled at some of these confer- 
ences were the chiefs and other representatives of the Delawares of the 
Muskingum and the Ohio, the Shawnee, the Wyandot, Ottaw'a, and 
Potawatomi of Lalce ]\Iichigan, the Chippewa of all the lakes and besides 
the Miami, Seneca, Sauk and numerous other tribes.^ All told, the 
Northwestern tribes numbered some 8,000 w^arriors. 

Sept. 10, 1775, commissioners appointed by Congress and Virginia 
assembled at Pittsburgh for the purpose of treating with the Nortli- 
westem tribes. Delegates from the Seneca, Delawares, Wyandot, Mingo 
and Shawnee tribes, in response to the urgent invitation extended to 
them, gathered slowly for the conference. During a period of three 
weeks, the commissioners strove by speech and through presents of 
clothing and strings of w^ampum to convince the Indians that tliey 
should keep the hatchet buried and use all endeavor to induce the 
Six Nations and other tribes to remain absolutely neutral. Terms of 
]ieace, which, in the language of the treaty, were "to endure forever," 
were finally agreed upon.* 

Another significant problem considered by the commissioners was 
the means of capturing Detroit. A plan was outlined by Arthur St. 
Clair which they readily approved. He proposed a volunteer expedition 
for the surprise of Detroit, providing it should not be opposed by the 

•Letter to Daniel Brodhead, Dee. 29, 1780. 

- Ft. Blair, near the mouth of the Kanawha, had been evacuated by order of Oovemor Diinmoreand wa.s 
burned by some of the Ohio Indians.— American Archives, 4th ser., I\', p. 201. 

^The chief events connected with these conferences were discussed in a paper read before the Wisconsin 
Historical Society. See Report Wis. Hist. Soc'y for 1909, pp. 12i-142. 

'For the full account of the treaty see Thwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio, pp. 25- 

"■■St. Clair was acting as secretary for the commissioners. He supposed it was due to this plan that 
he received his first appointment a.s Colonel by Congress. St. Clair Papers I, p. 15. St. Clair, Campaign 
against the Indians, 1791, p. 2.33. 


Because of the approval of the project by his associates, St. Clair 
proceeded to raise 500 men for the expedition. They were to furnish 
their own horses and provisions. Ammunition, which could not be 
procured in that section, was to be provided at the expense of the 
government. The proposal was discussed in Congress but the season was 
thought too far advanced for undertaking such an expedition.^ Besides, 
there was a feeling generally prevalent that Arnold was about to capture 
Quebec and, as a result, that Canada and the West would come into 
possession of the Americans. Washington shared this view and it is 
probable his attitude led to the disapproval of St. Clair's plan by 
Congress. "The acquisition of Canada,'' he says to General Schuyler, 
"is of immeasurable importance to the cause we are engaged in. If you 
carry your arms to Montreal should not the garrisons of Niagara and 
Detroit be called on to surrender or threatened with the consequences 
of a refusal ? They may, indeed, destroy their stores, and, if the Indians 
are aiding, escape to Fort Chartres, but it is not very probable." ^ 

That expedition failing, a committee of Co;igress was instructed to 
prepare plans for an expedition against Detroit with an estimate of 
the expense.^ General Charles Lee urged the absolute necessity of 
straining every nerve to possess Niagara if not Detroit.* The committee 
recommended that an expedition should be sent immediately against 
Detroit,^ for it was understood that 120 soldiers in that garrison were 
indifferent, the French neutral and the Indians wavering.*' Final action 
was postponed, however, until the arrival of Washington. While he 
sanctioned the project, it was found that it could not be carried on 
because of insufficient means. Besides, the Iroquois were averse to having 
an army march through territory to which they laid claim.'' 

The summer months were full of anxiety for the frontiersmen. Six 
hundred Cherokee were reported as being ready to strike the Virginia 
frontier with the determination to kill or make prisoners of all the 
people. These savages had also accepted the war-belt from the Shawnee 
and Mingo and agreed to fall on the Kentucky settlements.* A general 
confederation of the western tribes was reported having for its aim the 
destruction of all the frontier settlements, and there was delay only imtil 
their scattered young men should be called in and the corn necessary for 
subsistence should ripen. In a speech to the Mingo, the most desperate 
of savage tribes, Hamilton stirred up their most brutal instincts by 
declaring, as he delivered to them the tomahawk, bullets and powder, 
having previously taken part, as usual, with his officers, in the war 
song,^ "that he wonder'd to see them so foolish as not to see that the 
Big Knife was come up very near to them and claimed one-half the 
water in the Ohio and that if any of the Indians cross'd over to their 
side of the River they immediately took him, laid his head on a big 
such usage, and that if they met any of them, they should strike their 

'Am. Archives, 4th ser., Ill, p. 717. 

-Nov. 5, 1775. Am. Archives, 4th ser., Ill, p. 1368. Hamilton and his associates were aware of the 
contemplated expedition from Ft. Pitt and set about putting the fort at Detroit in a state for defense. 
=" Journals of the Continental Congress, 1776, 14, pp. 301, 318. 

■'■Am. Archives, 2nd ser., VI, p. 1677. Journals of Continental Congress, IV, p. 373. 
"Unsigned letter. Draper Mss. Coil's. 3 U, p. 580. 
'Am. Archives, 5th ser., I, pp. 35, 36, 37. 
"Am. Archives, 5th sen, II, p. 1236. 
"Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Coil's., IX, p. 482. 


block and chopp'd it off, that he had now put them in a way to prevent 
tomahawks into their heads, cut oil' some of the hair and bring it to 
him." ^ It was suspected that 1,500 Chippewa and Ottawa were 
rendezvousing with the intention of attacking Fort Pitt.^ Driven to 
desperation, backwoodsmen forsook their clearings, evacuating the 
country for 200 miles, except at certain places where some of them 

At the time, the frontier defense was entrusted to 100 men at Fort 
Pitt, 100 at Big Kanawha, and 25 at Wheeling, all in the pay of 
Virginia. These numbers were far too meagre for the purpose and much 
less were they capable of any offensive warfare. Messengers were dis- 
patched to Congress and to Williamsburg imploring an augmentation 
of the numbers in the garrisons and the formation of new posts having 
proper supplies of ammunition and provisions.* The militia of West- 
moreland and West Augaista counties were called out.^ 

The county lieutenants of Hampshire, Dunmore, Frederick and 
Berkeley were directed to collect provisions and hold their militia in 
readiness to march to Fort Pitt for immediate service. A company of 
militia was ordered out as "rangers" for Fincastle county. But notwith- 
standing the defenseless condition of the frontier, apprehension was so 
widespread lest the savages should destroy their homes during their 
absence that the militia was gotten together only after great delay,*' 
many absolutely refusing the draft. '^ 

The assembly at Pittsburgh, by George Morgan, Indian Agent for 
the Middle Department, of -644 warriors and chiefs representing the 
Six Nations, Delawares, Munsee and Shawnee, served to dissipate the 
widespread gloom. These Indian envoys promised "inviolable peace 
with the United States and neutrality during the war with Great 
Britain.^ Twelve chiefs were induced to visit Philadelphia, where they 
were introduced to Congress. For a few months after the treaty, all 
the other western tribes, with the exception of a few of the Mingo, known 
as Pluggy's Band, seemed desirous of preserving peaceful relations.^ 

With difficulty, the Virginia authorities were persuaded that an expe- 
dition^" against these banditti would tend to bring on general hostilities 
with the other tribes of the Northwest, already jealous of the slightest 
encroachment by Americans. At the time, they were agitated because 
of the settlement of lands on the Ohio below the Kanawha and in 
Kentucky. The traces to Detroit were well worn by the tribes which 
assembled to meet Hamilton, who was striving in every way to excite 
the Indians to take up the hatchet. 

* Morgan Letter Book, II, Aug. 18, 1776. To the Committee of Congress for Indian Affairs. 
- Rev. On Upper Ohio, p. 200. 

^ Morgan Letter Book, I, Nov. 8, 1776; George Morgan to John Hancock, President of Congress. 

* Congress directed that a ton of gunpowder should immediately be sent. Journal of the Continental 
Congress, IV, p. 396. 

•" Rev. On Upper Ohio, p. 200. 

" Am. Archives, .5th ser., II, p. 513. 

■^ Rev. On Upper Ohio, pp. 174, 240. 

* Morgan Letter Book, I. Morgan to John Hancock, Nov. 8, 1776. Am. Archives, 5th Ser., Ill, pp. 
599, 600. 

" It was estimated that there were some seventy families included in this band. They were joined 
by twenty young men of the Shawnee tribe. Morgan Letter Book, I, Mar. 9, 1777. 

'" Morgan Letter Book, I, Mar. 12, 1777. " You are to take command," WTote Governor Patrick Henry 
to Col. David Shepherd,' ' of 300 men drawn from the militia of Monongalia, Tohogania and Ohio counties 
or either of them and to march with utmost secrecy an expedition to punish the Indians of Pluggy's 
Town for their late cruelties committed upon the people of this state. ' ' 


The year 1777 was long memorable as the 'Taloody year" in the annals 
of border history. Early in the year, British authorities began to 
employ more aggressive measures with the yiew of distressing the 
frontiers of Virginia as much as possible and with the hope that the 
main American army would be weakened through the withdrawal of 
forces to meet this attack. Sept. 2, 1776, Hamilton proposed the 
employment of Indians for this purpose. The British government 
received the recommendation with favor and orders were sent General 
Carleton directing him to employ every means "that Providence has 
put into His Majesty's hands for crushing the Rebellion and restoring 
the Constitution." ^ Orders were sent also to Hamilton to assemble as 
many Indians as convenient, under "suitable leaders," in the spring, to 
carry out' this decree or march elsewhere as they might be most needed.- 
Similar orders were sent to Lt. Col. St. Leger with regard to the Six 
Nations.^ From the friendly disposition manifested by the representa- 
tives of many leading tribes of the Northwest, in a council held at 
Detroit (June 17, 1777), Hamilton felt assured that 1,000 warriors 
were ready to overrun the frontiers.* Although war-bands were exhorted 
to act vigorously they were urged to act with humanity. But resolutions 
voiced by tke chiefs to pay strict attention to the injunction that they 
should spare the blood of the aged and of women and children were idle. 
Special presents for proofs of obedience signified little.'"' 

The conduct of affairs at Detroit was left almost entirely to the judg- 
ment of Lt. Gov. Hamilton and he was informed that the power of the 
sword was alone to be trusted." By September, 1777, his power was 
absolute. He reported in July that fifteen bands of savages had been 
sent by him to raid the frontiers. In isolated localities, too remote for 
warning, men were killed or captured while at work in the fields or out 
hunting. Women and children were burned in the houses or, as in other 
cases, the entire family, together with plunder, were carried away as 
prisoners.'' Hard pressed by their pursuers, the Indians killed such 
prisoners as hindered their rapid retreat. Thus the tomahawk saved 
them from sharing in the fate of their companions, which was frequently 
more cruel. Upon arrival at an Indian village men prisoners were forced 
at times to satisfy the cruel instincts of their captors by running the 
gauntlet or, as in other instances, were burned at the stake. Some 
were sold to British and French traders and later affected their escape 
or were ransomed. Women were compelled to become the wives or slaves 
of the warriors, and children were adopted into the tribe. 

That Lt. Gov. Hamilton offered rewards for scalps cannot be abso- 
lutely proved. But Americans generally believed him guilty of this 

' Letter of Lord George Germaine, Mar. 26, 1777. Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 347. 

On July 24, 1776, the Earl of Dartmouth, Secretary of State, wrote Col. Guy Johnson "that in suppres- 
sing the uimatural rebellion he should lose no time in taking such steps as may induce the Six Nations to 
take up the hatchet against His Majesty's rebellious subjects in America." N. Y. Col. Doe's, VIII, p. 

■ Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 344. 

^ Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 346. 

^ A complete report of this celebrated council is given in the Draper Mss. Coil's., 49 J. 13. 

■•' Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 465. 

'• Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 345. 

' Revolution Upper Ohio, pp. 249-251; 253-255. 

crime and he was, while a prisoner, accused of it by the council of 
Virginia.^ That scalps were paid for seems well established through 
the testimony of spies, disguised as traders, who visited Detroit, and 
of American prisoners.^ Among the goods listed at Detroit, which 
included blankets, kettles, knives, razors and rum, were 150 dozen scalping 
knives.^ Hamilton's own dispatches indicate that the taking of scalps 
was by no means exceptional. January, 1778, he wrote General Carleton 
Ihat the Indians had brought in 73 prisoners and 129 scalps,* and in 
a letter of Seiitcmber he says: "Since last May, the Indians of this 
district have taken 34 prisoners and 81 scalps."^ At the same time, he 
asserted that it was customary to present a gift on "every proof of 
obedience they show in sparing the lives of such as are incapable of 
defending themselves." " 

But charges of inhumanity cannot be brought against all British 
officials. Lt. Gov. Abbott in his appeal to General Carleton (June 8, 
1778) to prevent the continuance of savage barbarities declared "that it 
was not people in arms that Indians will ever daringly attack; but the 
poor inoffensive families who fly to the deserts to be out of trouble, and 
who are inhumanely butchered, sparing neither women or children.^ 
Major De Peyster, who succeeded to the command at Detroit, was 
accustomed to pay more for prisoners than for scalps. Lord Chatham 
opposed the enlistment of Indians. "But who is the man," he said 
(November, 1777), "who has dared to authorize and associate to our 
arms the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the savage ?" ^ * * * 
What ! to attribute the sanction of God and ISTature to the massacres 
of the Indian scalping-knife. * * * They shock every sentiment of 
honor. They shock me as a lover of honorable war and a detester of 
murderous barbarity. These abominable principles, and this more 
abominable avowal of them, demand a most decisive indignation." 

Preparations against a possible attack on the Virginia frontier settle- 
ments in the early spring of 1777 were hastened by order of Gov. 
Patrick Henry. County lieutenants were warned to have the militia in 

' Draper Mss. Coil's., 49 J. 54. The finding of the Council, June Ifi, 1779, was based on letters of 
George Rogers Clark and other papers. This report says: " They find that Governour Hamilton has 
executed the task of inciting the Indians to perpetrate their accustomed cruelties on the citizens of 
these States, without distinction of age, sex, or condition, with an eagerness and activity which 
evince that the general natiu'e of his charge harmonized with his particular disposition: they should 
have been satisfied from the other testimony adduced that these enormities were committed by Savages 
acting under his commission, but the number of proclamations which at different times were left in houses, 
the inhabitants of which were killed or carried away by the Indians, one of which i)roclamation under 
the hand and seal of Governour Hamilton, is in possession of the Board, puts this fact beyond doubt. 
* * * that Governour Hamilton gave standing rewaids for scalps, but offered none for jjrisoners.which 
induced the Indians, after making their captives carry their baggage into the neighborhood of the fort, 
there to put them to death, and caiTy in their scalps to the Governom', who welcomed their return and 
successes by a discharge of Cannon; * * *" 

= Morgan Letter Book, III, Mar. 20, 1778. Daniel Sullivan, in a letter to Col. John Cannon, wrote of 
a visit to Detroit for the purpose of ascertaining the condition of that post. While there he learned that 
Hamilton, in his determination to destroy the frontier settlements was wont to pay " very high prices in 
goods for scalps the Indians brought in.* That he likewise pays for Prisoners but does not redeem them 
from the savages and says he will not do it until the expiration of the present war." 

" Mich. Pioneer Coil's., IX, p. 471. 

* Ibid., p. 431. 

■■ Ibid., TX, p. 477. 

" Ibid., IX, p. 4G5. 

' Ibid., IX, pp. 488, 489. 

* This speech, in Parliament, was made In reply to Lord Suffolk who had declared that "there were 
no means which God and Natiu'e might have placed at the dispo.sal of the governing powers,to whicli they 
would not be justified in having recourse." 


readiness/ Magazines were directed to be erected in Ohio, Yoliogania 
and Monongalia counties and ammunition was forwarded to them. With 
the coming of spring, 200 warriors entered Kentucky with the design of 
cutting off the settlers gathered in the forts at Harrodsburg, Boones- 
. bo rough, and at Logan's Station. Such a stroke, it was hoped by 
Hamilton, would put an end to American control in Kentucky. The 
fury of the attack upon each in turn was met with such desperate 
resistance that the savages withdrew from "Harrod's and Boone's." The 
timely arrival of Col. John Bowman with two companies of troops from 
Virginia, numbering 100 men, saved the besieged inhabitants at Logan's 
Fort from death by starvation or final surrender. 

The situation for the Kentucky people was still desperate during the 
succeeding winter. For twelve months they had scarcely ventured to 
go beyond the protection of the three forts. The greater part of their 
stock of corn had been burned. Their horses had been driven off and 
the 200 women and children, many of them destitute of the necessary 
clothing, could not be sent to the older settlements.- Before the expi- 
ration of the time of enlistment of Bowman's men, the fields were 
cultivated and a stock of provisions and of ammunition was collected. 
Meantime, numbers of emigrants entered Kentucky and the feeling of 
security increased. 

During April and May small bands of Indians caused the utmost 
consternation on the Ohio frontier by committing a number of murders. 
Forts and blockhouses were liastily constructed in some localities, while 
in others the inhabitants sought safety by flight.^ It was learned at 
Fort Henry,* through Cornstalk, distinguished chief of the Shawnee, 
that a general confederacy of the Northwestern tribes was well nigh 
complete, lacking only the addition of his tribe, and that hostilities were 
about to begin. 

Informed of these hostile demonstrations. Congress resolved to send 
an experienced officer to take command at Fort Pitt, who was to embody 
the militia and plan for the general defense. This difficult undertaking 
was entrusted to Brig. Gen. Edward Hand, who proceeded at once to 
Pittsburgh, arriving there June 1. To assist him on this mission. 
Congress voted arms and ammunition for the use of troops at Pittsburgh 
and elsewhere on the frontier and $4,000 for strengthening the works 
at that post and for contingent expenses. Discretionary power was 
granted, to him to embody one thousand or more militia for the defense 
of the frontier.^ 

It was anticipated that the high opinion in which Gen. Hand was 
held on the frontier would cause the militia, when summoned, to respond 
at once. Five companies assembled at Point Pleasant with the object 

• Revolution Upper Ohio, p. 223. 

- The men numbered 65 at Harrodsburg: 22 at Boonesborough and 15 at Logan's Fort. Withers' 
Chi-onieles of Border Warfare, "p. 208. Letter of Col. Bowman to General Hand, Dec. 12, 1 777. Draper 
Mss. Cols., Haldimand Papers, pp. 192, 193. 

^ Rev. Upper Ohio, p. 255. 

■* Point Pleasant. 

'■■ .Journals Cont. Cong., VII, pp. 247, 25fi. 

Fourteen boat carpenters and sawyers had been sent in February from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. 
Thirty batteaux, 40 feet long, 9 feet wide, and 32 inches deep were built by them for the purpose of tra ns- 
porting troops and provisions in case an invasion of the Indian country was determined upon. 


of invading the Indian country, and there awaited Gen. Hand's coming 
from Fort Pitt.^ Upon his arrival, with but few troops and without 
provisions, the expedition was reluctantly abandoned and the militia 
returned to their homes. 

Messengers were sent to the various isolated settlements recommending 
that they should be immediately abandoned and the settlers take shelter 
within the fortresses or retire east of the mountains. Notwithstanding 
the vigilance of scouting parties constantly traversing the woods, deeds 
of savage violence were continuous. 

Gen. Hand learned through messages, brought by runners from the 
Moravian towns, that the Ohio settlements were soon to be attacked by 
an army of Indians under the leadership of Simon Girty.^ Settlers 
hastened to retire to the security of the forts. The first blow fell on 
Fort Henry, garrisoned at the time by two companies of militia, forty 
men in all, under Col. David Shepherd. Warned by Gen. Hand of 
the approaching danger. Col. Shepherd had early in August assembled 
the militia for the defense of the fort, but as the enemy did not appear 
vigilance was relaxed and nine companies of militia returned to their 
homes. This fort, which stood upon the bank of the Ohio near the 
mouth of Wheeling creek, was next in importance to Fort Pitt.^ 
Between the fort and the base of a steep hill was an open level space 
partly occupied by log cabins. The settlers were assured by scouts who 
had been watching the approaches that there was no immediate danger. 
On that night, August 31, between two and three hundred warriors 
ambushed themselves within a short distance of the village. Early next 
morning Andrew Zane, with three companions, while searching for 
some horses were surprised by six Indians. One of the wdiites was killed. 
The others escaped, Zane, it is said, having leaped from a cliff seventy 
feet high. With the belief that the enemy was few in numbers, fourteen 
men marched out to the attack. Discovering the main body of the 
Indians, the}^ attempted to escape but were all killed with the exception 
of two who were badly wounded but finally reached the fort. Another 
party of twelve, advancing to the relief of their comrades, were in like 
manner shot down or butchered, one only escaping. The defense of 
the terror-stricken settlers, who meantime had fled for refuge to the 
fort, was dependent on thirty-three men. To their surprise, the Indians 
did not make an attack. After throwing up rude earthworks, they killed 
all of the live-stock within their reach, set fire to the cabins and retreated 
across the Ohio.* 

On September 26, a scouting party consisting of forty-three men set 
out from Fort Henr}-. Eeturning the next day, they were attacked 

' While awaiting the coming of General Hand, some mutinous soldiers murdered Chief Cornstalk, who 
had been held as a hostage, together with his son and two companions. Rewards were offered by the 
Governor and Council of Virginia for the apprehension and conviction of the murderers but without avail 
owing to the excited state of public feeling. Cornstalk was noted for his commanding appearanc^and or- 
atorical ability. The ShawTiee were thereafter the inveterate foes of the whites and as a result the Indian 
jvar was renewed with greater vigor the following year. Draper, Trip 1860, V, 102, 144. 

^ Moravians from the Muskingum. Girty was not the leader of this expedition. 

' Fort Henry, formerly called Fort Fincastle was built in 1774. It was an oblong stockade of pickets 
pointed at the top and with bastions and sentry-boxes at the angles. About half an acre of ground 
was enclosed. Within the enclosure were log barracks, a storehouse, a well and cabins. 

^ Many stories of the heroism of both men and women have been related in connection with this event 
Most of them are mythical. Some of them had their foundation in the siege of Wheeling, Sept. 11 , 1782 


by Half Kiug, chief of the Wyaudot;, who^ with forty of his braves, was 
lyiug in ambush. Twenty-one of tlie whites were killed. Contrary to 
their usage;, the savages continued their depredations after the setting in 
of winter when the borderers were off their guard. 

Fearful lest these forays carried on at the instigation of British 
agents would lead to the depopulation of the Virginia and Pennsylvania 
frontiers, Congress, late in the year, appointed three commissioners who 
were to cooperate with Gen. Hand in carrying the war into the enemy's 
country.^ They were empowered to extend such operations so as to 
include an immediate advance on Detroit and its dependencies provided 
it was thought feasible at that season of the year and could be accom- 
plished with a force not to exceed 2,000 men exclusive of Indian 

Throughout the winter preparations were carried on for protection 
against the recurrence of the outrages of the preceding year. New forts 
were built and old ones strengthened. Gen. Hand now determined upon 
an aggressive policy. During February, 1778, with a force of 500, chiefly 
militia, he set out for the Indian strongholds beyond the Ohio. Because 
of the heavy rains, the advance was slow. After taking possession of 
some Indian towns, almost deserted by their inhabitants, the expedition 
was abandoned. This, the first movement by Americans against the 
Indians during the Eevolution, was deemed a failure. It resulted only 
in the capture of a number of non-combatants and was commonly known 
as "the squaw campaign." Disappointed at the outcome, which was 
not due to lack of ability on his part and "much pestered with the 
machinations" of the tories who were numerous on the frontier, Gen. 
Hand, upon his own request, was recalled from the command at Pitts- 
burgh. He was succeeded by Lachlan Mcintosh, who had entered the 
army at the opening of the war and had been advanced to the rank of 

The incursions of the savages, assisted by the tories, upon the frontiers 
of jSTew York, Pennsylvania and Virginia were almost continuous during 
the spring and summer of 1778. While these attacks were incited by 
the authorities at Detroit many of the settlers themselves were not 
blameless. The borderers were characterized in a report of the Board 
as "a wild, ungovernable race, little less savage than their tawny neigh- 
bors; and by similar barbarities have in fact provoked them to revenge.^ 
But the suffering of the innocent with the guilty made immediate 
relief necessary. Moreover, it appeared certain that these forays were 
but the preliminaries to a general Indian war which threatened with 
devastation the whole frontier region^. It was reported that 1,600 
warriors from the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Mingo, Wyandot, and a 
few of the Ottawa, Chippewa and Shawnee tribes together, with a num- 

» Nov. 20, 1777. Journals of the Cont. Cong., new ed., IX, pp. 942-944. The commissioners appointed 
were Col. Samuel W^ashington, Col. Joseph Reed and Gabriel Jones. 

General Washington was also directed to send Col. William Crawford to Pittsbuigh to take command 
under General Hand of the Continental troops and militia in the Western Department. 

- TheBoardof War to Washington May 19, 1778. Washington Mss., Box 35, No. 5. Library of Con- 

'■> Extracts from the Minutes of Congress, June 11,1778. Letters to Washington, 1778, Vol. XXV, 
folios 86, 87. Library of Congress. 

—11 H S 


ber of British emissaries, were collecting lor tins purpose.' All attempts 
to conciliate these tribes and tlie threatenings of counnissioners no longer 
availed, for the Indians were lirni in the dpinion. which had been 
assiduously inculcated among them, that the forbearance of the states 
proceeded from their inability to revenge the outrages committed against 
them. Iiilhu'nccd by these considerations and aware that Detroit was 
still in a defenseless condition,- Congress dctcnnined to al)and(>n the 
policy of a defensive war and to undertake immediately two expeditions. 
One of them was to have as its object the ca])ture of Detroit and the 
subjugation of such Indian tribes on the way tliither as were enemies 
of the states. The other expedition was to be organized for the purpose 
of carrying the war into the Seneca country and the conquest of such 
tribes of the Six Nations as were hostile. Another object of this expedi- 
tion was to gain possession of Oswego. 

The expedition against Detroit was projected on so large a scale that 
its success seemed assured. An army of 3,000 men, the majority of 
them to be furiiished by Virginia, was to advance in two equal divi- 
sions; one hy the way of the Big Kanawha to Fort Eandolph, where it 
was to be joined by the other division coming from Fort Pitt down the 
Ohio. Nine hundred thirty thousand dollars were appropriated towards 
defraying the expenses.' 

That the French at Detroit would render no assistance to the English 
upon the approach of the enemy seemed certain.* Hamilton himself 
had knowledge of this disaffection. Writing (leu. Carleton he said : 
"When it is considered how many people in this settlement have con- 
nections with the Americans, it will not be surprising if the Virginians 
should have notice of anything projected against them from this quarter, 
and tho' a great deal if not everything depends upon secrecy I must not 
flatter myself 'twill be concealed (as it should) since an Indian for a 
gallon of rum may be engaged to carry letters of intelligence."^ 

Witli 500 men, including the Eighth Pennsylvania regiment under 
Col. Daniel Brodhead and the Thirteenth Virginia regiment under 
Col. John Gibson, Gen. Mcintosh set out, in June, for Fort Pitt. 
Commissioners sent by Congress, through the judicious distribution of 
presents among the Delawares, assembled at Pittsburgh, $10,000 having 
l)een appropriated for that purpose, obtained ])ermission to traverse their 
territory. In the meantime Congress determined to defer the expedition 

• Hamilton reported the Lake Indians in readiness to go to war in the spring. He hoped to have 150 
militia and 30 to 40 men of the garr'son join them in ths enterprise. He was possessed of a plan of Ft. 
Pitt and was convinced that it might at the time be captured by a small force. Mich. Pioneer Coil's., 
IX, p. 431. 

- Journals Continental Congress, new ed., XI, p. 588. 

^ Journals of the Continental Congress, XI, p. 590. 

This meant an e.xpenditure of $261,000 more than would be required for the maintenance of the de- 
fensive policy. Should Detroit be captured however it was shown that an amount larger than this ad- 
ditional sum would be saved in a single year for the defense of the Virginia and Pennsylvania frontiers 
would no longer be neces.sary. 

* Letterof John Leath to George Morgan, Aug. 19, 1778. Morgan Letter Book III. French merchants 
were suspected of being inclined to the cause of the States. Trade for a number of years had been re- 
stricted in such a way that the people were willing to pay even higher prices for the goods brought from 
New Orleans and other Spanish posts for trade at Kaskaskia and IJetroit than for the goods furnished bv 
the English themselves. Wis. Hist. Col's., XVIII, pp. 290, 291. 

The total population of Detroit (1778) exclusiveof the British soldiers was 2,144. — Mich. Pioneer Coil's., 
IX,p. 469. 

" Ibid., IX, p. 432. 


against Detroit. This change of plan was due chiefl}' to the report that 
it was impracticable to secure the necessary men, horses, flour and 
cattle within the time stipulated/ 

Gen. Mcintosh was directed to assemble 1,500 troops at Fort Pitt 
with which he was to proceed against tlie hostile tribes and destroy their 
towns. As a step in fulfillment of this plan he built a fort (Fort 
Mcintosh) at the mouth of Big Beaver creek, thirty miles below Pitts- 
burgh. This was the first fort built on the right bank of the Ohio 
and, although primarily intended as a refuge in case of defeat, it was 
well located to furnish assistance to the settlements which had reached 
the Muskingum and extended a few miles up that river. 

With a force of 1,000 men Gen. Mcintosh, towards the last of 
October, advanced westward. Peaching an elevated plain on the Tus- 
carawas river,^ seventy miles from Fort Mcintosh, and while waiting 
for his main supplies to come up, he began the erection of a stockaded 
fort.^ The construction of Fort Laurens completed, the season was 
then so far advanced and the difficulty of procuring provisions was so 
great* that the forward movement was aliandoned. Leaving Col. 
Gibson in charge, with a garrison of 150 men, Mcintosh conducted his 
remaining force to Fort Pitt, where the militia were disbanded. 

During the course of these events a plan was evolved which, like many 
another paper proposal, met with almost unanimous support in Congress. 
This included the capture of Detroit and Niagara and also an attack 
on Quebec in which American troops were to be supported by a French 
fleet and army under LaFayette. Once more the far-sightedness of 
Washington prevented the enormous expenditure of money necessary for 
the equipment of these expeditions which must, at the time, have 
resulted only in failure and the possible destruction of American hopes 
for ultimate victorv.^ 

' Resolutions of Congress, July 25, 1778. Based on letters from Patrick Lockhart. Commissary of the 
expedition and from Patrick Hem-y. Letters to Washington, 1778. Folio 88, 89 Congressional Library, 
Journal of Va., House of Delegates. July 7, 1778, p. 287. 

~ A branch of Muskingum river. 

^ Near this spot Bouquet had built a stockade, 1764. 

* Draper Mss. Coil's., 58 J. 32. Clinton to Haldimand, Feb. 1, 1779. 

'- Oct. 22, 1778. Journals Cont. Congress, XII., 1042-1048. 

(Sub heads under note 5.) 

1. For the captui'e of Detroit, 3,000 men were to be called for from Virginia and Pennsylvania and of 
these 1,500 of the most effective were to be selected for the expedition. Together with 100 light cavalry, 
they were to be prepared for marching orders by June 1. 

2. For the protection of the frontiers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 500 men were to be stationed 
near W^yoming — and this number was to be increased by 1,000 in the spring. 

3. Fifteen hundred men were to be stationed along the Mohawk. In the spring, 2,500 more men were 
to be used for the same purpose. 

4. Two thousand five hundred men were to march from Ft. Schuyleraboutthe middle of May for 
an attack on Oswego. 

5. Five thousand regular troops were to be recruited during the winter with the aim of marching 
againi t Montreal. 

These plans proving successful the combined French and American attack against Quebec was to fol- 
low. It was urged as a tempting offer to France to join in the undertaking; 1. A share in the fisheries 
of New Foundland and in the fur-trade at that time monopolized by Great Britain; and 2. An exten- 
sion of French commerce. 

Washington regarded the whole plan as visionary requiring as it would more troops and money than 
were available. He argued that the American government would in attempting its fulfillment become 
involved in engagements to France which could not be met. He felt also that it would be but natural, 
in case Canada was taken, for France to demand that province as the price of her assistance. His opinions 
were of such weight that when stated to a Committee of Congress that this part of the scheme was aban- 

Sparks, Life and Writings of Washington, I, pp. 311, seq. 


The winter proved a trying one for the garrison at Fort Laurens. 
Late in January^, a party of fifteen men which had carried provisions 
to them was waylaid three miles from the fort, while returning to Fort 
Pitt, by a band of Mingo and Wyandotte led by Simon Girty.^ Other 
convoys of provisions failed to reach the fort because of attacks by 
Indians and the garrison was on the verge of starvation. In February 
Capt. Henry Bird of the King's regiment, accompanied by Simon Girty 
and a few soldiers, led 130 savages against the fort itself. Col. Gibson, 
aware of the presence of the enemy, although they were in hiding, 
persisted in sending out eighteen men to bring in the horses belonging 
to the fort. Sixteen of the party were killed and the two others were 
made prisoners. For a month the fort was invested, the besiegers finally 
retiring for want of supplies. A few days later Gen. Mcintosh reached 
the fort with 500 regulars and militia. He learned of the critical 
situation through an Indian who succeeded in stealing through the lines 
with a message from Col. Gibson. The relief was timely for the garrison 
had subsisted chiefly on roots for nearly a week. 

On his return to Fort Pitt, Gen. Mcintosh learned that his request 
to be relieved from the command of the Western army had been granted 
and that Col. Brodhead, a man well acquainted with the conditions in 
the back country, had, on the recommendation of Washington, been 
appointed as his successor.^ While little had seemingly been accom- 
plished by these movements, nevertheless the British plans to gain 
possession of the West and lend assistance to their Eastern forces had 
been foiled. The rumor that another expedition was to be sent from 
Pittsburgh in April together with the activities of George Rogers Clark 
not only frightened the officials at Detroit but "greatly damped the 
spirits" of their Indian allies.^ 

' Two whites were killed, foiir were wounded and one was made prisoner. 

- Draper Mss. Coil's., Brodhead Papers, I, H 33. 

Preceding the outbreak of the Revolution, Daniel Brodhead was a deputy surveyor in Reading, Penn- 
sylvania. Oct. 25, 1776, he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel and within six months was promoted 
to the office of Colonel in the Eighth Pennsylvania regiment. In this capacity he accompanied General 
Mcintosh on the expedition described. After the war, he became a member of the Pennsylvania Assem- 
bly and was subsequently made Surveyor-general in that stat«. 

3 Draper Mss. Coil's., 49 J. 20, 25; 58 J. 9-12; 58 J. 32, 33. 


Contributions to State 



Alfred Cowles. 
(Taken at the age of ninety-eight years.) 



By Dr. J. P. Snyder. 

History is usually defined as little more than aggregation of individual 
biographies — in the main, of noted persons who have gained civic or 
military honors. The multitude who have not sought fame, but obscurely 
labored for progress and improvement, are conspicuous in history only 
as "the common people." That class, however, is entitled to more 
consideration from the historian than it ordinarily receives, for upon 
it is grounded the power and prestige of the State. 

Xo great achievement linked the name of Alfred Cowles (pronounced 
Coles) with the history of Illinois. He was not a statesman, warrior, 
or writer, but only one of the people, a pioneer lawyer and private citi- 
zen, who well and conscientiously did his modest part in the building of 
this State, and passed away — as did many other worthy pioneers — 
leaving scarcely a trace of his existence upon the pages of its history. 
The apology offered for recording his uneventful career and perpetuat- 
ing his memory, is the fact that he was one of the very few pioneers 
of education and ability who came to Illinois at its formative stage 
without aspirations for official preferment, or fame, but content to 
quietly attend to his own business and the duties incumbent upon him 
as a citizen. 

He was of sturdy New England stock, descended from Eound Head 
ancestry, and was born in F'armington, Hartford county, Connecticut, 
on July 1, 1787. Longevity was characteristic of the Cowles family. 
His brother, William, born in the same house at Farmington, died there 
at the age of 99 years, having in all that time never been outside of 
that county. Their father was a soldier in the patriot army of the 
Eevolutionary Avar, and later a prosperous fanner, Alfred Cowles 
received the best education attainable at that period in Hartford county, 
and began the study of law Ijcfore he was old enough to vote. Shortly 
after his admission to the bar occurred the next most memorable event 
of his life, that of his marriage to a girl having his own family name, 
Miss Charlotte Gleason Cowles. Her father was Gen. Solomon Cowles, 
then a merchant in Farmington, and also formerly a Eevolutionary 
soldier. No blood relationship could be traced between the two families, 
l)ut thev were probably from the same remote ancestors. For some 


years Mr. Cowles practiced law in Connecticut courts, thereby gaining 
in legal knowledge and experience, and also gaining slowly in the field 
of professional business securely held by older lawyers. 

He was past 30 years of age when Illinois was admitted as a State 
into the Union, in 1818. By that event the tide of western emigration, 
feebly commencing after Colonel Clark's conquest of the Northwest in 
1778-79, received large accessions from all sections of the South and 
East. The magic development of the far West presented to Mr. Cowles 
so many flattering prospects for bettering his circumstances that he 
could not resist the inducements to join the moving throng, and to try 
his fortunes in the new prairie State. His marriage had been blessed 
by the birth of a son, whose brief span of life was, however, termi- 
nated at the age of 15 months. That sad occurrence increased the desire 
to get away from the scene of their bereavement and its shadow of gloom 
they could not dispel. Having at length perfected all necessary prepa- 
rations, the young lawyer, with his wife, left Connecticut in the early 
spring of 1821, and started on the long journey in a covered wagon, 
fitted up with a stove and other domestic conveniences, drawn by a pair 
of strong horses. Passing, at a leisurely gait, through the states of 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, and across Illinois, their 
pilgrimage ended, in midsummer, at Belleville, in the latter state, four- 
teen miles from the Mississippi. Mr. Cowles' first transaction there was 
to trade his team and wagon for about an acre of land in the dense 
woods on the southeastern outskirts of the village, on which was a log 
cabin in fair condition wherein he commenced housekeeping. 

The population of Belleville at that time did not exceed 300. Three 
lawyers constituted its local bar, William Mears, David Blackwell, and 
Eobert K. McLaughlin. At the September term of circuit court. Judge 
John Eeynolds presiding, Alfred Cowles was duly examined, admitted, 
and enrolled as a practicing attorney. He was then quite prepossessing 
in personal appearance. In figure erect, well-formed, 5 feet 7 inches in 
height, and average weight of 160 pounds. His eyes were blue, his 
hair light brown in color, and complexion florid. Of sanguine tempera- 
ment, he was pleasant and jovial in disposition, fluent and interesting 
in conversation ; hi? voice strong and distinct, and his cultured language 
free from slang and vulgarity. In character he was strictly moral, 
reliable, honorable, and temperate in all things. ISTever having used 
tobacco in any manner, or liquor, his personal habits were exceptional 
in the free social conditions of the frontier. As a lawyer, he was an 
excellent conveyancer, and thoroughly understood the science of plead- 
ing, but, devoid of the gift of oratory, he was not an eloquent speaker, 
and, consequently, but an indifferent advocate. However, his close and 
faithful application to business, his sound judgment and broad legal 
knowledge, placed him in the front ranks among his contemporaries of 
the profession. 

Three years before Mr. Cowles located in Belleville (1819) Attorney 
A. C. Stuart was killed in a duel by Timothy Bennett, but his vacancy 
at the bar was soon supplied by the arrival there of another lawyer, 
David Blackwell. McLaughlin, who did not devote his time or attention 


exclusively to the law, but was more inclined to politics and office- 
holding, shortly thereafter left Belleville, moving to the new State 
capital, Vandalia, where he became quite prominent and wealthy, and 
died there in 1856. Against the strong local competition of Mears 
and Blackwell- — both able lawyers — Cowles not only held his own, but 
prospered. He was energetic, industrious, and a very active business 
man. With the other members of the bar he attended the spring and 
fall terms of circuit court in each county of the second judicial district, 
which then comprised a fourth of the inhabited portion of the State, 
including Madison, Randolph, Fayette, Marion, and all intermediate 
counties. He sought neither popularity or distinction, except in the 
line of his profession. At the time when almost every man in Illinois 
who could read and write, was a politician, and two-thirds of them were 
office-seekers, he avoided any reference to political questions, and man- 
aged to maintain friendly relations with all parties without committing 
himself to the support of either. This course may have been owing to 
his natural distaste for politics and public life, and somewhat to the 
fact that the political principles he entertained allied him with the hope- 
less minority. A stanch Adams man and radically opposed to slavery 
on coming to Illinois, he found the Jackson party here supreme, and 
many of its ablest leaders decidedly in favor of adopting the institution 
of slavery in this State. At the second election for Governor, in 1822, 
though political parties had not yet been defined, no concerted lines of 
public policy presented, and candidates were not selected by convention 
or caucus, the real issue was the slavery question. Not the national 
abolition of slavery — for no prominent politician in Illinois until 1861 
had the moral courage to publicly declare he was an Abolitionist^ — but 
it was whether or not slavery should be perpetuated in this State by 
constitutional authority. Edward Coles had come to Madison county 
in 1819 with twenty-three slaves he had emancipated. on the way from 
Virginia, and despite the earnest protests of almost all the citizens of 
Madison county, he entered 160 acres of land for each head of a family 
of those freed negroes, and settled them in that county. At that elec- 
tion Edward Coles, then Eeceiver of the Land Office at Edwardsville, 
was a candidate for Governor, committed to the exclusion of slaverv 
from the State. He was opposed by two very popular pro-slavery can- 
didates. Judge Phillips and Judge Browne, and by General Moore, 
whose views were not generally known. 

Coles was elected, but not by a majority of the voters. He received 
2,810 votes; for the two Judges 5,303 were cast, and for General Moore, 
522. The plurality of Coles over Phillips, the next highest candidate, 
was barely 50, and the combined majority against him was 3,015. Alfred 
Cowles took no active part in the campaign, but voted for Coles, and 
was thenceforth a quiet, steadfast, supporter of his administration, and 
a personal friend very highly esteemed by the new Governor. In the 
tumultuous convention contest that followed the disgraceful pro-slavery 

'See Ml". Lincoln's inaugural address, March 4, 1861. 


legislatiou oi' the Third General Assembly, ciihuinatiii^- in the election 
of Aug. 2, 1824, Alfred Cowles was — with Governor Coles, Dr. John 
M. Peek, Eev. James Lcmen, and all tliat valiant l)aud — nnfiineliing in 
his elforts to defeat the infamous convention resolution, and voted 
against its adoption. At the Presidential election three months later, 
of the four candidates presented, Jackson, Adams, Clay and Crawford, 
he cast his vote for John Quincy Adams, who was subsequently made 
President by the House of Representatives. 

In 1825, Mr. Cowles was appointed, by Governor Coles, State's At- 
torney for the 2d Judicial district, and i-e-appointed by Governor Ed- 
wards in 182T. He was again commissioned for the same position 1)y 
Governor Keynolds in 1831, and also in 1832. By act of Feb. 7, 1835, 
the Legislature assumed the power of electing State's Attorneys for the 
several Judicial districts, excepting that in wliieh tlie capital of the 
State was situated, and in that one the Attorney General was required to 
act as Prosecuting Attorney. Yandalia, tlie State capital, was at that 
time in the 2d Judicial circuit; consequently Jesse B. Thomas Jr., the 
iVttomey General, by virtue of his office, superseded Mr. Cowles in that 

In those days the office of State's Attorney, was by no means a sine- 
cure. His duty was to represent the people and State at every term of 
the Circuit Court held in his district ; to explain to grand juries in detail 
their obligations and powers as instructed by the Judge, and to prosecute 
all persons brought into court for trial charged with crimes and mis- 
demeanors. When Mr. Cowles was first appointed to the office, the only 
compensation he received for his services, was five dollars for each con- 
viction he secured; but by Act of the Legislature in 1827, the State's 
Attorneys were paid a salary of $250.00 per annum — a very liberal 
allowance, considering that the annual salary of the Attorney General 
was but $350.00.. and that of the Governor $1,000.00. In some of the 
counties much time of each term of the court was occupied by prosecu- 
tions for rioting, horse stealing, cutting timber on pul^lic land, etc. For 
the latter offense, however, it was commonly said, conviction was impos- 
sible, as sometimes the Judge himself was guilty of that infraction of 
the law. 

The case, on indictment, entitled "The County of ^Madison vs. Edward 
Coles," for violation of the law of 1819, in settling his freed slaves in 
Hlinois without having given bond in the sum of $200.00 for each to 
guarantee they would not become public charges, was tried in the Madi- 
son county Circuit Court, before Judge John l^eynolds and a jury, in 
September, 1824, and a verdict rendered against the Governor for 
$2,000.00 — which the Legislature promptly released the following winter. 
The next move of the Governor's enemies, was to cause him to be in- 
dicted by the grand jury for libeling Judge Sam McEoberts, in a news- 
paper article he wrote criticising the Court's rulings. McEoberts also 
entered civil suit against him for $5,000.00 damages. These suits were 
])ending when Alfred Cowles became Prosecuting Attorney in 1825. He 
found the indictment for libel to be so plainly a matter of personal spite 
and malicious persecution that, without hesitation, he dismissed it with 


a nolle prosequi. That procedure did not meet the approval of the 
Governor, who wrote Cowlcs a sharp letter of reproof for having thus 
deprived him of the opportunity of heing vindicated in McRobert's own 
court.^ The suit for damages was never tried. 

One of the most celebrated cases ever tried in the Madison county 
Circuit Court was that of Palemon H. Winchester, a prominent member 
of the Ijar, indicted at the March, 1835 term, for killing one Daniel D. 
Smith, for defaming the character of Mrs. Col. Stephenson, the mother- 
in-law of Winchester. It was the second case of murder tried in that 
county, and because of the social prominence of the parties, and the 
array of great legal talent employed, attracted wide-spread attention 
and intense public interest. Mr. Cowles was aided in the prosecution 
by Benjamin Mills, of Jo Daviess county, a lawyer of profound ability, 
and the most polished orator in the State. The defense was conducted 
by Henry Starr, the leading lawyer of the Madison county bar, and 
Felix Grundy, of JSTashville, Tennessee, famous as the former Chief 
Justice of Kentucky, and sulisequently U. S. Senator and Attorney 
General. It was veritably a liattle of intellectual giants — well matched 
forensic gladiators grappled in desperate strife for the destiny of a 
human life. Public sentiment was decidedly favorable to Winchester, 
and the forceful, stirring, appeal of Grundy to the prevalent spirit of 
chivalry in defense of women finally swa3^ed the jury to render a verdict 
of acquittal. 

As the years passed the industry and vigilant application to business 
of Mr. Cowles were rewarded with financial success. The primitive log 
cabin in the woods was replaced by a large two-story dwelling house, 
liuilt of stone, in the (then) modern style of architecture. The fine old 
forest trees thinned out and trimmed, the brush cleared away, and vines 
and flowers planted, imparted to the premises an elegant, home-like, 
appearance. Further evidence of Mr. Cowles' thrift and prosperity is 
iudieated in a letter written, in 1829, by George Forquer, the Attorney 
General, to Governor Edwards, in which he says, 'T should like to raise 
the sum of $300.00, by giving my draft upon the State for my next 
years' salary, $350.00, to any person who would let money at that 
interest, which is nearly 18 per cent. Mr. Cowles has loaned money at 
a less interest than I offer; it may be he would take the draft upon the 
State."^ For it must be remembered that in those "good old times" few 
indeed were the persons so well off as to have surplus money to loan, 
and not- very many of the settlers could boast of being entirely out of 

Called to Kaskaskia by professional business in April, 1825, Mr. 
Cowles joined the throng of distinguished citizens assembled there to 
greet their illustrious visitor. General LaFayette, and by their royal 
welcome and homage, testify to him the gratitude of the people of Illi- 
nois for his eminent services in securing the nation's independence. 

In August, 1826, Ninian Edwards was elected Governor to succeed 
Edward Coles. In the early spring of that year, he removed from Ed- 

'Sketch of Edward Coles, by E. B. Washbume, Chicago, 1882, p. 223. 

-Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, 111 , 1909, No. 2, Vol. 2, pp. 2.3-24. 


wardsville to Belleville, having previou.?ly purchased all the unsold lots 
in that village from its second proprietor, Etienne Pensoneau. He at 
once infused new life, and a spirit of progress in the place. On the 
main street ho built, of brick, a spacious two-story store house, soon 
filled with an extensive stock of general merchandise, and on the opposite 
side of the street a fine private residence which he occupied until his 
death, by Asiatic cholera, on July 20, 1833. Governor Edwards and Mr. 
Cowles entertained for each other the most cordial and intimate friend- 
ship, the Governor often consulting him in business alt'airs, and though 
himself a profound lawyer, employing him as his legal representative in 
the courts.^ In no sense a politician, and not directly interested in the 
schemes and aspirations of the many public men with whom he was 
brought in contact, he seems to have retained the esteem and confidence 
of them all. During the long and strenuous campaign for Governor, in 
1829-30, when asking for aid or advice regarding his plans and pros- 
pects, Reynolds often addressed his letters jointly to Governor Edwards 
and Alfred Cowles. Or when writing to Governor Edwards alone, he 
sent him the communications, when convenient, by Cowles, or added to 
them the postscript, '"Show this to Cowles." 

Mr. Cowles and wife had joined the Presbyterian church long before 
leaving Connecticut, but at their new home in the West found no 
church, and few, if any, inhabitants, of that denomination. In 1832 
Eev. John F. Brooks established in Belleville a subscription school of 
a much higher order than had before been conducted there. Mr. Brooks, 
a Presbyterian minister, was one of the "Yale band" of seven 3'oung 
theological students who came out west in 1827 under agreement to 
devote their lives in this distant field to missionary and educational 
work, commencing their self-allotted task by founding Illinois College, 
at Jacksonville, in 1828. In his Belleville school Mr. Brooks was assisted 
by his newly married wife and her sister, and sister's husband, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bradley. On the 6th of January, 1833, Mr. Brooks organized the 
first Presbyterian church established in that village. It numbered six 
members, namel}^ Alfred Cowles, Charlotte Cowles, Thomas Scott, Jane 
S. Brooks, Simon Van Arsdale, and Harriet C. Alexander. Thomas 
Scott and Alfred Cowles were elected ruling elders, acting in that 
capacity as long as they resided there. Mr. Brooks officiated as the 
minister until his removal in 1839. 

The disgraceful riot at Alton on the evening of Nov. 7, 1837, in 
which Lyman Bishop and Eev. Elijah P. Lovejoy were killed, was duly 
investigated by the grand jury composed of reputable citizens of Madison 
county. Conscientious and impartial in the discharge of their duty, 
bills of indictment were found both against the armed defenders of the 
Abolition press in the warehouse, who shot Bishop, and the armed mob 
that shot Lovejoy, then seized the press and destroyed it. The mayor 
of Alton at that time was Hon. John M. Krum, a lawyer of distinction, 
who subsequently moved to St. Louis, where he became very popular 
and wealthy, and was elected mayor of that city. When the indictments 

'Beaird versus the Governor, Mandamus. Edwards Papers, pp. .'?G4-70. 

173 . 

were called for trial, iii the municipal court of Alton, in January, 1838, 
the intensity of popular feeling and excitement had materially subsided 
in the community, and all parties seemed desirous to get rid of the 
lamentable affair as speedily as possible. Hon. William Martin was the 
presiding judge of that court, and Francis B. Murdock, the prosecuting 
attorney. On Wednesday, January 17th, the Lovejoy adherents, who 
guarded the press on that fatal night, and shot Bishop, were arrainged 
for trial, defended by Alfred Cowles, Samuel G. Bailey, and G. T. M. 
Davis. Usher F. Linder was then Attorney General and ex-officio 
prosecuting attorney in the circuit courts of the second district. In 
sympathy with the mob element, and in response to a petition signed by 
about sixty citizens, he assisted Mr. Murdock in the prosecution. The 
defense asked for, and secured, a separate trial for Winthrop S. Gilman, 
one of the owners of the warehouse, who was there that night with 
Lovejoy. A jury was soon impaneled, and the trial proceeded, with the 
examination of many witnesses, from early morning until late at night, 
when "after a very able argument by Mr. Davis and his associate coun- 
sel, Hon. Alfred Cowles, Mr. Gilman was pronounced not guilty." ^ 
Thereupon the city attorney dismissed the indictments against the other 

On Friday, January- 19th, the leaders of the mob were arraigned for 
trial in the same court, but with position of the principal attorneys 
reversed, Mr. Cowles appearing, with Mr. Murdock, for the State, and 
General Linder, assisted by S. T. Sawyer and Junius Hall, Esq., defend- 
ing the rioters. The defendants pleaded "not guilty," and had plenty 
of witnesses to verify their innocence. As the Abolitionists in that 
community constituted but an insignificant minority, the jury was neces- 
sarily drawn from the majority that openly sympathized with the mob. 
Many witnesses were examined, but few of whom seemed to know any- 
thing of the essential facts in the case, and then for a few hours the 
lawyers held the jury entranced. In his opening address, for the people, 
Mr. Murdock strongly appealed for enforcement of the law, and convic- 
tion of the defendants who riotously entered the Gilman and Godfrey 
warehouse, murdered Lovejoy, and throwing his press out of the window 
smashed it in pieces, and threw the pieces into the river. He was fol- 
lowed by Mr. Sawyer in a brief speech for the defense, preliminary to 
the irresistible oratory of General Linder, upon which the defendants 
relied for a verdict in their favor. 

In commencing his address to the jury, General Linder thus alluded 
to Mr. Cowles, who was to make the closing speech for the prosecution: 
"This occasion will be seized by the venerable gentleman who is to follow 
me, as a favorable opportunity to pour out some portion of that invective 
for which he is so admirably quaiined. My remarks will undergo a 
severe scrutiny. You will be addressed in the cold and chilling expres- 
sion of puritanical feeling, and the severe language of the law; and 
while I was anticipating the remarks to which you will be called to 
listen, as I came down to this court room from dinner, and looking 

'The Martyrdom of Lovejoy, Henry Tanner, Chicago, 1881, p. 190. 


upon Uk' broinl eiirrcjit i;! tJic luiglity river wliii-h iluw.s by these walls, 
I could not help drawing a comparison between the fate of his address 
in the hands of this jury' and that of the ice which is borne upon the 
bosom of the water; and 1 could not help feolin<r that his address would 
meet with the same fate in the warm hearts of tiiis honest jury that the 
ice finds when it is borne by tlie current within the influence of a 
warmer atmosphere." ^ 

For more than an hour General Linder's eloquence bold tlie earnest 
attention of the court and the crowd of people that filled the room. 
Then Mr. Cowles bouan his argument to the jury, as follows: "I am 
no Abolitionist. I have no sympathy for the party; no communion 
with their creed. IJut 1 am a friend to law ; an enemy to mobs, and 
and advocate for good order. I am opposed to the lawless acts of 
an unprincipled, an infuriated, licentious mob. 1 am opposed to any 
resort to brute force, much more when it is resorted to to break down 
the barriers which the Constitution has thrown around us all. Put 
down the freedom of thought ! Suppress the freedom of s])eecb I lic- 
strain the freedom of the press ! Lawless force cannot do it. 'I'he 
effort will be useless; the attempt to do so will be as idle as was th'-it 
of Canute, the Dane, when he planted his chair upon the sea shore and 
commanded tb.e waxes to roll back from their appointed place. That 
effort was idle, but not more so than this one. The press still speaks 
out in tones of thunder, and it will continue to speak out in tones that 
cannot be resisted, and in language that cannot be misunderstood or 
disregarded. You cannot put down the press by force. I warn you, 
I warn you all, against such inconsiderate acts. Let Abolitionists think 
if they please; let them speak if they cliooso ; let them ])rint if they 
will. Freedom of thought is our birthright, and freedom of speedi 
the charter of every American citizen. Let him use his privileges; let 
him exercise his rights responsible to his. peers and the law of the land. 

"This verdict Avill determine, for weal or for woe, the fate of this 
community. If lawless violence can be restrained; if it is ascertained 
that mobs shall not rule over us; if it is determined that licentiousness 
shall not prevail; that crime shall not be legalized among us, then all 
will be well. But if the verdict of this jury is to sanction the deeds 
of violence and murder which have disgraced this citv, then who will 
stay, or who come among us? 

"Eemember, that the eyes of this community, of the whole country, 
are upon you ; that the record of this trial will go to the world, and 
that upon yourselves it depends whether you are honored through com- 
ing ages as men who, in an hour not without its danger, fearlessly as- 
serted the prerogatives of law; or whether your names shall go down 
to all aftertime as fixed figures for the hand of scorn to ])oint its un- 
erring finger at! 1 have an unyielding hope, an unshaken confidence, 
that this jury will apply the law and the evidence as it should be ap- 
plied. I have a firm belief that you will act well your duty to your- 
selves, your country, and your God ; and tliat you will, so far as in you 
lies, remove the stain which now rests upon this community." 

•Alton Trials, by Wm. S. Lincoln, New York, 1S3S, pp. 1.32-133. 


The trial occupied the entire day until a late hour at night. It 
was obviously impossible — and no doubt impolitic— to identify the 
persons who fired the fatal shots on either side, and as one of each 
party had been killed, there seemed a general disposition to regard the 
casualties a "stand off." The jury, evidently entertaining that vievv, 
late at night, returned a sealed verdict of acquittal, "making it a mat- 
ter of record," Governor Ford says (History of Illinois, p. 245), "that 
in fact the Abolitionists had not provoked an assault; that there had 
been no mob; and that no one had been killed or wounded." 

The violent suppression of Lovejoy and his paper had no immediate 
adverse effect upon the business prosperitv of Alton. Its far-reaching 
later effects are too well known to be now retold. It occurred when 
the internal improvement craze was at its height. Times were flush ; 
active work on several projected railroads and on the Illinois and 
Michigan canal was progressing; money, borrowed by the State, was 
abundant, and the outlook for Alton's successful rivalry of St. Louis 
seemingly very promising. 

At the bar and in finances, Mr. Cowles had thrived in Belleville; 
but he' now saw in the vigorous growth of Alton advantages for larger 
and more remunerative professional business, and for the better em- 
ployment of his capital in profitable speculation. Early in 1839 he 
closed up his connection with Belleville, sold his stone mansion there to 
Governor Wm. Kinney, and moved his family to Upper Alton. By 
previous agreement, he there entered into partnership, in the practice 
of law, with Hon. John M. Krum, the mayor, a lawyer of high standing. 

In the period of Mr. Cowles' residence at Belleville, his household 
was enlarged by the addition of six children, named, in order of their 
birth, Frederick, Louise, Caroline, Cornelia, Elizabeth, and Alfred E. 
Caroline died there when ten years of age. In the same year that the 
Cowles family left Belleville, Eev. John F. Brooks closed his school 
there and moved to Springfield, continuing in that town his educational 
and religious work until his death, at an advanced age in 1880. 

When Mr. Cowles established himself in Alton, he ranked among the 
rich men of that place, his wealth, mostly invented in land and ol'i..r 
real estate, being estimated at $50,000, a colossal fortune in those days. 
He was there, however, but a short time, when the great internal im- 
provement scheme collapsed. The banks had suspended specie pay- 
ment the year before. In 1839 further work on all the railroads i.ut 
the Noi-thern Cross, was stopped, and hundreds of men were thrown 
out of employment. Gold and silver, as money, disappeared, bank 
notes and State bonds depreciated fifty per cent, and values of all 
property shrunk well-nigh to the vanishing point. This disastrous 
condition, together with the Lovejoy riots aftermath, punctured Alton's 
brilliant bubble of prosperity, prostrated its business, and dissipated 
its last hope for commercial supremacy on the Mississippi. The law 
firm of Cowles and Krum maintained its professional prominence at 
the Alton bar for five years, and then dissolved. Mr. Krum moved iv) 
St. Louis, and early in 1844 Mr. Cowles sought a more genial social 
atmosphere for himself and family in Chicago. In that thriving city 


he invested the little capital he had realized from the wreck of his 
former possession, and formed a new professional partnership with 
Wm. Henry Rrown, wliich continued for nine years. 

In General Palmer's Bench and Bar of Illinois, Vol. 11, page 624, it 
is stated that "Mr. Brown was in business for many years in Chicago 
with Alfred Cowles, an old pioneer lawyer. The firm of Cowles and 
Brown appeal's in the City Directory of 18-lG, under the name of Cowles 
& Brown, with an office over the old State Bank at the southwest corner 
of LaSalle and South Water streets." The bond of fellowship uniting 
that firm was something more than their mutual interest in the practice 
of law. They were both natives of Connecticut, both members of the 
Presbyterian church and of the Whig party, and both early pioneers of 
Illinois. Morever, Louise, the eldest daughter of Mr. Cowles, a beautiful 
and accomplished girl, scarcely twenty years of age, was engaged to be 
married to Brown's son. but contracted a severe cold which, developing 
into quick consumption, speedily consigned her to the grave instead of 
to the bridal altar. 

Wm. H. Brown had studied and practiced law with his father in New 
York City, but left the East, in 1818, coming to Illinois in company 
with Samuel D. Lockwood. Landing from a flatboat at Shawneetown, 
they walked to Kaskaskia, 140 miles, then the State capital. On the way 
they were overtaken by two young men from New York, about of their 
asres, named Sidnev Breese and Thomas Mather, who were traveling in 
a hired conveyance, but too small to take them in. The next year, (1819) 
Brown was appointed Clerk of the U. S. District court, and held that 
office for sixteen years. In 1835, he was appointed Cashier of a branch 
of the State Bank at Chicago, to which place he moved and there in time 
attained wealth and high prominence. ' On a tour of Europe, with his 
wife, he was taken down with small pox, at the Bible Hotel, in Amster- 
dam, and died there on June 17, 1867, aged 72 years. 

Mr. Brown's enthusiasm in politics was probalily contagious, as in the 
years of intimate association with him, Mr. Cowles became much more 
interested in public questions and party matters, than he had before been 
in Southern Illinois. Manifesting unusual concern and activity for the 
election of General Taylor to the Presidency, and for the success of the 
entire Whig ticket, in 1848, Cowles was rewarded for his new-born zeal, 
in 1849, with the appointment of Eegister of the U. S. Land Ofilce in 
. Chicago district. In that year, 1849, his eldest son, Frederick, went with 
the first mad rush of gold seekers, across the plains, to California. Then, 
a sprightly young man of 27 years, he experienced in the mines of the 
new El Dorado, the same vicissitudes of thousands of others, finally 
settling down as a rancher in San Diego, county, where he died, un- 
married, in 1905, at the age of 83 years. Until Mr. Cowles was super- 
seded by a Democrat in 1853, his partnership with Mr. Brown continued 
uninterrupted. He was at that time not far from 66 years old, the age 
at which most men who have been busily engaged from their youth in 
the same vocation feel the desire, or necessity, of retirement and rest. 


And so it was with him. He was weary of the incessant drudgery of his 
profession, of the constant mental strain it imposed, and desirous for 
an opportunity to abandon it. 

Influenced also, no doubt, by the favorable representations, received 
from his son Frederick, of the perfect climate of California, and extra- 
ordinary advantages found there in every branch of business or industry, 
Mr. Cowles decided to move there, and escape for the rest of his days 
the rigors of Illinois winters. Dissolving partnership with Mr. Brown, 
he settled up his affairs, including the sale of his home, comprising 
two acres on Chicago Avenue, for the sum of $3,500, and with his family 
left Illinois, in April, 1853, for the far West. Five months on the way 
across the plains, traveling as passengers in a train of wagons drawn 
by mules, they finally reached Sacramento about the middle of Septem- 
ber. Halting there long enough to sell his library for several hundred 
dollars, he proceeded by boat to San Francisco, there purchasing a dwel- 
ling house in which the family passed the winter. Not satisfied with 
the prospects presented to him on the Bay, he went down to the San 
Jose Valley, fifty miles south, and bought 25 acres of raw land covered 
with sycamore trees. Selling his San Francisco propert}'', he moved, in 
the spring of 1854, to his new real estate in the valley where he set in 
resolutely to clear off the timber, put the land in cultivation, and estab- 
lish a permanent home. Fifteen years of his life were passed there as 
an agriculturist and horticulturist, with the result of converting the wild 
sycamore plat into a charming residence and highly improved fruit farm, 
named by his daughters. Rose Lawn. In the meantime, the two girls 
married, Cornelia becoming the wife of Dr. French, and Elizabeth the 
wife of Chas. C. Leavitt. Both long since died, Cornelia leaving two 
children, and Elizabeth four. 

By his venerable, dignified, maimer and half century of devotion to 
the legal profession, Mr. Cowles, while a resident of San Jose, acquired 
the honorary title of "Judge," by which he was henceforth always 
addressed. Eose Lawn having with its development marvelously 
enhanced in value, he finally accepted one of the many tempting offers 
for it, selling it in 1869 for a handsome sum. • Removing that year to 
San Diego county he invested his means there in real estate that at 
his death was estimated to be worth $50,000. 

When cast adrift from the wreck of the old Whig party in 1856, 
Judge Cowles very uaturaRy landed in the new Republican organiza- 
tion ; but he manifested no more active interest in politics in California 
than he did in Illinois. Only once did he publicly appear in a political 
demonstration, when at the age of 93 years he was complimented by a 
unanimous call to preside as chairman of a Republican county conven- 
tion. Had his aspirations been in the direction of official distinction, 
he undoubtedly would have attained high prominence. A constant 
reader and student, he was a cultured scholar — a walking encyclopedia 
of useful knowledge, especially well versed in legal learning and English 
literature. In conversation he was always entertaining and instructive. 
When extreme old age had retired him from all business activities of 

—12 H S 


life, he would ol'ten sii apaj-t and alone for lumva iu ruminating mood 
"in the pleasant companionship of his richly stored mind and varied 
memories.'- In liS85, when US years old — re])resented hy his portrait 
aeeom])anying this sketch, taken that year— he greatly enjoyed tlie visit 
of two ohl Illinois frien(l>, Udii. FJilui 11 Wash burnc^ and Gov. William 
Hross, who called on liim in their tour of recreation on the Pacific coast. 
His attachment to rural life contracted at Kose Lawn, led the Judge, 
on removal to San Diego county, to choose for his new liome a farm 
in Poway vallc}-, twenty miles northeast of San Diego Bay, where he 
resided until the death of his wife, in 1876, at the age of 86*^ years. His 
last change of residence was to the city of San Diego, where he passed 
the remainder of his days with his youngest son, Alfred E., the only 
member of his family now living, quietly breathing his last on the 16th 
of Xoveml)er, 1887, at the age of loo years, 2 months^ and 16 days. 

Edward L. Merrltt. 



By Edward L. Merritt. 

President Abraham Lincoln was shot to death by the assassin, John 
Wilkes Booth, during a play at Ford's theatre in Washington City, D. C, 
on the night of Friday, April 14, 1865, dying at twenty-two minutes 
past 7 o'clock, Saturday morning, April 15, 1865. The news of the 
assassination of Mr. Lincoln came during the night of April 14th, and 
the announcement of his death reached Springfield about 9 :00 o'clock 
in the forenoon of April 15, 1865. 

It would be difficult to describe the terrible condition of the public 
mind on the day when it was known that Abraham Lincoln was 
no more. To the last moment, a despairing hope had existed that 
our beloved citizen and president would not die. Strong men were 
stunned; others were overcome with grief; while others became wild 
with frenzy. This paralyzing shock came at a time when all were happy 
in the belief that the dreadful war was over, and many believed that 
without the guiding hand of Mr. Lincoln the fruits of our victorious 
armies were lost and chaos would follow. All conditions were desperate 
on that fateful 15th of April, 1865. Every kind of business was sus- 
pended, all the bells in the city were constantly tolled for several days 
and Springfield "put on sack cloth and ashes" and went into mourning, 
for Abraham Lincoln, her beloved citizen, was dead. 

At 12 :00 o'clock, noon, of that dreadful Saturday, only a few hours 
after President Lincoln had breathed for the last time, a large public 
meeting spontaneously assembled in the open, at the south front of the 
State house (now the Sangamon county court house) from which went 
forth the first sob of heartbreaking anguish to the world because of 
the horrible crime of this assassin. Since that awful day, forty-four 
great years of national glory and prosperity have intervened. Thousands 
of patriotic, loving hearts which would not be comforted, who saw only 
calamity to the nation in this cruel and heartless murder of the great 
and good Lincoln, are now with the endless throng. Let us hope they, 
too, will celebrate Abraham Lincoln's centennial in the realms beyond. 

At this gathering, his neighbors and associates, his professional 
brethren, his political friends and foes, came together with grief bur- 


dened hearts and tear dimmed eyes to humbly manifest their great love 
for their dead friend and neighbor. In this assemblage were lifelong 
and close friends of Abraham Lincoln; notable men in all walks of 
life and of national reputations who have contributed so much to blazen 
the fair name of Illinois high up on the escutcheon of the republic. 

With the liability of being considered tedious, I give below many of 
the names of these eminent citizens; also, the proceedings, including the 
resolutions adopted at this, the first assemblage of condolence held in 
the United States. 

The Hon. Shelby M. CuUom, with many evidences of bereavement, 
called the meeting to order and suggested that the Hon. Jesse K. Dubois, 
then State Auditor, being one of Mr. Lincoln's intimate friends, should 
preside. Mr. Dubois was unanimously chosen chairman, when the fol- 
lowing vice chairmen were elected : The Hon. Stephen T. Logan, Col. 
John Williams, W. F. Elkin, Elijah lies, X. H. Eidgely, E. B. Hawley, 
Thomas Condell, James L. Lamb, Gersham Jayne, Eichard Latham, 
A. G. Herndon, Eev. Albert Hale, and Eev. John G. Bergen. The 
Hon. James C. Conkling, Edward L. Baker, editor of The State Journal, 
and Edward L. Merritt, editor of The State Eegister, were selected as 
secretaries. The writer of this sketch is the only survivor of all the 
above named oflBcers of this meeting except Senator Cullom, who called 
the meeting to order. 

The Hon. John T. Stuart, with whom Mr. Lincoln read law and who 
was afterwards the senior member of his firm, with much emotion, 
briefly addressed the audience, condoling with the friends and former 
neighbors of the dead president, pathetically referring to the deep grief 
that had come to the American people in Mr. Lincoln's taking off, re- 
lating interesting incidents connected with his last interview with the 
President. On his motion, the chair appointed the following named 
gentlemen as a committee on resolutions : The Honorables John T . 
Stuart, Shelby M. Cullom, Samuel H. Treat, Milton Hay, Lawrence 
Weldon. William Jayne, Ozias M. Hatch, Benjamin S. Edwards and 
Alexander Starne. 

The Hon. John T. Stuart, from the committee, reported the follow- 
ing resolutions of condolence, which were unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas ; We have learned by telegraph from the city of Washing- 
ton, of the assassination of President Lincoln, and — 

"Whereas; We, his neighbors and friends, regard his death as a great 
and irreparable national calamity, and — 

"Whereas; It is fitting that those who knew him best in life, should 
express their deep distress at his untimely death; be it — 

"Eesolved, Therefore; That we, his neighbors and friends, without 
distinction of party, forgetting all past differences of opinion, unite in 
solemn accord in the expression of our deep sympathy for his family, 
his friends, our country and the peace of mankind for this, his untimely 
death, in that hour of our country's struggle, when was to be called 
into service those high qualities of head and heart, which endeared him 
as a man and made him distinguished as a President. - 


"Eesolved; That since the unexampled success of our arms, we have 
with patriotic pride, beheld indications upon the part of Mr. Lincoln 
of a policy of restoration and union, in the consummation of which the 
peace of the country and the wonted national integrity would again be 
restored to our stricken union. 

"Eesolved ; That in this sad national bereavement, it is the duty of all 
good citizens to rely with confidence and hope on the over-ruling Provi- 
dence of God, preserve calmness and faithfully submit and adhere to 
the sovereign laws of the land. 

"Eesolved; That in the assassination of the Hon. William H. Sew- 
ard, the country has lost an able, efficient and upright officer, and one 
whose services as a diplomat will be remembered by a grateful people 
through every period of coming history. [Secretary of State Seward, 
although severely wounded by an assassin and reported dead, happily 

"Eesolved; That inasmuch as this city has for a long time been the 
home of the President, in which he has graced with his kindness of 
heart and honesty of purpose, all the relations of life, it is appropriate 
that its "City of the Dead" should be the final resting place of all that 
on earth remains of him that is mortal, and to this end we respect- 
fully request the appointment of a committee on the part of the city 
council to act in conjunction with the Governor of the State, with a 
view of bringing hither his remains for interment." 

The only survivors of the committee on resolutions are the Hon. 
Shelby M. Cullom, United States Senator of Illinois, and Dr. William 
Jayne of this city. 

The remains of the dead president reached Springfield on the 3d cf 
May, accompanied by members of the Cabinet, members of the United 
States Senate and House of Eepresentatives; distinguished military 
officers and distinguished citizens from all parts of the United States, 
including officers of the various states. From Washington to his 
former home, the whole people were in a state of lamentations. At 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and at all the cities through whicli 
the funeral train passed, marked demonstrations of genuine sorrow, 
love and respect were paid to the memory of the great Lincoln by the 
people. The remains rested upon a beautiful and somberly decorated 
catafalque in the old representative chamber, of the State House, where 
they were viewed by over an hundred tliousand sorrowing people dur- 
ing the two days they lay in state. 

The Capital of Hlinois had made elaborate preparations for the last 
offices of the dead. To consummate a becoming tribute of an affec- 
tionate people, money, skill, patience, labor, nothing was spared that 
Springfield's love offering should be worthy of her great dead. The 
funeral obsequies of the mortal remains of Mr. Lincoln occurred on the 
4th day of May, 1865, and no American ever, up to this time, was laid 
to rest with more genuine love and distinguished and beautiful honors. 


The |i;illl)(';iri'rs were the Hoiiorables Jesse K . Diiljois, Stc|)hen 'l\ 
Logan, John T. Stuart, James N. Brown, Governor Gustavus Koerner, 
Jii(l,ue Samuel II. Treat. Col. John AVilliams, James L. I.aiiili. l'>rastus 
Wright, Jacob Bunn and Charles W. Malheny. Kverv one of whoju 
lia? since been aifectionately laid to rest by other pallbearers. 

Tlie funeral pageant was the largest and most imposing ever witnessed 
in the United States. It Avas made np of military, professional and about 
everv known fraternal and civic orsranization, embracins ei^ht divisions. 
All were afoot, except the marshals, their aids, and distinguished guests. 
The columns of marchers reached from curb to curb and in close order. 
Gen. Joseph E. Hooker was marshal in chief with Gen. John Cook of 
this city a-? chief of staff. (General Cook now is a resident of Michigan.) 
The late Gen. John A. IMcClernand of this city, was grand marshal, and 
rode at the head of the second division followed by the hearse, supported 
by the following aides: Lieutenant Colonel Schwartz, Captains Henry 
Jayne, 1\. Randolph, B. ¥. Ferguson, Thomas Owen, the Hon. Charles 
A. Keves. Dr. J. L. Million, the Hon. William l\r. Springer. Col. E. E. 
Myers; Judge A. X. J. Crook. Edward L. :\l<Ti'itl and ibe Hon. T. X. 
Higgins. The cortege was of such great numbers and of so great a length 
that the head of the procession had reached Oak "Ridge where the remains 
of Mr. Ijincoln were temporarily deposited in the receiving vault of the 
cemetery, before more than one-half of it was in line. In this march to 
the "City of the Dead,'' scores upon scores of the best musical organiza- 
tions, of the nation were in line, whose funeral dirges cadenced the 
great wail of a bereft people. 

The survivors of the twelve aids to General McClernand today are 
Capt. Henry Jayne of Taylorville, HI., the Hon. Charles A. Keyes, 
Judge A. N. J. Crook and Edward L. Merritt of this citv. 

The closing ceremonies at Oak Eidge were quite simple and in ac- 
cord with the plain life of him whose mortal remains were laid to rest, 
Praver was offered 1)v tlu' Eev. Albert Hale of this citv, followed with 
appropriate music, in which a choir of hundreds of voices joined. 
Bishop .Simpson of the Methodist church delivered a lengthy and stronsr 
funeral oration, tierce in its revengeful and invective denunciation of 
the southern rehellion leaders. Probably it was more so than would 
have met the approval of the dead, generous President, but this the 
times seemed to excvisc. After the benediction was pronounced by the 
Eev. P. D. Gurley of Xew York city, the vast assemblage of mourners 
dispersed, sorrowing. 

On the day of the funeral. The Lincoln National Monument Asso- 
ciation was organized with the Hon. Eichard J. Oglesby, Governor ol 
Illinois, as its president. On this day the first subscriptions of money 
were made for the erection of the magnificent monument which now 
adorns, in beautiful Oak Eidge, the last resting place of the wise, the 
good, the generous hearted and great Abraham Lincoln. 

In its afternoon issue of the 15th of April, 1865, the following para- 
graphs of an editorial appeared in The State Eegister on the death of 
President Lincoln: 


"Just in the hour w^heii tlie erowniug triumph of his life awaited 
him; when the result which he had labored and prayed for for years 
with incessant toil, stood almost accomplished; when he could begin 
clearly to see the promised land of his longings — the restored union- 
even as Moses, from the top of Pisgah, looked forth upon Canaan he 
had for forty years been striving to attain, the assassin's hand at once 
puts a rude period to his life and to his hopes. As Moses of old, Avho 
had led God's people through the danger and gloom of the wilderness, 
died when on the eve of realizing all that his hopes had pictured, ':o 
Lincoln is cut off just as the white wing of peace begins to reflect its 
silvery radiance over the red billows of war. It is hard for a great 
man to die, but doubly cruel that he should be cut off after such a 
career as that of him we mourn today. 

"But tears and regrets are alike unavailing, and the crushing sense 
of this great sorrow is all that we can now distinctly feel. We realize 
that the great Douglas has now a companion in immortality, and that 
when the roll of statesmen whose genius has left its impress upon the 
destiny of the country shall be complete, no names will stand higher 
or shine with purer luster than the two wliicli blaze upon the escutcheon 
of Illinois." 

Also, in the same paper of April ISth, the following editorial para- 
graph appeared : 

"History has recorded no such scene of bloody terror. The murdsr 
of monarchs has been written. Cwsar was slain in the senate chamber: 
Gustavus was butchered in the ball room; but these were usurpers and 
tyrants, not the chosen lieads of a people, empowered to select their 
rulers. And, 0, horrible, that he should have been assassinated when 
his best efforts to tranquilize the fears and fury of his people were ro 
nearlv realized. We are dumb with sorrow." 



By John T. Campbell. 
Mr. Campbell is now an inmate of the Soldiers' Home near Lafayette, Ind. 

The campaign of 1876 will never be forgotten by those who partici- 
pated in it. It is now twenty-nine years since our people were on the 
verge of a French Eevolution. A gap unclosed left a place for trouble 
to break in — that of not providing by law more minutely for the presi- 
dential succession. Three-fourths of the voters of today were school boys 
then, or then unborn. William J. Bryan was only 17 years old. Yet he 
now has the greatest personal following of any American. The history 
of that most exciting contest, especially the formation of the Electoral 
Commission has not yet all been told. Two men who were active partici- 
pants in that contest have given a history of it, including the count, 
each from his own partisan standpoint, and they differ materially in 
what each leaves out. They were Hon. James G. Blaine, in his "Twenty- 
Years of Congress," and Samuel S. (Sunset) Cox, in his "Three Decades 
of Federal Legislation." The writer was surveying a railroad in 
Southern Illinois while the great contest was pending, and became 
acquainted with a member of the Illinois State Senate, who told him 
that the greenback members, six senators, and three members of the 
House — then locally called "Texas Steers," — held the balance of power 
in the Legislature, and had a scheme to elect Judge David Davis to the 
United States Senate, which would disqualify him as a member of the 
Electoral Commission, and after the election was accomplished this 
senator told the writer how it v/as brought about. It is to bring out this 
hitherto unpublished history that this article is written; but to make it 
intelligible to present day readers, it is necessary to restate briefly the 
issues in the contest, and the official action taken thereon. Neither 
Blaine nor Cox gives the correct statement of how Judge Davis came to 
be elected senator over General John A. Logan. Evidently they did 
not know. 

Late in the night following the election of 1876, United States Sena- 
tor Zachariah Chandler of Detroit, then chairman of the National 
Republican Executive Committee, telegraphed the associated press that 
E. B. Hayes had one hundred eighty-five electoral votes and was elected. 
The general impresuon at sundown was that Tilden was ahead. The 
contest turned largely on the vote of South Carolina, Florida and Louisi- 


ana, but at the very last — when a small stone dropped into one side or 
the other of the balance would tip it, — one electoral vote from Oregon 
settled it. 

The campaign was hot from the start, and a vote so close was bound 
to be vigorously contested, and was also bound to carry the suspicion of 
fraud and bribery — more — it was bound to be a great temptation to use 
bribery and fraud to change the apparent result. The three southern 
states mentioned sent two sets of returns of the election to Washington. 
No intelligent person believed there had been a clean, fair, honest vote 
in those states since and including the vote that carried them into rebel- 
lion. Both republicans and democrats set up a vigorous claim to have 
carried the election, and each charged fraud against the other. The 
feeling grew hotter from the election in November, to the meeting of 
Congress in December, when the heat was transferred to and centered in 
Congress. There it soon took the serious form that all excitements do 
when rumors become rife and all are believed, especially the more unrea- 
sonable and improbable which cannot be traced to any reliable source ; 
such as Henry Watterson preparing to march one hundred thousand 
democrats to Washington to inaugurate Tilden; the House of Eepre- 
sentatives to declare itself to he the really and only representative body 
of the people, and recognize only Tilden as President; that President 
Grant intended to use the army to perpetuate himself as President, and 
many other rumors and surmises. President Grant did place troops in 
the disputed southern states, and quietly in Washington in anticipation of 
an outbreak, riot, insurrection and anarchy, and showed his good sense 
and patriotism as time proved ; but was vehemently denounced then as 
suppressing the freedom of the people. Only democrats were people in 
the opinion of the democrats. If this strife had not occurred with a 
generation that had just been through the scourge of the greatest civil 
war of historic time, it is yet doubtful if the excitement could have been 
held back from a bloody conflict; so sure did each side feel that it had 
the right, legal and moral. 

Sometime during the session of Congress, J. Proctor Knott, a demo- 
cratic member of the House from Kentucky ("who immortalized the city 
of Duluth") submitted a proposition for determining and settling the 
great dispute, which, after many changes — swelling at first, then shrink- 
ing — then changing in form, finally ended in the famous Electoral Com- 
mission, composed of five senators, five representatives and five members 
of the Supreme Court. McCrary of Iowa had first suggested the idea of 
such a commission, but Knott gave it political life by a resolution. It 
was easy to select the five senators and five representatives to sit on this 
commission. The Senate selected three republicans and two democrats, 
and the House being democratic selected three democrats and two repub- 
licans; the party caucas designating the members desired. Senators 
selected were George F. Edmunds, Vermont ; Oliver P. Morton, Indiana ; 
Fred T. Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, republicans; and Thomas F. Bay- 
ard, Delaware, and Allen G. Thurman, Ohio, democrats. The House 
selected Henry B. Payne, Ohio; Eppa Hunton, Virginia; Josiah G. 


Abbott, Massachusetts, deiuoeiats, and Jaiuus A. Gartield, Ohio, and 
George F. Hoar, Massachusetts, republicans. Let the reader bear in 
mind that each party was insistent on having an equal party representa- 
tion on tlie commission. But when it came to selecting the members of 
the Supreme Court, one member had to be cut into halves to maintain 
the partisan balance. Jt had been agreed to begin at Chief Justice Waite, 
and take the associate justices in the order of their respective conmiis- 
sions; but Chief Justice Waite was promptly objected off of the commis- 
sion because he had during the previous summer expressed a personal 
hostility to Mr. Tilden. Then the five associate justices were taken in 
the order of their commission dates, l)ut later in the order of their poli- 
tics and their geographical location. This Avould still include Justice 
David Davis of Illinois, who was the justice to be cut in halves. As at 
last agreed, the associated justices were to be Clifford and Field, demo- 
crats, and Strong and ^liller, republicans. The partisan balance is 
maintained up to this point. Now comes the tug of war. Judge Davis 
was originally a republican, but for the past five to ten years had been 
coquetting witli democrats to get their nomiuation for the presidency. 
In February, 1872, he was nominated by the Labor Eeform party at the 
Columbus, Ohio, convention for President, with Joel Parker, their Gover- 
nor of-Xew Jersey, as Vice-president. (The writer was a delegate to 
that convention). Davis lield that nomination by the halter, neither 
putting it in the stable nor turning it loose — holding it as a pull to get 
the democratic nomination till it went to Horace Greele}', when he 
turned the Labor nomination loose. In 18TG, he had been quiet for the 
then last few years, and his politics, so far as the public knew, were zero. 
Blaine says Davis voted for Tilden at the election of 1810, and demo- 
cratic Congressman Springer of Illinois (according to Cox) says Davis 
did not vote at that election. 

As both parties were so strenuous in contending for a due partisan 
representation on the commission, they certainly expected each member 
of the commission to vote his political bias in the case. That left the 
whole decision to Judge Davis. The democrats believed he would vote 
to seat Tilden, and doubtless rightly so. The republicans believed so 
too, and they were at first strongly opposed to leaving the decision to any 
commission whatever. They had, as they believed — the prima facie 
case — why should they give their case away? But the populnr vote Avas 
some two hundred thousand in favor of Tilden, and the electoral vote 
only one in favor of Hayes, and that strongly disputed. 

The Electoral Commission was really a democratic measure. It 
originated with thoin and the Senate democrats voted twenty-six for and 
one against it. The House democrats voted 1(50 for, and 17 against it. 
The republican senators voted 21 for and IG against it; the House repub- 
lican:* voted 31 for and 85 against it. Taking lioth houses the democrats 
stood 186 for, and 18 against. The republicans 52 for. and 101 against. 

Judge Davis' name was bandied back and forth in Congress, in a way 
not pleasing or complimentary to him. Democrats denied that he was 
a democrat. Republicans declared he was. He could see that while the 


democrats declared him to be a political nobody, they certainly expected 
him to be a very important political somebody. One democrat said, 
"Why, only yesterday he was a candidate for United States Senator in 
the Illinois Legislature against the democrats." Everybodv expected 
each member of the commission to vote to seat the candidate of his party. 
Senator Morton of Indiana, though a member of the commission, 
'strongly objected to its existence. "Why not leave the matter to the 
whole Supreme Court?" he said repeatedly. But at last the commission 
and its members were agreed upon, and it included Judge Davis as the 
neutral, doubtful, or uncertain member who M^as to make the real de- 
cision. Why not at once discard the other fourteen members? Both 
houses agreed that the decision of this commission should be Innding 
unless both houses concurred in rejecting it. At first the democrats 
wanted its decisions to be binding only when concurred in by both houses 
of Congress, to which the republicans would not agree. 

Now, we are up to the surprise that knocked all previous calculations 
into splinters. Everybody expected Judge Davis to vote to seat Tilden, 
though for effect the democrats denied that he was a democrat. Eepulili- 
cans expected Tilden to be counted in and had made up their minds to 
slide down as easily as possible on this greased board — the electoral 
commission. Sunset Cox, in his "Three Decades" in regard to Judge 
Davis being taken away from the electoral commission, page 650, says 
as follows: 

"When the proceedings had reached this harmonious stage, a cloud 
no larger than a man's hand was discerned in the western sky. An 
Illinois "independent," not having the fear of Gen. John A. Logan 
before his eyes, cast his vote for Judge Davis for senator. That "inde- 
pendent" little dreamed that his craft bore Caesar and his fortunes ; or 
that he was ])laying the role of Gen. Monk. The Illinois democrats 
in the Legislature, gifted with a fatuity beyond their age and genera- 
tion, with a vision hardly extended beyond their physical orsjans, swung 
into line, and the news was flashed over the wires that Judge David 
Davis had been elected to fill the seat of John A. Logan in the Senate 
of the United States. That dispatch was pregnant with stupendous 
significance to the American people, for it meant as the fifth judge on 
the commission, Joseph P. Bradley. The electoral liill was still pending 
in Cono-ress, but had either side been inclined to defeat it they could 
hardly have done so. Both parties were fully committed to it. It is 
not certain that either party wished to recede. It was plain, however, 
from that moment democratic hopes went down, and that republican 
apprehension was succeeded by confidence. Judge Davis' acceptance of 
the senatorial seat removed him from the prolial)ilities for the fifth judge- 
shin of the commission." 

Blaine, in his "Twenty Years of Congress," Vol. II, page 585, speak- 
ing of Judge Davis' position in the matter, says: "Originally a repub- 
lican. Judge Davis had for some years affiliated with, the democratic 
partv, and had in the late election preferred Mr. Tilden to Mr. Hayes. 
Without any imputation of improper motives, there can hardly be a 


doubt that the democrats, in their almost unanimous support of the 
electoral bill, believed that Judge Davis would be selected, and by a 
parity of reasoning the large republican majority against the bill might 
be attributed to the same cause. But an unlookedfor event disturbed 
all calculations and expectations. On the 26th of January the House 
was to vote on the electoral bill, and a large majority of the members 
were committed to its support. To the complete surprise of both parties 
it happened that Judge Davis was elected senator from Illinois the pre- 
ceding afternoon, January 25th. Chosen by the democratic members 
of the Legislature, reckoned as a democratic senator elect, there was an 
obvious impropriety, which Judge Davis saw as quickly as others, in his 
being selected; and the four judges agreed unanimously upon Joseph 
P. Bradley (republican) as the fifth judicial member of the commission." 

This made eight republicans to seven democrats on the commission, 
where everybody a few hours before expected the reverse. 

The following account of how Judge Davis came to be elected United 
States Senator, as before stated, was given the writer at the time by a 
greenback, or "independent," State senator, and confirmed lately by 
letters in answer to enquiries concerning it. The substance of the letters 
is here given to avoid extraneous matter. 

General Logan was a candidate to succeed himself in the United States 
senate. He had voted for the measure denounced as the "salary grab." 
He received the republican caucus nomination unanimously, but one 
republican, jMarshall of Will county, deserted him after a few ballots, 
and could not be coaxed back. 

The democrats nominated Gen. John M. Palmer for senator, and the 
independents (greenbacks or "steers") nominated Gen. William B. 
Anderson, who was still serving in Congress. The "steers" in the Legis- 
lature could not be voted as a unit for anybody. One, Haines of Chicago, 
persisted in voting for Capt. William H. Parish of Saline county, who 
was a "steer." One democrat from Jefferson county could not be induced 
to come to the support of the "steer," Anderson, and he influenced other 
democrats not to compromise on him. When the balloting for senator 
had become irksome. General Palmer invited Captain Parish to his 
room in the Leland hotel, and there confided to him that he (Palmer) 
was going to withdraw from the contest. This information was soon 
distributed through the members of the Legislature. The three "steers" 
in the House had been for several ballots, voting for Judge Davis instead 
of their own Anderson, as supported by the six "steers" in the senate. 
As soon as the word that Palmer would withdraw had passed around, 
the "steers" and democrats began a free and easy talk among themselves, 
speculating about what would turn up next. In these informal discus- 
sions, the democrats proposed that they would write five names and the 
"steers" might accept or select one of the five and the democrats would 
join in his election. "ISTo," said the "steers," 'Hbut we Avill write five 
names and you democrats may select one and we will join in his elec- 
tion." These propositions seemed near accomplishment, l3ut finally ended 
in talk. There was a strong effort made the next day to stampede the 


joint session, first to one dark horse then to another, but without suc- 
cess. Much confusion and excitement prevailed, and in the forenoon of 
the day preceding the election, Captain Parish (a "steer") made a bold 
guess and uttered it in a bold remark to a group of democratic senators : 
"There will be no election today, but tomorrow a senator will be elected, 
and on the first ballot." This remark soon permeated the whole demo- 
cratic membership of the Legislature. The next morning (January 
25th) three democratic senators came to Captain Parish and asked if it 
was still his opinion that a senator would be elected that day. On his 
affirmative answer, they asked him whom they (the "steers") had to 
offer them (the democrats). He answered in a confident manner, "Judge 
Davis." The group of democratic senators received the proposition with 
favor, and sent word to the House democrats to line up at once for Judge 
Davis and he would be elected. It was at once agreed that the democrats 
and greenbackers ("steers") should march in pairs from the Senate to 
the House chamber for the joint ballot. Parish and Mr. Archer from 
Pike county led the procession. Their serene, confident manner showed 
that something had been decided on. Archer's name was called first, and 
at the end of the call Judge Davis was elected. 

That day at the dinner table a democratic member, Mr. Washburn, 
said to Captain Parish, "Well, we have saved our son." "Yes," said 
Captain Parish, "but you have lost Eome." "What? — what do you mean 
by that expression?" asked Mr. Washburn. "I mean," said Captain 
Parish, "that Davis will not serve on the commission and Hayes will 

Captain Parish had been a republican, and though at the time a 
"greenback" — "independent" — "steer," he did not believe the time had 
come to turn this government over to the democratic party, with the 
elements then dominating it. While the move to elect Davis was on he 
feared to trust his lips to speak until the danger was past lest the demo- 
crats should bethink themselves as to what they were doing. 



By Zimri Enos. 

The first settlements in the territory now included within the city 
of Sprino-field were made in 1819 and '20 hy John and William Kelh.'V, 
Andrew Elliott, Jacob and Levi Ellis, Abraham Lanterman, John 
Lindsey, Samuel Little and Mr. Daggett. Their nine cabins were 
'scattered along on both sides of a line over two miles in length north 
and south. Its being the thickest settlement in the new county of 
Sangamon created by an Act of Legislation in 1821, was one of the in- 
ducements, as well as it? beautiful locUion and its surroundings, for 
the commissioners, Zachariah Peter, William Drennan and Rivers Cor- 
raack, appointed to locate the temporary county seat, selecting Spring- 
field as the place. The stake they drove in the prairie near John 
Ivelley's cornfield and near what is now the northwest corner of Seeond 
and Jefferson streets, was the site of the temporary county sent and the 
place where the log cabin court house was built. I remember this log 
cabin. It remained there some time after the frame court house was 
built at the northeast corner of Sixth and Adams streets. This loca- 
tion was in the middle of a handsome undulating prairie nook, a mile 
in length east and west and a half mile north and south, thoroughly 
drained by never failing s'})ring branches and bordered on the north 
and west by he:avy timber and on the south by a number of beautiful 
groves of young forest trees, of pin oak, elm, cherry and hackberry, 
which were festooned with grape vines and frimred with ]ilum and 
haw bushes, crab-apples, hazel nuts, alders and blackberries, and en- 
circled by millions of strawberry vines. 

At that earlv day and for a number of ycirs after, the timber line 
on the north along both sides of the Kelley branch extended from what 
is now Sixth and Elms streets on the north side of the branch nearly 
with the lines of Elm and Pine streets and Calhoun avenue to the east 
side of Bond street, then a little east of north a fourth of a mile and 
then east along the south side of the Watson branch, now called the 
Converse branch, to Arthur Watson's house, now Mr. William Con- 
verse's I'e-'idence. In the we^t side of this little prairie nook were lo- 
cated William Kelley and Andrew Elliott. On the south side of the 
Kelley branch the timber line extended from Sixth and Elm streets 
southwest to Fifth and Fnion streets, then west with Union and Miller 






■^ en 

, ? 

fD 3 



•^ o 



streets to Rutledge street and west of Eutledge street to the town branch. 
The forest along the Kelley branch and Avest of Kutledge and Bond 
streets was heavy timber. Very few of the old trees are now left, but 
many of the original young growth that' are now good sized trees are 
to be found, such as the pin oaks between Fifth and Sixth streets, south 
of El'm, the w-alnuts and other native trees in the Edwards, Fox, Gehr- 
man, Logan, Eeisch, JMendenhall premises and the old Kuhn and 
Ackerman brewery grounds. The timber line from Lewis street for 
at least a block south of Washington street extended for as much as a 
half mile west to Avhere it curved south to the north side of the Lind- 
sey branch, now known as the Williams branch. This branch forked 
west of West Grand avenne, one fork running from the northeast and 
the other from the southeast. On the south side of the north fork wis 
Mr. Lanterman's house, about where Mr. Carroll's residence now is, 
and some 300 yards south on the other fork was Efequire Lindsay's 
house. The two Ellises, from tlie best information 1 can get, were 
located in the edge of the timber south of Washington street and be- 
tween West Grand avenue and Lincoln avenue. And Mr. Daggett, 
south of Washington and west of Pasfield street. Along the Town 
branch to the east there was no heavy timber. Some fine old large 
trees were thinly scattered along the bottom and bluff slopes, especially 
on the north side, which w^as a longer and gentler grade from the branch, 
than the south. 

The branch running close to the foot of the bluffs on the south made 
a number of prominent bluffs or knolls between the ravines from the 
south that w^ere thickly covered wdth a young gTowth of timber, brush 
and grape vines. The first of these groves was the old grave yard, now 
the high school grounds. The second was the John B. Watson grove, 
settled by him in 1829, afterward the Mather property and now the 
State House grounds. The third was the George Forquer grove be- 
tween Second and Third streets, settled in 1830, now the Pricked t 
property (Supreme Court building). The fourth grove and the largest of 
all was between Third and Sixth streets and Jackson and Cook streets, its 
centre being the present ground of the Governor's Mansion. These groves, 
as I have before described, were composed almost entirely of young timber 
and surrounding thicket. Much of this grove east of Fifth street was cut 
down and grubbed out by Mr. John Dryer, who started a nursery there 
in 182 — , the first in Sangamon county, and which subsequently be- 
came Knapp's addition. Some few of the young growth of timbor 
was left on Sixth street, south of Edwards, on what is known as the 
Eastman property. On the north side of the Town branch, the scatter- 
ing timber extended north to Washington and east to Third street. 
M^e'^t of Third street and for about a half block on both sides of Adams 
street was a grove of young timber, the center being the high ground at 
the southeast corner of Second and Adams streets. In this grove on 
the west '^ide of Third s+rp^t. n little l^sc than a half block north from 
Adams street, I attended the first out of door religious meeting ever held 
to my knowledge in Spring-field. Who the preacher was, whether Lor- 
enzo Dow, or some one else, I don't remember. The heavy timber 


yielded an abundant supply of hickory nuts and walnuts and the best 
only were selected for the winter supply. At the proper season aloag 
the edge of the timber strawberries, blackberries, plums and hazelnuts 
were plentiful and in a short time persons could gather all they wanted. 
In the heavy timber on the south side of Kelley branch between wdiat is 
now First and Third streets, we small boys used to go to gather May 
apples and dig ginseng and turkey peas. I doubt if there are 
many now living that have ever seen turkey peas, or know what they 
were. They were a small bulbous root, about a half inch in diameter, in 
shape of an onion, very pleasant tasting and grew not over an inch deep in 
the ground. They, with the artichoke, were abundant along the prairie 
drains and bottom lands, but vanished as the hog supplanted the deer. 

In the south part of the southeast quarter' of section 28, about the 
tanyard, was a pretty little sugar camp containing quite a number of 
fine sugar trees. And down along the north side of the Town branch, 
on the blue grass slope in the open timber of chinquapin and sugar 
trees extending north from the branch across the present Madison 
street and including lots 7, 8 and 9, of Pascal P. Enos' first sub-divi- 
sion, was the old Indian camping ground, w^here they camped on their 
annual trading and begging trip to Springfield. On such occasions, 
they w^ould go around the town to the best looking houses and dance 
and beg for something to eat. They were given bread, bacon and 
corned beef, which they regarded as rarities and luxuries. This place 
was also the ball ground of the bigger boys and occasionally the place 
for public meetings and speaking. On the south side of the branch, 
from the Indian camping ground in lots of Erastus Wright's additioa, 
was the old stone quarry from which all the stone was obtained that was 
used in the town for walling wells and cellars, making jambs and hearths 
and backs for the wooden daubed chimneys and door steps. 

The town branch at that date and for some time after the deep snow 
was a constantly running stream of pure spring water, with deep pools 
and gravelly riffles along its course and fed from innumerable springs 
directly or from small branches which emptied into it. One of these 
pools, the largest, was known as the baptizing hole and was the bathing 
place for men and boys. It was in the northeast corner of the grounds 
of the Governor's mansion and Jackson street. I have seen fish a foot 
long caught there and the boys used to catch fish in the deep holes along 
the branch. There was another deep hole near Seventh street Avhere 
the combined waters of several prairie swales and drains had been able 
to cut through the tough sod and form a channel some 4 or 5 feet deep. 
The fall of the water at this place from off the sod had scooped out a 
deep place, so deep that we small boys were afraid to go in it. Of the 
various spring branches that ran into the town branch, going from the 
west to the east, the first entered the town branch about 100 feet west 
of Pasfield street and had its beginning in a prairie drain heading in 
Second street at the northeast corner of the Third Ward school house 
lot and running thence to the southwest corner of First and Mason 
streets, thence in a channel to the northeast corner of Madison and 
Klein streets, thence across Madison to Mill street at the alley on the 


east side — thence along the east side of Mill street to Jeiferson street, 
tlience southwest and west about 150 feet and then direct to its junction 
with the town branch. Along this branch were located two of the first 
settlers, John Kelley on the east side, at the top of the hill, in a double 
log house surrounded with big sugar trees and situated near the southeast 
corner of Block — , Mason's Addition, and on the northwest corner of 
Jefferson and Klein, his brother. 

In the branch on the west side of the block and adjoining Jefferson 
street on the north side Avas the Ox Tread wheel grist mill for grinding 
wheat and corn built by Col. Thomas Cox shortly after he came to 
Springfield as Register of the Land Office in 1823. I think it perhaps 
was the first tread wheel mill in the county. On the south side of Jef- 
ferson street and a little west of the mill was Cox's distillery. It was 
buried under the sidewalk and some forty years ago I had occasion to 
use it in a survey and dug down "and found it; the logs then were not 
all decayed. Further down the branch on its west side, at its junction 
with the town branch was the lanyard started by Proctor and sold by 
him to John Wood. The vats were a]ong the north side of the town 
branch in a little bottom flat and the bark shed and currying house was 
on a slight elevation adjoining to the north. The large dwelling house 
was on the east side of the tannery and branch. Along the little branch 
I call to mind two incidents that were important in their day. The 
first was a barbecue held in a pretty sugar tree grove, extending along 
both sides of the branch in the block bounded by First and Klein and 
Mason and Madison streets, and seeing the roasting of the meat over 
the pits filled with hot coals; of what was the date or occasion for this 
demonstration, I have no knowledge. I only know it was at a very 
early date, for I was too small to be trusted there alone. The second 
was the mustering the volunteers for the Winnebago war in 1838. They 
formed in line east and west about where the Third Ward school house 
is, for the mustering in and while I was hurrying out on North Second 
street to see the ceremony and had gotten half a block north of Madison 
street. Colonel Thomas Neale, the commander, came galloping out by 
me, braided and striped, brass buttons, epaulets, cock hat and plume, 
sword belt and spurs. I was so dazzled and captivated by this splendid 
display and my military enthusiasm so aroused, that for a good while 
after I spent my time, slaying Indians, galloping around our lot 
a-straddle of my stick horse, with a chick feather in my hat and a 
splinter for a sword tied with a string to my side. 

The next tributary brook entered the town branch at Washington and 
Pasfield streets and extended in a channel south through what was early 
known as JSTewsomeville (now Thomas Lewis' Third Addition) as far 
as Monroe street and by swale drainage as far as Edwards street. This 
brook is now sewered on nearly its exact course or line all the way to 
Edwards street and known as the Pasfield sewer. On this brook was 
erected a smaller tannery. 

The third brook, the largest of all entered the town branch from the 
north at the northwest corner of Adams and First streets. It had two 
forks, one had its source in a prairie swale beginning a little northeast 
—13 H S 


of the northwest corner of Madison and Sixth streets and flowed soutli- 
west to the northwest corner of Jefl'erson and Fifth streets, thence diag- 
onally to the south side of the alley at Foui-th street, thence in a channel 
to the northwest corner oL' Washington and Third streets, thence along 
Washington street 130 or 140 feet to its junction with the other fork 
and it ran over the ground now occupied by the Eeisch building at the 
northwest corner of Madison <iud Sixth streets, the Illinois Central 
passenger depot, the Lauphier block on Fifth street, the hall at the 
northwest corner of Jeiferson and Fifth, the St. Nicholas hotel, the 
Silas hotel and the C. & A. station. The other fork was the outlet for 
three prongs or drains. One started in Second street just south of the 
alley between Eeynolds and Mason streets, and drained to a point on 
the west side of Third street, a block nortli of Madison street, where it 
was joined by a second prong which headed up on the east side of Fourth 
street, a block further north. They ran south along the west side of 
Third street, and were joined by the third prong about 100 feet south 
of Madison street, which headed up on the east side of Fourth street, a 
little north of Madison street. The combined waters continued south to 
a point about 120 feet north of Jejferson street, where they crossed the 
west line of Third street, and formed a deep wide channel that was full 
of springs and where I spent much of my early childhood days. The 
brook ran thence almost in a straight line to its connection with the 
other fork at Washington street, the combined forks continued on a 
curved course southwest to the alley at Second street between Wa"shing- 
ton and Adams and thence in nearly a direct line to the junction with 
the town branch. The Western hotel and the Vredenburgh lumber office 
and lumber house are directly on the last described fork. 

The fourth started in a drain heading on the west side of Spring 
street south of Jackson street, and running northeasterly entering Second 
street, very near Charles street, forming a channel in Second street and 
discharging into the town branch a little south of Monroe street. It 
was in the hollow of this ravine east of Spring street that Van N"oy Avas 

The fifth branch commenced with a prairie drain heading a little 
north and east of the intersection of Washington and Seventh streets 
and running thence through the lot at the southeast corner of Washing- 
ton and Sixth streets, where the First Xational bank is located, thence 
through the southeast part of the public square, thence across Adams 
street and through the lots at the southeast corner of Adams and Fifth 
streets, over the ground now occupied by five or six big stores, thence 
across Fifth to near the alley on the west side where it commenced 
forming a channel, thence southwesterly across Monroe street and the 
lots of the Odd Fellows building at the southeast corner of Monroe and 
Fourth streets — thence through the south part of the l)lock west of 
Fourth street and emptied into the town branch at Capitol avenue and 
Third street. This brook or drain is filled up and built over its entire 

The sixth ravine commenced in a prairie sag at Fourth street and ran 
northwesterly across Allen and Third street, then curving to the east of 


north ran in nearly a straight line to the intersection of the west line 
of Third street about 150 feet south of Jackson street where it channeled 
and crossed Third and Jackson streets between Fourth and the Bettie 
Stuart Institute and connected with the town branch. This ravine has 
been 'entirely filled. 

The seventh ravine had its beginning on the north side of Adams 
street between Eighth and Ninth streets, and running southwesterly 
across Adams, Eighth and Monroe streets, through the engine house and 
city hall grounds, across Seventh street to the north and rear of the 
First Presbyterian church, across Capitol avenue and Sixth streets to 
the south side of Sangamon alley and thence to the town branch at the 
east side of Fifth street and formed a channel for about a block and a 
half, now all filled up. 

The eighth ravine started in a prairie drain at Fourth street, between 
Scarritt and Allen streets, and ran a northeasterly course across Fifth 
and Scarritt streets, and then nearly parallel with Fifth street to the 
west side of the alley on the north side of Cook street — thence across 
the alley and Edwards street to the town branch west of Sixth street. 

The ninth ravine started on the east side of Eighth street about at 
Allen street and ran a little west of north to Eighth street, thence along 
Eighth street to the town branch at a little north of Cook street. That 
part in Eighth street has been sewered. Of the two big ravines that 
formed the town branch, the north or main fork had its beginning in a 
prairie pond at Fifteenth street between Jackson and Edwards streets 
and ran southwesterly across Edwards, Fourteenth, Thirteenth, Twelfth, 
Eleventh and Tenth streets to its Junction with the South Fork near the 
east side of Ninth street and a little north of Cook street. The South 
Fork had its start from the prairie ponds along Twelfth and Thirteenth 
streets, the main drain heading at Thirteenth and Nebraska streets and 
running northwesterly to its junction with the north fork at Cook and 
Ninth streets. 

On the north of the original town was the Kelley branch, which had its 
origin in a prairie drain starting a little east of Eighth street and north 
' of Enterprise street and running a little south of west across Eightl) 
and Enterprise streets and north of Elm street across Seventh street 
to the southwest corner of Sixth and Elm streets, thence in a channel 
to a point about 100 feet east of Fifth street, at Dodge street. At this 
point, it was Joined by another branch from the soutlieast that avms 
channeled (in a curve, bending south), as far as Sixth and is now 
sewered, the Second ward new school house is over the sewer, then 
crossing the street and northeast corner of Sixth and Enos avenue and 
heading at Seventh and Miller streets. There was another little ravine 
that emptied into this, that started between Seventh and Eighth streets 
and ran through the north part of the McClemard school lot, that 
formed a channel at the east side of Sixth street, but is now filled its 
whole length. From the point 100 feet east of Fifth street, the branch 
ran to the northeast corner of Fifth and Dodge streets, then circled 
a little north of Dodge to Fourth street, then back again crossing Dodge 
at the south side of the railroad bridge, then southwest across Third 


street to West Dodge street, thence along Dodge street to First street, 
thence along the north side of Dodge street to Kutledge street, thence 
southwesterly across Rutledge, the Rcisch Brewery lot and Herndon 
street, to about a half block south of Herndon street, then a little south 
of west acrot^s Bond, Wnliuit and West Miller streets, to its junction with 
the town branch at Salome avenue, some fifty feet south of Miller street. 
The Kelley branch is now sewered nearly on its original course from its 
outlet to Sixth and Elm streets. The third drain into Kelley branch 
on the south side, going east, started on the south side of Union street, 
between Fourth and Fifth streets and ran northwest across Union 
street, the southwest part of the Edwai'ds lot. Fourth and Third streets, 
and discharged into the Kelley branch a short distance west of Third 
street. The Fourth ravine started from the south side of Carpenter 
street between Klein and Rutledge streets and ran northwest across 
Carpenter, Eutledge and Miller streets to the Kelley branch, forming a 
channel through the last block. The fifth ravine started from the soutli 
side of Carpenter street at the west line of ]\Iapon's addition and ran 
north across Carpenter and Miller streets to the Kelley branch, forming 
a channel in Herndon and Edwards addition. The sixth ravine started 
at the alley south of Carpenter street, just east of the west side of 
Kessler's addition and ran north across Carpenter street along the wo-t 
side of Taylor street and across west Miller street into the Kelley 

On the north side of the Kelley branch, the first drainage into it 
was a large branch which started in a prairie drain at Fifth and Rafter 
streets and ran southwest across Fourth and Third streets to the north 
side of Pine street, west with line of Pine some 200 feet in a channel 
(immediately north was the residence of William Kelley, one of the 
first settlers, and j\Ir. Gehrman's brick dwelling is on nearly the same 
ground) then running southwest across Pine, Second and First and 
connects with the main branch at the alley between First and Klein 
streets and is sewered from outlet to Pine street. The second drain 
started west of First street and north of Calhoun avenue and ran south- 
west across the avenue and Klein streets to the branch midway between 
Klein and Eutledge streets. The third was a two-pronged ravine, both 
Ijeginning at Calhoun avenue, one at Bond, the other at Walnut street, 
and running across Hay and Herndon streets to the Kelley branch. 

The original town with its two additions, the County Commissioners' 
addition in 1825 and John Taylor's west addition in 1S26, the only 
additions previous to the deep snow of 1831, were located on this beau- 
tiful undulating, well drained prairie nook, with not a pond or marshy 
place in it, but one small one in Seventh street, on the north side of 
Adams street, which, when full, drained west to the ravine running 
tlirnugh the public square. And had the hr'inches been kept open and 
ravines channeled to their heads, Springfield would never have gotten 
the reputation of being a mud hole and become a subject of comment 
as such all over the state. But a mistaken idea of beauty, utility and 
economy got hold of some of our early village fathers, that the streets. 


to be beautiful and useful, should be brought to as near a level as pos- 
sible and that a great saving of expense in bridging could be made by- 
filling up the branches and ravines at the street intersections. 

Of the first settlers of the town, now the City of Springfield, prior 
to its location as the county seat in 1821, I personally knew Williim 
Kelle}^, Andrew Elliott, Abraham Lanterman, esq., John Lindsey. John 
Kelley died and Levi and Jacob Ellis moved to Fulton county in 1823, 
the year we came to Springfield. Of Mr. Daggett, I have no knowledge 
or information. Mr. Samuel Little, grandfather of Gershom J. 
Little, who settled on what is now the Leland farm, I also knew. And 
of those who were here before or at the time of the location of the coun- 
ty seat, Dr. Gershom Jayne came in 1820. I knew Charles Matheny, 
James Adams, Erastus Wright, Elijah lies in 1821. And also, those 
here in 1822. prior to the plattino- and recording the town plat. John 
Taylor, Elijah Slater, Thomas Price, Mrs. Hawley. 

For the little two-room houses of that date, the sills, posts, plates, 
joists were all hewn, squared and dressed from small trees; the stud- 
ding and rafters from straight saplings, the weather boarding marie 
from clapboards dressed, wit^i the drawing knife. The shingles made 
and shaved in the woods — tbe latb? also in the timber — the flooring 
sawed by hand with the whip saw; all the materials were home made, 
except the brass and nails. 

Settlement of Springfield and Slavery in Springfield. 

The first settlement in Illinois by American population was made in 
the southern part of the State by immigrants, almost exclusively from the 
slave states, and extended gradually north to the middle of the State. 
Many of the well-to-do first immigrants brought with them their slaves, 
and held them as such, and the relation of master and servant was by 
common consent recognized. Some of the first settlers of Sangamon 
county brought with them one or more slaves. One of the Kirkpatricks 
brought with him his colored boy Titus; Col. Thomas Cox, two girls, 
Nance and Dice; Daniel Outright his boy Major; Dr. Todd, his colored 
woman Phoebe, and George Forquer his boy Smith. These colored 
persons were known and called by the surnames of their masters, the 
same as in the slave states. That this condition of servitude was recog- 
nized in the community is evidenced by the mortgages, judgments, levies, 
appraisement and final public sale of Nance and Dice Cox. They were, 
after the sale, called Nance and Dice Taylor, the name of their new 
master. This sale created a great amount of talk and sympathy, not for 
the two girls, but for Mrs. Cox and her two children, who were of the 
best and most intelligent class of the early settlers. They were turned 
out of house and home, stripped of nearly everything and compelled to 
take shelter in a little deserted log cabin a mile and a half from town. 

Colonel Cox, when he first came to Springfield in 1823, was a man of 
recognized ability and standing in the State, and was appointed -by Presi- 
dent Monroe, Eegister of the Land Office at this place. He bought out 
the Kelley improvements and entered the one-quarter section upon which 


they were located, and which at that time was considered th(» choice one- 
quarter of the four quarter sections that embraced the town plat, the 
outlots and subdivisions before mentioned. He immediately engaged in 
some expensive improvements for that day of limited means, such as 
his mill, distillery, his hewn log dwelling house with a hall and brick 
chimneys, one of the finest houses in the county. He also erected a two- 
story building adjoining the back of his dwelling. For what purpose 
it was constructed, I never understood, perhaps for his Register office. 
T remember going up an outside stairway on the east side into a printing 
office in the second story, most likely Hooper Warren's establishment. 
These improvements and the purchase of the Kelley building involved 
him in considerable indebtedness. But the great misfortune that hap-- 
pened him at this time and, that finally ruined him. was that he became 
too great a patron of his own distillery. He acquired so great a passion 
for, and indulged to such an extent in liquor, that he became totally 
incapacitated and indifferent to his business and suffered all his property 
to be covered with mortgages, judgments, liens, and executions, and it 
was to satisfy two of these judgments and executions that these girls 
were finally put up at public auction and sold. ]\rany persons would 
regard this as but the dream of a six year old boy, and would not believe 
it, but the facts were so indelibly impressed upon my mind, that I went 
to the Circuit Clerk's office, and giving him the names and dates, the old 
records were soon found. Circuit Clerk Jones kindly furnished me with 
the copies, that are hereby attached.^ Colonel Cox shortly after moved 
to the lead mines, and then across into Iowa, where he reformed and 
became a leading citizen, and was elected presiding officer of one of its 
legislative bodies. 

The name of one of these judgment creditors mentioned in the records; 
Nathan Cromwell, a merchant who came here about the year 1825, and 
had a store in a little frame building on the north side of Jefferson st., 
and on the west side of lot 8, Block G, reminds me of another incident 
in which he figured. He had a very handsome wife of whom he was 
quite proud. One of the citizens had said something to or about her 
that excited his anger so much, that he loaded a pistol and took his wife 
with him and went to the man's house and pointing the pistol at the 
man's breast demanded of him to get down on 'his knees and beg his 
wife's pardon, or he would shoot him, which the man had to do to save 
his life. This incident caused great excitement and gossip in the little 
town and was for a long time the topic of conversation. 

Town of Springfield. 

During the two years that intervened between the locating of the 
temporary county seat in 1821 and the survey and platting of the orig- 
inal town of Calhoun, now Springfield, in 1823, a few cabins and out- 
houses had been built mi n lino east and west with ]\rajor Ties' store, 

Sold 12th of July, li<27. 

1. Nance, $151. Dice, $150. 

bought by John Taylor, 

John Howard (I think). " Commission on Sale. $15.40. 


at the southeast corner of Second and Jefferson streets, and John 
Kelley's improvements at the northwest corner of Klein and Jefferson 
streets. When the town was surveyed, in order not to interfere with 
these cabins and improvements, this line was made the base of the survey 
and called Jefferson street and all the other streets and alleys were parallel 
with or at right angles to it without any regard to the government section 
lines. And for the same reason, the north and south streets were also 
located to suit these improvements, thus making the streets and blocks 
of unequal dimensions in the west part of the town in which all these 
improvements were located, and all varying about two degrees from the 
section lines. The town, as thus surveyed, was located on four quarter 
sections of the four different sections — 27, 28, 33 and 34, township 16, 
north range 5 west, 3d P. M. The section corner common to the four 
sections being about twenty feet south of Washington street and nearly 
half way between First and Second streets. The four proprietors of 
the town were Elijah Ties. Thomas Cox, John Taylor and Pascal P. 
Enos. Elijah lies entered the southwest quarter section of section 27 ; 
Thomas Cox, the southeast quarter of section 28 ; John Taylor, the north- 
east quarter of section 33, and Pascal P. Enos, the northwest quarter of 
section 34. Three of these entries were made on the 7th of ISTovember, 
1823, and were the first that were made at the opening of the land 
office in Springfield. 

The town as surveyed, platted and recorded, was bounded by Madi- 
son street on the north. First street on the west, Monroe street on the 
south, and Seventh street on the east, and was located, with the excep- 
tion of a part of the west four blocks, all on the southwest quarter of 
section 27, and the northwest one-half of section 34, and nearly equally 
on these two quarter sections. The remainder of these quarter sec- 
tions 27 and 34, not included in the recorded plat, was cut up into 
out lots of block and a street in width and extending north from Madi- 
son street and south from ]\Ionroe to the quarter section lines, except- 
ing the lots adjoining the section and quarter section lines on the east 
and west, which varied in width. Many of the first conveyances des- 
ignate these tracts as out lots. And Major lies so stated that they 
were thus laid out and designated in his testimony in the suit of David 
Spear vs. John Hay as to the line between lots 3 and 4, block 8, of the 
original town. The northeast quarter of section 33 was divided into 
tracts of 6% chains in width, east and west, except the west tract, 
which was 7% chains, and all extending north and south the whole 
length of the quarter section. The southeast quarter of section 28, 
which was principally timber, was cut up into four tracts. The three 
timber tracts were bounded by the line of Jefferson afreet on tlie north 
and on the east by what is the west line of Mason's addition. The prairie 
tract being the balance of the quarter section, included Mason's addi- 
tion, and the mill and distillery lots, now known as Barrow's addition. 

The four proprietors then conveyed to each other or their assigns, 
an interest in their several entries, so that each had an interest in the 
whole town, out lots and sub-division of the four quarter sections. 



Of the grist mills of that date, the earliest, perhaps, was Kirkpat- 
riek's, situated on the rear of lot 5, block 15, 0. T. P. It ceased to 
be iised as a mill before I was old enough to have seen it in operation. 
I only remember it in connection with the hitching of ^Mr. Wright's 
elk in it, as I will later relate. The shed and big posts remained for 
many years after. Cox's tread mill for grinding both wheat and corn 
was situated on the north side of Jefferson and in Mill street, as previ- 
ously mentioned. Besides these, there were two other horse mills for 
grinding corn, within what is now the city limits. Esq. Lindsay's mill, 
located about 100 yards a little south of west of the Col. Williams dwell- 
ing, on the forty acres in the southwest corner of West and South Grand 
avenues, and Andrew Lasswell's mill on Lincoln avenue, a little south of 
the Dubois school house. I remember going with my father to both 
of these mills. 

Besides the tanyard before mentioned, there was a smaller one 
started by Mr. Proctor on the branch in Newsomeville and south of 
Adams street. 

In connection with the tanneries, the mechanics, who used the leather, 
would be suggested. The first regular shoe maker was Jabez Capps, 
whose store and shop was on the north side of Jefferson, between First 
and Second streets, and who came here before 1836, and then on the 
south side of Jefferson, between Second and Third streets. John 
Sherrill resided and had his shop on the south side of Jefferson street, 
eighty feet west of First street. Another shoemaker was Jacob Plank, 
who came in 1826. 

The first saddler was Thomas Strawbridge, who came in 1824, and 
had his shop, a little frame building, on the N". E. corner of Jefferson 
and Fourth streets. The next was Asbury Saunders, who came in 1828. 
The first hatter was William Alvey, who came in 1825. The first black- 
smith was Jacob Ellis, who came in 1819, and moved away in 1825. 

The second was John White, who came in . The third Alex. 

Tompkins, who came in 1827, and located on the N. E. corner of Third 
and Adams streets. The fourth, Owen and Eames, who came in the 
spring of 1830. 

At about the time of the permanent location of the county seat, some 
four or five two room one story buildings were erected, with gable ends 
to the street, on the north side of Jefferson and west of Second street, 
which were occupied for stores and, before 1830, two more stores were 
built east of Second street. On the south side of Jefferson and Second 
streets, at the S. E. corner, was Major lies' store- — the first opened in 
Springfield. Some 100 feet east was the first two story brick store where 
P. C. Canedy opened the first book and drug store. At the S. W. corner 
of Jefferson and Second was Carpenter's grocery store, and some 90 feet 
or more distant was John Taylor's one story brick store and land office — 
the first brick building erected in the place. The intersection of Jefferson 
and Second streets was the business center of the town, and had by the 
order of the county court of date of March, 1822, been declared public 


ground as follows: Ordered by the Court that 1-i rods east and west 
including the street and 12 rods north and south including the street in 
the town of Springfield on which the Court House now stands, be set apart 
for public purposes and the accommodation of Court House and public 
buildings. This became the public arena where the fistic champions of 
the county met on Saturdays, to test their physical manhood ; and where 
neighborhood quarrels were adjourned to be settled by the wager of 
battle. Often the whole fighting element of one neighborhood would be 
arrayed against another neighborhood, as for instance, South Fork and 
Flat Branch against Richland and Clay Grove; or Spring Creek against 
Lake Fork. On such occasions it was not uncommon for a dozen battles 
to be going on at the same time. 

During the intervening time between the temporary location of the 
county seat and the survey of the town, there were erected three taverns, 
namely. Slater's, on Lot 5, Block 5, at the 'N. E. corner of Jefferson and 
Second streets. Thomas Price's three room log tavern with kitchen, on 
Lot 3, Block 7, south side of Jefferson, between First and Second streets, 
and Andrew Elliot's log tavern on Lot 1, Block 7. In addition there 
were three hewn log houses, viz : the house bought by P. P. Enos, when 
he came to Springfield in 1823, located on Lot 7, Block 5, a two story 
double cabin with a porch kitchen ; Thos. Cox's, double cabin with porch 
kitchen, on Lot 6. Block 6 : and John Taylor's, on Lot 2. Block 7. These 
were the fine residences of the town, and had brick chimneys and were 
chinked and daubed with lime mortar. 

Early School Experience. 

incidents in my earliest recollections of springfield. 

I remember going to school in a little old round-log cabin, situated 
on the top of the hill on the north side of what is now Washington street 
and between Pasfield and Lewis streets. At that time there was no 
recognized street west of First street but Jefferson, and no dwelling house 
on that part of Jefferson street on the south side but those of John Sher- 
ril. Thomas ISJ'eale and Thomas Vandagrif. William Fagan's cabin was 
a little southwest about on the line of Washington street. On the north 
side of Jefferson there was but one house, the double log house of John 
Kelley, then occupied by Alexander Cox. The road to the school house 
turned off from Jefferson street, opposite to Klein street, and ran south- 
west to the crossing of the town branch at Washington and Pasfield 
streets. There was no bridge over the branch, and only some small logs 
laid lengthwise with the branch for the use of wagons in crossing. The 
road continued on the same course south of west, and the path from the 
branch to the school house turned to the right from the road, and went 
up to the top of the hill to the school house in the center of a thicket of 
hazelnuts, crabapples, plumbushes and grapevines, where a space some 
40 or 50 feet square had been cleared off and a cabin built. Its dimen- 
sions were about 14 by 16 feet, with door on the east side, a stick and 


mud chimney at the north end, and one log cut out some 6 or 8 feet on 
both the south and west sides for windows, and slabs for l^enches, and 
rough boards for desks. 

Andrew Orr was said to have taught the first school in Springfield 
and in this school house. Of this I know nothing but by hearsay. I was 
so young when I went to this school, that very few events connected with 
it are fixed in my memory. I remember the teacher, as a threat to 
punish a scholar, told me to go out and get a switch. I took him at his 
word and went out and hunted around and finally picked up a hazel 
switch some 4 or 5 feet long, and over one-half inch thick, and brought 
it to him, which created such a laugh among the scholars at my expense, 
that I remember the circumstance. I also remember the high stake and 
rider fence, not more than a hundred feot west of the school house, 
around the lot in which Mr. Erastus Wright kept his elk, and of climb- 
ing up on that fence to see the elk. The elk was trained to ride or work 
in harness, and Mr. Wright at one time hitched it to Kirkpatrick's horse 
mill, (located on the rear of Lot 5, Block 15, 0. T. P.) to do some grind- 
ing. Quite a crowd of men and boys had gathered to see the elk work, 
but he soon broke loose and started at hot speed for his pen, with the 
men, bo^'s and dogs after him shouting and barking. I saw from our 
house the start of the race, and heard the noise. If the date 1824, given 
in Mr. Wright's life as the time he purchased his elk (giving for it 80 
acres of land in the Military Tract) is correct, these incidents could not 
liave happened later than the summer or fall of 1825. 

There is but one other incident connected with that school that I 
remember. It was in cold weather, when the children were crowding 
around the fire to warm, that a cousin of mine, three years older than 
myself, who was living in our familv, as there was no school in his 
neighborhood, was pushed into the fire and his wrist was very badly 
burned. This must have occurred in the winter of 1825 and 26, as I 
find among my father's papers a receipt from Mr. Wright, for the tuition 
of three scholars dated April 6, 1826, which could only have been for my 
brother, my cousin and myself. I do not recollect the teacher, but from 
what my mother has since told me, know he was Mr. Wright, and that 
he took great interest in teaching me on account of my being so young. 
He taught me my letters and to spell in the abs. My next teacher was 
^Ir. Menall. who paid no attention to me or to any of the smaller 
children and, when his school was out, I not only could not spell in the 
abs, but did not even know my letters. I have no certain memory as to 
this school, and but a dim recollection of having attended a school in a 
little old log cabin at the S. W. corner of Jefferson and First streets, 
which probably was this school. 

My next school experience was with Mr. How in the summer of 1826, 
who had his school in the old Masonic hall. Avhich was the upper room 
of a two storv log house, with an outside fliirht of stairs on the west 
end of it. This building was on Lot 2, Block 8, 0. T. P., south side 
of Jefferson street, about half way between what is now known as the 
Western hotel and the St. Charles hotel. Our house was on the north 
side of the street immediately opposite. There was a branch running 


tlirougli the lot on the east side of our house that was full of springs, 
and I was constantly playing in it and my mother to keep me out of the 
branch sent me across the street to school. I think my attendance at 
this school did not exceed an hour, if it did that, for I immediately got 
into some mischief and Mr. How to punish me put me on the dunce 
block, with a paper dunce cap on my head. When he turned around to 
say something to the other scholars I threw the cap off and started down 
stairs. He seized his whip and went to the head of the stairs and pounded 
upon them, making a great noise, but not trying to hit me or stop me 
and I went across the street into the branch at my usual amusement, 
and was not sent to school any more until the winter of 1826 and 1827 
when Judge Moffett opened a school in the double log house at the 
northeast corner of Jefferson and Fifth streets. 

The only events in connection with this school that are impressed upon 
my memory are the talk and wonder expressed by the scholars at the 
four Arthur Watson children coming lo school regularly a mile and a 
half across the open prairie from their home (now the Converse place) 
in all kinds of weather, in rain, snow and the severest cold. Mrs. George 
Pasfield's mother was one of the four. Near the end of the school term 
Mr. Moffett concluded to close with a school exhibition and assigned 
pieces to different children to declaim and they practiced speaking their 
pieces before the school. One boy, Nat Boyd, had a poem beginning 

Ever charming, ever new 

"When the landscape tires the view. 

and he caused great amusement and laughter whenever he attempted 
to speak his piece. He would, in spite of all Mr. Moffett's efforts, rattle 
it off so rapidly and in such a sing-song tone that a roar of laughter 
would be created. I had a piece to speak, which I learned, beginning 

You'd scarce expect one of my age 

To speak in public on the stage. 

and practiced at home. In the evenings after supper when the table was 
set back, I would be placed in the middle of the room and orated for 
the amusement of the family. The exhibition took place in the spring, 
in the old frame court house at the northeast corner of Adams and Sixth 
streets, and was considered a grand affair, but neither Nat Boyd nor 
myself took part in it. 

My school experiences from this time on till the winter of the deep 
snow in 1830 and 1831 were fragmentary, as I spent much of my time 
in Madison county with my grandfather and was taught by my aunts. 
I do, however, remember going to school to Mr. John B. Watson in 
the old frame court house, but there are only three things connected with 
it that are impressed upon my memory. One is, that we had to get over 
the prairie slough running through the southeast part of the present 
court house square on a few rails thrown across it; another was the 
severe whipping Mr. Watson gave one of the boys for some outrageous 
conduct, which made a great talk among the scholars; and the third was 
the delight and fun some of the bigger boys had in teasing and pro- 
voking Eliza Eobinson until she would become so angry she would take 
after them, and then they would run out of her way. The date of this 


school was probably the summer of 1829, Mr, Watson having moved 
here in the spring. He was subsequently county surveyor and the first 
to keep any records of surveys. 

1 also went to school to Miss Jane Bergen, who taught in a little frame 
school house on the south side of Washington street midway between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. The only thing impressed on my memory in 
connection with this school is the punishment 1 received for misconduct. 
The last school 1 attended, previous to the deep snow, was in the log 
school house built in the intersection of Adams and Second streets. Its 
greatest length was from east to west and the door was in the middle 
of the south side. In going to this school we had to cross the deep 
channel of the branch at the alley on Second street between Washington 
and Adams streets, and the crossing was on a big log some four or five 
feet above the water, and the log was only roughly leveled off a little 
on the top. There are two things connected with this school that are 
vividly impressed on my memory. One was that the teacher would for 
a few minutes permit the children to study aloud, when the school would 
become a perfect Babel. The other was, that in addition to the regular 
intermissions he would permit the boys, six or eight at a time, to go 
out ostensibly to study their lessons under the clump of big shade trees 
that stood a few rods northwest of the school house. We little boys 
used to employ the time playing marbles and mumble peg under a 
splendid big sugar tree until we were called in. I suppose these pecul- 
iarities were intended for relaxation and relief from the fatigue of the 
long twelve-hour school, more than anything else. Our teacher was no 
hard disciplinarian but a very kind hearted and intellectual man. One 
who, if his ambition and energy had equalled his mental qualifications, 
would have been the leading man in Illinois in his day. This closes my 
school experience previous to the deep snow. 

The Van Noy Hanging. 

I remember about the Van Noy hanging in 1826 and seeing him in the 
old log jail which stood on the northeast corner of the present court 
house square, with the whipping post about 80 feet west. The jail was 
a square hewn log building, about 12 by 14 feet, divided into two apart- 
ments. The north or criminal cell was not more than 6 by 10 feet and 
the door entering it was through the debtor's cell on the south. The 
entrance to the latter was on the west side. The window of the criminal 
cell was less than a foot square, with upright iron rods in it some two 
or three inches apart. This old jail was afterwards sold and removed 
to the alley south of Washington street between Seventh and Eighth 
streets, and used as a stable, as perhaps some of the old residents will 
remember. When the day fox the hanging arrived there was a large 
crowd assembled to witness it. Men came with their families from 20 
to 30 miles. The procession formed at the jail and consisted of wagons 
filled with men, women and children, men on horseback and men and 
boys on foot. It passed down Jefferson street in front of our house. I 
thought it was a big muster and wanted to go and see it but my mother 


would not let me. The procession turned south at First street to the 
gallows, erected in the hollow south of the present State house, in the 
rear part of Bishop Sejanour's premises. The gallows was a very simple 
affair, consisting of two upright posts, 10 feet high, set firmly in the 
ground about 10 feet apart, and a cross piece at the top of the posts to 
which the rope was attached. This gallows stood there for a number of 
years and was a sort of a scare crow to the small boys. When the pro- 
cession arrived at the gallows, as I was told by those who witnessed the 
hanging, the wagon containing Van Noy drove between the posts, he 
stood up in the rear end, the slip noose was put around his neck, and 
when all was ready the wagon was driven forward and left him swinging 
until he was choked to death. The remains were immediately taken to 
Dr. Philleo's office, a little two room frame building on the north side 
of Jefferson street, midway between Second and Third streets, the gable 
end of the building up to the line of the street. There, after some 
little effort to restore life to the body, it was finally dissected in the 
front room. The door and window were wide open and a crowd of men 
and boys in the street looking on. The citizens became so outraged at 
this disgusting exhibition, that finally the dissection was removed to 
the back room, the front door and window closed. and the back door and 
window opened. 

This office was immediately adjoining the west line of our premises 
and not over 50 feet from our house, with but a low fence separating 
the premises. I was in the office nearly every day and one of the doctors 
knowing my habit of playing in the branch, as a practical joke, gave 
me the upper part of a skull to use in mixing mortar. I took it and 
went to my springs in the branch, but it would not answer my purpose 
for there was a round hole in the top and it would not hold water. I 
carried it up to the house and the women folks, catching sight of my 
treasure, hustled me back with it in a hurry. From all accounts Dr. 
Philleo was a skillful surgeon and gained a great reputation in the 
community from his successful treatment of the case of James Abrams, 
a little boy that was kicked by a horse, breaking his skull so badly that 
a considerable amount of his brains came out. No other doctor or person 
thought he could possibly live, but Dr. Philleo succeeded in bringing him 
through sound in body and mind. 

Deep Snow. 

Of the deep snow of 1830 and '31, T do not know at Avhat time it 
commenced, or when it ended, except as the dates were afterwards told 
me, but do remember it lasted a long time and have a vivid recollec- 
tion of the pleasure we boys had with our little hand sleds, sliding 
down the hills and hitching on to the sleighs and sleds going along the 
streets. Sometimes there would be as many as a dozen strung after 
one sleigh. Our little sleds were not the fancy affairs that boys now get 
from the stores, but were made of two boards about two and a half feet 
long and seven or eight inches wide for the runners, which tapered to 
an angle of forty-five or fifty degrees in front, three or four holes were 


bored Ihrough tlit'iii lor tlu' ci'oss piet-es wliith held tliein together and 
a board on top to sit on. A rope or strap was fastened to the front 
cross piece and was long enougli to go around the upright or standard 
of a sleigh or sled with one end in the boy's hand on his sled, so he 
could detach himself at pleasnre. This was great fun for us boys, but 
a frreat annoyance to the young men and women in tlieir sleigh ridincj 
and to lovers of fast trotting and pacing horses in their speeding up 
and down Jclferson street. 

Dr. Gershom Jayne, Peter Van Bergen and Gordon Abrams, the 
three most noted horsemen of the day, who were annoyed by the boys, 
played off on the boys and finally broke up the hitching to their sleighs. 
There were frequent snow falls that winter and the next day after a 
six or eight inch fall of light snow in the night, they invited the boys 
to fasten onto their three sleighs for a ride. We were delighted at the 
prospect of a good ride and so at the corner of Jefferson and Secoml 
streets, hitched on to tlieir three sleighs and they started north on 
Second street at a slow jog and all went merry as a marriage bell 
until we got to Madison street, when they turned east on it and put 
whips to their horses. There having been no travel on this street, our 
little sleds plowed into this snow, covering us completely with snov;, 
so we could hardly see or breathe. All the boys but two dropped out 
by the time they got to Third street. Of- the two that remained, one 
stuck as far as J^'ourth street, when he had to give in. William Hern- 
don was the only one that went through to the starting place. After 
that, if the boys hitched onto their sleighs, they would haul them out 
on the beaten track a half mile or so and then run them out into the 
deep snow until the boys let loose and leave them there to walk back. 

The long winter evenings were spent by the kitchen fires, cracking 
and eating walnuts, hickory nuts and hazel nuts, of which every family 
had laid in an ample supply, from the abundant mart of the adjacent 
woods. In our family we added the parching and roasting of popcorn 
and yellow corn. The latter, when well browned and ground and 
served in a bowl with rich, sweet milk, is a dish I could enjoy even 
now. These were the days before the introduction of the cooking 
stove, when the fireplaces, as compared with these of the present day, 
were huge affairs. Our kitchen fire place was at least six feet between 
the jambs and over two feet deep. The hearth extended past the brick 
oven and nearly the full width of the kitchen. Attached to the jarab 
in the fireplace was the iron crane with its hooks to hnng the pofs and 
kettles over the fire. In this big fireplace were burned backlogs bigger 
than two men could carry. They were rolled from the wood pile to 
the kitchen door, then slid and rolled to the hearth, the fire and ashis 
raked forwards, skids laid down and with the aid of hand spikes, the 
logs were rolled onto the skids and fitted into their place in the chim- 
ney, the ashes shovelled to the back and to the ends of the log. A back 
stick a size smaller than the log was placed on top, and still a smaller 
one on top of that. On the andirons was placed a big fore stick and 
the coals, brands and chunks piled on top with plenty of small wood, 
making such a hot fire that we children did not realize that it was 
more than 20° below zero out of doors. As the fires burned down, the 


liaek sticks in their order were brought forward as fore stick and about 
the third day the back stick became the back or fore stick for another 
big backlog. The big kitchen shovel, andirons, crane and hook were 
made from bar iron by a pioneer blacksmith for my parents some ninety 
years ago and are now in the possession of one of my sisters and kept 
as relics of- those early days. 

M}^ father was a great lover of fine oxen, as Messrs. Jayne, Van Ber- 
gen and Abrams were of line horses, and, in ridug around the country, 
whenever he saw a very fine, large ox or steer, that for size, shape and 
disposition took his fancy, he would buy it and then keep a sharp look- 
out and inquiry until he could find a match; then he would yoke them 
together and train them. In training them, he never used or would 
suffer to be used a big ox goad, nothing heavier than a light carriage 
whip or a hazel switch, and they were trained to be perfectly obedient 
to the word of command. That winter at the beginning of the deep 
snow there would hive been much suffering in the town if it had 
not been for my father's two yoke of big oxen. Not anticipating such 
a storm, quite a number were in a few days out of wood. They had no 
sleds and horses, could not get through the snow. So he hitched his 
two yoke of big oxen to his wood sled, and taking with him Philip Fow- 
ler, a carpenter who lived in the east end of our house, they plowed 
through the snow to his timber, (now my wood pasture) cut and hauled 
wood to those that were out of it. 

Often in passing through the timber when I was a grown man, I could 
not help noticing the stumps of the trees then cut, many of them were 
higher than my head. The wood was not worked up into cord wood 
lengths and size in the timber, that was left to be done at home; but 
cut in 10, 13 or 14 feet lengths as was most convenient, and the logs 
rolled onto the sled on skids by the oxen. The timber through which 
they had to pass with the load had been nearly all cut off, and the stumps 
and old logs were so covered up in the snow, that it was difficult to get 
out without running against them. Frequently, it was necessary to 
hitch the oxen to the hind end of the sled, and draw it back from a 
stump or log, or something would break in the contest, that would have 
to be repaired before they could go on. I remember once being present 
when the sled got wedged in a patch of stumps and in trying to get out, 
one of the oxen broke his bow and got loose from the team. He did not 
make any attempt to leave, but stood around quietly until ]\Ir. Fowler 
went home and returned with another bow, when without any trouble 
he permitted the bow to be placed around his neck and to be led to his 
place on the off-side of the tongue, the yoke put on his neck, the bow 
slipped to its place and keyed. These two yoke of oxen were so large, 
strong and well framed, that whenever they put forth their united 
strength, the load had to move, or something give way. They frequently, 
in running against stumps or logs that were hidden under the snow, 
would break a chain or a yoke or some part of the sled, that stopped all 
hauling until repairs could be made. 

The most sensational incident of that winter that I call to mind, was 
the freezing to death on the prairie of a man, when on his way to his 


lionie at Lick creek. He had been in town all day drinking very hard, and 
at night started to go home along the old St. Louis road. When he got 
about a couple of rods south of Mr. Master's cornfield, (now the inter- 
section of South Grand avenue and Second streets) he fell or was thrown 
from his horse and froze to death that night in the snow. The next 
day, some people coming to town discovered him and reported the fact^ 
which created quite an excitement and men in sleighs, sleds and on horse- 
back and others on foot, with a crowd of boys hurried to the place. I 
run myself down by the time I got there, having run over a mile through 
the snow. Shortly after. Dr. Merryman arrived. He examined the 
man and pronounced him dead and frozen past all recovery. In his ex- 
amination he found a dirk on the body which the Doctor pulled from 
its sheath and showed to the crowd. The corpse was placed upon one of 
the sleds, hauled back to town, and that dav taken by some of his neigh- 
bors to his home. Who the man was or what was his name, I do not 
know now, if I ever did. 

In the first settlement of the county there was brought in (it is said 

by Judge ) a breed of dogs called the English bull dog. They 

were not like the little pug nosed, bow-legged, and ill dispositioned bull 
dog of today, but large, powerful, good looking, courageous and intelli- 
gent animals, that became very extensively used by the farmers of this 
and Madison counties as a protection for their sheep, young animals 
and poultry, against the night attacks of wolves, wild cats, foxes and 
other wild beasts. They were also used in catching wild hogs, and by 
hunters when after bears, panthers, wild cats or wild boars. We had one 
of these dogs, we called him TYirk, and my brother who was several 
years older than myself, rigged up a harness for the dog and hitched him 
to his sled, and we had great fun hauling in wood with him and riding 
around the lot. Our experience was not so pleasant when we went with 
him on the street, for Turk was a great fighting dog, and if he caught 
sight of a strange dog, he was apt to run away and would drop the 
occupant off or drag him into a dog fight. Turk had almost human 
sense, no effort was ever made to train him, but if a stranger came upon 
the premises, Turk would follow until he left, without any display of 
temper, unless the party took hold of something, when Turk would 
growl, and if he attempted to carry it away, Turk would grab him until 
he dropped it. Or if a strange person came to the house and knocked 
or helloed, the dog would stand peaceably by him until some member 
of the family came to the door. If no one responded to tlie alarm, and 
the stranger turned and walked away, the dog would not trouble him, 
but if he attempted to open the door and go in, Turk quicklv gave him 
to understand that he must not. As the country settled up, the use- 
fulness of these dogs diminished, and no care being taken to preserve the 
breed, they finally disappeared. The last that I remember seeing was 
Dr. Jayne's dog Nero. 


Gustavus Koerner. 



By B. A. Beinlich. 

German influence has played a large part in shaping the political, 
social and industrial history of Illinois. Only within recent years has 
the importance of this element become recognized. The historians of 
the past have either disregarded it entirely, or incidentally mentioned 
it. I shall attempt to trace this element which formed the nucleus 
for German life in the Mississippi valley and became a vital force in the 
development of our State. 

The coming of the Germans into the west was the result of various 
causes, both in America and on the continent. I wish briefly to con-^ 
sider these so as to point out the motives which actuated these people 
to leave their Fatherland and build new homes in a strange country. 

By the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, a dangerous rival was silenced. 
The great watercourse, which had been closed to commerce, now be- 
came the chief highway for trade. To the west, a vast stretch of virgin 
soil was thrown open to settlement. Illinois having been seriously 
hampered by the proximity of a foreign nation, was now able to enter 
upon a new era. The frontier line which had already pushed its way 
into Kentucky and Indiana now burst forth into the great expanse, 
where it lost itself. The tide of emigration turned westward. The 
sturdy Appalachian farmer, who barely eked out an existence upon the 
rocky hillsides, began life anew on the fertile prairies of Illinois. It 
was not long until accounts of this new and wonderful west drifted 
across the Atlantic to inspire thousands with new hope and ambitions. 

In Europe, the Napoleonic wars had laid waste a, large proportion 
of the land, resulting in a deplorable economic condition. The tillable 
area was inadequate to supply the densely populated cities with food. 
Furthermore, industrial life was passing through a period of transi- 
tion. The laboring classes, unable to find employment, were constantly 
growing more restless. It was evident to all that the situation must 
be met soon, or war was inevitable. 

Every crisis calls forth men who can lead the people safely through 
their dangers. Such men had guided the German people in the past 
and were again to direct their destiny. The thinking men ascribed 
the conditions to several causes. Some believed that the lack of food 
was due to over-population, and maintained that the problem could be 

—14 H S 


solved only by emigration. Others traced the difficulty to the bad 
method of taxation and demanded reforms. The greater number, 
however, were convinced that there could be no progress except by a 
broader national unity and individual freedom. Schiller and Goethe 
had installed into German life higher ideals and a new conception jf 
freedom. These had taken root and were expressing themselves in all 
classes of society. But the greatest activity was manifested among 
the student body of the universities. 

The winter of 1831 was an eventful one for the German nation. The 
July revolution of 183U in France had rekindled the smoldering fires 
of German patriotism and freedom. University students sang the 
Marseillaise and wore caps bearing the colors of the French revolu- 
tionists. They posted bulletins favorable to the revolution, and organ- 
ized societies in the various provinces to promote German freedom and 
a liberal constitution. The climax vvas reached when a festival was held 
at Xeustadt in May, 1832,^ to discuss plans for extending national 
dignity and power. The idea of such a confederation appealed to every 
one. The Bavarian government becoming alarmed issued an order for- 
bidding it. The populace disregarded the order and 40,000 patriotic 
citizens responded. Political speeches were delivered pointing out the 
insignificance of Germany in councils of European nations, its depres- 
sion in trade and commerce, all owing to the want of national union. 
The enthusiasm was unbounded. Every citizen left with a determina- 
tion to hasten reforms, even b)^ revolutionary means, if necessary. The 
government retaliated by restricting the freedom of the universities, free 
speech and freedom of the press. The more dangerous communities were 
placed under strict military surveillance. Here and there the revolu- 
tionists attempted to gain their purpose by force, only to be defeated 
and forced into exile. The time had not yet come when the rights of 
the people should be vindicated. Disappointed in their attempt for 
reform at home, persecuted by despotic power, and despairing of national 
unity, they were ready to leave their fatherland for a more congenial 
environment. Thus began the Latin immigration of 1833. 

For a number of years prior to the revolutionary movement, there had 
appeared a series of articles in the German papers,- discussing the feasi- 
bility of creating a German state either in Brazil or the United States. 
About the same time there appeared Gottfried Duden's ^'Kcport Con- 
cerning a Journey to the Western States of North America." These 
publications exerted a strong influence among all classes^ of people and 
interested many who had not thought of leaving their native land. 
Duden's book became popular and the first edition soon sold. Although 
it was quite accurate in its description of the country, it was too ideal- 
istic. Hilgard, who came to the Mississippi valley in 1833 with a colony, 
states that it was the best account of the West.* 

'Memoirs Gustave Komer, I., 187. 

'Memoirs of Gustave Komer, I., 188. The Tribune, Westland and Auslaud. 

^Gobel Langer als ein Menschenleben, p. 2. 

'W'estland, p. 258; Duden, p. 52. 


The Germans studied the geograjahy of the western country very care- 
fully. They placed great confidence in the writings of Duden who had 
visited the country in 1824, remaining three years. He made a thorough 
study of the climatic conditions, soils, and commercial facilities. In 
his report he favored Missouri rather than Illinois. To him the prairies 
did not appear productive and the water contained too large a percentage 
of iron and sulphur. 'J^he absence of trees was sufficient proof of the 
infertility of the soil. The merchants^ whom he met intended to remain 
l)ut temporarily. He also heard many stories concerning the malarial 
and typhoid diseases that prevailed in the low-lying river bottoms. The 
prairies too he thought were unhealthful from the presence of stagnant 
ponds. He notes that the Hanover Colony, which laid the foundation 
of Vandalia in 1820,- was considerably reduced on account of its 
unhealthfulness. These facts he considered as conclusive in favor of 
settlement west of the Mississippi. 

The question of greatest concern, however, to the German was the 
social and political situation in America. He was anxious to preserve 
the educational welfare of his youth. Those who had opposed emigra- 
tion pointed out that on the frontier there were no schools or colleges. 
But such an argument had no weight with the thoughtful. If there 
were no schools or newspapers they were able to organize them.^ 

American politics presented a new problem to the foreigners. They 
looked askance at the existence of two political parties and doubted the 
permanency of such a government. What appealed to them most was 
the freedom of the citizen. For such a principle they had struggled. 
They were ready to affiliate with that party which stood for the highest 
ideals of democracy. They regi'etted the existence of slavery, and refused 
to settle upon slave soil. Duden* had expressed some ideas in favor 
of slavery, but very few accepted them. He stated that since white 
labor was scarce, it became necessary to keep slaves. Koerner on the 
other hand urged all free spirited fellow countrymen to settle upon free 
soil. The social problem had to be solved after their settlement in the 
West, for they had no guide to American frontier life. 

From 1815 to 1831 several organizations were promoted in Germany 
whose object was to encourage immigration. Among them the Berlin 
Company^ and the Geisgener Company** were the most prominent. The 
original notion was to establish German states in Arkansas and Kansas. 
The latter company had resulted from the newspaper agitation early in 
the ninete'enth century. It proposed to purchase a large tract of land 
and parcel it out in fifty acre lots to each member. D^^ring the first 
year a communistic form of government was to exist. The houses were 
to be built by the organization and later could be purchased by the owner 
of the land.^ Such a plan appealed to all classes and many applied for 

'Duden, p. 55. 

=Komer, Des Deutsche Element, p. 245. 

^Westland, p. 125. 

'Duden, p. 160. 

=Der Deutsche Pioneer, V. 3, p. 210 211. 

«Ibid, p. 211. 

'Gobel, p. 9. 


membership. There were men, however, farsighted enough to protest 
against such idealism. Previous attempts had proved that no Utopian 
S3'stem could liourish upon American soil. 

In 1834 tlic company began active operations for departure. They 
decided to go in two divisions, one by way of New Orleans, the other to 
Baltimore. Of the first group a considerable number died of small-pox, 
yellow fever and cholera. When they reached St. Louis they gave up 
all plans for going farther west. A few remained in the vicinity of the 
city and the remainder settled in St, Clair county, Illinois. The second 
group had withdrawn from the organization while still at sea, and on 
their arrival decided to build their homes in Illinois. The Berlin Com- 
pany^ had arrived in 1832, and most of its members came to St. Clair 

When the Germans began to settle in Illinois in 1802, they foimd 
the American bottoms occupied by the French, who had settlements at 

Cahokia- and Kaskaskin. Smaller groups were found at creek 

and Prairie du Pont.^ On the higher areas to the eastward were Vir- 
ginians. The states of Georgia, South Carolina and Kentucky were 
also represented. The poorer sections were taken up by Tennesseans, 
and North Carolinans. Here and there were a few well-to-do Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. 

The earlier Germans had come from the lower social class, but never- 
theless represented a higher educational standard than those from similar 
stations of life in England or France. Many of them had been driven 
from their native land because of religious views. Others found their 
country unsafe because of political disorders. There were those, too, who 
had served in the Hessian army during the American revolution. When 
their term of enlistment expired they refused to serve any longer in 
a cause they believed was wrong. It was not unusual for these men to 
take the risk of desertion and escape to the West to enter the service 
of trading companies. 

Illinois had no large commercial center in 1833. Kaskaskia, which 
at one time had been the social, political and commercial center, was 
now decadent. For this reason we find the earliest German settlements 
in the counties adjoining St. Louis. Not until Chicago had grown to 
some size do we find German colonies in the northern counties. By 
1831 the following settlements had been made in Illinois: Dutch 
Hollow, 1802;* Dutch Hill,^ 1815; Vandalia, 1820 ;« Turkey Hill and 
Looking Glass Prairie," 1831.'^ 

Most of the "Latenier" settled in Shiloh valley near Belleville; some 
joined the Swiss colony at Turkey Hill, while others settled upon the 
bluffs along the Mississippi.^ 

'Goebel, p. 7. 

=Der Deutsche Pioneer, V. 1, p. 113. 

^Der Deutsche Pioneer, V. 1, p. 113. 

* Der Deutsche Pioneer, V. 13, p. 108. 

"Ibid, p. 340. 

"K'^mer, p. 371, V. 1. 

■^Ibid, V. 2, p. 222. 

"Der Deutsche Pioneer, V. 13, p., 20. 


Here they began a life far different from their environment in 
European cities. Their first efforts were directed to make their 
surroundings resemble their former home life as far as possible. The 
dog house of the pioneer was unattractive to them. They wanted new 
houses with cellars such as they had been accustomed to. The front 
yard must have its flower bed, while the vegetable garden was a secondary 
matter. A contemporary described them thus:^ 

'■'These men who paved the way into the fruitful valleys of the West, 
who seemingly had exchanged a poor acre for a better one were not 
farmers — at the most, beginners; but men who belonged to the cultured 
and scholarly classes of Germany now desired to escape the narrow 
conventionalities of city life, to wash off the school dust in the fresh 
dew of the virgin forests, and to drink new life at the fountain of 
nature. There were women who, no doubt, had served at the tea table 
but never thought of the pains of strenuous labor. Youths who had 
guided the pen and swung the sword but never the ax." 

Such culture contrasted sharply with the simple frontier life of the 
Americans. It was only natviral that the latter looked upon the new 
comers with curiosity. However, the Germans soon became accustomed 
to their new environment and forgot conventionality. Born amidst 
wealth and aristocracy they found it necessary to assume a new social 
standard in harmony with the new conditions. It must be said to their 
credit that they did not become exclusive. It was an easier process for 
them to adopt western civilization and gradually elevate the ideals of 
western life. Although they were a product of the revolutionary spirit 
of 1830 and often had gone astray in their demands, the larger portion 
exerted an unconscious influence upon the community and strengthened 
the democratic spirit of the West. 

These "Latenier" formed the basis for German life and power. This 
group of young, energetic, cultured men with their diverse ambitions 
was not long in making itself felt in farming, commerce, journalism and 
trade. They were soon mingling with their American neighbors and 
emphasizing every phase of public welfare. 

They were much concerned about the education of their children. 
During the first winter a school house was erected and Koerner appointed 
as schoolmaster. In journalism they took an active part. By 1847, 
they had organized several prominent newspapers.^ Koerner wrote a legal 
treatise in German "Auszug aus der Gesetzen des Staats Illinois." It 
served to acquaint the new citizens with the laws of our State. Hilgard 
contributed articles to the "American Journal of Science," on geology 
and chemistry. Several of these Germans became leaders in State and 
national affairs. Gustav Koerner was perhaps the most prominent. He 
was chosen lieutenant governor of this State and in 1860 was one of 
the seven who drew up the platforms of the republican party. It was 

^Auzeiger des Westens, Jan. 26, 1836. 

=Des Deutsche Element, p. 277; Freiheitsbote fur Illinois, 1840; Adler Des Westens, Springfield, 1844; 
Stern des Westens, 1845; Chicago Volksfreund, 1845; Illmois Staatszeitung, 1847. 


Koerner who labored most inteusel}' for the candidacy of Lincoln before 
the convention. A few years later he served as American diplomat in 
Spain and France. 

Shiloh valley became known as the Latin settlement on account of 
the educational standard of its people. No one seems to know how the 
term originated. It was nothing unusual for people of their class to 
liave a knowledge of Latin. It is very probable that this term came to 
be applied by those who visited the colony and were impressed by the 
classical training of the people. 





Contributed by G. J. Koons. 

Most of the early records of Jackson county were destroyed when 
the court house at Brownsville^ was burned, January 10, 1843. A few 
books, however, are known to have escaped the flames. Two of these 
books are the record books of the County Commissioners' Court and 
are now in the office of the county clerk in Murphysboro. One of the 
books begins on September 1, 1823, and records the proceedings of the 
court to December 2, 1834. The other book continues the record from 
the latter date. These books contain a considerable amount of his- 
torical material of both local and general interest. 

The earliest entry is as follows: 

"At a term of the Jackson County Commissioners Court begun and 
holden in and for said County at Brownsville on the first Monday of 
September being the first day of said month in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three. 

"Present — Hons. J. Byars, J. Harreld, B. P. Conners, Esqs." 

The court was in session two days, September 1 and 2. Constables 
were appointed; and also twenty-four Traverse jurors and twenty-four 
Grand jurors for the March term of the circuit court. Among the 
names of the Grand jurors appointed are found those of Conrad Will,^ 
Joseph Duncan,^ Matthew Duncan* and William Boon.^ The account 
of Samuel L. Burton, clerk of the court, for $20.75 was allowed. 
Supervisors of highways were appointed at this session. Taxes on 
ferries were levied as follows : 

"Ordered by the Court that the tax upon ferries in said County for 
the year ending Dec. 1, 1823, be as follows: John Ankeny seven dol- 
lars, William Gill four dollars, James Gill five dollars, Matthew 
Duncan five dollars, Singleton H. Kimmel three dollars." 

The County Commissioners issued licenses for keeping taverns and 
for the retailing of spiritous liquors as is shown by the following: 

"J.oseph Duncan presents his petition praying for license to keep a 
house of public entertainment and retail spiritous liquor? at his resi- 
dence in said County — Ordered by the Court that the prayer of said 
petition be granted upon said Duncan's paying six dollars for the use 
of the County and the usual fees to the Clerk." 

The Commissioners allowed themselves five dollars for two days' 
services as "judges of the Court." On March 1, 1824, we find the fol- 
lowing entry : 



"Ordered by the Court, that the following charges be allowed to be 
charged at the ferry over the Big Muddy at Brownsville — for a Cart 
and one horse, twenty-five cents, Cart and two beasts twenty-five cents — 
for a led beast six and a fourth cents." 

In spite of the fact that Governor Coles, in a letter to the Secretary 
of the State of New York, says that "Illinois has no poor," we find 
provision made for this class by the commissioners and occasional ap- 
propriations for their relief. 

"Ordered by the Court that the following persons be and hereby are 
appointed overseers of the poor for the following townships for the 
year ensuing, for Gognia township Daniel Bilderback and I^aphua 
Brooks, for Saline township Conrad Will and John Ankeny — for Boaii- 
coup township James Hall Jun. J. G. Butcher, for Muddy township 
Hezekiah Davis Senior and Edward. Swartz." 

"Ordered by the court that the following persons be and hereby are 
appointed auditors of the accounts of the overseers of the poor for 
the year last past — for Gognia township Isaac Glenn and Absalom 
Hinnison, for Saline township William Boon and Thomas Hadley — 
for Beaucoup township Elijah Wells and William Throop, for Muddy 
township, John Glenn and Samuel Smith.'" 

On March 7, 1825, we find : 

"Ordered by the Court that the following articles of Property be 
taxed in addition to what is taxed by the State for the year 1825, tn- 
wit Horses cattle distilleries & Pleasure Carriages to be taxed at one-half 
per Centum." 

A similar entry on March 4, 1828, reads: 

"It appearing to the satisfaction of the Court that the taxes on Lands 
are not sufficient to defray the expenses of the county therefore it is 
ordered by the Court that a tax of one half per cent be Levied on the 
following articles of Property for the present year to- wit, town lots 
in Brownsville and out lots within the bounds of the Corporation of said 
town on Slaves indentured or Eegistered negro or mulatto servants 
on pleasure carriages on Distilleries on Stock in trade on all horses 
mares mules asses and neat cattle above three years of age and on 
watches and their appendages and on Clocks." 

March 8, 1825, we find : 

"Ordered by the Court that the following be the rates which tavern 
keepers are alloM^ed to Charge for the year following to-wit 

For keeping a horse one night on grain and hay or grain and fodder. .$0.37i4 

For keeping horse day and night 0.50 

Horse feed per gallon Corn or Oats 0.12i^ 

Breakfast dinner or Supper 0.25 

Lodging 0.1214 

French Brandy and Wine and Rum per half pint 0.25 

Apple or Peach Brandy or Cherry Bounce (?) per half pt 0.12^^ 

Whiskey per half pint 0.l2i4 

Cider per quart > 0.121/^ 

Cideir (?) Oil per quart 0.18% 

Conrad Will and Joseph Duncan were both active in securing the 
passage of the free school law of 1825. At the session of the County 
Commissioners' Court June G, 1825, the Brn^vnsville and the Big Hill 


school districts were established. Conrad Will was a resident of the 
Brownsville district and Joseph Duncan of the Big Hill district. The 
act of the commis-sioners establishing the Brownsville district, is given 
here : 

"Jesse Griggs'' and others to the number of seventeen legal voters, 
residing in and about Brownsville Presented their petition to the Court 
praying that a School district be laid off agreeably to an act entitled, 
an 'Act providing for the Establishment of free schools,' to be called 
the Brownsville School district to be bounded as follows to-wit be- 
ginning at the mouth of Kinkade Creek thence up said Creek and Little 
Kinkaid Creek to the South West Corner of Section 10 town 8 S. 
Eange three West, thence East on the lines dividing section three and 15 
11 and 14 and 12 and 13 to the line between Eange two and three West 
thence South on said township line to the S. E'. Corner of said township 
thence South to Muddy Eiver thence up said Eiver to the line dividing 
section 8 and 9 town 9 S Eange 2 West thence south between sections 
17 and 16, 20 and 21 and 29 and 28 to the S. E. Corner of said section 
29 in said township thence due west to Muddy river thence up said 
Eiver to the place of beginning. And it appearing to the satisfaction 
of said Court that the said petitioners were a majority of legal voters 
contained within the said Bonds and that the said boundary contained 
fifteen families and up were (?) as (?) therefore ordered by the Court 
that the said petition be granted and the said District is established 

Most of the remaining entries are of only local interest. Thay 
might, however, contain material of considerable interest to one who 
is investigating the early County Commissioners' Courts of the State. 


All these notes are references to statements made on page 217, except notes 6 and 7, which are 
references to pages 21 8 and 2 9. 

N. 1. (p. 217). Brownsville. See Transactions of 111. State Hist. Society, 190.5, p. .355. Thereare, how- 
ever several inaccuracies in this account. Brownsville was located on Conrad Will's land instead of Jesse 
Grigg's as stated by Dr. Snyder. In book D, p. 543 of the restored Jackson County records in the Circuit 
Clerk's office is recorded a deed dated June 11, 1816 by which Conrad Will and Susamia his wife convey 
twenty acres located in the S. E. }of Section 2, Town 9 South, Range 3 west to Jesse Griggs, Nathan Davis, 
and James Hall, Judges of the County Commissioners' Court. It thus appears that Dr. Snyder is in eiTor 
as to who constituted the first County Commissioners' Court of Jackson Comity. See also Territorial 
Records, p. 40. 

N. 2. (p. 217). Conrad Will. For sketch see Trans. 111. State Hist. Society, 1905, pp. 351-377. He 
leased the saline lands from the government, and bought the quarter section on which Brownsville was 
located from James Gilbreath of Kaskaskia. This quarter section on which Brownsville was located 
adjoined on the west the one in which the salt well was located. According to the original entry book in 
the Circuit Clerk's office the only land in the County entered by him was the S. W. \ of Section 5, Town 
9 South, Range 1 west. 111. Hist. Collections, Vol. IV, p. 38. 

N. 3. (p. 217). Joseph Duncan, fifth Governor of Illinois. Lived at Fountain Bluff while in Jackson 
County. According to the original entry book J. & M. Duncan on May 27, 1817 entered the fractional W J 
of Sec. 36, Town 9 south, Range 4 west, consisting of 209.99 acres. Several other entries were made later. 
He went to Jacksonville to live in 1830. 111. Hist. Collections, Vol. IV, p. 131. Biographical sketch in 
Fergus Historical Series. 

N. 4. (p. 217). Matthew Duncan. See Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV, p. 61. Life of Joseph 
Duncan in Fergus Historical Series p. 8. 

N. 5. (p. 217). William Boon. Appointed Capt. in First Regiment of Militia, Jime 30, 1810, also on 
same date given commission to administer oaths to persons appointed to territorial offices in Randolph 
County; Capt. May 6, 1813; Justice of the Peace, Jackson County, Mar. 25, 1816; was state Senator in second 
General Assembly. 

N. 6. (p. 21S). "James Hall, Jr. One of fu-st three judges of Jackson County Commissioners' Court. 
Delegate to First Constitutional Convention. 

Note 7, on p. 219. Jesse Griggs. May 6, 1809 appointed Lieut, in Randolph County Militia; Jan. 2, 
1810, Lieut, in Randolph County Militia; Aug. 26, 1810, Lieut, in Second Battalion of 1st Regiment of 
Militia: Feb. 15, 1811, Capt. of 1st Regiment of Militia: Dec. 2, 1812, Justice of the Peace of Johnson 
County; Feb. 8, 1813, Judge of Court of Common Pleas of Johnson Coimty ; Dec. 24, 1814, Judge of County 
Court of Johnson County; Jan. 17, 1816, Judge of County Court of Jackson County: Feb. 28, 1818 Justice 
for Jackson County; Member of House of Representatives of first General Assembly which met Oct. 
5, 1818. 


7, 1861, TO SEPTEMBER 19, 1863. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Robert J. Kerner. 


The 27th Illinois Volunteers of the Civil War have a contemporary 
historian in the person of Edward W, Crippin, a member of Company 
C.^ The book in which he wrote is a large-sized leather-covered note 
book, and exhibits the handwriting of more than one person, but there 
is no doubt that it is a genuine diary of this regiment, and that the 
greater part of the writing was done by Crippin.,^ It is a simple nara- 
tive of the movements of the regiment, containing such observations on 
the daily life of a soldier as may be expected from a country youth, who 
had offered to serve his country. The 27th regiment was raised for the 
most part in the middle western counties of the State, and was mustered 
into service at Camp Butler,. Sangamon county, in the month of August, 
1861. Among its officers were N. B. Buford, graduate of West Point, 
Colonel of the regiment and later Brigadier and Major General; F. A. 
Harrington, Lieutenant Colonel; W. A. Schmitt, Captain of Company 
A ; and J. R. Miles, Captain of Company F and later Colonel of the 

' The following certificate secured from tlie Adj utant General's office indicates some variation in spelling 
but seems to confirm the authenticity of the record: 

UxiTED States of America, 
State of Illinois, Adjutant General's Office, 

Springfield, June 13, 1910. 
It is Hereby Certified, That it appears from the Records of this Office, that Edward W. Griffin, Enlisted 
on the 3rd day of August, 1S61, at Perry, Illinois, and was mustered into the service of the United States 
as a Corpora^ in Company C, 27th Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, for the period of Three years, 
on the 16th day of August, 1S61. 

Age, 25: Height, 5 ft. 10 in.: Hair, Black: Eyes, Black: Complexion, Dark: Occupation, Farmer: 
Native, Zanesville, Ohio. 
Promoted Color Sergeant, May 5, 1S63. 

Died in Hospital at Chattanooga, Tennessee, December 24, 1863 of wounds received in battle, Mission 
Ridge November 2.5, 1863. 
" Name appears on original Muster Out Roll C, 27th Reg. 111. Vol. Inf. as Edward W. Crippen." 
His residence at date of enlistment is stated as Perry, Pike County, Illinois. 
This Certificate is issued at the request of Robert J. Kerner, Champaign, Illinois. 

Frank S. Dickson, 

The Adjutant General of Illinois. 
Chief of Staff. " S." 
-The handwriting in the diary changes in all seven times. The footnotes give the exact place of the 
changes. The original is in the library' of the University of Illinois. 
^See the Diary passim. Eddy, Patriotism of Illinois, II., p. 53. 


Crippin turned to the keeping of a diary to pass away the dull moments 
of camp life. In this and in the way in which he uses his unschooled 
English, especially in the description of a battle, he shows that he was 
more than an ordinary private. Up to the time of the regiment's arrival 
in Cairo, his insertions merely record the routine of camp construction 
and guard, camp sickness, and the arrival of various companies with 
their officers. The regiment reluctantly obeyed the order to leave camp 
for Cairo, which Crippin calls "one of the most unhealthy spots in the 
U. S." They are resigned to their fate with the observation that they 
will undergo "anything to save our Union Our beloved country let it 
be what it will."^ They remain at Cairo for more than two months, 
taking care of the camp, dressparading, and gossiping over rumors of the 
defeats and successes of the Northern Armies. The desertions of com- 
rades and the behavior of some under the influence of liquor seem to 
have made an impression upon the private. There is some talk of taking 
down from his high seat "h.h majesty, the Colonel." But this the adroit 
Colonel brings to an end by ordering the arrest of the arch conspirators 
and petitioners, and then exacting peace by allowing them to go free.^ 

Finally, on Kovember 6, the scene is shifted. The 27th regiment, 
among others, embarked for a demonstration against Columbus, Ken- 
tucky. In the course of this manoeuver, the battle of Belmont took 
place. The 27th Illinois played a conspicuous part in this engagement, 
and Crippin's description of it is particularly forcible. "All over the 
Battlefield they lay in close proximity to each other. Some torn asunder 
by cannon balls, some with frightful wounds here and there in different 
parts of the body. Some were killed outright with musket balls through 
the temples or forehead, others with limbs torn off suffering the most 
torturing agonies t'was a most horrible sight to contemplate."^ It was 
here that the 27th, led by Colonel Buford, made a clever retreat around 
a bayou and outwitted the enemy. The regiment then returned to Cairo. 
It did not leave again until March 4, when it embarked for nearly two 
months of service on boat and in field. It took part in the occupation of 
Columbus, Kentucky, and it entered Hickman, "keeping step to the soul 
stirring notes of Yankee Doodle & l)ixies land."* The regiment was 
then put on duty on the Mississippi river where it took part in the oper- 
ations in the neighborhood of Island ISTumber 10. The regiment finally 
entered field duty near Corinth, Mississippi, about the last of April, 
1862. The Battle of Farmington, in which our diarist took part is like- 
wise vividly described. In part he writes : "Our line [of] Battle is 
perfect and lying low to escape the fire on our right — [we] cooly await 
the approaching foe. But have not long to wait, their banners & then 
their head finally they can all be seen advancing to the brow of the 
hill opposite — distant about 250 j^ards. Our men are eager now & im- 
patient for the order fire. A new feature is now added to the scene 
before us. Galloping rapidly to the front and unlimbering a battery of 
six pieces of artillery turn their mouths full upon us, this all done before 

'Diary, Aug. 28, 1861. 

=Diary, OctoberSl, November 2, 3, 5, 1861, and footnote. 

'Diary,Nov. 7, 1861. 

-Diary, Mar. 14, 1862. 


our eyes without a single order to fire — by which we might have pre- 
vented such a movement — was too puch for human nature to bear .... 
A few men in Co.B and private Knip in our comp. impelled by the idea 
that they can see just as well a little farther back — attempt to tly but 
are prevented by the officers and file closers. But Joel Knip is so de- 
termined in his resolution that he does not alter it — Capt. Allen jumps 
before him witli drawn sword threatens to run liim through unless he 
returns to his post."^ 

The regiment spent the summer of 1862 guarding, picking berries, 
foraging, and lolling around Camp Big Springs and luka, Mississippi. 
A curious episode happened while they were foraging. The diarist can 
tell the story best. "Wednesday we went up into the mountains after 
a team it belonged to a widow woman it was all the team she had the 
lieutenant put it to vote whether we should take it or not we voted not 
to take it she came out and thanked us."^ Early in September, the 27th 
marched north after General Bragg. 160 miles in seven and one-half 
days, in the direction of Nashville. In this neighborhood it was quar- 
tered on guard duty on half rations for two months until released by the 
arrival of General Rosecrans early in N^ovember. Immediately after- 
ward, the regiment was sent out on the march and encountered chiefly 
southern guerrila east of Nashville. The 27th Illinois particularly dis- 
tinguished itself in the Stone Eiver Campaign." The description in the 
diary is ver\^ good. Xo enemy could be seen "till about 4 CloCk in 
the Eavning when tha Come out of the timber Making a Charge on the 
left causing our Men to fall baCk and Meny of them run into Stones 
Eiver that tha had Cresed during that afternoon thoe General rusan 
reCeived them with rather a warm reCeption for he porde a districtive 
fire of grape and Canistor a moung ther ranks piling Sevral hundred of 
them a pon the field the balanCe fled in Confusion Our Men Making a 
bayonet Charge a pon them taking Sevral hundred prisoners and the 
Shades of night closed over a Sean that will long bee rembered by evry 
loyal person."* 

Here, also, on the 22nd of Februarv, Washincrfon's Birthday, wn- 
celebrated. "A Salute is fired by one battery of each Division Army 
of the Cumberland, in honor of that Cfreat, truely man. An order, 
relative to this gallant Soldier, and true Patriot and glorious deeds 
during the Eevolutionary war, is read on dress parade this evening 
and it not without efl^er-t. Eosecrans Stands nearly as high in the e— 
timation of Army of the Cumberland as Washington of his army." ^ 
'J'he winter was sj^ent in the vicinity of Stone river. 

Late in spring, 1863, the 27th Illinois regiment moved eastward 
with the whole army and took an active part in the Chickamausra Cam- 
paign. After a lively description of several engagements in this cam- 

'Diary, May9, 1862. 

-Diary, Sept. 3, 1862. 

'See War Records, Series I, Vol. XX, pp. 176, 209, 227, 269-271 and especially p. 256. 

* Diary, Jan. 2, 1863. 

'^^Diarv, Feh. 22, 1863. 


paigii, the dairy comes to an end September 19, 1863. The regiment 
further took part in the l)att]es of the Atlanta Campaign and was mus- 
tered out of service in August, 1865." 

The records in the Adjutant General's office at Springfield show 
that Crippin (Crippin? Criffin?) died December 24, 1863, of wounds 
received in battle. Mission Ridge, November 25, 1863. 
1861 Camp Butler Sagamon County Ills. 

August 7th Capt. Parkes Comp arrived at this place. Rec'd Tents Camp 
Equippage &c. Tents erected today. 

Friday the 9th. Quarters Cleaned up. Nothing of importance today. Capt 
Parkes left for home to day tor new recruits. 

Tenth Saturday.. Nothing doing to day of importance. Capt. Browns Co. 
from Winchester this afternoon. 

Sunday 11th Col. Hicks Independent Regiment left this morning for St. 
Louis Preaching in the afternoon at 4 O'clock. 
Slight rain during the night. 

Monday the 12th. Capt. Waters Co. arrived this morning accompanied by a 
fine band of music from Macomb McDonough County Ills. Capt. Hitts Co. 
arrived this afternoon from Exeter Scott County Ills 

Tuesday 13th. Three Go's, from Egypt arrived to day. No drilling to day. 
Wednesday 14th. Capt. Parkes arrived about 2 O'clock this morning with 
18 men. 

1861 Camp Buter Sagamon co. Ills 

Thursday, August 15th Officers drill this morning at seven O'clock. Squad 
drill from half past 8 till 10 O'clock. Officers drill at 4 Oc'lock in the after- 

Friday, 16th The same routine of Yesterday. Comps. arriving all the time. 
Saturday, 17th. Officers and Squad drill in the forenoon. In the afternoon 
no drill. Co. sv>'orn into service at 12 M. 

Sunday, 18th. Nothing of importance occurred today. Meeting at 4 O'clock 
P. M. Comp rec'd their uniform to day. 

Boys all well pleased Articles of war read at Rool call Monday, 19th. Roll 
call at 5 and V> O'clock Officers at 7 A. M. Squad drill as usual. Lieut. L. 
F. Williams with a grant of 5 days absence left for Pike Co. on business 
concerning the Co. 

Thursday, 22d. Four men from Coffeys Co. joined ours this evening. 
Friday, 23rd. The 4 men that joined our Comp yesterday evening were 
sworn in this morning 

1861 Camp Butler, Sagamon co Ills. 

August, Saturday, 24th. Morning quite cool. Williams returned last night 
with 3 recruits. Co. now consists of 82 men rank and file. Capt. Killpat- 
rick's Comp. arrived from Milton Pike County Ills, last evening. Capt 
Hunts Comp. from Barry arrived today. A Comp. from Bellville St. Clair 
County also arrived to day, accompanied by a brass band Brown County 
Cavalry Comp. Came this morning. 

Sunday, 25th. Roll call as usual 51/. A. M. Meeting at 10 A. M. Rather dull 
in capm. drissling rain in the afternoon An order to leave to-morrow. Quite 
a No. of men have the ague. It is getting to be quite sickly here Hospital 
is pretty near full of sick. Thirteen men from Smiths Comp. from Galena 
came this evening and joined our Comp. 

1861 Camp at Jacksonville Morgan co. Ills. 

August, 26th. Monday morning. Roll call at 5 Breakfast at SV, O'clock. Im- 
mediately after breakfast the 13 men who joined last evening were exam- 
ined and sworn into the service. 

Left Camp Butler with 6 other Companies at ^2 past 10 O'clock marched 
to Jim Town left on the train at 1/. past 11, arrived at Jacksonville at 3 P. M. 
marched from the depot to our present encampment nearly I14 miles very 

'See Adjutant General's certificate, above, p. 228. 


hot and dusty. Had rations enough left of the amt. drawn of the commis- 
sary at Camp Butler for our supper Would not issue rations to us this even- 
ing, for tomorrow through some mistake or other Have a nice pleasant place 
for our Camp high dry and healthy. 

August 27th Tuesday. Had no breakfast this morning except some we bor- 
rowed of Capt. Hitt. The Quarter Master is a d — d mean man In the opinion 
of our Comp. he issued no rations to us yesterday evening, nor came from 
town this morning until after 9 O'clock Capt Parke is Officer of the day to 
day Furlough granted to F. T. Clark Joel Knipp and Robt. Chapman run- 
ning from this date till Saturday 31st August. 

August 28th. Drill this morning from 6 till 7 O'clock Orders to march to- 
morrow at 12 M. to Cairo. Some disappointment among the men but 
1861 Camp at Jacksonville Morgan Co. Ills. 

August 28th generally resigned to go where they are ordered. It was hoped 
that we would be ordered to Mo. but those hopes are now blighted and we 
will now go to one of the most unhealthy spots in the U. S. to stay we know 
not how long Well anything to save our Union Our beloved country let it 
be what it will. 

August 29. 
Reveille early this morning preparations for leaving Camp McClernand, 
Tents struck at a few minutes after 10 A. M. Baggage packed & loaded by 
1/. past 11 A. M. Companies on parade % past 12 M. Marched into Jackson- 
ville at 1 O'clock P. M. in court yard till 4 O'clock P. M. Marched to the cars, 
nothing but open cars for the men. Large crowd at the depot to witness our 
departure. Had some trouble while at the depot with private Sullivan, he 
was drunk had to tie him for refusing to be still, Left Springfield at 10 
minutes past 5 P. M. amid the firing of cannon and immense cheering of the 
citisens 1st Sergent Browning left behind to recruit his health, to follow up 
as soon as that will permit. Arrived at Decatur without anything of moment 
transpiring. At 1 O'clock on the morning of the 30th issued some rations of 
hard crackers & cheese to the men Changed cars; better accommodations from 
there, to Cairo, in passenger coaches but nothing better to eat. Arrived at 
Cairo at 4 O'clock P. M. marched to quarters on the open plain above the 

1861 Camp Defiance Cairo Ills. 

August 31st Roll call. Squad drill this morning, after breakfast men set to 
work — cleaning up the groun Repeated firing of cannon in the artillery frill 
at Birds Point — One man nearly killed by the discharge of a cannon Morn- 
ing report made out and handed in at Head Quarters 2 men in addition to 
last report— Aggregate No. of men in Parkes comp now 98. both sworn into 
the service by the Col. Rations of bread short this morning through the ras- 
cality or neglect of the Quartermaster — great dissatisfaction throughout the 
camp on account of it. Col. saw to the matter and bread here bv half after 
8 O'clock tonight. 

September the 1st. 
Sunday morning, roll call as usual at 5l^ O'clock Inspection of men & tents 
at 9 o'clock by the Col. & Lt. Col Pass granted to 8 men to visit Birds Point 
Also 1 large Squad to attend Church. 

Nothing doing to day. John Brown & Elijah Hickman went into Town to day 
without a pass — came back drunk Compelled to tie Hickman — will be put on 
extra duty to-morrow Weather pleasant — continues dry. 

September 2nd Monday morning clear and fine. 
Roll call at 5*/^ A. M. as usual — Breakfast at 6i^ Squad drill &c. more ac- 
tivity will be observed this week in drilling than heretofore. Lt. L. F. Wil- 
liams appointed junior Officer of the Guard to day. One of our men who 
came from town yesterday in a state of intoxication — by name John Brown 
is very sick to day — great suffering & pain in his stomach and lower extrem- 
ities — supposed to emanate from poison in the liquor drank yesterday. The- 
2 gun boats stationed here left this afternoon & 1 Regt. of In from Birds 

Point, — their destination & the No. of the Regt. we are not informed. Heavy 
firing heard at 8 O'clock this evening in the direction of New-Madrid Mo. 
supposed that our Gun Boats have engaged the enemy at that point 

Sep. 3rd Tuesday Morning. 
Weather fine & pleasant, — with indications of rain Duties of the morning 
as usual — much rejoicing through out the camp — though no open demonstra- 
tion — at the news of the success of Gen. Butler in his operations on the coast 
of N. C. Received this morning. Conflicting reports concerning the result or 
doings of the expidition sent down the Miss. River yesterday. More troops 
sent down from Birds Point to day across the country to the scene of action. 
Where it is not yet known in camp, some say it is Columbus, Some New 
Madrid, no person knows anything definite about the movements going on at 
Head Quarters — here all military movements are kept secret by the Senior 
Officers of the different commands at both Posts Cairo & Birds Point. Com- 
menced raining about 4 O'clock this afternoon which put an end to squad 
drill & set the men to work putting their tents to rights & preparing for a 
spell of weather. Firing heard this evening again in the same direction as 
that of last evening Still raining at 10 O'clock. 

Sept. 4th Wednesday morning cloudy drissling 
rain, very unpleasant underfoot — quite a No. not out at Roll Call — ^placed on 
Extra Duty in consequence. Our Co. placed on Police Duty to day — by 
order of the Col. 

1861 Camp McClernand Cairo Ills. 

it is therefore exempt from drill to day no news of consequences, has rained 
at intervals all day The Two Gun Boats have returned, reported to have had 
a brush with a Gun Boat of the Enemy's — called Yankee — near a place called 
Hickman in which the latter was worsted Also bombarded the place. News 
of Jefferson Davis' death this evening generally not credited 

Sept. 5th morning duties performed as usual 
Lt Allen Officer of the Guard to day. Weather pleasant but showery. — noth- 
ing of importance but drilling. Water scarce on account of negligence of 
water master. Death of Jeff Davis confirmed today — that is still believed. 
Report this evening that Pillow is within one days march of Birds Point — 4 
Comp from th 9th Regt. And the Chicago light Artillery left to night tis said 
for Columbus Ky. 

Sept. 6th Friday weather pleasant. Drilling 
and other duties performed as usual. 60 muskets drawn by our Company 
this afternoon Other Comps. in our Regt. also have drawn in proportion to 
the number of men. No news of consequence to day Great activity through 
out the camp, however in our vicinity 

Sept. 7th Saturday. 
No variation in the daily routine of duties to day One of our men Thomas 
Onwhistle severely reprinanded for disrespect towards the Col. At Dress 
Parade this evening 48 of our men were ordered on patrol dutty for the 
night in the City of Cairo. 2 Regts. left for Paducah Ky. which place is now 
occupied by Gen. Grant Commandant of this 

1861. Camp McClernand Cairo Ills. 

Post. Successor to Gen. Prentiss. 

Sept Sth Sunday morning The 48 of our camp, detailed 
as patrol last night returned this morning at Bi/o O'clock Roll call as usual. 
Heavy and incessant firing heard this morning from 7 till 9 O'clock down the 
river in the direction of Columbus. Two boat loads of Troops arrived this 
morning from St. Louis. Inspection on Co. parade ground by the Field Of- 
ficers at 9 O'clock Dress Parade this evening at the usual hour 

Sept. 9th Monday morning 
Duties as usual performed, no Officers drill this morning as was given out last 
evening on Dress Parade Abut 10 O'clock to day one of the Gun Boats ar- 
rived to Port with .3 Prizes in tow. One said to be laden vxith tobacco — tis 
not known here yet the substance of the prizes Reported this Afternoon 

-15 H S 


that 1 of the Gun Boats was taken this morning by the enemy. Col. Oglesbys 
Regt. & the other Gun Boat have gone down Col. Watters Regt. arrived at 
Birds Point this evening 

Sept. 10th Tuesday Morning 
Reported capture of our Gun Boat proves to be false L. W. Williams detailed 
as Officer of the Guard to day Officers Drill this morning. Nothing of im- 
portance to day. 

Sept. 11. Stormy Night. 

Indications this morning good for a rainy day A marvelous assault was com- 
mitted at the St. Charles Hotel yesterday by the Reporter of the St. Louis 
Democrat on the person of the surgeon on the 8th Mo Regt. The surgeon 
was shot in the small of the back by a pistol ball wound not mortal 
1861. Camp McCleruand Cairo Ills. 

September 11th The reporter gave himself up and is now in custody. Dress 
Parade omitted this evening on account of the inclemency of the weather. 

Sept. 12th — Thursday Morning 
Duties of the morning gone through with as usual Our Company on Police 
Duty to day cleaning up the Parade ground & digging sinks, nothing of im- 
portance transpired to day. Dress Parade this evening as usual. 

Sept. 13th Friday Everything quiet about 
camp today Lt Allen on guard to day,— Officer of the Guard — . No news of 
importance to day. 

Sept. 14th Saturday 
Duties as usual this morning. The Regt on Police duty today, cleaning up 
the regimental Parade ground. News encouraging from the seat of war to 
day. reported fight going on down the river near Norfolk on the Mo. side 
this evening. 

Sept. 1.5th Sunday Morning 
bright and beautiful. Three Comps. arrived this morning making out Regt. 
•complete Each Cap. drew co. letter this morning by lotery out Capt. drew 
letter C. Situation of each Co. has been changed a little to conform with the 
lettering Dress Parade this evening Our new Chaplain introduced' 

Sept. 16th Monday. 
Police Duty as usual, respective Companies fixing up their camp ground. 
Nothing of importance to day except the arrival of a Comp. of 50 men from 
Crittenden County Ky. for camp Butler, also Col. Jurchins (Turchin) 19th 
Ills. Regt. came up the river from their camp on the KB. Side opposite 
Norfolktheir destination is not yet known. The court martial of Capt. Hitts 
man for insubordination set to day, tis known what the sentence is 

Sept. 17th — Tuesday. 
Officers Drill as usual this morning Drilling as heretofore Nothing to day of 

Sept. 18th Wednesday. 
Officers Drill omitted this morning, weather fine Duties as usual. 

Sept. 19th Thursday. 
Capt. Parke too unwell for duty to day No news everything going on 
smoothly as usual. 

Sept. 20th Friday. 
Nothing of importance to day. Capt. Parke went to the Hospital this morn- 
ing. Daily routine as usual prospect for a rain to night. 

Sept. 21st Saturday. 
Dull as the Devil to day— nothing but Drill Drill through this afternoon we 
have nothing to do but clean up quarters & go on Dress Parade this evening. 

iSee Eddy, The Patriotism of Illinois, II., pp. 5.3-54. The 27th Illinois was raised for the most part in 
the counties of Adams, Scott, Pike, Madison, Jersey, Mason, Macoupin, Mercer, Jackson, Henry and Mor- 
gan Eddv states that it was mustered into service at Camp Butler on the 10th of August, isei. Some 
of the officers who will be mentioned in this diary are: Colonel, N. B. Buford: Lieutenant-Colonel, F. A. 
Harrintrton- Adjutant, Henrv A. Rust; Quartermaster, David B. Sears: Chaplain, S. Young McMasters: 
Captain W A Schmitt of Company A: Captain Jonathan R. Miles of Company F, who later becomes 
Colonel of the regiment. The officers of Company C, of which our diarist was a member, at this time 
were- Captain, Lemuel Parke; 1st Lieutenant, Ljonan G. Allen; 2nd Lieutenant , Laommi F. Williams. 


Sept. 22n(i Sunday. 
Inspection of arms as usual by the Field Officers L. F. Williams Officer of 
the Guard to day. Preaching in the camp to day by Chaplain of our Regt. at 
11 o'clock Our Chaplain is a Catholic. 

Sept. 23rd Monday 
Our Comp. is on Police Duty again to day — Battalion Drill this afternoon 
without arms the comp. all went through the drill very for the first time 
1861 Camp McClernand. Cairo Ills. 

Sept. 24th. Tuesday. Ten men on Police Duty again to day Nighswonger 
refused to act having been detailed— in consequence was put in the Guard 
House on Bread & water time indefinite. Private in the Guard House Also 
for drunkeness. 

Sept. 25th. Wednesday. 
Morning Drill, near 20 on the sick list this morning Bad news from Mo. 
Lexington has been taken by Gen Price. Private Hobbs in Guard House at 
Cairo for sleeping on his Post, last night while guarding prisoners. 4 pris- 
oners brought in this evening — from near Norfolk Mo. taken after a pretty 
hard fight — in which 12 of the Enemy were killed — and a lot of arms taken. 
One of the prisoners has a pretty severe cut across the shoulder. 

Sept. 26th Thursday. 
Observance is paid to "Fast Day., Services at 10 O'clock by our Chaplain-r- 
toward 10 O'clock the weather cleared off «&: became very pleasant. 
Dress Parade- in the evening As usual nothing of importance has passed of 
in our vicinity to day 

Sept. 27th Friday cold & blustry 
Drilling exercises as usual in the forenoon with Battalion Drill in the after- 
noon & Dress Parade in the evening Our Capt. ranks higher than any other 
Capt. in the Regt. as his commission is the oldest Lt. Allen Officer of the 
Guard to day at Cairo. 

Sept. 28th Saturday. 
Men slow about turning out into ranks for Drill Comp. Drill from 9% till 
11% men paid attention & performed well today. Dress Parade this evening 
& short Battalion Drill this afternoon 

1861 Camp McClernand, Cairo, Ills. 

Sept. 29th Sunday morning clear & cool Roll call as usual, — Inspection of 
the arms & quarters — a portion of the Comp. went to town to church Services 
as usual by the Chaplain, tis reported this morning that Capt. Ritters Comp. 
at Birds Point while guarding a bridge on the R. R. 10 miles from camp 
were surrounded and taken prisoners. 

Sept. 30th. Monday. 
Cool & bracing. Drilling at usual hours Capt. Parke Officer of the Day 
Weather quite warm and pleasant after 9 O'clock Report of the capture of 
Ritters Comp. remain unchanged. Battalion Drill this afternoon. Dress 
Parade at the proper hour — Volleys of musketry were heard at Birds Point 
this afternoon — but suppose it occurred in the practice of loading and firing 

October 1st Tuesday. 
Cooks were discharged this morning their time having expired The reported 
capture of Capt. Ritters comp proves to be false comp Drills in the forenoon 
to day And Battalion Drill as usual. Another report is comon this evening 
that our troops have been driven from Norfolk and falling back on Birds 
Point the Enemy advancing Fifteen Thousand strong. 

Oct 2nd Wednesday morning dark 
& gloomy Drissling rain Roll call as usual but Drill omitted, no drilling 
to day whatever An order was issued by the Gen. about 11 O'clock to day 
for 10 men and one Lieut, with arms and 10 rounds of ammunition each 
Dress Parade as usual this evening. 

1861 Camp McClernand, Cairo Ills. 

Oct 3rd Thursday Sun rose clear and bright Duties as usual performed, 
unusually quiet and dull about camp Nothing of importance transpiring. 
Duties of the day closed as usual with Dress Parade 


Oct. 4th Friday 
Battalion Drill as usual this afternoon. Lt. William taken sick with the 
measles to clay nothing of importance transpiring to day. 

Oct. 5th Saturday morning clear & 
nice Health of camp improving onl> .3 of our Comp. now in the Hospital. 
Capt. Parke making arrangements for going home — has drawn his pay from 
the Pay Master. Drilling as usual both forenoon and afternoon 

Oct 6th Sunday 
Rained last night nearly all night, this morning it is cold gloomy and dis- 
agreeable No inspection this morning on account of the inclemency of the 
weather towards evening it fared off and tis now pleasant weather Capt. 
Parke has succeeded in getting a furlough to day for 7 days absence — he will 
for home to-morrow morning at 4 O'clock. Williams quite sick to day 

"Oct. 7th Monday morning clear and pleas- 
ant. Duties as usual. Battalion Drill as usual 
Nothing of importance to day. 

Oct 8th clear & pleasant looks like 
Indian Summer. Health of camp decidedly improving. Our comp numbers 
increasing on Dress Parade 

1861 Camp McClernand Cairo Ills. 

October, 9th Morning clear and pleasant. Every thing passing off nicely and 
smoothly in camp. 

Oct 10th inursday pleasant: — Nothing of 
importance transpiring to day Col. Harrington returned to day. 

Oct 11th. Friday — very pleasant — no 
news unusually quiet in camp. Distressingly dull nothing but Drill Drill all 
the time. 

Oct 12th Saturday. Morning clear and 
pleasant — Drill in the forenoon Battalion Drill in the afternoon all the Regt. 
out also the Bloody ISth Col Lawler was up on parade with us tis said his 
Regt. has joined our Brigade 

Oct 13th Sunday morning clear as a bell 
and as pleasant almost as a summers morning — Inspection of the Company 
by the Col. at 9 O'clock, church as usual. Passes were granted to quite a 
number to Birds Point. 

Oct. 14th Monday morning clear air and 
bracing. Drilling from 6 to 7 O'clock, to day is Pay Day Comps. A. & E. 
are paid first — as they are going off on a scouting expidition — To-moi-row we 
get paid, the boys are over joyed at getting their pay, liave been disappointed 
so often that they had no confidence any more as to the promised pay day. 
Have no Battalion Drill to day. A stern wheel Boat came up the River this 
afternoon with a flag of Truce flying The purport of her visit is no known 
This Brigade was ordered down town on Double Quick this evening and 
paraded about an hour on the levy 

Oct 15th Tuesday usual routine of 
camp duties Our Regt. has rec'd marching orders this evening a 6 O'clock it 
marched to the landing the men armed and equipped and supplied with 2 
Days rations Shipped on the Alec Scott and 
1861 Camp McClernand Cairo 

company with the Iron Gun Boat went up the Mississippi destination un- 
known but generally believed to be Cape Girardeau Two of our Co. slipped 
through the guard to day — Wm Sullivan and Robt. Felan. Three more rec'd 
passes all of whom were not here when the Regt. started. The 2nd Lieut of 
each CO. have been to take care of the camp & those that are on the sick list. 
Lieut Allen the only com. Officer who accompanied our Co, Capt. Parke has 
not yet returned. One of the men .Joel Knip who was granted a pass to town 
to day — was found on the levy at one of the Groggerys pretty well set up 
about 9 O'clock this evening and brought into camp no tidings of the others. 


Oct. 16th Wednesday, Rather gloomy 
morning Not enough men in camp to make any stir as those who were on 
the side list only were left behind. Robt. Felan was found to day and 
brought into camp. William Sullivan could not be found, the day has been 
spent in a fruitless search for them tis supposed they fell in with the Co. as 
the Regt. marched to the landing. 

Oct. 17th Thursday Still cloudy no news 
of importance Nothing to do in camp since our Regt. left. All quiet about 
the Brigade camp. The other Regts. are constantly drilling. No Capt. Parke 
yet. He ought to be made work on the fortifications ten days with a Ball & 
Chain to his leg No tidings of Sullivan Hickman & Brown to day have kept 
up a constant search for them. The day has closed without anything worthy 
of note. 

Oct. 18th Friday morning Still 
dark and gloomy with a drissling rain. Our Regt. returned about 8I/2 O'clock 
had no brush with the Enemy took GOO or 700 bushels wheat & 4 secesh pris- 
oners. Battalion Drill this afternoon 

1861 Camp McClernand Cairo Ills. 

Nothing of an exciting character has transpired to day 0& Co. of Light Artil- 
lery left camp cairo this afternoon where bound tis not known with us. Hick- 
man & Brown were with the Regt. found Wm Sullivan today. 

Oct. 19th Saturday the appearance 
for rain still very good co. Drill as usual, no Guards called for from our 
Regt. to day. Nothing to note down to day. Battalion Drill till a very late 
hour — exempting us from Dress Parade 

Oct. 20th Sunday Inspection as usual. 
Services at 11 O'clock by our Chaplain, weather very pleasant has the ap- 
pearance of Indian summer No news of importance today Dress Parade as 
usual this evening. 

Oct. 21st Monday, Roll call as usual 
Quite cool rather unpleasant sleeping last night under One blanket Lt. P. 
Williams Officer of the Guard to day Lt Allen is still unwell and unable for 
Duty Neglected to mention the arrest of private Josiah Lise[nbee] yesterday 
for stealing Private Henry Vamers money $(800) sometime during Saturday 
night. Said Lisenbee is now under arrest in Guard House — awaiting his trial 
by Court Martial. 

Oct. 22nd Tuesday morning weather cool 
though during the day tis very pleasant 

The news of Jeff Thompson's defeat at Fredrictown by our forces causes 
much rejoicing in camp the news came this evening by telegraph Lt. Allen 
has succeeded in getting his pay to day — due for the Mo. of September & a 
furlough home for seven days he leaves to-morrow morning on the 4 O'clock 
train, prospects for a storm 

1861 Camp McClernand Cairo Illinois. 

Oct. 23rd Wednesday morning very cool — quite a change since yesterday. 
No rain last, night Sad news this morning another good matv gone the way 
of all the Earth — Col. Ed. D. Barker (Baker) One of the best of Orators and 
the boast of our nation fell while gallantly leading his Regt. at the Battle 
near Leesburg Virginia Another sacrifice to the glorius cause of liberty. 
Ten men detailed out of each comp. armed with brooms & shovels for the 
purpose of cleaning up the barracks, and preparing quarters for our Regt. 
down in Camp Cairo. 

Oct. 24th Thursday, quite cool but not so 
unpleasant as yesterday. — A very heavy frost during the night the first we 
have had here this season. Capt. Parke is on duty at Cairo to day Officer 
of the day^ — Orders from the Col. to move into the Bari'acks to-morrow. 

Oct. 2oth Friday As soon as breakfast 
is finished — preparations for moving to the barracks Co.s A. B. C. and so on 
respectively. — struck their tents and went into the barrack Dress Parade 
in the evening. 


Camp Cairo, Illinois 
Oct, 26th Saturday morning fogy and damp Drill as usual before break- 
fast no Drill this forenoon. Regt. was called out this forenoon for inspection 
that is the inspecting of men, The no. of men out on drill — the sick list — 
& those absent from Camp not agreeing with the morning report, conse- 
quently there is a number that undoubtedly shirk from duty. This afternoon 
the review before Gen. McClernand came off.— tomorrow we have a Grand 

Oct 27th Sunday. Regimental inspec- 
tion this morning. — Religious services by our Chaplain Grand Review com- 
menced this evening at 2iA O'clock continued till 5, before Gen. McClernand 
and Staff. The forces which passed 

Camp Cairo, Illinois, 
under review were Five Regts. of Infantry One of cavalry and one Battery of 
flying Artillery. The review has been pronounced a splendid affair Every 
thing passed off in fine style 

Oct. 28th Monday morning Drill as 
usual Forenoon Drill — Battalion this evening — Day has closed as usual (by 
the sun's going down) 

Oct. 29th Tuesday morning cool 
Routine of Drilling as usual — Battalion Drill superintended by the Lieut. Col. 
Nothing new as usual— The same dull monotony seems to pervade the camp 
as usual. 

Oct. 30th Wednesday morning still clear & cold 
Routine of Drill gone through with. Battalion Drill this forenoon and after- 
noon. One of the Orders published on Dress Parade this evening — was the 
acceptance of the resignation of Lieut. Buchanan of Comp B. this Regt. 

Oct. 31st Thursday morning still cool 
Regimental muster for Pay. The forces now stationed here are all mustered 
to day — on the Brigade parade ground — An Order placing Capt. Hart under 
arrest by Col. Buford' — was read this evening on Dress Parade. 

November, the 1st Friday morning 
Comp. Drill from 9, to 11, weather does not seem to moderate much A Slight 
drizzling rain commenced falling about Two O'clock prevented Drilling in the 
afternoon undress Parade. Capt R. S. More ordered under arrest by Col. 
Buford, published on Dress Parade 

Nov. 2nd Saturday colder than ever 
morning Drill as usual. Our Co. is on Police Duty to day L. F. Williams Cap- 
tain of the Guard to day by order of H. A. Rust 
1861 Camp Cairo, Illinois November, 1861 

Nov. 2nd Capt. Parke Capt. Merrill & Liut Stout are to day placed under 
arrest — by order of that Benevolent Old Creature, — Col. Buford. 'The nature 
of the charges to be preferred against them is still a mystery to all. but 
some of the more knowing ones are slyly hinting around that a petition has 
been gotten up here in camp, setting forth the objections to Col. Buford as a 
Col. & respectfully soliciting him to resign his Office, & that said petition has 
been signed by said Officers^ — for which offense his majesty has seen fit to 
place them under arrest: how true this is remains to be seen. 

Nov. 3rd Sunday morning. 
Inspection of arms and quarters at 9 O'clock. Religious services at the reg- 
ular hour, by the Chaplain Rev. McMasters It has claered off and the day is 
quite pleasant. During this afternoon Those Officers who were placed under 
arrest have affected a compromise the full particulars of which I am not now 
able to state but the substance of which is that the Petition shall be destroyed 

'Napoleon B. Buford was a graduate of West Point, law student, assistant professor at West Point, 
1&33 to 1835, civil engineer, Illinois merchant, banker and railroad builder. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War, his banking business was ruined due to large investments in Southern State bonds. He gave up 
all his property to satisfy his obligations and was commissioned Colonel of the 27th Illinois Volunteers 
by Governor Yates. For his gallant conduct at the battles of Belmont, Island No. 10, and Union City 
he was commissioned Brigadier-General by the President. When he left the service, he held the com- 
mission of Major-General. Eddy, Patriotism of Illinois, II., pp. 56-57. 


by them and he withdraws all charges. Lieut. Allen returned from home to 
day The 18th Regt. and the 29th Col. Reardon have both been ordered away 
this afternoon Destination not known yet Dress Parade this evening as 

Nov. the 4th Monday morning comfort 
-ably cool Routine of Duties as usual. Capt. Parke Officer of the day at camp 
Cairo Every thing quiet in camp Weather very pleasant Battalion Drill 
this afternoon General Paine from Paducah and Ajt. Gen. M. Breyman of 
this place present. We drew 36 Overcoats to day for our Co. and the full 
complment of Haversacks. 

1861 Camp Cairo Illinois. 

Nov. 4th 8 men detailed from our Regt. as Extra Duty men to work on Forti- 
fications. Joel Knip detailed from our Comp. for Ten Days commencing to- 
morrow Dress Parade at the usual hour. 

Nov. 5th Tuesday morning quite pleasant. 
Usual Duties performed. Lt. Allen Officer of the Guard Joseph Lisenbee who 
now is at liberty is ordered by the Col. to clean up and keep in order every- 
thing about the Co. Quarters Lieut Allen Officer of the Guard to day Bat- 
talion Drill as usual this afternoon. Ordered for dispensing with all Drill 
before 10 O'clock A. M. as recommended by the Medical Board was read this 
afternoon on Dress Parade. 

Nov. 6th Wednesday 
No Drill this morning. We have rec'd marching Orders, also the 30th 31st 
& 7th Iowa 22 Ills, and 2 Go's Cavalry and one Battery of Artillery. At 10 
O'clock we had Gen. Inspection by the Field Officers for ascertaining the con- 
dition of the men their accoutrements Guns &c. The balance of the day until 
4 O'clock was occupied in preparing for a march. At 3 O'clock the 30th, 31st 
& one Co. of Cavalry, (Capt. Noleman) embarked on board the Steamer Key 
Stone. Alec Scott & Chancelor, at 4 O'clock our Regt. 27th embarked on 
Board the Steamer Montgomery^ The Memphis at the same time was laying 
at Birds Point taking on on the 22nd Ills, at about 6 O'clock Alec Scott with 
the 30th and 31st Regis and Gen. McClernand on board the Balance following 
suit. Stopping at Birds Point and Fort Holt for the Iowa 7th & Capt De- 
lano's cavalry Co. The fleet then dropped down the river a few miles to 
Island No. 1 Where we lay till the next morning. 
1861 Camp Cairo Illinois 

Nov. 7th Thursday Morning no Drill this morning. At day light the fleet 
once more get under way and in Co. with the 2 Gun Boats Lexington and 
Tyler Proceede down the River to a point 3 miles above Columbus; landed 
on the Mo. side. Disembarked all of our forces the 27th taking the lead 
we marched around to a point about 3 miles distant from our landing place 
and about opposite the enemys encampment at Belmont opposite Columbus & 
on this side of the River. By throv/ing out skirmishers from our right flank 
the position of the enemy was ascertained. The 30th & 31st Regts were then 
sent forward to engage him, the 30th to attack the center & 31st his left 
flank while the 22nd Ills. 7th Iowa & Taylors Battery supported the center 
The 31st were the first to engage the enemy and soon the action became gen- 
eral, from left to center. The 27th which in the mean time had been lying 
at the point from which skirmishers had been sent out was now ordered 
around to attack him on his right flank which we did though at a great dis- 
advantage having to fight him in his own position among fallen timbers, after 
one hour's hard fighting we had the satisfaction of driving him from his 

'Compare with the report of General U. S. Grant, Nov. 17,1861. Warof the Rebellion, Official Records 
Series I., vol. III., p. 269. In all 3,114 men were sent " to make a demonstration against Columbus. I 
proceeded down the river to a point about 9 miles below here [Cairo], where we lay until next morning, 
on the Kentucky shore, which served to distract the enemy and led him to suppose that he was to be at- 
tacked in his strongly fortified position at Columbus." 


encampment tearing down their '"cursed Rag" and planting the stars and 
stripes where it had lately waved. i Here was scene presented to the Eye 
which can be easier imagined than than described. 

All over the Battle field they scattered and in heaps The dead and the 
dying Friend and Foe lay in close proximity to each other. Some torn 
asunder by cannon balls some with frightful wounds here and there in differ- 
ent parts of the body Some were killed out right with musket balls through 
the temples or forehead others with limbs torn completely off suffering the 
most torturing agonies 'twas a most horrible sight to contemplate But we 
were not allowed but a very short time to contemplate for the enemy by this 
time had reinforced by Cheatham's Brigade of Five Thousand men again ad- 
vanced upon us evidently with the intention of cutting off our retreat. And 
just at this moment they commenced shelling us from Columbus from their 
Batteries of 60 Guns, The shells fell among us thick and fast. However 
previous to this we had the satisfaction setting fire to their Camp & destroy- 
ing it. Now the command in order to work its way back to boats — had to 
its way through the enemy — resulting in the loss of many brave fellows 
Ivilled and wounded the enemy pursuing until we reached the boats. Our 
forces having embarked safely before they came up Except the 27th which in 
order to evade the enemy, — our Sagacious Col. as he has proved himself to 
be in this day's fight marched around the Bayou some Three miles above 
where the boats lay, Thereby escaping the terrible fire to which the balance 
of our forces were exposed. 
Our Regt. was brought up by the Gun Boat Lexington. - 

Nov. 23rd Morris deserted to day 
has not been heard from since very early this morning. 

Nov. 31st Fifty Seven or Eight men with Capt. Parke and Lt. Williams 
were detailed this evening as Extra Duty men to go to Cave in Rock Ills., 
100 miles up the Ohio for the purpose of loading stone. Went aboard the 
Key Stone at 8 O'clock. 

Dec. 5th Daniel Vanvoltenberg died to day from 
the effects of Typhoid fever 

Dec 11th Extra Duty portion of the Company returned from Cave In Rock 
to day with numbers undiminished. 
1862 Camp Cairo Ills. 

Jan. 1st Wednesday morning clear and pleasant. Routine of the morning 
as usual. No drilling to day. The Col. for the diversion of his Officers — 
obtained the use of one of the Steam Tugs which are daily running to & fro 
in the harbor — for a pleasure excursion A portion of the command for the 
morning voyage — another portion for the evening. Capt. Parke & Lieut. 
Williams were among the passengers in the forenoon Lieut Allen remained 
in camp intending to go in the afternoon but did not We had a very pleas- 
ant trip of it first visiting Birds Point paying our compliments to Gen Paine 
— the new commander The performances of the day ended with Dress Par- 

January 2nd Thursday morning- 
Cloudy air heavy and damp. Drill by Cos. in the forenoon Set in raining in 
the afternoon — preventing Battalion Drill. Raining ceased towards evening 
Dress Parade — finis — 

■Colonel Buford of the 27th Illinois in his official report of Nov. 9, 1861, praises the work of his men in the 
following words: " It was our first action. We encountered great odds; the enemy in his fortified posi- 
tion, the thunder of the heavy artillery from Columbus, the whizzing of rified cannon: we had no guides, 
liow could soldier.s who had only volunteered a few days ago be expected to brave such odds? But they 
did brave them." War of the 'Rebellion, Official Records, Series I., vol. III., p. 2S5. 

= .'^ee the report of General Grant for the verificat ion of this episode. Nov. 17, 1861. War of the Rebel- 
lion, Official Records, Series I., vol. III., pp. 269-271. See especially p. 271: ''At this point, to avoid the 
effect of the shells from the gunboats that were beginning to fall among his men, he [Colonel Buford] took 
a blind path direct to the river, and followed a wood road up its bank, and thereby avoided meeting the 
enemy, who were retiring by the main road. On his appearance on the river bank a steamer was dropped 
down', and took his command on board, without his having participated or lost a man in the enemy's 
attempt to cut us off from our transports." For further light on thisengagement see Ibid. pp. 275,277- 
280, 2S2-28.'), 2SS, 2S9, 291. 


Jan. 3rd Friday morning cloudy & 
misting rain. Weatlier prohibiting tiie usual duties. Our pleasant weather 
which has continued ever since the first of September has now taken its final 
leave we all think Dress Parade again this evening — Notwithstanding 
the mud 

January 4th Saturday morning 
Cold & gloomy as usual misting rain Co. on police Duty to day the inclem- 
ency of the weather prohibits Drilling 

Dress Parade as usual. 

Jan 5th Sunday morning Still cloudy & cool 
Inspection of Barracks at 9 O'clock, Call for church at 11 am. where the 
men are permitted to go to which church they please 

Lieut. Allen OSicer of the Guard. No Dress Parade this evening but Roll 
Call or Co. Report 

1862 Camp Cairo, Illinois. 

Jan. 6th Monday morning cool. Lt. Williams with 7 men were ordered in to 
the Fort to Drill on the artillery. Battalion Drill at 3 O'clock P. M. Very 
short Dress Parade. The Col. & lady gave a party to a few selected friends 
this evening 

Jan 7th Tuesday morning cloudy & 
misting rain, too mudy to drill nothing doing to day. 

Jan. 8th Wednesday morning cloudy and damp 
Raining the most of the day. Rec'd marching orders this evening Have 
orders to march on board the Boat at 12 u'clock to-morrow No Dress Par- 
ade this evening on a/c of the inclemency of the Weather, The Col. gave 
a dinner to the Officers to day 

January 9th Thursday morning cloudy 
Preparations making early this morning for our march Marched to the 
landing at 2 O'clock. The Brigade is all ready for embarkation but there is 
such a fog on the river that the expedition is postponed until the fog clears 
away The troops are marched back to their quarters with the expectation 
of leaving to-morrow morning any how. Too muddy for Dress Parade this 

Jan. 10th Friday morning still 
cloudy But the fog has cleared off somewhat, — and we have marching Orders 
for Ten O'clock, — At 10 O'clock we marched aboard the Memphis to gether 
with the 18th Regt. at about One O'clock we pushed out into the stream. 
The boat headed towards Secessia. After 3 hours ride we landed at Camp 
Jefferson Six miles below this place & there went into camp By night 
Seven Regts of Infantry — about 10 Cos. of Cavalry and Two Batteries of 
artillery had landed and encamped 

Tl^e embarkation and debarkation was accomplished without much' difficulty 
1862 Camp Cairo, Ills. 

Jan. 11th Saturday morning cloudy. From present appearances on^ 
would think our stay here would be for several days — as there is no stir in 
camp, — probably waiting for the other forces to come up before we take 
up our line of march Our present camp is near the ruins of Fort Jefferson. 
A Fort erected in Jeffersons time — during the Indian war upon the frontier 
& was at one time a stronghold of Daniel Boone Dress Parade this evening. 

Jan. 12th Sunday morning 
pleasant but cloudy, George W. Clarks 24th Birth Day he is Corporal of the 
Guard to day. Lt. Allen has gone up to Cairo to day for Provisions. About 
2 O'clock our Regt. moved from our original position to the foot of the hill 
for better protection from the cold north wind Allen returned late this even- 
ing Provisions for the Regt. for Five days. 

^Report of GeneralJ. A. McClemand, Jan. 24, 1S62. War Records, Series I., vol. VII., p. 6S. 


Jan. 13lh Monday morning. It snowed 
a little during last night, tis very cold this morning Lt Williams Officer of 
the Guard, nothing has occurred since our arrival to disturb the quiet of 
our camp. 

Jan 14th Weather still very cold, march- 
ing orders have been issued and at 10 O'clock we leave this place for a dif- 
ferent locality. The 10th & 18th Regts. and one Battery of artillery in front 
—our Regt. next the 29th 30th 31st & 48th the train of wagons &c. Bal 
of artillery & cavalry bringing up the rear Near sundown we encamped near 
a place called Blamville having marched a distance of 9 miles for the first 

Firing has been heard all this afternoon in the direction of Columbus One 
or Two of our Gun Boats have dropped down and are answering them by 
throwing a few shot and shell into their intrenchments 
18G2 Camp Cairo, Illinois. January 

January 15th still cloudy but warmer. We march at 8 O'clock — 
our route is in the direction of Columbus, at 3 O'clock we come to a halt and 
prepare for encamping for the night, on the farm of an old secessionist, to 
night we hear that forces from Birds Point & Fort Holt have encamped on 
our old Ground Camp Jefferson. 

Jan. 16th Our march is resumed again 
this morning — but not in the direction of Columbus. Our course is now 
towards Milburn a little town 7 miles distant from our last encampment, 
Which we reached about 3 O'clock P. M. On the account of water we had to 
march 4 or 5 miles farther taking the direction of Paducah after leaving 
Milburn we encamped for the night about 9 O'clock. Lieut Allen was left 
behind at Milburn not being able to proceed any farther, Lt, Brock also 
staid with him. 

Jan. 17th Saturday morning rained like the 
mischief last night. Our camp flooded with' water, ihe 10th Ills, have no 
tents and they are in an awful fix. Our men have not a full ration this 
morning — a little grumbling consequently — traveling is awful — roads are 
very mudy Branches are high and it rains almost continually The coat 
tail of the writer get very mudy and is consequently very heavy. WE travel 
to within one mile of Blanville and encamp for the night. The boys have 
one dram of whisky to night issued by the Qr. Master Lieut Allen has been 
with the teams to day not able to walk, He caught up with us at Love- 

Jan. ISth Sunday morning Roll Call absentees Privates John Hannant, 
Isaac Lawson who fell behind yesterday — we will lay here to day as it is the 
Sabbath, the boys are all tired and are glad to get a rest. 
1862 Camp Cairo Illinois January 

January 19th Monday morning Rail Call as usual And preparations for 
an early march to the river from where we started last Tuesday a distance 
of about 9 miles. It is our desire when we get to the river to embark and 
get to our old qrs to night. But after a hard days march Gen. McClernand 
sees proper to send other Regts in advance of ours consequently we are left 
to encamp on the same old ground Lt. Allen has permission to go to Cairo 
to night as he is unwell. 

January 20th Tuesday weather 
still cloudy and cold — ^Well we do not get off till 12 O'clock and we are de- 
layed at the landing sometime Arrive at Cairo about 4 O'clock where our 
Col. gives his "beloved Regt." a salute from the Fort and has the portion of 
the Regt. left behind drawn up in line on the levee to receive us which is 
done with all the usual formalities of the military school. Then marched 
to our qrs. where after being drawn up previous to dismissal the Col. made 
a few remarks — expressing himself a being highly honored by commanding 
such a Regt. for their good morals. 


February 1st Saturday morning. Our 
Regt. on Guard to day. Rec'd our Pay yesterday. Sixteenth Ills, arrived 
here last night. To day they have gone over to Birds Point. This evening 
we i-ec'd. marching orders, were countermanded however about 8 O'clock. 
Feb. 2nd Troops are embarking all day from 10 O'clock & during the night 
all has gone on smoothly, the expedition is bound up the Ohio Tennessee & 
Cumberland Rivers, Col. Buford is left in command of this Post 
1862. Camp Cairo, Illinois, February. 

Feb. 3rd Monday. Storm has abated. The troops that were enbarking 
yesterday will all leave to day. One soldier was drowned yesterday evening 
by being shoved overboard Gens. McClernand & Grant & Staffs respectively 
leave to day. Col. Buford is in command until noon to day. Gen. Paine will 
then assume command of the Three Posts with Head Quarters here. To 
Inclement for Dress Parade. 

Feb. 4th Tuesday, weather moderate, snow which 
had fallen to the depth of 2 Inches is fast disappearing mud mud everlasting 
oh how awful mudy it is. Very dull to day. No news of any consequence. 
We are all hopeful however that the expedition which left here will be suc- 
cessful. Roll Call now at the usual hour of Dress Parade. 

Feb. 5th Wednesday. No news of the 
expidition yet.Too mudy to do any thing j^et but stand Guard. It rains about 
half the time. Both Rivers are still raising, & threaten to inundate & over- 
flow our camp The camp at Ft. Holt is nearly all under water now. The 
members of our Regt express great chagrine because they were not permitted 
to accompany the expedition and share with it in its perils & honors Capt. 
Parke Ofiicer of the Day. 

Feb 6th Thursday weather 
quite pleasant, clouds cleared av/ay to day The sun shines bright & warm 
& it looks like spring. Favorable hews from the expedition this morning 
had no Battle up to yesterday — but guess they are hard at it to day at Ft. 


1862. Camp Cairo Illinois. 

Feb 7th Friday weather cold. Glorious News, Two of our Gun Boats re- 
turned this morning bearing the Rebel Flags captured at Fort Henry. The 
respective loss is not yet ascertained. One of our Boats in the parts not 
ironed got pretty badly splintered up. One of the Rebel Gens, was also 

Feb. 8th Saturday Weather cool & cloudy 
much rejoicing over the victory gained at Ft. Henry Our success in that 
section we think decides the fate of Columbus Rumors are current that 
fighting is going on in the region of Ft. Henry and Donelson. Nothing 

Feb. 9th Sunday clear but cold. 
Guard mounting at the usual hour Lt Allen Officer of the Guard. Inspection 
of Battalion by the Staff at the usual hour 10 O'clock 48th Ind. arrived here 
last night 2 Regts also came down from St. Louis this evening It is re- 
ported that Fort Donelson is taken by our troops. 

Feb. 10th Monday weather cold cloudy and 
disagreeable. No truth in the reported capture of Ft Donelson 

Feb 11th Tuesday weather still cold no 
news from Fort Donelson to day of any consequence Troops still going 
by way of this place for that point. 

Feb 12th Wednesday News of the capture 
of Roanoke Island rec'd with rejoicing weather moderating. Clear & pleasant. 

Camp Cairo, Illinois. 
Feb. loth Thursday morning Lt. Williams Officer of the Guard to day weather 
clear and pleasant in the morning but changed towards night commenced 
storming sleeting and snowing with the wind in the north. 


Feb. 14tli Friday, morning weather extremely 
cold clear with snow about i._. inch deep. Report of Burnsides capture of 
Roanoke confirmed this moi-ning. The seige of Ft. Donelson is said to have 
commenced both by land and water. 

Feb 15th Saturday weather still cold No 
duty can be performed except to stand guard & perform fatigue duty an un- 
common amount of which has fallen to our share of late. 

Feb. IGtli Sunday, Our Regt. on Guard to day Lt. Williams detailed with 
40 men on fatigue duty to Mound City to day, more news from Fort Donelson 
to day rather unfavorable although the reports are conflicting. 
1862 Camp Cairo Illinois. 

Feb. 17th Monday morning Glorious news this morning. Ft. Donelson is 
taken, Fifteen Thousand prisoners and an immense quantity of arms and 
ammunition. A salute of 34 Guns fired by order of Col. Buford in com- 
memoration of the event. 

Feb. 18th Prisoner taken at Donelson 
are continually arriving Lt. Williams detailed with a squad of 50 men on 
fatigue duty in town A salute of 10 Guns was fired at 10 O'clock in honor 
of Gov. Yates and Suit who arrived to day also Gov. Morton. Weather fair. 

March 4th Tuesday morning. Left Cairo on the 
Steamer Illinois. The Gun Boats 5 in number and 4 mortars taking the lead 
for Columbus, at which place we arrived at about 11 O'clock. The Ills. 2nd 
cavalry had occupied the place & the Stars and Stripes were floating from 
the fortifications. After disembarking, the 27th headed by our noble Col. 
marched to the stirring notes of Yankee Doodle & Dixie, up the levee & the 
hill to the fortifications on the Bluffs. This place where nature & art had 
made the Gibraltar of America would have cost the Government an immense 
number of lives & treasure before succumbing to the american arms, after 
viewing the stupendous works and the different modes of destruction which 
the Rebels had invented to destroy the Northern Barbarian and Yankees as 
they term them, Such as torpedoes & infernal machines which they had 
hurried in the earth promiscously as far back in the country and as far up 
& down the river as the fortifications extend Each one connecting by wire 
with a magnetic Battery by which they were to be exploded. i After seeing 
all there was to be seen we marched back down to town where we went into 
quarters Col. Buford taking his qrs. in town at the Columbus Bank a nice 
Brick Building. Our Col. commanding is Lieut Col. Harrington he has 
taken his qrs. near the Regt. in a large 2 story house formerly the Head 
Qrs of the Rebel Gen. Pope. There is quite a change with weather this 
afternoon turned colder Col. Buford has assumed command of the Post. A 
portion of our Regt have taken up their qrs. in the rebels barracks — built of 
logs and a portion are encamped in tents. 

March the 5th Wednesday morning 
cloudy & cold nothing of importance to day. Lt. Lytle of Co. B has been 
selected by Col. Harrington as acting adjt. a adjt Rust is acting Brigade adjt 
for Col. Buford com'dg the Post. The 42d Regt. Ills. Vol. are encamped 
upon the bluffs. No Dress Parade this evening. 

March 6th Thursday morning still 
cloudy & cool Capt. Parke Officer of the day. Lt. W^illiams Comp. C has 
been detailed by the Col. to act as Qr. M. until Qr. M. Sears arrives from 
Cairo. A regular mail & passenger packet runs the line between this & 

>See the report of Flag officer, A. H. Foote, Mar. 4, 1S62. War Reoord.s, Series I., vol. VII., p. 436. 
In part he reports as follows: " Columbus is in our possession. My armed reconnaissance on the 2nd 
caused a hasty evacuation, the rebels leaving quite a numlier of gun.s and paiTiages,amunit ion and a large 
quanity of shot and shell, a considerable number of anchors, and the remnant of chain lately stretched 
across the river, with a large number of torpedoes. Most of the huts, tents, and quarters destroyed. The 
works are of very great strength, consisting of formidable teers of batteries on the water side and on the 
land side, surrounded by a ditch and abatis." 


March 7th Friday morning weather more 
pleasant. Our Sutler arrived this morning from Cairo. Dress Parade this 

March .5th Saturday morning clear & pleasant 
The absentees are those left behind at Cairo arrived this evening Dress 
Parade at the customary hour. 

,1862. Head Quarters, Camp Columbus Ky. 

March the 9th Sunday morning. Weather pleasant with some indications 
of rain. Co. inspection on the Co. Parade ground at 9.30 A. M. Boats are 
running quite freely between this point & Cairo. Dress Parade this evening. 

March 10th Monday morning, had quite a 
rain storm last night — but has the appearance of clearing off this morning' 
Qr. Master Sears arrived last evening. Every thing quite in town, Lt. Wil- 
liams relieved from Duties as Qr. M. 

March 11th Tuesday morning clear and 
pleasant. Lt. Williams officer of the Guard to day. To news of the evacua- 
tion of Manasses reached us to day much rejoicing over it & the forward 
advance of the armies of the Potomac. 

March 12th Wednesday weather still 
pleasant. Lt. Allen & a squad of men from our Co. after great exertions 
have succeeded in drawing from the river a Sixty Four Pdr. which the rebels 
had dismounted & rolled into the river, which he has mounted and now every 
morning and evening at the rising and setting of the sun he and his squad 
cause it to thunder forth the announcement of arrival or departure of that 
glorious Orb of Day. 

March 13th Thursday weather very pleasant 
Very dull more so than at Cairo as there is no business going on and very 
few citizens are living here Dress Parade as usual. 

March 14th Friday, it rained very hard 
last night, & is still raining this morning. We are under marching orders, 
Tis said we are to accompany the fleet down the river True enough abotit 
11 O'clock A. M. the flotilla of Gun Boats hove in sight followed by the 
transports & mortars. 

We embarked on board the Steamer Silver Wave. By and by they began to 
shove out the Gun Boats taking the lead. 

18(52 Head Quarters Silver Wave Nothing of interest 

transpired until we arrived at Hickman, — where we all landed, a Battalion 
of the 27th only disembarking headed by our Col. and Lt. Col. displaying 
our glorious old Banner & keeping step to the soul stirring notes Yankee 
Doodle & Dixies land. Col. Buford flrst proceeded to the telegraph office 
where he destroyed their means of communication & also tearing up their 
Rail Road track for a short distance. The locomotive having skeddadled as 
soon as our Boats hove in sight. We lay here until Saturday morning 

March loth Sattirday morning cold 
drissling rain. The fleet gently get under way this morning at day break, 
we proceeded on our way to Island No. 10. Our Col. this morning imparted 
to us the glad tidings of the evacuation of New Madrid & the possession of 
it by Gen. Pope with a number of peices of heavy cannon About 9 A. M. 
we came very unexpectedly upon a Rebel Gun Boat the Grampies which was 
wooding about a 9 miles above the Island. She very hastily left her moor- 
ings, not giving some of her hands time to get aboard. The Benton which 
was in advance sent a few shots after her— but without reaching her. She 
set up a scream with her whistle — which she did not abate until she reached 
the Island. Arriving in the neighborhood of the Island — the Gun Boats 
dropped very cautiously down to within 3% miles of their upper Battery on 
the main shore & near the same distance from the Island. Two of the 
mortars were towed into position. The Gun Boats then opened upon the 
Island — firing several rounds during the afternoon The two mortars also 
fired several rounds each — but no response was elicited from either Battery 
Nothing of importance has transpired to day. 


1862 Head Quarters Silver Wave. 

March 16th Sunday morning Still cloudy. A 10 A. M. Capt Mores Co. to 
which was added Lt. Williams by order Lt. Col. Harrington to go over on the 
Mo. shore for the purpose of reconnoitering & supporting if necessary a 
fatigue party under the command of capt southward 'which was detailed to 
build a bridge over a slough for crossing artillery, we were landed about 
11 A. M. the fatigue set to v.'ork bridging the slough while we went down the 
river about one mile took possession of a deserted farmers house had a first 
rate dinner & marched back to our Boat about 5 O'clock P. M. The mortars 
4 in number kept up a constant fire from 10 A. M. till night. Col. Buford 
landed one Battery of artillery, — about 5 P. M. & the 27th Regt. to support it. 
4 rounds from one Gun were fired at a battery on the Island before the 
enemy deigned to reply — when they did the first shot passed within about 
Fve feet of Lt. Allen & Williams who were standing on the fence at the 
time. They did not stand for another shot — but got down out of view from 
the enemy. The Third or Fourth shot from the enemy took off a leg from 
one of our artillerist. — finding our Guns ineffective we ordered back to the 
Boats and steamed back to our landing place. 

March 17th Monday morning clear & pleas- 
ant. Nothing doing until 1 P. M. when Three Gun Boats the Benton in the 
center lashed together dropped down to within long range of the upper Bat- 
tery — Two others on the opposite side of the river. A tremendous heavy 
fire was now opened from the 5 Gun Boats and 8 mortars Which was re- 
sponded to with considerable spirit — but without any effect. A cannon on 
board the St. Louis exploded during the heat of the action killing 2 and 
wounding 6, was all the men we lost during the action. The effect of our 
firing on their Battery can not now be ascertained, but we know of several 
Guns being dismounted.i 

1862 Head Quarters Steamer Silver Wave 

March the 18th Tuesday morning, heard heavy firing at New Madrid. Our 
Boat moved up the river. The Gun Boats and mortars opened fire in the 
evening. At dlii A. M. Our Boat went up the river to Mr. Phillips and killed 
4 beeves, After that we dropped down the river to our camping place. Our 
mortars and & Gun Boats keep up a fire on the enemy all night at intervals of 
^2 hour. 

March 19th Wednesday. William H. Ashley 
died this day at Cairo. The firing still continues. Lt. Allen left the Boat, 
on board the Steamer Rob Roy in a skiff with 3 citizens for the upper Ft. 
They approached within 200 y'ds of it could see One Gun Two empty car- 
riages, and about 15 or 20 men apparently. Not doing any thing to them 
returned to the flag Boat Benton & reported to the Commodore. 

March 20th Thursday Lt. Allen aboard the Rob 
Roy in company with Col. Buford on a recounoissance but nothing of note 
occurred this A. M. But at dark Allen with Three men H. C. Foote Alma 
Jaques and Orastus Bently approached within 10 yards of the enemys Guns, 
in the upper Ft. and discovered the enemy mounting Guns. 
Allen remained there about an hour and then returned to Com. Foote. As 
soon as he had reported the Com. opened fire on them. They then took Tug 
Boat & returned to the Steamer Silver Wave. 

March 21st Friday cloudy & smokj' 
The 27th Regt. of His. Vol. was transferred from the Steamer Silver Wave 
to the Steamer T. L. McGill One Steamer with One Regt. left here for Hick- 
man Ky. to protect the citizens. Our Gun Boats continue to fire on the 

March 22nd Saturday morning little cannonading to day. Col. Bissels En- 
gineering Regt. commenced cutting a canal evading Island No. 10 through 
to N Madrid 

'For these movements see War Records, Series I., vol. VIII., pp. 115-117. 


1862 Head Qrs, 27th Steamer T. L. McGill. 

March 23rd Lt. Allen Officer of the Guard weather clear The Steamer W. B. 
Terry commenced dropping through the Canal (which takes it source at 
Philips Plantation and empties into the Miss River again at New Madrid). 

March 24th Monday weather clear Col. 
Buford left the McGill went down the River in a tug to make a Balloon 
reconnoissance. A tree fell across one of the Gun Boats to Day and killed 

1 man and wounding 7 

March 25th Tuesday, weather clear. 
Lt. Allen is detailed with 30 men as an escort to the Steamers W. B. Terry, 
Trio Emma, and Hettie Gilmore under the command of Col. Bissel. 

March 26th Wednesday morning clear 
Col Bissels command cut stumps all day. 

March 27th Thursday weather clear 
Col Bissels command penetrate slowly to day into the forest. 

March 28 Friday, clear. Heard 
heavy firing all last night. Made slow progress to day. 

March 29th Saturday Weather 
cloudy. Heavy firing in the afternoon. 
We made about One mile to day. Received mail to Day. 

March 30th Weather clear, 
& fine The Engineer Regt. keep working. Two flat Boats came down with 
4 large Guns The 27th went to Hickman. i 

March 31st Monday Havy weather 
The Eng. Regt. began mounting the Guns on the flat Boats 
1862 Head Qrs. Steamer McGill 

April the 1st Tuesday Weather clear The Gun Boats & mortars keep a 
constant fire. At 11 P. M. we had a. heavy thunder Shower but short. 

April 2nd Wednesday. Weather cloudy 
Maj Miles visited the expedition of Bissel. Little firing to day 

April 3rd Thursday weather clear 
This is the 10th day of Bissels expedition towards Madrid Worked all night 
last night and arrived at St John's Bayou Water falling 

April 4th Friday cloudy 
& raining. Rec'd the news that Buford was promoted to a Brig. Generalship 

April 5th Saturday Clear 
The Gun Boat Carondolette run the Blockade last night. 

April 6th Sunday. Weather 
fine & clear but cold at nights arrived at New Madrid The Gun Boat Pitts- 
burgh run the Blockade at Island No. 10 last night or this morning. Lt. 
Williams on board the T L McGill had permission to go ashore to day to stay 
at a farm house until he regains his health being quite unwell. 

April the 7th Monday Cloudy 
& raining. Gen Pope crossed the River to day with 4 Boat loads of troops. 

2 Gun Boats silenced a Battery opposite Madrid. Lt. Allen took possession 
of a commodious house for his 30 men 

a rebel floating Battery came floating down this evening mounting 14 Guns 

we caught her and brought her ashore. 

1862. Head Quarters T L McGill. 

April Sth Tuesday Weather cloudy. The Steamer Emma went up to Island 

No. 10 last night. The rebels sunk 4 transports before evacuating. Rained 

all last night 

April 9th Wednesday Weather cloudy Lt. Allen 
took his command on board the steamer Emma at 9 O'clock and started for 
Island No. 10. At 12 M. the Hettie Gilmore and 2 other transports brought 
prisoners from the opposite shore — about 3 thousand and and went back 
after more. Joined the Regt. to Day. 

'Report of Colonel Buford, Mar. 31, 1862.- War Records, Series I. , vol. VIII., p. 116. 


April lltli Friday Weather cloudy Rec'd our 
mail. Our Regt. left Island No. 10 at 2 O'clock P. M. in Comp. with the 
Silver Wave & towed a wharf Boat to New Madrid. 

April 12th Saturday cloudy & raining 
Rained all last night. Still on board the McGill waiting for orders from 
■Gen Pope. At 1 O'clock we went down the River and went ashore at Rid- 
dles Point. 

April loth Sunday clear 
Left Riddles Point at 7 O'clock. At 2 P. M. we were opposite Osceola 30 or 
40 Boats 8 miles above Ft. Wright 

April 14th Monday. Weather clear no- 
thing of note happened up to 12. The first shell from our Boats at Ft Wright 
at 2-20 P. M. At 1 P. M. Gen. Bufords took fire and burned to the hull. The 
Gun Boats & Mortars kept up considerable firing to day. 
18(52. Head Quarters T. L. McGill. 

April 15th Weather clear, nothing of importance to day 
April 16th Wednesday Weather clear and warm 

The Barkeeper on board this Boat was sent ashore to day for disobedience. 
No Guns fired to day. Rec'd mail to day Capt. Lemuel Parke resigned to 

April the 17th, Raining & smoky. 
The Fleet of transports started for the Tennessee River to day We landed 
at Upton's farm and wooded Lt. Allen took command of the Co. at dark. 
We lay at the Wharf Boat 20 miles below New Madrid taking on provisions 
4 hours. 

April 18th Friday raining. Landed at New 
Madrid at 2 P. M. Stopped at Island No. 10 and Philips Plantation for Lt. 

April 19th A Bently and 
H. F. James get furloughed home. Arrived at Cairo 2 P. M. Stay there 8 
hours. Capt. Parke went home. 

April 20th Sunday Weather cloudy 
and rainy. Arrived at Paducah at Day light, at 4 opposite Karri's landing 
Tennessee River. 

April 21st Monday Weather cloudy 
Arrived at Savannah Tenn. at 9 P. M. Col. Harrington was elected Col. of 
the 27th A. J. Lides appointed 2nd Lt of comp. C. vice L. F. Williams pro- 
moted to 1st Lieutenancy, arrived at Pittsburgh landing 10 P. M. 
1862 Head Qrs 27th Regt. Hamburgh Tenn. 

April 22nd Tuesday, at 6 A. M. Steam up the River landed 8 miles above 
Pittsburg Landing. At 6 P. M. marched up to the town of Hamburg. 

April 23rd Wednesday clear & 
fine Sets our tents in Hamburgh. One of the finest camps in Tenn. Richard 
Emery joined the Regt. again 

April 24th Thursday, Beautiful weather 
Rec'd marching Orders. Lt. Williams returned to his Company. 

April 25th Friday raining. Marching 
Orders with 2 Days rations. Marching Orders Countermanded. Our Co. 
Detailed as Grand Guard and it rained all day No rain on the night. 

April 26th Saturday weather clear & 
fine Returned to Comp. Our Regt. marched forward 2 miles & camped on 
good ground. 

April the 27th Sunday. Clear marching orders 
Left Thirteen men & all our tents behind. Advanced 2 miles and a half 
camped in the timber and slept on our arms. Skirmish between pickets 
to day. 

April 28th Monday Cloudy but cleared off fine about 
noon. Long Roll beat — fall into line of Battle Our Pickets had a skirmish 
with the Rebels — killing one Major and 4 men wounded several and took 
Twenty Four prisoners. Day ended clear but rained nearly all night. 


April 29th Tuesday cloudy and raining on the morning. 
Rec'd orders for marching to-morrow at 7 A. M. with 1 Days rations. 
1862 Head Qrs. 27th In the Field near Corinth Miss. 

April 30th Rec'd marching orders to day for to-morrow morning instead 
of the 29th a mistake in the printer. 

May the 1st Thursday clear and pleasant. Preparations for 
marching. As the companies have but one team allotted to each one of 
them we are compelled to leave our tents behind At 7 A. M. The 10th and 
16th take up their line of march towards Corinth. Capt. Allen Officer of the 
Day to day. We march about S O'clock. The 22nd is in advance. 
Our Brigade commanded by Gen. Parmer [Palmer] — is composed of the 22nd 
Ills, on the right the 27th next then the Battery the 51st and the 42nd Ills. 
4 Regts and one Battery. The sappers and miners Col Bissel have been in 
our advance for several days preparing the roads — our route is in a southerly 
direction through a broken country — occasionally a farm. We halted about 
4 P. M. after marching about 6 miles Gen. Morgans Brigade — with Hottel- 
lings (Houghtaling) Battery are formed in the line of Battle in our front 
Our Brigade is next in the same order. Roll call this evening at the usual 

May the 2nd Friday morning clear and pleasant. 
An order has been issued prohibiting the firing of guns or even the snapping 
of caps — within the lines or without the lines of any Regt. Except it be our 
pickets or sentinels in the performance of duty. At 10.30 A. M. we reed 
orders to fall back about one mile across a creek Gen. Paine having advanced 
his division too far — in his eagerness to encounter the enemy. After a short 
march we reach our camping place a position on the opposite side % of a 
mile to the right and ly^ mile to the rear. Forces in our rear are rapidly 
1862. Head Quarters In the Field near Corinth Miss. 

May the 3rd Saturday morning very pleasant but some indications 
of. rain. About 9 O'clock firing is heard on our right constant and seemingly 
heavy volleys of musketry accompanied by discharges of artillery. Gens. 
Paine Palmer and staff pass our Regt. in the meantime. Gen. Palmer told 
the Guard that in less that 24 hours they will have a chance to distinguish 
themselves. At 10 A. M. we receive orders to be ready to march in 40 min- 
utes with one days rations the team and 5 men are left behind knapsacks 
and the remainder of the provision The men are in good fighting order. At 
11 A. M. v/e move forward each Brigade holding their relative position. We 
advance in the direction of Corinth about 6 miles then halted. The 22nd 
moves off to the right in an open field throwing out a comp. as skirmishers 
on the extreme right — also Co. A of the 27th on our left for the same purpose 
firing is heard in our front at considerable distance In about an hour our 
skirmishers return not having encountered the enemy. The line of march 
is again resumed — from what we can gather the Enemy is about 3 miles in 
our front with quite a large force awaiting an attack. Two miles farther we 
pass a small body of Cavlry 9 of the Enemy were killed in that little Skir- 
mish One of our Men wounded in the foot a little farther on & we Came 
to where Several large trees had bin failed a Cross the road near by is quite 
a large the bridge op which has also bin distroyed the Sapers & Miners 
however have bin at worke SinCe the Enjine have bin Compeled to fall baCk 
& a bridge is alredy Constructed Sufisent to pass all of our forCes over 
Sharp firing is nov.^ heard in front we advanCe on open field is Soon reached 
where the 10th & 16th have bin encampt to the right Cap the 27 & 22 move 
to the left Hotlings Batry Moves forward also to the right, supported by 
Gen Morgans Brigade. We move onward stopping for no obstacles whatever, 
the musket balls whistling uncomfortably clos — occasionally. Hotellings 
Battery now opens causing the enemy to skedaddle in a hurry taking position 
again behind their Battery which had not yet opened upon us. The Battery 
belonging to otir Brigade now advanced on the extreme left with 2, 10 pdr 
Turrat Guns & 2 brass 12 pdr not being very well manned, the firing now 
from both sides was tolerably warm The shot and shell from the rebel 

—10 H S 


battery falling in every direction but our men all proved themselves heroes — 
not withstanding the heavy fire to which they were exposed not a man 
flinched but stood firmly at his post. 

The heavy cross fire from our battery & the constant and well directed aim or 
fire rather from Hotillings battery proved too much for the southern chivilry 
and after about one hours fight fled. The Battery taking one load the Infan- 
try another. The enemy proved to be about 4,500 including one Regt. of 
cavalry and one Battery. Our forces engaged were the 22nd & 27th Ills, one 
Battalion of sharpshooters — 2 Batteries of artillery the 10th & IGth Ills. & a 
squadron of Cavalry — A total of about 3.500 men. The loss of the enemy was 
considerable carrying off quite a number — besides leaving 12 or 15 of their 
dead on the field & about 25 prisoners. Our loss during the day was one 
man killed & 20 wounded. We occupied the ground about one hour during 
the time our cavalry was scouring the country. About 6 O'clock orders came 
from Gen. Pope to fall back about 3 miles and take up our position — -which 
we did in an open field about 9 P. M. the men tired and nearly worn out 
rested on the ground without tents or blankets. Gens Pope & Palmer were 
in the thickest of the fight displaying great coolness and courage. 
May 4th Sunday morning cloudy with some indications of rain. Some 
firing heard on our left, about 9 O'clock we take a new position \2 mile in 
the rear of the present one. 

1862 Head Qr.s. 27th Regt. In the field near Corinth Miss. May 4th 

Sen. Luns Brigade consisting of the 10th & 14th Michigan & Yates sharp- 
shooters now occupy the advance. Gen. Morgan's Brigade on the right 
& a little to the rear. Gen Palmer's in the rear of the two Brigades. It 
commenced raining about 11 A. M. and has kept it up all day without 
intermission. Our team arrived to night with the knapsacks and re- 
mainder of provisions & the officers tents. We are nearly starved the men 
have no hard bread make out to borrow enough for supper. The Qr. 
Master has not brought any bread with him thinking the men had enough 
till to-morrow. "Curses" not very loud but deep are "vented" upon the Qr. 
Master by the men, many of whom after starving all day have nothing 
for supper. 

May 5th. Monday morning raining hard has rained very hard most 
of last night No reveille or roll call this morning. The men have no bread 
for breakfast. Efforts are made to borrow from other Regts. in the Divi- 
sion but they are nearly in the same condition, consequently we have no 
bread for breakfast, the men are very much dissatisfied & the curses are 
louder than last evening against the Old Qr Master. The rain ceases 
about 9 A. M. and at 1 P. M. it is clear and pleasant. The Qr. Master did 
not start back after provision till late this morning — not having gone last 
night as he should have done, the roads are in a dreadful condition. There 
is a camp report this evening that Gen Buell has taken possession of the 
Rail road on the right running to Memphis & that he also bagged a Brigade 
of rebels that were on the train. It is also reported that our forces on 
the left have taken possession of the road running east, there is also 
another report that Com. Porter & his fleet are coming up the Mississippi. 
1862 Head Qr.s. 27th Regt. of Ills. Vol. in the Field near Corint Miss. 

Cannonading is heard on the right of our position this 

evening are not certain whether it is on the right or at the River. The 
Qr. Master has not returned yet and curses are louder than ever. And the 
cry of "crackers" crackers" resounds from one end of the camp to the 
other. Lt. Sides Officer of the Guard . 

May 6th Tuesday morning, quite cool, but clear as a morning bell. 
No Qr Master yet, and the cry of crackers is again heard through camp, this 
time it brings the Col. around and he threatens to place every Capt. under 
arrest if it is not stopped. 

Sergt. Martin manages to borrow one cracker for each man for 
breakfast — from the 22nd Ills. At 8 P. M. our team returned with pro- 
vision. Our teamster — Robt. Mayo had the misfortune to loose one span 


of his mules in crossing the bridge missing their footing they fell into the 
stream and v/ere drowned. The cannonading on our right is said to have 
been a fight between some of our forces & the rebels — resulting in the 
capture of a battery & 900 of the Enemy. The Tennessee River is 2 feet 
higher than ever known before. An Order from Gen. Pope was read at 
roll call complimenting the troops for their courage in the little engage- 
ment at Farmington on Saturday last the 3rd inst. About 2000 men are 
at work endeavoring to make the road passable btween here and the River. 
A light mail to day — 

May 7th Wednesday. Camp. B. was out on picket yesterday and 
relieved to day. The Qr. Master arrives this afternoon with plenty of 
provision. The 16th are nearly suffering to day for something to eat, as 
their teams have not arrived yet from the River. After Tattoo this even- 
ing we rec'd orders to be ready to march in the morning by 7 A. M. with 
one day's rations in haversacks. The whole Army will probably move 
on Corinth to morrow. 

1862 Head Qr.s. 27th Regt. Ills. Vol. In the Field near Corinth Miss. 
May the 8th Thursday morning cool. Assembly beat at 7.20 A. M. The 
Brigade in our front in command of Gen Morgan took - the lead, — our 
Brigade following the other Brigades follov/ing after Gen. Stanley's Divi- 
sion is on our left — & 2 Regts of Cavalry. . Our route is over the same 
ground passed over by us last Saturday to Farmington. On reaching the 
open ground or fields where our skirmishing began on Saturday, we found 
Gen. Morgan's Brigade formed in close column by division. Our Brigade 
formed in the same manner. A messenger comes in from our advance for 
Gen. Baine & staff to proceed forward as a flag of truce from the enemy is 
in waiting A consultation is held & a purport of the visit forwarded by 
telegraph to Gen. Pope — an answer is soon rec'd by those holding the con- 
sultation the usual formalities having been gone through with — the depu- 
tation return to their entrenchments. The Sharp shooters composing the 
Yates Phalanx are ordered forward as sitirmishers. The Divisions about 
Fifteen Thousand strong move forward into the open Field on the high 
ground. Here an open scope of country about % of a mile wide stretches 
away towards Corinth for Two miles this is a solid block of farms. Firing 
now commences in front — tis our sharpshooters driving back the enemy — • 
the enemy's pickets. A line of Battle is rapidly formed — the line extending 
diagonally across the field with our left resting on Farmington & right 
extending into the timber skirting the North Side of the open country 
before us. Our scouting parties and skirmishers retun the way is clear 
in the direction of Corinth for some distance. We again move forward — 
the artillery in front — we halt very frequently as the skirmishers progress 
is very slow and firing is occasionally heard on our left. After we have 
marched one mile our Regt. Is ordered to deploy from the open ground to 
the right into the timber, as we advance frequent firing is heard on our 
left, but we are not so fortunate as to meet any of the Butternut Gentry. 
The artillery stop occasionally unlimber and shell the woods in the front. 
We are marching now by the head of column & again by the right flank 
and sometimes in line of Battle. And notwithstanding the thick under- 
growth hills & hallows ditches Sloughs and creeks — our Regt marched in 
good order & regularity. Tis now 5 P. M. We have reached a spot distant 
about 2 miles from Corinth. Have halted and drawn up in line of Battle. 
Heavy cannonading has been in progress on our left for some time. Our 
sharpshooters are cracking away at them in lively style — and the enemy 
are replying as earnestly. We rest here near an hour word is brought in 
that the enemy have rec'd heavy reinforcements & are advancing — and 
firing of our sharpshooters became more & more distinct as they slowly 
fall back orders are now rec'd to retrace our steps which we do in good 
order reaching the open ground about sun set. The line of march is re- 
sumed again in the direction of our old camp, which is reached in safety 
about 8 P. M. The casualties of to day's reconnoissance is one Major 


of the 7th Ills, cavalry killed & Three privates and several of the Infantry 
wounded, all of which was done at or near the Battery on our extreme 
left, 'tis said the enemy's outerfortifications are where our forces came so 
unexpectedly this Battery — & which would have resulted in great destruc- 
tion to our forces had the enemy been aware of our approach. Our Rgt. 
was so unlucky as not to have the opportunity of firing a single during the 

May 9th Friday Morning. The men are quite hard rouse from their slum- 
ber this morning, having marched very late last evening. At 9 A. M. our 
Brigade is ordered forward & encamp on the ground near Farmington. At 
10 A. M. the assembly beats — v/e fall in on the color line. We march for- 
ward — about half the distance is accomplished when we hear cannonading in 
the front. A messenger comes dashing on from there asking for reinforce- 
ments—stating that the enemy had advanced during the night and was about 
to overpower the force left there as pickets. We hasten up tlainking it is 
nothing but a reconnoitering party. After arriving at the open fields just 
across the creek and swamp & =;4 of a mile this side of Farmington our 
Artillery which is but 4 pieces advance and take position and are firing at a 
Battery which the enemy have planted west of us — behind a skirt of under- 
brush, by this time it is ascertained that another rebel Battery is stationed 
to the left of the former across a deep hollow whicli is also obscured from our 
view by a strip of timber intervening the Two fields. The artillery firing now 
become very rapid — the enemy replying with great spirit — the shells are 
falling rather close to our position to be comfortably pleasant and we are 
ordered into a hollow nearly for protection until the infantry is called into 
action in order to facilitate our movements we are orderen to unsling knap- 
sack remaining here ij hour — meanwhile the shot & shell are passing over 
around & on all sides of us — doing no damage wliatever. During the firing 
Gen. Pope arrives on the fieldv — discovers the enemy to he in full forces — 
telegraps to Gen. Halleck of the fact — & his own force. Gen. Halleck tele- 
graps him not to reinforce as it would bring on a General engagement & 
he is nof ready, but to bring his force off the field. The enemy have to be 
held in check till the siege pieces wliicli have started across the bottom can 
be turned back again. A strong force of the enemy is now moving to our 
left with the intention of fianking us, — we are ordered forward & occupy a 
ridge in front of our present position to prevent their intended movements. 
We move forward through a shower of grape & shot & canister from a Bat- 
tery on our right. Our line of Battle is perfect and lying low to escape the 
fire on our right — coolly await the approaching foe. But have not long to 
wait, their Banners & then their head & finally they can all be seen advanc- 
ing to the brow of the hill opposite — distant about 250 yards. Our men are 
eager now & impatient for the order fire. A new feature is now added to the 
scene before us. Galloping rapidly to the front and unllm'oering a Battery 
of 6 pieces of artillery turn their mouths full upon us, this all done before 
our eyes without a single order to fire — by which we might have prevented 
such a movement — was too much for human nature to Ijear. And a sensa- 
tion is plainly visible along our whole line Here exposed to a cross fire from 
the Battery on our right — the enemy seven Regts. Strong plainly visible in 
front — with the mouths of those six "bull dogs" gaping in our faces — ready 
to pour destruction into our ranks. — while our own Regt. reduced to 6 comp. 
and the 22nd. on our right — was all the force we had to oppose them & with- 
out any support whatever— is it surprising that men would falter under such 
circumstances. A few men in Co. B. and private Knip in our comp. impelled 
by the idea that they can see just as well a little farther back — attempt to 
fly — but are prevented by the OflScers and File Closers. But Joel Knip is so 
determined in his resolution that he does not alter it — Capt. Allen jumps 
before him with drawn sword threatens to run him through unless he re- 
turns to his post. This commotion discovers our position to the enemy — 
and the consequence is the Shot Shell & grape are rattling around us like 
hail. The order soon comes for us to fall back — we march back in good 


order to the edge of the field — where we face the enemy again. Orders came 
again to fall back^ — but the Col. mistaking the orders commanded forward 
and we marched up again to our first position the grape shot meantime 
falling around us thick and fast. It was during this last forward movement 
that private F. M. Conner was killed Struck in the back of the head by a 
piece of shell. Private R. H. Waters was wounded also — for a few minutes 
we withstood the raking fire of the Two Batteries. The Col. gives no orders 
to fire. The command again is given to fall back we do so with some con- 
fusion — on we go on the "double-quick" across the field — pass our knapsacks 
hardly deigning to look at them — Over the 2nd hill where we form again 
The Cavalry now make a charge upon the Battery which is don in splendid 
style — throwing their Infantry into uter confusion. We now continue our 
retreat across the bottom and back to camp our line of Battle is kept up till 
dark — we are relieved by other Regts. We find the loss of our Co. to be one 
killed, F. M. Conner, One wounded T. H. Waters, One missing, Richard Felan. 
The loss of our Regt. in todays engagement, is 4 killed, 15 wounded and 2 

May 10th Saturday morning Reveille beat at 8 O'clock A. M. 
We handed in a report of our Co. loss today which will be replaced by 
government. Gen. Pope has ordered the comdg officers of each Regt. to have 
their men fall in on the color line at the firing of one cannon at his head 
Qrs. the 2nd is a signal to prepare for fighting the 3rd is to disperse to qrs. 
May 11th. Sunday, News of the evacuation of York Town is rec'd 
today with great rejoicing Roll Call at the usual hour. 

May 12th Monday. Our Co. is on picket Guard today The line 
of pickets is very heavy. Rec'd intelligence of the surrender of Norfolk and 
the burning of the Merrimack. 

May 13th2 Tuesday Our Company Came off picket nothing of im- 
portance Takes place To day 

May 14 Wensday nothing of importance going on here to day 
May 15 Thirsday we wore got in to line of battle with two days provision 
in our haversack and sixty rounds of aminition we laid in line Till Noon 
we then got orders to go to camp noting hapning of importance 

May 16 friday all is quiet here to day nothing of importance 
going on here. 

May 17 Saturday we are on the road advancing with two days 
provision in our haversack we were on picket to day we advanced our 
picket line the whole arem advanced to day we wore releaved at night bjr 
general Nelsons men 

May Sunday 18 we worked hard all night building brest work 
and all day today we have planted five seage peares to day we are ready 
for them now if they want to come 

May 19 Monday they are still throwing up brest woorks Thare 
is heavy canonading in front on the picked line but did not amount to much 
May 20 tuesday we got paid of To day we got fifty two dolars 
All is quiet here to day 

May 21 wensday there was heavy firing on the picket line we got orders 
to advance we went about half a mile halted laid down a bout haf an our 
then marched back to camp thare was heavy cananading on our right at 
Tenn o'clock it lasted a boute a quarter of an our 

May 22 Thirsday there was skirmishing with the picket this 
morning all is quiet here nothing of importance hapaned May 23 Friday it 
has rained hard here all day the roads are bad to travel on for mud is 
very deep 

May 24 Saturday, it is Still raining here the mud is very deep all is quiet 

'For the retvirn of casualties on May 3 and 9 see War Records, Series I., vol. X., p. 718 and for May 9 
alone p. 805. 
= The handwriting changes here. Note the spelling. 


May 25 Sunday we are on picket to day there has ben some 
picket firing but it did not amount to much 

May 26 Monday off picket there was a skirmish on the picket line the 
Agetent of the 14 Michigan was cild nothing more of importance hapned to 
May 27 tuesday nothing of importance hapned to day on our line 

May 28 wensday we advanced about a mile to the front there 
was a big artilery fight we were on the reserve and did not git in to it the 
troops in our front are throwing up brest works litle before sundown we 
ware put at it we got ours done at eleven at night the rebels atempted to 
take one of our baterys but were repulsed with heavy loss the rebles tried 
to shell us but done no harm 

May 29 Thirsday we have got some of the seage guns planted v/e are at 
work at them we can hear the roar of the big gun and the whistle of the 
shell as they through the air our gun sheled them all day 
May 30 friday irley this morning there was a dense smoke seen to rise 
in the direction of corinth the enimy are blowing up their magasene the 
enimy have evacuated and our cavelry are in persuit of them we got orders 
to git ready to march with three days provision in our haversacks we 
started at five oclock in persuit of them we marched eight miles the enimy 
are in front of us in a position that is hard to git at they are on Tuscum- 
bia river 

May 31 Saturday we are on guard to day there is two companys of our reg 
one from the 51; one from the 42 one from the 22 we are guarding a bridge 
two of the enimy came in and give up we staid here all night 

June the first 1SG2 June 1 we returned to camp this morning 
the enimy having retreated our regement are in persuit we over took them 
at danvill we rested a while we crosed the Tuscumbia river we wore caled 
into ranks we wore ordered foward for skirmishers this is the first time we 
were ever skirmishing we went about eight miles we incamped near the town 
of rienzia we wore posted out till the troops came up we then returned to 

June 2 monday we wore on the road a litle after daylight we incamped at 
Boonvill we made 6 miles to day we have not see any of the enimy to day 
June 3 Tuesday we wore on a recinoicance about eleven miles drove the 
enimeys pickets in we got a few cild and wounded we returned to camp 
this was the hardest march that we ever have done late of the men give 
out on the road 

June 4 wensday the boys are sore this morning and grumbling about their 
hal"d march we are at the old camp about sundown thare came the well nown 
call for us to fall in there was rebel caveyery reported beyond our picket 
line we started in persuit with a section of artilery we went about four 
miles but found nothing and returned to camp wild goose chase 
June 5 Thirsday we laid in camp all day to day the men are sore and tired 
and near worn out 

June 6 friday we were roused at noon by the long road we took up our line 
of march to the rear for one mile then turned west one mile we then turned 
north a ways and then drew up in line of batle and stocked our arms and 
laid down for the night we are in a nice grove of timber 
Saturday June 7 nothing of importance going on here we laid in Camp all 

June 8 Monday we got orders to be ready to march with four days provision 
we had inspection of arms nothing of importance going on here 

June 9 monday nothing of worth has taken place to day thare 
has been troops pasing all the after- noon they are going to the rear 
June 10 Tuesday nothing of note took place to day we are in the old place 

June 11 wensday we fell in and took up our line of march to the rear our 
company was in advance we pased rienzi to day 


June 12 Thirsday we were on the road Irley this morning we pased Danvill 

and crossed the Tudcombia river drew up in line and stocl\ed our arms for 

the night 

June 13 Friday we are in camp here the most of the boys are buisy washing 

their close our tents have come up we have not had a tent since we left 

farmington we had to peleace our camp 

June 14 Saturday we moved our camp aoout a mile and paked our tents this 

is nice camp the name of it Camp big Spring 

June 15 Sunday we had inspection of arms water is not very handy but 

good when you git it 

June 16 monday we had to pelease our perade ground we started to dig a 

well there came another shower and we had to quit for to night 

June 17 Tuesday we had drill and dressperade the well is not done yet 

June 18 Wensday Drill and Dress Parade as usul the well is not done yet 

June 19 Thirsday Drill and Dress perade as useal the well is done we now 

have plenty of water and good water and it is handy this is a healthy place 

June 20 friday Drill and dressperade as useal nothing of importance taken 

place here 

June 21 Saturday the same old thing are again nothing worth relating 

taken place here 

June 22 Sunday inspection this is the onily day that has seemed like Sunday 

to me for a long time 

June 23 monday Drill and Dressprade as useal nothing worth relating havr 

ing taken place 

June 24 Tuesday the same old thing are again nothing new we had to peleace 

our parade ground 

June 25 Wensday the same old thing over again 

June 26 Thirsday our company was on picket nothing of importance going 

on all quiet on our line 

June 27 friday of pick all quiet drill as useal 

June 28 Saturday we had a nice shower drill and dressperade as useal the 

same old thing over again 

June 29 Sunday we had inspection of arms this has ben a very quiet day for 

the army 

June 30 monday we mustered for pay to day and had dress prade it is dull 

in camp and makes one feel lazy 

July the 1 1862 Tuesday 

it is raining this morning we had to peleace our camp ground 
we got orders to be ready to. march this evening we went within two miles 
of rienzia we stacked our arms and laid down to sleep thare was onily our 
brigade with us the cavelry had a fight at boenvill we did not git thare our 
men drove them to black land 

July 2 wensday we went back to camp it was very muddy and hard marching 
we were tired out 

July 3 Thirsday Drill as useal and Dressprade nothing worth relating goin 
on here 

July 4 Friday there was no drill but Dress perade there was a salute fired 
in honer of the day we had our post flag out it was nice to see the boys 
gether round it the day was dull 

July 5 Saturday nothing worth riting going on her to day 
July 6 Sunday we got orders to take three day provision in our haversacks 
and be ready to march at a minets warning we laid around all day wating 
orders but got none 

July 7 monday nothing going on we are wating orders but got none we had 
Dress prade 

July 8 Tuesday Drill and Dressperade as useal nothing of 
importance going on here 

July 9 wensday the same old story here nothing worth riting 
July 10 Thirsday all as useal here it is dull here in camp 


July 11 Friday Drill and Dressprade we had inspection of arms and camp 
and cooking utencials 

July 12 Saturday Drill this morning we have had no mail for five days 
it is reported that our mail has ben robed and berid 
July 13 Sunday inspection of arms we had preaching by our chaplin 
July 14 monday the right wing of our reg. is on picket all quiet on our line. 
July 15 Tuesday off picket returned to camp Dress perade 
July ](i wensday drill and dressprade as useal that is all that is going on 
here at presant 

July 17 Thirsday it has rained all night and is showery to day there was 
a man cild in co I by axident we got orders to be ready to march with four 
days provision at any minit 

July 18 friday we are ready to march at a minit warning one of our men 
died it was lewis vannoltmurg we did not move to day but wait orders 
July 19 Saturday nothing of importance going on dressprde this evening 
July 20 Sunday we got orders to march in the morning we have struct our 
tents and are ready to move 

July 21 monday we ware on the uoad by nine in the morning we marched all 
day the weather is hot and bad marching we incamped for the night in a 
peach orchard 

July 22 Tuesday we were a stir irley this morning we pased the town of 
burnsvill we crosed yelow crick this is a very hot dey we pased the town 
of luka about haf a mile and halted for the hight 

July 23 wensday we were left here to guard the railroad this is a prity 
town and a healthy place there is some of the nicest springs here out Co on 

July 24th thursday we are in camp most of the boys went a 

July 2.5th Friday nothing doen but dressperade in the eving 

July 26th Saturday there was a detale to go to Eastfort to 
draw provisions 

July 27th Sunday, nothing going on in camp We are on picket 

July 28th monday. nothing but dressperade times dull and 

July 29th tuesday. all quiet times dull as useal 

July 30th Wednesday, it rained a heavy shower to day nothing 
going on as usual- — ■ 

July 31st thursday. on picket all quiet^ 
Aug 1st fryday. of picket shot of our guns return to camp 
August 2 Saturday all quiet here in camp nothing going on worth riting 
August 3th Sunday we moved our camp up town close to the railroad two 
guard it the weather is very warm 

August 4 monday all is quiet here nothing going on worth 

August 5th Tuesday there is not much going on here our com- 
pany is on picket to night. 

August 6th wensday off pickt Dressprade this evening 

August 7th Thirsday there was a detail went to Eastport to load 
comasarys stores for the post 

August 8th Friday nothing of importance going on here we 
had Dressprade as useal is all 

August 9th Saturday we wore paid off to day we got two months 
pay the left wing of our reg went on a scant they went to the farm of 
Mr man 

August 10 Sunday there was preaching to day by our Chaplin our bois got 
back they got 69 bales of coton and a lot of mules and v.'agones 

August 11th monday nothing of importance to rite about we got 
orders to be ready to march in the morning 

'War Records, Series I., vol. XVII., p. 147 show that the 27th lUinoi-s was stationed at Cherokee Sta- 
tion, Alabama, with Lieutenant Colonel J. R. Miles in command at this time. 


August 12tli Tuesday we were on the road at three aclock our 
bois took a general spree last night and did not sleep much we crosed bair 
crick we had to waid it we laid up through the heat of the day at busards 
rost we pased dirisons station about two miles halted for the night 

August 13th wensday we were on the road irley we pased a 
station I did not lurn the name we trotted through the heat of the day we 
halted on a little crick for the night 

August 14th Thirsday we ware on the road irley we reached 
Tuscumbia about nine o clock we went into camp here this is one of the 
hotest days that I ever say we are in alabama the water here is good and 
one of the bigest springs out 

August 15th Friday nothing of importance going on here at present 
August 16th Saturday all quiet here nothing to ceep life in one it is lone- 
some here 

August 17th Sunday inspection of arms nothing else done 
August 18th monday we mustered to day for pay we got order to march at 
three oclock in the morning 

August 19 Tuesday we ware on the road irley we polled for rest at the 
town of Laiton we halted for the night at town crick thore was a detail 
to git watermelons of the regth 

August 20th wensday on the road irley we pased the town of courtland we 
rested here a while we halted for the night at the last place in the world 
I think thare was a detail for picket 

August 21st Thursday we are again on the rod we have gone into camp on 
foxcrick near a big peach orchard our men made the peaches sufer 
August 22d Friday we got orders to fall in for the guriles have run the 
train of the track and burnt it about three miles from hear company A and 
CO. c. started in persuit of them under comand of the maigar schmitt we 
went to trinety on the railroad track we were then in haf a mile of them 
we took the mountain road to cut them of we went about a mile when we dis- 
covered them in the valley opisite us we advanced about haf way down the 
mountain we got orders to halt and fire the rebles run without returning if 
we fell back to the mountain road we marched by the right flank we did not 
go far before we met another squad of them we opned fire they run without 
returning it we had to fall fack for fear of beaing cut of we fell back to 
trinety we met reinforcements but the enimy had gone we were left at trinety 
to guard the railroad 

August 23d Saturday we went out on a scant but found nothing there was 
a detail of six left to watch a house but found nothing 

August 24th Sunday all is quiet here in camp it is reported that cild five and 
wounded several we did not git a man hurt 

August 25th monday there was a detail went to our old camp for rations 
we have plenty of fresh pork for the bois cill four and five a day and plent 
of chickens 

August 26th Tuesday all is quiet here nov/ as one would wish the bois go 
forging when ever they please and we live in fine stile 

August 27th wensday there was an a larm given last night it was false the' 
sentinel got fritened and shot of his gun and run in this place is caled fort 

August 28th Thirsday thare was a detail of five men went into the mountains 
but found nothing 

August 29th Friday all is quiet here nothing going on here but eating and 
laying round camp 

August 30th Saturday nothing of importance going on here at present 
August 31 Sunday all is quiet in camp nothing of importance to rite about 

September the 1st monday 1862 
there was a fine shower it refreshed everything very much one of our 
bois died in the hospital it was Sam brown 


September 2 Tuesday there was a detail went out forging they got a lot 

of turkeys all quiet here 

September 3d wensday we we went up in to the mountains after a team it 

belonged to a widow womon it was all the team she had the lieutenant put 

it to vote whater we should take it or not we voted not to take it she came 

out and thanked us 

September 4th Thirsday our bois got a team at the tanyard we left here at 

two o clock for decato we got thare at dusk stacked arms thare was a 

detail to take the wagons over the river they peried all night 

September 5th Friday by eight we were all over and took up our line of 

march north we marched all day it was very hot marching we incamped by 

a big spring 

September Gth Saturday we were on the road irley we pased the town of 

athens we halted for the night in the thick brush our other brigad joined 

us here general parmer (Palmer) has comand of the division 

September 7th Sunday we were on the road irley we were rear guard the 16th 

reg got fired into going through a pass and four wounded none cild the 

rebels run as soon as the had fired on us we pased elkton we forded elk 

river we have pike road now we camped in a flat botom 

September 8th monday we were on the road irley w^e pased the town of 

pulaski we incamped for the night in an old field it rained a heavy shower 

the boys all have sore feet 

September 9tb Tuesday we were on the road irley we pased the town of 

Linvill we Incamped at Calumbia on duck river there was a skirmish with 

the rear guard but did not a mount to much 

September 10th wensday on picket last night all was quiet on the road 

irley the rebles fired into the rear before they got started ciling one man one 

of our six pounders opned on the town and sheled it the rebs had to travel 

we pased the town of spring hill we incamped for the night in a grove of 

nice timber the rebles folowed us all day 

September 11th Thirsday on the road irley we were stationed along the 

train to guard it we pased the town of franklin this is a nice place the girls 

come out and give the boys fiags we incamped in two miles of Nashvill 

September 12th Friday we are incamped here we have made one 
hundred and sixty miles in seven days and a haf and had brigade drill 
bacase one of the bois shot his gun off axidently 

September 13th Saturday we went out on a scout we went four miles it 
was very hot and a good meny of the boys give out it was reported that 
our forige train was atacked but it was a mistake 

September 14th Sunday the boys got up cross nothing right we had inspec- 
tion there was another gun fired we had to have brigade drill again they 
punish the brigade for what one man does 

September 15th monday we moved our camp to town on calige 
hill there v/as two of the 19 regth shot by one of the sitisens they had to 
call out the 42 regth to ceep the bois from hanging him without guge or 
Jury they burnt his house we are on haf rations for a few days this is 
nice place for as large a place 

September 16 Tuesday nothing going on in camp here at presant 
September 17 wensday on picket all quiet we had a nice shower the guards 
are pressing all the negroes to work on the fort and fortifications round 

September 18th thirsday off picket and returned to camp three of our bois 
got tight up town and got in the work house we have had no mail for a long 
time our comunication is cut of and what we eat we have to forige for 
September 19th Friday the right wing of our regth is throwing up intrench- 
ments we are fortifying the town and building three forts there was eight 
wagons taken and burnt and thirty four mules by the guriles and several of 
our me[n] wounded 

September 20th Saturday thare was a detail to forige for corn and hay thare 
was a train left here after wards the guriles fired into it and wounded two 
of our regth 


September 27th Sunday on picket all quiet on our line the day passed of 
very quiet. 

September 22d monday off picked shot of our guns and returned to camp 
we had coffee the first for a long 

September 23d Tuesday nothing going on here for to day 
nothing of importance having taken place here to day 

September 24th wensday thare was a detail to go forging nothing of import- 
ance having taken place here to day 

September 25th Thirsday all is quiet here nothing but the same old thing 
tune all the time 

September 26th friday it is reported that they are fiting on the pike we got 
orders to hold our selvs in readiness to move 

September 27th Saturday there was no fight yesterday as reported all is quiet 
here at presant 

September 28th Sunday there was a flag of truse came in and demanded 
the surender of the sity negley told them if they wanted it to come and take 
it we got six roundzs of catriges 

September 29th mondady on picket all quiet they have not taken us yet 
nor are they likely to 

September 30th Tuesday off picket shot off our guns and returned to camp 
the rebels time is out that they give us to surender and we are here yet 
and no sines of leaving 

October the 1st wensday 1862 
we were wakened at twelve at night we marched till after daylight we halted 
at goadleys vill drew up in line of batle laid till after nine and then started 
back the cavelrey had a skirmish with the rebles they cild several and took 
fifteen prisners in all we did not lost a man we got back at noon 

October 2d Thirsday at two oclock we were caled into line to 
go forging we got lots of corn and bay the bois got to stealing chickens and 
sweet potatoes the conel found it out and is going to punish them he had 
the regth surched 

October 3d Friday thare was a rebel captin cild yesterday we 
went out and beried him nothing of importance to rite 

October 4th Saturday nothing of importance done here to day 

October 5th Sunday inspection of arms and preaching nothing 
more for to day 

October 6th monday nothing going on here in camp to day we 
got got orders to be ready to march at twelve at night 

October 7th monday we went fifteen miles to the town of Iverme 
and routed a camp of rebles cild thirty and wounded eighty took three 
hundred prisners their camp and equipage fell into our hands and some 
provision which we stood greatly in need of we got their colors and one 
piece of artilery 

we had two cild and several wounded 

October 8th wensday all quiet in camp we have two days rest for our good 
conduck yesterday at leverne [Lavergne] 

October 9th Thirsday we have to day for rest we have not got comunlcation 
yet from the north 

October 10th Fryday on picket all quiet on our line it has rained all the after 
noon thare was a flag of truce come in 

October 11th Saturday off picket it was cold last night and It 
rained all night we suferd some from cold we have got no over coats 
October 12th Sunday inspection of arms and napsacks the weather is still 
cold most of the boys are buisy making shell rings 

October 13th monday all is quiet in camp here to day nothing of importance 
going on here at Presant 

October 14th Tuesday nothing of importance going on here nothing to rite 
about for to day 


October 15th wensday we had drill to day and dressprade we are on half 

rations and have ben ever sence we ben here it reported that buels army will 

be here tomorrow 

October Itlth Thirsday thare is some growling about grub here none of the 

boys satisfied Dressprade this eavning 

October 17th Fryday Drill and dressprade nothing else 

October 18th Saturday the oficers had us up in ranks at four oclock it is 

reported that thare is a body of rebles in three miles of us we ware on picket 

all quiet on our line 

October l!)th Sunday off picket shot off our guns and returned to camp it was 

a cold night last night our grub is giting short we have onily one meal of 

beaf a day we have nothing but bread to day and short alowence of that 

some of the boys are talking of stacking arms if they dont git more but they 

wont it is onily talk 

October 20th monday there was a detail went forging for grub 
and forige nothing of importance done here to day. 

October 21st Tuesday the rebels made a dash on the picket line 
captured company c of the 22 regth and their maigor the rebles had on our 
uniform and they thought they ware our men we got orders to git ready 
to march with one days grub but we had none to take we fell in at eight 
and marched down town and crosed the river and got into the wagons and 
started the 78th pencilvania had a fight yesterday with twelve hundred 
cavelery they drove them 7 miles cild several and wounded several taking 
15 prisners besides their conel 

Octobei»22d wensday at day light found us at general Donilson 
plantation twenty miles from Nashvill we loaded our train of four hundred 
wagones and geatherd all the sheep and hogs and catle and started back 
we had a big drove we see no rebels 

October 23d Thirsday nothing going on here there was a forse 
went out on this side of the river they got a big drove of stock and lots of 
forige the weather is cold we see the hardest time that we ever did see 

October 24th Fryday nothing of importance going on here for 
the day 

October 25th Saturday all is dull here at presant nothing to 
rite nor eny thing else 

October 26th Sunday it snowed last night near too inches deep 
last night it is cold all quiet 

October 27th monday nothing of importance going on here to 

October 28th tuesday on picket all is quiet on our line to day 
nothing to ceep up excitement 

October 29th wensday of picket shot off our guns returned to 
camp we had skirmish drill this after noon we driled to the sound of the 

October 30th Thirsday we went forging we got lots of forige retured before 

October 31st Friday we mustered for pay to day and had revew we have to 
live on hard bread 

November the 1st Saturday 1862 

we had drill here today we have a good time if we are cut off 
from our friends and on haf rations 

November 2d sunday there was inspection of arms and napsacs to day we 
have preaching here every Sunday 

November 3d monday nothing of importance going on here we have corn 
coffee now by giting the corn and parching it we had Drill in the manuel of 
arms for one our we hear all cinds of report here 

November 4th Tuesday we had Drill as useal here nothing new to rite for 
to day all is quiet in camp 

November 5th wensday we were awakened last night by two or three volleys 
of musketrey on the picket line we were orderd to fill our canteens with 


water we laid round till daylight our picket line was drove back haf a mile 

a rebel batery opned but fell short and did no harm the 42 and 22 and our 

batery was orderd out they drove the rebels back we were orderd out and 

formed in line of batle we did not git to fire we went on picket at twelve 

thare was heavy canonading on the fronkling pike they drove the rebles 

of general morgon took over a hundred prisners and two peaces of artilery 

I think the rebles have got a nuf of taking nashvill our loss is light 

November 6th Thirsday off picket all quiet on our line we suferd from the 

cold it rained all night we beried two rebles that were cild on our post by 

the fifty first when the atack was made the advance of rosecrants army 

came in last night the convalesents of our regtli came in 

November 7th fryday we were orderd out with two days provision in our 

haversacks we went to michelvill we pased one division of our army we 

pased goodleysvill reashed michelsvill about nine at night we are after grub 

November 8th Saturday we did not sleep much we bult a big fire and laid 

by it we have ben loading our teams all day we will be ready to start back 

at three in the morning troops have ben pasing here all day for Nashvill 

November 9th sunday at three we wore on the road we made in tenn miles 

of nashvill we pased six hundred and seventy wagons going after grub we 

will have plenty now 

November 10th monday we maid nashvill by day light thare was a heavy 

frost we have had a hard march of it 

November 11th Tuesday thare is general revew here to day our reg'th did 

not go out we were on brigade guard the troops were revewed by general 

resencrant in person 

November 12th wensday it rained last night we got our mail to day we 

had a good time reading our leters 

November 13th thirsday nothing of importance we had Dressprade we cut 

quite a swell we have got while gloves and dresscoats 

November 14th friday dressprade as useal nothing else of importance to rite 

about for to day 

November 15th Saturday we are on picket all quiet on our line 

November 16th sunday off picket returned to camp nothing of 
importance going on in camp 

November 17th monday nothing of importance going on here 
November 18th tuesday it rained all night nothing of importance going on 
in camp 
November 19th wensday on picket all quiet on our line it rained to day 

November 20th thirsday off picket returned to camp nothing 
futher for the day 

November 21st friday nothing of importance capt alien gat back he has ben 
home he left lis at luka 

November 22th Saturday the weather is chiley her nothing going on in 
camp thare was a heavy frost 
November 23d sunday on picket all quiet on our line it is cold and chiley 

November 24th monday off picket returned to camp all quiet in 

November 25th tuesday nothing going on in camp it is lone- 
some her thare was a big fire in town 

November 26th nothing of importance we have to go on picket tomorrow it 
is cold here 

November 27th thirsday we wore awakened at one with orders to git ready 
to march at thre with two days provision in our haversacks and one in 
the wagons we wore on the road a little after three we took the sharlott 
pike and went 21 miles the guriles fired on us we camped for the night on 
harpers river we wore tired and had very sore feet 

November 28th friday the guriles fired on our picket in the 
night and they all run but one of our boys James rose he stood his ground 
the guriles [guerrila] run we started back at neight we maid nashvill by 
dark the men were nearley give out we goat a rebel captin and two or three 


November 29th Saturday we rested to day from all duty 

November 30th Sunday on picket all is quiet on our line nothing 
worth riting it rained some to day. 

December the 1st A. D. 1862 
of picket returned to camp nothing going on in camp all is dull nothing 
to ceep xcitement up 

December 2nd tuesday we moved our camp about three hundred yards this is 
not as good a camp as the other 

December 3d wensday on picket all quiet on our lines we have plenty of 
duty to do here at presant 

December 4th thirsday off picket returned to camp we are sining the pay 
roll for two months pay and there is five due us 

December 5th friday we got paid off to day we setled for our close it snowed 
to day it is cold 

December 6th Saturday nothing going on it is lomesome here some of the 
bois got on a bust and had a fight we let them fight it out 

December 7th Sunday of picket all quiet on our line nothing of importance 
going on here 

December 8th monday off picket returned to camp nothing else for the day 
it is dull here 

December 9 tuesday we got orders to march with three days 
provision in our haversacks we fell in and started and then got orders to 
come back to camp we stacked our arms and are wating orders 

December 10th wensday we got order to strike our tents and 
be ready to march at tenn we moved to the front six miles to camp sherden 
we piched our tents on a hill side it is a nice camp in the timber 
December 11 thirsday on picket all quiet on our line it is reported that 
there is a large body of the enimy in front but we have not seen any thing 
of them 

December 12 friday off picket returned to camp nothing going 
on in camp 

December 13 Saturday we have dressprade in the morning now 
we drawed overcoats to day 

December 14 Sunday nothing going on here in camp it is dull 
her and lonesome 

December 15th monday we had Dress prade it rained in the afternoon so 
that we could not drill 

December 16th tuesday we were awakened at three with orders to have three 
days provisions in our haversacks and be ready to march at six but we 
did not go we had Drill in the four noon nothing of importance going 
on in camp 

December 17th wensday peleocing our camp nothing firther we went forging 
in the after noon got back at dusk 

December 19th thirsday we had Dressprade no drill we had to fix our tents 
a litle on picket to morow 

December 19 fryday on picket we are on the reserve all quiet on our line for 
the day 
December 20th Saturday off picket returned to to camp all still in camp 

December 21st Sunday had Dressprad and inspection of arms 
all quiet in camp 

December 22d monday we had Dressprade as useal we had in- 
spection of napsacs the conolonel shoed the boys how they ought to pack 
them we had Brigade drill this after noon 

December 23d tuesday we went forging all quiet got back to 
camp litle after noon 

December 24 wensday we got orders to march at six but did not 
start till after noon we went about' half a mile halted staid awhile then 
marched back to camp we had struck our tents we are wating orders but 
got none 


Canpi Sheridon DeCember 25th Thursday Christmas having Come and found 
us lying Out without eny tents thoe about 9 Oclocli orders Come to pitch 
tents a gain and the trups past the day off in perfeCt quietness till eavning 
when orders Came to form the regment by Compnys and reCeive a treat of 
Mint Jelop wiCh the Cornel had furnished by him it Caused some litle dis- 
turbinCe during the fore part of the night 

Camp Sheridon DeC 2Gth Friday 
This Morning at 4 oClock roal Call Sounded and orders was giving to air 
prep 3 days rations and to put 2 in the wagon Making 5 in all and prepair 
to March by daylight and at 6 OCloCk Genral Mc Cooks Corps was on the 
difrent roads MarChing towards Nolensvill and a bout 10 OCcloCk it Com- 
enCed raining thoe it did not Stop the advanCe of the trups and a bout 12 
oClock We Came a pon the enymes Calvery piCkets tha wer posted a pon a 
hill a Cross a Creek and tha had blouen up the Stone bridge to prevent out 
advanCe thoe the 27th was throuen out as SCermishers to drive them to 
the town and at it the Men went all eager for a fight the Creek did not Stop 
them tha plunged it to it Some of them holding ther Catrage boxes a pon 
ther heads to Keep ther powder dry and when the rebles saw them So 
determn tha left on double QuiCk time thoe Mean time the right wing 
Comanded by Gen Johnston had Come up and opend fire on the inCampement 
when a Sharpe SCermish took plaCe wiCh lasted^ a bout 1 hour when the 
rebles left leaving ther wounded and 2 pieCes of Canion in our hands our 
Men drove them a bout 2 Mils when darke Came and our forCes had to Camp 
for the Night and and our regment Sufedl MuCh for a bout Midnight it 
turned very Cold and orders v/er givin Not to law eny fire a long the piCket 

Satuarday DeC 27th this Morning orders Come for our 
regment to join our bregade on the pike a gain the Men move of in fine 
Spirits in Spite of the rain that Continues to fall thoe the bregade does not 
MarCh far till the Comand was givin to halt and Canoelon is herd in our 
front thoe it is our batries Shelling the woods thoe we wer not detained 
long till we Moved a head thoe it Continued to rain till 4 o CloCk when we 
took posesion of a nother of ther posesion Cold Churchill grove whear we 
Campt for the night 

ChurChillQ Grove DeC 28th 
This morning roal Call was at 3 O. clock and orders was givin to bee redy 
to MarCh by daylight thoe when daylight Came the orders wer counter- 
manded on a Count of it beeing th Sabeth day the Sun Came out and evry 
thing looked butifle and evry thing was Quiet during the day no one would 
thot at the first Sight that there was a batle to bee fot 

Monday Morning DeCember 29th 

This Morning we wer roused from our Slumbers at 3 o Clock 
and at daylight the army was under the Move again Moving baCk tward 
nolensville Some ixCitement a moung the trups as to ther destination thoe 
tha we not Kepp long in Suspenc for our Corse was Changed by MarChing 
a Cross to the Chatinga pike thoe not meating eny obstiCle in the road and 
at dark we StruCk the turn pike and Met the 4 U. S. Calvery and tha re- 
ported the enyme in forte a bout 2i/o miles thoe our brigade moved on to 
the front a bout 1 Mile when we filed off to the left into a Corn field thoe 
MarChed into the woods whear we lay on our arms till morning thoe it 
rained nearly all Night 

Tuesday DeCember 30th 

This Morning daylight Came it Seased raning and found us out 
of eny thing to eat and the reble Cavlry had SuCKseaded in geting into 
our rear and had burnt our Suplies that had left nashville thoe we tuCk 
up our line of MarCh in Spite of our hunger thoe did not advanCe for till 
we found Meny regments a long the road asking what regment and when 
told that it was the 27th ill tha Could not help giving Chears for the enyme 

^The handwriting changes here. Note the length of the insertions. 


was plain to bee Sean and we did not advanCe fare till we Come a pon ther 
SKermishers when the 22d 42 ill we throen out as Sharp Shooters to drive 
the SKermishers thoe tha Soon found a brigade of them behind a fenC'e 
when the engagement beCame genral and when dark Come we had SuCK- 
seded in driving them from ther plaCe of Concealment thoe drove them to 
the timber and when the trups wer in camp it was ascertained that our bre- 
gade had lost during the day 9 woonded 4 Kild thoe the 27th Ind 51st was 
not ingaged to day 

Wonsday December olst 
This Morning roal Call at 3 O Clock as uasal and when daylight Come it 
brought forth a Sean that will bee long remberd by every ameriCan for 
during the night the enyme had throng ther hole forCe onto our right and 
ataCted Gen Johnston or rather took him by Surprise while meny of his 
trups wer at brekfast and tha fled leaving ther arms in the rebels hands 
and then tha ataCted Genral Jell (Jeff) C. Davis when tha found a man 
and soldiers redy to fight them 

Thoe after Near 3 hours hard fighting he was forst to fall baCk on a Count 
of Johnston leting them in his rear and that throad them on to Genral Sheri- 
den when the batle beCame to a very high pitCh and tha Come up a pon us 
thoe we did not open a pon them till tha Come up within good range when 
we opened a pon them with SuCh heavy fire when the rebels wer forst to 
give way thoe Mean time tha had SuCKseeded in planting 3 batries of 
artilry and ComenCed Shelling us thoe the Men Stude up to it in the best 
of order and the rebles advanCed a gain thinking tha would Make us give 
way a gain thoe our fire was to muCh for them More than tha Could Stand 
and tha gave way in this way 3 defrent times when orders Come that tha 
wer gibing in our rear and we wer forsed to give baCk thoe MarChed out in 
perfect order to the pike when we Met Meny trups going to the right and our 
bregate was orderd to Suport the Center and we advanCed and Saw the rebels 
advancing to the Center when we was orderd baCk to the pike when Genral 
McCook Came up and wanted to kow hoe gave orders to fall baCk when he 
orderd us to advanCe a gain when ther Magar gave the orders to a bout faCe 
forward MarCh and the left wing fixed baynots and MarChed into the timber 
a Mid the Shower of bulets that wer Coming from the Enyme that had 
SuCkseeded in gaining the timber thoe on tha went and when we got within 
75 yards of them tha brolve and run and as tha had to Cross a open field we 
porde a distruCtive fire Causing meny of them to Surender to us thoe we hel 
the ground and that night a bout 9 O CloCk we- reCived rations and the 
Genral gave orders to give our bregade all tha Could eat for tha Saved the 
army on that day thoe after the Men had eating all tha wanted tha lay down 
to pass the night the best tha Could thoe it was very Cold- — 

Thirsday January 1st Campt On the batle field This Morning 
firing ComenCed all along our line thee it was the piCkets firing eaCh other 
thoe no a taCt was Made on us till a bout 2 CloCk when a bout 3 bregades 
filde out of to the timber and then one Came up within 2 hundred yards and 
opend fire on us wheare we wer posted behinde a Small brestwork that we 
Erected during the day thoe when we opend a deade fire on them tha 
fled behinde a fenCe and into a large Sinke hole that was Close to them 
whear tha remained till the Cornal Orderd out 2 Compnys to bring them in 
that Surendered without firing a gun at the Same time giving three Chears 
for the Union 

Friday January 2d 1863 
Still in line of batle this Morning thoe nothing of importance Came with 
daylight thoe Shortly afterwards our Canons opend fire Shelling the woods 
for a bout one hour thoe the Enyme Canot bee Seen in muCh forCe till a 
bout 4 O CloCk in the Eavning when tha Came out of the timber Making a 
Charge on the left Causing our Men to fall baCk and Meny of them run into 
Stones river that tha had Crosed during that afternoon thoe Geni-al rusan 
[Rosencrans] received them with rather a warm reception for he porde a 
distriCtive fire of grape and Canistor a moung ther ranks piling Sevral hun- 


dred of them a pon the field the balanCe fled in Confusion Our Men making 
a baynot Charge a pon them taldng Sevral hundred purisners and the Shades 
of night Closed over a Sean that will long bee remberd by evry loyal person. 

Saturday January 3d 1863 
Still in line of batle thoe thare was nothing took place till evning only 
buring the dead that was Close to our lines the rebles reCived the Same 
burel as our one thoe it would make the hardest heart Shuder to See so meny 
laid under the Cold ground without Sroud or Coffin and no Marke left to 
tell his friends hoe Might SerCh for him thoe a bout 4 O Clock in the 
evning during a hevy Storm of rain and wind tha Made a Nother and last 
despreate Strugle thoe tha Met the Mesengers of deth and was forst to fall 
baCk with a dexperate loss 

Sunday January 4th 1863 
Still in line of batle behinde our brest works thoe thare is no enyme to 
bee Sean in our front and the SKermishers ComenCe advancing when The 
report Came that the rebles had a vaCkuated and heavy Camodon is herde 
beyond Murfreesboro and it is Soon asertained that tha have Skidadled and 
our Cavlry is in pursuit of them and orders wer givin for a detail of Men 
to goe over the hole batle fields and bery the dead and by 12 O CloCk it was 
asertained that our loss would a mount to Near 7 thousand and that of the 
enyme 20 thousand our bregade lost in kild and woonded near 5 hundred 
and the divishon lost 17 hundred and our regment lost in kild 13 and 
woonded 68 and a bout 1 hundred taking prisners thoe thare is a gloome 
haning over our regment on a Count of the deth of our Cornal that was 
Mortly woonded on the 30 of DeCember and Genral roberts C'omanding our 
bregade fell pierst with 7 bulets at the Same time thoe the dead was all 
beried and the town taking posesion of thoe evry house was taking for hos- 
pitles and the Sitisans all fied with the flying eynmei 

Monday January 5th 1863 
This Morning roal Call was Sounded at 3. o. CloCk on a Count of guarding 
a gainst eny Surprise for it is reported that the reble Cavly is lurking in our 
rear thoe it is raining and the Men are drenChed with the rain thoe tha are 
all in good heart to think that our army is Crowned with a Nother victory 
thoe Nothing tooke plaCe worthy of note ad on a Count of the mud we are 
keep in our old posesion 

Tuesday January 6th 1863 
This Morning the Sun rose Clear and orders wer given to prepair to Move 
by 10 thoe dide not Start till 3 in the afternoon when we took our posesion 
on the bank of Stones river wheare we ixpeCt to remain the Suplies Can bee 
beat up for the army to Move 

Camp on Stone river Wensday January 7th 1863 
it is asertained that nearly all of our batry horses has bin kild and the Men 
are all in want of Clothing and Genral RosenCrant Started Capital for what 
purpos we Canot asertain 
M. Thirsday. January 8th 1863 

This Morning thare was details made to polease the Compny grounds noth- 
ing Else tooke plaCe during the day of importance thoe it ComenCed rain- 
ing about 5 O Clock 

Camp Stones river Friday January 9th 1863 
Nothing of importance to day has transpired till in the evning when the mail 
reached Camp Causing Some litle exCitement a moung the men for tha had 
not herd from home nor friends for more than 10 days 

'For reports on the Stone's River Campaign, Dec. 26, 1862-Jan. 5, 1863, see War Records, Series I., 
vol. XX., pp. 176, 209, 227, 369-371. Report of General McCook, ibid, p. 256: " Although this brigade 
was much reduced in numbers, and having but two rounds of cartridges, it advanced to the charge, under 
the gallant Colonel Bradley, driving the enemy bacli with the bayonet, capturing two guns and 40 pris- 
oners and securing our communication on the Murfreesboro pike at this point. This brigade is composed 
of the 22, 27, 42, 51 Illinois Volunteers. The 27th particularly distinguished itself. " 

—17 H S 


Camp. Stones river. Saturday. January 10th 1863 
To day the Compny ofiCers hehl an a lection in favor of a Cornal in plaCe 
of Cornal Herington he fell mortly woonded at Morfreesboro that proposed to 
have Cap rust for Cornal thoe it Makes Some litle disatifaCtion a moung 
the Men tha would rather have the Major for the Cornal 

Camp Stones River Sunday January 17th 1863 
To day the left wing was ordered to go as a guard to ColeCt Corn and SuCh 
other forige as Could bee found for the army teams and trups thoe a bout 

3 CloCk that returned without inCountering eny of the enyme tha had 
SuCkseeded in loding the train 

Camp Stone river Monday January 12th 1863 
To day the regment had Company drill drilling the manuel of arms and in 
the after noon tha had to polease the Compny grounds 


Camp Stones river January 13th 1863 
This Morning the regiment had rool call at 4 o clock and the call to the 
Cullers for arms to be stacked and that to ware our acoutermentz till after 
dressparade which was at 8 oclock and ordrs wer published ConSerning the 
army of the Cumberland 

Wensday Camp Stones River January 14th 1863 
This morning the Same instructions was givin as that of yesterday a to 
StaKing arms and waring Cooterments and a bout 10 oCloCk Liutenant A. J. 
Sides returned to the Company from Nashville whear he had bin for the last 
2 Months on detaChed Servis 


Camp Stones River January 15th 1863 
To day our bregade reCived orders to go on piCket Guard the 42 111 was on 
the reserve while the 27 x 51 x 22 is on out poste and a bout 5 in the Eavning 
it ComenCed raining and Continued raining all night the Men Sufered MuCh 
on a count of the Cold and the relief did not Come till a bout 12 oCloCk tha 
the usel hour is 7 in the Morning 


Camp Stones River January 16th 1863 
this Morning the regment Came off piCket guard the men is in a very bad 
umor on a Count of being drenChed with the rain that fell during the 
night the wind blod very hard and Cold with oCashnel Snow Squals and by 

4 oCloCk in the eavning the ground began to freez this is the first winter 
that we have Seen in the Sunny South 


Camp Stones River January 17th 1863 
this Morning the Men is very buesy a falling timber for wood to burn in the 
tents for the wether Continues very Stormy and Cold thoe thare is no duty 
for the Men to doe 


Camp Stones River January 18th 1863 
the wether Still Continues very Cold thoe Clear and orders are given to have 
inspection of KnapSaCk and amunetion and a bout 2 oCloCk in the after 
noon the boys Came up from nashvill wher tha have bin for Some time 
Wm. Huston Thomas Comer also Came up hoe was Slightly wonded at the 
batle of Stones river 

Monday Camp Stones River January 19th 1863 
this Morning the wether is Some warmer than it was yesterday thoe it 
is Cloudy and thretens rain the OfBCers are a drawing Clotts for the Men 
and the ordly Sergents have reCived orders to have the Compny grounds 
poleased and Sinks dug 

Tuesday Stone river January 20th 1863 
to day the elements thretens rain thoe thare is orders for bregade inspec- 
tion of arms and aminetion thoe the order was Countermanded on a Count 
of the rain that ComenCed raining 



Camp Stones River January 21st 1863 
To day the wether Continues Clody with freKent Chowers of rain and 
in the after noon the wether took a sudent Change turning very Cold and 
the Men begins to renew the ataCt on the Meny fine ash trees that Suround 
our Camp for the purpos of gfiting wood 


Camp Stones River January 22d 1863 
To day the wether is Clear and the wind is blowing from the South and 
the mud is drying up fast and the Men Move a bout with More Spirit 
for thare is a rumar through Camp that the army is Ingagin the enyme 
on the petomiCK and at retreet the order was givin to prepare for piCKet 
Guard by 7 oClocK in the morning Friday 

Camp Stones river January 23d 1863 
This morning roal Call at 4 oCloCK and at 7 oCloCK the bregade took 
up a line of MarCh on the Shellyville pike a bout 3 mils from Camp when 
we Came to the piCKet line and the right Wing of the 27th Stud on the 
out post while the left wing Stud as reserve the elements thretens rain 
the does not rain till morning 


Satuarday Camp Stones River January 24 
This morning daylight Maid its aperanCe with the Elements poring forth 
its refreshing Showery thoe it is not very welcomed by the trups tha 
would have Clear wether for of late tha have bin drenCTied often the 
Cavlry brot in Sevral prisners tha State that brag has Made a Stand at 
Shelbyville and alous to fight thare and a bout 10 OCloCK the relief 
Came and relived us 

Sunday January 25 

This Morning the Cornal Miles went and Selected a beter 
Camping ground for the regment and thare was a detale maid out of the 
Compnys to poleas it of and Shop wood nothing elCe of importance took 

Monday January 26th 1863 
This morning the orders wer givin to move our Camp to a More dryer 
plaCe a bout 14 of a mile the Men wer forst to Cary evry thing tha had in- 
cluding tents on a Count of the teams being gon to nashville for Suplies for 
the divishon nothing elC'e took plaCe of importance 

Tuesday January 27th 1863 
this Morning a hevy Snow Storm bloed treniendeous and it is very Cold 
and the Cornal had reCived orders to take his reg to the erth worKs to work 
thoe tha wer Countermanded on a Count of the Storm and the Men have all 
tha Can do to Keep warm 

Wensday January 28 
to day the wether is warmer than it was yesterday thoe thare is nothing 
of importance a going on the Men are a Clearing up the Camping grounds 

Thirsday January 29th 1863 
Today the regment was orderd to Choping and Clearing off the Calor line 
and half past 4 oCloCK had dressperaid and orderds published 

Camp Stones River Friday January 30th 1863 
This Morning had roal Call at 4 oCloCK and reCived orders to prepair to 
MarCh at 7 oCloCK to guard a foragin train wiCh went out on the Shelby- 
ville pike thoe we did not go More than 5 Miles from the piCKet line when 
the rebles opened fire on us with artilry the Shell passing over our regment 
one of then hiting Lt Sides on the arme thoe our artilry Soon Silented them 

Saturday January 31st 1863 
This Morning rol Call at 5 oCloCK and orers wer givin to prepair for piCKet 
guard' by 7 oCloCK the regment Stood in the Same place as before nothing 
took plaCe of importance 


Sunday February 1st 1863 
Came of piCKet this Morning and was a lowd the balenCe of the day to 
rest thoe it was rumerd through Camp that 3 hundred tenneseens Came in 
from the rebles gave them Selvs up and took the oath of eleganCe to the 
United States of a MeriCa 

Monday February 2d 1863 
This Morning the order was givin to prepair one days rations and worke 
on the earth works the Men worKed all day very well and returned to 
Camp at dark 

Tuesday February 3d 1863 

3rdi Brigade is on grand guard today left wing on reserve, 
right wing on post. Reble Cavalry lurking about our line today little firing 
on front during the day. Light Snow fell during early part of the morning. 
Aire quite chilly. 

Report says General Bragg intends to establish his Head Quar- 
ters at Murpreesboro at an early day 

Camp on Stone River Tennessee Feb. 4 — 1863 

The Regiment is relieved at 7 o'clock by 77th Penn. Regt 
which Regt. Suffered Severely in the late engagement. One Company has 12 
men another only 8. A 3 o'clock P. M. the Regt. is formed and hurried 
part of the way on double quick two miles outside the picket line to protect 
a forage train. We find the train secure, most of the teams loaded and on 
their way back. Return to camp through snow Storm. 
Stone River Tennessee Feb .5—1863 

There is no rest of the wicked. Rigment Is on grand guard 
again today. Right wing on reserve. 

Received our mail at noon. Nothing important in late papers. 
It has been a cold cloudy day much colder than we have been accustomed 
to during the winter. Little Snow falls at intervals during the day 

Stone River Tennessee Feb 6—1863 

Are relieved at an early hour and return to camp, roads very 
Slippery in consequence of the late Snow, rain and cold. Heavy mail today. 
Newspapers contain some very interesting Articles from the pen of loyal 
Rentrickrans. The are unconditional Union men. No news from General 
Grants army, none from the Army of the Potomac. 

Camp on Stone River Tennessee Feb. 7th 1863. 

The Regiment is allowed one day's rest and all seem thankful 
for the favor. Large train goes out foraging this morning, is not long out 
when we hear cannonading which proves the Rebels are following up their 
old tricks, entertaining the train guard with a lively game, not of Bat & Ball 
but Shell and Ball. Train comes in afternoon laden with forage. Nothing 
Special today. 

Stone River Tennessee Feb. 8 — 1863 

Another pleasant day is spent in camp. Nothing noteworthy 
has occurred today, no news from picksburg, though we are daily expecting 
something important. Much excitement North at the present time. There 
now exists just grounds for apprehensions of trouble there at no distant 
day. Northern Traitors are thrice more to be abhorred than those of the 
South now bearing Arms gainst us. 

Stone River Tennessee Feb. 9—1863 

The day passes off very quietly. But little news today. Rumors 
of serious nature continue to arrive from the North. 27th Regt. has orders 
this evening to be ready to march at 6% oclock tomorrow morning provided 
with two days rations. We are going to Nashville to guard Supply train. 
Cars will soon be running through as far as Stone River suburbs of Mur- 

'The handwriting changes here. It becomes more like that at the beginning of the diary. 


Camp on Stone River Tennessee Feb. 11 — 1863 

The Bugle sounds at 7 oclock for the Regt. assemble on Color 
line and soon after we are on the road to Nashville. 27th Regt. is in the 
rear. The train is made up the 1st & .3rd Division teams Leridan & Davis 
200 wagons in the train Most of the train arrives in Nashville during the 
evening a few are belated and are obliged Stop for the night 8 miles out 
side the picket line. The roads are very muddy and the rain incessant dur- 
ing the afternoon and evening. 27th Regt. on arriving in the City is sent 
to the Court hous where the men find comfortable quarters for the night 
Nashville Tennessee February 11th 1863 

The train is loaded during the day and all in readiness to 
move at an early hour tomorrow morning for our camp on Stone River. 
The men spend the day loafering about the city making a few purchases &c. 
can not purchase much for want of Green-backs, been too long since pay day. 
A fleet of Transports arrived here a few days since bringing reinforcements 
for Rosecrans Army, Reinforcements will move toward Franklin soon. 

Nashville Tennessee Feb. 12—1863 

Are on the road to Murfreesboro at an early hour 27th takes 
the lead and arrives at Laveryne soon after noon. The train closes up and 
all encamp for the night. We have had a hard little march. Rain during 
the forenoon. Roads very bad 
Laveryne Tennessee February 13th — 1863 

Set out in advance at 7 oclock and arrive at Murfreesboro at 12 
at 1% oclock P. M. reach camp. The march has been a severe one on the 
men in consequence of the inclemency of the weather. This has been a fine 
day. The rest of the Brigade left camp this morning with five days rations, 
and we expect to follow tomorrow. The Brigade will be stationed near 
Salem on the pike of same name, three miles beyond the present picket 
line. Do not see the necessity of Stationing Brig, at that place. 
Camp on Stone River Tennessee Feb. 14th 1863 

The Regiment lies quietly in camp during the forenoon rest- 
ing after the toilsome march to Nashville After noon have orders to 
join the rest of the Brigade and accordingly Set out from camp at 1^2 
oclock through the rain and after an houi's march reach the ground where 
the Regt. has to bivouac. Shelters are soon constructed by Spreading of 
Rubber Blankets, beds are made of corn Stalks, weeds and grap and night 
finds the men as comfortably fixed as could be expected. Cold and chilly 
this evening. 

Near Salem Tennessee February 15th 1863. 

22nd Regt. being on picket today the 27th has no duty to 
perform. Refugees come inside our lines today fleeing from the Rebel 
conscript law. These men Say the Rebel authorities are Sending armed 
Squads of men through the country forcing all able-bodied men into the 
Confederate ranks. 

Weather cold — disagreeable Large mail today. Nothing im- 
portant in late papers. 

Salem Tennessee February 16 — 1863. 

Right wing of the Regement is on grand guard today. Set' 
out for the picket line at 8. A. M. Company C has nine posts, — part of 
one relief comes from company B. 

Cloudy and warm during the forenoon. Rains at intervals 
during the afternoon, and incessantly during the evening. Good mail this 
evening for the Regiment. 

Salem Tennessee Tuesday Feb. 17 — 1863. 

Are relieved at 8 oclock A. M. and return to our Bivonac 
where quiet reigns during the day. Have a heavy rain this evening. 

According to Statements of papers, the Canal at Vicksburg 
is likely to prove a complete success. If it should, the Rebels will soon 


have to evacuate an other Strong-hold, which they can not well afford to 
lose at the present time owing to the vast amount of Supplies received by 
them from Texas by way of that place 

Salem Tennessee Wednesday Feb. 18 — 1863. 

Nothing noteworthy had occurred today. It has been a cloudy 
day, little rain during the early part of the morning. Are disappointed 
relative to returning to camp today, will have to remain here a few days 

Salem Tennessee February Thursday 19 — 1863 

Papers very barren today nothing from the Army of the 
Potomac, Mississippi or the Frontier. Nothing Strange occurs in camp to- 
day. It has been a cloudy and a very, very windy day, consequently very dis- 
agreeable, fires must be kept up or v.'e freeze, and the Smoke almost blinds us. 
Salem Tennessee Friday February 20th 1863. 

All quiet in camp today. No important news from any Source. 
Has been a fine day — clear and pleasant. The voices of Birds in the grove 
remind us that Spring approaches. Mail today as usual. Some of the men 
busy themselves letterwriting while others are reading. 

Salem Tennessee Saturday February 27th — 1863 

Clear and cold during the forenoon. Cold incessant rain during 
the afternoon and evening. 

Receive word from prisoners taken at the Battle of Stone River 
Dec. 31st. They are now paroled and in camp at Annapolis Ind. They Saw 
hard times while in Rebeldom, and express a birong desire to be exchanged 
that they may return to their Regiment where they may an opportunity of 
avenging their wrongs. 

Salem Tennessee Sunday February 22nd 1863 

Washington's Birthday. A Salute is fired by one Battery of each 
Division Army of the Cumberland, in honor of that Great, truely man. An 
order, relative to this gallant Soldier, and true Patriot and his glorious deeds 
during the Revolutionary war is read on dress-parade this evening and is not 
without effect. Rosecrans Stands nearly as high in the estimation of Army 
of the Cumberland as Washington did in the estimation of his army. 
Salem Tenness Monday February 23 — 1863. 

Two days rations are are brought out this afternoon for the 
Brigade So we are disappointed again about getting to return to camp. Lt. 
Colonel J. R. Miles receives his commission as Colonel this evening and is 
Serenaded by the Officers of 42nd Regiment. Major Officers have a lively 
time. All quiet about our lines today. 

Salem Tennessee Tuesday February 24^1863. 

The Right Wing of the 27th is on picket again today. It has 
been a beautiful day all quiet in and about camp Nothing Strange or inter- 
esting occuring. The Brigade will be relieved tomorrow by the 2nd Brigade 
of 3rd Division. 

Salem Tenn Wednesday Feb. 25—1863. 

The 2nd Brigade Started out to relieve us early this morning, 
but it is 10 14 oclock A. M. We then prepare to return to camp and are 
thither after an hour's march through rain and mud. The Regiment has 
orders to report for grand guard tomorrow morning. 

Camp on Stone River Tenn Feb. 26th 1863. 

Heavy rain this morning before daylight. Regiment leaves 
camp for picket line at 7 oclock, rains during most of the day Right Wing 
is on reserve and takes Shelter in a large Stable. No mail to day in conse- 
quence of Bridges being Swept away by the late rain. No disturbance along 
the line during the day or evening. 

On Stone River Tennessee Friday Feb. 27 1863 
36th Illinois Regiment relieves the 27th in good time this morning and we 
arrive in camp about 10 oclock A. M. 

Brid. Gen. N. B. Buford presents a beautiful flag to the 27th 
and it appears on Dressparade this evening for the first time 


In beautiful letters may be read. 

"Belmont", "Island No. 10", and "Union City". 

Camp Stone River Tennessee February 28 — 1863. 

Inspection and muster at 2 oclock P. M. Have Six months pay 
due at present with a good prospect of being paid for two or four months 
Soon. Most of the men are much in need of money at the present especially 
those who have families at home. 

But the wants or Suffering of Soldiers wives in the North is 
nothing when compared with that of Soldiers families in the South. Those 
at the North are in a land of peace and plenty while those of the South live 
as it were upon a vast Battlefield where Destitution now reigns to a certain 
extent, and increases as the War progresses. 

Stone River Tennessee March 1 — 1863. 

At an early hour this morning for the Regiment to form on 
the Color line which it does and is Soon off foraging. Return to camp Soon 
after dark tired and hungry having traveled about Sixteen miles through 
mud and rain, rain ceases at 9 A. M. rest of the day fair. Visit a very hilly 
Sterile region, forage Scars. Met no enimy today. 

Camp on Stone River Tennessee March 2nd 1863. 

Regiment has no duty to perform today. 
News unimportant. All seems to be at a Stand-Still in every department. 
Commissioned Officers meet today and elect noncommissioned officers whose 
names are to be placed on the Roll of honor. Three Private names chosen 
by the company are also placed on the Roll. 

Stone River Tennessee Tuesday March 3 — 1863. 

News from the North more encouraging. A change for the 
better has taken place in the minds of the disaffected and Sympathy for 
Rebels is growing less Sheridans Division us under marching orders We 
leave camp tomorrow morning with four days rations. Davis Division has 
marching orders also. 

Stone River Tennessee Wednesday March 4 — 1863 

Are off at an early hour toward Salem at which place we halt 
a couple of hours, during which we have a hard, though Short, Storm of 
wind and Snow Set out again and al dark go into camp two miles East of 
Eaglesville and fifteen from Murfreesboro. The country through which 
we pass is in places hilly or rather mountainous and Sterile, in other places 
it is more level and fertile, pass some cedar flats. Davis Division is not with 
Sheridans One Brigade of Cavalry accompanies our Division Cavalry breaks 
up a Small Rebel Camp today. Infantry meets no enemy except bad roads 

Near Eaglesville Tennessee March 5 — 1863 

Division moves into town in the morning and being posted on 
the hills which almost Surround the little town. Arms are Stacked and fires 
kindled. Rails disappear rapidly owing to the days being cloudy and cold. 
A Battle progresses from 10^/2 A. M. till P. M. about eight or ten miles North 
West of us. We hear the cannonading distinctly. Division does not move 
from town today. 

Eaglesville Tennessee Friday March 6 1863. 

Have orders to move this morning and are off toward Triune, 
commences to rain Soon after we are on the road, travel five miles, — are met 
by a courier from General Rosecrans with orders to halt and await farther 
orders. Are formed along woody ridges, Stack arms, light fires, Stretch Rub- 
ber blankits for Shelters, and are soon prepared for Spending the night. 
The rain is incessant during tbe afternoon and evening. 

Near Triune Tennessee Saturday March 7—1863 

Orders come at noon to move immediately toward Franklin on 
Harpeth. Soon on the road continue North ward till we reach Trinne 
and then turn Westward Travel five miles, over roads almost impassable 
after leaving Trinne, and halt for the night. Campanles A. & B are on 
picket this evening. A part of General Steadmans command is Stationed at 


Between Trinne and Franklin Tenn March 8 — 1863. 

The Bugle Sounds quite early this morning and at daylight 
we are ready to move, but being in the rear today we are detained Several 
hours, finally we get Started and after a hard little march over muddy roads, 
or field I might say as we often abandoned the roads we reach our Stopping 
place two miles East of Franklin. 

Cannonading between Eaglesville and Trinne toward 12 oclock. 
Franklin Tennessee Monday March 9 — 1863. 
Marching into town this morning and after an hours rest 
move toward Columbia on Duck River. Ma'j Gen Granger accompanies our 
Division with a part his command, and takes command of the expedition. 
Our cavalry encounters the enemy before reaching Spring Hill and Skirm- 
ishing is commenced wliich is kept up till near night — the enemy falling 
back continually. We lose Several men no killed and wounded Numbers of 
the 4 Regt. U. S. Cavalry. A. B. Orr, formerly of of our company is among 
the killed. Go into camp at 8 oclock one mile SouthWest of Spring Hill. 
Other forces Several miles in advance. Rain late this evening. 

Spring Hill Tennessee Tuesday March 10th 1863. 

Owing to the incessant rain which fall during the morning 
the troops do not move till after eight oclock About this hour it ceases rain- 
ing and we are soon on the road toward Clumbia. Before noon our Brigade, 
beign in front arrives near Rutherford Creek and is halted as the creek is 
Swollen by the recent rain and the Bridge gone we can-not cross. Our forces 
are placed in position on the bights North of the Stream while the enemy is 
seen on the bights South. It is reported that the Rebel Cavalry Suffered 
Some loss in Swimming the Stream. Rains incessantly during the afternoon 
and evening. Very unpleasant weather for marching and bivouacing. 

Near Columbia Tennessee March 11 — 1863. 
Our Infantry advances no further today. Cavalry forces a 
passage at a fort two miles above the regular crossing and proceeds as far 
as Duck River, beyond which the enemy has retired. Rutherfords creek is 
still Swollen, so it would be difficult for the Infantry to cross. 

It has been a clear pleasant day. Encamp this evening on 
the same ground as last night. 

Near Columbia Tennessee March 12 — 1863. 

Have orders to be ready to march at Six oclock this morning 
and at the appointed time we move from our temporary camp thinking that 
we are going on the pike we turn our faces toward Franklin at which place 
we arrive at 4 o'clock P. M. and encamp on the South bank of Harpeth River 
a Short distance West of town. 

Get papers this P. M. but they contain nothing of much in- 

Franklin Tennessee March 13 — 1863 

The Division takes up its line of march toward Trinne this morn- 
ing and after a Somewhat toilsome days march encamps a few miles South of 
the town on the Eaglesville road near where Steadman's forces had a Skir- 
mish on the 8th inst. 

Nothing of importance has occurred today. 
Near Trinne Tennessee March 14 — 1863. 

At an early hour this morning we are on the road bound for 
our old camp on Stone's River. 3rd Brigade in advance and the 27th leads 
the way. March a few miles, halt, Stack arms and wait for the Cavalry to 
come up and pass when we resume our journey and soon reach Eaglesville 
where we find Jeff Davis Division encamped. It left Stone's River a few 
days after Sheridan's and returns in our rear. After a hard march we ar- 
rive at our old camp and are no little rejoiced to get back, it sounds a little 
like returning home after an absence of of many days. 


Stone's River Tennessee. March 15 — 1863. 
The Regment lies quietly in camp today and enjoys the rest 
very much as many of the men are so Sore footed that they can Scarcely 
walk about camp. 

It is reported thatVicksburg is being evacuated and that the 
forces from that place are reinforcing Bragg. But the report is doubtless 
untrue. The Rebels will not abandon that Stronghold till forced to do so. 
Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tennessee March 16 — 1863 
It has been a very pleasant day nothing of interest occurring. — 
Still reported that Vicksburg is evacuated, though we have nothing reliable 
relative to it. The Brigade has orders to report for picket duty tomorrow 

Stone River Tennessee March 17 — 1863. 
Report for grand guard at 7% oclock this morning and are soon 
out on the line and Stationed near our old post. All quiet along the line 
during the day and evening. Receive mail this afternoon. No news of inter- 
est in news papers. 

Stone's River Tennessee March 18 — 1863. 
The Brigade is relieved at 9 o'clock A. M. an on arriving 
at camp learn that the Paymaster is ready to pay the 27th Regt. — Receive 
pay for four month, — from first of September to 31st December. Soldiers are 
preparing to send most of their money home Nothing worthy of note has 
transpired today all quiet. 

Stone River Tennessee Thursday March 19 — 1863 
The 27th Regiment moves to a new camp not far from the old 
one and closer to the River. Part of the day is Spent policing the new 
camp. Part of the Brigade moved yesterday. Weather pleasant. 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee Friday March 20 — 1863. 
Have Battalion Drill at 2 o'clock this afternoon. — Dressparade 
at 5 P. M. Nothing of Special interest today. Weather cloudy and warm. 
Sprinkles rain during the evening. 

Stone's River Tennessee Saturday March 21 — 1863. 
Firing commences on the Salem pike at daylight and a lively 
Skirmish is kept up for near two hours, when the Rebel cavalry is driven 
back by our Artillery and the firing ceases, all is quiet again. Our loss in 
the Skirmish amounted to three killed and four or five wounded. 

General Sredidan reviews his Division today preparatory to 
a grand review by General Rosecrans tomorrow. But little news today. 

Stone's River Tennessee Sunday March 22nd— 1863 
The grand Review which was to have come off today was 
postponed in consequence of our Brigade being on grand guard. Weather 
very pleasant. Nothing occurring to vary the rounds or break the monotony 
of camp life. 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee March 23 — 1863. 
The Regiment is releived from guard at 8 oclock A. M. and 
prepares for grand Review at 10i/>. 

General Sheriden, McCook and Rosecrans are present. The 
Review is conducted in fine style and the troops make a good appearance. 
Most of the Regiments do excellent marching. 

General Roscrans compliments the Division. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee March 24—1863. 
It has been a gloomy day, rained during the day and evening. 
Nothing noteworthy has occurred in or about camp today. Very light mail 
for the Regement today. But we need not expect much at one time when the 
mail comes daily. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee March 25th — 1863. 
Papers give the particulars relative to the fight near Milton on 
the 21st inst. where Colonel Hall with one Brigade whipped General Morgan 
Guerrila who had a force of 4500 men. 


Rebel loss, lulled 28, wounded 150. Federal loss not so 'neavy. 

It rains today till 10 oclock A. M. when the clouds pass away and we have a 

pleasant day. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee March 26 — 1863. 
At noon we receive orders to be ready to march at 2 oclock 
P. M. with all the rations we have on hand. Leave Camp at 2^/; and are 
Soon at our destination which proves to be Salem. Night finds us prepared 
for a fine days bivouac. Two Brigades of the Division are out. 

Camp Lookout Near Salem Tennessee March 27 — 1863. 
The 22nd Regt. is on picket today and as but one Regement 
is on each day the the 27th has no duty to perform and consequently lies 
quietly in camp. All quiet alonge the picket line today. 
Receive our mail at 3 oclock P. M. 

Camp Lookout Tennessee March 28 — 1863. 
22nd. Regiment relieved the 42nd this morning. 27th not on 
duty. It has been a cloudy cold, disagreeable day. Nothing of much im- 
portance or interest in the paper today, except extracts from Regel papers 
which draw a dark picture of the present State of affairs in the would-be 
Confederacy. There appears to be great destitution in many parts of the 
South. Southern Chivalry is now beginning to taste the fruits of Rebellion. 
The harvest is plenty and must be reaped and the fruit though bitter must 
be eaten. 

Camp Lookout Tennessee March 29/63. 
The 27th is on guard today, and has an unpleasant day for 
picket duty. The wind is very high and chilly, more disagreeable than a 
winter day. Pickets are unmolested during the day. 
Receive mail as usual. Nothing Special. 

Camp Lookout Tennessee March 30 — 1863. 
The Regiment is relieved this morning at 8 oclock by the 51st 
111. Infty. Vol. The pases off very quietly. 

The Com. officers unite with the men in a lively game of Lawn 
Ball during Several hours of the day. Very windy and cool today, have a 
little Snow after which a Shower of rain set in. 

Camp Lookout Salem Tennessee March 31 — 1863. 

The ist Division, Davis, relieves the 3rd., Sheridan's, at 
3 oclock P. M. and we return to our old camp.. Nothing new in camp. 
Camp on Stone's River Tennessee April 1/63 
No important news from any Source today relative to military 
affairs. News from the North is not as discouraging as some time ago. 
The Copperheads have less to say and the feelings of disloyalty are sub- 
siding. Many Deserters from the Federal Army are now returning to their 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee. April 4 — 1863. 

For 2nd See next page. 
At TYo o'clock this morning the Regiment reports for 
grand guard. 27th Regiment is Stationed at and near the bridge on the 
Shelbyville pike. 
The day is pleasant and passes off very quietly. 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee April 3 — 1863. 
Battalion drill from 9 to 11 oclock A. M. Colonel J. R. Miles 
after drilling the first hour gives way to Lt. Colonel Schmitt who finishes 
the drill. Dressparade at 4i^ oclock P. M. at which time Resolutions are 
read, and unanimously adopted by the men. which express Sentiments rela- 
tive to the conduct of a part of the Democracy the North. 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee. April 2 — 1863. 
Battalion drill before noon by Colonel J. R. Miles and Major 
Bradley. It has been a clear, windy pleasant day. No Important or interest 
news today. Something important expected from the Army of the Missis- 
sippi soon. 


Camp on Stone's River Tennessee April 5 — 1863. 

Tlie Regiment receives two months pay today, February and 
March. The men were not expecting pay again so soon, but the Surprise 
is a very agreeable one. 

Weather clear and pleasant. No Startling news is received 

Camp on Stone's River Tennessee Apr. 6 — ■ 

Hear glorious news today. It is reported that Gen. Rosecrans 
has receievd a telegram Stating that Charleston has fallen. The men are not 
credulous enough to believe the report. Without doubt there has been an 
engagement there, but the result is not yet known to us. No mail for Com- 
pany "C today. Has been a fine day. Dressparade at 5 P. M. 

Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tenn Apr. 7 — 63. 

No Drill this forenoon, the men devote their time to policing 
and ornamenting the Camp. Young Cedars are hauled and Set out in two 
rows along the company ground, one row in front of the officers tents. Yes- 
terday's news is not confirmed today. News from Vicksburg not very en- 
couraging. Weather pleasant. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 8 — 1863. 

Two hours drill during the forenoon. Dressparade at 5 oclock 
P. M. Nothing later from Charleston. Weather continues fair and during 
the day pleasant, but chilly during the night. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 9—1863 ■ 

At 2 oclock A .M. we receive orders to be ready to march at 
daylight. We are ready at the appointed time and wait patiently for orders 
to move anticipating a march of several days, but the order is not for a 
Scout, or is Countermanded and at 9 oclock we have orders to go on picket. 
Occupy the Same position as when out last. Been a fine day. 

Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tenn. April 10 — 

The Brigade is not relieved very early this morning. A part of 
the 6th Kentucky Regt. relieves our reserve. The Army or the Cumberland 
is mustered today to ascertain the number of men requisite to fill up the 
Regts. 3rd Brigade is mustered by the Brigade Inspectoi-. 

Weather Continues pleasant. Some prospects of rain. 
Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 11th 1863. 

Have Battalion drill at 9 A. M. by Col. J. R. Miles. He does 
better today than usual, finding himself deficient in drill he has been 
Studying Tactics aiming to be proficient. Dressparade at 5 P. M. Has been 
a cloudy day have a refreshing Shower. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 12 — 1863. 

The Regiment has no duty to perform. Day passes very quietly 
by. Mail light today. 

We hear no important news today. Alway expecting to hear some thing 
Startling but alway doomed to disappointment, or when we do hear good 
news it is apt to be contradicted in the next paper received. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 13 — 1863. 

Two hours Battalion drill during the forenoon, but are excused 
from drill afternoon. It has been a beautiful day, cloudy in the evening — 
Sprinkles rain. Dressparade at five oclock P. M. 

Receive orders for picket duty on the morrow. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 14th/63. 

Leave camp for the picket line at Seven oclock this morning 
and after a Slippery march of one and a half miles arrive at our old post. 

Rain during most of the afternoon and evening. Little firing 
by the Cavalry on out post during the evening, but no disturbance along the 
Infantry line Today's mail is very light, amounting to only about three 
letters to each company. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 15 — 1863. 

The 27th except companies A. & B., is relieved in good time 
this morning by the 35th Ills., the other Companies are not relieved till a 
late hour. 


Has been a cloudy cool day, drizzling rain a goodly part of the time. The 
bombardment of Charleston has ceased, not much accomplished, loss on the 
Federal side very light, only three or four killed. 

Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tenn. April 16/63. 
During the forenoon battalion drill, no drill after noon in conse- 
quence of a Sword presentation at Davison Head Quarters. Maj. Gen. 
Sheridan is the Recipient of the present. Sword alone costs Eight Hundred 
Dollars, Revolvers and other Articles added render the Cost 1400$. Pre- 
sented by the Officers of the Division. 

No Dressparade this evening. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 17 — 1863. 
At nine oclock this forenoon the 27th Sete out to visit the old 
battle field, where the Brigade fough on the 31st Dec. 

Arriving on the ground arms are Stacked, tanks broken, and the men are 
at liberty for Several hours to Scout around through the woods and over the 
fields. We then return to camp and at 5 P. M. have Dressparade. Weather 

Camp Schaefer Tenessee April 18 — 1863. 
Company drill during the forenoon, noe after, men are busy 
policing camp. Very little news today, mail light. Has been a fine day fair 
and moderately warm. 

Many Officers seem to credit the report of an early advance by Gen. Rose- 
crans. No doubt Rosie would rather let Bragg do the advancing this time. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 19 — 1863. 

Forenoon cloudy, have Some rain; Afternoon fair and pleasant. 

Chaplain of the 51st. 111. Infty Regt. delivers a Sermon at 5 oclock near the 

hospital of the 27th the different Regiments of the Brigade are represented 

al the Representatives make quite a congregation. No Important nws today. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 20th 1863. 
Receive orders this morning to be ready to go on out post near 
Salem by 9 o'clock A. M. about which hour we Set out from Camp, the men 
taking their Knapsacks with them that we may be prepared to join the 
troops on the march in case a forward movement while we are absent from 
camp. 3rd. Brigade is the only one ordered out today and, as two Regiments 
are on duty at the same time, we will be on duty half of the time while out. 
22nd. & 27 go on guard today. Pleasant weather for guard duty. All quiet 
in front. 

On Look-out near Salem Tenn. April 21 — 1863. 
22nd. & 27th. are relieved this morning by the 42 two hours 
when we receive orders to make a reconnoisance in our front and are soon 
on the road. Halt after marching out about Six miles, Stack arms and rest 
till near four oclock P. M. when we Start back to our Bivouac where we 
arrive just at night. Commences to rain at 4 oclock, consequently we have 
a very unpleasant march returning. Encounter no Rebs. 

Near Salem Tennessee April 22nd. 1863. 
The 22nd & 27th. are on grand guard again today. All quiet. 
Weather pleasant. No news of importance in late papers, — Mail light. 

Near Salem Tennessee April 23rd 1863. 
Are relieved at the usual hour this morning. Nothing Strange or important 
occurring in or about camp. Deserters from the Rebel Army continue to 
come inside of our lines almost daily. All telling about the Same Story rela- 
tive to the great destitution existing in the South especially in the Rebel 
Weather pleasant. 

Salem Tennessee April 24th 1863. 
At 71/4 oclock this morning we go on guard again and enjoy 
an other fine day. News more interesting today. Several gun boads and 
two transports have lately run the blockade at Vicksburg. General Banks is 
preparing to operate on the offensive and we may Soon hear of his Striking 
Some Serious blows to the Rebs along the Mississippi River 


Salem Tennessee April 25—1863, 
Soon after being relieved this morning a Brigade 
arrives to relieve ours and we are, after Some dlay on our way back to 
Camp Schaefer. Afternoon Gen. Lytle reviews the 1st Brigade of the 3rd 
Division. He has recently been assigned to the command of the Brigade. 
News from the Army of the Mississippi is encouraging. 

The future looks brighter now than some time ago, and when 
Grant captures Vicksburg prospects will Sill more pleasing. It is like that 
General Grant will first occupy Jackson Miss, and then advance on Vicksburg 
from that direction. Rebls may hold out a month longer. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 26 — 1863 

It has been a cloudy warm day. Nothing noteworthy occurring 
in or about camp. 

Hear from Some Small expeditions Sent out lately to operate 
on the Reb's lines of communication. The raids have been Successful it 
seems though we have not yet read the details of the operations 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 27 — 1863 

It has been a dull day, — nothing ranspiring to break the monot- 
ony of camp life 

The men devote a goodly part of the day policing and working 
about camp, consequently we have no drill. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 28 — 1863 

Have no drill during the forenoon. Company drill afternoon. 
Forenoon cloudy and pleasant. Afternoon fair and too warm for comfort. 
No news from the Rappahanock and but little from the Mississippi, import- 
ant news expected rfom Banks expedition up the River. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 29 — 1863 
Battalion drill during the forenoon and policing after noon. Dress-parade 
after 5 o'clock P. M. Banks is punishing the Rebs on the lower Mississippi: 
— driving every right along, — Hooker is now reported moving, and we will 
soon hear something important from him. Little rain today 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee April 30th/63. 

The hour for mustering is changed from nine to six oclock this 
morning. After inspection we prepare for grand guard and at nine oclock 
Set out for the picket line. It has been a fair, pleasant day and has passed 

Camp Shaefer Tennessee May 1 — 1863 

At daylight this morning there is Some firing along our advance 
line of Cavalry, but it soon ceases and all is again quiet. The 27th is re- 
lieved by the 59th Regt. Ills. Vol. we reach camp at ten oclock. 
Very little news today. Weather fine as could be desired. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee May 2 — 1863 

Inspection of Arms Ammunition and Knapsacks at 11 oclock. 
Nothing has transpired in camp today. General Hookers Army is reported 
across the Rappahanock and a big Battle is anticipated; farther news from 
the East is anxiously awaited. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee May 3 — 1863. 

Company inspection at nine oclock, meeting at Seven oclock 
near Regemental Hospital 
Dressparade at the usual hour this evening. 

News important and cheering both from the East and tlie West, prospects 
brightening.We will hear of hard fighting before many days. 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee May 4th 1863. 

At nine oclock A. M. Col Miles marches the Regt. out to the 
drill ground, finds a Brigade drilling on our ground and decides to return to 
camp without drilling his Regt. 

News continues favorable from the Armies of the Mississippi 
and Rappahannock. Thunder Showers after noon. 


Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tennessee May 5 — 1863. 
Brigade drill from 9% till nearly 12 A. M. by Col. of 42nd Ills. 
Regt. Battery drills with the Brigade. The men devote the afternoon to 
hauling boughs ornamenting and policing the company ground. News Still 
favorable, Federals are victorious every where 

Camp Schaefer on Stone's River Tennessee May 6 — 1863. 
All quiet in camp today, nothing ranspiring of importance. 
General Hooker has engaged Lee and has punished him Severely, loss heavy 
on both sides according to reports received 
Weather cloudy, little rain, 

Camp Schaefer Tenn. May 7 — 1863 
At 7^4 oclock A. M. the Brigade Sets out for the picket line and an hour later 
the old guard is relieved and returns to camp 27th is Stationed on the 
Shelbyville pike. The day is cloudy, drizzly and very disagreeable. One of 
our Vedetles was killed early this morning Hooker is Still fighting, or was 
at last accounts 

Caup Schaefer Tennessee May 8—1863. 
TJie new guard arrives at 8^^ oclock and Soon after 9 oclock 
the Regt. returns to camp Dressparade at five oclock P. M. 

Report says this evening that Hooker has been forced to recross 
the Rappahannock; possibly he has recross 

Campi Sheafer. Tennessee May 9th 1863 
this morning the rose, clear and Bright, roll call at the Usual hour. It 
was Verry cool last night to day we are policeing the Company grounds this 
Evening all Is quiet Dressparade at 5/2 P. m. oclock nothing of Import- 
ance going on In front 

Camp Schaefer Tennessee May 10 1863 
this morning roll rail at the usual hour Regimental Inspection at 8. oclock" 
divine services at 11 oclock. A. M. 

The Sun Shone Verry Brilliant this afternoon unusually pleas- 
ant all quiet In the front. 

Camp. Schaefer Tennessee. May 11. 1863 
No news — "this morning roll call at 5% oclock. A. M. Brigade Drill 
this after noon 2 oclock till 4 P. M. 

great Excitement In Camp. Reported capture of Richmond by Keys, forces^ 
great enthusiasm Among the Boys — Heat Oppressive 

Camp. Sheafer Tennessee. May 12. 1863. 
this morning the Sun rose and Bright. Roll call at .5 14 oclock Brigade drill 
this fore noon. I went over to 4 U. S. clavalry this forenoon dressparade at 
51/2 Oclock. P. M." 

Camp Shaefer. Tennessee. May 13. 1863 
No news from Hookers-arming" glorious News anticipated the 
Regiment has Orders for Pickets two citizens come through the the lines on 
the Shelbyville. Pike" commences to raining in the Afternoon all quiet along 
the lines 

Camp. Schaefer. Tennessee. May 14. 1863. 
This morning It Has cleared off. Remarable this morning two Refuges came 
thro the lines one of the number upon close Examination proves to be female 
the center of Attraction to the entire Battalion we come In of Plkett at 10 
A. M. take breakfast go Into our holes — 

Camp. Scheafer. Tennessee. May 15 18G3 — 
Nothing new afloat in camp. Roll call at the usual time Brigade drill from 
7 to 9 oclock Battalion drill In the afternoon dressparade this evening 
Exceedingly hot 

Camp. Scheafer Tennessee, may 16 1863 — 
this morning the Sun rose, clear pleasant prospect cheering roll call at the 
usual time Brigade drill in the forenoon the day closses beautiful all quiett 
a long lines there was Cavalry ofrce Sent out 

'The handwriting changes here. 


Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee May 17 1863 
No news this morning police tlie Company grounds — 

Inspection of Arms Ammunition Knapsaclis" Some fear expressed of the 
Safety of Hookers-Arminy 

Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee May 18. 1863 — 
Nothing cheering this morning police the Company grounds — 

Pickett orders — 7i/4 oclock A .M. 
Camp. Scheafer near Murfreesboro Tenn May. 19th 1863 — 
nothing transpired of Importance today police the Company grounds — we 
were relieved By the 88th Illinois at 8i/o oclocK we Return to Spend the 
afternoon In reading" orders Recived from department Head. Quarters to 
Pack up all Surplus baggage to Send Some Depo Either murfreesboro or 
Nashville. Baggage Reduced one hat on Cap 1. Bloss-or coat two Shirts two 
pairs Drawers 1 pair Shoes or Boots 1 pair pants 1 oil Blanket 1 woolen 
Blankett" Orders preparatory to marching on the rebel Stronghold at 
Camp Shaefer marfreesboro Tennessee. May 20 1863 — 

Nothing Special this morning Camp policing Brigade drill fore 
noon two hours — U. S. Inspector Is to Be. Here to Inspect all troops" Bat- 
tallion drill Afternoon" 

Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee May 2/1863 
this morning the Sun Rose beatiful prospect of fine weather Roll call at 
5^2 oclock P. M." Brigade drill Is not abdoned It Sticks us verry much So 
think our Superiors — Imposses this unnecessary duty dressparade this even- 
ing at 5^2 oclock. 

Friday May 22 1863— 
Camp Schaefer near murfreesboro Tennessee. 

nothing new roll call the usual hour the Brigade Recives-orders to prepair 
for Pickett at 7% oclock. P. M. weather changeable about noon the clouds 
Clears away prospect of fine day quiett along the front. 

Camp Scheafer. Tennessee. May 23 1863 
Roll call at 5^2 police the company grounds fair & pleasant Some talk of 
a general move. Brigade drill forenoon 2 hours — Expedition Started out 
under command Brigdrd Gen. turchin former Col of 19 Ills. — Suport during 
the night. 

they advance In two Colums — the Left on Shelbyville Pike Right two 
Battallions" Salem Pike About 10 miles" they attact Sharp Skirmishing 
for a few minutes" Rebels-dispersed Camp Captured too Hundred pris 
quite fine lot of Horses — In killed and verry Slight on our side loss 4 U. 

S. cavalry 3 men killd 11 wounded 

Camp Scheafer Tennessee Saturday May 24 1863 

Regimental Inspection forenoon Arms — ammunition Knapsacks clothing 
Inspectors — Col. Bradley & Staff — Brigade Comdg" He finds fault with 
Some of the men 
Oppinion of most of the is not favorable for him our favorite has fallen 

Camp. Scheafer tennessee Sunday. May 25. 1863 

It Has been clear and beautiful for the most part of the day 

Brigade drill this forenoon Company drill from 4 to 5 Oclock 

It Has been quite warm this afternoon 

Camp. Sheafer Near murfreesboro Tennessee May 26 1863 — 

The morn Has dawned Roll call at the usual Hour 

police the Company grounds — Re'ved Orders for Pickett 8i/^ oclock 

1863 Head Qrs. 27 Illinois Scheafer. Tennessee May 27. 

It is fair this morning the birds Sing So merrily It Reminds-us of Day of 

old we were relieved by the 93 Ohio Vols. Infantry. 

Return to Camp take Breakfast Verry Dull In camp no News 
to that worth anything 

1863. Head Qrs. 27 Illinois Scheafer Thursday May 28. 
The Sun Rose clear and Beautiful this morning I was detailed to Day to 
get Brush to Build Bowers We Recived orders to go on Salem Pikett 


1863. Head Qrs. — 27 Illinois Salen tennessee May 29 

It Is clear and beatiful this morning Roll call at SMj oclock Went picket 

to day we Relieve the 15 mo the day Closes without anything Important 

transpiring great anxiety for Better News. 

1863 Head Qrs. 27 Illinois Camp. Lookout tennessee May 30. 

this morning all is quiet along the lines We came in off out Post Relieved 

by the 42 111 Company Inspection afternoon all quiet in front. 

1863 Head Qrs— 27 Ills—, Lookout May 31. 
Cloudy, dull weather out Post again to day It rained During the night 
Every thing passed off quietly to day great News Expected from Hookers 
Armeny It Is to Be Hopen that Hooker will gain some advantag 
1863 Head. Qrs. 27 Illinois Camp. Lookout Tenn June 1st 
Nothing new this morning Roll call at 5i/o oclock 
Come off pickett We were Relieved by the 42 Ills. Infantry. 
It Has been clear and beautiful to day All quiet along the lines 
Camp Lookout Tennessee June 2 tuesday 18G3 — 

heavy rains falling cloudy Dull weather, Roll call at bV^ oclock. Re- 
leaved by the 2 Brigade Return to Scheafer Resume Bower Building 
Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee Wedesday Jun 3d 1863 
prospect of Beautiful day. Bower Building still progressing onward. It 
Is to Be hope the work will Soon be Compleeted" Marching oders — 
Company Inspection gi'eat excitment In Camp everything in an uproar. 
7 days rations in Knapsack & Haversack this a rather pour pill for us to 
Swallow, never the less this orders" Some curses others Recived mildly. 
Camp Schaefer near murfreesboro Tennessee June 4 — 1863 
nothing Verry New this morning Roll call at 5i/^ oclock Verry cool two 
Brigade went this morning all quiet this Evening 
Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro tennessee Friday June 5 1863 — 
this morning is unusually wet and cloudy Roll call at 8i/^ oclock positive 
orders to Be ready to move at a moment Notice tents and Surplus Baggage 
to Be sent to murfreesboro 

Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro tennessee June 6 1863 Saturday, 
nothing new this morning Roll call at 8% oclock policeing not Abdoned 
yet police the Co. grounds — nothing fresh or excting going in camp today 
favorable News — Recived from Vicksburg 

Camp Scheafer murfreesboro tennessee Sunday June 7 1863. 
this morning is clear, and Beautiful Roll call 5 ock Brigade Inspec- 
tion at 8 oclock the sacred ordinance of Baptism was Administered to 
twenty five Soldiers of the third Brigade at two ock P. M. preaching by 
major Davidson of the 73 Illinois Vol. Infantry Ceremonies performed 
by Elder Reymond of 5/ Ills. 

Camp Schafer near murfreesboro Tennessee monday June 8th 1863 
this morning is unusually cool Roll call at 5\4 oclock the 2 Brigades 
Has orders to go on. Salem pickett" this evening all is quiet all along 
the lines 

Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee Tuesday June 9 1863 
this morning clear and Beautiful Rool call at 5 oclock police the Co 
grounds to day our Boys Return from their plasure trip into Dixie 

They present a fine appearance weare quite glad to see them 
Jubillee among the Boys Peter Cassidy in the afternoon becomes very near 
Drunk toward evening Skirmish Drill two hours Return to camp Dress- 
parade at 6 oclock P. M. 

Camp Sheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee June Wednesday 1863 
no news this morning roll call at 5/2 oclck police the company grounds 
Brigade Drill this forenoon" heat Increasses" Skermish Drill one hour 
this after noon Return to camp dressparade 

Camp Schafer near murfreesboro tennessee Thursday June 11th 1863i 
nothing new this morning Rollcall at 5.2 police the company grounds The 

'The report of T. M. Vincent, Assistant Adjutant General to Governor Yates on the condition of the 
27th Illinois Volunteers, June 11, 1863, states that there were 800 men in it, serving for three years. War 
Records, Series III., vol. III., p. 741. 


day unusually cloudy prospect of Rain Brigade Drill forenoon Verry warm 
Skermish Drill one hour return to camp dressparade 6 oclock P. M. Dull 
and Still 

Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro tennessee Friday June 12 1863 
this morning beautiful Rollcall the usual hour great excitement at mur- 
freesboro A Rebel Spy to Be executed a great number of citizens gather 
together to witness the the execution" every thing passes off Harmoniously" 
dressparade at 6 oclk P. M. 

Camp Schafer near murfreesboro Tennessee. Saturday June 13 1863 — 
Is It clear this morning fine weather Rollcall at the usual hour exceedingly 
Hot. Brigade Drill 2 hours this forenoon at 4 oclock Major general Sher- 
ridan Review the Division In person all pass off in a verry cheering Style 
we marched in Reve Headed by our gallant Col. we got the praise" not for 
good marching But for A neat appearance march to camp to the time of 
Yankee doodle dressparade at 5/2 oclock P. M. all quiet along the lines 
Camp Scheafer near murfreesboro Tennessee Sunday June 14th 1863 
this morning is unusually quiet Rollcall at the usual at 5/2 oclock A. M. 
we Returned to go on Salem pickett at 10 oclock this forenoon" Sad acci- 
dent a man by the name of John Camp cook of the 27 Illinois Co. B. was 
killed by the Brigade Butcher Hospital Sends Him to his friends they 
Butchers were arrested by order of Col. Bradley It Rained verry heavy 
this evening 

Camp Look five miles from murfreesboro Tennessee Monday June 15th 1863 
This moring is very fair and beautiful after the Rain we are Relieved the 
42 Ills 

Camp Lookout five miles from murfreesboro Tennessee June 16th 1863 
Tuesday Nothing new this morning Rollcall at 5 1.2 oclock A. M. police 
the Camp there was detail of 24 men out of the Regt. for to get forage 
we go beond the cavalry out Post Return to camp there nothing Afloat 
this Evening great anxiety manifested for Better News It is to Be hoped 
that Gen Grant will gain Some Important advantage 

Camp. Lookout five miles from murfreesboro Tennessee Wednesday June 17 
1863 nothing new this morning Rollcall 5/2 oclock four companies Recived 
orders to go on Pickett at half past 7 oclock Capt Jansen of Co. A learns 
from contraband the where abouts of Some conceald Arms a detail was im- 
mediately got out they go to the designated house He finds two Splendid 
Revolvers one Shot guns two Squrrel Refles — this citizen Had the name of 
one of the Loyal Tennisseeians I Have no confidence in none of them 
Camp Lookout five miles from murfreesboro Tennessee Thursday June 18th 
1863 no News this morning Rollcall at 51^ oclock police the Company 
grounds — Still great Anixiety manefested for better News all quiet along the 
Camp Stones River near murfreesboro Tennessee Friday June 19th 1863 
It has been clear and beautiful today one Detail from the company for 
Pickett nothing Importance occurred to During the Day dull and Still 
Camp Stones River near murfreesboro Tennessee Saturday June 20 1863 
nothing verry new this morning rollcall at 5/2 great excitement in Camp 
today We draw five days Rations 

Camp Stones River near murfreesboro Tennessee Sunday June 21 1863 
this morning Rollcall at the usual hour the Sun Rose clear and Beautiful 
Regimental Inspection at 8' oclock of Arms Ammunition Knapsacks com- 
pany Quarters divine Services at 10 oclck P. M. 16 Solders Baptised all of 
the third Brigade 

Camp Stones River Near murfreesboi'o Tennessee Monday June 22 1863 
Verry cool this morning Roll call at the usual Hour police the company 
grounds Drills are Suspended for Some unknown cause chaplain Brown 
of the 38 Ills preached at his Regt 

Camp at Stones River near murfreesboro Tennessee Tuesday Jun 23 1863 
It is Still continues Beautiful weather Rollcall at 5/2 oclock police the 
company grounds Bower Building not Suspended Verry heavy detail 

—18 H S 


Camp at Stones River near nurfreesboro Tennessee Wednesday June 24 1863 

Rollcall at the usual hour cloudy and dull threatens Rain to day the 

etire arminy of the Cumberland Recives twelve days Rations moove at 8 

oclock destination tullahony" We advance four miles come up to enemy 

at gayes gap the 39 Indiana mounted oppens the Skirmish on Woodbury 

Pike Co. A & B & D, and C are Detaild to Support the front lines 10 oclock 

we Remain till 4 ocick Relieved By the Second minnesota" wounded none 

killd none in the action 

Encamped on the Battlefield Some five miles from Hoovers Gap June 25 

1863 Heavy Rains falling this morning we pass a verry disagreeable night 

last night Grangers divis as passing to day Remained in camp fighting on 

heavy the front canonadeing in the Direction of hoovers gap thirteen pris 

Brought in from the front all quiet we go on picket to night 

Encamped on the Battlefield Some five miles from Hoovers gap June 

26 1863 

Still it Rains" exceedingly disagreeable the Supply train is passing It is 

verry Difficult for wagon trains to get along Some fighting but no Import 

ant engagement yet Rollcall we Retire upon rather uncomfortable Bed 

Camped on the Battlefield near Hoovers Gap tennessee June 27 1863 

this morning Recived orders to march at 4 oclock we Reched the Pike 

Halted taken dinner Replenish our canteens Resume the march pass through 

the gap we have laborious marching Roads verry Rough, numbers of wagon 

broken Down 

enCamped on the field Some two miles of the manchester Pike Tenn June 

28 1863 This morning is verry Disagreeable. Still continues to Rain Roll 

call at 6 oclock We Recived orders to march in the direction of manchester 

We arrived we at the above name town at 9 oclock Breakfasted pitked tens. 

Baviocked for the night" general Reynolds Division of the 14th Army Corpse 

Haveing enter the town Previous 

Camp Manchester tennessee Monday June 29th 1863 

This morning unsally pleasant Rollcall at 7 oclock earley A. M. we resume 

our march for tullahony all the teams are sent back to murfreesboro for 

provis We advance a few miles we meet a Squadron of federal cal with 

some pris Said to be Some Braggs escort they were as motly crew as I ever 

Saw at 4 oclock we go into into Camp Rather Disagreeable to night all in 

fine Spirits 

Camp Before tullahony Tennessee Tuesday June 30 1863 

this morning Rollcall at the usual hour. Still Raining Verry heavy today 

the Rebel forces Evacuated tullahony last night He Genrl. Bragg abadoned 

his Strong position Rather in order heaveing ervery that that couldnt Be 

carryed in the fight the Stores he left being few Boxes of tobaco two Siege 

pices or heavy ordinance our forces are in close persuit heavy canondeing in 

the direction of elk River Major Genrl Sherridan divisin was the first to 

Enter the town third Brigade Bradleys 42 Ills & 51 Ills Infantry 

Camp at Tullahony Tennessee Wednesday July 1st 1863 

this morning the sun Rose clear and beautiful Roll call at 4 oclock A. M. 

the enemy are in full Retreat our pressing thier rear gard verry closly We 

recvd orders to march At 6 oclock exceedingly Hot' and there are Some 

grumbling on acct of Short Rations of bread 

Camp before tullahony tennessee Thusday July 2d 1863 

nothing New from the front Rollcall at 4 oclock Recive orders to march a 

Immediately to the front. We march to Elk River go into camp at .5 oclk 

verry warried 

Camp at Elk River Tennessee Friday July 3d 1863 

nothing new from the front at 7 oclock we Resume the march for the front 

Slowly the clavalry captured quite a number of prisoners we pass through 

Winchester from thence to Winchester to Cow-ens Station We Biavcked for 

'For movements in this neighborhood see War Records, Series I., vol. XXIII., Part I., pp. 411, 423' 


the night all in fine Spirits Half Rations of Bread We. have permission to 
night to kill all the meat we want two beond the Swine General Slaughter 
in all and Round camp Its Dangerous all About Here all quiet 
Campt at Cowen Stations Tennessee Saturday July 4 1863 
Heavy Rains falling this morning the troops Remained in camp to day there 
was a National fired by the various batteries all pass off Verry cheering 
Camp at Cowens Station Tennessee Sunday July 5 1863 

this morning is unusually pleasant Rollcall verry promptly at 4 oclock A. M. 
Still in Camp heavy Detail to Blackbury from the various Regiments 
Camp at Cowen Station Tennessee Monday July 6 1863 

this morning Verry wet Still Raining roll call at 5 oclock there at detail 
from C 10 for Pickett the engineers commenced to construct the rail road 
bridge this morning Verry little work will Repair the Bridge at this point 
Camp at Cowens Station Tennessee Tuesday July 7 1863 
It has been clear, and beautiful this ofrenoon news of the Surrender of 
Vicksburg Reached Here this afternoon great enthusiam in camp" We 
Recived the News while on pickett Post this is decidedly one of the greatest 
Victories of the war. 

Camp H Cowens Station Wednesday July 8th 1863 

Heavy Rains falling this morning Verry disagreeable rollcall at 5/2 oclck 
We were intersepted at the dawn of day the Roar of cannon we soon accer- 
tain what Invoges a Salute of 36 guns are fired in honor of the fall of Vicks- 
burg also for general Meads Success at gatyburg Pennsylvania 
Camp at Cowens Station tennessee Thursday July 9th 1863. 
the son. rose clear and bright this morning rollcall at 5i/^ we recived orders 
ot march at 9 oclock to the front our march was verry Slow In consequence 
of to high mountains hot weather and rough Roads We arrive at the uni- 
versity at two oclock go into camp 

Camp at university Cumberland Mountain tenn Friday July 10 1863 
It Has cleared off beautiful Rollcall at 5i4 C. B & A pickett marching orders 
Recived get ready to march Immediately to the front as usual to we march 
in the Direction of Battle clreek toward Bridge front we go into camp at 
11 oclock half rations of bread the Brigade Butchers go to killing Some Beef 
for purpose to Sustain life 

Julyi 9th State of tennesse 
This morning Our bregade tooke the advanCe to Clime the Mountai the 
day is very hott and dry the Men is very thirsty and water is Scarse at 5 
oCloCk we arive at university of the South uhear the Corner Stone of the 
Suthern ConfedreCy was laid the Sumer of 61 it is a plesant plaCe fine 
Springs the boys all went to gethering huCkle bery till night the foure right 
Compnys went on piCket 

Friday July 10th 1863 this morning we resume Our 
MarCh till 12 oCloCk when we inCamp for the night the road has bin very, 
bad on a Count of the mud the regment is Still on half rations of bred and 
meat no Coffee nor Sugar and the meat was piCked up whever it Could 
be found 

Saturday July 11th 1863 
Still oCkipie the Camp on the Mountains 8 Companys of the left wing are 
on duty to day Clearing out the road down the Mountin that had bin timber 
falling by the retreating enyme the day post off quietly the Sun was bright 
and Clear nothing else of importance to day 

Sunday July 12th 1863 
Returned- to Camp last night completely worn out after having marched up 
and down the mountain on a reconortering expedition we pushed our 
reconisance as far a big Blue Spring nothing of importance hapened to day 
the boys scouting the contry in search of berrys & forage jenerly 

'The handwriting changes again. This time it is the same as that of Dec. 25, 1862 to Feb. 3, 1863. 
2 The handwriting changes. From here to the end it resembles very much the handwriting at the 
beginning of the diary. 


July 13th Monday Morning 
Ordered to move at twelve oclock The time arrives order countermanded 
Noth occurs worthy of not to day our camp is situated about one quarter 
of a mile west of where John A Murrel commited one among the many 
Atrocous Murders that he commited in his carreer here he Murdered his 
man and threw him over a fightful pressipice 

Tuesday Morning 4th 
Ordered to move Camp back to University Springs thee Brigade 
took up its line of March at eigh oclock 

Arrived there at twelve the the twenty seventh was ordered on Picket 
at half past two oclock chain guard around camp 

Wednesday July the 15 
Relieved from Picket at seven oclock come to camp found 
Captain Williams there just returned from a leave off absence to the North 
of twenty five days 

Dispatches received from General Rosecrance 
Post hudson Surrendered seven thousand prisinors 

Thursday thl6 
Spend the day in camp nothing of importance hapens to day weather 

Friday July thl7 
Reales at five oclock visited the corner Stone of the great University of 
the laid in eighteen sixty it has been broken open and the relicts taken 
out reported to have been done by the soldiers but it is jenerly believed 
that the citizens of this part wer conserned in it 

Camp on the Mountan Saturday July 18th 
On Picket this morning. Capt Johnson of the 22 is OflBcer of the day 
weather very warm University is getting be verry dry nothing going on to 
interest the most curious 

Camp on the Mountain 

Sunday thl9 Spend the in Camp nothing 

of interest hapens to day no News from abroad the Camp is full of citizs 

Camp on the Mountain Monday the 20 
Revalee this morning and the usual number of citizens in 
Camp pedling berries vegetables &c" 

Tuesday July th 21st 
Relievde this morning by five companys of forty second at seven oclock re- 
turn to camp Rovert Mayo came up to camp this morning from University 
The Payrools are being maid out to some prospect of geting pay soon 

Wednesday the22 
Nothing to relieve the monotony of camp bought a bottle of Wine last night " 
to quench my thirst & drank it with my friend Foote poor stuff vinegar and 
water threw part of it away puting in the day eating and sleeping 

Thursday July the 23d 
Reavalee at five as usual much the same rotene of duties as usual one 
Oclock P. M. Companys A & B ordered to Tracyville they leave at two 

Friday July 24 
Camp on the Mountain sixteen boys captured last night in the cave by the 
Provost Guard Col Miles went over to Head Quarters and released them 

Saturday July 25 Camp on the Mountain 
Got up as usual this morning thought I got up right end first 
but I have lost a day some where must have been asleep What I have writ- 
ten for yesterdays transactions happened today 

the Colonel sentenced those fellows caught in the cave to per- 
form on tour of fatigue 

Sunday the 26 of July 
On Picket this morning on the Tracyville road citizen coming in continually 
with produce to sell some citizen want to pass our lines to day giving as 
their reason the presance of Rebels at Tracyville 


Monday July th 27th 
Regiment relieved this morning comes in hungry & tired as usual went to 
the waterfall bothe this Evening beautiful took a most delightful bath & 
returned to camp had to run the Pickets to obtain this luxiary 

Tuesday the 28th 
Dispatches arrived in Camp last night of the Capture of John Morgan and 
all of his command this glorious news nothing els of importance hapens 
to day 

Wednesday July the 29 
Camp on the Mountain Idle this morning twelve oclock M. D. this Reg. is 
geting payed this Evening Ordered to march at four oclock to morrow Morn- 
ing destination unknown 

Thursday July 30th 

Camp on the Mountain Started at dayling this 
Morning across the mountain camped at big Blue Springs for diner marched 
on seven miles some rain roads slipery and mudy camped on Battle Creek 

Friday the 31st 
Took up our line of at daylight marching one mile when the 
sruck the Tennisee River Continue on down under the Mountain to Bridge- 
port Ala a distance of seven miles from our last Camp We found two regi- 
ments of the second Brigade here and lots of reb's on the other side of the 

August th 1st 
Bridgeport Alabama 

Saturday morning spend the in flting up 
camp erecting Bowers over our shelter tents and Policing our Quarters 
Weather uncommonly hot an sultry 

Aug" the 3rd 
Reveale at five oclock this morning the boys still engaged in 
fixing their shelters 

Today is fraught with interest to myself and other of our com- 
pany it being the second anaversary of our commensment of service I am 
looking with anxious eyes to one more My the time spedily roll round and 
with it peace to our once happy Country Look on the next page incident of 
the 2 over 

Bridgeport Alabama 

Aug the 2d 
The second Brigade returns to Stevison to day the first Brig" 
is to take their place and Brigadier Jen. Lytel will take command of the 

Tuesday Aug th 
Tuesday Aug 3d 

Nothing of importa transpires to 
day weather hot and sultry the boys have spirited conversations with the 
rebs across the river the fourth and ninth Mississippi are doing picket duty 
for the rebs 

Wednesday Aug th 5 th 
Realee at four oclock this Morning Much the usual rotene of dutys to day 
weather hot Bridgeport dusty and lonesome 

Thursday Aug. the 6 th 
Rool call at the usal hour two hot to enjoy life nothing but 
laying under our shanties lolling some rain this evening cools the air some 

Friday Aug th 7th 
Mornings the pleasantst part of the day the company divided 
into three Messes to day Two oclock P M Gen. Rosecrans and Staff visits 
Bridgeport this evening the old gentleman looks odd in his citizen dress and 
chip hat 


Camp at Bridgeport Alabama 

Saturday August the 8 th 
Morning dawns with its usual fog and chilley air this is cer- 
tainly the most detestable place for fogs I ever saw Mornings damp with fog 
and stinking air from decaying Vegetation and ajacent Slaughter pens 

Sunday August the 9th 
The usual rotene of roll call and policeing company grounds 
Nothing of interest untill the Mail comes in we have things a little more 
like living here now two trains a day and an occasional visit from Rosey" 
and Phill A flag of truce has gone over to day I have not been able to learn 
the object 

Monday August th 10 th 

Nothing of interest 
this morning I have to resort to evry stratagy to pass away time pipes and 
tobacco cards and whisky are the jeneral resort of the soldier (the later is 
rather scarse here) 

Tuesday August the 11 th 
Everything after the old style spleepless nights uneasy days 
plenty of grub no appetite to eat it time pass briskly notwithstanding the 

Wednesday Aug th 12 
Rool call at the usual hour breakfast over comense trying to 
kill time work some read a litle take a strole around camp give it up as a 
bad job and go to sleep 

Camp Roberts Bridgeport Alabama 
Thursday August th 13 th 
Picket at seven oclock this morning threatens rain two oclock 
heavy showers a tremendus gale from the North east come darned near blow- 
ing us away wet & cold the rest of the rest of day 

Friday th 14 
Relieved at seven go to camp have more Idea what to do to day 
than a man in the Moon expect to putin the day sleeping and eating expect to 
get to lazy to do that if I stay hear much longer 

Saturday Aug th 15 th 
Was wakedup up last night by a shot from the boys pets out 
on the river bank others folowed in quick succession making me crawl out of 
by nest to see what the fraction was found after geting my eys open that the 
rebs had fired the part of the bridge in their possession and Hotlars boys 
thinking they wer starting on a journey gave them a parting salute Inspec- 
tion of arms in the company grounds by the Colo. 

Sunday th 16th 
Clouds look oninous rains a little this morning none worth 
mentioning Twelve oclock a flag of truce comes over this morning to make 
arangements for the rebel Generals Andersons mother to go to her friends 
she being inside of our lines 

Camp Roberts Bridgeport 

Aug th 17 th 
Monday Morning Revalee at the usual 
hour camp cleared proceed to the duties of the day which prove to be much 
the same as usual 

Tuesday Aug" th 18 th 
Morning finds us still in the same hole strugling to live with 
no perceavable purpus in view if you should Judghe from apearance But 
in good time perhaps our object will be better seen 

Wednesday Aug th 19 th 
Every thing quiet this morning things begin to look like moove- 
ing get orders today to pack our Knapsaclvs and send them to Stevison for 
storage every man has to be provided with an extra pair of shoes this looks 
like ther's was marching in store for us let it come for every one is tired 
of this place 


Thursday August th 20 th 
Flag of truce over this morning culd not learn what was the 
object time passs dull enough Noth ne\v only a little chat with escort that 
came with the flag 

Friday Aug th 21 st 
Revalee and roll call breakfast over we prepared for Picket 
rains lightly twelve oclock skys clear up looks more propitious Rosey" Visits 
the Post to day makes a speech to the boys prolongd cheering shows the con- 
fidence the feel in their leader 

Camp Roberts Bridgeport ala 

Saturday Augst th 22 nd 
Relieved from Picket this morning rebs left us alone in our 
glory last night they never so much as hid us good bye when they started 
well let them go we will visit them shortly 

Sunday th 23 d 
Nothing transpires to interest the most curious this is dry 
work keeping diary in such a place as this I am almost tempted to do some 
thing desperate for the sake of a chang guess I wont however untill I see 
what turns up 

Monday Aug" th 24 th 
All quiet to day within hearing of the place 

Tuesday Aug" the 25 th 
All going as usual this morning weather hot and dry this has 
been the case for several days some heavy guns flreing up the river 

Wednesday Aug the 26 
Revalle sounds at the usual hour the same rotene of duty heavy 
flreing towards Chattamooga Seargeant Braiden of Col. D" died last night 
is buried at twelve oclock to day with the the honers of war peace to his 

Camp Roberts Bridgeport Ala" 
Thursday Aug th 27 th 
Revalee and roll call at the usual hour breakfast over camp to 

police nothing to do time drags heavaly on my hands no news 

Friday Aug th 28 "th 
Regiment on detail to day geting out bridge timbers we got 
out one hundred and fifty stcks blistei-ed my hands all over shant be able 
to lay in bed I am a fraid some pontoons arrived to night 

Saturday Aug th 29 th 
Revalee at the usual hour detail gone forageing this morning — 
night closes around us and I prepare to retire without having heard anything 
to excite my curiosity 

Sunday Aug th 30 th 
Roll call at four oclock The first Reg" of Michigan Fusaliers are 
puting up the bridge to day 

Monday Aug th 31 st 
Nothing past common to record to day More pontoons came 
in last night the bridge is progressing finely two thirds completed this 

Camp Roberts Bridgeport 

Tuesday September th I st 

Revalee at four 
oclock Picket at eight have a pleasant day on Picket the hrldge is progressing 
finely almost finished Nothing of interes happens to day 

Wednesday Sept" the 2 ond 
Relieved at eight oclock go to camp get orders to get ready to 
march at one oclock at one we are marched out in line t)ut the bridge not 
l)eing completed we wer basted about an hour in the hot sun all things being 
ready we take up our line march for dixey march six miles camped for the 
night in Hog Jaw Cave the bridge fell whilst our train was crossing No 


Thursday Sept th 3 d 
Lying in camp waiting for Negleys division to get up the Moun- 
tain they haveing come in from the crossing below and come up the Cave 

Friday Sept th 4 th 
Still laying here waiting twelve oclock on the march Commence 
climbing the Mountain one hour finds us on top of Rackcoon Mountain one 
mile from the top campt for night 

Saturday Sep th 5 th 
Crossed the Mountain desendlng in to lookout valley camped near Trenton 
at a beautiful Spring 

Sunday Morning Sep" the 6 th 

Camp near trenton 
Georgia Started on our march at twelve ocloc passed Trenton 

going seven miles up the Valley camp for the brig three miles from an 
Iron mine the works of which have just been put up and have fallen inot 
our hands 

Monday September 7 th 
Orders to ready to at daybreak we pass Negly camped in a 
beautiful valley two miles in advance of our camp after passing him marched 
to the front too miles camped for the night country rich produce abundant 

Tuesday th 8 th 

Lay in camp to day 
nothing of importance hapens Men feasting on the fat of the land who 
blams them 

Wednesday Sep the 9 th 
Still laying in camp no news worth recording this morning 
four oclock News of the occupation of Chattanoog Jeneral Rosecrans at- 
tends mass in the Cathedral of that place 

Thursday September th 10 th 
March at five oclock hot and dusty we join the rest of our 
Corpse it haveing gone to the right after crossing the river after joining the 
corps we camp on the mountain 

Friday September the 11 th 
On the march early this morning we pass down the mountain 
camped at Alpine Georgia We hear that Cattanooga is evacuated it took 
place on the eighth our forces taking possession on the ninth we left our 
train yesterday hastening to the fron hopeing to intercept Bragg 

Saturday Sept the 12 th 
Alpine Georgia 
The Regiment Ordered on Picket this morn all quiet in front 
the country abounds in corn potatoes Beans &c Broomcorn valley is on the 
most firtile valleys in the state abounding in all the productions of the south 

Sunday the 13 th Alpine Geo. 
Called in from Picket marched to the foot of the Mountain but 
it being so thronged we wer obliged to wait until three oclock at three we 
comensed the ascent halted on the top at sundown after the Battries gained 
the top of the Mountain we again resumed our March proceeded two miles 
forward & camped for the night 

Monday September 14 th 
Broke camp at daylight find ourselves marching over the same 
raod we wer hured over two days ago where our destination no one has the 
remotes conception we cross the Mountain again repassing Valley hea before 
twelve M. D. Camped for the in Lookout Valley 

Tuesday September the 15 th 
Lay in camp untill noon Moove camp to the foot of the Moun- 
tain not of important hapens to day weather dry and dusty 

Wednesday September the 16 th 
We comense the toilsome ascent of , Lookout Mountain this 
morning at day break it took most of the forenoon to make the ascent it be- 
ing so steep that the teams wer not able to haul the Guns it was accomplished 


by attaching roaps to the peacies and placing Men to the guns this severe 
duty was preformed after days of hard marching without a Murmur We 
camp to night in Chattanooga Vally it is quite rich and well supplied with 
forage for Man and beast 

Chattamooga Valley Sep the 17 

The Enimy reported advancing this morning Eleven oclock 
form a line of battle some Canonading on the left a great Dattle ininent 

Friday September the 18 " 

Our train arrives at the foot of the mountain this Evening we 
are train Guards we commence our line of march at Evening halt at Mid- 
night within ten miles of Crawfish Springs. Thomas has some fighting to 
day the enimy are trying to cut us off from Chattanooga 

Saturday September the 19 " 

Drew two days rations and commensed our march at eight oclock 
we had not advanced but a short distance when we heard heavy and continu- 
ous musketry in our front and on our right Davis & Thomas wer engage- 
ing the Enimy who was using Means to interpos his forces between us & 
Chatanooga presantly we are ordered forward double quick' Now now the 
tumult of battle rages within three hundred yards of where we are passing 
clouds of dust almost choke us as we hury to the front amid the confusion 
of booming ratling Musketry & Orderlys tying in every direction we arrive 
at crawfish spring here we find Negleys superb division standing in battle 
array as cool as thoug they did not expect shortly to be engaged in the bloody 
strife here we are ordere to halt & gallant Colonel Bradley formed our bri- 
gade on the right of Neglys Division the second brigade comming up at this 
is also formed in to column and stack their arms to replen:sh their canteens 
and take breath after double quicking eight miles through Dust almost Knee 
deep soon we are ordered closer to the seen of action ana take position in 
the timber about a half a mile to the right of Gordons Mills & about three 
quarters from the Battlefield We have barly time to rest our weried limbs 
until we are ordered to canghe our position the enimy are threatening our 
right we form on the extream right and explore the ground in front of us 
ascertaining that from the nature of the groung we have nothing to fear 
from an attack in this direction we had just began to make our selves com- 
fortable when the News comes to Sheridan that they are pushing our Men 
back quicker than thought the old third Brigade is Mooved a few hundred 
yards to the left and ordered in to the fight with the second Brigade for sup- 
port A brigade of Woods division give way just as we goin leaveing a 
battery exposed to the enimy they are not slow to discover the advantage 
and make a rush for the isolated Batterrie but they have reckoned without 
their host we to have an eye on that battery and go for it double quick just 
in time to save. We arrive at the battery while the rebels are seventy five 
yards of poring a volley in to them that makes them waver we drop to the 
ground not a moment to soon for a volley from the Rebs sends a sheet of led 
fiying ove that no man could have lived in but the soon fond who they had to 
contend with and left us in possession of the field after dragging off our 
Battirri that had been leit by the troops engaged when we com in we took 
from the field and peturened to its commander and received his hearty thanks 
then selecting an advantage position we fell back a few rods and prepared to 
hold the ground for the night after making enquiries on casualities wer 

'Compare the reports of Colonel Miles, Colonel Walwortli, and Major General Sheridan, War Records, 
Series, I., vol. XXX., Part II., pp. 596, .594, .579 respectively. 


fond to be 300 in thirty minutes we laid on the field in Battle array all night 
the most of us without Blankets the night as very cold a tremendous heavy 
frost falling Morning at last comes' ■ ■ 

' The diary ends here. The further history of the 27th Illinois volunteer regiment is compara t i vely sim- 
ple. It took part, among other ensjagemenls, in the battles of the Atlanta Campaign: Rocky Faced 
Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Pine Top Mountain, Mud Creek, Kenesaw Mountam, Peach Tree Creek 
and in the skirmishes around Atlanta. " On the 2.5th of August, ISti.i, it was relieved from duty at the 
front by the order of General Thomas, and ordered to Springfield, 111., for muster-out. On its' arrival 
at Springfield, it showed the following record of casualties: killed or died of wounds, 102: died of disease, 
80; number of wounded, 32S; discharged and resigned, 209." T. M. Eddy, The Patriotism of Illinois, 
II.. p. 55. 

At the conclusion of the diary there is a poem of three stanzas and on the following page the name of 
Martha Crippen. 



In Memoriam. 

George N. Black. 



By Jessie Palmer Weber. 

To the Illinois State Historical Society there are a few names which 
will be enrolled among the list of its immortals. Their children and 
grandchildren will die, their names will be heard no more on the streets, 
in the church, in their places of business, but when the history of this 
society is written or read, these names must be among the first as 
the fathers and founders of the society. If this society should die, 
another would be founded and in writing the history of the new endeavor 
they would be obliged to tell of other attempts to build up an historical 
society for the State of Illinois, and as we tell of John M. Peck, James 
Hall, Cyrus Edwards and others, who were our predecessors in the field 
of State history, so future workers would be obliged to tell of the work 
and efforts of Hiram Williams Beckwith, Dr. John F. Snyder, David 
McCulloch, J. H. Bumham and George Nelson Black. 

I wish to offer today a few words of appreciation of that good and 
modest man, that loyal friend, that generous and indulgent husband 
and father, George Nelson Black. 

Those of us who worked in close relation to Mr. Black know how near 
to his heart was the interest of the Historical Library and the Historical 
Society. During the wearing and wearying days of his last illness he 
never lost interest in their work. The Society owes a debt of gratitude 
to him which will never be forgotten or repaid. 

George Nelson Black was bom in Berkshire county, Mass., March 15, 
1833, the son of Wm. M. Black and Persis Fuller Black. He was on 
his mother's side of the family, a descendant of John Alden, and of Dr. 
Samuel M. Fuller, both of whom came over in the Mayflower. His 
grandfather. Captain James Black, was a native of Scotland, but came 
to America, previous to, and served the colonies as a captain in the War 
of the Eevolution, and was commissary general of the State of New 
York, through the later years of the struggle for independence. 

It is claimed that the government made large grants of land to this 
Capt. James Black, in the vicinity of the city of Albany, New York, to 
which the family have never been able to acquire title. George N. Black 
studied in such schools as there were in his native village in Massachu- 
setts, and he has often told me of sweeping out the school rooms in the 
old academy, where he received instruction. He also said he rang the 


school bell, and that as long as he lived a peculiar tone in a church or 
institution bell would bring back vividly to his mind the tone of the old 
liell of the acadeni}-. He was in after years able to give substantial gifts 
to the old town of his boyhood. 

When about 15 years of age, he came West to Vandalia, Illinois, where 
his older brother and sister had already settled, and where the brother, 
Wm. Black, was conducting a general store. George N. Black im- 
mediately began his mercantile career, by clerking in his brother's store. 
Vandalia had already begun to lose its importance as a center of business. 
Ten years before Mr. Black went there the capital had been removed 
to Springfield, and many business and professional men had followed 
it, including the newspaper, the State Register, so in October, 1850, 
Mr. Black came with the family of his sister to Springfield. He procured 
a position as a clerk in the general store of Col. John Williams at $15.00 
per month. He remained a clerk for Colonel Williams for six years and 
then, though very young, he was admitted as a partner in the business. 
He said he tried to think how he could take more interest and do more 
work when he became a member of the firm, but he was unable to do so, 
as he had thrown all his energy into the service of the business as a clerk, 
he was unable to take more interest when it became in part his own 
business. This business connection was continued for a quarter of .a 
century and was very profitable. 

Mr. Black was soon very much interested in his adopted city, and the 
State of Illinois. He said that he soon became a veritable "Sucker" and 
while he loved New England and her traditions, Illinois and Springfield 
were home to him. He had great and abiding faith in the future of 

When a very young man he lived for a time as a neighbor to Abraham 
Lincoln, and while he had no remarkable Lincoln stories to tell, he 
always spoke of Mr. Lincoln's kindness to and interest in him. He had 
a great admiration for the character of Mr. Lincoln, and he made a 
study of the mass of literature written about him. He was like Mr. 
Lincoln, very fond of poetrv, and he often recited Mr. Lincoln's favorite 
poem "Oh why should the Spirit of Mortal be Proud," and he would 
say "who would not admire those noble and melancholy lines." In the 
Historical Library he urged the collection of Lincolniana. but sometimes 
objected to pictures, such as lithographs or chromos which were poor 
art and poor taste, though he would usually consent to such pictures 
having a place in the collection on the ground that it was the object of 
the library to collect everything good or bad that related to Mr. Lincoln. 
He had a great admiration for another favorite poem of Mr. Lincoln's, 
Gray's "Elegy in a Country Churchyard." 

He was not a story teller, in the sense that many of his contempor- 
aries were, perhaps because most of the early settlers of the community 
were of southern birth or ancestry, and were more given to talking and 
gossiping, while he with his New England training felt that he could 
not waste precious time in chatting, but he was a good listener and en- 
joyed the conversation of his friends. During the latter part of his 
life his office was the meeting place of a coterie of his old friends, and 


while they chatted, and chaffed each other and told stories, he stood at 
his high old fashioned desk, always busily writing, only pausing to inter- 
ject some apt, but dry remark into the flow of conversation. 

George N. Black has always been spoken of as a business man, and in 
the sense that he was a man of affairs this is true, but he was by no means 
simply a business man, caring only for profit in a material way. He was 
a successful business man because he worked hard and studied the nature 
and details of the affairs in which he was engaged. The same effort, the 
same study would have, in another direction, made of him a successful 
professional man. It seems to me that he had the very qualities of mind 
that would have made of him an excellent teacher, but destiny or circum- 
stance threw him early upon his own resources and he became a business 
man, a merchant, a manufacturer, and railroad official. In every public 
undertaking he took an active part. Within the last few weeks several 
men have said that Springfield business men lack a leader, that the 
younger men had depended upon a few of the older ones for mapping out 
campaigns, and that these older men had one by one dropped away and 
no one had been found to fill their places. One said, "When we had 
George N. Black, B. H. Ferguson, F, K. Whittemore and those men, we 
younger ones were willing to do the work but we depended upon them for 
advice." This gentleman did not realize how young Mr. Black had been 
when he began the leadership of which he spoke. 

He was very active in assisting in bringing railroads to Springfield, 
and was a power in the building of the Pana, Springfield and North- 
Avestern railroad, now the Springfield branch of the Baltimore and Ohio, 
and was one of its directors, and for several years the secretary of the 
company. He was one of the citizens of Springfield, who built the Gil- 
man, Clinton and Springfield railroad, now the Springfield division of 
the Illinois Central railroad, and was a director in the company. He was 
also one of the most important movers in building the Springfield and 
Northwestern railroad, and operated the road for some years as receiver 
and general manager until it liecame a part of the Wabash system. He 
also was a director and one of the promoters of the St. Louis, Peoria and 
Northern railroad which has since become a part of the Chicago and 
Alton system. Thus it is seen that his activities along the line of rail- 
road building, the principal means of development of the country, have 
been unexcelled by any other citizen of Springfield. He believed that a 
town must encourage this work to attain any prosperity and growth. In 
1861, he was appointed by Mr. Lincoln receiver of the United States 
Land Office at Springfield, which office he filled for sixteen years. 

He was for many years the owner and operator of extensive coal mines, 
and was very enthusiastic in regard to the development of the Sangamon 
county and Central Illinois coal fields, and he was associated with nearly 
all of the important business enterprises, of the town between 1865 and 
1898 or later, a period of more than thirty years. It is not possible for 
me to estimate the value of Mr. Black's services and influence in the 
upbuilding of Springfield. A gentleman who knew Mr. Black for years. 



said, "When Geo. N. Black was in health, I would rather have had him 
for me than all the other local leaders combined, either on a business or a 
political proposition," 

Many instances of his influence and untiring energy for the good of 
the capital city may be mentioned, the more important of which are the 
location of the State Fair, the remodeling of the Lincoln monument, 
the organization and founding of our beautiful park system, and the 
organization and management of the city library, and his interest in the 
Bettie Stuart Institute. Mr. Black was active in politics, and was an 
ardent Republican. He was chairman of the county central committee 
for many years, but he was not an office-seeker. The position of receiver 
of the land office already mentioned, and that of member of the city 
council, were the only public positions which he ever held, but he was a 
valued and influential leader for many years in the councils of his party 
in this State. 

By these instances of his business life will be seen that untiring 
industry and perseverance were the chief characteristics of George N. 
Black, but there were other sides to the nature of this modest man. 
The son of an old Vandalia friend wrote to Mr. Black within the last 
few years, and in the letter said : "Very well do I remember the long 
walks over the prairies and bluffs which you and I and my father used 
to take, especially on pleasant Sundays. I remember, too, how you 
used to carry me when I grew tired, and how you showed me the flowers 
and told me the names of many of them, and pointed out the birds 
and the squirrels to me, and helped me to make whistles." This was 
when Mr. Black was himself only a boy or a very young man. I think 
his love of reading developed very early for he said when reading 
Andrew Carnegie's account of his own thirst for books, that he believed 
that nearly all poor American boys had suffered those pangs and resolved 
to help other boys to have books to read. At any rate he became a real 
book lover. He did not care to skim through a book and throw it aside 
and never see it again. A good book was to him a friend and he loved 
to buy and own books. He had a large private library, which contained 
some very rare volumes. He was a lover of pictures, too, and he gave a 
good deal of time to the study of artists and their work, and owned a 
number of rare paintings and etchings. 

He was appointed in 1897 by Gov, John R. Tanner a member of the 
board of trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, and he at once 
threw himself into the work of the Library with his accustomed energy 
and began working in the field of State history, a taste for which had been 
growing in his mind for some years, and it continued to grow and bear 
fruit, and until his death there was hardly a day during which he did 
not give some part of his time to the affairs of the Library. He was 
one of the founders of the Illinois State Historical Society, and signed 
the call for the meeting at Champaign in May, 1899, out of which grew 
the organization of the Society. He read a paper at the first annual 
meeting of the Society, held at Peoria, in January, 1900. In November, 
1906, he met with a serious accident, a fall over the banisters in the 


high stairwa}^ of his residence. He ^yas badly injured, and it was 
thought at first, fatally, but he recovered to some extent and lived a 
number of months, but did not regain his health. 

These, then, as I have said, were some of the activities of the busy 
life of the man, George Nelson Black, but there was the social and 
domestic life. In physique he was very slender, almost frail looking, 
but he was very wiry and had most excellent health up to two or three 
years before his death. He worked so hard and he had worked so 
long that he did not know how to rest, and so in spite of warnings by 
his physicians, his family and his friends, he kept in the harness until 
the serious accident already mentioned occurred. 

He had dark blue and very expressive eyes, which always showed his 
emotions. His hair was a very dark brown, nearly black, and he had a 
particularly winning smile. He was orderly in all his work, very 
systematic and painstaking, but exceedingly conservative. He did not 
readily take up with new ideas, especially in literature. He was very 
quiet, although a good and interesting talker upon topics in. which he 
was interested. In 1859 he was married to Miss Louisa lies Williams, 
the daughter of his employer and partner. Col. John Williams, and 
they founded a beautiful home. Here Mr. Black stored his books and 
his pictures, planted his flowers and shrubs, and made of his house and 
grounds things of beauty. To them were born four children, two of 
whom survive, a son and a daughter, John Williams Black and Anna 
Louise, the wife of Dr. George F. Stericker. The youngest child, 
George, was drowned while swimming in the lake at his school, Shat- 
tuck College, Faribault, Minn. This promising boy was about 13 years 
of age, and his tragic death was a shock from which his parents never 
recovered. George N. Black had his faults — who of us has not? — 
but he was an honest man, a good citizen, a more than ordinarily loyal 
friend, and he was charitable. For many years he made a practice of 
visiting all his friends, rich or poor, who were in affliction. He was for 
many years a member of the congregation of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Springfield, and was an officer of the church. After liis 
illness he was confirmed in the Episcopal Church, of which his family 
were members. He died April 22, 1908, and was buried in beautiful 
Oak Eidge cemetery nearly under the shadow of the tomb of the great 
Lincoln, whom he had so loved and admired. 

When we sum up what it is that makes a good citizen, it is the attempt 
to do one's part in upbuilding and promoting the interest along 
righteous lines of the community of which one is a part. Mr. Black 
did his duty, and did it well. What makes a religious man? To do 
right by your fellow man, to visit the sick and the poor, to give of your 
store, be it much or little. This he did in a full measure and without 
ostentation. He had those virtues which make the life of a people. He 
was industrious; he had a purpose in life from which he was never 
diverted. He was hospitable and he was kind. By his fidelity to every 
trust, by his love for his family and his friends, he won the respect of 
the people with whom he lived, and he achieved that measure of success 
that comes to those who do well their part. 
—19 H S 


"You may be tiller of the soil, or toiler b\ the day, 
Eemember then he does the best, the best in every way 
Who has a single aim in view, determined from the start 
In whatso'er he shall pursue, to truly do his part 
Though doctor, lawyer, teacher, priest, learn this command by heart 
They never fail but all succeed who simply do their part." 


My first acquaintance with Mr. George N. Black was in the early 
'50s — am not quite sure but think it was 1851 ; at that time he entered 
the employ of Col. John Williams, who was the leading merchant in 
Springfield. It was not long before his business talent and his many 
attractive qualities gave him a prominent place in the growing business 
of Col. Williams and in the leading industries in the city of Springfield, 
filling many positions of trust. His superior financial ability justly 
entitled him to the consideration of the banking interests of the city. 

He appeared to grasp the opportunities and the conditions which 
surrounded the business 23roblems quickly and with correct judgment, 
and he gained the confidence and respect of the leading citizens. It was 
not long before he won the most favored and gifted of Springfield's 
daughters, ]\Iiss Louisa I. Williams, the eldest daughter of Col. John 
Williams, whose many accomplishments and winning graces made the 
home life most delightful, in the beautiful place he provided for his 

It is not often that a business career of over fifty years, amid the 
changes that occur, requiring sound judgment with faith in the future, 
should remain throughout the entire period free from any stain or 
tarnish of selfishness or greed. Mr. Black's memory will long remain 
with us for fair and honorable dealing, and his loss will be felt by the 
many associates with whom he was closely endeared. 

I cannot close this brief tribute to Mr. Black's memory without 
referring to the guiding hand that shaped the successful career of many 
young men — Col. John Williams, who was ever foremost in all the 
enterprises that made Springfield what it is, — one of the pioneer mer- 
chants who did more than any man to build up the city and develop the 
many industries here located. 

It was my good fortune to serve for a short time as a summer clerk 
in this store, and whatever success has come to me I attribute the 
larger part to his guiding hand and counsel. He was ever glad and 
willing to help the young men to sow the seeds of good business habits, 
of honesty, integrity, and economy. 




Abbe Tanguay — see Tanguay 136 

Abbott, Josiah G. — member U. S. 
Congress from Massachusetts ; 
member Electoral Commission. 185-186 
Aboite Creek — small stream empty- 
ing into the Wabash 117, 118 

foot note 118 

Abolitionists in Illinois Legislature 

in 1855 88 

Abolitionists — mention 

169, 173, 174, 175 

Abrams, Gordon 206, 207 

Abrams, James 205 

Ackerman, Philip — brewery grounds 

of, Springfield, 111 191 

Adairsville, Ga. — battle of — footnote 282 

Adams County, 111 13, 45, 148 

foot note 226 

Adams, James 197 

Adams, John Quincy 169, 170 

Addams, Jane — honorary member 

Illinois State Historical Society. . 16 
Address to the Canadians — by La 

Balm 115 

Address to the Canadians found 
among La Balm's papers — men- 
tion, foot note 116 

Adhemar — La Balm's opinion of 114 

Adler Des Westens? — German news- 
paper, published in Springfield, 

1844, quoted — foot note 213 

Admer — merchant at Miami 132 

see Adhemar. 

Ainsworth, Harry 24 

Ainsworth, Mrs. Harry 22 

Aird, James — British Trader at 

Prairie du Chien 100 

Aishton, R. H 23 

Alabama, State 278, 279 

foot note 248 

Albany, N. T 67, 107, 285 

Albemarle Co., Va. — history of 26 

Albion, 111 22 

Alden, John 285 

"Alec Scott" (The) — steamer. . .228, 231 
Alexander, Harriet C. — member of 
the First Presbyterian Church, 

Belleville, 111., 1833 172 

"Alfred Cowles" — Sketch of, by Dr. 
J. P. Snyder in Contributions to 

State History 167-178 

Allegheny, Pa 56 

Allen, George T. — Anti-Nebraska 
member Illinois Legislature, 1855 
his course in election of U. S. 

Senator 88 

Allen, Lyman G. — Captain and First 
Lieutenant Co. "C," 27th Reg., 111. 

Vols., War of the Rebellion 

222, 225, 226, 227, 

228, 229, 231-235, 237-241, 244, 253 
footnote 226 


Alpine, Georgia 280 

Alschuler, Samuel 23 

Alton, 111. — Lovejoy riots disastrous 

to the prosperity of 175 

mention... 7, 14, 23, 54, 55, 149, 151 
riot at Alton and death of Love- 
joy 172, 173 

steamer, "City of Alton" 151 

Alvey, William — first hatter, Spring- 
field, III 200 

Alvord, Clarence W. — editor of the 
Kaskaskia Records, Vol. 5, 111. 

Hist. Col 19 

Alvord, Clarence W. — mention 22 

America 72, 75, 77, 79, 85, 

104, 115, 136, 137, 209, 211, 260, 285 

foot notes 105, 106, 107, 108, 220 

America — United Colonies of....... 104 

American Aborigines 74 

see Indians. 
American Antiquarian Society Li- 
brary, Worcester, Mass 68 

American Army, 1779 — condition of. 97 

American Army — mention 122 

American Bottoms, in Illinois — 

French settlements in 212 

Americon Bureau of Genealogy, 
(An) — suggestions for establish- 
ment of 84 

American Cause — La Balm's letter 

in regard to his zeal for 122 

foot note 109 

"American Club" (The) — British- 
American Club in London 83 

American Colonies 38 

American Flag 120 

American Genealogists 74, 76 

American Historical Review, Vol. X, 

quoted — foot note 108 

American Indians, see Indians. 
American Journal of Science — Hil- 

gard, contributor to 213 

American Journal of Science 57 

American Journal of Science, 1831- 

1832 — quoted — see foot notes 

48, 55, 57, 58, 61 

American Lineages — difficulty in 

tracing 77 

American Revolutionary War. 58, 60, 212 

see War of the Revolution. 
American Service — La Balm's pro- 
posal to enter. Appendix I.... 120-122 

American Soldiers 71 

Americans — first movement of the 
Americans against the Indians 
during the Revolution a failure. . 161 


..71, 75, 76, 77, 104, 105, 107, 109, 
110, 112, 113, 119, 120, 130, 133, 213 

foot note 112 

"Americans of Gentle Birth" 
Browning 80 


Index — Continued. 


"Americans of Royal Descent" — by- 
Browning — reference to 80 

Ames, Mrs. John C 24 

Ammunition 131, 132. 269 

"Amphitryon" (The)— B r i t i s h- 

American Club in London 83 

Amsterdam 176 

"Ancestor" (The), Vol. I. — article in 

by Sir George Sitwell, quoted.... 83 
Ange. Louis de. St. — commands a 

post on the Missouri 143 

Ange, Louis de St. — French Com- 
mandant in the Illinois Country, 
1730-1734. see St. Ange. 
Anderson — book by, on significance 
of Family Names, mentioned.... 75 

Anderson, Andrew L 23 

Anderson, (Gen.) George T. — Con- 
federate 278 

Anderson, Sumner S 23 

Anderson, Wm. B. — member of Con- 
gress from Illinois, nominated for 
U. S. Senator, 1877, by Independ- 
ents or Greenbackers in Illinois 

Legislature 188 

Ankeny. John 217, 218 

"Annals of Philosophy" London — 

foot note 58 

Annapolis, Ind 262 

Annals of Augusta County, Va 26 

"Anneke Jans Claim," (The) 78, 79 

Anthon. Charles — Greek scholar — 

mention 114 

Anthon, George Christian (Anthony) 
■ — surgeon at Detroit — La Balm's 

opinion of 114 

Anthony (probably Anthon) — see 

Anthon, George Christian 114 

Anti-Nebraska Democrats in Illinois 
Legislature, 1855 — part taken by 
them in election of U. S. Senator. . 


"Anti-Nebraska" members Illinois 

Legislature, 1855 — mention 92 

Anzeiger des Westens, quoted — 

foot note 213 

Archer, Wm. R. — member Illinois 
Legislature. 1877 — voted for David 

Davis for U. S. Senator 189 

Arctic Regions 48 

Arizona 68 

Arkansas 142 

Arkansas Indians 142 

Arkansas — plans to establish Ger- 
man states in 211 

Army of the Cumberland 

222, 258, 262, 267, 274 

Army of the Potomac 260, 262 

Army of Rappahannock 269 

Army of the Mississippi 262, 266, 269 

Archaeological Institute of America, 
papers of, series V — quoted — foot 

note 137 

Archaeological investigation State of 

Illinois — need of, suggested 22 

Archaeology — committee on. sugges- 
ted for the Illinois State Historical 

Society 25 

Archev^que, L', see L'Archeveque. 
Archives of Pennsylvania — Pennsyl- 
vania in the Revolution, 1775-1783 26 


"Armorial Families" — Fox-Davies, 
pubs. — prints bogus arms in italics 83 

Arnold, Ray M 29 

Artaguette D' — see D'Artaguette . . . 141 
Arthur. Chester A. — Vice-president 
of the U. S. becomes president 
upon death of President James A. 

Garfield 91 

Ashley. William H 238 

Asiatic Cholera — Gov. Ninian Ed- 
wards, died of, July 20. 1833 172 

Astor, John Jacob of Waldorf — An- 
cestry of 75 

Atchison, Kansas 138 

Atkins, (Hon.) Smith D. — Second 
Vice-President, Illinois State His- 
torical Society 7, 13, 23 

Atkinson, Eleanor — The Winter of 
the Deep Snow — address before the 
Illinois State Historical Society, 

1909 47-62 

Atlanta Campaign — Civil War 223 

foot note 282 

Atlanta. Georgia— foot note 282 

"Atlantic," (The) — British- Ameri- 
can Club in London 83 

Atlantic Ocean 68, 70 

Atwater. Caleb — "Tour to Prairie 

du Chien," by, quoted — foot note.. 99 
Aubry, Charles. Chevalier de — quo- 
ted on the surrender of Ft. Char- 

tres — -foot note 144 

Augusta Co., Va. — annals of 26 

Augustana College, Rock Island, 111. 22 
Augustin Mottin de La Balm — ad- 
dress before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1909, by Clarence M. 

Burton 104-134 

"Au Poste" (Vincennes) — mention — 

foot note 114 

Aurora. Ill 23 

Auszug aus der Gesetzen des, 

Staats Illinois, by Gustav Koerner 213 
Autobiography of Julian M. Sturte- 

vant — quoted — see foot note 48 

Avery family, the ancestors of John 

D. Rockefeller 75 

Auzeiger des Westens. error should 
be Anzeiger des Westens.) Jan. 
26, 1836 — quoted — foot note 213 

Baby — merchant at Miami 132 

Bacchus. Mrs. Lercy 24 

Bacon, Mrs. E. M 23 

Bacon, (Dr. ) Leonard ■ • 30 

Baffin's Bay 60, 62 

Bagby. John S 23 

Bailey. Samuel G. — defends Love- 

jov adherents, Alton trial 173 

Baine, (Gen.) 243 

see Banes. 
Baker. David J.— Judge of the Su- 
preme Court. State of Illinois 44 

Baker, (Col.) Edward Dickinson... 229 
Baker, Edward L. — editor The State 

Journal. Sprinsrfield, 111.. 1865 180 

Baker Mythical Estate 78 

Baker, George R 18 


Index — Continued. 


Baker, Henry S. — Anti-Nebraska 
member Illinois Legislature, 1855 
— his course as to election of U. S. 

Senator , 88 

Baldwin, (Hon.) Jesse A. — member 
of Board of Directors, Illinois 

State Historical Society 7, 14 

Ball, (Judge) Farlin Q 22 

Balme, M. Mottin de la 102 

see La Balm. 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 287 

Baltimore Gazette — newspaper 56 

Baltimore, Md 181, 212 

Baltzell, (Miss) Alta 23 

Bandolier — the expedition of Pedro 
de Villazur, quoted — foot note.... 137 

Banes, (Capt.) C. H 243 

Banks, Gen. Nathaniel P. — comman- 
der in Red River expedition. Civil 

War — mention 148 

Banks, (Gen.) Nathaniel P. — men- 
tion 268, 269 

Barbadoes — Islands of 57 

Barbecue held in Springfleld, 111. in 

an early day 193 

Bardsley, Charles Wareing — signifi- 
cance of English surnames 75 

Barker, (Col.) E. D. — see Baker, 

Edward Dickinson 229 

Barry, 111 223 

Barthelemy, M 132 

Barton, Herbert J 15 

Bates, Edward, of Missouri 65 

Battle Creek. Tenn 277 

Battle of Belmont 221 

Battle of Farmington, description of 
221 222 

Battle of 'stone'Rive'r*.'.".*.'.'.'.25"7'-258' 262 

see War of the Rebellion. 
Baubien T 

Baubiens [ 114 

Baubin f 117, 118, 119, 130, 131, 132 
Beaubien ! 

Bavarian (Government 210 

Baxter, Mrs. Martha K 22 

Baxter, S. W 23 

Bayard, Thomas P. — U. S. Senator 
from Delaware, member Electoral 

Commission, 1876-77 185 

Beaird vs. the Governor (Edwards) 
mandamus. Edwards papers — quo- 
ted — foot note 172 

Beardstown. Ill 23, 53 

Beaubien, Goods in storehouse of, at 
Miami — mentioned by La Balm. . . 114 
see Baubien. 
Beaubien. M..117, 118, 119, 130, 131, 132 
Beaucoup Township, Jackson Co., 

Ill 218 

Beauharnois, letter from, to the 
French Minister — quoted — foot 

note 139 

Beckwith, Hiram W. — mention 15 

Beckwith, Hiram W., work in behalf 

of State history, reference to 285 

Beecher Chapel. Galesburg, 111 30 

Beecher, (Dr.) Edward 30. 49, 50 

Beechey, Frederick William, Arctic 

Explorer 60 

Beinlich. B. A.— "The Latin Immi- 
gration in Illinois," contribution to 

State History by 209-214 

Belmont, battle of 221, 263 

foot note 230 


Belmont 231 

Bellerive, 111., named after Louis St. 

Ange de Bellerive 146 

see St. Ange de Bellerive. 

Belleville, 111 

23. 168, 169, 172, 175, 212, 223 

First Presbyterian Church or- 
ganized at, 1833, by Rev. John 
F. Brooks, list of members... 172 
Population of, in 1821 — refer- 
ence to 168 

Belvidere, 111 23, 24 

Bench and Bar of Illinois, by John 

M. Palmer, vol. II — quoted 176 

Bender, Mrs. Inez J 23 

Benneson, Cora Agnes — address be- 
fore Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, May 14, 1909. The work of 
Edward Everett of Quincy in 
Quarter Master's Department in 
Illinois during first year of Civil 

War 147-153 

Benneson, Robert S., recommends 
Edward Everett to John Wood for 
service in Q. M. Dept. of Illinois.. 147 
Bennett, Timothy — duel with A. C. 

Stuart — reference to 168 

Bent, Charles 23 

Bentley, Thomas, letter from Post 
Vincennes dated Aug. 17, 1780 — 

foot note 112 

mention Ill, 120 

prisoner at Detroit, confiicting 
statements of — foot note.... 113 

Bently, A : 240 

Bently, Orastus 238 

Benton, (The) — (Gun Boat) 238 

Bergen, (Miss) Jane, early school 

teacher of Springfield, 111 204 

Bergen, (Rev.) John G 180 

Berger, Charles, employed by La 

Balm 125 

Berkshire Co., Mass 285 

Berlin Company, (The) — of German 
Immigrants settle in St. Clair Co., 

Ill 212 

Berlin Company Organization formed 
to encourage immigration to 

America 211 

Berlin, Germany 73 

Bernerdy & Co. — law firm in Lon- 
don, Eng 78 

Berry, Daniel, M. D 23 

Berry, Orville F 23 

Bettie Stuart Institute, Springfield, 

111 195, 288 

Bible Hotel, Amsterdam 176 

Bienville, Jean Baptiste 136, 142,143 

Big Beaver Creek, Pa 163 

Big Hill School District, Jackson Co. 

111., established, 1825 218, 219 

Big Kanawha river 162 

Big Muddy Creek at Brownsville, 111. 218 
Bigelow's life of Franklin, quoted — 

foot note 105 

Bilderback, Daniel 218 

Billon, Frederic L., Comp. Annals of 
St. Louis under the French and 
Spanish Dominations, quoted — foot 

note 145 

Bird, (Capt.) Henry 119, 164 

Birds' Point 224, 

225, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 234, 235 


Index — Continued. 


Birkbeck, Morris, writings of — refer- 
ence to 68 

Bishop, Lyman, death of, at the riot 
at Alton. 1837— reference to.. 172, 173 

Bismark, N. D 55 

Bissel, (Col.) of Engineering Regt. 

238, 239 

Black, Anna Louise, daughter of 

George N. Black 289 

Black, George, youngest son of 

George Nelson Black 289 

Black, George Nelson — a memorial 
address by Jessie Palmer Weber. 

13, 285-290 

appointed by ZMr. Lincoln re- 
ceiver of the U. S. Land 

Office at Springfield, 111 287 

biographical sketch of 285 

mention 15, IS 

one of the founders of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 288 

personal appearance of 289 

recollections of George N. Black, 
by Gaius Paddock, an old 

friend 290 

Black Hawk 99, 102 

Black Hawk War 13. 51. 100 

Black. (Capt. ) James — grandfather 

of George Nelson Black 285 

"Black Watch" famous British 

Regiment 144 

Black. John Williams — son of George 

N. Black 289 

Black. Persis Fuller — mother of 

George Nelson Black 285 

Black. William — brother of George 

Nelson Black 286 

Black. William M. — father of Geo. 

N. Black 285' 

Blackbury. Tenn 275 

Blackwell. David — early lawyer of 

Belleville, 111 168, 169 

Blaine. James G.. quoted as to poli- 
tics of David Davis, 1876 186 

Twenty Years of Congress, by, 

quoted as to election to U. S. 

Senate of David Davis. .. 187-188 

"Twenty Years of Congress" 

gives account of Hayes-Tilden 

Contest 184 

Blair, Francis G 24 

Blamville I 904 

Blanville f ^^^ 

Bloomington. Ill 

7, 11, 13, 15, 18, 22, 23, 24, 93 

Blue Books 73 

Blue Spring. Cumberland Mt 275. 277 

Bodge's Soldiers in King Phillip's 

War. quoted 71 

Boenville "1 

Boonvill VmIss 246 

Booneville J 

see Booneville. 
Book of St. Albans, 1486. earliest 

English treatise on Heraldry. ... 83 
Bond. Shadrach. first Governor, 

State of Illinois 19 

Bondy. M 133 

Boon. William 217 

sketch of — foot note — appendix 219 

Boone. Daniel 233 

Booneville. Miss 246 

Booth. John Wilkes, assassin of 
Abraham Lincoln 179 


Boothia Gulf 60, 61 

Bossu — Nouveaux Voyages, vol. I, 

quoted — foot note 137 

Boston, Mass 12,, 50, 67, 69, 72, 106 

Boston, Transcript (newspaper).., 73 
Boucher, Pierre, Sieur de Bouche- 

ville — foot note 136 

Bouquet. Col. Henry— foot note 163 

Bourgmont 138 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 57 

Boyd, Nat 203 

Braddock's Defeat, reference to.... 143 

Bradley, Mr. and Mrs 172 

Bradley, Joseph P., Associate Justice 
U. S. Supreme Court becomes 
member Electoral Commission by 
election of David Davis to U. S. 
Senate, effect of on Hayes-Tilden 

Contest 187, 188 

Bradley, Luther P. (Bvt. Maj.-Gen.) 

War of the Rebellion 

266, 271, 273, 274 

foot note 257 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 

Peoria, 111 15 

Bradwell, James B.. honorary mem- 
ber Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 16 

Brady, Thomas 120 

Bragg, (Gen.) Braxton, Confederate 

CJen., War of the Rebellion 

222, 260, 265, 274, 280 

Braiden, Sergeant of Co. D.. 27th 
Reg^t. 111. Vols., War of the Rebel- 
lion 279 

Brazil — feasibility of creating a 
German state either in Brazil or 
the U. S. considered — reference to 210 
Breese, Sidney — Judge of the Su- 
preme Court, State of Illinois.... 42 

mention 176 

United States Senator from Illi- 
nois — account of his election. . 87 
Bre'STnan, M. (Bravman) (Adj. 

Gen.) 231 

Brice. Wallace — history of Fort 
Wayne. Ind., quoted — foot note.. 118 

Bridgeport, Ala., camp at 277, 278 

Bridges, Frank M.. Democratic 
member Illinois State Senate, 
1885, 37th district, died during 

term of office 91 

Brinkerhoff. George M., Sr 64, 65, 66 

Bristol. Eng., emigrant lists of Bris- 
tol. Eng.. destroyed in 1831..... 77 
British, see English. 

British 08 

British-American Clubs in London.. 83 
British Americans in the Ohio Val- 
ley 143 

British band. Sac and Fox Indians 
under Black Hawk known as... 99 

British Flag 110 

British King 121 

British Military Department 120 

British Museum — foot note 105 

British Museum Mss. 21844, quoted 

— foot note 104 

British Parish Records 76 

British Troops 134 

Brock. rLieut.) John W 234 

Brodhead. (Col.) Daniel. Brodhead 
Papers I. H. 33, quoted — foot note 164 


Index — Continued. 

Erodhead — Concluded. Page. 

commander of Eighth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment 162 

foot note 164 

Deputy Surveyor, Reading, Pa., 
military sketch of, etc. — foot 

note 164 

in command at Fort Pitt 108 

letter to President Reed, 1789 — 

quoted 109 

mention — foot note 109, 164 

sends mesage to Delaware In- 
dians advising them to join 

the Americans 113 

Brooks, Jane S., member of the First 
Presbyterian Church, Belleville, 

111.. 1833 172 

Brooks. (Rev.) John F., member of 

the Tale band 172 

removes to Springfield, 111., death 

of in 1880 175 

Brooks, Laphua 218 

Bross. (Gov.) William, early friend 

of Alfred Cowles 178 

Brown, in War of the Rebellion, pri- 
vate 27th Regt., 111. Vol 229 

Brown, Mrs. C. C 23 

Brown County, 111 45, 223 

Brown, James N., one of Lincoln's 

Pallbearers 182 

Brown, John, Private 27th Reg., 111. 

Vols., War of the Rebellion 224 

Brown. Sam — private 27th Reg't. 

111. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 249 
Brown, Wm. Henry — death of In 

Amsterdam, 1867 176 

law partner of Alfred Cowles in 

Chicago 176 

Brown, Wm. W. (Chaplain) — 38th 
Reg't. III. Vols., War of the Re- 
bellion 273 

Browne. Thomas C. — early judge of 

the Supreme Court of Illinois 40 

candidate for Governor, State 

of Illinois, 1822, vote of 169 

Browning, William P. — sergeant 27th 
Reg't. 111. Vols., War of the Rebel- 
lion 224 

Browning's Americans of Royal 

Descent 72, 75, 80 

Brown's History of Indianapolis — 

quoted — foot note 54 

Brownsville and Big Hill School 

district established, 1825 218, 219 

Brownsville. 111. — Court House at, 

burned Jan. 10, 1843 217 

mention 218 

Brunswick. Me 57 

Bryan, William Jennings — mention. 184 
Buell. (Maj. Gen.) Don Carlos — 
Union Maj. Gen., War of the Re- 
bellion 242 

Buford, Napoleon B. — Colonel of the 
27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War of the 
Rebellion — later Brig, and Maj.- 
General ...220, 235, 236, 237, 238, 262 

foot notes 226, 239 

official report, Nov. 6, 1861 — 

quoted — foot note 232 

report of Col. Buford, Mar. 31, 

1862 — foot note 239 

sketch of the military life of — 

foot note 230 

Bunn. Jacob — one of the Pallbearers 
at Lincoln's funeral 182 


Bunn, John W 66 

Burchard. Horatio C 18 

Burke, H. Farnham 84 

Burke, (Sir) J. Bernard— General 
Armory — reference 'work on Her- 
aldry 83 

mention 72, 76 

prominent families in the U. S. 

of America — reference to.... 84 
Vicissitudes of Families — quo- 
ted 79 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H.. 7, 

11. 12, 13, 14. 15. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27 
work in behalf of State history 
reference to 285 

Burnside, (Maj. -Gen.) Ambrose E. 
^Union Maj. -Gen., War of the 
Rebellion 236 

Burrows, (Dr.) T. W 23 

Burton. Clarence M. — Augustin Mot- 
tin de La Balm — address before 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1909 104-134 

honorary member Illinois State 
Historical Society 21 

Burton, Samuel L. — clerk of the 
court, Jackson county 217 

Butcher, J. G 218 

Butler, (Gen.) Benj. F. — commanded 

attack on New Orleans 148 

Union general, War of the Re- 
bellion 225 

Butterfield, Consul W. — "Conquest 
of Illinois," quoted — foot note.... 97 

Byars, (Hon.) J 217 

Caho (Cahokia) — foot note 144 

Cahokia — complaint of the Caho- 

kians to M. de la Balm 102 

French inhabitants of, present 

address to La Balm 113 

French settlements at 212 

Indians 139, 140 

inhabitants of, send remon- 
strance to Congress 113 

La Balm and troops leave 116 

mention 68, 97, 98, 103 

mound — in Madison county, Illi- 
nois 19, 25 

or Monk's Mound — plea for 19 

records. Vol. 2 — Illinois His- 
torical collections 19 

Cahokians — complaint to M. Mottln 

de la Balme 102 

Cahos, (Cahokia) — foot note 114 

Cairo, 111 149, 152, 221, 224, 

225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 

232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240 

foot note 231 

Calhoun, John C. — U. S. Senator 

from South Carolina 88 

California 176, 177 

Callender, Elliot 23 

Calumbia. Miss. — see Columbia 250 

Calumet Marsh, near Chicago 62 

Calvary Cemetery, St. Louis 146 

Calve, Monsr 103 

Campbell, Charles B 24 


Index — Continued. 


Campbell, John T. — contributes an 
account of the "Hayes-Tilden Con- 
test, 1876-77" to annual transac- 
tions of Illinois State Historical 

Society, 1909 184- 

delegate to Labor-Reform Party 

national convention, 1872.... 

inmate of Soldiers' Home near 

Lafayette. Ind 

Camp Big Springs 222, 

Camp, Bridgeport, Ala 277, 278, 

Camp Butler, near Springfield, 111.. 

27th Reg't. 111. Vols., mustered 

into service at, Aug. 10, 1861 

220, 223, 224, 

foot note 

Camp Cairo, 111 

230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 

Camp Columbus, Ky 

Camp Cowen's Station, Tenn...274, 
Camp Defiance, Cairo, 111 

Campeau I pogt Miami 

Campeaut S 

Campeaux Battiste 

Camp Elk River, Tenn 

Camp Jefferson 233, 

Camp, John — Cook of the 27th Reg't. 

111. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 

Camp Lookout, Tenn 266, 

Camp McClernand. Cairo, 111 

224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 

Camp Manchester, Tenn 

Camp Roberts. Bridgeport, Ala.. 278, 
Camp Schaefer on Stone River, Tenn. 


266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 













Camp Sherden "] 
ridan !- 


Camp Sherii 
Camp Sheridon J 

Camp Stone River, Tenn 

257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 

262, 263. 264, 265, 266, 267. 273, 
Camp University, Cumberland Moun- 
tain, Tenn 

Canaan, Land of 

Canada 67, 104, 107, 110, 

112, 119. 122, 134, 135, 136, 137, 

foot notes 112, 136, 

Canadian Archives Report — 1904, 

Appendix "K" quoted — foot note. 

1905, Vol. I, quoted — foot notes 


Canadian Archives, Series B — 184 
Appendix 6 — manuscript in Hal- 
dimand papers, mentioned — foot 


Series B — Vol. 57, Pt. 2, quoted 

— foot note 

Series B — Vol. 97, Pt. 2, quoted 

— foot notes 98, 

Series B — 122, quoted — foot note 


Series B— 182-84, quoted— foot 


Series B — 184, quoted — foot 


Series B — 184, Pt. 2, quoted 

Series B — 185, quoted — foot note 
Canadian History, Benjamin Suite — 

authority on — see foot note 

Canadian Inhabitants of the Illinois 
Country believed by La Balm to 
be willing to aid in the attack on 


Canadian Volunteers — Chabert's Ca- 
nadian Volunteers 
















Canadians — address to, by La Balm 

115, 116 

mention 116, 117. 119 

Canedy, P. C. — opens the first book 

and drug store in Springfield, 111.. 200 
Canute, (The Dane) — reference to. 174 

Cape Girardeau 228 

Cape Hatteras 56 

Capen, Charles L 23 

Capps, Jabez — early shoe maker, 

Springfield, 111 200 

Capet, Hugh — king of France 75 

Carbondale, 111 7, 13, 14, 22, 23 

Carleton, (Gen.) Sir Guy — mention 162 

military plans of 122 

Carlin, Walter E 18 

Carlinville, 111 23 

Carml, 111 23 

Carnegie, Andrew 288 

Carnegie Institution, Washington, 

D. C C8 

"Carondolette" (The) — (Gun Boat) 239 
Carpenter's Grocery Store, Spring- 
field, 111 200 

Carpenter, Richard V 13, 23, 24 

Carr, (Col.) Clark E. — chairman 
Lincoln-Douglas Debate Commit- 
tee, Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 28 

Editor-in-Chief of the report of 
the Semi-Centennial Celebra- 
tion Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates 17 

Vice President, Illinois State 
Historical Society. .7, 11, 12, 13, 14 

Carriel, Mrs. Mary Turner 23 

Carroll, C. C 191 

Carroll county. Mo 138 

Carter, Joseph N.— judge of the Su- 
preme Court, State of Illinois 45 

Carthage, lU 23 

Carver. Jonathan, Carver's Travels 

— 1779, quoted — foot note 100 

Cascaski I Kaskaskia — foot notes 

Cascaskias f 114, 144 

Cass county. 111 45 

Cassidy, Peter — private 27th Reg't. 

111. Vols., War of the Rebellion. . . 272 
Caton, (Judge) John D. — superin- 
tendent Eastern Division "Caton 

Lines Telegraph" 63 

"Caton Lines" Illinois and Missis- 
sippi Telegraph Co. — so called... 63 

Catoroconi 134 

Cattle 48. 49, 50, 117. 163, 252 

Caucus of political parties in Illinois 
Legislature tirst nominates candi- 
dates for U. S. Senate in 1840 86 

Cave-in-Rock. Ill 232 

Cayuga county, N. Y. — mention.... 147 

Cayuga Indians 161 

Centralia, 111 23 

Cerro Gordo, Mexico — battle of — 

mention 148 

Chabert's Canadian Volunteers 119 

Chacehton, Messrs 133 

Chadwick Estate 78 

Chalmers, fDr.) G. S 30 

Chambers, firm in London, Eng 78 

Chamberlin, M. H. — member Board 
of Directors, Illinois State His- 
torical Society 7, 13 

mention 22, 23 

Chambly Hertel, de — foot note 136 


Index — Contimied. 


Champagne, province of 136 

Champaign, 111. — mention 23, 28S 

foot note 220 

Chancelor, (The) — (Steamer) 231 

Chandler ,Zachariah — U. S. Senator 
from Michigan— chairman Nation'l 
Republican Executive Committee, 

1876 184 

Chapman, Robt. — private 27th Reg't. 
111. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 224 

Charles the Second 37 

Charleston, 111 • • • „?i 

Charleston, S. C 106, 267, 268 

Charlevoix, Father, French Jesuit 

Priest 13 6, 137 

Charlevoix, Father — letters to the 
Duchess of Lesdigueres, puh. Lon- 
don, 1762, quoted 137 

foot note 137 

Chase, Salmon P., of Ohio &5 

Chatinga Pike 255 

Chatouinons Indians l-jS 

Chattanooga, Tenn 279, 280, 281 

Chattanooga Valley 281 

Chatterton's Jewelry Store, Spring- 

field. 111., 1860 64 

Cheatham's Brigade 232 

Cherokee Station, Alabama— foot 

note 248 

Cherry Alley, a street in Philadel- 
phia 125 

Chesne, Isador — interpreter for the 

Hurons 133 

Chicago & Alton R. R 287 

Chicago Bar Association 45, 46 

Chicago— directory of, 1846, quoted 176 
early Chicago and Illinois, by 
E. G. Mason — foot note.. 10 8, 139 

foreign consuls in 77, 78 

Geographic Society of Chicagol8, 19 
Historical Society Col. Vol. V, 

quoted — foot note 107 

Historical Society's Library, col- 
lections of 68 

Historical Society's Papers, 

quoted — foot note 139 

John Crerar Library — foot note 59 
Light Artillerry, War of the 

Rebellion 225 

mention 7, 14, 18, 

22, 23, 24, 33, 45, 46, 47, 51, 
52, 53, 61, 62, 63, 64. 65, 66, 
67, 68, 84, 98, 134, 175, 176, 212 

foot note 173 

Municipal Voters League 46 

Newberry Library 26, 33, 76 

Chicago Volksfreund, 1845, quoted 

—foot note 213 

Chickamauga Campaign 222 

Chickasaw Indians 142 

Chickasaw Village 142 

China — mention 148 

Chippewa Indians 161 

Chonagin 134 

Choteau, (Col.) Auguste — narrative 
of the founding of St. Louis, 

quoted — foot note 144 

Choteau, (Madame) Louis St. Ange 

dies in the home of 145-146 

Choteau, Pierre 146 


Choteau, Pierre, Jr 146 

Churches — 

Episcopal Church, Springfield, 

111 289 

First Presbyterian, Belleville, 

111 172 

First Presbyterian, Springfield, 

111 195, 289 

Presbyterian Church 

172, 176, 195, 289 

Churchille Grove 255 

Cincinnati American, (newspaper).. 56 

Cincinnati, 56, 70 

foot note 55 

City of Alton (steamer) — mention.. 151 
Civil War, heroes of favored for po- 
sitions and honors 89 

John M. Palmer, distinguished 

general in 94 

mention 153, 230 

see War of the Rebellion, 
number of soldiers furnished by 

Illinois, 1861 151 

work of quartermaster's depart- 
ment of Illinois during first 

year of 147-153 

Clark, F. T. — private 27th Reg't. 111. 

Vols., War of the Rebellion 224 

Clark, George Rogers — J. A. James, 
editor of proposed publication of 
the George Rogers Clark papers. 19 

Clark, (Col.) George Rogers 

...97, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 164, 168 

foot note 120 

monument to, dedicated at Ft. 

Massac Park 18 

Clark, George W. — private 27th 
Reg't. Vols., War of the Rebellion 

— foot note 233 

Clay Grove, Springfield, 111 201 

Clay. Henry — mention 50, 170 

U. S. Senator from Kentucky.. 88 
Cleaveland, (Prof.) Parker, meteor- 
ological reports, quoted 57 

foot note 57 

Gierke, AgnSs M. — mention 61 

Problems in Astro - Physics, 

quoted 59 

foot note 59 

Cleveland, Grover — President of the 
United States, elected 1884, first 
Democratic president for twenty- 
five years 91 

Clifford, Nathan — Associate Justice, 
U. S. Supreme Court, member 

Electoral Commission 186 

Clinton, to Haldimand, letter, Feb. 

1, 1779 — foot note.... 163 

Clinton, J. W. — member of Board of 
Directors, Illinois State Historical 

Society 7, 14, 21, 23 

Coats-of-Arms, Symbolism of 82 

Cochoquin — mention — foot note 113 

Cockrell, James, "F. M. B. A." — 
member of Illinois Legislature, 
1891, finally aids in election of 
John M. Palmer to U. S. Senate.. 94 
Coffeys Company, War of the Rebel- 
lion 223 

Cohos (Cahokia) 101 

Cold Churchill Grove 255 


Index — Continued. 


Coles, Edward, second Governor, 
State of Illinois emancipates his 

slaves 169 

Indicted by the Grand Jury for 
libeling Judge Sam Mc- 

Roberts 170, 171 

Madison county vs. Edward 
Coles, case of — reference to. . 170 

mention 21S 

receiver of the Land office at 

Edwardsville 169 

second Governor State of Illi- 
nois 19, 40, 169 

sketch of, by E. B. "Washburne — 

reference to — foot note 171 

College Hill. Jacksonville, 111 50 

College of Arms. London 83 

Collea:e of Heraldry, London 83, 84 

Collins. J. H 22, 24 

Collins, Richard H. — history of Ken- 
tucky, quoted — foot notes 53, 55 

Collins. William H. — member of 
Board of Directors, Illinois State 

Historical Society 7, 12, 13, 21 

Colonial Ancestors — expense con- 
nected with looking up material on 75 
Colonial Virginia Register, com- 
piled by Wm. G. and Mary Newton 

Stanard. published, 1902 26 

Colonial Wars 70 

Colorado 68 

Columbia. Mo 54 

foot note 54 

Columbia, Tenn 264 

Columbus, Ky.. capture of 236 

"Gibraltar of America" 236 

mention 152, 221, 

225, 231. 232, 234, 235, 236, 237 

foot notes 231, 232 

Columbus. O. — mention 186 

Colyer, Walter 22 

Comanche Indians 138 

Comer. Thomas — private 27th Reg't. 
111. Vols.. War of the Rebellion... 258 

Condell. Thomas 180 

Confederate Memorial Literary So- 
ciety Library, Richmond, Va 69 

Congress Continental — Journals of, 

new Ed. IX. quoted — foot note 162 

Journal of new Ed. XI, quoted — 

foot note 162 

Journals of XII, quoted — foot . 

note 163 

La Balm writes letter to 122-123 

papers of Xo. 41, Vol. I, folio 

144— foot note 106 

papers of Xo. 41, Vol. I, folio 

150 106 

papers of No. 41, Vol. I, folio 

168— foot note 107 

papers of No. 78. Vol. VII, folio 

149. letter of de la Balm. .122-123 
papers of Xo. 78, Vol. Am, folio 

151. quoted 123 

papers of No. 78, Vol. VII, folio 

155. quoted 121 

regulation of the Congress for 
the troops of the Continent of 

America 121 

Congress of the U. S., see L^nited 

States Congress. 
Congress, memorials to 114 

Congressional Library, Washington, 

D. C 85 

Conkling, Clinton L. — How Mr. Lin- 
coln received the news of his 
first nomination, address before 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1909 63-66 

mention 22, 65 

Conkling, James C, law office, 

Springfield, 111., 1860 C4 

mention 64, 65, 180 

Connecticut ...29, 49, 167, 168, 172, 176 
Connelley, (G. S.) Co., Springfield, 

111 20 

Conner. F. M. — private 27th Regr't. 

111. Vols 245 

Conners, B. F 217 

Converse Branch, Springfield, 111.... 190 

Converse, William 190 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois — authorized the apointment 

of circuit judges. 1825 41 

provisions of first section, ar- 
ticle I .V38-39^ 41 

requirements of the judges of 
the Supreme Court under... 41 
Constitution of 1848. State of Illi- 
nois — framers of the Constitution 
of 1848, methods of electing 

judges 43 

mention 40, 42, 43, 44 

provisions of, with regard to 

governmental powers 39 

Constitution of 1870, State of Illi- 
nois — provisions for the election 

of judges Supreme Court 44 

Constitutional Convention, State of 
Illinois (First) — reference to — : 

foot note — appendix 219 

Continental Congress — La Balm — 
appendix I — La Balm proposed 
to enter the American Service. 120-122 
appendix 2, (De La Balm) — pa- 
pers of the Continental Con- 
gress, No. 78, VII, folio 149 
— letter from De La Balm.. 


appendix 3, (De La Balm) — pa- 
pers of the Continental Con- 
gress, No. 78. folio 151 — let- 
ter from De La Balm, York- 
town 22, January, 1778 ... 123-124 
appendix 4. to the La Balm pa- 
per, by C. M. Burton — letter 

to the Public 125-126 

appendix 5, order of La Balm 

to soldiers — letters 126-128 

memorials of M. de La Balm to 

— foot note 106, 107 

journals of the Continental 
Congress, New Ed. IX — 

quoted — foot note 161 

journals of, vol. XI, New Ed. 

quoted — foot note 162 

journals of, XII, quoted — foot 

note 163 

papers of the Continental Con- 

° No. 41, vol. I, folio 144— 

foot note 106 

No. 41, vol. I, folio 150 — 
foot note 106 

No. 41, vol. I, folio 168 — 
foot note 107 


Index — Continued. 

Continental Congress — Concluded. Page. 

papers of the Continental Con- 
gress, 78— VII — quoted 121 

papers of No. 78, ATII, folio 149 
— letter of De La Balm — ap- 
pendix 2 122-123 

papers of No. 78, VII, folio 
151, appendix 3, to La Balm 
paper— by C. M. Burton. .123-124 

papers of No. 78, VII, folio 
155, appendix I — La Balm's 
proposal 121-122 

regulation of the Congress, for 
the troops of the Continent 

of America 121 

Coochocking, Indian Council — foot 
note 109 

Cook, Burton C. — Anti-Nebraska 
Senator in Illinois Legislature, 
1855 — his course as to election of 
U. S. Senator 88 

Cook county, 111 46, 93 

Cook, (Gen.) John 182 

Cooper, John L 22 

Cooshocking — foot note 109 

Copperheads 266 

Corinth, Miss. — mention 

221, 241, 242, 243 

battle of 241-245 

Cormack, Rivers — one of the Com- 
missioners appointed to locate the 

county seat of Sangamon Co 190 

Corn 48, 50, 

103, 206, 250, 251, 252, 258, 261, 280 

"Corn Island" 97 

Corpus Christi, Texas 24 

Count of Champagne 82 

County of Madison vs. Edward 

Coles, case of 170 

Court a tribunal of Justice 37 

Court House, Springfield, 111 201 

Courtland, Miss 249 

Coutures, Mr 130 

Coven Creek 140 

Covenanters — royal land grants 

made to 77 

Cowens Station, Tenn. — camp at . . . 

274, 275 

Cowles, Alfred — Alfred Cowles, by 
Dr. J. F. Snyder, contribution to 

State History 167-178 

Alton trials — Alfred Cowles ar- 
gument to the Jury 174 

biographical sketch 167, 168 

death of, at San Diego, Cal., 

Nov. 16, 1887 178 

defends Lovejoy adherents, Al- 
ton trial 173 

famUy of 175 

member of the First Presby- 
terian Church, Belleville, 111., 

1833 172 

personal appearance of 168 

political affiliations of 177 

Register U. S. Land Office in 

Chicago 176 

State's Attorney, 2d Judicial 
District, State of Illinois 170 


Cowles, Alfred E 175, 178 

Cowles & Brown, law firm, Chicago 176 
Cowles & Krum, law firm, Alton, 111. 175 

Cowles, Caroline 175 

Cowles, Charlotte Gleason, wife of 

Alfred Cowles 167 

Cowles. Charlotte — member of the 
First Presbyterian Church, Belle- 
ville. 111., 1833 172 

Cowles. Cornelia — mention 175 

wife of Dr. French 177 

Cowles, Elizabeth — mention 175 

wife of Chas. C. Leavitt 177 

Cowles, Frederick — -death of at San 

Diego, Cal 176 

mention 175, 177 

Cowles, Louise 175, 176 

Cowles, (Gen.) Solomon — revolu- 
tionary soldier 167 

Cowles, wmiam 167 

Cox, Alexander — early settler of 

Springfield, 111 201 

Cox, Samuel S. (Sunset Cox) — in 
his "Three Decades of Federal 
Legislation" gives account of 

Hayes-Tilden Contest 184 

quoted as to election of David 

Davis to U. S. Senate, 1877.. 187 
quoted as to politics of David 

Davis, 1876 186 

Cox, (Col.) Thomas— mention.. 199, 201 
owner of two slave girls, Nance 

and Dice 197, 198 

Register of the Land Office, 

Springfield, Illinois, 1823 193 

Cox, (Mrs.) Thomas 197 

Cox's Tread Mill, Springfield, 111... 200 

Crabbe, Mrs. E. G 24 

Craig, Alfred M. — Judge of the Su- 
preme Court, State of Illinois ... 44 
Cravoin, Captain — officer under La 

Balm — orders to 127 

Craske, Henry, Rushville, 111. — in 
letter to John A. Logan suggests 

political scheme 92 

Crawfish Spring, Tenn 281 

Crawford, A. W 23 

Crawford, (Col.) William — foot note 161 
Crawford, William Harris — Presi- 
dential candidate, 1824 170 

Credit Island — an island In the Mis- 
sissippi River ..100, 102 

Creoles — rumors of the Creoles at- 
tack on Mackinac 119 

Crevier, Christopher — native of 

Rouen, France — foot note 136 

Crevier de Bellerive — foot note.... 136 
Crevier de St. Francois — foot note.. 136 

Crevier Duvernay — foot note 136 

Crevier, Jeanne — foot note 136 

Crevier, Marguerite — wife of Robert 

Groston de St. Ange 136 

foot note 136 

Criffin, Edward W. — see Crippin, 

Edward W 220 

foot note 220 

certificate of muster into ser- 
vice, 27th 111. Vols, from office 
Adj.-Gen., State of Illinois — 
foot note 220 


Index — Continued. 



CrlDoen \ Edward W. — death of, at 
rrinnin'- Mission Ridge, Dec. 24, 

Crippen, Edward W. — see Crippin. 
Crippin, Edward W. — Certificate of 
muster into service 27th 111. Vols. 
— from Adj. -Gen. office. State of 

Illinois — foot note 220 

diary of Edward W. Crippin, 
private 27th 111. Vols., War of 
the Rebellion. Aug. 7, 1861 to 
Sept. 19, 1865— edited with 
introduction and notes by 

Robert J. Kerner 220-282 

diary, Aug. 28, 1861, Oct. 31, 
Nov. 7, 1861, March 14, 1863 

— quoted — foot note 221 

diary. May 9, 1862, Sept. 3, 
1862, Jan. 2, 1863, Feb. 22, 

1863 — quoted— foot note 222 

Crippen. Martha — foot note 282 

Crittenden Co., Ky 226 

Cromwell, Nathan — early merchant 

of Springfield, 111 198 

Crook, (Judge) A. N. J 182 

Crozier's American Heraldry 84 

Crusader, emblems of 82 

Cuba 57 

Cullom. Shelby M. — course and 

standing in U. S. Senate 95-96 

Governor of Illinois, later U. 

S. Senator 95 

honorary member Illinois State 

Historical Society 16 

mention • 180, 181 

re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois 95 

Cumberland Mountain, Tenn. — camp 

University 275, 276 

Cumberland River — mention. .. .151, 235 
Cunningham. J. O. — member of 
Board of Directors, Illinois State 

Historical Society 7, 13, 15, 21, 23 

Currey, J. Seymour 23 

Custom House, Bristol, Eng. — burned 

in 1831 77 

Cutright, Daniel — brought his slave 
boy Major to Sangamon county.. 197 


Daggett, Mr. — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 111. 
190, 191, 197 

Dalton's Catalogue of Auroras — 
quoted 58 

Danville, 111 24 

Danville, I Mississippi 247 

Danvill, \ 

Darby. William — Emigrants Guide 
to Western & Southwestern States 
& Territories, published in 1818 — 
reference to 68 

D'Artaguette Family — -manuscript 
sketch of, in the library of the 
Missouri Historical Society — foot 
note 141 

D'Artaguette, Pierre — succeeded St. 
Ange in command at Ft. Chartres 141 

foot note 141 

D'Artaguette — tragic death of. 142 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion — Illinois State Year Book of 

— quoted ig 

lineage books, reference to 71 

Davenport, Iowa 99 

Davidson, Mrs. Geo. H 22 

Davidson, (Maj.) James I. — of the 
73d 111. Vols., War of the Rebel- 
lion 272 

Davis. David — Associate Justice, U. 

S. Supreme Court 90, 186 

elected U. S. Senator from Illi- 
nois — account of his election 


friend of Abraham Lincoln, as- 
sisted in securing presidential 
nomination of Lincoln in 1860 90 

leaves Republican party 90-91 

nomination for Presidency of 
U. S. by Labor Reform Party, 

1872 186 

plan to elect him to U. S. 
Senate from Illinois in order 
to remove him from Supreme 

Court of U. S 184 

presiding officer U. S. Senate.. 91 

political affiliations of 186, 187 

U. S. Senator and thus is re- 
moved from Supreme Bench 
of the U. S., and is not ap- 
pointed on electoral commis- 
sion — effect of on Hayes-Til- 

den contest 187-188 

United States Senator from Illi- 
nois, elected 1877 — account 

of his election 90-91 

United States Senator from Illi- 
nois, his record and standing 

in Senate 91 

United States Senator from Illi- 
nois reflects credit upon Illi- 
nois 96 

Davis, George P 15 

Davis, G. T. M. — defends Lovejoy 

adherents, Alton trials 173 

Davis, (Gen.) Hasbrouck 281 

Davis, Hezekiah, Sr 218 

Davis, Jefferson 225 

Davis, Jeff. C. — commands division 

at Eaglesville. Tenn 264 

division — mention 263 

mention 256 

Davis, J. McCan — "How Abraham 
Lincoln became President" — 

quoted 66 

mention 22, 24 

The Senator from Illinois — 
some famous political com- 
bats — address delivered before 
Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, annual meeting. May. 

1909 86-96 

Davison, James^headquarters Camp 
Schaefer on Stone River, Tenn.. 268 

Dawes, Chas, G 22 

Dawson, George E 23 

tjeane, Silas — agent in Paris for the 

United Colonies of America 104 

Deane, Silas — foot notes... 105, 106, 107 


Index — Continued. 


De Belestre — acting as commandant 

at Cascaskias — foot note 144 

Debrett 79 

Decatur, 111 23, 63 

De Chambly Hertel — see Chambly 

— foot note 136 

Declaration of Independence 38 

Deer 50, 110, 192 

Deer route 134 

Dejean, Madame — mention — foot 

note 113 

Dejean, P. — letter to Haldimand — 

foot note 113 

DeKalb County, 111 12 

Delano, (Capt. ) cavalry company, 

War of the Rebellion 231 

Delaware Indians, advised by Brod- 
head and Linctot to join the 

Americans 113 

mention 162 

Delaware, state 75 

DeLiette — nephew of Henri de 

Tonty 139 

DeLisle Bapti 130 

Delitalieu — soldier under La Balm 

— mention 127 

Deluziere, father of DeLassus — last 
Spanish Governor of Upper Louis- 
iana 135 

Democratic party in Illinois, Legis- 
lature, 1877 187 

1S90, nominated in State con- 
vention, John M. Palmer for 

U. S. Senator 93-94 

Legislature first nominates can- 
didates for U. S. Senator in 
caucus of political party in 

1840 86 

members of, in Illinois Legisla- 
ture, 1885 attempts of, to 

elect U. S. Senator 91 

mention 44, 45, 46 

Democrats, in Illinois Legislature, 
1855, contest for election of U. S. 

Senator 88-89 

in Illinois Legislature, 1877.188, 189 
in Illinois Legislature, 1885, 
attempts to secure election of 

U. S. Senator 93 

Deneen, Charles S. — honorary mem- 
ber Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 16 

Denning, William A. — candidate for 
U. S. Senator from Illinois, 1855 
— vote cast for, in Legislature... 88 

DeNoyelle 140 

DePeyster, (Maj.) Arent Schuyler 
account of LeBalm's attack on the 

Miami towns 117-118 

commander at Detroit Ill, 112 

foot note 120 

Misc. of an officer 26 a, quoted 

— foot note 119 

DePlacey. M. — see Placey 132 

Deplanteur, M. — mention — foot note 113 

Dequindre Dagniau 120 

Desaulliers, Pierre — interpreter for 

the Hurons 133 

Desplaines River 51, 61 


D'Estaing, Count — foot note 109 

Detroit, Bentley a prisoner at — foot 

note 113 

Canadians inhabitants, wil- 
ling to aid La Balm in cap- 
turing Detroit 113 

expedition against, projected. . 162 

foot note 162 

Frenchman at 114 

La Balm's plans for capture of 114 


..108, 111, 114, 118, 131, 132, 184 

foot notes 109„113, 118 

militia, companies of 133 

plans for the capture of — foot 

note 163 

population of, 1778 — foot note. 162 

river 134 

rough map of the western 

country mentioned 114 

Deutsche Pioneer, Vol. V, quoted — 

foot notes 211, 212 

De Villiers, Elizabeth St. Ange.141, 142 
De Villiers, Chevalier Francois Cou- 
lon, marries Elizabeth St. Ange. 141 

Francois Coulon — mention 143 

De Villiers, Jumonville 141 

De Villiers, Louis Coulon — called 

Le Grand Villiers 141 

De Villiers, Neyon — in command at 

Ft. Chartres 143 

mention 140 

sketch of the life of, reference 

to — foot note 143 

De Villiers du Terrage — Les Der- 
niers Annees de la Louisiane 
Francaise, quoted — foot note. 143, 144 
De Volsay at Caho (Cahokia) — foot 

note 144 

Diai-y, (The) of, Edward W. Crip- 
pen, private 27th Reg't. 111. Vols., 
War of the Rebellion, Aug. 7, 1861 
to Sept. 19, 1863, with introduc- 
tion and notes, by Robert J. Ker- 

ner 220-282 

Dice, (Slave girl) — owned by Col. 

Thomas Cox 197, 198 

Dickens, Charles — Jarndyce vs. 

Jarndyce — mentioned 78 

Dickerman, Luke 23 

Dickerson, O. M 23 

Dickson, Frank S. — Adj. -General 

State of Illinois — foot note 220 

Dillon, John B. — History of Indiana, 

Vol. I, quoted — foot note 118 

District of Columbia — mention 148 

Dixon, Henry S 23 

Dixon, John — at Dixon's Ferry, on 

Rock River 51 

Dixon's Ferry on Rock River 51, 52 

Documentary History of Dunmore's 

War, reference to 6T 

"Domesday Boke" TO 

Don Galvez, Spanish General — foot 

note 112 

Donllson, (Gen.) — plantation 2.52 

Dougal — firm in London, Eng 78 

Dougherty, John — Circuit Judge, 
State of Illinois 45 


Index — Continued. 


Douglas, Stephen A. — ability of.. 8 7, 88 
Abraham Lincoln's estimate of 

his character and ability.... 87 
account of his rapid rise in Illi- 
nois politics 87 

ball and banquet given in old 
State House at Springfield in 
honor of his election to U. S. 

Senate 87 

candidate for President of the 

United States 87 

course in U. S. Senate 87 

defeats Abraham Lincoln for 

U. S. Senate, 1858 89 

his course in U. S. Senate, mea- 
sures advocated 87 

his place in history of Illinois 

U. S. Senators 87, 88 

in U. S. Senate reflects credit 

upon Illinois 96 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 

State of Illinois 42 

mention 183 

patriotism of 88 

political offices held by 87 

re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois 95 

U. S. Senator from Illinois, his 
election gave State distinc- 
tion and prestige 87-88 

U. S. Senator from Illinois, his 
election — former efforts to se- 
cure same office 87 

Douglas. (Hon.) Walter B. — honor- 
ary member Illinois State His- 
torical Society 21 

The Sieurs de St. Ange — ad- 
dress before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1909, by.. 


Dow, Lorenzo 191 

Drake, Samuel G. — "Founders of 

New England," quoted 77 

Draper, Andrew S. — President Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 1899 15 

Draper Collection Wis. State His- 
torical Society Library 67 

Draper, ( Dr. ) Lyman C 102 

Draper Mss. Coil's, Brodhead Pa- 
pers I H. 33, quoted — foot note.. 164 

28 J. 3, quoted 103 

29 J. 14, quoted 98 

49 J. 20, quoted — foot note... 164 
49 J. 74, quoted — foot note... 97 
51 J. 71, quoted — foot note... 102 
58 J. 32. quoted — foot note... 163 

Drennan, William — one of the com- 
missioners appointed to locate the 
county seat of Sangamon county 190 

Drouillard 132 

Dryer, John — early nursery man, 

Springfield, 111 191 

Dublin. Ireland 78 

Dubois, (Hon.) Jesse K 180, 182 

Dubois, Lincoln 25 

'buck River 250, 264 

iDuden. Gottfried — Germans placed 

great confidence in the writings of, 

concerning the Western country. 211 

report concerning a journey to 

the Western states of N. 

America, quoted 210 

foot notes 210,211 

Duff, Andres J. — candidate for Cir- 
cuit Judge, State of Illinois 45 

Duluth, Minn., immortalized by J. 

Proctor Knott 185 

Dumont, Memoires Historique Vol. 

2, quoted — foot note 139 

Duncan I, King of Scots, 1033 75 

Duncan, Gov. Joseph — active in se- 
curing the passage of the free 

school law, 1825.; 218 

biographical sketch In Fergus 
Hist, series, reference to — 

foot note, appendix 219 

meniion 217 

foot note 219 

Duncan, Matthew 217 

foot note 219 

Dunn, Jacob P. Jr. — Father Gibault, 
the Patriot Priest of tne North- 
west, quoted — foot note 137 

History of Indiana in the 
American Commonwealth 
Series, quoted — foot note... 137 
librarian Indiana State Histor- 
ical Society — foot note 54 

Duplessy, M 132 

Dupuy, Geo. A 22 

Dustisne. tragic death of 142 

Dutch Hill, 111., German settlement 

in Illinois, 1815 212 

Dutch Hollow, 111., German settle- 
ment in Illinois, 1802 212 

Eaglesville, Tenn 263,264 

Eames, Charles M. — historic Mor- 
gan and Classic Jacksonville, 

quoted — see foot note 48 

Earl Marshall or President of Eng- 
lish College of Heraldry — refer- 
ence to 82 

Eastfort, ( . . . 248 

Eastport, T 

Eastman property, Springfield, 111.. 191 

East St. Louis, 111 23, 24 

Edens, Wm. G 22 

Eddy, T. M. — Patriotism of Illinois, 

quoted. Vol. 2 — foot notes 

220, 226, 231, 282 

Edinburgh, Scotland 78, 79 

Edmondston, English authority on 

Royal descent, etc 79 

Edmunds, Geo. F. — U. S. Senator 
from Vermont, member Electoral 

Commission 185 

Education. Augustana College, Rock 

Island, 111 22 

Bettie Stuart Institute, Spring- 
field, 111 195, 288 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick, 

Maine — foot note 57 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 

Peoria, 111 15 

Brownsville and Big Hill School 

District, established, 1825.218-219 
Free School Law of 1825, State 

of Illinois, reference to 218 

Illinois College located at Jack- 
sonville 48, 172 

Illinois, University of Illinois.. 

7, 15, 22 

foot note 220 


Index — Continued. 

Education — Concluded. Page. 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111.. 28, 29 
McClernand School, Springfield, 

111 195 

N. Y., University of New York, 58 

foot note 58 

Oneida Seminary, N. Y 61 

Shattuck College, Faribault, 

Minn 289 

Southern Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity, Carbondale, 111 7 

Western Illinois State Normal 

School, Macomb, 111 23 

Edward I, King of England 79 

Edward III, King of England 79 

Edwards, Benjamin S. — prominent 

citizen of Springfield, 111 180, 191 

Edwards, Mrs. Benjamin S. — 
honorary member Illinois State 

Historical Society — death of 18 

Edwards, Cyrus — candidate for U. S. 
Senator from Illinois, 1855, vote 

cast for in Legislature 88 

work in behalf of State history, 

reference to 285 

Edwards estate 78 

Edwards, Ninian — Beaird vs. the 
Governor, mandamus, Edwards 

Papers, cuoted — foot note 172 

death of, from Asiatic cholera, 

July 20, 1833 172 

mention 171, 172 

territorial governor, U. S. Sena- 
tor and Governor of Illinois. 

19, 95, 171 

Edwards, (Dr.) Richard 15, 18 

Edwardsville, 111., Advocate, (news- 
paper) 61 

foot note 51 

mention 171, 172 

foot note 5o 

Western Plough Boy (news- 
paper) foot note 55 

Efforts to divorce judicial elections 
from politics in Illinois — address 
before the Illinois State Historical 
Society, 1909, by Oliver A. Bar- 
ker 37-46 

Egypt, Southei-n Illinois, so called.. 223 

Electoral Bill 187 

see Electoral Commission. 
Electoral Commission, 1877, ap- 
pointed to decide Hayes-Tilden 

f.Qj-j^gg^ lo4 

how originated, vote upon in 

(Congress 186 

to settle Hayes-Tilden contest, 
how originated and organized 185 

Elk. property of Erastus Wright 200 

Elkin, W. F 180 

Elk River, Tenn., camp at 274 

Elliott, Andrew— early settler of 
Sangamon county and Springfield, 

111. 190, 197 

earlv tavern keeper, Springfield, 

111 201 

Elliott, (Rev.) J. C 18 

Elliott, Matthew 119 

Ellis, Jacob — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 111. 
^ 190, 197 

Ellis, Jacob — first blacksmith, 

Springfield, 111 200 

Ellis, Levi — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 

111 190, 197 

Ellis, Perry, Quincy, 111 13 

Elm River 55 

El Paso, 111 24 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo — quotation 

from writings 75 

Emery, Richard — private 27th Reg. 

111. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 240 
Emigration office, London, Eng. ... 77 

Emma, (The) (Steamer) 239 

Encyclopedia Britannica, quoted on 

India — foot note 57 

quoted on Meteorology — foot 

note 58 

quoted on Polar Regions — foot 

note 60 

England, administration of justice 

in, mode of, etc.... 37, 38 

mention 72, 76, 

78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 98, 104, 212 

foot note 113 

property rights in England .... 78 
prorogation of parliament in 

1679 37 

revolution of 1688 37, 38 

English College of Heraldry 82,83 

Constitution 37 

in America, military plans of.. 122 
Indians believed an alliance of 
Virginians, French and Span- 
iards arrayed against the 

English 113 

language 108 

foot note 108 

Lee, F. — member of Committee 
of Legislation, Illinois State 

Historical Society 23 

mention 80, 107, 

110, 116, 129, 132. 133, 135, 162 
methods in dealing with the In- 
dians 139 

Englishmen, trace their ancestry 

only through the male line 74 

Bnos, (Miss) Catherine 1 18 

Enos, Pascal P. — early settler of 

Springfield, 111 192, 199, 201 

Enos, Zimri — Description of Spring- 
field, contribution to State History. 

by 190-208 

Eschmann, (Rev.) C. J.- — member 
Board of Directors, Illinois State 

Historical Society 7, 14, 25 

Essex Institute Historical Collections 77 

Eureka, 111 23 

Europe 58, 68, 75, 80, 83, 176, 209 

European Archives 135 

cities, vital records of 77 

Frenchman, Robert Groston de 

St. Ange 136 

officials at the College of Her- 
aldry 83 

workman, skill of 81 

Evanston, 111 22, 23 

Evarts, William Maxwell, of N. Y.. 66 


Index — Continued. 


Everett. Charles — family of 148 

father of Edward Everett, mer- 
chant in London 148 

resident of Quincy, 111 148 

(the younger) served in Mor- 
mon war, Mexican war and 
Civil war, rose to rank Brig.- 

Gen. in Civil war 148 

(the younger) son of Chas. 
Everett, member Quincy Rifle- 
men in Mormon war, later 

served in Mexican war 148 

Everett. Edward — born London, 

England 148 

distinguished American scholar, 
clergyman and author, cousin 

of Chas. Everett 148 

Everett, Edward — of Quincy, the 
work of. in quarter-master's de- 
partment in Illinois during first 
year of Civil war. paper before 
Illinois State Historical Society, 

by Cora A. Benneson 147-153 

' biographical sketch of 148 

clerk in quarter-master's dept. 

in Mexican war 147 

letter of. to Col. John Wood, 

February, 1862 152 

manuscript papers of, mention 

—foot note 153 

methods employed by, in con- 
ducting business quarter- 
master's dept. of Illinois, 

1861 151 

relative of the distinguished Bd- 

. ward Everett of Mass 148 

report made by, to Constitu- 
tional Convention of Illinois, 

1862 151 

resigns position in quarter- 

ma.ster's dept. of Illinois .... 153 
served as member Quincy Rifle- 
men in Mormon war 148 

service in quarter-master's dept. 

in Mexican war. fitted him for 

later service in Civil war. 147, 149 

services in systematizing the 

equipment of Illinois troops, 

1861 149-150 

shot above knee, lamed for life. 149 
Everett. Samuel — killed at battle of 

Shiloh. Civil war 149 

surgeon. 10th 111. Vols. Inf.. 

Civil war 148-149 

youngest son of the elder Chas. 
Elliott. becomes surgeon, 
served in Mormon war. Mexi- 
can war and Civil war . . .148-149 
Swing. Wm. L. D. — elected Lieut. 
Governor of Illinois, served as 
Governor short time. U. S. Senator 95 

Exeter. (Scott Co.) Ill 223 

Expedition of Pedro de Villazur, 

(Bandelier) quoted — foot note... 137 
Extracts from the records of the 
Jackson County Commissioners 
Court — by G. J. Koons 217-219 

Fagan, William — early citizen of 
Springfield, 111 201 


Fairfield. Ill 22,23 

Fair grounds, near Springfield, 111., 

mention 149 

Falls of Ohio 103 

Faribault. Minn 289 

Farmer's Mutual Benefit Alliance, 
"F. M. B. A." political party in 
Illinois, 1891 — members of, in Illi- 
nois Legislature 94-93 

Farmington, (Hartford Co.) Conn.. 167 
Farmington. Mississippi, battle of, 

description 221 

mention 243, 244 

Fayette county. 111 169 

Federal Army, deserters from 266 

Federal Army. 1862 — mention 152 

Felan, Richard — private 27th Reg't. 

111. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 245 
Felan, Robert — private 27tli Reg't. 

111. Vols 228, 229 

Felmley, ( Prof. ) David 23 

Fergus Hist. Series No. 29, bio- 
graphical sketcli of Joseph Dun- 
can — foot note, appendix 219 

Ferguson. Benjamin H. — prominent 
business man of Springfield, 111. 

182. 287 

Ficklin, Orlando B. — candidate for 
U. S. Senator from Illinois. 1855, 

vote cast for in Legislature 88 

Field. (Capt.) Martin — meteorolog- 
, ical reports at Fayetteville, Vt... 57 

foot note 57 

Field, Stephen — Associate Justice U. 
S. Supreme Court, member Elec- 
toral Commission 186 

Fish, Grace 20 

Flagg. Norman G 24 

Flat Branch. Springfield, 111 201 

Florida, Electoral vote of, 1876. .184-185 
"F. M. B. A." (Farmers' Mutual 
Benefit Alliance) — three mem- 
bei^s of this party in Illinois Legis- 
lature, 1891 hold balance of power, 
course during senatorial election 


Foote — private in the 27th Reg't. 

111. Vols.. War of the Rebellion.. 276 
Foote. A. H. — flag officer, report of, 
March 4, 1862. War Records 
Series I, Vol. VII, quoted — foot 

note 238 

Foote, H. C 238 

Ford. (Gov.) Thomas — history of 

Illinois, quoted 175 

Judge of the Supreme Court, 

State of Illinois 42 

Ford, Worthington C. — Life of 
Washington, Vol. V, quoted — 

foot note 105 

Ford's Theatre, Washington, D. C. 179 
Foreman. Anderson — early settler 

of Jacksonville. 111.— foot note.... 48 
Forquer. George — Att'y-Gen., State 

of lUinois 171 

George Forquer Grove, Spring- 
field. Ill 191 

slave boy "Smith" owned by... 197 

Fort Armstrong 99 

Fort Belle Fontaine 25 


Index — Continued. 


Ft. Chai-tres, Aubry, quoted on the 

surrender of— foot note 144 

De Villiers in command at 143 

Elizabeth St. Ange de Villiers — 
death of at Ft. Chartres, 

March 6, 1755 142 


18, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142 

Madame St. Ange, death of, 
Feb. 23, 1762, at Ft. Char- 
tres 142 

St. Ange, the elder, in com- 
mand at 139, 140 

Fort Chartres, Elder St. Ange 
purchases a home near, in 1729.. 139 

Fort Clark 18 

Fort Donelson 235, 236 

Fort Duquesne 134 

Fort Erie 134 

Fort Henry 235 

Fort Holt 231, 234, 235 

Fort Jefferson 97, 98, 233 

Fort Laurens 163, 164 

Fort Mcintosh, location of 163 

Fort Massac Commission, Jessie Pal- 
mer Weber, Secretary of 18 

mention 13 

park, monument to George 
Rogers Clark dedicated at . . . 18 

Fort Necessity 141 

Fort Orleans, destroyed by the In- 
dians 143 

mention 138 

St. Ange (Elder) in command 

of 138, 139 

Fort Pitt 103, 

108, 109, 110, 113, 119, 162, 163, 164 

foot notes 109, 112 

Fort Randolph 162 

Fort Russell 18 

Ft. Schuyler — foot note 163 

Fort Tain 249 

Fort Wayne, Ind. — Brice's History 
of Fort Wayne, quoted — foot note 118 

Fort Winnebago 51, 53 

Fort Wright 240 

Foster, William T. — early Judge of 

the Supreme Court of Illinois. . .39-40 
Fountain Bluff, Jackson Co., 111. — 

foot note, appendix 219 

Four Courts, on King's Inn Quay, 

Dublin, Ireland 78 

Fowler, Wm. F 23 

Fox, Benjamin F. — early citizen of 

Springfield, 111 191 

Fox Creek 249 

Fox-Davies. publications issued in 
the intei-est of the College of 

Heraldry 8.^ 

Fox Fort, site of, sec foot note.... 140 

Fox Indians 5i. f'S, 99, 139, 140, 141 

France, mention 7o, 79, 82, 104, 

108. 109, 111, 137, 144, 210, 212, 214 

foot notes 105, 107, 163 

Mercure de France, quoted — 

foot note 139 

Franklin, Benjamin in France, 
Franklin's works quoted — foot 

note 105 

mention 104, 105 

Franklin. (Sir) John arctic explorer 60 
Franklin. Tenn 250, 261, 263, 264 


Fredrictown 229 

Freeport, 111 13, 18, 23 

Freese, L. J 23 

"Free Soilers," in Illinois Legisla- 
ture, 1855 88 

Freiheitsbote fur Illinois, 1840, 

quoted — foot note 213 

Frelinghuysen, Fred T. — U. S. Sena- 
tor from New Jersey, member 

Electoral Commission 185 

French, (Dr.) Marries Cornelia 

Cowles 177 

French, (Dr.) A. W 18 

French and Indian Wars 71 

French — advice to the French, by 

La Balm hq 

at war with the Chickasaws. . . 142 
believed to be allied with the 
Virginians and Spaniards 

against the English 113 

Canadians i09 

citizens, antipathy against the 

United States 112 

Colonel 112, 117 

foot note 112 

emissaries 112 

foot note 112 

Flag — disappears from the Illi- 
nois country 143, 144 

inhabitants of Cahokia, present 
address to La Balm setting 
forth their grievances against 

the Virginians 113 

of St. Louis — mention 113 

of the West and the Illinois 

country — mention 113 

King 110 

La Balm passes for a French 

officer no 

language lOg 

methods in dealing with the 

Indians 139 

nation — mention 

105, 127, 129, 130, 131, 135, 162 

officers 105 

revolution, (The) — mention 184 

revolution of France In 1830.. 210 
revolutionists, German students 
wear caps, bear the colors 
of the French Revolutionists 210 
settlements at Cahokia and 

Kaskaskia 212 

settlements in Illinois 109 

settlements in the Illinois 

country gg 

settlers on the Mississippi 

55, 56, 58 

soldiers 105 

warriors no 

wars with the Indians 139 

Puller, (Dr.) Samuel M 285 

Fulton county, 111 45, 147, 197 

Fury Beach, Barrow Strait, latitude 

74° 62 

Gage, Bro. & Drake proprietors, 
Tremont House, Chicago, Illinois, 
1860 63 

-20 H S 



Index — Continued. 

Gage, (Gen.) Thomas — Captain 
Thomas Stirling, letter to Gen. 
Gage dated Dec. 15, 1765, quoted 

— foot note 144 

Galena, 111., mention 51, 223 

"Galena Miner" — (newspaper) — 

foot note 55 

Galesburg, 111. — Knox-Galesburg 

Day 29 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate Cele- 
bration, souvenirs of 30 

Mary Allen West — How Gales- 
burg Grew, manuscript — 

reference to 29 

mention 7, 13, 23, 28, 29 

foot note 30 

People's Trust & Savings Bank 

of ; SO 

Galileo, Galilei, Philosopher, Scien- 
tist 59 

Galveston. Texas 57 

Galvez, Don. — see Don Galvez — foot 

note 112 

Gamelin, M 133 

Garfield, James A. — member U. S. 
Congress from Ohio, member 

Electoral Commission 185 

President of the United States, 
death of, succeeded by Vice- 
president C. A. Arthur 91 

"Garland," (The) Frigate — foot 

note 118 

Garm, Robert H 23 

Gary, Joseph Eaton — prominent 

Judge of Cook county, 111 46 

Gates, (Gen.) Horatio 107 

Gatyburg, Pa. — see Gettysburg. 
Gehrman, Charles A. — early settler 

of Springfield, 111 191, 196 

Genealogical collection of the Illinois 
State Historical Library, reference 

to 19 

Gtenealogy and Genealogical publi- 
cations, Illinois State Historical 

Society, committee of 24 

report of 12, 26 

Genealogy — Harriet Taylor, The 
Study of Genealogy, paper pre- 
pared for the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1909 26, 33, 67-85 

Abbe Tanguay Genealogical 

dictionary — foot note 136 

American - Bureau of, sugges- 
tions for 84 

difficulties in the way 74 

family antiquitj'^ desired 77 

first family history printed in 

America 72 

foreigners 77 

German-American Genealogists. 67 

gruide books for searchers 74 

hereditary patriotic societies.. 70 

heraldry 81-84 

Irish genealogy, references for. 78 
Mormon, tradition regarding. . 75 

mythical estates, lists of 78 

New York Genealogical and 

Biographical Society 72 

next of kin estates 78 

practical suggestions 69-70 

preliminary investigations 73 

professional geneologists 75 

que.stion sheets 73 


relics and heirlooms 80-81 

resources, to consult 69 

royal descent 79 

Samuel and Hannah Stebbins — 
first family history published 
in America; Hartford, 1771.. 72 
selecting a working plan or 

form 71-72 

settlers 77 

time required to complete work 


veteran genealogists 74 

General Assembly of Illinois — see 

Illinois Legislature. 
General Assembly, State or Illinois 
—1st 1818, 2d 1820 — foot note — 

appendix 219 

See Illinois. 
Geographic Society of Chicago. . .18-19 
George — an American (a Jew) at 

Miami Post 132 

George Nelson Black — memorial ad- 
dress, by Jessie Palmer "Weber. 285-290 
Georgia — historical collections of 

Georgia 26 

State of 212, 280 

Germaine, (Lord) George — letter of 
Gen. Fred Haldimand to, dated 
Quebec, Dec. 3, 1780 — foot note.. 118 

German-American Genealogists 67 

German — confidence in the writings 
of Duden concerning the Western 

country of the United States 211 

element in America — material 
on in the New York Public 

Library — reference to 67 

Hanover Colony — which laid the 
foundation of Vandalia, 111., 

1820 — reference to 211 

immigration, to America, great- 
est concern of the Germans, 
the social and political situa- 
tion 211 

immigrants to America, educa- 
tion of their children causes 

anxiety 213 

immigration to the West, 

causes leading to 209-210 

language 108 

newspapers, articles in. relative 
to creating a German State 
either in Brazil or the U. S. 

— reference to 210 

patent of nobility i 80 

settlements in Illinois 210, 212 

winter of 1831, an eventful one 

for the Germans 210 

in Chicago 77 

Germany — mention 82 

organizations in. to promote 
and encourage immigration to 

America, 1815 to 1831 211 

Gettysburg, Penn 275 

Gibault. Father. Pierre — mention... 104 
Patriot Priest of the Northwest 
— by J. P. Dunn, publication, 
Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary No. 10, quoted — foot 

note 13" 

Gilbreath, James — of Kaskaskia — 

foot note — appendix 219 

Gibson, (Col.) John 163, 164 


Index — Continued. 


Gill, James 217 

Gill. William 217 

Gilman, Clinton & Springfield R. R. 287 

Gilman Warehouse, Alton, 111 173 

Gilman, Winthrop S. — separate trial 
of in Alton trials — verdict, not 

guilty 173 

Gilmore, Hettie, (The) Steamer... 239 

Girty, Simon 164 

Girty's (The) 119 

Glenn Ellyn, 111 - 24 

Glenn, Isaac 218 

Glenn, John 218 

Goebel, Gert — quoted — foot note. 211, 212 

Godet 132 

Godfrey M, (or Linctot) — see Line- 
tot — French Canadian 108, 109 

Godfrey Warehouse, Alton, 111 173 

Goethe or Gothe "Von Johann Wolf- 

o-g^j-jCT- ••...••• Zll) 

illustrious German poet 210 

Gognia township, Jackson county, 

111 218 

Gordon's Mills, near Chattanooga, 

Tenn 281 

Gosselin Abbe Amedee. Notes sur 
la Faniilie Coulon de Villiers, 

quoted — foot note 142 

Gough, (Miss) Sarah M 24 

Governor's Mansion, Springfield, 111. 

191, 192 

Grampies, (The) Rebel Gun-Boat.. 237 

G. A. R. Post of Quincy, 111 13 

Grand Towev, 111 56 

Grand Village 132 

Granger, (Maj.-Gen.) Gordon 264 

Grant, (Gen.) U. S. invites John 
Wood to accompany him on trip 

south, 1862 152 

mention ....225, 235, 260, 269, 273 

foot notes 231, 232 

President United States, men- 
tion 185 

"Gray's Elegy in a Country Church- 
yard," favorite poem of Abraham 

Lincoln 286 

Great Britain 58, 77, 135 

foot note 163 

Great Western Railroad Co 66 

Greece — mention 148 

Greeley, Horace — mention 63 

nominated for presidency of U. 
S. by Liberal Republicans and 

Democrats, 1872 18C 

"Greenback Democrat" — one member 
of Illinois State Senate, 1885, so 

called 91 

Green Bay, Wis 137 

Greene, E, B.— chairman of the 
Committee on Publications, Illi- 
nois State Historical Society.. 12, 22 
editor of Vol. 4. Illinois His- 
torical Collections 19 

member of Board of Directors, 
Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 7, 13, 15 

Gregoire, M 132 

Griggs, Clarence 24 

Griggs, Jesse 219 

sketch of — foot note 219 

Gross, Levsris M 24 

Groston, family name of St. Anges. 135 


Groston, Robert ) (Sieur de St. 

Groston, Robert \ Ange) 135, 136 

dit St. Ange ( 

Grundy, Felix — Chief Justice of Ken- 
tucky, U. S. Senator, Atty-Gen.. 171 

Guest, R. Albert 20 

Gulf of Boothia 60,61 

Gun, firm in London, Eng 78 

Gunther, C. F 24 

Guoin M. (of Detroit) 132 

Gurley, (Rev.) P. D. — (noted Di- 
vine of New York City) 182 


Haines, Elijah M. — Speaker of Illi- 
nois House of Representatives, 

1885 — Independent 91 

Speaker of Illinois House of 
Representatives, 1885, visits 

New Orleans 92 

Haines, John C, of Chicago, mem- 
ber Illinois Legislature, 1877 188 

Hale, (Rev.) Albert— of Springfield, 

111 180, 182 

Half Century of Conflict, Vol. I, 

Parkman, quoted — foot notes. 137, 138 
Half King Chief of the Wyandots.. 161 
Haldimand, Frederick — Clinton to 
Haldimand, Feb. 1, 1779 — foot 

note 163 

Haldimand, (Gov.) Frederick — let- 
ter to, from Dejean — foot note.. 113 
letter to Lord Geo. Germain, 
dated Quebec, Dec. 3, 1780 — 

foot note 118 

mention 98, US 

papers, manuscript in Cana- 
dian Archives, B. 184 — men- 
tioned — foot note 114 

Halifax — foot note 118 

Hall, (Col.) 265 

Hall, Mrs. George K 24 

Hall, James — work in behalf of 

State History, reference to 285 

Hall, James. Jr 218 

Hall, Junius, Esq. — defender of the 

rioters, Alton trial 173 

Halleck, Henry W. — Union Maj.- 
Gen., War of the Rebellion 244 


Tenn. 240 

Hamelin. half breed French Indian 120 
Hamersley, L. R. & Co., Pubs. — list 
of officers of the Navy of the U. 
S. and the Marine Corps, 1775- 

1900 71 

Hamilton, (Gov.) Henry 162 

foot notes 113, 162 

Hancock county. III. — mention.. 45, 147 
Mormon troubles in, services of 
Everett brothers in quelling. 148 

Hancock, John 104 

Handbook of Learned Societies and 
Institutions of America — refer- 
ence to 68 

Hand, (Gen.) Edward 161 

foot note 161 

Hanks, John 53 


Index — Continued. 

Hannant, John — private, 27th Reg't. 

111. Vol., War of the Rebellion.. 234 
Planover Colony, in Vandalia in 

1820, reference to 211 

Hardin, John J. — Colonel First 111. 

Vols., Mexican war 149 

Harker, Oliver A. — efforts to divorce 
judicial elections from politics in 
Illinois — address before the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, 1909 


mention 23 

Harpeth River 263, 264 

Harmon, (Miss) Ada D 24 

Harreld, J » 217 

Harring-ton, (Lieut.-Col.) F. A., 
Lieut.-Col. 27th Reg't. 111. Vols., 

War of the Rebellion 

220, 236, 238, 240 

foot note 226 

Harris Landing, Tennessee River... 240 
Harrison. William H. — elected Presi- 
dent U. S., 1840 41 

Hart, (Capt.) William M.— Captain 
Co. "D" 27th Reg. III. Vols., War 

of the Rebellion 230 

Hartford, Conn 72 

Hartford, county. Conn 167 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

— Edward Everett, professor in 148 
Hatch. Ozias M. — prominent citizen 

of Springfield, 111 180 

Hatfield, (Dr.) Marcus P., of Chi- 
cago 18 

Hauberg, John H 24 

Havannah (Havana) Cuba — foot 

note 112 

Hawley, E. B. — prominent citizen 

of Springfield, 111 180 

Hawley, (Mrs.) 197 

Hay, John — David Spear vs. John 

Hay. case of, reference to 199 

Hay, Logan 22 

Hay, Milton — prominent citizen of 

Springfield, 111 180 

Hay den. (Rev.) Horace Edwin, M. 
A. — Virginia Genealogies — Wilkes- 

barre. Pa., 1882, pubs 26 

Hayes. Rutherford B. — election to 
presidency of U. S. claimed by his 

friends 184 

mention 1S7 

receives one more electoral vote, 

1876. than Tilden 186 

Hayes-Tilden Contest, (The)— by 

John T. Campbell 184-189 

Hayti 57 

Head. (Miss) Idress — librarian Mis- 
souri Historical Society — foot 

notes 54, 55, 56 

Hearn, Campbell S 23 

Hebrews, mention — foot note 114 

Hec^envelder, ) Moravian Mission- 

Hecklweldi?"^ ^''^^-f^^t -«*«•• ^'^ 

Hedges Estate 78 

Heinl, F. J 22 

Heinrich's Louisiane sous la Com- 
pagnie des Indes, quoted — foot 

note 138 

Heitman, Francis B., comp. Histor- 
ical Registry and Dictionary of 

the U. S. Army 71 

foot note 105 

Henderson county, III 45 

Henry county. 111. — foot note 226 

Henry IV. — King of England 76 

Henry V — King of England 83 

Henry, (Gov.) Patrick 97, 98 

foot note 163 

Henshie, Vernor 20 

Heraldic College 82 

Herald's "Visltatio facta per Maris- 

challum de Norry" 76 

Heraldry 81-84 

College of Heraldry 83 

early English treatise on 83 

Hereditary Patriotic Societies 70 

Herington. (Col.) 258 

see Harrington. 
Herndon, A. G. — prominent citizen 

of Springfield, 111 180 

Herndon, William — prominent citi- 
zen of Springfield, 111 206 

Hesse, (Capt.) — British trader 98 

Hessian Army — reference to 212 

Hessian Grenadier 71 

Hetherly. Lord 83 

Hettie Gilmore, (The) Steamer 239 

Hickman, Elijah — private 27th Reg. 
111. Vol., War of the Rebellion. 224, 229 

Hickman, Ky 221, 225, 237, 238, 239 

Hicks, (Col.) — Independent Com- 
pany, War of the Rebellion 223 

Hicks, H. S 24 

Higgins, (Hon.) I. N 182 

Hildreth, (Dr.) Samuel S. — noted 

scientist 47, 49, 53, 55, 57, 61 

foot notes 47, 55 

Hilgard, Theodore, Sr. — contributor 
to the American Journal of 

Science 213 

contributor to the "Westland," 

quoted 210 

foot note 210 

Hillsboro. Ill 23 

Historic Morgan and Classic Jack- 
sonville, by Charles M. Eames, 

quoted — see foot note 48 

Historical Societies and Genealog- 
ical associations in the U. S 68-69 

Historie des Grandes Familes du 

Canada, quoted — foot note 136 

Hitt. (Capt.) Henry W. — Captain 
Co. B, 27th Reg't. Ills. Vol., War 

of the Rebellion- 224. 226 

Hoar, Geo. P. — member U. S. Con- 
gress from Massachusetts, mem- 
ber Electoral Commisston 186 

Hobbs, Daniel — private Com. "C," 

27th Reg't. Ills. Vols 227 

Hocquart — letter to the French 

Minister, quoted — foot note 139 

letter to the French Minister, 
Jan. 15, 1731, quoted — foot 

note 140 

Hog Jaw Cave, Alabama 279, 280 

Holmes, Charles 49 

Holy Land 82 


Index — Continued. 


Hooker, (Gen.) Joseph Q.— Union 

"!"^::!^!"-:..'!"i82f 26t f7T'K 272 

Hoovers Gap, Tenn 274 

Hotniings Battery ^*^ 

Hotlars Boys •^ ' ^ 

Houghteling, I Battery .241. 242 

Hottelings S 

see Eoughtahng, Clias. 
Hotten, John Camden— emigrant 

book ••••: :• '' 

Houck, Louis — Spanish Regime m 

Missouri, quoted — foot note •••■•• l^t) 
Houghtaling, C h a s .— Brig,-Gen., 
Capt. 1st Artillerry, War of the 

Rebellion ;.--^*'" ^^-^ 

House of Commons, London, Eng. — 

mentioned — foot note ll^ 

Houston, J. W ■,-v:--^' " 

How, (Mr.)— early school teacher 

of Springfield, 111 202, 203 

How Mr. Linccln received the News 
of His First Nomination — address 
before the lUinois State Historical 
Society, 1909, by Clinton L. Conk- 

Ijjjo- bd-bb 

Howard, John — foot note 198 

Howe, (Gen.) Wm.— mention 107 

reinforcements of l''^ 

Hubbard, William — narrative of the 

Indian wars, quoted 71 

Hubble, Mrs. Lee J j'* 

Hudson River i*^ 

Hugenots •• 'i 

Huge Capet — King of France 7o 

HuU, Charles E ^^ 

Hull, Horace •. j^% 

Humphrey, (Judge) J. Otis .. . ^6 

Hunt, (Capt.), (probably Charles 
H. Hurt) Company from Barry, 



Hunter, (Gen.) David— Union Maj.- 

Gen., War of the Rebellion loO 

Hunton, Bppa — member U. S. Con- 
gress from Virginia, member Elec- 
toral Commission • • • • 185 

Huron Indians 110, 132, 133 

Huston, William 258 

Hutchinson, Thomas 77 

Hvde Estate 78 


lies. Elijah — early citizen of Spring- 
field, 111 180, 197, 198, 199 

opens first store in Springfield, 

111 198, 200 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 175 

Illinois and Mississippi Telegraph 

Co 63, 65 

Illinoisans 135 

Illinois Central R. R 287 

passenger depot, Springfield, 

111 194 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, col- 
lege founded by the "Yale Band," 

reference to 172 

mention 48 


Illinois country, Canadian inhabit- 
ants of — mentioned 113 

inhabitants send remonstrance 

to Congress by La Balm 113 

mention., 101, 111, 135, 136, 139, 142 

foot notes 112, 140 

North Carolinans in, in 1802... 212 
Pennsylvania Germans in, in 

1802 212 

prairies of 49 

Tennesseans in, in 1802 212 

Illinois Indians 142, 144 

Illinois Intelligencer, newspaper... 62 

Illinois River — mention 

98, 99, 101, 134, 137, 140 

foot note 140 

Illinois State — Adjutant General of, 

mention 149, 151 

Adjutant General of, report of 

1861 151 

Anti-slavery struggle in, in 1824 

— mention » • • • 14" 

Archaelogical investig a t i o n. 

State of Illinois 22 

Archaeology in Illinois, Dr. Sny- 
der's articles on, reference to 27 

Capitol — State House, 1865 181 

Capitol— Supreme Court Room 11 
Constitution of 1818, Constitu- 
tion Convention (First), refer- 
ence to — foot note, appen- 
dix 219 

Constitution of 1818, provisions 

of first sec, article I... 38-39, 41 
Constitution of 1818, require- 
ments of the judges of the 

Supreme Court under 41 

Constitution of 1848 ..40, 42, 43, 44 
Constitution of 1848, provisions 
of, with regard to govern- 
mental powers 39, 42, 43 

Constitution o'f 1862, Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1862, 
Resolutions of Enquiry by, to 

Q M, Dept. of Illinois 151 

Constitution of 1870, article III, 

provisions of 39 

Constitution of 1870 43, 44 

counties of, who furnished sol- 
diers for the 27th Reg't. 111. 
Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 226 
Cyrus Edward's work in behalf 

of State history — reference to 285 
Daughters of the American 

Revolution, year book of. ... 18 
David McCuUoch, work in be- 
half of State History — refer- 
ence to 285 

efforts to divorce judicial elec- 
tions from politics in Illinois 
— address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1909, 

by Oliver A. Haiker 37-46 

Fair, George N. Black's in- 
fluence in the location of — 

reference to 288 

Ford's History of Illinois, quoted 175 
French settlers in 55 



Index — Continued. 

Illinois State — Continued. 


frontier forts or posts, bills be- 
fore the General Assembly 
asking preservation of the 

sites of 3 8 

Gazette, July 2, 1831, (news- 
paper) — foot note 55 

gazetteers of — reference to.... 68 

General Assembly 

18, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45 

foot note 219 

see Illinois State Legislature. 
George Nelson Black's work in 

behalf of State history 

285, 286, 288 

German influence in 209-210 

German settlements in 1802, 

1815, 1820. 1831 212 

Governor's letter books, 1818- 
1834, Vol. IV, Illinois His- 
torical Collections 19 

Governors of the State who 

have become U. S. Senators.. 95 
Hiram W. Beckwith's work in 

behalf of, reference to 285 

Illinois State Historical Society, Gen. 
Alfred Orendorff's address before 


Board of Directors of business 

meetings of 11-14 

committees of — Archaeological 

committee 25 

Finance and Auditing com- 
mittee -22 

Genealogy and Genealog- 
ical pubs., committee of 24 

report of 12, 26 

Journal of the Society, 

historic sites 22 

Liegislation 23 

Membership 23 

Program 22 

Publication 22 

contributions to State History, 

Pt. Ill 165-214 

Department of the Illinois State 

Historical Library 16 

documents, Pt. IV 215-282 

editorial note on publications 

of 3 

Hon. Frank O. Lowden's gener- 
ous offer to 21 

George N. Black one of the 

founders of 288 

honorary members of 16 

Journal of the Society 

12, 17, 18, 24. 25, 26. 27, 171 

Journal of. Vol. 2, No. 2, 1909, 

quoted — foot note 171 

Lincoln Centennial, Illinois State 
Historical Society, part in.. 17-18 

mention 21, 24, 151, 285 

foot note 56 

Necrologist's report 18 

official proceedings of, 1909, 

part 1 9 

officers of, 1909-1910 7, 13 

organization of, May 19, 1899.. 15 
papers read at the annual meet- 
ing, 1909, part II 35-164 

Press Association of Illinois 

affiliated with 16 

publications of — mention 147 

Illinois State — Continued. 


publications of — see fly leaf 
back of this volume 336 

Secretary and Treasurer's re- 
port 17-20 

transactions of 1905, quoted — 

foot note — appendix 219 

Illinois State Historical Library — 
collections, Vol. II, quoted — foot 
notes 108, 113. 114 

collections, Vol. IV, quoted — 
foot note — appendix 219 

collections, Vol. V, quoted — 
foot note Ill 

Genealogical collection, refer- 
ence to 19 

George N. Black — member of 
the Board of Trustees of, ap- 
pointed by Governor Tanner, 
1897 288 

George Nelson Black's work in 
behalf of 285 

Lincolniana collection, reference 
to 19 

mention 3, 285, 286, 288 

publication No. 10, quoted 150 

foot note 137 

publication No. 12, quoted — 
foot note 144 

publication No. 13, quoted — 
foot note 140 

publications in press 19 

trustees of 15 

Illinois State — James Hall's work 
in behalf of State history — refer- 
ence to 285 

(Capt.) J. H. Burnham's work 
in behalf of State history — 
reference to 285 

John F. Snyder's work in be- 
half of slate history — refer- 
ence to 

John M. Peck's work in behalf 
of State history — reference 

judicial power of the State, how 
invested, early history of.. 39-40 

Korner, legal treatise in Ger- 
man, Auszug aus der Geset- 
zen des Staats Illinois 213 

Latin (The) Immigration in 
Illinois, contribution to State 
history by B. A. Beinlich. 209-214 

Legislature, 1853, political affil- 
iations of its members and 
organization of in 1855 8S 

Legislature, 1861. authorizes 
formation of ten additional 
regiments, 1861 150 

Legislature, 1861. money loaned 
bv private parties to equiq 
State troops before Legisla- 
ture could be called 149 

Legislature, 1877, action of 
Democratic members in re- 
gard to election of U. S. 
Senator 90. 91 

Legislature, 1877. action of Re- 
publican members in regard 
to election of U. S. Senator. 90, 91 

Legislature. 1877, elects David 
Davis to U. S. Senate 187 

Legislature. 1885. political com- 
plexion of 91 




Index — Continued. 

Illinois State — Continued. Page. 

Legislature, 18S5, senatorial 
election 91-93 

Legislature, 1891, political com- 
plexion of 94 

Legislature, 1891, U. S. Sena- 
torial election, account of 
long struggle between poli- 
tical parties 93-95 

Legislature, election of judges 
to the Supreme Court by.. 41-42 

Legislature, election of U. S. 
Senators by 86-96 

Legislature, fifteen independent 
members of, 187 7, secure 
election of David Davis to U. 
S. Senate 91 

Legislature, First General As- 
sembly, 1818 — foot note 219 

Legislature, first nomination of 
candidate for U. S. Senator 
by caucus of political party 
in 86 

Legislature, General Assembly, 
1840-41 41-42, 43 

Legislature, mention 

18, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 170 
foot note 219 

Legislature, Second General 
Assembly — foot note 219 

Legislature, Third General As- 
sembly 170 

Illinois, State — mention 

3, 5, 7, 11, 17-19, 22, 24-27, 
37-46. 48-51, 53-55. 63-66, 
68, 69, 77, 97, 99, 100, 104, 
149,. 167-169, 171, 175, 176, 
177, 180-183, 186, 187, 197, 
218, 220, 223-236, 285, 286, 287 

foot notes 108. 220, 230, 282 

newspapers. Early Newspapers, 
quoted on the Winter of the 
Deep Snow 50-51 

no large commercial center in, 
in 1833 212 

Park Commission 25 

Pioneer History of Illinois, John 
Reynolds Fergus, Edition, 
quoted — -foot note 145 

Pioneer, (newspaper) extract 
from 55 

population of Central and 
Southern Illinois largely from 
the States of Virginia, Ken- 
tucky and the Carolinas 26 

Press Association affiliated with 
the Illinois State Historical 
Society 16 

Press Association, members of, 
associated with Illinois State 
Historical Society 16 

Quartermaster's Department, 
1861, number of troops 
equipped by 151 

Quartermaster's Department, 
1861-62, successful manage- 
ment of 153 

Quartermaster's Department, 
1861, supplies furnished by. 151 

Register, Springfield, 111., Feb. 
13, 1903, quoted 66 

Register, Springfield, 111., (news- 
paper) 286 

Illinois State— Concluded. Page. 
Republican State Central Com- 
mittee. 1885, Daniel H. Shep- 
herd, Secretary of 92 

Republican State Convention, 

May 9, 1860, reference to... 63 
salaries of the early State offi- 
cers of, reference to 170 

Staatszeitung, 1847, (newspa- 
per) quoted — foot note 213 

State Library 26 

Supreme Court, early history 

of 39-42 

Supreme Court, early judges of 


Twenty-seventh Reg. Ills. Vols.. 

War of the Rebellion 220-282 

U. S. Senator from, election by 
Legislature, 1855, account of 

the election 88-89 

U. S. Senator from, manner of 
electing, number of, who they 

were 86 

University of Illinois 7, 15, 22 

Western Illinois Normal School 23 

Illinois, (The) Steamer 236 

Immigration to America, German 

organizations to promote 211 

Immigration to the United States, 
Latin immigration of 1833, events 

leading up to 210 

"Independents," (The) in Illinois 

Legislature 187, 188 

"Independents," members Illinois 
Legislature, 1891— their course 

during senatorial election 94 

India 57 

foot note '.'.' .' 57 

Indianapolis. Ind.. Brown's History 
of Indianapolis, quoted — foot 
note 54 

Indiana State Historical Society — 

foot note 54 

Historical Society's pubs.. Vol. 

2, quoted — foot note 143 

Hi.storieal Society's pubs., Vol. 

3, quoted — foot note 141 

Indiana, (State) — mention 

54, 56, 135, 168, 209, 262 

Indian Allies 140 

Camping Ground, Springfield, 

^111 192 

Council at Coochocking — foot 

^ note 109 

Guide of the Kinzie's 52 

lodge 52 

princess of the Missouris 138 

■war 233 

Indians — Arkansas 142 

Cahokia 139 

Cayuga xei 

Chatouinons 132 

Chickasaws 142 

Chippewa 161 

Comanches 135 

Delawares 113, 162 

English methods in dealing 

'With _ 139 

first movement of the Ameri- 
cans against the Indians 
during the Revolution 161 


Index — Continued . 

Indians — Concluded. 


Folk Lore of the Musquakies, 
by Mary Alicia Owen, quoted 
— foot note 

Foxes 51, 98. 99, 140. 

French methods in dealing with 

French wars with 

Huron Indians 110, 132, 

Huron Indian Village 

Illinois 142, 

Iroquois 139, 


Kickapoose — foot note 


Lake Indians — foot note 

Little Turtle, Indian Chief. 117, 


mention 52. 98, 99, 

100. 102. 109, 113, 117, 119, 
120, 129, 130, 131, 137, 138, 
139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 164, 

foot notes 109, 119, 


INIe.'tkwakia and the Meskwa- 
kia People of Today, quoted 
— foot note 

:\riami 118, 

Miami village. La Balm takes 
possession of 

Mingo 161, 

Missouri 138, 

Musquakies — foot note 

Ohio Indians — foot note 

of the West and the Illinois 
country willing to aid in cap- 
ture of Detroit 

of the West friendly to La 
Balm — foot note 


Osages 138. 

Ottagams — foot note 



Outagamies (Foxes) 


pacified by La Balm — foot note 


Pioreas Peorias) — foot note.. 


Renards (or Foxes) 137, 

Reynards (Foxes) 

Sac and Fox Rock River Vil- 
lages 99- 

Sacs — foot note 

Sacs ...51, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 


Saux (Sac) 


Shawanes / 

Shawnee ,- 110, 111, 112, 

Shawnese i 

foot note 

Sioux 98, 

Wyandotte 161, 

Ingraham Estate 

International Register of Shipping, 

N. T 

Iowa — Journal of History and Poli- 
tics, quoted. Vol. 4 — foot note .... 
Iowa — reference to 

mention 99, 

7th. 30th and 31st Reg-f. Iowa 
Vols.. War of the Rebellion.. 
















1 no 




Ireland — W. P. O'Brien's "Great 

Famine in Ireland." quoted 57 

foot note 57 

Irish — genealogy, references for... 7S 

in Chicago 77 

Iron banks of Mississippi 103 

Iron mines near the mouth of the 

Ohio River 97 

Iroquois Indians 139. 142 

Island No. 10, in the Mississippi 

River 221, 237, 238, 239, 240, 263 

foot note 230 

Isle au Bois Blanc 134 

Isle au Cochon Lac St. Clair 134 

Isle au Dinde 134 

Isle du H 134 

Italians 79 

luka, Miss 222, 248, 253 

Jackson, (Gen.) Andrew 51 

Jackson county. 111. — extracts from 
the records of the Jackson Coun- 
ty Commissioners' Court, contri- 
buted by G. J. Koons 217-219 

foot notes 219, 226 

tavern keepers rates, 1825.... 218 
Jacksonville, 111. — foot note, appen- 
dix 219 

Illinois College located at .... 172 

mention 7, 13, 

15, 18, 22, 23, 48, 49, 50, 223, 224 

foot note 48 

Jacobs, Henry Eyster (Rev.) ,. 79 

Jamaica 57 

James, Edmund Janes — mention 

7, 13, 15, 22, 23, 24 

James, Hulbert F. — private Co. "C" 
27th Reg. Ills. Vols., War of the 

Rebellion 240 

James, James Alton— Detroit the 
Key to the West during the 
American Revolution, address be- 
fore the Illinois State Historical 

Society. 1909 154-1G4 

mention 22 

James VI, King of England 79 

Jansen, (Capt. ) Mathew — Captain 
company "A" 27th Reg't. Ills. 

Vols 273 

Jarndyce vs. Jarndyce 78 

Jaques Alma. ] Private company "C" 
see Jaquish 27th Reg 111 Vols 
Almo ' War of the Rebel- 

' J lion 238 

Jayne, (Dr.) Gershom — early phy- 
sician, Springfield, 111 

180, 197, 206, 207 

Jayne, (Capt.) Henry — of Taylor- 

ville. 111 182 

Jayne, (Dr.) William — early friend 

of Abraham Lincoln 23, 180, 181 

Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, 

Mo. — mention 151 

Jefferson City, Mo 54 

Jefferson county. 111. — mention.... 188 

Jefferson. Indiana — mention 150 

Jefferson, Thomas — foot note .... 108 

Jennings Estate — reference to 78 

Jersey county. 111. — foot note 22C 


Index — Contiimed. 


Jerseyville, 111 IS 

Jesuit Relations, Vol. 70, quoted — 

foot note 137 

Jewish race lo9 

Jim Town (now Riverton, 111.) 223 

Jo Daviess county, 111 171 

John Crerar Library, Chicago — foot 

note 59 

Jones, Thornton — Circuit Clerk, San- 
gamon county 198 

Jones, Gabriel — foot note 161 

Jones, (Admiral) John Paul 76 

Jones, (Miss) Lottie E 24 

Jones, Samuel H. — Springfield, 111., 
Republican politician, labors of, 
in interest of John A. Logan, 

1885 92 

Johnson, Andrew — President of the 
U. S. impeachment trial of — men- 
tioned 90 

Johnson. (Capt. ) Samuel — Captain 
Co. "A" 2 2d Reg. Ills. Vols., War 

of the Rebellion 276 

Johnson county. 111. — foot note, ap- 
pendix 219 

Johnsons 76 

Johnston, (Gen.) Joseph E. — Con- 
federate General, War of the 

Rebellion 255, 256 

Johnston, John D 53 

Journal of American History, Vol. 

3, quoted 72 

Jovirnal of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 

see Illinois State Historical So- 
Journal of Virginia House of dele- 
gates, July 7, 1778, quoted — foot 

note ]63 

Journals of the Continental Con- 
gress — Vol. IV — -foot note ...155, 156 
Vol. VII, quoted — foot note... j.59 

Vol. IX 106 

Vol. IX, new Ed., quoted — foot 

note 161 

Vol. X— foot note 107 

new Ed., Vol. XI, quoted — foot 

note 162 

new Ed., XII, quoted — foot note 163 
Judd, Norman B. — Anti-Nebraska 
Senator in Illinois Legislature, 
1855, his course as to election of 

U. S. Senator 88 

Jumonville, brother to Chevalier 

Francois Coulon de Villiers 141 

see De Villiers. 
Jurchins, (Col.) see Turchin — Col- 
onel Ills. Reg 226 


Kahokias (Cahokia) village of.... 103 

Kahos (Cahokia) — foot note 114 

Kane, (Judge) Charles P 22 

Kane, Elias Kent — one of the first 
two United States Senators from 
Illinois, account of his election.. 86 
re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois 95 

Kankakee, 111 24 

Kankakee River 137 

Kansas (Indian) village 138 

Indians 138 


Kansas-Nebraska Bill, effect of its 
passage on political parties and 

afflliations in Illinois 88 

framed by Stephen A. Douglas, 
passed U. S. Congress, its 

effect 87 

"Kansas-Nebraska Question" — men- 
tion 93 

Kansas River 143 

Kansas (State) — mention 135, 138 

plans to establish German 

states in 211 

Kaskaskia (Cascaskias) — foot notes 

109, 144, 162, 219 

French settlements at 212 

La Balm visits 114 

Gen. La Fayette's visits — 

reference to 171 

mention 97, 120. 137. 142, 176 

Kaskaskia records, Vol. V of the 
Illinois Historical Collections... 19 

Kaw or Kansas River 143 

Kelley Branch, (Creek) — Spring- 
field, 111 190, 191, 192, 195, 196 

Kelley. John — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 

111 190, 193, 197. 201 

Kelley, William — early settler of 
Sangamon county and Spring- 
field, 111 190. 196, 197 

Kellogg, Wm. — candidate for U. S. 
Senator from Illinois, 1855, vote 

cast for by Legislature 88 

Kendall coimty. 111. — foot note . . . 140 
Kendall, Edward Augustus — writings 
of. Travels through Northern parts 
of the United States in 1807 — 

reference to 68 

Kenesaw Mountain, battle of — war 

of the Rebellion — foot note 282 

Kent's Commentaries, quoted — foot 

note 144 

Kentucky— State- — mention 

26, 53, 55. 68, 97, 

101, 119, 209, 212, 221, 225, 226, 237 

foot notes 53, 55, 231 

represented in U. S. Senate by 

Henry Clay 88 

Kepler, John — astronomer 59 

Kern Estate 78 

Kerner, Robert J. — editor of the 
diary of Edward W. Crippen, pri- 
vate 27th 111. Vols., War of the 
Rebellion, Aug. 7, 1861 to Sept. 
19, 1863. Edited with introduc- 
tion and notes 220-282 

foot note 220 

Keyes. Erasmiis D. — Union Major- 
General, War of the Rebellion... 270 
Keyes, (Hon.) Charles A. — promi- 
nent citizen of Springfield, 111... 182 

Key Stone, (The Steamer) 231, 232 

Kickapoo Indians — foot note 119 

Kidd. T. W. S. — early friend of 

Abraham Lincoln 66 

Killian, Edward A. K. — foot note.. 139 
Kilpatrick (Capt.) Thomas L. — 
Company from Milton, Pike coun- 
ty. Ill 223 

Kimmel. Singleton H 217 

King of France 113, 135, 139 

Kinkade Creek, Jackson county. . . 219 
Kinley, David 15 




Kinney, William— Lieut.-Gov. of Illi- 
nois 275 

Kinzie, John H.— U. S. Indian agent 
at Ft. Dearborn 51, 53, 61 

Kmzie, Juliette M. — Chicago's first 

^^B°^ -A 51, 52, 53, 61 

Wau-Bun, quoted — foot notes . . 

„. •■;■;■•: 51, 53 

Kiowas (Indians) 138 

Kirkpatricks, early settlers of Sanl 
gamon county, brought slave boy 

"Titus" with them 197 

Kirkpatrick's Grist Mill, -Springfield, 

„P}- ■•:•• 200 

Kirkpatrick's Horse Mill, Spring- 
field, 111 . . 202 

Knapp, N. M. — letter to Abraham 
Lincoln, dated Chicago, May 14, 

1S60 ' g3 

telegram to Lincoln, Is'e'oV.VeS, 66 
Knapp's Addition, Springfield, III... 191 
Knip. Joel — private 27th Reg'L 111. 

Vols., War of the Rebellion 

............. 222, 224, 228, 231. 244 

Knott, J. Proctor — immortalizes the 

city of Duluth, Minn 185 

member Congress U. S. from 
Kentucky, suggests plan for 
settling Hayes-Tilden contest 185 
Know-Nothings" in Illinois Legis- 
lature, 1855 88 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111.... 28 ?9 
Knox County Historical Society- 
mention ■! 4 

report of, for the year 1969". ! 28-30 

Knox county, 111. — mention 29 

Knoxville. 111. — mention 24 

foot note 30 

Koerner, Gustav, 1 American dip- 
Koernor, Gustave, r lomat in Spain 
Korner, Gustavus, ) and France... 214 
Auszug aus der Gesetzen des 
Staats Illinois — (legal trea- 
tise in German) 213 

candidate for U. S. Senator 
from Illinois, 1855, votes cast 

^for 88 

Des Deutsche Element, quoted 

— foot notes 2II, 213 

Lieut-Gov.. State of Illinois 213 

memoirs of, quoted — foot note. 210 
one of the pall-bearers at Lin- 
coln's funeral, Springfield. III. 182 
prominent in the Republican 

party. 1860 213 

urges all immigrants to settle 

on free soil ^ 211 

Kohos. (Cahokia) lOi 

Koons, G. J. — extracts from the 
records of the Jackson County 

Commissioners Court ''l"7-''19 

Kriebel. editor— "The Pennsylvania 

German." monthly magazine 67 

Krum, (Hon.) John M. — Mayor of 
Alton at time of Alton riot and 

. death of Lovejoy 172 175 

Kuhn Brewery Grounds, Springfield, 



L'Archeveque, Frenchman, one of 
the murderers of La Salle 137 

La Balm, Augustin Mottin de — 
an address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1909, by 

Clarence M. Burton 104-134 

address to the Canadians, to the 

friends of Liberty 115-116 

address to the French at St. 

Louis — reference to 113 

appeal of the Cahokians to.... 102 
appendix I, La Balm's propo- 
sal to enter the American 

Service 120-121 

appendix II 122-123 

appendix III, writes letter to 
Col. Lawrence (Lawrens), 
President of the Continental 

Congress 123-124 

appendix IV 125-126 

appendix V 126-127 

appendix VI— information con- 
cerning the Miamis 132-134 

at Fort Pitt, makes arrange- 
ments for attack on Detroit 109 
believed that Canadians of Illi- 
nois country would aid him 

in taking Detroit 113 

Bently makes charges against 

— foot note 113 

business proposals and plans 

of 125-126 

Cahokians send to Congress bv 
La Balm an account of their 

grievances 113 

Colonel and Inspector General 

of Cavalry 105, 106 

De Peyster's account of his at- 
tack on the Miami town. .117-118 
explanation of the duty of In- 
spector General of Cavalry, 

1778 124 

letter of, appendix II, papers of 
Continental Congress, No. 78, 

VII, folio 149 122-123 

letter of, appendix III, papers 
of the Continental Congress, 

No. 78, VII. folio 151 123-124 

letter to Washington, March 5, 

1780 — foot note 108 

memorial from Mons. de la 
Balme, to the President of 
Continental Congress, York- 
town, Dec. 25, 1777 106 

memorial of Mons. La Balm to 
Continental Congress, Oct. 3, 

1777 — foot note 106 

memorial to the Continental 
Congress, Philadelphia, Jan. 

1, 1779 — foot note 107 

military orders of 126-131 

plans and orders to his soldiers 

on the advance to Detroit. 126-128 
proposal to enter the American 

service 120-122 

received with great favor by 

Indians — foot note 114 

report to the Minister Lucerne 


visits Kaskaskia 114 

writes letter to President of 
Continental Congress advising 

on military matters 123-124 

Labelle, M 132 

Labor Reform Party — mention.... 186 


Index — Contiimed . 


La Cote de St. Ange, district in 

Canada 135 

Lac St. Clair 134 

La Fayette. (Gen.) Gilbert Motier 

De — mention 163 

visits of, to Kaskaskia — refer- 
ence to 171 

Lafayette. Indiana — mention 184 

Lafountaine, ( Incites the Indians 
Lafontaine, M. ( attack La Balme 118 
in charge of Beaubien's store- 
house at Miami 114 

in sympathy with British 114 

mention 117, 132 

La Harpe, Bernard 138 

Laiton, Alabama 249 

see Leighton, Ala 249 

Lake Erie 132 

Lake Fork, Branch. Springfield, 111.) 201 

Lake Indians — foot note 162 

Lake Michigan — foot note 140 

Lamb. James L. — early citizen of 

Springfield, 111 180. 182 

La Mothe, Guillaume, (La Motte, Le 
Mothe Lemote). Trader at De- 
troit in 1767— foot note 113 

Lancaster Sound 60, 62 

Lanctot (Major.) 109 

see Linctot. 
Langer, Gobel — Als ein Menschen- 

leben. quoted — foot note 210 

Langlade, (Capt.) Charles de 98 

Lanphier Block, Springfield, III.... 194 
Lanterman, Abraham — early settler 
of Sangamon county and Spring- 
field. Ill 190,191.197 

La Roche Debout / _ j28 132 

La Roche du Bout ( 

La Salle county, 111. — mention.. 13, 140 
Historical Society — mention.... 

14, 18-19 

report of 31-33 

La Salle — account of La Balm's at- 
tack on the Miami town 118 

mention 137 

Lascelle, M 132 

Lasswell, Andrew — owner of early 

mill at Springfield, 111 200 

Latenier Colony, settled in Shiloh 

valley near Belleville, 111 212, 213 

Latham, (Miss) May 24 

Latham, Richard — early friend of 

Abraham Lincoln ISO 

Latin, (The) Immigration in Illi- 
nois, contribution to State History 

by B. A. Beinlich 209-214 

Latin immigration to the U. S., 

events leading up to 210 

Lacey, Lyman — able jurist of the 

State of Illinois 44 

Lavergne, j 

Laverne, V Tenn 251, 261 

Laveryne. ' 

Lawrence, (Henry President of the 

T „_,„„„„ r Contmental Congress. 123 

' 1 foot note 106 

President of the Continental 
Congress, letter to from La 

Balm 123-124 

Lawler, (Col.) Michael K. — Colonel 
18th Ills. Reg't.. War of the Re- 
bellion 228 


Lawrenceburg, Ind 56 

Lawrence-Townley estate 78 

Lawson, Isaac — private 27th Reg't. 
Ills. Vols., War of the Rebellion. 234 

Leak Estate 78 

Leath, John — letter of John Leath 
to George Morgan, Aug. 19, 1778. 
Morgan Letter Book III, quoted 

foot note 162 

Leavitt, Chas. C. — marries Eliza- 
beth Cowles 177 

Lebanon, 111 7. 13, 22 

Lee county. Miss 142 

Lee, (Gen.) Robert B. — Confeder- 
ate General, War of the Rebellion 270 
Leeper, Arthur — nominated to fill 
vacancy in Illinois, House of Rep- 
resentatives, 34th dist.. 1885, de- 
feated by political trick 92 

Leesburg, Virginia 229 

Lefl^ngwell, (Rev.) Charles W 24 

Leighton, Alabama 249 

Leridan & Davis 261 

Leland farm near Springfield, 111... 197 
Leland Hotel, Springfield, 111. — men- 
tion 92 

Lemen, (Rev.) James 170 

"Le Pantheon Canadien," quoted — ■ 

foot note 137 

Le Rocher, (The Rock) — foot note 140 
Lesdigueres, Duchess de — letters of 

Father Charlevoix to, quoted 137 

foot notes 137, 138 

Letters — Beauharnois, to the French 

Minister, quoted — foot note 139 

Bentley to De Peyster, dated 
Post Vincennes, Aug. 17, 1780 

— foot note 112 

Charlevoix (Father) to the 
Duchess of Lesdigueres, 

quoted 137 

foot notes 137. 138 

Daniel Brodhead to President 

Reed, 1789 (1780), quoted... 109 
Duchess of Lesdigueres — letters 

to, quoted 137 

foot notes 137, 138 

Haldimand, (Gen.) — to Lord 
Geo. Germain, dated Quebec, 

Dec. 3, 1780 — foot note 118 

Hocquart to the French Minis- 
ter, quoted — foot note 139 

Hocquart to the French Minis- 
ter, dated Jan. 15, 1731, 

quoted — foot note 140 

La Balm to Continental Con- 
gress 122-124 

La Balm to Washington, dated 

March 5, 1780— foot note 108 

La Balm, orders to soldiers.. 

....' 126-131 

Lord George Germain, letter of 
Gen. Haldimand to, dated 
Quebec, Dec. 3, 1780 — foot 

note 118 

Martin Navarro, letter of, trans- 
lated in Wisconsin Historical 
Collection, XVIII, quoted — 

foot note 120 

(Capt.) Thomas Stirling to Gen. 
Gage, dated Dec. 15. 1765, 
quoted — foot note 144 


Index — Continued. 

Letters — Concluded. Paqb. 

Washington letters to, 1778. 
folio 88, 89, Congressional 
Library, quoted — foot note.. 163 
Washington letters to, 1778, 
Vol. XXV, folio 86 87, Li- 
brary of Congress, quoted — 

foot note 161 

Leverne, Tenn 251 

see Lavergne, Tenn. 
Lewis, Thomas — addition to Spring- 
field — reference to 193 

Lexington. (Gun Boat) 231, 232 

Lexington, Mo 227 

Libraries, Congressional Library, 

Washington, D. C 85,124 

also foot notes 105, 161 

Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary .15, 16, 19, 29, 285, 286, 2SS 
John Crerar Library, Chicago — 

foot note 59 

National Library, Leinster St., 

Dublin, Ireland 78 

Newberry Library, Chicago.. 12, 
26. 33, 67, 68, 70. 76, 78, 79 
Lick Creek, Sangamon county. 111... 208 
Lides, A. J. — 2d Lieut, of Com. "C" 
27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War of the 

Rebellion 240 

Lincoln, Abraham — army trail from 

Beardstown to mouth of Rock 

River, special Com. of Illinois 

State Historical Society to mark 23 

assasinated by John Wilkes 

Booth, April 14, 1865 179 

as outcome of Lincoln-Douglas 
Debates of 1858, becomes 

President of U. S., 1860 89 

candidate for U. S. Senator from 

Illinois, 1855, defeat of 88-89 

candidate for U. S. Senator from 

Illinois. 1855, votes cast in 

Legislature for, defeat of.. 88, 89 

calls upon Illinois to furnish 

troops at outbreak of Civil 

war 147 

Clinton L. Conkling, How Mr. 
Lincoln Received the News of 
His First Nomination — ad- 
dress before the Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1909 63-66 

favorite poems of 286 

friend of David Davis 90 

Gustavus Korner labors for the 

candidacy of, in 1860 214 

his estimate of Stephen A. 

Douglas 87 

Inaugural Address, March 4, 

1861, quoted— foot note 169 

Illinois State Historical Society 

part in the celebration of the 

centennial birthday of .t ... .17-18 

Illinois State Hi-storical Library 

makes large purchase of books 

and pictures relating to 19 

Illinois State Register, editor- 
ials, on the death of 182, 183 

J. J. Richards, telegrams to, 

1860 66 

J. McCan Davis. "How Abraham 
Lincoln became President," 

quoted 66 

Lincolniana Collection in the 
Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary, reference to 19, 28ff 

Lincoln, Abraham — Concluded. Page. 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates, their 

effect 89 

member Illinois House of Rep- 
resentatives, 1854, resigned.. 92 
member Illinois Legislature, 

1855, resigns 88 

mention 64, 

65, 66, 136, 179-183, 286, 287, 289 

foot note 30 

Merritt, Edward L. — recollec- 
tions of the part Springfield 
bore in the obsequies of 
Abraham Lincoln, contribu- 
tion to State History 179-183 

National Monument Associa- 
tion, organization of 182 

Nicolay & Hay, Life of Lincoln, 

quoted 54 

see foot note 53 

N. M. Knapp's letter to, dated 

Chicago, May 14, 1860 63 

N. M. Knapp's telegram to, 

1860 65 

nominated by Republican State 
Convention in 1858 for U. S. 

Senator 89 

resolutions of condolence, Spring- 
field, 111., on the death of. 180-181 

Tarbell's Life of Lincoln 54 

quoted, see foot note 53 

telegrams to, 1860, on his nomi- 
nation for the presidency. .65-66 
T. W. S. Kidd, quoted, on Mr. 
Lincoln's first nomination, 

reference to 66 

withdraws as candidate for U. 
S. Senator, 1855, secures elec- 
tion of Trumbull 88, 89 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 — ■ 
celebration of semi-centennial of, 

Galesburg, 111., souvenirs of 30 

celebration, mention 

11, 12, 13, 17, 28 

Galesburg, 111.. 50th anniversary 

of, celebration at 28 

semi-centennial celebration of, 

accounts to be published 17 

their results and later effects.. 89 

Lincoln, 111 23,24 

Lincoln monument 288 

Lincoln National Monument Ass'n., 

organization of 182 

Lincoln, (Hon.) Robert T 66 

Lincoln. Wm. B.— Alton trials, pub- 
lished N. Y., 1838, quoted— foot 

note 174 

f 1 at Ft. Pitt, 

Linctot j 
Lintot 1 

Godefroi | makes ar- 
Godefroy I rangem e n t s 
Godfroi f for an attack 
Godfroy I on Detroit... 

J 108. 109 

mention 110, 111 

foot notes 108. 109, 119 

sends messages to Delaware In- 
dians 113 

Linder. Usher F. — Atty.-Gen., State 

of Illinois 173, 174 

eloquence of at Alton trials. 173, 174 
Lindlv. Cicero J.- — candidate for U. 
S. Senator from Illinois. 1891, de- 
feated bv John M. Palmer 94 


Index — Continued. 


Lindsay, Esquii-e — early settler of 

Springfield, 111 191 

mill of, for grinding corn 200 

Lindsey, John — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 111. 

190, 197 

Linville, Miss 250 

Lisenbee, Joseph — private 27th Reg. 

Ills. Vols., War of the Rebellion.. 231 
Liise(nbee), Josiah — private 27 th 

Reg. Ills. Vols 229 

Lisle, Bapti de 130 

Litchfield Hill, Connecticut 49 

Little, Gershom J. — early settler of 

Springfield, III 197 

"Little Giant," (The) — nickname of 

Stephen A. Douglas 88 

see Douglas, Stephen A. 

Little, J. S 24 

Little Kincaid Creek, Jackson coun- 
ty, 111 2J9 

Little Missouri River 55 

Little, Samuel — early settler of San- 
gamon county and Springfield, 111. 
]^90 197 

Little' Turtle,' Indian 'ch'ief '. '.'.'.. Ill, 118 

Lloyd's Shipping Register 77 

Lockhart, Patrick — foot note 163 

Lockwood, Samuel D. — early settler 

of Illinois 176 

Logan, John A. — account of political 

trick by friends, which secured his 

re-election to U. S. Senate, 1885. 92 

candidate for U. S. Senator from 

Illinois, 1877, account of his 

defeat by David Davis 90-91 

defeated for U. S. Senate by 

David Davis 184, 187 

favors John M. Palmer for U. 

S. Senator, 1867 39 

nominated by Republican mem- 
bers Illinois Legislature for 

U. S. Senator, 1877 188 

re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois 95 

re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois, 1885, speech of 93 

satisfaction felt by his friends 
over his re-election to U. S. 

Senate, 1885 93 

Logan, Robert B. — Republican mem- 
ber House Representatives, Illi- 
nois Legislature, 1885, from 19th 
district, died during term of 

office 91 

Logan, (Hon.) Stephen Trigg — 
prominent lawyer of Springfield, 

111 180, 182, 191 

London. England — "Annals of Philo- 
sophy," London — foot note 58 

British-American clubs in 83 

College of Arms 83 

Emigration Office 77 

mention 37, 38, 73, 78, 84, 148 

Looking Glass Prairie, 111. — German 

settlement in Illinois, 1831 212 

Lookout Camp, Tenn 266 

Lookout Mountain 280 

Lookout, Tenn 272 

Lookout Valley 280 

Loomis'. "Tables of Sun-Spots and 
Auroras," quoted 58 


Lost Maramech and Earliest Chica- 
go, by John F. Steward, quoted — 

foot notes 139, 140 

Louisiana, electoral vote of, 1876... 


mention 135, 142 

purchase of, in 1803 209 

Louisville, Ky. — foot notes 55, 120 

Loup Indians 110 

Lovelaceville 234 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parish — riot at Al- 
ton and death of Lovejoy 172 

Tanner's Martyrdom of Love- 
joy, quoted — foot note 173 

Lovejoy riots, disastrous to the pros- 
perity of Alton, 111 175 

Lovel, James — Secretary of Con- 
gress, extract from letter of, to 

Franklin, July 4, 1777., 105 

foot note 108 

Lowden, (Hon.) Frank O. — offers a 
sum of money to the Illinois State 
Historical Society to mark the 
route of Lincoln's army from 
Beardstown to the Rock River 

country 21 

Lowell, James Russell — quoted.... 83 
Lower, an authority on significance 

of family names 75 

Loyalists 71 

Lucerne, ((minister). La Balme's 

Luzerne, f report to 109-111 

Lytel, Brig.-Gen 277 

see Lytle, William H. — Union 
Brig.-General, War of the Re- 
Lytle, (Gen.) Wm. H 269 


McCagg, E. B 18 

McCarthy, Richard — journal of, 

quoted — foot note 114 

reports La Balm's efforts to 

raise troops to attack Detroit 114 
statement in regard to conduct 
of troops toward inhabitants 

of Illinois country 113 

McClellan, (Gen.) George B. — men- 
tion 150 

telegraphs Col. J. B. Wyman to 

equip Illinois troops 149 

McClernand, (Gen.) John A. — can- 
didate for U. S. Senator before 

Illinois Legislature 87 

honorary member Illinois State 

Historical Society 16 

mention 182, 230, 231, 234, 235 

reports of Jan. 24, 1862, War 
Record Series I, Vol. VII, 

quoted — foot note 233 

McClernand School, Springfield, 111. 195 

McConnel, G. M 15 

McCook, (Gen.) Alex. McD. — Union 
Major-General, War of the Rebel- 
lion 255, 256, 265 

foot note 257 

McCormick, Henry 23 

McCrary, George Washington — 
member Congress U. S. suggests 
idea of Electoral Commission 185 


Index — Continued . 

McCulloch, David — work in behalf of 

State history, reference to 285 

McCutcheon, John — cartoonist 80 

McDaniel, Jonathan — member Illi- 
nois Legislature from Sangamon 
county, to succeed Abraham Lin- 
coln, resigned S8 

McDonough county, 111 45, 223 

McGill, T. L. — (steamer) . .238, 239, 240 
McGregor, Gregor (Gregoire) — later 
sheriff at Detroit, La Balm's 

opinion of 114 

Mclnerney, J. J 23 

Mclntire, C. F. — in charge local 
office, Illinois & Mississippi Tele- 
graph Office, Springfield, 111., 1860 6 4 

Mcintosh, (Gen.) Lachlan — 

161, 162, 163, 164 

foot note 164 

McKee, Alexander 119 

Mackey Estate 78 

Mackinac Island Ill, 119, 137 

McLaughlin, Robert K. — early law- 
yer of Belleville, 111 168, 169 

McLean County Historical Society. 15 
McLean, John — one of the first two 
U. S .Senators from the State of 
Illinois, account of election of... 86 
re-elected U. S. Senator from 

Illinois 95 

McMasters, (Rev.) S. Young — Chap- 
lain 27th Reg't. 111. Vols 230 

foot note 226 

Macomb. McDonough county, III. .23, 223 
Macombes, I Messrs., traders at De- 

Macombs, f troit 112 

foot note 112 

Macoupin county, 111. — foot note.... 226 
McRoberts, (Judge) Samuel — Demo- 
crat, elected to U. S. Senate by 
Illinois Legislature. The first 
time nomination by party caucus 

was made 86 

Edward Coles indicted by the 
Grand Jury for libeling. .170, 171 

Madison county 111. — mention 

169, 171, 172, 203 

foot note 226 

Madison county vs. Edward Coles, 

case of — reference to 170 

Madison, Wis 67 

Maertz, (Miss) Louise 23 

Magantel, M 132 

Magazine of American History, Vol. 

Ill, quoted — foot note 105 

Magnau, M. — -officer under La Balm 


Mail Printing Co., Galesburg, 111... 29 

Maine, state 54, 57, dl 

foot note 57 

Maisonville, Alexis — La Balm's 

opinion of 114, 133 

"Major," (Slave boy) — owned by 

Daniel Cartright 197 

Maldener & Son 20 

Manchester Pike, Tenn 274 

Manchester, Tenn. — mention 274 

Manlius-Rutland Township Histor- 
ical Society £1 

Mannhardt, Emil 23 

Maramech Hill in Kendall county, 
111. — foot note 140 

Margry, Pierre — Decouvertes et 
Etablissements des Francais en 
Amferique Septentrionale, quoted 

— foot note 138 

Decouvertes et Establissments 
des Francais, etc.. Vol. 6, 
quoted — footnotes ..136, 137, .143 

Marietta, Ohio 47, 49, 53, 55, 56 

Marion county. 111 169 

Marion, 111 15 

Marseillaise, National song or hymn 

of France 210 

Marseilles, 111. — mention 14, '^i 

Plaindealer, (newspaper) 31 

Quarter Century History of 
Marseilles, by Terry Simmons, 

reference to 31 

Marshall, Albert O. — of Will county. 
Republican member of Illinois 
Legislature 1877, refuses to vote 
for John A. Logan for U. S. Sena- 
tor, 1877 188 

Martin, (Sergt.) Henry, Co. "C" 
27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War of the 

Rebellion 242 

Martin, (Hon.) William — Presiding 

Judge, trial of Alton riots 173 

Marts, Srs 130 

Maryland 58 

Mason county, 111 45 

foot note 22e 

Mason county, Onstot's Pioneers of 
Mason and Menard Counties — 

quoted — foot notes 50, 53 

Mason, Edward G. — Chapters of Illi- 
nois History, quoted — foot notes.. 

137, 13» 

Early Chicago & Illinois — foot 

note 108 

Illinois in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, quoted — foot note 13^ 

Masonic Hall, Springfield, 111., in 

1826 202 

Massachusetts — State — mention . . . 

56, 67, 68, 84, 135, 285 

represented in U. S. Senate by 

Daniel Webster 88 

Master, (Mr.) — early settler of 

Springfield, 111 208 

Matheny, Charles — early settler of 

Springfield, 111 197 

Mathenv, Charles W. — prominent 

citizen of Springfield, 111 182 

Mather, Thomas — pioneer merchant 

of Kaskaskia, 111 176 

Matthews, A. C 18 

Matthews, J. — ^American Heraldry, 

quoted 84 

Matteson. Joel A. — candidate for 
U. S. Senator from Illinois. 1855, 

vote cast for in Legislature 88. 89 

Governor of Illinois 88-S9 

"Mayflower" — mention 70, 285 

passengers, statement made that 
none were arms-bearers .... 82 
Mayo, Robert — teamster 27th Reg't. 
Ills. Vols., War of the Rebellion 

242, 243 

Mayo, Rovert (Robert) 276 

Meade, (Gten.) George G. — Union 
Major-General, War of the Rebel- 
lion 275 


Index — Continued . 

Mears. William — early lawyer of 

Belleville, 111 168, 169 

Meese, (Hon.) William A. — member 
of Board of Directors, Illinois 

State Historical Society 

7, 11, 13, 14, 21 

member of Committees Illinois 

State Historical Society ...22, 23 
Rock River in the Revolution — 
addi-ess before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1909 


Melosche, (a Frenchman at the 

Miami) 132 

Memoires Historique, Vol. 2, Du- 

mont, quoted — foot note 139 

Memorial from Mons de La Balme, 
to the Continental Congress, York- 
town, Dec. 25, 1777 — toot note... 106 
Memorial of Mons de La Balme to 
the Continental Congress, Oct. 3, 

1777 — foot note 106 

Memorial of Mons de La Balme, to 
the Continental Congress, Phila- 
delphia, Jan. 1, 1779 — foot note.. 107 

Memphis, (steamer) 231, 233 

Memphis, Tenn. — mention. . 142, 152. 242 
Menall, (Mr.) — early school teacher 

of Springfield, 111 202 

Menard county, 111. — mention. ... 45, 92 
T. G. Onstot's Pioneers of Ma- 
son and Menard Counties, 

quoted — foot notes 50, 53 

Mendenhall, Samuel, of Springfield, 

111 191 

Menominee Indians 98 

Mercer county, 111 45 

foot note 226 

Merchandise and stores at differ- 
ent points reported by La Balme 114 
Mercure de France, Dec. 1725, 

quoted — -foot note 139 

Merrill, (Capt.) Joseph W. — Cap- 
tain Co. I, 27th Reg't. Ills. Vols., 

War of the Rebellion 230 

Merritt, Edward L. — editor The 
State Register, Springfield, 111., 

1865 180 

one of the survivors of the 
twelve aids to Gen. McClern- 
and at Lincoln's funeral .... 182 
Recollections of the part Spring- 
field bore in the obsequies of 
Abraham Lincoln. Contribu- 
tion to State history by.. 179-183 

Merritt Estate 78 

Merryman, (Merriman) (Dr.) E. H. 
— early physician of Springfield, 

111 208 

Meskwakia and the Meskwakie 

People of Today— foot note 139 

Meteorological Data Federal 
Weather Bureau, U. S. — compila- 
tion 47 

Meteorological reports, kept at 
Brunswick, Maine, by Prof. 
Cleaveland — quoted — foot note... 57 
Meteorological reports at Fayette- 
ville, Vt., by Gen. Martin Field. 57 

foot note 57 

Mexican War, mention 147, 149 

Miami, La Balm mentions Beau- 
bien's storehouse at 114, 132 


Miami country 

Indians 118, 132, 

post. La Balm takes possession 

of 117- 

post — mention 117, 130, 131, 

Michigan state — Fusaliers, 1st 
Reg't. of Michigan Fusaliers in 

War of the Rebellion 

mention 77, 104, 111, 137, 

Pioneer Historical Society Col- 
lections, Vol. IX, quoted — foot 

notes 118, 

Pioneer Historical Society Col- 
lections, Vol. X, quoted — foot 

notes 113, 116, 118, 119. 

Pioneer Historical Society Col- 
lections, Vol. XIX, quoted — 

foot note 

Michilimacnac, | ^ ^^^ ^ Sinclair 
Michillmacinac, C ^leut. Governor 
) of 98, 

Michilimackinas — mention 

Milburn, Ky .' 

Miles, (Capt.) Jonathan R. — Capt. 
Co. F, 27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War 
of the Rebellion, later Colonel... 

220, 239, 262, 266, 267, 

foot notes 226, 248, 

Military bounty lands in Illinois — 

Military district in Illinois, (Mili- 
tary Tract) — mention 

Military tract. State of Illinois — 
mention 147, 

Miller, Bell 

Miller, Henrv — printer, Philadel- 
phia, 1788 

Miller, Mrs. I. G 

Miller, John E 

Miller, Samuel — Associate Justice 
U. S. Supreme Court, member 
Electoral (Z!ommission 

Million, (Dr.) J. L. — prominent phy- 
sician of Springfield, 111 

Mills, Benjamin — of Jo Daviess 
countJ^ lawyer of ability 

Mills, early mills of Springfield, 111. 

Mills, Richard W 

Mills, W. S. — genealogist 

Milton, (Pike county) 111 

Milton, (Tenn.) 

Mingo Indians 161, 


Miskelemacknor (Michillmacinac) 








see Mackinac. 

Mission Ridge 

Mississippi River. German settlement 

along the bluffs of 

mention 51, 55, 

56. 58. 99, 100, 103, 134, 135, 
139, 144, 146, 151, 168, 221, 
222, 225, 228, 239, 242, 268, 

foot note 

Spanish posts on 

Mississippi State 55, 135, 142, 

Mississippi Valley, German life and 

influence in 209 

Hilgard's colony in, in 1832, 

reference to 

mention 58, 61. 68, 

Missouri country 




















Index — Continued. 


Missouri Indians 138, 144 

Missouri River — mention 

137, 138, 139, 143 

Capt. Rui builds forts on, 

1767 ■• 145 

Missouri State — Duden favors immi- 
gration of the Germans to 211 

Historical Society, St. Louis, 
State Historical Society, Co- 
lumbia, Mo. — foot note 54 

State Historical Society — foot 

notes 54, 139 

State Historical Society Li- 
brary — foot note 141 

Houck's Spanish Regime in Mis- 
souri, quoted — foot note 145 

Intelligencer, (newspaper) ... 54 

quoted — foot note 54 

mention 51, 

54. 55, 68, 135. 142, 224, 225. 238 
Republican, (newspaper), 

quoted — foot notes 54, 56 

Mobile, Ala. — mention 57 

foot note 112 

Register, (newspaper) 57 

Moffett, (Judge) — early school 

teacher in Springfield, 111 203 

Mohawk (River)— foot note 163 

Moline, 111 7, 14. 22, 24 

Monette, John W., M. D. — ISIississippi 
Valley, Vol. II, quoted — foot note 97 

Monforton, (at the Miami Post) 132 

Monforton, register of deeds at De- 
troit. La Balm's opinion of 114 

Monk's Mound, see Cahokia 19 

Monmouth, 111 18, 24 

Monroe, (President) James 197 

Montgomery, (Col.) John — Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Virginia 
troops in the country of Illinois. 

97 98 
" "ietVe'r' dated 'Feb.' '22,' ll'si. .101-102 

mention 100, 101, 103 

foot note 114 

Montgomery, (steamer) 231 

Monticello. Ill 23 

Montou, M.— owner of warehouse at 

Post Miami 132 

Montreal, Canada 119 

foot note 163 

Moore, Hosea H. — F. M. B. A. mem- 
ber Illinois Legislature, 1891, 
finally aids in election of John M. 

Palmer 94-95 

Moore. (Gen.) James B. — of the 
State Militia, Pro-slavery candi- 
date for Governor of Illinois.... 169 
Moravia, Cayuga county, N. Y. — 

mention 147 

Moravians, mention — foot note 113 

More, (Capt.) R. S. — Captain Co. 
"E" 27th Reg. Ills. Vols., War of 

the Rebellion 230,238 

Morfreesboro, see Murfreesboro . . . 258 
Morgan county, Illinois — Historic 
Morgan & Classic Jacksonville, by 
Charles M. Fames, quoted — foot 

note 48 

mention 45. 54, 223, 224 

foot note 226 

Morgan. (Gen.) James D. — Union 

General. War of the Rebellion 

241, 2-12. 243, 265 


Morgan, John— Confederate Brig.- 
General, capture of and all his 

command, reference to 277 

Morgan, George — letter of John 
Leath to George Morgan. Aug. 19, 
1778. Morgan Letter Book III, 

quoted — foot note 163 

Morgan, J. Pierpont — ancestrv of... 75 
Morgan Letter Book III— foot note 162 
Mormon uprising in Hancock county, 

111.. 1844-1846 — mention 148 

Mormons, tradition with regard to 

Genealogy "5 

Moro. Ill 24 

Morris— private 27th Reg't. 111. Vols., 

War of the Rebellion 232 

Morrisceau. at Post Miami 132 

Morrison, 111 23 

Morrison, William R. — candidate for 
U. S. Senator from Illinois, 1885, 

defeated by John A. Logan 91-93 

candidate for U. S. Senator 
from Illinois, 1885, makes 
trip to Washington, D. C. on 

political business 92-93 

friendly relations of, with John 

A. Logan, speech of Logan.. 93 
his reminiscences of men and 

events related 89, 90 

member Illinois Legislature, 

1855 89 

Speaker Illinois House of Rep- 
resentatives, 1859 89 

telegraphs R. A. D. Wilbanks.. 92 
Morton, (Gov.) Oliver P., of In- 
diana — mention 236 

U. S. Senator from Indiana, 
member Electoral Commis- 
sion 185 

Mosher Estate 78 

Mound City, 111 236 

Mud Creek, War of the Rebellion — 

foot note • ■ • -8. 

Muddy River. Jackson county, 111. -:1» 
Muddy Township, Jackson county. 

Ills 218 

Municipal Voter's League, Chicago, 

Ills \-^-- ^^ 

Munro's Story of the British Race, 

quoted .• • • '^ 

Murdock, Francis B. — prosecuting 

attorney, trial of Alton riot 175 

Murfreesboro, Tenn. — mention 


258;'26b, 261, 263, 271, 272, 273, 274 

foot note 257 

Murrel. John A 276 

Muskingum River 163 

foot note 16^ 

Myers, (Col.) E. E. — Aid to Gen. 
John A. McClernand at Lincoln 
funeral 18^ 


Xance. (slave girl) owned by Col. 
Thomas Cox of Springfield, 111... 197 

foot note 13| 

Naples, 111 6« 

Napoleonic wars -"^ 


Index — Continued. 


"Narrative of the founding of St. 
'Louis," by Col. Augusta Cho- 

teau, quoted — foot note 144 

"Narrative of the Second Polar 
Vovaee of Sir Jolin Ross." quoted 

— foot note GO, 62 

Nashville, Tenn. ..55, 153, 171, 222, 
250. 252. 255. 258. 259. 260, 261, 272 

Nathan. Simon — foot note lOS 

National Library, Leinster st., Dub- 
lin 78 

Nautical Almanac Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C 53, 59 

Navarre, Royal notary at Detroit, 

La Balm's opinion of 114 

mention 132 

Navarro, Martin — letter of, quoted 

—foot note 120 

Neale, (Col.) Thomas 193,201 

Negley, Jas. S. — Union Major-Gen- 

eral. War of the Rebellion 280, 281 

Nelson, Wm. U. — Union Major- 
General, War of the Rebellion... 245 
"Nero," English bull dog owned by 

Dr. Jayne of Springfield, 111 208 

Neustadt. Germany 210 

Newberry Library, Chicago, Genea- 
logical Department 67, 68 

mention ...12, 26, 33, 70, 76, 78, 79 
New England Historical & Gene- 
alogical Register 67, 81 

New England Historical and Gene- 
alogical Society of Boston 68, 69 

New England — mention 

48, 50, 56, 57, 77, 84, 99, 167, 286 
Perley "Historic Storms of New 

England," quoted — foot note. 56 
register system in Genealogy.. 71 
settlers, list of authorized arms 

of 81-82 

tombstones, coats of arms sculp- 
tured on before 1760 81 

New Englanders 50, 58 

New Foundland — foot note 163 

New Haven, Conn 29, 30 

New Jersey — mention 186 

plans for the protection of the 

frontiers of — foot note 163 

New Madrid, Mo.. 225, 237, 238. 239, 240 
New Orleans, attack on, in Civil war 

— mention 148 

mention 53, 55, 57, 143, 212 

foot notes 112, 162 

New Salem, III 50 

Newsomeville, part of the early 

town of Springfield, 111 193, 200 

Newson. M. — at Post Miami 130 

Newspapers — Adler Des Westens, 
Springfield, 1844, quoted — foot 

note 213 

Auzeiger des Westens, Jan. 26, 

1836 — footnote 213 

should be Anzeiger des 

Baltimore Gazette 56 

Boston Transcript 73 

Chicago Volksfreund, 1845 — 

foot note 213 

Cincinnati American 56 

Cincinnati papers — foot note.. 55 


Edwardsville Advocate 51, 61 

Feb. 26, 1831 — footnote 51 
Freiheitsbote fur Illinois, 1840, 

quoted — foot note 213 

"Galena, 111. Miner," July 27, 

1831 — footnote 55 

German newspapers, The Tri- 
bune, Westland and Ausland 

—foot note 210 

Illinois, early newspapers of. 
Quoted on the Winter of the 

Deep Snow . . . .' 50-51 

Illinois Gazette, July 2, 1831 — 

foot note 55 

Intelligencer of Vandalia. 51, 62 
foot note, Feb. 26, 1831 51 
Pioneer, Rock Spring (near 

Alton) 55 

Staatszeitung, 1847 — foot 

note 213 

State Journal 180 

State Register.. 66, 180, 182. 286 
Louisville newspapers — foot 

note .' . . . 55 

Marseilles Plain Dealer 31 

Missouri Intelligencer 54 

foot note 54 

Missouri Republican 54 

foot notes 54, 56 

Mobile Register 57 

New York Mail and Express.. 73 

St. Louis Democrat 226 

St. Louis Times 54 

foot notes 54, 55 

Sangamo Journal 5^, 56 

foot notes 55, 56 

Stern des Westens, 1845, quoted 

foot note 213 

Western Ploughboy of Ed- 
wardsville, 111. — foot note ... 55 
Wisconsin State Library, files 

of 67 

New York City. International 

Register of Shipping 77 

Mail and Express, (newspaper) 73 
mention ..56, 57. 67, 176, 181, 182 

foot note 174 

Public Library 67 

New York State, frontiers, incur- 
sion of the savages against .... 161 
Genealogical and Biographical 

Society 72 

mention ...54, 61. 66, 168, 218, 285 

University of N. T 58 

foot note 58 

Niagara Falls 58 

Niagara 134 

foot note 118 

Nicolay & Hay, Life of Lincoln, Vol. 

I, quoted — see foot note 53 

"C," 27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War of 
Nighswonger, Joseph — private Co. 

the Rebellion 227 

Noleman, (Capt.) 231 

Nolensville, (Tenn.) 255 

Norfolk, Mo 226, 227 

see Northfork, Mo. 

Normal, 111 23 

Norman Conquest 76 

North America Nomadic Redmen of 
North America 99 

—21 H S 


Index — Continued. 


North Carolina 225 

North Carolinans in Illinois in 1802 212 

North Dakota 55 

Northern Cross R. R., reference to.. 175 

Norfork, Mo 226. 227 

Norton. W. T. — member of Board 
of Directors Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society 9. 14. 24, 25 

paper on Old Fort Belle Fon- 
taine, reference to 25 

Notes sur la Famille Coulon de Vil- 
liers Par I'Abbe Amedee Gosselin, 

Levis. 1906— foot note 142 

Nova Scotia RT 

Oak Park, III 18. 22, 23 

Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, 

111 182, 289 

O'Brien, W. P. O. — "Great 

. Famine in Ireland," quoted 57 

foot note 57 

Odd Fellows Bldg-.. Springfield. 111. 194 
Offutt, Denton — engages Lincoln to 
take a flat boat of merchandise 

to N. 53 

Ogden. Wm. B. — candidate for U. 

S. Senator from Illinois, 1855, 

votes cast for in Legislature .... 8S 

Oglesby, Richard J. — candidate for 

U. S. Senator from Illinois. 1891, 

vote cast for in Legislature 94 

Governor of Illinois and U. S. 

Senator 95 

Governor of Illinois, favors 
.Tohn M. Palmer for U. S. 

Senator, 1867 89 

in U. S. Senate reflects credit 

upon Illinois 96 

mention 226 

President of the Lincoln 
National Monument Ass'n... 182 
Ohio Company at Marietta in 1788. 47 
Ohio River, iron mines near the 

mouth of the Ohio River 97 

mention 55, 56, 98, 101, 

103, 111, 151, 162, 163, 232, 235 

foot note 112 

Ohio— State 47, 55, 65, 69, 77, 168 

foot note 220 

Ohio Valley, British Americans in.. 143 
"Oh . Why Should the Spirit of 
Mortal be Proud." favorite poem 

of Abraham Lincoln 286 

Oklahoma 68 

"Old Glory," National Emblem 81 

"Old Washington," calendar. Li- 
brary of Congress, papers in, 

quoted 124 

Onandoga Indians 161 

Oneida Seminary. N. Y 61 

Onstot, T. G. — Pioneers of Mason 
and Menard Counties, quoted — 

foot notes 50, oS 

Ontario, "Ship" — footnote US 

Onwhistle, Thomas 225 

Order of the Bath 60, 61 

Oregon, Electoral vote of, 1876..., 183 

O'Reilly. fDon) Alexander — instruc- 
tions to Piernas, Feb. 17, 1770, 

quoted — foot note 145 

Orendorff. (Gen.) Alfred— address 
before the Illinois State Historical 

Society 15-lS 

mention 21, 22. 23. 24. 25, 27 

President Illinois State Histor- 
ical Societv. 1909-1910 

9, 11. 12, 13 

resolutions passed on the death 
of, by Illinois State Historical 

Society 21 

Orleans, (New Orleans) 102 

Orr, A. B.— private Company "C," 
27th Reg't. 111. Vols., War of the 
Rebellion 264 

Orr, Andrew — earlv school teacher 

of Springfield, 111 202 

Osage Indians 138. 144 

Osborne, Georgia L. — Chairman of 
the Committee