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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions for the year ..."

ALFRED ORENUORFF 



Publication Number Fifteen 
OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY , 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1910 



Eleventh Annual Meeting, May 5th and 6th, 1910 



Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co., State Printer? 

1912 



EDTTOPJAL NOTfl. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous years, 
this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the papers read 
at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter contributed 
during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to State History" 
may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their title, and form 
an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transactions. The contri- 
butions are intended to include the following kinds of material: 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. This 
part of the volume should supplement the more formal and extensive 
publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, which 
are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected with 
great care ; for memories and reminiscences are at their best an uncertain 
basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources and 
containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should be 
accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities upon 
which the papers arc based. The use of new and original material and 
the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now out 
of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and appeals 
for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The committee 
desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly offi- 
cial publications of the State Historical Library. In historical research, 
as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be achieved 
through the cooperation of private initiative with public authority. It 
was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking that this 
Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools or 
colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this publi- 
cation the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the various 
papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily those of 
the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to receive such 
corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear to be deserved. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



TART I. 



Page. 

Record of Official Proceedings 3-19 

Business Meeting of the Society 3 

Report of the Secretary of the Society 6 

Report of the Treasurer of the Society 10 

Directors' Meetings 11 

Reports of Committees » 14 

Reports of Local Historical Societies 16 

PART II. 

Papers read at the Annual Meeting 24-125 

2 — Frederic L. Paxson, Ph. D., Annual Address — The Wist and the Growth of the National 

Ideal 24 

3— Hon. James A. Creighton, The Life and Services of Alfred Orendorff 34 

4 —Gen. Smith I). Atkins, Some Illinois Editors I have Known 38 

5 — Hon. John P. Hand, Negro Slavery in Illinois 42 

0— Hon. H. J. Strawn, The English Settlement in Edwards County, Illinois 51 

7— F.nsley Moore, Grant's First March 55 

8— James A. James. Ph. P., Illinois and the Rcvo'ution in the West, 1779-1780 03 

9— Gen. Charles A. Partridge, The Ninety-Sixth Illinois at Chickamauga 72 

10 — Herman (1. James, J. 1>., The Origin and Development of the Bill of Rights in tin Consti- 
tution o/ Illinois SI 

11 — Prof. George T. Flom, The Ki nsington Rune Stone 105 

PART III. 

12— Contributions to State History 129-136 

John F. Steward, LaSallc a Victim to his Error in Longitude 129 

PART IV. 

13— Documents 139-183 

Pioneer Letters of Gershom Elagg, Edited with Introduction and Notes by Solon J. Buck. 139 

PART V. 

14— Part of the Transactions of the Society, received too late to be placed in its proper order . . . 184-185 
Prof. Warren K. Moorehead, Archaeology of the Mississippi Valley. A sjnopsis of the 

lecture which was delivered at the annual meeting 184 

15— Index 186 

16 — List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society 21S 



OFFICERS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MAY 1910 TO MAY r 1911. 



Officers of the Society. 

President. 
Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

First Vice President. 
Hon. Smith D. Atkins Freeport 

Second Vice President. 
Hon. L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
Hon. Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Board of Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President of the University of Illinois 

Urbana-Champaign 

M. H. Chamberlin Lebanon 

Hon. Richard Yates Springfield 

J. H. Burniiam Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Hon. William H. Collins Quincy 

Hon. J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal University. . . .Carbondale 

Hon. W. T. Norton Alton 

Hon. William A. Meese Moline 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies 



VIII 



COMMITTEES OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



Publication Committee. 

J. A. James, Northwestern University, Chairman Evanston 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

J. McCan Davis Springfield 

George A. Dupuy Chicago 

M. H. Chamberlin Lebanon 

Solon J. Buck Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Stephen L. Spear Springfield 

John L. Cooper Fairfield 

Walter Colyer Albion 

J. N. Gridley Virginia 

J. B. Oakleaf Moline 

Farlin Q. Ball Chicago 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio ., Galesburg 

PSOGRA M Cum m ittee. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Chairman Springfield 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. Burnham . . . • : Bloomington 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

E. S. Willcox , Peoria 

William A. Meese Moline 

J. A. James ' Evanston 

Paul Selby Chicago 

Mrs. Catherine Goss Wheeler Springfield 

Charles P. Kane" : Springfield 

Mrs. Isabel Jamison Springfield 

F. J. Heinl Jacksonville 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp Jacksonville 

Logan Hay Springfield 

W. G. Edens Chicago 

Mrs. Martha K. Baxter Pawnee 

J. H. Collins ' Springfield 

Charles G. Dawes Chicago 

J. Seymour Currey Evanston 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio . Galesburg 



IX 

Finance and Auditing Committee. 

Andrew Russel, Chairman Jacksonville 

E. J. James Urbana-Champaign 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

M. H. Chamberlin Lebanon 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Legislation. 

Andrew Bussel, Chairman Jacksonville 

0. F. Berry Carthage 

Samuel Alschuler Aurora 

E. V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Henry McCormick Normal 

Charles E. Hull Salem 

E. S. Tuthill Chicago 

Boss C. Hall Oak Park 

Lee F. English Chicago 

Prof. David Felmley Normal 

0. A. Harker Champaign 

William A. Meese Moline 

E. L. Merritt Springfield 

Campbell S. Hearn. . . . - Quincy 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Special Committee q • Mark Boute of Lincoln's Army Trail from 
Beardstown to Mouth of Bock Biver. 

William A. Meese, Chairman Moline 

Bobert H. Garm Beardstown 

John S. Bagby Bushville 

Dr. W. T. Burrows Ottawa 

Henry S. Dixon Dixon 

0. M. Dickerson, Western Illinois Normal School Macomb 

Luke Dickerman Stillman Valley 

James Gordon Oquawka 

E. E. Nicholson Beardstown 

James M. Johnston Milan 

1. F. Edwards Dixon 

Dr. Homer Mead Camden 

Jacob Thompson Macomb 

J. B. Oakleaf '. Moline 

John Bichmond Prophetstown 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Local Historical Societies. 

J. H. Burnham, Chairman Bloomington 

E. M. Bowman St. Louis, Missouri 

J. Seymour Currey EVanston 

— b H S 



X 

George W. Smith Oarbondale 

Elliot Callender Peoria 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

M 1-. Charles A. Webster Galesburg 

J. Xick Perrin Belleville 

Horace Hull Ottawa 

■ Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel Jacksonville 

L. J. Freese Eureka 

General John I. Einaker Carlinville 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

J. J. Mclnerney Alton 

Miss Anna B. Silver Philo 

Miss Louise Maertz Quincy 

Emil Mannharclt Chicago 

Judson D. Metzgar Moline 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 



Committee on Membership. 

Judge J Otis Humphrey, Chairman Springfield 

Charles L. Capen Bloomington 

Daniel Berry, M.D Carmi 

John M. Rapp Fairfield 

Mrs. I. G. Miller Springfield 

Mrs. C. C. Brown Springfield 

William Jayne, M.D Springfield 

George E. Dawson Chicago 

A. W. Crawford Hillsboro 

Mrs. E. M. Bacon Decatur 

William F. Fowler Aurora 

Andrew L. Anderson Lincoln 

Smith D. Atkins ■ Freeport 

Sumner S. Anderson Charleston 

S. W. Baxter East St. Louis 

Mrs. Inez J. Bender Monticello 

diaries Bent Morrison 

Mrs. George D. Tunnicliff Macomb 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee ox Marking Historic Sites in Illinois. 

Francis (!. In. am;. Chairman Springfield 

Harry Ainsworth. . .' Moline 

John E. Miller East St. Louis 

J. S. Little Rushville 

( lharies B. Campbell Kankakee 

\1 iss Lottie E. Jones Danville 

Terry Simmons Marseilles 

11. S. Hicks Rockford 

Miss Sarah M. Gough El Paso 



XI 

Lewis M. Gross Sycamore 

Mrs. Lee J. Hubble Monmouth 

Mrs. Leroy Bacchus Springfield 

Mrs. G. H. Huntoon Moline 

John H. Hauberg Moline 

J. W. Houston Berwick 

Clark. E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications. 

Miss Georgia L. Osborne, Chairman Springfield 

Mrs. B. S. Walker Springfield 

Mrs. Thomas Worthington Jacksonville 

Mrs. John C. Ames Streator 

Miss May Latham Lincoln 

Mrs. G. K. Hall Springfield 

Mrs. E. G. Crabbe Corpus Christi, Texas 

Norman G. Flagg Moro 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Oliver B. Williamson Chicago 

Dwight E. Frink Bloomington 

John C. Foote Belvidere 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Archaeology. 

J. H. Burnham, Chairman Bloomington 

Prof. Frederick Starr Chicago 

J. V. N. Standish Galesburg 

Dr. William Jayne Springfield 

Hon. W. T. Norton , Alton 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Special Committee to Consider the Practicability, etc., op Ask- 
ing the Next General Assembly for an Appropriation eor 
the Construction of a Building for the Illinois 
State Historical Society and Library. 

William A. Meese, Chairman. Moline 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana 

Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Eichard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Special Committee to Confer with the Illinois Park Commis- 
sion in Regard to a Comprehensive List of 
Historic Spots in Illinois. 

William A. Meese, Chairman Moline 

W. T. Norton .Alton 

E. B. Greene Urbana 



PART I. 



Record of Official Proceedings, 1910. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Senate Chamber, State Capitol, 

Springfield, III., May 5-6, 1910. 

Business Meeting, Thursday, May 5. 1910, 10:00 O'clock a. m. 

The eleventh annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was held in the Senate Chamber of the State Capitol, May 5-6, 1910. 

The session opened on Thursday morning at 10 :00 o'clock, with the 
business meeting. 

Colonel Clark E. Carr, who became president of the Society upon the 
death of Gen. Alfred Orendorff, presided. 

The Society proceeded with the regular order of business. 

The report of the secretary was read and approved. The report of 
the treasurer was read and approved. 

The president called for reports of committees. 

Prof. E. B. Greene, chairman of the Publication Committee, made 
a brief verbal report of the work of that committee. 

The president called on Captain J. H. Burnham. chairman of the 
Committee on Local Historical Societies, for a report of that com- 
mittee, which was read. 

The report of the Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Pub- 
lications was read by Miss Georgia L. Osborne, chairman of the com- 
mittee. 

The president announced that Mr. William A. Meese of Moline had 
a very interesting report to make upon the marking of the route of 
Abraham Lincoln and his company in going to the Black Hawk War, 
and he called upon Mr. Meese to give his report. 

Mi-. Meese reported that by next fall the markers would be placed. 
He said the people in the locality of the line of march were anxious to 
have the work done and would donate the land for lite markers and help 
raise the money, and with the $750.00 donated last year by Hon. Frank 
O. Lowden, they would lie enabled to place even finer markers than at 
first expected. 

The president called for the report of the Committee to Locale the 
Site of Fort Crexe Cceur. 

Captain J. IT. Burnham, of Bloomington, said the committee was 
not ready to make a definite report. They had visited the several sup- 
posed sites of the old fort, and intended going again, but he was afraid 
it was most too large a matter for the committee to grapple with. 



The president asked for reports of delegates from local historical 
societies. 

The secretary read a letter from Mr. L. J. Freese, of the Woodford 
County Historical Society, who was unable to be present. 

Dr. J. V. N. Standish read the report of the Knox County Historical 
Society. 

Dr. A. 0. Marshall, a delegate from the Will County Pioneer Society, 
told how he had attended Lombard University in 1861 and that Dr. 
Standish was his old professor and he had not met him from that day 
to this. The two gentlemen shook hands and some interesting remi- 
niscences followed. 

The president called for a report of the Illinois Colored Historical 
Society, and a very good report was read by Mrs. McClain. 

Hon. William A. Meese moved that the chair appoint a nominating 
committee of five to recommend names of persons for officers for the 
year 1910-11. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

The president appointed on this committee : 

Hon. Andrew Russel, Jacksonville. 
Mr. R. V. Carpenter, Belvidere. 
Hon. H. W. Clendenin, Springfield. 
Hon. William A. Meese, Moline. 
Prof. J. A. James, Evanston. 
Prof. J. H. Collins, Springfield. 

The committee retired to decide upon the names. 

The president called for some remarks from Mr. J. N". Gridley, of 
Virginia, 111., who was introduced by Rev. E'. K. Crews, of Pleasant 
Plains. 

The president called for other business. 

Captain J. H. Burnham reminded the Society that next year would 
be the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the War of 1861, and that 
it had been suggested that perhaps it would be wise to take some special 
notice at the next year's meeting. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber announced that she had a communication 
from Professor Parker, president of the Illinois Outdoor Association, 
asking the cooperation of the Illinois State Historical Society, and 
inviting it to attend their meeting to be held the last of May. 

Dr. Standish made a few remarks along this line and this was fol- 
lowed by a short talk from Captain Burnham about preserving Starved 
Pock and making it a State park. He said not only Starved Pock should 
lie taken care of, bid there were other historic spots in Illinois that 
needed public attention. 

Mr. E. C. Page, of DeKalb county, spoke briefly on the way false 
statements had been repeatedly published in county histories and county 
newspapers in regard to historic spots. He urged the Society to. take 
pains to have these statements corrected. 

Mr. Russel, from the Nominating Committee, stated that the com- 
mittee was ready to make a report, .and, upon being directed to report, 
the following names wevi' read as recommended to the Society for its 
officers for the coming year: 



President, Hon. Clark E. Carr, Galesburg. 
First Vice President, Hon. Smith D. Atkins, Freeport. 
Second Vice President, Hon. L. Y. Sherman, Springfield. 
Third Vice President, Hon. Andrew Russel, Jacksonville. 

Board of Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Cham 
paign. 

M. H. Chamberlin, Lebanon. 

Hon. Richard Yates, Springfield. 

J. H. Burnham, Bloomington. 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois, Champaign. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Hon. Wm, H. Collins, Quincy. 

Hon. J. O. Cunningham, Urbana. 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale. 

Hon. W. T. Norton, Alton. 

Hon. Wm. A. Meese, Moline. 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago. 

J. W. Clinton, Polo. 

Richard V. Carpenter, Belvidere. 

Edward C. Page, DeKalb. 

It was moved and seconded that the officers be elected as recom- 
mended. The question was put by Mr. Russel and the motion carried. 

There being no further business, the Society adjourned to meet in 
the afternoon in the literary session. The literary sessions were carried 
out according to the printed program. At the close of Mr. Ensley Moore's 
address on General Grant's First March. Mr. T. J. Crowder gave some 
reminiscences of General Grant at Camp Yates. His remarks were in 
part as follows: 

"I was present when the regiment was turned over to Grant at Camp Yates, 
and his first order to the regiment was 'Men, go to your quarters.' I lived 
within a mile and a half of Camp Yates on what is now Washington Park. 
Having two dear friends who were members of the regiment, my wife and 
I went to the roadside to bid them goodbye, and as the men marched along 
they were making remarks embarrassing to my wife. Grant, hearing it, 
came forward and stopped it at once, which was greatly to our relief and 
we cherish it as a very pleasant reminiscence." 

At the elosc of Judge H. J. Strawn's address on the English Settle- 
ments in Edwards county, the followina- resolution was offered and 
adopted : 

Whereas, Morris Birkbeck, one of the founders of the English Settlement 
in Edwards county, Illinois, by his able writings and arduous labors con- 
tributed largely, not only to the people of Illinois, but. to the United States 
in general, and was largely instrumental in preserving our State from the 
blighting curse of human slavery and in its upbuilding along moral, intellect- 
ual and financial lines, having been the first president of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, and having been an able lieutenant to Governor Coles in his 
fight for human liberty and equal rights: and 

Whereas, No suitable recognition has ever been given to the memory of 
our distinguished fellow citizen; and 

Whereas, There is a movement on foot to erect a memorial hall on the 
campus of the Southern Collegiate Institute, an institution of higher learn- 
ing in his old home in Edwards county; therefore be it 

Resolved; By the State Historical Society of the State of Illinois, that we 
heartily commend the erection of such memorial building at the old home 
of Morris Birkbeck as a fitting tribute to his eminent services, and pledge 
our hearty support to the movement. 



REPORT OF THE SECBETAEY OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 14, 1909, 

TO MAY 5, 1910. 



To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Gentlemen — I beg to submit to you my report of the work of the 
Society for the past year. 

The Society has lost by the hand of death since its last annual meet- 
ing its president and protecting friend, General Alfred Orendorff. The 
board of directors took note officially of this sad event at its meeting 
of Dec. 2, 1909, at which time the secretary was directed to invite 
some competent person to deliver an address at this meeting upon the 
death of our president. I consulted with the members of the family 
of General Orendorff as to their preference in the matter, and Hon. 
James A. Creighton has been invited and will deliver an address at 
this meeting on the life of General Orendorff. Since the death of the 
president of the Society, Col. Clark E. Carr, the first vice president, 
has been acting as its president. 

In spite of the death of the president of the Society and of several 
of the active members, it has been a year of growth and prosperity. We 
have had a large number of new members added to our list. One 
member of the Society alone has succeeded in procuring about fifty new 
members in his county. If each active member of this Society should 
this year procure one new member it would mean an addition of 800 
members; for, exclusive of our honorary and newspaper members, we 
have more than 800 members; and including all classes- — honorary, 
press association, life and active members — we count 1,000 strong. 

This year one of our women members lias become a life member and 
she is a pioneer, being the first woman to become a life member of the 
Society. 

The interest in the Society and its work is growing throughout this 
and other States, and main newspapers have commended our work and 
urged their patrons to assist tin 1 Society. A good deal of this interest 
may. T think, be fairly given to the quarterly Journal of the Society. 

The Journal is receiving favorable comment from many sources. The 
board of editors of the Journal ask members of the Society to contribute 
to ils pages and to make suggestions to the editors. This organ of the 
Society is. we believe, improving with each issue, and the editors hope 



that it may in time become a model publication of this class. We beg, 
as I have said, for advice and assistance Tor the Journal in attaining 
this goal. 

The committees of the Society are urged to greater activity. We will 
have reports from several of liiem. and I suggest that some plans be 
devised to enable members of committees to more clearly understand 
their duties, and that chairmen of committees make attempts to hold 
more meetings of their committees. 

I will also repeat what I haw said to you in other reports, that I 
think the Society ought to bold special meetings to celebrate historic 
anniversaries or events. These might be special lectures, or be held with 
local societies, for I believe some of them should be held in different 
localities. We have been invited by the LaSalle County Society to meet 
at Starved Eock. This, I think, is a most admirable suggestion. I 
won Id also like to attend a meeting in the neighborhood of Kaskaskia. 
and I am still hoping that exercises will be held at the dedication of the 
monument to Governor Bond. This celebration, a local one. was planned. 
but the date of it has been postponed a time or two. 

The correspondence of the secretary of the Society is very heavy, and 
we do a great deal of research work for our correspondents, students 
and for the other departments in the State House. 

As President James is to give a review of the work of the Historical 
Library, 1 will not, as 1 have heretofore done, tell you of the collections 
and purchases and other work of the Library. The work of the secretary 
of the Society and of the librarian of the Library go so closely hand in 
band that 1 find it difficult to separate them in making a report. The 
Journal gave a list of the books purchased by the Library in England. 
This is a most valuable addition to the Library. The collection of old 
files of newspapers is being vigorously made and the Department of 
Genealogy is making long strides. The chairman of the Genealogical 
Committee will report on some of the most important additions to the 
collection. 

The Program Committee won Id like to have members of the Society 
make suggestions as to topics of Stale and Western history, upon which 
they would like to hear papers at the annual meetings. The committee 
will also be glad to know of persons who might contribute addresses for 
the annual meeting, manuscripts, old letters, etc., for the Department 
of Contributions in State History in the annual transactions of the 
Society or, as has been before mentioned in this report, material suitable 
for publication in the Journal. 

In the current number of the Journal we have published a circular 
letter asking for this kind of contributions. The president of the Society 
has appointed a Committee on Archaeology, and it is hoped and believed 
that this committee will evolve some plan for calling public attention 
to the important archaeological remains in the Mississippi valley. So 
much has been said about the Great Cahokia or Monk's Mound, which 
is located in the southern part of Madison county. Ilk, and which is 
one of the greatest and most interesting specimens in America, that I 
will not now repeat it. The Illinois Park Commission created by the 
last General Assembly for the especial purpose of trying to preserve 



8 

Starved Hock, has authority also to consider the claims of other historic 
places. By the direction of the directors of the Society, I called the 
attention of the Park Commission to the Great Cahokia Mound, and 
they have agreed to consider it. In the 1908 Transactions and in the 
January Journal full accounts were given of the important gift to the 
Historical Society hy Mr. Clinton L. Conkling of Springfield of the 
original letter of Mr. Lincoln addressed to Hon. J. C. Conkling, Mr. 
Clinton L. Conkling's father, which was read at the Union Mass Meet- 
ing of September 3, 1863. In addition to this letter, Mr. Conkling 
presented a short letter wholly in the handwriting of Mr. Lincoln, trans- 
mitting the letter to be read at the mass meeting and two telegrams in 
regard to the same matter. These valuable gifts have been acknowledged, 
but I suggest that the Society take some action upon Mr. Conkling's 
generous gift. 

Miss Louise I. Enos of this city has presented to the Society some 
rare early laws of the State, all valuable, some volumes excessively so. 
Miss Ehos has also made other valuable contributions. 

Mr. Dan Sheen, of Peoria, owns some property on which he believes 
was located LaSalle's Fort Creve Cceur. He asked that the Historical 
Society investigate the remnants or remains on this land, and at least 
attempt to form an opinion as to the probability of this being the loca- 
tion of the disputed French fort. Accordingly a committee of the 
Society visited Peoria for the purpose of looking over the ground and 
the remains of the fort. I hope that a member of this committee will 
tell. the Society about their visit. I have received a letter lately from 
Mr. Sheen, asking the committee to make another visit to the location 
of the supposed old fort. 

You will remember that at our* last meeting Hon. Frank 0. Lowden 
offered us a generous gift. We hope to hear from the committee today 
in regard to it. 

I have to report the deaths of several of our members. Some of them 
have been noticed in the Journal and some occurred before our last 
annual meeting, but had not been called to my attention until a later 
date. I again beg the members of the Society to inform me of deaths 
in our membership. The Society is so large and the membership is so 
scattered over the State, that unless the deaths are noticed in the city 
papers and associated press dispatches, I have no means of learning of 
them. I have several times caused the family of the deceased member 
much pain and myself much mortification by sending books and other 
notices addressed to the deceased member of the Society. Will the 
members kindly bear this in mind ? The names of the deceased mem- 
bers, so far as they are known to the Society, are : 

Col. Risdon M. Moore, San Antonio, Tex. 

Col. W. L. Gross, Springfield, 111. 

Hon. Thomas Lowry, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Henry C. Withers, Carrollton, 111. 

Hon. George A. Sanders, Springfield, 111. 

Dr. A. W. French, Springfield, 111. 

Dr. Marcus P. Hatfield, Chicago. 

Hon. R. W. Mills, Jacksonville, 111. 

Mr. H. C. Todd, Oak Park, 111. 

Gen. Alfred Orendorff, Springfield, 111. 



9 

Mrs. Louisa I. Black, Springfield, 111. 

Rev. John B. Fairbanks, Jacksonville, 111. 

Mr. John W. Good of Moline, 111., who died in far away India. 

1 do not know exactly as to who is our oldest member, but 1 rather 
incline to give the honor to Dr. Samuel Willard of Chicago, and I am 
sure that our youngest member is McLaren Fox of Fairfield, though we 
have a number of student members, both young men and young women. 

As I have said, I will not touch upon the work of the Library, because 
President James is to do that in a larger and far better way than I 
can do; but I wish to once more call vour attention to the crowded 
condition of the Library. We are crowded in every branch of our work. 
A gentleman said to me that the Library Board ought to provide a 
handsome case for the collection of books already mentioned as having 
been purchased in Europe. I said I am sure that the Library Board 
will see the necessity of the case and will gladly purchase it, if I can 
show them the space in the Library where the case can be placed when 
purchased. The collection of Lincolniana continues to grow and our 
walls are overcrowded. We have no space for additions, and our frames 
of material illustrating other and very interesting phases of' State 
history are stored away. We are unable to place the files of the news- 
papers. These papers are packed away. In every single line of our 
work we are hampered for want of room. Does not the Society feel that 
we are very near the time when we must besiege the Legislature for an 
appropriation for a building? Are we willing to remain behind our 
neighboring states of Wisconsin and Iowa? Are we willing to have 
our students compelled to go to Madison or Albany for their source 
materials? Dr. J. F. Snyder has spent years in collecting a great 
archaeological and anthropological collection and he wishes to give it to 
this Society, but he makes the .necessary stipulation that we provide for 
its reception a fire-proof building. This at present we are unable to 
do. Gentlemen and ladies, I think the time is at hand when we must 
face the question of a building for the Historical Society and its growing 
needs. It must not be decided hurriedly, it must not be decided from 
a narrow point of view. We must soberly and thoughtfully consider 
the question, and when we have formulated a good plan and submitted 
it to the proper persons to advise us as to its legal correctness in form 
and manner, and adjusted it to meet the requirements of the interests 
concerned in it, we ought to work hard for it. and we ought to work in 
harmony. 

Very respectfully. 

Jessie Palmer Weber. 



10 



EEPOET OF TEEASUEEE. 



May, 1900, to May, 1910. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand from 1908 

Dues received from members of the society . . 



Total receipts . 



EXPENDITURES. 



EXPENDITURES, MAY, 1909-MAY, 1910. 



Miss C. E. Benneson, expenses 

Expenses, Gen. Chas. R. Partridge 

Miss Bessie O'Brien, services 

R. L. Berry, piano 

Maldaner & Son, supplies 

Mrs. Jennie Howey, supplies 

H. L. Phelps, supplies 

Bell Miller, supplies 

Leland Livery Co.. carriage for speakers. 

Transfer Co., "hauling 

L. E. Wheeler, postage 

Illinois Journal Co., printing 

W. W. Owens, labor 



Total expenditures . 
Balance 



$145 72 
385 00 



$69 75 


23 50 


25 00 


4 00 


39 75 


6 5C 


23 00 


4 50 


3 5C 


1 50 


CO 00 


22 50 


8 00 



$530 72 



291 50 



$229 22 



11 



DIRECTORS' MEETING. 



Springfield, May 5, 1910. 

The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in the office of the secretary, Thursday morning, May 5, 1910, at 9:30 
o'clock. There were present : Messrs. Carr, Greene, Schmidt, Meese, 
Clinton, Norton, RusseL Burnham and the secretary, Mrs. Weber. 

President Carr presided. The report of the secretary was read, 
accepted and approved, and it was voted that it be read in the business 
meeting of the Society and published in the next number of the Journal. 

The report of the treasurer was read, accepted and approved and it 
was directed that it be read in the business meeting of the Society. 

The secretary of the Society was directed to express the thanks of 
the Board of Directors to Miss Louise I. Enos and to Mr. Clinton L. 
Conkling, both of Springfield, for generous gifts to the Society and 
Library. Captain Burn bam moved that a committee of three be 
appointed to confer with the State Park Commission on the marking 
of historic sites in the State. The chair appointed Messrs. Meese, Greene 
and Norton as this committee, and the committee was requested to 
prepare a comprehensive list of such places throughout the entire State. 

Mr. Meese reported for the committee on marking the route of Mr. 
Lincoln's army on its march from Beardstown to the Rock River country 
that there had been some misunderstanding as to the appointment or 
formation of the committee, and suggested that a new committee be 
appointed or that additions be made to the original committee with one 
member from Beardstown, Ottawa, Dixon, Prophetstown and Macomb. 
Professor Greene moved, and it was seconded by Mr. Clinton, that Mr. 
Meese be requested and authorized to name additional members from 
the towns where markers are to lie placed. This motion was voted upon 
and carried. 

The secretary reported a visit made by a committee of the Society 
on the invitation of Mr. Dan Sheen to the neighborhood of Peoria to 
inspect some land owned by Mr. Sheen, with a view of considering the 
property as the site of old Fort Creve Ccenr. It was voted that this 
committee be continued. 

The question of a building for the Historical Society and allied 
interests was considered and the board especially commended the idea 
and urged that the Society use every effort to secure such a building. 

The Board of Directors then adjourned to meet at 1 :30 o'clock of 
the same day. 



12 

1:30 O'Clock, May 5, 1910. 

The Board of Directors met in adjourned session at 1 :30 o'clock, and 
the new board was organized by the election of Hon. Clark E. Carr as 
president of the board and Jessie Palmer Weber was elected secretary 
and treasurer. 

Captain Burnham suggested some change in the plan of the program 
of the annual meetings in order that the directors may have more time 
for the transaction of the business of the Society. 

Captain Burnham asked the opinion of Professor Greene on this 
point. 

Professor Greene suggested some changes. It was voted that the 
chair appoint a special committee to formulate a plan for the program, 
of which the chairman of the Program Committee be a member, with 
three other members. 

The formation of the committees for the year was considered and it 
was decided that as the membership of the Society is so large, that large 
committees be appointed in order that more members be given places 
on committees, but that three members constitute a quorum of any 
committee. 

The committees were appointed. 

The matter of by-laws for the Society was considered. Captain Burn- 
ham said that the Society never had by-laws, its constitution being its 
rule of action. 

It was moved by Mr. Clinton and seconded by Mr. Bussel that the 
matter of constitution and by-laws be referred to the president and 
secretary with power to act. 

This motion was voted upon and carried. 

Professor Greene said that the year of the next annual meeting 
( 11)11) will be the fiftieth anniversary of the breaking out of the Civil 
War and suggested that some special observance of this anniversary be 
made. It was voted that the attention of the Program Committee be 
called to this historic date, with the suggestion that it be observed. 

Professor Page spoke of the unreliability of some county histories 
and suggested that the Historical Society make an effort to assist in 
correcting errors where known and attempting to secure more reliable 
work in the future. 

The secretary was directed to tender the thanks of the directors to 
the ladies and gentlemen who contributed addresses and papers at tin's 
annual meeting. 

There being no further business, the session of the Board of Directors 
adjourned. 



Communication from Dr. Snyder, Who Declines the Chairman- 
ship of the Committee on Archaeology. 

Among the proceedings of the Board of Directors of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, at their meeting held at Springfield on Dec. 2, 1909, 
was the following: "The directors desire that Dr. Snyder be chairman 



13 

of the Committee on Archaeology, if he will accept it, and the secretary 

and Captain Burnham were asked to find out from Dr. Snyder whether 

or not he will accept the chairmanship of the committee." 

To their inquiry the secretary and Captain Burnham received this 

answer : 

Vibginia. III.. Jan. 1, 1910. 
Mrs. Weber and Capt. Burnham: ■ 

The State Historical Society of every state in the Union, with the excep- 
tion of that of Illinois, considers the study of pre-historic anthropology a 
very important preliminary to its recorded state history. The Historical 
Society of New York has collected and preserved in its museum, representa- 
tive specimens of all its antiquities, and fully described them in several 
large, well-illustrated volumes. The State Historical Society of Ohio has sur- 
veyed and mapped the mounds and other remains of the arts and industries 
of- its aborigines, and described them in enduring volumes of great value, 
and has one of the finest and most extensive collections of Indian relics in 
the Mississippi Valley. The Missouri Historical Society, of St. Louis, has 
over 30,000 relics of pre-historic Indian art, many of the finest and rarest 
of them procured from the American Bottom and other localities in Illinois. 
This wise and scholarly attention to archaeology has been manifested, to a 
greater or less extent, by the historical societies of all the states but this. 

A very promising beginning for this study was made by this State 
about twenty-five years ago. By some inexplicable influence, Wm. McAdams, 
an indefatigable relic hunter, succeeded in selling to the State an archaeo- 
logical collection he had made, which he properly arranged in two large 
upright cases in the State Geological Museum. 

As you know, I was one of the founders of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, and entered upon the work of its promotion wun much enthusiasm. 
Retired from all active business, I expected to devote the remainder of my 
days to its advancement; and fondly hoped to see it made the equal, in 
standing, efficiency, and usefulness, of any similar organization in this coun- 
try. To the Department of Illinois Archaeology — then, as now, wholly 
neglected — I wished to bestow especial attention, and by every effort of mine, 
try to compensate for lost time in its development. When the State His- 
torical Library was about to be installed in its present quarters, then occu- 
pied by the State Geological Museum, but in process of removal to the 
Arsenal building, I begged my superiors in authority to retain the two 
McAdams cases, to serve as a nucleus for a State archaeological collection 
under the auspices of the State Historical Society, offering, if that was done, 
to add to them, as a donation, my own collection, representing the labor and 
study of a life-time and the outlay of quite a sum of money. 

My suggestion and offer were not thought worthy of consideration, or 
even of a courteous answer, by my superiors in authority, and the two Mc- 
Adams cases were removed, with the balance of the museum, to the Arsenal, 
where they now are. This rebuff was followed by another much more morti- 
fying to me, when the very promising prospects of the embryo State His- 
torical Society of Illinois were effectually aborted by degrading it to a mere 
appendage of the Historical Library — thoroughly emasculating it by depriv- 
ing it of every power and function that gives to a State Historical Society — 
its influence and vitality. 

As the same superior authorities still dominate the State Historical Society, 
maintaining the same restrictive and repressing policy in its management, 
any further effort on my part to promote interest in the study of Illinois 
archaeology, or to elevate the society to a higher and independent plane, 
would be not only futile but farcical. I therefore decline the honor you 
tender me of chairmanship of your Committee on Archaeology. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. F. Sxvder. 



14 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 



Committee on Genealogy. 

To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications begs 
leave to submit the following report : 

The interest in the department and its collection is increasing daily, and 
it would take the attention of one person all the time to take charge of this 
department of the library as it should be kept up. Since our last report pub- 
lished in the Journal of the society, October, 1908, we have added some valu- 
able works on Genealogy, among them should be mentioned, the complete 
set of the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 64 volumes, 
from Vol. I, 1847 to 1910; An Index to Savage's Genealogical Dictionary, 
compiled by 0. P. Dexter; The North Carolina Colonial Records, 26 volumes, 
covering the period, 1622-1790; Hunter's Sketches of North Carolina; 
Wheeler's Historical Sketches of North Carolina, 1584-1851; Gibbes' Docu- 
mentary History of the American Revolution, relating particularly to South 
Carolina; Histories of Albermarle and Augusta Counties, Virginia; Hayden's 
Virginia Genealogies; Virginia Cousins, by G. Brown Goode; Slaughter's 
Bristol Parish, Virginia; Lewis' Orderly Book of that portion of the Ameri- 
can Army Stationed at or near Williamsburg, Virginia, March 18, 1776 to 
August 28, 1776; Illinois Pension Rolls, 1816-1835; Order of the Cincinnati, 
Institution and Proceedings of the Society, May 10, 1783, published in Boston, 
1812, also Order of in France, Organization and History of. 

The Library has received the following gifts of family histories: 

Yates Family Chart and short family history; from the Hon. Richard 
Yates, Springfield, 111. 

Beall and Edwards Family History; from Mr. Albert S. Edwards, Spring- 
field, 111. 

Hall Family History; from Mrs. Sophie Fidelia Hall Coe, of Meriden, Conn. 

We wish again to call your attention to the matter of family histories of 
Illinoisans. If you know of one being compiled or any data available con- 
cerning pioneer families of the State, please notify us and we will try and 
secure all such for the department. 

Respectfully submitted, May .">, 1910, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications. 



Committee on Local Historical Societies. 

Springfield, III., May 5, 1910. 
Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, III.: 

Your Committee on Local Historical Societies -believe that many of these 
organizations are doing better work than ever before and that future pros- 
pects taken as a whole are quite satisfactory. 



16 

We recommend that our Journal commence the publication of the names 
of the officers of these societies as soon as possible, together with a brief 
condensation of line of work and methods of each society, and that through 
this Journal the State Society shall as far as practicable foster the interests 
of the local societies. 

We also advise the formation of some plan similar to the one adopted 
by the local societies of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. This is a district 
plan under which our local societies may hold occasional meetings made up 
of officers and interested members at some central point, and thus instruct 
and assist each other in historical questions of State, county or neighbor- 
hood interest. 

We will venture to suggest five places which may each be convenient to 
perhaps a half dozen societies, although upon further conference and con- 
sideration some changes may be found advisable. The new Cook County 
Historical Society has already set forth as one of its objects the idea of 
holding such meetings for societies convenient to Chicago. It may be that 
Quincy, Moline, Alton and Peoria will be found to be satisfactory locations 
for other district meetings. Each one of the places indicated is rich in 
historical associations, and at each locality may be met enthusiastic histori- 
cal students and investigators ready and willing, we assume, to assist other 
enthusiasts. 

This plan is simply suggestive and may be enlarged or modified if desired. 
Your committee hopes that our many local historical societies will make 
greater advances in 1910 than in any previous year. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. H. BuiiXHAM, 

J. W. Clinton, 

Committee on Local Historical Societies. 



16 



REPORTS OF LOCAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 



Knox County Historical Society. 

The Knox County Historical Society was organized in December, 1905. 

The object of the organization, as outlined in the constitution, is to "col- 
lect data and material relating to the history of Knox county and vicinity, 
and to arrange for its preservation; to encourage persons to donate, or to 
loan to the society such data, material or articles as will illustrate the 
pioneer and later life in the county and in this part of the State, to promote 
a love for historical study, and to cooperate with like organizations in 
other parts of Illinois." 

The President, Col. Clark E. Carr; Secretary, Mrs. Chas. Ashley Webster 
and Treasurer, James H. Losey, elected at the first meeting have been 
retained in their respective offices until the present time. Dr. J. V. N. 
Standish, who was elected chairman of the vice presidents-at-large, has also 
remained in office since that time. In the other offices there has been an 
occasional change. The present officers are as follows: 

President, Clark E. Carr. 

Vice President, W. H. Wilcox. 

Secretary, Martha Farnham Webster. 

Treasurer, James H. Losey. 

Custodian, L. T. Stone. 

Librarian, Anna F. Hoover. 

Vice Presidents-at-Large— J. V. N. Standish, Fred R. Jelliff, Geo. S. Chal- 
mers, M. D., F. W. Latimer, Ray M. Arnold. 

There are also vice presidents from each of the twenty townships in 
the county. 

A number of important and very interesting historical papers have been 
read before the society, some of the more notable among them being the 
following: A paper read by Dr. J. V. N. Standish on "The Old Court House 
of Knox County," in which he minutely, described the remarkable resem- 
blance of this old building to an ancient Grecian temple. It is a copy of a 
Grecian temple. The Metapes and the Triglyphs are there, and the Doric 
columns with their sixteen flutings, the number usually found in the Greek 
temples throughout Sicily and Greece, and proved his position by comparing 
their architectural features in detail: "The Early Schools in Galesburg." 
by Mrs. M. E. Gettemy, for many years principal of the Galesburg High 
School; "The Early Bar of Knox County," by Hon. E. P. Williams, who is 
styled "the Nestor of the Knox County Bar;" "Personal Reminiscences of 1 
Early Galesburg," by Erastus S. Willcox, Librarian of the Peoria Public 
Library; "Early Schools and Methods of Instruction in Galesburg," by Mil- 
ton L. Comstock, Professor in Knox College, deceased: "Reminiscences of 
Early Days," by E. P. Chambers: "Early Music in Galesburg," by Mrs. J. T. 
Avery: "The Indians and Their White Neighbors of the Spoon River Coun- 
try," by Miss Jennie McKenney of Maquon; "The Indians of Illinois," by 
Attorney C. C. Craig, illustrated by a very fine display of Indian relics 
belonging to Countv Sheriff R. G. Matthews; "The Surface Formation of 
Knox County," by Editor F. R. Jelliff; "The History of the Galesburg 



■ 17 

Postoffice," by Col. Clark B. Carr, Postmaster in Galesburg for twenty-four 
years. Other papers of a reminiscent or historic character, by Mrs. C. A. 
Hinckley, E. P. Williams, Chas. A. Webster, and the last valuable contri- 
bution to our history, "The History of the Public School System of Gales- 
burg," by Prof. W. L. Steele, Superintendent of the Galesburg Public 
Schools. 

We have started a museum of relics and a library of manuscripts and books 
of historic interest and value, (locally), but nothing that would interest the 
general public. 



Woodford County Historical Society. 

The past year has been a profitable one for our society. At the June 
meeting, which was made a round table conference, a full report was pre- 
sented of the joint celebration by our Historical Society and the Old Set- 
tlers' Association of the Speeches of Lincoln and Douglas at Metamora, in 
1858, the latter speaking September 30, the former October 4. There existed 
considerable doubt as to the dates on which these men appeared at Meta- 
mora until the files of papers published at that time, now in the libraries 
of the historical societies at Springfield and Chicago were consulted. The 
search revealed the fact that they spoke on the dates above given. 

Our annual meeting was held December 9th in the circuit court room of 
the court house before a large and intelligent audience. We had a printed 
program of choice music and two strong addresses by Hon. J. A. Ranney 
of Metamora and Prof. B. J. Radford of Eureka, both members of the 
society. The former spoke on "The Early Settlers of Woodford County," 
the latter on "The Pioneer Home." Another interesting feature of the pro- 
gram was the exhibit of old and rare articles. . A request had previously 
been made in all the newspapers published in the county for those who 
had suitable articles for the exhibit to send or bring them to the meeting 
for that purpose. Through this channel, with the personal work of the 
secretary, Miss Amanda Jennings, a large number of relics were collected 
and displayed in the front part of the room on tables. The following is 
a partial list: 

1. Hackle; brought to Illinois,1835. Donated to the society by Mr. 
Foster. 

2. Reel; a wedding present to Mrs. Mary Williams Parke, who was mar- 
ried to Chas. S. Parke, 1814. 

3. Corn Planter (double row); used by John Foster 50 years ago. 
Donated by W. H. Smith. 

4. Deed; dated "Colony of Connecticut, April 3, 1775," written in Old 
English. Loaned by Amanda Jennings. 

5. Sale bill; dated 1830, reciting, "Sheep and other articles too tedious 
to mention." Loaned by Amanda Jennings. 

6. Spectacle case: brought from North Carolina to Kentucky in 1791, 
by Timothy Parke. Loaned by Amanda Jennings. 

7. Bound Magazines; Chambers' Information for the People, published 
in Scotland, 1842. Loaned by Amanda Jennings. 

8. Pitchfork; made by hand, 1835. Loaned by Amanda Jennings. 

9. Candlestick; loaned by Mrs. Mary Bullock. 

10. Sugar bowl: brought to Illinois from Indiana in 1833. Loaned by 
Mrs. Mary Bullock. 

11. Dutch oven; made in 1819. Loaned by Miss Elmira Dickinson. 

12. Oil painting, made in 1819. Loaned by Miss Dickinson. 

13. Lard lamp: brought from Germany, 75 years old. Loaned by Mrs. 
Klophkinstein. 

14. Cane; 150 years old. Loaned by Mrs, Klophkinstein. 



-2H S 



18 

15. Wheel; loaned by Mrs. Klophkinstein. 

16. German bible; published in 1735. Loaned by John Kaufman. 

17. Gazetteer, 1837. Loaned by John Kaufman. 

18. German song book, 1762. Loaned by John Kaufman. 

19. Hand sickle. Loaned by John Kaufman. 

20. Harness hames; 100 years old. Loaned by John Kaufman. 

21. "Don Quixote," 1803. Loaned by Mrs. Ruth Major. 

22. Seth Thomas Clock; wooden works, 100 vears old. Loaned bv S. 
W. Thomb. 

23. Lamp; used to light Mount Zion Church, 1835. 

24. Coins. Loaned by Amos Marshall. 

25. Apple peeler. Loaned by Mrs. W. J. Jennings. 

26. Candle snuffers; 100 years old. Loaned by L. J. Freese. 

27. Physician's lance; brought from Germany, 140 years old. Loaned 
by L. J. Freese. 

28. Candle stick, 140 years old. Loaned by L. J. Freese. 

29. Men's English boots. Loaned by G. W. Freese. 

30. Ladies' English shoes. Loaned by G. W. Freese. 

31. Candle molds; brought from Ohio, 1858, bought in 1848, price 37% 
cents. Loaned by Mrs. G. M. Freese. 

32. Wooden butter print; 60 years old. Loaned by Mrs. G. M. Freese. 

33. Tin lantern. Loaned by Mrs. Klophkinstein. 

34. Gun; 75 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Klophkinstein. 

35. Powder horn; 100 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Klophkinstein. 

36. Pewter tea pot; 100 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Klophkinstein. 

37. Tea chest; brought from England. Loaned by Mrs. Joe Major. 

38. Watch; 150 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Joe Major. 

39. Candle snuffers; 75 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Joe Major. 

40. Warming pan. Loaned by Mrs. Joe Major. 

41. Hackle, 1796, with these words engraved, Not to be Lent." But 
loaned by Mrs. E. Payne. 

42. Whetstone; 150 years old. Loaned by S. W. Thomb. 

43. Ink well; having four compartments, 200 years old. Loaned bv G. 
W. Kerr. 

44. Razor; 150 years old. Loaned by Amos Marshall. 

45. Smith's Arithmetic; 55 years old. Loaned by Amos Marshall. 

46. Sword; secured from the Philippines in the Spanish-American War 
by R. D. Smith. Loaned by R. D. Smith, Jr. 

47. Book; "Origin and Progress of Languages." Used in S. S. Library. 
1851. Loaned by R. B. Dickinson. 

48. Bed spread; woven 70 years ago by Mrs. R. Jones. Loaned by Mrs. 
R. B. Dickinson. 

49. Physician's scales; used in 1837 by A. G. Ewing. Loaned by Mrs. 
W. A. Davidson. 

50. Diploma; granted A. G. Ewing by A. Jackson and signed by A. 
Campbell at Nashville. Tenn., Oct. 4, 1826. 

51. Old English coins. Loaned by Amos Marshall. 

Quite a number of books, aside from the publications from the State His- 
torical Society, were presented at this meeting. Steps are now being taken 
to secure a suitable case for the books belonging to the society. 

We have an enrollment of forty members. Five names were added at the 
last meeting. 

The public is interested in the doings of the society, and our meetings 
are well attended. 

It is our purpose to presently publish a Journal. We lack funds to do 
so at this time. Very respectfully. 

L. J. Fkeese. 



19 

Colored Historical Society, Springfield, III. 

Springfield, III., May 5, 1910. 
To me president, Officers anil Members of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of 

the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Greeting — Another year with its vicissitudes and changes has passed away 
and through the mercies of Divine Providence, we have again been per- 
mitted to meet in our annual meeting. As representatives we should be 
glad to meet each other and to grasp the friendly hand and extend a greet- 
ing which may awaken in us emotions of deep and profound gratitude. 
As we look around us, we are reminded that many whom we have known 
and honored in the past, have been called from labor to rest, and others 
by infirmities of age and various conditions, no doubt, are prevented from 
being present with us today. We send as delegates to represent us in 
your annual meeting. Dr. J. H. Magee, president; Mesdames J. C. McClain, 
C. H. Morgan and Hattie McTier. 

local's condition. 

It is with pleasure I now submit the annual report of the Colored Local 
Historical Society of the city of Springfield. 

Our president, Dr. J. H. Magee, with his official staff of officers has accom- 
plished much good work during the year. We are glad to say our untiring 
president has been able through his active service to enlist many of our 
leading men and women of our race to take an active part in our work dur- 
ing the past year, such as ministers, doctors, lawyers and some very noted 
orators and musicians of high rank. We succeeded in. holding two or more 
public meetings, which were attended by more than 800 persons. At each 
of these meetings we listened to able addresses, and historical papers, which 
proved to arouse and awaken new life in our society. We, at our private 
meetings, have talks on the life works of our pioneers. We now wish to 
mention a few of our speakers who have appeared before us with creditable 
papers and addresses, namelv : Prof. R. A. Byrd of Quincy, 111.; Rev. J. M. 
Smalley, Maj. Otis Duncan, Dr. N. B. Ford and Rev. E. T. Cottman, all of 
this city. Our ladies also have contributed many papers worthy of mention. 
We hope by another year to get our work in full print, as we have been 
discussing the life work of Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, Phylis Wheatley 
and Francis E. Harper; these lives we feel are worthy of emulation. 

Names of our officers are as follows: 

President, Dr. J. H. Magee. 

Vice President, Mrs. M. Hicklin. 

Treasurer, Julia Duncan. 

Secretary, J. C. McClain. 

Number of members enrolled, 60; number of active members, 40; number 
regular meetings held, 6. 

The special observance during the year was the celebration of Lincoln's 
birthday on the evening of the 12th of February, 1910, at the Union Baptist 
Church, corner of 12th and Mason streets. This was an occasion, which 
brought out more than 500 colored people, and we had a chorus of more 
than 120 voices singing those grand old patriotic songs of old. 

We wish to say we are collecting books for a library and have now sev- 
eral volumes on hand. Also preserving valuable papers, which have been 
read at our meetings, and desire to have them printed some day soon. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dr. J. H. Magee, President, 
(Mks.) J. C. McClain, Secretary. 

Address of secretary, 2112 S. 9th street. 



PART II. 

Papers Read at the Annual Meeting, 



1910. 



23 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



Held in the Capitol Building at Springfield, Thursday and Friday, May 

5th and 6th, 1910. 

program of literary exercises. 

Annual Address — "The West and the Growth of the National Ideal," F. L. 
Paxson, Ph. D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Address — "Some Illinois Editors I Have Known," Gen. Smith D. Atkins, 
Freeport, 111. 

Address — "Negro Slavery in Illinois," Hon. John P. Hand, Cambridge, III. 

Address — "The English Settlements in Edwards County, 111.," Hon. H. J. 
Strawn, Albion, 111. 

Address — "The Life and Services of Alfred Orendorff, Late President of 
the Illinois State Historical Society," Hon. James A. Creighton, Spring- 
field, 111. 

Lecture with Stereopticon Views — "The Archaeology of the Mississippi 
Valley," Dr. Warren K. Moorehead, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 

Address — -"Grant's First March," Ensley Moore, Jacksonville, 111. 

Address — '"Illinois and the Revolution in the West, 1779-1780," J. A. James, 
Ph. D., Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

"A Brief Sketch of the Work of the Illinois State Historical Library," 
President E. J. James, University of Illinois. 

Address — "The Ninety-sixth Illinois at Chickamauga," Gen. Charles A. 
Partridge, Chicago, 111. 

Address — "The Illinois Bill of Rights," Herman G. James, J. D., Ur- 
bana, 111. 

Address — Mrs. S. P. Wheeler, Springfield, 111. 

Address — "The Kensington Runestone," Geo. T. Flom, Ph. D., Urbana, 111. 

Reception in Illinois State Library. 



24 



THE WEST AND THE GROWTH OF THE NATIONAL IDEAL. 



(By Frederic L. Paxson, Ph. D., University of Michigan.) 

Some three months ago it was my good fortune to bring out a little book 
on the last West, covering the two generations which followed the election 
of Andrew Jackson. The book was intended for the lay public, but it was 
based upon studies in the original materials of western history, and it 
included only a few of the results of those studies. In it I was dealing 
with historical narrative, having a plain story to tell. Interpretation and 
argument found there no place; but your kind invitation to address this 
society tonight offered the opportunity to attempt to explain one of the 
changes which the passing of the frontier brought about. 

The student of American history during the eighties may well note two 
facts which stand out above all the rest of that transitional decade. One 
is the election of Grover Cleveland; the other is the tendency to re-arrange 
business and traffic on national lines. The former appears to deal with 
politics; the latter with economics. But to the sympathetic student they 
are only the different sides of the same fact that the United States, in some 
mysterious and unexplained fashion, had become a nation. The old order 
had given way so easily that the new had come unheralded to life. 

The election of Grover Cleveland marked, in large measure, the revulsion 
of feeling that occurred when the country realized that concentration and 
nationalization were upon it. To "stalwart" Republicans, and to "half-breeds" 
as well, it seemed to say either that treason was no longer odious, or that 
political unwisdom had reaped its sure reward. Yet the political diagnosis 
was neither accurate nor frank. If you will read in the files of the period- 
icals of that decade you will find abundant evidence of three facts, the realiza- 
tion of centralizing tendency, the distaste for the same, and a disposition 
to hold the Republican party accountable for it. A revival of decentralizing 
democracy was called for and provided. It could not check the drift, but it 
was the only mooring in sight. How many of Mr. Cleveland's votes came 
from the democrats of this type, who were to be found in both parties, we 
cannot say as yet. Certainly these were an important factor in the victory- 
It was thus a fright, a fear of despotic government that re-enforced the 
critics of the old Republican regime. Wherever one looked, there was the 
same spectre taking shape. A standard oil trust was only one of its many 
disguises. A telegraph trust, an impending railroad trust, a monopolized 
land system, all were parts of an economic concentration. Even the national 
government appeared to be slipping in the same direction. The dominating 
party had begun the significant use of the word "nation" in its platforms. 
The last of the legal tender cases authorized a theory of sovereign power 
strange to those who had been trained on older theories of the Constitution. 
It became the general cry that national power was growing beyond any 
check, that private economic power was heading off individual initiative. 
The most promising romancer of the decade, Edward Bellamy, could find a 
cure only through accepting even more of the centralized power which was 
so relentless. 



25 

Whether or not for good, the new order had arrived, and men set them- 
selves first to explain it, next to live with it. With the latter problem, I 
have here no concern. With the former I am chiefly interested because the 
commonest explanation, the one glibly uttered and easily repeated, was 
in my view wrong. It was said, and few denied it that the Civil War had 
done it all, that the true theory of a balance of power between states and 
federation had been wrecked in the attempt to conquer the slave holding 
states; that in this struggle had come first the war powers, then vague 
resulting powers which led to authority without restraint. If the change 
was looked upon as good, then it was the result of patriotic devotion to a 
national conflict; if evil, it was the result of unbridled ambition and the 
lust for power long possessed. But either way few denied the fact of 
national trend and most ascribed it to the Civil War. 

The most recent historian of the period of the Civil War, Professor Fite 
of Yale, has scarcely mentioned the existence of the military struggle that 
has filled so much of the canvas for most of the historians. He has seen 
instead the social and industrial development of the north during the six- 
ties, a development pushing on regardless of the war or slavery, and build- 
ing up a new north and a new northwest, which in 1871, so far as economics 
was concerned, hardly realized that the conflict had occurred. The time is 
not yet ripe perhaps for a history of the United States without the Civil 
War, or for a treatment which should make it an unimportant episode in 
the nation's development. But it does appear to be safe to say that the war 
has loomed up too large; that with better perspective and a longer range it 
will cease to fill the whole field of vision. Lincoln was the least likely 
picture of the "man on horseback" that we have seen. What the United 
States became, it became by growth and development, an active life and the 
run of a continent. 

The "run of a continent" is merely a metaphor to describe what is already 
known to most of you, through the labors of the greatest of our western 
historians, Turner, as the Westward Movement. Mr. Rhodes, in his monu- 
mental "History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850," has 
been almost unaware of its existence. He has written from the standpoint 
of national politics, with Washington always in or near the center of his 
stage. When he shall come, however, to take up the continuation of his 
work after 1877, as he has promised to do, he will find in the history of the 
trans-Mississippi, since 1860 the causes of much of the national revival after 
the Civil War. It is this history of the farther West and the final West 
that explains the phenomena of the eighties. 

On the eve of the Civil War the United States extended from the Atlantic 
to the western border of Missouri. It had acquired title to lands extending 
through to the Pacific, but it had done little more than make a preliminary 
occupation of its western domain. The East had grown continuously. All 
of the trans-Mississippi states of the first tier, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri. 
Arkansas and Louisiana, had been admitted to the union. West of these 
the advance had been unable to go in the systematic fashion of its former 
progress — the "heel and toe" process, as Professor Johnson has called it. 
Texas had indeed come in, but Texas was in a different climate and on a 
different soil. California had thriven on her gold boom; Oregon had received 
the beginnings of her population, and both had been welcomed in as states. 
But California and Oregon were bound to the union by so tenuous a bond 
that men hesitated to touch it lest it break. The commonest of the prophe- 
cies of the fifties was the severance of the Pacific Slope and the erection 
there of one or more republics. 

Between the Missouri border and these youthful commonwealths stretched 
the vast American desert, the abode of the homeless Indian, the prairie dog 
and the cactus. In the popular mind it was uninhabitable. Looked upon 
as a game preserve, it excited the admiration of the sportsman, but it. had 
never produced either population or resources of consequence. The much 
heralded settlement, of Kansas and Nebraska territories in the later fifties 
was largely restricted to their eastern ends, within hearing almost of the 



26 

Missouri river steamers that carried passengers and freight to their more 
important villages. The desert itself was well nigh untouched and severed 
the eastern and Pacific states as effectively as an ocean. 

There is an interesting historic parallel between the situation of the 
American colonies in 1763 and that of the American states a century later. 
In the earlier case the colonies had grown in independent, rival life, know- 
ing little of each other and caring less, occupying each its piece of seaboard 
land and having slight intercourse with its immediate neighbors. The 
advance of settlement from the coast to the falls line did not change this 
quasi-insularity of the colonies. From the falls line to the mountain passes, 
through which access could be had to the Mississippi Valley, was a different 
story. The passes were few and centralized. The routes west converged to 
a few places. Here on the mountain summits where geographical factors 
brought colonial expansion into close contacts, the common danger of Indians 
and French compelled cooperation and union. It was no accident that inde- 
pendence followed in less than twenty years. 

This history of the birth of nationality repeated itself after an even cen- 
tury. For provincial localism substitute sectional economic localism. For 
a quarreling group of seaboard states, consider an irritated and irritable 
North and South, living in water-tight compartments side by side and ex- 
tending from east to west. On the common western border appeared a new 
problem, that of the great desert. Earlier frontiers had been occupied piece- 
meal by single pioneers, but the slight agricultural values of this West for- 
bade the repetition of the older process. The conquest of this frontier 
depended upon neither slavery nor freedom, but upon a new conception of 
the vital force of national life. Out of the cooperation which this necessity 
compelled, the old nation could not come without change — a change which 
we are here to watch. 

The legislation of 1854 completed the political organization of the inter- 
vening desert in a fashion that emphasizes the slight value that was placed 
upon it. Between the Missouri border and the Pacific states lie today twelve 
states and two territories. In 1854 the vast area was the possession of six 
amorphous and unoccupied territories, and the Indian country. Oregon and 
Washington territories extended from the continental divide to the Pacific, 
and enclosed all of the Oregon country. South of these, Utah territory, the 
abode of a handful of the Latter Day Saints, stretched from California to 
the same divide, between the parallels of forty-two and thirty-seven. Yet 
further south was a territory of New Mexico, running from Texas to Cali- 
fornia. On the eastern slope of the divide, where was yet the range of the 
Indians, the avowed Indian country had been crushed beyond recognition 
by the territories of Nebraska and Kansas. In law, no political division 
could have been made in the Indian country without the consent of the 
Indians. In practice, it was the flimsiest of legal fictions that covered the 
assimilation of the Indian lands. The present state of Oklahoma occupies 
the boundaries to which the Indian country was reduced in 1854. All the 
rest of the slope, beyond the Missouri border, was split along the fortieth 
parallel into Kansas and Nebraska. Six vast territories, for which as yet 
no people clamored, filled the old desert. 

On the eve of the Civil War the Far West was yet negligable in its effect 
upon national development. Clamor for trails and railways and postal 
service had begun, but had not gained the ear of Congress in any dominating 
sense. Yet the section was beginning on its own account a development that 
has escaped the notice of most students, with whom the Civil War has been 
an obsession. California and Oregon had been occupied without the occu- 
pation of the intervening lands. Utah had planted a colony on Great Salt 
Lake without more than local consequences. The great trails had been as 
narrowly hedged in as tunnels. Emigrants had passed from end to end 
with almost no deviation from the beaten path. The railway surveys had 
explored the region without inducing settlement. It was the miner who did 
what these had been unable to do. 

Ever since the rush to California, prospectors had searched for gold in 
the various gulches of the Rocky Mountains. They had failed to find it for 



27 

a decade, which is surprising since hundreds of streams carry down from 
the mountains traces at least of the precious metal. But scattered groups 
kept up the search, and individuals began to report success by 1858. For 
five years now nearly every month brought forth a new gold or silver region 
until the mountain area was speckled with little camps and claims from 
Mexico to the Canadian line. 

The detailed story of these discoveries and the states which were built 
upon them need not be told here. Interesting though it is, it might obscure 
the general notion which a brief survey can give as well. First came the 
Pike's Peak boom which gave birth to Colorado; Nevada next, as the result 
of the Comstock Lode and the mines of Carson and Virginia City. After 
these, following so fast that sequence ceases to be important, the placer 
fields of Bill Williams Fork in Arizona, the booms in eastern Washington 
on the Clearwater, the Salmon, the Boise, and the Owyhee, and the corres- 
ponding finds across the divide along Beaver Head and Madison Fork, and 
the other tributaries of the Missouri river. 

The Pike's Peak boom occurred in the spring of 1859, when perhaps 
100,000 prospectors crossed the plains from the Missouri border, drawn by 
the report of gold at Cherry Creek. Few of these were successful, and most 
of them returned to the states before the end' of 1859; but enough remained 
to create in Denver a nucleus around which the mining camps clustered and 
in which a statehood movement flourished' during 1859 and 1860. With the 
first emigrants came organized transportation. The Leavenworth and Pike's 
Peak Stage and Express Company started a line of coaches to the diggings, 
while its agent stirred up local sentiment in favor of government aid and 
subsidy. The immediate need of the miners was postal service, for which 
they petitioned Congress at once. And postal service meant an extension 
of governmental activity on a large scale and without remuneration. The 
great overland mail, which Congress had in 1858 given to California, had 
cost $600,000.00 a year to maintain, and had yielded under $28,000.00 in 
revenue. The scattered miners, however, cared nothing for incidental loss 
to the United States. They wanted cheap mails which they could not pro- 
cure for themselves; the government must step in with liberal contracts 
even when these implied not only the carriage of the mails but the erection 
of complete plants for stage lines across the continent. When the Civil War 
made it not longer possible to run the San Francisco mail by El Paso and 
the southern route, the stage line was transferred to the valley of the Platte 
and improved the situation of the Colorado miners as the result. The Pike's 
Peak statehood movement progressed more rapidly in the field than at 
Washington. Yet by 1861, a few days before the inauguration of Lincoln, 
a territory of Colorado was created upon the summit of the Rockies, assem- 
bling fragments of the older territories of Nebraska and Kansas, Utah and 
New Mexico, and commencing the breaking down of that indeterminate 
arrangement which had been completed in 1854. In 1854 no thought of terri- 
tories in the mountain region had existed for this was regarded as a waste 
area and a necessary evil. It now of itself compelled attention to its demands 
and needs. 

With Nevada the process was similar. The discovery of gold and silver 
in the hills along the California boundary in western Utah had precipi- 
tated a rush of eager miners to the Carson Valley in 1859. Virginia City, 
Gold Hill and Silver City had quickly grown to an aggregate of several 
thousand inhabitants, while Carson City, near which had long been a Mor- 
mon trading post on the California trail, persisted in becoming and remain- 
ing the business center of the field. In a legal sense Utah had jurisdiction 
over the new camp, but Utah was as far away from these mines as Kansas 
and Nebraska had been from Pike's Peak. Congress was again invited to 
intervene, and did so. A territory of Nevada was cut away from Utah in 
1861. Three years later Nevada was admitted to the Union. Tt was then 
as since a scandal among the states because of its trifling population. But 
its demand for recognition was as great as if the territory had been of con- 
sequence, while national need made every loyal vote in Congress a matter 
to be sought for. We have the word of Stewart, its first senator, that Lincoln 



28 

congratulated him upon his arrival in Washington. "I am glad to see you 
here," he said, "we need as many loyal states as we can get, and in addition 
to that, the gold and silver in the region you represent has made it possible 
for the government to maintain sufficient credit to continue this terrible 
war for the Union. I have observed such manifestations of the patriotism 
of your people as assure me that the government can rely upon your state 
for such support as is in its power." 

It was not uncommon in the sixties to count the gold and silver of the 
boom territories as one of the great assets of the Union. Probably the gold 
and silver that were produced were worth less than the aggregate of labor 
lost in searching for them, but their sentimental consequences appealed to 
many. From another of the diggings General J. H. Carleton wrote to Hal- 
leck of the Gila Valley as "one of the richest gold countries in the world," 
and congratulated General Thomas because his California column had found 
the gold with which to pay the cost of the war. 

Who Bill Williams was, I know not, but around the tributary of the lower 
Colorado which bears his euphonious name, the Arizona mines became an- 
other center. Long before either the Pike's Peak or Carson Valley camps 
had been exploited, New Mexico territory had been known as rich in silver. 
Old Mexican mines had existed in tradition and had been revived in fact 
by mining companies operating in the fifties around Tubac and Tucson. But 
this early development had no connection with the gold boom that added 
Arizona to the list of Rocky Mountain camps in the early sixties. The finds 
here, occurring in 1862 and 1863, played havoc with the troops sent against 
the confederates in New Mexico. Teamsters and enlisted men deserted by 
the hundred to try their luck. The region around Fort Whipple became 
active with a life that kept up a precarious existence in a real desert. Only 
the gold fever could have kept prospectors here where farmers had never 
dared to come. Yet enough held on to give volume to a new demand for the 
partition of New Mexico. Arizona territory dates from 1863, the third of 
the mining boom territories of the Civil War. 

North of the great Platte trail other prospectors carried their life into the 
northern field of the mountains, to the region drained by the tributaries of 
the Columbia and Missouri, and straddling the continental divide. The 
main line of traffic from east to west was always the middle trail which the 
Oregonians and Mormons had traced, and which the forty-niners had fol- 
lowed. It left the Missouri border near Kansas City, crossed to Grand 
Island in the Platte, followed that stream and its north fork to the Sweet- 
water, thence by way of the South Pass it pierced the continental divide. 
The Snake was its chief highway into Oregon. 

In the valley of the Snake, and northeast of it, the miners worked the 
same changes that had followed their advent in the southern field. Idaho 
and Montana territories came into existence at their demand. Their dele- 
gates in Congress joined forces with those from the other new territories 
to insist upon federal aid for the things which they needed most. By 1868 
all the new territories had been created and the Rocky Mountain region had 
assumed the appearance on the map which it has today, while as a new 
political factor it had begun to press upon the government of the United 
States. 

The Civil War had nothing to do with the occurrence of these mining 
booms. The precious metals had always existed in their mountain hiding 
places, waiting to be dragged out when exploration had advanced enough. 
They must have been reached and found in these same years whatever the 
conditions of the East and South. Upon their wealth must have been built 
the same group of territories and states. Until after 1854 the one-time 
desert was not regarded as possessing wealth, but enlightenment on this 
point bad to come. 

Whatever effect these western communities had upon the nation is a thing 
to be analyzed and weighed by itself as the logical outcome of American 
expansion. Their insistent demand for free land had always been on the 
lips of the western advocate. Their earnestness in urging transportation 
schemes continues the equal earnestness of the earlier Wests. Irrigation and 



29 

reclamation were the peculiar products of their special necessities. In the 
demand for public control of private institutions they stood in the front 
of a new movement. There was an inevitable bigness in the ideals of men 
who had travelled weeks instead of hours, who saw land in thousands 
instead of scores of acres. Their needs as they reacted upon the national 
life call for an examination in detail. 

No one familiar with the middle West can be surprised to find the farther 
West urging free land. Senator Benton had begun to urge it when his new 
state of Missouri was yet the wild frontier of settlement. He died before 
Congress accepted his teaching, but in the second year of the Civil War the 
Homstead Act was passed giving to the West all that its most liberal advo- 
cate could have desired. The new territories had no part in the adoption 
of this policy though they accepted and grew under it. Like their older 
neighbors, their inhabitants had quietly squatted on the public lands, recog- 
nizing no title to single tracts save in the actual occupant. It may be said 
that the substance of the homstead policy had been in de facto existence 
long before it was codified in law. Indeed its law is an excellent representa- 
tive of the peculiar Anglo-Saxon method of writing laws descriptive of facts 
already in practice. On the frontier such laws had the best chance for real 
enforcement. As has been pointed out in connection with other portions 
of the West, more than once, a group of states carved bodily from the public 
domain, with geometric boundaries and artificial names, with all land titles 
running from the United States as first owner, is not the place for the culti- 
vation of a state rights doctrine. Because of its instinct dependence upon 
the central government its view of life is forced to include the United States 
as sovereign. 

The public lands were good to live upon, but this was not the end of their 
utility. Illinois had discovered in 1850 a profitable use to which they could 
be put. The policy of internal improvements at the public cost had always 
been popular in the West where the improvements had an exaggerated value 
and the community had little private capital. In direct proportion as the 
West gained weight in the councils of the government, applications of this 
policy became frequent. Transportation devices — turnpikes, canals, railways — • 
were asked for without restraint. Some of them were aided by the govern- 
ment directly or indirectly, but the land grants in 1850 to the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad began the most extravagant and last period of government 
aid to private enterprises. 

The states of the Mississippi Valley received their land grants and com- 
menced their railroads in the fifties; the mining camps, lying outside the 
limits of organized states, raised the question in a new form. They felt 
their isolation. There is something humorous in the situation of the emi- 
grant who travels gratuitously a thousand miles from home, to serve his 
own purposes, and then in his new abode calmly demands that government 
take care of him. When in his emigration he has consistently violated the 
Indian laws and occupied forbidden land, his demand may become a cool 
impertinence. But the frontier miners saw none of the unconscious humor 
of their performance, and whether impertinent or not their demands were 
typical of the new America to which the mining booms gave life. The rail- 
way was a necessity if the camp was to continue to flourish. An eight hun- 
dred mile stage line could not be looked upon as a permanent solution of a 
transportation need* in 18G5. From every one of the hundreds of camps 
which appeared between 1853 and 1865 came in the vry to Congress? "Give 
us aid and build our railways." The national utility of the roads was 
frankly avowed, their economic value was distinctly secondary. 

Congress had been under pressure to build or encourage a Pacific railway 
for fifteen years before the war broke out, but the pressure had come almosl 
entirely from the East looking west until the mining territories began to 
agitate. With these established, the demands were multiplied. Each town 
wanted not only a railway, but to be on the main line. Few could receive 
exactly what Ihey wanted since there were limits to the resources which 



30 

Congress could control in war time. It is noteworthy that this is the first 
time in the westward movement of the frontier that the government was 
relied upon for any considerable part of the material equipment. 

It is well known how Congress in 1862 incorporated the Union Pacific 
railways, offering them bonds as well as lands in aid of speedy construction, 
but it is less clearly understood how far these and the later Pacific roads 
were the response to the insistence of the mining camps. Within a few 
years after the close of the war, lines were started along many parallel 
routes to the mountains and beyond. Jay Cooke's Northern Pacific headed 
from Lake Superior for the sources of the Missouri, the Atlantic and Pacific 
was projected from southwestern Missouri to California, the Texas Pacific- 
was to connect the Red River country with lower California. Private lines. 
as the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
supplemented the efforts of the land grant roads. And had not the panic 
of 1873 intervened to check industrial expansion of every sort it is likely 
that the old frontier would have disappeared in the seventies instead of the 
eighties. As it was, the critical period of the eighties, which invites its 
historian as cordially as did the critical period of a century before which 
John Fiske exploited, was not half over before the completion of these con- 
tinental lines opened numerous routes of eg.sy transportation from the states 
to the coast, traversing the desert and mountains, and penetrating with spur 
lines to mining camps, so that henceforth no great area of the West could 
be far removed from access to the East. 

So far from promoting this network of continental railways, the effect of 
the Civil War was only to retard its progress. Without the war the West 
would have been just as many miles from government and trade, and every 
mile would have embodied exactly the same argument for transportation. The 
vast differences between traffic points would have had the same influence 
upon railway organization as well. With eastern conditions, cities lying 
only a few score miles apart, small corporations could build their respective 
links in great connecting routes, leaving it to the future of finance to con- 
solidate and incorporate the disjointed members into workable systems. In 
the West railways built thousands where in the East hundreds of miles 
would suffice. Often traffic points were in themselves so insignificant in 
size that the company had to be able to wait for its profits until population 
and trade appeared. More than once they built into the frontier planning 
to lift themselves by their bootstraps into prosperity. But all this implied 
corporations which appeared gigantic when compared with their smaller 
contemporaries, and failed to arouse immediate fears only because the fear 
of no railway at all was a stronger force than the dread of any means of 
getting one. 

In the building of these railways the United States government had taken 
a more direct part than it had in the overcoming of any of the earlier 
frontiers. The national road had been indeed a great undertaking, but its 
function was not to open up a new region. It was rather to afford trans- 
portation through a region already fairly well developed. The land grants 
in the middle West had aided states in their local equipment.- Here, how- 
ever, the United States stood behind railway corporations which were not 
expected to pay great dividends, which were traversing nearly uninhabited 
plains and barren mountains, which were asked for largely for the purpose 
of binding together the nation, and which, so far as 4hey were effective, 
increased the population of that section which was best disposed to rely 
upon the national government for general favors, and to read into the con- 
stitution all the powers needful for their performance. 

The mining and plains territories which the expansion of the sixties 
called into statutory existence ripened into statehood in their third decade. 
If they had been left to the miners alone they might never have developed 
more than Arizona and Nevada have done. When they were created they 
possessed only the sparse and vagrant population of the mining camp. Agri- 
cultural development, which alone could secure permanency, followed the 
i xtension of the railways By 1890 there were admitted into the Union the 
two Dakotas, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Nevada. Colorado, Nebraska and 



31 

Wyoming. All were the special and peculiar wards of the United States, 
dependent upon its policies and returning an allegiance that magnified its 
powers. As the railway demand had represented one phase of the needs of 
their section, so the irrigation demand represents another. 

The reason why the regular expansion of the United States had stopped 
about 1830 near the Missouri border, to remain there for half a century, 
has a close connection with the climate of the West. Half way across 
Kansas and Nebraska rainfall becomes so slight and irregular as to be an 
unsafe reliance for the farmer. From about the ninety-seventh meridian 
to the Sierra Nevadas the semi-arid West was known as the American desert, 
and believed to have most of the attributes of such a waste. In this dry 
region the farmer could not thrive. The miner and rancher could make a 
precarious living if there were transportation enough, but agriculture as 
conducted in the East was profitless. The soil was often rich, the tempera- 
ture was moderate, but without water neither had value. 

Only by artificial means could agriculture be made to thrive over a large 
portion of the farther West. Early comers had learned this. In old Cali- 
fornia irrigation had been employed. The irrigation ditch was at the found- 
ation of the economic success of the Mormons. In one of his many phil- 
anthropic enterprises Horace Greeley had helped to establish irrigation in 
Colorado. The results of these experiments proved beyond doubt that with 
irrigation a luxurious agriculture could be maintained in much of the former 
desert, and that the works necessary to establish irrigation were extremely 
costly. 

The national treasury was the certain objective of the West once it was 
made clear that money could reclaim its lands. The federal power could 
first survey the national domain and reserve large irrigation sites; it could 
next use its vast wealth to construct clams and ditches commensurate to the 
dignity of the United States and the magnitude of mountain topography. 
No question crossed the western mind as to the existence of legal power for 
these things. Its habit of reliance upon government was firmly founded. 
Before it was through it helped to elect a president who understood its aspi- 
rations and knew its needs. If the constitution failed to give the power 
necessary for the ends desired, then so much the worse for the constitu- 
tion; but the end must be attained nevertheless. The eighties saw only the 
beginnings of this phase of the expansion of national power. Agitation for 
a reclamation service was common, preliminary surveys were authorized and 
undertaken, but the culmination of the movement was deferred another 
twenty years. 

When the curiosity of the Arabian fisherman evoked the spirit of the jinn 
from its casket his situation was not unlike that of the new West with the 
organizations that its rapid growth had produced. It had called forces into 
existence regardless of the future. Its fright was real when it began to 
apprehend the reaction of the new forces upon itself. The fisherman had 
been able to coax the jinn back into the box and had locked it up in triumph 
— temporarily at least. The West was helpless of itself, and looked once 
more to its familiar ally, the central government, for redress. 

The railways are again the best illustration of the dilemma of the West. 
It is true as a general proposition that no large antagonism to railways can 
exist in a region unprovided with them. The Granger Northwest had not 
learned that it distrusted the roads until it was well supplied with them. 
New England had .not erected railroad commissions until Boston had been 
joined to Albany as well as to other outside points. But once the railway is 
in it is in for all time. It cannot be removed and the country which it serves 
is independent and critical regarding it. There could have been no move- 
ment for a national control of railways until the great continental systems, 
done in the eighties, neared completion. The demand crystallized in the 
West just as completion came about. 

The systems that began their service in the eighties were truly interstate 
in magnitude. The Northern Pacific extended under one control through 
Minnesota, Dakota. Montana, Idaho and Washington. The Southern Pacific 
of Kentucky, an early "holding company," directed the Central and Southern 



32 

Pacific systems in Utah, Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. 
No one state could make any impression on a corporation of the magnitude 
of these. At best, one state could affect but a segment of the system, subject 
to a power in the railway to punish interference by jockeying with rates 
and service. The new states were dependent upon their roads and dare not 
drive agencies which they could not entirely control. In their desperation 
they turned to Congress with their grievance. 

Once again it may be repeated that without the Civil War the far West 
would have matured in the same two decades, that their need for transporta- 
tion was predetermined, that they were certain to feel the burden of railway 
monopoly as soon as they had fairly ample equipment, that they could not 
relieve this burden themselves, and that their prospect of relief was tied up 
in the expansion of the activities of the national government. 

The passage of an interstate commerce act in 1887 is one illustration of the 
response of Congress to the new economic call upon it — a call that came 
clearest from the West where the problem was plainest. The Sherman 
Anti-Trust Act of 1890 is another response to an analogous demand. The 
erection of a bureau of labor in 1884 reflects yet a third phase of the same 
response. The West was used to looking upon the national power as its true 
protector, and saw no difficulty in law or expediency which might prevent the 
gratification of its wish. 

Throughout the eighties public opinion in the United States became con- 
scious of this growing trend to nationalization. In private industry, as well 
as public practice, it was written clearly for the casual passer-by to read. 
The fact of the transition was beyond dispute; the reaction to it differed 
with temperament and interest. The "trust problem" was described by those 
who feared the suppression of the individual and the principle of competi- 
tion by irresponsible organizations of national extent. The trust promoter 
pointed out the economic savings of consolidation in the vain attempt to 
satisfy the frightened critic. Their only common ground was the admission 
that the national trend existed. In politics the expansion of the federal 
power alarmed the conservative who dreaded too much nationalization in 
government as well as in industry, and who failed to realize that the only 
way to make it innocuous in the latter was to encourage it in the former. 
The fear of a national bureaucracy had much to do with the return of the 
Democrats in 1885, pledged to economical administration along conservative 
lines. AH admitted the universal trend. Few failed to lay it to the Civil 
War. 

Says Professor Hart, speaking in accord with the common view, "The ideal 
that emerged [from the Civil War] was that of a federal government, in 
which the national powers and the national status were so fixed and so 
obvious that it was not worth while to fight about them again, and a waste 
of breath to discuss them." The national ideal did indeed emerge in those 
years following the Civil War, but that war furnished smoke only to obscure 
the real origin of the ideal. Without the war the ideal would have ripened 
as it did and when it did. The desert waste could never have been subdued 
but by the use of national powers; and when it had been subdued, the agency 
which directed the work had become of necessity a nation. We have tried 
in vain, since the disappearance of the frontier, to conceal with our compli- 
cated constitutional system the essential economic fact that the United States 
has become a nation. Already party organization has been grievously dis- 
turbed by this fact although we have barely begun our period of national 
reconstruction. In the new nation progress was to be measured largely by 
the disappearance of the East and South, and the acceptance by all of the 
standards of the West. Let some of you who doubt this and are curious, 
study the radical western populistic platforms of the early nineties and 
compare them with the great national platforms of today, in which the 
visionary radicalism of twenty years ago has acquired all the earmarks of 
modern orthodoxy and respectability. The West was to become the nation 



33 

and gather about its ideals its fellow countrymen. There was the problem, 
and there were suggested the solutions. Too long the historians have 
respected the couplet of Kipling: 

" For" East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet 
Till earth and sky together stand at God's great judgment seat." 
They have neglected the final verses of the quatrain: 

"But there is neither East nor West, border, nor breed, nor birth 
When two strong men stand face to face, though they come from the 
ends of the earth." 



II S 



34 



THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF ALFRED ORENDORFF. 



(By Hon. James A. Creighton.) 

The life and character of General Alfred Orendorff demands of the Illinois 
State Historical Society more than a passing notice, more than a mere 
necrological entry in the annals of the Society. His was an unusually full 
and complete life, not in years, for in that respect he was limited to less 
than the allotted span, but in all that tends to make a life worth living to 
the one who lives it and to the community and state in which it is lived. 
He came in contact with the life of his day and generation at every vital 
point, and impressed upon it an influence for good. He preached Fatherhood 
of God, Brotherhood of Man, Love of Home and Family and Country, and 
his practices comported with. his preaching. The loss occasioned by bis 
death is not limited to his family and to this Society whose president he 
was at the time of his death. All who knew him or who knew of him feel 
the loss, and few there are in this city, or in this whole State, that did not 
know of General Orendorff. 

Christian Orendorff, General Orendorff's first American ancestor, was a 
military officer in Germany, and was married to Elizabeth Miller, a lady of 
distinction. He came to America from Wurtemburg, Germany, in the year 
1751, bringing his wife and their family of small children. They first estab- 
lished their home in Lancaster county, Pa., but a few years later moved 
from there to a plantation near Sharpsburg, Md. Their second son, Chris- 
topher, was married at Hagerstown, Md., in the year 1791, to Elizabeth 
Phillips. Soon after their marriage they left Maryland, and after a short 
time spent in Georgia and South Carolina they settled in North Carolina, 
where, on Nov. 25, 1804, their son Joseph Orendorff, father of General 
Orendorff, was born. About this time there set in quite a movement of 
population from the older southern states into Tennessee and Kentucky 
and on into the Northwest territory. This was especially true as to North 
Carolina with respect to Tennessee. With this westward movement came 
Christian Orendorff and his family, first to Tennessee, then to Kentucky, 
and finally to Washington county, 111., in the year 1818. Later they moved 
up to the "Sangamo Country" and settled on Sugar creek, north of Spring- 
field, then in Sangamon county but now in Logan. There they made their 
permanent settlement, improved a farm, built and operated the first water 
power grist mill in that part of the State. On June 23, 1833, Joseph Oren- 
dorff was married to Elizabeth Stevens, a native of Henderson county, Ky. 
Of their four sons, Alfred, the youngest, was born July 29, 1845. 

From the foregoing we see that General Orendorff's American ancestry 
dates back quite into Colonial times, and that his immediate family has 
been directly associated with the growth and development of the State of 
Illinois from its admission into the Union. They saw the State grow from 
a few frontier settlements to the imperial position it now sustains in the 
galaxy of states and they contributed to its achievements at every step of 
its progress. 

The death of General Orendorff's father occurred Sept. 18, 1854, depriving 
him of the care and advice of a lather when he was little more than nine 
years of age. Not long after the death of his father, Alfred's mother 
removed to the city of Lincoln, the county seat of Logan county, where he 
obtained a common school education in the schools of that city, after which 
he prosecuted his studies in the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloom- 



35 

ington and in the Military School at Fulton. In 1864, when he was but 
nineteen years of age, he raised a company, Co. I, 133, Reg. Ills. Vols., Inf., 
for enlistment in the Civil War, was elected and commissioned as its captain 
and served in that capacity to the end of the war. 

After the close of the war, having chosen the law as a profession, he 
pursued the requisite course of study in the Albany Law School at Albany, 
N. Y., and was graduated from that institution with the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws. In the autumn of 1867, after receiving his diploma from the law 
school, he was admitted to practice in this State, taking up his residence 
in Springfield and becoming a member of the law firm of Herndon & Zane, 
the style of the new firm being Herndon, Zane & Orendorff. This partner- 
ship continued until June,* 1873, when Mr. Zane was elected to the Circuit 
Court bench, and thei-eafter for a time Orendorff remained with Mr. Hern- 
don, the firm name being Herndon & Orendorff. In April, 1877, Mr. Herndon 
having retired from active practice, General Orendorff accepted James A. 
Creighton as a partner, the firm name being Orendorff & Creighton. This 
partnership continued until Mr. Creighton was elected as one of the judges 
of the Circuit Court of the Fifth Circuit in June, 1884. This was followed 
by a partnership with Robert H. Patton, which continued for a number of 
years. 

While General Orendorff loved his profession and was continuously con- 
nected with the practice from the time of his admission to the bar until 
disabled by his last illness he was not a slave to it. He found time to 
devote to social, civic and other public duties. He was a wise and talented 
lawyer and highly respected by both bench and bar of the entire State. 
When the Illinois State Bar Association was organized in January, 1877, 
General Orendorff was made the first secretary and some years later served 
as its president. He was a delegate to the National Association on a number 
of occasions, and in 1906 he was selected as a delegate to the International 
Law Association, which met that year in Berlin, Germany. He was in 
every respect a useful and highly esteemed member of the bar. 

From his earliest manhood he gave both thought and time to public- 
questions and to politics. He was reared and educated in the faith of the 
fathers and founders of the Republican party. Upon attaining his majority 
he cast his lot and influence with A hat party, and in 1870 was its candidate 
in his district for State Senator. Hon. Alexander Starne of this city was 
his opponent and, the district having a large Democratic majority, the 
election of such an opponent was inevitable and in no sense a disappoint- 
ment. As the national compaign of 1872 approached, the country being 
still in the throes of Reconstruction, many of the truest and best of the 
fathers and leaders of the Republican party who had nominated, elected 
and stood by Lincoln through all the trying and perilous period of his 
administration, such as Greeley, Palmer, Trumbull and thousands of others, 
"liberalized," and refused to support the more radical leaders of their party 
in many of their policies. At. this juncture General Orendorff joined with 
the "Liberals," was a delegate to their National Convention of 1872, and 
supported Lyman Trumbull for President. He did not thoughtlessly take 
this course. He was moved to it by his judgment, his conscience and the 
highest and most unselfish sense of patriotic duty as he saw and under- 
stood it. 

During the following campaign he was nominated by the Liberals and 
Democrats as their candidate for member of the General Assembly and his 
election followed. In the sessions of 1873 and 1874, he served on the Judi- 
ciary Committee. These were most important sessions of the law making 
body of this State. The adoption of the Constitution of 1870 made an 
entire revision of the previously existing statutes necessary and required 
the enactment of many new laws. For this work General Orendorff was 
well equipped and he gave to it the full measure of his ability. The revi- 
sion was completed at the session .of 1874. Many of the very besl men of 
the State were members of the General Assembly at that time, and these 
men appreciated Orendorff and became his friends. From this time on he 
was a prominent factor in the councils and organization of his party, was 



36 

a member of the State Central Committee and its chairman for a number 
of terms, was a delegate to all its conventions, local, State and national. 
As a public speaker in defense of its principles he had no superior and few 
equals. He was not an office seeker, nor in any sense a self server. He 
was a truly unselfish man. His prominence and inherent quality of leader- 
ship demanded that he accept the nomination of his party as its candidate 
on two occasions. Both of these were for the office of State Treasurer, that 
being the head of the State ticket at "off year" elections. He did not seek 
these nominations. They were unanimously tendered to him and he 
accepted. "Wherever duty called he went." While neither he nor his party 
expected his election, the result proved the wisdom of his nomination. 
With a party majority of more than 40,000 in favor of his opponent, General 
Orendorff reduced that majority to a point so close as to put the result in 
doubt for days. 

General Orendorff was Adjutant General of the State from 1892 to 1895. 
The duties imposed upon the incumbent of this office are both military and 
civil, and he possessed the qualities requisite. He had military tact and 
training and was equipped with knowledge and experience respecting civil 
affairs. The duties of that important position have never been more faith- 
fully nor more acceptably performed than by General Orendorff. 

\v"hen the election commission law was adopted General Orendorff was 
appointed a member of the Springfield Board of Election Commissioners 
and served as president of the board to the date of his death. 

He held membership in- many orders, social clubs and fraternal societies: 
the Masons, Odd-Fellows, Elks, Sangamo Club, Iroquois Club of Chicago, 
Workmen, Woodmen and others. While he loved them all and heartily, 
entered into the spirit, purposes and work of each, he was most devoted 
to the order of Odd-Fellows. He joined this order in his very early manhood 
and gave to it more of his thought, time and means than to any other. 
Having advanced to the requisite stage in his local lodge, in 1874 he was 
chosen as its representative to the State Grand Lodge; in 1878 he was 
elected Grand Master of the State, and after that he served as representative 
to the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the World. He was also an active member 
of many of the committees and boards charged with the duties of establish- 
ing and management of the numerous charitable institutions of this great 
order. He worshiped with the congregation of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Springfield, and for a number of years before he died was presi- 
dent of its board of trustees. 

He was at the time of his death the president, of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, and a charter member of the Lincoln Centennial Association. 
With respect to his connection with the State Historical Society, the follow- 
ing is quoted from the October, 1909, number of its Journal: "The Illinois 
State Historical Society has sustained a great loss by the death of its presi- 
dent, General Alfred Orendorff, which occurred Oct. 22, 1909. General 
Orendorff had been sick for more than a year, and those who attended the 
annual meeting of the Society held last May will remember the heroic strug- 
gle which he made against extreme weakness when he presided over the 
sessions of its meeting. This was practically his last public appearance." 
"One of the acts of his administration of the affairs of the Historical 
Society in which he took the greatest pleasure was the celebration in 1908 
of the Semi-Centennial of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. These cele- 
brations took place at the seven towns at which the original debates 
occurred, and they had been suggested and fostered by the Historical 
Society. 

"General Orendorff attended each of these celebrations and made an 
address at each place, and these addresses show his power as a writer and 
thinker. General Ollendorff's very large acquaintance gave the Historical 
Society great gain in its membership. When, in 1905, he became president 
of the Society, it had but 251 members. During his presidency the member- 
ship increased to nearly 1,000 members. 

"He came into the management of the affairs of the Historical Society 
at a time when the labors of Judge Beckwith, Dr. Snyder, George N. Black, 
Judge David McCulloch, Captain Bumham and others of that class of 





GEN. SMITH D. ATKINS. 



I 
.3 



37 

earnest historical workers had founded the Society on broad and solid lines, 
ind it remained for General Orendorff to make it popular, to bring it to 
the attention of the people of the State, and this he succeeded in doing. He 
Uso, by his influence and large acquaintance, aided in securing recognition 
for the Society from the Legislature of the State. He loved the Illinois 
State Historical Society, and no detail of its affairs was too small to secure 
ais interest, and he labored for it unceasingly." 

General Orendorff was no inconsideiable factor in the business affairs 
md enterprises of the community in which he lived. He was for many 
^ears vice president of the German-American Loan Association; a director 
jf the Abstract Guaranty Company; one of the organizers of the Springfield 
Improvement Association; president of the Franklin Life Insurance Com- 
pany, and at the time of his death he was president of the International 
Bank and Trust Company of Vinita, Okla. He had good business judgment 
ind gave to each of these enterprises that same efficient, faithful and horn s 
service that characterized his conduct in every relation he sustained to his 
community, to the country at laige and to his fellowman. 

All who knew General Orendorff will heartily endorse what another so 
truthfully and elegantly said of him: "Some men fill one niche in life and 
fill it well. Others fill several niches and do it well. Such men are accounted 
?reat; but Alfred Orendorff was an all round man. He was a highly avail- 
able man. Such men count double. Such men count for twenty in the race 
af life. They are so rare that they achieve easy distinction." 

"I have seen this man tried on many fields. In the ordinary duties of 
citizenship; in work of benevolence and charity; in the halls of legislation; 
in the public forum where thousands hung upon his lips; in sanctuaries of 
justice, contending with eminent counsel; in business conferences; in scores 
of social functions; aye, in the sacred precincts of the afflicted and sorrow- 
ing; and on each demand, his diplomacy, his tender heart, his gentle action, 
iiis choice of words, graced every occasion and charmed every circle." 

"If true greatness consists in a disinterested love of goodness and truth 
ind in the energy with which these are caused to prevail, then judged by such 
a, standard, Alfred Orendorff was a great man." (From the address of Past 
Grand Master Humphrey in the Odd Fellows Grand Lodge, Nov. 18, 1909.) 

On June 22, 1870, General Orendorff was married to Miss Julia J. Williams, 
a, daughter of Col. John Williams, one of Springfield's most distinguished 
?itizens, who was for fifty years a leading merchant, and for many years 
president of the First National Bank of that city. Mrs. Orendorff's death 
occurred May 27, 1908. Their three children, John A., Alice E. and Lydia 
Edna, all survive. The son resides in Joplin, Mo., and the daughters occupy 
the family homestead on South Second street in Springfield. 

General Orendorff's mother and three brothers all preceded him to the 
beyond. His mother died May 16, 1866; his brother, Christopher, June 28, 
1862; Robert, Dec. 21, 1879, and James in 1902. 

General Orendorff's life covered a period of great events and great prog- 
ress, and that period brought forth an array of great men, with whom he 
r-olleagued. He personally knew Lincoln, Douglas, Grant, Logan, Trumbull, 
Palmer and the hosts of other great and distinguished men of that day 
who counseled, fought, wrought, and left their impress upon the destiny of 
the nation. And he had the widest personal acquaintance among the people, 
the body of the people, those who hew and draw and build, who make and 
maintain the homes, rear the families and do the foundation work upon 
which all progress is based. He saw the good in every man and loved him 
for that good, and where faults appeared he looked with charity and was 
slow to blame. It can be .most truly said of him, the world is the better 
for his having lived in it. While our loss is great, yet, as he himself said 
with respect to a dear departed friend of his, "May we not all be sustained 
by at least a comforting hope that the good night here will be followed in 
n -ome fairer, better clime by a welcome good morning; and may we not be 
ipheld by an unfaltering trust that 'since God is just, that somehow, some- 

here, meet we must.' " 



38 



SOME ILLINOIS EDITORS 1 HAVE KNOWN. 



(By Gen. Smith D. Atkins.) 

In November, 1847, Stephen D. Carpenter, of Girard, Pennsylvania, came 
to Freeport, Illinois, and established the first paper there, the Prairie Demo 
crat. Mr. Carpenter was, in many respects, a remarkable man. He intro- 
duced, at that early time, illustrations, now so common in the newspapers of 
all countries. But snap-shot photographs, and the quick production of illus- 
trations, were then unknown. Mr. Carpenter, taking a wood type of proper 
size, would draw a picture of anything he wished to illustrate on the back 
of the wood type, and then, with jackknife and gouge chisels, he would cut 
away the surrounding wood, leaving the illustration as he had drawn it, and 
that picture, so produced, was published in the Prairie Democrat. I remem- 
ber one particularly. Senator Stephen A. Douglas, and Long John Wentworth, 
of Chicago, had come to Freeport to deliver Democratic political speeches, and 
Mr. Carpenter published in his paper, such an illustration, so drawn, of Long 
John Wentworth in his bed at the hotel his long legs reaching far beyond 
the foot of his bedstead, and sprawling out upon the floor. It was a taking 
illustration and produced as much excitement in the community as McCutch- 
eon's famous illustration of Missouri's stepping over into the Republican 
ranks. So far as I know, Mr. Carpenter was the first editor in Illinois to 
publish "cartoons" in his paper. He invented a rotary pump, which gave 
him the name of "Pump Carpenter." He went to Madison, Wis., in 1850, and 
established a paper there, and made quite a hit exposing the grafters in the 
Wisconsin Legislature, which he called "The Forty Thieves." He died 
recently, a resident of Milwaukee. 

I was an apprentice to the printing business in the office of the Prairie 
Democrat at Freeport. and received as wages the first year thirty dollars, 
and I spent sixteen dollars of it for a suit of woolen clothes that I could now 
buy for six dollars. But I do not wish to argue the tariff question, especially 
the woolen schedule, that President Taft thinks is not now low enough. 

In the spring of 1852 I secured work in the office of the Mt. Morris Gazette, 
two hours in the forenoon and two in the afternoon, for my board, and at- 
tended the Rock River Seminary, where I became acquainted with Prof. 
Daniel J. Pinckney, the president of the Seminary, and the editor of the 
village paper. Professor Pinckney was a very able man, a political writer 
who garnished his editorials with many references to ancient history, which 
was his strong point. In common with everyone who knew him I had the 
highest possible opinion of Editor Pinckney, long since dead, but his mem- 
ory is cherished by all who were students at "Old Sandstone." 

In the fall of 1853, S. S. Jones, the owner and editor of the Kane County 
Democrat at St. Charles, came to Freeport, and sent word for me to call on 
him at his hotel, and when I did so, he said he was too busy with other 
matters to give bis attention to his newspaper. Mr. Jones was secretary of 
the Chicago, St. Charles and Mississippi Air Line Railway, and telling me 
that the income from his printing office was too small to enable him to pay 
large wages, he offered me $12.00 per week, and a room and board at the 
Tremont House, in St. Charles, which he owned. As I was getting only six 
dollars a week, and paying my own board, I readily accepted his offer, and 
went to St. Charles and took charge of the Kane County Democrat owned by 
Mr. Jones. He spent that winter, 1853-4 in Washington City, trying to induce 
Congress to pass a land grant law. as it had done for the Illinois Central 
railway, for a road to be built across Iowa. When Mr. Douglas, Senator from 




JOSEPH MEDILL. 



41 

believed, and therefore he was one of the Anti-Nebraska editors of this State 
who met in Decatur on February 22, 1856, fifty-four years ago, and without 
one particle of authority other than necessity and good common sense pro- 
ceeded to appoint a Republican State Central Committee, the Republican 
"machine" that is maintained to this day in Illinois. It is a story often told, 
and it reflects the greatest honor upon the Republican editors of this State. 
Let me name that first State Central Committee so appointed: W. B. Ogden, 
Chicago; S. M. Church, Rockford; G. D. A. Parks, Joliet; T. J. Pickett, Peo- 
ria; E. A. Dudley, Quincy; Wm. H. Herndon, . Springfield; R. J. Oglesby, 
Decatur; Joseph Gillespie, Edwardsville; D. L. Phillips, Jonesboro, and 
Gustavus Koerner and Ira O. Wilkinson from the State at Large. Compare 
that Republican "machine"" with any other Republican State Central Com- 
mittee in Illinois during the fifty-four years since that time! That Republi- 
can "machine" so constituted called the first Republican convention in Illi- 
nois that met at Bloomington on May 29, 1856, and nominated Wm. H. Bissell, 
the first Republican Governor of Illinois, and a full State Republican ticket 
that was elected, although the electoral vote of Illinois was Democratic, and 
was given to Buchanan in 1856. Benjamin F. Shaw continued a "machine" 
Republican all his life long. He recently died in Dixon, with his editorial 
harness on, full of years and full of honors. 

I became acquainted with Paul Selby, a few years ago, the able editor 
fifty-four years ago of the Jacksonville Journal, who first suggested the 
meeting of editors at Decatur, and who was present at that meeting. He 
was long one of the Vice-Presidents of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
a very able man, still living in retirement in Chicago. 

In the spring of 1860, I became acquainted with John Wentworth, known 
as "Long John." He was about six feet and six inches tall, and built in 
proportion, a powerful man, the founder and editor of the Chicago Democrat, 
and one of the ablest editors of that party, a partisan of Andrew Jackson, 
and he named the building in which he published the Chicago Democrat 
"Jackson Hall." When the Kansas-Nebraska bill was introduced in Congress 
repealing the Missouri Compromise he broke political friendship with 
Senator Douglas, and became one of the most able advocates and supporters 
of the anti-slavery sentiment. He was running as the Republican candidate 
for Mayor of Chicago at the snring election of 1860, believing that the 
National Republican convention to be held in Chicago in May of that year 
would nominate the successful candidate for President, as it did do when it 
nominated Abraham Lincoln, and Mr. Wentworth believed that Chicago 
should have a Republican mayor. I was one evening in front of "Jackson 
Hall" when a four horse wagon with a band, and long streamers reaching 
along each side from the front team to the rear of the wagon with "Vote for 
Long John" in large letters were printed; the procession was about to move, 
with little enthusiasm, when Mr. Wentworth mounted a dry goods box and 
called out "Three cheers for Long John" and they were given with a will, and 
much merriment. John Wentworth was not given to modesty in politics. 
He was elected. At the old Tremont House, after the polls had closed and 
before the votes were counted, I heard Mr. Wentworth say, "I am elected, 
and I am going to my farm, and will not be back for a week, and when I 
come back every appointment I am to make as Mayor will be made." 

In the summer of 1860, I became acquainted with Horace H. Houghton, of 
Galena, who went there in 1834, and became the editor of the Whig organ, 
the North Western Gazette, now the Galena Gazette, the oldest paper, so far 
as I know, continuously printed in Illinois. Mr. Houghton was an able man, 
and becoming a Republican, was one of the ablest advocates of the new party 
in opposition to the extension of slavery. Afterwards, in 1863, J. B. Brown 
became the editor of that paper and continued until his death in February, 
1896, since and now edited by the son-in-law of Mr. Brown, Mr. A. W. 
Glessner, who maintains the reputation of the Galena Gazette. 

These are some of the Illinois editors I have known; but I have known 
many others, "too numerous to mention." The editorial profession is an hon- 
orable one. An ignorant man may become a millionaire peddling horse 
medicine; but no country editor can become a millionaire. He must be con- 
tent with the honors of his profession, without becoming wealthy. 



42 



NEGRO SLAVERY IX ILLINOIS. 



(By Hon. John P. Hand.) 

The European settlements on the Mississippi in the year 1765 compre- 
hended Louisiana, part of West Florida and the country of the Illinois. 
Capt. Philip Pitman of the British Army in his book entitled, "The Present 
State of the European Settlements on the Mississippi," describes the Illinois 
country as being bounded by the Mississippi on the west, the Illinois on 
the north, the Wabash on the east, and the Ohio on the south, and its towns 
as consisting of Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, Fort Chartres, St. Philip 
and Cahokia, and states that the number of white inhabitants therein, 
exclusive of the troops, at the time was 2,000. The country of the Illinois 
was ceded by France to England in 1763 at the treaty of Paris. The English, 
however, did not assume possession thereof until the year 1765. Prior to 
1720 there were found in the Mississippi valley, north of the Ohio, a few 
Indian slaves who were held as prisoners of war. Their number, however, 
was so inconsiderable as to be of no political consequence. In the year 
1720, one hundred years after the first ship load of slaves was unloaded at 
Jamestown, there was landed at St. Philip by Philip Francis Renault a 
cargo of 500 negro slaves from San Domingo, which he afterward sold to 
the inhabitants of the Illinois country. Thus was slavery planted in the 
territory lying east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, and it 
was not eradicated therefrom for more than a century, and its blighting 
curse rested upon that territory until after the signing of the Emancipation 
Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln. 

At the time of the session of the Illinois country to England, it is esti- 
mated there were in that country 900 negro slaves. Many of the French, 
with their slaves, shortly thereafter moved west of the Mississippi river, 
and in 1770 there remained in the Illinois country not to exceed 600 negro 
slaves. During the Revolutionary War the territory now situated within 
the limits of the State of Illinois was wrested by Virginia from the English, 
and after peace with Great Britain was restored, Virginia transferred its 
title to that territory to the United States. There were no restrictions 
imposed upon the holding of slaves in the territory north of the Ohio and 
east of the Mississippi rivers during its occupation by France, England or 
Virginia, and prior to the passage of the Ordinance of 1787 negro slavery 
appeared to be as firmly established north of the Ohio as it was south of 
that river. By article VI of the Ordinance of 17N7 it was provided: "There 
shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been duly convicted." The insertion of this article in the Ordinance of 
1787 caused great uneasiness among the slaveholders residing east of the 
Mississippi and north of the Ohio, which territory was known as the North- 
west territory, and from which territory were subsequently carved out the 
free states of Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan. Governor St. Clair, 
and subsequently Governor Harrison, took the position, however, that the 
Ordinance of 1787 should be given a prospective effect, and that it did not 
affect ill'' status of slaves held in the Northwest territory prior to 1787, 
and that view was apparently acquiesced in by the people and courts in 



43 

that territory for many years. That construction of the ordinance did no. 
permit the bringing of slaves into the Northwest territory from the slave 
states, and to encourage the ('migration of slaveholders, with their slaves, 
from the states situated south and east of the Ohio river, a system of 
'voluntary servitude" was created in that part of the Northwest territory 
out of which the territories of Indiana and Illinois were subsequently 
formed. Under the voluntary system slaves were indentured to their mas- 
ters, males until they were 35 years, and females until they were 32 years 
of age, and the children born to persons of color during their period of 
service might be indentured to serve, the boys until they were 30 years, 
and the girls until they were 28 years of age, and unless slaves were inden- 
tured within thirty days after they were brought into the territory, they 
could be removed by their masters from the territory. The legality of the 
system of voluntary servitude was recognized by a statute of the Indiana 
territory passed in 1807, which was subsequently re-enacted in the territory 
of Illinois. 

At the time the territory of Illinois was organized there were found 
therein French negro slaves, indentured negro slaves, and free negroes. In 
the convention which framed the Constitution of 1818 for Illinois, there 
were three classes of delegates, those opposed to negro slavery in any form, 
those in favor of negro slavery in its absolute form, and those who favored 
a middle course — that is, the voluntary system. The conservatives incorpo- 
rated into that Constitution their view, and while it was provided therein 
that slavery or involuntary servitude should not thereafter be introduced 
into this State otherwise than for the punishment of crimes, the voluntary 
system was fully recognized. Although the Constitution of 1818 barred 
slavery from the State in the future, it was contended it did not confer 
freedom upon the French negro slaves who were in the territory prior to 
the admission of the State into the Union, and although the term of service 
for which a black man was permitted to indenture himself was shortened 
to one year, and the childien of indentured slaves could not be indentured 
for a longer period than the boys, until they arrived at 21 years, and the 
girls at the age of 18 years, it was held not to affect the terms of service 
of slaves then under contract of service. The State Legislature, at its first 
session after the admission of the State,- re-enacted, with all their severity, 
the "Black Laws" which had been in force in the territory. Those laws 
were originally largely copied from the slave codes of the states of Kentucky 
and Virginia, and under these a negro, free or slave, was practically without 
protection. If free, unless he could present a certificate of freedom from a 
court of record, he was liable to arrest and imprisonment and to be sold to 
service by the sheriff of the county for a period of one year, and if he 
sought employment he was in constant danger of being kidnapped by the 
desperadoes who infested the country, and sold "down the river." A slave, 
indentured or otherwise, could not bring a suit or testify in court. If found 
from home, he was publicly whipped. He might be sold upon execution 
or mortgaged to pay or secure his master's debt, and upon his master's 
death, he passed to the administrator or executor of the master, along with 
the master's horses and mules. The Black Laws were passed by the Legis- 
lature and administered with a view to force all the negroes in Illinois, 
other than the French negro slaves, into the voluntary system. The free 
negro's condition thereby was rendered more deplorable than that of the 
French negro slave or the indentured slave. The negro who had a master, 
had a home, while the free negro, by the administration of the Black Laws, 
was made an outcast who might be hunted down like a beast and by force 
or fraud deprived of his freedom. 

The settled portion of Illinois in 1820, bordered upon the states of Ken- 
tucky and Missouri, and the slaveholder from Kentucky, passing through 
Illinois to Missouri with his horses, mfiles, cattle and drove of slaves, often 
remarked that he regretted Illinois was not a slave State, as he would, if 
it were a slave State, settle upon its fertile prairies with his slaves. Money 
was scarce and the times were hard, and the cry went up from the pro- 
slavery men all over southern Illinois that a great mistake had been made 
in bringing Illinois into the Union as a free State, and they urged that a 



44 

convention should be called to change the Constitution of the State upon 
the subject of slavery. There was great excitement on the slavery question 
in the election in the fall of 1822. Hon. Edward Coles, a strong anti-slavery 
man who had migrated from Virginia to Illinois three years before and who 
had freed his slaves, was elected Governor, over Judge Joseph P. Philips, 
the pro-slavery candidate, by a plurality of forty-six votes. A majority 
of the members of the Legislature were, however, pro-slavery, and at the 
session of 1823 it was determined by the pro-slavery members to call a 
convention to amend the Constitution. They could, however, not command 
the necessaiy two-thirds vote to submit the question of calling a convention 
to the people. When the Legislature met there was a contest from Pike 
county between Nicholas Hanson and John Shaw. Hanson was seated and 
voted for United States Senator, and on his refusing to vote to call a con- 
vention, the pro-slavery men unseated him and Shaw was seated in his 
place, and with Shaw's vote in the House and the vote of John Grammer, of 
Union county, in the Senate, who arrived after the Senate had been organ- 
ized and after a vote had been carried 1 tying a resolution providing for the 
calling of a convention upon the table, the pro-slavery men mustered the 
necessary two-thirds vote and a convention was called. The election was 
held on the 2d of August, 1824, and the proposition for the convention was 
defeated by a majority of 1,668 votes out of a total vote of 11,612, and 
Illinois remained, in theory at least, a free State. 

The contest of 1824 over the calling of a convention to revise the Consti- 
tution, was one of the most bitter political contests ever waged in the 
history of the State. It was but a forerunner of the resort to arms which 
drenched the country in blood thirty-seven years later. The men who 
opposed the proposition to make Illinois a slave State at the time the 
Constitution of 1818 was framed and those who voted against the calling 
of a convention to amend the Constitution in 1824, were not generally in 
favor of emancipation. The agitation in favor of emancipation came a few 
years later. In 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy was murdered at Alton by a pro- 
slavery mob, and the printing press upon which he had printed The 
Observer, a strong anti-slavery newspaper, wis destroyed, and in 1854 the 
Missouri Compromise measure was repealed. Following these events the 
struggle between the men in the northern Mississippi valley who favored 
and those who opposed negro slavery and its extention into the free terri- 
tories of the Northwest continued until the bitterness engendered, growing 
out of the agitation upon the slavery question throughout the Union, 
resulted in the firing upon the United States flag by the southern slave- 
holders at Fort Sumpter, which was followed immediately by the War of 
the Rebellion. 

The soundness of the doctrine that the provisions of the Ordinance of 
1787 did not apply to negro slaves held in the Northwest territory at the 
time of its passage, and that negro slaves subsequently brought into Illinois 
by their masters might be depi ived of their freedom by contract by virtue 
of the Territorial Act of 1807, or the State Constitution of 1818, was chal- 
lenged by many of the best lawyers residing in Illinois. Especially was this 
true from 1835 to 1860, during which latter period such lawyers as Abraham 
Lincoln, Lyman Trumbull, Grstav Koerner, James H. Collins, W. T. M. 
Uavis, Nathaniel Niles, John M. Palmer and others advised the negroes 
held in bondage in Illinois that they were not legally held as slaves and 
that they were entitled to their freedom, and in many instances these men 
fearlessly stood by their opinions and defended successfully in the courts, 
without money and without price, negroes who were sought to be deprived 
of their freedom. Cases, however, involving the legal rights of negroes 
held as slaves found their way into the courts, especially the courts of last 
resort in Illinois, slowly. The first case to reach the Supreme Court was 
that of Cornelius v. Cohen (Breese, 131), which was decided in 1825. It 
involved the right to freedom of a negro girl named Betsey, whose mother, 
Rachel, had indentured herself to one Joseph Cornelius on Oct. 6, 1804, for 
a term of fifteen years. The indenture, which had "been signed only by 
Rachel, had expired, and she was conceded to be entitled to her freedom. 
Cornelius claimed, however, the right to the service of her child Betsey 



45 

under the Territorial Act of 1807. The court, speaking through Mr. Justice 
Lockwood, held, however, that the indenture, not having been signed by 
Cornelius, was not within the provisions of section 13 of the Act of 18UT, 
and that the girl was entitled to her freedom. In 1839 a suit was brought 
by the administrators of Nathan Cromwell against David Bailey, in the 
circuit court of Tazewell county, upon a promissoiy note made to Cromwell, 
in his lifetime, by Bailey, for the purchase of a negro girl named Nance. 
The plaintiff was represented by Judge Stephen T. Logan, and the defendant 
by Abraham Lincoln. Judgment was rendered upon the note by Judge 
William Thomas, who presided at the trial, in favor of the plaintiff for 
$431.97. The defendant appealed the case to the Supreme Court, where it 
was contended the note was without consideration and void, as it was given 
as the purchase price of a human being who the evidence showed was free 
and therefore not the subject of sale. The Supreme Court reversed the 
trial court, the opinion being written by Judge Breese (3 Scam., 71) who 
held, contrary to the established rule in many of the southern states, that 
the presumption in Illinois was that a negro was free and not the subject 
of sale. This case established a broad principle in the jurisprudence of our 
State. Under the old rule the burden was upon the negro to establish that he 
was free, as the presumption obtained that a black man was a slave. Under 
the rule established in this case the presumption obtained that a black man 
was free, and the person who asserted he was a slave was required to bring 
forward his proof, which he often could not do. Many other cases involving 
the rights of a negro slave, under the Act of 1807, the Constitution of 1818, 
and the Act of 1819, in the course of time reached the Supreme Court, among 
which are the cases of Nance v. Howard (Breese, 242); Phoebe v. Jay 
(Breese, 268); Boon v. Juliet (1 Scam., 258); Choisser v. Hargrave (1 
Scam., 317); Kinney v. Cook (3 Scam., 232); Willard v. People (4 Scam., 
461); Thornton's Case (11 111., 332); Hone v. Amnions (14 111., 29), and 
Rodney v. Illinois Central Railroad Co. (19 111., 42). The early reported 
cases, it is sometimes said, often seem to reflect pro-slavery views, but after 
the decision in the. Cromwell case, I am of the opinion that may not truth- 
fully be said. 

In 1845 the case of Jarrot v. Jarrot (2 Gilm., 1) was decided. That was 
an action of assumpsit by the descendant of a French negro slave against 
his master for wages. The negro was defeated in the lower court, but the 
case was reversed by the Supreme Court. Separate opinions were filed by 
Justices Scates and Young. The opinion by Justice Young contains an 
exhaustive review of the former decisions of that court and the legal history 
of negro slavery in all its forms in the State of Illinois, and the judgment 
rendered by the Supreme Court in that case sounded the death knell of the 
institution of human slavery in Illinois. The court held article VI of the 
Ordinance of 1787, contrary to the views expressed by Governors St. Clair 
and Harrison and'acted upon by the people and the lower courts for many, 
yeais, to be retroactive in its operation — that is, it applied to all negro 
slaves in the Northwest territory at the time of its passage. The effect of 
this decision was to liberate all the French negro slaves and their children 
in Illinois from the bondage which for thirty-eight years had illegally 
deprived them and their ancestors of their freedom. 

The Cromwell and Jarrot cases afford excellent examples of the effect of 
legitimate judicial construction. In the first case the court held that all 
legitimate presumptions were to be indulged in favor of human liberty 
casting the burden of proof upon him to establish his contention who 
asserts that a human being is not entitled to his freedom, which presump- 
tion, for the want of proof, had the effect to establish that all persons 
found in the situation of the girl Nance were entitled to their freedom, and 
by the holding in the Jarrot case that a statute, when the words thereof, 
when taken in connection with its context, show such to have been the 
clear intention of the law-making power, snould be retroactively construed, 
the effect of which was to restore to their natural state, which is freedom, 
a large number of persons in Illinois who had been the victims of the mis- 
construction of the Ordinance of 1787. In both cases human liberty seems 



46 

to have rested upon a technicality. Nevertheless, in time, the rights of the 
persons involved were established and vindicated by a wholesome interpre- 
tation of the law by a wise anil fearless judiciary. 

The eases hereinbefore referred to were civil cases. During the same 
period numerous prosecutions for harboring negro slaves were carried on 
in the courts of this State under the provisions of the following section of 
the criminal code of Illinois, which declared that "if any person shall 
harbor or secrete any negro, mulatto, or person of color, the same being a 
slave or servant, owing service or labor to any other persons, whether they 
reside in this State or any other state or territory or district within the 
limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States, or shall in any wise 
hinder or prevent the lawful owner or owners of such slaves or servants 
from retaking them in a lawful manner, every such person so offending 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and fined not exceeding $500.00, 
or imprisoned not exceeding six months." The leading case was that of 
Eells v. People (4 Scam., 498), which went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. (Moore, Executor, etc., v. People, 14 Howard, 13.) Richard 
Eells was indicted and convicted for harboring a slave and fined $400.00. 
The judgment of the lower court was affirmed by both the Supreme Court 
of Illinois and the Supreme Court of the United States, the constitutionality 
of the statute being established by the decisions rendered in each of those 
courts. 

The statute referred to is the one under which Owen Lovejoy was 
indicted at the May term, 1843, of the circuit court of Bureau county and 
tried before a jury and acquitted on the seventh day of October of the 
same year. Owen Lovejoy was a brother of Elijah P. Lovejoy, was a Con- 
gregational minister and resided in Princeton. The indictment contained 
two counts. The first count charged him with harboring a negro slave 
named Agnes; the second with harboring a negro slave named Nancy. He 
was held to bail in the sum of $500.00. The prosecution was represented 
by Judge Norman H. Purple and by Hon. B. F. Pridley, and the defendant 
was represented by Hon. James H. Collins and Caleb Cook, and Judge 
John Dean Caton, who occupied a position on the Supreme bench of this 
State for many years and who was a jurist of great renown, presided at 
the trial. Owing to the prominence of the defendant, the trial excited the 
greatest interest throughout the State and the nation, and, as both Mr. 
Lovejoy and Mr. Collins were pronounced abolitionists, the acquittal of 
Mr. Lovejoy was considered by the anti-slavery men of that day a great 
triumph for the principles which they advocated. It is said prior to the 
trial a pro-slavery man approached Mr. Fridley and offered him a handsome 
fee if he would "send that abolition preacher to the penitentiary." Mr. 
Fridley declined the fee, as it w r as his official duty to prosecute the case, 
and remarked to the zealous pro-slavery men that "the prosecution of 
Lovejoy was a good deal more likely to result in sending him to Congress 
than to the penitentiary," which remark was prophetic of the result of 
the trial. Mr. Lovejoy, upon his acquittal, was sent to Congress, where 
he served his district with great credit for many years, and where he 
attained great renown by reason of his bold defiance of the slave power 
of the South, whose members in Congress were in the habit of brow-beating 
and of often assaulting the members from the North who were opposed 
to slavery. 

I have in my possession a copy of the record in the Lovejoy case, portions 
of which I will read, and, with the consent of the Society, will attach as an 
appendix to this paper. 

Before leaving this phase of my subject I desire to refer to one more 
case, which was decided by the Supreme Court of Illinois. The Constitution 
of 1848 provided that the Ceneral Assembly should pass such laws as might 
be necessary effectually to prevent free negroes from permanently settling 
in this State and to prevent owners of slaves from bringing them into the 
State for the purpose of setting them free. On Feb. 12. 1853, a statute was 
nassed by the Legislature pursuant to this constitutional nrovision, which 
provided that any negro or mulatto, bound or free, who should come- into 



47 

the State and remain in the State for a period of ten days with the intention 
of permanently settling in the State, should be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and upon conviction, in case he failed to pay the fine imposed upon 
him, he should be sold at public auction by the sheriff of the county to any 
person who would pay the fine and costs for the shortest period of his 
services. In December, ' 1862, a mulatto named Nelson was arrested and 
carried before a justice of the peace in Hancock county and convicted of a 
violation of that statute. An appeal was prosecuted to the circuit court of 
that county, and a change of venue was later granted to the circuit court 
of Adams county, where the defendant was again convicted. The case was 
carried by writ of error to the Supreme Court in 1864 (33 111.. 390), where 
the contention was made that the effect of the judgment was to reduce the 
defendant to a state of slavery, which was unlawful in the State of Illinois, 
and that the statute under which the conviction was had and the judgment 
was rendered was therefore unconstitutional. ihe court held the statute 
constitutional and affirmed the judgment of conviction. Thus, although 
slavery had not existed even in form in Illinois subsequent to 1845, in 1864, 
and after the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued, and just at the 
close of the War of the Rebellion, by virtue of the Constitution of 1848 
and the Act of 1853, the Supreme Court was forced to hold that it was 
unlawful for a black man, under the laws of this State, to acquire a perma- 
nent home in Illinois. That case was the last case decided by the Supreme 
Court of this State bearing upon the slavery question or the status of the 
colored man in Illinois, prior to the amendments to the Constitution of the 
United States, adopted subsequent to 1864. In 1865 the .Legislature repealed 
the Black Laws of 1819 and the equally oppressive statute of 1853, and the 
principles of the Declaration of Independence, penned by the immortal 
Jefferson, that "all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their 
Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty 
and the pursuit of happiness," then went into force, not only in theory 
but in fact, in the State of Illinois. 

Prom the earliest settlement of the State, and especially subsequent to 
the admission of Missouri as a slave state, many runaway negroes from 
Kentucky and Missouri found their way into Illinois, and as they fled in 
the darkness over the prairies of Illinois, guided only by the North star, 
towards Canada and freedom, they were often pursued by the slave catcher 
with the instinct and tenacity of the blood-hound, and while pro-slavery 
men assisted the slave hunter to run down and recapture runaway slaves, 
the anti-slavery men of the State often clothed, fed and housed them and 
assisted those panting fugitives as 'they fled from their masters in theii 
attempt to escape from bondage to the land of freedom. In some way, which 
is not now easily understood, three great "Underground Railway" lines, 
with their termini upon the Mississippi river and Lake Michigan, were 
established across the State of Illinois. One started at Chester, another 
at Alton, and the other at Quincy. The Quincy line passed over substan- 
tially the same route from Quincy to Chicago now daily traversed by the 
trains of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company. There were 
stations at Galesburg, in Knox county, at Wethersfield, in Henry county, 
and at Princeton, the home of Owen Lovejoy, in Bureau county, and over 
these underground railways hundreds of black men, black women and 
black children were transferred from bondage to freedom. The engineers, 
conductors, brakemen and station agents upon these lines of railway wen 1 
God-fearing men, and had the courage of their convictions, and if occasion 
required, they did not hesitate, when upon duty, to use force to protect their 
passengers from the interference of slave owners and slave catchers, whom 
they loathed and despised. The men who were thus engaged in assisting 
negro slaves to escapp from bondage, violated the statute law of both the 
State and the nation. This they knew, but they justified their action by an 
appeal to the "higher law." 

Almost two centuries have passed since Philip Francis Renault landed 
with his cargo of slaves at St. Philip. The negro has been emancipated 
from slavery, and Illinois has become the Umpire State of the Mississippi 



48 

valley, and in closing 1 desire to express the wish that Illinois may occupy 
as advanced a position in educating the black man to prepare him to intelli- 
gently and patriotically perform the duties of citizenship and in securing to 
him his constitutional rights, as it occupied in the struggle for his release 
from bondage. 

Appendix. 

Of the May Term of the Bureau County 
Circuit Court in the year of Our Lord 
One thousand eight hundred and forty- 
three. 

State of Illinois] 

ss. 

Bureau County J 

The Grand Jurors chosen selected and sworn in and for the County of 
Bureau in the name and by the authority of the People of the State of Illi- 
nois upon their oaths present that Owen Lovejoy late of the said County of 
Bureau on the first day of March in the year of our Lord One thousand eight 
hundred and forty-two at and within the County of Bureau — a certain Negro 
woman and person of color called "Agnes," she the said "Agnes" then and 
there being a slave and owing service and labour to some person to the 
Jurors aforesaid unknown residing within some State Territory or District 
to the Jurors aforesaid unknown within the limits and under the jurisdiction 
of the United States then and there by keeping the said "Agnes" in his 
dwelling house — feeding, clothing and comforting her the said "Agnes" — he 
the said Owen Lovejoy then and there the said "Agnes" so being a slave 
and owing service as aforesaid unlawfully and wilfully did harbour & secrete 
contrary to the form of the Statute in such cases made and provided and 
against the Peace and dignity of the same People of the State of Illinois. 

And the Jurors aforesaid upon their oaths aforesaid in the name and by 
the authority of the People aforesaid do further present that Owen Lovejoy 
late of the said County on the first day of February in the year of our Lord 
One thousand eight hundred and Forty-three at and within the County of 
Bureau aforesaid a certain Negro woman and person of color called "Nancy" 
she the said "Nancy" then and there being a Slave and owing service and 
labour to some person to the Jurors aforesaid unknown residing within some 
State Territory or District to the Jurors aforesaid unknown within the limits 
and under the jurisdiction of the United States then & there by keeping 
the said "Nancy" in his dwelling house— conveying her from place to place 
and by feeding, clothing & comforting her the said "Nancy" he the said 
Owen Lovejoy then and there the said "Nancy" so being a slave and owing 
service as aforesaid unlawfully & wilfully did harbour and secrete contrary 
to the form of the Statute in such cases made and provided and against the 
Peace and dignity of the same People of the State of Illinois. 

N. H. Purple 

States Atty pro tem. 
(Endorsed) 
The People 

vs 
Owen Lovejoy. 

Indictment for 
harbouring slaves. 
A true Bill 
Enoch Lumry 
Foreman 

Bail $500. ' 

Witnesses 
Isaac Delano 
Eli Smith 
Mrs. Greely 




OWEN LOVEJOT. 



49 



Julia Hitchcock 
David Lloyd 
Ralph Windship 
Sarah Smith 
John Porterfield 
Seth Clapp 
Asenath Clapp 
John Watters 
Pluma Chamberlain 
Lazarus Reeve 
Noah Wiswell 
Mr. Greely 
Caleb Cook 
David Haveland 
Truman Pratt 
Elisha W. Fasset 
Jonathan T. Holbrook 



The People of 
of Illinois 

vs 



the State 



In the Circuit Court 
Bureau County, 111. 
May Term, 184:!. 



of 



Owen Lovejoy. 



Indictment for harboring slaves 
Order 

Date May 20, 1843. 
Whereupon it is ordered by the Court that a capias be 

defendant returnable to the next term of this Court and 

bail in the sum of Five Hundred Dollars. 



issued against said 
that he be held to 



The People of the State 
of Illinois 



vs 



Owen Lovejoy. 



In the Circuit Court of 
Bureau County, Illinois 
October Term, 1843. 

Indictment 

Order 

Date Oct 7, 1843. 



This clay came B. F. Fridley States Attorney and N. H. Purple on behalf 
of the People and the defendant came by Mr. Collins his Attorney and in 
proper person. Also Mr. Caleb Cook as Assistant and the said defendant 
being arraigned thereupon pleaded not guilty and for his trial puts himself 
upon his country and the prosecuting Attorney aforesaid in behalf of the 
People doth the like. Whereupon there came a Jury of twelve good and law- 
ful men to-wit: — Cyrus Langworthy, Leonard Roth, Isaac Heaton, James 
Myers, Alfred T. Thompson, Thomas H. Finley, Thomas Stevens, Caleb 
Moore, Samuel Mohler, Robert Lewis, Tracy Reeve, Josiah B. Miller, who be- 
ing duly elected tried & sworn upon their oaths do say — -"We the Jury do 
find the defendant not guilty in manner and form as charged in the indict- 
ment." 

It is therefore considered by the Court that the said defendant be dis- 
charged from his recognizance herein and that he go hence without delay. 



— 4 H S 



50 



PARDON OF SIX MEN OF THE CRIME OF BEING N T EGROES. 



Richabd Yates. 
Governor of the State of Illinois. 

To the Warden of the Penitentiary, and to all persons to whom these presents 

may come. — Greeting: 

Whereas, On the Sixth day of April, A. D. 1863, to-wit, at the March Term, 
A. D. 1863, at a term then sitting of the Circuit Court in and for the County 
of Adams and State of Illinois, Nelson, Amos, Andrew. Austin, Sambo and 
John, were by the consideration and judgment of the Circuit Court in and 
for Adams County aforesaid, Convicted, each of them, severally, of a crime, 
under the provisions of an act entitled "An act to prevent the immigration 
of free negroes into this State," approved February 12, 1853, and passed by 
the General Assembly of this State; upon which convictions judgments were 
rendered severally under said act, against each of the said above named 
persons, Nelson, Amos, Andrew, Austin, Sambo and John, and their respective 
securities, at said term of said Circuit Court: And Whereas, It has been 
represented and shown to me that the said persons, Nelson, Amos, Andrew, 
Austin, Sambo and John are fit and proper subjects for executive clemency. 
Now, Know Ye, That I, Richard Yates, Governor of the State of Illinois, by 
virtue of the authority in me vested by the constitution of this state, do by 
these Presents Pardon the aforesaid Nelson, Amos, Andrew, Austin, Sambo 
and John of the alleged crime whereof each of them stands convicted under 
the provision of the above recited act; and the said Nelson, Amos, Andrew. 
Austin, Sambo and John, and each and every one of them, be, and each of 
them is hereby discharged from all further imprisonment, and from all 
effects of said conviction; and each of them is restored to all that he has 
forfeited, or that any one of them has forfeited by reason of said Prosecution. 
In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Great 
Seal of State to be hereunto affixed, at the City of Springfield, this six- 
teenth day of January, in the year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred 
and Sixty-five, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty 

ninth — 

RICH.d YATES, 

Governor. 

By the Governor: 

O. M. HATCH, 

Secretary of stair. 




English Colony House at Albion, Illinois. 



51 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN EDWARDS COUNTY 

ILLINOIS. 



(By Hon. H. J. Strawn.) 

To the student of Illinois history, the English settlement in Edwards 
county must be of peculiar interest. Being among the first settlements of the 
Territory, formed as it was by peoples from a foieign monarchy, the founders 
of which were moved, not merely by a wish to better themselves financially, 
but by a higher impulse, that of securing for themselves and their posterity a 
home under a government where "all men are born equal," it could not but 
exert a wide influence, not only on the State, but the nation as well. 

So much has been written, and ably written on this subject by the Hon. 
E. B. Washburne, and others, that in this article I shall confine myself chiefly 
to the leading characters in the settlement, and to its influence on the State 
and nation. 

The idea of forming such a settlement was .conceived by George Flower, 
a young Englishman of wealth and refinement, who had traveled over Europe 
and met with LaFayette, who no doubt had much to do with turning Flower's 
mind towards America. 

Flower was ably seconded in this movement by Mori is Birkbeck, an En- 
glishman of middle age who had spent much time not only in the study of 
civil government but also of agriculture and who had devoted much research 
to agriculture and horticulture, and had proven his ability along those lines 
by amassing, what in those days was considered a fortune, by farming. 

At this time, Birkbeck had considerable reputation as a man of letters, Gov. 
Reynolds calls him the first literary man who settled in Illinois. His knowl- 
edge was broad, his mind, discriminating, and he was unusually gifted in 
expressing himself in a plain and forcible style. He was small of stature 
and not particularly prepossessing in appearance, his manner was earnest, 
and nicely balanced between sternness and kindness. 

Flower, like Birkbeck, had also made a study of agriculture and the prin- 
ciples of government. So much did he love freedom and independence that 
his home in England with all of the charms that wealth and culture could 
give it, was gladly exchanged for pioneer life in a free and independent 
country under a republican form of government. 

This, then, was the reason both of Flower and Birkbeck for founding this 
colony — the love of freedom, and independence, together with justice and 
mercy. They hated conditions in England, which were unjust to the poor 
laborer, who was oppressed and degraded, lacking the means to better his 
condition in the government. Loving liberty and an equal chance of develop- 
ment, they eagerly turned to the great American Republic, hoping to find 
there the freedom and justice which their mother country lacked, and to ex- 
tend it to such of their fellow countrymen as wished it. 

At first, they were undecided just where to settle, but their choice was 
somewhat limited by the system of slavery which existed in a majority of 
the states. Then, too, they were largely influenced by Edward Coles, after- 
wards Governor of the State, who, on a recent visit to England, had given 
them a glowing description of the prairies of Illinois. As a consequence, the 



52 * 

English settlement was made in south-eastern Illinois, in Edwards county, 
midway between the Big and Little Wabash, on prairie uplands, rich, beauti- 
ful, and healthy, and ready for the plow. 

It was the plan of the founders to buy one or more townships from the 
government, to divide them into farms and lots which they would offer on 
favorable terms, to their countrymen. It was their hope that the country- 
men, who might come to them, would hold views on that most serious of 
questions, slavery, in accord with their own that life, in the settlement might 
be harmonious and congenial, and that they might all work together for good. 

Soon farmers of England, miners of Cornwall, drovers of Wales, mechanics 
of Scotland, planters of the West Indies, of the Channel Isles, and of Ireland, 
had followed, and now was fairly established the English settlement, con- 
sisting of two villages two miles apart — Wanboiough, rounded by Birkbeck 
and named for his old home in England, and Albion, founded by Flower and 
named for his native country. Within two years, there was a thriving popu- 
lation of from six to seven hundred people, healthy, prosperous and happy. 

The most of the settlers were of good education, hence, the society of 
Albion and Wanborough was of superior sort. The settlement soon became 
known far and wide for the eminent men who lived there, and it was visited 
by travelers and tourists from all parts of the United States and of countries 
of the Old World. 

These men transplanted to the prairies the arts and improvements of En- 
gland. Americans in the east were saying that the prairies in the west 
would not yield a man a living; but Flower and Birkbeck putting into practice 
their broad knowledge and experience and working together with English la- 
borers well instructed in agriculture, accustomed to continuous labor, soon 
proved that the prairie land of Illinois was for grains and meadow, the best in 
the country. Flower and Birkbeck merit especial gratitude for teaching the men 
of Illinois how to cultivate the grassy but root bound soil on which they had 
settled. Flower was an enterprising agriculturist, scientific in his methods. 
He was quick to introduce improvements, and he taught the farmers advanced 
methods of husbandry. For the purpose of teaching the raising of live stock, 
he imported the finest cattle and sheep from England and Sj>ain. Birkbeck 
was widely known at home and abroad as one of the most practical as well as 
theoretical farmers of England. How fully and beneficially he gave his 
services to the farmers of the State is shown by their recognition in making 
him their first president of the State Agricultural Society. He taught how 
to rid the State of swamps, and stagnant waters and also fogs, by ditching; 
he taught the economy of making the ditch serve for a fence. As a conse- 
quence of the efforts of these two men Edwards county was among the first, if 
not the first, to institute a Fair for exhibition of live stock and farm produce. 

Intimately connected and associated with the development of the English 
society were two men, who though not English, deserve mention on account 
of the part they contributed to the moral and financial uplift of the com- 
munity. 

The first was Walter L. Mayo, a young Virginian, who joined the colony 
in 1829, and became at once a leader. He was commissary in the Edwards 
County Battalion in the Black Hawk War, was elected circuit and county 
clerk of Edwards county, and for forty years controlled his county as abso- 
lutely as the Czar of Russia. He taught the people economy, thrift and 
patriotism. He settled all differences between families and neighbors, and as 
a result of this training Edwards county has ever since been noted for its 
non-litigious character. 

The other young man to whom I refer, was Alexander Stewart, a Scotch- 
man, who came to the English Colony in 1827 and became the great apostle 
of temperance. Although a very successful man, he found time to spread the 
gospel of total abstinence so that his county became known as the banner 
county of temperance, and it is related that from the founding of the colony, 
until the present time, but one man — who was reared from childhood to man- 
hood in the settlement, has gone out in the world, and become a wreck on 
account of strong drink. 




MORRIS BIRKBECK. 



53 

Of a few other men of invaluable service to the State, men who were a 
great acquisition to the whole country, whom Edwards county gave to Illi- 
nois, I wish to speak. 

James O. Wattles, was a distinguished lawyer of the early clays. He was 
elected judge of the fifth judicial district of Illinois by the General Assembly 
and commissioned Jan. 19, 1825. 

General William Pickering was one of the most prominent Whig politicians 
of Illinois of his day, clinging steadfastly to the party principles of the old 
Whigs, in the southeastern part of the State. He was a representative in 
the Legislature from Edwards county from 1842 to 1852. He worked only for 
the public good, and his unselfish services won for him the close friendship 
of Lincoln, who appointed him Governor of "Washington Territory. 

Robert Frazier, senator from Edwards county, voted against slavery in the 
convention of 1823 thus helping the State keep out the system which had 
proven a curse to many of tier sister states. 

The men furnished by Edwards county most influential in keeping out 
slavery were Gilbert T. Pell, Richard Flower, George Flower, and Morris Birk- 
beck. 

Pell was a representative from Edwards county in the convention Legis- 
lature. He was the son-in-law of Birkbeck, and he voted against the resolu- 
tion. How much was due to the influence of Birkbeck and also Gov. Coles, 
with whom he was thrown in close contact, is not known, but it no doubt was 
considerable. Still, Edwards county is proud to claim him as- a son, one who 
helped his State stand for the right in troublous times. 

Richard Flower, the father of George Flower, came to this country in 1818, 
stayed one year in Lexington, Kentucky, and probably would have located 
there permanently, but he found there the system of human bondage which 
he abhorred, so he came to Albion. He was a cultured man and an able 
writer, and he gladly lent his pen to the defeat of slavery. It was most irri- 
tating to him that a man should call himself a republican, yet hold his fellow 
men in bondage. How much influence he exerted in turning the sentiment 
of the people against slavery is shown by Gov. Coles' estimate of him in a 
letter in which he calls him a true republican and a philanthropist. Coles 
begs of him, that in as much as he resides close to the dividing line of the 
contending sections, that he wield his "chaste and powerful pen" for the 
"furtherance of the best and most virtuous of causes." 

No one was more earnest or zealous in fighting the attempt to legalize 
slavery in Illinois than George Flower. He worked unceasingly and unsel- 
fishly, with no hope of material reward, for the highest good of the State and 
mankind, giving his time and fortune to keep his State free from the wrong 
which he had hated all his life. When the pro-slavery men were defeated, 
yet continued to oppress the unfortunate blacks, George Flower conceived 
the idea of founding a colony of free negroes in Hayti. At his own expense, 
he sent a man to Hayti to make the arrangements; then with the cooperation 
of other freedom loving men, he succeeded in establishing the colony that 
meant freedom to miserable and oppressed souls. 

But the man from the English settlement who did the most to defeat slavery 
was Morris Birkbeck. In fact, Birkbeck stands with John M. Peck, next to 
Gov. Coles, in saving the honor of the State; Peck with his preaching and 
Birkbeck with his writing. At the time of the convention struggle, the people 
were scattered, newspapers were few, and little read; consequently, it was 
difficult to place before the people arguments against slavery. The majority 
of the people in southern Illinois, outside of the English settlement, were 
from slave holding states; consequently, they were either in favor of slavery 
or else were indifferent. Birbeck especially loathed the practice of slavery. 
He said he would gladly devote the remainder of his life to rid the State of 
such "leprosy." He wished to get before the people the true and simple facts; 
therefore, his plan was first to impress upon them the corruption and infamy 
of their proceeding in passing the convention resolution; next, to prove from 
true practical experiences derived from authentic sources, that slavery was 
impolitic. 

The convention struggle brought Birkbeck and Coles close together. Coles' 
estimation of Birkbeck is best shown in these words to Birkbeck; "who 



54 

could be of more service than yourself in enlightening the people and giving 
them correct views of the moral and political character of the question, as 
well as of its immediate bearing upon their present interests and future 
welfare." But Birkbeck had already begun to use his pen to right the 
wrong. He had prepared an address to the people, logical yet persuasive, 
setting forth, clearly the wrong and danger of slavery, and appealing to their 
sense of justice and humanity. This was published a short time before the 
election, and scattered broadcast among the people. The effect it had in 
stemming the pro-slavery tide, and turning the tide of public opinion into 
the anti-slavery channel was evidenced by the result of the convention elec- 
tion, in which Edwards county cast 391 votes against, a very large majority. 

Birkbeck published also many other arguments against slavery in the 
Illinois Gazette under the signature of Jonathan Freeman, changing the 
sentiments of many who had been advocates of slavery through lack of 
reflection and knowledge. These were widely published and read, not only 
in Illinois, but also in all parts of the United States, England, and even in 
France. 

Gov. Coles sought to reward him by making him Secretary of State; how he 
was rejected is a matter known to all. He never again was given a public 
favor, for his sad death occurred soon after. He deserves the lasting grati- 
tude of the people of Illinois, for undoubtedly, through his efforts, the vote 
of the English settlement turned the scale and saved the State from the 
odious curse of slavery. 




Spot, above Naples 111., on the Illinois river, used as camp ground by the 21st 

111. Reg't. 



55 



GRANT'S FIRST MAKCII. 



(By Ensley Moore.) 

The 21st Regiment of Illinois- Volunteers was organized at Mattoon, in 
Coles county, and was mustered into the State service by Capt. U. S. Grant. 
It was organized in the patriotic rush at the beginning of the Civil War, 
w r hen so many came forward that the first requisition of the Federal Govern- 
ment was more than filled by the regiments numbered from 7 to 17 first 
accepted by the Government. Grant was sent May 14, 1861, from Springfield 
to muster the men in, and he also instructed them to some degree in mili- 
tary matters, so that they were pleased with him, and the camp at Mattoon 
was called "Camp Grant," probably the first special recognition made of 
"The coming man." No doubt, in his quiet way, that unostentatious citizen 
was gratified and moved by this action. 

At the beginning of the War, the men were allowed to choose tlfeir own 
officers, and those so chosen as regimental commanders were usually of 
decided local prominence, and generally ignorant of military matters. The 
Colonel chosen by the 21st Regiment was no exception to the rule, and soon 
word came to Springfield of lack of discipline and control. These charges 
were so verified that Gov. Yates saw that the time had come to appoint a new 
commander for that organization. His choice was Grant. He gave the com- 
mission when Federal officials had failed to notice Grant's modest offer of 
his services, and when Grant's native state of Ohio had failed to honor its 
greatest son. So, on June 15, 1881, Ulysses S. Grant was appointed Colonel 
of the 21st Regiment of Illinois Volunteers by Richard Yates, the greatest 
War Governor. Grant received the dispatch announcing his appointment 
while at Covington, Ky., visiting his parems, and at once wired his accept- 
ance and started back to Illinois. 

Meantime, the regiment had been brought from Mattoon to Springfield, 
and was quartered in Camp Yates, the predecessor of Camp Butler which 
later came to be so well known. Camp Yates was the old State Fair 
Grounds, situated on West Washington Street, at its intersection with Lin- 
coln Avenue, as now named. The Dubois School now stands on the site of 
the old camp ground. 

Grant was commissioned Colonel, June 15, and soon after went out to 
Camp Yates to take command. As usual, in those days, every such event 
had to be attended by more or less burning eloquence, which, on this occa- 
sion was furnished by Congressmen John A. McClernand and John A. Logan, 
afterwards distinguished generals, and both of whom served under Grant. 
On the way out to the camp, reference was made to the unruly reputation the 
regiment had acquired, and Mr. Logan asked Colonel Grant if he thought 
he could control the men. The new officer, with his usual quietness of man- 
ner, replied, "I think I can." Gen. Logan did not ask such questions later on. 

Gov. Yates, referring to commissioning Col. Grant, said in his last annual 
message: "Thirty days previous to that time, the regiment numbered over 
one thousand men, but in consequence of laxity in discipline and other dis- 
couraging obstacles connected with the acceptance of troops at that time, 
but six hundred and three men were found willing to enter the three years' 
service. In less than ten days, Col. Grant filled the regiment to the maxi- 



5G 

mum standard, and brought it to a state of discipline seldom attained in the 
volunteer service, in so short a time. His was the only regiment that left 
the camp of organization on foot." This much is needed to show that 
Grant not merely undertook an unusual proceeding in starting from Camp 
Yates to march his regiment into Missouri, then to be his first field of opera- 
tions; but to show that in doing so he was also disciplining his men, and pre- 
senting them before the enemy better prepared for duty than any other 
Illinois regiment. 

It is history, that at the time it was noised abroad that the 21st was to 
go from Springfield to Quincy, the local agent of the Great Western Railroad, 
as the "Wabash was then called, came to Grant, asking him how soon he 
wanted transportation. To which the Colonel replied: "I do not want any." 
The agent, surprised at this apparent foolishness, went to see the Adjutant 
General, telling him of the situation. That officer said he "would see about 
it." And he did. For, on questioning Grant, the latter told him he was 
going to march his men to Quincy, "preferring to train them in a friendly 
country;" and, as some other .men did afterwards, the Adjutant General 
capitulated, and the march was made. 

Gen. Grant says, in his Memoirs: "I remained in Springfield with my 
regiment until July 3, when I was ordered to Quincy, Illinois. By that time 
the regiment was in a good state of discipline, and the officers and men 
were well up in the company drill. There was direct railroad communica- 
tion between Springfield and Quincy, but I thought it would be good prepara- 
tion for the troops to march there. We had no transportation for our camp 
and garrison equipage, so wagons were hired for the occasion, and on the 
3rd of July we started. There was no hurry, but fair marches were made 
every day until the Illinois River was crossed. There I was overtaken by a 
dispatch saying the destination of the regiment had been changed to Iron- 
ton, Mo., and ordering me to halt where I was and await the arrival of a 
steamer which had been dispatched up the Illinois river to take the regiment 
to St. Louis. The boat, when it did come, grounded upon a sand-bar a few 
miles below where we were in camp. We remained there several days 
waiting to have the boat get off the bar, but before this occurred, news came 
that an Illinois regiment was surrounded by rebels at a point on the Hanni- 
bal and St. Joe R. R., some miles west of Palmyra, in Missouri, and I was 
ordered to proceed with all dispatch to their relief. We took the cars and 
reached Quincy in a few hours." Thus concisely did the chief actor tell the 
story of his progress, but unwittingly, he had left behind him a trail crowded 
with reminiscences of interest to his men and to the citizens along his line 
of march. 

Among the officers of the 21st was Lieut. Joseph W. Vance, a young man 
then, who, by reason of having spent some time at West Point was better 
qualified for his duties than most of the officers, so Vance was practically 
adjutant of the regiment in its march through Illinois. Lieut. Vance served 
in the Civil War, and, entering the Militia became Adjutant-General of Illi- 
nois for several years, and is now Brigadier-General of Illinois Militia, resid- 
ing in Springfield. To Gen. Vance I am indebted for many points in this 
story. 

As noted above, the regiment left Camp Yates on the afternoon of July 3, 
1861, marching about eight miles that day to some point near, and north of 
Curran, on the present Wabash railway. 

The next day, being the 4th of July, they tramped along, coming upon a 
celebration at Island Grove, on the grounds of Capt. Jas. N. Brown, a patri- 
otic and wealthy farmer of that region, and a prominent Republican. At 
Mr. Lincoln's funeral, Capt. Brown was a pall-bearer, and, on his death the 
sash he wore on that occasion was buried with him. There are various 
stories as to what the soldiers did at the celebration. One is that the people 
invited them, (as they no doubt did) to come to the tables and eat all they 
wanted, and that they were allowed to do so; and another version is that 
Grant would not permit them to eat, fearing that, in their unaccustomed 
plight as to such luxuries, they would become sick and thereby the kindness 
intended would prove to be the opposite. On this subject of the place and 
conditions of the celebration, the following statement of Mr. Benj. W. Brown, 




Headquarters building at Old "Camp Duncan," so named in honor of a Governor 
of Illinois who was a hero of the War of 1812. This building was occupied for 
the same purpose by the 14th, and the 101st Ills. Regts. 



59 

watch over them as they went forth to battle and bring victory to the right. 
It was a merry meal, the ladies explaining the object of the dinner, and 
much praise was bestowed on the young cook. At the proper time, she 
brought on with a triumphant air and a "beat-that-if-you-can" look, her 
nicely browned pudding. One tasted and stopped; another tasted and 
stopped, while a. comical look went around the table, and finally all joined 
in a hearty laugh. Our young cook, dazed by the sudden advent of tbe 
troops, and more intent on military than culinary operations, had used sour 
milk instead of sweet. Tears filled my sister's eyes, but the quiet colonel 
told her the rest of her dinner was so excellent, they didn't need pudding, 
and a few hours later, he and his command had tramped away, leaving us 
alone. The grandmother's blessing was followed by many, many other 
prayers for the success of quiet General Grant-. Fortune favored him, and he 
came to be our commander-in-chief, and then president, and died a great 
general and a hero of his country, and though he traveled around the entire 
globe, was wined and dined by. emperors, kings and princes, I presume he 
was never but once dined with rice pudding made with sour milk." 

A. Y. Hart, then a sergeant in the 21st regiment, one of fifteen Harts in 
the Union Army, now of Mattoon, writes: "We spent the 4th of July, 1861, 
marching; stopped one hour for dinner where they were celebrating, but 
did not attend celebration. It was our first marching, and we were about 
played out, and our stopping was something I will not — no, never! — forget. 
My company was "B," at that time I was sergeant, afterwards first sergeant, 
second lieutenant, and provost marshall, first division, 4th, A. C. 

We went into camp at 11 o'clock a. m., in the fair grounds, Jacksonville. 
I was in your town before and after the war. I am not acquainted in your 
city. Col. Grant stationed himself at gate at fair grounds, and examined 
our canteens for whiskey. One man of my company bought a coffee boiler, 
stopped the passage between the boiler and spout with wax, filled boiler 
with whiskey and spout with milk, and Colonel Grant "passed him in." 

Jacksonville, the home of War Governor Yates, and since of his son, the 
last Governor Yates, was one of the strongest Union towns in the State, and 
many are the reminiscences of its citizens over the passage of "Grant and 
his men." 

After the rest at the Fair Grounds, the 21st took up its march southwest- 
wardly out on the Naples road, to a well known spot known as Allinson's 
Grove, about seven or eight miles west of Jacksonville. This was a delight- 
ful place, had good grass, and a brook of water which in early days furnished 
the power for a grist mill. The immediate place of camping that night was 
well covered with trees, but those right there have since been cleared away, 
although a fringe of forest still stands in the background. 

Mr. Robt. R. Ranson, a well known farmer residing in that neighborhood 
now, was then a youth, and went over on that July evening to see the en- 
campment. He well remembers seeing the tent of Col. Grant, and of seeing 
a soldier hung up by the thumbs. The man in question had been stealing 
cherries from a Mrs. Boddy, nearby, and was paying the penalty of his 
temerity. Gen. Grant, in his Memoirs, referring to his taking hold of the 
21st, naively remarks: "I found it very hard work for a few days to bring 
all the men into anything like subordination; but the great majority favored 
discipline, and by the application of a little Regular Army punishment, all 
were reduced to as good discipline as one could ask." The instance related 
by Mr. Ranson, as well as that told by Mr. Stout, shows Grant's good judg- 
ment and fairness in not allowing his men to take any liberties in the 
friendly land they were passing through. 

On the morrow, the command was again in motion, and, about eight 
miles further west; it passed through the little town of Exeter, on the banks 
of the Mauvaisterre Creek, there a very pretty stream. Dr. Clayton M. 
Stewart, then a resident there, tells of seeing Col. Grant, as a soldier came 
out of a saloon, taking his canteen from the man and emptying its contents 
on the ground. Mr. J. W. Corrington wrote, about Grant's passage, the fol- 
lowing incident showing the Old Commanders's consideration for a little 
child, a consideration destined to charm the subject's remembrance long 



CO 

after Gen Grant had passed away: •Which is Grant? I don't see Grant!" 
"Here, little girl. I am Grant!" said the colonel, as his horse drank from 
midstream of the Mauvaisterre above the big covered bridge, and our Tillie 
thus had the proud distinction of pointing out the great chief to her play- 
mates and many others who saw for the first time a whole regiment — the 
21st Illinois — on the march to the war. It must have been July 5, 1861, and 
ten days later the writer — afterwards the little girl's husband, met Colonel 
Grant's regiment at Palmyra, Mo., and camped over night with them, they 
being en route to the then seat of war at Monroe Station, where, as his 
diary shows, we of the 14th regiment, had our first view of warfare. 

There is nothing of "hero worship" in these fond memories that linger so 
lovingly in the hearts of America's loyal millions. It is only a recognition 
of the Divine providence that r.aised up a Lincoln, a Grant, and others who 
were to lead a great nation through the wilderness of civil war to greater 
and grander achievement. Ii is only a few days since we laid that little 
girl away to sleep the last long sleep, and but a few days before her death, 
she told with beaming eye and flushing cheek, as she had so often told in 
girlish glee, the childish story so dear to her heart, and which shows up our 
hero in his natural and unaffected bearing." 

That day, Saturday, July 6, 1861, the 21st marched about fifteen miles, and 
went into camp at Naples, a town then of much importance as a stopping 
place of steamboats on the Illinois river, and as a terminus of the "Great 
Western R. R. of Illinois." The camp was on a well wooded hill, on the 
bank of the river, about half a mile or a little more above the railway sta- 
tion and steamboat landing. 

Mr. E. S. Greenleaf, now of Jacksonville, of which city he has been Mayor 
three times, told me substantially the following. But he is evidently in 
error on one or two points. The 21st probably reached Naples a little after 
noon, owing to its march from Allinson's, of fifteen miles or more, and per- 
haps Col. Grant rode on ahead and reached Naples before his men did. It 
also appears, from Gen. Grant's statement and some other reasons that the 
regiment was in or about Naples longer than Mr. Greenleaf remembers. 
But this is his remembrance of the matter: "General Grant, then Colonel 
Grant, arrived with his regiment at Naples about noon and camped a short 
distance north of the place and stayed there until Monday morning. I was 
then agent for the Great Western, now Wabash R. R. at that place. He and 
I ate dinner together at the hotel, and were together much during the after- 
noon. He was plain, sociable and unassuming then as ever afterward, and 
I enjoyed his company. Sunday, pretty much the whole of Pike and Scott 
counties turned out to see the soldiers. I think there must have been 10,000 
people on that camp ground during the day. Along toward noon I was 
walking along among the tents and happened to come up with two ladies 
whom I knew and we were chatting a few moments when a slight sprinkle 
began and we took refuge under the awning in front of a tent, and it proved 
to be that of the colonel, who came out and began talking with me. The rain 
ceased and the ladies passed on. leaving me conversing with the colonel, 
when a colored man appeared and announced dinner. The colonel said to 
me: "I ate with you yesterday; come and eat with me today. I think I 
can offer you a better bill of fare than we had at the hotel." I was willing, 
and enjoyed the dinner very much. 

Monday morning the regiment crossed the river and began to march west- 
ward, but in a little while I received a telegram from headquarters asking 
me to intercept the regiment and convey to them the order to get to Quincy 
by rail as soon as possible. There was no railroad west of Naples, so I sent 
a horseman after them and delivered the message, and the men started back. 
Peter D. Critzer owned the ferry, and as the Naples landing was a quarter 
of a mile above the station, I persuaded him to move his wharf-boat down 
to the depot, which he did. and when the men arrived on the other side, they 
were taken across and landed al the proper place. Grant was anxious about 
sonic good horses he had, and asked me how many cars were at his disposal 
for the live stock, and I told him twelve, and he found he would have to 
load 16 horses to a car, which he didn't like to do in the case of his own; 




Camp ground at Allinson's Grove, about seven miles west of Jacksonville, 111. 




Exeter. 111.. Hitt's store or. left of picture. Hotel on right. 




Gardner's, a well known place, on the Perry road, near which Grant's march ended. 



61 

though he didn't ask me to break any rules, but finally I managed to accom- 
modate him with an extra car, which the shipping clerk "forgot" to bill, so 
the report went to headquarters all right. 

Grant detailed some officers to superintend the loading of the baggage of 
the regiment on the cars as the men arrived from the other side. I was busy 
seeing that the cars were set out of the way as fast as they were loaded, and 
did not look after the work myself. The officer at the car was a smart Aleck 
who had probably never seen any service before that time, and felt his 
importance not a little and acted accordingly. The men from the regiment 
would come in droves and pile their stuff pell mell into the car, and as but 
four men could work inside, they would be swamped with the stuff and 
unable to get it out of the way as fast as delivered to them, and the officer 
would curse them roundly for not working faster. Finally I came along and 
the men in the car told me how they were being treated, and I informed the 
young son of Mars that those men were tn my employ and I claimed a mon- 
opoly of abusing them and would thank him to desist, especially as they 
were doing as well as any set of men could. I returned after a while, and 
the men said after my back was turned, the young fellow gave it to them 
worse than ever. It was getting dark then and I had a lantern with me, so 
I took it and went to the office and returned without it and climbed into the 
car unobserved. Along came a squad with a lot of baggage, which they 
dumped into the car, almost covering the men, and the officer poured a tre- 
mendous volley of oaths into them. I hadn't reformed at that time, and had 
not abandoned the use of vigorous language commonly known as profanity, 
and being somewhat of an adept at the business, I lit into the fellow until 
he hardly knew whether he was afoot or horseback. I told the men to get 
out of the car and stay out, for they were doing their best, and not deserving 
of such abuse. I jumped down and to my horror ran against Colonel Grant, 
who slapped me on the shoulder, remarking: "Well, young man, I rather 
liked the way you went after that officer just now." I explained matters and 
began to apologize, but he shut me right up, saying: "No apology called for; 
you did just right." Then he called for the quartermaster, who I think was 
named Captain Jack, and said to him: "Take that young fellow over there 
and put him to bed. He has no idea of business nor the condition of things. 
We are working for these men, not they for us, and are amenable to them. 
The freight handlers are doing their best and should be let alone. Send 
some man who has a little common sense to take charge." 

It was done and we had no more trouble. It took some time to get everything 
loaded, and when the train started off, I went with them and rode until we 
met the other train, I think at Mt. Sterling, and then left them. I formed 
a peculiarly pleasant acquaintance with the new colonel, but had no idea 
lie would soon become so famous as he did. He showed though, in his con- 
duct during the time I was near him, the same qualities which made him the 
great success he proved to be." 

In the foregoing statement Mr. Greenleaf was too modest. He is the sort 
of man who accomplishes things, and Col. Grant was so impressed with his 
efficiency that he asked him to go along with him, saying he could not then 
offer him anything very good, but thought he could do better later on. As 
the sequel proved, this would have been very true. Perhaps, then. Grant felt 
his future power. Mr. Greenleaf could not go, and so informed the Colonel. 

An incident which occurred about three years later, as in the Broadwell 
case, shows Grant's remembrance of friendly acts directed toward himself. 
Mr. Greenleaf became in very poor health, and his physician ordered him to 
go South in hopes of benefit. He started and got as far as Louisville, Ky.. 
at a time when very stringent rules were being enforced by the military 
authorities against civilians being allowed to go down to the front, in Ala- 
bama or Georgia. All appeals in various ways to military and railroad men 
failed, when it occurred to him to dispatch to Gen. Grant and ask for a pass. 
The thing was done, Greenleaf describing himself as the railway agent at 
Naples, and back came the required authority, greatly to the surprise of 
the officials who had charge of such matters. 



62 . 

After the 21st regiment crossed the Illinois river, it marched westwardly 
across "the bottom" past a house known as "Gardner's," and camped at a 
point about half a mile west of Gardner's and four and a half miles from 
Naples. There, in a beautiful grassy cove in the bluffy woods, just where 
the "Chambersburg bridge" crosses McKee's creek, the camp was set. This 
place of "Gardner's" had a local prominence because of the architectural 
appearance of the house called by some "eight square," and by at least one 
"Fort Gardner" after the old-fashioned way of building forts. There was a 
log trough in front of the house where thirsty horses could regale themselves 
with pure spring water, and, in the days of the California immigration, prob- 
ably hundreds of teams had occasion to remember that beneficent act of 
whoever placed the drinking place there. It was near this point, at the 
Chambersburg bridge, on the Perry road, that Grant's first march ended. 
But the memory of that historic incident lingers in many memories, and 
Illinois is richer for his contribution to her traditions of great events. 




The camp gronmd west of "Gardner's," where the march ended. 



63 



ILLINOIS AND THE UK VOLUTION IN THE WEST, 1779-1780. 



(By James A. James, Ph. D., Northwestern University). 

The position of George Rogers Clark was a desperate one when at the 
beginning of the year 1779 he determined to risk all he had gained by at 
once taking the offensive and attempting the reduction of Vincennes. "It 
was at this moment," he declared; "I would have bound myself seven years 
a slave to have had five hundred troops." The wish was vain, for not only 
had he received no reinforcements from Virginia but for nearly a year he 
had not received any communication whatever from Governor Henry. 

His confidence in the success of the expedition seemed to inspire his men, 
and "in a day or two the country seemed to believe it, many anxious to 
retrieve their characters turned out, the ladies began also to be spirited and 
interest themselves in the expedition, which had a great effect on the young 
men." With this enthusiasm, provisions and stores were soon collected. On 
February 5, the "Willing," an armed row-galley, the first armed boat on a 
Western river, mounting two four pounders and four swivels, with a crew of 
forty men commanded by Lieut. John Rogers, set off under orders to take 
station a short distance below Vincennes and prevent any boat from descend- 
ing the Wabash, for it was surmised that in case of defeat the British would 
attempt to escape by this route. 

The following afternoon, Clark, with his one hundred and thirty men, 
nearly one-half of whom were French volunteers, Father Gibault having 
granted them absolution, marched out of Kaskaskia. It is not the purpose 
of this paper to discuss the extreme trials encountered by this little band of 
men in their wintry march to Vincennes nor to i elate the events connected 
with the capture of that post. On February 25, the garrison of seventy-nine 
men were made prisoners of war. Lieut. Governor Hamilton and twenty- 
five of his men were sent under guard to Williamsburg. 

Preparatory to his return to Kaskaskia, with the remaining prisoners, 
Clark carefully arranged for a satisfactory government at Vincennes by 
appointing the faithful Captain Helm to take control of all civil matters and 
act as superintendent of Indian affairs. Moses Henry was made Indian 
agent. The garrison of forty picked men was left in command of JLieutenant 
Richard Brashears, assisted by Lieutenants Bailey and Chaplin. Letters were 
sent John Bowman, then county lieutenant in Kentucky, urging him to begin 
collecting men and provisions for the pioposed march on Detroit. 

No victorious army ever returned with spirits more elated than the eighty 
men who, on March 20, accompanied Clark on his return back to Kaskaskia. 
Within a year the authority of Virginia over the region stretching from the 
Ohio to the Illinois and 140 miles up the Wabash had been established by 
conquest. The danger that the frontier settlements would be cut off by 
savages under the leadership of British agents was greatly lessened. These 
results had been accomplished against odds that would have completely over- 
come men not already inured to the harsh conditions incident to life on the 
frontier. No assistance had been rendered by the Virginia authorities, and 
for nearly a year Clark had not even received, as he expressed it, "a scrape 



of a pen" from Governor Henry. 1 The six boats pushed off down the Wabash 
amidst the rejoicing of the people who had assembled to wish them a "good 
aDd safe passage." A few of those who lingered to watch the boats until 
they were lost to view fully comprehended the results which had been at- 
tained. Their thought was expressed by one of their number as follows: 

"Although a handful in comparison to other armies, they have done them- 
selves and the cause they were fighting for, credit and honor, and deserve 
a place in History for future ages; that their posterity may know the diffi- 
culty their forefathers had gone through for their liberty and freedom. Par- 
ticularly the back settlers of Virginia may bless the day they sent out such 
a Commander, and officers, men, etc., etc., I say, to root out that nest of 
Vipers, that was every day ravaging on their women and children; which I 
hope will soon be at an end, as the leaders of these murderers are taken 
and sent to Congress." 2 

When the boats reached Kaskaskia, "Great Joy" was manifested by the 
garrison, then commanded by Captain Robert George, who had recently re- 
turned with sixty men from New Orleans. 3 The villagers, too. were not less 
gratified at the return of Clark, for he was the one American who had gained 
and continued to hold their love and confidence. 

The problems and disappointments Clark was forced to meet with during 
the succeeding three months were among the most trying of his whole career. 
Upon arrival he found the people excited over the recent conduct of a party 
of Delaware warriors. Learning also of depredations committed at Vincennes 
by another party, Clark, by way of warning to the other tribes, ordered a 
ruthless war against the marauders. In the attacks on their villages which 
followed, no mercy was shown except to the women and children. The 
Indians soon sued for peace. 

Without money for the support of his army Clark had begun after the 
capture of Kaskaskia to issue bills of credit on Virginia in exchange for pro- 
visions. These were satisfactory to the merchants and traders, for they were 
received and paid at their face value in silver by Oliver Pollock, agent for the 
state at New Orleans. 4 In a letter of July 18, Clark said to Pollock: "I 
have succeeded agreeable to my wishes, and am necessitated to draw bills on 
the state and have reason to believe they will be accepted by you, the answer- 
ing of which will be acknowledged by his Excellency the Governor of Vir- 
Large batteaux rowed with twenty-four oars, loaded with goods sent by 
Pollock, under the protection of the Spanish flag, slipped past Natchez, then 
under the control of the British, and in from eighty-five to ninety days 
arrived at St. Louis or the Illinois posts. Full credit was given by Clark 
to Pollock for this assistance, by which he was able to hold the Illinois coun- 
try. "The invoice Mr. Pollock rendered upon all occasions in paying those 
bills," Clark declared, "I considered at the time and now to be one of the 
happy circumstances that enabled me to Keep Possession of that Country." "' 
During September, 1778, goods were sent by Pollock to Clark, amounting to 
seven thousand two hundred dollars. The following January five hundred 
pounds of powder and some swivels were received by Clark from the same 
source. By February 5, 1779, bills were drawn on Pollock by Clark amount- 
ing to forty-eight thousand dollars. Of this amount, ten thousand dollars 
were paid by Pollock after he had disposed of his own remaining slaves at 
a great disadvantage. 

By July, 1779, however, Pollock had so far exhausted his credit that in 
meeting an order from Governor Henry for goods amounting to ten thousand 
dollars, he was forced to mortgage a part of his lands. He had at that time 
paid bills drawn on the state amounting to thirty-three thousand dollars. 



1 Letter of Clark to Patrick Henry, April 29, 177:'. 
- liowman's Journal. 

3 Braver MSS., J,8 J S3. 

4 The first money Clark received from Virginia was in January, 177S. when 
£1200 in state currency was sent to him. Clark. Accounts Against Virginia. 

I Vrlificate signed by (Mark. July 2, 1785. Copy in Calendar of Oliver Pollock 
Letters and Papers in tin 1 Department of State, Bureau of Indexes and Archives, 
CXV., Miscellaneous Letters, January- April, 1791. 
6 Papers of the Continental Congress, Pollock Papers, L., I., pp. 1-14. 



65 

The flour and meal which bad been promised him had not been forwarded. 
"Being already drained of every shilling 1 could raise for the use of yours 
and the rest of the United States," he wrote, "i went tits! to (lie Governor 
of this place, and then to every merchant in it, but could not prevail upon 
any of them to supply said goods, giving for their reason the few goods they 
had were imported, would in all probability become double the value of what 
they were just now, particularly at this juncture, as war between Spain and 
Great Britain was daily expected, and the little probability there was of 
getting paid for your quarter in any reasonable time, by depending only on 
the Letter of Credit and Mr. Lindsay's contract. In fine finding it imprac- 
ticable to obtain any by that means, and at same time being fearful of the 
bad consequences that might attend your being disappointed in those goods, 
I have voluntarily by mortgaging part of my property for the payment at the 
latter end of this year, purchased the greater part of them from a Mr. Salo- 
mon; you have therefore invoice and bill .of loading amounting to 10,029 
dollars 1 Rial." 7 

Twenty-five thousand dollars' worth of the bills drawn by Clark were un- 
der protest at New Orleans." They were issued in favor of a number of the 
inhabitants of Illinois. These drafts had been received by the French mer- 
chants and traders in preference to the Continental money, which had re- 
cently appeared in the west in small quantities. 9 

While borrowing money on his own credit, Pollock, in order to encourage 
the shipment of arms, Indian goods, rum, sugar, etc., to the Illinois country, 
and in order to encourage down cargoes, in exchange, made up of deer-skins, 
beaver, otter, and flour while at the same time keeping up the credit of the 
continental currency, continued until July, 1779, to pay "Bateauxmen and 
Traders silver dollars for Paper Currency Dollar for Dollar." 10 

Continental currency had been used but little in the west previous to the 
expedition against Vincennes. The confidence of the people in the govern- 
ment, together with the efforts of Pollock, sustained this money at par when 
it had so far depreciated in the east as to be worth only twelve cents on the 
dollar. 11 Traders from the east became aware of this situation, and rushed 
to this region, where goods might be procured with the "continentals" at 
their face value. They brought with them such large sums and distributed 
the money so liberally in trade that the inhabitants became alarmed and 
refused to receive it. 

On returning to Kaskaskia, Clark was not surprised to learn that his credit 
at New Orleans was exhausted. "I am sorry to learn," he wrote Pollock, 
"you have not been supplied with funds as expected your protesting my late 
bills has not surprised me. As I expected it being surrounded by enemies 
Mr. Hamilton and his savages being obligated for my own safety to lay in 
Considerable Stores I was obliged to take every step I possibly could to pro- 
cure them unwilling to use force." He was confronted also with the prob- 
lems growing out of a depreciated money, of which he says in writing 
Governor Henry: 

"There is one circumstance very distressing, that of our own moneys being 
discredited, to all intents and purposes, by the great numbers of traders who 
come here in my absence, each out-bidding the other, giving prices unknown 
in this country by five hundred per cent, by which the people conceived it 
to be of no value, and both French and Spaniards refused to take a farthing 
of it." 12 



' Draper MSS., p J GO. Pollock to Henry. July 17, 177'.). 

8 Fully one-half of these represented the expense incident to the fitting out of 
the expedition against St. Vincents. Clark's Accounts Against Virginia. 

'■' Clark to Pollock, June 12. 1779. Copy in Virginia State Library, chirk- Papers, 
bundle I. 

10 Papers of the Continental Congress, Letters and Papers of Oliver Pollock, Vol. 
1,.. [., pp. 1-44. 

11 Orderly Hook of William Shannon, February 10, 1 7 s :*, . Virginia State Library. 
'- Letter Of Clark to Henry. April 29, 1770. 



-5 H S 



6 



66 

To the great joy of Clark he was informed that his friend, John Todd, had 
been appointed by Governor Henry to take charge of civil affairs in the Illi- 
nois country. His undivided attention might thus be given to "military 
reflections." 13 December 9, 1778, a bill passed the Virginia legislature estab- 
lishing the County of Illinois, which was to include the inhabitants of Vir- 
ginia north of the Ohio River. 14 This type of government had been brought 
into general usage by Virginia in her western expansion. 15 The act pro- 
viding for the County of Illinois was to remain in force for a year, and 
"thence to the end of the next session of the Assembly, and no longer." " 
The establishment of some temporary form of government was thought to 
be expedient, for, as stated in the act, "from their remote situation, it may 
at this time be difficult if not impracticable to govern them by the present 
laws of this commonwealth, until proper information, by intercourse with 
their fellow citizens, on the east side of the Ohio, shall have familiarized 
them to the same." The chief executive officer was the county-lieutenant 
or commander-in-chief, who was 'appointed by the governor and council. He 
was to appoint at his discretion, deputy commandants, militia officers, and 
commissaries. The civil officers, with whom the inhabitants were familiar, 
and whose duties were to administer the laws already in force, were to be 
chosen by tne citizens of the different districts. Officers with new duties 
were to be maintained by the state. Pardoning power was vested in the 
county-lieutenant in all criminal cases, murder and treason excepted. In 
these cases he was empowered to stay execution until such time as the will 
of the governor, or, in case of treason, of the assembly, should be ascer- 
tained. 17 Provision was made for the protection of the inhabitants in all 
their religious, civil, and property rights. 

The instructions issued by Governor Henry and the council, December 12, 
1778, to Todd and to Clark, who was to retain the command of all Virginia 
troops in the County of Illinois, showed a grasp of the situation. They 
were to cooperate in using their best efforts to cultivate and conciliate the 
affections of the French and Indians. The rights of the inhabitants were 
to be secured against any infractions by the troops, and any person attempt- 
ing to violate the property of the Indians, especially in their lands, was to 
be punished. All Indian raids on Kentucky were to be prevented. The 
friendship of the Spaniards was to be maintained. As head of the civil 
department, Todd was to have command of the militia, "who are not 
to be under the command of the military until ordered- out by the civil 
authority and act in conjunction with them." 18 He was directed on "all 
Accasions (sic) to inculcate on the people the value of liberty and the 
Difference between the State of free Citizens of the Commonwealth and that 
Slavery to which Illinois was destined. A free and equal representation 
may be expected by them in a little Time, together with all the improve- 
ments in Jurisprudence and police which the other parties of the State 
enjoy." 

Todd reached Kaskaskia early in May, 1779. His coming was hailed with 
joy by the inhabitants who, having experienced some of the harshness inci- 
dent to military control, were enthusiastic for a change, no matter what 
the new form of government might be. The county-lieutenant was well 
fitted to fill his office acceptably. Besides receiving a good general educa- 
tion, he had studied and practised law for a time. Unable to resist the call 
of the frontier, he enlisted for service in Dunmore's War, and in 1775, when 
but twenty-five years of age, Todd went to Kentucky, where he was selected 
as one of the representatives to form a constitutional government for the 
settlement of Transylvania. In 1777 he was elected delegate to the Virginia 
House of Burgesses from the County of Kentucky. 10 The intimate friendship 



13 Clark-Mason Letter. English, sup. cit., I., p. 411ff. 

14 Hening, Statutes, IX., p. 553. See discussion in III. Hist. Collections. II., pp. 
I., 11. 

u Filson Club Publications. VI., p. 43. 

10 Act of Incorporation, in Hening, Statutes, IX., p. 552. 

17 Hening, Statutes, IX., pp. 117, 552-5; V., pp. 489, 491. 

18 III. Hist. Collections, V., p. 60. 

19 Filson Club Publications, VI., p. 43. 



67 

existing between Todd and Clark, and their known ability and bravery, 
promised a successful solution of the problems with which they were con- 
fronted. 

May 12 was a notable day among the villagers of Kaskaskia, for on that 
day they assembled at the door of their church upon the call of Clark to 
hear the proclamation of the new government, and participate in the elec- 
tion of judges. The address prepared by Clark, who acted as presiding 
officer of the meeting, was well suited to the occasion. 20 "From your first 
declaration of attachment for the American cause," he said, "until the glori- 
ous capture of post St. Vincent, I had doubted your sincerity, but in that 
critical time, I proved your faithfulness, I was so touched with the zeal that 
you have shown that my desire is to make you happy and to prove to you 
the sincere affection I have for the welfare and advancement of this colopy 
in general, and of each individual in particular. The young men of this 
colony have returned from Post St. Vincent covered with* laurels, which I 
hope they will continue to wear. Although there are a few who did not 
have anything to do with this glorious action, I do not esteem them less, hoping 
they will take revenge, if the occasion presents itself, who, during my ab- 
sence, have with great care done their duty as guardians of this fort." He 
promised, as soon as it was within his power, that they should become par- 
takers in the liberty enjoyed by Americans, and that a regiment of regular 
troops was to be sent for their protection. They were assured that the new 
government was one of such "kindliness" that they would bless the day 
they had chosen to favor the American cause. In presenting Col. Todd he 
referred to him as his good friend, and the only person in the state whom 
he desired to have take charge of that post. He spoke of the great import- 
ance of their meeting for the purpose of selecting the most capable and en- 
lightened persons, to judge their differences, and urged that only those most 
worthy of the offices should be chosen. 

The brief response made by Todd was likewise full of promise for the suc- 
cess of the new government, which was to serve as guardian of their rights 
as citizens of a free and independent state. Elections of judges for the dis- 
trict courts at Cahokia and Vincennes took place shortly afterwards, and 
resulted, as at Kaskaskia, in the selection of Frenchmen. 21 On May 21, 1779, 
the commission for the court at Kaskaskia was issued by Todd. He had 
previously appointed a sheriff and state's attorney. The court named its 
own clerk. 

One week earlier (May 14) military commissions were made out. A num- 
ber of the men given officer's commissions had been elected judges, and were 
thus expected to assume the duties of both offices. 22 

Within a few days, Todd was called on to hear a recital of the grievances 
of the French inhabitants which had been formulated by the Kaskaskia 
justices. He was informed that a number of the oxen, cows, and other ani- 
mals belonging to the petitioners had been taken and killed by the soldiers; 
that liquor was being sold to Indians, and trade carried on with slaves with- 
out the consent of their masters. Both kinds of traffic, they complained, were 
contrary to French custom. 23 

Licenses for carrying on trade were issued by Todd. Fearful lest there 
would be a repetition of the abuses under the Virginia land law, as practised 
in Kentucky, and that adventurers and speculators would get possession of 
the rich bottom lands, he decreed that no new settlements should be made 
on the flat lands "unless in manner and form as heretofore made by the 
French inhabitants." 2i 

No problem proved more trying for Todd and Clark than the effects pro- 
duced by depreciated currency. Complications were greater on account of 



20 Translated and read by Jean Girault, who was Clark's interpreter. It is 
printed in III. Hist. Collections, V, p. 80. 

21 The court of Kaskaskia consisted of nine members ; Cahokia, seven and 
Vincennes, nine. III. Hist. Collections. II., p. 56 ; V., p. 85 et. seq. 

-- Five of the judges at Cahokia were also givfn military commissions. Mason 
Chapters from Illinois History, p. 260. 

23 III. Hist. Collections, II.. Virginia ser., I., LXVIL. LXVIII., V., p. 88 

24 Chicago Hist. Society Collections, IV., p. 301. 



68 

counterfeit money. By the close of April, the price of provisions was three 
times what it had been two months previously, and Clark was enabled to 
support his soldiers only by the assistance of a number of the merchants.-'"' 
While in Kentucky. Todd learned that the issues of currency bearing the 
dates April 20, 1777, and April 11, 1778, had been ordered to be paid into 
the Continental loan offices by the first of June, 1779, otherwise they would 
then become worthless. He hoped that the time would be extended for the 
Illinois holders. Upon his arrival at Kaskaskia, Todd found that the paper 
money had depreciated, so that it was worth cnly one-fifth of its face value 
in specie.- On June 11 he addressed the court in the following letter, the 
evident purpose of which was his desire to sustain public credit: 

"The only method that America has to -support the present war is by her 
credit. That credit at present is her bills emitted from the different Treas- 
uries by which she engages to pay the Bearer at a certain time gold and 
silver in Exchange. There is no friend to American Independence who has 
any judgment but soon expects to see it equal to Gold and Silver. Some 
disaffected persons and designing speculators discredit it through Enmity or 
Interest; the ignorant multitude have not sagacity enough to examine into 
this matter, and merely from its uncommon quantity and in proportion to 
it arises the complaint of its want of Credit." 2 ~ 

To stay depreciation Todd proposed to retire a portion of the bills through 
exchanging them for land certificates. Twenty-one thousand acres of land 
in the vicinity of Cahokia were set aside on which it was planned to borrow 
thirty-three thousand dollai's in Virginia and United States treasury notes. 
The lender might demand within two years his proportion of the land or a 
sum in gold or silver equal to the original loan, with five per cent annual 
interest. Land or money might be given at the option of the state. Large 
sums of money were exchanged for these certificates, but the project could 
not be carried further. 

It was, however, the capture of Detroit which was uppermost in the minds 
of the two leaders, and preparations were rapidly made for the expedition, 
which promised complete success.- 8 In this they were following the orders 
explicitly given by Governor Henry. "The inhabitants of Illinois," so read 
the instructions to Todd, "must not expect safety and settled peace while 
their and our enemies have footing at Detroit and can interrupt and stop 
the Trade of the Mississippi. If the English have not the strength or cour- 
age to come to w r ar against us themselves, their practice has been and will 
be to hire the savages to- commit murder and depredations. Illinois must 
expect to pay in these a large price for her freedom, unless the English can 
be expelled from Detroit. The means of effecting this will not perhaps be 
found in yours or Col. Clark's power. But the French inhabiting the neigh- 
borhood of that place, it is presumed, may be brought to see it done with 
indifference or, perhaps, join in the enterprise with pleasure. This is but 
conjecture. When you are on the spot you and Col. Clark may discover its 
fallacy or reality." 

Captain Linctot, a trader of great influence with the Indians, who had 
recently joined the Americans, was sent up the Illinois with a company of 
forty men to secure the neutrality of the Indians, 1 ' 9 and at the same time 
cover the design of the main expedition against Detroit. 30 He reported, on 
his return, having gone as far as "Wea; " that peace and quietness was 
general. 31 

Great enthusiasm was manifested on the part of officers, troops, and the 
French militia. Not only were the villagers ready to enlist, even the old 
men volunteering their services. They gave further evidence of their zeal 
by proffering boat-loads of flour, cattle and horses. 32 



25 I 'lark's letter to Patrick Henry, April 29, 1779. 

From Bve to six. Journal of Virginia House of Delegates. May. I7ss. p, 134. 
- 7 Chicago Hist. Society Collections, IV., p. 297. 
28 Chirk-Mason Letter. 
-"•' Mich. Pioneer mill Hist. Collections, IX., p. 3S9. 

' 'lark-Mason Lettt r. 

31 Draper mss.. 1,9 .1 .',:,. Joseph Bowman to Clark, .May 25, 1779 

32 Draper MS8-, Y> J P- Bowman to Clark, June 3, 1779. 



69 

The arrival of Colonel John Montgomery from Virginia with one hundred 
and fifty men, about one-third the number expected, was a keen disappoint- 
ment to Clark. But he did not lose confidence, for he had been promised 
three hundred Kentuckians by Colonel John Bowman, their county lieutenant. 

On July 1, 1779, Clark, with a party of horsemen, reached Vincennes, the 
place of rendezvous. Here he was joined by the remainder of the Illinois 
troops with the exception of a company of mounted men dispatched under 
Captain Linctot to reconnoiter and to obtain permission of the "Wea" and 
Miami for Clark to pass through their country on his way to Detroit. 

Before leaving Kaskaskia. Clark learned that Colonel John Bowman had 
led the Kentucky forces against Chillicothe, a Shawnee town, and was fear- 
ful of the effect on his Detroit plans. This expedition consisted of two hun- 
dred and ninety-six men/ 3 The Indians fortified themselves so strongly in a 
few log cabins that the whites were repulsed. The greater part of the town 
was burned and Bowman retreated with a large amount of plunder. 

Clark had now to experience some of the adverse results of his earlier 
success. Influenced by his victories, immigrants in large numbers had en- 
tered Kentucky during the spring. 34 Some returned to the older settlements 
for their families, and the others were scattered over such a large area that 
it seemed impossible to Bowman to secure the number of men he had prom- 
ised Clark by the time appointed, and especially since the militia were so 
disheartened by the campaign against the Shawnees that only the most tried 
among them were ready to enter upon a new enterprise. 

The arrival of only thirty Kentucky volunteers was a severe blow to 
Clark. 3 " The capture of Detroit with his available force of about three hun- 
dred and fifty, even though its fortifications were incomplete and its garri- 
son numbered but a hundred men, was at the time, he thought, out of the 
question. Most of his men were barefoot, 3 " and Vincennes was able to supply 
scarcely enough provisions for its own inhabitants, and could not, therefore, 
furnish food for several hundred men on a campaign of uncertain length. 
All commerce with Detroit had ceased, and supplies could be gotten by the 
way of the Mississippi only with great difficulty, owing to the attachment of 
the southern Indians to the British. 

Although abandoned; the influence of the preparations for the expedition 
proved of great significance. Threatenings from Vincennes led the British 
officials at Detroit to give up their plans for the recapture of that post. 37 A 
summer campaign against Pittsburgh, with a force of regulars and Indians, 
was likewise abandoned. Instead of taking the field for an offensive cam- 
paign in 1779, the British at Detroit and Mackinac were engaged in consider- 
ing defensive operations and in re-enforcing these posts with all possible dis- 
patch. 1 " Even after large expenditures by the British for rum and presents 
for the warriors, and food for the old men, women and children, disaffection 
among the Indians became constantly more open. 30 They and their French 
neighbors were frightened over the report that an alliance between the 
French, Spanish, Germans and Americans had been formed with the object 
of driving the English out of America. 40 



33 Draper MSS., 1,9 J 52. 

M Draper MSS.. ',n J 89, 90. 

85 "But now came the sorest blow we had yet received." Drap< r MSS., 1ft J I ft. 
Clark's Memoir. 

30 Orderhi Book of the Conductor General. Fort Patrick Henry, July 2(1. 1779. 
Virginia Stale Library. 

37 Draper MSS.. .',.') J 1,1, and ibid., I H Hi',. 

38 Draper MSS., :,s J .;?. Haldimand to Clinton, May 31. 1779. 

39 Draper MSS., 58 J 89. Also Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Collections, IX.. p. 411. 

'" Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Collections. IX.. p. 417. "Fear acts stronger <m them 
than all arguments can be made use "f to convince them of enemy's ill designs 
againsl their- lands." Brehm to Haldimand-, May 28, 1779. Mich. Pioneer and 
Hist. Collections, IX.. p. 411. In a letter of Del'eyster, at Mackinaw, to Haldimand, 
June 1. 1779, he excused the increased expenditures as follows: "As the Indians 
are growing very importunate since they hear that the French are assisting the 
Rebels. The Canadians are a great disservice i>> the Government, but the Indians 
are perfed free masons when intrusted with a secret by a Canadian, must of them 
being much connected by marriage." Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Collections, [X., 
p. 382. Only the Menominee and Sioux remained true to the British. 



ro 

Despite their apparent demoralization the British showed signs of activity. 
Lieutenant Bennett was sent from .Mackinac (May 29) with a force of twenty 
soldiers, sixty traders, and two hundred Indians for the purpose of inter- 
cepting Linctot or to "distress the Rebels" in any other way. 41 Captain Lang- 
lade was directed to levy the Indians at LaFourche and "Milwaukee," and 
join Bennett at "Chicagou." 4 - Indian scouts sent out by Bennett from St. 
Joseph's were frightened by reports obtained from other Indians and soon 
returned. Their fears quickly brought about a general panic. "We have 
not," wrote Bennett, "twenty Indians in our camp who are not preparing 
for leaving us, I believe you will join with me when I say they are a set of 
treacherous poltroons." 43 The return to Mackinac was begun shortly after- 
wards. 41 

In like manner, a force of six hundred, chiefly Indians, led by Captain 
McKee, was sent from Mackinac. Forgetting his boast that he would place a 
pair of handcuffs on every rebel officer left in the country, McKee retreated 
from St. Joseph's upon hearing the report that Clark was marching towards 
Detroit. 45 

Early in June, Captain Henry Bird collected some two hundred Indians at 
the Mingo town. The account brought in by runners of the attack which 
had been made by Colonel Bowman on the Shawnee town produced a panic 
among his followers. Some of the savages deserted in order to protect their 
villages against the American advance which was momentarily expected. 
Still more of them were anxious to sue for peace. 46 

By August 1, all was confusion at Detroit, for the messages brought by 
couriers promised the coming of Clark with an army of two thousand Amer- 
icans and French Creoles. 47 

"Every effort is making to strengthen and complete our new Fort," so 
wrote an officer who demanded that re-enforcements should be sent, "as we 
are not equal to oppose the passage of such numbers to this place. Our 
ditch and glacee will be in a very good state the end of this week. An abatis 
afterwards to be thrown round the barracks will be ready at the same time. 
I wish to God I could say the same of our well; it is now upwards of 60 
feet below the level of the river, and no appearance of water. Could we only 
rely on the inhabitants, or had they either the inclination or the resolu- 
tion to defend their town, there would be nothing to apprehend on that 
head as we might then take the field." 

Clark, as we have seen, had now definitely abandoned his purpose of an 
immediate movement against Detroit, but he continued to make preparations 
by collecting supplies for a campaign against that post in the spring. Clark 
himself reached the Falls of the Ohio, August 26, and there began the estab- 
lishment of his headquarters. Colonel Montgomery was left in charge of the 
Illinois battalion. 48 

These events ended American activity in the northwest in 1779. In con- 
trast with Clark's bold and successful dash against Vincennes, with which 
the year had opened, and the larger plans of 1780, the story of the later 
months of 1779 has -often seemed to historians tame and relatively unim- 
portant. The study will have served its main purpose if it makes evident 
that in the establishment of peaceful relations with the Indians, in the 
founding of civil government in the Illinois country, and in the neutraliza- 
tion of all British activity in the northwest by the zeal and publicity with 
which the proposed expedition against Detroit was promoted, George Rogers 



41 Ibid., IX.. p. 390. 

a Wis. Hist. Collections. XVIII., pp. 375, 376. 

43 Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Collections, IX., pp. 392-396. Wis. Hist. Collections, 
XVIII., pp. 394-396. 

44 Wis. Hist. Collections, XVIIL. pp. 397-401. 

45 Draper MSS., .',9 J 73. Mich. Pioneer Collections, IX., p. 417. 

48 Mich. Pioneer Collections, X., pp. 336. 337. Captain Bird to Captain Lernoult, 
June 9, 1779. Report said thai the Americans were coming with a force of 4,000. 

47 Draper MSS., 58 J W-t,!). Letter of Captain Parke, July 30, 1779. 

48 Draper MSS.. .'.; J 1X1. Captain John Williams was appointed his aid at Fort 
('lark (Kaskaskla) ; Captain Richard McCMity at Cahokia ; Captain James Shelby 
at Fort Patrick Henry ("Vincennes) ; Major Joseph Bowman was given the direction 
"i the recruiting parties. 



71 

Clark and his associates had successfully met the problems which confronted 
them. In view of these larger events Clark's judgment upon his success in 
spreading reports may well he given a wider content by the historian, and 
the summer of 1779 pronounced one that "was spent to advantage * * *.' M9 

James Alton James. 



49 Clark's Memoir. 



72 



THE VINETV-SIXTIE ILLINOIS AT CHICKAMATTGA. 



(By Charles A. Partridge.) 

At the battle of Chiekamauga, fought September 19 and 20, 1863, the 
Ninety-sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was called upon to do 
heroic service. How well it responded to the call its long list of casualties, 
embracing 62 killed and mortally wounded, 148 wounded and 36 captured 
out of a total of 420 present, bears mute evidence. 

The Ninety-sixth was one of the fifty-nine infantry regiments recruited and 
organized in Illinois in 1862, under President Lincoln's calls for six hundred 
thousand volunteers. When mustered it comprised 969 officers and men. 
Six of its ten Companies were from Jo Daviess County and four from Lake 
County. Mustered into the service of the United States at Rockford, Sep- 
tember 5, 1862, it was given a month in which to be equipped and drilled in 
a camp of instruction before being hurried to the field. 

It was exceptionally fortunate in its selection of Field Officers. Not long 
since a group of former members of the Regiment acquiesced with enthusias- 
tic unanimity in the suggestion of one of their number that if every one of 
the nearly one thousand men comprising the command had been dressed 
exactly alike any one could readily have picked out its Colonel, for. in his 
face and form and bearing, Thomas E. Champion was the "one in a thousand" 
to be chosen as the leader. 

Colonel Champion's home was in Warren, Jo Daviess County. He was a 
graduate of the University of Michigan. In early manhood he was a physi- 
cian, but later had become an attorney and at the age of 37, when he en- 
listed, had come to be recognized as one of the stronger lawyers of North- 
western Illinois. Tall, well-proportioned, alert, with a clear, ringing voice 
and a natural aptitude for the military, he quickly won the admiration of 
his men and the confidence of his superior officers. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac L. Clarke was from Waukegan, Lake County. He 
was a graduate of Dartmouth College and an attorney, although in younger 
life he had been a teacher and principal of the Waukegan Academy. Thirty- 
eight years of age at enlistment, large in size, rather striking in appearance 
and a rigid disciplinarian, he proved an able second to his chief. 

The Major was John C. Smith, of Galena. He was 30 years of age, and at 
the time of entering the service was Superintendent of Construction of the 
custom house at Dubuque, Iov/a. Since the war he has twice been State 
Treasurer of Illinois and once its Lieutenant-Governor. As was the case 
with his associates, he proved to be a popular and efficient field and staff 
officer. During the battle of Chiekamauga he was serving as Chief of Staff 
to Gen. Steedman, commander of the Division of which the Ninety-sixth 
was a part. 

For a full year the Regiment escaped serious battle, although more than 
once under fire in minor affairs. It had drilled so diligently as to become 
exceptionally proficient in battalion and brigade maneuvers and in the man- 
ual of arms, and had become well-seasoned by its participation in cam- 
paigns in Kentucky and .Middle Tennessee. As was the case with all regi- 



73 

ments, its losses during its first year were considerable. There had been 
56 deaths; 123 had been discharged for disability and 30 had been perman- 
ently detailed or transferred to other commands. The usual details as 
teamsters, hospital attaches and .helpers in the quartermaster, commissary 
and ordnance departments and the ailments incident to mid-summer with 
much picket duty, had still further depleted the ranks, so that not quite 
one-half of the original enrollment was present September 7. when the 
Regiment left Estill Springs under orders to proceed to Chattanooga. 

The main army under Gen. Rosecrans had moved forward and was in 
position to compel the evacuation of Chattanooga early in September, and 
three brigades of the Reserve Corps had been ordered to follow as reinforce- 
ments. In the First Brigade of the First Division of this Corps the Ninety- 
sixth was then serving. Its march, over the Cumberland Mountains and 
along the Tennessee River, although somewhat trying, was not especially 
severe, except that from Bridgeport haste was required and an all night 
march was necessary. Crossing the brow of Lookout Mountain, and con- 
voying a long train of army wagons loaded with rations and ammunition, 
the command made its way to Rossville, a little hamlet four miles south 
of Chattanooga. This point was reached on Monday, September 14. Here 
were gathered 14 regiments and three batteries of artillery, comprising three 
brigades. 

For four days these troops waited and rested, except as they were required 
to do picket duty or reconnoiter their front. From the southward came 
occasional sounds of artillery firing. A prolonged drouth prevailed, and the 
air was filled with an impalpable dust. Fires were running through the 
woods and feeding upon the fallen timber, and the smoke, added to the dust, 
made the atmosphere hazy. There seemed, from the first, to be something 
ominous in the surroundings, and all shared the feeling that a battle was 
impending. 

At a little after four o'clock Friday afternoon, September 18, Gen. Whit- 
aker, in whose Brigade the Ninety-sixth was serving, was ordered to move 
eastward about four and one-half miles to Red House Bridge, a crossing of 
Chickamauga River. Gen. Whitaker and staff led the column, the Ninety- 
sixth closely following. Swinging along at a rather rapid walk a little 
more than three miles was traversed. The highway led through a timbered 
region in the main, although there were occasional open fields. Descending 
a gentle slope an unbridged stream was reached. The column partially 
halted, those at the right seeking to cross the stream upon a large fallen 
log which evidently served the natives as a foot-bridge. 

Suddenly a shot rang out, quickly followed by another. Contrary to cus- 
tom no advance guard had been thrown out, and these rifle shots were the 
first intimation that there was an enemy west of the Chickamauga. One of 
the shots struck the blanket roll of Thomas E. Reynolds, then a drummer 
boy but now and for many years a successful merchant at Galena. The 
bullet cut many holes in the closely rolled blanket, but Reynolds was not 
seriously injured. As quickly as the commands could be given, a Company 
was ordered across the creek and deployed as skirmishers, the Regiment 
forming line of battle and closely following. As the Company was deploy- 
ing the first man to emerge from the thicket and start across the road, 
Corporal Elisha Haggart, was instantly killed. A moment later Captain 
Blodgett, commanding the Company, was wounded in the shoulder, but con- 
tinued in command. The line advanced for about a half mile, a brisk 
skirmish fire continuing. A section of artillery moved into position in rear 
and began shelling the woods, the Confederates soon answering with a 
battery. This forward movement was through timber and a thicket, the 
brush concealing the lines. Two men in the line were wounded, one of them 
mortally. It was about sundown when the first shots were received, and 
the short southern twilight soon emerged into a darkness too dense to justify 
a further advance, and the line halted. Occasional shots rang out for a time, 
but soon the line became quiet. 

The night grew chill and the men suffered greatly from the cold. Very 
few of them had blankets, as the order had been to leave all camp equipage 
and all blankets save rubber ponchos at Bridgeport. Even the solace of a 



74 

cup of coffee was denied them, for fires could not be lighted, and the striking 
of a match was certain to bring a shower of bullets. Munching hard-tack 
to stay the pangs of hunger and clutching their muskets so as to be ready 
for any emergency, the men waited through the long hours, their teeth chat- 
tering and sleep being well-nigh impossible. 

Near morning orders were passed along the line to move to the roadway, 
and the Ninety-sixth, with the other regiments of the First Brigade, marched 
back toward Rossville for about one mile, forming in line on some low hills 
near McAfee's church. The movement was a welcome one, for it stirred the 
blood and warmed the stiffened limbs. In a ravine a little to the rear 
coffee was cooked as daylight came, and the gloom and depression of the 
long night was at an end. From the wooded valley in front came sounds of 
occasional picket shots, indicating that Confederates were lurking in the 
thickets and watching for a possible advance. 

Other troops having come forward from Rossville the lines were extended 
to the right and left. Groups of field and staff officers gathered about the 
little country church to discuss the situation, and mounted messengers rode 
here and there with instructions to regimental commanders. 

At about nine o'clock of that eventful Saturday morning there came the 
unmistakable sounds of an engagement about four miles southward. All 
were now alert, and every one seemed to realize that the main body of 
Rosecrans' Army was not far distant and that the Reserves were near the 
outer margin of a battle. Near the middle of the day the skirmish fire at 
the front grew brisker, for the Confederates were reconnoitering to ascer- 
tain whether or not the road to Rossville was open. This reconnoissance was 
pressed south of the wagon road, and other regiments of the Brigade had a 
spirited engagement and sustained some losses, but held their ground. In 
this affair the Ninety-sixth had no active part. 

Night came at last, and with it a cessation of the sounds of battle in the 
distance. Teamsters and others coming up from Rossville told of an almost 
constant stream of wounded coming from the front and making their way 
toward Chattanooga. The information received that night was weird and 
conflicting, indicating great losses and at' least partial defeat of the Union 
forces. 

Gathering branches from the scrub pines that grew abundantly all about, 
the soldiers made beds on which to lie, but the cold was so severe as to 
seriously interfere with sleep. Small fires were kindled in a ravine just 
back of the line, and about these the men were allowed to gather, a part of a 
Company at a time. In the early morning coffee was served, the soldiers 
munched their hard-tack and warmed strips of bacon over the fires, for their 
breakfasts. It was not a sumptuous repast, but the food was substantial and 
there was no complaint. Let it be recalled that for two nights they had been 
practically without sleep, and each of those nights, according to old letters 
and diaries, there had been a frost. This will hardly be claimed as an ideal 
preparation for the strenuous work before them. Nor is it surprising that 
a number of men, chilled by exposure and worn by loss of sleep, were sent 
to the rear by the regimental surgeons next morning, being found too ill 
to remain with the command. 

Sunday morning, September 20, dawned with quiet all about except for 
an occasional picket shot. As the hou cs passed the opinion prevailed that 
the battle was over and that hostilities were not to be resumed. But this 
opinion proved to be unfounded, for about ten o'clock there came sounds 
from the southward betokening that the conflict had been vigorously renewed. 
Orders to advance soon followed, and the three Brigades of the Reserve 
Corps moved forward in line of battle. It was a beautiful and inspiring 
scene as the long lines swept out across the fields and through the open- 
ings, their arms glistening and their banners gleaming in the sunlight. 
The movement was nearly eastward, and manifestly for the purpose of 
attracting the attention and drawing the fire of the enemy, so as to deter- 
mine something as to the strength of the force in its front. The conclu- 
sion was soon reached that only a light cavalry skirmish line was in the 
vicinity and at about eleven o'clock the troops moved back to the church 



75 

and thence toward the enemy's guns. Later it became known to all that 
this movement toward the battle-field was without orders, but that Gen. 
Gordon Granger, the Corps' commander, and Gen. Steedman, the Division 
commander, failing to receive any word as to what was expected of them 
beyond protecting the roads to Rossville, and suspecting that the Confeder- 
ates were moving to cut them off from the main forces under Gen. Rose- 
crans, determined that it was their duty to place themselves in touch with 
the Commander of the Army of the Cumberland. 

As was afterwards known, almost at the moment the Reserve Corps 
left its position at McAfee's church, the Confederates had struck a gap 
in the Union lines and were sweeping back a portion of our forces in dis- 
order. So serious had been the disaster that Gen. Rosecrans had felt com- 
pelled to flee across the hills and was making his way to Chattanooga, 
believing the battle lost, and two of his Corps commanders, with almost 
one-third of his army, were in retreat. 

But for this unauthorized movement on the part of Gen. Granger and 
Gen. Steedman, and the heroic fighting of the men whom they commanded, 
it is almost certain that Gen. Thomas' forces would have been overwhelmed 
before the sun went down; Chattanooga would have been retaken, the 
remnant of Gen. Rosecrans' army would have been forced to make a long 
and perilous retreat, and the seat of war in the Middle West would most 
likely have been transferred to the Ohio river. Assuredly disaster, swift 
and far-reaching, hung above the army of the Cumberland. The Reserve 
Corps was to save it from its dire peril and have a large part in giving to 
General George H. Thomas, the well-won title of "The Rock of Chicka- 
mauga." 

The march of the Reserve Corps to the battle-field proved a memorable 
one. The Ninety-sixth was the leading regiment and its skirmishers and 
flankers protected the column. At a rapid pace it moved across the undu- 
lating fields and along a narrow roadway, much of the time at double-quick. 
For a mile or more the march was uninterrupted. Then a few of the 
enemy's cavalry appeared and shots were exchanged with the line of flankers. 
Before a second mile had been traversed a larger force made demonstra- 
tions indicating a purpose to attack. About this time the Reserve Corps 
reached and crossed the Lafayette road, which was the main highway lead- 
ing from Rossville through the battle-field, and took position on a ridge 
or plateau, where a hollow square was formed to resist the threatened 
attack. This is said to be one of the very few times during the Civil "War 
in which such a formation was undertaken except on drill. 

It was soon manifest that the purpose of the enemy was to harass and 
delay this body on its march to re-inforce the Union army, and the for- 
ward movement was resumed. 

Nearing a cove or valley at Cloud Spring, near which a Union hospital 
had been established the day before, it was discovered that the enemy was 
in possession. The skirmishers of the Ninety-sixth made a rush down 
the hill, surprising and capturing a number of prisoners, who were speedily 
disarmed and sent back to Rossville under guard. Near this point one 
Brigade of the Reserve Corps, commanded by Col. Dan. McCook, was 
placed in position to defend and keep open the main roadway, and the 
two remaining Brigades pressed on. 

The fields were now more open, and the flankers and skirmishers fired 
frequently, loading their muskets as they ran. Several times the regiments 
changed their formation, sometimes marching in column of fours and at 
other times by Company or Division front. Frequently fences were encount- 
ered, but a few men ran forward and threw them down so that the troops 
could cross without interruption or delay. At one place a tangle of briers 
made the passage difficult and compelled a few barefooted soldiers to give 
up the march and return to Rossville. For a time the cavalry continued 
its hostile demonstrations, but at long range. Soon a Confederate battery 
came upon the field and began firing. Shell and shot were hurled at the 
command, at first with little damage. Later a shell burst barely above the 
heads of the men, and Lieutenant Clarkson and four members of Company 



76 

D were wounded, three of them seriously. There was no halt or delay, but 
at double quick for a mile or more the column moved under fire. The 
course was due southward and, for quite a distance, over ground where 
there had been serious fighting during the forenoon. Some of the dead 
lay on the field, and guns and knapsacks were lying here and there. Strag- 
glers and wounded men were encountered and gave gloomy reports of the 
happenings at the front. 

When the command had marched about four miles from its position of 
the early morning a halt was ordered. It had neared the center of the 
battle field, and was just in rear of the forces under Gen. Thomas. There 
seemed to be a lull in the engagement, although there was heavy skirmish 
firing, punctuated by frequent shots from the artillery. The air was filled 
with smoke, not so much from the conflict as from fires running through 
the woods and fields and from a burning out-building upon the Snodgrass 
farm near which the column halted. The march from McAfee's church, 
although in the main a rapid one, had been interrupted by occasional halts 
and changes of formation, and it was now nearly two o'clock. 

The arrival of the two Brigades was most timely. General Thomas, who 
sat on his horse nearby, had just learned partial details of the disaster 
which had befallen the right wing of the army two hours before, and had 
become aware that the Confederates, flushed with success, were concen- 
trating a large force along the foot-hills of Mission Ridge with the evident 
purpose of gaining his rear and closing all avenues of escape. The men 
of his command were well nigh exhausted with two days of almost con- 
stant battle, and their ammunition was running low. He had no troops 
that he could spare with which to meet the new danger now so manifest 
until this unexpected but most welcome re-inforcement came. 

The Reserves were quickly ordered to move to the right and take posses- 
sion of the ridge which extends westward from Snodgrass Hill, where 
General Brannan was battling with a force vastly superior in numbers 
to his own. Again the Ninety-sixth led the way, marching in column along 
the valley and past the Snodgrass buildings for a quarter of a mile or 
more when a halt was ordered. The command "Front" followed and the 
soldiers stood in line of battle at the foot of a w^ooded ridge, with two 
regiments at their left in like formation. The other three regiments of the 
Brigade were similarly formed directly in rear. While these movements 
were taking place the Confederate skirmishers near the top of the ridge 
opened fire, which was promptly responded to. Most of these shots missed 
their mark, but more than once a dull thud was heard, indicating that 
someone had been hit. 

As soon as the Brigade had completed its formation it was ordered for- 
ward, first at a rapid walk and then at a double-quick. Up the steep corru- 
gated ridge, through a tangle of underbrush and across gullies and shal- 
low ravines they rushed. A cheer was raised as the Confederate line came 
in full view, and in a moment every man seemed to have caught the infec- 
tion and was yelling with all the voice he could command. Men fell here 
and there, but the line swept on unbroken, except when a fallen tree 
obstructed the way and compelled a few files to move to right or left and 
redouble their exertions to overtake their comrades. The charge had been 
resistless, and when the almost breathless men neared the top of the ridge 
the first line of the Confederates fell back to a second ridge. A brief halt 
ensued and a deafening roar of musketry rang out. A^ain came the com- 
mand "forward," and splendidly the men responded, driving the enemy 
from their position. Here the order was to "Lie down," a timely order 
which was generally obeyed, although in every Company were men who 
stood erect despite the danger. The roar of musketry became terrific, and 
over it sounded "The diapason of the cannonade." The noise was deafen- 
ing and as indescribable as were the scenes taking place upon those rugged 
hills. The men were loading and firing as rapidly as was possible with 
muzzle loading muskets. The air seemed full of bullets, but, most of them 
were aimed too high, for many took note of the fact that the twigs and 



77 

leaves from the trees fell so rapidly as to almost cover the men in blue 
who lay beneath. But. alas, too many were correctly aimed, for every 
moment casualties were occurring, and it is probable that at least one 
hundred members of the Ninety-sixth Illinois were killed or wounded in 
the short half-hour in which this advanced position was maintained. 

Colonel Champion had ridden close behind the line, near its right center, 
and sat his horse superbly until the animal was shot. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Clarke was close up to the line near its left center, calling to his men with 
words of encouragement and cheer, when a bullet pierced his breast, 
inflicting a wound from which he died next day. His companions lifted 
him from the saddle and bore him some distance to the rear, where he 
was placed in an ambulance and taken from the field. Lieutenant Barnes 
and Sims here received their death wounds. And all along the line 
wounded men were running to the rear, sometimes in such numbers as to 
almost indicate that the line itself was giving way, while others were 
pasodxa .noqi rao.ii baoiu o\ ua>roi.i}s Xjajos ooj jo '§uiXp .10 peap 'Suia'i 
positions. There were few if any of the unhurt who ' left the line, for 
officers and men were manfully meeting the emergency and giving to the 
Confederates shot for shot. 

But the position proved to be untenable. A regiment at the left began 
to waver, and presently was broken and fell back. Even the supporting 
Mne was suffering to such an extent that it was hastily moved a short 
distance to the rear. The Confederates extended to the right of the Ninety- 
sixth and were threatening a flank attack. Reluctantly Colonel Champion 
gave the order: "Fall back, but don't run." At the beginning of this 
retrograde movement a few deliberately backed down the slope, loading and 
firing, but soon all were running, for. the Confederates, with new lines 
coming up, were closely following, yelling and firing as they came. It 
was a moment of great danger, and well calculated to test the mettle of 
any command, for, in view of the losses already sustained and of those 
momentarily occurring, and with the knowledge that they were vastly 
outnumbered, it would have been but natural that the retreat should have 
continued and eventuated in rout. To the credit of the- men let it be 
known that, although there was something of disorder there was little in 
their actions indicating panic. The depression in the rear of the advanced 
position was crossed, but on the slope beyond nearly all halted, and Com- 
pany and Regimental lines were soon in order. 

The Brigade Commander having been wounded and temporarily disabled 
Colonel Champion was notified to take command, and, procuring a second 
horse, he rode to the left, leaving the Ninety-sixth under the command of 
Captain Hicks, of Company A, who proved entirely competent for the des- 
perate work before him. Later in the afternoon Gen. Whitaker resumed 
command of the Brigade and Col. Champion returned to the Regiment, 
again on foot, for his second horse had been shot from under him. 

During the sanguinary struggle in which Gen. Whitaker's Brigade had 
lost so heavily Col. Mitchell's Brigade, also of the Reserve Corps, had been 
ordered to the right and was moving into position whence it could attempt 
to again wrest from the Confederates the coveted second range. But an 
emergency was rising, and to meet it the Ninety-sixth was ordered to make 
a move that seemingly threatened its annihilation. A battery of artillery 
had ascended the ridge, some distance to the right of where there were any 
infantry troops. Flushed with their partial success the Confederates were 
gathering a large force and moving forward with the evident purpose of 
capturing the Union guns. A staff officer rode up and directed that the 
Regiment should undertake to save the battery. Instantly Captain Hicks 
stepped to the front and addressed the soldiers, substantially as follows: 
"Men of the Ninety-sixth! You have made one charge; a gallant charge. 
On yonder hill-side lie the bodies of your fallen comrades. Forward to 
avenge their deaths!" 

Quickly the orders were given and splendidly they were obeyed, the line 
moving a right oblique down the slope and to the higher ground beyond, 
striking directly in flank and at close range a large force of the enemy, 



78 

almost as they had reached the guns. So sudden and resistless was the 
attack that the foe, after a vain attempt to change their formation so as 
to meet this unexpected onset, fled in the utmost confusion, the Ninety-sixth 
following them for a considerable distance. As they retreated, so close was 
the pursuit that several personal encounters resulted, the Federals, using 
their muskets as clubs, being the assailants and the Confederates the suf- 
ferers. This movement not only saved the battery, but it created a diver- 
sion and made it easier for Col. Mitchell's Brigade to retake the ridge. 

There was now a lull in the battle for a little time, although there was 
no moment in which there was not heavy skirmishing, and much of the 
time the artillery was active. The Confederates had made a desperate 
endeavor to drive the Union forces and had been thwarted. But they were 
not to cease their efforts. Most of the rebel forces on this part of the field 
had just come from Virginia and had so frequently won victories as to 
lead them to believe that they were well-nigh invincible. With little delay 
they reformed and strengthened their lines and again assailed the Union 
forces, coming forward with rare courage in a superb effort; and again 
they met a withering fire and were driven back in much confusion, the 
Ninety-sixth following them for nearly half a mile along the plateau and 
clown the slope, and only stopping when an enfilading fire from Union regi- 
ments warned them that they were venturing too far. In this forward 
movement a portion of the field was passed which was almost covered 
with Confederate dead and wounded. Several battle-flags were lying on 
the ground, but every soldier was so busy with his musket that no one 
stopped to possess himself of trophies. The Confederates seemed utterly 
broken and demoralized and Col. Champion, in his official report, declared 
his belief that with five hundred fresh troops he could have completely 
driven the rebel left wing from the field. 

The fire of its friends, who, in the smoke that hung along the lines had 
mistaken them for foes, compelled the Ninety-sixth to retire by a slightly 
different route from that taken in its forward movement, and the oppor- 
tunity to reap a harvest of battle-flags was lost. Falling back to be in line 
with other regiments there came another opportunity for a brief breathing- 
spell, for their immediate front was clear of any organized force. 

Following this brief respite there came a fierce renewal of the conflict, 
the enemy massing his forces and again assailing the ridge. It was a last 
desperate endeavor to force back the Union right and gain the rear of 
General Thomas before darkness should come and make possible a with- 
drawal or a re-arrangement of the Union lines. A brief excerpt from a 
Confederate report will show how important their commanders regarded 
the attempt they were making and how large a force was moved forward 
in the endeavor to accomplish their purpose. In his report of the battle 
Major-General T. C. Hindman, a Division commander on the Confederate 
left, tells of the bringing forward of additional brigades to his assistance, 
and adds: 

"From this time (4:20 p. m.) we gained ground, but though command- 
ing nine brigades, with Kershaw co-operating, I found the gain both slow 
and costly. I have never known Federal troops to fight so well. It is 
just to say, also, that I never saw Confederate soldiers fight better." 

It is known that at least two of the brigades with which the Reserve 
Corps contended earlier in the afternoon did not participate with Gen. 
Hindman in the onset above mentioned. It is therefore manifest that the 
two Brigades of the Reserve Corps fighting through the desperate hours 
of Sunday afternoon successfully held at bay until nightfall eleven brigades 
of the enemy — that the ten Union regiments were confronted by and fought 
with more than forty Confederate regiments, and that the Union soldiers 
were outnumbered. 

General Bushrod Johnson, in his official report, says: "Over three hours 
passed in this conflict, in which officers and men toiled on and manifested 
more perseverance, determination and endurance than I have ever before 
witnessed on any field." 



79 

General Rosecrans, in speaking of this conflict, says: "After 2:00 p. m. 
this was the fight of the army. Never, in the history of this war at least, 
have troops fought with greater energy or determination." 

General Anderson, recently deceased, in a critical review of all of the 
great battles of the Civil war, writing from a Confederate standpoint, says 
that at Chickamauga occurred their largest percentage of loss in killed and 
wounded by the Confederates in the proportion of at least three to one. 

The closing contest was prolonged and desperate. Stubbornly the Fed- 
eral forces resisted, giving ground slowly and inflicting heavy losses on the 
enemy. For two hours the question of ammunition had been a serious one. 
At one time a few rounds had been brought to the line, the men seizing the 
bunches as eagerly as newsboys would grab for cookies at a picnic. The 
cartridge-boxes of the dead, both Union and Confederate, were searched, 
and wounded men were not allowed to go to the rear until their ammuni- 
tion had been taken from them. The line, extended to protect its right, 
and depleted by casualties, was hardly more than a good skirmish line. 
The musket shots began to show red along the shaded slopes, for the Sep- 
tember sun was low and night was near. Most of General Thomas' army 
was falling back without serious losses, although at a few points along 
the line the Confederates assailed and captured portions of regiments whose 
ammunition had given out. 

It is impossible to follow all of the movements of the Ninety-sixth on 
that fateful Sunday afternoon. Three times it charged and drove the 
enemy. Three times or more it resisted charges, holding at bay or driv- 
ing off the masses in its front, or, if compelled to give ground, quickly 
rallying and bravely renewing the work set for it to do. In a few of the 
forward movements there were two lines of battle, but always it happened 
that this Regiment was in the front one. Nearly the entire afternoon it 
was the extreme right regiment of the army, where it was repeatedly out- 
flanked. It did its full share of the aggressive fighting, held its ground 
longer than any of the regiments in its vicinity, advanced farther than 
any other command, rallied as quickly after sustaining a repulse and sus- 
tained greater losses in killed and wounded than any of its associates. 

The Ninety-sixth still tenaciously clung to its position until night was 
closing in, and then fell back into the valley and made its way to Ross- 
ville, the last organized force to leave the line, as its commander asserts. 
It was a weary, weary march of nearly five miles in the darkness, over 
a hilly, unfamiliar road, but it led to rest and relief from the turmoil of the 
day. How terrible the strain, mental and physical, through which these 
men had passed, only those may know who are called upon to undergo a 
similar experience. They had seen loved comrades falling by their sides. 
They had suffered all the torture that comes with prolonged thirst. Again 
and again they had put forth every atom of energy of which they were 
possessed. With most it seemed that the limit of human endurance had 
been well-nigh reached. 

There was an aftermath of casualties that should- be mentioned. At 
Rossville, next day, Companies C and H were placed upon the skirmish 
line on Mission Ridge, and when the army fell back into Chattanooga these 
brave men were left, and after a brief skirmish, finding themselves sur- 
rounded, surrendered to an overwhelming force. Two officers and thirty- 
four men were there taken prisoners, and eighteen of their number died at 
Andersonville and other prisons, as did three others who were wounded 
on Sunday and fell into the enemy's hands. 

Briefly summing up the* casualties of the Regiment these facts may be 
stated: More than one-half of those who were in the battle were killed 
or wounded. Forty-three were left dead or dying on the field. More than 
thirty of the severely wounded could not be removed and fell into the 
enemy's hands, most of them being paroled and brought within the Union 
lines at Chattanooga ten days later. The total of killed and mortally 
wounded was 62, and twenty-one of those captured died in prison, mak- 
ing the total death loss 83. About thirty others were permanently disabled 
by wounds, so that 113 of those who fought at Chickamauga never again 



80 

marched with the Regiment. Of twenty-six commissioned officers three 
received mortal wounds, nine were wounded and three were captured. Of 
nine First Sergeants one was killed and five were wounded. Of nine men 
comprising the Color Guard four were killed, four were wounded and one, 
the brave Corporal who brought the tattered battle-flags from the field, was 
once momentarily stunned by a falling tree top. 

It is not claimed for the Ninety-sixth Illinois that its losses were not 
equalled or that its achievements were not paralleled by other regiments, 
but it may be fairly asserted, without disparagement to any who met the 
call of duty there or elsewhere, that at a critical hour and in a crucial 
position, at the great battle of Chickamauga, one of the regiments that mag- 
nificently met the demands made upon it and gave evidence that in its 
membership were those possessed of a patriotism so exalted and a courage 
so heroic as to border the sublime, was the Ninety-sixth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry. 



81 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS 
IN THE CONSTITUTION OF ILLINOIS. 



(By Herman G. James, J. D.) 
Bill of Rights. 

The Constitutional practice of embodying in the fundamental law of a 
state a declaration of the rights and liberties of the individuals in that 
state, a practice so familiar to us, living under the constitutions of the 
United States, as to be regarded almost as a matter of course, is dis- 
tinctively American in origin, and had its genesis less than a century and 
a half ago. The famous Virginia Bill of Rights drawn up by George Mason 
and adopted on June 12, 1776, by a convention of members of the old Vir- 
ginia House of Burgesses was the first embodiment of the principle that 
certain rights to the individual are so sacred that their inviolability should 
be secured in the highest expression of the sovereign will of the people. 1 

The example of Virginia in thus formally declaring certain rights and 
liberties of the people to pertain to them and their posterity as the basis 
and foundation of government was followed in every one of the eleven 
states which adopted constitutions following the resolution of the Conti- 
nental Congress in May, 1776, advising such action on the part of the 
colonies. 2 

Never had the belief in the existence of inviolable personal rights been 
so general as in the century preceding the American Revolution, and no- 
where had this doctrine received wider recognition than among the American 
colonists. The principle of individual liberty, religious, political and per- 
sonal, was so fundamental in the political thought of that time and place 
that the idea of guaranteeing this freedom by declaring it in the basic law 
of the government met with immediate and universal approval and accept- 
ance, not only in the subsequent state constitutions, and the federal con- 
stitution in this country, but in the constitutions of other countries as well. 3 

To say that the idea of constituting these fundamental rights a part of 
the basis of government originated in the American colonies, in 1776, is not 
to say that the belief in the existence of such rights originated then and 
there. The consciousness of the existence of such rights, and even the formal 
declarations of their nature and extent began centuries before, and extended 
through a period during which the constitutional principles and political 
philosophy, from which these rights and liberties were evolved and devel- 
oped, underwent many radical changes. 

The doctrine of individual rights free from interference or even destruc- 
tion by the state was unknown to the political philosophy of the Greeks 
and Romans, to whom the state was absolutely sovereign. Nor does this 



1 Scherger "The revolution of Modern Lil.erty." 

2 Thorpe "American Charters. Constitutions and Organic Laws." 

3 The French Declaration of the Rights of Man. 1793. 

— 6H S 



82 

principle find recognition among the Romans or even in the middle ages, 
which knew individual rights only in the shape of contractual relations 
arising out of an interest in the soil. 4 But in England certain customs and 
rules of the common law had from earliest times afforded some measure of 
protection for individuals as regarded their personal liberty and security, 
and the violation and destruction of such liberty and security at the hands 
of the king aroused that protest and resistance which finally culminated in 
the first formal recognition of the rights of English subjects, the Great 
Charter of King John in 1215. 

In this, the earliest charter of liberties, is found the model for many of 
the provisions of the Virginia Bill of Rights, the prototype of all the others. 
The prohibition on excessive fines and on cruel and unusual punishments 
is directly traceable to Cap. 20 of the Great Charter, unreasonable seizure 
is forbidden in effect in Cap. 38, while the protection of trial according 
to the law of the land was virtually embodied in Cap. 39. 5 Other provisions 
of the Great Charter were adopted by some Bills of Rights framed imme- 
diately after that of Virginia, and copied from them into the later con- 
stitutions, among which provisions may be mentioned the assurance of 
right and justice without sale, denial or deferment, 6 and the right of free 
egress from and ingress to the country. 7 

These several guaranties embodied in the Great Charter were repeatedly 
affirmed by later kings, but only to be as repeatedly violated, until again 
solemnly declared by the people, this time through their representatives in 
Parliament, in the second great charter of liberties, the Petition of Right 
to Charles the First in 1628. In this document the principal ground of 
complaint was the violation of the due process of law provisions in the 
Great Charter and .the statute 20 Edward III, through the application of 
martial law in times of peace, and the unjust quartering of soldiers and 
sailors upon the subjects. 8 

In 1679 the Habeas Corpus Act 3 re-affirmed another common law right 
which a century later was regarded as of fundamental importance by the 
framers of many of our American Bills of Rights, though not found in 
the Virginia Constitution of 1776. Then finally, in 1689 the English Bill 
of Rights, declared upon the accession of William and Mary, in denuncia- 
tion of the abuses of the late King James II, as a warning and guide to the 
new rulers, still further increased the number of individual rights thus 
established in England by formal declaration. Among the additional secur- 
ities provided were the fundamental rights of petition, of bearing arms, 
of free elections and of freedom of speech and debates in the legislature. 10 

In addition to the rights thus formally established by the series of 
English constitutional documents, there were certain other doctrines of 
the common law which every English subject regarded as his birthright 
and which seemed of sufficient importance to the Colonists to deserve 
embodiment in their enumeration of inviolable rights. Some of these rights 
had indeed always been kept sacred in England by the crown, but others 
had been repeatedly ignored, and all were the heritage of the Colonists, 
and were deemed worthy of the new protection which the written consti- 
tutions were meant to guarantee. 

Such then were some of the sources from which the American states- 
men in 1776 derived their ideas of fundamental rights, ideas in no sense, 
therefore, newly discovered or declared at that time. On the contrary they 
were in the language of the English Bill of Rights itself, "ancient rights" 
to which every English subject had been entitled by the course of the 
common law and the statutes. 

But the American Bills of Rights contained still other declarations which 
had not previously been embodied in any charters or petitions, and which 



4 Scherger "The Evolution of Modern Liberty." 

5 Stubbs "Select Charters Illustrative of English Constitutional History," p. 296. 

6 Magna Charta ch. 40. 

7 Ibid cap. 42. 

8 Slubbs "Select Charters etc.," p. 515. 

9 Stubbs "Select Charters Illustrative of English Constitutional History," p. 517. 

10 Stubbs "Select Charters Illustrative of English Constitutional History," p. .523. 



83 

were not recognized by the common law, the origin of which is traceable 
to a different source, namely, the then recent emphasis and general accept- 
ance of the theory of natural law as developed in the works of Milton, 
Harrington and Locke in England, and in those of eminent writers of con- 
tinental Europe, during the seventeenth century. 

The theory of natural law, originated almost five centuries before Christ 
by Heraclitus and developed in Greece by the Stoics and their successors 
could come to no fruition in the birth of private rights in that period when 
the sovereignty of the state was absolute. 11 But the effect of this theory 
upon the development of the doctrine of natural rights, two thousand years 
later, when political concepts had radically altered, was most potent. 

In the philosophical theory of natural law as expounded in the XVIIth 
century was embodied the concept of inherent, natural, inalienable rights 
appertaining to men as men, and which no government could rightly 
abridge or destroy. 

More than a century before the American Revolution, Milton had defined 
the purpose of government to be the preservation of the liberty, peace and 
safety of the people, and had declared that all men are naturally born 
free, and that liberty of press and of conscience should be respected. 
Developing this theory still further Locke contended that men lost none 
of their natural rights by entering into the state of society, but surrendered 
so much only of their liberty as was absolutely necessary to establish 
government. r2 

These views, championed by many noted publicists of the XVIIth and 
XVIIIth centuries, were well known to the leaders among the American 
Colonists, in whose temperaments they found a ready response, and whose 
difficulties they seemed so satisfactorily to solve. 

The Massachusetts Body of Liberties had as early as 1641 contained a 
statement and guarantee of many of these rights, 13 and a century or more 
later James Otis, John Adams and Samuel Adams filled with enthusiasm 
for the doctrine of natural law and natural rights, had made this captivat- 
ing theory the common knowledge of the American Colonists." 

Inflamed with the memory of recent tyrannies and oppressions, dedicated 
to the terrible struggle they had just commenced in behalf of their liber- 
ties, and conscious that even a democracy furnishes no necessary guarantee 
of liberty, the Colonists almost inevitably accorded to the declaration of 
the nature and purpose of government, and of the rights of liberty of con- 
science, speech and press so important a place in the structure of their con- 
stitutions. 

When, therefore, in 1818 the framers of the first Illinois constitution were 
confronted with the problem of drawing up a statement of the fundamental 
law for the new commonwealth, there was nothing novel, either in the 
doctrine of inviolable personal rights and liberties, or in the practice of 
guaranteeing them in the constitution by express enumeration. Not only 
had all of the eighteen state constitutions in force when Illinois became a 
state, contained such a declaration of individual rights, as had also the 
Declaration of Independence, and the Federal Constitution, but in France 
also had this principle received effective recognition in the Rights of Man 
prefixed to the Constitution of 1793. 15 

Of the most immediate and determining influence, no doubt, in shaping 
the Illinois Bill of Rights was the famous northwest ordinance of 1787 
under which, with but slight changes, the framers of the Illinois Constitu- 
tion were then living, and which for thirty years past had been the organic 
law of the territory now about to be formed into a state. This ordinance 
contained six articles of compact of which the first two constituted vir- 
tually a Bill of Rights, which though shorter and more concise were prac- 



11 Scherger "The Evolution of Modern Liberty," cap. I. 

12 Scherger. "The Evolution of Modern Liberty," ch. II. 

13 Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions of the U. S." Book II ch. I. 
11 Scherger supra ch. IX. 

15 Lieber "Civil Liberty and Self Government," p. 536. 



84 

tically as comprehensive as many of the more verbose declarations in the 
existing state constitutions. 18 The authorship of this celebrated ordinance 
seems to be a matter of dispute, but whether it was chiefly the work of 
Putnam, Cutler. Dane or Jefferson, or, what is more probable, a combina- 
tion of the ideas of them all, it unquestionably offered a more natural and 
familiar model for the framers of the first Illinois Constitution, than even 
the Virginia Bill of Rights and its copies in the other states which clearly 
exerted a considerable influence as well. 

Section 1." The first section of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution 
of Illinois begins by declaring men to be by nature free and independent and 
to possess those inherent and inalienable rights which occupied so import- 
ant a place in the political philosophy of the XVI Ith century. The Constitu- 
tion of 1818 had declared that "all men are born free and independent and 
have certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of en- 
joying and defending life and liberty and of acquiring and possessing and 
protecting property and reputation and of pursuing their own happiness," 
using language very similar to that of the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776 1S 
and of the Declaration of Independence in the same year. 19 

The assertion that all men are born equally free and independent was 
given further effect in this State by the prohibition on slavery 10 whereas in 
Virginia this declaration was believed not to apply to the negroes.- 1 Though 
property and reputation were first included among the fundamental individual 
right along with life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness by the Massa- 
chusetts Body of Liberties (Preamble)" 1 -' in 1G41. this broader enumeration 
was to he found in only one state constitution in 1818, namely that of Penn- 
sylvania, 1790,- 3 from which the whole of this section in the Illinois Consti- 
tution of 1818 was taken. 

The essentially American doctrine of the sovereignty of the people, as 
also the principle of the basis and purpose of government were declared in 
the words "all power is inherent in the people -and all free governments are 
founded on their authority and instituted for their peace, safety and happi- 
•ness," which had been stated in precisely the same terms in the Constitu- 
tion of Indiana, 1816, and Pennsylvania, 1790, and in very similar language 
in a number of the other state constitutions. 

In the Constitution of 1848 all these provisions were adopted from the 
first Constitution without the slightest change, though the original committee 
report included in addition an express declaration of the right of the people 
to alter the government whenever the public good requires it; a provision 
found in the original Virginia Bill of Rights and in the Declaration of 
Independence, and upon the apparently self evident principle of which rested 
the theoretical justification of both the English and the American Revolu- 
tions. 24 

In the Constitution of 1870 the samewhat prolix statement of the earlier 
constitutions was abandoned for the concise wording of the Declaration of 
Independence, with the addition of the protection of property as one of the 
purposes of government. A change in wording that aroused some opposi- 
tion in the constitutional convention of 1869 was the unqualified declaration 
that all men are by nature independent, in place of the modified form 
"equally independent" contained in the former constitutions. Several sug- 



10 Thorpe "American Charters Constitutions and Organic Laws." Vol. 2. p. 957. 

1T "All men are by nature free and independent and have certain inherent ami 
inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. To 
secure these rights and the protection of property, governments are instituted among 
men. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." Constitution 
of Illinois, 1870, Art. II. Sec. I. 

,s Constitution of Virginia, 1776 Bill of Rights, sec. I. Thorpe "American 
Charters, Constitutions and Organic Laws," p. 3812. 

'■' Declaration of Independence, Par. 2. Thorpe supra p. 4. 

20 Constitution of Illinois. ISIS. Art. VI. Sec. I. Thorpe p. 980. 

-' Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions of the United States," p. 21. 

-- Stimson, supra !>. 20. 

- :! Art. IX. soc I. 

-' In the proposed Constitution of 1S62. the Convention adopted the exact 
language of tin' Declaration of independence, with reference to these personal 
rights, adding, however, the right of acquiring, possessing and protecting property. 



85 

gestions were made to alter this by adding qualifying phrases or by strik- 
ing it out. altogether as being contradictory to the real place of man before 
God and among his fellowmen, but this absolute declaration of man's inde- 
pendence was retained, i hough not found in the early constitutions, nor even 
in the Declaration of Independence and contained in but three of the thirty- 
six other constitutions in force in 1870. 

In Illinois, as had been seen, the assertion of man's independence was 
never qualified by considerations of race or color but extended in meaning, 
as it did in terms, to all men. Liberty and property as used in the Consti- 
tution have been repeatedly defined by the courts in cases involving alleged 
violations of the due process provisions and may therefore best lie con- 
sidered in the discussion of the following section. 

Sec. 2. 25 Section 2 contains the prohibition against deprivation of life, lib- 
erty, or property without due process of law, which has proved to be the 
most effective guarantee of individual rights as against the government, not 
only as interpreted and enforced by the state courts but also as applied by 
the federal courts under the fourteenth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. The first Constitution of Illinois declared that no freeman 
should be imprisoned or disseized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or 
outlawed or exiled or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty or property 
but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land. This provision was 
virtually a copy of chapter 39 of the Great Charter of King John of 1215 as 
amended and affirmed by chapter 35 of the Great Charter of Henry III, two 
years later,-" with the addition of the phrase, "or deprived of his life, lib- 
erty or property." 

The second article of compact in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had also 
declared that no man should be deprived of liberty, or property but by the 
judgment of his peers or the law of the land and similar provisions had been 
embodied in more than two-thirds of the state constitutions in force in 1818, 
though not generally limited to freemen, a limitation probably retained in 
the Constitution of Illinois merely by oversight. 

No change was made in the wording of this section, until the adoption of 
the present Constitution when the essence of the provision was embodied 
in the short statement of the present section copied from amendments V and 
XIV of the Federal Constitution, the latter of which had been adopted but a 
yoar before the Constitutional Convention of 1869 met in Springfield. At 
that time about one-third of the state constitutions still retained the original 
form, "but by the judgment of his peers," — which meant trial by jury — or, 
"the laws of the land" — which meant indictment and procedure at common 
law, 27 though a number employed its now famous equivalent "by due process 
of law." This phrase appeared first in the Statute 28 Edward III, chapter 
3 and was not found in any state constitutions prior to the adoption of 
Amendment V in the Constitution of the United States. 

This constitutional guarantee of life, liberty and property against depriva- 
tion save by due process of law has been expounded and applied in an enor- 
mous mass of cases in this State, as in all the others, which it would be 
impossible here to discuss in detail, though a few general definitions may 
be helpful in showing the remarkable scope of this apparently simple pro- 
vision. 

Liberty as used in the Constitution means not. only freedom from servitude 
and restraint, but also the right of every man to be free in the use of his 
powers and faculties and to adopt and purs'ue such a vocation or calling as 
he may choose, subject only to the restraint necessary to secure the com- 
mon welfare. 28 

Property is not only the physical thing which may be the subject of owner- 
ship, but also the right of dominion, possession and power of disposition over 



-■"• "No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process 
of law." Constitution of Illinois. 1870, Art. CI, sec. 2. 
26 Stubbs "Select Charters." pp. 301, 346. 

- 7 Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions of the United States," p. 16. 
» Braceville Coal Company v. People, I IT 111. 66 (1893). 



86 

it. and includes as well the right to acquire it in any lawful mode or by 
following any lawful pursuit which the citizen in the exercise of the liberty 
guaranteed may adopt." 3 

The privilege of contracting is therefore both a liberty and a property right 
within the protection of the constitution, 30 a doctrine which has caused the 
invalidation of a large number of laws passed for the protection of laborers. 
A number of cases deal with the question of what are vested rights, as these 
only are property within the protection of this clause. So for example, there 
is no vested right in existing rules of evidence 31 nor to particular remedies 32 
and in general mere rights in expectancy, as the expectancy of inheritance, 
are not vested rights. 3 " Rights of action are, however, protected 34 as are also 
accrued defences. 3 "' 

"Due process of law" has been variously defined and variously interpreted, 
and no definition can be at the same time comprehensive and accurate. It 
is synonymous with "the law of the land" and Cooley cites with approval the 
definition of this latter phrase given by Webster in the Dartmouth College 
case. "By the 'law of the land' is most clearly intended the general law, a 
law which hears before it condemns; which proceeds upon inquiry and rend- 
ers judgment only after trial. The meaning is that every citizen shall hold 
his life, liberty, property and immunities under the protection of the general 
rules which govern society." 3C Very similar is the definition given by the 
Illinois Supreme Court. 37 

Without examining in detail the different applications of the requirement 
of due process it suffices here to state that it demands the equal protection 
of the laws, excluding unreasonable class legislation, that is legislative dis- 
crimination not based on reasonable differences, 38 laws tending to grant mon- 
opoly rights, and the imposition of special burdens and liabilities without 
just cause. 39 In the judicial proceedings themselves, it makes, above all, the 
requirement of competent judisdiction in the tribunal undertaking to affect 
the property rights of individuals. 40 

The most important limitations on the individual's right to the undisturbed 
enjoyment of his property, besides the right of eminent domain, and the 
taxing power, is the so-called police power of the State. But even this can 
be exercised only within the bounds necessary to protect the public health, 
safety and comfort, and any interference beyond that violates the guarantee 
of due process of law. 41 

Sec. 3! 42 Liberty of conscience and freedom of religious worship were of 
course regarded by the American colonists as one of the most essential of 
the inherent, inalienable rights of man, and the religious persecutions in 
their mother country had profoundly convinced them of the need of guar- 
anteeing this right against governmental interference. Accordingly there 
is found in the first constitutional declaration of man's rights, viz., the 
Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776, a guarantee of religious freedom, notwith- 
standing that the Anglican church was then the established church of that 



28 Ibid. 

so F rorer v . People, 141 111. 171 (1892). 

3i Meadowcroft v. People, 163 111. 56 (1896). 

32 Smith v. Bryan, 34 111. 364 (1S64). 

33 Coolev "Constitutional Limitations." (Ed. 7). p. 512. 
31 Van Imvagen v. Chicago. 61 111. 31 (1871). 

m McDuffe v. Sinnott, 119 111. 449 (1887). 

36 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations." p. 502 

3' Millet v. People, 171 111. 299 (1898). 

3 * Ibid. 

39 Bessette v. People, 193 111. 334 (1901). 

*° Bickerdike v. Allen, 157 HI. 95 (1895). 

« Ruhstrat v. People, 185 111. 133 (1900). 

42 "The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without 
discrimination shall forever be guaranteed; and no person shall be denied any civil 
or political right, privilege or capacity on account of his religious opinions ; but the 
liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed to dispense with oaths 
or affirmations, excuse acts of licentiousness or justify practices inconsistent with 
the peace or safety of the State. No person shall be required to attend or support 
any ministry or place "1" worship against' his consent, nor shall any preference be 
given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship." Constitution of 
Illinois, 1870. Art. II. sec. 3. 



87 

commonwealth. Similar guarantees of the liberty of conscience and reli- 
gious worship were inserted into all the subsequent constitutions adopted 
before Illinois became a state, 43 , with the single exception of Louisiana, 1812, 
in which state the prevailing religion was that of the Roman Catholic 
church, 44 and the first article of compact of the Northwest Ordinance declared 
that no person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner should 
ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments. 46 

In the first Constitution of Illinois, the guarantee of liberty of conscience 
and religion contained detailed provisions taken from a number of different 
constitutions, relative to the natural and indefeasible right to worship 
according to the dictates of one's own conscience and the freedom from 
control in that respect by any human authority; immunity from taxation 
for the support of any place of worship or ministry; prohibition on giving 
preference by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship; and 
a requirement that no religious test ever be demanded as a qualification 
for any office in the state. These provisions were all adopted verbatim into 
the Constitution of 1848, as also into the proposed Constitution of 1862. 
In the convention of 1848 the cornmittee reported a qualification on the 
prohibition against being compelled to erect or support a place of worship 
against one's consent, by the addition of the words "contrary to what he 
has deliberately and voluntarily engaged to perform." This qualifying 
phrase, which was found in a number of the other constitutions, might 
have proved to be of considerable importance had the state courts taken 
the same view of the language of this prohibition, that the United States 
Supreme Court did of the prohibition of the Xlllth amendment by which 
"involuntary servitude" was held to mean personal service, involuntary at 
time of performance although voluntarily contracted for. 

The section in the present Constitution with reference to religious free- 
dom and liberty of conscience is even more comprehensive than that of the 
former constitutions, though in substance quite similar. The added pro- 
visions that "no person shall be denied any civil or political right, privilege 
or capacity on account of his religious opinions," had been reported out by 
the committee in the convention of 1848, but was omitted in the section as 
finally adopted. It was introduced to cover the matter of competency of 
witnesses as found in the New York constitution of 1846 as well the then 
existing Illinois provision as to religious tests as qualifications for office, 
omitted in the present Constitution. 

The express limitation of the guarantee of liberty of conscience so as to 
exclude the taking of oaths or affirmations, and acts of licentiousness or 
practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the State was not found 
in the Constitution of 1848, though the recent trouble with the Mormons 
would have seemed to call especially for such a proviso at that time. In 
the convention of 1869 the introduction of this proviso, then found in over 
one-third of the existing constitutions, called forth considerable opposition 
to its adoption on the ground that the proviso was inconsistent with the 
preceding guarantee of religious freedom. 4 " 

The last sentence of the section, viz., the prohibition on compelling attend- 
ance on or support of any ministry or place of worship, and on giving any 
preference by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship 
presents no material change from the earlier provisions on these points. 
In the convention of 1869 there were presented four petitions, requesting 
an express constitutional protection of the right to observe the seventh 
day of the week as the Sabbath, and an additional section exempting per- 



43 In a number of the states, however, political equality was assured to those 
only who professed the Protestant faith. 

44 The French Declaration of the Rights of Man had. however, guaranteed the free 
exercise of religion. Rights of Man. section 7. Lieber "Civil Liberty and Self 
Government," p. 537. 

4 "' Thorpe "American Charters. Constitutions and Organic Laws," 2 p. 960. 
<K Debates of Convention of 1869. p. 1560. 



88 

sons who conscientiously observe the seventh day as the Sabbath from 
answering civil process on that day, was moved and adopted, but on recon- 
sideration was struck out. 47 

The Illinois cases construing this section 'of the Constitution are few in 
number but some of the general principles to be gathered from the con- 
struction of similar provisions in other constitutions will show how the 
courts have, in general, viewed the protection embodied in such provisions. 
The express prohibitions of the section guarantee not only religious toler- 
ation but religious equality. They do not, however, prohibit the authori- 
ties from such solemn recognition of a superintending providence in pub- 
lic transactions and exercises as the general religious sentiment of mankind 
inspires. 48 Nor does the right of free thinking and free speech justify 
blasphemy, or prevent its punishment by the law, when uttered in a wanton 
manner with a wicked and malicious disposition and not in a serious dis- 
cussion upon any controverted point in religion. 4 '-' Laws requiring the 
observance of the Christian Sabbath are almost universally upheld as not 
violating this constitutional provision, though Cooley questions the entire 
soundness of that view. 30 

In Illinois under the present Constitution the right to testify is included 
among the civil rights, privileges, and capacities which are protected by 
this section against denial by reason of religious opinions, 51 though under 
the earlier constitutions an atheist was, in accordance with the common law 
rule, incompetent as witness. 1 ' 2 The Constitution of 1870, therefore, abro- 
gated all restrictions as to the competency of witnesses on account of defect 
of religious belief. 53 

Sec. 4. 34 Liberty of speech and of the press, under certain limitations, 
was protected in England by the principles of the common law, and con- 
sidered essential to the nature of a free state. But in England, for years 
before the American Revolution there had been serious invasions of this 
right, and in the American colonies there had never been any real freedom 
of speech or of the press. 35 . In the XVIIth century Milton had in England 
championed these liberties in his Areopagitica and the numerous appeals 
to natural law by James Otis and by John and Samuel Adams among the 
American Colonists, all included them among the fundamental individual 
rights. 30 The Virginia Bill of Rights declared the freedom of the press to 
be one of the great bulwarks of liberty which could never be restrained, 
and in 1818 the federal constitution and all the state constitutions but two 
viz: New Jersey, 1776, and New York, 1777, contained similar provisions 
as to freedom of the press, a number of them expressly protecting also 
the liberty of speech. 

In the first Constitution of Illinois freedom of the press was guaranteed 
to all who examined the proceedings of any branch of the government, 
this having been the point of attack by the English government in the past, 
and to every citizen was guaranteed the right to freely speak, write and 
print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. These 
provisions were embodied without change in the Constitution of 1848 and 
in the proposed Constitution of 1862. 

In the Constitution of 1870 all but the last sentence was omitted, which 
contained the essence of the entire section, and every one of the twenty- 
six other State constitutions then in force, guaranteed freedom of the press, 



' ; Ibid, pp. 1566, 1777. 

"- Cooley "Constitutional Limitations." p. 668. 
1 Ibid, p. 673. 
60 Ibid, p. 675. 

si HirhKi v. Bailey, 36 111. App. 191 (1890). 

•"■- Central Military Tract Railroad Comixinij v. I!>>cL-« f, Now, li 111. 541 (1S56). 
Hrout k v. Peoph ~134 111. 139 (1890). 

"Every person may freely speak, write and publish on all subjects, being 
responsible for the abuse of that liberty, and in all trials for libel, both civil and 
criminal. (Ik- iniih when published with good motives, and for justifiable ends shall 
be a sufficient defence." Constitution of Illinois. 1870. Art. 1, Sec. 4. 
White "The Consiitutlhn of Pennsylvania," Cap. V. 
50 Scherger "Evolution of Modern Liberty," Cap. IX. 



89 

which of course includes freedom of speech, either to all persons, as is the 
case in the Illinois Constitution of 1870, or to all citizens, as was done 
in the earlier Illinois Constitutions. 

The establishment of truth when published with good motives and justi- 
fiable ends, as a sufficient defense in all trials of libel, both civil and crim- 
inal was inserted to protect more specifically the liberty of press previously 
guaranteed in general terms. In the constitution of 1818 it was declared 
that in prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official 
conduct of officers, or of men acting in a public capacity, or where the 
matter published is proper for public information, the truth might be given 
in evidence, and that in all indictments for libels the jury should have the 
right of determining both the law and the fact, as in other cases. 

At common law, there had been an important distinction between civil 
actions for libel, and criminal prosecutions for the same as to both of these 
provisions, viz: the admissibility of truth as a defense, and the function 
of the jury in a trial for libel. While truth of the matter published was 
always a defense to a civil action for libel, since a man had no right to a 
better reputation than his real character deserved, and was, therefore, not 
injured by any true statement concerning him, in criminal prosecutions for 
libel, the truth of the matter published, being rather a greater provocative 
to the person libelled to retaliate by acts involving a breach of peace — 
which last consideration was the original basis of all common law juris- 
diction of crimes — could not be pleaded as a defense. 57 This rule 1 as regards 
criminal libel was changed in England by Lord Campbell's Act, 6 and 7 
Victoria, Chapter 96, and the provision in the Illinois Constitution of 1818 
expresses in other terms the general form of the change in law admitting 
truth as a defense when published with good motives and for justifiable 
ends. 

As regards the function of the jury in trials for libel, the common law 
rule in civil actions left it to the jury, if the words published were ambigu- 
ous, to decide whether or not they were libellous, that is, to pass on both 
the law and the fact. The same doctrine was asserted in several early cases 
as regards criminal prosecutions for libel, but was subsequently greatly 
controverted, and was certainly an anomolous one in the criminal law. 68 
But by the Fox Act of 1774 the jury was permitted to render a verdict of 
guilty or not guilty upon the whole matter in issue, and thus act as judges 
both of the law and the fact in criminal prosecutions also. The provisions 
in the Illinois Constitution, therefore, adopted the later statutory rule 
in both of these regards as guaranteeing fundamental rights as had also 
previously been done in six other constitutions of that time. The Consti- 
tution of 1848 and the proposed Constitution of 1862, both contained the 
above provisions without the slightest change. 

In the present Constitution of Illinois, the truth when published with 
good motives and for justifiable ends was made a sufficient defense in both 
civil and criminal trials, re-affirming the former provision as to criminal 
trials, and also placing the defendant in a civil suit under the same con- 
stitutional protection. By 1870 the great majority of the other states had 
inserted a constitutional provision like that in the Illinois Constitution of 
either 1848 or 1S70. In the convention of 1869, the newspapers of the State 
sought still further protection through a petition requesting an addition to 
the provision as to libel to the effect that "it shall in all cases be incumbent 
upon the plaintiff to prove malice," a change in the common law rule which 
might have proved a most undesirable piece of constitutional legislation 
and which was wisely rejected. 59 

The provisions of the American Bills of Rights on the liberty of the 
press have been quite generally considered to mean only that liberty of 



57 Chase's Blackstone, Book III Cap. VI. 

58 Chase's Blackstone. Book 11 r Cap. VI. 

59 At common law malice was conclusively inferred from the falsity and de- 
famatory nature of the charge, unless the defendant established privilege of com- 
munication. Chase's Blackstone, p. 683. 



90 

publication without the previous permission of the government which was 
obtained by the abolition of the censorship, and not to change the common 
law rules as to responsibility for libel. But Cooley considers it to include 
"not only liberty to publish, but complete immunity from legal censure and 
punishment for the publication so long as it is not harmful in character 
when tested by the common law standards in force when the constitutional 
guarantees were established and in reference to which they have been 
adopted." 60 In other words the phrase "being responsible for the abuse of 
that liberty" means subject to the common law liability for defamation. 

Sec. 5." Of the concrete rights to which the colonists by reason of their 
English descent laid claim, no longer as English subjects, however, but as 
individuals in a state, one of the most precious and essential was the right 
of trial by jury. This ancient bulwark of English individual liberty whose 
origin, according to Blackstone is to be sought as far back as the Saxon 
Colonies, though not firmly established until the abolition of the Saxon trials 
by ordeal, and the Norman trial by battle, was first formally declared by 
Magna Charta of King John in 1215 in the king's solemn agreement that no 
freeman should be hurt in either his person or property, "unless by the legal 
judgment of his peers or the law of the land." The chief grievance in the 
Petition of Right of 1628 was the violation of this provision, and among the 
oppressions of King George III enumerated in the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was that of depriving the colonists in many cases, of the benefits 
of trial by jury. Small wonder, therefore, that every one of the constitutions 
of the revolutionary period contained express guarantees of jury trial, a 
precedent of constitutional practice which has persisted down to the latest 
constitutions at least as regards criminal prosecutions for major offenses." 2 
Jury trial was also expressly protected in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. 

The Illinois Constitution of 1818 contained the simple provision that the 
right of trial by jury should remain inviolate, but in the Constitution of 
1848 there was added the stipulation that it should extend to all cases at law, 
without regard to the amount in controversy, a provision not found in any 
other state constitutions, in a number of which, indeed, there were mentioned 
express exceptions to the general requirement of jury trial. 

The present Constitution, though declaring that the right of trial by jury, 
as heretofore enjoyed, should remain inviolate adds that the trial of civil 
cases before justices of the peace by a jury of less than twelve men, might 
be authorized by law, which is a direct reversal of the provision in the 
Constitution of 1848, and had already been embodied in the proposed Consti- 
tution of 1862. This proviso might, it seems, be regarded as one manifesta- 
tion of a growing conviction that the sacred and time-honored trial by jury, 
however worthy of esteem and respect by reason of its important role in the 
history of individual liberty in the past, is not altogether above criticism 
and that whether by reason of changed external conditions, or because of 
the manner in which it has come to be administered, the system of trial by 
jury demands substantial revision to keep it from becoming more and more 
a clog in the wheels of justice. Considerable evidence of this feeling was 
found in various motions relating to jury trial introduced in the conven- 
tion of 1869 ; 03 one of which proposed to add that a concurrence of three- 
fourths of a jury should in all cases constitute a verdict. Several other 
less radical modifications were offered, but one proposal went so far as to 
authorize juries to return a verdict of "not proven," after which the defend- 
ant might again be indicted for the same offence upon additional evidence 
being discovered. 



60 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 695. 

61 "The right of trial by jury, as heretofore enjoyed, shall remain inviolate, but 
the trial of civil cases before justices of the peace, by a jury .of less than twelve 
men may be authorized by law." Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. II, Sec. 5. 

02 It is somewhat remarkable that in spite of the reverence of the English for the 
jury trial, and the great emphasis placed upon it by Blackstone and others who 
considered it a right of vital importance, first firmly established as a constitutional 
principle of English jurisprudence, by the Great Charter, the United States Supreme 
Court should have declared that it is no part of "due process" as guaranteed by 
Amendment XIV of the Federal Constitution. Walker v. Sauvinet, 92 TJ. S. 90. 

03 Debates of Convention of 1869, pp. 1567-1568. 



91 

The guarantee of jury trial "'as heretofore enjoyed," means not as enjoyed 
in 1869 by statute, but as enjoyed by the common law of England. This 
means that in case of a person charged with felony, "a jury of twelve men 
must be impanelled. The jury must be indifferent between the prisoner and 
the people, they must be summoned from the vicinage or body of the county 
in which the crime was alleged to have been committed. They must unani- 
mously concur in the verdict, and the court cannot interfere to coerce them 
to agree upon a verdict against their convictions." 64 This right to trial 
by jury cannot be waived in case of felony except by plea of guilty, 65 but 
in cases of misdemeanor the defendant may put himself upon the court 
for trial. 06 This guarantee extending only to cases in which jury trial was 
required at common law does not extend to cases of contempt proceedings, 
equity proceedings, statutory proceedings not known to the common law, 
eminent domain proceedings,- etc., in which the common law procedure was 
not applied. 67 

Sec. 6. 68 At common law the citizen was protected against seizure of 
person or property by very strict rules regarding the issuing of warrants, 
and immunity in his home against unreasonable searches and seizures was 
embodied in the maxim that "every man's house is his castle." The desire 
Oi the colonists to protect these rights by constitutional provisions is trace- 
able to the abuse of executive authority in England in violating these 
rights in order to obtain evidence of political offenses, which practice was 
finally overthrown in 1765 by Lord Camden. 69 

The practice of issuing writs of assistance to the revenue officers, autho- 
rizing them to search suspected places at their discretion, had caused great 
dissatisfaction in the American colonies ten years before this date and 
had been denounced by Otis as "the worst instrument of arbitrary power, 
the most destructive of English liberty and the fundamental principles of 
law that ever was found in an English law book." 70 This prohibition of 
general warrants has been characterized as the only constitutional principle 
to be first established in America and later adopted in England. 71 

The Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776 had contained an express prohibition 
on general warrants of search and seizure, which was incorporated in the 
Constitution of Illinois in 1818, following the declaration that the people 
should be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions from unrea- 
sonable searches and seizures. Almost all of the other constitutions of 
1818 contained similar provisions, and this section in the constitution of 
1818 was retained without change in the constitution of 1848, at which time 
all but four of the twenty-eight other constitutions embodied similar pro- 
visions. 

There was no alteration of this section in the Constitution of 1862, but 
the convention of 1869 changed the phraseology somewhat by adopting 
almost verbatim the form of the fourth amendment to the Federal Consti- 
tution. At the time of framing our present Constitution there was one 
state constitution only which did not contain a similar provision, viz: New 
York, which still continued under the constitution in force in 1848, when 
the prior Illinois Constitution was adopted. 

The purpose of this constitutional prohibition was to establish the common 
law rule as to searches and seizures which had always been extremely jeal- 
ous of the right of the individual to immunity from such interference with 
his person and property. Unreasonable searches and seizures are those 
without warrant properly obtained in cases where the common lav/ required 



. 64 George v. People, 167 111. 447 (1897). 
63 Morgan V. People. 136 111. 161. 

66 Darst v. People. 51 111. 286 (1869). 

67 184 111.. 47; 173 111., 144; 103 111., 367; 23 111., 202. 

88 "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and 
effects against unreasonabl searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no 
warrant shall issue without probable cause, supported by affidavit, particularly 
describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. 

69 Cooley. "Constitutional Limitations," pp. 424 ff. 

70 Cooley, "Constitutional Limitations," pp. 424 ff. 

71 Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions of the United States," p. 149 n. 10. 



92 

them. But arrests without warrant are not abridged by the Constitution 
where such arrests could be made at common law before its adoption. 7 " Prob- 
able cause must be shown by the production of evidence satisfactory to the 
court of such facts as to satisfy the magistrate that the suspicion is well 
founded, 73 and, to justify the issuing of a warrant the affidavit must state 
either that the person therein described committed the offense or that the 
person making the complaint has just and reasonable grounds to suspect, or 
does in fact suspect that he is guilty of the offense. 74 

Sec. 7. 7 "' The provision that all persons shall be bailable by sufficient 
sureties except for capital offenses where the proof is evident or the pre- 
sumption great represents in effect the common law rule of England as to 
bail. 70 Since by the concept of the common law every man was regarded 
innocent until proved guilty, it followed also that every man was to be 
treated with all possible leniency even after arrest for crimes and that con- 
finement in jail should not be resorted to if the appearance of the accused 
for trial could be assured in some other way. Hence at common law every 
man was entitled to be released on bail before conviction upon sufficient 
sureties, except for capital offenses on charges based on more than a mere 
suspicion, when indeed the public welfare demanded the highest surety viz., 
the custody of the accused himself. 

Though the first American Bill of Rights contained no express guarantee 
of the right to bail, it was impliedly guaranteed in the prohibition against 
requiring excessive bail, which had been forbidden in England by Statute 
1 W. 2 M. 2, Chapter 1, and in the Northwest Ordinance it had been de- 
clared that all persons shall be bailable unless for capital offences where 
the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

The first Illinois Constitution guaranteed the right to bail in the terms 
which have been retained in all three of the later Constitutions. 77 About 
one-half of the constitutions then in force contained similar express guar- 
antees of the right to bail and most of the others impliedly guaranteed it by 
such provisions as the ones adopted in the Virginia Bill of Rights. 

Closely connected with the guarantee of bail is the guarantee of the writ 
of habeas corpus, which was another common law right of English subjects 
and was re-affirmed in the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679. 7S This writ which 
secured to the individual a hearing as to the legality of his imprisonment 
and which was, and is, characteristic of the English law alone, 79 was re- 
garded as one of the most important of individual rights, and the Habeas 
Corpus Act as the "second Magna Charta and stable bulwark of liberties." 

In England the privilege of this writ could legally be suspended in cases 
of evident public necessity, but only upon authority given by Parliament to 
the Crown. The possibility of such an exigency was provided for in the first 
Illinois Constitution by the provision qualifying the prohibition of suspend- 
ing the writ viz., "unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public 
safety may require it." 

In the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 the inhabitants of the Territory had 
been declared to be always entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas 
corpus and provisions were found in 1818 in over-half of the other State 
constitutions, similar to the one in the first Illinois Constitution which was 
retained without change in the subsequent Constitutions of the State. 



'•- North v. Peoiih . 139 111. SI (1891 ). 

73 White v. Wa<iitr. 185 111. 195. 

u Housh v. People. 75 111. 487 (1874). 

'■■■ "All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses. 
wlifi- the proof is evidenl or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ 
of habeas corpus shall not lie suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or inva- 
sion the public safety may require it." Constitution of Illinois, into. Art.' II, Sec. 7. 

T '- Chase's Blackstone, p. 1 001. 

77 Illinois is the only State that has no prohibition on excessive hail. Stimson, 
supra p. lor. 

Ts Stubbs "Select Charters, etc.." p. ."it. 

7 Phere is on the continent nothing corresponding to the constitutional right 

of any individual when arrested by an officer of the government to demand instant 

informati f the cause of his arrest ami to be 3ei at large unless indicted by a 

grand jury for a crime not bailable or for which the person accused is unable to 
give satisfactory hail." Stimson "Federal ami state Constitutions." p. 18. 



93 

Sec. S. so The right to indictment by grand jury, that is, formal accusa- 
tion by a body of from twelve to twenty-three sworn men of the county ex- 
tends even farther back in English criminal procedure than does the right 
to trial by petit jury and has been traced to the Hundred Courts of Aethel- 
red. 81 At common law, indictments or presentments by grand jury were em- 
ployed in all cases, though for misdemeanors the method of accusation by 
information was used as well, especially in cases of misdemeanors that tended 
to disturb or endanger the government. But this species of proceeding was 
looked upon with great disfavor in England because of its abuse in the times 
preceding the revolution and was later regulated by statute. 82 In America 
also this accusation by information was very unpopular, though only one 
of the revolutionary constitutions, viz., North Carolina, 1776, contained any 
other guarantee of indictment by grand jury than that contained in the 
provision establishing the English common law as the law of the states. 

When, however, the first Constitution of Illinois came to be framed, the 
Federal Constitution had expressly guaranteed the right to indictment and 
seven other states had followed this precedent in their constitutions. The 
Illinois Constitution of 1818 provided that no indictable offense should be 
proceeded against criminally by information, a principle that went beyond 
the common law rule which recognized some kinds of offenses that could be 
proceeded against by eithei indictment or information. The exceptions 
recognized in the Constitution of 1818 were the same as existed at common 
law, namely trial by court martial and by impeachment, to which proceedings 
the requirement of grand jury indictment never applied. 

In the Constitution of 1848 indictment or presentment of a grand jury 
was required for all offences punished with imprisonment or death or fine 
above one hundred dollars, except in cases of impeachment or cases arising 
in the army or navy or in the militia when in actual service in time of 
war and public danger. Similar provisions existed at that time in all but 
eight of the state constitutions, and of these eight, six were still the early 
constitutions adopted before the first Illinois Constitution. Of the two 
others, one was that of the civil law state of Louisiana, and the other was 
that of Virginia which had retained its original Bill of Rights of 1776 in its 
second constitution. 

It appears, therefore, that the indictment by grand jury came to have 
growing importance in the American Bills of Rights in the thirty years be- 
tween the framing of the first and second Illinois Constitution, and in the 
proposed Constitution of Illinois of 1862 there was embodied the same 
guarantee. 

But in the Illinois Convention of 1869 there was evidenced considerable 
opposition to the grand jury system. Some motions suggested a reduction 
in the total number of grand jurymen, or in the number required for a 
finding, and some advocated the abolition of the grand jury with power in 
the legislature to re-establish it while others, more extreme, went to the 
length of demanding complete abolition. 83 Several speeches in strong denun- 
ciation of the evils of the grand jury system were delivered while others as 
warmly defended it. 84 The agitation terminated finally in the proviso now 
found in section eight to the effect that the grand jury may be abolished 
by law in all cases, leaving the advisability of abolishing this ancient system 
to be determined by the legislature, which that body in the forty years since 
the authority was conferred upon it has not seen fit to do. 8 "' It is interesting to 



so "No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offence, unless on indictment 
of a grand jury excepl in cases in which the punishment is by fine or imprisonment 
otherwise than in the penitentiary, in cases of impeachment and in eases arising' 
in the army or navy or in the militia when in actual service in time of public war 
or danger: Provided, that the grand jury may be abolished in all eases." Consti- 
tution of Illinois. 1870. Art. II. See. 8. 

81 Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions," i>. 169n. 

82 Chase's Blackstone Cap. XXI. 

83 Debates of the Convention of 1869, p. 17-1. 

84 Ibid pp. 1434-1438, 1 I 10-] I 12. 

83 I tecent evidence of continued opposition to the grand jury system is furnished 
by the introduction into the two last sessions of the Illinois Legislature of bills to 
abolish the system. 



94 

note that of the twenty-four state constitutions which in 1870 expressly 
guaranteed indictment by grand jury, Illinois was the only one that per- 
mitted it to be abolished by the legislature, although Indiana, which how- 
ever, bad not expressly protected it, had in 1851 adopted a similar provi- 
sion. 86 

In Illinois under the present Constitution, what was practically the com- 
mon law rule as to grand jury indictment is confirmed. Indictment is essen- 
tial to the legal prosecution of persons charged with crime punishable by 
penitentiary imprisonment, 57 and where conviction would result in disquali- 
fication to hold public ofnce, ss but not to hold persons to answer for misde- 
meanors. 81 " The proviso at the end of the section virtually authorizes the 
legislature to change a constitutional provision, but that its effect is not, as 
might at first appear to be the case, to nullify the force of the whole section 
would seem to be shown by the reluctance evidenced by the subsequent 
legislatures of this state to alter a system which the constitution of the 
state evidently wished to favor. 

Sec. 9. 90 The rights of the accused in criminal prosecutions guaranteed 
by this section, were for the most part rights to which English subjects 
were entitled by the common law and which were considered essential attri- 
butes of personal liberty and security. So at common law an indictment 
could not be tried unless the defendant personally appeared. So also the 
defendant was entitled to the assistance of counsel as to the matters of law 
arising on the trial. As to other matters the defendant was not entitled 
to counsel on the principle that the judge should be counsel for the prisoner 
and see that the proceedings against him were legal and strictly regular. 
But Blackstone rightly speaks of this latter rule as "not at all of a piece 
with the rest of the humane treatment of prisoners by the English law" 
and states that the judges never scrupled to allow a prisoner the assistance 
of counsel to instruct him what questions to ask or even to ask questions 
for him, with respect to matters of fact. 91 

When the prisoner was arraigned, the indictment which contained, in 
great detail all matters bearing on the accusation was read to him that he 
might fully understand his charge, which was all that was necessary at a 
time when the general inability to read, especially among the criminal 
classes, made a requirement of a copy for the defendant superfluous. 

The right to meet the witnesses for the prosecution, and to question them 
was also a common law right, though the defendant had no right by the 
early rule to introduce witnesses in his own behalf in capital cases. 92 But 
by Statute 1, Ann. 2, Ch. 9 it was declared that in all cases of treason and 
felony all witnesses for the prisoner should be examined upon oath in like 
manner as the witnesses against him. Finally the right to a trial by a 
jury of the county where the fact was committed was also recognized by 
the common law and insisted upon as one of the greatest protections for the 
accused, based on the early theory that the jurors were witnesses, and them- 
selves cognizant of the commission or non-commission in their midst of the 
act charged. 

The Virginia Bill of Rights enumerated substantially all of these rights 
of the accused and all but three 93 of the Constitutions in force when Illinois 
became a state contained express provisions of a similar nature. The first 
Constitution of Illinois declared the rights "of the accused in practically the 



86 Constitution of Indiana. 1851, Art. VII, Sec. 17. 

87 Paulsen v. People, 195 111. 507 (1902). 

88 People v. Kipley, 171 111. 44 (1897). 

89 Brewster v. People. 183 111. 143 (1899). 

90 "In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to appear and 
defend in person and by counsel ; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation 
and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have pro- 
cess to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf and a speedy public trial 
by an impartial jury of the enmity or district in which the offense is alleged to have 
been committed." Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. II Sec. 9. 

91 Chase's Blackstone, p. 1025. 

92 Chase's Blackstone. p. 1028. 

Ga. 1798, N. J. 177G. S. C. 1776. 



95 

same terms found in the present Constitution, and no material change was 
made in the second Constitution. The right of defendant to compel the 
attendance of witnesses in his favor had heen protected in two-thirds of the 
Constitutions then in force. The present Constitution contains the addi- 
tional provision that the accused have the right to a copy of the accusation, 
a right guaranteed in nine other constitutions in force in 1870. In the 
convention of 1869 it was suggested to guarantee to the defendant the right 
to have his counsel close the argument to the jury, and also to make rion- 
free-holders incompetent as jurors if objected to on that ground, but other- 
wise no changes in the provisions of the former constitutions were pro- 
posed. 

The provisions of the present Constitution, like the requirements of the 
common law in this respect, refer only to nisi prius trials, that is not to 
appeals or other proceedings of review in higher courts. 94 The presence of 
the accused though essential in 'cases of felony is not necessary at the trial 
of mere misdemeanors, 95 and may in this latter case be waived by him. 

The right to appear by counsel includes the right to have one's counsel 
allowed a reasonable time for argument. 96 

The purpose of requiring a copy of the accusation is to secure such spe- 
cific designation of the offence charged as to enable the defendant to pre- 
pare fully for his defences and to plead the judgment in bar of a subse- 
quent prosecution for the same offence. 97 

The right to meet the witnesses face to face excludes all evidence by depo- 
sition in criminal trials, with the single exception of dying declarations. 98 

The right to a speedy trial guarantees against arbitrary and oppressive 
delays only, not such as are due to congestion of cases on the docket, 99 and 
the requirement of a public trial is not violated when the doors of the court 
room are closed for a temporary purpose during the trial of a criminal case 
if not for the purpose of excluding anyone connected with the trial. 100 The 
guarantee of an impartial jury means a jury impartial in the sense in which 
that term was understood at common law, 101 that is, chosen under the safe- 
guards with which the common law surrounded the choice of jurors. 102 
Finally the requirement of a jury of the county or district may be waived 
by the defendant by asking a change of venue. 103 

Sec. 10. 104 In the same category with the rights of the accused protected 
in the preceding section is the freedom from self-incrimination and from 
double jeopardy, which was also carefully protected by the rules of the 
common law. Firstly, it was an established rule of evidence at common 
law that confessions were not admissible as evidence unless they were 
freely given without fear of harm or hope of favor and a confession obtained 
by compulsion, though used when the trial by ordeal and other inquisitorial 
trials were still in force was not admissible in the latter common law prose- 
cution of crimes. Says Cooley: 105 "A peculiar excellence of the common 
law system of trial consists in the fact that the accused is never compelled 
to give evidence against himself." 

So also of the protection against double jeopardy, Blackstone says: 106 "It 
is a universal maxim of the common law of England that no man is to be 



91 Fielden v. People, 128 111. 595 (1889). 

95 Bloomington v. Heiland, 67 111. 278 (1873). 

" ; White v. People. 90 111. 117 (1878). 

97 West v. People, 137 111. 189 (1891). 

98 Starkey v. People, 17 111. 17 (1855). 

99 Weyrich v. People, 89 111. 90 (1878). 

100 Stone v. People, 3 111. 326 (1840). 

101 Coughlin v. People, 144 *11. 140 (1893). 

102 See Chase's Blackstone Cap. XXV. 
los weyrich v. People, 89 111. 90 (1878). 

104 "No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to give evidence against 
himself or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense," Constitution of Illinois, 
Art. II Sec. 10. 

105 "('(institutional Limitations." Cap. X 442. 
1M f'hase's Blackstone, p. 1019. 



96 

brought into jeopardy of his life more than once for the same offence," and 
in every case the defendant might plead former jeopardy in bar of the 
accusation. 

The guarantee against being compelled to give evidence against oneself 
was put into the Virginia Bill of Rights and into all but four of the other 
constitutions in force prior to 1818, including the Federal Constitution. 
But the protection against double jeopardy was found in only one-half of 
those same constitutions, not having been inserted into the prototype of the 
early Bills of Rights. In the first Illinois Constitution both of these pro- 
visions were embodied and they have remained in the same terms down to 
the present Constitution, being adopted by the convention from the former 
constitutions without comment. Both guarantees existed in almost all the 
other Constitutions in force in 1870. 

The constitutional protection against self-incrimination means that, neither 
a witness nor the defendant in a criminal case need answer any question 
the answer to which will expose him to any penalty, fine, forfeiture or pun- 
ishment, or which will have a tendency to accuse him of any crime or mis- 
demeanor or to expose him to any penalty or forfeiture or which would be 
a link in a chain of evidence to convict him of a criminal offense. 107 But 
this privilege is personal to the witness and he may waive it without con- 
sent of the defendant. 108 Furthermore, this constitutional privilege cannot 
be claimed if by reason of an immunity statute the evidence obtained under 
compulsion can in no way be used as a basis in aid of a prosecution which 
might result in fine, imprisonment, penalty or forfeiture. 109 

The protection against double jeopardy means that no person shall twice 
be put in peril of conviction for the same act and offense, 110 and whether 
two indictments are for the same offense must be determined by an inspec- 
tion and comparison of the indictments. 111 If the facts charged in the second 
indictment would have sustained conviction under the first indictment, the 
plea of former jeopardy is good, 11 - but where the facts charged in the second 
indictment would not, if proved, have warranted conviction under the first, 
the plea of former jeopardy cannot be maintained. 113 

The verdict forms a bar to subsequent prosecution for the same offense 
though there is no judgment on it, 114 but where judgment of conviction is 
arrested or reversed at the instance of the accused he will not in legal con- 
templation have been in jeopardy, but may again be put on trial for the 
same offense. 115 So also if the jury is discharged in case of disagreement, 
the former jeopardy will not be available as a plea to a new trial. 116 

When the same act constitutes several offenses, trial and punishment 
for one will be no bar to a prosecution for the others growing out of the 
same transaction, 117 as where one single act violates a local ordinance, a 
state law and a law of the United States there are three distinct offenses 
and punishable as such. Similarly in case of an act which is both a con- 
tempt of court and an indictable crime, the indictment and the proceeding 
for contempt are entirely distinct and neither will be a bar to the other. 118 



107 Lamson v. Boydeen, 160 111. G13 (1896). 
10S Sanii((l v. People, 164 111. 379 (1897). 

109 People v. Butler St. Foundry, 201 111. 23fi (1903). 

Tin- Immunity clause in the act here in question was as follows: "Provided, 

that no corporation, etc shall be subject to any criminal prosecution by 

reason of anvthing truthfully disclosed in any testimony elicited in the execution 
thereof." 201 111., p. 24.:. 

110 Freeland v. People . 16 111. 380 (1855). 

111 Durham v. People, 5 111. 172 (1843). 

112 Ibid. 

» n Guedel v. People. 13 111. 226 (1867). 
111 Hankins v. People, 106 ill. 628 (1883). 
lir ' Gerhard v. People, 4 111. 362 (1842). 
11C Dryer v. People, L88 111. 40 <1900). 
i« Trausch v. Cook <■<>.. 147 111. 534 (1893). 
» 8 /;, attit v. /'< ople, 33 111. App. 651 I 1889 I. 



97 

Sec. II. 11 ' Of .the three provisions in the next section, the first one, 
requiring that all penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the 
offence, can be found iu England as early as Magna Charta where it is 
declared that "a freeman shall not be amerced for a small offence, but 
according to the degree of the fault and for a great crime in proportion 
to the heinousness of it. 120 The spirit of this prohibition was expressed in 
the early American constitutions either by a provision like that in the 
English Bill of Rights against excessive fines and cruel and unusual punish- 
ment, 121 found in the Virginia Bill of Rights and in the Federal Constitu- 
tion, or by a requirement that all penalties shall be proportioned to the 
nature of the offence, as in the Illinois Constitution of 1818. In one of 
these two forms this early provision of Magna Charta existed in over half 
the constitutions in force in 1818 and Article V of the Northwest Ordinance 
had provided that "all fines shall be moderate and no cruel or unusual pun- 
ishments shall be inflicted." 

The second provision, to the effect that no conviction should work cor- 
ruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate, is directed against the common 
law rule that descent could not be traced through a person convicted of 
treason or felony, and that his real and .personal property were, therefore, 
forfeited, the former to the lord of the fee, the latter to the king. These 
incidents of treason and felony prevailed from the earliest time, and had 
their source in the feudal theory that property, especially realty was held 
of a superior lord upon the condition of discharging duties attaching to it, 
and was forfeited by breach of these conditions. 122 

This prohibition was not found in the earliest Bill of Rights nor in the 
Federal Constitution, and when the first Illinois Constitution was framed, 
only three other constitutions contained the prohibition exactly, though four 
others contained it in modified form. 

The last provision in this section forbidding deportation for crime com- 
mitted within the State was necessitated by the English statutes just prior 
to the American Revolution, making deportation a substantive punishment. 
The punishment was unknown at common law, and in 1679 the Habeas 
Corpus Act had forbidden the deportation of English subjects as prisoners 
out of the kingdom. 123 It was introduced as a condition of pardon in case 
of crimes excluded from clergy 124 and by reason of statutes passed in the 
XVIIIth century, had become part of the law of the colonies upon their sepa- 
ration from England. This provision was, however, very rare in the early 
constitutions and in 1818 only three of the eighteen then existing state con- 
stitutions contained such a prohibition. 125 

All three of the above provisions were adopted in the Constitution of 1848, 
though the Committee on the Bill of Rights omitted all mention of the first 
two in its report. In the Constitution of 1870 these same stipulations were 
retained without change, chough it was suggested among other changes to 
add that the death penalty should never be inflicted. 120 

The question whether the imposition in a particular instance of a punish- 
ment, though authorized by the legislature, violates the requirement that 
penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offence, is of course, left 
to the discretion of the court. But it is a discretion to be judicially exercised 



119 "All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offense, and no con- 
viction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate ; nor shall any person 
be transported out of the State for any offense committed within the same." Con- 
stitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. II Sec. 11. 

120 Magna Charta, Cap. 20 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 299. 

121 This prohibition had already been anticipated in the Massachusetts Body of 
Liberties, clauses 43, 45 and 46. Stimson "Federal and State Constitutions," p. 22. 

122 Stephen "History of the Criminal Law of England." V. I, p. 487. 

123 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 52. 

124 Stephen, supra, pp. 480, 487. 

125 Mississippi, 1817 ; Ohio, 1802 ; Vermont, 1793. 

126 Debates of Convention of 1869, p. — . 

— 7 H S 



and there may be cases in which a punishment, though within the limits, 
fixed by a statute is so clearly excessive as to be in violation of this consti- 
tutional requirement. 127 

But whether the penalty imposed by statute on a crime is excessive per se. 
is a matter primarily for legislative discretion. When the legislature has 
authorized a designated punishment for a specified crime, the court will not 
hold it invalid, unless it is a cruel or degrading punishment not known to 
the commcn law or a degrading punishment which had become obsolete in 
the state prior to the adoption of its constitution or is so wholly dispropor- 
tioned to the offence as to shock the moral sense of the community. 128 

An Act imposing the forfeiture of all franchises of a corporation as a 
penalty for any violation of the prohibition of the act on discriminating 
freight rates was held to contravene this provision of the constitution. 1 '--' 
But providing an increased penalty for a second offence is not imposing a 
disproportionate penalty, for repetition of the offence aggravates the guilt. 130 

Sec. 12. 131 Imprisonment for debt was one of the great defects of the com- 
mon law from the earliest times until well into the nineteenth century in 
England, and existed in most of the American colonies for many years, 
though somewhat mitigated by insolvent laws. But the absurdity and in- 
justice of imprisoning honest debtors was pretty generally realized by 1776, 
when the first American constitutions were being framed, and seven of the 
state constitutions in force when Illinois became a state embodied a prohibi- 
tion against imprisonment for debt in the absence of fraud as one of the 
guarantees of individual liberty. 132 The Constitution of 1848 and the pro- 
posed Constitution of 1862 retained this provision from the -earliest consti- 
tution, and no change was made in the section when adopted into the present 
Illinois Constitution. 

This constitutional guarantee is confined to actions upon contracts, ex- 
press or implied, and does not apply to liabilities for torts 133 nor to fines or 
penalties arising from a violation of the penal laws of the State, 134 and a 
court cannot commit for contempt in not obeying a decree to pay money un- 
less the refusal is willful and not caused by financial inability. 135 

Sec. 13. 136 The right of eminent domain, that is, the power of the State 
to appropriate to its own use private property of its citizens needed far public 
purposes, is inherent in sovereignty and is as old as government itself. In 
early times, moreover, the duty of the state to compensate the individual for 
property so taken, was not recognized, and even in England private property 
was frequently taken for the use of the crown without compensation. 13 ' But 
Blackstone in discussing the limitations on the absolute right of private 
property declares that the legislature alone can act in the exercise of the 
power of eminent domain and that only by giving the individual so de- 
prived, a full indemnification and equivalent for the injury thereby sus- 
tained. 138 Eminent domain differs from taxation, in that in the former case 
the citizen is compelled to surrender to the public something beyond his due 



127 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 471. 

128 People v. Illinois State Reformatory, 148 111. 413 (1894). 

129 C. & A. R. R. Co. v. People, 67 111. 11 (1873). 

130 Kelly v. People, 115 111. 583 (1886). 

131 "No person shall be imprisoned for debt unless upon refusal to deliver up his 
estate for the benefit of his creditors in such manner as shall be prescribed by law 
or in cases where there is strong presumption of fraud." Constitution of Illinois, 
1870, Article II, Sec. 12. 

132 This principle had already been embodied in the Massachusetts ■ Body of 
Liberties, 1641, in the provision that no man should be imprisoned for debt if the 
law could find competent means of satisfaction otherwise from his estate. Stimson 
"Federal and State Constitutions," p. 23. 

133 Rich v. People, 66 111. 513 (1873). 

131 Kennedy v. People, 122 111. 649 (1887). 

135 Blake v. People, 80 111. 11 (1875). 

136 "private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just 
compensation. Such compensation, when, not made by the State shall be ascertained 
by a jury, as shall be prescribed by law. The fee of land taken for railroad tracks, 
without consent of the owners thereof shall remain in such owners subject to the 
use for which it is taken." Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. II, Sec. 13. 

137 White "Constitution of Pennsylvania," Cap. XXVI. 

138 Chase's Blackstone, p. 79. 



99 

proportion for the public benefit. It is a primary requisite, therefore, in the 
appropriation of lands for public purposes that compensation shall be made 
therefor." 9 

As this power of eminent domain does not depend upon constitutions but 
exists independently of them, inherent in sovereignty, no affirmative declara- 
tion of the power was requisite in the framing of our American constitutions. 
But to guard against abuse of the power by the sovereign through its agents, 
it was felt necessary to embody some limitations thereon in the fundamental 
law of the state. The Virginia Bill of Rights did not contain such a pro- 
vision nor did any of the other constitutions of that year which were mod- 
eled after it. But the Northwest Ordinance had provided for compensation, 
and when Illinois came to frame a Constitution in 1818 one-half of the 
state constitutions then in force contained some limitation of the power 
of eminent domain. 

In the first Illinois Constitution it was provided that no man's property 
should be taken or applied to public use, without the consent of his represen- 
tatives in the General Assembly, nor without just compensation being made 
to him, which still showed the distrust of executive usurpation of power so 
strongly experienced by the American Colonists in 1776. In the first draft 
of the Illinois Constitution submitted to the convention it was provided that 
compensation should be previously made, which condition had not formerly 
been considered essential to the validity of the exercise of the power, at least 
by the State itself." . But this suggestion was not at that time adopted. 

No change was made in the provision regarding eminent domain in the 
Constitution of 1848, but important changes were made in the present Consti- 
tution of 1870. In the first place, while it had been the universal rule that 
the compensation awarded was to be measured by the value of the property 
taken and the direct injury to the owner from the loss, so that any proper 
exercise of the powers of government which did not directly encroach upon 
the property of an individual or disturb him in his possession or enjoyment 
would not entitle him to compensation, it was now, for the first time, in 
any state in the Union, provided that private property should not be taken 
or damaged for public use without just compensation. 

This important innovation was not adopted without considerable discus- 
sion and some opposition in the convention of 1869, mainly on the ground 
that by departing from the settled rules relating to eminent domain there 
was no certainty as to where the courts might stop in the application of 
this new provision, resulting perhaps in making it impossible to carry out 
certain important public improvements because of the extent of damages to 
be paid to private owners. But this eminently just and reasonable provision 
was retained and has been copied in a number of the state constitutions 
adopted since that time." 1 

Another important change introduced in the Constitution of 1870 with 
respect to the right of eminent domain, was the provision as to the manner 
of ascertaining the compensation due. Under the former constitutions it 
was left with the legislature to fix the manner of determining such com- 
pensation. What the tribunal shall be which is to assess the compensation, 
must be determined either by the Constitution or by the Statute which pro- 
vides for the appropriation, for the exercise of the right of eminent domain 
is not one where, as a matter of right, the party is entitled to trial by 
jury." 2 

But the proceeding being judicial in character, the party in interest is 
entitled to have an impartial tribunal and the usual rights and privileges 
which attend judicial investigations, and the Convention of 1869 felt that 
jury trial was the best manner of securing such impartial investigation, in 
cases where the right was not being exercised by the State itself." 3 It was 
first proposed to provide for an alternative body of three commissioners, 



139 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 812. 

140 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 813. 
111 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations." p. 810. 

142 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," r>. 817. 

143 This provision was taken from the Constitution of New York, 1846. and was 
found elsewhere only in the constitutions of Iowa, 1857 ; Michigan, 1850; Ohio, 1851. 



too 

appointed by a court of record, to ascertain the compensation which was the 
method of assessing such compensation under existing statutes. But this 
provision was struck out of the committee report by the convention, many 
members of which were in favor of prescribing even more minutely the 
process to' be followed in assessing compensation by a jury. It was again 
variously suggested to require compensation to be first made, and several 
resolutions were introduced with a view to prohibiting the deduction of bene- 
fits from the compensation to be awarded. This latter proposition aroused 
much discussion, being regarded by some as essential to a just exercise of 
the power of eminent domain, and by others as itself most unjust and 
unreasonable. The general expression of sentiment was, however, distinctly 
in favor of such a limitation and it was in fact adopted by the convention, 
but upon re-referment to the committee was finally omitted. 144 

Various other resolutions and motions relative to the right of eminent 
domain were introduced, there being more discussion of this section of the 
Bill of Rights than of any other, due principally to what were considered 
the abuses of this right by the public service corporations, especially the 
railroads which had of late been making such large use of the power. But 
the convention as a whole realized the wisdom of leaving the matter of 
detailed regulation of the power to the legislature, and rejected the more 
radical suggestions, one of which v/ent so far as to provide that no man 
should be deprived of his property in any case against his consent. 143 

The provision that the fee of land taken for railroad tracks without the 
consent of the owners thereof should remain in such owners, subject to the 
use for which it is taken was also unique in the Constitution of Illinois. Its 
purpose was to prevent private property from being taken, and retained by 
Railroad Corporations and turned to other uses when no longer needed for 
the purpose for which it was taken. 

It appears, therefore, from the Debates of the Convention that this whole 
question of the right of eminent domain and its manner of exercise was con- 
sidered -a question of fundamental importance which had not been ■ satis- 
factorily dealt with in the past, and which required further action, but the 
diversity of views as to the changes to be made resulted in a great deal 
less radical alteration in the wording of this important section, than would 
have suited many members of the convention. 

Since the right of eminent domain exists in every government, independ- 
ently of constitutional grant, on the ground of necessity, no legislative bar- 
gain in restraint of the complete, continuous and repeated exercise of this 
right is valid or within the protection of the obligation of contracts in either 
the federal or state constitutions. 146 

Private property in this connection has been defined as that dominion or 
indefinite right of user and disposition which one may lawfully exercise over 
particular things or subjects generally, to the exclusion of others. 147 Every 
species of property which the public needs may require and which govern- 
ment cannot lawfully appropriate under any other right is subject to be 
seized and appropriated under the right of eminent domain, in fact legal and 
equitable rights of every description, except money or those rights in action 
which can only be available when made to produce money. 148 

Under the present Constitution not only the taking of private property but 
the damaging as well must be compensated for. Prior to the Constitution 
of 1870, recovery could be had only for direct physical injury to property as 
by overflowing it, depositing materials upon it, etc., and so interference with 
the ingress to and egress from property was not required to be compensated 
for. But under the new provision in this State compensation is to be allowed 
in all cases where but for some legislative enactment, an action would lie at 
common law for tort to property. 149 



144 Debates of Convention of 1869, pp. 1575 ff. 

145 Debates of Convention of 1869, p. 429. 

148 Village of Hyde Park v. Cemetery Association, 119 111. 141 (1886). 

147 /. C. R. R. Co. v. Commissioners of Highways. 161 Til. 244 (1896). 

148 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations." pp. 756 ff. 

149 Rigney v. Chicago, 102 111. 64 (1882). 



101 

The question of what constitutes a public use, has frequently arisen in the 
courts, but no definite rule can be laid down. The necessity or the expedi- 
ency of putting private property to a certain use, is a question wholly for the 
legislature, though the question whether such use is public or private, will 
be reviewed by the courts. 100 The ordinary functions of government are, of 
course, clearly a public use, but private undertakings may embody a public 
use as in the case of so-called public service or public utility corporations. 181 

The construction of drains, ditches and levees by land-owners for agricul- 
tural sanitary or mining purposes across the lands of others is especially 
authorized by constitutional provision, 102 subject to the conditions imposed 
on the exercise of the right of eminent domain. Sewerage and other works 
necessary for the abatement of public nuisances come within the meaning 
of a public use 1 "' 3 whether constructed by public authorities or by private 
companies. 

"Just compensation" means compensation to such amount as is under all 
the circumstances a fair and full equivalent for the thing taken 134 or a re- 
imbursement for real, as distinguished from merely speculative damages. 1 "'" 

The requirement of a jury in this section embraces all the provisions of 
section 5 and permits therefore a jury of six to be authorized in trials 
before justices of the peace, 100 so also, the jury must be one in the selection 
of which the party in interest has had an opportunity to participate. 15 ' 

In general, since the right of eminent domain, necessary and undisputed 
though it be is, nevertheless, a compulsion on the individual to sell his 
property, nolens volens, it must not be abused, and in its exercise the limi- 
tations prescribed by the Constitution should be strictly observed, and the 
statutes passed in pursuance thereof should be strictly complied with. 158 

Sec. 14. 159 Ex post facto laws, that is, retroactive criminal* laws, were con- 
sidered at common law also as cruel and unjust. 160 The principle that all 
laws should be made to commence in futiiro was a fundamental principle 
of sound legislation in England and has been a basic doctrine of our Amer- 
ican constitutional law from the very first. Retroactive laws, whether 
ex post facto law or laws impairing the obligation of contracts, that is, 
whether criminal or civil, were ever contrary to the spirit of our limitations 
under which life, liberty and property are most jealously safeguarded. The 
Virginia Bill of Rights, it is true, did not embody a prohibition on such 
laws, but the Northwest Ordinance had forbidden laws violating contract 
rights and the great majority of states had by 1818 adopted such provisions 
in their constitutions besides the provisions on this point in the United 
States constitutions. 

The Federal Constitution, it must be remembered, not only forbids Con- 
gress to pass ex post facto laws, but expressly forbids the states also to 
pass either ex post facto laws or laws impairing the obligation of contracts. 
The insertion of these provisions — and the same was also true of the state 
guarantees of due process after the adoption of Amendment XIV of the 
Federal Constitution — into the first Constitution of Illinois could, therefore, 
be of effect only in broadening the protection which the interpretation of 
the federal provision by the United States courts might supply. That is, 
any state act which Federal Courts would consider contrary to either of 
these prohibitions as contained in the federal constitution would be wholly 
bad, whether or not the state courts might consider it as not violating the 



150 Dunham v. Village of Hyde Park. 75 111. 371 (1874). 

"» Chicago R. I. and Pac. R. R. v. Joliet, 79 111. 25 (1875). 

152 Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. IV. Sec. 31. 

»s Jacksonville v. Lambert, 62 111. 519 (1872). 

154 Phillips v. Town of Scales Mound 195 111. 353 (1902). 

«* R. R. Co. v. City of Pontiac. 169 111. 155 (1897). 

156 McManus v. McDonough. 107 111. 95 (1883). 

137 W. R. R. Co. v. Drainage District. 194 111. 310 (1902). 

Ms A yer v- city of Chicago, 149 111. 262 (1894). 

159 «]\j ex p 0s t facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making 
any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities, shall be passed." Con- 
stitution of Illinois. 1870, Art. II, Sec. 14. 

160 Chase's Blackstone, p. 10. 



102 

identical provision in the state constitution. On the other hand, however, a 
state act sustained by the federal courts as not contrary to these prohibi- 
tions in the federal constitution might still be invalidated by the state courts 
as violating their interpretation of the same words in the state constitution. 

Both of these guarantees were, however, continued in the later Consti- 
tution of Illinois, and adopted into the Constitution of 1870 practically with- 
out discussion, being found at that time also in about two-thirds of the 
other state constitutions. 

The prohibition on making any irrevocable grant of special privileges 
or immunities, was new in the present Constitution of Illinois. Very little 
discussion of this provision took place on the floor of the convention, not- 
withstanding that it could be found in only two other constitutions of that 
time. 161 The indiscriminate granting of valuable franchises' in corporate 
charters, made it necessary, under the rule in the Dartmouth College case 
that such charters are contracts, to protect the public against corrupt or 
indifferent legislative bodies, by providing in the fundamental law of the 
state that such grants could not be irrecovably made. 

In the convention of 1869 it was moved, with a view to remedying the 
mistakes of the past, as well as to providing protection in the future, that 
any amendment made to existing charters of corporations should subject 
them to future legislation, that is, withdraw them from the protection of 
this provision, but this motion was not reported out by the committee to 
which it was referred. 

Ex post facto laws are defined in this state to be those by which, after an 
act indifferent in itself has been committed, the legislature declares it to have 
been a crime and makes it punishable, 163 or those which change punishments 
to the prejudice of defendant after the commission of the crime. 164 

The entire deprivation of a remedy on a contract, is a violation of the 
protection hereby guaranteed, but the modification or substitution of a 
remedy is not, 163 nor is the changing of the rules of evidence an impairment 
of a vested right. 166 Limitation laws are not bad, even if affecting exist- 
ing rights, if a reasonable time is given for the assertion of the right before 
the bar takes effect. 167 The legislature may enact' retrospective statutes to 
validate invalid contracts, or ratify acts which it might have authorized in 
the first place, if no vested rights will be infringed. 168 

Charters of private corporations are contracts under the Illinois Consti- 
tution, 169 as well as the under federal constitution, and are subject only to 
a reasonable exercise of the police power of the State, 170 that is, to the 
inherent inalienable right to make all reasonable regulations in the inter- 
ests of public safety, welfare, health and comfort. So even exemption from 
taxation by charter is a contract binding on the state, 171 although the taxing 
power is a fundamental attribute of government. 

Secs. 15 and 16. 171 a The necessity for having the military in subordination 
to the civil power, and the evils of any other relation between the two arms 
of government, had been early felt in England, and a formal demand remedy- 
ing the abuses of the military power was embodied in the Petition of Right of 



101 Kansas. 1857, Ohio, 1851. 

163 Coles v. Madison Co.. I 111. 154 (1826). 

164 Johnson v. People, 173 111. 131 (1898). 

The meaning; and scope of the federal prohibition on the passage of ex post 
facto laws which is directed to the State Legislatures as well as to the National 
Congress was considered at length in the case of Calder v. Bull, 3 Dall. 386. 

165 Newkirk v. Chapron, 17 111. 344 (1856). 
168 Robv v. Chicago. 64 111. 447 (1872). 

187 Bradley v. Lightcap. 201 111. 511 (1903). 

188 Scammon v. Commercial Co., 6 111. App., p. 551 (1880). 

189 Bruffet v. Great Western R. R. Co.. 25 111. 349 (1861). 

170 Ruggles v. People. 91 111. 256 (1878). 

171 III. C. R. R. v. Goodwin, 94 111. 262 (1880). 

1T1 a "The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power. No soldier 
shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner ; 
nor in time of war. except in the manner prescribed by law." Constitution of 
Illinois, 1870, Art. II, Secs. 15 and 16. 



103 

1628 to Charles I in which it was demanded that the soldiers and sailors, quar- 
tered on the inhabitants in times of peace, be removed, and that the proceed- 
ings by martial law instead of by civil law be suppressed. 11 " Again in the Bill 
of Rights of 1689 Parliament expressly forbade the raising or keeping of a 
standing army within the kingdom in time of peace without its consent. 1 " 

In the period prior to the American Revolution, moreover, the colonists 
had suffered their own experience of the evils of having standing armies 
quartered upon them and interfering with the regular course of justice, 
and in the Declaration of Independence among the oppressions there de- 
scribed, were the keeping of standing armies in times of peace among the 
colonies without the consent of their legislatures, the quartering of large 
bodies of armed troops among them, and generally rendering the military 
independent of and superior to the civil power. 

The Virginia Bill of Rights, therefore, embodied a provision forbidding 
standing armies in time of peace, and subordinating the military power to 
the civil power, in all cases, as did also most of the other revolutionary 
constitutions. Notwithstanding the fact that these provisions were very 
common at the time when the first Illinois Constitution was framed, no 
mention of them is contained in that document. But in the Constitution of 
1848, following the precedent of all but three of the twenty-eight constitu- 
tions then in force, the section subordinating the military to the civil power 
was inserted, and the present prohibition against quartering soldiers, found 
also in almost as many of the other constitutions of the time was added. 

Sec. 17. 1M Though the right of the people in a free government, peaceably 
to assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances, is one 
which results from the very nature and structure of its institutions, it was 
nevertheless subjected to repeated attacks by the Crown in England. The 
right of petition, though now regarded as a simple, primitive and natural 
right, was even as late as the reign of James II sought to be denied in the 
famous trial of the seven bishops for having exercised this right, and 
therein finally vindicated by their acquittal. 17 " The English Bill of Rights 
oi 1689, therefore, after reciting the illegal prosecution of these petitioners 
to the crown, declares that it is the right of the subject to petition the king, 
and that all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal. 170 

This right was generally expressly protected in the early American con- 
stitutions, though Story regards it as unnecessary to be expressly pro- 
vided for, 177 and the earlier Constitution of Illinois guaranteed it in virtually 
the same terms as are now found in this section of the present Illinois 
Constitution. 

Sec. 18. 17s The English Bill of Rights had declared that the election of 
members of Parliament ought to be free, 179 and this principle of free and 
equal elections was again expressly declared in the first American Bill of 
Rights about a century later. The early constitutions in this country pretty 
generally followed the example of Virginia in this regard, and when in 
1818 Illinois expressly guaranteed the freedom and equality of elections, she 
adopted the practice prevailing in more than half of the existing state 
constitutions. 

The provision as found in the early Illinois constitution was retained ver- 
batim, both in the constitution of 1848 and in the present constitution of 
1870. Just what practical effect would be given to this section by the Illi- 
nois courts does not appear, but its general purpose, undoubtedly, is to 



172 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 516. Petition of Right, Cap. X. 

173 Ibid., p. 524. Bill of Rights, clause 6. 

174 "The people have the right to assemble in a peaceable manner to consult for 
the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to 
apply for redress of grievances." Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. II, Sec. 17. 

17j Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 497. 
170 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 623. 

177 Story on the Constitution, Sec. 1894. 

178 "All elections shall be free and equal." Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. 
II Sec 18 

' 179 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 525. 



104 

keep every election free of all influences and surroundings which might 
bear improperly upon it, or might impel the electors to cast their votes other- 
wise than as their judgments would dictate. 180 

Sec. 19. 181 This general declaration of the protection which should be 
found in the law is practically an epitome of the theory of the common law, 
and was formulated in substance as early as the XHIth century, in the 
Great Charter of English Liberties. 182 Chapter XL of Magna Charta of King 
John declares "we will sell to no man, we will deny no man, or defer right 
or justice," asserting a principle which has remained fundamental in the 
English law from that time to the present, and which had been guaranteed 
in over half the state constitutions in force when Illinois was admitted to 
the Union. 

The statement of this principle in the first Illinois constitution was adopted 
without substantial change in both of the later constitutions of Illinois and 
stands in our present constitution little different from its first annunciation 
seven centuries ago. 

Under this provision of the constitution every man has the right to call 
upon the courts to protect him in his property, person and reputation with- 
out reference to whether other persons are also suffering from the same 
cause. 183 

The right of an elector to have the person who has been lawfully elected 
established in his office is not a right the violation of which is an injury to 
his person, property or reputation within this provision of the constitution, 
and cannot therefore be enforced through the courts, in absence of a statute 
conferring such jurisdiction on them. 184 

A state requiring a plaintiff to show that he has paid all taxes, due and 
assessed on a lot before he can question the validity of a tax title is repug- 
nant to this provision of the constitution, in that it compels him to buy 
justice. 185 

Sec. 20. 1S(I As a fitting conclusion to the foregoing enumeration of the 
fundamental principles of government, is added this declaration of the neces- 
sity of a frequent recurrence to these principles for preserving the blessings 
of liberty. Similar declarations were found in six of the early state consti- 
tutions and in the first constitution of Illinois, from which the provision 
was continued without change in the subsequent constitutions of the state. 

Such, then, are the principles, in their origin, development and application 
which now stand as part of the fundamental law of this commonwealth; 
the resultants of a large number of factors of varying influence and im- 
portance. The manifest qualities of the common law, its no less apparent 
defects, the doctrines of political theorists, the necessities of political exi- 
gencies, ancient constitutional principles and modern political developments, 
each played some part in formulating the body of declarations contained in 
the present Bill of Rights; an enumeration of individual rights, on the one 
hand comprehensive enough to provide an adequate guarantee of personal 
liberty, without, on the other hand, entering into undue philosophical specu- 
lation or unwise legislative detail. 



180 Cooley "Constitutional Limitations," p. 922. 

i8i "Every person ought to find a certain remedy in the laws, for all injuries and 
wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or reputation ; he ought to 
obtain by law, right and justice freely and without being obliged to purchase it, 
completely and without denial, promptly and without delay." Constitution of 
Illinois. 1870, Art. II. Sec. 19. 

182 Stubbs "Select Charters," p. 301. 

183 Wylie v. Elwood, 34 111. App. 244 (1889). 
»" Douglas v. Hutchinson, 183 111. 327 (1899). 

185 Reed v. Tyler, 56 111. 288 (1870). 

186 "x fi-equent recurrence to the fundamental principles of civil government is 
absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty." Constitution of Illinois, 
INTO, Art. II, Sec. 20. 



105 



THE KENSINGTON EUNE STONE. 
. A Modern Inscription from Douglas County, Minnesota. 
(By Professor George T. Flom, of the University of Illinois.) 

In the fall of 1898 there was found on a farm a little over three miles 
i rtheast of Kensington, Douglas County, Minnesota, a stone with a. series 
of runic characters inscribed upon it. 1 The finder of the stone was Oluf 
Ohman, who is also the owner of the farm on which it was found; with him 
at the time of the finding, we are told, was his little son Edward, then ten 
years old. The stone is a small one, only about thirty inches long, about half 
as wide and seven inches thick at the upper end. At the base it is narrower, 
being considerably bevelled on the back. The inscription which is a rather 
long one, as inscriptions go, contains in all fifty-six words and several num- 
bers, a total of 211 characters, of which 152 occur on the face of the stone 
and fifty-nine on the left edge; it begins near the top of the stone and extends 
a little below the middle of it and to a corresponding distance on the edge. 
The stone itself is partly graywacke, partly calcite, the latter being the 
lower left hand corner and extending about two-thirds up on the side; some 
ten of the runes are cut in the calcite part of the stone. 

The stone was found in the ground close to and partly under a young tree, 
two of whose roots had twined themselves around the stone, the one per- 
pendicularly down under the stone, the other along its surface clear to the 
other edge, where it again followed the outline of the stone downward. Mr. 
Ohman 2 informs me that the tree look stunted; that is, it's age might be 
greater than its size would indicate. The tree which was an asp, has not 
been preserved, but the stump v/as kept for some time and examined the 
following spring by several men, who, thinking there might be a treasure 



1 [The present somewhat detailed examination of the subject has been prompted 
merely by the desire to aid in establishing and recording the truth. The author 
has so far not wished to take part in the discussion, though his opinion of the 
language and the runes has frequently been requested, because he refused to believe 
that an inscription, the language of which is modern and radically different from 
Old Swedish should long be able to maintain itself as authentic. He was there- 
fore not a little astonished when in January last he was informed that the stone 
was coming to be generally regarded as authentic and that the Minnesota Historical 
Society was about to put itself on record for it, that its Museum Committee, after 
a "careful" investigation of the whole question, had arrived at that conclusion and 
were ready to report that the inscription was genuine. He further learned that 
no Scandinavian philologist had been present in their sessions, that philologists 
had not been consulted, and that apparently the linguistic questions involved were 
not appreciated by the committee. When, therefore, the stone was to be exhibited 
at a meeting of the Chicago Historical Society on February third last and he was 
urged to be present and discuss the language of the inscription he thought it his 
duty to do so. He has since visited the locality where the stone was found and 
the Minnesota State Historical Society's Museum, and examined the runes and made 
his own transcription of them. This together with certain new discoveries are 
embodied in this paper, among them the identification of the dialect and certain 
facts of local history from Douglas County, Minnesota. While knowing that the 
runological-philologieal questions involved are Hie only ones that have scientific 
value, he has upon special request also undertaken an investigation of the general 
external evidence. These results, covering the various phases of the question but 
stressing the linguistic and runological features of it, he was then invited to read 
before the annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society at Springfield, 
Illinois, on May sixth, 1910. The paper is here printed as there presented, except 
for the references and a few technical details. The paper was illustrated by a 
syllabus, photographs, runic alphabets and impressions of old rune-stones.] 

: The name has been Americanized from ohman, 



106 

hidden under the spot where the stone was found, dug below to a distance 
of six or seven feet. There was no other stone of any kind encountered in 
the ground under the spot, nothing that could have served as a base for the 
rune stone. It had either been planted directly into the ground or had been 
buried in the ground in the position in which it was found. When found 
the side with the inscription was down, the bevelling thus being up, a cir- 
cumstance to which I shall return below. 8 

Upon the request of Mr. Ohman, I am told, Mr. Samuel Olson 4 sent the 
stone to Professor Curme of Northwestern University for examination. It is 
reported that Professor Curme was at first inclined to regard the inscription 
as genuine, but that he later arrived at a different conclusion. The stone 
was then returned to Mr. Ohman.* The find aroused considerable discussion 
in the press at the time, but the unusual character of some of the runes 
made a reliable transcription difficult and the stone was not therefore sub- 
mitted to a detailed examination. The prevailing attitude was one of skep- 
ticism and Mr. Ohman was told "the expert" had pronounced it recent; he 
then put it in front of his granary, where for ten years it was used as a 
door-step. 

About two years ago interest in the stone was again revived by the report 
of an account of it which appeared in HusbiblioteJc, 3, for 1908, in which the 
stone was pronounced authentic by one who was, it seems, then engaged in 
a study of the Vinland voyages, and who saw in it a document of great his- 
torical value, recording as it alleges Norse visits to America as late as 1362, 
i. e. 238 years later than the historically recorded last Vinland voyage. This 
report was by a Mr. H. R. Holand, who had purchased the stone from Mr. 
Ohman or, as it now appears, a share in the stone. Since that time Mr. 
Holand has devoted much time and energy in the gathering and publishing" 
of evidence looking toward establishing the genuineness of the inscription. 
And contributions pro and con have recently appeared in considerable num- 
ber." 

The basis of the discussion has been the conditions surrounding the 
discovery of the stone, there being apparently no evidence of fraud here. 
Among these are the fact that the stone was actually found in the ground, 
the veracity of the men who saw the stone and the tree, the apparent age of 
the tree ,the weathering of the stone, the recent settlement of that locality, 
the unlikelihood that any of the earlier settlers of that region should have 
possessed the knowledge cf runes, or if so had any reason for foisting such 
a fraud upon the public, etc. Those who have been skeptical have held that 
it is absurd to suppose that a company of explorers, thirty in number, should 
in 1362 have succeeded in penetrating from Vinland on the Atlantic coast 
clear to Western Minnesota, that to do that, furthermore, in fourteen days 
would have been a physical impossibility; that the inscription itself looks too 
recent, that there is much uncertainty as to the age of the tree, that the 
evidence is too vague and general, and that there has as yet been no thorough 
and scientific examination of the subject. 

Among the contributions to the discussion there is a short article by Helge 
Gjessing of Lysaker, Norway, which was published some months ago in 
Symra. V. pp. 113-26. in which he discussed quite fully the numeric system 
employed and the historical conditions involved; he also treated briefly of 
the runes and the language, in his conclusion denying the authenticity of 
the stone. Mr. Gjessing dealt broadly with all phases of the question; his 
discussion is scholarly and his conclusions justified at every point bv the 
material he presents. But his article is brief and he contented himself with 



3 This fact was told me by Mr. H. H. Winchell and corroborated by Mr. Ohman. 

4 Jeweler and optician of Kensington, formerly of Milwaukee. 

* Since this paper was written T have learned that Professor O. J. Breda, then 
of Minnesota University, now of Christiana, Norway, also at the time passed ad- 
versely on the stone. 

5 Several articles in Skandinaven one in Syinra (Deeorah. Iowa) and one in 
Horner's Weekly. Oct. 9. 1909. 

6 Thus e. g.. to mention only a few, bv Dr. Knut Hnegh. "Om Kensington og 
Flbow Lake Stenene" in Symra. V. po. 178-189, by R. B. Anderson in Wisconsin 
Xtat< Journal. Feb. 7. 1910. by O. E. Hagen in Amcrika, April 1, 1910 (bearing the 
title "Ad Utrumque Parati Simus"), and by R. B Anderson. Amerika, Feb. 18. 1910. 



107 

too cursory a treatment of the linguistic test for the article to be as generally 
convincing as it deserved to be. 7 A more thorough analysis of the whole 
inscription will be found to offer an abundance of added evidence that we 
have to do here, not with a fourteenth century inscription, but with a 
narrative in a modern dialect — recorded in modern runic characters. 



Observing the stone one's doubts may well be aroused, however, even by 
the external facts that he meets with — ihe smooth surface of the stone which 
gives it the appearance of having been shaped and chiseled in recent times 
by some mason for this particular purpose; and the perfectly distinct runes 
themselves, so different from the characters of genuine old inscriptions, 
roughened through weathering and often worn down utterly beyond recog- 
nition. 

It is to be noted that the Kensington stone is partly of comparatively soft 
calcite, and yet the runes of this particular part of the stone are as clear 
and distinct as they are on the upper part which is of graywacke. Had the 
stone been planted and its face subjected to continued weathering for a 
series of years the runes upon this part of the stone would have been disfig- 
ured to a far greater extent than those of the rest of the inscription. That 
these runes, however, are as legible as the rest limits the possible period 
of weathering so much as to practically establish the probability that the 
stone never was planted. Further, it was observed above that the stone 
was found with the face down, the bevelling at the base being up. But in a 
stone of this thickness, seven inches at the top and with a base of only about 
four inches, the face being perfectly straight, there would be so much more 
weight to the back of the central line in the base as to make it certain that 
the stone would have fallen backwards, for there was no stone to have 
formed a support behind and there is every likelihood that the ground 
would have been made as firm in front of the stone as at the back. Thus 
in the position of the stone ivhen found there is the strongest circumstantial 
evidence that the stone was originally buried, not planted. 

But it is said, the calcite does show considerable decay, pieces of the stone 
are there chipped off and the' surface is rougher. However, it is not the 
age of the stone itself that is in dispute, but the time when the runic fea- 
tures were carved into it. The stone may have lain on the ground a very 
long time and become much decayed by long weathering, but that has of 
course no bearing upon the age of the inscription. Anyone who studies the 
surface of the Kensington stone will find plenty of suspicious features. 
Through the decaying and wearing away of the stone portions of the inscrip- 
tions of many an old rune-stone have been effaced and its text often left 
fragmentary. But our Kensington rune-master was more fortunate; the stone 
went on decaying, pieces falling off (observe the piece, three inches long, 
near the upper left hand corner, and observe the depressions elsewhere), 
but by some miraculous influence the disintegrating process failed to affect 
the runic characters; they were to be left unmarred so that nothing in the 
account left by these intrepid explorers might be spoiled! The lower portion 
of the stone is not inscribed; that part was to be placed in the ground, we 
are told,— or did the scribe stop where he did to continue on a more suitable 
surface on the edge of the stone? 

There is further the thoroughly modern character of the narrative itself, 
so very circumstantial in its account of the direction of the journey, the 
purpose, their stopping over night by two skerries a day's journey north 
of the stone, their being out fishing, their return home finding their com- 
rades red ivith blood and dead, 1 " and finally the information that they have 
ten men by the ocean looking after their boats, and how long it would take 
to get back there. Now, in the old inscriptions the circumstances of an 
experience are never told with such care of details. It is only the one 
important event or fact that is there told in the shortest possible space. 



7 The "Answer to Gjessing" in Symra V, pp. 210-13, of course fails absolutely 
to meet the points at issue. 

8 Observe ! 



108 

The detailed character of our narrative is also evidenced in the author's 
preciseness in his numbers; and further the method of giving the year is 
characteristic of the modern inscriptions of the 17th century to the 19th 
century. In the old inscriptions the year would have been indicated in 
harmony with the practice of the time, as "the seventh year of the rule of 
king Hakon," etc. 

Then there is further the preposterous assumption that twenty men return- 
ing to camp, finding that ten of their number had been butchered by the 
Indians in their absence, should go a day's journey still farther inland into 
the wild country, and then cooly sit down and remain there while one of 
their number carved on a stone the complete record of their tragic experi- 
ence, a task which would have taken several days perhaps. The neatness 
of the job shows that the work was done with care 9 and desire for detail 
that indicates the mental attitude of composure, no fear of further disturb- 
ance, an attitude which is quite incompatible with that which we naturally 
assume to have existed under the circumstances nai rated in the inscription. 

Let us now turn to the internal evidence. 

I can not stress too strongly that where we are dealing with an alleged 
old inscription in a language whose history is known, the scientific test of 
authenticity lies principally in the vocabulary and the linguistic forms of 
the inscription. If, as in this case, the alphabet used is a runic one, then 
the runic characters employed offer a valuable collateral test. The key for 
determining the age of inscriptions is always to be found in the internal 
evidence of the inscription itself. Now it is a most elementary principle in 
the science of philology that a living language is constantly undergoing 
slow imperceptible changes according to certain definite tendencies. It is 
the province of the philologist to ascertain and formulate the laws that 
have governed all these changes and to fix their chionology. Upon the basis 
of such study the character of a language in its different periods may be 
ascertained and the history of the language written. 

With archeological finds it may often happen that the date of the find can 
be given only in the most general way, according to the known characteris- 
tics of the different periods; this frequently, because of the nature of the 
archeologist's material and the more limited criteria at hand. But in tracing 
the changing forms of art and in the classification of his material he need 
experience no such uncertainty. The archeologist and the philologist have 
a common scientific interest in old inscriptions upon old finds; the philolo- 
gist is interested in the inscription as a linguistic document and a record 
of the life and activities of a people, the archeologist is interested in the 
find as an archeological document and a record of the cultural history of 
the race or of a region. The archeologist interprets and classifies his find — 
he may assign it to a particular time in the civilization of the race accord- 
ing to the type of art and industry and the degree of advancement it exhibits. 
But the inscription offers in this case a much more specific means for fixing 
the date and he accepts for it the date which the philologist determines, who 
tests it by the known facts of the language for its different periods. 

About 2,300 ancient and medieval runic inscriptions have been discovered 
in the Scandinavian Countries. 10 The inscriptions are for the most part 
preserved in the various National and Royal Museums and Libraries of the 
Scandinavian North. Of this number nearly 2,000 are Swedish, 11 but the 
oldest are Danish and Norwegian. The great preponderance of Swedish 
inscriptions over the Danish and the Norwegian is significant for the place 
runic lore and the art of writing runes occupied among the Swedes at that 
time. 12 The inscriptions have been subjected to most careful study by 
eminent Scandinavian runologists, as Ludwig F. A. Wimrner in Denmark, 



This fact was also pointed out by Dr. C. N. Gould, of Chicago University, in 
his report to the Museum Committee at St. Paul. 

10 And a considerable number in Great Britain. 

11 On the age and distribution of the Swedish inscriptions the interested reader 
max- be referred to Noreen's Altschwedische Grammatik, §6. The subject is dis- 
cussed briefly and more popularly in Noreen's De nordiska Sjiraken, 1903, pp. 5-10. 

12 As to a later time see below. 



109 

the late Sophus Bugge in Norway and others. 13 The latter of these is the 
author of a work in which all the runic inscriptions of Norway are given a 
minute philological examination, namely, "Norges Indskrifter med de aeldre 
Runer" and "Norges Indskrifter med de yngre Runer," Christiana, 1894-05." 

It is recognized by the scientific bodies who are the keepers of these 
museums and libraries that the runological and linguistic investigation 
furnishes the only definite criteria of date, and in the dating of an inscrip- 
tion they are guided accordingly. 10 

Among the settled facts of the science of runology is that of the three 
successive alphabets and the order in which they succeeded each other. The 
oldest series of twenty-four runes began early in the Viking age to be sup- 
planted by a shorter alphabet of sixteen, which continued in use for about 
three centuries. 10 The so-called "youngest" alphabet began to come into use 
in the tenth century, later wholly replacing the second runic alphabet, the 
evolution of the third runic alphabet of twenty-four characters out of the 
one of sixteen being prompted by the development of new sounds in the 
language. The evolution of these three runic alphabets was fairly uniform 
throughout the whole Scandinavian North. 17 It is also to be borne in mind 
that this alphabet was in use for several centuries as the alphabet regularly 
employed in runic writing at the time, very much as we today employ our 
particular form of letters in all writing because generally used and generally 
understood. 

With these facts recognized let us now turn to the inscription of the 
Kensington stone. 

In general the transcription of the stone does not present any serious 

difficulty. There are some unusual characters, such as >) and ffi\ 

in the first line, ^> in the second, and 4- in line four (fifth letter 

from the margin). Further also, what appears to be a punctuated m-rune 
is used for v as in the initial character of the name Vinland. Also the 
runes for k, p and u are striking, but when these have been identified (see 
below), there can be little doubt as to what the characters of the inscription 
are intended to convey. The two transcriptions which have been made agree 
also in nearly all particulars. One of these was published on page fifteen 
in Harper's Weekly,, for October 9, 1909, the other by Mr. H. Gjessing in 
Symra, V. page 116. The differences, wnich are due to different reading of 
four of the characters, affect only the demonstrative for "this" before sten 
in line five on the face of the stone, and before the word oh in the last line 
of the continuation on the edge of the stone, and of the sixth and seventh 
characters in the sixth line on the front. Otherwise the lines are throughout 
the whole inscription perfectly clear and distinct, and the final vowel in the 
word before oh is a perfectly clear o-rune. Similarly with the last character 
before the word sten in line five; it is a little irregular but clearly has not 
had the cross-bar of the e-rune. The uncertainty in the sixth and seventh 
characters in line six would seem to be due to the fact that the original 

types 4 J have erroneously been written for P i , the word 

intended being po not ok. Discovering this the author has then tried to 
correct the former, the result being the hybrid forms which the inscription 
exhibits. 



13 The chief authority on runes in Norway now, is Prof. Magnus Olson. 

14 Wimmer's great work is De danske Runemindesmarker, I-IV, Copenhagen, 
1895-1908. 

13 There may of course often he other evidences also. 

16 The great work upon the subject is Die Riinenschrift. revised edition. Berlin. 
1887, by Professor Wimmer, the founder of the science ; the basis of this work is 
his Runernes Oprindelse og Udvikling % Norden, Copenhagen, 1874. 

17 Wimmer, Die Runenschrift, page 300, discusses this question. 



110 

In the third runic series the rune £ stood for the dental spirant 



* 



This rune occurs fourteen times in the inscription. Mr. Gjessing has cor- 
rectly and consistently transcribed dh, but the transcription in Harper's 
Weekly cited has dag in line five, as also opdagrelse in line two, while in 
lines six and eleven the same word is written with initial dh, (dhag). 
Inasmuch as dh, th, represented the spirant in Old Swedish, a sound which 

in runic script was written ^ , it becomes impossible to read anything 

but dh (and th) in this word as in the rest of the fourteen cases where the 

rune thorn, T\ , is used, if we attempt to transcribe into the runic 



*> 



series of that time. I shall return to this rune below. For the moment 
then we shall consider the language on the basis of these transcriptions, 
writing po in line six and dheno in lines five and twelve. The inscription 
would then read as follows: 

8 goter ok 22 norrmen po opdhagelsefserdh fro Vinlandh of vest vi 
hadhe larger vedh 2 skjaer en dhags rise norr fro dheno sten vi var po 
fiske en dhagh «ptir vi kom hem fan 10 man rodhe af blod og dhedh 
A. V. M. fraelse af illu. 

bar 10 mans ve havet at se septir vore skip 14 dhagh rise from dheno oh 
ahr 1362. 

One who is familiar with Old Swedish will find in these few sentences of 
fifty-six words spellings that do not represent the pronunciation of Swedish 
in the year 1362; adjective, noun and verb inflexional forms that were not 
used at the time; words occurring which had not come into use and did 
not exist in fourteenth century Swedish, while other words are employed 
in meanings which they did not have at that time but only assumed several 
centuries later. I shall take the inflexions first. 

1. Inflexion. 

vi var, vi kom, (vi) fan, (vi) har. In Swedish of the fourteenth century 
the first person plural of the present indicative still regularly had the 
ending um, the shorter forms being modern. On the inscriptions of that 
time the forms are therefore vi varom, vi komom, vi funnum, and vi havom. 13 
In middle Swedish the third person plural in a is often taken over into the 
first person, as vi skula, Styffe II, 36, from 1396; other occurrences are cited 
in Soderwall's Hufvudepokerna af svenska Sprdkets Utbildning, Lund, 1870, 
page 66. But the transference of the singular var, fan, kom and har to the 
plural is comparatively recent. 19 The verb hava is in the third person 
singular, in the fourteenth century and long after regularly haffver (as han 
haffver xi sbner). 20 

vi kom hem fan 10 man rodhe af blodh og dhedh. The accusative plural 
of the adjective was in fourteenth century Swedish -a, hence here rodha 
and dodha. Later the ending becomes ae. Plural mans is of course also 
irregular. 

vi hadhe. Should be vi hafjthom or haffdhom. vi hadhe is modern 
(spelled hade, or in Norwegian hadde besides havde). The modern scribe 
has here employed the verb form of his own speech. Hadde occurs in a 
Charter of 1453, but of course as third person singular. 

fra dheno sten. Should be fra paeSSOM sten (variant haemma 



18 um or 07)i according to the principles of vowel harmony and vowel balance. 
i» For verification of all these facts see Noreen cit, or Rydquist's Svenska/ 

O 

Sprakets Lagar. Vol. I. 

20 cf. also haver in sentence cited and misunderstood in Symra, V. p. 211. 



Ill 

sten) ; later fra may also govern the accusative, which would give the 
form fra -pCLGnuCl stcn. Dheno (deno) is an impossible form in any 

position. 

at se aeptir vore skip. Se aeptir in Old Swedish, like Old Norse sja eptir, 
meaning 'look after, take care of governed the dative case, which further 
had the ending um (om) for adjective and noun in the plural. The cor- 
responding Old Swedish phrase then was at se aeptir varom skipum. Ex- 
cept for the word aeptir the phrase on the Kensington rune-stone is that of 
present speech. On sja eptir in Old Norse see Fritzner Ordbog III, page 256. 
But see below. 

from dheno oh. Old Swedish 6 is a feminine noun; the demonstrative 

pronoun for this was fiaesse in Old Swedish, which again was 

fiaesse in the dative and fiaeSSU QY^iQenna in the accusative 
case. The corresponding phrase was then in Old Swedish: fra j) aenna 6. 

2. The Meaning of Certain Words. 

po. Pa. which at that time was just forming from upp-a > up-pa could 
not be, and was not, used in this way. uppa meant 'upon' 'on the top of,' 
used with reference to locality, not with reference to an activity. 21 One 
could say pa jordhen, 'on the ground,' but for 'on a fishing trip' or 'out a- 
fishing,' one said a fiski (cf in Old Norse vera a fiski, sitja a fiski (Fritzner 
under fiski). The use of pa (paa) with nouns denoting activity, as here, is 
modern, indeed (in Swedish) comparatively recent. 

opdhagelse. This word Falk and Torp show to have come from Dutch 
opdagen, 'to come to light,' 'to dawn;' the modern meaning of the word is 
due to High German entdecken. This would require a date during the first 
period of, or subsequent to, German influence on the Swedish language, i. e. 
after the reformation. The author of the inscription, therefore, here uses a 
word which in 1362 was Dutch and not known till long after in Scandi- 
navian speech. The conception 'journey of exploration' did not and could 
not exist in 1362. 22 Kanna landit or njosna, Old Swedish njusna, was used 
but not in the sense of 'exploration.' 

lager. This is a later loan from German. The Old Swedish word laegher 
meant: (1) burial place, (2) copulation. 23 

rise. Old Swedish resa meant 'to raise,' being originally the same word 
as English 'raise.' Resa, 'journey. 7 is a. late meaning-loan from German. 

se aeptir. The idea "look after, take care of," was in Old Swedish ex- 
pressed by tilse (tilsea. tilsia). In Old Norse sja eptir and sja til were both 
used. See Rydquists' Ordbok ofver svenska Sprdket, pages 393 and 458, or 
Soderwall's Ordbok ofver svenska Sprdket i Medeltiden. 

3. Pronunciation and Spelling. 

hadhe. At the time of the alleged date, the preterite singular form of 

ha fa, 'to have,' was huffi? t ^ iat i s - * ne disappearance of v before con- 
sonant had not yet taken place. Hadhe or hade (see transcription, page 
116) are impossible forms for the year 1362. 

vedh should be vidh or vidher ; vedh occurs in "Jons Buddes Bok, a ms. 
of 1487-1491. The development of i to e in open syllable before dh which 
brought about the change of vidher to vedher begins about 1400. Kock cites 
tvedh, from older vidh. for the year 1620. A full discussion of the develop- 
ment of the e in Swedish may be found in Kock's Svensk Ljudhistoria, Vol. 



21 As correctly given by Gjessing in Symra. 1909. p. 121. 

22 On this see Juul Dieserud's excellent discussion in Skandinaven for May 4, 
1910, in article entitled "Holand og KensingtonspOgen." 

28 See Fritzner under legr and Rydquist under laegher. 



112 

I, pp. 27-59 (1906). In the second line from the end of our inscription occurs 
the form ve which is merely a phonetic writing of the modern coloquial 
Swedish ve (= ved hut d sileut). 

fro. The pronunciation was regularly with the vowel a. Fra and fram 
both occur as prepositions in Middle Swedish but never with o as in 'from' 
last line of the inscription. On the identification of fro see below. 

of. The vowel of the preposition was, and still is, a, hence the form here 
required if af. Comparison with the prefix of, meaning 'too,' is beside the 
point, for 'of is an adverb; (as e. g. in ofmykit 'too much'), and was never 
used for 'of,' or 'from.' Of vest for 'far west' would in Old Swedish be as 
impossible as to say 'too west' in English today. On the identification of 
(the apparently archaic) of see below. 

oh. The long or short f>-sound in Old Swedish was written with one vowel. 
When final, however, length was sometimes indicated by doubling, as bo, 
dob, etc., (see Kock, Ljudhistoria, II page 24), which was also in Middle 
Swedish the regular way of representing length. The writing of h after 
a vowel to indicate length (as in German) is due to modern German in- 
fluence and is characteristic of the seventeenth century in certain works, as 
Georg Sternhjelm's Musae Suetizantes (1668): dhren och dagarne lijda. 

dhag, opdhagelse, dhedh. It is evident from these words that the writer 
of the runes uses the character dh. th (see above page 110) not only for 
the cases where spirantal sound actually existed (as e. g., in fdrdh and 
blodh), but also where the language at that time had the stop sound d, as in 
dhag and opdhagelse and in the first dental in dhedh (Old Swedish dbdh). 
If we assume the date to be the fourteenth century, the inscription would 
be in the alphabet of that time, in which d had its own rune (see below), the 

spirants dh and th being written n) . Hence we should have to read thag 

and opthagelse (th = voiced as in 'then'), which was not the pronunciation 
of that time, nor had been since primitive Germanic times. 

The word for 'day' was pronounced dagh and that for 'dead,' dbdh (th). To 
have said thagh, or thbdh v/ould have been as impossible in the language of 
that time as it would be for us to say thay for 'day' or then for 'den' in 
English and expect to be understood. 

To illustrate to the lay reader the language of the time and the consist- 
ent use of forms I cite the following passage from Sjalinne Thrbst, 1370, 
manuscript 1430. The second selection— from Margaret's Chronicle, late 15th 
century MS. 1514-1525 — will show the presence still of the inflexional feat- 
ures which are lacking in the Kensington inscription: 

Christofforus tbydhyr swa mykyt a wart maal som'then ther bar Christum', 
for thy han bar Christum a sinom armom j mamniskio like. Han bar oc 
Ihesu Christi nampn j sinom mun oc altidh j sino hiaerte. Sancte Christoffer 
war forst een hedhnunge oc bet Reprobus. Han war stserkir oc stoor oc wael 
xn alna haeghir. En dagh stodh han oc thiaente for sinom herra, Canaan 
rikis konunge. Tha fiol i hans hugh, at han ey wilde thiaena vtan them 
masktoghasta herra j waerldinne ware. Honom war sakt aff enom maektoghum 
oc widhfraeghum konung. Han kom til hans oc bodh honom sina thiasnist. 
Konungen sagh han wara een froman man; togh han gladhlika oc gaerna til 
sinn. Thet haende thser aepte, ac een koklare lekte een dagh for konuxins 
bordhe oc hafdhe diaefwulsins nampn j munne. Swa opta han diaewulin 
nampde stygdis konungin widhir oc giordhe kors for sino anne. Thet 
maerkte Christofforus wael oc spordhe konungen hwat han ther. medh mente. 
Konungen swaradhe honom: 'Hwan then tidh, iak horo, etc. — {Sjalinne 
Thrbst.) 

Maedh Guz nadh haffwom wi tamkt at ha3r sammanskriffwa sancta Birgitta 
siaegt, swa mykyt wi haffwom aff sannindama^nniskiom sport oc hort. Forst 
ar wetande, at sancta Birgitta modherfadher han haet hasr Baenkt laghman 
oc war thaes konungxens brodher, som tha styrdhe i rikeno. Han tok sik til 
hustru ena aedhlasta oc faeghersta iomfru, som het Sighridh, wtfodh aff godhe 
slaekt oc the ey aff swa store oc masktoghe som han, for huilket konungen 
hans brodher wart honom mykyt oblidher oc saende honom en kiortel halff- 
wan aff gyllene stykke oc halffwan aff wadhmal, til smalikhet oc mente thar 



t'lfll 

t at 
Qom 
sen's 



/ 



rom 

^ript 

iries 

pha- 

been 

i an 

The 

men- 

o. 1. 

d, e, 

o be 

s old 

unes 

(3) 

v is 

that 

-rune 

t the 



2 



ming 
it the 
ge of 

[•sen's 
iginal 
here 
), has 
uland 
»f the 



z. 



tween 
n in a 
3. 

oppo- 
, very 
a cor- 
, I, m, 
lining 

them 

The 

of the 

ns has 



orsen's 

leme i 
Svenslv 
of this 
and In 
Chicago 
;ay this 



^b - u r n. i r r r m 

B B - R 4 1 i> n - ^ ' i . * 



113 

madh, at ban haffde wanwort tlieras slaekt. ah hser Bsenkt ket thaen delen 
allan besaenkia maed gul oc paerlom oe msedh dyrom stenom sa>tia, swa at 
ban wart dyrare an thaen andre delen. Thaer aepter last konungen bonom 
wnsighia oc fegdha honom oppa sit lift oc saende honom bodh. — From Noreen's 
Altschtveclisches LesebueJi, p. 104. 

Let us now turn to the question of runic forms. 

There has come down to us a most remarkable literary document from 
the year 1300 — a manuscript of the Scanian Law in runes. The manuscript 
is written in the runic alphabet of that time, "the third" or "youngest" series 
of twenty-four characters, as enlarged and developed out of the shorter alpha- 
bet of sixteen characters. This manuscript, called Codex Kunicus, has been 
edited in a photo-lithographic reproduction by Prof. P. G. Thorsen, and an 
illustrative page was included in P. Hansen's Daiisk Literaturhistorie™ The 
alphabet was printed on page two hundred fifty-six of Wimmer's Die Kunen- 
schrift, edition of 1887, and is herewith reproduced, opposite page, as No. 1. 
This alphabet is often called the punctuated runes, because new runes of d, e, 
g, p, are formed by punctuation of older runes for t, i, k and b. It is to be 
observed (1) that the rune for e is a punctuated stave; that is, the old 
rune for i is differentiated by punctuation to designate e, (2) that the runes 
for k and g have an ascending arm on the right, g being punctuated; (3) 
that the rune for i is a stave with only one arm; (4) that the rune for v is 
still the same as the one for f, though it is sometimes punctuated; (5) that 
there are distinct runes for ae and a: (6) that the rune for 6 is the o'-rune 
with the two bars extending across to the right; and finally, (7) that the 

rune ^ can only represent the two spirants. 

The alphabet of the Mariaklagan (Lament of the Virgin) of the beginning 
of the 15th century is the same alphabet, the minor variations represent the 
tendencies that developed in the course of the 14th century.-"' One page of 
this early Middle Swedish poem in runes was photographed in Thorsen's 
Runernes Brug til Skrift, Copenhagen, 1877, page fifty-seven. The original 
is now preserved in the Royal Library at Stockholm. Its alphabet is here 
reproduced as No. 2. Mr. Gjessing, in an article previously referred to, has 
called attention (page 119) to the fact that the alphabet in the Rauland 
inscription, 1352, from Telemarken, Norway, is identical with that of the 
Scanian law. 

Such is therefore the runic system then in use. The difference between 
this alphabet and that of the Kensington stone will be most clearly shown in a 
transliteration of the latter into an alphabet. See opposite page, No. 3. 

The divergence between the third runic series (see alphabet 1 and 2 oppo- 
site) and the alphabet of the Kensington inscription is, as will be seen, very 
pronounced. The differences are, in fact, more numerous than the cor- 
respondences. The only runes that are identical are those for 6, f, h, i, I, m, 
and s, while those for e and o are of the same general type. The remaining 
thirteen of the total of twenty-four are, however, different and most of them 
of a wholly different type, some of them clearly elaborated forms. The 
rune for g has an ascending arm on the left of the stave in place of the 
right; a similar change occurs in the rune for v, in which one of the arms has 



'-' There is a fac-slmile of a ballad fragment reproduced on page 69 of Thorsen's 
Runernes Brug til Shrift. 

-■ The history of the former of these may be found in "Kobke's Om Runerne i 
Xm-dfii, 1890, pp. 80-81." The Mariaklagan is discussed in "Schiick's Svensto 
Literaturhistoria," a fac-simile of one page also appears on page four of this 
work. It is further discussed in Alund Dc nardishit i; minnm . pp. 75-77 and in 
Thorsen. Since the impression was expressed by Mr. Holand at the Chicago 
meeting that modern word forms occur in the Lament, I take occasion to say this 
is an error; the inflexional forms are the old ones. 



-8 II S 



114 

been transferred to the left producing a stave with an ascending arm on 
each side. To differentiate from the ui-rune the rune for v is punctuated. 
The runes for a, j, k, u, y, ae and 6 exhibit still greater departures; in fact, 
most of them are evidently from a different runic alphabet, and some suggest 
modern compromises with the corresponding Latin letters. 28 It is to be 
observed especially that the dental series is represented only by two runes, 
one for d (see below) and one for t. 

The question thus arises: Where does this alphabet come from? Was it 
used anywhere and at any time for purposes of writing? The answer is yes. 

Now it is a well-known fact that the knowledge of runes did not cease with 
the Old Scandinavian period, and it has long ago been established that the 
use of runes was not, in Sweden and Denmark, limited to inscriptions on 
monuments. We need only to cite the evidence of the runic manuscript of 
the Scanian law, and the fact that occasionally verses in runic script appear 
in the old ballads, which were not committed to writing before the middle 
of the sixteenth century. See Thorsen: Runernes Brug til Skrift udenfor 
det monicmentale, page sixty-nine, where two lines in runes from a popular 
ballad are reproduced. According to Grundtvig, runes appear in twenty-seven 
of the Old Danish ballads. An alphabet, a to v, representing the runes of 
the ballad is reproduced in Thorsen's volume, page 71; the date is the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Its runes are, however, in almost complete agree- 
ment with that of the third or youngest Old Scandinavian series. 27 While 
these runes were also elsewhere published in modern times, as by Ole Worm, 
we cannot, however, find here the literary source of the Kensington runes, 
for these are a different alphabet. It may be pointed out, howver, that runes 
are mentioned in Danish ballads, in such a way as to show knowledge of the 
formation of runes in Denmark and their correct interpretation to a very 
late period. See note 71 in Thorsen's volume, citing Gamle jyske Folkeviser, 
No. twenty, "Den elskedes Dod." Thorsen concludes: "Den Dag i Dag leve 
saaledes "Runerne" endnu gjennem Folkevisen,- — den er nedarvet umiddel- 
bart og vilkaarlig fastholdt, og Kilden har vaeret saa dyb, at den i Tidernes 
Lob har kunnet bevare og forklare." In subsequent pages of his work, Thor- 
sen offers an abundance of evidence of the use of runes in Denmark in mod- 
ern times. 28 

This we also find to be the condition in Sweden; and what is more, the 
preservation of the knowledge of runes and skill in the use of runes here 
received royal encouragement, and we have every reason to believe that the 
practice of writing runes was not uncommon among the common man in 
Sweden until the last century. On July fifth, 1684, Charles XI decreed upon 
the recommendation of the College of Antiquities: att de, som visade stbrsta 
skicklighet att skara runstafvor och att undervisa om deras bruk, och 
salunda forma allmogen att till allmant begagnande atertaga de samma, 
skulle atnjuta friket fran utskrifning och skatt till kongl, majestat och 
kronan." 29 Thorsen, note 69). During Gustavus Adolphus's Polish War, in 
1628, Count Jakob de la Gardie used runic ciphers in secret orders sent 
from Riga to the commanding officer at Bonus. 30 We further learn that 
several of these letters have been preserved (see Kbbke, page eighty-two). 

During the seventeenth century there took place a revival of interest in 
runes in Sweden, and runes came again to be used in inscriptions on monu- 
ments and otherwise. 31 The influence of Bureus through his Runakans- 



3* So /<?\ is the letter o with the e-rune set inside the circle. 



© 



27 The variations represent the transition to the later alphabet; see below. See 
also the ballad fragment in runes in Alund. page 75, or in Thorsen. 

=8 Further evidence in Alund, De nordiska Runoma, p. 77. who also cites similar 
evidence for Iceland, as a rune-inscribed gravestone for 1681. 

29 That those who showed greatest skill in cutting runestaves and in instruction 
how to use them and thus induce the common man to a general use of runes should 
be exempt from military duty and from taxes to his royal majesty and the crown. 

30 Liljegren, Runldra, 213. 

31 Eriik Alund, De nordiska Runoma, p. 78. 



115 

lones Larospdn (1599) and his various ABC books on runes (1611, 1612, 
1624) must have been considerable. Modern rune-inscribed gravestones exist 
in Sweden, among them three of recent date near Stockholm, one of the 
year 1861; or, to name earlier ones, at Upsala over the grave of Verelius 
and in Helsingland over Rev. O. J. Broman's grave. And runes have been 
extensively used for other inscriptions. 3 - Runes have in the modern period 
often been used by private persons as private marks of ownership in inscrip- 
tions on spoons, chests, chairs and other objects of use, further on window 
frames, over doors, on a stone in the foundation of houses, etc., etc. In 
Land og Folk for 1876, pp. 24 and 26-28, N. G. Bruzelius published a photo- 
graphic copy of an account of such a one as still found and used in Borreby 
in Ingelstad County in Skaa'ne until after 1820. 33 These things will serve 
sufficiently to point out the extent to which runes have been cultivated and 
actually used in modern Sweden even down to recent times. 34 So that it 
need not surprise us if now we shall offer to point out the precise modern 
source of the Kensington runic letters, for if we can identify the alphabet 
in use on it, the above survey should have dispelled any skepticism which 
we, here in America at the present time, might not unnaturally have as to 
the likelihood of any immigrant from Sweden having sufficient knowledge 
of runes to be able to produce an inscription here in the latter half of the 
nineteenth century. 

According to Bureus a runic alphabet was in use in Dalarne in the six- 
teenth century, a statement which is verified by a runic inscription in the 
Alfdal dialect found on a chair from Lillhardal now preserved in the 
historical museum of the Swedish Government. 35 This inscription was dated 
about the year 1600 by Sophus Bugge. Another runic inscription which is 
found over the door of an old garret room in the village of Orsebeck in 
Orsa Parish in Dalarne, is of the same origin. It is dated 1635, and the 
text states that 'Erik Olson built this garret,' 35 Further, the Botanist Linne 
in his description of Dalarne, speaks of the fact that runes were in use in 
Alfdal then; i. e., in the eighteenth century (1734), a fact which finds 
verification in Ihre and Gotlin's work on De runarum in Svecia occasu, 1773, 
pp. 20-21, according to which the people of Alfdal made use of a runic series 
with certain new characters for personal messages and for other personal 
records. 36 The runic alphabet contained in Ihre and Gotlin's work was 
reproduced by Thorsen, page a hundred three, and new forms later brought 
to light have been published. 

From it we observe the significant facts that the rune for a = Y or N/ 

and d = j} both of which we find on the Kensington stone; it has cer- 



tain developed forms as I and 



I and T for j, (x) for o and o for o. 37 It 



k 



further contains the runic letter If for k, which in the Kensington in- 
scription is cut with the arms to the left, the same kind of modification 
appearing in the rune for u, which is further characterized by a cross-bar. 
Especially significant is the identification of the troublesome characters 
for a, d, j, and 6. The alphabet is in some respects different; in the form 
as published in J. C. Liljegren's RunUira, Stockholm, 1832, appendix, it is 
already somewhat simpler and approaches the Kensington forms. The 
two are the same alphabet, the only important differences being clearly 
due to the scribe himself. 38 



32 Alund records several cases, p. 79. 

33 As late as 1840 there was published in Upsala a work entitled: Svenskt off 

Runskt Calendarium in till ahret IShO samt Bekrifning Ofver Itunstafven. 

34 See Thorsen, p. 80. 

35 These facts from Alund. 

3<r Thorsen's statement is as follows : Etiam hodierno die in suprema Dalecarliae 
regione ab incolis parceciee Elfdalen Runae retinentur. 

37 See Dalarne inscriptions of recent times in Fornvannen, 1906. 

38 Or to local variation, and in the case of the runes for e, o, I, literary in- 
fluence (ballad books, rune-lists, modern readers with runes in.) 



116 

A most significant feature of the correspondence between the two is the 
symbol employed in them for d. We saw that in the old series the spirant 

th and dh was represented by b and d by T . This we are forced 

to assume on the part of a scribe of the fourteenth century ignorance of 
the runic letter d used in his time, which is not conceivable, or ignorance 
of the pronunciation of the time, which is impossible, or else that the 
writing of thag for dag, and theth for dodh must originate with a modern 
scribe who is ignorant of the pronunciation of the time, as well as the runic 
system. 

Now, however, another explanation at once suggests itself. In the Dale- 
carlian runic alphabet there is no rune for the spirants dh and th for these 
sounds disappeared from the language in the eighteenth century and no 
longer exist in Swedish except locally and sporadically. But this modern 



runic alphabet came to employ the rune q) for d, owing to its greater 
similarity to D. 39 

Thus the dental spirants do not exist in our inscription. We therefore 
arrive at the following new transcription of what the author of the Kensing- 
ton runes had in mind when he wrote: 

8 gbter ok 22 norrmen po opdagelsefaerd fro vinland of vest vi hade larger 
ved 2 skjaer en dags rise norr fro deno sten vi var po fiske en dagh asptir vi 
kom hem fan 10 man rode of blod og ded. A. V. M. fraelse af illu. 

har 10 mans ve havet at se a^ptir vore skip 14 dagh rise from deno oh, 
ahr 1362." 

Our inscription is therefore the work of one who was familiar with the 
Dalecarlian runes, he being either a native of that region, or having gotten 
his knowledge of them from some literary source. The latter would have 
been a comparatively simple matter, for these modern runes have been 
printed several times, e. g. as late as 1832 in the appendix of Liljegren's 
Runldra. As the language indicates (see below) the author was probably an 
immigrant from Dalarne or that region of Sweden, hence it is not necessary 
to assume literary source for his Dalecarlian alphabet. However, there occur 
runes that are not evidenced in Dalecarlian inscriptions, as the runes for o. 
n and t. i0 But these three runes occur in an interpreted inscription printed 
on page forty-five of the History of the Language of Dalarne referred to be- 
low, page thirty and a native of Dalarne may easily have known this work. 
Or he may have learned them through such a work as Runelista, eller Konsten 
att Ldsa Runor, FolksJcolorna och Folket Meddelad, by C. Joh. Ljungstrom, 
published in 1866 and in a second edition in 1875. Of the second edition of 
this publication 2,000 copies were purchased by the Government and dis- 
tributed to the teachers of the public schools in Sweden. It is not even 
necessary to assume literary source of the non-Dalecarlian runes. Observing 
the different characters upon some rune-inscribed gravestone 41 the one 
familiar with Dalecarlian runes would naturally have taken occasion tc 
inquire of someone the meaning of these (to him new) runes and thus come 
into possession of that knowledge. 

Our investigation of the runic characters has, then, lead us to a particular 
Swedish province among the people of which the knowledge of runes has 
been preserved down to recent times. 

The correctness of these results now finds most convincing collateral proof 
in the peculiar language of the inscription. While the word forms are 
modern, the narrative is neither in literary Swedish, nor chiefly Swedish 
mixed with Danish or Norwegian and English words, as hitherto supposed." 



39 On the survival of the rune *K see Kobke, pp. 83-84. 



*> 



40 See above page 113. 

41 As near Stockholm, at Upsala, in Helsingland and elsewhere. 

*- From, ded and mans have been supposed to be English; the final rune in illu, 
no1 having been identified, one writes as English ill: lager, hem and gbter e. g. 
are literally Swedish, while rise is again by one writer regarded as the Danish 
reise with English spelling 



117 

It becomes quite unnecessary to assume such a mixture. The inscription is 
written in Swedish dialect. The forms and words and meanings and all 
point to the dialect of the locality where the peculiar runic alphabet em- 
ployed, has already directed its. (See now the transcription and the table 
of old and modern forms on the opposite page.) The inflexional forms 
suggest rather Norwegian vi har, vi var. vi kom, vi fandt. than Swedish 
vi hafva. vi voro, vi kommo, vi fun no. But there is no such difference, of 
course, in the dialectal speech of the contiguous dialects of the two countries. 
Here the language merges under the shorter levelled forms in the verb. 
Furthermore, large portions of western Sweden, viz: Harjedalen, part of 
Dalarne, Jamtland and Bohuslan were originally Norwegian territory, ethnic- 
ally and politically, and is today linguistically more Norwegian than 
Swedish.* The shorter verb forms of the Kensington inscription are the 
regular Dalarne forms: vi fan, vi kom, vi har, vi had, while the preterite 
of var is va. (See Noreen's Dalbymdlets Ljud ock Bojningsldra, Stockholm, 
1879, pp. 54, 56, 58 and 61.) Further, the preposition fra is here fro, and 
up = op; the literary Swedish demonstrative denne or denna (Nom. denne) 
is here dene with one n (See Noreen, Dalbumulet, page 53). The form ded 
is simply the dialectal ded or daed, according to the change of 6 to e which 
has taken place in Orsa and the neighboring part of Mora in Dalarne. (Nor- 
een's Inledning til Dalmdlet, pp. 8-9. 



The Dialect of the Kensington Inscription. 

[Goter ok 22 Norremn po opdagelsefserd fro Vinland of vest. Vi hade 
lseger ved 2 skjser en dags rise norr fro deno sten. Vi var po fiske en dagh; 
septir vi kom hem fan 10 man rode af blod og ded. A. V. M. fraelse af illu. 

Har 10 mans ve havet at se septir vore skip 14 dagh rise from deno oh ahr 
1362. 

8 Swedes and 22 Norwegians on an exploring expedition from Vinland 
west. We camped over night by 2 skerries a day's journey north from this 
stone. We were a-fishing one day; after we came home found 10 men red 
with blood and dead. A. V. M. Save from evil. 

Have 10 men by the ocean to look after our ships 14 days' journey from 
this island. Year 1362.] 



The Modern Forms. 



Kensington In 
scription. 
vi hade 
vi kom 
(vi) fan 
(vi) var 
(vi) har 

se aeptir vore skip 
fro deno sten 
from deno oh 
en dags rise 
po fiske 
ded 

fraelse af illu 
op 
of 
fro 



Dialect of Dalarne, 
Sweden, 
vi hade (had) 
vi kom 
vi fan 
vi var (va) 
vi har 

se setter vor (e) skip 
fro dene sten 
fro dene 6 
en dags resa 
po fiske 

ded (Orsa locality) 
frsels fro illu" 
op 
o' (= of), ov 



The Old Forms of 
1362. 
vi haffdhom 
vi komom 
vi funnum 
vi varom 
vi havom 

se aeptir varom skipum 
fra thsessom sten 
fra thsessi 6 
en daghs faerdh 
a fiski 
dodh 

trails fra illu 
up 
af 
fra, {f ran) 



fro 

The change of o to e or ae is one of the striking vocalic characteristics of 
these regions, thus dor becomes der in Xlfros in Harjedalen, hort and kort 
become haert and kjaert in Jamtland (see Svenska Landsmdlen, 59, page 72), 
do dae in Xlfdal and daeia in Mora. Here also we find the explanation of 



* The districts named became Swedish territory politically in the seventeenth, 
century. 

J3 See discussion, page US. 



118 

the vowel in the preposition of which looks old, but which is the regular 
form in many Swedish dialects today, the vowel being very slightly more 
closed than in the corresponding English preposition. Phonetically it would 
be written av, our scribe not finding it necessary to use two runes for so 
closely similar sounds wrote of a principal which he also followed in po** 
and fro, where we have the same vowel sound. 4 "' The preposition 'from' is 
merely the dialectal fro,™ but having observed the Middle Swedish preposi- 
tion fram in some old book the author thought he would give it an ancient 
look by adding an m, the result being a hybrid which is equally impossible 
for both Old Swedish and the modern language. The plural man in the 
second part of the inscription is clearly the colloquial use of a singular with 
numerals with collective function, as vi Jiar ti man, which is the only way a 
Swede would say it; the s can only be accounted for as an error. The word 
opdagelse, which is Norwegian (Swedish upptdckt) is to be explained as an 
example of language mixture in the Douglas County settlement.* 

Finally, the expression fraelse af illu, which has seemed so troublesome is 
taken from the Lord's Prayer in the dialect. In Historia Lingvae Dalecar- 
liae, Uppsaliae, 1773, page seven, the Lord's Prayer is given in its dialect 
form for Xlfdal, Mora and Orso. In the first of these the words areloss fra 
vonda, in Orsa they are fraels fra vandu, in the Mora dialect faels fra illu." 

The final vowel o in the demonstrative deno, which occurs twice in the 
inscription, is merely an effort at giving an old look to the word. Had the 
author observed more intelligently the old forms of the books he had he 
would not have committed such an error as to use a neuter demonstrative 
form with a masculine (sten) and a feminine (oh) noun. 

The dialectal forms and words of the inscription then point to the region 
of Orsa and Mora as the locality from which the author of the Kensington 
inscription immigrated. At the same time it may be added that the con- 
tracted verb forms and the phonological characteristics the inscription ex- 
hibits are more or less common also in the neighboring districts, north, east 
and south; yet the author must have come from somewhere near Mora or 
Orsa. But this at the same time gives us a definite period a quo for the 
inscription. The old dative endings -um in noun and adjective remained 
in these and other Dalarne regions until the nineteenth century. This is the 
last fact therefore that the linguistic analysis yields. However, the date of 
the inscription may safely be set down as nearer the end of the century than 
the beginning, probably between 1880 and 1890. 



So far we have been dealing with the tangible concrete facts of the case. 
The moment we turn aside from the inscription itself and ask ourselves 
the question: then how could the stone have gotten there? what is its origin? 
we are on very uncertain ground. All sorts of conjecture is possible. We 
are then dealing with the puzzle in the situation. If one is weak on the side 
of facts, but has a strong imagination, as some who have discussed this 
question seem to have, one can build up a form of belief on the basis of 
things imagined. One may even, it seems, believe that the inscription is 
authentic in spite of the irrefutable facts of the case to the contrary. But 
these phases of the question that engage the imagination have no scientific 
value to the archeologist or the philologist. All that he as a scientist is 
concerned with are the facts which prove or disprove the authenticity of 
the inscription. For him the stone, proved a forgery, has no further in- 
terest. 



44 The reader may be referred to Noreen's Fryksdalsmalets Ljudldra, Upsala, 

o 

1877, and Ordlista 6fver Dahnalet. 

45 The dialectal phonology also furnishes us the key for the use of the same 
rune for o and se but there is hardly any need of going into that here. 

46 While it is possible that from in the inscription is the English 'from,' the 
author's cleverness in other respects precludes our attributing to him such a piece 
of stupidity. 

* Also see above page 116. Barring Bohuslan the territory is today linguist- 
ically North Scandinavian, that is Norwegian, as opposed to South Scandina- 
vian (Denmark and southern Sweden), East Scandinavian (Gothland and other 
nearby Isles) and Middle Scandinavian (Swedish proper). 

47 The use of the preposition of instead of fra is clearly an antiquarian effort. 



119 

The record of arciieological fakes is a long one. Here in America, too, 
the scientist has more than once had forced upon him the fact of the fraudu- 
lent character of reported arciieological finds. Western Minnesota, the Red 
River Valley especially, appears to have been a fertile field for the exploita- 
tion of similar frauds. The petrified man of Warren, as being evidently the 
petrified remains of a European white from pre-Columbian times, netted a 
handsome profit to the two owners, until they became involved in litigation, 
when it was revealed though sworn testimony in court that the "petrified 
man" had been manufactured by a Lucas O'Brien of Crookston, Minnesota. 48 

The Elbow Lake rune stone was much heard of a year ago; its runes were 
so much decayed with the age of the stone that they could no longer be read. 
It was evidently of the same age of the Kensington stone it was said. But 
a geological examination of the stone itself proved it to be petrified clay of 
recent date. Now a philological test of the Kensington inscription has 
proved, as we hope for all time, that it, too, belongs in a class with the two 
above finds. 

But the question is again asked, What is the origin of the Kensington 
stone? — for the veracity of the finder is not doubted. There are witnesses 
to the fact that it was found (see Symra, VII, pp. 180-84) and the weather- 
ing of the stone shows age. All of that, however, was also true of the Elbow 
Lake stone — it was badly weathered, there was no doubt that it was found 
and the finder was honest enough. 

To get at the exact facts in the case of the Kensington riddle is no longer 
an easy matter. The accounts heard and read are already assuming a 
legendary character and new accretions appear with every new account. It 
was first reported that the asp under discussion was a small one; later we 
are told it was a "large tree" {Harper's Weekly article cited above), which 
to begin with was a very significant discrepancy. Then there appear exact 
figures; some believed the tree was "over five inches thick," others said 
"seven or eight," and again that it was "eight to ten inches." Then in a 
published account it was set down as an established fact that the asp was 
"eight to ten inches thick." Again we are told that the age of the tree had 
been definitely ascertained to be "twenty-eight years," but in spite of the 
fact that here there was evidently an established fact, the tree continued 
to age with most remarkable rapidity. In an article written a few months 
later we are told that the tree was "forty years old" and those whose atti- 
tude was that of wanting to be convinced of the authenticity of the find be- 
gan to doubt. Further, it was said, that locality had not been settled before 
1873, hence, if the tree were forty years old it and the stone must have been 
there fifteen years before the first settler arrived. But if the tree were 
twenty-eight years old the question assumes a somewhat different aspect, 
especially when we learn that that locality began to be settled in 1865, and 
had been visited by white men long before that. 

Then we are told that the finder evinced no interest in the stone, that he 
presented it to the one who later appears as its owner; but again, we learn 
that the price was $7.50 or $10.00, which surely was no large sum. But this, 
too, is evidently legendary, for now we learn that just where the proprietary 
right in the stone lies is disputed. Finally the statement that the stone had 
been purchased by the Minnesota Historical Society for $1,000 has been 
officially repudiated, 49 etc., etc. 50 

With a view to examining the stone again and making my own transcrip- 
tion of the runes, and also to visit the locality where the stone was found. 
I went to St. Paul and out. to Kensington April 14-19th. In St. Paul I was 
especially urged by a member of the Historical Society to see Mr. Samuel 
Olson 51 as one who was disinterested, knew the facts, and was in every 
way level headed and intelligent. I was also, for similar reasons, asked to 



48 Who removed to California in 1905. 

49 See Amerika, Febr., 1910. 

50 That the language of the inscription is in perfect accord with that of the 
14th century {Harper's Weekly, cit. "> is also a. part of the legend. 

51 See above, page 107. 



120 

see Mr. Peterson. 52 I did so. From St. Paul I took with me a witness and at 
Kensington I engaged Mr. Peterson to take us out to Mr. Oilman's farm. 
We spoke with Ohman, visited the site of the find and saw something of its 
environs. I had previously written Mr. Ohman and received in answer a 
hearty invitation" 3 to come. When we arrived he received us cordially. Mr. 
Ohman spoke Swedish dialect, he told me he immigrated from North Helsing- 
land in 1879. His language also suggested that in the locality Swedish and 
Norwegian have been contaminated somewhat, as indeed could not help being 
the result in a community where the two nationalities are represented in 
considerable numbers and about equality. Mr. Peterson did not discuss the 
subject very freely, seemed not to wish to commit himself on specific points, 
probably because he did not remember clearly enough. He told us, however, 
of various local rumors. Mr. Ohman impressed me as honest; he was very 
much interested in the stone and in learning what I thought of the inscrip- 
tion. He had seen the Forsa Ring inscription in Helsingland before immi- 
grating, but he disclaimed emphatically any ability at cutting runes. He 
pointed out a tree which he said was about the size of the one under which 
he had found the stone. It might have been seven or eight inches thick and 
stood in a cluster with other chiefly young trees, most of it being very young 
shoots of asp. 54 

Later I had a visit of about four hours with Mr. Samuel Olson, the jeweler. 
He was one of the men who, the next spring, excavated to a depth of six 
or seven feet where the stone was found, believing that there might be a 
treasure hidden there. There was no other stone of any kind in the ground 
below (see above page four). I learn further that the stump was preserved 
for some time; Mr. Olson saw it, examined it, remembers it distinctly as it 
lay there sawed off to a length of about, twelve inches. Mr. Olson says re- 
garding its thickness it was "about four inches;" and when I asked him to 
think it over very carefully and to measure off four inches on a table across 
the room and mentally make a, comparison with the stump he did so, finally 
concluding: "it wasn't more than four inches anyway." Now a rapid-grow- 
ing asp may shoot up to a thickness of four inches in eight or ten years, I 
am told by those who are supposed to know, and it should under no circum- 
stances require more than twelve or thirteen. 55 But, as that region was 
settled in 1865, the tree would seem to be later by twenty years, at least, 
than the first settling of the locality. In fact, the tree may have grown up 
since (been planted as late as) 1889. 

Then there is the legend of the skerries and the island. Here, it is said, 
are convincing proofs of the truth of the narrative, for the skerries have been 
found and that part of Minnesota was under water not many centuries 
since! 56 This sounds strange indeed to the layman who has at least little 
knowledge of the physiography of that region. What does one with expert 
knowledge say to such a seemingly strange tale? "That it would be abso- 
lutely safe to put 1,000 years back as the nearest possible date when that 
part of Minnesota was under water to such an extent that those hills would 
have been islands." 57 We can imagine the Kensington runemaster's satis- 
faction with his own shrewdness at hitting upon this external corroboration 
of the date he chose to affix to his narrative. It has perhaps never occurred 
to the Committee that our practical joker may have chosen to designate a 
hill in a forest by the term 'island,' which is neither ancient nor rare. 

But he was fertile in invention, our Minnesota runemaster! There are 
a score of lakes in that part of Minnesota to the north of Kensington. To 



52 Proprietor of one of the local livery stables. 

58 The letter was written in good Swedish, both as to spelling and choice of 
words. I later learn that the letter was not written by Mr. Ohman, but probably 
by his son. 

54 According to the "legend," however, the stone was found on a hill heavily 
covered with tall timber (a veritable primeval forest we see.) 

M A friend of mine has a poplar thirty years old that is ten inches thick. In 
the case of a hickory forty-eight years old the thickness was found to be 10M: 
inches. 

58 So several advocates of the stone. 

57 His further statement is "Western Minnesota was under water once but that 
was thousands of years ago." The answer comes from a present member of the 
faculty of one of our largest universities. 



121 

say that his imaginary explorers had stopped by two skerries a day's march 
north was another capital idea; it added a touch of realism that should 
be conclusive. And it was a perfectly safe thing to say, for skerries there 
undoubtedly are a-plenty in all that lake region. If the author of the in- 
scription is still living we can imagine how he is enjoying the spectacle of 
the search for the skerries. And now the skerries have been found also, 
somewhere on the shores of Pelican Lake! However, only two of these lakes 
have been examined, I am told. But, there are more than twenty other 
lakes to the north of Kensington in Douglas, Ottertail and Becker counties." 8 
I would suggest that. the shores of all these lakes be most carefully exam- 
ined; perhaps those discovered are the wrong skerries. 

The discovery of these skerries, however, involves the runemaster in a 
very serious difficulty. Pelican Lake, I learn, is about sixty-five miles north 
from the site of the rune stone. Now that was no doubt a good march to 
make in one day for a company of twenty men through a region enchained 
with lakes. But ten of their number had just been killed by Indians, and 
they would of course have fled with all possible speed. But if sixty-five miles 
registers their capacity for the day, how reach the Atlantic Ocean in four- 
teen days? 59 — and in that time and under those circumstances? And they 
were exploring the country, too! 

The local rumors at Kensington and the country about are many. It may, 
first of all, be said that few seem to take it seriously, but they vary in the 
explanations offered. Some hold the view that the stone was brought from 
elsewhere recently and placed in under the roots of the tree, or that the 
stone and tree were planted at the same time. The stone being fitted in be- 
tween the roots as the tree was planted, the roots in their growth would of 
course have followed its damp surface. Some go as far as to name Mr. 
Ohman himself as the one who planted the stone there (or the stone and 
the tree). But the tree being so young it is not necessary to assume that 
the tree was planted, and Ohman denies planting the tree. 

Again it is learned that a Dane of some education who had come to Amer- 
ica and to Hudson Bay in one of the Hudson Fur Company's trading vessels 
visited that region about eighty years ago. He may be the author of the 
fraud. But the Swedish dialectal character of the words preclude that un- 
less he brought the stone, or worked in collusion with a Swede. Now we 
know that Norwegians and Swedes occasionally came across in Dutch or 
English ships before the period of Scandinavian settlement — even in the 
eighteenth century. Further, we also learn that the Hudson Bay Company 
had its chief station at York Factory as late at 1859 ; 60 every summer ships 
came from London, by. York boats — the journey was made along the Nelson 
River to Lake Winnepeg and down the Red River. 61 Early in the last cen- 
tury, we learn, French and English explorers came down the Red River as 
far as Lake Ottertail or about forty-two miles north of Kensington. At a 
later time, but before the settling of Douglas County, there was considerable 
shipping carried on over the Red River as the present settlers there, who 
came there as early as 1865, are said to remember. It is quite within the 
bounds of the possible that some Swede, a member of some of these early 
parties, could have fashioned the stone and cut the runes, provided he pos- 
sessed the necessary skill at masonry. 62 

But the knowledge of runes and considerable ability at chiseling in stone 
were certainly among the accomplishments of the author of the inscription. 
Not everybody who knows runes could make them so perfect. Those who 



r,s Lake Charles, Ida, Christina and Milton, in Douglas County; Battle, Otter Tail, 
Rush, Dead, Lida. Lizzie, Pine and Pelican in Otter Tail County ; Height-of-Land, 
Shell, Flat, Cotton, Round, Many Point. Elbow, White Earth, etc., in Becker. 

: ' For the inscription says 14 days; To read forty-one would be convenient, but 
the inscription says 14. 

60 The Norwegian sailor, Jens Munk was, it seems, at York Factory on his visit 
to America tn 1619. 

61 This fact is made the basis of an elaborate argument for the genuineness of 
the stone in The Norwegian- American, Northfield, Oct., 1909. 

62 More than one person, upon seeing the larger photograph of the stone have 
said to me: "That isn't old, the lines are too perfect ; it looks as if it were the 
work of a skilled mason." 



122 

have believed in the authenticity of the rune stone have said it is well- 
nigh impossible that any of the early settlers there, or still earlier adventur- 
ers, should have possessed the requisite knowledge of runes. Now as a 
matter of scientific fact the lateness of the runes and the modern character 
of the language does prove that some sailor, traveller, adventurer, settler 
or someone has chiselled those runes in recent times. But even as circum- 
stantial evidence the argument is already materially weakened by the fact 
that it has been shown that the practice of writing with runes survived in 
a portion of Sweden down to recent times. But it falls completely if it can 
be shown that at least two men versed in runes are. associated with that 
locality. 03 And this fact is the last discovery. 

One of these men was a certain Svend Fogelblad, a Swede, one time min 
ister, examined from Upsala University. Becoming addicted to drink, he 
was expelled from the State Church; then he emigrated to America. He 
wandered west to Douglas County and was a well-known character around 
there for many years. He died in 1895, at the age of seventy. I have 
spoken with those who knew him and I have indirect reports from others 
who were acquainted with him. They tell me he knew runes, had books 
on runes and used to cut runes in various places with evident pride over the 
art. Asked about him Mr. Ohman said, yes, he had known him, he had been 
a guest at his house for a week once. From other sources I learn that he 
made his home with a man by the name of Andrew Anderson, a brother-in- 
law of Olof Ohman, and who owns a farm at Hoffman, Minnesota. Some peo- 
ple at Kensington associate Ohman and Fogelblad together in the manu- 
facture of the rune stone. This rumor almost takes the '^ r m of convic- 
tion in the country east of Elbow Lake, where also Fog id was well- 
known and where Ohman once worked. Fogelblad was sc .retiring of an 
adventurer and wandered about quite a bit and, as one might expect, had 
stored up a fund of strange narratives with which he would entertain people. 
One of these was that Scandinavian explou rs had visited that region hun- 
'dreds of years ago. This is certainly interesting in connection with the 
narrative of the Kensington inscription. And it is as certainly significant.* 
The other citizen of that locality who. it is testified, was versed in runes is 
none less than Olof Ohman himself. I found no evidence of the knowledge 
of this among the people of Kensington. At Kensington they say Ohman 
chiselled the runes bul Fogelblad must have prepared the copy of the in- 
scription for him to follow. Ohman came to Minnesota in June, 1879. Be- 
fore his marriage he worked for farmers in various parts of Douglas 
County. 61 For three years he then worked mostly around Brandon 83 in the 
same county. In 1884 he returned to Helsingland, Sweden; coming back 
to America in 1886, he went to Portland, Oregon, where he remained six 
months. Thereupon he returned to Douglas County living for a time at 
Hoffman, the nearest station west of Kensington, the same year moving to 
Oscar Lake in the same county. In 1889, having married, he bought and 
moved to his present home near Kensington. 

There has been current for some time a rumor at Elbow Lake of a Swede 
who worked near there thirty years ago who was versed in runes and used 
to cut runes into window casings and other objects and derived much 
amusement from being able to puzzle people with iliese strange characters. 
It had not been possible to verify it, or learn who this man was. A friend 
of mine, in whose ability to ferret it out I had confidence and who is ac- 
quainted at Elbow Lake, offered to investigate the rumor for me. That was 
on April seventeenth. On April twenty-fifth I received the following letter: 



03 How many others we do not know. 

* Since the above was in print I have Learned thai Andrew Anderson, like Fogel- 
blad, was a student at Upsala University, but left the University in 1882, emigrated 
to America and settled at Hoffman. He is said to be well versed in Greek and 
Latin, In history and Swedish literature and like Fogelblad, possessed considerable 
knowledge of runes. Anderson brought with him to America a copy of Fryxell's 
work on runes, and found in the study of runes his favorite pastime. The latter 
fact I learn from a sketch of Anderson in Amerika for May 27, 1910. 

M And the neighboring county to the west. 

"' About fifteen miles nortli of Mr. Oilman's present home. 



123 

Concerning Mr. Ohman, on whose farm the Kensington Rune Stone was 
found, and who was himself the finder, there seems to be a variety of 
opinions as to his ability or proficiency to be the author thereof. He him- 
self disclaims any proficiency along that line. His word is generally re- 
garded as good by most of his neighbors and acquaintances; and his whole 
bearing and conduct, according to one who lately called upon him, stamp 
him as one who seemingly would take no delight in maintaining as a truth 
something which he knew to be' a positive falsehood. There is, however, 
another opinion held by many, whom are some of his oldest acquaintances 
in Douglas county. According to report he was a stone mason, who in his 
leisure moments would write "rune" figures on the window casings, granary 
walls, etc. When, therefore, the Kensington Rune Stone was later found on 
his farm, many doubted its authenticity on account of the fact mentioned 
above. Further, a grammar of "rune skrift" was found in Mr. Ohman's 
possession. This I know on positive authority. Questioned as to where he 
had it from, he stated it was given him by a minister. It seems that this 
minister, who it is reported, had lost caste, sojourned with Ohman for quite 
a while, and they were together a good deal in the various places where 
Mr. Ohman had work to do. This was (a) 35-40 years ago. The minister's 
name has been found to be Fogelblad. 

The grammar, which contained a runic alphabet is now in the possession 
of Mr. N. H. Winchell, State Geologist and Curator of the Minnesota State 
Museum. He showed me the copy. In Fogelblad we recognized our de- 
frocked minister of Kensington and Elbow Lake. Ohman, it has been said, 
says he has no knowledge of runes. To me he disclaimed "the ability to 
make such an inscription." But Ohman also denies having made the in- 
scription. He nnteered a denial of that, evidently thinking that I knew 
that the susp! h is directed against him and his denial was very em- 
phatic. 66 But the latter does not necessarily imply much, for such an emo- 
tional reaction would be about tin' s;une in the case of a man who is innocent 
and knows himself suspected as in the case of one who is guilty but is try- 
ing to conceal his guilt. And finally, relative to Mr. Fogelblad, Ohman 
denies emphatically that Fogelblad could have done it or would have done 
it. However, ! Finally there comes from Brandon, Minnesota, informa- 
tion of similar nature. The source is Gunder Johnson, who lives near 
Brandon, and for whom Olof Ohman built a house about twenty-seven years 
ago. He says at that time the latter had cut some runes into a piece of 
wood to show him what kind of script they used in the Scandinavian coun- 
tries in olden times. When Ohman was asked about this he answered he 
could not remember, but also that he would not absolutely deny that he 
had done it. 

From Anderson comes the information that he, Fogelblad and Ohman 
would often sit studying and discussing runes, presumably from Fryxell and 
the runic book or books Fogelblad and Anderson had. 

With this fact I shall leave the problem to the imagination of the reader. 

The Kensington runic inscription is a recent forgery. While the present 
writer has from the first time he saw the inscription never had any doubt 
upon this point, he has entered into a somewhat detailed discussion from 
a more popular point of view in order that the layman also should no longer 
be deceived. He feels that the public should know the truth at once as the 
truth is. He feels that in such cases the scientist owes this service to the 
public. The Kensington rune stone will claim the attention of archeologists 
or historians no longer. Proved a forgery as it now has been, the public 
surely will no longer countenance it. We Scandinavians, least of all, should 
tolerate the injection of such a fraud into the history of the pre-Columbian 



66 I had not indicated in any way that I knew this suspicion. There were, 
however, two other persons present and one of these he knew had knowledge of it. 



124 

discovery of America by the Norseman. That discovery is an established 
fact and the record of it has long held an adorned place in American his- 
tory. 67 

The only interest that the Kensington rune stone will have to the scholar 
in the future is that it adds one more chapter to the already long list of 
fraudulent inscriptions in modern times. The number of faked runic in- 
scriptions in modern times is indeed considerable. For a partial list the 
interested reader may be referred to Liljegren's Runldra, page 215. The 
difference between most of these and the Kensington inscription is, however, 
that the latter is written in a modern dialect with only minor attempts at 
archaic forms. In the earlier instances there was a consistent effort at 
reproducing the language of an earlier time. In each case failure some- 
where to accomplish this furnished the means for detecting the fraud. Our 
runemaster, not having even an elementary knowledge of fourteenth century 
Swedish, chose to employ his own dialect; but he was clever enough to 
embody elements (as the island, the skerries, the numeric system used 
and a most apt date, 1362) into his narrative which were calculated" to 
puzzle one though they might not long deceive. And the stone was planted, 
later to be discovered. That he succeeded in puzzling people is certain. For 
twelve years he has deceived many into the belief that the inscription is an 
authentic document of American history. Though linguistically a clumsy 
piece of work, it was in many respects cleverly done and will deserve a 
place in the record of archeological frauds with the Cardiff Giant and the 
Dwighton Rock. 

Appendix. 

At a meeting of the Philological Society of the University of Illinois, early 
in April last, it was voted that a committee of seven be appointed to exam- 
ine into the language and the runes of the Kensington inscription with a 
vfew to determining its claims to authenticity. The committee appointed 
consisted of the following members: Dr. Julius B. Goebel, chairman of the 
Society, Professor of German; Dr. D. K. Dodge, Professor of English; Dr. 
C. N. Greenough, Professor of English; Dr. L. M. Larson, Assistant Profes- 
sor of History; Dr. H. S. V. Jones, Associate in English; Dr. Josef Wiehr, 
Instructor in German, and Dr. George T. Flom, Assistant Professor of Scan- 
dinavian Languages. On May third the committee held a double session, 
afternoon and evening. The writer presented the above report in full and 
many new points were brought up and every phase of the question was 
weighed. The finding of the committee will later be reported to the Society 
and embodied in its minutes. I am, however, now authorized to announce 
and publish that the verdict of the committee is that the Kensington inscrip- 
tion can not be from 1362, (1) because of the absence of the inflexions of 
the language as spoken at the time, and, (2) because it does not exhibit the 
runic series of the time, further it must be recent because the identification 
of the language with a modern Swedish dialect has been conclusively proved 
in the paper. The committee's finding is therefore (1) that the inscription 
is a forgery and (2) that its manufacture is recent. In seeking a cause 
for the fraud several members of the committee expressed the view that it 
had its origin in the extensive discussion of the Vinland voyages which took 
place in the late seventies and the early eighties. 

It may be added that each member of the committee was specifically 
selected because of his philological knowledge of Old Norse. 

Some subsequent publications on the Kensington Stone are as follows: 

The Kensington Rune Stone. Preliminary Report to the Minnesota His- 
torical Society, by its Museum Committee, St. Paul, 1910. In an Appendix on 
"Professor Flom's Investigation" the committee attempts to refute some of 
Prof. Flom's arguments, failing again to appreciate the phonological and 



67 The appeal to our loyalty to nationality that was recently made in a letter 
in Scandinaven (May 18, 1910, page 12), is as unscholarly as it is dishonest. 
Only he who is ignorant, or worse, will be misled by that. The appeal itself is a 
sad commentary upon him who gave expression to it. This is not a matter of 
loyalty; it is a question of truth! 



125 

runological difficulties involved. The Report has since been adversely re- 
viewed by several scholars. In the summer of 1911, Mr. Holand took the 
stone to Scandinavia. At a public lecture in Christiania Prof. Hasgstad 
stamped the inscription as a recent forgery. Upon his return to America, 
Mr. Holand lectured on the stone and has in numerous newspaper articles 
defended its authenticity, saying only one Scandinavian scholar had com- 
mitted himself. However in September, 1911, the stone was officially judged 
a fraud by a committee at Christiania University composed of Professors 
Alexander Bugge (Historian), Magnus Olsen (Runologist) and Gustafson 
(Geologist), "upholding," as one writes, "Professor Flom's view on every dis- 
puted point." Prof. J. S. Olson has since had an article in Minneapolis 
Tidende on the question of the author of the fraud, and O. A. kinder in 
Svensk-Amerikauska Kalendern, 1912, an article on Svend Fogelblad, tending 
to show he was the author. An article in Minneapolis Tidende, Nov. 9, 
1911, discussed briefly the report of the Minnesota Historical Society and 
printed letters from Dr. Verner Dahlerup and Prof. Finnur Jonsson (Copen- 
hagen), Prof. Axel Kock, Lund, Sweden, Dr. Oscar Montelius, Stockholm, 
Prof. M. Hsegstad and Dr. F. G. cade, Christiania, which show that these 
scholars in conversation with Mr. Holand all pronounced the inscription a 
fraud. 



PART III. 



Contributions to State History, 



129 



LA SALLE A VICTIM TO HIS ERROR IN LONGITUDE. 

(By J. F. Steward.) 

A study of the early maps of the interior of North America shows that 
latitudes, although often varying from the truth, were far more correctly 
given than the longitudes. Such facts are no more than could have been 
expected, as instruments and tables seldom formed a part of the explorer's 
outfits. La Salle carried an astrolabe, but there is little proof that he used 
it correctly. 

Among the reports left by him is a fragment reproduced in Margry (De- 
couvertes des Francais clans De LAmerique) of which the following is prac- 
tically a literal translation: 1 

"Detached leaf, without beginning or end. 

neighbors of the Cisca and their allies as well as Sicaca. 

The Chucagoa, which means in their language the Big River, as Mississippi 
in the Outaouas and the Masciccippi in Illinois is the river which we call 
the Saint Louis. The Ohio River [also known to La Salle as the Saint 
Louis] is one of its branches, which receives two other very considerable 
ones before emptying into the Saint Louis, to wit: Agouassaki [the Wabash 
of our day] to the north and the Chaouesnon [the Tennessee of today] to 
the South. 

The Takahagane live on the north shore of the Chucagoa about the 32d 
degree of latitude north; the Cicaca [live] in the lands at about 30V 2 degrees 
to the south of the same river, almost north and south of the mouth of the 
river of the Illinois on the Colbert river (that is about 39 degrees of longi- 
tude to the west of the Isle Persee) seventeen days up the river, estimating 
days journey at seven or eight leagues, the one with the other, the route [up 
the river] varying about east northeast. 2 

The Kaskias [Kaskaskias?] are found on their island [in the Illinois River, 
their old home] of which there remain only a few, the Iroquois having 
almost destroyed them [when Tonty was there] or obliged them to flee. 

The Tchatakes on the north bank of the same [?] r-iver, about the 34th 
degree of the north pole, [north latitude]. This river [the Chucagoa] is 
much wider in its whole length than the Colbert [the Mississippi] River. I 
have not descended it far. 3 

The Apalachites, a people of English Florida, are not far distant from one 
of its [the Chucagoa's] most eastern branches because they are In war with 
Tchatake and the Cisca, one of whose villages they once burned, being aided 
by the English. The Ciscas then left their former villages which were much 
more to the East than those from which they came here, although that river 
flows from East to West, and consequently it seems that it must empty into 



1 The translation has been found very difficult, in places, the intended meaning 
of the writer seems not well expressed. My interpretations of his intentions I have 
attempted to make clear by insertion of the phrases and sentences found placed 
in l")r£i ck t^ts 

2 Here, evidently, began La Salle's great error. 

3 This statement seems to indicate that on his earlier journey he had descended 
the Ohio at least as far as the entrance of the two rivers he mentions, but not to 
its mouth, as some have supposed. He believed the Ohio to be the Chucagoa and 
that the distance from the point he reached to the Gulf must be great, and hence 
he considered that he had not descended it far. 

— 9 H S 



130 

or join the Colbert [the Mississippi] River, from which the Takahagane, 
who live on the shore of the Chucagoa, are distant only three days from the 
Mississippi, where we saw some when [we were] going down and coming up. 
I cannot really say [however] whether the two rivers join; 4 1st because 
assuredly the account of Fernand Soto is not a chimera, the name of the 
river and of all those nations which inhabit it conforming to what is said, 
as well as the great number of savages of Mauvila, or, as the savages pro- 
nounce it, of Maouila, where he had such a bloody combat, and there would 
be no sense in what is there reported, of the prodigious number of boats 
which pursued the people in their retreat, the banks of the Mississippi never 
having been in a condition to be more populous than they are because nearly 
all that is not inhabited is subject to almost continual inundation, and has 
never been more so. Moreover, the names of Quiqualthango and of Anilco 
are as unknown in the Colbert as those of the Coroa, Natche, Omnia, Taensa, 
Ikouera, Tounica, Yazou, Tiou, Ouasita, Mahehoualaima, Kinipissa, Tchou- 
chouma and Tanjibao, who live there, were unknown to the people of Soto. 
Moreover, that prodigious width which they attribute to the channel of the 
Chucagoa, so that from the middle they were not able to discern if what 
they saw on the shore were trees or merely reeds, several days before arriv- 
ing at its mouth, has no connection with the size of the Mississippi, which 
is scarcely wider than the Loire even where it [the latter] empties into the 
sea. 5 The time which they required to go to Mexico has still less probability, 
the mouth of the Mississippi not being so far distant from it [Mexico] since 
we saw a coat of mail, two muskets and Spanish swords in the hands of the 
chiefs of two savage villages, the one situated at 28 degrees or about latitude 
north and the other at 30 degrees, who gave us to understand that they had 
seen bearded men like ourselves who, they represented, were in the south- 
west, with whom, they said, they were at war. Moreover all the maps are 
worth nothing or the mouth of the Colbert River is near Mexico. 2d. Be- 
cause its mouths are to the East-Southeast and not to the South, and all the 
southern coast of Florida shows, with the exception of the one which runs 
from the river called in the maps Escondido to the Panuco. This Escondido 
is surely Mississippi. 3d. There is only one place on all the coast of Florida 
[that would correspond with the latitude] of the remainder of tne South coast 
[the latter] being almost everywhere at the 30th degree." There is only the 
cape of Florida, but that cannot be [the place of emboucheure of the Missis- 
sippi] because there is not sufficient width from the East to the West for the 
extent of country; the Colbert River flows constantly towards the East or at 
most to the South-East, making this route at least one hundred and twenty 
leagues from the 30th to the 27th degree, where it discharges Into the sea, 
which is impossible in the width of the cape of Florida and just the route 
of Escondido. It is that which makes me maintain that we were near 



4 See pp. 471-473, Shipp's De Soto and Florida, where we find as follows: 
"When our men observed that the Indians were no longer in their rear, they the 
more readily believed that they were approaching the sea, as the Chucagoa began 
to be about fifteen leagues wide, so that they could not discover land on either side. 
They saw towards -the borders of this river, only a number of reeds so high that 
it seemed that they might have been trees; and perhaps their vision did not deceive 
them. But they would no farther enlighten- themselves on the subject for fear lest, 
quitting the current, they might strike on some sand-bank: and besides, no one 
yet knew whether they "werj at sea, or really upon the Chucagoa. In this un- 
certainty our men rowed three days, very successfully; and the fourth, in the morn- 
ing, they plainly descried the sea. and saw to their left a multitude of trees 
heaped up one upon the other which the river, at high water, bore to the sea. 

And this mass of wood appeared a great island." 

********** 

"When the Indian approached the caravel near enough, he placed himself on the 
prow of his vessel, and in a voice full of haughtiness told the Spaniards, according 
to what 1h" interpreter asserted, that they were robbers; what did they come to 
seek upon the coast: and that they should leave it in haste, by one of the mouths 
of the Chucagoa; otherwise he would burn their brigantines and put them all to 
a miserable death." 

"While the Spanish maps did not show the mouth of any river that might be 
considered to be the Mississippi's, its delta extending to 27 degrees, North latitude, 
as La Salle estimated with no degree of certainty, they did show the Escondido 
as flowing in the same general direction and its mouth at substantially the same 
latitude as the delta of the Mississippi. 

6 See Franquelin's map of that portion of the Mississippi which, evidently, was 
drawn from La Salle's descriptions. 



131 

Mexico, and consequently in another river than the Chucagoa, from where 
the Spaniards were so long on the way before arriving in Mexico. More- 
over, Fernand Soto went on horse back and often went along the bank of 
the Chucagoa. That is impossible in all the length of the Mississippi, where 
the density of growth of the canes is such everywhere that it makes the 
passage very difficult for man on foot, and one has to use his hands to get 
along. They / are inaccessible to horses. Often Fernand Soto had difficulty 
in finding landing places for the great height of the slope of the banks. 
Those of the Mississippi are everywhere low and often covered with water. 
Moreover, what makes me believe that Chucagoa is different from Mississippi 
and that it goes along side by side with it, is that from the East of the Mis- 
sissippi no considerable [river] is discharged while from the West some very 
large ones empty, from which [fact] I have always conjectured there, must be, 
to the East some other great river where all of the waters of that side are 
emptied. In truth, when one has traveled a day or two in the woods all the 
streams and rivers which one finds descends towards the East and not one to- 
wards the Mississippi. Again, as soon as we had reached the height of 31 de- 
grees, all the savages who go to make salt at the sea, always were represent- 
ing it [the sea] to us as to the East, and we saw every morning the mists 
of the sea rise and come from the East to the West, even against the wind. 
They were the vapors of the coast of the bay of Saint Esprit [Mobile Bay] 
and of the sea which is between Escondido, Rio de Pescadores, and the said 
Bay which goes from the Northeast to Southwest in passing. [I] do not 
doubt at all that there is flux and reflux [ebb and flow] on the northern 
coast of Mexico, since in the great overflow of waters it makes it enter per- 
ceptibly into the Mississippi for more than sixty leagues into the land, and 
in the stay which we made at the sea the little bays which are between the 
three mouths of the eastern channel of the Mississippi, each from three to 
four leagues wide and five or six long, were uncovered regularly at low tide, 
so that we could hunt on foot on the mud, and were all covered with water 
at high tide, and there was a depth at the edge of from five to six feet, 
according to the height of the land, although the wind was sometimes from 
the South or the Southwest and every night from the Northwest, contrary 
to what you informed me is certain that the winds, in the Gulf, always blow 
from the South in summer. I assure you that on that coast, at least, in the 
month of August, it is sometimes from the North, from the east and from 
the Northwest. 

I have, without thinking, made this digression with reference to this river, 
although others have told me that Chucagoa empties into Mississippi, which 
may be possible, although we have not seen the confluent, because, above the 
village of the Acansas there is one big island or rather several, which are 
sixty or eighty leagues in extent. We took the Western channel in descend- 
ing and as we had left with the Acansas all our equipage it was necessary 
to take the same channel in ascending so that it [must] be true that it had 
its mouth at that other channel without the Mississippi growing wide, its 
channel not changing its width at all, by the meeting of four other great 
rivers as considerable as the Chucagoa, which empty into the Mississippi 
from the direction of the setting sun. 

The coming of the Ciscas and Chaouenon was followed by the return of 
the Islinois, Peoueria, Kaskaskia, Moingoana, Tapouero, Coiracoentanon, 
Chinkoa, Chepoussea, Maroa, Kaockia and Tamaroa. All these nations were 
included under the name of Ilinois, because they are allied and there were 
several families of each one in the village of the Kaskaskia (who are the 
genuine Ilinois) although they have their villages separated and distant, one 
from the other, more than one hundred leagues. That of the Tamaroas alone 
is composed of three hundred cabins. Now all these nations join and come 
to establish themselves here. The village of Matchinkoa, of three hundred 
fires (each fire of two families) is thirty leagues from the fort where a part 
of the Emissourites come, the Peanchichia, Kolatica, Megancockia, Melome- 



132 

linoia, who, altogether make a village of from two to three hundred fires, 
have cultivated fields four leagues from the fort. The Oiatenon, to the num- 
ber of thirty-five cabins, have gone there at present, having departed with 
me from their villages. Also several of the nations have given me children 
to be reared in the French manner. There are some already who speak 
French and who are from the most distant nations. They will be very fit 
to serve there as interpreters and to make peace. I have one from the 
nation of the Pana who live more than two hundred leagues to the West, on 
one of the branches of the Mississippi, and inhabit two villages, one near 
the other. They are neighbors and allies of the Gattacka and Manrhoat, who 
are to the South of their villages and who sell them horses which apparently 
they steal from the Spanish of New Mexico. These horses, as I hope, will 
be of much use to us. These savages who make use of them in war, in the 
hunt and in transporting everything, have not the custom of stabling them, 
leave them outside, even in the snow, and give no other food except to allow 
them to graze. These kinds of horses must be of great endurance and very 
strong because, it is said, they are able to carry the meat of two buffalo, 
which weighs nearly a thousand pounds for the two. What makes me be- 
lieve that they get these horses from the Spaniards, is, that, although they 
are quite naked, they employ, when they go on horseback, a hat of tanned 
leather which they make themselves, in imitation of the Spaniards whom 
they saw wearing their big leather hats. This little Pana, aged sixteen or 
seventeen years and who understands French, says that there are in his 
country some stones which I believe turquois. I have a similar one; but he 
informs me of another piece of news, of which I am very glad; it is, that 
he saw the pilot of the bark which was lost in the lake of the Islinois, and 
one of the sailors which he describes with marks so peculiar that I cannot 
doubt, who were taken with their four comrades in the Mississippi River, in 
going up to the Nadouessiou in their bark canoes; that the four others were 
killed and eaten, which the pilot avoided by firing one of the grenades which 
they had robbed from the boat and making them believe that if they would 
grant life to him and to his comrade he would destroy with such things the 
villages of enemies of those who had taken him. These savages led away, 
the following springtime, the Frenchmen to the village of the Missourites, 
where they came to treat for peace, and the pilot, at their request, let a 
granade go off in the presence of the little Pana who was then there. The 
scoundrels must have taken the plan advised by my enemies to sink the boat, 
and go away by the Mississippi to join Du Luth, who was at the Nadoues- 
siou, after having taken the best of the goods which were in it to trade for 
beaver skins and to return to the Bay of the North \ Hudson Bay] if the 
business succeeded badly. That is all the more probable as the said La 
Riviere de Tours, who had deserted me to follow the said Du Luth, was in 
the bark where I had left him after having retaken him. They could not 
have taken that route without having passed through the house of the 
Jesuits of the Baye, who have always acted ignorantly about it and wished — 
He says in the letter quoted: "The Escondido is surely the Mississippi." 
In another letter written at Fort Frontenac and dated Aug. 22, 1682, also 
found in Margry, (Part II, page 212) La Salle endeavored to show that the 
difference in longitude between that of Quebec and that of the mouth of the 
Mississippi River was about twenty-four degrees. He had read the accounts 
left by the remnants of De Soto's expedition and from them had learned of 
the river, Chucagoa and of its having more than one mouth. In 1669 he 
had descended the Ohio to a point below the Falls at our city of Louisville. 
Either from his own observation, in wandering through the wilds after the 
breaking up of his party, or from hearsay, he had learned that the Wabash 
probably joined the Ohio and that another river joined it from the South. 
Thus enlarged, the lower river had been given the name of the French king. 
He also had consulted the Spanish maps, as well as those of Joliet. He had 
already spent more than ten years in the West, on the lakes and rivers, and 
had received reliable information from the Indians that the river flowed to 
the Gulf. Few, if any, of the Spanish maps show a river entering the 



i Salle, 

5, with 

him to 

iwn by 

d show 

shown 

• as he 

CJulf of 

imehow 

r taken 

and, as 

south- 

nto the 

e know 

lis own 

e expe- 

s. The 

by the 

mouth 

of the 

i shown 



i united 
settled 
int near 
r drawn 
5ath the 
lie pour 
tracing 
roduced, 
be sum- 



^^Zjcwuii 





.1 l.i map of ■ 



133 

gulf that could, with certainty, be considered to be the Mississippi. La Salle, 
it seems evident, did not take kindly to Joliet, one of whose maps, with 
lakes of angular form and scalloped coasts, I here reproduce: 

This map has been well studied by Gabriel Gravier and is shown by him to 
have been drawn in 1674. It and perhaps others of the several drawn by 
Joliet, was quite likely before La Salle when he was attempting to show 
Joliet's errors, and when criticising the direction the Illinois River is shown 
to flow in entering the Mississippi. 

No map of the many in the writer's collection, or out of it as far as he 
has seen, shows the great river as entering the Vermillion Sea (the Gulf of 
California) or the Pacific Ocean; yet there were vague notions that somehow 
the river might have escaped the Gulf of Mexico. If La Salle had ever taken 
any stock in Joliet he cast it aside after reaching the Gulf, having found, as 
he states, that the river which carried him flowed so great a distance south- 
southeast before reaching its mouth, instead of dropping squarely into the 
sea. He must have consulted some of the maps before going and we know 
that he consulted many after his return. La Salle had seen with his own 
eyes what others had failed to recognize and upon his return from the expe- 
dition of 1682 gave to Franquelin his interpretation of his discoveries. The 
river's general course deviates, in fact, but little from that shown by the 
map of Joliet, but as given to Franquelin, a little distance below the mouth 
of the Ohio it began to drift westward, finally terminating in that of the 
Escondido of the Spanish maps, now known as the Rio Grande, and as shown 
in the map of Hondius here reproduced: 



W0I/A 




Jlonit 



Hondius map. 



Although La Salle had not learned with certainty that the Ohio united 
with the Mississippi, Franquelin believed that the matter had been settled 
and delineated accordingly. La Salle had descended the Ohio to a point near 
its mouth and evidently had traced its course. Joliet in maps later drawn 
had shown the Ohio as entering the Mississippi and had written beneath the 
river, in his own hand as Gravier shows, "Route du Sieur de La Salle pour 
aller dans le Mexique." A comparison of Franquelin's map of 1684, a tracing 
of part of which is here given, with that of Sanson, also in part reproduced, 
will show that La Salle found a breadth of country he thought to be suffi- 
cient for two great rivers where but one exists. 



134 

Sanson, probably aided by verbal information, devolved what seemed to 
him to be the probable course of the Chucagoa, now known as the Mississippi, 
from the multitude of Spanish maps, with their- impossible rivers and 
country-wide islands. Although many river mouths had been shown by 
earlier map makers, seemingly hinting of the true mouth of the Mississippi, 
wanting the delta, Sanson embouched the Chucagoa into the bay of the "Holy 
Spirit," the Mobile Bay of today. La Salle, on his way down, at Kapaha, a 




Traced from Franquelin's map of 16S4 




Part n! Sanson's map. Kim;. 



135 

little distance above the mouth of the Arkansas River, had by "Proces- 
verbal," taken possession in the name of Louis XIV, of all the region near 
and far including the Chucagoa, the Ohio, the Colbert, also called the Missis- 
sippi, and as far west as the "Rivers des Palmes," and at the mouth of the 
Mississippi River he repeated the "Proces," taking in great regions which he 
had only heard vaguely mentioned. 

His words regarding the narrowness of the peninsula of Florida relative 
to the direction of flow of Bscondido well fit the Hondius map. He evidently 
had also studied the larger Sanson map made about 1656, in part here 
shown. 7 

In the early days of the cartography of America the longitudes were 
seldom definitely known. The difference between that of Quebec and of 
the mouth of the Escondido I find to have varied from twenty to thirty 
degrees, the average on the many maps before me showing about twenty- 
four degrees. This query at once arises: How did La Salle establish the 
longitude of "his" river? Was his conclusion the result of calling to his aid 
celestial objects, or was it his confidence in the early map makers, Hondius 
for instance? Be all this as it may, his ignorance spelled disaster to him 
and incalculable loss to France. He had heard through the traders of the 
great country beyond the lakes, had acquired a license there to trade; early 
he had learned of the "Belle Riviere," our Ohio, by which it might be 
reached and had followed its tide almost to the confluence with that of the 
"Father of Waters." He had proposed a route for the transportation of the 
furs and of the skins of the deer and buffalo from the Mississippi valley,, and 
for the return of the French articles of trade from the head of Lake Ontario 
to the headwaters of the Ohio and thence onward; but that route was not 
practical, as the Iroquois, backed by the English, must be reckoned with, a 
fact the French had learned full well. He later found a route to the Illinois 
country by the way of the Great lake, and both of the streams that, united, 
form the Illinois. He had contemplated, and it is believed had made, a 
journey to the Illinois country from the head of Lake Erie by the way of 
the Maumee and Wabash rivers, but believed that a way by sea and the 
Great River from France, was possible and more feasable. Not only all this: 
He had called together many of the jealous branches of natives who spoke 
the Algonquin tongue, long sufferers from the Iroquoian raids, and founded 
his "Colonie du Sieur de La Salle." He had founded his Fort St. Louis on 
Starved Rock, and had promised protection, by France, if he could once 
open up the great river. He mentions many of the tribes he had brought 
together in the letter above quoted. 

His first discoveries had put within the grasp of France a vast region, 
at once great in agricultural and commercial possibilities, soon, however, 
to be lost by his own errors. The Spanish maps had deceived him or he 
had erred in his appeal to the heavenly bodies and astronomical tables. 
Had he with the fleet of four vessels, fitted out by the King of France, with 
supplies for the soldiers and people, reached the mouth of the Mississippi 
all might have gone well. But Beaujeau, the commandant while at sea, and 
La Salle, the commandant-to-be on land, did not agree. Each seemed a 
thorn in the side of the other. Quarrels began early and continued until 
Beaujeau, in disgust, and half suppressed anger, quitted the scene on the 
western coast of the Gulf near the mouth of the "Escondido," in the war 
vessel that had protected the transports which brought the people and sup- 
plies. Some early writers seem to have believed that La Salle well knew 
the actual geographical position of the mouth of the river he had run to 
its end and, having in mind, ultimately, to attack the Spaniards, had pur- 
posely gone to the western coast of the gulf. The fact seems clear, instead, 
that he was dazed. For several clays he remained at anchor in fresh but 
muddy water flowing into the gulf, while awaiting the return of Beaujeau, 
whose vessel had become separated. In a very uncertain frame of mind, 



7 In this map the main branch of the Escondido is named "R. Conches," but on 
twenty Spanish maps at hand it is properly named and the name Conches given a 
Southern branch only. 



136 

he had coasted westward to the region of the Panuco and the Escondido, 
finally landing in Bay St. Louis, as he named it. He soon found his mis- 
take and nearly two years were spent in vain efforts to find "his" river. The 
loss of one of his vessels to pirates when entering the gulf, the wreck of 
another and the loss of the Belle in a storm, or otherwise, left the colony 
practically hopeless. Deaths, in wars with the natives and due to sickness, 
continued to decimate the colony until the Spaniards of Mexico put an end 
to the remaining few after La Salle's death at the hand of one of his own 
party while seeking a way to New France for succor by way of the Illinois 
country and Canada. 

Such was the end; but what might have been the result to France for 
the benefit of which he had spent all of his means and much of that of 
his friends? Had he ascended the Mississippi as intended, left his mili- 
tary support at the first favorable site reached and passed on with his 
smaller vessels to the region of the Illinois, thus opening the river, the 
development of the prairie region could have been, , and probably would have 
been, so rapid that a colony of sufficient strength to resist the encroachment 
of the English and hold them east of the Alleghany mountains would have 
grown up. Instead came D'Iberville and others and founded New Orleans, 
ignorant of the possibilities of the upper country. The soils of the lower 
river were ill adapted to the growth of the cereals which later so rapidly 
brought the prairie region into the lime-light, as it were, that shone far 
beyond the Atlantic Ocean. So slow was the peopling of the valley lying 
between the two great ranges of mountains, when reached by the way of 
the St. Lawrence, that the English ultimately crowded the French beyond 
the Mississippi. The Spaniards in turn pressed them from the southwest. 
What was left of the great nation, so rich in prospect, was sold over the 
remnant counter, so to speak, by Napoleon for a meager pittance sadly 
needed by his nation to carry on the wars his ambition had led it into. 



""I 



PART IV. 

Documents. 



139 



PIONEER LETTERS OP GERSHOM FLAGG. 



Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Solon J, Buck. 



Introduction. 

Expansion is the dominant note of American history. As a fire kindled 
at the edge of a prairie sweeps on and on until it has covered the whole 
area, so the American people from the very beginnings at Jamestown and 
Plymouth have pushed westward, ever westward, until in the course of 
three centuries they have occupied the continent and the frontier has dis- 
appeai'ed. The story of this westward movement will someday be told, and 
It will be more than a composite of the stories of the individuals and 
families who have taken part in it. A knowledge, nevertheless, of the 
motives, purposes, and experiences of individual pioneers is essential to an 
understanding of the movement as a whole; and for that reason, if for no 
other, it is desirable to preserve and make accessible contemporary letters 
and journals of men who were in the vanguard of the movement. 

Gershom Flagg, the writer of the letters here presented, came of pioneer 
stock. 1 The first member of the family to feel the call of the West — tradi- 
tion says that a love affair had something to do with it also — was one 
Thomas Flegg of Scratby, England, who crossed the ocean and settled in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1637. Six generations later the pioneer spirit 
reappeared in two brothers, Ebenezer and Gershom Flagg, both of whom 
had seen service in the Continental Army during the Revolution. Ebenezer 
went to Vermont, locating first in Rutland county and then in 1799 in the 
town of Richmond, Chittenden county, in the foothills of the Green Moun- 
tains and not far from Lake Champlain. There he raised a goodly family 
of five boys and six girls. Cei shorn, the brother, sought a more distant 
frontier and in 1789 joined the little colony which Rufus Putnam and Man- 
asseh Cutler with their New England associates had just established at 
Marietta, Ohio. 

Ebenezer Flagg's third son, another Gershom, was born at Orwell, Ver- 
mont, November 2G, 1792. His early years were spent on the farm with 
little opportunity for schooling, but later he was enabled to study surveying 
with a competent engineer in Burlington. During the War of 1812, he joined 
a company of Vermont militia as drummer and was present at the battle of 
Plattsburg, across Lake Champlain in New York. Soon after the close of 
the war he determined to go west, apparently with the idea of securing 
employment in surveying the public domain, or of purchasing land and 
developing a farm, or both, as occasion might offer. This was the time 
when the "Ohio fever" was carrying off thousands of the sons of New 
England and so young Flagg left Richmond September 23, 1816, with Ohio 
as his intended destination. 



1 Family Records of the Descendants of Gershom Flagg, of Lancaster, Massa- 
chusetts, compiled and published by Norman Gershom Flagg and Lucius C. S. 
Flagg, J"*)7. 



140 

Turning westward at Troy, New York, he followed the ancient highway 
up the valley of the Mohawk to Utica. From there to Canandaigua he trav- 
eled on the Genessee road, constructed by the state of New York in the last 
decade of the preceding century. This road ran straight on to Buffalo but 
Flagg appears to have left it at Canandaigua and made his way northwest- 
wardly to Rochester where he struck another state road constructed about 
1809, which he could follow to Lewistown. 2 From there his route ran south 
past the falls to Buffalo, around the end of the lake to Erie, and then south 
again to Mercer. From Mercer in Pennsylvania to Cadiz in Ohio the road 
could have been but little more than a trail for all the main roads in that 
part of the country led to or from Pittsburg. At Cadiz, however, he struck 
the main highway from Pittsburg to the West and from Cambridge to Lan- 
caster he was on a state road following the line of the famous trace which 
Ebenezer Zane, under authority of Congress, laid out from Wheeling in Vir- 
ginia to Maysville in Kentucky in 1797. 3 From Lancaster Flagg made his 
way through Columbus, the new .state capital, to Champaign county in the 
west-central part of Ohio, where he arrived November 8, 1816, forty-six days 
after leaving Richmond. 

Here he remained, in Springfield and in Harmony township, 4 during the 
ensuing winter and spring; but it was not long before his "Ohio fever began 
to turn" and he was seized with the "Missouri and Illinois fever" — induced 
apparently by the hope of being able to secure work as a surveyor by going 
to St. Louis where the surveyor-general of Illinois and Missouri resided and 
by the belief that good land could be secured cheaply in the Military Tract 
in Illinois. On July 1, therefore, he arrived in Cincinnati, with the inten- 
tion of proceeding at once to St. Louis, but the advice of friends that for 
reasons of health it was best to arrive in a new country in the fall and the 
desire for company on the journey induced him to remain in Cincinnati 
until October. Finally he joined with another Vermonter in the purchase 
of a flat-boat and on October 19, they started to float down the Ohio. When 
the mouth of the Mississippi was reached, they put their baggage on a 
north-bound keel-boat and walked to St. Louis, arriving there the eighteenth 
of November. 

A few days after his arrival in St. Louis, Flagg went prospecting for land 
in Illinois and made a purchase of 264 acres. Returning to St. Louis, he 
endeavored to secure a contract for some of the government surveying, but 
without success, and in the spring of 1818 he established himself on a 
quarter-section of land six miles north of Edwardsville, in Madison county, 
Illinois. Renting part of the farm for a number of years, he cultivated the 
remainder himself and boarded with a neighbor. On September 27, 1827, 
he was married to Mrs. Jane Paddock Richmond, daughter of Gaius Paddock, 
who in 1821 had taken up a quarter-section adjoining Flagg's. The rest of 
Flagg's life, with the exception of visits to relatives in the East in 1838 
and 1855, was passed quietly, running his farm and serving as justice of the 
peace and as postmaster of Paddock's Grove. He died March 2, 1857. 

As an illustration of the influence which the emigration of one indi- 
vidual sometimes had on his relatives and friends, it is interesting to note 
that of the eight brothers and sisters of Gershom Flagg who were younger 
than himself, five followed him to Illinois, four going directly to Madison 
county. 5 Of the other three, one died unmarried at the age of twenty-three, 
the family of another — a sister — moved to Illinois shortly after her death, 
and the third went as far west as Ohio. To the list might also be added a 
son of Flagg's oldest brother, who moved to Paw Paw, Illinois, in 1850. 
The descendants of these brothers and sisters are now scattered all over the 
United States from Vermont to California and thus the history of this 
family typifies in a way the spread of the American people across the con- 
tinent. 



- Archer B. Hulbert, Pioneer Roads (.Historic Highways, XI.-XII. ), II., chap. iv. 

3 Ibid., I., chap. iii. 

4 Now in Clark county. 

6 See notes 10, 83, 96, 102, 111, 112, of the text. 




WILLARD CUTTING FLAGG. 



141 

In addition to telling the story of one of the leaders of that great stream 
of emigrants which flowed from New England to Illinois, these letters are 
of interest for the illustrations which they contain of social, economic, and 
political conditions. Unlike so many of the travelers who wrote for publi- 
cation, Flagg had no motive for distorting the things which he saw and 
experienced, and his pictures can be relied upon so far as they go. .Light is 
shed also upon a number of incidents of interest in state and local history. 
All the letters except one are addressed to one of the two older brothers or 
to the parents of the writer. The first four tell of the journey from Ver- 
mont to Ohio and give an account of pioneer agriculture and social condi- 
tions in that state in 1816 and 1817; the fifth letter is devoted to Cincin- 
nati and contains an interesting picture of the Queen City of the West in 
1817; the next letter contains a similar picture of St. Louis, an account of 
the journey thither, and information about land in Illinois and Missouri; 
the seventh letter serves as a resume of the writer's experiences since he 
left Vermont and the eighth is devoted to a description of Madison county 
and of Illinois in the year in which it became a state. The remaining let- 
ters, sixteen in all, of dates running from 1819 to 1836, deal with a variety 
of subjects: agricultural methods and conditions; state and national poli- 
tics; the slavery controversy in Illinois; murders, robberies, hangings, and 
duels; the activity of the surveyor-general in feathering the nests of his 
relatives; Lafayette's visit to the West — in short, they present a picture of 
society in Illinois at the time when it was a rapidly growing frontier state. 

These letters were first gathered together by Willard C. Flagg, the son of 
Gershom, and extracts from some of them were published in the Alton 
Weekly Telegraph beginning April 27, 1876. The originals are now the 
property of Hon. Norman G. Flagg, of Moro, Illinois, grandson of Gershom, 
and thanks are due to him for permission to copy them and for assistance 
in preparing them for the press. They are here printed verbatim and 
literatim with the exception that capitals are supplied occasionally for the 
first words and periods at the end of sentences. All words or letters sup- 
plied and all editorial explanations in the text are enclosed in brackets, the 
former in Roman type and the latter in italics. 

University of Illinois, September, 1911. 



GERSHOM FLAGG'S LETTERS. 

I. To Azaiuaii C. Flagg, 1 November 12, 1816. 

Springfield Champaign County 2 Nov 12th 1816 
Dear Brother, 

I left Richmond 3 the 23d day of sept, and after traveling Eight Hundred 
& ninety Eight miles arrived at this place, the 8th inst in company with 



1 Azariah Cutting- Flagg, second son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Flagg, was 
born in Orwell, Vermont, in 1790; served as a printer's apprentice in Burlington 
from 1801 to 1806 ; and shortly after crossed Lake Champlain and became the 
proprietor of the Plattsburg (New York) Republican. He won distinction at the 
battle of Plattsburg during the War of 1812 and rose rapidly to prominence in 
New York politics, first as a member of the Albany Regency and later as a leader 
of the radical or "Barnburner" faction of the Democratic party. He was a member 
of the legislature in 18:24 and 1826, secretary of state from 1826 to 1833, state comp- 
troller from 1833 to 1839 and from 1S42 to 1847, and comptroller of the city of 
New York from 1853 to 1859. He died in New York City in 1873 after fourteen 
years of total blindness. Flagg Family Records. 4S ; D. S. Alexander, Political 
History of the State of New York, I., 294. 325-326, II., 52, 58, 90-92; Ellis H. 
Roberts, New York (American Commomvealths) , II., 546, 583, 598. 

J champaign county, Ohio, was formed from Greene and Franklin counties in 
1801 and received its name from the rolling char: cter of its surface. Springfield 
was laid out by James Demint in 1803. In 1817 Clark county was formed from 
champaign. Madison and Greene; and Springfield became its seat. Judging from 
the census returns of 1810 and 1820, the population of the town was probably about 
nine hundred or a thousand when Flagg was there. Henry Howe, Historical Collec- 
tions of Ohio, (edition of 1857), pp. 80-81, 84, 93. 

3 The town of Richmond, Vermont, in which the farm of Dr. Ebenezer Flagg 
was located, is in Chittenden county and adjoins the town of Wiliston in which 
lies the city of Burlington. The village of Richmond is twelve miles from Burling- 
ton and twenty-five from Montpeller. 



142 

Celah Coleman. I shall stay in this vicinity probably til next April and I 
wish you would forward your papers to me until that tfme and be sure & 
write to me as soon as you receive this letter. 

In comeing to this place we have had very good luck although since we 
came into the state of Ohio we have not traveled more than 20 miles a day 
the roads being very bad — the South East part of the State is very rough 
it is nothing but one continued range of hills from where we came into the 
state to Muskingum r[i]ver and from thence we found it very level and so 
muddy that it was as bad as the hills. We came a round about way I sup- 
pose but I think we took the best road. We first came to Troy then to 
Schenectady up the Mohawk river to Utica through Canandaigua crossed the 
Gennessee river at Rochester villiage through Lewiston up Niagara River by 
the falls to Buffalo 4 from thence we had a bad road all the way through Erie, 
Meadville, Mercer, New Castle & Greersburg in Pennsylvania; 5 through New 
Lisbon, Cadiz, Cambridge, Zanesville, New Lancaster, Columbus which is the 
seat of the state Government, Worthington to this place in Ohio, 6 which is 
about 60 miles from the East line of Indiana where we calculate to go next 
spring if we have our healths. 

I find the Country as fertile as I expected. Corn grows with once hoeing 
and some times with out hoeing at all to 14 feet high and is well filled. 
Wheat is sowed where the corn is taken off and the ground plowed once over 
which is sufficient to bring a crop. Hogs & Cattle run in the woods in 
summers and in the winter are fed on Corn & prairie hay. In this vicinity 
are some as handsome Cattle as ever I have seen. Some men Milk 40 Cows 
and own from 100 to 400 head of Cattle but these men are few. 

Beef & Pork is four dollar a hundred Wheat 75 cents a bushel and Corn 
& oats 25 cents a bushel. I am fully of the opinion that a man may live 
by farming with much less labour here than in the Eastern States but there 
are many things here which are very inconvenient the roads are very bad 



4 Of these places, Troy, Schenectady, Utica, and Canandaigua had from two to 
five thousand population each when Flagg passed through them but Rochester, 
Lewiston, and Buffalo were merely small villages. Troy and Schenectady were 
old Dutch settlements ; Utica, located on the site of Fort Schuyler, received its 
first permanent settlement in 1786 ; Canandaigua, the principal town of the Phelps- 
Gorham purchase was laid out in 1789 and soon became the largest town in western 
New York ; Rochester was first settled in 1803 ; Lewiston, on the site of an old 
French trading-post, was laid out by the Holland Company in 1798 ; and Buffalo 
was surveyed by the same company in 1802. Buffalo was burnt by the English in 
1814 and grew but little until after the construction of the Erie canal. Reuben G. 
Thwaites, Early Western Travels, VIII., 42. 158, XIX., 152, XXIV., 186-188, notes. 

5 Erie, the seat of Erie county, was laid out around the old French fort of 
Presqu'isle on the lake shore shortly after the fort was surrendered to the United 
States by the British in 1796. It was a port of entry of considerable importance 
and had a population of about five hundred in 1816. Meadville and Mercer were 
towns of about the same size, the seats of Crawford and Mercer counties respec- 
tively, and New Castle was a village which had grown up on the site of the 
Delaware Indian town of "Old Kuskuskies" at the forks of the Shenango. Thwaites, 
Early Western Travels, I., 26, 101, 249, notes; William Darby, Emigrant's Guide 
(New York, 1818), p. 264. 

Greersburg has disappeared from the modern maps and gazetteers of Pennsyl- 
vania but it is given in the United States census of 1820 as a village in Beaver 
county with a population of 146 and Finley's map of Pennsylvania (1833) locates 
it on a road between New Castle and Georgetown and at or near the present village 
of Darlington. 

6 New Lisbon, the seat of Columbiana county, Ohio, was laid out in 1802 by 
Rev. Lewis Kinney and had a population of about five hundred in 1S16. The first 
settlement on the site of Cadiz was in 1799 but the town was not laid out until 
1803 or 1804. It had a population of about four hundred in 1816. In 1798 a tavern 
and ferry were established at the place where Zane's Trace crossed Will's Creek 
and in 1806 the town of Cambridge was laid out there. It was settled largely by 
emigrants from the island of Guernsey and in 1811 was made the seat of Guernsey 
county, /-hi ^\ ille, located where Zane's Trace crossed the Muskingum, was laid 
nut by Jonathan Zane and John Mclntire in 1799. It was the capital of the state 
from 1810 to 1812 and its population must have exceeded a thousand when Flagg 
passed through in 1816. Lancaster was also on Zane's Trrce, where it crossed the 
F-tor-kliockinu Uivcr. Settlement began there in 1799 and the town was laid out in 
1800 as New Lancaster bu1 the "New" was dropped, officially at least, by act of 
the legislature in 1805. Its population was about six hundred in 1816. In 1812 the 
legislature of < >hio accepted the proposal of four speculators to locate the capital 
of the state on the high banks of the Scioto River opposite to the town of Franklin- 
ton on condition that they erect a state-house and other necessary buildings. The 
proprietors at once laid out the town of Columbus and in 1816 the legislature began 
holding sessions there. The town grew rapidly and is said to have contained three 



143 

although there was never better ground for roads there is no Bridges except 
a few toll ones. I have crossed one Creek 9 times in going 3 miles which in 
high water must be impassable. 

There is no regulations for educating the youth by common Schools. The 
inhabitants are from all parts North & East of Kentucky and are the most 
ignorant people I ever saw. What the New England people call towns and 
villages they call townships & towns. I have asked many people what town- 
ship they lived in & they could not tell. If you enquire for any place if it 
is a town they can sometimes tell if a township you will get no information 
about it from one half of the people. One great difficulty in finding any place 
is the great number of towns and townships of the same name. There is of 
towns and townships 3 by the name of Concord, 6 of Fairfield, 4 of Frank- 
lin, 9 of Green, 9 of Jefferson, 11 of Madison. 7 of Salem, 11 of Union, 7 of 
Washington, 5 of Harrison & 8 of Springfield so that great embaresment is 
attendant on peoples directing letters; there is many more towns beside 
those I have mentioned of the same names. 7 You will be careful therefore in 
sending letters to the State of Ohio to designate the County as well as the 
town; you will direct your letters to "Springfield Champaign County," if 
otherwise I may never get them. In speaking of the ignorance of the people 
in this state you will take notice that I have traveled in that part of the 
state which is inhabited by people from Pennsylvania, Maryland Virginia & 
Kentucky. I am pursuaded the people who came from Connecticut who are 
settled in the north part of the state are more enlightened. 8 

There is one thing that I knew not before I came into this state that is 
that almost one fourth of it the North West corner belongs to the Indian 
and is now in their possession except some tracts about the forts of 6 and 
12 miles square. 9 

I saw Ulnsted [f] Chamberlain and Joshua ChamLerlain his Father & 
family at Lewiston in N Y where they all live. I saw Frederick Day at a 
tavern near Niagara Falls who told me he had a wife & 3 Children & lives 



hundred buildings in 1817 and to have had a population of over two thousand in 
1818. Worthington was a village of about seventy houses situated on the Scioto 
sixteen miles above Columbus. It was settled in 1803 by people from Connecticut 
and Massachusetts. Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, 107-108, 158-162, 168- 
172 203-204, 242, 244, 384-390; Samuel R. Brown, Western Gazetteer, (Auburn, 
New York, 1817), pp. 296-297, 304, 311, 316. 318; Darby, Emigrant's Guide, 227-228; 
Jacob H. Studer, Columbus, Ohio; its History, Resources, and Progress, chap. i. 

7 The western pioneers displayed a surprising lack of originality in their choice 
of place names. A modern gazetteer gives, of towns and townships in Ohio : nine by 
the name of Concord ; eight of Fairfield ; twenty-three of Franklin ; thirteen of 
Green and six of Greene ; twenty-five of Jefferson ; twenty-one of Madison ; nineteen 
of Salem, including one city ; thirty-one of Union ; forty-four of Washington, in- 
cluding one city ; twenty of Harrison ; and eleven of Springfield, including the place 
from which Flagg was writing, now a city of forty thousand inhabitants. The 
difficulty with regard to the directing of mail has been obviated by the postal rule 
which permits but one post-office of a given name in a state. There is an amusing 
chapter on "Names of Places" in James Hall, Letters from the West, 193-214. 

s When Connecticut surrendered her claims to lands in the West in 1786. she 
reserved a tract of about three and a quarter million acres on the shore of Lake 
Eri ■. which became known as New Connecticut or the Western Reserve. Its 

ill mint was begun at Cleveland in 1796 by Connecticut people and most of the 
early settlers were from New England. Connecticut surrendered the jurisdiction 
over it to the United States in 1800 and it was incorporated in Ohio. Howe. 
Historical Collections of Ohio,' 120-123. 559; Andrew C. McLaughlin, The Confeder- 
ation ami the Constitution {American Nation, X.). 11-. 

9 The treaty of Greenville, negotiated by General Wayne in 1795 established the 
first recognized boundary between the Indians and the whites in the Northwest 
Territory. The line started near the site of Cleveland on Lake Brie; ran up the 
Cuyahoga, across the portage to the Tuscarawas, and down that stream to the 
crossing point above Fort Laurens; thence westerly across the state to Loramie's 
Station on -a branch of the Great Miami; thence to Fori Recovery; and from there 
southwardlv across the eastern part of the present state of Indiana to the Ohio 
Uiver opposite the mouth of the Kentucky. The next important cession in Ohio was 
made by the treaty of Fort Industry in 1805 when the Indians gave up all of the 
land east of a line drawn due south from about the middle of Sandusky Bay to 
the Greenville line. By the treaty of Detroit in the following year, the triangle 
of land north of the Maumee and east of a line drawn due north from the mouth 
of the Au Glaize or Bear Creek was ceded. This was the situation when Flagg 
was writing in 1816 but two other treaties in September, 1817 and October, 1818 
extinguished the claims of the Indians to the rest of Ohio, with the exception of a 
few small reservations. Bureau of American Ethnology, Reports, XVIII.. part 
ii, especially maps 49 and 50 ; Frazer E. Wilson, The Peace of Mad Anthony, chap. iv. 



144 

in the vicinity that his Father was dead and his mother and Harry living at 
Seneca Co N Y. Luther Whitney is in the town of Columbus and is going 
to commence keeping tavern in a few days he told me. 

Tell Mary 10 that I traveled in Company with Eleeta | .' | Allen who is Mar- 
ried to Theophilus Randall as far as the town of Murray in Gennessee County 
N Y. n where they expect to live. 

What I had almost forgotten to tell you is that I am in Good health & 
Spirrits and have been since I left Richmond. 1 have not written to our 
folks in Richmond yet But shall as soon as I can write the particulars of the 
Country which I have passed through. But if you have an opportunity write 
to them & tell them that "I am pretty well as common" I have not written 
half what I wish [to] write; & have written some things not worth writing 
But I hope you will Pardon my folly & ignorance & give my love to all your 
family. Your Brother in Friendship &c. 

Gershom Flagg 

[Addressed :] Capt. A. C. Flagg, Plattsburgh, New York. 12 

f Written postmark:] Springfield C C Ohio Novr 15th 1816. 25 13 

[Endorsed:] Missent 

[Stamped postmark :] Pittsop, Dec 5 

II. To Aiitem as Flagg, 14 January 8, 1817. 

Springfield Champaign County Jan. 8th 1817 
Dear Brother, 

I once more attempt to write to you to let you know that I am in good 
health hopeing that these lines will find you and the rest of my friends in 
good health. I wrote to you by mail the 17th Nov. but have not yet received 
any answer from you. If you have not Reed the letter I wish you to write 
to me as soon as you Receive this and I will write to you again. I wrote a 
particular description of the Country and will write it again if you have 
not received that letter. I have heard from Vermont several times since I 
left there by people from Waterbury Bolton Montpelier &c 15 but have not 
heard a word about my friends since I left that place. I am informed by 
people from Vermont and Massachusetts that it is very hard times in Ver- 
mont, that Bread is likely to be very scarcee &c. lc I want to hear from you 
very much I wish you to Write to me as often as you can conveniently and 



10 Mary Ann Flagg, fourth child and oldest daughter of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
Flagg, was horn in Orwell. Vermont, in 1794 and died at Rochelle, Illinois, in 1857. 
Flagg Family Records, 37. 

11 At this time Genesee county embraced a large part of western New York. 
The township of Murray is now in Orleans county about twenty-five miles west of 
Rochester and on the line of the Erie Canal. 

12 Plattsburg is on Lake Champlain about thirty miles from the Canadian line. 
It is famous as the site of one of the important battles of the War of 1812. 

13 These figures were endorsed on letters at the office from which thev were sent. 
to indicate the amount of postage to be collected from the receiver. The rates of 
postage for a single sheet varied from six to twenty-five cents according to distance 
and double rates were charged for a letter of two sheets. (John B. MacMaster. 
History of the People of the United States. V., 533-536.") On most of these letters 
the date of the postmark is several days later than that of the letter itself ; in- 
dicating infreauency of mails or delay in getting the letters to the office. 

14 Artemas Flagg, the oldest son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Flagg. was born at 
Orwell. Vermont, in 1789. In 1799 he removed with his father to Richmond, where 
he lived as a farmer and blacksmith until his death in 1874. He served in the 
Vermont militia in the War of 1812. held various local offices, was a member of 
the legislature in 1836-1837, and was a member of two state conventions for re- 
vising- the constitution. Flagg Family Records, 41. 

'"' Waterbury and Bolton are neighboring towns to Richmond in Washington and 
Chittenden counties respectively. Montpelier. the capital of Vermont, is in Wash- 
ington county. All these places are in the valley of the Winooski or Onion River, 
which runs into Lake Champlain a short distance from Burlington. 

ia The economic depression in New England during 1816 and 1817 is generally 
n scribed to the financial and industrial re-organization necessitated by the termina- 
tion of the War of 1S12 and the Napoleonic wars in Europe. The situation was 
aggravated, however, by an exceptionally cold season in 1816 which brought about 
a crop failure and an approach to famine; conditions. This state of affairs in 
New England was a considerable factor in promoting emigration to the West. 
Macmaster, History of the People of the United States, IV.. chaps, xxi, xxiii ;> 
George Barstmv. History of New Hampshire, 392 ; Arthur C. Boggess, Settlement 
of Illinois, 1778-1830, p. 120. 



145 

write every thing which you think worth writing respecting the situation 
of the Country, the times News &c. for I have a poor chance to know what 
our and other Goverments are about. I see but few News Papers here and 
those not of the first rate. 

The Legislature of this state is now in session at Columbus but their 
proceedings are not very interesting. The emigration to this Country from 
New England and New York still continues. There has several families 
came into this vicinity since I came here and there is in this township a 
dozen young men from Vermont. There is as many people moving from 
York state as from Vermont and more to this state, and people are going 
from here to Indiana and to the Missouri. The whole movement seems to 
be to the Westward and when they get there they go on beyond the West- 
ward. 17 I have seen some families of eight or 9 children on the road some 
with their horses tired others out of Money &c. 18 I believe Many people who 
come to this Country are greatly disappointed. A Man with a family that 
comes from Vermont here has to encounter great difficulties. Although Grain 
is cheap it will take one or two hundred dollars to get here and when he 
gets here his horses are poor and will not sell for more than half what they 
cost in Vermont. If a man goes on to timbered Land he will have to buy 
all his provision for at least one year and there are many things which 
are worth but little in Vermont that cost considerable here. A Plow fit to 
plow the Prairie Ground will cost $20. and Rails laid up into a fence on the 
Prairie cost $2.25 a hundred. Salt is sold at .75 cents or a dollar a bushel 
and fifty pounds are called a bushel although it is not more than half a 
bushel and not more than half as strong as the Rock salt. It is sold at the 
Works for $9.00 a barrel. There [are] other things different from what you 
may have an idea of. 100 pounds is called a hundred weight. They have 
no gross weight in any thing. Corn is always sold in the ear in this state 
which makes it better for those who sell. If you wish to know whether I 
like the Country I must tell you that I do although it is not so good in 
some respects as I expected but in other respectfs] it is better but as I 
shall have a chance to know more about it I shall write hereafter. I am as 
yet at a loss to know whether it is better for a man that has a farm in 
Vermont to sell and come here that is if he has a good farm. I think if I 
had a good farm in Vermont and was there myself I should not come here 
But I would advise every man who wishes to buy a farm especially if he 
has no family to come here although many things are very inconvenient 
here. Mechanics of all kinds have a good chance to make money here as 
Mechanical labour is most intolerable high but a young man to work on a 
farm will not make one cent more than enough to clothe himself as well as 
people dress in Vermont. 19 But this Country is settled in many places by a 
people whose wants are few and easely supplied. But as the Country grows 



" Referring to Chillicothe in 1819, W. Faux wrote: "Many houses and town 
lots are deserted for migration further west. The American has always something 
better in his eye, further west ; he therefore lives and dies on hope, a mere gypsy 
in this particular." Memorable Days, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XI., 179. 

18 All the travelers during this period comment on the stream of emigration 
(lowing to the West and on the appearance and characteristics of the emigrants. 
"Old America seems to be breaking up, and moving westward" said Morris Birk- 
beck. "We are seldom out of sight... of family groups behind and before us." 
Notes on a Journey (London, 1818), p. 31. "During the eighteen months previous 
in April, 1816. fifteen thousand waggons passed over the bridge ;it Cayuga, con- 
taining emigrants to the western country" Kingdom, America, IT. "On Sidelong- 
hill [Pa.] we came up with a singular party of travellers,- — a man with his wife 

and ten children A little farther onward we passed a young woman, carrying 

a sucking child in her arms, and leading a very little one by the hand. It is im- 
possible to take particular notice of all the travellers on the way. We could 
scarcely look before or behind, without seeing some of them. The canterbury 
pilgrims were not so diversified nor so interesting as these." James Flint, Letters 
from America, in Thwaites. Early Western Travels, IX., 72. Similar passages can 
be found in Tilly Buttrick, Voyages, in ibid., VIII., 57 ; John S. Wright, Letters from 
the West or A Caution to Emigrants, 1 ; Benjamin Harding, Tour through the 
Western Country, 5. 

19 Statements of travelers in the West a limit this time, as to wages received by 
mechanics, vary from one to two and ;> half dollars; ordinary laborers, seventy-five 
cents to two dollars. Thwaites, Early Western Travels, consult index. 

—10 H S 



146 

older I expect that Clothing will grow cheaper and also many other things. 
The weather is warm and pelasant now and has been since I wrote you. We 
have had no snow. [It] freezes in the night and thaws in the day time. I 
[am] with Mr Butler and shall stay here til the f [irs 1 1 | ?] June 1 guess. 

Your friend 

G Flagg 
[Addressed:] Mr. Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. Entrusted to the 
Politeness of Mr. Hatch. 
[Written postmark:] 10 

III. To Artemas Flagg, June 1, 1817. 

Harmony Champaign Co. Ohio 20 June 1st 1817. 
Dear Brother, 

In my letter of the 18th inst. [sic] in answer to yours of the 11 April I 
promised to give you some account of this Country. I shall in this letter 
confine myself to the State of Ohio. I passed through the S. E. part of the 
State to Zanesville which lies on the Muskingum River from thence through 
Columbus to this place, from where I crossed the Pennsylvania line to 
Zanesville the Country is very uneven. We found some of the worst hills 
to travel up and down that I have ever seen where there was a Road. This 
part of the State abounds with large mines of Coal near or quite at the 
surface of the Earth. The soil is good for english grain being a red Clay 
but not so good for Grass or Corn. Generally speaking from the Muskingum 
to the Scioto River the land is more level the Soil more Rich the timber 
more Maple and beach which before we came to the Muskingum was mostly 
Oak and Walnut. Upon the intervales or Bottom as it is called in this 
country the land is immensely Rich caused by the annual inundations which 
are common to this Western Country. 

This township (What we call toions the people here call townships and 
Our Tillages are called towns) lies upon the head Waters of the little Miami 
River 70 miles from Cincinnati 50 or 60 from Chillocotha 21 15 from Urbanna 22 
40 from Columbus 30 from Dayton 23 and 40 miles from the Indian Boundary. 
More than one fifth of the N. W. Corner of this state is still in possession 
of the Indians. The Land except what belongs to the Indians is mostly 
settled that is the best of it. There is a plenty of Land for sale here. There 
is as many wishing to sell here and go further West as in Vermont but land 
is very high improved land is from 4 to 25 dollars an acre. 

In C[hampaign] Cfounty] the land is very level though sufficiently rolling 
to permit the Water to run of freely. It lies in small ridges the tops of 



20 Harmony is a township in what is now Clark county. Ohio. It is said to have 
been settled mainly by people from New England or England. Howe, Historical 
Collections of Ohio, 84. 

- 1 Chillicothe, located in the Virginia Military District on the west bank of the 
Scioto and sixty-six miles from its mouth, was laid out in 1796 by General Nathaniel 
Massie and General Duncan McArthur. The first settlement was by a Presbyterian 
congregation from Kentucky under the leadership of Rev. Robert W. Finley and 
must of the early settlers were southerners. The convention which framed the first 
constitution of the state met in Chillicothe in 1802 and it was the temporary capital 
of the state from 1802 to 1810 and from 1812 to 1816. In 1817 it contained three 
or four thousand inhabitants. Caleb Atwater, History of Ohio (edition of 1838), 
p. 339 ; Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, 433-443. Contemporary descriptions 
in Brown, Western Gazetteer, 302; Darby. Emigrant's Guide. 227; Flint. Letters 
from America, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, IX., 118; Faux, Memorable 
I 'a us. in ibid., XI., 179. 

22 Urbana, the county-seat of Champaign county, Ohio, was laid out in 1805 by 
Colonel William Ward from Greenbriar, Virginia. The town contained about one 
hundred houses in 1817. Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, SI ; Brown. Western 
Gazetteer, 295. 

23 Dayton is located on the Great Miami at the mouth of Mad River. Hans were 
made for a settlement on the site as early as 1788 but nothing was attempted until 
after the treaty of Greenville. In 1796 a company compos< I of General Jonathan Day- 
ton, General A.rthur St. Clair, General James Wilkinson, and Colonel Israel Ludlow 
bought the land from John Cleves Symmes and laid out the town. The title proved 
to be defective and the population melted away but in 1S03 the place was chosen as 
the seat of Montgomery county and after the War of 1S12 it began to grow. In 
1817 it contained about 125 houses. Atwater, History of Ohio. 343; Howe, 
Historical Collections of Ohio, 369-371; Brown, Western Gazetteer, 290; Darby, 
Emigrant's Guide, 226. 



147 

• 

Which are thinly covered with Black White and Burr Oak Hickory and 
Walnut. The lower ground is Prairie covered with Grass, Shrubs plumb 
bushes Crab apples thorns different kinds of Lignious plants with a great 
variety of beautiful flowers. Some of these Prairies are large and level 
which look like a large body of Water in comparison of levelness. The soil 
of the land is Red Clay »and black mould some poor land and some good. 
Corn grows best upon the black soil and english grain best upon the higher 
dryer and more Clayie soil. The soil produces Corn Wheat and most kinds 
of Veg[et]able &c as well as any Country excep[t] Peas which are said to be 
buggy, so there is none raised here. Corn grows from 10 to 15 feet high one 
Ear on a stalk. The ears grow very high. -I have seen ears so high that I 
could not hang my hat upon them when standing upon the ground. Hogs 
will not waste the Corn when turned into it. It troubles them so much to 
tear down the Corn that they will not tear down more than they wish to eat 
up clean. After Corn is planted there is no more done to it except to plow 
among it and cut up the Weeds. They hill it up not at all. 2 men plant 
10 acres a day. Corn is always sold in the ear in th[i]s state. The ground 
has to be clea[red of] the Cornstock in the Spring before it can be 
p[loughed] by cutting them down and drawing them togethefr] with a 
horse Rake. They are then burnt. 

The good thingfs] in this Country are Plenty of Grain which makes large 
fat horses and Cattle Rich Land ready cleared, some Whiskey plenty of feed 
for Cattle, Plumbs, Peaches, Mellons, Deer, Wild turkies, Ducks, Rabits, 
quails, &c &c &c, little more Corn. The bad things are, Want of Stone, 
Want of timber for building, Bad Water, which will not Wash, overflowing 
of all the streams which makes it very bad building Bridges especially 
where the materials are scarce as they are here, Bad Roads, ignorant people, 
Sick Milk, 24 Sick Wheat, a plenty of Ague near the large streams Bad situa- 
tion as to trade. The price of dry goods I think is about 50 or 62% per cent 
dearer here [than] with you. Hardware Groceries and all kinds of heavy 
Articles are about 100 per cent dearer Rum & Brandy 4 dollars a gallon Iron 
14 dollars per 100 pounds there is no grose weight here. I suspect it is 
different from this upon the Ohio River the prices are current at this place. 
Swarms of Locusts have lately made their appearance. 

I shall stay here two months longer than I told you in my last and wish 
you to write to me inmediately after receiving this letter and let your letter 
be a little more replenished with Political, and religious inteligence. You 
say Roxana Bishop is married — to Whom? You will remember in reading 
this letter that there is no giving a description of this country which will 
Lbe] satisfactory to yourself. Look & see for you[r] self. 

G Flagg 

[Addressed:] Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. To be left at the past 
office Burlington (Vt.) 23 

[Written postmark:] Springfield Oo June the 6th. 25 " 

IV. To Aetemas Flagg, June, 1817. 

Harmony [MS. torn] 
Dear Brother, 

I send you an extract from the Laws of the U. S. respecting the sale of 
Publick Lands, 26 Viz. 

At the time of application for a quarter section of 160 acres, $16 must be 
paid, which holds it for 40 days: at the end of 40 days $64 more must be 



24 "The milk sickness is a disease of a singular character, which prevails in cer- 
tain places. It first affects animals, especially cows, and from them is com- 
municated to the human system by eating the milk, or the flesh... The prevailing 
idea is, that it is caused by some poisonous substanc ■ eaten l>y tli ■ cattle, but 
whether vegetable or mineral, remains undetermined." John M. Peck, New Guide 
for Emigrants, (Boston, 1836). pp. 86-87. See also [Robert Baird] View of the 
Valhy of the Mississippi. (Philadelphia, II S. Tanner, 1834), p. 86; John Moses, 
Illinois, Historical and Statistical., I., 228. 

-•"' Burlington, the metropolis of Vermont, is located in Chittenden county on Lake 
Champlain. The distance from there to Richmond is about ten miles. 

20 The system of public land sales here outlined is that inaugurated by the act 
of Congress of May 10, 1800, with some modifications by later acts, the most im- 
portant of which was the act of March 26, 1804 permitting the sale of quarter- 
section tracts. The first radical change in the system was made by the act of 



148 

paid, or another person may purchase the same tract. But if no person 
applies for it at the end of 40 days, or between that and 90 days, the first 
$16 holds it for 90 days. Within 90 days the first instalment 80 dollars must 
be paid or it reverts -to the United States: $80 second instalment must be 
paid in two years: $80 third instalment must be paid in three years; and 
$80 fourth instalment must be paid in 4 years irom the day of application; 
without interest if the payments are punctually made, if not draw 6 per cent 
interest from the date of the purchase. ' At the end of 5 years if the money 
is not completely paid the land is advertised and offered at publick sale and 
if the amount due thereon is not bidden and paid the land reverts to the 
U. S. and the first purchaser loses what he has paid on it. Whatever the 
land sells for more than enough to satisfy the claims of the U. S. is paid 
over to the first purchaser. A discount of 8 per cent is allowed on the 2d, 
3d, & 4th installments if paid down which will bring the cost of 160 acres to 
$262.40 which is $1.64 per acre. If the payments are let run on interest to 
the end of 5 years 160. acres amounts to $392. which is $2.45 per acre. 

It is to be understood, however, that when a district is first offered for 
sale it is offered to the highest bider Notice of which sale is given by a 
Proclamation by the President of the U. S. All that does not sell for over 
two dollars an acre is offered for sale at the Land office at 2 dollars an acre 
as above stated. I send you this information that you may no [sic] upon 
what conditions land can be obtained in this country for the laws are the 
same respecting all the lands belonging to the U. S. I tho't probable you 
might not have seen these Laws. There is not much Congress Land'- 7 for 
sale in this State. There is about a Million and a half of Acres in the Dis- 
trict of Cincinnati but ther[e] is a plenty in the Indiana, Illinois and Mis- 
souri, condition as above. 

You [ask the price at which] land first sold for here and the price at 
[which it now] sells. 28 There is some profit in buying new land in this 
Country but this is not all. There is much to .be made in raising cattle 
in this country. The cattle are now fat fit for Beef. 4 or 5 hundred head 
lately left this county for Green Bay which lies upon the West side of Lake 
Michigan. 29 There is most excellent feed for cattle here I have seen a hun- 
dred head together and some men in this country own 4 or 5 hundred head 
and as good cattle as every you see. Some Milk 30 or 40 cows these are 
New england people. The country people never make any Cheese which 
makes cheese in this country the same price of Butter. One thing in which 
I was very much disappointed ought not to be forgotten that is Hogs in this 
Country are the meanest that I have ever seen. When I first came here I 
tho't by the looks of the hogs that I had got to the place where roasted pigs 
run about the lots for they are crumped up and are Brown sandy colour — 
it is true Pork in this country costs nothing and the way it is raised it is 
good for nothing. I do not believe you ever see half so mean hogs as we 
have here. 



April 24, 1S20, which reduced the minimum price to $1.25, allowed the sale of 
half-quarter sections, and provided that all sales must be for cash. This made 
it possible for a settler with one hundred dollars to secure complete title to an 
eighty acre farm. Payson J. Treat, The National Land System, 94-142. 

27 The term "Congress land" was used to distinguish land which was for sale 
as above, directly by the United States government through its lam" offices, from 
various other classes of land which were disposed of in different ways. There was 
in Ohio at this time, for example, besides Congress land: United States military 
lands; Virginia military lands; the Western Reserve; the Fire lands; school, col- 
lege, and university lands; the Ohio Company's purchase; Symmes' purchase; and 
several other grants, purchases, and donations. Howe, Historical Collections of 
Ohio, 558-562. There is a map portraying the land situation in Ohio at this time 
in Treat, The National Land System, 185. 

- s Th ■ manuscript is torn here and the reading within the brackets is conjectural. 

29 A fort was erected by the French at Green Bay as early as 1721 and a settle- 
ment grew up in the vicinity. English troops took possession of the fort in 1761 
but it was not until after the close of the War of 1812 that the United States made 
a determined effort to exercise its authority over the posts on the upper lakes. 
In 1815 a government factor was sent there to open a trading-post and the follow- 
ing year Fori Howard was built on the site of the old French fort. William L. 
Evans, Military Hisrtory of Green Bay, in Wisconsin Historical Society, Proceedings, 
1899, pp. 128-186. 



149 

I wrote to you the 17 or 18 Dec last the 10 Jan. the 18 May in answer to 
yours of the 11 April also 1st June. I have been censured, by those in whose 
presence I read my letter of the first June, of representing things in a worse 
light than I ought particularly in my mentioning Sick Wheat and Milk which 
they say never ought to hender any person from comeing to this country. I 
think so myself. I did not mention this or any thing else to hender or dis- 
courage any one from coming here but to make you cautious where you 
bought land in case you did come. I have not seen any sick Milk or sick 
Wheat but I [have] conversed [with several different] gentlemen who tell 
[me] that s[ick wheat is found in some] 30 places & more particular upon the 
river Bottoms or intervale. The wheat can be told from other wheat it being 
of a redish cast. Sick Milk is said to be caused by the cows eating a partic- 
ular herb or plant but it is not ascertained what this herb is it however 
grows only in timbered Land. 

The climate of this country is not so mild as has been represented. People 
who have lived in this country however for several years say that this coun- 
try has grown worse as much as Vermont has. We had three Weeks good 
sleding last winter. The ground was Frozen from the 10th Jan. to the 10 
March. Before and after that time we had cold nights which froze consider- 
able and warm days which thawed the ground again. This is not a comfort- 
able place in the Winter it is not very cold but Rain & Mud and high Creeks 
in the fall and spring make it worse than it is in the middle of Winter. The 
time for Pla[n]ting corn here is the month of May if it [is] planted earlyer 
it is croped by the May frost generally. We had a severe frost the 20 & 21 
of May last but it did no injury in this county. If Corn is planted in June 
it will not get ripe generally. There has been frost here every month the 
year past. But I fear I shal weary your patience, perhaps you will find 
some information in a letter from James Butler Esq to Samuel Martin of 
Richmond dated June 4. 

Write to me at Springfield C. C. If I should leave this place before a 
letter arives it will be sent on to me by James Butler Esqr. with whom I 
shall have communication. Give my respects to all my acquaintance. My 
parents and Brothers & Sisters will any or either of them oblige me by 
writing to me. I have heard nothing as yet from Our Uncle G Flaggs 
family. 31 I remain your 

affectionate Brother 

Gershom Flagg 

[On reverse:] I wish the News Papers & other papers which I left may 
be preserved. 

[Addressed:] Mr. Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. To be left at the 
Post-office in Burlington, state of Vermont. 

[Written postmark:] Lebanon O, 32 June 16. 25 

V. To Azabiah C. Flagg, August 3, 1817. 

Cincinnati August 3d 1817 
Dear Brother, 

I reed your letter of the 6th January on the 8th March but have delayed 
writing to you (not having any thing in particular to communicate), till the 
present time. I wrote two letters to Artemas the one in Dec. last and the 



30 Conjectural reading 1 . 

31 Gershom Flagg, uncle of the writer of these letters, was born in Lancaster, 
Massachusetts, in 1758; served in the Continental Army during the Revolution: 
and was married in 1778 to Editha Hitchcock of Springfield. In 1789 he removed 
with his family to Marietta, Ohio, where settlement had just been begun by the 
Ohio Company. He served in the Indian wars of 1791 and 1792 and died as a result 
of exposure in the latter year. His family remained in Marietta and vicinity, the 
widow surviving him until 1S19. Flagg Family Records, 96-97. See Letter XIV., 
below. 

32 Lebanon, the seat of Warren county, is located thirty miles northeast of 
Cincinnati. Settlement was begun there in 1796 and the town was laid out in 1802 
or 1803. Miami University was located there in 1S09. Howe, Historical Collec- 
tion's of Ohio, 500; Brown, Western Gazetteer, 291. 

Flagg may have mailed this letter there when on his way to Cincinnati, but, if 
so, he probably spent a week or tv/o in the neighborhood for he wrote in the next 
letter that he arrived at Cincinnati the first of July. 



150 

other in Jan. On the 13th May I reed a letter from him informing me that he 
had not reed any letter from me. I cannot account for their miscarriage. I Reed 
your Papers very regular during the winter. I have wrote several letters to 
Artemas since I reed his of the 11th April. I came to this place the 1st of 
last month. 33 Cincinnati is an incorporated City. It is situated on the bank 
of the Ohio river opposite the mouth of Licking river which has Newport 
on the East and Covington on the West side of the river both towns being in 
plain sight of Cincinnati. 34 The River Ohio is here about half a mile in 
width. Cincinnati is 23 miles from the Mouth of the Great Miami river. It 
contained in 1815, 1,100 buildings of different descriptions among which are 
above 20 of Stone 250 of brick & 800 -of Wood. The population in 1815 was 
6,500. There are about 60 Mercantile stores several of which are wholesale. 
Here are a great share of Mechanics of all kinds. Among the Publick build- 
ings are three Brick Meeting houses one of Wood a large Lancasterian school 
house built of Brick. Within two weeks after opening the school it is said 
that upwards of 400 schollars were admited. The .building is calculated to 
accommodate 1000. 3= There is an Elegant Brick Court House now building 
and almost finished. There are two large and elegant Market Houses built 
of Brick one of which is 300 feet in length. 

Here is one Woolen Factory four Cotton factories but not now in operation. 
A most stupendously large building of Stone is likewise erected immediately 
on the bank of the River for a steam Mill. It is nine stories high at the 
Waters edge & is 87 by 62 feet. It drives four pair of Stones besides various 
other Machinery as Wool carding &c &c. There is also a valuabl Steam 
Saw Mill driving four saws also an inclined Wheel ox Saw Mill with two 



33 In 1787 Judge John Cleves Symmes purchased from Congress an extensive 
tract of land between the two Miamis and the following year he sold the land upon 
which Cincinnati is located to Matthias Denman, who associated with himself as 
partners Robert Patterson and John Filson. The proprietors, with a number of 
settlers, arrived on the site in the fall of 1788 and plans were made for laying 
out a town to be called Losantville (L-os-anti-ville. i. e. the city opposite th^ 
mouth of the Licking.) The killing of Filson by the Indians appears to have 
interfered with the plans and the town was not laid out until a year or two later, 
when it was named Cincinnati in honor of the military society of that name. Fort 
Washington was built there by Major Doughty in 1789 and in 1790 Governor St. 
Clair visited the place and established Hamilton county. The fort served as the 
starting-point for the disastrous expeditions of Harmar and St. Clair against the 
Indians in 1790 and 1791 and was occupied by troops until 1804 when the garrison 
was moved across the Ohio to Newport barracks. Cincinnati was the seat of 
government of the Northwest Territory from 1800 to 1802 and soon began to grow 
rapidly. By 1817 it had a population of about eight thousand. Jacob Burnet, 
Notes on the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, 44-49 ; Howe, Historical 
Collections of Ohio, 205-215 ; Charles Cist, Cincinnati in l&U, its early annals and 
future prospects, 14-29. 

Contemporary descriptions of Cincinnati can be found in Daniel Drake, Natural 
and Statistical View or Picture of Cincinnati and the Miami Country (Cincinnati, 
1815) ; Timothy Flint, Recollections of the last ten years in the valley of tha 
Mississippi, 37-54; Henry B. Fearon, Sketches of America, (3d ed.) 223-234; 
Birkbeck, Notes on a Journey in America (3d ed.) 80-87; Elias P. Fordham, Per- 
sonal Narrative, 183-192 ; Brown, Western Gazetteer, 276-283 ; Darby, Emigrant's 
Guide, 226 ; James Flint, Letters from America, in Thwaites, Early Western 
Travels, IX., 150-156, 237-242 ; John Woods, Two Years' Residence, in ibid., X., 
235-238. 

34 Newport was laid out in 1791 by General James Taylor and in 1803 the 
United States arsenal was located there. The settlement across the Licking was 
known as Kennedy's Ferry until 1815 when the legislature named it Covington in 
honor of General Covington. Its proprietors were Gano and Carneal. The popula- 
tion of the two places combined was probably not more than five hundred in 1817. 
Brown, Western Gazetteer, 100-102 ; Darby, Emigrant's Guide, 202. 

35 The principal feature of the Lancastrian system of education, founded by 
Joseph Lancaster of England, was a method of mutual instruction whereby the 
more advanced pupils taught those below them. The first schools on this plan in 
the West were probably those at Wheeling and Cincinnati, both established in 
1814. The Lancastrian school of Cincinnati was founded by Rev. Joshua L. Wilson 
and Dr. Daniel Drake and the building, located at the corner of Walnut and Fourth 
streets, was considered one of the finest in the West at the time. The school was 
afterwards merged in the College of Cincinnati, which became Cincinnati University. 
Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XL, 58, XII., 204, XIV., 66, XIX., 36, notes. 
Fearon gives an interesting account of the building and of the operation of the 
school in 1817 in his Sketches of America. (3d ed. ) 227-228. Other contemporary 
accounts are in Brown, Western Gazetteer, 278 ; Darby, Emigrant's Guide, 225- 
226 ; George W. Ogden, Letters from the West, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, 
XIX., 35-36. 



151 

saws, one Glass Factory. 30 The town is Rapidly increasing in Wealth & 
population. Here is a Branch of the United States Bank 3T and three other 
banks & two Printing offices. The country around is rich & I think I never 
saw as fine crops of Wheat in any other place as between the great & little 
miami's. We have a planty of good ripe apples pairs [sic] plumbs &c with 
all kinds of Vegetables in Market. Corn is fit to Roast. The weathefr] is 
not warmer here than I have experienced in Vermont but I do not think this 
is a healthy place the Water is very unwholesome. I shall leave this place 
in a few days and go down the River. I calculate to go directly to St. Louis 
in the Territory of Missouri at which place I wish you would direct your 
letter. I desire that you would write to me as soon as you receive this. The 
reason why I have determined on going to St. Louis is because the Land 
upon the Wabash that belongs to the U. S. is mostly taken up. The greatest 
part of the State of Indiana is owned by the Indians. 38 I intend to go on to 
the Military Bounty Lands. 39 I think probable there may be some of these 
Lands to be bought cheap in New England & New York. I wish you would 
write if you know of any to be bought and what they can be bought for. I 
am told that these Lands are to be laid out in as good a part of the country 
as any in the U. S. but of this I shall know better when I see it. Land is 
much higher in this country than I expected and I think if you have plenty 
of Money you could not perhaps lay it out to better advantage than buying 
the Patents of those who wish to sell their lands. I have no doubt there 
are many who will never think of coming to look of [sic] their land because 



36 Detailed statistics of manufacturing- in Cincinnati, copied from the Cincinnati 
Directory of 1819, are in Flint. Letters from America, in Thwaites, Early Western 
Travels, IX., 238-240. There are also descriptions of the various factories in Brown, 
Western Gazetteer, 278-279. 

37 In spite of the strong opposition to the United States bank in Ohio, a branch 
was opened at Cincinnati in the spring of 1817. At the next session of the legis- 
lature a resolution was adopted declaring the right of the state to tax the branch 
and the expediency of doing so. In the face of this hostile demonstration the bank 
opened another branch at Chillicothe in the spring of 1818 and finally in February. 
1819, an act was passed levying an admittedly prohibitive tax of fifty thousand 
dollars a year on each branch. The state auditor was directed to draw a warrant 
for the amount and enforce payment. A few weeks after the act was passed the 
Supreme Court of the United States rendered its decision in the famous case of 
McCulloch v. Maryland, to the effect that the bank was not subject to state taxa- 
tion. The Ohio law was mandatory, however, and the auditor proceeded to enforce 
it. The bank having refused to pay the tax. agents of the state seized the funds 
of the branch at Chillicothe and turned them over to the state treasurer in spite 
of writs of iniunction issued by the United States courts. A legal tangle ensued 
and at the session of 1820-1821 the legislature took a strong stand for state rights 
and passed an act to outlaw the bank. When the case reached the Supreme Court 
in 1824 as Osborn et al. v. the Bank of the United States it was decided in favor 
of the bank and the funds seized were ultimately restored. Herman V. Ames, 
State Documents on Federal Relations, 93-103 ; Macmaster, History of the People 
of the United States. IV., 499-504, V., 413. 

88 By 1810 the Indian claims were extinguished to the southern part of Indiana, 
comprising about one-third of the area of the state. The next cession was in 1816 
when the Miamis gave up the triangle between the Maumee and the St. Marys 
rivers and this was the situation when Flagg was 'writing in August, is 17. In 
October of the following year, however, another treaty with the Miamis secured all 
of the territory south of the Wabash except one large and a number of small re- 
servations. Bureau of American Ethnology, Reports, XVIII., part ii., map 19 ; 
William H. Smith. History of the state of Indiana. I.. 221-239. 

39 Land warrants for 160 acres were given as bounties to private soldiers who 
enlisted during the War of 1812 and after the close of the war certain tracts of 
the public domain were set aside for the satisfaction of these warrants. The largest 
of these tracts was in Illinois and included all the land between the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers and south of a line drawn due west from the confluence of the 
Illinois and Vermilion to the Mississippi — over five million acres. The Military 
Tract, as it was called, was surveyed and the lands assigned by lot to the holders 
of the warrants. The warrants themselves could not be transferred, but the land 
could, after it was assigned, and much of it was sold to speculators at very low 
prices. There was little settlement in the tract until 1823 when a rush began and 
in 1825 ten counties were laid out north and west of the Illinois River, in addition 
to Pike and Fulton which had been established in 1821 and 1823 respectively. 
Treat, The National Land System. 246-255 : Nicholas B. Van Zandt. .1 full Descrip- 
tion of the Military Lands between the Mississippi and the Illinois Rivers; 

Edmund Dana, A Description of the Bounty Lands in the State of Illinois; Flint. 
Letters from America, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, IX., 187 ; Moses, 
Illinois, 385-386; Bluebook, Illinois, 1905, pp. 410-117; William V. Pooley, The 
Settlement of Illinois from 1830 to 1850, chap. vi. 



152 

they think it is almost out of the world but I am certain the country of the 
Illinois & Missouri is well situated and will shortly become a Rich country 
when it is settled and it is now settling very fast. 

If you know of any to be bought in your vicinity I wish you would write 
to me what a quarter Section can be bought for not however that I would 
reccommend it to you to buy any until I have seen the Land unless you get 
it very cheap. I am Well at present and have been except 3 or 4 days ever 
since I left Vermont. I feel myself under the greatest obligation to you for 
the many favors you have been pleased to bestow upon me and for your 
offering to forward to me money if I should be in want thereof &c. I have 
a plenty at present for me. I wish you to write to me often and tel Mary to 
write for it is a great satisfaction to me to hear from my friends. That you 
may all be prospered in the world is the anxious wish of your affectionate 
Brother 

Gershom Flagg 
A C Flagg Plattsbuegh N Y. 

[Addressed:] Azariah C. Flagg, Plattsburgh, New York. 

[Stamped postmark:'] Cincinnati (O), Aug 6. 50 

VI. To Azakiah C. Flagg, December 7, 1817. 

St. Louis Dec. 7th 1817 
Dear Brother, 

your letter of the 14 sept. I Reed at this place the 18 ultimo, the day I 
arrived at this place having been detained at Cincinnati until the 19 oct. 
longer than I intended to collect money which was due me at that place. 
I took water at Cincinnati in a small flat boat with a Roof to it. "We floated 
to the mouth of the Ohio then put our trunks on board a keel boat bound to 
this place & walked 174 miles the distance from the mouth of the Ohio to 
this place. 40 From Cincinnati to the mouth is 600 miles making a journey 
of 774 miles. 

This town 41 is in Lat. 38° 39' situated on a high bank on the west of the 
Missisipi fifteen miles below the mouth of the Missouri & 40 miles below 
the mouth of the Illinois River. The shore is lined with lime Stones and 
many of the houses are built of this material. The country for several miles 
back of St Louis is Prairie handsome & dry & uncultivated. The town con- 



40 Flat boats with roofs were sometimes called arks or Orleans boats. Thadeus 
M. Harris in his Journal of a Tour (1803) describes them as "square, and flat- 
bottomed ; about forty feet by fifteen, with sides six feet deep ; covered with a 
roof of thin boards, and accomodated with a fire-place. They will hold from 200 
to 500 barrels of flour. They require but four hands to navigate them ; carry no 
sail, and are wafted down by the current." (Thwaites, Early Western Travels, 
III., 335.) They were put together largely with wooden pins instead of nails and 
on arrival at their destination, were broken up and the lumber sold. Fordham, 
Personal Narrative. 79 ; Estwick Evans, Pedestrious Tour, in Thwaites Early 
Western Travels, VIII., 257. 

Evans describes the keel-boats as "constructed like a whale boat, sharp at both 
ends ; their length is about seventy feet, breadth ten feet, and they are rowed 
by two oars at each end. These boats will carry about twenty tons, and are worth 
two hundred dollars. At the stern of the boat is a steering oar, which moves like 
a pivot, and extends about twelve feet from the stern. These boats move down 

the river with great velocity In going up the river these boats are poled. 

Th° poles are about eight feet in length, and the bottom of them enters a socket 
of iron, which causes the point of the pole to sink immediately. This business is 
very laborious, and the progress of the boats slow." (Ibid.. 245.)- The different 
varieties of river craft are described in Archer B. Hulbert, Waterivays of Western 
Expansion (Historic Highioays, IX.), 100-150. 

41 St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede' Liguest in 1764 as a post for the 
fur-trade on the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The transfer of the 
Illinois country to Great Britain in the following year resulted in a considerable 
migration from the French villages there to the new post across the river, a, 
movement which was renewed during the troublous times from 1778 to 1790. In 
March, 1804, St. Louis was transferred to the United States and soon began to 
grow rapidly. The town was incorporated in 1S09 and by 1818 it had a population 
of over three thousand. Louis Houck, History of Missouri; J. Thomas Scharf, 
History of Saint Louis. Contemporary descriptions can be found in Edwin James, 
Expedition under Mai. S. H. Long, in Thwaites. Early Western Travels, XIV., 
108-109 ; Rufus Babcock, Memoir of John Mason Peck. chap. vii. (Peck arrived 
in St. Louis December 1. 1817, .iust thirteen days after Flagg's arrival) : Brown, 
Western Gazetteer. 204 ; Darby. Emigrant's Guide. 143 ; Lewis C. Beck, A Gazetteer 
of the States of Illinois and Missouri, 324-331. 



153 

tains about 300* inhabitants one half French the other Americans. It has 
been settled a long time but did not thrive until lately it is now flourishing 
about one hundred houses have been built the past season, several of Brick. 
Here are two printing offices & two Banks a steam saw mill is building on 
the bank of the River. The country around is settling very fast & I think 
this will become a place of great business although it now does not exhibit 
a very handsome appearance the streets being narrow and the houses inele 
gant. It contains however about 30 Stores. Every thing sells high. Wheat 
$1.00 per bushel Corn fifty cents & oats the same & Potatoes do Beef from 
i to 6 dollar per hundred Pork do. Board from $3.50 to $6.00 per week 
horse keeping $4 per week. Labour is 20 dollars per month or one doll per 
day & boarded. Brick ten dollars a thousand & boards sell quick at the 
enormous sum of from GO to 75 dollars per thousand feet house rent from 
10 to 30 dollars a month town lots sell from 500 to 3000 dollars. 

I should have answered your letter before if I had had an opportunity 
but the mail did not arive for three weeks past until the 28 Nov, at which 
time I was absent in the Illinois Territory. The mail is very Irregular 
the country below here being often overflowed. At the same time I reed 
your letter I reed one from Ar + emas of the same date of yours. I also reed 
one from my Mother on the 4 inst. dated oct 8 which stated that Artemas 
was married &c. It gives me pleasure to hear of your prosperity & I am 
much pleased with the addition you have made to your Library, I think if 
I could have an opportunity to peruse your Library it would be time well 
spent but at present I have no opportunities of gaining much knowledge of 
the Sciences except Geography. I am pleased with this Country it is the 
Richest soil and most handsomely situated of any I have ever seen. I have 
not seen the Military bounty Lands nor can I get business of surveying at 
present. The surveyor Genl. informs me that 3% Million of acres have 
been surveyed N. W. of the Illinois River & that y 2 Million is to be sur- 
veyed N. [MS. torn] of the Missouri River & 2 Millions between [the] Rivers 
Arkansas & St Francis. If [you sh]ould purchase any Patents let them 
[be] in the Illinois Territory for the Missouri is not so good. I know the 
Laws respecting the Military Bounty lands & you will recollect that when I 
wrote you on the subject the Pattents were not & could not be issued & I 
did not suppose the Land would be drawn so soon as was advertised the 
25 sept, which was the reason I wished you to wait until I had seen the 
Land For I tho't there was not a good chance to purchase before the Patents 
were issued. I am told by the Surveyors that the Land is Rich handsome & 
well watered but poorly timbered. I am not anxious about your purchasing 
any for I do not expect it will be settled soon & if it does not the land 
will not be so valuable as it otherwise would be. 

I am told that one half of the Lands are Prairie and the other timbered. 
The timbered Land will be very valuable and the Prairie the reverse so that 
it is like a Lottery you have about an equal chance to draw a great prize & 
it must be some prize because the Land is to be fit for cultivation. Some say 
that the Prairie that has no timber upon it will be returned unfit for culti- 
vation to the General Land Office But I think this will not be the case. 42 
If you should purchase any you will be good enough to let me know the No 
&c as soon as convenient. 



* Flagg undoubtedly intended to write 3000. 

42 This low opinion of the value of prairie land was almost universal among the 
early pioneers. They were inclined to believe that land upon which trees did not 
grow could be of little value for agricultural purposes. Thus in 1786 James 
Monroe, afterwards president of the United States, wrote of the Northwest: "A 
great part of the territory is miserably poor, especially that near Lakes Michigan 
ami Erie, and that upon the Mississippi and the Illinois consists of extensive plains 
which have not, from appearances, and will not have, a single bush on them for 
ages. The districts, therefore, within which these fall will never contain a suffi- 
cient number of inhabitants to entitle them to membership in the confederacy." 
There were, however, certain real obstacles to the occupation of the prairies by the 
early settlers, most important of which were : lack of water ; lack of wood for 
buildings, fences, and fuel ; and difficulties of transportation. It was not until 
after the coming of the railroads and the opening up of the great coal-beds in 



154 

I have Located 264 acres of Land in the Illinois Territory 26 miles from 
Hi is place & about ten from the Mouth of the Missouri River about half of 
it is Rich dry Prairie & the Remainder timbered with Oak Hickory Elm 
Walnut &c. I shall stay in St. Louis this winter & how much longer 1 
know not. I am in good health & Remain your affectionat[e] BrothefrJ 
My Love to my Sister &c. 

Gebshom Flagg 
A. C. Flagg 

[Addressed:] A. C. Flagg, Plattsburgh, New York. 

[Stamped postmark:] St. Louis D [illegible] 25 

VII. To Dr. ami Mrs. Ebenezer Flagg, 43 February 1, 1818. 

St Louis (Mri. Ter.) 1st Feb. 1818 
Respected Parents, 

I have received too much of your kindness to suppose you are indifferent 
as to my welfare. I have the pleasure to inform you that I am in perfect 
health & have enjoyed my health since I left you most of the time. I was 
sick a few days in Cincinnati & again going down the Ohio River But 1 
enjoy my health better now, than when I left Vermont. I left Vermoni 
you will recollect the 23d sept. 1816 — arrived at Springfield C. C. (O) the 
8 of Nov. & as Mr Coleman would not proceede any farther I concluded it 
would be better not to proceede alone as the season was so far advanced & 
money not so flush with me as I could have wished. I intended to have 
proceeded on my Journey in April or may but I could get no one to accom- 
pany me & people who had been in this country told me that I ought not 
to come into it in the Spring if I did they said I should be likely to get Sick. 
Upon these considerations I agreed to stay in Cincinnati until the last of 
Sept at which time a young man, formerly from Montpelier Vermont, agreed 
to go with me. But by seme disappointments we did not get off until the 
19th of Oct. We bought a flat boat with a covering to it and floated down 
the River after laying in a sufficient quantity of Provisions. We had a 
very good pasage But got tossed about some at the falls of the Ohio opposite 
Louisville about which large boats & Steam Boats cannot pass except in the 
Spring or fall when the waters rise 30 or 40 feet. 44 It is a very dismal look- 
ing place after we pass the mouth of the wabash the banks of the River 
being generally unsettled & covered with willows, cane breaks, & Prodigious 
large Cotton wo[o]d, a species of the Poplar. The water overflows for 
several weeks at the junction of the Ohio & Mississippi Rivers the depth of 
15 or 20 feet. When we got to the mouth of the Ohio we put our trunks & 
chests on board a keel Boat bound to this place and walked on foot our- 
selves a distance of 174 miles. A great part of the way we had very wet 



the state that the immense treeless prairies of northern Illinois were fully taken 
up. Monroe, Writings, (Hamilton edition), I., 117; Clarence W. Alvord, Illinois — 
the origins (Military Tract Papers, No. 3), pp. 14-16; Boggess, The Settlement of 
Illinois, 97, 130-131 ; Pooley, Settlement of Illinois, 539-543. 

Flagg, himself, failed to select the best land available in his locality, according 
to present day standards, because it was not well timbered. 

43 Ebenezer Flagg was born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, in 1756. He served in 
the Continental Army during the Revolution and soon afterwards moved to Rutland 
county, Vermont, where he was married to Elizabeth Cutting of Shoreham. In 
1799 he purchased a farm in Richmond, Vermont, and there spent the remainder 
of his life, farming and practicing medicine. He died in 1828 and his widow died 
ten years later. Flagg Family Records, 36. 

44 The Ohio River falls about twenty-five feet in the two and a half miles be- 
tween Louisville and Shippingport. Except in times of high water, it was neces- 
sary, until the completion of a canal around the falls in 1830, to unload all large 
boats at one end and portage the cargoes to the other. Small craft were usually 
conducted down stream by pilots. The first permanent settlement at Louisville 
was made in 1778 by a group of pioneers who accompanied George Rogers Clark 
thus far on his expedition to the Illinois. The town was laid out in - 1779 and was 
incorporated by the Virginia legislature in 1780. The natural advantages of the 
site produced a rapid development and Louisville is said to have had a population 
of thirteen hundred in 1811 and over four thousand in 1820. Reuben T. Durrett, 
The Centenary of Louisville (Filson Club. Publications, No. 8.) Contemporary 
descriptions can be found in Fearon, Sketches of America, 242-252 : Brown. 
Western Gazetteer. 103-105: Darby, Emigrant's Guide, 207; H. McMurtrie, Sketches 
of Louisville, (Louisville, 1819.) 



155 

• 

muddy walking & some of the nay had to wade in the water. We arrived 
at this place the 18th of Nov. I have travel [e]d since I left Vermont 1794 
miles — from Richmond to Springfield C. C. Ohio is 900 from thence to Cincin- 
nati 75 thence to the mouth of the Ohio by water 645 thence to st. Louis 
174 miles from Cincinnati to this place by land is about 400 miles which 
would make it by land 1375 miles & I suppose it is about 1300 miles the 
nearest Road that can be traveled. It is 1250 miles in a direct line as I 
calculate from the Lat. & Longitude of the places. This being in Lat. 38° 
18' & Lon. 12° 41' W. & Richmond Vt. in Lat. 44° 24' N & Lon. 4° 13' E. from 
Washington. I have entered 264 afcres of] Land 25 miles from this place 
[&1 10 or 12 from [the] mouth of the Missouri River Part Prairie and part 
timbered land. I have not much to write to you respecting the Country but 
as I hope to see you in a year or so I will then tell you all you wish to know. 
I will only say that it is the handsomest and best country that I have ever 
seen. In places there is Prairies as far as the eye can reach covered with 
tall grass higher than a mans head. 

The Climate is mild we have had but little snow here this winter the 
River is not frozen but is full of floating Ice. Although the distance between 
us is lon yet my affections for you & My Brothers & Sisters is stil the 
same. I hope you will not neglect the education of my two young Brothers 
as education is the best thing you can give them. 45 Give my love to them 
and all my Brothers & sisters & friends & may peace & health attend you all. 

Gekshom Flagg 
Dear Mother, 

With the greatest pleasure I Reed your kind favor of the 8 Oct. on the 1st 
Dec. It gives me pleasure to hear from my friends so I hope you will write 
often. I also Reed letters from Artemas & Azariah on [my arr]ival at this 
place. Both were dated sept 14th but did [not] mention that Artemas was 
Married which your [letter states] took place two days before the date of the 
letters. 46 You [will] please to give my love to my new sister & tell her as 
she is now become a connexion she will do me a favor by writing to me 
especially as my sisters do not. I am placed in such a situation that I 
have to write more letters than I receive I have to write to several in the 
state of Ohio respecting this country for altho' you say the Ohio feever is 
abated in Vermont — the Missouri & Illinois feever Rages greatly in Ohio, 
Kentucky, & Tennessee and carries off thousand[s]. When I got to Ohio my 
Ohio feever began to turn but I soon caught the Missouri feever which is 
very catchin and carried me off. I think most probable I shall return if 
my life & health is spared a year from next spring but it is very uncertain 
whether I stay in that country. Surely nothing except my friends would 
tempt me ever to se[e] Vermont again. I hope you will pardon me for not 
writing sooner as I have been so much engaged that I could not. 

G Flagg 

[In margin:] I have enclosed my profile taken by an Italian at Cincinnati. 

[Addressed:] Doct. Ebenezer Flagg, Burlington, Vermont. 

[Stamped postmark:] St. Louis, Feb 8. 25 

VIII. To Artemas Flagg, September 12, 1818. 

Edwardsville Madison County," Illinois Territory, 12 Sept. 1818 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of the 31st May mailed June 8, I received, the 23d July which 
informed me that you were all well at the time. May this continue [to] be 
your good fortune and may these lines reach you as they leave me in good 

45 Besides the two older brothers to whom most of these letters were addressed. 
Gershom Flagg had six sisters and two brothers younger than himself. The 
brothers were ten and five years old respectively at this time. See notes 1, 10. 
14, 83, 96, 102, 111. 112. 

46 According to the Flagg Family Records (page 41) Artemas Flagg was married 
September 6, 1817, to Betsey Squires, the daughter of Stephen and Bethia (Bishop) 
Squires. 

47 The territory of the present Madison County is said to have been explored 
about 1799 by Rev. David Badgley and called Goshen. A settlement of that name 
was started the following year in the southern part of the county. The site of 
Edwardsville was first occupied by Thomas Kirkpatrick in 1805 and during the 



156 

health. As you may wish to know something of the Country in which I live 
I will write a few lines respecting it. The Territory of Illinois contains 
nearly all that part of the United States Territory east of the Mississippi 
and N. W. of the Ohio & Wabash Rivers. The late law of Congress enabling 
the people to form a Constitution & State Goverment makes the boundaries 
on the S. & W. Ohio & Missisippi Rivers on the East by Indiana State N by 
42° 30' N. Lat. The conjunction of the Ohio & Missisippi Rivers is in Lat 
37° N so that this Territory is 350 miles in length. 48 The face of the Country 
is very level without any mountains and but few hills. It is not exceeded 
by levelness [or] richness of soil by any in the United States. The prairies 
are very large while the timbered land is confined almost wholly to the inter- 
vales and low rounds. Where ever the land is high and dry enough for 
the fire to run in the spring & fall the timber is all destroyed. 49 The Soil 
is of such an alluvial nature that the water courses cut out deep chanels 
from 6 to 20 feet deep generally. Where this is the case the streams do not 
overflow. 

We have all kinds of soil from midling poor to the very best. It produces 
Corn & Wheat better than any other Country I have seen. It also produces 
hemp, flax, Mellons, Sweet potatoes, Turnips & all kinds of vegetables except 
Irish Potatoes as good as any other Country. Cotton is raised sufficient for 
domestic use a very small piece of ground produces enough for a family. 

We have plenty of Apples Peaches &c in places. Grapes & of several kinds 
and several kinds of Wild plumbs & Cherries in profusion also Dew Berries 
Black berries Strawberries. The bottom Prairies are covered with Weeds of 
different kinds and grass about 8 feet high. The high Prairies are also 
thickly covered with grass but finer & not so tall. The prairies are contin- 
ually covered (in the summer season) with wild flowers of all colors which 
gives them a very handsome appearance. These high Prairies are smoother 
than any intervale & not a stone, log, or anything but grass & weeds to be 
seen for miles excep[t] where they border the timber there is generally a 



Indian troubles which preceded the War of 1812 a block-house known as Kirk- 
patrick's fort was constructed there. Madison county was laid out in 1812 as em- 
bracing all of Illinois Territory north of the present line between Madison and 
St. Clair counties and Kirkpatrick's place was chosen for the county seat. The 
town was laid out in 1815 or 1816 and appears to have had sixty or seventy houses 
when Flagg arrived there in 1818. The county probably had a population of 
over five thousand at that time. History of Madison County (Edwardsville, Brink, 
1882), pp. 44, 71. 332; Moses. Illinois. I., 272. 548; Bluebook. Illinois. 1905, p. 396; 
Pooley, Settlement of Illinois 319-320; Edmund Dana, Geographical Sketches of 
the Western Country (Cincinnati 1819), pp. 142-143. 

48 The Territory of Illinois was set off from Indiana Territory by act of Con- 
gress of February 3. 1809. It embraced all that part of the old Northwest Terri- 
tory west of the Wabash River and of a line due north from Vincennes to the 
Canadian boundary. Thus it included nearly all of the present state of Wisconsin 
and parts of Minnesota and Northern Michigan. As a result of an agitation on 
the part of the inhabitants, practically all of whom dwelt in the southern one- 
third of the present state, the territory was advanced to the second stage with 
an elective legislature by act of Congress of May 21, 1812. After the close of 
the War of 1812 and the accompanying Indian troubles, the population Qf the 
territory increased rapidly and in January. 1818, Nathaniel Pope, its delegate in 
Congress presented a petition from the legislature for admission to the Union. The 
enabling act, which was passed by Congress April 18. 1818, fixed the boundaries 
of the state as given above. The measure as originally introduced provided that 
the boundary should be a line drawn through the southern end of Lake Michigan. 
This was in accordance with the plan outlined by the Ordinance of 1787 but the 
efforts of Mr. Pope induced Congress to fix the boundary forty miles further north, 
a change which has been considered by many as a violation of the Ordinance. 
Be that as it may, the history of the state would have been very different had it 
not included the fourteen northern counties and the city of Chicago. Moses, 
Illinois. 226, 258. 276-2S1, 529-533; Thomas Ford, History of Illinois. 19-24. 

4» -phe earlv opinion that the treeless condition of the prairies was due to the 
poor quality of the soil was soon found to be untenable and was succeeded quite 
generally by the belief that the prairies were caused or at least perpetuated by 
the annually recurrent fires. There is a considerable literature on the subject 
of the origin of the prairies. See, for example, Caleb Atwater, On the Prairies 



and Horn ns of the West, in Silliman's American Journal of Science. I., 116-125, 
(1X19): R. W. Wells. On the Origin of the Prairies, in ibid.. 331-337: John D. 
Caton, The Origin of the Prairies, in his Miscellanies, (also published separately). 
Many of the travelers dismissed the question as Faux, Memorable Days, in Thwaites, 
Early Western Travels. XI.. 280-281 : James, Account of an Expedition under Maj. 
S H Long in ibid.. XV., 166-167; Edmund Flagg, The Far West, in ibid.. XXVI.. 



342-346. 



157 

thicket of plumb bushes, hazel grape viues, &c &c. The Roots of the grass 
are very tough it generally requires 3 yoke of Oxen or six horses to plough 
up the prairies & the plough must be kept at a keen edge by filing often, the 
steel not being hardened, but this is all that is to be done excep[t] fencing 
to raise a crop. After one year the ground is mellow and requires but a 
light team to plough it. The Timber in this Country is very different from 
any you have seen. The most Common timber is White, Black, Spanish, 
post, Chincopin, Pin, and Burrh Oak, Walnut Black & White, Basswood, 
Cherry Button wood Ash, Elm, Sassafras, Sumach, Elder, Honey locust, Mul- 
berry, Crab Apple Thorn of different kinds Red-bud, Pecon, Haekberry 
Maple, Cotton Wood, Pawpaw which bears a fruit larger than an apple. 00 
The timber is not so good as I have seen, generally, the fire kills & checks 
the growth every year. When the fire gets into high thick grass it goes 
faster than a horse can Run & burns the Prairie smooth. 

The situation of this Territory is good for trade having the advantage of 
Water carriage on all sides the Missisipi on the West the Ohio & Wabash 
S. E. & the Kaskaskia and Illinois in the interior of the Territory. The 
Illinois which is about 400 miles in length heads near Lake Michigan. A 
branch of the Illinois heads within 4 miles of the head of Chicago a short 
River which empties into Lake michgon [sic]. In fresheftls boats pass this 
portage the waters being connected They are made shallow for the purpose. 
I have seen them at St. Louis landing. 51 I think there will be a canall cut 
to connect the waters of Illinois & Chicago at no distant period. From 
information the expense would not be great. One hundred thousand acres 
of Land is appropriated for this purpose. 52 This done we have a water com- 
munication from almost any part of the Territory to the states of Indiana 
Ohio & Pensylvania on either side of those stat|e]s. Also with New York 
by the way of Lake Erie & an easy Communication with the Ocean by New 
Orleans. One steam Boat Run from St. Louis to Louisville Kentucky the last 
season and another from St. Louis, to New Orleans. 53 One of them came up 
to St. Louis the 1st January last and returned but the Ice generally covers 



50 There are contemporary descriptions of the flora of Illinois in Fordham, 
Personal Narrative, 119 ; and Woods, Two Years' Residence, in Thwaites, Early 
Western Travels, X., 281-292. On the flora of Madison county, see History ofi 
Madison County (1882). pp. 64-65. 

51 The branch of the Illinois referred to is the Des Plaines. This passage was 
recently introduced as evidence of the navigability of the Des Plaines River in 
the early days in an important lawsuit in which the United States government 
is endeavoring to prove that fact. For other evidences of the existence at times 
of a continuous waterway from the Illinois to Lake Michigan, see Timothy Flint, 
Recollections of the last ten Years, 102 ; Ebenezer Childs, Recollections of Wis- 
consin, in Wisconsin Historical Collections, IV., 163 ; John H. Fonda, Early Wis- 
consin, in ibid., V., 216. 

62 The idea of a canal to connect the waters of Lake Michigan and the Illinois 
River is said to have been first suggested by Joliet in 1673. Secretary Gallatin 
included it in his report on roads and canals of 1808 and in 1816 the Indians 
were induced to cede the land through which such a canal would pass. In 1822 
Congress authorized the construction of the canal by the state and donated ninety 
feet of land on each side. Five years later Congress passed another act donating 
the alternate sections on each side of the proposed route for five miles in width, 
amounting in all to nearly 225,000 acres. For a time a controversy raged as to 
whether a canal or a railroad should be constructed but finally in 1836 work was 
begun on the canal. The project became involved in the extensive internal improve- 
ment system of 1837 and construction was suspended during the ensuing financial 
depression. Finally, however, the canal was completed from La Salle on the 
Illinois River to Lake Michigan and its great utility was quickly demonstrated. 
In 1882 the state ceded the canal to the T'nited States government and in 1900 the 
Chicago Sanitary District completed the construction of a drainage canal along 
the route at a cost of about thirty-five million dollars. At the present time there 
is a strong movement under way in favor of the construction of a deep waterway 
or ship-canal by the state and the United States government. Thus the Illinois- 
Michigan water route has been an almost constant factor in the history of the 
state. Moses, Illinois, I.. 461-468, II., 1339-1343; Boggess, Settlement of Illinois, 
110, 141-142. 

Flagg was mistaken in his statement that one hundred thousand acres of land 
had 1mm p. appropriated for the canal at the time when he was writing. 

68 The first steamboat on the western waters was the New Orleans, which made 
the trip down the Ohio and Mississippi in 1811. Tn 1815 the Enterprise made the 
first trip up the rivers to Louisville ami on August 2. 1S17, the General Pike was 
the first steamboat to reach St. Louis. Flagg is said to have helped to paint this; 
boat during the winter of 1817-1S18. which he spent in St. Louis. George H. 
Preble, History of Steam Navigation 66-72; Moses, Illinois, I., 389; Babcock, 



158 

the River in January & Febuai y That is, drifting ice, for the Missisipi was 
not shut over last winter at St louis tho' it sometimes is. The Missouri was 
frozen over last winter. There are 8 or 10 steam boats on the Ohio and 
Missisipi Rivers and more building there was two built in Cincinnati last 
summer, & one at the Rising Sun 54 and one at New Albany 55 below the falls 
of Ohio. The Trade from St. Louis to Orleans is very considerable there are 
in St. Louis between 40 & 50 mercantile Stores. 

We have a great plenty of Deer, Turkies, Wolves, Opossoms Prairie hens, 
Eagles, Turky Buzzards, Swans, Geese, ducks, Brant, sand hill Cranes, Paro- 
kites & with many other small Animals & birds. Gray squirrels are as 
thick here as I have ever seen stripeid [sic] ones in Vermont. 56 There is 
more honey here in this Territory I suppose than in any other place in 
the world, I have heard the Hunters say that they have found 8 or 10 
swarms in a day on the St. Gama 57 & Illinois Rivers where there are no set- 
tlements (Truly this must be the Land of Milk & honey.) The Climate is 
not so hot as might be expected there is almost a continual breeze blowing 
from the large prairies like the breezes on large Lakes & ponds. The coun- 
try is so open that it is considerable cold in Winter the ground freezes very 
hard There being generally but little snow. The past summer has been 
very hot more than common I am told. The Thermometer on the hottest 
day stood at 98°. I learn from the News Papers that the Weather has been 
very hot in different parts of the United States. 

The Stock of this Country consists principally of horses horned Cattle & 
hogs. Sheep will do very well here if they can be kept from the Wolves but 
this cannot well be done in the newsettled parts the wolves are so very 
numerous. Hogs will live & get fat in the Woods and Prairies. I have seen 
some as fat upon Hickorynuts, Acorns, Pecons & Walnuts, as ever I did 
those that were fat[t]ed upon Corn. All that prevents this country being 
as full of Wild hogs as of Deer is the Wolves which kill the pigs when the 
sows are not shut up til the pigs are a few weeks old. There are places in 
this Territory where Cattle & horses will live all winter & be in good order 
without feeding, that is upon the Rivers. Most of the people cut no hay 
for their Cattle & horses hut this is a foolish way of theirs they either 
have to feed out their Corn or their Cattle get very poor. Cattle & horses 
do very well in this Country they get very fat by the middle of June. They 
do not gain much after this being so harrassed by swarms of flies which 
prevent their feeding any in the heat of the day. They are so bad upon 
horses that it is almost impossible to travel from the 15 June til the 1st 
Sept unles a horse is covered with blankets. Where ever a fly lights upon 
a horse a drop of blood starts. I have seen white horses red with blood 
that these flies had drawn out of him. As the Country becomes settled these 
flies disappear. 



Memoir of John Mason Peck, 81 ; Boggess. Settlement of Illinois, 123 ; Flagg Family 
Records, 51; History of Madison County, Illinois (1882), pp. 86-87. There is a 
list of steamboats on the western waters from 1812 to 1819 in H. McMurtrie's 
Sketches of Louisville (Louisville, 1819), pp. 200-204. 

54 Rising Sun, Indiana, is on tho Ohio River about thirty-six miles by water from 
Cincinnati. It was founded in 1814 by John James from Maryland and is said 
to have contained thirty or fortv houses in 1817. It is now the seat of Ohio county. 
Brown, Western Gazetteer, 52 ; Thwaites. Early Western Travels, XXIV., 142, note. 

55 New Albany, Indiana, is on the Ohio River about five miles below Louisville. 
It was laid out "in 1813 by three Scribner brothers from New York. Brown in his 
Western Gazetteer (page 63) speaks of the place in 1817 as having been "puffed 
throughout the Union ; but has not yet realized the anticipations of the pro- 
prietors." It is said, however, to have had a hundred and fifty houses and a 
population of a thousand in 1S19 and it is now a manufacturing city with a 
population of over twenty-five thousand. Thwaites, Early Western Travels, X., 
44. note. 

r,o There are contemporary accounts of the fauna of Illinois in Fordham, Per- 
sonal Narrative, 119 ; and Woods, Two Years' Residence, in Thwaites. Early 
Western Travels, X., 2S1-292. On the fauna of Madison county, see History of 
Madison County (1882), pp. 65-67. 

57 By St. Gama the writer means the Sangamon. The Sangamon country had the 
reputation of possessing exceptional advantages for settlers and was filled in 
rapidly during the twenties, Springfield being laid out in 1823. Moses, Illinois, 
I., 385, 430. 



159 

It appears from the returns to the secretary that there is in this Terri- 
tory upwards of 40,000 Inhabitants. 58 The Convention which met the first 
mondy [sic] in August have formed a Constitution but it is not yet pub- 
lished as soon as it is I will send you a Copy. 59 The Gov. is to be Chosen for 
4 years as also the senate the members of the lower house are chosen once 
in two years the Legeslature to set biennally. I have delayed writing for 
several days to hear whether Simeon Manuel was in St. Louis but can hear 
nothing of him. P. P. Enos formerly of Woodstock Vermont 00 now lives in 
St. Louis and he tells me he knows no such man there. 

William S. Wait Son of Thomas B Wait of Boston Mass. was in this Ter- 
ritory last March and bought 2500 Acres of Land & told me he should return 
to this Country to live. 61 . . . Jason Chamberlin from Burlington lives 



68 By act of January 7, 1818, the legislature of Illinois Territory provided for a 
census to be taken between April 1, and June 1, 1818. Three days later another 
act was passed providing for a supplementary census in each county of all persons 
who should move into the county between June 1, and December 1. The enabling 
act, passed by Congress April 18, ISIS, conditioned the admission of the proposed 
state upon this enumeration showing a population of at least forty thousand, and 
the marshals are said to have resorted to various devices for swelling their rolls. 
The returns were finally made to foot up to forty thousand but it is probable that 
the actual population at the time did not exceed thirty-five thousand. Some 
questions were raised in Congress as to the accuracy of the returns but the state 
was admitted and two years later the federal census showed it to have a popula- 
tion of 55,162. Laws of Illinois Territory, 6th session (Reprint), 42-45; Moses, 
Illinois, 282 ; William H. Brown, Early History of Illinois (Fergus Historical 
Series, No. 14), p. 86. 

The original schedules of the census of ISIS, containing the names of heads of 
families, and other information, are in the office of the secretary of state at Spring- 
field. Together with the schedules of a state census taken in 1820, they make 
up a large folio volume. So far as is known, not even the aggregates by counties 
of the census of 1818 have ever been published but the State Historical Library is 
planning to publish the schedules entire. , 

59 In accordance with the terms of the enabling act, a convention composed of 
twenty-three members met at Kaskaskia, August 3, 1818 and proceeded to frame 
a constitution for the embryo state. The resulting instrument, which is said to 
have been put together by Elias Kent Kane, was modeled largely on those of 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, with the peculiar feature of the council of revision 
borrowed from that of New York. It can be found conveniently in Moses, Illinois, 
I., 533-544. On the convention, see, ibid., 282-284; W. H. Brown, Early history of 
Illinois, 86-88. 

60 Woodstock, the seat of Windsor county, is located about half way between 
Montpelier and the Massachusetts line and ten miles from the Connecticut River. 

Pascal Paoli Enos was born at Windsor, Connecticut, in 1770. He graduated 
from Dartmouth college in 1794. served in the Vermont legislature in 1804, and 
was married at Woodstock in 1815 to Salome, daughter of Gaius Paddock. The 
same year he moved with the Paddocks to Cincinnati and the next year they went 
on to St. Louis, settling first at St. Charles and then, in 1817, at St. Louis. In 
1821 they moved to Madison county, Illinois, where Gaius Paddock purchased a 
quarter-section adjoining that of Gershom Flagg. A few years later — 1827 — Flagg 
was married to Mrs. Jane Paddock Richmond, oldest daughter of Gaius Paddock, 
and thus became a brother-in-law of Enos. In 1823, Enos was appointed receiver 
of public monies for the new land office to be established in the Sangamon country. 
He mioved there at once and became one of the four proprietors of the city of 
Springfield. (See note 115.) He died at Springfield in 1832. John C. Power, 
History of the Early Settlers of Sangamon County, 289 ; History of Madison County 
(1S82), p. 478. 

61 Thomas Baker Wait, born in 1762 of Welsh parents, was a printer, publisher 
and bookseller with headquarters in Portland and Boston. William Smith Wait, 
his son, was born in Portland in 1789 and ioined with his father in the publishing 
business. In June, 1817, he started for the West, reached St. Louis January 3, 
1818 : made an entry of land in Ripley township, Bond county, Illinois, on February 
17, 1818 ; and was back in Boston by the middle of July. Two years later he was 
married to Sarah Newhall and started at once for Illinois where they commenced 
farming on his land in Bond county. From 1824 to 1835 Wait was again in 
the service of the publishing house, traveling in the Middle States and the West, 
but in the latter year he located permanently on a farm near Greenville in Bond 
county. In 1845 he was the chairman of a National Industrial Convention which 
met in New York and in 1848 he was nominated for vice-president of the United 
States on a ticket with Gerrit Smith by a convention made up of representatives 
of labor organizations which called itself the National Reform Association. He 
declined the nomination. During his later years he was interested in promoting 
railroads and was one of the incorporators of the St. Louis and Illinois Bridge 
Company. He died in 1864. William H. Perrin, History of Bond and Montgomery 
Counties, Pt. ii., pp. 33-35. (portrait, Pt. i., p. 27) ; Niles Register, LXXIV., 69-77. 
324-329, 348. 



160 

at Cape Gerardeau 62 a small Town on the West Bank of Missisipi about 120 
miles below St. Louis. I saw bis wife when I was coming up the River but 
he was gone to Arkansaw on business. Charles Peck who once lived with 
Moses Spencer now lives 18 miles from the Mouth of the Missouri at St. 
Charles 63 a small town on the North side of the Missouri, his Brother a black- 
smith lives at the same place. 

You mention that Stephen Hallock had gone to Darby Creek Ohio. I have 
also heard that Gideon wright was there. I have been there myself. That 
part of the country is entirely level very Rich and in the spring covered 
with water. Darby Creek is a Branch of the Scioto River." 

The 26 April I Reed a letter from you dated 6 July 1817 and post marked 
Hubbardton 65 July 9th having been 9 months & 17 days on the way having 
been mislaid as I suppose. You have been very particular in you[r] letters 
which has given me much satisfaction but you still complain of you[r] ina- 
bility to write I wish you would not try to excuse your self from wr[i]ting 
on that head but write as often as you can get time for I have money enough 
to pay the Postage and it never goes more freely than to hear from my 
friends and nothing gives me more satisfaction than reading your Letters. 

I have not been able to get any employment in surveying The Lands have- 
ing been principally surveyed in the winter of 1816-7. There was then up- 
wards of 80 Companies employed upwards of 4 months. They surveyed the 
Military Bounty Lands and most of the other Lands where the Indian title 
was extinguished, 3% Millions of Acres of Bounty lands were survd between 
the Missisipi and Illinois Rivers. There is now considerable surveying to be 
done but the Surveyor General, Rector, has so many connections that are 
Surveyors that it is not possible for a stranger to get any Contract of any 
importance. Goverment Gives 3 dollars a mile for surveying all publick 
lands. Some who are not Surveyors (but favorites) make Contracts for sur- 
veying and then hire it done. I was offered 25 dollars a month last winter 
to go with another surveyor but did not choose to go under a man who did 
not know as much as I did myself. 66 



82 The first settler at Cape Girardeau was a French trader named Louis Lorimier, 
who established himself there under authority of a grant made by Baron de 
Carondelet in 1793. Americans soon began to settle in the surrounding country 
and in 1806 the seat of justice of the district was located on Lorimier's land. He 
laid out the town the same year and it grew rapidly for a few years until checked 
by a controversy over land titles and the removal of the county-seat to Jackson 
in 1814. The village was described in 1820 as comprising about twenty log cabins, 
several of which were in ruins. Houck, History of Missouri, consult index ; James, 
Expedition under Maj. S. H. Long, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XVII., 39 ; 
Darby, Emigrant's Guide, 142. 

63 The first settlement at St. Charles was made by a Frenchman named Louis 
Blanchette in 1769. The place grew rapidly after the American occupation and is 
described as containing a hundred houses and having a population of a thousand 
in 1818. Some of the sessions of the territorial legislature were held there. Houck, 
History of Missouri, II., 79-88 ; Brown. Western Gazetteer, 204 ; Flint, Recollec- 
tions of the Last Ten Years. 120-126 ; James, Expedition under Maj. S. H. Long, 
in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XIV., 126-127. 

84 The Darby Creek country lies east of Champaign county and between it and 
Columbus. The stream is about a hundred miles long and flows southeasterly 
through Union, Madison, Franklin, and Pickaway counties to the Scioto a mile 
above Circleville. 

85 Hubbardton is a post-village in a town of the same name in Rutland county, 
Vermont. 

68 William Rector, surveyor-general of Illinois. Missouri, and Arkansas from 
1814 to 1824, was born in Farquier county, Virginia. The family, which was a 
large one, settled in Kaskaskia in 1806 but soon after removed to St. Louis. The 
nepotism displayed by Rector in the awarding of contracts for surveying finally 
got him into trouble with the authorities at Washington. On January 17, 1823, 
the House of Representatives called on the secretary of the treasury for informa- 
tion about contracts for surveying, whether the surveys were actually made by the 
contractors, whether they were faithfully executed, and the price "paid per mile. 
The papers sent in throw little light on the matter but on February 25, the Senate 
called specifically for copies of contracts made by Rector since January 1, 1819 ; 
and of the ninety-eight contracts in the list sent in, seventeen were with men 
who bore the name of Rector. (American State Papers, Public Lands, III.. 618- 
620, IV, 19-25.) On January 25. 1823. while the surveyor-general was in Wash- 
ington, endeavoring to prevent the loss of his position. Joshua Barton, attorney- 
general of Missouri, published in the Missouri Republican an assertion "That the 
surveyor-general indulged in the practice of giving out the largest and best con- 



161 

I Entered 420 Acres of Land near this place and about 25 mils from St. 
Louis and 10 or 12 from the Conjunction of the Missisippi and Missouri 
Rivers and 18 or 20 from the Mouth of Illinois nearly in Lat. 38° 30' North. 
I now own only 1G0 acres haveing sold the remainder for $285. dollars being 
double what I gave for it. The quarter Section which I now own" 7 is on the 
trail which leads from Edwardsville to fort Clark which is at the south end 
of Illinois Lake a dilation of the Illinois River 210 miles from its mouth 
following its meanderings. 08 This fort was built in the time of the Late War. 
This with the forts at Chicago and fox River which empties into green bay, 
Macinau, Prairie des Chien, and fort Edwards on the Missisippi below the 
mouth of Rock River 69 serve to regulate the Indian trade and protect the 
Frontiers from the savages. The United States have also garisons upon Red 
River, Arkansaw, and Missouri Rivers. 



tracts for surveying to his family connections and personal friends, who sub-let 
them, and, without incurring any particular labor, responsibility, or risk, were 
enabled to pocket considerable emoluments." Barton was at once challenged by 
Thomas C. Rector, one of the brothers of the surveyor-general who had been given 
some of the contracts. It is said that Thomas Rector admitted the truth of the 
charges but declared that the publication was offensive and demanded satisfaction. 
The duel was fought on "Bloody Island" in the Mississippi River and Barton was 
killed. Thomas Rector was indicted for murder by the grand jury of St. Clair 
county, Illinois, and Governor Coles issued a requisition for him upon the Governor 
of Missouri but nothing further seems to have been done in the case. (Illi7ioi$ 
Historical Collections, IV., 56-57.) After the duel Edward Bates, a prominent 
lawyer of St. Louis, offered to prove that no less than twenty relatives and con- 
nections of the surveyor-general had received appointments as deputy-surveyors 
and had sub-let the contracts at enormous profits. When William Rector returned 
from Washington, he issued a general denial of the charges, but he lost his place 
in 1824 and the family sank into obscurity. Thomas was killed in a brawl a few 
years later and William is said to have died in poverty and misery somewhere in 
Illinois in 1826. John Reynolds, Pioneer History of Illinois, (Chicago, 1887), pp. 
353-354, 360; Scharf, History of Saint Louis, I., 98; Houck, History of Missouri, 
III., 255-256. Reynolds is in error in his statement that Rector was appointed 
surveyor-general in 1816. It was in 1814. (Thomas Donaldson, The Public Domain, 
171.) There are several volumes of manuscripts bearing on this case in the 
General Land Office at Washington, Division E., including a "Copy of the opinion 
of the Attorney Genl. of the United States in relation to the conduct of William 
Rector," dated June 10, 1824. 

67 The southeast quarter of section 3, township 5, range 8, being on Liberty 
Prairie in the township of Fort Russell and about six miles north of Edwardsville. 
The farm is now owned and occupied by Hon. Norman G. Flagg, grandson of the 
writer of these letters. The neighborhood was known as Paddocks' Settlement 
(John M. Peck, Gazetteer of Illinois, 2d ed., p. 265) and there was once a post- 
office there by the name of Paddocks' Grove. The post-office now is at the village 
of Moro, about four miles west. 

68 A settlement was formed on the west bank of Peoria or Illinois Lake by 
French missionaries and traders early in the eighteenth century but the site proved 
unhealthy and during the latter part of the century it was transferred to the 
location of the present city of Peoria at the foot of the lake. In 1812 Governor 
Edwards sent Captain Craig with some troops on an expedition up the Illinois 
River. The captain became convinced that the traders at Peoria were assisting 
the Indians against the Americans and proceeded to burn the village and carry 
off most of the inhabitants. The following year Fort Clark was constructed on the 
site by General Benjamin Howard but it was abandoned after the war closed and 
was burned by the Indians. Settlement of Peoria by Americans began in 1819 
and in 1824 the American Fur Company established a post there. The place was 
long known as Fort Clark, however. C. Ballance, History of Peoria, especially 
chap. x. ; Moses, Illinois, I., 271 ; Ninian W. Edwards, History of Illinois and Life 
and Times of Ninian Edwards. 65-72. 

The trail which Flagg mentions was originally an Indian trail from the Mis- 
sissippi to Lake Michigan. It is said to have been used by Governor Edwards in 
his expedition northward from Fort Russell in 1812 and was sometimes known as 
the Old Edwards Trace. It developed later into an important stage road. Zimri 
A. Enos, The old Indian Trail, in Illinois State Historical Society, Journal, IV., 
218-222, (July, 1911). See also note 115. 

09 At the treaty of Greenville in 1795, the Indians ceded a tract six miles square 
at Chicago and there Fort Dearborn was erected in 18 04. The fort was evacuated 
on August 15, 1812, because of the danger of an attack by the English and the 
Indians. The garrison, together with some of the traders and their families started 
for Fort Wayne but had gone only a short distance when the Indians fell upon 
the party and massacred most of its members. The fort was rebuilt in 1816 by 
Captain Hezekiah Bradley and was occupied bv United States troops from 1816 
to 1823, from 1828 to 1831, and from 1832 to 1836, when it was finally evacuated. 
Moses, Illinois, 247-252 ; John Wentworth, Fort Dearborn, {Fergus Historical 
Series, No. 16). 

The fort at Green Bay was Fort Howard, erected in 1816. (See note 29.) 
Mackinac, at the straits between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan was an important 

—11 H S 



162 

The people of This Territory are from all parts of the United States & do 
the least work I believe of any people in the world. Their principal business 
is hunting deer, horses hogs and Cattle and raising Corn. They have no 
pasture but turn every thing out to run at large and when they want to use 
a horse or oxen they will have to travel half a dozen miles to find them 
through grass and weeds higher than a man can reach when on horse back 
and the grass and vines are so rough that nothing but their Leather hunting 
shirts and trowsers will stand any Chance at all. 

These kind of People as soon as the settlements become thick Clear out 
and go further into the new Country. 70 The method of Raising Corn here is 
to plough the ground once then furrow it both ways and plant the Corn 4 
feet each way and plough between it 3 or 4 times in the Summer but never 
hoe it at all. Wheat is generally sowed among the Corn and ploughed in 
sometime in August or first sept. There are no barns in this Country people 
stack all their Wheat and thresh it out with horses on the ground. We have 
not many good mills in this Country. 

The price of Corn last harvest was 33% cents in the sprang 50 cents 
in the summer 75 cents Potatoes are from 50 to 100 cents a bushel oats 50 
cents Wheat one dollar Beef from 3% to 5 dollars per hundred Pork from 

4 to 7 dollars a hundred. Dry goods are geting very Cheap the country is 
full of them we have more merchants than any thing else. Boots and Shoes 
sell the highest here of any place I was ever in Iron is 75 dollars a hundred 
salt 3 dollars a bushel Butter from 12% to 50 cents a pound Cheese gener- 
ally brings 25 cents and very little to be had at that price, for there is nona 
made except by Eastern people. The price of improved farms here is from 

5 to 12 dollars an acre. 

As soon as you Receive this I wish you to write to me. As soon as I can 
make it any way convenient I int[end to] come and see you all for I bel[ieve] 
you [MS. torn a]nd the rest of the young men [in the] vicinity [can] not 
leave your mothers long [enough] to come [here]. 

I think I shall go by the way of New Orleans and New York or Boston It 
being the easiest and cheapest route to go from here to Vermont. Give my 
love to all my friends. By your letter, I learn that you are all [MS. torn} 
married I expect in about 10 or 15 years when you have about a dozen Chil- 
dren each you will begin to think about moving to the westward. I have 
seen more old, than young men moveing. If you have any Idea of ever seeing 
the Western Country you never will have a better time than the present 



trading post and missionary station during the French regime. It was occupied 
by the British in 1763 but was not turned over to the United States until 1796. 
At the beginning of the War of 1812 the British siezed the post but it was re- 
occupied by the Americans in 1815. Reuben G. Thwaites, Story of Mackinac, in 
his How George Rogers Clark Won the Northivest. 

Prairie du Chien is supposed to have been founded by Pierre Antaya. a French 
trader, in 1781. It, too, was captured by a British expedition in 1814 but United 
States troops reoccupied the place in 1816 and constructed Fort Crawford. (Wis- 
consin Historical Collections, IX., XI., XIX., consult indexes.) Fort Edwards, also, 
was constructed shortly after the close of the War of 1812. Its location was near 
the present site of Warsaw in Hancock county, a hundred miles below the mouth 
of Rock River and opposite the mouth of the Des Moines. It was occupied for a 
few years as a government trading-post subordinate to the one at Prairie du 
Chien. (Ibid., VI., 190, 274, XIX., 386.) Flagg is in error in speaking of Fort 
Clark as in commission in 1818. All the rest of these forts, however, were 
either constructed or reoccupied at the close of the War of 1812 to facilitate the 
government's plan of controlling the Indians and regulating the trade with them 
by a system of governmental trading factories, one of which was located at each 
of the posts. On the Indian trade of this period, see ibid., XIX., pp. xvii-xx, 375-48S. 

10 Flagg's description of the backwoodsmen is corroborated by other writers. 
Thus Daniel M. Parkinson who settled in Madison county in May, 1817, wrote: 
"The surrounding country, however, was quite sparsely settled, and destitute of any 
energy or enterprise among the people ; their labors and attention being chiefly 
confined to the hunting of game, which then abounded, and tilling a small patch 
of corn for bread, relying on game for the remaining supplies of the table. The 
inhabitants were of the most generous and hospitable character, and were princ- 
ipally from the Southern States; harmony and the utmost good feeling prevailed 
throughout the country." Wisconsin Historical Collections, II., 327. Cf. Fordham, 
Personal Narrative. 125-126 ; Fearon, Sketches of America, 261 ; Fortesque Cumins, 
Tour to the Western Country, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, IV., 281 ; John 
Bradbury, Travels in the Interior, in ibid., V., 281 ; Flint, Letters from America, in 
ibid., IX'., 232-233. 



163 

but if you are contented there you can live as well there as here. I send you 

my best wishes my respects to my Parents and remain your affectionat[e] 

Brothe[r] for ever 

Gershom Plaqq 

A Flagg 

[Addressed:] Artemas Flagg, Hinesburg, Vermont. 71 
[Written postmark:] Edwardsville Sept 19. Double 50 

IX. To John Johnson, February 6, 1819. 

Edwardsville (Illinois) 6th Feb 1819 
Dear Sir, 

I with pleasure embrace this opportunity to inform you that I am well, 
together with some other things which from your natural sociability, may 
not, perhaps, be altogether uninteresting. When I left Vermont my inten- 
tion was to have traveled to the Wabash & no further; but when I got near 
the western part of the State of Ohio the young man who was in company 
with me refused to go any further; and rather than proceed alone I concluded 
to Winter there and did not leave Cincinnati (at which place I stayed three 
months) until Oct. 1817. While in the State of Ohio I gained such informa- 
tion from Travelers as convinced me that I should be more likely to get into 
the employment of surveying in this Country than Indiana. I, therefore, 
formed a resolution to go to St Louis where the Surveyor General of both 
Territories keeps his Office. I took water at Cincinnati in a family Boat 
accompanied by a young man formerly from Vermont and floated down the 
River to the Mississippi, which I must here observe is the most dismal look- 
ing place that I ever saw. For several miles above the conjunction of these 
Rivers there are no settlements, — the land is low and covered with heavy 
timber & the shores are lined with Willows. The point of land between the 
two Rivers is covered with water fifteen feet in depth for several week in 
each year. Where the two Rivers meet the Ohio appears as large as the 
Mississippi. 72 From the Mouth of the Ohio we traveled on foot to St. Louis 
170 miles up the Mississippi. I could get no employment surveying the 
greater part of the land to which the Indian Title was extinguished having 
been surveyed in the winter of 1816-17. Upwards of eighty Companies of 
Surveyors were employed for more than four months. Of what now remains 
to be surveyed there is not much chance for a stranger to get a contract; 
for one who has been employed is prefered to one who has not; and there are 
more surveyors, I believe in these two Territories, than all the rest of the 
United States, and to add to this the Surveyor General has three or four 
Brothers with 15 or 20 other connection all surveyors. I have 160 Acres of 
Land in this County ten miles east of the mouth of the Missouri River and 
have been farming almost a year. The prospect of the farmer is as good 
here as in any other Country. The Soil is as good as any in the United 
States for any kind of Grain and produces very good Cotton. 50 bushels of 
Wheat is said to have been taken off of one Acre of Ground in one season. 
The price of Wheat is one dollar per. bushel, Corn & oats 50 cents each, 
sweet & Irish potatoes from 50 cents to a dollar, Pork from 5 to 6 dollars, 
Beef from 4- to 6 dollars per hundred pounds, Butter & Cheese from 20 cents 
to 50 cents a pound & scarce. 

The principal objection I have to this Country is its unhealthiness the 
months of Aug. & Sept. are generally very Sickly. I was taken sick with 



71 The town of Hinesburg is in Chittenden county, just southeast of Richmond. 

72 The opinion was quite prevalent in the West in the early days that the con- 
fluence of the Ohio ai.d Mississippi Rivers would some day be the site of a great 
commercial city and several attempts were made to establish one there. By act 
of January 9, 1818, the territorial legislature incorporated a company as "The City 
and Bank of Cairo." The promoters of this organization constructed an elaborate 
plat of the proposed city but no settlement resulted and the land reverted to the 
United States. Again in 1837 an organization known as "The Cairo City and Canal 
Company" attempted to boom tne place but without success and Cairo was not 
incorporated as a city until 1858. John M. Lansden, History of the City of Cairo; 
Moses, Illinois, I., 262, 



164 

the feever & ague the 15 Sept. which lasted me nearly two months. 78 I shall 
try it one season more and if I do not have my health better than I have 
the season past I shall sell my property and leave the Country. The summer 
past has been very hot and dry in the month of August the Thermometr 
stood at 98°. ■ We have had but very little Rain or snow the past fall. We 
have not seen a single flake of snow since the 5th of January nor but very 
little ice. For three weeks past there has scarcely been a frost and the Bees 
(which are very plenty) have been daily at work. [Wild?] Geese have been 
flying to the north for ten days in la[rge number]s. Grass has grown 3 or 4 
inches, the Birds are singing and in [truth?] every thing looks like spring 
season. John Messenger 4 lives in St. Clair County near Belville 73 in this 
state 15 miles east of St Louis. He was a member of the convention which 
formed the Constitution of this State. He is very much esteemed by the 
people. I understand he is now surveying 20 or 30 miles north of this, I 
have not seen him but soon shall. 

I have understood that you were appointed the surveyor to run the line be- 
tween Canada and the united States. My Brother wrote that you was then 
absent on that business which was the reason I did not write to you immedi- 
ately after my arrival at St. Louis. From the length of the line to be run 
together with the difficulty of finding it; particularly that part which follows 
the high lands as described by the Treaty, I think it will require a consid- 
erable length of time. I much regret not having had an opportunity to go 
with you as I should have thereby gained much practical knowledge. I wish 
to know what progress you have made in that arduous task. I have seen an 
extract from a Montreal paper which says that the Fort built at Rouse's point 
is North of 45° N. Lat. I wish to know if you have run the line as far as 
that — and which side the Fort is on &e. 76 I should be very much gratified if 



73 Illinois had the reputation at this time of being an unhealthy place, largely on 
account of the prevalence of the disease known as the fever and ague. This, how- 
ever, seems to have been a common complaint in newly settled countries where 
the land was not well drained. Faux, Memorable Days, in Thwaites, Early Western 
Travels, XI., 246, XII., 16; Adlard Welby, Visit to North America, in ibid., 211. 
Richard Flower defended the English settlement in Illinois from the charge of 
unhealthfulness in his Letters from Illinois, in ibid., X., 142-143. 

74 John Messenger was prominent in Illinois from' 1809 to 1833 as a politician 
and surveyor. He was born in 1771 in Massachusetts, removed to Vermont in 17S3, 
to Kentucky in 1799, and to Illinois in 1802. He located in St. Clair county, where 
he is said to have taught the first school in 1804. In 1808 he represented St. Clair 
county in the legislature of Indiana Territory and the following year was com- 
missioned county surveyor by Governor Edwards. He was clerk of the first 
territorial assembly of Illinois in 1812, member of the constitutional convention 
of 1818 and Speaker of the House in the first General Assembly of the state. In 
1821 he published A Manual or Hand-book intended for Convenience in Practical 
Surveying, in 1823 he was one of the commissioners appointed by Governor Coles 
to select the seminary lands, and in 1833 he was one of the surveyors of the 
northern boundary of the state. He died on his farm near Belleville in 1S46. 
Illinois Historical Collections, IV., 47-50, 227 ; Moses, Illinois, I., 291, II., 993. 

73 St. Clair was the first county laid off in the Illinois country after the North- 
west Territory was established. When erected by Governor St. Clair in 1790, it 
embraced all the western part of Illinois, the eastern part being in Knox county 
with its seat at Vincennes. In 1795 the territory south of a line a little below 
the settlement of New Design was laid off as Randolph county but no further 
counties were established until 1812. (Bluebook, Illinois, 1905, pp. 386-397.) 
The old French village of Cahokia, a few miles below St. Louis, was the county 
seat until 1814 when a commission appointed by the legislature selected a site about 
fifteen miles southeast of Cahokia. The place chosen was on the farm of George 
Blair, who immediately laid out the town of Belleville. The town grew slowly and 
was incorporated in 1819. History of St. Clair County (Philadelphia, Brink, 1S81), 
pp. 183-185. 

78 To one of the boundary commissions established by the treaty of Ghent of 1814 
was delegated the duty of determining the boundary between the United States 
and Canada from the source of the St. Croix River to the point where the forty- 
fifth parallel intersects the St. Lawrence. The work of surveying was begun under 
the direction of the commission in 1817, with John Johnson of Burlington, Vermont 
as chief-surveyor for the United States. There were several disputed points with 
regard to the boundary east of the Connecticut River but it was supposed that 
from there to the St. Lawrence all that would be necessary would be to resurvey 
an old line which had been marked in 1774. This part of the survey was made in 
1818 by Mr. Johnson for the United States and Mr. Odell for Great Britain and it 
developed that the true forty-fifth parallel is three-quarters of a mile south of the 
old line where it crosses the northern end of Lake Champlain. Between the two 
lines is Rouse's Point where fortifications regarded as of great strategic value had 



you would write to me as often as your avocations will permit and in particu- 
lar I wish you to write to me as soon as you receive this. If [MS. lorn] sman 
Cummings is in Burlington give him my [MS. torn] please. The reason I 
have not written to him [is I have f] seen no place where I thot he could do 
better [than in] Burlington. 

With much respect and friendship to yourself, family, and friends and 
wishing you all prosperity 

I remain your humble servant 

Gershom Flagg 

J Johnson Esqr. 

[Addressed:] John Johnson, Esqr, Burlington, Vermont, pr. Mail. 
[Written postmark:] Edwardsville 111, Feby 11. 25 
[Endorsed:] Gershom Flagg's letter, 6 Feby, 1819. 

X. To Azaeiah C. Flagg, June 12, 1819. 

Edwardsville (III.) June 12th 1819 
Dear Brother, 

I Reed a letter from you by Messrs. Sweatland & Walworth last October but 
was then sick with the ague and did not answer it until winter. I wrote to 
have you send your Paper to this place instead of St. Louis. I have not heard 
a word from you since the letter above mentioned and have not Reed any 
paper of yours of later date than 28 November. I am anxious to hear from 
you and wish you would write more frequent. I have been very healthy the 
winter and spring past we have had a very warm winter without snow, late 
snowy spring with a great deal of Rain but it is now very dry and warm. I 
am at present at work on my land I have planted fifteen acres of Corn and 
let out ten acres more ground (so I expect to raise my own hommony). 

We have a News Paper published in Edwardsville which has very lately 
commenced, by the title of "Edwardsville Spectator."" There is also a 
Bank 78 and Lawyers enough to sink the place. 79 The country is settling with 
extraordinary rapidity Thirteen months ago there was not a family north 
of here and there is now perhaps two hundred some a hundred and twenty 
miles north of this. They settle on united States land And as soon as it is 
offered for sale they will probably have to leave it or pay a high price for it. 
Land which was bought two or three years ago for two dollars an acre is now 
selling at 10 and 12. We have a fine country of Land and a plenty of it. 
The harvest is great but the laborers are few. I send My best wishes for 
you all, tell Mary to write to me and do not forget to write your self. 

I Remain your affectionate Brother 

Gershom Flagg 
A C Flagg 

[Addressed:] A. C. Flagg, Plattsburgh, New York. 

[Stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, June 26. 25 



just been constructed by the United States at a cost of over a million dollars. 
The commission failed to reach an agreement and the northeastern boundary dis- 
p.ute was not settled until 1842 when by the Webster-Ashburton treaty the line of 
the old survey was adopted instead of the true forty-fifth parallel. John B. Moore, 
History and Digest of International Arbitrations, I., chap, iii ; George P. Garrison, 
Westward Extension (American Nation, XVII.), 74-83. 

" The Edwardsville Spectator was started in 1819 under the editorship of 
Hooper Warren, it being the third paper established in the state. It is notable 
especially for the part which it played in the campaign of 1823-18 24 against the 
proposed constitutional convention to admit slavery into Illinois. Ninian Edwards 
is supposed to have had a controlling influence over the paper. It cnanged hands 
in 1825 and was discontinued the following year. Franklin W. Scott, Newspapers 
and Periodicals of Illinois {Illinois Historical Collections, VI.), pp. xlviii-1, 166. 

78 The bank of Edwardsville was incorporated by act of the legislature of 
January 9. ISIS and was established the following year. The act of incorporation 
provided that one-third of the stock of three hundred thousand dollars might be 
taken by the state. The bank was made a depository for the money received at 
the land office at Edwardsville and when it failed in September, 1821, it was owing 
the United States government $46,202.43. History of Madison County (1882), p. 
339 ; Annals of Congress. 18 Congress, 1 Session, p. 2719. See also note 94 below. 

to There is a chapter on the lawyers of Edwardsville in the History of Madison 
County (1882), pp. 181-196. 



166 

XI. To Aktemas Flagg, October 6, 15, 1820. 

Edwardsviixe, Illinois, October 6th 1820 
Dear Brother, 

I Reed your letter of the 20th Aug. by yesterday's Mail and embrace the 
earliest opportunity to inform you that I am in good hea[l]th and have been 
since I last wrote to you. We have had a very remarkable dry summer there 
are streams 40 miles in length which have entirely stopped running — two 
thirds of the wells and springs have dryed and the grass is not more than 
half its usual length. We have had good crops of Wheat and Corn is very 
good. Money is becoming very scarce. Wheat now sells at 50 cts pr bushel 
and Corn at 25 Beef and pork are also very low and the price of land has 
fell nearly one half within 18 months. The people are as is usual complain- 
ing of hard Times! Hard Times!!* But in reality we have no ground for 
saying the times are hard. We have had good crops of Cotton &c & if the 
people would get in the habit of Raising their own food, & clothing them- 
selves with their own manufactures instead of sending off all the money in 
circulation to purchase those things money would soon grow plenty and be 
in circulation. The People of the United States have been for a long time 
blind to their own interest But begin to be awakened by the Cry of hard 
times. 

For myself I live as I always have upon my earnings and not upon my 
credit or speculation and have therefore little to loose & little to fear from 
hard times. 

If you should wish to hear some large stories about the western Country 
read on. I raised about 5 or 6 waggon loads of watermellons this year many 
of which weighed 25 pounds each and I weighed one that weighed 29 % 
pounds. We had plenty of Melons of all kinds from the middle of July to the 
end of September. We feed our hogs great part of the time upon Melons, 
Squashes, & Pumpkins & cucumbers &c &c. The hogs now live upon Acorns 
which here grow as large as hens eggs almost. 

Oct. 15 

I began this letter several days ago but not having time to finish it at the 
time I have delayed sending it to the post office till the present time. 38 
Townships of Land have been offered for sale the two last weeks in this 
district and only 1200 acres were sold. Several towns in this state have been 
very sickly this season especially those situated contiguous to Rivers or 
mill-Ponds. The waters are very low and in many places covered with a 
green poison looking skum. The fogs arising from this stagnated waters 
makes the air very unwholesome. 

The weather has been considerable hotter here t[his summer ?] than it 
was ever known to be before. The mercury in Thermometer rose to 100 
degrees in the shade. Such heat as this several days in succession you will 
suppose made us think of the place we read of. For my part I thought it 
was getting to be pretty warm times. Steel or Iron lying in the sun became 
too hot to be handled. In Short, but in truth, it was as hot as Hell. For 
the want of room I must close my letter by requesting you to give my love 
to all those who may take the trouble to enquire about me especially my 
Parents, Brothers, Sisters, your Wife and two Great Boys. And do if you 
please write oftener and oblige your sincerely affectionate Brother 

[In margin:] Flour sells from $3.25 to $5.00 per Barrel Whisky from 
31 to 62 y 2 cents pr Gallon by the Barrel. 

Gershom Flagg 

[Addressed .] Artemas Flagg, Hinesburgh, Vermont. 

[Written postmark:] Edwardsville, Oct 18. 25 



* The crisis of 1819 was followed by several years of depression, especially in 
the West. See Frederick J. Turner, Rise of the New West (American Nation, 
XIII-), chap, ix., Ford, History of Illinois, 43-44. 



167 

XII. To Azariah C. Flagg, December 10, 1820. 

Edwardsville, Illinois, Decemr 10th 1820 
Dear Brother, 

I have not for a long time received any information from you either by 
letters or newspapers. I think it has been two months since I reed a paper. 
It is a pleasure to me to hear from my friends and especially my Brothers 
and Sisters. I hope you will take this into consideration and write to me 
as often as two or three times a year at least. 

I have enjoyed good health since I last wrote to you and have done con- 
siderable] work. Since the first of April last I have ploughed or broke 
up upwards of one hundred acres of New Prairie with the help of four yoke 
of Oxen and a man to drive them and have fenced in or enclosed 40 acres 
and built a log house &c. We have had scarcely any rain since last April 
the Streams, Springs & Wells two third of them' became dry the weather 
was extreemely hot the Thermometer rose to 100 degrees in the shade. This 
fall we have had two snow storms the snow fell in Nov. 8 inches deep and 
lay on several days the snow is now gone but the weather has become cold 
and the ground is hard frozen and the Mississippi is full of floating ice. 
For this country this is called Hard Times. You may gather some Ideas 
of the circulation of cash here and of the great chang[e] of times from the 
annexed prices: 

Prices curent in the vicinities of St. Louis & Edwardsville: 

1819 1820 

Beef pr. lb from 4 to 6 cents from 2% to 3 1 /. cents 

Pork " " 5 " 6 " " 2 "3 

Flour pr. Barrel " $8. $12. " $3.25 to $5. 

Corn pr bushel from 33 to 50 cents 12% to 20 cents 

Wheat do " $100 [i. e. $1.00] 37% to 50 cent[s] 

Cows which sold last year for 25 dollars will not fetch more than $15 and 
oxen which Sold one year ago for 120 d[ollars] now sell for eighty only. so 

The price of land has fallen more than one half — A bad time for Specu- 
lators — there are many here who paid out all the money they had in first 
instalments on land and depended on selling it before the other payments 
become due And as the price of land is now reduced no body will buy it at 
the former price. It will of course revert to the United States unless Con- 
gress does something for their relief. 81 

[In margin:] You will please to give my love to Mary and your Wife 
&c &c &c. 

Gershom Flagg 

[Addressed:] A. C. Flagg, Plattsburgh, New York. 

[Written postmark:} Edwardsville, Deer 13. 25 

XIII. To Artemas Flagg, March 31, 1821. 

Edwardsville Madison, Co. (Il's.) March 31st 1821 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of the 3d December was Reed in January but the waters have 
been so high since that time that the Mail does not arive oftener than once in 
3 or four weeks which is the reason I have defered 'writing until the present 
time and now have an opportunity to send you this by Pascal P. Enos Esqr 



80 Many of the travelers give information about prices current in the West. 
Consult the index to Thwaltes' Early Western Travels. Tables of prices con- 
venient for comparison with the above can be found: for Illinois In November. 1817, 
in Fordham, Personal Narrative, 118-119; for Ohio in July, 1818, in Thomas Hulme, 
Journal of a Tour in the West, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, X., 74-75 ; 
for Kentucky in December, 1818, in Flint, Letters from America, in ibid., IX., 
139-140. 

81 The price of public land was reduced and the credit system abolished in 1820 
(see note 26) but by that time purchasers were over twenty-two million dollars 
in arrears and it was evident that something ought to be done for their relief. 
Several measures extending the period of payment had already been enacted and 
finally on March 2, 1821, Congress passed a relief act which remitted the accrued 
interest on land debts and allowed former purchasers to relinquish part of their 
claims and apply the payments made to the purchase of the remainder. Turner. 
Rise of the New West (American Nation, XIV.), 141-143; Treat, The National 
Land System, chaps, v., vi. 



168 

formerly of Vermont and Brother to Roger Bnos. I have been particularly 
acquainted with him ever since I arrived at St. Louis and should you be so 
fortunate as to see him he can furnish all the information you wish of this 
Country. I have lived in the same house with him and wish you to treat 
him as my friend and write to me when he returns if not before. We have 
had a very severe winter and considerable snow and this spring we have had 
several severe storms. Two men have been found dead in the Prairie sup- 
posed to have chilled to death by the cold weather and snow. I was one of 
the Jurors who examined the body of one of the men who was found dead 
and it appeared that after being out in the open Prairie for about 24 hours 
great part of which time it either Rained or snowed accompanied with a 
very Cold Wind he fell from his horse so benum[b]ed with cold that he 
never strugled but went to sleep for the last time. I began to plough the 
first day of March but have only ploughed 16 acres the ground having been 
frozen for several days past until yesterday. 

We have pretty tight times here. Most of the People are in debt for Land 
and many otherwise more than they can posably [sic] pay. Our wise Legis- 
lator [sic'] have taken the matter into serious consideration and made a Bank 
without any Specie to Redeem their notes and have stopt all Executions un- 
til the first of November next and after that time if the creditor will not 
endorse on the back of the Execution that he will receive the amount in 
State Paper The Execution is stopped for three years longer. This money 
is to be loaned out (The capital Stock of which is three hundred thousand 
dollars) to individuals by their giving real estate in security. The notes 
are to be given for one year but to be renewed every year on paying ten per 
cent so that it will be ten years before the borrower finishes paying. 82 

Corn now sells at 12% cents per Bushel Pork at 2% and 3 dollars Wheat 
50 cents Whiskey at 25 cents per gallon by the Barrel flour is 3 and 3% dol- 
lars per Barrel. 

Lewis Curtis of Burlington has set up his business in St. Charles on the 
Missouri River 20 miles from St Louis and 30 from here. Although Money 
is very scarce in this country there was 26 thousand dollars taken in the 
Land office at this place during the sale in Jan. Last and that mostly Specie. 
I have Reed a letter from Eliza 83 a few days ago dated June 8th You will 
please to give my respects to all my friends and acquaintance. I have 
enjoyed [good f] health since I wrote you last and re[main] your most 
affectionate Brothefr] 

Gershom Flagg 
Mr Artemas Flagg, Richmond Vermont 

[Addressed:] Mr Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont, pr. P. P. Enos, Esq. 



82 Both the state law and the state bank law were enacted over the objections 
of the council of revision by. the second general assembly, in -session during the 
winter of 1820-1S21. The bank was established at Vandalia,- the new capital, with 
branches at Edwardsville, Brownsville, Shawneetown, and Palmyra. It was based 
solely upon the credit of the state and was allowed to issue notes and loan them 
to the people upon personal security up to one hundred dollars for each individual 
and upon security of mortgages in larger sums. These notes were made receivable 
for all taxes, costs, and fees and for the salaries of all public officers. The bank 
was very popular at first and the total capital of three hundred thousand dollars 
was quickly put into circulation. Soon, however, the notes began to depreciate and 
it was not long before they were worth only thirty cents on a dollar. In addition 
some of the branches were mismanaged and all in all it was a costly experiment 
for the state. The affairs of the institution were finally wound up by an act of 
1831. Illinois Historical Collections, IV., pp. xxvii.-xxviii. and passim; C. H. Gar- 
nett, State Banks of Issue. (University of Illinois, 1898) ; Ford, History of Illinois, 
45-48 ; Moses, Illinois, 301-303 ; Elihu B. Washburne, e-d., The Edwards Papers, 
270-271, 420. 

83 Eliza Wait Flagg. eighth child of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Flagg. was born in 
Richmond, Vermont, in 1802. In 1825 she was narried to Oramel Bliss of Essex, 
Vermont, who died in 1833. In 1836 the widow with three children moved to Illi- 
nois and occupied a log cabin on the farm of her brother in Madison county. She 
taught a district school for a while, was married in 1838 to Heman Liscum of 
Vermont, and died in 1841. After her death the three children were taken into the 
household of her brother Gershom Flagg. Flagg Family Records, 73. 



169 

XIV. To Doctor Ebenezer Flagg, August 7, 1821. 84 

Edwardsville (Illinois) August 7th 1821 
Honored Father 

Last fall a man by the name of Browning informed me that there was a 
person by the name of Flagg, living near Marietta (Ohio) with whom he was 
acquainted. I immediately addressed him by letter, and yesterday received 
the following answer. . . 

Not doubting that you will be very glad to hear the intelligence contained 
in the above Letter I have taken the first opportunity of communicating it to 
you and have sent you a true copy of the Letter so that you might have all 
the information which I possess on the subject. I shall write to him in a 
few days. 

I enjoy my usual good health: it is some sickly in this country as is usual 
at this season of the year. We have had a very wet spring & summer so 
far which has been very detrimental to crops, a great deal of Wheat was not 
worth reaping this year and Corn does not look very well. At present the 
weather is very hot. Times here are much as they are in other parts of 
the United States I suppose. Money is scarce and provisions plenty. I rent 
out my Land and live with the people who Rent it. I have bought corn .this 
year about a hundred bushels at 12% cent per bushel. Wheat sells at 37% 
cents per bushel. Salt at $1.00 per bushel. I wish you or Artemas would 
write to me as soon as you receive this, it has been some time since I have 
heard from you. 

Lewis Curtis of Burlington is at St. Charles near the mouth of the Mis- 
souri. I have not seen him. 

You will please to give my love to my Mother, Brothers, & Sisters and my 
fellow traveller Selah Coleman, I wish he would write to me. I wish to know 
how he likes that country after seeing Ohio. 

That this may find you in good health & spirit and that the remainder of 
your days may be blest with peace and content is the anxious wish of your 
affectionate Son 

Gershom Flagg 
Doctor Ebenezer Flagg, Burlington, Vermont. 

XV. To Mrs. Elizabeth Flagg, October 4, 1821. 

Edwardsville, Illinois October 4th 1821 
Dear Mother, 

Yours of the 9th August I received the 25 of September by Mail — on the 
14 of sept. I received by Mr. Enos a letter from Azariah dated July 28 — one 
from Artemas dated July 29 and one from John Johnson Esqr of Burlington 
dated Aug. 3d none of which I have been able to answer having been taken 
sick the day before I received the first letters and although I was only sick 
for 4 or 5 days I have felt too weak until the present time to write a letter; 
and although I received yours the last I feel in duty bound to answer it 
first. We have had a very sickly season here but in proportion to the sick- 
ness there has been but very few deaths. The weather has now become cool 
and people are getting well very fast. You seem to be very anxious to have 
me return to Vermont and it is very natural for a Mother to feel great 
anxiety about her children but I presume you are willing to have me stay 
in this country could you be pursuaded that I can do better here than with 



84 The original of this letter was formerly in the collection but is now in the 
posession of Mr. Lucius C. S. Flagg of Omaha, Nebraska, who has kindly furnished 
a copy of it for use here. The part omitted is a copy of a letter written by Captain 
James Flagg (grandfather of Lucius C. S. Flagg), in which he tells about the 
family of his father Gershom Flagg. (See note 31.) Captain James Flagg was 
born in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1779 and ten years later was taken by his 
parents to Marietta, the newly-formed settlement of the Ohio Company at the 
mouth of the Muskingum River. He made his home at Cornersville, a settlement 
four miles from Marietta, and died there in 1854. He was a farmer and blacksmith 
but he also had business interests in Marietta. In the War of 1812 he served as ihe 
captain of a company of Ohio militia, Flagg Family Records, 98-100, 



170 

you and I think this is much the best country for me hut I intend to return 
a:.d see you as soon as I possibly can but cannot, as you request, tell you 
at what time it will be. The length of the Journey I do not dread neither 
do I begrudge the money which I shall have to spend If I could get enough 
in "These hard times" but you very well know it is a great deal of trouble 
to get started on such a Journey but I am determened to make you a visit 
as soon as I can and until I do I will write to you or some of my brothers 
and sisters often, so that you can hear from me. I have a little news to 
write of things that have taken place here. There has been one Indian and 
one White man hung in this state the summer past both for Murder. 8 " Some 
time in July a Robbery was committed in an adjoining county. The house of 
a Mr. Dickson was broken open in the dead of a dark rainy night and his 
chests and trunks broken open and twelve hundred dollars being all the 
money he had taken from him. The next morning the neighbors being 
alarmed took the track of the robbers (which on account of the great rain 
appeared fresh in the road and high grass and weeds) and- followed on for 
several miles until the[y] found the horses of Major S. B Whiteside Sheriff 
of this County and Major Robert Sinclair Both of whom have heretofore been 
considered citizen of the highest respectability. They were immediately 
apprehended and after tedious examination of 3 days there appearing from 
the positive testimony of the persons Robbed, and the testimony of the pur- 
suers and others and very strong circumstantial evidence that they were 
two of the persons engaged in the Robbery they were bound to appear before 
the Circuit Court or forfeit the sum of four thousand dollars each &c &c. 8 " 
A young man has also lately been prosecuted for attempting to injure a 
Ladys character in this County and a verdict of 3000 dollars damages awarded 
by the Jury. Two of the friends of the Lady after having heard what had 
been done and said by this young man respecting the Lady (her husband be- 



85 The white man referred to was Timothy Bennett, who killed Alphonso C. 
Stuart in a duel in Belleville in 1819. The duel is said to have been intended as a 
sham to make sport of Bennett hut he secretly slipped a ball in his sun. He 
broke jail and escaped at the time but was taken in Missouri in 1821 and brought 
back to Belleville. He was tried before Judge Reynolds at a special term of the 
circuit court and was convicted and executed. Daniel P. Cook was the prosecuting 
attorney in the trial and Thomas H. Benton, the attorney for the defense. James 
Affleck, The Stuart-Bennett Duel, in Illinois State Historical Society. Transactions, 
1901, pp. 96-100 : History of St. Clair County (1881), pp. 84-85, 98. 186-187. There is 
an account of this case in John Reynolds, My Own Times (chap, xlvii.) in which 
the names are given incorrectly. 

88 The Whiteside family was prominent in early Illinois history and especially in 
the Indian campaigns during the War of 1812 and in the Black Hawk War. 
Originally from the frontiers of North Carolina, they came to Illinois from Ken- 
tucky in 1783. William Whiteside, the leader of the family, established himself 
at Whiteside's Station in what is now Monroe county. (John Reynolds, Pioneer 
History of Illinois. 2d edition, 185-190.) The Whiteside who was involved in this 
robbery was William B. or Bolin. as he was called, a son of the founder of White- 
side's Station. He was sheriff of Madison county from 1818 to 1822. (History of 
Madison County, 1882. pp. 132-140.) The History of Greene County (Chicago, 
Donnelley. 1879, pp. 266-267) gives the following account of this affair. An 
elderly Englishman named Dixon, who lived in the southern part of Greene county, 
was believed to have a considerable sum of money in his house. One night he 
was visited by a number of armed men who secured twelve hundred dollars from 
him by threat of violence and then fled. Two of them he recognized as Robert Sin- 
clair and William B. Whiteside. The alarm was raised and some of the robbers 
were overtaken near Alton. Whiteside and Sinclair were taken to Carrolton for 
trial and Sinclair was convicted but escaped to Arkansas. Whiteside is said to have 
been saved by a friend on the jury who stood out for acquittal. At any rate, the 
jury failed to reach a verdict and the trial was delayed until the death of Dixon 
and the removal of some of the other witnesses left the prosecution without suffi- 
cient evidence and the case was dropped. A similar account of the affair is in the 
History of Greene and Jersey Counties (Springfield. Continental Publishing Com- 
pany. 18851. pp. 599-600. The account in Ed. Miner, Past and Present of Greene 
County (Chicago. S. J. Clarke. 1905, pp. 47-48) is an almost literal copy from 
the 1879 work, without credit being given. 

Reynolds did not mention this affair in his books. Of William B. Whiteside, he 
wrote in 1852 : "He was raised on the frontiers and without much education, but 
possessed a strong and sprightly intellect and a benevolence of heart that was 
rarely equaled. All his talents and energies were exerted in the defence of his 
country. He was sheriff of Madison County for many years. At his residence in 
Madison County, he died some years since." (Pioneer History of Illinois, 2d. edi- 
tion 416-417.) Governor Reynold's brother Robert married a daughter of William 
B. Whiteside. Joseph Gillespie in ibid., 189, note. 



171 

ing absent on a Journey) took it upon themselves to avenge her wrongs and 
took the young man into the woods and tied him up and gave him a severe 
whipping. They were prossecuted [sic] by him before the same court and 
Jury and he recovered 3000 dollars damages. 

We have had a very wet season and our crops are not as good as usual. 
Corn however will not be more than a shilling a bushel I think this winter. 
Tell Artemas that I shall write to him ere long. Give my love to all my 
friends. Write to me oftener, if convenient. My health is now very good 
and that you may enjoy health and peace of mind is the anxious wish of 
your affectionate son 

Gekshom Flagg 
Mrs. Elizabeth Flagg 

| Addressed :] Doctor Ehenezer Flagg, Burlington, Vermont. 

[Written postmark:] Edwardsville 111, Oct. 9. Paid 25 

XVI. To Azariah C. Flagg, December 21, 1821. 87 

Edwardsville Illinois Dec 21 1821 
Dear Brother 

Your letter per Mr Enos of 28th July I received the 14th September. I 
was taken sick with the bilious fever about the same time and although 
the fever only lasted a few days my health has been such that I have not 
been able to do any work since but my health is growing better very fast 
since the cold weather commenced. Our winter is very cold thus far. . . 

I now own 270 acres of land which I have paid for. On one quarter sec- 
tion I have two log houses near each other and 65 acres well fenced in three 
fields 26 acres of which is under good cultivation as a plough field and the 
remainder occupied as a pasture it being in the Prairie. I have three yoke 
of good oxen and a good plough. I have ploughed considerable for people 
lately and have now contracted to brake up 90 acres more of New Prairie 
next spring. I get about $4 an acre for ploughing. 

I have rented my place this year for my board and live with the family 
who rented it.. . 

[Gershom Flagg J 

A Letter to A C Flagg Plattsburgh 

XVII. To Artemas Flagg, June 9, 1822. 

Edwardsville June 9th 1822 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of the 13th of April I reed a few days since but have been so 
much engaged that I have not had time to answer it until now. My health 
is very good which is the most that I have to communicate at present but as 
you will expect somthing more I will write a few lines respecting things 
which have come within my observation. We have had a very rainy spring 
which has caused the streames to overflow their banks and in some instances 
Bridges have* been carried away. The weather for a week past has been 
very hot yesterday the Thermometer rose to 98°. The wet and heat has 
caused the grass to grow very fast and in great aboundance. Our natural 
pastures are now covered as it were with droves of Cattle and horses which 
have already fattened on the spontaneous productions of the earth. I have 
seen Corn in silk this day but not our common sort the seed was brot from 
the Mandan Nation of Indians who reside 12 hundred miles up the Missouri. 88 



87 From a copy in the hand-writing of Willard C. Flagg, Gershom's son who 
gathered the letters together. The original has probably been lost or destroyed. 

88 The Mandan Indians were first visited by the Sieur de Verendrye in 1738. 
When Lewis and Clark wintered among them in 1804-1805, they numbered about 
two thousand and were located on the most northern bend of the Missouri River. 
They were in the agricultural rather than the nomadic stage, lived in fortified 
villages, and were always friendly to the whites. In 1837 the tribe was almost 
wiped out by a visitation of small-pox. Frederick W. Hodge, Handbook of Ameri- 
can Indians, (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30) I., pp. 796-799. 

The corn of the Mandans was noted by Bradbury as grown to its full height — 
about three feet — on June 24. 1810. He described it in his Travels, in Thwaites, 
Early Western Travels, V., 158. Maximilian, who visited the Mandans in 1833, 
also wrote of their "very fine maize" and of his attempts to domesticate some of 
it in Europe after his return. Travels, in ibid., XXIII., 241, 275. 



172 

YVe have our share of hard times here and have worse times coming. I 
r y worse hecause our Legislature have introduced a sort of paper currency 
which, tho' it may yield a temporary relief will, eventually, prove a great 
disadvantage to this State that is in my humble opinion and als[o] in the 
opinion of many others. Brother I am full in the belief that we are care- 
lessly suffering our government to waste the public Monies in giving high 
salaries, creating new offices for the sake of providing for their friends, &c. 
The people of the United States ought not to sleep while their Representatives 
are voting to themselves 8. dollars pr. day and giving such salaries to their 
officers as cause hundreds of applicants for one office. As times grow hard 
and money scarce and our revenue is declining why should not our represen- 
tatives in congress reduce their pay to 6 dollars pr day Reduce the salaries of 
the different officers of Government and make such other retrenchments as 
will cause our revenue to equal the expenses of Government. Most surely 
we ought not to run into debt in times of peace for if we do what shall we 
do in case of war. I am afraid our Governmental officers are growing corrupt 
and we the sovreign People ought to look to it or we shall go down the broad 
road where all other Nations have gone who possessed a happy government 
like ours. 

I should be very glad if you would write something respecting the opinion 
of the people in your state as respects our goverment. 

With sincerety I remain your most affectionate Brother 

Gershom Flagg 
Mr Artemas Flagg 

XVIII. To Artemas Flagg, July 20, 1823. 

Edwardsville (Illinois) July 20th 1823 
Dear Brother, 

I have delayed writing to you for a much longer time than usual for 
which I hope you will not retaliate as long as I am willing to confess my 
fault. I have been very busily employed for several months but not so much 
so as to forget the ties which bind the whole family of Mankind. I have 
enjoyed uninterrupted health for more than a year. It is a general time of 
hea[l]th in this vicinity at present although a sickly season has been expected 
owing to the great rains in the spring and fore part of summer. The Rivers 
have been very high much damage done to Bridges Mills &c &c. 

Our wheat harvest has been very good and corn looks very well and our 
prospects as to health are better this season than I have known since I have 
lived in the State. 

A Duel was fought on the Island, in the Mississippi, oppocite [sic] to 
St. Louis on the 30th June, between Thomas C. Rector and Joshua Barton 
Esq. District Atorney for the state of Missouri. The latter fell & expired 
immediately the other was untouched both belonged to St Louis. 89 On the 
10th of the present month an affray happened between Russel Botsford and 
Col. James Kelly, Cashier of the State Bank of Illinois both citizens of Van- 
dalia 90 in which place the scene was acted. I will relate the circumstances 



S9 For an account of this duel and of the Rector family, see note 66. Joshua 
Barton was a brother of David Barton, one of the first United States Senators from 
Missouri. He was born in Tennessee about 1788 and located in St. Louis in 1812, 
where he studied law in the office of Rufus Easton. In 1S17 he served as a second 
to Charles Lucas in his duel with Thomas H. Benton. He was appointed secretary 
of state in 1821 but resigned to become United States district attorney for Missouri, 
which position he held until his death. Scharf, History of Saint Louis, II., 1461 ; 
Houck, History of Missouri, III., 17, 77, 256. 

The island where the Rector-Barton duel was fought was known as "Bloody 
Island" on account of the many duels which took place there. It was formed about 
1800 by the current of the river cutting through a neck of land on the Illinois side 
and there appears to have beeri some doubt as to whether it was in the jurisdiction 
of Illinois or of Missouri. It is now the third ward of the city of Bast St. Louis. 
Scharf, History of Saint Louis, II., 1849-1856 ; Houck. History of Missouri, III., 
75-79 ; Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XXVI., 115, note. 

00 By act of March 3, 1819, Congress granted four sections of land, to be selected 
by the state of Illinois as a site for a capital city. The legislature passed an act, 
March 30, 1819, establishing a commission of five members which was instructed 
to select a site on the Kaskaskia River near the third principal meridian, to have 
the town surveyed, to choose a name for it, to sell part of the lots at auction, and 



173 

as I have heard them and the causes which led to it. About three months 
since the State Bank of (Illis) at Vandalia was broken open and 6 or 7 
thousand dollars in Spiece [sic] taken out by some unknown person. The 
Cashier Mr. Kelly with others mistrusted that Mr. Moss Botsford had some 
knowledge of the affair and took him into the woods tied him & Col. Kelly 
whipped him severely to make him confess his sins, and tell where the 
money was &[c] &[c] which, by the bye, is a court of inquiry very often 
instituted in this state — But no discovery was made. Russel Botsford was 
the Brother of the one that was whipped and as a Brother perhaps had 
expressed his disaprobation of the conduct of Kelly but this is only supposi- 
tion with me but at any rate on the 10th inst. while Russel Botsford was 
sitting in a Store reading Col. Kelly came to the gable end of the Store with 
a Pistol in one hand and horse whip in the other and there walked back & 
forth for half an hour. When mr. Botsford came out and met him at the 
corner of the store when kelly commenced whipping him holding the Pistol 
in one hand & whip in the other. Botsford drawed out his Spanish knife 
knocked the Pistol out of his hand & gave him a mortal stab near the heart. 
After a little scuffle in which Botsford gave him a couppl [sic] nore [sic] 
Wounds and disabled his arm which held the Pistol both fell over a stump — 
Botsford sprang up and run & Kelly after him a few rods when kelly fell 
dead on the ground. 91 

On the 18 inst Col Parkison of this county was shot through the arm by 
one of his neighbors & the same day Messrs. Mitchel and Waddle citizens of 
St. Louis met on the Island before mentioned and after exchanging two or 
three shots the latter was shot through the boddy and his death is expected. 
Their quarrel was co[mmenc]ed at a gambling table by one's gifving the] 
other the lie or something to that effect. 

Some other little skirmishes have taken place in consequence of the extra- 
ordinary and unparaleled procedings of our Legislature of which no doubt 
you have heard before now. A great party (but not a majority I think) 
are making use of every means to introduce slavery into this State. 92 I have 
not time or paper to write more enough has been written to convince you 
that we are a great and magnanimous people. 

Yours in haste forever 

Gekshom Flagg 

P. S. Waddle is dead. 
A Flagg 

[Addressed:] Mr. Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. 

[stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, July 26. 25 



to contract for the erection of a state-house. The selection was made and the 
town laid out in June, 1819, and the legislature began holding its sessions there 
in December, 1820. Vandalia, as the town was named, grew slowly until 1837 when 
it had a population of about twenty-five hundred. Beginning in 1833, a strong 
agitation developed for the removal of the capital and finally, after much con- 
troversy between rival claimants, a law was passed in 1837 providing for its removal 
to Springfield. The last session in Vandalia was that of 1838-1839 and after that 
the town declined almost to extinction but was resuscitated by the construction of 
the Illinois Central railroad through it in 1852. Robert W. Ross, Historical Sou- 
venir of Vandalia, 9-19. 

01 A somewhat different account of this affair is given in Ross, Historical Souvenir 
of Vandalia, 21. Bottsford was tried before Judge Reynolds in 1824 and was 
acquitted. Sidney Breese was the prosecuting attorney and Edward Bates of St. 
Louis the lawyer for the defense. About twelve years later a negro discovered 
some boxes containing three thousand dollars in silver in an old stable in Vandalia. 
This was part of the stolen mone , \ and was restored to the bank. Ibid, and Rey-. 
nolds. My Own Times, 222. 

92 When the constitution of 1818 was framed, there was a considerable party in 
favor of making Illinois a slave state but it was evident that any attempt in that 
direction would be likely to interfere with the speedy admission of the state into 
the Union and so the constitution contained a clause prohibiting the future intro- 
duction of slaves. It was not long, however, before a movement was on foot to 
change the constitution so as to admit slaves and this was the principal issue in 
the state election of 1822. Edward Coles, the free-state candidate, was elected 
by a small plurality but the party in favor of the change secured a majority of both 
houses of the. general assembly. The only way to bring about the dosired change 
was by calling a convention to revise the constitution and in order to do that it 
was necessary for a resolution to be adopted by two-thirds of each house for 



174 

XIX. To Artemas Flagg, January 25, 1824. 

Edwardsville (Illinois) 25th Jan. 1824 
Dear Brother, 

I have not heard from you for several months and while reflecting upon 
your negligence in writing, I happened to think of my own remissness in 
writing also — and instead of unbraiding you I will begin with excusing 
my self for not writing oftener. If I have any excuse for my negligence it 
will be found in my being very much engaged in my own business together 
with the singular situation of affairs in this state which occupies much of the 
attention of every man who has the future prosperity of the state in view. 
I have ordered Mr Warren to send the Edwardsville Spectator to John John- 
son Esq. of Burlington Vermont. This paper will give you a very good idea 
of what is going on here if you can get a peep at it, which you can, I make 
no doubt, if mr. Johnson receives it. We have had a very extraordinary 
wet summer — dry pleasant fall — & so far warm pleasant winter we have had 
no snow of consequence and very few days but what we could have ploughed 
if occasion required. The bees have been flying nearly every day this month 
and the grass has began to grow in the low lands. Pork & Beef are selling 
from $1.50 to $2.00 pr. hundred, Wheat from 50 to 75 cents and Corn from 
20 to 25 cents pr. bushel. 

For news — there is a man to be hung on the 12 day of next month at 
Edwardsville for murder. 93 There was about 8 thousand quarter sections 
of non resident lands sold at Vandalia in Dec. last, for taxex [sic] which if 
not redeemed within one year will belong to the purchasers. The sums they 
were sold for would not exceed 5 dollars upon an average and this sum was 
received in illinois State Bank paper which is worth only 30 cents to the 
dollar which will bring the price of the. land if not redeemed at less than 
one cent pr. acre. We have had an uncommonly healthy fall in this state 
more so than since I have lived in the State. I see by the papers that our 
Brother Azariah is elected a member of the N. Y. Legislature again. I 
hope if he has any thing to do with the election of the next President of the 
U. States that John Q. Adams may be the first man and William H Crawford 
the last man of all the Candidates which will be supported by him. We have 
seen and felt too much of the bad management of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in this western country not to wish any other candidate elected before 
him who has suffered immense sums of money to be deposited in banks whose 
credit was so poor that Individuals dare not and would not trust their money 
in those banks. 94 I think that a majority of the people of Illinois are in 



submitting the question to the people. The slavery party was able to muster 
exactly enough votes in the Senate but the two-thirds was secured in the House only 
by reopening a contested election case, unseating the man who had previously been 
declared elected, and seating his opponent. The resolution was thus carried in 
February, 1823, and then the question of a convention was before the people. It 
was understood that the real issue was as to whether Illinois should or should 
not become a slave-state and after an exciting campaign, which lasted a year and 
a half, the people decided against a convention by vote of 6,640 to 4,972. N. 
Dwight Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois; William H. Brown, Early Movement in 
Illinois for the Legalisation of Slavery (Fergus Historical Series, No. 4.) 

93 This was Eliphalet Green who shot and killed a fellow-laborer. William Wright, 
at Abel Moore's distillery on Wood River in Madison county. The shooting took 
place on Christmas Eve, 1823; Green was indicted January 13, 1824; tried the next 
day ; sentenced on the fifteenth, and hanged February 12. John Reynolds presided 
at the trial and is said to have pronounced sentence in a very informal manner. 
While awaiting execution Green was converted by Rev. J. M. Peck and was baptised 
in a creek through a hole cut in the ice. History of Madison County (1882). pp. 
159-160 ; Reynolds, My Own Times, chap, xlvii ; Ford, History of Illinois, 83-84 ; 
Babcock, Memoir of John Mason Peck, 189-191. 

94 Among the western banks, the failure of which during or shortly after the 
crisis of 1819 involved a loss of public funds, was the bank of Edwardsville, 
Illinois. (See note 78.) Ninian Edwards, United States Senator from Illinois 
had been a director of this bank and had been instrumental in having it chosen 
as the depository for the money taken in at the Edwardsville land office. In the 
fall of 1819, however, he announced his intention of severing all connection with 
the bank and later he claimed that Secretary Crawford had been notified of this 
fact but had ordered the continuance of the deposits in the bank. Crawford denied 
the implication and then Edwards, who had just been appointed minister to Mexico, 
sent a long address to the House of Representatives in which he charged Crawford 



175 

favor of Mr. Adams for our next President. Mr. Clay I think would be the 
next man on the list & the next Mr. Calhoun but Mr. Crawford has but few 
friends here. 85 I am anxious to hear from you all & hope you will not fail 
writing as soon as you receive this. I wish you to give my most friendly 
respects to John Johnson Esqr. of Burlington and enquire of him whether 
he received a letter which I wrote to him in August last and also if he 
receives the Spectator, which I send him weekly. 

My respects to all those who may take the trouble to enquire after me 
and especially to my friends and let me know how you are all doing as soon 
as possible and tell your wife if she does not write to me I'll punish her for 
her neglect as soon as I see her. Eliza & Rowana 98 have written very fre- 
quently as well as yourself for which I give you all many thanks. I am 
much pleased with Eliza's letters and hope she will continue to write to me 
often and wish you would all do the same. I wish to know what Mary is 
doing; I think she must have becfome] a Nunn, for I have not heard a word 
from her this two years. 

Receive with this my most sincere wishes and anxious desire for the hap- 
piness of all my friends, from your 

Friend & Affectionate Brother 

Gebshom Flagg 
Artemas Flagg Richmond Vermont 

[Addressed:] Mr. Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. 

[Stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, Jan. 28. 25 

XX. To Artemas Flagg, July 20, 1825. 

Edwardsville (III.) July 20th 1825 
Dear Brother, 

I have not written to you for a long time because I intended before this 
time to have seen you at your own house but my circumstances are such 
that I have not been able to accomplish my intentions as yet. I shall not 
set any time again to see you but as soon as I can shall come and make 
you a visit. I have been looking every mail to hear from you but not receiv- 
ing any letter I suppose you expected me there and have therefore neglected 
writing on that account. Being very anxious to hear from you I hope you 
will write as soon as you receive this. We have had a very remarkable 
year so far; the month of Jan. was entirely dry warm weather the ground 
was hardly frozen at all and we had neither snow or rain during the month. 
Crops are now 3 or four weeks earlier than usual Cherries were ripe by the 
middle of May and people commenced harvesting wheat before the 20 June. 



with mismanagement of the public funds, especially in connection with the banks. 
The House appointed a committee to investigate the matter and Edwards resigned 
his mission and returned to Washington to substantiate the charges but the com- 
mittee reported that "nothing has been proved to impeach the integrity of the 
Secretary, or to bring into doubt the general correctness and ability of his ad- 
ministration of the public finances." Annals of Congress, 18 Congress, 1 Session, 
pp. 2431-2455 ; American State Papers, Finance, V., 1-145 ; John Quincy Adams, 
Memoirs, VI., 296 et seg. ; Thomas H. Benton, Thirty Years' View, I., chap. xiv. ; 
Edwards, History of Illinois, chap. viii. 

93 At the time when this was written the candidacy of General Jackson had not 
attracted much attention. Calhoun dropped out of the race and contented himself 
with the vice-presidency. In the election, which took place in November, 1824, the 
total vote in Illinois was but 4707 as compared with 11,834 votes for Congressmen 
and 11,612 votes on the convention question at the election the preceding August. 
The presidential electors were chosen by districts in Illinois and two of them voted 
for Jackson aad one for Adams. The determination of the popular vote is com- 
plicated by the fact that one candidate who received 629 votes in the first district 
did not announce his preference until after the election when he declared that, had 
he been elected, he should have voted for Jackson. It was understood, however, 
that he was opposed to Adams. Of the remainder of the votes cast, 1541 were for 
Adams, 1273 for Jackson, 1046 for Clay, and 218 for Crawford. When the election 
came before the House of Representatives, Daniel P. Cook cast the vote of Illinois 
for Adams. Edwards, History of Illinois, 261-265. 

86 Roana Flagg, ninth child and youngest daughter of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
Flagg, was born in Richmond, Vermont, in 1804. She was married in Vermont in 
1826 to Harley H. Pierce and in 1838 they moved to Edwardsville, Illinois, with 
their family of five daughters. Pierce died in 1843 and the widow afterwards 
married Calvin Hodgman of Omphghent township, Madison county, Illinois. She 
died in 1863. Flagg Family Records, 78. 



176 

I saw ripe blackberries the 19 day of June and Corn now is generally ten 
feet high. For a few days past it has been very hot and the ground is now 
very dry indeed. Our political squables and quarrels have subsided very 
much and I am in hopes we shall have better times in this State hereafter. 
It appears that a majority of the people are opposed to the introduction of 
Slavery and I think the question is now at rest forever. I[n] my last letter 
to Eliza I enclosed a three dollar bill for many [sic]. I believe it was on a 
Vermont bank. I have not reed any answer to the letter which makes me 
suspicious that she did not receive the letter. 

Property is now very low here. Corn is worth only about 72^. cents pr. 
bushel Beef about $1.50 pr Cwt Wheat 50 cents cows are worth from 5 to 7 
dollars Oxen from 20 to 40 dollars a yoke horses all prices from 10 to 80 
dollars. Goods have risen some since the speculations in Cotton. Steam 
Boats are very plenty now on the Mississippi the first Steam Boat came to 
St Louis the year I came there but now sometimes they have 3 or 4 there 
at a time. They travel up the current of the Mississippi at the rate of 
about 100 miles per day and some times more. 

I wish to know "how wags the world wV ye." 

Lafayette came up the mississippi as far as St. Louis got his dinner and 
the next day dined at Kaskaskia 97 in this state almost a hundred miles from 
the former place. From thence he went up the Ohio and Cumberland rivers 
as far as Nashvill[e] in Tennessee 98 thenc[e] back to Shawneetown 99 and so 
up the Ohio like a whirligig and like to have given his last whirl when the 
steam boat sunk but fortunately at that time two steam boats on the way to 
Orleans saw the situation of the Nations guest "and volunteered their service 
to help him out of the scrape. 100 You will learn by this circumstance that 



97 Kaskaskia, for over half a century the metropolis of the upper Mississippi 
Valley, was founded in 1700 by Jesuit missionaries who followed the Kaskaskia 
Indians from their former habitat on the Illinois River. At that time the site was 
on the right bank of the Kaskaskia River and about ten miles from its mouth. In 
1765 the village was transferred to the British and in 1778 it was taken possession 
of by George Rogers Clark in the service of Virginia. A considerable number of 
the French inhabitants deserted the place for the new settlements across the river 
but American settlers soon began to come in and take their places. When Ran- 
dolph county was established in 1795 Kaskaskia became its seat and from 1809 to 
1821 it was the capital of the territory and state. During this period the town 
nourished moderately but with the removal of the capital to Vandalia it began to 
decline again. Following the flood of 1844, the county-seat was removed to 
Chester and during a subsequent inundation the Mississippi jumped across to the 
Kaskaskia just above the town, so that all there is left of old Kaskaskia today is 
a number of houses on an island in the Mississippi River. Clarence W. Alvord, 
The Old Kaskaskia Records, 35-38 ; History of Randolph, Monroe, and Perry Coun- 
ties. (Philadelphia, 1883); Moses, Illinois. I., 268-270. 

9S Nashborough station was founded by James Robertson in 1779 and the town 
of- Nashvi'le was laid out in 1784. The town grew rapidly and was incorporated 
in 1806. The Tennessee legislature met there from 1812 to 1816 and from 1826 on 
but it was not made the permanent capital until 1843. James Phelan, History of 
Tennessee, 118-120. 134, 179, 200. 

99 Shawneetown. located on the Ohio about ten miles below the mouth of the 
Wabash, was at this time the principal town of southeastern Illinois. The town 
was laid out iu 1808 on the site of an old Shawnee Indian village and the land 
office for eastern Illinois was located there in 1812. The salt works on Saline creek 
nearby contributed to its prosperity as did also the stream of emigrants from the 
South to Illinois and Missouri which crossed the Ohio at this point. Moses, Illinois, 
I., 271-272 ; Boggess, Settlement of Illinois, 125. Judge James Hall, who was a 
resident of Shawneetown for a number of years, gives an interesting sketch of the 
place about the time of Lafayette's visit in his Letters from the West. 215-233. 

ioo when Lafayette arrived in America in 18 24 the legislature of Illinois appointed 
a committee to invite him to visit the state. To the address drawn up by this 
committee Governor Coles added a personal invitation, for he had made the 
acquaintance of the general in France in 1S17. (Illinois Historical Collections, 
IV., 70-71.) In the spring of 1825 Lafayette came up the Mississippi River on a 
steamboat to St. Louis where he was met by Governor Coles and escorted to Kas- 
kaskia. There the governor delivered an address of welcome which was responded 
to by the general. Then followed a reception at the residence of John Edgar, a 
dinner at Sweet's tavern, and a ball at the home of William Morrison. Governor 
Coles accompanied his guest to Nashville on a steamboat chartered by the state 
and afterwards the pnrtv stopped at Shawneetown, where an address of welcome 
was delivered by Judge .Tames Hall. Lafayette's secretary, A. Levasseur, gives an 
account of the visit to Illinois and of the wreck of the steamboat on the Ohio in 
his Lafayette in America (New York, 1829). See also Ellen M. Henrotin, The 
visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to Illinois in 1825, in Illinois State Historical 
Society. Transactions, 1907, pp. 79-84. The account of the visit in Reynolds, ' 
Own Times (chap, lix.) Is inaccurate. 



177 

Steam boats are very plenty on the Ohio river some times I am told there 
are twenty at a time at Louisville. I am informed also by a Gentleman who 
had traveled from N. York to Vermont [in] Steam boats on North river and 
lake C[ham]plain that the Boats on the Ohio & Mississippi r[i]vers are 
equal if not superior to the boats on north river. New boats are building 
in great numbers in different places on the Ohio River. You will perceive 
that I have been scribbling along 'till I have but sufficient room to mention 
that I remain in good health your most affectionate Brother and friend 

Gekshom Flaqg 

A Flagg 

[Addressed:] Artemas Flagg, Hinesburgh, Vermont. . 

[Stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, July [illegible]. 25 

XXI. To Artemas Flagg, August 16, 1825. 

Edwardsville (Illinois) Aug. 16th 1825 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of the 18 June and Eliza's of the 12 I have received and am 
very glad to hear that you are all in good health. I am very well pleased 
with the names of your Children and hope I shall be well pleased with them 
if I can ever be so fortunate as to see them. 101 We have the hottest weather 
here that I ever experienced before. We have had no rain of any conse- 
quence for several weeks. The sun pours down his scorching rays from day 
to day without any cessation and the ground has become so heated that there 
does not seem to be moisture enough in it to produce any dew. I attempted 
to walk bare foot two days ago upon hard ground which was exposed to the 
sun but found I could not bear the heat. Iron exposed to the sun becomes 
so much heated that a person cannot hold it in his hand a minute. Corn and 
grass are drying up very fast and apples that are lying upon the ground are 
half baked by the sun. Crops of Corn will be poor I think this year although 

5 weeks ago there was never a better prospect and farmers were calculating 
that corn would not be more than 6% cents pr bushel. But notwithstanding 
the great heat this state was never more healthy. You make a particular 
request that I should write respecting my property and for the sake of grat- 
ifying you on that bead I will give you a very particular account of the 
same. I have 275 acres Land 60 acres fenced into 5 fields and under good 
cultivation an Orchard of 530 apple trees 100 Peach trees twelve Cherry trees 

6 3 pear trees also a well and several log buildings. I rent all my farm 
except the Orchard of 13 acres to a man who lives on the place and gives 
me 390 bushe[ls] Corn and 50 bushels wheat pr. annum. I board with a 
family half a mile from my farm at $1.25 pr. week including washing. I 
have four yoke of good oxen 4 Chains yokes &c 3 good ploughs two wooden 
Carts two sleds one large Grindstone two axes 4 augers shovel, hoe, &c &c — a 
Surveyors Compass and two Chains and Mathematical instruments worth 
60 dollars. I purchased last June about 15 hundred acres of valuable land 
for the taxes which amounted to $103 dollar. The owners have two years 
from that time to redeem the same by paying the amount with 100 per cent. 

I owe $56 dollars and have due to me $110 from goou men and have $34 
in cash on hand. I have twelve shirts six pair Pantaloons 6 vests ten cravats 
& handkerchiefs two roundabouts 4 pair stocking two pair shoes one Coat in 
Short I suppose my whole property to be worth about $1500 in cash and 
now I suppose I have been particular enough on that subject at any rate 
I do not wish any one to see this letter except yourself. 

If you will give me as good an account of your own affairs together with 
those of my Sisters I shall not complain of you. You and my sisters write 
that they are married but neither of you tell me any thing about the men 



ioi Artemas Flags; had four children at this time: Lucius Harrington, born in 
1818; Azariah Cutting, 1820; Mary Jane. 1822: and Caroline Elizabeth, 1823. A 
fifth, Gershom Hannibal, was born in October, 1825. Flagg Family Records, 42. 

—12 H S 



178 

they have married except their names. 102 I should like to know somthing 
further if you please. I have not time to write more at present haveing been 
Summoned as a witness at Court to day therefore excuse the haste of your 
affectionate Brother and friend 

Gershom Flagg 
Artemas Flagg 

XXII. To Artemas Flagg, August 2, 1830. 

Edwardsvilxe Madison Co. (III.) Aug 2d 1830 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of June 21 I received a few days since. I enclose a deed to 
you which I think will answer the purpose intended but I do not under- 
stand what your laws are now respecting conveyances but presume this will 
be a good and sufficient title to my share of the land and no more. I am in 
great haste and cannot write as much as I should be glad to do as this is the 
day of our State Elections. 103 With respect to the trade you mention that 
Buel 104 can make with N. B. Haswell it would be buying a pig in a poke to 
buy land in the Bounty tract without seeing it. The land is generally good 
but there is a great quantity of Prairie and some whole townships destitute 
of timber. If I knew the numbers of the land I could tell much better about 
such a trade as I could give a very near guess as to whether it is well sit- 
uate[d] for farming by the map. If you have Vanzandt's map of the Mili- 
tary bounty lands in Illinois 105 you can see the Prairie and timber marked on 
the map. We consider the land generally that lies from 4 to ten miles from 
the large rivers to be the best for farming & for health. The land near the 
water courses is richer but not considered heathy and after you get some 
distance from water courses the Prairies are much too large. A belt of tim- 
ber accompanies all water courses but. between the head waters of streams 
it is generally open level Prairie. The Bounty tract is setling [sic] very 
fast and the Immigration to the state is more now than it has been since I 
came here. Instead of one I think we shall have three Representatives in 
Congress after the next Election of members. 100 We have had a very dry 
season. Money is scarce Provision cheap and plenty. We have much old 
corn on hand & worth only 15 cents pr bushel oats 17 cents wheat will not 
sell for 50 cents pr bushel. I have old Corn Oats & wheat now on hand. 
People ar[e] giving 25 pr. cent interest for money to buy land with notwith- 
standing land is so plenty here. We may well suppose that when money will 
fetch 25 pr cent interest and some times more that those who have it will 
let it out as they have the land for security in addition to a note and this 
money of course goes into the general land office and from thence to feed the 
big fish at Washington at the rate of 8 dollars pr. day for their great and 



102 p or Gershom Flagg's oldest sister, Mary Ann. see note 10. The second sister, 
Semanthy, born in 1796. was married in 1822 to Enoch Hoadley at Hartland, Ver- 
mont. She died in 1849. Her oldest son had moved to Rochelle, Ogle county, 
Illinois the year before and the rest of the family followed soon after her death. 
Keziah, born in 1789. died unmarried in 1821. Lucy Douglas, born in 1800, was 
married in 1823 to William Buell of Essex, Vermont. Ten years later they moved 
to Madison county, Illinois, by way of the lakes, settling afterwards in Macoupin 
and finally in Shelby county, where she died in 1867 and he in 1871. For Eliza 
and Roana, see notes 83 and 96. Flagg Family Records, 37, 56, 63. 

103 In the state election of 1830 the rival candidates for the office of governor 
were - John Reynolds and William Kinney. Kinney was an iiZt?-a-Jackson man but 
Reynolds was cautious about committing himself and secured votes from both 
Jackson and anti-Jackson forces. The outcome was the election of Reynolds with 
a majority of nearly four thousand in a total poll of twenty-two thousand. Moses. 
Illinois, 352-355 ; Illinois Historical Collections, IV., pp. xix-xx ; Reynolds, My 
Own Times, chap. Ixviii. 

104 Probably Flagg's brother-in-law, William Buell. See note 102. 

105 Nicholas Biddle Van Zandt, at one time a clerk in the general land office, 
wrote a book entitled, A full description of the soil, water, timber, and prairies of 
each lot, or quarter section of the military lands between the Mississippi and the 
Illinois Rivers (Washington, Force, 1818). The copies of this book seen, however, 
do not contain a map. 

108 The population of Illinois Increased from 55,162 in 1820 to 157,445 in 1830. 
Under the apportionment act following the census of 1830 the state was entitled 
to three representatives in Congress and the districts were laid out by an act of the 
legislature of February 13, 1831. The first election thereunder was August 6, 1832. 
Moses, Illinois, I., 549, JL, 1195, 



179 

persevering efforts in the cause of Retrenchment & Reform and as we are 
to have no money appropriated for internal improvements 107 the Money which 
is continually drawn from our western states to be spent elswhere will 
leave us soon without money entirely. Suppose for instance the whole state 
of Vermont & Newhampshire were now owned by the U. S and offered for 
sale at $1.25 pr. acre would not every man who had money either lay it out 
in land or lend it at a high interest to those who wanted a home and sup- 
posing all the money thus taken in was transported to other states and say 
for instance that one hundred thousand dollars of this money was squand- 
ered extra because divirs foreign minister had the misfortune to be so 
wofully blinded as even to think that J. Q. Adams was a better man for 
President than the Hero of two wars 108 and then be told it was unconstitu- 
tional to appropriate any money to improve your navigation Roads &c &c 
and thereby prevent in som measure your prosperity I think some Ethan 
Allen 100 or Missouri Barton 110 would rise up amongst you & tell you who was 
who & what was what. 

G Flagg 

[On margin:'] We are all well. 

[Addressed:] Mr. Artemas Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. 

[Stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, Aug. 6. 25 

XXIII. To Mrs. Elizabeth Flagg, January 9, 1831. 

Edwardsville Madison County Illinois January 9th 1831 
Dear Mother, 

It has been a long time since I have written to you or received a letter 
from you. I have however often heard from you as I suppose you have 
from me. My health at present is not very good I believe I have done too 
much hard work since I have been in this country I am not able to endure 
as much fatigue as formerly. 

Willard arrived here the 16th of October last and is now in good health 
but was not well when he arrived here and for a number of days after- 
wards. 111 He came down the Ohio River in a steam boat when the water was 
very low and the boat struck sand bars and all hands and passingers had to 



107 President Jackson's veto of the Maysville road bill, May 27, 1830, was pract- 
ically the death-blow to the proposed system of national internal improvements. 
The National Republicans — later Whigs — under the leadership of John Quincy 
Adams and Henry Clay were strongly in favor of internal improvements to be con- 
structed at the expense of the nation but Jackson took the position that appropria- 
tions for such purposes were unconstitutional. Flagg was later a member of the 
Whig party. William McDonald, Jacksonian Democracy (American Nation, XV.), 
chap, viii; Benton, Thirty Years' View, I., chaps, x, lii ; Flagg Family Records, 52. 

los a reference, doubtless, to General William Henry Harrison, Minister to 
Columbia, whom Jackson recalled four days after he became president. He had 
been at his post but a few weeks and his recall involved the expense of a new 
outfit for his successor. James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, III., 210 ; H. 
Montgomery, Life of William H. Harrison, 287-2S8. J. Q. Adams comments on this 
example of Jackson's "economy" in his Memoirs, VIII., 112. 

109 Ethan Allen was the leader and hero of the "Green Mountain Boys" in the 
Revolution. He is noted especially for his surprise and capture of Fort Ticonderoga 
on May 10, 1775. He is said to have demanded its surrender "in the name of the 
Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress." Claude H. Van Tyne, The Ameri- 
can Revolution (American Nation, IX.), 40. 

110 David Barton was born in Tennessee, where he was admitted to the bar in 
1S10. He moved to St. Louis in 1S11 and soon became prominent as a lawyer and 
judge. He was the presiding officer of the constitutional convention of 1820 and 
was elected one of the first Se lators from Missouri, serving from 1821 to 1831, 
when his support of Adams against Jackson cost him his place. He died in 1837. 
During the great debate in the Senate on Foote's resolution to instruct a com- 
mittee to inquire into the expediency of limiting the sales of public lands, Barton 
delivered a long speech in reply to one by his colleague, Senator Benton. This 
speech is probably the explanation of Flagg's reference to him, for it attracted 
considerable attention at the time. Scharf, History of Saint Louis, II., 1459-1461 ; 
Houck, History of Missouri, 17 ; Register of Debates in Congress, VI., Part i, pp. 
146-159. 

111 Willard Parker Flagg, tenth child and fourth son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
Flagg, was born at Richmond, Vermont, in 1808. He went to Illinois In 1830 and 
in 1838 became one of the two original pioneers at a point in Ogle county where 
Rochelle was later located. He became an ardent abolitionist and was. an agent of 
the Underground Railway. In 1839 he was married to Mrs. Lucy Cochran Lake, 
who died in 1855. In 1857 he married Mrs. Maria Sitterly. He died at Rochelle 
in 1877. Flagg Family Records, 86. 



180 

get out into the water to haul the hoat over the barrs. In doing this Willard 
by being in the water at that time rather cold and hard lifting &c catched 
a very violent cold which lasted some time but he is now very well and 
hearty and I believe is very well pleased with the country as far as he has 
seen it which is very little has not been away from home at all scarcely. 
He received a letter from Wait 112 not long since. 

We have a son nea[r]ly 16 months old who is large and very healthy and I 
named him Willard Cutting 113 his uncle willard has learnt him to dance 
very Well since he came here. 

We have a very hard winter so far for this country the snow is now 8 or 
10 inches deep and has been for some days and the weather quite cold. The 
Mississippi River is frozen over in places. The past season has been more 
unhealthy than usual and the crops not as good. The fall was extreemly 
dry as also the latter part of the summer. I had a large quantity of apples 
the last fall and made above twenty five barrels Cider but have sold so many 
apples that we have very few left. I sold my winter apples at 50 cents pr 
bushel Wheat is now selling here at from 40 to 50 cents pr. bushel Pork 
from 2y 2 to 3 dollars pr hundred and beef the sam[e MS. torn] much if it 
was [MS. torn'] you but at presen[t MS. torn] saas as I can &f£[MS. torn] 
visiting Vermont [MS. torn] be very glad if you would write to me [and] 
inform me how you are. 

your affectionate son Gebsho[m] 
Mrs. Elizabeth Flagg 

[Addressed:] Mrs. Elizabeth Flagg, Richmond, Vermont. 

[Stamped postmark:] Edwardsville, Illinois, Jan 14. Paid 25 



112 Thomas Wait Flagg, eleventh child and fifth son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
Flagg, was born in Richmond, Vermont, in 1813. He moved to Rochester, New 
York, where he edited a paper as early as 1838. Later he lived in Coshocton, Ohio 
and edited the Coshocton Democrat. He was also a lawyer, being admitted to the 
bar in 1841. He married Catherine Conley in 1839 and died in 1863. Flagg Family 
Records, 91. 

n3 Willard Cutting Flagg was the only son of Gershom and Jane (Paddock) 
Flagg. He was born September 16, 1829, prepared for college in St. Louis, and 
graduated from Yale in 1854. Returning to Illinois, he took charge of his father's 
farm in Madison county and made a specialty of horticulture. He was secretary 
of the State Horticultural Association from 1861 to 1S69 and was afterwards its 
president. He played a prominent part in the establishment of the Illinois In- 
dustrial University, now the University of Illinois, and was on its board of trustees 
from the start until his death in 1878. In politics, Flagg was a Republican and in 
1860 President Lincoln appointed him collector of internal revenue for the twelfth 
district of Illinois, a position wliich he held until 1869. He w.as also enrolling 
officer for Madison county during the war, by appointment of Governor Yates, and 
was state Senator from 1869 to 1873. During the decade of the seventies he was 
one of the leaders of the "Farmers' Movement" or "Granger Movement" as it was 
called and was president of the State Farmers' Association. The objects of this 
movement were the organization of farmers for their mutual advantage, and the 
regulation of railroads by the state. Flagg made speeches and wrote articles on 
the railroad question which attracted attention in the East as well as in Illinois. 
The movement led to the formation of an "Independent Reform" party in 1874 
and Flagg, who was always a hard-money man. strove, but without success, to 
keep this organization from adopting the Greenback planks. 

In addition to his political and agricultural activities, Flagg was deeply interested 
in western history and gathered together a considerable library on the subject 
together with a large number of manuscripts and newspaper clippings relating to 
the history of Illinois and of Madison county. To him is due the credit for the 
collection and preservation of these letters written by his father. These books and 
manuscripts are now in the possession of his son. Hon. Xorman G. Flagg. Willard 
C. Flagg was married February 13, 1856 to Sarah Smith of St. Louis. He died in 
the prime of life. March 30, 1878, and his widow survived him until February 16, 
1905. Their three children living are, Mrs. Isabel Hatch of Springfield, Illinois; 
Mis Mary W. Gillham of Wanda. Madison county, Illinois; and Norman Gershom 
Flagg of Moro, Madison county, Illinois. Flagg Family Records. 52-55 : Solon J. 
Buck, Agricultural Organization in Illinois, iri Illinois State Historical Society, 
Journal, III.. 10-23, (April. 1910) and Independent Parties in the Western States, 
in Turner Essays in American History, 137-164: Jonathan Periam, The Ground- 
swell, a History of the Farmer's Movement, 383-388. 



181 

XXIV. To Artemas Flagg, July 24, 1836. 

Edwardsville Madison County (Illinois) July 24th 1836 
Bear Brother, 

My wife is asleep Brother Willard has gone to alton 114 and the children 
and hired men have gone to meeting and it being sunday and raining I thot' 
it might be well to write to you as I must be doing somthing for Idleness. 
you know is the root of all evil. Those who do not get their living by the 
Swett of the face make God a liar you know. I presume you would like to 
know how we are all coming on. In the first place then I have the pleasure 
to inform you that we are all in good hea[l]th and have so much work to do 
that we have no time to commit any othere sin. I own one thousand and 
eighty three acres of Land about two hundred and forty of it is good tim- 
bered land and the other is Prairie land. I live about 10 miles a little north 
of east from the mouth of the Missouri River and about 30 miles from the 
mouth of the Illinois River and 12 miles East of the town of Alton on the 
Missisippi River and twenty six miles from St Louis in Missouri on the 
Road from st Louis to Springfield Chicago Galena and all the upper part of 
this state. 115 The 4 horse Mail stage passes here every day in the week 



111 The town of Alton, located on the bluffs of the Mississippi about twenty-five 
miles above St. Louis, was laid out in 1818 by Rufus Easton. The place languished 
for a while on account of a controversy over land-titles but it grew rapidly in the 
thirties, being incorporated as a town in 1833 and as a city in 1837. Edmund 
Flagg, a distant relative of Gershom Flagg. visited Alton just about- the time 
this letter was written and gives an interesting description of the place in his 
Far West. (Thwaites. Early Western Travels, XXVI., 118-125.) In the following, 
year, 1837, occurred the anti-abolition riots in Alton in which Elijah P. Lovejov' 
was killed. Moses, Illinois. I., 272; History of Madison County (1882), 374-389; 
Peck. Gazetteer of Illinois (1837), pp. 146-150. 

115 The first settlements on the site of Springfield were made by a number of 
squatters in 1819 and 1820. When Sangamon county was laid out in 1821 the 
commissioners selected a place near the cornfield of John Kelley, one of these 
squatters, for the county seat and two years later a land office was opened there 
with Thomas Cox as register and Pascal P. Enos as receiver. These two with 
Elijah lies and John Taylor bought out the improvements of the squatters, 
entered four quarter-sections, and became the proprietors of Springfield, or Cal- 
houn, as it was called for a few years. The town grew rapidly and is said to have 
had a population of a thousand in 1830 and fourteen hundred in 1834. It was 
incorporated as a town in 1832 and as a city under a special charter in 1840. 
In 1837, the efforts of Lincoln, Douglas, Edward Baker, and other representatives 
from the Sangamon country secured the choice of Springfield as the permanent 
capital of the state and the legislature began holding sessions there in 1839. 
Moses, Illinois, I., 430-432 ; Zimri Enos, Description of Springfield, in Illinois State 
Historical Society, Transactions, 1909, pp. 190-208. There are descriptions of 
Springfield, about the time this letter was written, in Peck, Gazetteer of Illinois 
(1837), pp. 296-297; Flagg, Far West, in Thwaites, Early Western Travels, XXVI., 
318-319. 

The town of Chicago was platted by the commissioners for the Illinois and 
Michigan canal in 1829. Although there was some speculation in lots at the time, 
no considerable settlement followed and it had a population of only two or three 
hundred in 1832. From 1833 to 1837, however, the town grew with unparalleled 
rapidity and was incorporated as a city in the latter year with a population of over 
four thousand. This growth was the result of the development of steam navigation 
on the lakes, tons of merchandise and a vast number of emigrants being landed 
at the port during these years. Pooley, Settlement of Illinois, chap, x ; Peck, 
Gazetteer of Illinois (1837), pp. 179-181. See also notes 52 and 69 on the Illinois 
and Michigan canal and on Fort Dearborn. 

The town of Galena, located on Fever River near the northwest corner of the 
state of Illinois, was a product of the lead mines in the vicinity. These mines 
had been worked to some extent by the French in ths eighteenth century but 
operations by American miners were inconsiderable until about 1819. Within a few 
years there were several hundred miners in the settlement but the town was 
not laid out until 1828 and titles were not given for the lots until 1838. Its popula- 
tion fluctuated considerably but was probably about nine hundred in 1S30 and 
about twelve hundred in 1836. Pooley, Settlement of Illinois, chap. ix. ; Peck 
Gazetteer of Illinois (1837), p. 208. 

The road referred to was a development of the Edwardsville and Fort Clark trail. 
(See note 68.) Mitchell's map of Ohio. Indiana, and Illinois (1835) shows a stage 
road from St. Louis through Edwardsville, Carlinville, Macoupin Point in Mont- 
gomery county, and Springfield, to Peoria : thence northward across Rock River 
at Dixon's Ferry to Gratiot's Grove in Wisconsin and southwestward to Galena. 
This map also shows a road from Peoria to just below the mouth of the Kankakee 
where it crosses the Illinois and then proceeds along the northwest side of the 
Illinois and Des Plaines Rivers and across to Chicago. Mitchell's map of Illinois 
of the same date, however, shows the road from Peoria to Chicago as crossing the 
Illinois at Ottawa and then running eastward along the bank of the river. 



182 

except Sundays. 110 I have four hundred and fifty five acres well fenced in 
mostly with White oak and hlack Walnut Rails nine rails high. It is 
divided into about a dozen different fields and lots the largest field contains 
330 acres. I have on my farm 4 log houses or Cabbins as we call them here 
besides the ones which I occupy myself — 4 good wells well walled up with' 
stone the water good and plenty of it — About five hundred bearing apple 
trees one half of which are of the very best kind of fruit. I sold about 500 
bushels of Winter apples last fall for 50 cents a bushel in the Orchard and 
a few days ago I sold my early apples 68 bushels, at one dollar pr bushel in 
the Orchard. I have currant bushes in plenty. We made 275 gallons of Cur- 
rant wine this year and have about 30 Gallons of last years wine on hand. 
It is worth $1.50 pr. Gallon. I have 12 head of horses upwards of 50 head 
of Cattle 30 sheep 29 head of hogs about 400 bushels of old Corn on hand 
and 70 acres now growing. I have 8 or 10 tons of last years hay on hand 
and 50 acres of timothy and red top this year one half of which is now 
cut made and well stacked without any rain on it since it was mowed. The 
hay is most excellent. We have 32 acres of Oats 10 acres of which are not 
yet Cut. 

Myself and those that I have rented land to have 100 acres of Corn all in 
one field. I think it would do your soul good to look at it. If it does as 
well as it did last year we shall raise five thousand bushels at least. We milk 
1-1 Cows make a cheese every day and are selling the cheese at 2 or 3 weeks 
old at 12y 2 cents a pound. I sold last fall one hundred dollars worth of 
apples the produce of less than one acre of land and with that 100 dol. pur- 
chased 80 acres of excellent land. This month the apples on a half acre 
in orchard has produced me 75 dollars. Sister Eliza writes to willard that 
she is determined to come to this country as soon as she can get anybody 
to come with her. Would it not be well for you to come and take a look at 
this state[?] 

I would come to Vermont this summer if I possibly could leave home but 
do not know how I can. I am now in debt about 800 dollars and to raise 
money to pay this requires that I should be here. I should like to hear from 
you soon. I should like very much to know whether that Old sarpent called 
the Devil is drove out of Vermont or whether he is still roving up and down 
the country seeking whose Chickens he can catch [a]nd devour. I see or 
read and hear that there [is] great uneasiness by our religious friendfs in] 
the East about the cause of Religion in the valley of the Missipi &c &c."' 
I do not see but the cause fl[o]urishes as well here as in other places the 
people here contribute freely for the support of Preachers both in money 
and good living which you know is the main thing. Those who renounce 
the world the flesh and the devil ought to be satisfied if they and their wives 



110 The mail route from Edwardsville through Springfield to Peoria is said to have 
been established in 1822 and there was one from Peoria to Galena as early as 
1830. Scott, Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, p. xxx ; Boggess, Settlement 
of Illinois, 158. 

117 The concern about the religious welfare of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley led to the organization of numerous home missionary societies, bible societies 
and Sunday school iinions in the eastern states and most of these bodies sent 
agents or missionaries to the West. In the summer of 1812 John F. Shermerhorn 
and Samuel J. Mills made a missionary tour through the valley under the patronage 
of the Massachusetts and Connecticut missionary societies; in 1817 John Mason 
Peck arrived in St. Louis as agent of the Baptist Mission Board ; and in a few 
years there were a considerable number of missionaries in the "West. The letters 
and reports of many of these missionaries have been preserved in the archives 
of the organizations in the East and form a valuable source for the social history 
of the Mississippi Valley. Shermerhorn and Mills. A Correct View of that part 
of the United States which lies West of the Allegany Mountains with regard to 
Religion and Morals (Hartford, 1814) ; Babcock, Memoir of John Mason Peck. 



183 



can live upon the best and have nnthino- t*. a. 



183 

can live upon the best and have nothing to do. Tell Mother that I intend 
to come and see her next summer if not before 118 and give my love and 
respects to all our friends. 

Yours Truly 

Gershom Flagg 
Artemas Flagg 

[Addressed:] Artemas Flagg, Esqr., Richmond, Vermont. 
[Written postmark:] Edwardsville 111, Aug 2nd 25 



118 Flagg finally made his long contemplated visit to Vermont in 1838. His 
grandson, Hon. Norman G. Flagg, possesses a series of five letters which he wrote 
to his wife in Illinois while on this trip to the East. 



184 



ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 
(Synopsis of Professor Warren K. Moorehead's Lecture.) 



Professor Moorehead spoke on prehistoric man in the State of Illinois lay- 
ing particular stress upon the mound builder remains throughout our State. 
Unfortunately he did not preserve the manuscript of his address, but the 
salient observations are set forth in the following abstract which he has 
sent us. 

He illustrated his discourse with numerous lantern slides of the more 
prominent archaeological remains in the State and his pictures of Cahokia 
mound and the groups surrounding it were especially fine. 

"As to the exact date that the Red man first appeared upon the broad 
prairies of Illinois, no man may know. Whether the remains that have 
been found indicate the existence of a glacial man or man of paleolithic 
culture is a doubtful question. However, it is v/ithin the realm of possi- 
bility that at some time rude implements may be found in glacial terraces 
or under such conditions as to indicate the presence of man of great an- 
tiquity in Illinois. 

"Be that as it may, up to the present time our evidence relating to ancient 
man in Illinois is confined to the people responsible for the mounds and 
earthworks. And it relates to the early Indians. 

"While there are unknown numbers of tumuli in your great State, Illinois 
is the proud possessor in the Cahokia, the largest mass of earth artificially 
heaped up, in the world. The pyramids of Egypt are higher but their bases 
are far smaller than the immense structure, near East St. Louis. The 
Cahokia mound is well known to archaeologists having been visited by 
famous men of America as well as foreign countries. It covers more than 
eleven acres of ground and is upwards of 90 feet in height. Surrounding 
it are two score of qther tumuli some of which, but for the fact that they 
are dwarfed by the presence of the great Cahokia, are by no means insig- 
nificant affairs." 

Professor Moorehead explained at considerable length the meaning of 
these various mounds found in our State, so far as that meaning is clear ' 
at the present time. He took particular pains to indicate the necessity of 
Illinois preserving its own antiquities and advocated that such large and 
important collections as that ownerl by Mr. E. W. Payne of Springfield be 
deposited in a fireproof museum. 

"Now as to this great Cahokia group of mounds. In any other country 
than the United States such monuments would have been preserved long 
ago. Yet, with all our wealth, which exceeds that of any other nation 
on the face of the earth, we are backward and it is no departure from the 
truth to state that debt-ridden Italy and France, with far less than half our 
population and with limited natural sources, care for and show a better ap- 
preciation of the antiquities within their borders. 

"It required the hardest kind of work on the part of a number of us to 
persuade the state of Ohio to preserve Fort Ancient and other prehistoric 
remains. So little interest was formerly shown on the part of Ohio in her 



185 

antiquities that the famous Serpent mound, threatened with destruction, 
was paid for and preserved by the ladies of Boston and not by the citizens 
of Ohio. Today it is owned by the state of Ohio for the simple reason that 
Professor Putnam of Harvard University, representing these ladies .deeded 
the property to Ohio. 

"Illinois is one of the richest states in the Union in archaeological re- 
mains. As your population increases these mounds, fortifications and vil- 
lage sites become things of the past. It will be but a few years until all 
of them shall have disappeared unless you take immediate action towards 
their preservation. 

"A few years ago one of the great Street Railway lines of the western 
part of your State proposed hauling away the Cahokia mound and using that 
magnificent monument as it would an ordinary gravel bank to procure ma- 
terial for filling lines of track that were to be built across certain low and 
swampy grounds. 

"You owe it to the great past to preserve for future generations such a 
monument as the Cahokia group. It could be purchased from the heirs of 
the estate controlling it. for a comparatively insignificant sum. 

"Therefore, in showing you in my final picture this greatest of all pre- 
historic monuments in North America I urge that you persuade your Legis- 
lature to appropriate sufficient money to have preserved a monument the 
like of which does not exist elsewhere in the world. 

"You would not wish future generations to rise up and say: 'Our fore- 
fathers permitted to'be destroyed that monument which has helped to make 
the Illinois country famous.' Your greatest pioneers, LaSalle and Hennepin, 
saw Monk's mound. Future generations of Illinois citizens should also be 
granted that privilege." 



187 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Abolitionist — foot note 179 

Abolitionists 46 

Abstract Guaranty Company of 

Springfield, 111 37 

Acansas (Indians) — Village of 131 

Adams County, 111 47, 50 

Adams, John 83, 88 

Adams, John Quincy 174,175, 179 

foot notes 175, 179 

memoirs of, quoted — foot note... 175 

Adams. Samuel 83, 88 

Affleck, James, his account of the 

Stuart-Bennett duel— foot note... 170 
Agnes, Negro slave, case at law 

of • 46, 48, 49 

Agouassaki river (Wabash river) . . . 129 
"Agricultural Organization in Illi- 
nois," by Solon J. Buck — Quoted — 

foot note 180 

Alabama 61 

Albany, N. Y 9, 31, 35 

Albany Regency — foot note 141 

Albemarle Co., Virginia 14 

Albion, 111. — founded by George 

Flower 52 

Albion, 111 23, 52, 53 

Alexander, D. S., Political' History 
of the State of New York — quoted 

— foot note 141 

Alfdal Dialect 115 

Alleghany mountains 136 

Allen — Bickerdike vs. Allen, case at 

law of — cited — foot note 86 

Allen, Electa 144 

Allen, Ethan— foot note 17S 

Allinson's Grove— seven or eight 
miles west of Jacksonville. 111... 59, 60 

Alton, 111 5, 15, 44, 47, 181 

foot notes 170, 181 

anti-abolition riots at, reference 

to— foot note 181 

Observer, Lovejoy paper, print- 
ing press destroyed 44 

sketch of— foot note 181 

Weekly Telegraph 141 

Alund. Eriik 'De Nordiska Runorna — 

quoted— foot notes 113, 114, 115 

Alvord, Clarence W.— Illinois — the 
origins (Military Tract Papers, No. 

3) — quoted — foot note 154 

The Old Kaskaskia Records — 

quoted — foot note 176 

America 7, 29, 34, 

51, 68, 69. 93, 106, 119, 122, 124, 135, 184 

foot notes 121, 122, 145, 176 

American Bills of Rights 

82, 83, 89. 92, 93, 103 

American Bottom 13 

American Colonies 26, 81. 88, 91, 9S 

American Colonists 83, 86, 88, 99 



Page. 
American Commonwealths — Vol. II. 

—by Ellis H. Roberts— quoted— 

foot note 141 

American Constitutional Law 101 

American Constitutions 97, 99 

American Desert 25, 31 

American Expansion , . 28, 29 

American Fur Co. — foot note 161 

American History 24 

American Independence 68 

American Journal of Science— Silli- 

man's, Vol. I — quoted — foot note.. 156 
American Nation Series, Vol. IX — 

quoted — foot note 1 ' 9 

American Nation Series, Vol. X— 

quoted — foot note 143 

American Nation Series, Vol. XIII— 

quoted-— foot note I 65 

American Nation Series, Vol. XV— 

quoted— foot note 1<9 

American Nation Series, Vol. XVII — 

quoted— foot note loo 

American Republic • °1 

American Revolution (see War of 

the Revolution).. 81. 83, 84, 88, 97, 103 
"American Revolution," by Claude 

H Van Tyne— quoted— foot note.. 179 
American State Papers — Finance 

Vol. V— quoted— foot note 175 

American State Papers — Public 

Lands III— quoted— foot note 160 

American Statesmen in 177G »L 

Americans 52, 67, 68, 69, 70, 153 

foot notes 160, 161, 16'. 

Amerika (Periodical), Feb., 1910— 

April 1, 1910— quoted— foot notes 

Ames,' ' 'Herman— State Documents 
on Federal Relations— quoted— foot 
note lal 

Ammons— (case)— Hone vs. Am- 
mons, case at law of— cited 45 

Amos, (Negro) of Adams Co., 111. — 
pardon of— cited • • • • 50 

Anderson, Andrew 1-^, J-g 

foot note I-- 3 

Anderson, (Gen.)— Confederate Gen- 
eral— War of the Rebellion 79 

Anderson, R. B.— foot note 106 

Andover, Mass • li 

Andrew, (Negro) of Adams Co.— 
pardon of, cited ::,•%•'! 

Anglican Church, the established 
church of the commonwealth of 
Virginia 8 ° 

Anglo-Saxon, method of writing laws 29 

Anilco Indians •• 130 

Annals of Congress, 18th Congress, 
1st Session— quoted— foot notes... 

;165, 175 

A i m Arbor, Mich 23 



188 



Index — Continued. 



Page 
Antaya, Pierre — (French Trader) — 

foot note 161 

Anti-Abolition Riots at Alton, 111. — 

reference to — foot note 181 

Anti-Nebraska Editors' Convention 

—Decatur, 111., Feb. 22. 1856 41 

Anti-Trust Act— (Sherman)— 1890. . . 32 
Apalachites — People of English 

Florida 129 

Arabian Fisherman : 31 

Archaeology — Committee on, of the 

Illinois State Historical Society.. 7 
Archaeology, (The)— of the Missis- 
sippi Valley — Address before the 
Illinois State Historical Society, 
1910, by Prof. Warren K. Moore- 
head 23, 184. 185 

Areopagitica. or plea foj- unlicensed 
printing published in 1644. by John 

Milton— quoted 88 

Arizona 28, 32 

Arizona Mines 28 

Arizona Territory 27 28 30 

Arkansas River 135, 153, 'l61 

Arkansas State 25 

foot notes 160, 170 

Army of the Cumberland 75 

Arnold. Ray M 16 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 

Railroad . 30 

Atkins. (Hon.) Smith D ...'....'. 5 

Atkins, Smith D.— Some Illinois 
Editors 1 Have Known— Ad- 
dress before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1910 23, 38-41 

Atlantic Coast 106 

Atlant'c Ocean 25, 30, 121, 136 

Atwfter. Caleb— History of Ohio 
(edited. 1838)— quoted— foot note.. 146 
On the Prairies and Barrens of 
the West— quoted— foot note.. 156 

Auburn, X. Y.— foot note 143 

Au Glaize or Rear Creek— foot note. 143 

Augusta Co.. Va 14 

Austin. (Xegro) of Adams Co., 111. 

— pardon of. cited 50 

Avery, Mrs. J. T.— Early Music in 
Galesburg and Illinois— address— 

on reference to 16 

Aver vs. City of Chicago— case at 
law of. cited — foot note 101 



Babcoek, Rufus, Ed.— Memoir of 
John Mason Peck — quoted — foot 

notes 152, 157, 158, 174, 182 

Badgley. (Rev:) David— Territory of 
the present Madison Co.. 111. said 
to have been explored by, about 

1799 — font note 155 

Bailey, Ewing vs. Bailey — 

eas.' ;it law of, cited— foot note 88 

Bailey, David 45 

Bailey. (Lieut.) at Vincennes 63 

Baird, Robert— View of the Valley 
of the Mississippi— quoted— foot 

note 147 

Baker. Edward Dickinson— foot note 181 
Ballance, C— History of Peoria— 

quoted — foot note 161 

Baptist Mission Board— foot note ... 182 



Page. 
Barnburner Faction of the Demo- 
cratic Party — reference to foot 

note 141 

Barnes, (Lieut.) George F 77 

Barston, George — History of New 

Hampshire — quoted — foot note 144 

Barton, David 179 

foot notes 172. 1 , 9 

biographical sketch — foot note.. 179 

Barton, Joshua 172 

foot notes 160, 161, 172 

biographical sketch — foot note.. 172 
Bates, Edward — prominent lawyer of 

St. Louis — foot notes 161, 173 

Battle of Plattsburg 139 

foot note 141 

Bay of the Holy Spirit— (Mobile 

Bav) N 134 

Bay *of the ' North— (Hudson ' Bay ')'.'. 1 :!.' 

Bay St. Louis 136 

Beall and Edwards Family History, 

Albert S. Edwards. Comp 14 

Bear Creek, (Au Glaize or Bear 

Creek) — foot note : 143 

Beardstown, 111 11 

Beattie vs. People, case at law of. 

cited — foot note 96 

Beaujeau, Count de, Pilot of La 

Salle's Sea expedition 135 

Beaver County, Penn. — foot note... 142 

Beaver Head (River or Creek) .... 27 
Beck, Lewis C. — A Gazetteer of the 
States of Illinois and Missouri — 

quoted — foot note 152 

Becker County, Minn. — foot note.... 121 

Beckwith, Hiram W 36 

Bellamy, Edward 24 

"Belle," The— steamboat 136 

".elle Riviere — (Ohio River) 135 

Belleville, 111 164 

Bennett— Stuart duel in 1819, 

foot >note 170 

incorporated in 1819 — foot note. 164 

Belvidere, 111 4, 5 

Benneson. (Miss) Cora A 10 

Bennett. Lieut. Thomas 70 

Bennett, Timothy — duel with Al- 
phonso C. Stuart — Belleville, 

1S19— foot note 170 

Benton, Thomas Hart of Missouri... 29 

foot notes 170, 172, 179 

Thirty Years View, quoted — foot 

notes 175, 179 

Berlin, Germany 35 

Berry. R. L 10 

Besette vs. People, case at law of 

— quoted — foot note 86 

Betsy — indentured Negro girl, case 

at law of — referred to 44, 45 

Bickerdike vs. Allen, case at law 

of — quoted — foot note 86 

Big Wabash River 52 

"Rill Williams Fork," in Arizona... 27 

Bird. (Capt.) Henry — foot note.... 70 

Birkbeck, Morris 51 

Notes on a Journey in America, 
published in Dublin, 1818 — 

quoted — foot note 145 

Notes on a Journey in America, 

3rd Ed. — quoted — foot note . . . 150 
one of the founders of the Eng- 
lish Settlement in Edwards 
county, 111. Resolution of the 
Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety on memorial to 5 

opposition to slavery in Illinois. 53 



189 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Bishop, Bethia — foot note 155 

Bishop, Roxana 147 

Bissell, William H. — first Republican 
Governor of the State Of Illinois.. 41 

Black, George X 36 

Black Hawk Wa r 3, 52 

foot note 170 

"Black Laws" of Illinois 43 

Black Laws of L819, repealed by the 

Legislature of Illinois, 1853 47 

Black. (Mrs.) Louisa 1 9 

Blackstone, (Sir) William 90, 94, 95 

foot notes 89, 90, 93, 95 

Plair, George — foot note 164 

Blake vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 98 

Blanchette, Louis — foot note 160 

Bliss, Oramel— foot note 168 

Bloomington, 111 3, 5, 34, 35 

first Republican Convention, 
State of Illinois — held in 

Bloomington, May 29, 1856 41 

Bloomington vs. Heiland, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 95 

Blue Book of Illinois, 1905— quoted 

—foot notes 156, 164 

Boddy, (Mrs. ) 59 

Boggess, Arthur C. — settlement of 
•Illinois. 1778-1830, quoted— foot 

notes 144. 154, 157, 158, 176, 182 

Bonus, Sweden 114 

Bohuslan 117 

. Boise River 27 

Bolton, Vermont — foot note 144 

Bond County. 111. — foot note 159 

William H. Perrin's history of 
Bond and Montgomery Coun- 
ties, quoted — foot note 159 

Bond, (Gov.) Shadrach — dedication 

of monument to — reference to . . . 7 
Boon vs. Joliet. case at law of, cited 45 
Borreby in Ingelstad County, in 

Skaane 115 

Boston. Mass 31,159,162 

foot notes 147, 159 

Bottsford, Moss 173 

Bottsford. Russel 172-173 

at Vandalia, 111.— foot notes. .172-173 

Bowman. (Col.) John 69 

Bowman. (Major) Joseph — foot 

notes 68, 70 

Bowman. (Capt.) Joseph — Journal, 

quoted — foot note 64 

Braceville vs. People, case at law 
of — Illinois Reports, III — quoted — 

fi ii it note 85 

Bradbury. John, F. L. S. — Travels in 
the Interior of North America — 
Liverpool, 1S17, quoted — foot notes 

162, 171 

Bradley, (Capt.) Hezekiah foot note 161 
Bradley vs. Lightcap, ease at law of, 

cited — foot note 102 

Prandon, Minn 1*22, 123 

Brannan. Gen. John M. — Union 

Gen.. War of the Rebellion 76 

Brashears. (Lieut.) Richard — left in 

enmmand at Vincennes 63 

Breckinridge. John C 40 

Breda. (Prof.) O. J.— foot. note 106 

Breese, (Judge) Sidney 45 

fool note 173 

Breese. Sidney — Illinois Reports. 

quoted 44, 45 

Brehm to Haldimand, letter. May 28, 

1779— foot note 69 

Brewster vs. People, cas? at law of, 
cited — foot note 94 



Page. 
.. 73 
.. 39 



181 
12 
58 

115 
56 
56 
41 



16H 



159 



174 



Bridgeport, Ala 

Hriggs House, Chicago, 111 

Brink, W. R. & Co.. publishers- 
History of Madison Co., quoted— 

foot notes 155, 

156. 157. 158, 159, It',."). 170, 174, 

British Army 

Broadwell, Wm. H 57, 

Broman, (Rev.) O. J 

Brown, Benjamin W 

Brown, (Capt.) James N 

Brown, J. B 

Brown, Samuel R. — Western Ga- 
zetteer, or Emigrant's Directory, 
Auburn, N. Y., 1817— quoted— 

foot notes 1 13, 

146, U9. 150. 151, 152, 154. 158, 

Brown. William H. — Early History 

of Illinois (Fergus Historical 

Series) No. 14, quoted— foot note.. 

Early Movement in Illinois for 

the Legalization of Slavery, 

(Fergus Historical Series No. 

4), quoted — foot note 

Browning 169 

Bruffet vs. Great Western R. R. 
Co., case at law of, cited— foot 

note 1?2 

Bruzelius, N. G llo 

Buchanan. James 41 

Buck, Solon J.— Agricultural Or- 
ganization in Illinois, quoted — foot 

note 180 

Independent Parties in the 
Western States. 1873-1876, 

quoted — foot note ISO 

Pioneer Letters of Gershom 
Flagg — with introduction and 

notes by 139-183 

Buel. William — foot note 178 

Buffalo. N. Y 140, 14; 

foot note 142 

Bugge, Alexander 125 

Bugge. Sonhus 109, llo 

Bull— Calder vs. Bull., case at law of, 

cited— foot note 1° - 

Bullock, (Mrs.) Mary 17 

Burchard, Horatio C __3? 

Bureau County. 111.— case of Owen 
Lovejoy, for harboring Negroes.. 

46. 48, 

Circuit Court— Owen Lovejoy. 

ease in 1843 : 48, 

underground railway station at 

home of Owen Lovejoy in 

Bureau of American Ethnologv — Re- 
ports XVIII, pt. 2. quoted— foot 

note 

nun-iis — Rurakanslones Larospan. 

1599. quoted •- 1 ' 4 ' 

Burlington, Vermont 139i 

147 ' 155. 165, 168. 169. 171. 174. 

foot notes 141. 147. 161, 

Burnet. Jacol — Notes on the Early 
Settlement of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, quoted— fool note 150 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H • • 

::. i. 5. 11, 12, 13, 15. 36 

' chairman of the Committee on 

lOCal Historical Societies, re- 
port of 3, 14. 15 

Butler, James, Esq 1 

Butler, Mr 146 

Buttrick, Tilly— Voyages, quoted— 

foot note llo 

Byrd, (Prof.) R. A 19 



49 
49 
47 

143 

-115 

175 
161 



1D0 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Cadiz, Ohio 140, 142 

foot note 142 

Cahokia, 111 42, 68 

foot notes 70,164 

court of — foot note 67 

Cahokia Mound (or Monk's Mound). 7, 8 

preservation of, urged 184, 1S5 

Cairo City and Canal Company — 

foot note 163 

Cairo, 111. — incorporated as a city, 

1858— foot note 163 

Calder vs. Bull, case at law of, cited 

— foot note 102 

Calhoun, 111., (Springfield, 111., first 

called)— foot note 181 

Calhoun, John C. — foot note 175 

California State.. 25, 26, 27, 30, 32, 62, 140 

foot note 119 

Cambridge, 111 23 

Cambridge, Ohio 140, 142 

foot note 142 

Campbell, A 18 

Camp Butler, Springfield, 111 55 

Camp Duncan, Jacksonville, 111 58 

Camp Grant, Mattoon, 111.— War 

of the Rebellion 55 

Camp Yates, location of, Spring- 
field, 111., etc 5, 55, 56 

Canada 47, 136 

foot note 164 

Canadian Boundary — foot note 156 

Canandaigua, N. Y 140, 142 

foot note 142 

Canterbury Pilgrims — reference to — 

foot note 145 

Cape Gerardeau — See Cape Girar- 
deau 160 

Cape Girardeau, Mo. — foot note 160 

first settlement at, French 
trader, Louis Lorimier — foot 

note 160 

Capitol Building, Springfield, 111 23 

Carbondale, 111 5 

Cardiff Giant — Archeological fraud. 124 

Carleton, (Gen.) J. H 2S 

Carneal, T. D. — one of the proprie- 
tors of the town of Covington, 

Ky.— foot note 150 

Carondelet, Baron de — foot note... 160 

Carpenter. Richard V 4, 5 

Carpenter, Stephen D 38 

Carr, (Col.) Clark E.— History of 
the Galesburg Postoffice, address 

by — reference to 16-17 

President of Illinois State His- 
torical Society 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12 

President, Knox County Histor- 
ical Society 16 

Carrollton, 111 S 

foot note 170 

Carson, Nevada 27 

Carson Valley, Nevada 27, 28 

Caton, (Judge) John Dean 46 

The Origin of the Prairies, 

quoted — foot note 156 

Cattle 43, 142, 147, 148, 15S, 162, 182 

foot note 147 

Cayuga, N. Y. — foot note 145 

Central Military* Tract Railroad Com- 
pany vs. Rockafellow, cases of, 

cited — foot note 88 

Chalmers, George P. — M. D 16 

Chamberlain, Joshua 143 

Chamberlain. Pluma 49 

Chamberlin, Jason 159 

Chamberlin, M. H 5 



Pags. 

Chamberlin, (Ulnsted?) 143 

Chambers, E. P. — Reminiscences of 
Early Days, address of — reference 

to 16 

"Chamber's Information for the 
People," published in Scotland, 

1842 — reference to 17 

Chambersburg Bridge on Perry, Illi- 
nois, Road 62 

Champaign County, Ohio 

140, 141, 143, 144,140 

also foot notes 141, 160 

Champaign, 111 5 

Champion, (Col.) Thomas E...72, 77, 78 

Channel Isles 52 

Chaouenon Indians 131 

Chaouenon River — (Tennessee River) 129 

Chaplin, (Lieut), at Vincennes 63 

Chapron — Newkirk vs. Chapron, case 

at law of, cited — foot note 102 

Charles the First of England— The 
Petition of Rights to Charles the 

First in 1628 82, 102, 103 

Charles XI of Sweden 114 

Charleston, S. C 40 

Chase's Blackstone, quoted — foot 

notes 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 101 

Chattanooga, Tenn 73, 79 

Chepoussea Indians 131 

Cherry Creek 27 

Chester, 111 47 

foot note 176 

Chicago, 111 5, 8, 

9, 15. 17, 23, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 47, 161 

footnotes ...156, 161, 170, 1S1 

Chicago and Alton Railroad Com- 
pany vs. People, case of, cited — 

foot note 98 

Chicago — Ayer vs. City of Chicago, 
case at law of, cited— foot note.. 101 

Chicago, 111.— Briggs House in 39 

Burlington and Quincy Railroad 

Company 30, 47 

"Democrat," newspaper 41 

Historical Society Collections IV 

— foot notes 67, 68 

Historical Society — foot note 105 

Rigney vs. Chicago, case at law 

of, cited— foot note 100 

River 129, 130, 131, 134, 135, 157 

foot note 130 

Roby vs. Chicago, case at law 

of, cited— foot note 102 

Rock Island and Pacific Railroad 
vs. Joliet, case of cited— foot 

note 101 

St. Charles and Mississippi Air 

Line Railway 38 

Sanitary District— foot note 157 

sketch of— See, foot note 181 

"Tremont House" 41 

"Tribune" 39, 40 

University — foot note 10S 

Van Imvagen vs. Chicago, case 
at law of, quoted— foot note... 86 

Chickamauga. Battle of 72,79,80 

Chickamauga River 73 

Childs, Ebenezer — Recollections of 

Wisconsin, quoted — foot note .... 157 
Chillocotha, Ohio— See Chillicothe, 

Ohio 1 4G 

foot notes 145, 146, 151 

Chillicothe, Ohio 146 

foot notes 145, 146, 151 

Chillicothe, (Shawnee Indian Town) 69 

Chinkoa Indians 131 

Chittenden County, Vermont 139 

foot notes 141, 144, 147, 163 



191 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Choisser vs. Hargrave, case at law 

of, cited 45 

Christiania, Norway 125 

foot note 106 

University of 125 

Chucagoa River 129, 130, 131, 134, 135 

foot note 130 

Church. S. M 41 

Churches — Anglican Church, the es- 
tablished Church of the Common- 
wealth of Virginia ' 86, 87 

Mount Zion Church, 1S35, refer- 
ence to IS 

Presbyterian (First) of Spring- 
field, 111 36 

Roman Catholic Church 87 

Union Baptist Church' Spring- 
field, 111., (Colored) 19 

Cicaca Indians 129 

Cincinnati, Ohio ■ 

140, 146, 14S, 149, 150, 154, 155, 163 

also foot notes 150, 156, 159 

Cincinnati — College of Cincinnati — 

foot note 150 

Directory of 1819— foot note 151 

Natural and Statistical View or 
Picture of Cincinnati and the 
Miami Country, quoted — foot 

note 150 

Queen City of the West in 1S17-. 141 

sketch of — foot note 150 

United States Bank, branch of, 

located at — foot note 151 

University of — foot note 150 

Cincinnati Order of, Institution and 
Proceedings of the Society, May 
10. 17S3, published in Boston, 1812, 

also order of in France 14 

Circleville, Ohio — foot note 160 

Cisca Indians 129, 131 

Cist, Charles, Cincinnati in 1814, 

quoted — foot note 150 

City, (The) and bank of Cairo— foot 

note 163 

Civil Liberty and Self-government, 

Lieber — quoted — foot notes 83, 87 

Civil War 25, 

26, 27, 28, 29. 30, 32. 35, 39, 55, 56 79 

50th Anniversary of 12 

Mining Boom, Territories of the 

Civil War 2S 

See War of the Rebellion. 

Clapp, Asenath 49 

Clapp, Seth 49 

Clark County, Ohio — foot notes. 140, 111 

Clark, George Rogers 

63, 64, 65. 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 

also foot notes 65, 68, 71, 154 

accounts against Virginia — foot 

notes 64, 65 

address to the Kaskaskians. . . . 67 
capture of Kaskaskia — foot note 176 
Clark-Mason letter, quoted .... 66 

foot notes 66, 68 

Clark papers, Virginia State 

Library., quoted — foot note.... 65 
Clark to Pollock, June 12, 1779 

— foot note 65 

letter to Patrick Henrv. dated 

April 29, 1779— foot notes. 64, 65. 6S 
Memoir of, quoted — foot notes. 69, 71 
Thwaites, R. G. — How George 
• Rogers Clark Won the North- 
west,- quoted — foot note 162 

Clark-Mason Letter, quoted — foot 
notes 66, 68 



Page. 

Clark papers, Virginia State Library, 

quoted — foot note 65 

Clarke, (Lieut, and Col.) Isaac L. .72, 77 

Clarkson, (Lieut.) Theodore F 75 

Clay, Henry 175 

foot notes 175, 179 

Clearwater River 27 

Clendenin, H. W 4 

Cleveland, Grover 24 

Cleveland. Ohio — foot note 143 

Clinton, J. W 5, 11, 12, 15 

Cloud Spring 75 

Codex Runicus, edited by Prof. P. 

G. Thorsen 113 

Coe, (Mrs.) Sophia Fidelia Hall 14 

Coiracoentanon Indians 131 

Colbert River (Mississippi River).. 

L29, 130, 135 

Coleman, Mr 154 

Coleman, Ctlah 142 

Coleman, Selah 169 

Coles County, 111 55 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward 51,53,54 

foot notes 161, 164, 173, 176 

frees his slaves 44 

Coles vs. Madison county, case at 

law of, cited— foot note 102 

College of Antiquities, Sweden 114 

Collins, (Hon.) James H 44, 46 

Collins, (Prof.) J. H 4 

Collins, (Hon.) Wm. H 5 

Colonie du Sieur de La Salle — refer- 
ence to 135 

Colorado State 30 

Colorado Miners 27 

Colorado River 28 

Colorado Territory 27 

Colored Historical Society, Spring- 
field, 111.— report of 19 

Colombia, S. A.— William Henry 
Harrison, Minister to — foot note.. 179 

Columbia River 28 

Columbiana County, Ohio — foot note 142 

Columbus, Ohio 140. 142, 145, 146 

foot notes 142, 143 

Its History, Resources and Pro- 
gress, by Jacob H. Studer, 

quoted — foot note 143 

Commerce, Interstate Commerce Act 

passed, 1887 32 

Commercial Company — Scammon vs. 
Commercial. Co., case at law of, 

cited— foot note 102 

Comstock, Lode -7 

Comstock, Milton L.— Early Schools 
and Methods of Instruction in 
Galesburg, 111., address on, refer- 
ence to 16 

Conches River — foot note 135 

Concord, Ohio — foot note L43 

Confederation and the Constitution, 
by Andrew C. McLaughlin, quoted 

—foot note 143 

Congress Land — use of the term — 

foot note 148 

Conkling, Clinton L 8,11 

Conley, Catherine — foot note 180 

Connecticut— State 14 

foot note 113 

Deed dated Colony of Connecti- 
cut, April 3, 1775— reference to 17 
Earjy Missionary Societies — 

reference to — foot note I*. 

Connecticut River 159 

foot note 104 



192 



I ii dex — Continued. 



r~i i.-^ .. Page. 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illinois 
•■■....44, 45, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 
91. 92, 93, 94, 96, 97. 99, 101, 103, 104 

toot note 173 

Article VI, Section I. ' quoted— 

foot note 84 

Convention called to amend the 
Constitution, 1818, defeated... 44 

Slavery Provisions of 43 

Constitution of 1848, State of Illi- 

n ° ls „„ 46. 47, 84, 

87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103 
Constitution of 1S62— See proposed 
Constitution of 1862 . . 
........... .84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91,' 93, 98 

foot note 84 

Constitution of 1870, State of ' Illi- 
nois (present Constitution) 

35, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 
93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100. 102, 103? 104 
Article 2, section 1, analyzed. . .84-85 

toot note 84 

Article 2, section 2, analyzed 

•■••••••••• S5-86 

foot note 85-86 

Article 2, section 3, analvzed. . .86-88 
Article 2, section 4, analyzed. . .88-90 

foot note 88 

Article 2, section 5, analyzed! ! !j)0-91 

foot note 90 

Article 2. section 6, analvzed! ! !iJl-92 
Article 2, section 7, analyzed.. 92 

foot note 92 

Article 2, section 8, analyzed! ! ! 93-94 

foot note 93 

Article 2, section 9, analyzed! ! !<J4-95 
Article 2, section 10, analyzed. .95-96 

foot note 95 

Article 2, section 11, analvzed! .'97-98 

foot note 97 

Article 2, section 12, analyzed!! 98 

foot note 98 

Article 2, section 13, analvzed .98-101 

foot note 98 

Article 2. section 14, analyzed!! 

101-102 

foot note 101 

Article 2, section 15 and 16 

analyzed 102-103 

foot note In. 1 

Article 2, section 17, analyzed!! 103 

foot note 103 

Article 2, section 18, analyzed.. 

••. .'...103-104 

Article 2, section 19, analyzed.. 104 

foot note 104 

Article 2, section 20, analyzed.'. 104 

foot note 104 

Article 4, section 31, quoted — 

foot note 101 

Constitution of the United States.. 85 
Constitutional Convention, State of 

Illinois, 1818— foot notes 159, 164 

Constitutional Convention of 1862, 

proposed Constitution of 1862 

84, 87-91, 93-98 

foot note 84 

Constitutional Convention of 1869, 

.State of Illinois 

85, 87. 89, 90, 93. 95, 99, 100, 102 

debates of 93, 100 

foot notes 87, 90, 93. 97, 99, 100 

Constitutional Limitations, Cooley's, 

quoted si;, ss, no, 95 

foot notes •. 

..86, 88, 90, 91, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104 



Page. 
Continental Army— War of the Revo- 
lution 139 

foot notes 149, 154 

Conventions, State of Illinois. Con- 
stitutional Convention, 1818 — foot 

notes 159, 164 

Constitutional Convention 1869.. 
...85, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95, 99, 100, 102 

debates of 93, 100 

foot notes... 87, 90, 93, 97, 99, 100 
Cook — Kinney vs. Cook, case at law 

of, cited 45 

Cook, Caleb 46, 49 

Cook County, 111 15 

Cook, Daniel P.— foot notes 170, 175 

Cooke, Jay 30 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre, Constitu- 
tional Limitations, quoted 

, 86, SS, 90, 95 

foot notes 

..86, 88, 90, 91, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104 

Copenhagen, Denmark 113, 1 25 

foot note 109 

Cornelius vs. Cohen, case at law of. 44 

Cornelius, Joseph 44, 45 

Cornersville, Ohio — foot note 169 

Coroa Indians 130 

Corrington Farm, nine miles east of 

Jacksonville, 111 57 

Corrington, John 57 

Corrington, J. W 59 

Corrington, Tillie 60 

Corrington, William M 57 

Corn 142, 145, 146, 147, 149, 

151, 153, 156, 158, 162, 163, 165, 166, 
167, 168, 169. 171, 172, 174, 176, 178, 1S2 
of the Mandan Indians — foot 

note 171 

Cornwall, England 52 

Coshocton, (Ohio) — D e m o c r a t 

(Newspaper) — foot note 180 

Cottman, (Rev.) E. T 19 

Coughlin vs. People, case at law of, 

cited foot note 95 

Covington, (General) — foot note.... 150 

Covington, Kentucky ..55, 150 

foot note 150 

Cox Thomas — foot note 181 

Craig, C. C— The Indians of Illinois, 

address on, reference to 16 

Craig, (Capt.) Thomas E.— foot 

note 161 

Crawford County, Pennsylvania — 

foot note 142 

Orawford, William H. — foot notes.. 

174. 175 

Creighton, (Hon.) James A. — The 
Life and Services of Alfred Oren- 
dorff, late President of the Illinois 
State Historical Society, address 

before the Societv, 1910 6, 23. 34-37 

Crews, (Rev.) E. K 4 

Critzer. Peter D 60 

Cromwell, Nathan 45 

Crookston, Minnesota 119 

Crowder, Thomas J. — reminiscences 
of General Grant at Camp Yates.. 5 

Cuba 133 

Cumberland Mountains 73 

Cumberland River 176 

Cummings 165 

Cunningham, (Hon.) J. 

Curme, (Prof.) George Oliver 106 

Curran, 111 56, 57 



193 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Curtis, Lewis 168, 169 

Cutler, Manasseh 84, 139 

Cuyahoga River — foot note 143 

Czar of Russia 52 



Dahlerup, (Dr.) Verner 125 

Dalarne, Sweden 115, 116, 117, US 

foot note 115 

dialect of Dalarne, Sweden 117 

Dalbymalets Ljud ock Bojningslara, 

by Noreen, 1879, quoted 117 

Dalecarlian Alphabet 116 

Inscriptions 116 

Runes 116 

Dana, Edmund — A Description of 
the Bounty Lands in the State of 
Illinois, Cinn., 1819, quoted — foot 

note 151 

Geographical Sketches of the 
Western Country, Cinn., 1819, 

quoted — foot note 156 

Dane, Nathan 84 

Danish Inscriptions in the National 
and Royal Museums and Libraries 

of the Scandinavian North 108 

Dansk Literaturhistorie, by P. Han- 
sen 113 

(De) Danske Runemindesmarker — 
Wimmer's great work — foot note.. 109 

Darby Creek Country — foot note 160 

Darby Creek, Ohio 160 

Darby, William — The Emigrants 
Guide to Western and South- 
western States and Territories, 
N. Y., 1818, quoted— foot notes.. 

142, 143, 146, 150, 152, 154, 160 

Darlington, Penn. — foot note 142 

Darst vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 91 

Dartmouth College, New Hampshire 

72, 86, 102 

foot note 159 

Davidson, (Mrs.) W. A 18 

Davis, W. T. M 44 

Day, Frederick 143 

Dayton, (Gen.) Jonathan — foot note. 146 

Dayton, Ohio — foot note 146 

Debates in Congress, Register of 

Vol. VI, part I, quoted— foot note. 179 
Debates of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, State of Illinois, 1869, 

quoted — foot notes 

87, 90, 93, 97, 99, 100 

Decatur, 111. — Anti-Nebraska Editors 

Convention at, Feb. 22, 1856 41 

Declaration of Independence 

47, 84, 85, 90, 103 

foot note 84 

Decorah, Iowa — foot note 106 

Decouvertes des Francais dans De 
L' Amerique, Margry, quoted.. 129, 132 

DeKalb County, 111 4 

DeKalb, 111 5 

Delano, Isaac 48 

Delaware Indians 64 

foot note 142 

Demint, James— foot note 141 

Democratic National Convention at 

Charleston, S. C, 1860 40 

Democratic National Convention oi 

1872 35 

Democratic Party 39 

foot note 141 



Page. 

Denman, Matthias — foot note 150 

Denmark 108, 114 

foot note 118 

Denver, Colorado 27 

Des Moines River — foot note 162 

De Soto, Ferdinand 132 

Des Plaines River — foot notes... 157, 181 
Detroit — plans for the capture of.. 

:...68, 69, 70 

treaty of — reference to — foot 

note 143 

Dexter, O. P 14 

Dialect of Dalarne Sweden 117 

Dialect of the Kensington Inscrip- 
tion 117 

D'Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne 136 

Dickinson, (Miss) Elmira 17 

Dickinson, R. B 18 

Dickinson, (Mrs.) R. B 18 

Dickson, (Mr.) 170 

Die Runenschrift — by Wimmer, 

quoted— foot note 109 

Dieserud, Juul — Holand og Kensing- 

tonspogen, quoted — foot note Ill 

Dixon, 111 11, 41 

Dixon, 111., — "Telegraph," news- 
paper 40 

Dixon, (Mr.) Greene county— robbery 

of— foot note 170 

Dixon's Ferry, 111. — foot note 181 

Dodge. (Dr.) D. K 124 

Donaldson, Thomas — The Public 

Domain, quoted — foot note 161 

Don Quixote, 1803 — reference to 18 

Doughty, Major, John — foot note... 150 

Douglas County, Minn 

105, 118, 121, 122, 123 

foot notes 105,121 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 

37, 38, 39, 40, 41 

foot note 181 

Douglas vs. Hutchinson, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 104 

Douglass, Frederick 104 

Drake, (Dr.) Daniel— Natural and 
Statistical View or Picture of Cin- 
cinnati and the Miami Country, 

quoted — foot note 150 

Draper — manuscript, quoted — foot 
notes — 

23 J. 127 70 

48 J. 33 64 

49 J. 41, 45, 49, 52, 60, 66, 73, 

89, 90 65, 68, 69, 70 

58 J. 37, 39, 46. 49 69 

Dryer vs. People, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 96 

Dubois School, Springfield, 111 55 

Dubuque, Iowa JJ 

Dudley, E. A • • • 41 

Duels — Bennett-Stuart duel in Belle- 
ville in 1819— foot note 170 

Lucas-Benton duel — reference 

to — foot note 172 

Mitchel-Waddle duel on Bloody 

Island 173 

Rector-Barton duel— foot notes. 

161, 172 

Du Luth • 132 

Duncan, Julia— Secretary, Colored 
Historical Society, State of Illinois 19 

Duncan, (Maj.) Otis 19 

Dunham vs. Village of Hyde Park, 

case at law of cited— foot note... 101 
Dunmore's War 66 



-13 H S 



194 



Index — Continued. 



_ , Page. 

Durham vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 96 

Durrett, Reuben T.— TLe Centenary 

of Louisville, quoted— foot note... 154 
Dwighton Roek, Archeological fraud. 124 



Early Schools and Methods of In- 
struction in Galesburg— address by 
Milton L. Comstock — reference to 
Early Western Travels— See 
Thwaites. 

Easton, Rufus — foot notes 172 

East St. Louis, 111 f .' 

Edgar, John— Lafayette entertained 
at the residence of— in Kaskaskia 

— foot note 

Education— Albany Law School," Al- 
bany, N. Y 

Christiania University, ' Sweden ! 
Chicago University— foot note.. 
Cincinnati College of— University 

of — foot note 

College of Antiquities, Sweden!! 
Dartmouth College, New Hamp- 
shire 72, 86, 102, 

Dubois School, Springfield, 111. . . 
Galesburg, 111.— Early Schools in 
— addresses on — reference to.. 
Galesburg, 111.— History of the 
Public School system of— refer- 
ence to 

Harvard University ...!"! 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111.!!!! 
Lancastrian System of Educa- 
tion — foot note 

Lombard University, Galesburg, 

Miami University, Leioanon! '6' 
foot note 



16 



1S1 
1S4 



176 

35 

125 
108 

150 

114 

159 
55 

16 



17 

1S5 

16 

150 

4 

149 
35 

106 

106 

23 

3S 



Military School at Fulton, 111... 

Minnesota University, Minneapo- 
lis, Minn.— foot note 

Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, 111 23, 63, 

Phillips Academy, Andov'e r! 
Mass 

Rock River Seminary, Mt. Mor- 
ris, 111 

Southern Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity, Carbondale, 111 

University of Illinois, Urbana- 

Champaign 5, 23, 124, 

foot note 

University of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor 23, 24 

Upsala University, Sweden 

foot note 

Waukegan Academy, Waukegan", 

Wesleyan University, Blooming-.! 

i, 111 

Tale University, New Haven, 

Conn 

foot note 

Edward III of England ! . . ! 

Edwards, Albert S. Comp.— Beall 

and Edwards Family History ... 

Edwards County, 111. — Battalion 

Black Hawk War 

Edwards County, III.— The English 
Settlements in Edwards County, 
111.— address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society. 1910, bv 
Hon. H. J. Strawn 5, 23, 51-55 



141 
168 

72 
122 

122 

72 

34 

25 

ISO 

82 

14 
59 



■n- 1 j, „ Page. 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian— foot notes 

••;•;• ■ 161, 164, 165 

History ol Illinois, 1778-1833, and 
Life and Times of Ninian Ed- 
wards, by his Son, Ninian 
Wirt Edwards, quoted— foot 

notes 161, 175 

Minister to Mexico— foot notes. 

274 175 

Old Edwards Trace— foot note. . .' 161 
Edwards Ninian Wirt, History of 
Illinois and Life and Times of 
Ninian Edwards, quoted — foot 

notes lei, 175 

Edwards Papers, quoted— foot note.. 16S 
Edwardsville and Fort Clark Trail- 
foot note i8i 

Edwardsville, 111 41, 140, 155 

161, 163, 165, 166. 167, 169, 171, 172' 
173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183 

foot notes 

155, 156, 161, 168, 174," 175, 181 

bank of, incorporated, 1818 — 

foot note 165 

failure of State Bank at— 1821 — 

foot notes 165, 174, 175 

lawyers of — reference to — foot 

note 165 

mail route from Edwardsville to 

Peoria, 1S22— foot note 182 

prices of commodities current in 

—in 1819-20 167 

Spectator, (newspaper) . .165, 174, 175 

foot note 165 

Eells vs. People, case at law ot, 

cited 46 

Egypt — pyramids of 184 

Elbow Lake, Minn.— Rune Stone 119 

Electoral College, 1S60 40 

El Paso, Texas 27 

Elwood— Wylie vs. Elwood, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 104 

Emancipation Proclamation 42-47 

Emigrant's Guide — See Darby. 

Emissourites Indians 131 

England 

7, IS, 42, 51, 52, 54, 82, 83, 88, 89, 
91. 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 139 
English Bill of Rights, 16S9. . .82, 97, 103 
English Colony — Edwards County, 111. 

51-54 

English Common Law 93, 94, 95 

English (The) — Settlements in Ed- 
wards County, 111. — address before 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1910, by Hon. H. J. Strawn 

23, 51-55 

Enos, (Miss) Louise 1 8, 11 

Enos, Pascal Paoli — biographical 

sketch of — foot note 159 

Enos, Pascal Paoli 159, 167, 168 

foot note 181 

Enos, Roger 168 

Enos, Zimri A. — foot note 1S1 

"The Old Indian Trail," refer- 
ence to — foot note 161 

Enterprise — (steamboat) — foot note. 157 

Erie Canal-^foot notes 142, 144 

Erie County, Penn. — foot note 142 

Erie. Pa 140, 142 

foot note 142 

Escondido River 

130, 131, 132, 135, 136 

foot note 135 

Essex, Vermont — foot notes 168, 178 

Estill Springs 73 

Estwick, Evans — Pedestrious Tour, 
quoted — foot note . •. 152 



195 



/ n <lex — Continued. 



Page. 

Eureka, 111 17 

European settlements on the Missis- 
sippi River, 1765 12 

Europe. 9, 53 

foot note 171 

Evans, William L. — Military History 
of Green Bay, quoted — foot note.. 148 

Evanston, 111 -1, 23 

Evolution of Modern Liberty — by 

Scherger, quoted — foot notes 

SI, 82, 83, 88 

Ewing, A. G IS 

Ewing vs. Bailey, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 88 

Exeter, II! 59 



Fairbanks, John B 9 

Fairfield, 111. 9 

Fairfield, Ohio— foot note 143 

Farmer's Movement — Illinois State 

—foot note 180 

Faux, W. — "Memorable Days," "In 

Early Western Travels," quoted — 

foot notes 145, 146, 156, 164 

Falls of the Ohio 70, 132, 154 

foot note 154 

Farquier County, Va. — foot note 160 

Fasset, Elisha W 49 

Fearon, Henry B. — Sketches of 

America (3rd edition), quoted — foot 

notes 150, 154, 162 

Federal Constitution 97 

Fergus Historical Series No. 4, 

quoted — foot note 174 

No. 14, quoted— foot note 159 

No. 16, quoted — foot note 161 

Fever River — foot note 181 

Fielden vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 95 

Filson Club — Publications No. VI, 

quoted — foot note 66 

No. S, quoted — foot note 154 

Filson, John — foot note 150 

Finley, (Rev.) Robert W.— foot note. 146 

Finley, Thomas H 49 

Finley's Map of Pennsylvania, 1833 

— quoted, foot note 142 

Fire Lands — foot note 14S 

First National Bank of Springfield, 

111 37 

Fiske, John — historian 30 

Fite, (Prof.) Emerson David 25 

Flagg, Artemas 

144, 146, 147, 149, 150, 

153, 155, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 

172. 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183 

foot notes 155, 177 

Biographical sketch of — foot note 144 

Flagg, Azariah-Cutting 141,144, 

149, 152, 154. 155, 165, 167, 169, 171, 174 

biographical sketch foot note. 141 

Flagg, Azariah Cutting — (2nd) son 

of Artemas Flagg — foot note 177 

Flagg, Caroline Elizabeth — foot note 177 

Flagg, Ebenezer 139, 154, 169, 171 

foot notes 

141, 144, 154. 168, 175, 179, 180 

biographical sketch of — foot note 154 

Flagg, (Mrs.) Ebenezer 154 

Flagg, Edmund — The Far West, New 

York. 1S3S, quoted— foot notes. .156, 181 



Page. 

-;. Eliza Wait 16S, 175, 1S2, 

foot note ITS 

raphical sketch of- -foot note 16S 
Flagg, Elizabeth... 154, 169, 171, 179, 180 

foot notes 

Ml. 144, 188, 175, 179, ISO 

Flagg Family Uecords — compiled by 
Norman Gershom Flagg and Lu< 
C. S. Flagg. quoted — foot 

139, 141, 111, 149, 

, 16S, 169, 175, 177, 178, 170, 180 






horn I — biographical 



ski ten of — foot note 149 

Family Records of the Desc 

-horn Flagg of Lan- 
caster, .Mass. — ci by 
Norman Gershom Flagg and 
Lucius C. S. Flagg, quoted — 

foot notes 

139, 141, 111, 149, 154, 

155, 168, 169. 175, 177, 17S, 179, ISO 
Flagg, Gershom II., writer of the 

letters 

139, 140, 141, 144, 146, 147, 149, 

151, 155, 163, 105, 166, 167. 16S, 169, 
171, 172, 173, 175, 177, 17S, 179, ISO, 183 

foot notes 155, 

159, 161, 162, 168, 169, 180, 181, 183 



Flas 



Gershom — Pioneer Letters of 



Gershom Flagg, with introduction 

and notes, by Solon J. Buck. . .139-183 

Flagg, Gevshom Hannibal — foot note 177 

Flagg, (Capt.) James — foot note.... 169 

Flagg, Jane Paddock — foot note. . . . 180 

Flagg, Keziah — foot note 178 

Flagg, Lucius C. S. — compiler of the 
Flagg family records — foot notes.. 

...77. 139, 169 

g, Lucius Harrington — foot note 177 

Flagg, Lucy Douglas— foot note 178 

Flagg, Mary 165, 167, 1 7." 

Flagg, Mary Ann — foot notes 141, ITS; 

Flagg. Mary Jane — foot note 177 

Flagg, Norman Gershom '. Ill 

footnotes 139. 161, ISO. 183 

Flagg, Norman , Gershom — compiler 
of the Flagg Family Records- 
foot notes 139, 161, 183 

Flagg, Roana (Rowana) 175 

foot note 178 

biographical sketch of — foot note 175 

Flagg. Semanthy— foot note 178 

Flagg, Thomas Wait ISO 

biographical sketch of — foot note 180 

Flagg. W'il'ard Cutting 141. ISO 

foot notes 171 

biographical sketch of — foot note 180 

Flagg, Will a rd Parki 181, 182 

biographical sketch of — foot note 17!i 

v. Thomas of Scratby. England. 139 

Flint. James — Letters from America ■ 

(in Thwaites Early Western 

Travels), quoted — foot notes 

145, 1 10. 150, 151. 162, 167 

Flint. Timothy — Recollections of the 
Last Ten Tears in the Mississippi 
Valley, Boston, 1S26, quoted— foot 

notes' 150, 157, 160 

Flom. (Prof.) George T.— The Ken- 
sington Rune Stone — address be- 
fore the Illinois State Historical 

Society, 1910 23, 105-125 

Florida 130, 133, 135 

foot note 130 

Florida, Peninsula of 135 



196 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Flower, George — Early Settler of 

Edwards County, 111 51, 52, 53 

Flower, Richard — Early Settler of 

Edwards County, 111 53 

foot note 164 

Letters from Illinois, quoted — 

foot note 164 

Fonda, John H. — Early Wisconsin, 

quoted — foot note 157 

Fogelblad, Svend 122, 123, 125 

foot note 122 

Ford, (Dr.) N. B 19 

Ford, Thomas — History of Illinois, 

quoted — foot notes 156, 166, 168 

Fordham, Elias P. — Personal Narra- 
tive, quoted — foot notes 

.... 150, 152, 157, 162, 167 

Fornvanncn, 1906, quoted — foot note 115 
Forsa, Ring — inscription in Helsing- 

land 120 

Fort Ancient in Ohio — preservation 

of 184 

Fort Chartres 42 

Fort Clark — Edwardsville and Fort 

Clark Trail 161 

foot note 181 

Fort Clark— foot notes 161, 162 

Fort Clark — (Kaskaskia) — foot note 70 

Fort Crawford — foot note 162 

Fort Creve Coeur 8, 11 

report of the Committee on, Illi- 
nois State Historical Society.. 3, 11 

Fort Dearborn — foot notes 161, 181 

Fort Edwards 161 

foot note 162 

"Fort Gardner" 62 

Fort Howard — foot notes 148, 161 

Fort Industry — Treaty of 1805 — foot 

note 143 

Fort Laurens — foot note 143 

Fort Patrick Henry (Vincennes) — 

foot notes 69, 70 

Fort Recovery — foot note 143 

Fort Russel, Madison County, 111. — 

foot note 161 

Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) 135 

Fort Schuyler — foot note 141 

Fort Sumpter 44 

Fort Washington — foot note 150 

Fort Wayne — foot note 161 

Fort Whipple 28 

"Forty Niners" — California Gold 

Seekers 28 

Foster, John 17 

Fox Act of 1774 89 

Fox, McLaren 9 

Fox River 161 

France 42, 54, 135, 136, 184 

foot note 176 

France — Order of the Cincinnati Or- 
ganization and History of, quoted 14 
Franklin County, Ohio — foot notes. 

141, 160 

Franklin Life Insurance Company, 

Springfield, 111 37 

Franklin, Ohio— foot note 143 

Franklinton, Ohio — foot note 142 

Franquelin's map of 1684 133, 134 

foot note 130 

Fraternal organizations — Elks 36 

Masons 36 

Modern Woodmen 36 

Odd Fellows 36 

Workmen 36 

Frazier, Robert 53 



Page. 
Freeland vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 96 

Freeman, Jonathan — Nome-de-plume 

of Morris Birkbeck 54 

Freeport, 111 5, 23, 38, 39, 40 

public library 40 

Freese, (Mrs.) G. M 18 

Fteese, G. W 18 

Freese, L. J.— President Woodford 

County Historical Society 4,18 

French, (Dr.) A. W 8 

French Creoles 70 

French, (The) — Declaration of the 

Rights of Man, 1793, quoted— foot 

notes 81, 87 

French inhabitants of Kaskaskia 

recites grievances to John Todd... 67 
French Missionaries in the Illinois 

Country — foot note 161 

French Negro Slaves 43 

Fridley, (Hon.) B. F 46, 49 

Fritzner — under Legr and Rydquist 

under laegher — foot note Ill 

Frorer vs. People, case at law of, 

quoted — foot note 86 

Fryxell's — Work on Runes, quoted.. 123 

foot note 122 

Fulton County, 111.— foot note 151 

Fulton, 111 35 



Gade, (Dr.) F. G 125 

Galena, 111 41, 73, 181 

mail route to (early) — foot note. 182 
North Western Gazette of, 

(newspaper) 41 

sketch of — foot note 181 

Galesburg, 111 5, 47 

Early Music in — address by Mrs. 

J. T. Avery — reference to 16 

Early Schools and Methods of 
Instruction in — address by 
Milton L. Comstoek, reference* 

to 16 

Early Schools in — by Mrs. M. E. 

Gettemy 16 

High School 16 

History of the Postoffice — by 
Col. Clark E. Carr — reference 

to 16-17 

History of the Public School 
System of — address by Prof. W. 

L. Steele — reference to 17 

Personal Reminiscences of Early 
Galesburg— by E. S. Willcox— 

reference to 16 

Gallatin, Albert— foot note 157 

Gamle jyske Folkeviser, quoted.... 114 
Gano, John Stites, one of the pro- 
prietors of the town of Covington, 

Ky. — foot note 150 

Gardner's House 62 

Gardie, (Count) Jakob de la 114 

Garnett, C. H.— State Banks of Is- 
sue, (University of Illinois), 1898, 

quoted — foot note 168 

Garrison, George P. — Westward Ex- 
tension, quoted — foot note 165 

Gattacka Indians 132 

Gazetteer of Illinois, 1837, see Peck 

— reference to IS 

General Pike, (steamboat) — foot note 157 



197 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Genesee County, New York — foot 

note 144 

Gennessee River 142 

Genessee Road 140 

George, (Capt. ) Robert 64 

George vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 91 

Georgia, State 34,61 

Constitution, 1798 — footnote 94 

Gerhard vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 96 

German-American Loan Association, 

Springfield, 111 37 

German Bible, published in 1735 18 

Germany 17, 18, 34, 35 

Gettemy, (Mrs.) M. E. — The Early 
Schools in Galesburg, 111. — address 

of — reference to 16 

Gibault, Father Pierre 63 

Gibbe's Documentary History of the 

American Revolution, quoted 14 

Gila Valley 28 

Gilman reports, quoted 45 

Gillespie, Joseph 41 

foot note 170 

Gillham, (Mrs.) Mary W.— foot note 180 

Girard, Penn 38 

Girault, Jean — interpreter for George 

Rogers Clark — foot note 67 

Gjessing, Helge 106, 109, 110, 113 

foot notes 107, 111 

Glessner, A. W 41 

Goebel, (Dr.) Julius E 124 

Gold Hill, Nevada 27 

Good, John W 9 

Goode, G. Brown — Virginia Cousins, 

quoted 14 

Goodrich, (Judge) Grant 39 

Goodwin, , Illinois Central 

Railroad vs. Goodwin, case at law 

of, cited — foot note 102 

Goshen, Madison County, 111. — foot 

note 155 

Gothland, (Isle of) Sweden — foot 

note 118 

Gotlin's. De Runarum in Svecia 

occasu, 1773, quoted 115 

Gould, (Dr.) C. N.— foot note 108 

Grammer, John 44 

Grand Army of the Republic — Dr. 
Benjamin F. Stephenson, founder 

of 58 

Grand Island in the Platte 28 

Granger, (Gen. ) Gordon 75 

Granger movement, State of Illi- 
nois — foot note 180 

Granger Northwest 31 

Grant, Ulysses S. — Grant's First 
March, address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, bv Ens- 
ley Moore 5, 23, 55-62 

T. J. Crowder's Reminiscences 
of General Grant at Camp 

Yates 5 

Gratiot's Grove, "Wisconsin — foot 

note 181 

Gravier. Gabriel 133 

Great Britain 42, 65 

foot notes 108, 152, 164 

Great. (The) Charter of King John 

in 1215 82 

Great Salt Lake 26 

Great Western Railroad Company — 
Bruffet vs. Great Western R. R. 

Co., case of, cited — foot note 102 

(Now Wabash Railroad) 55, 60 



Pack. 

Grecian Temple 16 

Greece 16, 83 

Greeley, Horace 31, 35 

Greely, (Mr.) 49 

Greely, (Mrs.) 48 

Green Bay, Wis 148 

fort erected by the French at, 

in 1721, reference to— foot note 148 
Fort Howard erected at, in 

1816— foot note 161 

military history of Green Bay — 

foot note 148 

Green, Eliphalet — foot note 174 

Green Mountain Boys in the Revo- 
lution — foot note 179 

Green Mountains 139 

Green, Ohio — foot note 143 

Greene County, 111. — History of 
Greene and Jersey Counties, pub- 
lished by the Continental Publish- 
ing Company, 1885, quoted — foot 

note 170 

History of, published by Donnel- 
ley, Chicago, 1879, quoted 170 

Miner's, Past and Present of 
Greene County, quoted — foot 

note 170 

Greene County, Ohio — foot note.... 141 

Greene, Evarts Boutell 3, 5, 11, 12 

Chairman of the Publication 
Committee, Illinois State His- 
torical Society 3 

Greenleaf, Edward S 60, 61 

Greenough, (Dr.) C. N 124 

Greenville, 111. — foot note 159 

Greenville, treaty of — foot note 146 

Greersburg, Penn. — foot note 142 

Gridley, J. N 4 

Gross, (Col. ) W. L 8 

Groundswell (The) — A History of 
the Farmer's Movement, quoted — 

foot note 180 

Grundtvig, quoted, on runes 114 

Guedel vs. People, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 96 

Guernsey County, Ohio — foot note. . 142 
Guernsey Island, emigrants from — 

foot note 142 

Gulf of California 133 

Gulf of Mexico 133 

Gustafson, (Geologist), Christiania 

University 125 

Gustavus, Adolphus's — Polish War, 
1628 114 



H 



Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 — refer- 
ence to 82, 92, 97 

writ of 92 

Haegstad, (Prof.) M 125 

Hagen, O. E. — foot note 106 

Hagerstown, Maryland 34 

Haggart, (Corporal) Elisha 73 

Haldimand, (Gen.) Frederick — foot 

note 69 

Haldimand to Clinton letter, May 

31, 1779— foot note 69 

Hall Family History 14 

Hall, (Judge) James — Letters from 
the West, quoted — foot notes.. 143, 176 

Halleck, of the Gila Valley 28 

Hallock, Stephen 160 

Hamilton County, Ohio — foot note... 150 
Hamilton, (Gen.) Henry 63, 64. 65 



198 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Hancock County, 111 47 

foot note 162 

Hand, (Hon.) John P. — Negro 
Slavery in Illinois, address before 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1910 23, 42-50 

Hankins vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 96 

Hannibal and St. Joe Railroad 56 

Hansen, P 113 

Hanson, (Hansen) Nicholas — Con- 
tested election of in Illinois Legis- 
lature, 1S23 44 

Harding, Benjamin — Tour through 
the Western Country, quoted — foot 

note 145 

Hargrave — Choisser vs. Hargrave, 

case at law of, cited 45 

Harjedalen, Sweden 117 

Harmar, (Gen.) Joseph — footnote... 150 
Harmony (Champaign County), Ohio 

146, 147 

Harmony Township, Springfield, O. 140 

Harper, Francis E 19 

Harper's Weekly, Oct. 9, 1909, 

quoted 109, 110 

foot note 106 

Harper's Weekly — foot note 119 

Harrington, James S3 

Harris, N. Dwight — Negro Servitude 

in Illinois, quoted — foot note 174 

Harris, Thadeus M. — Journal of a 

Tour, 1303, quoted— foot note 152 

Harrison, Ohio — foot note 143 

Harrison Campaign of 1892 40 

Harrison, (Gen.) William Henry.. 42, 4<j 

foot note 179 

Harrison, William Henry — Mont- 
gomery's Life of William Henry 

Harrison, quoted — -foot note 179 

Hart, Albert Bushnell, quoted 32 

Hart. A. Y. — Sergeant 21st Illinois 
Volunteer Reg. War of the Re- 
bellion ■ 59 

Hartford, Conn.— foot note 182 

Hartland, Vt. — foot note 178 

Harvard University 185 

Haswell, N. B 178 

Hatch, (Mrs.) Isabel— foot note 180 

Hatch, Mr 146 

Hatch, O. M.— Secretary of State of 

Illinois 50 

Hatfield, (Dr.) Marcus 8 

Haveland, David 49 

Hayden, Horace Edwin, M. A. — 

"Virginia Genealogies, quoted 14 

Hayti 53 

Heaton, Isaac 49 

Heiland — Bloomington vs. Heiland, 
case at law of, cited — foot note. ... 95 

Helm, (Capt ) Leonard 63 

Helsingland, Sweden 115, 120, 122 

foot note 116 

Henderson County, Kentucky 34 

Hening Statutes of Virginia, Vol. 

IX, quoted— foot note 66 

Henn, Bernhart — member of Con- 
gress from Iowa 39 

Hennepin, Louis 185 

Henrotin, Ellen M.— The Visit of the 
Marquis de Lafayette to Illinois 

in 1825, quoted— foot note 176 

Henry County, 111 47 

Henry, Moses — Indian agent 63 



Page. 

Henry, (Gov.) Patrick 63, 64, 65 

. foot notes 64, 65 

appoints John Todd to take 
charge of civil affairs in the 

Illinois country 66, 67, 68 

Letter from Clark to, dated April 
29, 1779, quoted— foot notes.. 

64, 65, 68 

orders for the capture of Detroit 68 
Pollock to Henry, letter, July 

17, 1779— foot note 65 

Henry III of England— Great Char- 
ter of Henry III — reference to 85 

Heraclitus — Greek philosopher 83 

Herndon and Orendorff — law firm — 

Springfield, 111 35 

Herndon and Zane 35 

Herndon, Zane and Orendorff — law 

firm— Springfield, 111 35 

Herndon, Wm. H 41 

Hicklin, (Mrs.) M 19 

Hicks, (Capt.) George — Company 
"A," 96th Ills. Vol. Reg., War of 

the Rebellion x 77 

Hinckley, (Mrs.) C. A ' 17 

Hindman, (Major-Gen.) T. C 78 

Hinesburg, Vt 163, 166, 177 

foot note Ib3 

Historia Lingvae Dalecarliae Uppsa- 

liae, 1773, quoted 118 

Historic Highways of America — by 

Archer B. Hulbert — see Hulbert. 
Historical Collections of Ohio — see 

Howe. 
Historical Collections, State of Illi- 
nois — see Illinois. 
History of the People of the United 
States — by John B. MacMaster, 
quoted — see Mac Master — foot note 144 
History of the United States from 
the Compromise of 1850 — by James 

Ford Rhodes, quoted 25 

Hitchcock, Editha — foot note 149 

Hitchcock, Julia 49 

Hoadley, Enoch — foot note 178 

Hockhocking River — foot note 142 

Hodge, Frederick W. — "Hand Book 
of American Indians" — foot note.. 171 

Hodgman, Calvin — foot note 175 

Hoegh, (Dr.) Kunt— foot note 106 

Hoffman, Minn. — foot note 122 

Holand, H. R 106, 125 

Holand og Kensingtonspogen — by 
Juul Dieserud, quoted — foot note.. Ill 

Holbrook, Jonathan T 49 

Holland Company — foot note 142 

Homestead Act — passage of 29 

Hondius map 133, 135 

Hone vs. Ammons, case at law of, 

cited 45 

Hoover. Anna F. — Librarian Knox 

County Historical Society 16 

Houck, Louis — History of Missouri, 

quoted — foot notes 

152, 160, 161, 172, 179 

Houghton, Horace H 41 

Housh vs. People, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 92 

"How George Rogers Clark Won 
the Northwest"— by Reuben Gold 

Thwaites, quoted — foot note 162 

Howard — Nance vs. Howard, case 

at law of, cited 45 

Howard, (Gen.) Benjamin — foot note 161 



199 



In dex — C ontinued . 



Page. 
Howard's Reports, quoted. ......... . 46 

Howe, Henry— Historical Collections 
of Ohio, edition, 1857, quoted.... 

foot notes 141, 143, 146, 148, 149 

Howey, (Mrs.) Jennie •• 

Hrouek vs. People, case at law of, 



cited — foot note 



SS 



Hubbardton, Vt.— foot note 160 

Hudson Bay— Fur Company 121 

Hulbert, Archer B.— Historic High- 
ways of America, quoted, Vol. IX 

— foot note ' 152 

Hulbert, Archer B.— Historic High- 
ways, Vols. XI and XII, quoted— 

foot note !40 

Hulme, Thomas— Journal of a Tour 

in the West, quoted— foot note 167 

Humphrey, Judge J. Otis 37 

Hundred Courts of Aethelred 93 

Hunter, C. L — Sketches of North 

Carolina, quoted 14 

Husbiblioteck for 190S 106 

Hutchinson— Douglas vs. Hutchin- 
son, case at law of, cited — foot 

note 104 

Hvde Park, 111.— Village of vs. 
Cemetery Association, case at law 

of, cited— foot note 100 

Village of Dunham vs. Hyde 
Park, case at law of, cited — 
foot note, 101 

I 

Iceland— foot note • • 114 

Idaho, State 30, 31 

Idaho, Territory ^8 

Hire— Work on De Runarura in Sve- 

cia occasu, 1773, quoted 115 

Ikouera Indians 13° 

lies, Elijah— foot note 181 

Illinois and Michigan Canal— early 

ideas in regard to 157 

foot notes 15 /, 181 

great factor in the history of 

the State — foot note Iu7 

Illinois and the Revolution in the 
West. 1779-1780— address before 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1910, by James Alton James 

23, 63-71 

Illinois country 42. 65, 66, 70, 135, 136 

foot notes 152, 154, 164 

Wood's Two Years Residence in 
the Illinois Country, quoted — 

foot note 157 

Illinois, county of established Dec. 

9, 1778 66 

Illinois Lake — foot note 161 

Illinois River.. 42, 56, 60, 62, 63, 129, 
133, 135, 136, 152, 153, 157, 160, 161, 181 

foot notes 

151, 153, 157, 161, 176, 178, 181 

Illinois State 

....3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 11, 12, 13, 14, 
16, 17, 19, 23, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 
39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45. 46, 47, 48, . 
49, 50-5S, 60, 62. 140, 141. 148, 163, 
165, 166, 167, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
175, 177, 178, 179, ISO, 181, 183, 184, 185 

foot notes 144, 151, 160, 

161, 164, 165, 168, 170, 172, 173, 
174, 175, 176, 17S, 179, 180, 181, 183 
Agricultural Organization in 
Illinois— by Solon J. Buck, 

auotcd — foot note 180 

attemnt to make a Slave State 
of— foot notes 173-174 



Illinois State — Continued. Page. 

bank at Vandalia, 111 172, 173 

bank established at Vandalia — 

branches of, at Edwardsville, 

.Brownsville, Shawneetown and 

1'alinyra— foot note 168 

Bar Association, organized 

January, 1877 35 

(The) Bill of Rights— address 
before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1910— by Her- 
man G. James 23, 81-104 

"Black Laws" of 43 

Black Laws of 1S19, repealed by 

the Legislature, 1853 47 

Blue Book of Illinois, 1905, quoted 

—foot notes 151, 156, 164 

Boggess' Settlement of Illinois, 
1778-1S30, quoted— foot notes.. 

144, 157, 158, 176, 182 

Brown's "Early Movement in 
Illinois for the Legalization of 
Slavery," (Fergus Hist. Series, 

No. 4), quoted — foot note 174 

Brown's History of Illinois, 

quoted — foot note 159 

Census of 1818 — foot note 159 

Central Railroad . .• 38 

foot note 173 

Central Railroad Company vs. 

Commissioners of Highways, 

case at la.w of, cited — foot note 100 

Central Railroad vs. Goodwin, 

case at law of, cited — foot 

note 102 

Central Railroad, land grants 

in 1850 to 29 

Central Railroad — Rodney vs. 
Illinois Central Railroad, case 

at law of, cited 45 

Colored Historical Society, re- 
port of 4,19 

Congress, first Illinois congres- 
sional election — foot note 178 

Constitution of 1818 

41, 45, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 
92, 93, 94, 96, 97. 99,' 101, 103, 104 

foot note 173 

Constitution of Illinois, 1818 — 
Art. VI, Sec. I, quoted — foot 

note 84 

Constitution of 1818 — Convention 
called to amend the Constitu- 
tion, 1818. defeated 44 

slavery provisions of 43 

Constitution of 1848 

46, 47, 84, 87, 

88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103 
. Constitution of 1S62— see pro- 
posed Constitution of 1862 

84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 98 

foot note 84 

Constitution of 1870 (present 

Constitution) 35, 

84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93. 
94, 95, 97. 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104 
Art. 2, Sec. one, analyzed. .84, 85 

foot note 84 

Art. 2, Sec. two, analyzed. 

85-86 

foot notes 85-86 

Art. 2 Sec. three, analyzed. 

86-88 

Art. 2, Sec. four, analyzed. 

88-90 

foot note 88 



200 



Index — Continued. 



Illinois State — Continued. Page. 

Constitution of 1870. 

Art. 2, Sec. five, analyzed. .90-91 

foot note 90 

Art. 2, Sec. six, analyzed. . .91-92 
Art. 2, Sec. seven, analyzed 92 

— foot note 92 

Art. 2, Sec. eight, analyzed 

93-94 

foot note 93 

Art. 2, Sec. nine, analyzed. .94-95 
Art. 2, Sec. ten, analyzed. .95-96 

foot note 95 

Art. 2, Sec. eleven, analyzed 

97-98 

foot note 97 

Art. 2, Sec. twelve, analyzed 

— foot note 98 

Art. 2, Sec. thirteen, an- 
alyzed 98-101 

foot note 98 

Art. 2, Sec. fourteen, an- 
alyzed 101-102 

foot note 101 

Art. 2, Sees, fifteen and six- 
teen, analyzed 102-103 

foot note 102 

Art. 2, section seventeen, 

analyzed 103 

foot note 103 

Art. 2, Sec. eighteen, ana- 
lyzed 103-104 

Art. 2, Sec. nineteen, ana- 
lyzed 104 

foot note 104 

Art. 2, Sec. twenty, ana- 
lyzed 104 

foot note 104 

Art. 4, Sec. thirty-one, 

quoted — foot note 101 

Constitutional Convention of 

1818— foot notes .159, 164 

Constitutional Convention of 

1862 84, 87-91, 93, 98 

foot note 84 

Constitutional Convention of 

1869 

...85, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95, 99, 100, 102 

Debates of. quoted 93, 100 

foot notes 

87, 90, 93, 97, 99, 100 

Convention scheme of 1824, plan 

to amend the Constitution. .173-174 
Duels in Illinois — Bennet-Stuart 
duel in Belleville, 1819— foot 

note 170 

Rector-Barton 172 

also foot note 172 

Edwards History of Illinois, 

quoted — foot notes 175, 161 

Empire State of the Mississippi . 

Valley 47-48 

Enabling Act, April 18, 1818 — 

foot notes 156, 159 

Fair Grounds 55 

Farmers' Association — foot note 180 

First Census of — foot note 159 

First Election to Congress, Aug. 

6, 1832— foot note 178 

Flower's "Letters from Illinois," 

quoted — foot note 164 

Ford's History of Illinois, quoted 

—foot notes 156, 166, 168 

Gazette (newspaper) 54 

Gazetteer of Illinois — see Peck.. 18 
General Assembly (see Illinois 

Legislature) 35, 99 

foot notes 164, 168 



Illinois State — Continued. Page. 

Geological Museum 13 

Granger Movement— foot note.. 180 
Historical Collections, (publica- 
tions Illinois State Historical 
Library) Vol. II, quoted— foot 

notes 66, 67 

Historical Collections, Vol. IV, 

quoted — foot notes 

161, 164, 168, 176, 178 

Historical Collections, Vol. V, 

quoted — foot notes 66, 67 

Historical Collections, Vol. VI, 

quoted — foot note 165 

Historical Library 7, 9, 13 

foot note 159 

Lincolniana Collection of— 

reference to 9 

publications of, see fly leaf in 
back of this volume. 

Historical Society 

18, 19, 34, 36, 37, 41 

foot note 105 

Archaeological Committee. . 7 

Birkbeck, resolution 5 

Board of Directors 5, 11-13 

Board of Directors, meetings 

of 11-13 

building for, discussed 11 

contributions to State 

History, 1910 127-136 

Genealogical Committee, re- 
port of ■ 3, 14 

Journal of 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15 

Journal of, April, 1910, 

quoted — foot note 180 

Journal of, July, 1911, 

quoted — foot note 161 

local historical societies, re- 
ports of 3, 14-15, 16, 19 

officers of elected 4,5 

papers read at the annual 

meeting, Part II, 22-125 

program of annual meeting, 

1910 23 

publications of, see fly leaf in 

back of this volume, 
record of official proceedings, 

1910, Part I, pages 3-19 

transactions, 1910, Part IV, 

documents 137-183 

transactions, 1901, quoted — 

foot note 170 

transactions, 1907, quoted — 

foot note 176 

transactions of, for 1909, 

quoted — foot note 181 

Horticultural Association — foot 

note 180 

Indians 131 

"Indians of Illinois" — address by 

C. C. Craig, reference to 16 

Journal Company, Springfield, 

111 10 

Lafayette's visit to — foot note... 176 
land grants, 1850. to Illinois 

Central Railroad 29 

Legislature 35, 39, 43, 46, 53 

foot notes... 93, 164, 168, 172, 173 

Library 23 

mail routes in early days — foot 

note 182 

Mason, E. G. — Chapters from 

Illinois History — foot note 67 

Military Tract in Illinois 140 

Moses, John — History of Illinois, 

quoted — foot notes 

147, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 176 



201 



Index — Continued. 



Illinois State — Concluded. Page. 

"Negro Servitude in Illinois" — 
by N. Dwight Harris, quoted 

—foot note 174 

Negro Slavery — in address by 

Hon. John P. Hand 23, 42-50 

Orendorff, (Alfred) Adjutant 
General of State, 1892-1895... 36 

Outdoor Association of 4 

Park Commission 7, 8, 11 

Pension Rolls, 1816-1835, quoted. 14 
Pooley's "Settlement of Illinois," 

quoted— foot notes 151, 156, 181 

population of, 1820, 1830— foot 

note 178 

prairies of 51, 52 

proposed Constitution of 1S62... 

87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 9S 

foot note 84 

Reformatory — People vs. Illinois 
State Reformatory, case at law 

of, cited— foot note 98 

Reynold's Pioneer History of 

Illinois, quoted — foot notes. 161, 170 
Supreme Court of Illinois, cases 
involving the legal rights of 
negroes, held as slaves. .44-45, 46 
Supreme Court, reports; quoted 

— foot notes 

85, 86, 88. 91, 92, 94, 95, 96 

University of Illinois.. 5, 23, 124, 141 

foot note 168 

Vote of in the Presidential elec- 
tion, 1824— foot note 175 

Wesleyan University at Bloom- 

ington, 111 34 

Illinois Territory 

43, 51, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156 

foot note 156 

Assembly of 1812— foot note 164 

Census Act providing for a cen- 
sus to be taken of — foot note.. 159 
created by Act of Congress, Feb. 

3, 1S09— foot note 156 

fauna, of— foot note. 15,8 

flora of — foot note 157 

game to be, found in 158 

laws of (reprint) quoted — foot 

note 159 

stock of the country 158 

timber in variety of, quoted 157 

"Independent Parties in the Western 
States. 1873-76"— by Solon J. Buck, 

quoted — foot note 180 

Independent Reform Party — foot 

note 180 

India 9 

Indian Art 13 

Indian Laws 29 

Indian Relics, display of, at Gales- 
burg, 111 16 

Indian Slaves 42 

Indian Wars of 1791 and 1792— foot 

note 149 

Indiana State 

...17, 42, 94, 142, 145, 148, 151, 156, 163 

foot notes 143. 151, 159, 181 

Constitution of 1816, reference 

to 84 

Constitution of Indiana, 1851 — 
Art. VII, Sec. seventeen, 

quoted — foot note 94 

Indian claims, 1810, reference to 

— foot note 151 

Smith, Wm. H. — History of In- 
diana, quoted — foot note 151 



Page. 



Indiana Territory fi 

footnotes V 5 V ,j:f 

Indians and Their" White 
Neighbors of the Spoon 
I-uver Country— address by 
Miss Jennie McKenney 

reference to 1K 

indians 

A 13*0. 143,* '150,' 157,' 161, 162 

Acansas, Indian village of 

Anilco Indians '.'.'" 130 

Apalachites Indians .. 199 

Chaouenon Indians '" 131 

Chepoussea Indians ... 

Chinkoa Indians ... ' 131 

Cicaca Indians "' " 12 q 

Cisca Indians " iVg" 191 

Coiracoentanon Indians ' ' " ' 131 

Coroa Indians io 

Delaware Indians . ' .' 64 

foot note 149 

Emissourites Indians.. 

Gattacka Indians '.'.'.'.' 132 

Hodge's "Handbook of American 

Indians," quoted— foot note... 171 

Ikouera Indians ' 130 

Illinois Indians '..".' 131 

Iroquois Indians ..129" 135 

Islinois Indians '....' 131 

Kaockia Indians .!'.'" 131 

Kaskaskia Indians . . .".129 131 

foot note ' i7g 

Kaskias Indians .'..'.'. 1'9 

Kinipissa Indians 130 

Kolatica Indians ' \ \ 131 

Mahehoualaima Indians ' 130 

Mandan Indians 171 

foot note \\\\ i7i 

Manrhoat Indians 132 

Maroa Indians '" 13J 

Matchinkoa Indians ....!" 131 

Megar.cockia Indians ' 131 

Melomelinoia Indians 131 132 

Menominee Indians— foot note...' 69 

Miami Indians — foot note 151 

Missourite Indians 132 

Moingoana Indians 131 

Nadouessiou Indians 132 

Natche Indians 130 

Oiatenon Indians 132 

Omma Indians 130 

Ouasita Indians 130 

Pana Indians 132 

Peanchicia Indians 131 

Peoueria Indians 131 

Shawnee Indians 69 

Shawnee Indian Village — foot 

note 176 

Sicaca Indians 129 

Sioux Indians — foot note 69 

Taensa Indians 130 

Takahagane Indians 129, 130 

Tamoroa Indians 131 

Tan jibao Indians . . .: 130 

Tapouero Indians 131 

Tchatakes Indians 129 

Tchouchouma Indians 130 

Tiou Indians 130 

Tounica Indians 130 

Tazou Indians 130 

International Bank and Trust Com- 
pany of Vinita, Oklahoma 37 



202 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

International Law Association 35 

Inter-State Commerce Act, passage 

of, 1887 32 

Icwa, State 9, 25, 39. 72 

foot note 106 

Iowa State, Constitution of 1857, 

quoted — foot note 99 

Ireland 52 

Ironton, Mo 56 

Iroquois Club of Chicago 36 

Iroquois Indians 129, 135 

Island Grove, (Sangamon County) 

Illinois .' 56 

Island of Guernsey — foot note 142 

Isle of Persee 129 

Islinois Indians 131 

Italy 184 



Jack, (Capt.) 61 

Jackson, Andrew 18, 24 

foot notes 175, 178, 179 

Parton's Life of Andrew Jack- 
son, quoted — foot note 179 

"Jackson Hall" — Chicago Democrat, 

published in 41 

"Jacksonian Democracy" — by Wil- 
liam McDonald, quoted — foot note. 179 

Jacksonville. Ill 

4, 5, 8, 9, 23, 57, 58, 59, 60 

Jacksonville vs. Lambert, case 

at law of, cited — foot note 101 

Journal (newspaper) 41 

James, Edmund J 5, 7, 9 

mention, A Brief Sketch of the 
Work of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library — address be- 
fore the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, 1910 23 

James, Edwin — Account of an Ex- 
pedition under Major S. H. Long, 

quoted— foot notes 152, 156, 160 

James. Herman G. ( J. D. — The 
Origin and Development of the 
Bill of Rights in the Constitution 
of Illinois — address before the 
Illinois State Historical Society. 

1910 23, 81-104 

James. (Prof.) James Alton 4 

Illinois and the Revolution in 
the West, 1779-1780— address 
before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1910 23, 63-71 

James II of England 103 

Jamestown, Va 42, 139 

Jamtland, Sweden 117 

Jarrot vs. Jarrot. case at law of, 

cited 45 

Jay. Phoebe vs. Jay, case at- law of, 

cited 45 

Jefferson, Ohio 143 

foot note 143 

Jfffprson, Thomas 47, 84 

Jelliff, F. R.— The Surface Forma- 
tion of Knox County — address on 

— reference to 16 

Jennings. (Miss) Amanda — Secre- 
larv.. Woodford Countv Historical 

Society 17 

Jennings. (Mrs.) W.' J 18 

Jersey County. 111. — foot note 170 

Jesuit Missionaries in the Illinois 

Countrv — foot note 176 

Jesuits of the Baye 132 

Jo Daviess County. Ill 72 



Page. 
John, (Negro) (Adams County, 

111.) pardon of — cited 50 

Johnson, (Gen.) Bushrod 78 

Johnson, Gunder 123 

Johnson, John 163, 165, 169, 174, 175 

foot note 164 

Johnson, (Prof.) 25 

Johnson vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 102 

Joliet, 111 41 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railroad vs. Joliet, case ot 

cited — foot note .'. 101 

Joliet, Louis — foot note 157 

map, 1674— reference to 132, 133 

Jones, (Dr.) H. S. V 124 

Jones, (Mrs.) R is 

Jones, S. S 38,39 

Jonesboro, 111 41 

Jonsson, (Prof.) Finnur 125 

Joplin, Mo ■ 37, 57 

Journal of the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society — see Illinois State 
Historical Society — Journal of. 
Journal of Virginia House of Dele- 
gates, May, 1783, quoted — foot note 68 
Juliet — Boone vs. Juliet, case at law 
of, cited 



K 

Kane County Democrat (newspa- 
per)— St. Charles, 111 38 

Kane, Elias Kent — foot note 

Kankakee River — foot note 1.. 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill 39 

Kansas State 

Kansas State Constitution of 1857, 

quoted — foot note 

Kansas Territory 25, 

Kaockia Indians 

Kapaha — above the mouth of the 

Arkansas Rrver 

Kaskaskia 

....7. 42. 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 

foot notes 70, 159, 

Alvord, Clarence W. — The Old 
Kaskaskia Records quoted — 

foot note 

Commission for the court at — 
issued by Todd. May 21, 1779. 

Court of — foot note 

Founding of, etc. — foot note 

Indians 129, 

foot note 

Indian village of 

River 

foot notes 172, 

Kaskias Indians 

Kaufman. John 

Keel boats, described — foot note 

Kelley, (Col.) James 172- 

Kelley, John — foot note 

Kelley vs. People, case at law of — 

foot note 

Kennedy vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 

Kennedy's Ferry — foot note 

Kensington, Minn 

120, 121, 122, 123, 

foot note 

Kensington Rune Stone. (The) — ad- 
dress before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1910, by Prof. 

George T. Flom 23, 105- 

Kentucky River — foot note 



45 



39 
159 

181 
28 
41 
31 

102 

27 

131 

134 

176 

160 



176 

67 
67 
176 
131 
176 
131 
157 
176 
129 
IS 
152 
173 
181 

9S 

98 
150 

124 

106 



125 
143 



203 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Kentucky State 17, 31, 43, 

47, 53, 55, 63, 66, 69, 72, 140, 143, 155 

foot notes 146, 159. 164, 167, 170 

Filson Club Publications No. VI, 

quoted — foot note 66 

Slave Codes of — reference to.... 43 

Kerr, G. W IS 

Kershaw, (Maj.-Gen.) Jos. B.— Con- 
federate General, War of the Re- 
bellion 78 

King George III 90 

King Hakon 108 

King John of England— Great Char- 
ter of King John in 1215— refer- 
ence tn 82, 85 

Magna Charta of King John in 

1215 90 

King of France, Louis XrV 13o 

King Henry III, Great Charter of.. 85 
Kir.g William and Mary of England. 82 
Kingdom's America, quoted — foot 

note 145 

Kinipissa Indians 130 

Kinney, (Rev.) Lewis— foot note... 142 
Kinney vs. Cook, case at law of, 

cited 45 

Kinney, William — foot note 178 

Kipley — People vs. Kipley, case at 

law' of, cited — foot note 94 

Kipling, Rudyard, quoted 33 

Kirkpatrick, Thomas— foot note 155 

Kirkpatrick's Fort— foot note 156 

Klophkinstein, (Mrs.) 17,18 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111 16 

Knox County, 111 16, 47 

Historical Society 4 

report of 16, 17 

The Early Bar of Knox County, 
111. — address on, by Hon. E. 

P. Williams, reference to 16 

The Old Court House of — ad- 
dress by Dr. J. V. N. Stand- 

'ish, reference to 16 

Knox County, Ind. — foot note 164 

Kobke, quoted 114 

foot note 116 

Kobke's, Om Runerne i Norden, 

1S90, quoted— foot note 113 

Kock. (Prof.) Axel 125 

Ljudhistoria, quoted 112 

Koerner, Gustavus 41, 44 

Kolatica Indians 131 



Labor — United States Bureau of 

Labor, erection of in 1884 32 

La Fayette, (Gen.) — Jean Paul 
Roch Ives Gilbert Motier 51., 141 

Lafayette in America — by A. 
Levasseur, quoted — foot note. 176 

visit to Illinois, 1825 176 

foot note 176 

La Fourche i 70 

Lake Battle, Minn. — foot note 121 

Lake Champlain 1 J9, 177 

foot notes 141, 144, 147, 164 

Lake Charles, Minn. — foot note 121 

Lake Christina, Minn. — foot note... 121 

Lake Cotton, Minn. — foot note 121 

Lake County, 111 72 

Lake Dead, Minn. — foot note 121 

Lake Elbow, Minn 122, 123 

foot note 121 

Lake Erie 135, 157 

foot notes 143, 153 



Page. 



Lake Flat. Minn.— foot note.. . rn. 

Lake Height of Land, Minn.. ' " 
Lake Huron— foot note ... ifii 

Lake Ida, (Minn.)— foot note...!!'! 121 
Lake Lida (Ida), (?) Minn.— foot 

note ••. -i o-t 

Lake Lizzie, Minn.— footnote.' .' 

note (MlS ' ) Luey Cochran— foot 

Lake .Many Point", 'Mina.— foot note! 121 

Lake Michigan 47 148 157 

toot notes 153 ik« 1=7 1fi1 

Lake Milton. Minn.-foot note '. . ' 121 

Lake Ontario lv! 

Lake Oscar, Minn " 19, 

Lake Otter Tail, Minn.. '" ' i5T 

foot note I21 

Lake Pelican, Minn.— foot note 

Lake Pine, Minn.— foot note.. 

Lake Round, Minn 101 

Lake. Rush, Minn.-foot note'.!;;;'." 121 

Lake Shell. Minn.-foot note 

Lake Superior '30 

Lake White Earth, Minn.-foot note 121 

Lake Wmnepeg J|j 

Lambert — Jacksonville vs. Lambert 

case at law of, cited— foot note ' 101 
Lamson vs. Boydeen, case at law of 

cited — foot note. '96 

Lancaster County, Pa 34 

Lancaster. Mass.— foot notes.!.'!!!! 

T • ••-. 139, 149, 154 

Lancaster, Ohio 140 

Lancastrian system of education- 
foot note 150 

Land giants in 1850 to the Illinois 

Central Railroad 29 

Land office in Shawneetow'n in 

1812 — foot note 178 

Land og Folk for 1S76, quoted.!'.!!!' 115 
Land warrants issued by the United 
States to soldiers of the War 01 

1812, etc., etc.— foot note 151 

Langlade, (Capt.) Charles Michel 

de 70 

Langworthy, Cyrus 49 

Lansden. John M.— Historv ' of 'the 
City of Cairo, 111., quoted— foot 

T not e •• 163 

Larson, (Dr.) L. M 124 

La Salle County, 111.— Historical So- 
ciety 7 

La Salle, Rene Robert Cavalier— 

Sieur de 8, 129, 136, 185 

foot note 157 

La Salle a "Victim to His Error in 
Longitude, contribution to State 
History— by John F. Steward. .129-136 

Latimer, F. W 16 

Latter Day Saints (Mormons) 26 

Lebanon, 111 5 

Lebanon, Ohio \ . . 149 

foot note 149 

Lead mines of Galena, 111. — foot note 181 
Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Stage 

and Express 27 

Leland Livery Company 10 

Lemoult, (Capt.) R. B.— foot note... 70 
Letters — Brehm to Haldimand, May 

28, 1779— foot note 69 

Clark-Mason Letter, quoted — 

tin it notes 66, 68 

Clark to Patrick Henry, April 

29, 1779— foot notes 64, 65, 68 

Flagg pioneer letters of Ger- 

shom Flagg 139-183 

Letters from America — by James 
Flint, ouotcd — foot notes.. 145, 150, 151 



204 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Letters from the West— by James 

Hall, quoted— foot note 143 

by George W. Ogden, quoted — 

foot note 150 

Letters from the West, or a Caution 
to Emigrants— by John S. Wright, 

quoted — foot note 145 

Letters— Parke, (Capt.)— letter of 

July 30, 1779, quoted— foot note... 70 
Letters — Pollock,* Letters and Pa- 
pers of Oliver Pollock, in papers 
of the Continental Congress, 

quoted — foot note 65 

Levasseur, A. — Lafayette in Ameri- 
ca, bv, quoted — foot note 176 

Secretary to General Lafayette 

— foot note 176 

Lewis and Clark — expedition — foot 

note 171 

Lewis' orderly book of that portion 
of the American Army stationed 
at or near Williamsburg, Va., 
March 18, 1776 to August 28, 1776, 

reference to 14 

Lewis, Robert 49 

Lewiston, New Tork 140,142,143 

foot note 142 

Lexington, Ky 53 

Liberty Prairie— Madison County, 

111. — foot note 161 

Licking River 150 

foot note 150 

Lieber's— Civil Liberty and Self 
Government, quoted — foot notes.. 

83, 87 

Life, (The) and Services of Alfred 
Orendorff, late President of the 
Illinois State Historical Society — 
address before the Society, 1910— 
by Hon. James A. Creighton. .23, 34-37 
Lightcap — Bradley vs. Lightcap, 

case at law of, cited — foot note... 102 
Liguest, Pierre Laclede — foot note.. 152 
Liljegren, J. C. — Runlara, quoted 

115, 116, 124 

foot note 114 

Lillhardal, (Sweden) 115 

Lincoln, Abraham 

3, 8, 11, 19. 27, 28, 

35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 53, 56, 60, 72 

foot note 181 

Lincoln Centennial Association 36 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 — 

Semi-Centennial Celebration of... 36 
Lincolniana Collection — in the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library — 

reference to 9 

Lincoln, 111 '. 34 

Linctot ") 

de Linctot MCapt.) Godefroy — in- 

Langto J dian Trader 68, 69 

Linder, O. A 125 

Lindsay, (Mr. ) 65 

Linnaeua, (Charles or Carl)— cele- 
brated Swedish Botanist 115 

Linng — see Linnaeus 115 

Liscum, Heman — foot note 168 

Little Wabash River 52 

Ljungstrom, C. Joh 116 

Lloyd, David 49 

Locke, John — philosopher and phil- 
anthropist S3 

Lockwood, (Judge) Samuel Drake.. 45 

Logan County, 111 34 

Logan, John A 37, 55 

Logan. (Judge) Stephen T 45 

Loire River 130 



Page. 

Lombard University, Galesburg. 111. 4 

London, England 121 

foot note 145 

Long, (Maj.) S. H.— Expedition un- 
der Maj. S. H. Long — by James, 

• quoted— foot notes 152, 156, 160 

Lookout Mountain 73 

Loramie Station on a branch of the 

Great Miami — foot note 143 

Lord Camden of England 91 

Lord Campbell's Act 6 and 7, Vic- 
toria Chapter 96 89 

Lorimier, Louis — foot note 160 

Losantville (L-os-anti-ville) — city 
opposite the mouth of the Licking 

River — foot note 150 

Losey, James H. — Treasurer, Knox 

County Historical Society 16 

Louis XrV— King of France 135 

Louisiana , 25, 42, 93 

Louisiana — Roman Catholic Church 

— prevailing religion of 87 

Louisville, Ky 61, 154, 157, 177 

foot notes 154, 157 

Durrett, Reuben T. — The Cen- 
tenary of Louisville, quoted — 

foot note 154 

McMurtrie — Sketches of Louis- 
ville, quoted — foot notes.. 154, 158 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parish 44, 46 

foot note 181 

Lovejoy, Owen 47 

case of, indictment against for 

harboring negroes 46, 48, 49 

Lowden, (Hon.) Frank O. — gift of 
money to place markers on the 
route of Abraham Lincoln and his 
company in the Black Hawk War, 
from Beardstown to the mouth of 

the Rock River 3,8 

Lowry, (Hon. ) Thomas 8 

Lucas, Charles — foot note 172 

Ludlow, (Colonel) Israel — foot note. 146 

Lumry, Enoch 48 

Lund, Sweden 125 

Lysaker, Norway 106 



M 

McAdams, Wm. — archaeological col- 
lection 13 

McAfee's Church, near Rossville, 

Ga 74, 75, 76 

McArthur, (Gen.) Duncan — foot 

note 146 

McCarty, (Capt.) Richard— foot note 70 
McClain, (Mrs.) J. C. — Secretary, 
Colored Historical Society — report 

of 4, 19 

McClernand, John A 55 

McCook, (Col.) Dan 75 

McCulloch, David 36 

McCulloch vs. Maryland, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 151 

McCutcheon, John — cartoonist 38 

McDonald, William — "Jacksonian 

Democracy," quoted — foot note... 179 
McDuffe vs. Sinnott. case at law of, 

cited, quoted — foot note 86 

Mclntire, John — foot note 142 

McKee. (Capt. ) 70 

McKee's Creek 62 

McKenney, (Miss.) Jennie — The In- 
dians and their Neighbors of the 
Spoon River Country — address of, 
reference to 16 



205 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Mackinac ~] 

Mackinaw > 69, 70 

Macinau J 

foot notes 69, 161, 162 

Mackinac — T hwaites "Story of 

Mackinac," quoted — foot note 162 

McLaughlin, Andrew C. — The Con- 
federation and the Constitution, 

quoted — foot note 143 

McManus vs. McDonough, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 101 

McMaster, John B. — History of the 
People of the United States, 

quoted — foot notes 144, 151 

MeMurtrie, H. — Sketches of Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, quoted — foot 

notes 154, 158 

Macomb, 111 11 

Macoupin County, 111. — foot note 178 

Macoupin Point (Montgomery Coun- 
ty) Illinois — foot note 181 

McTier, (Mrs.) Hattie 19 

Mad River — foot note 146 

Madison County, 111 

7, 140, 141, 155, 167, 178, 179, 181 

foot notes 

155, 156. 159, 162, 168, 178, 180, 181 
Madison County, 111. — Coles vs. 
Madison County, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 102 

Madison County, 111. — History of 
Madison County, 111. — by W. R. 
Brink & Company, 1S82, quoted — 

foot notes 

...156, 157, 158, 159, 165, 170, 174, 181 
Madison County, Ohio — foot notes.. 

141, 160 

Madison. Ohio — foot note 143 

Madison Fork — tributary of the Mis- 
souri River 27 

Madison, Wis 9, 38 

Magee, (Dr.) J. H. — President, 
Colored Historical Society, Spring- 
field, 111 19 

Magna Charta of King John of 
England in 1215.. 82, 85, 90, 92, 97, 104 

foot note 97 

Mahehoualaima Indians 130 

Mail route from Edwardsville to 
Peoria established in 1822 — foot 

note 182 

Major, (Mrs. ) Joe 18 

Major, (Mrs.) Ruth 18 

Maldaner and Son — caterers 10 

Mandan Indians 171 

foot note 171 

Manrhoat Indians 132 

Manual or hand--book intended for 
convenience in practical survey- 
ing — by John Messinger, quoted— 

foot note 164 

Manuel, Simeon 159 

Maouila Indians ! ! 130 

Maps— Finley's Map of Pennsylva- 
nia, 1S33, quoted — foot note 142 

Franquelin Map. 16S4 133, 134 

foot note ..., 130 

Hondius' Map 133', 135 

Joliet's Map 132 133 

Mitchell's Map of Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois, 1835, quoted— foot 

„ note 181 

Sanson Map, 1656 134, 135 

Spanish Maps 132,' 133 

foot note ' 135 



Page. 
Maps — Concluded. 

Vanzandt's Map of the Military 
Bounty Lands in Illinois, 

reference to 178 

ilaquoin, 111 j[ 

Margaret's Chronicle late 15th Cen- 
tury MSS., 1514-1525, quoted 112 

Margry, Pierre — Decouvertes des 
Francais dans De L' Amerique.. 

129 132 

Mariaklagan (Lament of the ' Vir- 
gin) 113 

foot note 113 

Marietta, Ohio 139 

foot notes 149, 169 

Maroa Indians 131 

Marshall, Amos ' ig 

Marshall, (Dr.) A. 4 

Martin, Samuel 149 

Maryland State 34, 143 

Masciccippi River (Mississippi 

River) 199 

Mason, Edward G.— Chapters from 

Illinois History — foot note 67 

Mason, George si 

Massachusetts, State 

•■• 15, 23, 139, 144, 159 

foot notes 

139, 149, 154, 159, 164, 169 

Massachusetts, State — Body of 

Liberties, 1641, quoted 83 

Early Missionary Societies in, 

reference to — foot note 182 

Massie, (Gen.) Nathaniel — foot 

note 146 

Matchinkoa Indians — village of... 131 
Matthews, R. G.— Sheriff of Knox 

County, 111 16 

Mattoon, 111 55,59 

Maumee River 135 

foot notes 143, 151 

Mauvaisterre Creek 57, 59, 60 

Mauvila Indians 130 

Maximilian — quoted on the corn of 
the Mandan Indians — foot note... 171 

Mayo. Walter L ™T)2 

Maysville, Ky 140 

Maysville Road Bill — foot note 179 

Meadowcroft vs. People, case at 

law of, cited — foot note.; 86 

Meadville, Pa 142 

foot note 142 

Medill, Joseph — Editor, The Chicago 

Tribune 39, 40 

Meese, William A 3, 4, 5, 11 

report on the marking of the 
route of Abraham Lincoln and 
his company to the Black 

Hawk War 3 

Megancackia Indians 131 

Melomelinoia Indians 132 

Menominee Indians — foot note 69 

Mercer County, Pa. — foot note 142 

Mercer, Pa 140, 1 4 J 

foot note 142 

Meriden, Conn 14 

Messenger, John 164 

foot note 164 

Metamora. Ill 17 

Mexico 27, 130, 131,136 

foot note 174 

Miami Indians — foot note 151 

Miami (Great) River 150 

foot notes 143,146,150 

Miami (Little) River 146 

foot note 150 



206 



Index- -Continued. 



Page. 
Miami University at Lebanon, p.- Mg 

note .3 42 

Michigan, State 

Collections, Vol. IX, Quoted ^ 

Collections, Vol. X, quoted _ o 

BtSJSSS^tV'rf'iB^g"^ 72 
Military' Bounty" 'Lands'. V.*. 151, 153, 160 

• r y"of" Green "Bay, 
-^ is -_ by William L. Evans, ^ g 
quoted—foot no^e .^. . ~ • ^ nn y s ; ; 140 
ilit; 
s 

Mmtary School at Fulton, 111. . ^ ^ 



Military His Dry of Green 



^ds^Stat, of Illinois... 140 



MUl see J Dana— foot note 
Military Lands-see Jansandt. 



Page. 
Mississippi Valley — Missionaries and 
Missionary Societies in — foot note 182 
States in, land giants and rail- 
road building in 1850 29 

ouri Compromise of 1820.. 39, 40, 41 
Missouri Compromise — measure re- 

• pealed in 1854 44 

Missouri River 26, 27, 

28, 30, 154, 155. 158, 160, 161, 163, 168 

foot notes 152, 171 

Missouri, State 



.25, 26, 27, 29. 30, 31, 37, 38, 43, 



Milk sickness _ u - 

foot note ... •• 10 

MiUer, (Miss) Bell ; 34 

Miller, Elizabeth 49 

^ £"*$%*£?' *?.* sc 

cited, quoted— foot note g 

Mills, Richard \> . • • ■ • ■ — — ■ ; ; ■ ; ; ; 182 
Mi^n S !ori-io^^f,3erence^to 83 

1644, quoted 38 

Milwaukee, Wis • • 106 

mK So*™ ■ Territories- "of" 'the ^ 

Mpnnip^fs, Mmn.-Tidende (news- ^ 

paper) ■•■ S 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Minnesota, State .......••••£•; i;4 

S, 25, 31, lOo. 106, 119, l-U. Jg ■ „ 156 

foot notes ,••••••.•;„* ' 

State Historical Society .... . . . ■ ^. 

: f..'l05 

State 00 Hist°odcal " Society's Mu- ^ 

Sta e te m Unive'rsity-f oot ' note .... '. 106 
Mission Ridge (near Rossville, QaO ?g 

TvriVdionari'es "and Missionary So- 
M cleties in the Mississippi Valley 

ly)— foot note iOJ 

Missi f s ! p 4 l?8\T9/i29;-m"i3iVi 

133, 134, 135, 136, 140, 152, 154, loS, 
160l 161, 163. 167. 172, 1,6, 177, 180, 181 

foot notes . • • ■ • • • • ;•-',■' ' 1 -V 1 <U 

...151, L61. 1'6, 178, !M 

Mi -European settle- ^ 

^ p T^;^c"cohstitution" i .. 

*&?' "'Caress 

Mississippi Vail' 

Histor- 

■■-185 

ren K. M -" 1!>4 

Mississippi Valley ... . ..,.. ••• • — •^ 135 

:• '• lo< -"' 176 

foot note 



47. 56, 57, 60, 140, 145, 14S, 172, 179, 181 

foot notes 

160, 161, 170, 172, 176, 179 

State Constitutional Convention 

of 1S20— foot note 179 

State Historical Society, St. 

Louis, Mo 13 

Missouri, State — Houck, Louis — 
History of Missouri, quoted — foot 

notes ' 152, 160, 161, 172, 179 

Missouri. State— Republican (news- 
paper), quoted — foot note 160 

Missouri Territory . .151, 152, 153, 154, 155 

Missourite Indians 132 

Mitchel and Waddle — Duel on 

Bloody Island 1T3 

Mitchell, (Col.) J. G 77,78 

Mitchell's Map of Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois, 1835, quoted — foot 

note 181 

Mobile Bay 131, 134 

Mohawk River 142 

Mohler, Samuel 49 

Moingoana Indians 131 

Moline, 111 4, 5, 9,15 

Monk's Mound — see Cahokia Mound 

184, 185 

Monroe County. 111. — foot note..'... 170 
Monroe County, 111.— History of Ran- 
dolph, Monroe and Perry coun- 
ties, 1883, quoted — foot note 176 

Monroe Station 60 

Montana, State 30,31 

Montana, Territory 28 

Montelius, (Dr.) Oscar 125 

Montgomery County, 111.— foot note. 181 
Perrin's History of, quoted — foot 

note 159 

Montgomery, H.— Life of William 

H. Harrison, quoted — foot note.. 179 
Montgomery County, Ohio — foot 

note 146 

Montgomery, (Col.) John 69,70 

Montpelier, Vermont 144 

foot notes 141, 144, 159 

Montreal, Canada 164 

Moore, Abel — foot note 174 

Moore, Caleb 49 

Moore. Ensley— Grants First March 
—address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1910..... 

5, 23, 5d-dj 

Moore! Executor, etc. vs. People— 
14; Howard— 13; case at law of, • 

cited : 46 

Moore, John B.— History and Digest 
f inti "al Arbitrations, 

Vol. I, quoted— foot note 16o 

re, (Col.) Risdon M 8 

Moorehead, (Dr.) Warren K.— The 
Archaeology of the Mississippi 
VaUey — address before the Illinois 
State Histi Society, 1910... 

23, 184-loo 



207 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Mora, (Sweden) 118 

Morgan, C. H 19 

Morgan County, 111. — fair grounds.. 

57, 58, 59 

Morgan vs People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 91 

Mormon Trading Post on the Cali- 
fornia Trail 27 

Mormons 28, 31, 87 

Moro, 111.— foot note 161 

Morrison, William — ball given at 

the home of — for Lafayette on his 

visit to Kaskaskia — foot note... 176 

Moses, John — Illinois Historical and 

Statistical — published in Chicago, 

1882-92, quoted— foot notes 147, 

156, 157, 158. 159, 161, 163, 176. 178, 181 
Mt. Morris Gazette, (newspaper) 

Mt. Morris, 111 38 

Mt. Sterling, 111 61 

Mount Zion Church, 1835 IS 

Munk, Jens — Norwegian sailor — foot 

note 121 

Murray, (Orleans County) New 

York 144 

foot note 144 

Musae Suetizantes, 166S, quoted.... 112 

Muskingum River 142. 146 

foot note 142, 169 

"My Own Times" — bv John Rey- 
nolds, 1855, 1879, quoted— font 

notes 170, 173, 174. 176, 178 

Myers, James 49 



N 

Nadouessiou Indians 132 

Nance vs. Howard, case at law of, 

cited 45 

Nance, Xegro girl, (Tazewell Coun- 
ty. 111.), case of referred to 45 

Nancy, Negro slave, case at law 

of 4G, 48, 49 

Naples, 111 59, .60, 61, 62 

Napoleon ■ 136 

Napoleonic Wars in Europe — foot 

note 144 

Nashborough Station, Tenn. — foot 

note 176 

Nashville, Tenn ■ 18,176 

Natche Indians 130 

National and Royal Museums and 
Libraries of the Scandinavian 

North 10S 

National Bar Association 35 

National Industrial Convention, 

1 S45— foot note 159 

'•National Land System" — by Pay- 
son J. Treat, quoted — foot notes.. 

147, 14S, 151, 167 

National Reform Association — foot 

note 159 

National Republican Convention, 

May, 1SC0 n 

National Republicans — foot ndte ... 17H 

Natchez, Tenn 64 

Nebraska, State 30 

foot note 169 

Nebraska Territory 25, 27 

"Negro Servitude in Illinois" — by 
N. Dwight Harris, quoted — foot 

note 174 

Negro Slavery in Illinois — address 
before the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, 1910 — by Hon. John 
P. Hand 23, 42-50 



46 
50 



^ Page. 

<>es— Pardon of six men of the 
crime of being Negroes, issued by 
ernor Richard Yates, War 

of Illinois 50 

Supreme Court of Illinois, cases 
involving the legal rights of 
Negroes held as slaves in.... 

„ , 41 

Nelson, (Negro) Adams Count v, 

111.— pardon of, by Governor rates. 

Hancock < of 

cited ; i; 

Nelson River 12] 

N.'\ ada, State 27, :; 

Nevada Territory .' 27' 30 

New Albany, Ind 'ins 

foot note 158 

No w Castle, Pa 1 4 j 

foot note , 142 

New Connecticut, or the Western 

Reserve — fool note L43 

New Design, 111 —foot note i.;i 

New England 

31, 139, 143, 1 15, 148, 151 

foot note 144 

New England Historical and Genea- 

?ister 14 

New France 13^ 

Newhall, Sat ool note 159 

New I [ampshire, State 179 

Hampshire- Barstow's History 
of New Hampshire, quoted — foot 

note 144 

New Jerses State Constitution. 

1776 88 

fool note 94 

Newkirk vs. ( !hapron, ca it law 

note fc02 

New 1 an caster, O 14& 

fool note 142 

New Lisbon, 142 

foot note in' 

New Mexico 26, 27. 28, 3.', L32 

N R 1 I : nns 

64, 65, L36, L57, 158, 162, 176 

imboat) - first 

steamb 1 I he W e s t < r n 

wa 1 ers fool note 157 

Newport Barracks fool note 150 

Newport, Ky 150 

fool note 150 

Newspaper and of Illi- 

ted Illinois Hi 
Colli Vol. Vl fool notes. . 

165-182 

apei Alton 01 r, 1 <ove- 

I ;> -lived 44 

-Mlmi V I Lph 141 

' < 11 - 

tion :ii Decatur, 111.. Feb. 3, 

i6 41 

Atkins, (Gen.) Smith D.— Some 
Illii" itors I have Known 

23, 38-41 

Chicago 1 t ■ 41 

39, 40 

Cos! 1 >emocrat — foot 

180 

"Dixon Telegraph" 40 

1 Idwardsville Spectator 

165, 174, 175 

foot note 165 

41 

Illinois Gazette 54 

Illinois Newspapers and Period- 
1-1879, edited by 
Franklin William Scott, quoted 
— foot notes 165-1S2 



208 



Index — Continued. 



Newspapers — Concluded. G 7i' 

Jacksonville Journal 41 

Kane County Democrat, St. 

Charles, 111 38, 39 

Minneapolis Tidende 125 

Missouri Republican — foot note 160 
Mt. Morris Gazette. Mt. Morris, 

111 38 

Niles Register, Vol. LXXIV, 

quoted— foot note loa 

Northwestern Gazette of Gale- 

na in 41 

Prairie 'Democrat, Freeport, 111. 38 
Plattsburg, New York, Republi- 
can — foot note ■ 141 

Religio — Philosophical Journal, 

Chicago V^'i: 

Wisconsin State Journal, Feb. 

7, 1910, quoted— foot note 106 

New York State.... 35, 139, 140, 143, 
144, 145 151, 152, 154, 157, 165, 167, 177 

f00t . n °l t 4 e i! 142." IM/iM." lMVlVe. 180 

Constitution, 1777 88 

Constitution of 1846 » ' 

foot note ™ 

Constitution of 1848 91 

Historical Society 13 

Legislature 174 

Politics— foot note 141 

Niagara Falls 143 

Niagara River i*- 

Niles, Nathaniel • • • • 44 

Niles Register, Vol. LXXIV, quoted 

— foot note 1°9 

"Ninety-sixth Illinois at Chicka- 
mauga" — address before the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, 
1910, by General Charles A. Par- 
tridge 23, 72-80 

Noreen's Altschwedische Gram- 

matik, quoted— foot note 108 

Noreen's Altschwedisches Lese- 

buch, quoted • H3 

Noreen's Dalbymalets Ljud ock 

Pojningslara, 1879, quoted 117 

"Noreen's De Nordiska Spraken," 
1903, quoted— foot note 10S 

Noreen's — Fryksdalsmalets Ljudlara, 

quoted — foot note 118 

"Norges Indskrifter med de aeldre 

Runer," quoted 109 

"Norges Indskrifter Med de yngre 

Runer," quoted 109 

Norse visit to America, 1362 106 

Notes on a Journey in America — by 

Morris Birkbeck— foot note 145 

Notes on the Early Settlement of 
the Northwest Territory — by Jacob 

Burnet, quoted — foot note 150 

North America 129,185 

foot note 164 

North Carolina 14,17,34 

foot note 170 

Colonial Records of North Caro- 
lina, quoted 14 

Constitution of 1776 93 

Hunter's Sketches of North 

Carolina, quoted 14 

"Wheeler's Historical Sketches 
of North Carolina, 1584-1851, 

quoted 14 

North Dakota 30, 31 

Northern Pacific Railroad 30, 31 

Northfield, (Norway)— foot note... 121 
North vs. People, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 92 

North River 177 



Page. 

Northwest Territory 34, 42, 43, 45 

foot notes 143, 150, 156, 164 

Monroe's account of — foot note.. 153 
Northwestern Gazette of Galena, 

111 41 

North Western University, Evans- 
ton. Ill 23, 63, 106 

Norton, W. T 5, 11 

Norway 106, 109, 113 

foot note 106 

Norwegian — American — Northfie'd, 

October, 1909, quoted— foot note.. 121 
Norwegian Inscriptions in the 
National and Royal Museums and 
Libraries of the Scandinavian 

North 108 

Nova Hispania 133 



Oak Park, 111 8 

O'Brien, (Miss) Bessie 10 

O'Brien, Lucas 119 

Odell , of Great Britain — 

foot note 164 

Ogden, George W. — Letters from 

the West, quoted — foot note 150 

Ogden, W B 41 

Ogle County, 111.— foot notes... 178, 179 

Oglesby, Richard J 41 

Ohio company at the mouth of the 

Muskingum River — foot note 169 

Ohio company. Marietta, Ohio — foot 

note 149 

Ohio company's purchase — foot note 148 

Ohio River 42, 43, 

63, 66, 75, 129, 135, 140, 147, 150, 
152. 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 163, 177, 179 

foot notes 

..129, 143, 150, 154, 158, 163, 176 

(Belle Riviere) 135 

falls of 154 

foot note 154 

Ohio, State 42, 55, 

139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 
149. 150, 152, 155, 157, 163, 169, 184, 185 

foot notes 141. 142, 143, 146, 

148, 149, 150, 151, 159, 167, ISO, 181 
Atwater's History of Ohio — 
(edited, 1838), quoted— foot 

note ? 146 

Constitution of 1802— foot note 97 
Historical Collections of Ohio — 
by Henry Howe — (edited, 

1857), quoted — foot notes 

141, 143, 146, 148, 149, 150 

Historical Society 13 

Howe's Historical Collections of 

Ohio — foot notes 

141, 143, 146. 14S, 149, 150 

land — see Treat's, "The Na- 
tional Land System" — foot 

note 148 

Ohman, Edward 105 

Ohman, Olaf (Oluf) 

105, 106, 120, 121, 122, 123 

foot notes 106, 120, 122 

Oiatenon Indians , 132 

Oklahoma 26, 37 

Old Court House of Knox County, 

111. — address on, reference to 16 

Old Danish Ballads 114 

Old Edward Trace — foot note 161 

Old French Fort of Presqu'isle — 

foot note 142 

Old French Trading Post— foot note 142 
Old Indian Trail (The)— by Zimri 
A. Enos, reference to — foot note. 161 



209 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Old Kuskiiskies, Delaware Indian 

town — foot note 142 

Old Mexican Mines 28 

Olsen, Magnus 125 

Olson, Erik 115 

Olson. (Prof.) J. E 125 

Olson, (Prof.) Magnus 109 

foot note 109 

Olson, Samuel 106,119,120 

Omaha, Nebraska — foot note 169 

"Om Kensington og Elbow Lake 

Stenene," quoted — foot note 106 

Omma Indians 130 

Omphghent Township. Madison 

County, 111. — foot note 175 

Onion River — foot note 144 

Orderly book of the Conductor 

General, Fort Patrick Henry, July 

26, 1779, quoted— foot note 69 

Orderlv book of William Shannon, 

Feb/ 10, 1783. quoted— foot note.. 65 
Ordinance of 1787 . . .• 

...44, 45. 83, 85, 87, 90, 92, 97, 99, 101 

foot note 156 

Ordinance of 1787, Art. VI, on 

slavery, quoted 42, 43 

o 

Ordlista ofver Dalmalet, quoted — 

foot note 13 8 

Oregon, State 25, 40. 122 

Oregon Territory 26,28 

Oregonians 28 

Orendorff, Alfred (Gen.) — address 
on the life and services of Al- 
fred Orendorff, late president 
Illinois State Historical Society — 
by Hon. James A. Creighton — 
address before the Society, 1910.. 

6, 23, 34-37 

Orendorff, (General) Alfred 3,8 

Orendorff and Creighton — law firm, 

Springfield, 111 35 

Orendorff and Herndon — law firm, 

.Springfield, 111 35 

Orendorff and Patton — law firm, 

Springfield, 111 35 

Orendorff, Herndon and Zane — law 

firm. Springfield, 111 35 

Orendorff. Alice E 37 

Orendorff, Christian 34 

Orendorff, Christopher 34, 37 

Orendorff, James 37 

Orendorff, John A 37 

Orendorff. Joseph 34 

Orendorff, Lydia Edna 37 

Orendorff. Robert 37 

Origin and Development of the 
Bill of Rights in the Constitution 
of Illinois — address before the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, 1910, 
by Herman G. James, J. D..23, 81, 104 
Orleans Boats — described — foot note 152 
Orleans County, N. Y. — foot note... 144 

Orsa, (Sweden) 118 

Orsebeck. Orsa Parish in Dalarne.. 115 

Orwell, Vermont • 139 

foot notes 141, 144 

Osborn et al vs. The Bank of the 
United States, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 151 

Osborne, Georgia L. — Chairman 
Committee on Genealogy and 
Genealogical Publications, Illinois 
State Historical Society, report of 

3, 14 

Otis, James 83, 88, 91 



Ottawa, 111 11 

foot note 181 

Otter Tail County, Minn 121 

foot note 121 

Otter Tail Lake, Minn.— foot note.. 121 

Ouasita Indians 130 

Owens, W. W 10 

Owyhee River or Creek 27 



Pacific Ocean 25, 30, 133 

Page, (Prof.) Edward C 4, 5, 12 

Paddock, Gaius 140 

foot note 159 

Paddock, Salome — foot note 159 

Paddock's Grove, Madison County, 

111 140 

Paddock's Settlement. Madison 

County, 111 — foot note 161 

Palmer, John M 35, 37, 44 

Palmer, John M.— Colonel of the 14th 
Illinois Regt. of Volunteers, .War 

of the Rebellion 58 

Palmyra, 111. — foot note 168 

Palmyra, Mo 56, 60 

Pana Indians 132 

Panuco River 130, 136 

Papers of the Continental Congress, 
Letters and Papers of Oliver Pol- 
lock, quoted — foot note 65 

Parke. (Captain)— letter of, July 30, 

1779, quoted JO 

Parke, Charles S 17 

Parke. (Mrs.) Mary Williams 17 

Parke, Timothy 17 

Parker, Edward L.— President of 
the Illinois Outdoor Association.. 4 

Parkinson, (Col. ) 173 

Parkinson, Daniel M.— foot note 162 

Parks. G. D. A 41 

Parton, James— Life of Andrew 

Jackson, quoted— foot note 179 

Partridge, (Gen.) Charles A.— The 
Ninety-Sixth Illinois at Chicka- 
mauga — address before the Illinois 

State Historical Society, 1910 

10, 23, 72-80 

Patterson, Robert— foot note 150 

Patton, Robert H 35 

Paulson vs. People, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 94 

Paw Paw, 111 140 

Paxson, F L.. Ph. D.— The West 
and the Growth of the National 
Ideal— Annual address, Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1910.... 

23, 24-33 

Payne, Edward W. — archaeological 

collection of 184 

Payne, (Mrs.) E 18 

"Peace of Mad Anthony" — by Fra- 
zer E. Wilson, quoted — foot note. 143 

Peanchichia Indians 131 

Peck, Charles 160 

Peck, John Mason — Agent of the 
Baptist Mission Board— foot note. 182 
Babcock's Memoir of John Ma- 
son Peck, quoted — foot notes 

152, 157, 158, 174, 182 

New Guide for Emigrants, Bos- 
ton, 1836, quoted— foot note... 147 
Opposition to Slavery in Illinois 53 
Pell. Gilbert T 53 



—14 H S 



210 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Pennsylvania, State 

15, 34, 38, 140, 142, 143, 157 

foot notes 142, 145 

Constitution of 1790, quoted 84 

White's Constitution of Penn- 
sylvania, quoted — foot notes. 

Qg no 

Pension roils, State of iilinois, 1816-' 

1835, quoted 14 

People — Eells vs. People, case at 

law of, cited 46 

Willard vs. People, case at law 

of. cited 45 

People vs. Butler St. Foundry, 
case at law of, cited — foot 

note 96 

People vs. Illinois State Re- 
formatory, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 98 

People vs. Kipley, case at law 

of, cited — foot note 94 

Peoria, 111 8, 11, 15, 41 

foot notes 161, 181 

Ballance's History of Peoria, 

111., quoted — foot note 161 

Mail route from Peoria to 
Galena, (early) — foot note...: 182 

Public Library 16 

Peoueria Indians 131 

Periam, Jonathan — The Ground- 
swell, a History of the Farmer's 

Movement, quoted — foot note 180 

Perrin, "William H. — History of 
Bond and Montgomery counties — 

foot note 159 

Personal Reminiscences of Early 
Galesburg — by Erastus S. "Willcox, 

reference to 16 

Perry County, 111. — History of Ran- 
dolph, Monroe and Perry counties, 

1883, quoted— foot note 176 

Pescadores River 131 

see Rio de Pescadores 131 

Peterson, Mr 120 

Petition of Rights to Charles the . 

First in 1628 82, 90, 102, 103 

Fhelan, James — History of Ten- 
nessee, quoted — foot note 176 

Phelps-Gorham Purchase — foot 

note 142 

Phelps, H. L 10 

Philadelphia— foot notes 147, 164; 176 

Philippine Islands 18 

Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. . 23 

Phillios, D. L 41 

Phillips, Elizabeth 34 

Phillips, (Judge} Joseph P. — Pro- 
Slavery Candidate for Governor 

of Illinois, 1822 44 

Phillips vs. Town of Scales Mound, 

case at law of, cited — foot note... 101 
Philological Society, University of 

Illinois 124 

Phoebe vs. Jay, case at law of, 

cited 45 

Pickaway County, Ohio — foot note. 160 

Pickering, (Gen.) William 53 

Pickett, T. J , . 41 

Pierce, Harley H. — foot note 175 

Pike County, 111 44, 60 

foot note 151 

Pike's Peak, Colorado 27, 28 

Pinckney, (Prof.) Daniel J 38 

Pioneer Home (The) — address of 
(Prof.) B J. Radford, reference 
to 17 



Page. 
Pioneer Letters of Gershom Flagg, 
edited with introduction and notes 

—by Solon J. Buck ....139-183 

I'iltman, (Capt.) P h i 1 i p — The 
Present State of the Europeans 
Settlements on the Mississippi, 

quoted , 42 

Pittsburgh, Pa^. 69, 140 

Plattsburg, battle of 139, 141 

foot note 141 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

144, 152, 154, 165, 167, 171 

foot note 144 

Plattsburg, N. Y., Republican 

(newspaper) — foot note 141 

Platte Trail 28 

Pleasant Plains, 111 4 

Polish War, 1628 114 

Political History of the State of 
New York — by D. S. Alexander, 

quoted — foot note 141 

Polo, 111 5 

Pontiac. 111. — Railroad Company vs. 
City of Pontiac, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 101 

Pollock, Oliver 64, 65 

foot notes 64 65 

Pollock, Oliver — Calendar of Letters 
and Papers in the Department of 

State, quoted — foot notes 64, 65 

Pooley, William V— The Settlement 
of Illinois from 1830 to 1850, 
quoted — foot notes. .. .151, 154, 156, 181 

Pope, Nathaniel — foot note 156 

Porterfield, John 49 

Portland, Maine — foot note 159 

Portland, Oregon 122 

Post St. Vincent 67 

Power, John C. — History of the 
Early Settlers of Sangamon Coun- 
ty, quoted — foot note 159 

Prairie Democrat (newspaper) 38 

Prairie du Chien I 

Prairie des Chien f *vl 

Prairie-du-Rocher, 111 42 

Prairie Lands 153 

.foot note 153 

Prairies — (Illinois Country) — de- 
scription of 156 

see authorities on origin of, 

quoted — foot note 156 

Pratt, Truman 49 

Preble, George H. — "History of 

Steam Navigation" — foot note.... 157 
Present (The)— State of the Euro- 
pean Settlements on the Missis- 
sippi — by Captain Philip Pittman, 

quoted 42 

Princeton, 111 46,47 

"Proces Verbal" of La Salle 135 

Prophetstown, 111 11 

Public land, credit system abolished 

in 1S20— foot note 167 

Public land sale, United States.... 

147. 148 

foot notes 147,148 

"Pump" Carpenter — nick name for 

Stephen D. Carpenter 38 

Purple, (Judge) Norman H 46, 48, 49 

Putnam, Rufus 84, 139 



Quebec, Canada 132,135 

Quincy, 111 5, 15, 19, 41, 47, 56, 60 

Quiqualthango 130 



211 



Index — Continued. 



I 



Page. 

Rachel— Indentured Negro Women.. 

44, 45 

Radford! ' '(Prof.')" B. J —"The Pio- 
neer Home" — address of, refer- 
ence to 1 ' 

Railroads— Atchison, Topeka and 

Santa Fe Railroad • • 30 

Bruffet vs. Great Western Rail- 
road Company, case at law 

of, cited— foot note 102 

Central Military Tract Railroad 
Company vs. Rockafellow, 
case at law of, cited— foot 

note 8S 

Chicago and Alton Railroad 
Company vs. People, case at 

law of, cited— foot note 98 

Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 

Railroad 30, 47 

Chicago. Rock Island and Pa- 
cific Railroad vs. Joliet, case 

at law of, cited — foot note 101 

Chicago, St. Charles and- Missis- 
sippi Air Line Railway 38 

Great Western Railroad (now 

Wabash) 56, 60 

Hannibal and St. Joe 56 

Illinois Central Railroad 38 

foot note 173 

Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany vs. Commissioners of 
Highways, case at law of, 

cited— foot note 100 

Illinois Central Railroad Land 

Grants in 1850 29 

Mississippi Valley States, land 
grants and railroad building, 

1850 ■ 29 

Northern Pacific Railroad 30, 31 

Railroad Company vs. City of 
Pontiac, case of, cited — foot 

note ■ • 101 

Southern Pacific Railroad 31,32 

Southern Pacific Railroad of 

Kentucky 31, 32 

Texas Pacific Railroad 30 

Union Pacific Railways, in- 
corporated in 1862 30 

United States Government's 
part " in the early railway 

building • • 30 

Wabash Railroad .56, 60 

W. R. R. Company vs Drainage 
District, case of, cited— foot 

note 101 

Randall, Theophilus 144 

Randolph County, 111.— foot notes . 

164, 1/b 

Randolph, Monroe and Perry Coun- 
ties—history of 1883, quoted— foot 



note 



Raimey, (Hon.) J. A.— The Early 
Settlers of Woodford County, 111. 

—address of, reference to 17 

Ranson, Robert R-. ■■ ■ £% 

Rector-Barton Duel-foot note..... 172 
Rector Family— foot notes.. 160, 161, l<^ 
Rector, Thomas C •••• 17- 
foot notes 161, 1'- 

Rector, William— foot note 160, 161 

Rector, William— Surveyor General 



Page. 

Red River of Louisiana 161 

Red River, Minn *-* 

Red River Valley, Minn "J 

Reeve, Lazarus *■' 

Reeve, Tracy •••• • 4a 

Reed vs. Tyler, case at law ot, 

cited— foot note • • • iU4 

Relics exhibited by Woodford Coun- 
ty Historical Society— partial list 

of }'> 1& 

Religio-Pbilosophieal Journal— pub- 

lished in Chicago . • • • ** 

Renault, Philip, Francis. ........ .42, 47 

Republican Party 24, 35, 6b, d» 

First Republican Convention, 
State of Illinois, Bloomington, 

May 29. 1856 • 41 

National Republican Conven- 

tion, May. 1860 ••• \\ 

Revolutionary War -4-, ij»» 

foot notes ~: ,! 

Revnolds, John— "My Own Times, 
quoted-foot notes^. ... . . •• •• • -^ m 

Reynolds, John— "Pioneer History 
of Illinois," quoted— foot notes. ^. 17Q 

Reynolds,' ' Robert—foot note 170 

Reynolds, Thomas E •■•■■ < 6 

Rhodes, James Ford— History of the 
United States from the Compro- 

mise of 1850, quoted....... • - a 

Rich vs. People, case at law ot, 

cited— foot note . ■ n A'*jV^v"" 140 

Richmond, (Mrs.) Jane Paddock... 140 

foot note •••• iD9 

Ri iti mo i4f iXWW '173,' 175; IS; us 



176 



of Illinois 



160 



100 
133 



Riga, Russia 

Rigney vs Chicago, case at law ot, 

cited — foot note 

Rio Grande River ™» 

Rio de Pescadores \:"'V"m 

Riplev Township— Bond County, 111. 

—foot note ,'"V;"^' 

"Rise of the New West"-by. Fred- 
erick Jackson Turner, quoted- 
foot note -...;•-. 1Bh » i5g 

;;;;;; 158 

135 

' 58 



Rising Sun, Indiana 

foot note 

Rivers des Palmes 

Rixford, Pa 

Roberts, Ellis H.-foot note 141 

Robertson, James-foot note........ 1<6 

Roby vs. Chicago, case at law ot, 

R Ss fo %°fot-nii«:::i«;iVs.«j 
BOO W r ioa 3 T v.v-v.v.v:i«.i«'i8o 

K.H-kford. 111. •••• ',r""n'*n 

"Rook of Chickamauga — Gen. . 

George H. Thomas, so called <o 

Rock River 1fi9 

foot note ^i 

Pock River Country . . • • • • • • •.• • IJ - 

Rook Rive- Seminary, Mt. Morns, 

111 ■ • 

Rockwell, Austin 

Rockwell, Dennis .•••••• 

Rockwell, (Miss.) Jennie 



58 

58 

58 

26, 27, 28 



biographical sketch of — foot 

notes 160, 161 

Red River Country 30 



Rocky Mountains .• w .,' * * 

Rodney vs. Illinois Central Railroad 
Company, case al law of, cited.. 45 



Compan\ 
Powers, (Lieut.) John. 
Romans 



.81, 



63 

S2 



212 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Rosecrans, (Gen) William S 

I 73, 74, 75, 79 

Ross, Robert W. — Historical Souve- 
nir of Vandalia — foot note 173 

Rossville, Ga 73, 74, 75, 79 

Roth, Leonard 49 

Rouse's Point 164 

foot notes 164, 165 

Royal Library at Stockholm, Sweden 113 

Ruggles vs. People, case at law of, 
cited — foot note 102 

Runelista, eller Konsten att Lasa 
Runor, Folkskolorna och Folket 
Meddelad, quoted 116 

Runenschrift, (Die)— by Wimmer, 
quoted — foot note 109 

Runernes Oprindelse og Udyikling 
i Norden, Copenhagen, 1874 — foot 
note 109 

Runic Inscriptions in the National 
and Royal Museums and Libraries 
of the Scandinavian North 108 

Russel, Andrew 4, 5,11 

Rutland County, Vermont 139 

foot note 154 

Rvdquist's Svenska Sprakets Lagar, 
Vol. I, quoted— foot note 110 



S 



St. Charles, Mo 160, 168, 169 

foot notes 159, 160 

St. Clair. (Governor) Arthur 42, 45 

foot notes 146, 150, 164 

St. Clair County, 111 164 

foot notes 156, 161, 164 

St. Clair County, 111. — history of — 
published by Brink, McDonough 
and Company, Philadelphia, 1881, 

quoted — foot notes 164, 170 

St. Croix River— foot note 164 

Saint Esprit (Mobile Bay) 131 

St. Francis River 153 

St. Gama River (Sangamon River). 158 

foot note 158 

St. Lawrence River 136 

foot note 164 

St Louis and Illinois Bridge Com- 
pany — foot note 159 

St. Louis, Mo 13, 56, 58. 64, 

140, 141, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157, 159, 

160, 161, 163, 165, 167, 168, 172, 173, 181 

foot notes 159, 160, 

161, 164, 172, 173, 176, 179, ISO, 182 
prices of commodities current 

in 1S19, 1820 167 

foot note 167 

Scharf's History of St. Louis, 

quoted — foot notes 

152, 161, 172, 179 

■ sketch of — foot note 152 

Saint Louis River 129 

Saint Marys River — foot note 151 

Saint Paul, Minn 119, 120 

foot note 108 

Saint Joseph 70 

Saint Philip — Renault lands with 

his cargo of slaves at 42, 47 

Saint Vincent (Vincennes) 67 

Saint Vincents (Vincennes) — foot 

note 65 

Salem Church (east of Jacksonville, 

111.) 57 

Salem, Ohio 143 

foot note 143 



Page. 
Saline Creek, Salt works on — foot 

note 176 

Salmon River 27 

Salomon, Mr 65 

Salt Works on Saline Creek — foot 

note 176 

Sambo (Negro) of Adams County, 

111. — pardon of, cited 50 

Samuel vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 96 

San Antonio, Texas 8 

Sanders, (Hon.) George A 8 

San Domingo 42 

Sandusky Bay — foot note 143 

San Francisco, mail (early day)... 27 

Sangamo Club, Springfield, 111 36 

Sangamo Country 34 

Sangamon County, 111 34 

foot notes 158, 159 

Sangamon County. 111. — laid out in 

1821, reference to — foot note 181 

Sangamon County, 111. — Power's 

History of, quoted— foot note 159 

Sangamon River — foot note 158 

Sanson Map, 1656 ■. 134, 135 

Sauvinet — Walker vs. Sauvinet, case 

at law of, cited — foot note 90 

Savage's Genealogical Dictionary, 

index to 14 

Saxon Colonies 90 

Saxon Trials 90 

Scales Mound, 111.— Phillips vs. 
Town of Scales Mound, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 101 

Scammon, Jonathan Young — Illinois 

reports, Vol I, III, IV, quoted.. 45 
Scammon vs. Commercial Company, 
case at law of, cited — foot note... 102 

Scandinavian Countries 108 

Scandinavian Philologist — foot note 105 

Scandinavian Runologists 10S, 109 

Scanian Law in Runes 113 

Scates, (Judge) Walter Bennett 45 

Scharf, J. Thomas— History of St. 
Louis, published Philadelphia, 1883, 

quoted— foot notes 152, 161, 172, 179 

Schenectady, N. Y 142 

foot note 142 

Scherger — "The Evolution of Modern 

Liberty," quoted — foot notes 

81, 82, 83, 88 

School, College and University 

Lands — foot note 14S 

Schmidt. (Dr.) Otto L 5,11 

Scioto River 146, 160 

foot notes 142, 143, 146, 160 

Scotland 17, 52 

Scott County, 111 60 

Scott, Franklin William — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals of Illinois, 
1814-1879, edited by— foot notes.. 

165, 182 

Scoville, George 39 

Scratby, England 139 

Scribner Brothers of New York — 
(New Albany, Ind. laid out by) — 

foot note 158 

Selby, Paul *1 

Select Charters Illustrative of Eng- 
lish Constitutional H i s t o r y — 

Stubbs, quoted — foot notes 

82, 85.' 92, 97, 103, 104 

Seneca County, N. Y 144 

Serpent Mound, Ohio — preservation 

of 185 

Seth Thomas Clock — one hundred 
years old, reference to 18 



313 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 
Shannon, William — orderly book of 
— Feb. 10, 1783, quoted— foot note. 65 

Sharpsburg, Maryland 34 

Shaw, Benjamin F 40, 41 

Shaw, John — contested election of, 

in the Legislature, 1823 44 

Shawnee Indian Village — foot note.. 17G 

Shawnee Indians 69 

Shawneetown, 111 176 

foot notes 168, 176 

land office located in, in 1812 — 

foot note 176 

town of, laid out in 1808— foot 

note 176 

Sheen, Dan (of Peoria, 111.) 8,11 

Shelby County, 111.— foot note 178 

Shelby, (Capt.) James — foot note... 70 
Shenango Creek, Old Kuskukies on 

—foot note 142 

"Sherman Anti-Trust Act," 1890... 32 

Sherman, (Hon) Lawrence Y 5 

Schermerhorn and. Mills — A correct 
view of that part of the United 
States which lies West of the 
Allegheny Mountains, with regard 
to religion and morals, 1814, 

quoted — foot note 182 

Schermerhorn, John F. — foot note. 182 
Shipp, Barnard — History of Hernan- 
do De Soto and Florida, quoted — 

foot note 130 

Shippingport — foot note 154 

Sicaca Indians 129 

Sicily 16 

Sidelonghill. Pa. — foot note 145 

Sierra Nevada, Mountains 31 

Silliman's American Journal of 

Science, quoted — foot note 156 

Sims, (Lieut.) Nelson R 77 

Sinclair, (Maj.) Robert 170 

foot note 170 

Sinnott — McDuffe vs. Sinnol.t,, case 

at law of, cited 86 

Sitterly, (Mrs.) Maria— foot note... 179 

Silver City, Nevada 27 

Sioux Indians — foot note 69 

Sjalinne Throst, 1370 — manuscript, 

1430, quoted 112 

"Sketches of America" — by Fearon, 

quoted — foot note 150 

Slaughter, (Rev.) Philip, D. D.— 
Bristol Parish, Virginia, quoted.. 14 

Slavery ,.23. 42-50, 53, 54, 66, 84 

foot notes 173-174 

Slavery — Negro Slavery in Illinois — 
address before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1910 — by Hon. 

John P. Hand 5, 23, 42-50 

Smalley, (Rev.) J. M 19 

Smith, Eli 48 

Smith, (Prof) George W 5 

Smith, Gerrit— foot note 159 

Smith, (Major) John C 72 

Smith, R. D IS 

Smith, R. D. Jr 18 

Smith, Sarah 49 

Smith, Sarah— foot note 180 

Smith, W. H 17 

Smith, William H.— foot note 151 

Smith vs. Bryan, case at law of, 

quoted — foot note 86 

Snake River 28 

"Snodgrass Hill," Ga 76 

Snyder, (Dr.) J. F 9, 12, 13, 36 

Snyder, (Dr.) J. F. — declines chair- 
manship of the Committee on 
Archaeology, letter of with refer- 
ence to 12, 13 



Page. 

Soderwall's Hufvudepokerna af 
svenska Sprakets Utbildning, 

Lund, 1870, quoted 110 

Some Illinois Editors I Have 
Known — address before the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, 1910 
— by General Smith D. Atkins.... 

23, 38-41 

Soto, Ferdinand de 130,131 

foot note 130 

Soto, Fernand— see De Soto 130, 131 

South. Carolina 14, 34, 40 

South Carolina Constitution, 1776 — 

foot note : 94 

South Dakota 30, 31 

Southern Pacific Railroad of Ken- 
tucky 31, 32 

Spain 65 

Spaniards 66 132, 135,136 

foot note 130 

Spanish-American War IS 

Spanish Flag 64 

Spanish Maps 132, 133, 135 

foot note 135 

Spencer, Moses 160 

Spring Creek Timber, near Curran, 

111 57 

Springfield, 111 

3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 17, 

19, 23, 35, 36, 37, 41, 50, 55, 56, 181, 184 

foot notes 105, 159, 173, 180, 181 

Board of Election Commis- 
sioners 36 

Colored Historical Society, 

Springfield, report of 19 

early mail route to — foot note.. 182 

First National Bank of 37 

First Presbyterian Church of... 36 

Improvement Association 37 

sketch of — foot note 181 

town laid out in 1823 — foot note 158 
Springfield, Illinois Transfer 

Company 10 

Springfield, Mass.— foot note 169 

Springfield, Mo 141 

Springfield, Ohio 

140, 141, 143, 144, 147, 149, 154 

foot notes 143, 149 

Springfield, Ohio — laid out by James 

Demint in 1803— foot note 141 

Squires, Bethia — foot note 155 

Squires, Betsey — foot note 155 

Squires, Stephen — foot note 155 

Standish, (Dr.) J. V. N 4,16 

The Old Court House of Knox 

County — address by 16 

Starkey vs. People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 95 

Starne, (Hon.) Alexander M 35 

Starved Rock 135 

preservation of, as a State park 

4, 7, 8 

"State Banks of Issue"— by C. H. 

Garnett, quoted — foot note 168 

Steamboats — early ones on western 

waters — foot notes 157, 158 

Steedman, (Gen.) James B 72, 75 

Steele, (Prof.) W. L.— The History 
of the Public School System of 

Galesburg. 111., reference to 17 

Stephen's History of the Criminal 

Law of England — foot note 97 

Stephenson, (Dr ) Benjamin F. — 
Founder of the Grand Army of 

the Republic 58 

Sternhjelm, George — Musae Sueti- 
zantes, 1668, quoted 112 



214 



Index — Continued. 



c.+ t„- , Page. 

Stevens, Elizabeth 34 

Stevens, Thomas 49 

Steward, John F.— La Salle a Vic- 
tim to his Error in Longtitude— 
contribution to State, History bv 
John F. Steward 129 

Stewart, Alexander 

Stewart, (Dr.) Clayton M ' 

Stewart. William Morris— Nevada's 
first United States Senator 

Stimson— Federal and State Consti- 
tution of the United States, quoted 
—foot notes 83, 84, 85, 91, 92 

Stockholm, Sweden 113 115 

foot note ' ' ng 

Stone, L. T.— Custodian Knox Coun- 
ty Historical Societv 16 

Stone vs. People, case at law of 
cited — foot note 95 



136 
52 
59 

27 



93 
125 



59 



54 



Stout, J. V.. 

Strawn, (Hon.) H. J.— The" English' 
Settlements in Edwards County, 
Illinois, address before Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1910 . 

„ 5, 23, 51 

Stuart, Alphonso C— killed in a 
duel with Timothy Bennett-^foot 

note 170 

Stubbs — Select Charters — Hlustra- 
tive of English Constitutional His- ' 

tory, quoted — foot notes 

„•••••••■ 82, 85. 92, 97, 103, 104 

Studer, Jacob H., Columbus, Ohio- 
Its History, Resources and Pro- 
gress, quoted — foot note 143 

Styffe II, quoted 110 

Sugar Creek, (north of Springfield, 

„ in -) 34 

Supreme Court of Illinois, cases in- 
volving the legal rights of Ne- 
groes held as slaves 44, 45 

Supreme Court, United States 46! 87 

foot note 151 

Svensk - Amerikanska Kalendern', 

1912, quoted 125 

Svenskt og Rumskt Calendarium in 
till ahret, 1840, samt Bekrifning 
ofer Runstafven, quoted — foot 

note 115 

Sweatland and Walworth. Messrs.. 165 

Sweden 114, 115, 116, 122, 125 

foot note 118 

Swedish Government Historical 

Museum 115 

Swedish Inscriptions in the National 
and Royal Museums and Libraries 

of the Scandinavian North 108 

Swedish Literature — foot note 122 

Sweet's Tavern, Kaskaskia, 111. — 

foot note 176 

Sweetwater River 28 

Symra V, quoted 106, 109 

foot notes 106, 107, 110, 111 

Symra VII, quoted 119 

Symmes, (Judge) John Cleves — foot 

notes 146, 150 

Symmes' purchase — foot note 148 



Taensa Indians 130 

Taft, William Howard 38 

Takahagne Indians 129, 130 

Tamoroa Indians 131 

Tanjibao Indians 130 



Page. 

lanner, H. S.— foot note 147 

Tapouero Indians 1.31 

Taylor, (Gen.) James— foot note... 150 

Taylor, John— foot note 181 

Tazewell County, 111 45 

Tchatake Indians 129 

Tchouchouma Indians 130 

i marken, Norway 113 

Tennessee River 73 1^9 

Tennessee, Slate IS. 34, ' 12, 176 

foot notes 172, 176, 179 

T. nnessee State, Legislature 1812- 

1816— foot note 176 

Phelan's History of Tennessee, 

quoted — foot note 176 

Territorial Act of 1807 44 45 

Texas, State g, 25 26 ' 32 

Texas, Pacific Railroad '. . . . 30 

Thomas, (Gen.) George H.— Union 
Major-General, War of the Re- 
bellion 28, 75, 76, 78 

Thomas, (Judge) William 45 

Thomb, S. W 18 

Thompson, Alfred T 49 

Thorsen, (Prof.) P. G 113 

foot notes 114, 115 

Thorsen's Runernes Brug til Skrift 
udenfor det monumentale. quoted. 114 

foot note 113 

Thornton's case cited (11, Illinois 

reports, page 332) 45 

Thorpe. Francis Newton — American 
Charters. Constitutions and Or- 
ganic Laws, quoted — foot notes... 

81, 82, S4, 87 

Thwaites, Reuben G. — Early 

Western Travels, quoted — foot 

notes... 142, 115. 146, 150, 151, 152. 

1515, 158, 160, 162, 164. 167, 171, 172, 181 

How George Rogers Clark won 

the Northwest, quoted — foot 

note 162 

Story of Mackinac, quoted — foot 

note 162 

Tiou Indians 130 

Todd, H. C 8 

Todd, John — appointed by Governor 
Henry to take charge of civil 

affairs in the Illinois Country 66 

letter to the Court on Public 

Credit 68 

Tonty, Henri 129 

Tounica Indians , 130 

Tours La Riviere de 132 

Trans-Mississippi States 25 

Transylvania settlement of 66 

Trausch vs. Cook County, case at 

law of, cited — foot note 96 

Treat, Payson J —"The National 
Land System," quoted — foot notes 

147, 148, 151,167 

Treaty of Detroit — foot note 143 

Treaty of Fort Industry, 1805— foot 

note 143 

Treaty of Ghent. 1814— foot note. . . 164 
Treaty of Greenville, 1795, quoted — 

foot notes 143,146,161 

Treaty of Paris, 1763 42 

Tremont House, Chicago, III 41 

Troy, N. Y 140,142 

foot note 142 

Trumbull, Lyman 35, 37, 39, 44 

—mining companies in, in the 

fifties 28 

Tucson — mining companies in. in the 
fifties ' 28 



'Hi 



Index — Continued. 



Page. 

Tuscarames River — foot note 143 

Turner, Frederick Jackson 25 

Essays in American History, 

quoted — foot note ; • • ISO 

Rise of the New West, quoted — 

foot notes 166,167 

Tvler — Reed vs. Tyler, case at law 
of, cited — foot note 101 



U 

Underground Railway— foot note... 179 

route of 47, 4S 

Union County, 111 44 

Union County, Ohio— foot note 160 

Union Pacific Railways incorpor- 
ated in 1S62 30 

United States 24, 25, 27, 

29, 31, 32, 42, 52, 54, 65, 72, 81, So, 
87, 96. 101, 140, 147, 148, 151. 156, 
162, 163, 166, 167, 169, 172, 174, 179, 1S4 

foot notes ■• „„, 

142, 143, 148, 152, 157, 159, 162, 164 
Arsenal at Newport, Ky.— foot 

note 150 

Bank branch of, at Cincinnati, 

reference to 151 

foot note 151 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

—foot notes 151, LI 

Bureau of Labor 32 

Congress 27, 28, 29, 

30, 32, 38, 39, 46, 64, 140, 148, 156 

foot notes ■ 150, 156, 159 

Congress Annals of Congress, 
ISth Congress, 1st Session, 

quoted — foot notes 165, 175 

Constitution of the United 

States, amendments to 47 

Constitution, Amendment V re- 
ferred to 85 

Constitution, 14th Amendment 

of, referred to 85 

foot note 90 

Flag 44 

General Land Office, Washington, 

D. C. — foot note • • 161 

Government's part in early 

railway building 30 

Military Lands — foot note 14b 

Supreme Court 46 

foot note a0 

Upsala, Sweden .... .... llo 

foot notes 115, 116, 118 

University l«g 

foot note 122 

Urbana, 111 \j% 

Urbana, Ohio 14b 

foot note ' 146 

Utah •• " 

Utah Territory \\7?\V> 

Utica, N. Y 140, 142 

foot note it- 
University of Illinois Urbana- 

Champaign, 111 5, 23, I0o, 124, 141 

foot note • • • • l»° 

University of Michigan 23, 24, 72 

University of Minnesota — foot note. 106 



V 

Vance, (Gen.) Joseph W.— Adjutant- 
General, State of Illinois. Capt. 
in 21st Regt., Illinois Volunteer 
Infantrv, War of the Rebellion. .56, 57 



Page. 

Vandalia, 111 172, 174 

foot notes 168, L2, 1m 

Capital of Illinois— foot notes... 

Ross' Historical Souvenir of 

Vandalia — foot note 173 

Van Imvagen vs. Chicago, case at 

law of, quoted — foot note S6 

Valley of the Mississippi 182 

Valley of the Platte 27 

Van Tvne, Claude H.— "The Ameri- 
can Revolution"— foot note 179 

Van Zandt, Nicholas Biddle— de- 
scription of the soil, water, tim- 
ber and prairies of Illinois, 

quoted — foot note 178 

A full description of the mili- 
tary lands between the Mis- 
sissippi and Illinois rivers, 

quo) id— foot note 151 

Military Bounty Lands, map of, 

i rence to 178 

Verelius— grave of at Upsala 115 

Verendrye, Sieur de — visits the 
Mandan Indians in 1738— foot 

note 171 

Vermilion River — foot note 151 

Vermillion Sea (Gulf of Califor 



ma) 



133 



Vermont, State. .. .139, 140, 141, 144, 
145, 146, 147, 149, 151, 152, 154, 155, 
L58, 159, 162, 163, 165. 166, 168, 169, 
171, 173, 174, 175, 177, 179, ISO, 1S2, 183 

foot notes 141, 144, 

154, 159, 164, 168, 175, 178, 180, 183 
Constitution of 1793— foot note.. 97 
"View of the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi"— by Robert Baird, quoted 

—foot note 1 ' ' 

Village of Hyde Park vs. Cemetery 
Association, case at law of, cited 

—foot note • • • • • • 100 

Vincennes, Ind 63 i r ,.' 1 ^ 

foot note 156, 164 

Vincennes, Court of 67 

Vinita, Oklahoma •••• *« 

Vinland 110, 1" 

Vinland Voyages 106,1-4 

Virginia City, Nevada 27 

Virginia, 111 4 , 16 

Virginia, State of • ■ 

..42, 43, 44, 64. 66, 78, 81, 133, 140, 143 

foot notes 160, 176 

Albemarle County. Va : . . . 14 

Augusta County, Va 14 

Kill of Rights... 81, 82, 84, 86, 88, 
91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103 

foot note S4 

Bill of Rights adopted June 12, 

1776 SI 

Constitution of 1776 82 

Goode's — "Virginia Cousins" ... 14 
Hi den's Virginia Genealogies, 

quoted .--.•• -^ 

Hening Statutes of Virginia, 
Vol. IX, quoted — foot note.... 66 

House of Burgesses 66, 81 

Journal of Virginia, House of 
Delegates, May, 1783, quoted— 

foot note 68 

Legislature. 1780, reference to— 

foot note 154 

Legislature passes bill estab- 
lishing the County of Illinois, 
Dec. 9, 1778 66 



216 



Index — Continued . 



Virginia, State of — Concluded. Pagr 

Lewis' orderly book of that 
portion of the American Army 
stationed at, or near, Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., March IS, 
1776 to Aug. 28, 1776, quoted. 14 
Library — Clark's papers in, 

quoted — foot note 65 

Library — Orderly Book of Wil- 
liam Shannon, Feb. 10, 1783 

in, quoted — foot note 65 

Library — foot note 69 

Military District — foot note.... 146 

Military Lands — foot note 148 

Slaughter's "Bristol Parish," 
Virginia, quoted 14 



W 



Wabash Railroad 56, 60 

Wabash River 

..42, 63. 64, 129, 135, 151, 156, 157, 163 

foot notes 156,176 

Wait, Thomas Baker — foot note.... 159 

Wait, William Smith 159 

biographical sketch of — foot 

note 159 

Wales, County of 52 

Walker vs. Sauvinet, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 90 

"Wanborough," home of Morris 

Birkbeck 52 

Wanda, (Madison County) 111.— foot 

note ISO 

War of 1S12 139 

foot notes 

141, 144, 148, 156, 162, 169, 170 

War of the Rebellion. . .4, 12, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 39, 44, 55, 56, 79 
50th anniversary of beginning 

of 4,12 

Grant's First March 55-62 

14th Illinois Volunteer Regiment 

in 58 

21st Regiment, Illinois Volun- 
teers in 55 

96th Regiment Illinois Volun- 

■ teers in 72-80 

133d Regiment, Illinois Volun- 
teers (Company I) 35 

War of the Revolution 

81, 83, 84, 88, 97, 103 

foot note 179 

Warren County, Ohio — foot note... 149 

Warren, Hooper 174 

foot note 165 

Warren (Jo Daviess County), 111... 72 

Warren, Minn 119 

Warsaw (Hancock County), 111. — 

foot note 162 

Washburne, (Hon.) Elihu B 51 

Editor, The Edwards Papers — 

foot note 168 

Washington County, 111 34 

Washington County, Vt.— foot note. 144 
Washington, D. C..27, 28, 38, 39, 155, 178 

foot notes 160, 161 

Washington, George 25 

Washington, Ohio : 143 

foot note 143 

Washington Park, Springfield, 111... 5 

Washington, State 30,31 

Washington, Territory 26, 53 

Waterbury, Vt 144 

foot note 144 

Watertown, Mass 139 

Watters, John 49 



Page. 
Wattles, James 53 

Waukegan (Lake County), 111 72 

Waukegan, Illinois Academy 72 

Wayne, (General) Anthony— foot 

note 143 

Weber, Jessie Palmer.. 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13 
Secretary, Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, report of 6-9 

Treasurer, Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, report of 10 

"Webster-Ashburton Treaty," refer- 
ence to — foot note 165 

Webster, Charles A 17 

Webster, (Mrs.) Charles Ashley 
(Martha Farnham) — Secretary 
Knox County Historical Society.. 16 

Webster, Daniel 86 

Welby, Adlard — Visit to North 

America, quoted — foot note 164 

Wells, R. W.— On the Origin of the 

Prairies, quoted — foot note 156 

Wentworth, John (Long John)... 38, 41 
Fort Dearborn in, (Fergus 
Historical Series, No. 16), 

quoted — foot note 161 

West (The)— and the Growth of 
the National Ideal — annual ad- 
dress before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1910 — by F. L. 

Paxson, Ph. D 23, 24-33 

West Florida 42 

West Indies, planters of 52 

West ' vs People, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 95 

''Western Gazetteer" — by Samuel 
R. Brown, quoted — foot notes.... 

143, 152, 154, 158, 160 

"Western Reserve" (The) — foot 

notes 143, 148 

Wethersfield, (Henry County), 111... 47 
Weyrich vs. People, case at law of, 

foot note 95 

Wheat 142, 147, 149, 153, 156, 180 

Wheatley, Phylis 19 

Wheeler, John H. — H istorical 
Sketches of North Carolina, 1584- 

1851, quoted 14 

Wheeler, L. E 10 

Wheeler, (Mrs.) S. P 23 

Wheeling, Va. — foot note 150 

Wheeling, Va 140 

Whig Party 53 

foot note 179 

White vs. Wagar, case at law of, 

cited — foot note 92 

White vs. People, case at law, 

cited — foot note 95 

White's Constitution of Pennsylva- 
nia, quoted — foot notes 88, 98 

Whiteside, Bolin — see William B. — 

foot note 170 

Whiteside Family in Illinois — foot 

note 170 

Whiteside, (Major) Samuel B 170 

Whiteside, William — foot note 170 

Whiteside. William B. or Bolin — foot 

note 170 

Whiteside's Station — foot note 170 

Whittaker. (Whitaker) (General) 

Walter C 73, 77 

Wiehr, (Dr.) Josef 124 

Wilkinson, Ira 41 

Wilkinson, (General) James — foot 

note 146 

Will County, 111. — Pioneer Society of 4 
Willcox, E r a s t u s S. — Personal 
Reminiscences of Early Galesburg 
— address of, reference to 16 



217 



Index — Concluded. 



Page. 
Williams, "Bill"— ("Bill Williams 

Fork") 27, 28 

Williams, E. P 17 

Williams, E. P.— The Early Bar of 
Knox County, 111. — address on, 

reference to 16 

Williams, (Col.) John 37 

Williams. (Miss) Julia J. — late 

Mrs Alfred Orendorff 37 

Willard, (Dr.) Samuel 9 

Willard vs. People, case at law of, 

cited 45 

Williamsburg, Va 14, 63 

"Willing" (The) — first armed boat 

on a western river 63 

Williston, Vt.— foot note 141 

Will's Creek, Ohio— foot note 142 

Wilson, Frazer E. — "The Peace of 

Mad Anthony," quoted — foot note 143 
Wilson, (Rev.) Joshua L. — foot note 150 

Wimmer, Ludwig F. A 108 

foot note 109 

De Danske Runemindesmarker, 
Great Work of Wimmer — foot 

note 109 

Die Runenschrift — edition of 

1887, quoted— foot note 109 

Runernes Oprindelse og Udvik- 
ling i Norden Copenhagen, 

1874— foot note 109 

Winchell, H. H.— foot note 106 

Winchell, N. H 123 

Windship, Ralph 49 

Windsor, Conn. — foot note 159 

Windsor County, Vt. — foot note 159 

Winooski or Onion River — foot note 144 

Wisconsin, State 9, 38, 42 

foot notes 156,181 

Child's, Recollections of Wis- 
consin, quoted — foot note 157 

Historical Collections, Vols. 2, 

6. 9, 11, 19, quoted— foot note. 162 
Historical Collections, Vol. IV, 

quoted — foot note. 157 

Historical Collections, Vol. 

XVIII, quoted— foot note 70 

Historical Society's Proceedings, 

1899, quoted— foot note 148 

Journal, Feb 7, 1910, quoted — 

foot note 106 

Wiswell, Noah 49 

Withers, Henry C 8. 

Wood River in Madison County, 

111.— foot note 174 

Woodford County, 111.— Early Sett- 
lers of — address by Hon. J. A. 
Ranney, reference to 17 



Page. 

Woodford County, 111. — Historical 
Society, report of 4, 17-18 

Woodford County, 111.— Old Settlers 
Association of 17 

Woodstock, Vt 159 

foot note 159 

Woods, John — Two Years Residence 
in the Illinois Country, quoted — 
foot notes 150, 157, 158 

Worm, Ole 114 

Worthington, Ohio 142 

foot notes 142,143 

Wright, Gideon 160 

Wright, John S. — Letters From the 
West or a Caution to Emigrants, 
quoted — foot note 145 

Wright, William — foot note 174 

W. R. R. Company vs. Drainage 
District, case at law of, cited— 
foot note 101 

Wurtemburg, Germany 34 

Wylie vs. Elwood, case at law of, 
cited— foot note 104 

Wyoming, State 31 

Y 

Yale College, New Haven, Conn 25 

foot note 180 

Yates Family Chart and Short 
History of — by Richard Yates 

(the younger) 14 

Yates, Richard — (War Governor of 

Illinois) 50, 59 

foot note 180 

appoints U. S. Grant Colonel of 
the 21st Regiment, Illinois 
Volunteers, War of the Rebel- 
lion 55 

War Governor of Illinois, par- 
dons six men of the crime of 

being negroes 50 

Yates, Richard — (the younger).. 5, 14, 59 
Yates family, chart and short 

history of 14 

Yazou Indians 130 

York Factory — Chief Station of the 

Hudson Bay Company 121 

foot note '. 121 

Young, (Judge) Richard Mont- 
gomery 45 

Z 

Zane, Ebenezer 140 

Zane, Jonathan — foot note 142 

Zane's Trace, reference — foot note.. 142 

Zanesville, Ohio 142,146 

foot note 142 



218 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND 

SOCIETY. 



No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois prior to 1860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., professor in the University of Chicago; 
assisted by Milo J. Loveless, graduate student in the University of Chicago. 
94 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. information Relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois, passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. 15 pages, 8 vo., 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph. D., professor in the University of Chicago. 170 pages, 8 vo. Springfield, 
1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the Year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., secretary of the society. 55 pages, 
8 vo., Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Com- 
piled under the direction of the Board of Trustees of the Library, by the 
librarian, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6-14 inc. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
the years 1901-1909 inclusive. 9 volumes. Numbers 6 to 11 inclusive are 
out of print. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 1. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pages, 
8 vo., Springfield, 1903. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 2. Virginia series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord. CLVI and 663 pages, 8 vo,. Springfield, 111., 1907. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 3. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D., 627 pages, 8 vo., 
Springfield, 111., 1908. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 4. Executive Series, Vol. 1. The 
Governor's Letter-Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 111., 
1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 5. Virginia Series, Vol. II. Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pages, 
8 vo., Springfield, 111., 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pages, 8 vo., 
Springfield, 1910. 

Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. VII. Executive Series. Vol. II. 
Governor's Letter-Books. 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1911. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. 1, No. 1, Sept., 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 38 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1905. 



219 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2, June 1, 
1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence W. 
Alvord, University of Illinois. 34 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1906. 

♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov., 1905. An 
outline for the study of Illinois State history- Compiled under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, by Jessie 
Palmer Weber, Librarian of the Illinois State Historical Library and Sec- 
retary of the Illinois State Historical Society, assisted by Georgia L. Osborne, 
assistant Librarian. 94 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1905. 

Journals of the Illinois State Historical Society, Quarterly, Vol. I, No. 1, 
April, 1908, to Vol. V, No. 1, April, 1912. 

Jouenals Out of Print. 

*Vol. I, out of print. Vol. II, Nos. 3 and 4, out of print. Vol. Ill, out of 
print. Vol. IV, out of print. 



*Out of print.