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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions"

GO M-»- 

977.3 

It6p 

1911 

1405712 GENEALOGY COLLECTIOM 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY . 




3 1833 00877 8133 






Publication Number Sixteen 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



transactions'^ 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1911 



Twelfth Annual Meeting, Chicago-Evanston, 
May 17-18, 1911 

Special Memorial Meeting, Springfield, 
April 14, 1911 



Springfield, III. 

Ilunois Statb Journal Co., Statb Printers 

19 13 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the I'ubiication Committee iu previous years, 
this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the papers read 
at the last annual meetings, some essays and other matter contributed 
during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to State 
History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their title, 
and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transactions. 
The contributions are intended to include the following kinds of 
material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care; for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers 
should be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the 
authorities upon' which the papers are based. The use of new and 
original material and the care with which the authorities are cited, 
will be one of the main factors in determining the selection of papers 
for publication. m m r\^yM^^ ry 

4. Bibliographies. x4Uo71aJ 

■) 5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets or parts of books now 

1^ out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time nrging the 

;-, members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and ap- 

^ peals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

(K It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 

^ Society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical re- 
search, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public author- 
ity. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking that 
this Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools or 

^ colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this publi- 
cation the best results of local research and historical scholarshij). 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the various 

papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily those 

^ of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to receive 

such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear to be 



C^ 



K 



nD 



deserved. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

1. Prefatory note Ill 

2. Officers of the Illinois State Historical Society VII 

3. Committees of the lUinois State Historical Society IX 

4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, May 17, IS, 1911.. 3 
.'). Directors' Meetings t; 

6. Report of the Secretary of the Society 9 

7. Report of the Treasurer of the Society 13 

8. Reports of the Committees H 

Papers Read at the Aiuiual Meeting — 

9. Clark E. Carr— Illinois '. 21 

10. Issac J. Cox— Thomas Sloo, Jr., A Typical Politician of Early Illinois 26 

11. Walter Colyer— The Fordhams and La Serres of the English Settlement in Edwards County 43 

12. Christopher B. Coleman— The Development of State Constitutions 55 

13. Oliver P. Wharton— Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Party in Illinois 62 

14. William Hertzog Collins — An Appreciation 65 

Papers Read at the Special Meeting, April 14, Wil- 
is. Smith D. Atkins— The Patriotism of Northern Illinois 79 

16. Eugene F. Baldwin— The Dream of the South. The Story of Illinois During (he Civil War. . 84 

17. Hluford Wilson — Southern Illinois in the Civil War . . •. 93 

Contriliutions to State History — 

18. Rebecca H. Kauff man— Governor Thomas Ford in Ogle County 10" 

19. Milo Custer — Masheena 115 

20. Index 122 

21. List of publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society 150 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



President. 
Hon. Clauk E. Care Galesburg 

First Vice President. 

Hon. Smith D. Atkins Freeport 

Second Vice President. 
Hon. L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
Hon. Richard Yates Springfield 



Board of Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President of the University of Illinois 

Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

-E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp Jacksonville 

Hon. J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois N'ormal Universitv . . . Carbondale 

Hon. W. T. Norton ' Alton 

Hon. Wm. A. Meese Moline 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Eichard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State N'ormal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Hon. Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber . Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 

' The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



COMMITTEES OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY, MAY, 1911 TO MAY, 1913. 



Piihlication Committee. 

J. McCan Davis, Springfield, Chairman. 

Jessie Palmer "Weber Springfield 

George A. Dupuy Chicago 

Solon J. Buck Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Stephen L. Spear Springfield 

John L. Cooper Fairfield 

Walter Colyer Albion 

J. ]Sr, Gridley Virginia 

J. B. Oakleaf Moline 

Farlin Q. Ball Chicago 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Program Committee. 

Jessie Palmer Weber,, Springfield, Chairman. 

E. B. Greene . Champaign 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

E. S. Willcox Peoria 

W^m. A. Meese Moline 

J. A. James Evanston 

Paul Selby Chicago 

Mrs. Catherine Goss Wheeler Sprino-field 

Charles P. Kane Springfield 

Mrs. Isabel Jamison Springfield 

F. J. Heinl Jacksonville 

Clinton L. Coukling Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp Jacksonville 

Logan Hay Springfield 

W. G. Edens Chicago 

Mrs. Martha K. Baxter Pa\\aiee 

J. H. Collins Springfield 

Charles G. Dawes Chicago 

J. Seymour Currey Evanston 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

— B H S 



X 

Finance and Auditing Coniniitlee. 

Andrew Eussel, Jacksonville, Chairman. 

E. J. Janifs Urbana 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

0. L. Schmidt • Chicago 

Clark E. Carr, e.r officio Galesburg 

Contntillec on Lcyi^liilion. 

Andkeav Russel, Jacksonville, Chairman. 

Wm. A. Meese Moline 

0. F. Berry Carthage 

Samuel Alschuler Aurora 

E. Y. Carpenter Belvidere 

Henry McCormiek Xormal 

Charles E. Hull Salem 

E. S. TutliiU Chicago 

Eoss C. Hall Oak Park 

Lee F. English Chicago 

David Felmley Xormal 

0. A. Harker Champaign 

E. L. Merritt Springfield 

Campbell S. Hearii Quincy 

Clark E. Carr, c.r officio Galesburg 

Special Connnilfee to Mark lioute of Lincoln's Amu/ Trail from 
Beard.stotrn to Moutli of h'oci,- Hirer. 

AViLLiAM A. Meese, Moline. Chairman. 

Eobert H. Garni Beardstown 

John S. Bagbv Eushville 

Dr. W. T. Burrows Ottawa 

Henry S. Dixon Dixon 

0. M. Dickerson Macomb 

James Gordon Oquawka 

E. E. Nicholson Bcardstown 

James M. Johnston :\Iilan 

T. F. P]d\var(ls Dixon 

Dr. Homer Mead Camden 

Jacob C. Thompson ^Macom!) 

J. B. Oakleaf Moline 

John Eichniond Prophctstown 

Clark E. CaiT. c.r officio (ialcsbiiig 



XI 

CuiiiiiiiUce on Local Uislorical Socirlirs. 

RrniARn Y. Catjpextkh, Belvidere. ClKiiriiuni. 

J. II. Bui'iihiiiii l>l()i)iiiiii;;itoii 

E. M. Bowiiiiin St. Louis 

W. H. Fm.v DeKall) 

J. SeAauoui' Cii ncy Evaustou 

George W. Smith rarbondale 

Elliot Calleiider Peoria 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

Mrs. CJiarles A. Webster (laleslnu-g 

J. Nick Perrin Belleville 

Horace Hull Ottawa 

Mrs. Mary Turner C'arriel iMcksonvilk- 

L. J. Freese Eureka 

Gen. John I. Pinaker C'arlinville 

Miss Anna B. Silver Philo 

Miss Louise Maertz Quincy 

Judson D. Metzgar Moline 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Clark p]. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Menihersltip. 
JuDGi'] J Otis Humphrey, Springfield, Cliaininiii. 

Charles L. Capen ' Bloomington 

Dr. Daniel Berry Carmi 

John M. Eapp ". Fairfield 

Mrs. I. G. Miller ' Springfield 

Mrs. C. C. Brown Springfield 

Dr. "William Jayne Springfield 

George E. Dawson Chicago 

A. W. Crawford Hillsboro 

Mrs. E. M. Bacon Decatur 

William M. Fowler Aurora 

Andrew L. Anderson Lincoln 

Smith D. Atkins Freeport 

Sumner S. Anderson Charleston 

S. W. Baxter East St. Louis 

Mrs. Inez J. Bender Decatur 

Charles Bent Morrison 

Mrs. George D. Tunnicliff MacomI) 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Marking Historic Spots in Illinois. 

Fkan^cis G. Blair, Springfield, Chairman. 

Mrs. Matthew T. Scott Bloomington 

Harry Ainsworth Moline 

John E. Miller East St. Louis 



XII 

John S. Little Rusliville 

Charles B. Campbell Kankakee 

Miss Lottie E. Jones Danville 

Terry Simmons Marseilles 

H. S. Hicks Eockford 

Miss Sarah M. Gough El Paso 

Lewis M. Gross Sycamore 

Mrs. Lee J. Hubble Monmouth 

Mrs. Leroy Bacchus Springfield 

Mrs. G. H. Huntoon Moline 

John H. Hauberg Moline 

J. AV. Houston Berwick 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Piihli cat ions. 

Miss Georgia L. Osbouxe, Springfield, Cliairman. 

John C. Foote Belvidere 

Mrs. E. S. Walker Springfield 

Mrs. Thomas Worthington Jacksonville 

Mrs. John C. Ames Streator 

Miss May Latham Lincoln 

Mrs. George Iv .Hall Springfield 

Mrs. E. G. Crabbe Corpus Christi, Texas 

ISTorman G. Flagg Moro 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Oliver R. Williamson • Chicago 

Dwight E. Erink Bloomington 

Clark E. C'arr, ex officio Galesburg 

Committee on Archaeology. 

PnoF. FiJEDEKiCK Starr, CMcago, Chairman. 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

J. V. N. Standish Galesburg 

Dr. Wm. Jayne Springfield 

W. T. Norton , Alton 

Clark E. Carr, ex officio Galesburg 

Special Committee to Confer ivith the Commission Appointed hy the 
Last General Assembly on the Construction of the New Build- 
ing for the Historical Society and Library. 

Wm. a. Meese, Moline, Chairman. 

Charles H. Ranimelkamp .Jacksonville 

Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Richard A^. Cari)oiitcv Belvidere 



PART I. 



Record of Official Proceedings, 1911. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Evanston-Chicago, May 17, 18, 1911. 

The Illinois State Historical Society, in connection with the Missis- 
sippi Valley Historical Association, the Evanston Historical Society, the 
Chicago Historical Society and the North Central History Teachers* 
Association, held its annual meeting in Evanston and Chicago, on May 
17 and 18, 1911. The meetings of the joint associations were held 
from the 17th to the 20th, but Wednesday and Thursday, the 17th 
and 18th, were the days specially devoted to the Illinois State Historical 
Society. 

The first session was held in the rooms of the Evanston Historical 
Society in the public library building in Evanston, at 2 :00 o'clock on the 
afternoon of the 17th.- The address of welcome was delivered by the 
mayor of Evanston, Hon. Joseph E. Paden. The program as printed 
was practically carried out. 

The meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society on Thursday 
May 18, 1911, was held in the rooms of the Chicago Historical Society. 

Address of welcome in behalf of the Chicago Historical Society to 
the Illinois State Historical Society was made by Mr. Thomas Dent, 
president of the Chicago Historical Society. 

Mr. Dent's address was in part as follows: 

Ladies and Gentlemen — There is to be on this occasion a joinitfg 
of hands to advance a common cause. The Illinois State Historical 
Society meets in the rooms of the Chicago Historical Society in pursuit 
of the object in which both are concerned, the gathering, preservation 
and dissemination of facts of the past, especially of our country and its 
people. 

In behalf of the Chicago Historical Society a cordial welcome is due, 
and is extended. 

May I mention that much credit should be accorded to the Librarian 
and Secretary of the Chicago Historical Society for the care and skill 
shown in giving us views of some of the treasures of the building as 
we pass through the corridor and rooms. The handiwork of those ladies 
is shown. 

Extending a renewed and very cordial welcome, I take pleasure in 
presenting Col. Clark E. Carr, president of the Illinois State Historical 
Society. 

Colonel Carr then took the chair. 

The business meeting was held in the morning, at which the reports 
of officers and committees were heard, and the annual election of officers 



was held. The officers of the Society were re-elected, except that Hon. 
Kichard Yates was elected third vice president of the Society, and Hon. 
Andrew Riissel, of Jacksonville, was made a member of the board of 
directors in place of Mr. Yates; and as a director of the Society in the 
place of Dr. M. H. Chamberlin, who has removed to California, and 
resigned, Mr. Walter Colyer, of Albion, was elected. 

The annual address was delivered Wednesday evening by Colonel 
Carr, president of the Society. It was an able and impressive address, 
the title of which was "Illinois.'^ 

On Thursday evening at the close of the exercises a most delightful 
reception was given to all of the assembled associations by the Chicago 
Historical Society. 

The associations are gTeatly indebted to the citizens of Evanston for 
many courtesies and delightful entertainment. Particular mention must 
be made of the mayor and his wife Hon. and Mrs. Jos. E. Paden, 
Prof. J. A. James, Mr. H. J. Patten, Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Dawes, 
Mr. J. Seymour Currey, and Miss Mary B. Lindsay, and in Chicago of 
the untiring courtesy and many kindnesses of the officers of the Chicago 
Historical Society, President Thos. Dent, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Miss 
Mcllvaine, Miss Jenkins and many others. 

The joint meeting of associations interested in the same lines of hi.-- 
torical work was a most interesting one and was well attended by repre- 
sentative workers from the states and societies associated. The attend- 
ance of persons other than the special workers mentioned was not as 
large as was desired but the weather was very warm, unusually so for 
May, and the fact that the meeting was held during the closing days of 
the Greneral Assembly, before which many bills of interest to members 
of the Society were pending, furnished good reasons for the absence of 
many of the usual attendants upon the sessions of the Society. 

SPECIAL MEMORIAL MEETING APRIL 14, 1911, IN COMMEMORATION OF 

THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BREAKING OUT OF 

THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. 

The Illinois State Historical Society held a very interesting and 
largely attended meeting on April 14, 1911, in the old Supreme Court 
room in the Capitol building at Springfield, in commemoration of the 
semi-centennial anniversary of the fall of Fort Sumter, the real open- 
ing of the Civil War. 

Gen. Smith D. Atkins, of Freeport, told of the part taken by northern 
Illinois in the great struggle. His address was a most valuable contri- 
bution to Illinois history. General Atkins had been a participant in 
many of the historic events of which he spoke. His address was an 
admirable one. 

The address of Mr. Eugene F, Baldwin, of Peoria, was entitled, "The 
Slave Empire," and it was of thrilling interest. Mr. Baldwin traced 
the causes of the war and gave the social and economic reasons which 
led to it. 

The address of Col. Bluford Wilson, of Springfield, on the part taken 
by southern Illinois in the war, was full of valuable information and 



statistics and was a revelation to most of the audience as to the great 
service to the State and the Union of that part of the State of Illinois 
known as "Egypt." 

In the evening Judge Marcus Kavanagh, of Chicago, delivered an able 
address on the Civil War in America. This address was one of the most 
eloquent and scholarly addresses which the Historical Society has been 
privileged to hear. These addresses are published in this volume. 

One of the interesting parts of the program was the singing of old 
war songs by the audience, led by a quartette of ladies from the Woman's 
Belief Corps, with Mrs. G. Clinton Smith as leader. Some of these 
ladies had sung these songs during the days of the war. A register book 
was kept and old soldiers were asked to register and nearly fifty of 
the veterans signed it. Their autographs will be kept as a part of the 
records of the meeting. 



DIEECTOES' MEETINGS. 



The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
Tuesday, Jan; 24, 1911, at 10 :00 a. m., in the office of the Secretary of 
the Society. There were present: Messrs. Carr, Greene, Schmidt, 
Meese, Burnham, Page, Carpenter and Mrs. Weber. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Letters were read from several directors, who were unable to be 
present. 

The question of going to Evanston for the annual meeting was dis- 
cussed. Professor Greene offered a motion that the meeting be held at 
Evanston. Mr. Meese was called on, and spoke in regard to it and 
favored Evanston. Captain Burnham said on account of legislative 
matters he thought that it would be better to be in Springfield, and 
possibly adjourn to Evanston. Professor Greene spoke in favor of one 
or the other place, not sessions in two places. Mr. Carpenter said he 
was in favor of having the business meeting in Springfield, and offered 
a resolution on the subject along this line. Dr. Schmidt spoke on the 
subject and was followed with remarks by Professor Greene, Captain 
Burnham and Professor Page. Mr. Meese spoke on the entertainment 
of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association by members of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, saying Mr. Dawes would like to enter- 
tain in the name of the Illinois State Society. Dr. Schmidt suggested 
having the business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society at 
the Chicago Historical Society rooms, and then going by automobile to 
Evanston. Captain Burnham here made a few remarks. 

Dr. Schmidt spoke of a special meeting to be held in Springfield in 
April, in commemoration of the breaking out of the Civil War. An 
informal general discussion followed, during which several members of 
the board made brief remarks. 

Professor Greene withdrew his original motion, and Professor Page 
withdrew his second. Mr. Meese offered the following resolution on 
the subject, which was carried: 

Resolved, That this Society accepts the invitation of the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Society and the Evanston Historical Society to meet with them in 
Evanston and Chicago, May 17-20, 1911, and that such meeting be our regular 
annual meeting; and, be it further 

Resolved, That this Society hold a special meeting at Springfield on April 
14, on call of President. 

This motion was carried. 



Mr. Meese offered a motion that the President and Secretary of the 
Society be ex officio members in addition to a committee of five to 
arrange for the April meeting. Motion was carried. 

The matter of the Program Committee was discussed. 

Mr. Meese spoke of a new building and what is necessary to secure 
legislative sanction and appropriation. A general discussion followed.' 
The Secretary was asked to see if the Governor would receive the 
directors, and she reported that the Governor was engaged but would 
telephone as soon as he could receive the board. 

The Secretary reported the death of W. H. Collins of Quincy, a 
director of the Society. Professor Greene moved that the Secretary be 
appointed to prepare suitable memorial to Mr. Collins, and that it be 
reported as part of the minutes of this meeting at the annual meeting. 

Professor Greene moved and Mr. Meese seconded the motion that the 
vacancy on the Board of Directors caused by the death of Mr. Collins be 
filled by appointment of Chas. H. Eammelkamp of Illinois College, 
Jacksonville. Motion carried. 

Mention was made of the matter of the, Lincoln Way suggested by 
the Governor in his message, and the board noted with pleasure the 
recommendation of the Governor. 

There being no further business, the board adjourned. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Illhstois State 
Historical Society, May 18, 1911. 

The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in a committee room of the Chicago Historical building at 12 :00 o'clock 
noon on Thursday, May 18, 1911. 

There were present Messrs. Carr, Schmidt, Burnham, Carpenter, 
Cunningham, Page, Clinton and Mrs. Weber. 

The newly elected officers took their places and Colonel Carr was re- 
elected Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Society. On motion 
of Capt. J. H. Burnham, Jessie Palmer Weber was re-elected Secretary 
and Treasurer of the Society with a salary at the same rate as the past 
year, $600.00 per annum. 

It was suggested that a special committee on special meetings of the 
Board of Directors or of the Society be appointed. After some discus- 
sion. Captain Burnham moved and it was seconded by Judge Cunning- 
ham and carried, that the Secretary be given full power to act in the 
matter of special meetings. The Secretary said that she would accept 
this appointment with the understanding that it meant that when in 
her judgment a special meeting was desirable that she be empowered to 
call the attention of the Board of Directors to the matter in question 
and call such a meeting if in the opinion of the officers and directors 
such a meeting was advisable. 

The present plan of the Quarterly Journal of the Society was con- 
sidered. The Secretary said that this style is very expensive. After 
discussion it was ordered that this style be continued for the present. 



8 

The board moved that the Secretary make special efforts to induce 
members of the Society to pay their annual dues promptly, and in 
cases after due notice has been given of such intention the Secretary 
be authorized to discontinue sending publications to persons who have 
not paid their dues. 

The Board of Directors then adjourned to accept the invitation of 
Prof. J. A. James and others to attend a luncheon at the Hotel Virginia. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY, 1910 TO MAY, 1911. 



Springfield, III., May, 1911. 
To the Board of Directors of the lUinais State Historical Society: 

Gentlemen — In my report made to you a year ago, I spoke of the 
steady gain in the membership and influence of the Society, and the 
experience of the past year ha? been of a continued onward and upward 
march. Our membership, however, ought to be much larger than it is. 
Few of our members have sought to gain new members for the Society. 
Some notable and honorable exceptions to this rule can be given, chief 
among whom may be mentioned, Mr. Wm. A. Meese, Mr. Wm. A. Sand- 
ham, Dr. W. H. Stennett, Mr. Wm. G. Edens, Dr. Daniel Berry, and 
others. Had we each one secured as many new members as these gentle- 
men our Society would number thousands instead of hundreds. We 
have now more than 1,200 members of all classes : 

Honorary members 22 

Life members 8 

Newspaper members 47 

Active members 1,163 

Total 1,240 

We have lost by death a number of our members, who are, as far as 
known to me, namely : 

John W. Good, Moline, 111., deceased April 22, 1910. 

Wm. R. Head, Chicago, 111., deceased May 10, 1910. 

Henry Hall, Jacksonville, 111., deceased May 29, 1910. 

Rev. John Fairbanks, Jacksonville, 111., deceased, 1910. 

C. J. McManis, Princeton, 111., deceased, 1910. 

H. G. McPike, Alton, 111., deceased, April 18, 1910. 

J. M. Pearson, Godfrey, 111., deceased, 1910. 

Luke Dickerman, Stillman Valley, 111., deceased July 4, 1910. 

Legh K. Brainerd, Springfield, 111., deceased Dec. 3, 1910. 

Thomas J. Crowder, Springfield, 111., deceased Feb. 22, 1911. 

James S. Culver, Springfield, 111., deceased March 17, 1911. 

Hally Haight, Naperville, 111., deceased May 3, 1911. 

Mrs. Harriet Rumsey Taylor, Springfield, 111., deceased May 15, 1911. 



10 

I again urge you to notify the Secretary of the Society of deaths in 
our membership. It is not possible for me to learn of them unless notice 
is sent me. We wish to publish brief notices in the Journal and to 
keep our records accurate. Please bear this in mind. 

Legislative Work. 

The present General Assembly just drawing to a close has enacted 
considerable legislation in relation to historical matters. Mr. Meese, 
chairman of our Legislative Committee, and to whose efficient labors is 
largely due the result, will tell you of the important step which this 
General Assembly has taken in the appointment of a commission to 
prepare plans looking toward the erection of a building for the Histori- 
cal Society and Library and some kindred interests. 

In 1912 Madison County will celebrate her centennial anniversary, 
it having been set off as a separate county by proclamation of Gov. 
Ninian Edwards in' 1812. Madison County has asked an appropria- 
tion of $5,000.00 to erect a monument in Edwardsville, the county 
seat, to the memory of Governor Edwards, Governor Coles, and the 
pioneers who took part in the border warfare, when Fort Eussell, near 
the present Edwardsville, was one of the principal frontier forts. 

In 1812 Illincis territory became a territory of the second grade and 
in that year the first territorial legislature was held. Madison County 
will include in its celebration, the celebration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of this beginning of representative government in Illinois. 
This bill has passed the Senate. 

A bill has also passed the Senate appropriating money for the pur- 
chase of the site of Fort Chartres, one of the most important of the 
early French posts. A joint resolution has been passed authorizing the 
Board of Trustees of the Historical Library to decide upon the route 
traveled by the family of Mr. Lincoln in its migration from Kentucky 
to Illinois by the way of Indiana. The Governor in his message recom- 
mended that this be .done, and that the route be suitably marked and 
called the "Lincoln Way.'' 

The most ambitious of the historical plans has been the attempt to 
secure an appropriation for the purchase of Starved Eock and vicinity, 
about 1,100 acres. A bill carrying an appropriation of $225,000.00 has 
passed the House and has yet to be acted upon by the Senate. For this 
important work credit is due to Prof. J. A. James and his associates on 
the Illinois Park Commission, 

The Quarterly Journal of the Society meets with favor from the 
Society and from all persons interested in the cause of State history. 
It is quoted very freely by the newspapers of the State and we have 
daily requests for copies of it and for permission to reprint articles 
from its columns. You are again urged to contribute to it items of 
historical interest or original material. 

The Secretary appeared before the appropriation committees of the 
Legislature in the interest of a bill for an appropriation for a new 
building for the Library and Society. She took as her principal text 
the burning of the capitol at Albany and the destruction of priceless 



11 

records and the present defenseless condition of our own records, and 
the committees were impressed with the necessity of providing better 
quarters, with proper means of caring for our records and other his- 
torical treasures. 

We are so crowded in our present quarters that it really seems that 
the limit of the storing capacity of our rooms has been reached." I 
would like each one of you to see for himself the congested condition of 
our rooms. We can no longer keep an even fairly tidy appearance. 
Tables and floor must be kept loaded. Our wall space for pictures is 
all used and our shelves for books and newspaper files are all overloaded. 

The 1909 transactions of the Society have been printed and will 
reach you I hope within a short time. A new edition of fifteen thou- 
sand copies of the Lincoln-Douglas Debate volume has been printed 
and distributed. The demand for this volume has been surprising and 
it has not abated. 

The history of Illinois newspapers, 1814-1879, edited by Mr. F. W. 
Scott and published as Illinois Historical Collections Vol. 6, has been 
distributed. It is an admirable and useful volume, and receives high 
commendation from the press and interested parties generally. Vol. 7 
of the collections, the second of the executive series or Governors' Letter 
Books has also been issued, Mr. C. M. Thompson and Prof. E. B. Greene 
being the editors. Its introductorv^ chapters present a most interesting 
history of the time covered by the State papers, and throw much light 
upon the internal improvement scheme which so nearly wrecked the 
State and upon the Mormon question. 

Special Meetings. 

The membership of the Society is so large that it seems that its 
annual meeting each year gives hardly enough opportunity for the mem- 
bers to meet, and it seems that the members in the different localities 
of the State can and ought to aid local societies or communities to ob- 
serve local historical events. I suggest that a committee be appointed 
to consider a plan for such special meetings. The Secretary of the 
Society attended the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the organi- 
zation of Woodford County. This was held under the auspices of the 
Woodford County Historical Society, Feb. 27, 1911. The meeting was 
a very successful one. Addresses were made by pioneers of the county 
and everyone present seemed to enjoy the exercises and appreciate the 
work that the Woodford County Society is doing. I hope we will have 
a report from the Woodford County Society by a delegate from the 
Society and that other societies may be represented at this meeting and 
give us some account of their activities. 

The Colored Historical Society of Illinois, located at Springfield, has 
asked me to report for it that it has sixty active members who are much 
interested in preserving the history of their race in its struggles for 
growth and betterment. I believe this is the only colored historical 
society in the State. 

We have received some gifts for which we desire to express our 
thanks. Members of the Society are urged to help in the collection of 



18 

local historical material. A circular letter was sent you some time ago 
asking such materials. We are very anxious to obtain old letters which 
describe early conditions in the localities of the State, the pioneers' 
manner of living, modes of transportation, cost of commodities, etc. If 
you knovr of any such local material we will be glad to be informed of 
it. We will gladly have copies made of historical documents if the 
originals cannot be obtained. 

Miss Louise Enos, a member of the Society, has presented on behalf 
of her father's heirs a valuable Lincoln document. It is an original 
surveying paper. It was mentioned in the April Journal of the Society. 
The Hon. Norman G. Flagg has a collection of early Illinois letters 
written mostly by his father. He has allowed the Society to publish 
them and they will be edited by Mr. S. J. Buck and published in the 
transactions of the Society. 

Such material is of the greatest value and interest. Please help the 
Society and Library in the collection of such material. 

Governor Eichard Yates has presented the Society with a manuscript 
record book containing the earliest military orders of his father, the 
great War Governor. There are not many entries but what there are 
are of the greatest interest. 

We acknowledge gifts in the Journal, and so I will not take your 
time by enumerating them at this time. 

On Anril 14, the Society held a meeting in commemoration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the breaking out of the war between the states. 
The meeting was one of the most interesting we have ever held and 
the attendance was as large as we have ever had. Addresses were made 
by Colonel Carr, Gen. Smith D. Atkins, Mr. Eugene F. Baldwin and 
Col. Bluford Wilson at the afternoon meeting, and in the evening Judge 
Marcus Kavanagh delivered an address. The old war time music was 
sung. The patriotic societies were invited and were well represented. 
It shows what can be done in the way of a special meeting to com- 
memorate an historic event. 

Our committees will, I hope, report on their activities. I urge 
greater activity among the members of the committees. 

Very respectfully, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 



13 



REPOET OF TEEASUEEE. 



May, 1910 to May, 1911. 



Balance on hand from 1909 

Dues received from members of the society. 



Total receipts. 



EXPENDITURES MAT, 1910 TO MAT, 1911. 



Expenses of Judge Marcus Kavanagh, at special meeting 

Expenses Prof. W. K. Moorhead 

Miss. Bessie O'Brien, services at two meetings 

Maldener & Son, supplies 

Mrs. Jennie Howey, supplies 

Bell MUler, supplies 

L. E. WTieeler, postmaster, postage on four numbers of quarterly journal 

Phillips Bros., printing circular letters and programs two meetings 

R. ly. Berry, supplies, two meetings 

H. 1j. Phelps, suppUes ■. 

Burke Vancil, use of stereopticon and services operating for Prof. Moorhead's lec- 
ture 



Total expenditures. 
Balance 



$229 22 
385 00 



S 15 63 
73 50 
50 00 
38 75 

8 50 

11 75 

106 56 

58 70 

8 00 
19 75 

10 00 



$614 22 



401 14 



$213 08 



14 



EEPOET OF COMMITTEE ON GENEALOGY AND GENEA- 
LOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



Springfield, III., May, 1911. 
To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Since our last annual report your Committee on Genealogy and 
Genealogical Publications is pleased to say that we have made great gain 
in our collection, as at present we have in the library 700 volumes on 
genealogy — this includes books, pamphlets and typewritten copies of 
family histories, etc. We are regular subscribers to the following 
periodicals : 

Lineage Books, D. A. R. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. I, 1847 to date. 
65 Vols. 

New Yorlc Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. I, 1870 to date. 
41 Vols. 

North Carolina Booklet, 1906 to date. Pub. by the N. C. D. A. R. 

Old Northwest Genealogical Quarterly, Vol. I, 1898 to date. 13 Vols. 

Pennsylvania Genealogical Society, Vol. I, 1895 to 1910. 

South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. I, 1900 to date. 

Virginia Magazine of Biog. and History. Vol. I, 1893 to date, 1911. 19 Vols. 

Williams and Mary Quarterly, Vol. I, 1892 to date. 17 Vols. 

Among the more recent additions to our collection are the following, 
by states : 

Connecticut — History of "Waterbury, Conn., the original township, etc. Bron- 
son, Henry (M. D.) 583 P. 8', Waterbury, 1858. Bronson 
Bros., Pubs. 
Delaware — The Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, Wilmington, 
Del., from 1697 to 1773. Translated from the original Swedish 
by Horace Burr. Papers of the Historical Society of Dela- 
ware, IX. Wilmington, Del., 1890. 
Delaware — Some Records of Sussex County, Delaware. Pub. Phila., 1909. 

Turner, C. H. B., Comp. Allen, Lane & Scott, Pubs. 
Georgia — 3 vols. Revolutionary Records of Georgia. 

Georgia — 3 vols. Confederate Records of Georgia. Candler, Allen D., Comp. 
Kentucky — History of Union County, Ky. Courier Co., Pubs. Pub. Evans- 

ville, Ind., 1886. 
Massachusetts — History of Easthampton. Its settlement and growth, etc. 
Together with a genealogical record of its original fam- 
ilies. Northampton, 1866. 
Massachusetts — Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution. 17 vols. Pub. by 
the Sec'y of State, Mass, 1896-1908. 



15 

New Hampshire — History of the First New Hampshire Regiment in the 
War of the Revolution. Pub. Albany, N. Y., 1868., Joel 
Munsell. 
New York — Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. I, 1870 to date, 1911. 

Pub. by the N. Y. Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
New York — Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of N. Y., 1668 
to 1673. (2 vols.) Pub. by the State of N. Y., 1910. Paltsits, 
Victor Hugo, Editor. 
New York — Muster Rolls of New York Provincial Troops, 1755-1764. N. Y. 

Historical Society, Pubs. 1902. 
North Carolina — Sketches of North Carolina. Foote, Wm. Henry. Pub. N. 

Y., 1846. Robert Carter, Pub. 
North Carolina — Sketches of Western North Carolina, Hunter, C. L. Pub. 

Raleigh, N. C, 1877. 
Pennsylvania — Archives of Pennsylvania, Additions to. Penn. in the War of 
the Revolution, Associated Battalions and Militia, 1775-1783. 
2 vols. Names of Persons who Took the Oath of Allegiance 
to the State of Pa. Between the years 1776 and 1794. 
Egle, Wm., M. D., ed. 
Pennsylvania — Old Westmoreland. A history of Western Pennsylvania dur- 
ing the Revolution. Hassler, Edgar W., Cleveland, O., 1900. 
Arthur H. Clark Co., Pub. 
Rhode Island — History of Warren, R. I., in the War of the Revolution, 1776- 
1783. Baker, Virginia. Pub. Warren, R. I., 1901, by the 
author. 
South Carolina — The Annals and Parish Register of St. Thomas and St. 
Denis Parish in South Carolina from 1680 to 1884. Clute, 
(Rev.) Robert F. Pub. Charleston, S. C, 1884. Pub. by 
Walker, Evans and Cogswell. 
South Carolina — Documentary History of the American Revolution; con- 
sisting of letters and papers relating to the contest for 
liberty chiefly in S. C. 3 vols. Gibbes, R. W., M. D., 
N. Y., 1855-1857. Appleton & Co. 
South Carolina-^South Carolina in the Revolutionary War. Simms, W. Gil- 
more. 12' Charleston, 1853. 
South Carolina — The History of the Revolution of S. C, from a British 
Province to an Independent State. 2 vols. Ramsay, 
David. Trenton, 1785. 
South Carolina — The Siege of Charleston, by the British Fleet and Army, 
under the Command of Admiral Arbuthnot and Sir Henry 
Clinton, which terminated with the surrender of the place 
on the 12th of May, 1780. Albany, N. Y., 1867. J. 
Munsell, Pub. 
Vermont — History of Newbury, Vermont, from the discovery of the Coos 
Country to present time. With genealogical records of many 
families. Wells, Frederic P. St. Johnsbury, Vt., 1902. 
Virginia — Virginia Colonial Decisions. The reports by Sir John Randolph 
and Edward Barradall of decisions of the general Court of 
Virginia, 1728-1741. Edited with historical introduction by 
R. T. Barton. 2 vols. 8' Boston, Mass., 1909. 
Virginia — Virginia Cousins. A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John 

Goode, of Whitby. Goode, G. Brown. Richmond, Va., 1887. 
Virginia — The Orderly Book of that portion of the American Army stationed 
at, or near Williamsburg, Va. Under the command of General 
Andrew Lewis from March 18, 1776 to Aug. 28, 1776. Printed 
from the original mss. Richmond, Va., 1860. 
Virginia — Revolutionary Records. Names of the captains and privates of 
Col. Nathaniel Gist's Virginia Regiment in 1777. Also list of 
Virginia officers with the dates of their commission in 1776. In 
Records of the Revolutionary War. Saffell, W. T. R., N. Y., 1858. 



16 

Virginia — The History of Truro Parish in Va. Slaughter (Rev.), Philip, 

D.D. 12' Phila., 1908. 
Virginia — The German Element of the Shenandoah Valley of Va. Wayland, 

John Walter, B.A., Ph.D. Charlottesville, Va., 1907. 
Virginia — Patrician and Plebeian in Virginia, or the origin and development 
of the social classes of the Old Dominion. 12' Charlottesville, 
Va., 1910. 
Virginia — Eastern Shores of Virginia in the 17th Century. Wise, Jennings 

Cropper. Richmond, Va., 1911. 
Genealogies of a General Nature: 

American and English Genealogies in the Library of Congress, Wash- 
ington, 1910. 
Cincinnati, Society of. Early documents relating to, 1783, 1811. Also 
document on the order in France, published by the Rhode Island 
Society, 1905. 
Gifts of Family Histories to the Library: 

History of the Foote Family. Gift of Mr. John Crocker Foote of BelTi- 

dere. 111. 
History of the Blackwelder-Scherer Families. Gift of Mr. I. S. Black- 
welder of Chicago. 

We respectfully solicit from the members of the Society and citizens 
of the State and other states who have genealogical material on Illinois, 
donations of the following description : 

1. Printed books containing memoirs of individuals or families, funeral 
sermons, epitaphs, engravings, portraits, and other printed documents 
or work, which can, in any way elucidate the lives and actions of the early 
inhabitants of Illinois, or their descendants. 

2. Manuscript documents, containing original copies or abstracts of wills, 
deeds, settlement and distribution of estates, letters and autographs, coats-of- 
arms, etc. 

3. Original, or copies of Family Registers, or Bibles, containing records of 
births, marriages and deaths. 

4. Original manuscripts containing the Genealogy, Biography or History 
of early Illinois settlers or their descendants. 

5. Newspapers or parts of newspapers and other periodical works, con- 
taining marriages and deaths, or obituary and biographical notices of 
individuals. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman Genealogical Committee Illinois State Historical Society. 



17 



COMMITTEE OX AECHAEOLOGY 



To the Members of the Illinois State Historical Societij: 

Your committee appointed more than a 3'ear ago to report a plan of 
action upon the important subject of the archaeology of Illinois, beg 
leave to make a partial report, which if adopted, may be the basis for 
some more definite plans to be matured by competent persons under 
the direction of the State Society. 

We recommend that a standing committee on archaeology Ije annually 
appointed by the directors of the State Historical Society. 

We advise that this committee take appropriate steps in the name of 
the Society, following in the main the plan of the Ohio State Historical 
and Archaeological Society to have a State survey by counties, which 
should result finally in a complete archaeological State map. 

We believe that if a proper efllort is made by this Society, the State 
of Illinois can secure for perpetual preservation some of our most im- 
portant Indian mounds, particularly the great Cahokia Mound, or at 
least set apart as a reservation some of the largest collections of these 
mounds such as may be found in Brown, Madison, Pike, Adams and 
other counties, as examples or illustrations of what has been myster- 
iously performed by former races of whom these mounds are the only 
memorials. 

Lastly, we would most strongly recommend that in all future appli- 
cations to the Legislature for appropriations for aid of this Society we 
ask specifically for annual appropriations for archaeological purposes, 
being firmly of the opinion that the State will respond liberally to such 
request. 

J. H. BURNHAM, 

W. T. jSTorton, 
J. V. ISr. Standish, 
Frederick Starr, 
Dr. Wm. Jatxe, 
Clark E. Carr. cx officio, 
Committee. 
Chicago, 111., May 18, 1911. 



-3 H S 



PART II. 



Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 

1911. 



PROGRAM PRESENTED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ILLINOIS 
WEDNESDAY, MAY 17, 1911. 



First Sessiox. 

2:30 p. m., Evanston Historical Society Rooms. Col. Clark E. Carr, Presi- 
dent of the State Historical Society of Illinois, Presiding. 

Address of Welcome — Joseph E. Paden, Mayor of Evanston. 

Paper — "Thomas Sloo, Jr. — A Typical Politician of Early Illinois" — Isaac 
J. Cox, Professor in the University of Cincinnati. 

Paper — "The Fordhams and La Serres of the English Settlement in 
Edwards County, lUinois"^ — Walter Colyer, Albion, 111. 

Paper — "The Development of the State Constitutions" — Christopher B. 
Coleman, Professor in Butler College, Indianapolis. 

Paper — "Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Party in Illinois" — 
Oliver P. Wharton, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Paper— "Massachusetts, the Germans, and the Chicago Convention of 
1860"^ — Frank I. Herriott, Professor in Drake University, Des Moines. 

Wednesday, May 17 — Second Session. 

8:00 p. m., Assembly Room in Lunt Library, Northwestern University. 
Abram W. Harris, President of Northwestern University, Presiding. 
Address — "Illinois" — Col. Clark E. Carr, President of the Society. 

Thursday, May 18 — Third Session. 

10:00 a. m., Chicago Historical Society Building. Clark E. Carr, Presiding. 

Paper — "Life and Labors of William H. Collins," one of the founders of 
the Illinois Historical Societj^ — Rev. James Robert Smith, Quincy. 

Annual Business Meeting of the Illinois Historical Society. Reports of 
Committees and Officers. 



21 



ANNUAL ADDEESS. 



Illinois. 
Clark E. Carr. 

The position of Illinois in the aggregation of states is such as to 
have great influence in binding the Federal Union together. Extending 
as she does, from north latitude 36 degrees 59 minutes to 42 degrees 30 
minutes, from Wisconsin, a state of the northern boundary, clear down 
to rivers which furnish navigafion and means of commerce, to the 
southern limit of the Eepublic, she is potential in an extraordinary 
degree in binding all the states of the Union together. Illinois had not 
such an extent when first laid out. She was first called a county of 
Virginia, then created into a county of the vast region organized 
by the ordinance of 1787; and that county was afterward made 
into a territory. As a territory her southern and eastern and 
western boundaries were as now, but the northern boundary was 
an imaginary line running due west from the southern point of Lake 
^Michigan. The northern boundary of Illinois would have so continued 
but for the far-reaching statesmanship and heroic efforts of Judge 
Xathanel Pope, who was the delegate in congress from the Territory of 
Illinois. Eealizing how strong a hold the State from her position would 
have upon the south, he foresaw that if she could be placed in a position 
to have a similar grasp upon the north, she would be more potential than 
any other state in the LTnion in binding and holding the states together. 
So strong was this belief in the mind of Judge Pope that he urged it 
with great power in congress and he succeeded in extending the boundary 
of the State to its present limits, taking in to the north, beyond the 
limits hitherto settled upon, fourteen of the best counties of the State, 
and taking the same territory away from Wisconsin. The northern 
boundary reaches almost up to a parallel with the southern boundary of 
the state of Maine, while the southern point at Cairo is almost as far 
south as the southern line of the state of Kentucky. Cairo herself is 
much further south than the cities of Washington and Louisville while 
Centralia is about a parallel with Louisville and St. Louis. And the 
northern boundary of Missouri extends almost to a parallel with Bloom- 
ington, Peoria and Galesburg. Illinois in the Civil War, was mighty 
in holding the states of the Union together, in a great degree, because 
of her location, showing the wisdom of Judge Pope in establishing her 
boundaries. Major General John Pope, who gained distinction in the 
Civil War, was the son of jSTathaniel Pope. 



22 

The ordinance of 1787, establishing a government of the Northwest 
Territory, dedicated this whole region to freedom. Under that ordi- 
nance, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, came into the 
Union as free states, although in a few isolated neighborhoods slaves 
were held in bondage. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a free 
State in 1818. Three years later, in 1821, Missouri was admitted into 
the Union as a slave state. In those earlv days all the emigration to 
the west was from the south. There had then yet been to the west but 
little emigration from Europe and from the eastern states. The people 
of Illinois were practically all natives of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee 
and the Carolinas. Upon the admission of Missouri into the Union 
there sprang up an extraordinary emigration to that new state from the 
south. In making their way to Missouri they crossed the prairies of 
Illinois. Among these emigrants were people of large means, having 
great trains of cattle and horses, and frequently slaves, which attracted 
the attention of the pioneers in Illinois. These Illinois pioneers, many 
of whom had left the south to get rid of slavery and who could not 
afford to own slaves, annoyed at seeing so many pass by them, urged 
these emigrants to stop and locate in Illinois, claiming that Illinois was 
really a better State than Missouri, and urging her advantage. But the 
reply was, "We cannot locate in Illinois because you have adopted an 
anti-slavery Constitution, and we cannot hold our property here.^' 
The result of this was to create in the minds and hearts of many Illinois 
people a desire to establish slavery and to so amend the Constitution as 
to permit it to be introduced. A powerful political party sprang up 
favoring slavery. But the free State Constitution could not be amended 
except first by calling a convention for that purpose and submitting the 
question to the people to be voted on by them. To call such a convention 
required a two-thirds majority in both Houses of the Legislature. Many 
of the people of the State of Illinois, too poor to own slaves, had 
migrated from the south to the State for the purpose of getting rid of 
slavery and they did not want it established under any circumstances, 
and opposed it with all their might. The leader of the opposition to 
slavery was Edward Coles, a very prominent and wealthy man. the second 
Governor of Illinois, who had from principle, because he became con- 
scientiously opposed to slavery, manumitted all his slaves, entered into 
the anti-siavery movement with all his power. It was urged that the 
ordinance of 1787, having prohibited slavery in this region forever, 
slavery could not be established in Illinois; but on the other hand, it 
appeared that Illinois, having now become a sovereign State in the 
Union, had as much authority in controlling her domestic affairs as had 
Virginia or any other state, and if she chose to so amend her Constitu- 
tion as to legalize holding human beings in l^ondage, she had tlie right 
to do so. Never was there so long and bitter and acrimonious a struggle 
as was that in Illinois upon the slavery question. It lasted for" more 
than a year and a half. When one reflects that all those people were 
from the south, reared among slavery and accustomed to it all their 
lives, it seems almost incredible that they should not have fnvnrnd it. 



23 

The political battle was waged with earnestness and constantly in- 
creasing zeal in every village and hamlet, and it may be said, in almost 
every family, for eighteen months. 

To the everlasting honor and glory of the people of Illinois, the advo- 
cates of slavery were overwhelmed in defeat and the State rededicated 
to freedom. The vote stood 4,972 in favor of amending the Constitution, 
so as to establish slavery, and 6,640 against so amending the Constitu- 
tion. There was a majority of 1,668 against slavery, which, considering 
how small was the population of the State at that time, was extra- 
ordinary. 

I wish it were possible for me to name all the splendid men who were 
active in saving Illinois from the blight of human slavery. Among them 
I must name Henry Eddy, of Shawneetown, Morris Birkbeck, an English 
gentleman of large means who had settled in Illinois, and George 
Churchill and Nicholas Hanson, the latter of whom was unjustly turned 
out of his seat in the Legislature in order to give the pro-slavery men 
a two-thirds majority. I mentioned the name of George Churchill be- 
cause I once had the pleasure of meeting him in Galesburg. He was a 
brother of the late Norman Churchill of Galesburg, and an uncle of 
George Churchill, the distinguished professor in Knox College. He 
was an abolitionist all his life, a printer by profession, frequently elected 
to the LfCgislature and accounted one of the best working members. He 
never made a speech of more than five minutes in length, but it, how- 
ever, contained all that ought to be said. It was said that he was a 
perfect walking encyclopedia of political knowledge. He lived and died 
a bachelor. Above and beyond all these who ought to be remembered, is 
Edward Coles. 

It will thus be seen that the pioneers of Illinois, regardless of their 
own interests, before an abolition party had been organized, when slavery 
existed all about them, when to be a slave-holder was almost a title of 
nobility, disregarding their own interests, permitted the wealth and 
grandeur of the south to pass by them in order that they and their 
posterity should enjoy the inestimable blessing of freedom. Does any 
one marvel that citizens of our State are proud of being Illinoisans? 
This is but one of the achievements of the people of Illinois of which we 
are proud. 

In the short time alloted to me, it will be impossible to even allude 
to all the glorious episodes in the history of our great State, but there 
is one other that I cannot forbear mentioning. 

As was the case in certain other states, there came upon the people 
of Illinois in 1836 an hysterical feeling in favor of internal improve- 
ments, which amounted really to a craze. 

The Legislature elected in 1836 was supplemented by an internal 
improvement convention composed of many of the ablest men of the 
State, which was to meet at the Capitol simultaneously with the Legisla- ' 
ture. It was probable that the more zealous advocates of internal im- 
provements doubted the stamina of the members of the Legislature to 
carry the proposed enterprises into effect. So strong was the popular 
feeling that it was said that every citizen of Illinois expected to have a 
railroad or (-anal built near his house. The system contemplated the 



24 

building of 1,342 miles of railroad at a cost of over eleven millions of 
dollars. In three years the people woke up to a realization that they 
were already in debt nearly fourteen millions of dollars, and that the 
State was nnable to pay the interest on its bonds. The State became so 
embarrassed that its credit was gone, and that it could not borrow 
another dollar of nione}', and that the public enterprises, the building 
of the railways and canals, which they so fondly hoped to see completed 
had scarcely been entered upon. Sparse as Avas the population, and 
limited as was the taxable property of the State, it seemed an impos- 
sibility to meet the enormous indebtedness and the people were driven 
almost to the extremity of repudiation. The credit of the State became 
a byword all over the commercial world. This period of depression and 
bankruptcy continued from 1839 until 1817, eight years, during which 
time the high taxes and hard times made capital and emigrants shun 
the State as they would the pestilence. Speaking of those days, one of 
the delegates to the constitutional convention of 1870 said, "It was a 
glorious time for two or three years, but after the money ran through 
and all was gone, and pay-day came, the people had to pass through an 
ordeal such as no community, perhaps on this continent, ever went 
through before. This period of depression embarrassed the people for 
twenty years. It paralyzed the industries, it drove emigrants from the 
State, and reduced communities to pauperism.^' 

It is really not remarkable that the hard times and distressing con- 
ditions which existed in those dark days should have driven many to 
despair, that there should have been those among them who favored 
practical repudiation of the State debt by demanding of our creditors 
that they should accept in payment of their bonds less than they called 
for u])on their face, that it should have been said that the people were 
bankrupted and that they could never pay any portion of t].ie bonds un- 
less a compromise could be effected. It was an awful crisis, but to the 
honor of the noble men and women of that period, it may be said that 
they heroically met the crisis and saved themselves and their great State 
from the dishonor of either repudiating or compromising their indebted- 
ness. Men and women said that if it took every dollar they possessed 
and every piece of ])ro]X'rty they had, they would pay every cent of the 
debt or move out, that they would not live in a State that repudiated. 

To the everlasting honor of the people of Illinois, tliey ordained and 
established in their fundamental law, which was absolutely binding upon 
them, a tax u])().n tluMUselves to raise the means to meet their obligations. 
AVhat was called a two-mill tax, Avas placed in the Constitution of the 
State to be inexorably collected every year to pay off the bonds. 

At the time when this provision was made for the payment of the 
debt the population of the State was limited. Chicago Avas in its in- 
fancy, and the vast prairie regions of northern Illinois, now so denselv 
populated, containing the most valuable farm property on the continent, 
was comparatively uninliabited. When it ajiiieared that the State had 
adopted a policy to meet her obligations and that every dollar of lier 
indebtedness would be paid, vast numbers of people from the eastern and 
middl(> states, and from Europe, turned their faces toward Illinois and 



25 

the ininiigration into the State was enormous. The result proved that 
the two-mill tax was sufficient to amply provide for the payment of the 
debt, and before we knew it, the bonds were all canceled. 

It is natural in speaking of the achievements and glory of Illinois for 
us to place in the front rank her inestimable services to the country at 
large during the Civil War. Xo line of encomium or of eulogium for 
our commonwealth would be more natural or agreeable to the speaker 
than this. But it has been thought that it would not be out of place to 
bring to mind achievements of earlier days, for we realize that 
"Xot without thy wondrous story 
Could be writ the nation's glory, 
Illinois." 

But we leave this to' younger men in whose memories still linger the 
achievements of the heroes who took so prominent a part in the struggles 
that saved the country. 

In recalling the heroes and statesmen of Illinois the time alloted to 
me only admits of the mentioning of fonr names : Lincoln, Douglas, 
Grant and Logan ! What other commonwealth can number among her 
immortals snch great names? Such as these can scarcely be found in 
the realms of fancy. In the epics of Homer, such a galaxy does not 
appear. If one ascends the heights of Olympus and contemplates the 
divinities in the sublimity and glory with which mythologv endows 
them, he will search in vain for attributes so sublime and character so 
majestic. Had Illinois only given these four to the nation, she Avould 
have l)een distinguished as is no other commonwealth among the sister- 
hood of states. Yet were Lincoln and Douglas and Grant and Logan 
not numbered among those sent forth from the prairies, there Avould 
still appear in the firmament of American glory a constellation of Illi- 
nois statesmen and heroes tliat would illumine the world. 

The temple of which the states of the American Union form the in- 
tegral parts is the most sublime that was ever reared. Its foundations 
are laid in principles more substantial and enduring than granite; 
while the superstructure embodies and amplifies, in sublimity and bene- 
ficence, the wisdom and hopes and aspirations of all ages. 

In the midst of this mighty structure, exalted to lofty eminence, sup- 
ported and dependent upon all the other states, uniting and giving 
strength and grace and beauty to the whole, so conspicuous through the 
achievements of her sons that all the people instinctively turn their eyes 
toward her, rises Illinois, whose splendors and glories illumine every 
part of the mighty edifice which she majestically canopies. 

New York is justly called the Empire state, and Pennsylvania the 
Keystone state. Illinois must be recognized as the stately Dome of the 
American Eepublic. 



26 



THOMAS SLOO, JE., A TYPICAL POLITICIAN OF EARLY 

ILLINOIS. 



Isaac Joslin Cox, University of Cincinnati. 

In a former volume of the publications of this Society Dr. John F. 
Snyder has given a brief sketch of the career of Thomas Sloo, Jr. under 
the caption, "Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois."^ The only reason for 
adding to this sketch is the fact that it has been my personal pleasure 
to find in the Torrence Collection- of the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio a considerable number of hitherto unused letters con- 
cerning Mr. Sloo and his early life in Ohio and Illinois. These have 
been edited and will appear in current num.bers of the quarterly issued 
by that society. The present sketch is an attempt to present from these 
letters certain facts of the career of Sloo that bear upon the politics of 
early Illinois. 

While it may seem strange that this material relating to Mr. Sloo 
should be found in an Ohio depository, that fact is but another illustra- 
tion of the interlacing of the history of the. whole Mississippi Valley. 
In the westward movement of our population we are familiar with the 
fact that the outlying communities of one generation act as the nurseries 
for more remote communities to be established at later periods. In thiis 
respect certain districts of the upper Ohio Valley, more particularly the 
Blue Grass Eegion, Marietta, and the Miami districts were centers from 
which the outskirts of the Northwest Territory and the lower Mississippi 
Valley were later peopled. Mr. Sloo who was born at Washington, 
Mason County, Kentucky, and who passed his youth and young manhood 
in Cincinnati and about a decade of his more mature years in Illinois, 
before going on to New Orleans where he spent the greater part of his 
life, is a typical illustration of this fact. His parents crossed the moun- 



i Publication No. 8 of the Illinois Sta'e. Hiatoriral Library, contiining Transactions of the Illinois State 
Historical Society for the year 1903, pp. 190-210. The sketoh of Slo> is found on pp. 201-20t). 

2 This collection comprises letters written by and tn William Henry Harrison, James Findlay. Thomas 
Sloo, Jr., George PauU Torrence, and others of local celebrity in Cincinnati and vicinity, as" well as a 
few from men of national repufal ion. Seven numbers scattered Ihronpli Volume I.-VI. of the Quarterly 
issued by the Historical and IMiilosophical Society of Ohio, contain selections from the letters of the 
Torrence Collection. In addition to the letters the collection comprises the account books of the firm 
of Smith and Findlay, picmeer inerch:infs of Cincinnati, military records of the early Indian campaiffns, 
Findlay's accounts as receiver of pul)lic monies at Cincinnati, Hamilton County records acquired by 
Torrence, and miscelhnieous printed and written documents, broadsides, public acts, etc., etc., such as 
would usually bo collected in the course of the Ions? business and political experience of record preserving 
pioneers. The bulk of the letters in the collection is addressed to Findlay. Those addressed to Torrence 
follow in numbers, while there arc a fairly hw^o Rroun addressed to Thomas Sloo, .Tr., and a few written 
by him. The presence of the letters addres.sed to Sloo may be accounted for by the fact that Torrence 
WHS his brother-in-law, to whom Sloo seems to have sent many of his papers, when he moved to New 
Orleans, about 1830. 




THOMAS SLOO, JR. 



27 

tains when the upper Ohio Valley was still a wilderness and began a 
pioneer existence in Kentucky just as that commonwealth became a 
state in the American Union. Mr. Sloo himself belonged to the first 
generation of native Trans-Allegheny pioneers and came to Illinois 
shortly after statehood was bestowed upon it. He figured in the stirring 
politics of the period when party lines were cast upon a personal basis, 
achieved an honorable position among the leaders of the new State, 
narrowly missed attaining the office of its chief executive, and left his 
impress upon its economic conditions. He then passed on to a distant 
but still connected scene of action where his career was cast in more 
retired personal and business lines with, however, an honorable oppor- 
tunity for leaving his impress upon the community at largo. 

Mr. Sloo seems to have taken up his residence in Illinois during the 
spring of 1830, when he was in his thirtieth year. Although a com- 
paratively young man his previous career had been an honorable one in 
his adopted home in Cincinnati. One of the first references to him in 
the Torrence papers bears the date of Dec. 4, 1811, and this letter is 
addressed to him as an inmate of General James Findlay's household.^ 
Although barely of age he seems to have been the confidential secretary 
of Findlay who was not only one of the leading merchants of Cincinnati 
but also Receiver of Public Monies for the Land Office and a. high officer 
in the state militia. The relationship that young Sloo bore to him is 
indicated by the fact that Findlay refers to him as his "friend and sheet 
anchor.'"- Findlay left his afl'airs in Sloo's hands while he was absent 
on public business connected with the preparation for the War of 1812, 
and in fact the General and his wife seemed to have adopted him into 
their childless but "friendly family" as they Avere later by marriage to 
admit him into closer relationship. 

Despite the trust reposed in young Sloo he evidently chafed at a con- 
dition of affairs which kept him in Cincinnati while military measures 
Avere under way in northern Ohio, as a letter to his benefactress states.' 
"What sensations must be produced in every bosom, that possesses the 
spark of patriotism or thirst for glory in the field of Mars. But fate as 
usual smiles on me but with contempt. She appears to decree in dire 
opposition to fire of youth and feelings of independencv — All's Well." 
In the second year of the war Sloo was sent to the east on important 
business for the Miami Exporting Company in connection Avith trans- 
portation of provisions and specie for the western army.* While absent 
at the seat of government he was offered a commission in the regiment 
of Light Artillery.^ A more important result of this trip seems to be 
indicated in an enthusiastic description of his visit at Mercersburs:, Pa. 
The sequel to this visit is his marriage,' Julv 14, 1814, to Miss Harriet 
Irwin, a native of that town and a niece of Mrs. Findlay.® At the con- 
clusion of the war Avith Great Britain certain of the leadins; merchants 



1 p. T. Sfhenck to Thomas Sloo, Jr., Deo. 4, ISll. Torrence Papers. Box 20, No. 29. 

- James Findlay to Mrs. Jane Findlay. Torrevce Papers, Box 6, No. 48. Other letters of this same 
date show Sloo's oonfidential relations with Findlay. 

ilhid. Box 21, No. 36. 

■< A few meagre details of this mission are given in letters of Martin Baum ( Torrence Papers, Box 2. 
Nos. 8, 9, in), of John Armstrong {Ibid, Box 1, No. 14a), of James Taylor {Ibid, Box 26, No. 18), and of 
Sloo, himself {Ibid, Box 21, No. 37, Box 1, No. 14b.). 

'■> Sloo evidently did not accept this commission in regular army. 

« Of. Snyder, loc. cit. p. 202. 



28 

of Cincinnati nnited to form a company to introduce English goods 
directly into that city by the way of ^N^ew Orleans. Mr. Sioo, now of 
the firm of Baum and Sloo, and who had recently lost his bride after 
less than a year's marriage, was selected to act as the purchasing agent 
of this company in England and spent the next two years in this im- 
portant commission. His own course seems to have been marked by 
great discretion, although the company did not realize their full expecta- 
tions from the project because of unfortunate trading and banking 
conditions prevailing throughout the country.^ 

Eeturning to Cincinnati Sloo became a merchant in that city and also 
received certain other honors. 1818 he became one of the directors of 
the Cincinnati branch of the Second United States Bank, a position 
which brought him into close friendship with the cashier of that institu- 
tion, Gorham A. Worth, from whose letters we gain many of the facts 
of Sloo's history for the next ten years.- The year 1819, however, was 
marked by great financial disaster for nearly every leading citizen of 
Cincinnati. By 1820 the branch of the Second United States Bank, 
familiarly known in the west as the "]\Ionster," had foreclosed mortgages 
upon about half of the property in the business district of Cincinnati. 
This result was brought about by the intensive speculative spirit of the 
people of that city which permitted loose methods in conducting the 
affairs of the bank, as well as by the drastic measures assumed by that 
institution." The correspondence of Worth with Sloo at this ])oriod 
throws many an interesting sidelight upon the general financial condi- 
tions of Cincinnati and of the middle west. For those directly involved, 
including Sloo, the situation was one of despair.* 

In the latter part of 1819 Sloo was appointed as agent of the Quarter- 
master General's Department for Cincinnati, Newport, and vicinity.^ 
Somewhat earlier in this year he married his second wife, ]\Iiss Kebecca 
Smith Eindlay, a niece this time of General James Findlay." Thus 
lie was doubly connected l)y marriage with those who had been his early 
benefactors. 

The failure of bis commercial ventures in Cincinnati caused losses 
which he honorably liquidated in time, although he was long hampered 
bv them.^ His obligations determined Sloo to seek a new career else- 
where. For some vears his father had been connected with the United 



1 See letters which Sloo bore introduping him to r.eneral .Tonathan Dayton ( Torrence Papers, Box 14. 
No. 58) and General Aaron Ogden (Ibid, Box22, No. :?), and also instruoti<ms written lo him while abroad 
(Ibid, Box 11, Nos. 73, 74). One iiiteresfing item is a request from General Pike's widow (Ibid, Box IS, 
No. 71, printed in the Qiuirlcrti/ of the Historical and Philosophical Society. Vol. IV, p. 135) requesting 
him to collect the royally due from the English edition of her huslnuid's book. 

- These letters are "contained in the Torrence Papers, Box 29, Nos. 4',)-<u;, and cover the years 1S1S-1S24 
inclusive. They are published, alouf; with others relatinR to Sloo in Volume VI. of the Quarterhj 
of the Historical and Pbilosopbical Society. In acknowledging a letter of Sloo Worth WTites "It was a 
line long letter in your usual easy and pleasant style." 

3Cf. Ibid, and Catterall, Kalpb, ('. H., The Sccinid Hani; of the United Slates, passim. 

■< Worth's letter of Aug. 2, 1S2(), just a few weeks before the Branch of the United States Bank at Cin- 
cinnati was closed, is of special interest. Torrence I'd/iers, Box 211, No. .IS. 

■> Ibid, Box 13, No. is. This was probably the result of Sloo's friendship with Thomas Jcsup, then 
Quartermaster-General of the ITniteil States Army. 

Tf. Snyder, Zoc f^^ p. 202. She was the daughter of John Findlay of ChamViersburg, who was at 
one time "Congressman from his district, and later postmaster of his town under Jackson. Cf. Tor- 
rence Papers, passim and the volumes of the Quarterly of the Historical and Philosophical Society of 
Ohio. 

' This is shown by references in the Torrence Papers as late as 1S28. 



29 

States J.aiid Otlioes at Kaskaskia and Shaw lU'i'towii, 111.^ ]le, liimself, 
as well as his friends. Worth aiul Torrcnc'c, had speculated heavily in 
western lands in Illinois and in Missouri.- With his father and 
brothers living in Illinois and with land claims located near Shawnee- 
town and along the lower Ohio, where H. L. Webb and Dr. William 
Alexander were attempting to develop a metropolis, it was only natural 
that Sloo should seek to recuperate his fortune in the young but 
thriving State. The process of financial recuperation, however, seems 
to have been a vex\v slow one and Worth's letters show that he, at least, 
had little contidence in the ultimate success of Webb and Alexander's 
projects, or in the character of the men themselves.^ 

With the handicap of business failure in Cincinnati Sloo also brought 
to the new State the prestige of friendship and intimate relation with 
such important men as Findlay, George P. Torrence, his brother-in-law, 
Jacob Burnet, and General William Henry Harrison. Through some of 
these men and his own family connections, he was likewise a protege 
of W. H. Crawford, then Secretary of the Treasury and an aspirant for 
the Presidency. Sloo was thus naturally thrown in with another leading 
Crawfordite, Edward Coles, although he seems to have had intimate 
friends in the party that 'usually opposed the latter. His friendship for 
Crawford w-on for him later the enmity of Xinian Edwards, Daniel P. 
Cook, and others who were recognized as active Calhoun men. Despite 
this his prospects for political prominence seemed brighter than his 
financial ones. 

Mr. Sloo seems to have tarried for a time at Shawneetown, where his 
father was already located, and then in 1821 passed fiirther westward 
to locate in the new county of Hamilton, of which he was the iirst sur- 
veyor. In this capacity he laid out the town of McLeansboro, its county 
seat, which became his residence. In the combined capacity of merchant 
and farmer he speedily became a well known figure in that portion of 
the State and deservedly popular.* It was characteristic for the new 
comer to plunge into politics and Sloo had hardly settled in his new 
environs before he received an a]3peal to take sides in the gubernatorial 
contest then raging. Joseph Phillips wrote to him on Dec. 21, 1821, 
asking him how his section stood with regard to supporting him per- 
sonally. Phillips had every confidence in the ultimate success of the 
canvass which he was then makino- for Governor upon a pro-slavery 
ticket. In his reply some months later, Sloo frankly tells Phillips that 
he believes that Judge Thomas Browne will get the vote of his county 
and the result shows that he was correct. Judge Browne received 139 



1 Thomas Sloo, Sr., acted as pommissioner in 1S13 to determine land claims in the Kaskaskia District 
Cf. Private Statutes at Large of the U. S., 17S9-1845, p. 120. Later he served as Register of the Land Office 
at Shawneetown, Cf. Official Register of the United States for 1822, p. 49. He was still living in 1S27. Cf . 
Torrence Papers, Box 4, No. .56. This information is interesting, for the previous impression, even of 
his descendants, was that Thomas Sloo, Jr. was left an orphan at an early age. Worth mentions in a letter 
of Aug. 2, 1820 "my sober and sincere and rational friend, your mother" {Ibid, Box 29. No. 58) and Sloo's 
young son, in a schoolboy letter of Mar. 5, 1825 (Box 21, No. 49), refers to both his grandparents, then in 
niinois. In addition Worth refers (Ihid. Box 29, No. 61) to Sloo's brother Howell, who was associated 
with Henry L. W^ebb in land speculations and in selling wood to steamboats in southern Hlinois: to 
John, of whon no other mention occurs; to James [C], who is mentioned hy Snj-der (loc cit 206), and Albert 
Gallatin], who figures so prominently in the Tehuantipee project of the 40's and oO's. 

- Cf. the letters of Worth as given in Torrence Papers and also Ibid, Box 11, No. 62 and Box 25, No. 37. 

3Cf. Ibid, Nos. 62-65. 

* Snyder, loc cit. p. 203. 



30 

votes in Hamilton County in 1822, while Edward Coles received only 
25 and Joseph Phillips 67. It was this division of pro-slavery votes 
between Browne and Phillips which gave the election to Coles by a 
plurality of 50 votes. ^ 

In this same year, 1822, Sloo himself was elected to the Illinois 
Senate as a Eepresentative of Hamilton and Jefferson counties. Shortly 
afterward he received this interesting letter from his friend Worth,^ 
now located in New York City: 

"It gives me much pleasure to learn that you have become an im- 
portant spoke in the legislative wheel of your State. Your stump speech 
must have been a good one. I always thought you possessed more natural 
eloquence than many public speakers, yours is not of the loud, the empty 
or declamatory species. But of that gentle persuasive and unsophisti- 
cated character, which is calculated to be felt, and consequently to be 
followed. If soundness of head, integrity of principle, kindness of heart 
and gentleness of temper, are considered of any value, or held in any 
estimation in Illinois you will become a favorite of the people. I pray 
God you may be enabled to settle in a satisfactory manner all your old 
business, and stand from all pecuniary evils, redemmed, regenerated and 
disenthralled." 

Sloo's legislative experience during the following winter may be 
judged from a letter he writes to his brother-in-law Torrence.^ In it 
he says: 

"We have had a very tedious and unpleasant session, there has been 
nothing but a continued scene of intrigue and electioneering. On the 
9th inst. Ave had our election for Senator and Chief Justice. Our friend 
Jesse B. (Thomas) was re-elected on the first ballot, notwithstanding 
every exertion Avas made to defeat him. His triumph is the greater, as 
he had, a great portion of the big folks against him ; but no matter we 
beat them, and I hope Ave shall ahvays beat them." 

The extract indicates that Sloo was strongly attached to the party of 
Jesse B. Thomas and that the "hig folks," that is Senator EdAvards and 
his party, were openly arraigned against him. Calhoun, then Secretary 
of War and still a candidate for the Presidency, had greatly opposed the 
re-election of Thomas* but in this he Avas not to realize his Avish. This 
result contributed to the famous "A. B. Plot" of the following year 
which lost for EdAvards the Mexican mission and his oAvn re-election to 
the Senate. 

More important in vicAv of future deA-elopmcnts is his reference to 
the proposed Illinois-Michigan Canal. ^ 

"The most important bill that Ave now have before the Legislature is 
a bill making an appropriation for internal improvements, and which 
contemplates the location of a canal, from Lake Michigan to the Illinois 
River. It has passed the House of Representatives, and has been twice 
read in the Senate. It is now in the hands of a select committee, and I 
think its fate somcAvhat doubtful." 



1 Torrence Papers, Box IS, No. OS. Of. also Davidson and Stuve, History of Illinois, pp. 300-309. 

' Torrence Papers, Box 29, No. 59. 

3 Ibid, Box 21, No. 43. 

* Edwards, Niuian AA^, History of Illinois, pp. 490. 493 and Edwards Papers, pp. 203, 204. 

s See Note 3 supra. 



31 

This bill, however, ultimately passed and gave Sloo a more important 
position in State politics. A Ijoard of five commissioners was appointed 
to consider the ways and means of constructing this canal under per- 
mission granted by the Federal Government. Sloo was one of these 
commissioners and at its first meeting was elected president and was the 
moving spirit in their later report advising the construction of the 
canal. ^ 

In this same letter Sloo states, in January, 1823, that the convention 
question which involved the issue of slavery in Illinois was very doubtful 
and that there would not be more than one or two votes either way. As 
is well known the one vote necessary in the House was later obtained by 
unseating a member opposed to calling the convention. Sloo's own 
position in regard to this question seems to be doubtful. Dr. Snyder 
states- that he voted for the resolution submitting the convention to 
the people. Letters from his friends,^ however, seem to indicate that 
he was opposed to the introduction of slavery into Illinois, and his son 
assures me that he never owned slaves himself, even when he resided in 
Louisiana; so if he voted for submitting the convention question to the 
people he must have done so for some reason of political expediency and 
not because he favo.red a system even of modified slavery for the new 
State of Illinois. 

In the course of the following summer Governor Coles offers Sloo the 
position of Aid-de-Camp to himself as Comntander-in-Chief of the State 
militia. After explaining the duties of this office he adds ;■* "Whether 
you accept this situation or not, you will do me the justice, I trust, to 
believe that I derive a sincere pleasure in giving you this small testi- 
mony of that great respect and sincere regard which I have long 
cherished for you." 

In his reply declining the position because of his many engagements 
Sloo was equally frank and his expression throws some light upon his 
political principles : 

"Believe me, sir, it is with no small degree of regret, that I have to 
decline your polite and friendly offer, but I am one of those old-fashioned 
fellows, who think it improper, for a man to accept of an appointment, 
without a reasonable probability of having it in his power, to perform 
the duties of the station." 

He goes on to explain that his Avork as canal commissioner and his 
legislative duties at Vandalia would consume so much of his time that 
he could not be absent from home the additional period necessary to 
review the militia. He closes with cordial expressions of friendship for 
Governor Coles and with an invitation to visit him at his home in 
Hamilton County. 

During this same period his friend Worth kept him busy with sug- 
gestions for looking after his lands in Illinois, paying taxes upon the 



1 Torrence Papers, Box 36, No. 14 and also Davidson and Stuve, p. 343. 

« Loc cit, 203. In a letter to tlie writer Dr. Snyder states that Ex-Governor John Reynolds is his au- 
thority for this statement. 

5 Under date of Aug. 3, 1823, Israel T. Canby writes from Madison, Indiana to Sloo, " You express 
your hostility to the introduction of slavery'' [into Illinois] and goes on to elaborate a scheme of modi- 
fled slavery for the state. Torrence Papers, Box 4, No. 13. Cf. also Worth's letter. Ibid, Box 29, No. 65. 

* Torrence Papers, Box 21, No. 44. 



32 

same;, and in otlier ways effecting the financial redemption of both. In 
the midst of the worst account of these fipancial worries Worth goes on 
to say :^ 

"But notwithstanding all this, I am in fact and in feeling imchanged. 
My memory is good, honest, and tenacious of its stores. Every benefit 
conferred, every act of kindness, of friendship, or of partiality is regis- 
tered in a firm and durable character, and I stand ready to endorse the 
list. Among the many recorded I always find yours and Mrs. Sloo's 
standing in bold relief; around these names, the lines, obligatory of 
favor, of kindness and of hospitality, appear to thicken at each review. 
I make the confession once for all, and believe me His an honest one." 

He then urges Sloo to support Clay for the Presidency and closes 
with this prophecy : 

"How comes on your Canal? and how do you stand politically. I 
expect to see you Governor of Illinois yet. If you were perfectly free 
from all your old business concerns, you Avould naturally rise in any 
walk you might choose, either in Church or State." 

The early months of 1824 must certainly have been a stirring time for 
Mr. Sloo. His correspondence shows that be was busied with the affairs 
of the Canal Commission, that he was troubled by his friend Worth 
with many details in regard to the latters land holdings in Illinois and 
his debt to the Branch Bank, that he took some part, although it does 
not just appear what, in tl!e exceedingly exciting convention campaign 
of this same year, and that he was considerably exercised over the 
apparent failure of Dr. Alexander's land speculations in southern Illi- 
nois. In regard to the Presidency under the date of April 14, 1824. his 
friend Worth writes,- "You must be a Crawfordite, if I should judge 
from the office you lately held. Pray, will Illinois support that radical 
chief?" Worth states in regard to the situation in his own state, that 
Crawford who seems to "calculate" on New York "reckons without his 
host." He then adds : 

"Some of our political leaders would indeed elevate to the Presidency 
the Devil himself, provided he would make them his prime ministers. 
Eemember, all the intrigues in the union, and all the radicals and 
political Stock Jobbers are for Crawford. T am for Clay, Adams, or 
Jackson in preference. I would vote for Crawford only on one con- 
dition, and that is, that he should pay my debt to the Branch."' 

The reference to the federal office which Sloo held is to the position 
as special inspector for the Treasury Department of the land offices in 
Illinois, ^Missouri and Arkansas.'^ Mr. Sloo was indeed a Crawfordite 
and he seems to have remained true to his chief despite the representa- 
tions of his friend. Possibly it was this support of Crawford upon 
which he relied to give him the next political position to which he 
aspired. We have this aspiration chronicled in Worth's letter of .hine 
19, 1824. He says:* 

"I have before me your aspiring letter of 12 May. It seems your 
ambition is not likelv to be satisfied with trifles. IMember of the Lesfis- 



J Ibid. Box 29, No. 61. 
ilbid. 150X29, No. 63. 
3 Ihid. Box 9, No. 48. 
* Ibid. Box 29, No. 64. 



33 

lature, C"anal Coininissioner, Justice of the Peace, and Agent of the 
Treasur}', etc., etc., are mere nothings, we must be Senator of the United 
States ! One of the grand counterpoises to Executive Influence — the 
sanctioning or controlling power of Official patronage ! Very well — 
go on." 

Mr. Worth does not seem to have a very high opinion of some of 
Sloo's associates, who were his own as well, in certain Illinois specula- 
tions, for he continues : 

"Mr. AVebb too (who the Devil won't rise next!) is on the road to 
greatness. Well, I hope it will increase his ability to pay his notes at 
the Branch." 

"Political honors, must I think, be cheap in Illinois, when the Law- 
givers, and the representatives of the Majority of the people, are com- 
posed of such materials as Webb, etc., etc." 

""'The Doctor it seems [i. e. Dr. Wm. Alexander] has nearly run his 
race. I am sorry for him but remember, every dog has his day." 

Worth's opinion of Webb was not likely to have any effect upon Sloo 
if we may judge from a letter he received from Mr. Webb himself. The 
missive reads :^ "Eeceived your letter of the 4th of this month 
[September] a few days ago before 1 left home, and according to your 
request mentioned to the representatives of Union [County] your being 
a candidate for the Senate of the United States. I found that they had 
been apprised of it previously by some of your friends." Mr. Webb's 
letter also shows that in addition to their common legislative experience 
that he and Sloo and the latter's brother, Howell, were interested in 
land and timber speculations in the lower part of Illinois and that Webb 
advised lenient terms for some of their debtors. Accordingly Worth was 
not more likely to influence Sloo against a possible senatorial supporter 
and business associate like Webb, than he was able to influence him 
against Crawford, his choice for the Presidency. Webb may likewise 
have been a Crawfordite and Sloo must have depended upon the Craw- 
ford influence to assist him in his senatorial aspirations. By this time 
he may have deemed himself the most prominent Crawfordite in the 
State, aside from Coles, who then held the Governor's chair. Worth 
continues : 

"'On the subject of your own ambitious views, I doubt not of success. 
As a Senator you would certainly appear to great advantage, you have 
a natural dignity of deportment, and a most senatorial gravity of aspect, 
in short, you were made for a Senator, for one of the sages of the 
present age, for a conscript Father! Then, you have all the necessary 
requisites of wit, and worth, and words, action and utterance. You 
have (I am not in jest) the eloquence of truth and of nature — of form, 
of sentiment and of feeling — not the noisy eloquence of a demogogue — 
not the oratorical flourish of a declaimer. But the more winning and 
impressive power of mildness of judgment and gentlemanly deport- 
ment. * * * 



> Ibid. Box 28, No. 26. 

— 3 H S 



34 

"You will be a favorite at Washington with the honest portion of all 
parties. * * * This is my deliberate opinion." 

In the month of August Mr. Sloo receives a letter from Emanuel J. 
West, one of his associates on the Canal Commission, who urges im- 
mediate preparations for a trip to the north, and adds.^ 

"You have no doubt heard of my defeat and the defeat of the main 
question; we are beaten easy. I hope you will not fail to be here. We 
have extensive political arrangements to make." 

The reference above is of course to the call for a convention. This 
was defeated by a popular, decisive majority which marked the redemp- 
tion of Illinois from any possible relapse into slavery. Upon this result 
Worth thus expresses himself to Sloo:^ 

"The rejection of a call for a Convention, is however, indicative of 
some good sense, or of great good fortune; for the present period is not 
propitious to the tinkering of Constitutions. The introduction of 
Slavery into your State, though it might operate favorablv to the im- 
mediate interests of a few, would be the certain index to its future deg- 
redation, or the positive bar to' its future moral, physical, and political 
importance in the Union." 

This summer was also marked by an imnortant episode which occurred 
in attempting to fill the American mission to Mexico — the so-called 
"A. B. Plot." A controversy had arisen between Edwards and Crawford 
over the affairs of an Illinois bank in which public funds had been de- 
posited. Edwards made certain charges against Crawford which he 
was unable to substantiate. When the details of this transaction became 
known it led to his forced resignation of the appointment as minister to 
Mexico, and elicited the following comment from Worth :^ 

"As for Governor Edwards, he is politically damn'd in the estimation 
of nineteen-twentieths of the people of the United States. His charges, 
however true, were from their nature incapable of that clear and abso- 
lute demonstration as to fact, and that irresistable inference as to mo- 
tive, which could alone sanction their introduction against so high an 
officer of the Government, and on such a fallacious pretence. The result 
was such as any sensible man would have anticipated. They advanced 
the interests, if not the reputation of his adversary, and covered himself 
with obloquy and disgrace. As the conduct of the representative honours 
or dishonours his Constituents, the State I should suppose would 'feel 
the stain like a wound' and punish its author with merited contempt. 
If therefore you have no more formidable rival for the Senate than 
Edwards, I predict your success. In truth I know of no weight of 
character, of talent or merit, which should induce you to withdraw, or 
to despair of your election." 

In December Edwards did appear as a candidate for re-election 
to the Senate, but he had lost his hold upon the electorate of Illinois and 
the prize passed to another. It was John McLean, however, who filled 



1 Ibid. Box 28, No. 29. 

2 Ibid. Box 29, No. 65. 

3 Ibid. Box 29, No. 65. Benton in his Thirty Years View, I., pp. .34-36 is unfavorable to Edwards. 
An opposite view is expressed in Edwards, History of Illinois, pp. 135-154 and the Edwards Papers, pp. 
223-2;31, and by Ford, History of Illinois, pp. 62-64. 



35 



laosTiz 



out Edward's unexpired term and who wished to succeed also to the six 
year period following. In this, he too, was doomed to disappointment, 
for in the week following his election to the temporary place, the Illinois 
Legislature selected Elias Kent Kane for full-term Senator. McLean 
and Sloo as well as other aspirants, among whom we may mention John 
Reynolds, failed to achieve their ambition, but Mr. Sloo received the 
complimentan' number of four votes w^hen Kane was elected.^ At 
about this time his friend sent the following from New York :- 

"How comes on your Senatorial race? I pray God you may succeed. 
I think you will. You were made for a Senator — cut out originally for 
one of the Conscript Fathers of this deliberative realm. * * * 

As soon as I hear of your success, I shall drop my familiarity and 
commence my future epistles with 'jMost potent, grave, and reverend 
Seignor." 

That there are compensations even when one wholly misses his 
senatorial aspiration, seems to be shown in an interesting letter which 
John McLean writes to Sloo from Washington, Jan. 16, 1835.^ He 
expresses his mortification at being left out for the long term and be- 
lieves that he has been betrayed by those who pretend to be his friends — 
men who wish to use him by stating that he was reserved to seal the 
triumph of the party by beating Cook for Congress. As McLean says, 
•'This kind of soft corn may do to feed children but it is too lite diet 
for men." McLean does not propose to desert the party but he intends 
to expel some men from camp. He seems to feel especially bad over 
his defeat because he fears that this check would cloud his future pros- 
pects. He may have felt his reverse more keenly because of the fact 
that Niles Eegister* stated that he had been elected for a full term as 
well as the unexpired one. His letter is important not only from the 
personal point of view but because it show^s the existence of an embryo 
party organization to which he and Sloo belonged. McLean makes men- 
tion of this in a succeeding letter of Jan. 22, 1825,^ in which he 
expresses himself as pleased that his name had not been used for a 
vacancy in the State Supreme Court: 

"I have no faith in the men who call themselves the party. I mean 
collectively. Old Nic or the Devil could not be more hypocritical or 
false or selfish than some of them." 

In 1825 the Illinois Canal project was beginning to attract notice 
outside the State and Sloo received a number of inquiries with regard 
to the project of connecting Lake Michigan with the Mississippi, and in 
regard to steamboat navigation on the Illinois Eiver. One of these 
inquiries is penned by James Grcddes of New York who two years before 
had been considered for the post of engineer of the Canal Commission.' 
One of the later correspondents in mentioning his canal project and 
personal finances, expresses the belief that in a few years Sloo and his 



1 Snyder loc. cit. p. 203. 

2 Torrence Papers, Box 29, No. 66. 

' Ibid. Box 17, No. 3. See also Appendix A. 

* Vol. XXVII, p. 256. 

5 Torrence Papers, Box 17, No. 4. See Appendix B. 

s Ibid. Box 9, No. 33. 



36 

friends, will be coming from the west in steam carriages on railways 
"at the rate of ten to fourteen miles per hour.''^ 

By this time Sloo's prominence in the State seemed to assure him of 
greater future consideration at the hands of its voters. Casual references 
in his correspondence show that from his arrival in Illinois he had 
opposed the faction under the leadership of Edwards. That political 
chief was anxious to recover his political prestige which had suffered so 
greatly in his controversy with Crawford. In connection with this a 
quotation from a letter which Edwards writes to John McLean of Ohio, 
then Postmaster-General, is of considerable interest. Edwards states 
that he does not expect to enter politics again but if he does, no power 
of politicians at home or in the Union can keep him from the Governor- 
ship. He would enter upon his contest, however, only to help Calhoun 
whom he loves and Avhose friends, he hopes, will do nothing to endanger 
his chances.- This determination on the part of Edwards is of con- 
siderable interest to us for by this time the opposition faction had 
determined to run Mr. Sloo as its candidate for Governor. We are left 
in doubt as to the various motives which influenced this choice. We may 
surmise, however, that the men who supported Sloo represented a combi- 
nation of former Crawfordites like Coles and some pro-slavery men. 
Jesse B. Thomas, whom Sloo had earlier claimed as his friend and whom 
he had assisted in his second election to the United States Senate, did 
not support him. He, however, secured a considerable element repre- 
senting those who later formed the Jacksonian party in Illinois and 
most of [the] latter group who did not vote for him seemed afterwards 
to regret the fact.^ 

Of course Sloo suffered from inexperience in conducting a campaign 
against such a veteran as Edwards. He had resided less than six years 
in the territory but in respect to brief residence he does not suffer in 
comparison with many of his contemporaries or with such later 
politicians as Douglas. He was a man of extremely simple life and 
tastes, but was not on the plane of Lincoln. He had important family 
connections in Ohio and influential friends throughout the whole north- 
west. His old friend, William Henry Harrison, was just being elected 
to the L^nited States Senate from Ohio and his former employer and 
benefactor, Findlay, had just been sent to Con<rress from the first Ohio 
district. As the representative of this group in Illinois, with the Craw- 
ford interest back of him and with business connections in all parts of 
the State, and associated with so important an economic interest as the 
canal, he might reasonably aspire to the highest office within the gift of 
the people of Illinois. His opponent, Edwards, was greatly handicapped 
by his controversy with Crawford ; M-hile Sloo's handicap seems to have 
been the record of his financial failure in Cincinnati, which was the 
chief point of attack urged by his opponent. The result of the election 
in which Edwards Avon by a small majority, is really a tribute to Sloo 
and by no means an entire victory for Edwards, who was hampered in 
his plans by a hostile Legislature. 



1 Ibid. Box 3, No. 13. 

2 McLean Papers, MSS., Library of Congress. 

3 Tonence PapeTn, Box 19, No. 22. See also the following quotation from McRobert's letter. 



37 

Edwards came into office on what iu modern days we should call an 
anti-graft campaign, although his friend John McLean, the Postmaster 
Greueral, thus exjjresses himself:^ 

"Tor your success in the late election (although your competitor was 
an old and I believe a sincere friend of mine) 1 feel a deep interest. It 
has often been referred to by me as triumphant refutation of the scandles 
which had been so extensively circulated against you.*' 

Edwards now proceeded to bring all sorts of charges of financial irregu- 
larity against his opponents. The net result of the various investiga- 
tions which the Governor set on foot was absolutely nothing. In view 
of the confusion arising through Edward's course, the following quota- 
tion from a letter of Samuel McRoberts to Sloo is of considerable 
interest.- 

"The Session since 1 have been here, has been a boisterous one. Many 
circumstances with which you are no doubt acquainted, tended to pro- 
duce a spirit of discord. 

We have been expecting to see you here. And I am well assured had 
it fell to your lot to have presided over the State, and many here who 
opposed your election now regret the course they pursued and that you 
had not been elected, the ill feelings and angry passions produced here 
this winter, would never have been heard of. It is a misfortune to 
Illinois that you were not elected. It is in truth a deep misfortune, 
both as it respects the internal harmony and prosperity of the State and 
her character abroad. 

I was in Kentucky in the fall. ^Many gentlemen there expressed the 
warmest feelings for you, and hoped the Legislature would recognize you 
as Governor. It was understood there that there was likely to be a 
contest before the General Assembly upon the subject." 

McRoberts was not the only one to voice the feeling of regret at the 
election of Edwards. Ex-Governor Coles wrote from Washington ad- 
vising Sloo to be careful of the political course that he and the former 
Crawfordites took at this time.^ James Hall, one of the victims of 
Edward's judge-breaking law, expressed himself more forcefully.* In 
a second long letter describing political conditions in the State which 
affords an interesting comparison with those published in the Edwards 
Papers. Hall describes the various combinations which resulted in 
placing Illinois in the Jackson column. He was not much of a political 
prophet if we may judge from the fact that he advised Sloo that Jack- 
son's day was over in Illinois, because of the canal appropriation which 
Cook had secured from Congress. 

More interesting than these expressions of regret was the proposal 
made by Elijah C. Berry that Sloo might technically claim that he still 
exercised the office of Quartermaster General of the State militia and 
refuse to honor Edward's requisitions for certain arms belonging to the 
State. ^ As the request from Edwards followed certain Indian diffi- 
culties which then afflicted the northern part of the State, this attempt 
to gain partisan advantage by hampering the Governor does not 



'■ Edwards. History of Illinois, p. 147. 

- See Note 3, p. 36. 

5 Torrence Papers, Box 4, No. 56. 

* Torrence Papers, Box 11, Nos. 4, 5. See Appendix C and D. 

5 Torrence Papers, Box 2, No. 26. 



38 

suggest patriotism of a high order. We are pleased to note that Sloe 
definitely and promptly rejected it. He writes : 

"Situated as I am in relation to the present commander in chief 
[i. e. Governor Edwards] had I barely doubts as to the termination of 
my appointment delicacy would forbid my imposing any obstacle to 
interrupt the harmonious administration of his government. Believing 
as I do, that there is at present, no Quartermaster General of the State 
the arms would of course be under the entire control and disposition of 
the Governor." 

With this quotation we may fittingly end the career of Mr. Sloo in 
Illinois. Within a few months he had closed his affairs in that State 
and transferred his family to New Orleans Avhere he began once more 
his career as a merchant and where a large measure of success and honor 
came to him during his succeeding life of nearly half a century. We 
must not regard his leaving Illinois as in any sense a desertion of the 
field of combat in the hour of political defeat. His correspondence 
shows that his prospects for future success in the political arena were 
good and the success obtained by his friends indicates that he might have 
anticipated a like measure of political honors. But the financial bur- 
dens resting upon him since his failure in Cincinnati were not wholly 
liquidated and his public duties undoubtedly prevented him from giving 
the attention to the development of his private affairs that was necessary 
to accomplish this purpose.^ His field of operation in southern Illinois 
was too limited for him and with his business and political associates, 
his previous reputation for probity and good fellowship, he might rea- 
sonably aspire to a larger measure of success in New Orleans, the com- 
mercial emporium of the West. His course does not suffer in comparison 
with other political leaders in Illinois. Joseph Phillips had gone to 
Tennessee after his defeat for the Governorship in 1822. Jesse B. 
Thomas retired to Ohio when he completed his tenn of service in the 
United States Senate, and even Ninian Edwards planned at one time to 
take up his residence in Texas. 

I have called Mr. Sloo a typical politician of Illinois. He came to 
the State, as did many others, representing certain political influences 
that were making themselves felt in the nation at large. He was young 
and ambitious. He immediately entered public life and aspired to the 
highest situations to be attained therein. He gained a measure of suc- 
cess, followed the personal bent of politics of his period, and eventually 
moved on to another and far different scene of action. In all of these 
respects he is typical of the various groups of politicians that played 
their part in the first decade of Illinois State history. And he has left 
an impression which, thought slight, is worthy of careful commemora- 
tion. It is in the multitude of such impressions that we read the early 
history of the State and its part in that political movement which we 
distinguish by the term "Jacksonian Democracy. "- 

University of Cincinnati, June 15, 1911. 

» Of. Torrence Papers. Box 3, No. 13; Box 5, No. 4fi; Box 12, No. 5; Box 27, No. 14. 

2 In the preparation of this paper the writer is luider special obligations to Afiss I.. Belle Hamlin. 
Ijibrarian of tne Historical and Philosophical Society of Oliio; to Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. Secretary 
of the niinois State Historical Society; and to Mr. Thomas Sloo, of New Orleans, and ]>r. J. F. Snyder, 
of Virginia, Illinois. 



39 



APPENDIX. 



These letters are from the Torrence Collection of the Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio, and are published in the Quarterli/- 
Publication of that organization for Jnly-September, 1911. The num- 
bers indicate the boxes of the collection in AAdiich the originals are to 
be found : 



John McLean to Thomas Slog, Jr. < 

(Box 17,. No. 3.) 

Washington. 16 January, 1825. 

Dear Sir — I have delayed writing a long time tliat I might have something 
to say which would be interesting or amusing. But I have waited in vain and 
it seems at present that if I [wait now till,] I shall have such intelligence 
to communicate, that the time will not arrive for beginning this winter. 

The question of the President is beginning to be looked about a little, but 
it is a matter of entire doubt who is to succeed. Mr. Crawford's friends still 
maintain that his prospect is equal. In this I have no hesitation in saying' 
that they are wrong. At present, however, things are so unsettled that his 
chance may be the best before the question is tried. But be certain that 
every thing on the subject is so doubtful that no man seems to have anything 
like a settled opinion as to the likely result. 

I have been and an immensely mortified at my treatment in Illinois not 
because I have been beaten for the Senate: but because I am induced to 
believe that I have been treated with insincerity by men of whom I believed 
better; because I believe my friends have been imposed upon and led away 
from me by delusions fabricated for the express purpose; because I have been 
attempted to be played upon by the chimera that I was reserved for the pur- 
pose of sealing and capping the triumphs of the party by beating Mr. Cook 
for congress being the only man who could do it; because it has been given 
out that I was no candidate when the fact was otherwise; this kind of soft 
corn may do to feed children, but it is too lite diet for men. It is said toO' 
I am advised by my quandum friends that I am at the head of the triumph- 
ant party in Illinois that I am a man of great talents and cleverness; now 
this is a delightful dessert; but it will never do for dinner; I have long ago 
learned that if the only reward of talents and cleverness is to be called such 
that a man might as well be called rascal and fool. 

By this time you begin to think that I have deserted my colours and that 
I am about to go over to the enemy. Expel your apprehensions I have taken 
my stand and will never leave it. But I must be pardoned if I should set 
about expelling some men from the camp. We have amongst us some cun- 
ning men, some men that are too wise they must be put out; and for the 
future I am determined to have no political connection with any man who 
has any secrets and who does not take a decided and open stand upon all 
important questions and that I will support no sly cunning man for any 



40 

oflBce. If those who had acted with me and with whom I had acted chose 
to elect any man of our friends to any office in preference to me; and had 
heard said he has more claims, he is better qualified, he is more deserving, 
etc, etc., I should never have thought liard and if either of those reasons or 
any other good one had been assigned I declare most solemnly I would have 
been better pleased with Mr. Kane's election than with my own and if after 
it was arranged and determined that I should not be elected; could my name 
have been kept out of the contest I would have been rejoiced; it was my 
request I ought to have been gratified or had the election been put off till the 
last of the session so as not to have operated upon me here I should have 
contended myself; I requested that much; but even in that I could not be 
gratified. It seemed as if anything and everything which would cloud my 
future prospects was assiduously studied out and promptly executed; per- 
haps it was without design. I hope so but appearances are strange. If I 
had known that the same legislature that elected me for one session, would 
have beaten me for six years in a week I would now have been in Illinois 
for I was aware of the little benefit any man would have to be here for one 
session only and it known he was beaten for the next. 



B. 

John McLean to Thojias Sloo, Je. 
(Box 17,. No. 13.) 

Washington, 22nd Jany. 1825. 

Dear Sir — Yours under date 31st ult is to hand and altho I was not fully 
satisfied with the result, I agree with you that it is pretty well. I am sorry 
that Browne is elected and that Robinson is beaten. I am exceedingly 
pleased that my name was not used as I could not have accepted the place. 

You mention that many have their eye upon me for a certain object; you 
do name what it is. Because I do now and never did doubt you; because I 
can in perfect confidence say to you whatever I may think, I take this 
occasion of answering to that remark that I never intend to trouble my 
friends in Illinois for any thing because I am satisfied that 1 can never get 
it without descending to a course of conduct which I ever have and I trust 
ever will be above. 

I have no faith in the men who call themselves (the party) I mean col- 
lectively. Old Nic or the Devil could not be more hypocritical or false, or 
selfish than some of them. When I see you I will be more at large, for 
present believe me ever your friend. 



C. 

James Hall to Thomas Sloo, Jk. 
(6ox 11, No. 4.) 

Vandalia January 15th, 1827. 
Dear Sir — The bill for an act abolishing the Circuit courts has at last 
passed the council, and is now a law, if that can be called a law. which is in 
direct violation of the constitution. I sent you a copy of our Memorial, in 
which the constitutional question is presented at length. I wrote it in a 
great hurry after the Bill had got into the Senate, but I think it will do 
before the People. If I can get an opportunity I will send a number of them 
to your County, if not, I will carry them there, on my way home. In the 
meanwhile, all is uncertainty here, as to the final arrangement of the Courts. 
Edwards still goes for two circuits, and with him go all his minions. Such 
a plan would carry if it were not for the uncertainty who would be the 
judges. Indeed we are not without some hopes, that they will even repeal 



41 

the judge-breaking law and put everything back to what the diplomatists 
call the status ante bclUun, as they were before the war. Those who advo- 
cate the repeal of the Circuit System are alarmed at their own success, and 
the people who arrive here daily bring reports from all parts of the Country 
of the unpopularity of this measure. This feeling among the people should 
be encouraged. They are now, in many places, astonished and incensed, at 
the high handed measures of their I'epresentatives, and should not be suffered 
to cool. An expression of such feeling may perhaps induce the Legislature 
to retract. I wish therefore to have all the petitions which were got up in 
Hamilton sent on to Mr. Casey, and I would be glad that our friends would 
write to us. I intend, as soon as the Legislature adjourns, if things remain 
in their present shape, to make a public appeal to the people of my circuit, 
or else to join other judges in making an appeal to the people of the State. 
Governor Edwards has said, that one of the Supreme Judges, Smith, gave 
his opinion in the Council that the repeal of the system, was unconstitutional 
and that the Legislature ought to attend to that matter, in other words, that 
Smith should be addressed out, for not confirming his conscience to the will 
of the Legislature. Will the people submit to such degradation of the 
judicial office? Wattles has entirely given up Edwards. Indeed many of his 
friends are becoming very tired of him. The Adams men are much incensed 
at his joining Jackson. I have written to Colonel O'Fallen on that subject. 

A few days ago Edwards, in a message to the lower House, complained 
that he had not seen nor heard any thing of a memorial which had been 
adopted to be sent to Congress. This was considered as a censure upon the 
Committee on enrollments, and Dr. Alexander, one of that committee intro- 
duced a resolution, declaring in substance that the Governor had no business 
to know any thing about such a memorial until it was sent to him, and that 
his message was an encroachment upon the privileges of the House; it was 
referred to a select committee, who will report tomorrow against the Gov- 
ernor. All is confusion. The Legislature will not in all probability rise for 
six weeks yet — they have as yet done nothing of general interest except to 
pass a few laws submitted to them by the Supreme Judges, and to break the 
Circuit Judges. I am quite undetermined what course to pursue as respects 
myself. I cannot practice before Brown, his notorious partiality, and his 
hostility to me, would always prevent my success as a lawyer, and I should 
be engaged in continual war with him; on the other hand I cannot afford to 
be idle, or to await the decision of the next Legislature, who I think would 
reinstate us. But whether to go to the North, or the West, or quit the State, 
and its cursed politics. I am uncertain. It is a hard thing to be so poor, that 
we must bend to circumstances. 

Please to present my best respects to :\Irs. S. 
Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Your friend, 

McLeansborough. James Hall. 

Hamilton County, Illinois. 



D. 

James Hall to Thomas Slog, Jr. 
(Box 11, No. 5.) 

Vaxdalia June 3d, 1827. 
Dear Sir — Will you do me a small favour? Our friend Mr. I. T. B. Stapp 
is an applicant for the office of Postmaster here, which is vacant by the 
resignation of Judge Warnock. His appointment would be gratifying to all 
your friends at this place, and there is no doubt of his capacity and integrity. 
We have all written to the Postmaster General, and to our members. Will 
you do us a favour to drop a line to Mr. McLean, if it is only to. say that the 
testimony of Colonel Berry, Mr. Forquer, and myself, and Colonel Ewing, 
may be relied on, as we are strangers to him. 



42 

I have just returned from Edwardsville, St. Louis, Belleville, etc. I saw 
Smith, West, Kinney, Thomas, Edwards ani other great men, and am satis- 
fied that old things are to be done away among us, and all things to become 
new. Our parties, as they have heretofore existed are already dissolved, and 
new distinctions are rapidly taking place. Smith, Kinney, and West, are 
about to set up a Newspaper at Edwardsville — ostensibly for Jackson, but in 
fact to operate in State politics. Smith and Kinney want to be Senator and 
Governor. They go against Edwards, Thomas, but most especially and 
bitterly against McLean. Party No. 2 consists of John Reynolds and Tom 
Reynolds the Beairs, etc., Jno Reynolds wants to be Senator — is inveterate 
against Smith, Edwards, Thomas and dont much like McLean. Party No. 3 
consists of Jesse B. Thomas Solus — the privates and officers yet to be enlisted. 
The Honorable Jesse is very bitter against Smith and Co., but more against 
McLean. He swears that McLean is a dishonest man and a dishonest poli- 
tician — that he cant, and by G he shant be elected! 

I do not see how the above named men can ever again amalgamate, at 
any rate they will not join with Party No. 4 which consists of Jno McLean 
and his friends — Nor with Party No. 5 which is composed of Edwards & Co. 

Edwards declares publicly on all occasions that he will not be a candidate 
for the Senate, and I am inclined to think he will not be. Thomas also 
declares he will not be, but it is easily seen that his object is to bring out 
a great many candidates, and he thinks the report of his retiring will have 
that effect. 

When I saw him at St. Louis he expressed a great deal of contrition at 
having opposed your election for Governor, and requested me lo say to you 
that if any appointment from the General Government should offer which 
would suit you, you might rely on his most active exertions etc. He urged 
this matter very much, and begged me to endeavor to convince you how 
much he was your friend, and all that. He said a great many more things 
to me equally sincere and true, some of which I will repeat when I see you. 

Depend upon it, my dear Sir, these combinations which are going on in 
our State will ruin every man who is engaged in them. The people are 
beginning to complain loudly. Kinney is sinking faster than I ever saw 
any man, his violence disgusts even his friends. Thomas and Edwards are 
gone. Smith is univerally feared, his ambition and his intriguing spirit 
alarm friends and foes. Lockwood and Wilson are greatly depreciated. All 
of these men must go down. McLean stands best, but his prospects are very 
doubtful, his habitual neglect of the interests of those who have supported 
him most warmly, is attributed to want of gratitude, or to a selfish policy, 
and a great many predict that his friends will forsake him in the hour of 
peril. Should they do so he would have no right to complain for he has 
never supported any of us. I shall however support him. I have not yet 
learned what will be the course of our friends at Kaska^kia Tliey are con- 
sidered with the Smith gang, but I cannot believe it. How do you feel on 
the Presidential question? I hope you do not think of joining the Jackson 
combination. If you ever expect to be a candidate a.spin before the people 
of this State, avoid that rock. Jackson's day is ove: in iiiinols — the canal 
appropriation has settled that question. Can you not also whisper to me 
whether you will again offer for Governor? If you do, keep clear of the 
combinations. The people are with you. The Kinney squad is against you. 

We are trying to make up a little party to the mineral well at Mt. Vernon 
or Mrs. Gaston's. Ewirig and wife, and myself and wife will I think go down 
after the Federal court, and spend ten days. 

Edwards is there now, and talks of taking his own family and Cooks. The 
latter has returned home very low. 

If we go to Jefferson you must meet us. I can tell you a great deal of 
news. 



43 



THE FOEDHAMS AND LA SEEEES OF THE ENGLISH 
SETTLEMENT IN EDWAEDS COITNTY. 



Walter Colyer, Albion, 111. 

If asked my exciise for adding another chapter to the history of the 
English settlement in Edwards County, it would be sufficient to reply, 
the world-wide importance of the subject and its increasing interest. 
In a measure to show this, listen to the following paragraph from the 
correspondence of that eminent Avriter and thinker, M. D. Conway, 
addressed to the Cincinnati Commercial-Tribune and dated at London, 
March 29, 1883 : 

"The account of their horseback journeyings into what was then the 
Far West, of the primitive dismalness of Cincinnati, of the floods and 
unbridged rivers (in one of which Birkbeck ultimately lost his life), of 
the retreating Indians, of the backwoodsmen retreating after them, of 
Albion town pre-arranged by two men sitting on a log, drawn on paper, 
germinating in a log inn and blacksmith shop, followed by the store, the 
meeting house, the court house, the gaol and the newspaper — all of these 
repeat the story of Jamestown, of Plymouth, of Concord and other 
colonies, each of which repeated the story of the first Aryan colonists in 
Europe and casts more real light on them than the antiquarians who are 
trying so hard to decipher their prehistoric vestiges." 

To George Flower and Morris Birkbeck, leading actors in this historic 
drama of the southern prairies of the early Illinois, possibly too much 
prominence has been generally accorded. If the truth were known a 
score or more of others deserve to share with them the honors; and 
conspicuous among the number would appear the name of Elias Pym 
Fordham. It is of the Fordhams and the related family of La Serre 
I propose to deal, principally, in this paper. In his History of the 
English Settlement thus wrote George Flower: 

"Clustering around the Black hills of that district, in the villages of 
Sandon, Kelshall and Therfield, the families of Fordham have long 
resided. In the wars of the Protectorate they were as numerous as they 
are now. With a company of some 70 or 80 men. all blood relatives 
and of one name, they joined Cromwell's army. Ordered to ford a 
river, there stationed to check the advance of the Eoyal troops, thev 
were all killed but one man, and he left on the field badly wounded. 
From this one man the 73 uncles and cousins — all Fordhams, that made 
me a farewell visit at my house at Marden. before I sailed, for America, 
all sprang." 



44 

The Flowers and Fordhains had much in common — ancestiy, environ- 
ment, education, politics and religion. For centuries they had resided 
in and around Hertfordshire on their ancestral holdings. The two 
families were linked by the marriage of Richard Flower and the 
daughter of Edward Fordham ; and by this marriage Eichard Flower, 
whose ashes now repose in a neglected tomb beneath a walnut tree in a 
horse lot on the old Park House premises half a mile south of x\lbion, 
became related as brother-in-law to Elias Fordham. These two men 
alike liberty-loving and widely at variance with the king and the exist- 
ing order of the English government, were also both dissenters from 
the Established Church. Both espoused the creed of Unitarianism. 
While Birkbeck was squandering his competence attempting to boil soap 
for all the kingdom, Richard Flower and Elias Fordham were amassing 
fortunes as successful brewers of good ale. 

Accompanying the Birkbeck party from England in the spring of 181T, 
and constituting a part of the nucleus of the pioneer settlement, was 
Elias Pym Fordham, 29 years old, eldest son of Elias Fordham and 
first cousin to George Flower. He was a young man of high attainment 
as a civil engineer and possessed of splendid character. His training 
had been under 'the tutorage of George Stephenson, the most famous 
inventor and civil engineer of his generation. Subsequently, in the 
spring of 1818, among another party of emigrants came also Miss Maria 
Fordham. one of Elias Pym's five sisters. Maria accompanied her 
cousin George Flower and his new wife and the two little Flower boys. 
At Shawneetown the party was met by Elias Pym who, leaving Birkbeck 
estranged at his English prairie home, piloted the little party of new 
'comers to the rnde log cabin built by young Fordham himself for the 
reception of the Flower family and Miss Fordham. A little later 
Charles, the only brother of Elias Pym, also located at the English 
Settlement. In 1834 another Charles Fordham journeyed hither and 
remained for a time. This Charles was the son of Edward King Ford- 
ham who contributed l)ooks toward the founding of the first public 
library in the new village of Albion. 

It is not too much to say that Elias Pym Fordham was the mainstay 
of the English Settlement, and upon him devolved the arduous duties of 
general utility man. It was he who took charge of the Birkbeck party's 
heavy luggage out of Norfolk to Baltimore and thence overland to Pitts- 
burg, and after that by boat to Cincinnati, a total distance of more than 
a thousand miles. Although in bad health,. at times he steered his own 
boat and at others landed and shouldered his gun in search of game for 
provision. Birkbeck's ^nano constituterl a part of the baggage. Think 
of hauling that piano over the mountains a distance of 240 miles ! The 
total weight of this baggage amounted to 9.000 nounds. When his Ohio 
River flatboat arrived at Cincinnati Fordham again joined the Birkbeck 
party who had preceded him in order to escape the burden of the 
baggage. It was lie who hired, bought or built boats and after the 
arrival in Illinois procured provisions, tools, implements and wearing 
apparel, constructed saw-pits and built the first log cabins. He spied 
out the most desirable lands for entrv and the choicest locations for 



45 

dwellings. He explored the country for building material, and in the 
absence of a surveyors chain, nothing daunted, he cut a grape-vine and 
proceeded to survey the county round about ; and be it said to his credit, 
his lines and established grape-vine corners have continued established 
until this day. In his surveying expeditions he chased bears, wolves and 
panthers, swam rivers, lodged with the hunters in their wilderness cabins, 
shared their scanty provender and joined with them in their mid-night 
festivities. When it Avas necessary to treat with the Indians or to nego- 
tiate with the frontiermen Fordham did it. He knew the Indians and 
they regarded him as their fast friend. The steady aim of his rifle was 
relied upon to defend the handfull of English against the possible in- 
trusion of the drunken frontier ruffians who not infrequently threatened 
the prairie settlers. Of his prowess as a sportsman he said of himself: 
"I can bring down deer, birds and squirrels at every shot with my rifle." 
When there was an aching void for news in the colony Fordham traveled 
40 miles to the post-office to get the mail and each trip twice forded the 
Big Wabash Eiver. Soon he became patriotic and manifested this by 
assisting to raise the first American flag in the public square at Prince- 
ton, Indiana. He went about garbed much like an Indian, wearing a 
blanket and carrying a tomahawk in his belt. Perhaps the most notable 
achievement was the erection of a prairie wind-mill for grinding grain, 
the first to be erected north of the Ohio in the Illinois. He also success- 
fully built a planing mill. In the latter part of October, 1818, he began 
his survey of the town of Xew Albion in which, latterly, for sometime 
before his return to England Elias Pym Fordham conducted a general 
merchandise store. He made entry of lands in several localities but it 
does not appear that he engaged to any extent in farming. 

Fordham's Personal Narrative, written in the most inconvenient 
places in the years 1817 and 1818, and published by the Arthur H. Clark 
Company of Cleveland, 89 years after it was written, is a straightforward 
narration of his travels and experiences, full of incident and rich in des- 
cription of the new Illinois country and its undeveloped resources. With- 
out pretense of literary attainment Fordham told in clear, concise and 
unbiased language a story as readable and far more truthful and con- 
servative of the beginning of the English settlement between the two 
Wabashes than that of any other chronicler of his period with the possible 
exception of John Woods. As a sample of Fordham^s direct and matter 
of fact style I quote this paragraph from his Narrative : 

"Every log cabin is swarming with half-naked children. Boys of 18 
build huts, marry and raise hogs and children at about the same 
expense." 

And again: 

'"T change my shirt, when it is convenient, twice a week, and some- 
times take off my clothes when I go to bed. My hands, though rougher 
by far, are not quite so dark as an Indian's : and moreover I am gi'own 
very stout." 

It was his opinion that sketches in general of the Illinois country had 
b«en too sunny. While deploring the existence of slavery Fordham was 
much less radical in his opposition to it than was either Flower or Birk- 
beck. On page 210 of his Narrative we find him saying: 



46 

"I would not have upon my conscience the moral guilt of extending 
slavery over countries now free from it for the whole of the Northwestern 
Territory. But, if it should take place I do not see why I should not 
make use of it. If I do not have servants, I cannot farm ; and there are 
no free laborers here, except a few so worthless, and yet so haughty, that 
an English gentleman can do nothing with them." 

After his return to England E. P. Fordham devoted his time during 
a nimiber of years to technical engineering and won for himself a last- 
ing reputation. He was employed by the Duke of Wellington, then 
governor of Dover Castle and lord warden of the Cinque Ports, to build 
the great government docks for war-ships at Hastings, Sandwich, Dover, 
Eomney and Hythe. It was while at Dover, then 54 years of age, on the 
2d day of December, 1842, that Elias Pym Fordham addressed a letter 
of considerable interest to his brother Charles, then in the employ of the 
Manhattan Gas Company at 178 Mercer Street, New York. This letter, 
I believe, has never appeared in print. It follows : 
My Deae Brother: 

When I look at the date of your letter (which is now before me) I 
feel sorry that I have not answered it. I may say that when I received 
it I was very ill in body and very much depressed in spirits. I have not 
until very lately been in good health or spirits since the death of my 
father. Indeed, I was so ill for some months that many people thought 
I was going by slow though certain steps toward the grave. I began to 
think so myself and had made up my mind to go to a Southern climate. 
As I found I could take a cabin passage to Terseria for seven pounds, 
ten shillings and six pence I thought of wintering in that island and of 
proceeding to New York in the spring. But as I recovered my health 1 
thought I could better spare the money for the improvement of my little 
property near Dover than on a voyage which was no longer necessary for 
my health. 

It gives much comfort to reflect that I made some atonement for the 
pain which I had often given our excellent father; that I wrote a very 
kind letter to him a little time before he died. He was not taken ill at 
the time I wrote, although he received it on his death bed. Sophy read 
my letter to him and he said that it was very kind ; so I believe he died 
forgiving me and all his children their faults toward him. If a feeling 
remained in his mind which was not love and affection toward any of 
his children, it was not toward you or any other except Catherine, who 
showed to the last her want of feeling. But enough of this ; we have all 
our faults and it is our best business to set about correcting them. 

You wrote in praise of your wife, and I am glad that you do so. She 
must be your best friend, and probably may be your only one, except 
your child. You will not forget that it is your best and most important 
interest so to command your temper, spirii: and conduct and to curb his 
with mildness and firmness, so as to train him up in the way he should 
go and to inspire him with love and respect for you. That he will love 
and respect his mother there is little doubt, if she but be half so good 
as you describe her. 

As to naming your boy after me, which proposal I take to be a com- 
pliment, I suppose what I have to say will come too late to be of any 



4? 

use. Yet I consider a singailar name, as mine is, so great a disadvantage 
as one passes through life (especially in England) that I would give 
something considerable rather than name a boy, if I had one, after my- 
self. My employment has chiefly led me into the service of high Tories 
and high churchmen; my name proclaims me to be a Whig and a dis- 
senter. My name Pym is considered by them a regicide, a murderer of 
the worst class; and they have the same dislike to the Parliament of 
Charles 1st time as we have to the Inquisition. Elias smells of Puri- 
tanism. Together the names want euphony; they are not easily sounded, 
like Richard, Henry, Thomas and other naines of two syllables, with the 
accent laid on the first. Richard Fordham trips off easily. Your own 
name is far better than mine. Arthur, Alfred are good old Saxon names. 
William is good and I think there is not a Fordham so named at present. 

You write, that you have been trying to get into the society of Odd 
Fellows. This news I have concealed from all your friends in England. 
You know that what may be tolerated in one country is often utterly 
disapproved of in another. In Dover there is a society of the name be- 
sides Druids, but no respectable person joins them. In Royston the idea 
of such a thing would be scouted. To take it in its best light it is a 
benefit club, and I should fancy a very expensive one, and one which will 
be likely to lead you into the very temptation which you ought to strictly 
and steadfastly avoid. 

I have little news to tell you. My affairs have not prospered these last 
five years ; and although I have not lost a great deal, I have gained noth- 
ing. In the main I should have gained but for the scounderlism of one 
person by whom I lost 150 pounds or thereabouts; and the failure to 
get a railroad bill into Parliament occasioned me the loss of another 120 
pounds. Other bad debts, losses and expenses make the total above 300 
pounds or thereabouts. Against it which I may place my earnings at 
about 400 pounds. Often my profits have not amounted to more than 
20 pounds per annum,, about enough to keep me in clothes. But for my 
father's legacy I must have sold my property in cottages and little bit 
of land. 

Last spring twelvemonth I went with Mr. Pierce's grandson and Mr. 
J. Burdock's second son into Germany. I went through Belgium into 
Cologne, thence as far as Collina up the Rhine. I like the Flemish 
people very much better than I do the French. I like the German's liv- 
ing pretty well, though Belgium is the countr\^ of good eating, but it is 
dearer than Prussia. Upon the whole I like the Germans better than 
any other people — better than the Americans ; much better than the 
French. Last spring I went with my wife to Bath for her health. The 
journey did her great good. She sends her respects to you. 

You perceive that at present I am utterly unable to assist you with 
money. I have lost all my land in America except a small piece in 
Evansville, and the possession of that is contested. When you went to 
the West you might have given me information concerning my land, and 
then I could have supplied you with money to pay the taxes and would 
have given you half to take care of the other half. If I recover my land 
I will think of vou. You cannot do anvthins: for me now. 



48 

I am, glad that you live out of town. Why cannot you do still better 
by going to one of the new towns which are still springing up in Ohio 
state or back of Xew York state? The Quakers have a gi'eat deal of 
land in the back of Pennsylvania. BiU. I am afraid to recommend any- 
thing myself. Should you have a well directed plan which will not take 
up many pounds your best way will be to write to Mr. John Fordham, 
now of Eoyston, or to Sophy, or to both. Do not mention my name; 
write warefully and a short letter. Xothing much more dangerous to a 
man's cause than a long letter. 

Eespects to your wife. 

Your affectionate brother, 

E. P. FOEDHAM. 

Charles Fordham, brother of Elias, came to Albion early in the settle- 
ment of the community. After a short residence he removed to Eahway, 
N. J., where he died more than 60 years ago aged 59 years, leaving a 
family of three small sons. One of these sons. Charles, has been for 45 
years a member of a prominent Xew York business house. During the 
War of the Eebellion he distinguished himself in both the army and the 
navy; and one of his sons, William, then a youth of only 18, fought on 
San Juan Hill in Cuba, His uncle in giving me this information some 
years later declared that William "was eternally talking and writing 
about Teddy Eoosevelt." Another son o£ Charles Fordham, Sr., Eichard 
B. Fordham, to the best of my knowledge continues to reside at Eahway 
and still occupies the properly occupied by his father after his removal 
from Albion about 70 year ago. He has yet in his possession a number 
of relics from the English Settlement in Edwards County, including the 
old compass wdiich the Fordhams used in running the lines between the 
Wabash and the Bonpas. I regret to say that the grapevine used by 
Elias P. in making his earliest surveys of the English prairie has not 
been preserved among the cherished family heirlooms. One of the relics 
especially prized by Mr. Eichard Fordham is the old bank book of George 
Flower and Elias Fordham showing a balance of 5,000 pounds to their 
credit in an English bank. Another is an old English bulls-eye watch, 
150 year old, carried by the Fordhams in Hlinois ; and still another is a 
work on mathematics, 108 year old, formerly owned by Stephenson, the 
great English civil engineer, before coming into the possession of E. P. 
Fordham. 

The following letter written by Elias Fordham at Eoyston, Dec. 23, 
1818, and addressed to Henry Bradshaw Fearon. author of "A Narrative 
of a Journey of 5,000 Miles Through the Eastern and Western States of 
America,'' was immediately published by ]\Ir. Fearon as "an important 
docitment :" 

Sir — Having a son in America, who Avent out with Mr. Birkbeck, I 
am anxious to gain every information relative to that countr}'. I read 
with the greatest avidity both Mr. Birkbeck's books, but without satis- 
faction; since I have read your review of his publication, the grounds 
of that dissatisfaction have become more apparent. My son. in all his 
letters, particularly those which have been lately written, draws very 
different conclusions from Mr. Birkbeck, though they reside upon the 



49 

same t^pot, iuul view tlu' saiiio persons and things — his ideas on the 
American character, as well as on the subject of emigration, are precisely 
3^ours. Many persons have emigrated, and many have it in contempla- 
tion, without any just knowledge of the character of the people, or of the 
means of supporting themselves in the country ; on which account there 
was wanting such a work as you have produced, a true history of facts 
without coloring. In reading your work I have received so much con- 
viction of the truth of your representation, that I cannot do justice to 
my feelings without making an acknowledgments to the author. I am 
desirous my son should read your work as soon as possible, and therefore 
request to know if it be published in America, and where; if not, shall 
send it over immediately. 

Yours truly, 

Elias Fordham. 

Another letter, one which I understand has never yet been printed, 
will be introduced here. It was penned at Albion, Edwards County, 
Illinois, Dec. 9, 1834; addressed by Charles Fordham to Edward King 
Eordham, Esq., Eoyston, Hertfordshire, Old England, care Mr. Elias 
Fordham : 
Dear Father : 

You will see by the direction at the top of my letter that I have arrived 
in Illinois. I am now sitting by my Aunt in a comfortable room at Park 
House, situated about a mile from the town of Albion. 

I suppose you were surprised at hearing of my leaving New York. I 
mentioned in my last letter that cholera was making much headway in 
the city, so much that the board of health thought it most prudent to 
report only the hospital cases. When I had fixed the day for departure 
I was informed by a merchant that the cholera was in the very countrj' 
I had to pass through, and he seriously advised me not to venture until 
I should have information of its abatement. As medical assistance was 
difficult to be had, this delayed me more than a month, for to be without 
immediate medical assistance a person stands little or no chance of re- 
covery from cholera in this country. 

The series of failures of many mercantile houses in the city, caused 
by the unconstitutional and arbitrary measure of their great blackguard. 
General Jackson, in the removal of the public funds from the U. S. 
Bank, throwing hundreds out of employment, made me determine upon 
quitting New York for the Western country. In this letter you must 
excuse my not giving any account of the long journey I have performed. 

The settlement of Albion agrees with my feeling more than any I have 
yet seen, and from its being principally settled by English (not that they 
are better than the Americans) their manners and customs are more con- 
genial to my feeling as an Englishman. 

To return again to myself — I have again just recovered from sickness 
which my Aunt tells me yyas caused by the exposure I underwent on the 
river, as I came on board the boat what they term at sea a stearage pas- 
senger, to save my pocketbook. 

I have a commission which I trust you will execute for me and my 
cousin, Mr. George Flower, which is that of sending for some Eivet 

— 4 H S 



50 

wheat, 6 pecks; Tartarian oats, -1 pecks; 3 pounds of good Swedish tur- 
nip seed; 1 pound of winter cabbage seed of different kinds to stand the 
winter. All of these may be put into a strong deal box and brought in 
London by Mr. H. Squire and sent to New Orleans by a merchant or 
packet ship, consigned to the care of 'Messrs, Hefford & Langenf rey, mer- 
chants at New Orleans, to be forwarded by them to Mr. G. Flower at 
Albion, Illinois. I mention this route as it is much the cheapest and the 
parties are well known to each other. The expense of the above men- 
tioned articles may be placed to my Aunt's account at Eoyston. 

If you think of sending anything by Mrs. Ronalds of clothing let it be 
some of the best plain black cotton velvet, such as they make waistcoats- 
of, and some good dark lirown fustian, such as they make shooting 
jackets of. Irish shiits are not fitted for the climate and are therefore 
a useless expense. 

In my next letter I shall be better able to give you an account of my 
future prospects and intentions as to my obtaining a living. 

Give my kind remembrance to my uncle, C. H. Fordham, and Mrs, 
Fordham, of Garmsck. Love to all my sisters and brothers, in which 
my Aunt also unites with me. 

I remain your affectionate son, 

Charles Fordham. 

Through the failure of the United States Bank the Fordhams in Eng- 
land lost heavily, approximately $50,000.00, hence the extreme rancor 
toward General Jackson shown by Charles Fordham in his letter to his 
father. 

The eccentric "Aunt Sophia," Elias Pym's youngest sister, was 
miserly in her habits, so much that she deprived herself of all the lux- 
uries of life. It was said of her that in her latter days she was so super- 
stititous she was afraid to discharge her servants and too penurious to 
buy butter. To a favorite American nephew, shortly before her death, 
she confided the information that her best friends were her cats. When 
Aunt Sophia died a few years ago very aged she left behind a lifetime 
accumulation of near half a million dollars, but contrary to the fond 
expectation only four or five thousand dollars of this sum fell to the 
lot of her American nephews, the bulk of her bequests going to the rich 
English bankers, the Fordhams of Eoyston. 

Having left Miss Maria Fordham, an invalid, at the new log cabin 
home of her cousin George Flower it will next be in order to recount 
some of the incidents in her after life. It would appear, as the story 
runs, that about the first act was to fall in love, and the second was to 
get married. At this stage it becomes necessary to introduce the groom, 
Charles de La Scrre, a most unique character, a roving, vonturosouie 
Frenchman who had for some years preceding the coming of the English 
colonists been content to dwell with the roving bands of Pianka^haw 
Indians whose chief habitat for many moone had been round about 
Piankasliawtown, four miles northwest of the present city of Albion. 

The ratlier meager information which I am enabled to present of the- 
La Serre family has been furnished me in most part by the grandson of 
the groom, Dr. Herliert de La Serre Spence, of Painesville, Ohio, It was 



51 

Doctor Spence who inherited and finally arranged for the publication of 
the manuscript of Fordham's Personal Narrative. I cannot do better 
than to quote the following letter from him in full: 

Painesville, Ohio, May 6, 1906. 
Dear Mr. Colyer: 

Your kind letter should have been answered sooner but for delay of 
the receipt of the family papers. 

Information as to my maternal grandfather, Charles de La Serre, is 
herewith taken verbatim from my dear mother's Memoirs written in 
1887. I might preface by saying that ahnost my earliest memories are 
of him : for "a short story about grandfather often preceded my nightly 
"tucking in," and I think antedated the legends of Mother Goose. _He 
had a turn for romance and adventure and a genius for ingratiating 
himself among the Indians with whom he lived for long periods, enjoy- 
ing their confidence in a marked degree. The Memoir runs as follows: 

"My father's family of de La Serre, who lived in the south of France 
on their own estate, were Huguenots and fled from France at the time 
of the Eevocation of the Edict of Nantes, leaving all behind them, and 
settled in Guernsey (the home of many such fugitives), where they have 
lived ever since. The only thing remaining to them was the title of Vis- 
count and some family relics. 

"My grandfather, John de LaSerre, was a man of much property. His 
first wife was Judith le Mesunes, by whom he had one son, John, who 
married Mary Chepmell, of Guernsey, by whom he had nine children — 
William, the present head of the family. George and Charles, Mary, 
Emily. Eliza. Matilda and Emma. My grandfather's second wife was a 
LePeily of Guernsey. Her children were Peter, Charles, Nicholas, 
Octavius, Carey, Sophia, Julia and Marian. My grandfather was not 
in business and, unfortunately, did not bring up his sons to business. 
One uncle, Nicholas, was killed at the battle of Talarera; and Peter, a 
naval surgeon, died on board ship. My father, Charles, when a young 
man went to America for travel and sport." 

The Memoir, after giving the descent of my mother's family on the 
other side, describes the emigration of her great-uncle. Mr. Flower, and 
the subsequent arrival of Elias Pym Fordham with his sister, Maria, and 
the meeting of Charles de La Serre and Maria in an Indian camp. 

" and thus he and Maria Fordham met and were married. 

They settled in a log cabin and I was born there in 1823. My earliest 
recollection is lying in bed and seeing the stars between the logs of the 
cabin wall. I remember the Indians coming into camp and also walking 
in the forest with my mother, seeing the blazed trees and hearing her 
sing 'Under the Greenwood Tree.' There my mother died : I knew she 
was dead but did not understand it. It was decided that my father was 
to take my sister and me to our maternal grandfather in England, and 
we set off on our long journey to Philadelphia and arrived at our uncle's, 
Octavius de La Serre, whence we went on board a sailing vessel. After 
a long and dangerous voyage, in the autumn of 1829 we arrived in Liver- 
pool and stayed a day or two at my father's cousin's, Carey de Jersey. 



52 

Thence we went to London by stage, afterward proceeding to Royston 
in Cambridgeshire to the house of our great uncle, Edward King 
Fordham. 

''I remember what objects of interest we were to all in that little town. 
Our dear, handsome, half-French father, who had never been seen by 
any of his uncle's family; his two little girls, four and six, in their 
strange quilted hoods and felt socks drawn over their boots for warmth. 

"Of my father I can say but little, as we never saw him again after 
his return to America within two years of bringing us over. Never 
having been educated in business methods he was never a successful man. 
He re-married after some years and had three children by his second 
wife. Of them we know but little. Communication was very uncertain. 
Letters occasionally came that had been a year on the way. More than 
once did he propose coming to see us, but could not do so. He fell into 
ill health, and going one day into his bed room, fell over a basin on the 
floor, a fragment of which severed an artery and he died before assistance 
could be called." 

Thus ends the reference to Charles de La Serre in the Memoirs. I 
think he was buried in Pittsburg or its neighborhood. 

So you have now about all I know of my maternal grandfather, and I 
wish I could tell you more. If any points occur to you about Fordham's 
book that I could possibly make clearer, pray do me the favor of applying 
to me. 

It is impossible, although superfluous, for me to close this brief sketch 
without a word of reference to my mother, who, of all the good women 
I have known, came nearest to reaching the expression, "saint on earth." 
She was absolutely sweet, dutiful and serene. In my thirty years of 
memory of her I cannot recall one frown nor angry word. 

Believe me, Very sincerely yours, 

Herbert de L. Spence. 

I do not know that Charles de La Serre again visited the English 
settlement in Illinois after his return from England. His brother, 
Octavius, mentioned as residing in Philadelphia in the year 1839, in its 
early colonial days, had been a resident of Edwards County and his 
name frequently appears in the records of the county for the early 
twenties. 

In Avriting the history of the English settlement in Edwards County 
George Flower wasted but little ink relating the very important part 
performed by the Fordhams in establishing and maintaining the colony 
in its infancy. No reference whatever was made to the marriage of Miss 
Maria Fordham, nor was space so much as spared to mention the name 
La Serre nor to convey the slightest hint that any one of that family 
name resided in the community. There is a suspicion that these omis- 
sions were more than mere oversights. In that strenuous period of the 
early colony settlement might be unearthed an unwritten chapter, a 
goodly portion of which had better never appear in print. There were 
dissensions, strife, jealousies, bickerings, quarrels and almost ceaseless 
litigation extending through a series of years. On November 10, 1821, 
in the circuit court of Edwards County in a suit against the Proprietors 



53 

of the Town of Albion, first brought against Richard Flower personally, 
Elias Pym Fordham was awarded judgment in the princely sum of 
$66.50 for his services in full for surveying and platting the new town 
of Albion, the said town being one mile square. In that same year at 
the June and N^ovember terms of circuit court suits were docketed on 
behalf of the People of the State of Illinois against Charles de La Serre 
on the charge of selling spirits without a license. These suits were 
dismissed by the prosecuting attorney, hence never came to trial. I will 

Hivprt liprp fl RnffifipTit fimp +n pvplain tVinf whilp nnnfi today hnt the 

oldest citizen can locate the year when the sale of spirits as a beverage 
was not prescribed in Little Britain, as the metropolis of the English 
settlement is yet facetiously nick-named, it was not always thus. Our 
sturdy grandfathers sold it much as they sold flour, vinegar or salt and 
frequently felt the need of a little for their stomach's sake. But the 
foretaste of a little lawing appeared to give the La Serres a liking for 
it. At any rate suits came thick and fast and they were generally pitted 
against the Flowers and other of the town proprietors. For instance, 
the purchase of a mill seat east of Albion on the Bonpas, together with 
a quarter section of land, by Charles and Octavius de La Serre from 
Eichard Flower, led to a series of suits and counter suits in the years 
1824 and 1825 between the two La Serres on one side and Richard and 
George Flower and certain other of the town proprietors on the other 
side, in which the honors appear to have been about equally shared. In 
some of this litigation the presiding judge was James 0. Wattles, famous 
as a man of inverted vision, being compelled to hold his books and 
papers upside down in order to read them. Judge Wattles then resided 
in a little log cabin in Albion, where his son, the well-known John D. 
Wattles, the founder and long time editor of the Sunday-School Times, 
was born. 

In conclusion it may be said that the trivial matters presented in this 
paper can have value only to the extent that they contribute to the 
history of the peopling of the prairies by that courageous caravan of 
sturdy English who, during the period of disturbed social, political and 
industrial conditions in their native land, sought here that haven of 
freedom in thought and action denied them at home. It was of this 
great outpouring from the British Isles that Faux in his "Memorable 
Days in America," published in 1823, made this extravagant assertion, 
namely : 

"It is true that no man since Columbus has done so much toward 
peopling America as Mr. Birkbeck, whose publications, and the authority 
of whose name, had effects truly prodigious; and if all could have set- 
tled in Illinois, whom he had tempted to cross the Atlantic and the 
mountains, it had now been the most populous state in the Union." 

The attempt has been made in this paper to show that though Birk- 
beck and Flower were active in the initiative of the English settlement, 
credit was largely due Elias Pym Fordham for its actual founding and 
early sustenance. 



54 

I close with a single quotation from an editorial comment found in 
the London Quarterly Review, page 91, Volume 27, printed in 1822, 
referring specifically to this movement toward the prairies of the Illinois 
country : 

"There are thousands of our poor countrymen who have been seduced 
from their homes by these artificers of fraud ; have embarked their little 
all in their journey to these gloomy wilds, that are at this moment pining 
in despair, and hastening to a strange grave with broken hearts. They 
cannot return, and the land of their birth will know them no more. 
Happily, their sufferings are not greatly protracted, for the climate is 
not congenial to their constitutions and they perish 'before the moth.' " 

Despite this dire prediction we find that the great majority of those 
early immigrants survived and prospered. It is true that today no one 
of the name Fotdham, La Serre nor Birkbeck resides in Edwards 
County ; yet it is true that a very large part of the present population of 
the county are either grandchildren or greatgrandchildren of those early 
English colonists of the first quarter of the last century. 



£5 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS. 



Christopher B. Coleman, Butler College, Indianapolis. 

Under this heading I want to present a few considerations of a rather 
general character brought home to me casually during work involving 
some incidental study of State Constitutions, chiefly in the old North- 
west Territory. 

I was at the outset rather pleasantly surprised to find these Consti- 
tutions an interesting study. Ambassador Bryce in his American Com- 
monwealth long ago (1888) observed (c XXXVII, vol. II, p. 434) that 
"the State Constitutions furnish invaluable materials for history. Their 
interest is all the greater because the succession of Constitution and 
amendments to Constitution from 1776 till today enables the annals of 
legislation and political sentiment to be read in these documents more 
easily and succinctly than in any similar series of laws in any other 
country. They are a mine of instruction for the natural history of 
democratic communities. Their fullness and minuteness make them, so 
to speak, more pictorial than the Federal Constitution. They tell us 
more about the actual methods and conduct of the government than it 
does." 

There is not only interest, there is room for humor also in the study 
of the State Constitutions. Mr. Bryce is somewhat surprised at times; 
he exhibits many provisions, especially in the bills of rights, as objects 
of curiosity and occasionally jokes at them, as in the observation that 
"twenty-six States declare that 'all men have a natural, inlierent, and 
inalienable right to enjoy and defend life and liberty,' and all of these, 
except the melancholy Missouri, add, the 'natural right to pursue hap- 
piness.' " (Chap. XXXVII, vol. II, p. 424.) lie refers to them as 
"documents whose clauses, while they attempt to solve the latest prob- 
lems of democratic commonwealths, often recall the earliest efforts of our 
English forefathers to restrain the excesses of medieval tyranny.'* 
(Chap. XXXVIII, vol. II, p. 442.) 

Other things besides Mr. Bryce's amused complacency throw a cheer- 
ful ray across the path of the student of State Constitutions. The inno- 
vations in new State Constitutions cause Eastern writers to make the 
most mournful and pessimistic comparisons with the time-honored 
Massachusetts instrument. Professor Stimson of Harvard University, 
in his very convenient compilation of "The Law of the Federal and State 
Constitutions of the United States" (1908), deplores the inaccessibility 



56 

of State Constitutions. "In Georgia it is not procurable. * * * 
Some States like New Hampshire and Ohio do not print them at all with 
their general laws. Oregon and other States entirely omit constitutional 
amendments, while hardly any State follow^s the example of Massa- 
chusetts in printing the Constitution in its correct form every year, 
* * * Avhile the usual compilation of the laws of Xew York and the 
official compilation of Georgia and several other States commit the last 
inanity of printing the State Constitution alphabetically under C, as if 
it were an ordinary law." (P. XXI.) His exasperation finally reached 
the height of exclamation points. "Owing to the negligence or stupidity 
of the State authorities in not printing these (amendments) with the 
annual laws, this (a complete list of constitutional amendments) is a 
difficult matter to ascertain. In Oregon, indeed, where laws and con- 
stitutional amendments are adopted by popular initiative, the Secretary 
of State complains that they are 'full of bad spelling, punctuation, omis- 
sions and repeated words.'" (P. 123.) 

There are many things to tax one's patience in the study of the (ap- 
proximately) 125 State Constitutions in force at one time or another 
since 1776. Por instance, the official and supposedly complete collection 
of State Constitutions in P. N. Thorpe's American Charters, Constitu- 
tions and Organic Laws (otherwise entitled Pederal and State Consti- 
tutions ) published by the Government Printing Office, in the section de- 
voted to Illinois omits entirely the Constitution of 1848, and though 
published in 1909, has amendments only down to 1900, thus omitting 
the amendments of 1904 and 1908. 

Nevertheless enough material is easily accessible and enough good work 
has been done to make it possible for any one to go into the subject as 
far as he Avants to, and to get considerable enlightenment. The official 
seven-volume compilation of Federal and State Constitutions edited by 
F. N. Thorpe, just referred to, though imperfect and not well indexed, 
contains most of the official documents one needs, and can easily be 
supplemented so as to give one a collection complete to within the last 
two years. Then beginning with Judge J. A. Jameson's, The Constitu- 
tional Convention, a great work, though written to prove the untenable 
proposition that the State constitutional convention is legally under the 
direction of and subject to the authority of the State Legislature, with 
Bryce's luminous study in chapters XXXVII-XXXVIII of his Amer- 
ican Commonwealth, and Cooley's Constitutional Limitations, there are 
a number of books and articles which not only incorporate an enormous 
amount of work and so save the time of the investigator, but are well 
worth reading. ■ Among these I can only make mention of Borglau : 
Adoption and Amendment of Constitutions; Prof. Dealey's, Our State 
Constitution (supplement to the Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, Mass., 1907 ; Prof. Garner's article upon 
the Amendment of State Constitutions in the American Political Science 
Review, February, 1907; Lobingier, The People's Law; Stimson, Law 
of the Federal and State Constitution of the United States, 1908, and the 
Year-book of Legislation issued by the New York State Library. New 
York has been given an exhaustive treatise in the four-volume Consti- 



57 

hitional History of Xew York by Lincoln, wliicli supplies most of the 
material for, if it does not often give the interpretation of the constitu- 
tional developments in that state. The best recent piece of work with 
which I am familiar has been done by Walter Fairleigli Dodd, "The 
Eevision and Amendment of State Constitution/' 1910, an accurate, 
complete, convenient and convincing treatment of the subject. In nearly 
every state, moreover, there are full records of the formation of the 
Constitution in the shape of journals and debates of the constitutional 
conventions. There are many monographs, also, as in Illinois, in the 
University Studies on the Illinois Constitution Convention of 1863, and 
addresses — Vice President Stevenson's address before this body in 1903 
upon "The Constitutional Convention and Constitution of Illinois," and 
papers before other historical societies. 

The general outline of the developments of written state constitutions 
from the revolution to the present generation, has been frequently traced 
and with tolerable unanimity. We are not a people of striking origin- 
ality in our political life, and there is greater similarity between the 
constitutions adopted in different states at a given time than one would 
expect. The New England states have been slow to remake their con- 
stitutions. Three of them have lasted 115 years or over, and the average 
of the constitutions in effect just before New Hampshire adopted a new 
one in 1903, was nearly 100 years. Other states have revised their con- 
stitutions more frequently, and counting the New England states in, 
the average life of a state constitution has been about thirty-one years. 
These two facts, namely, that constitutions of different states tend 
toward a given model, and that there are frequent revisions, make it 
easy to distinguish certain periods, the first three of which are best 
described perhaps by Mr. Bryce. (American Commonwealth, Chap. 
XXXVIII.) Though he omits some elements which have been decisive 
in many states, such as the internal improvement episode in the middle 
west. 

The first period covers the first thirty years of our independence, and 
constitutions formed during these years manifest a dread of and reac- 
tion from executive tyranny, together with a disposition to leave every- 
thing to the legislature. The legislature was supposed to represent not 
so much the whole people as the best people. The people themselves 
were not thought of as capable of much political wisdom. Everything 
for the most part centered in the legislature ; the choice of governor, the 
control of the various departments of the government, even the making 
and changing of the constitution itself. 

The second period extends from about 1805 to about 1846. States 
entering the Union during this time, or revising their government, drew 
up documents giving the people generally a larger part in the govern- 
ment. The suffrage was opened to all white male adults, nearly all 
oflfices were to be filled by popular election, terms of office were short 
so as to pass the offices around more frequently and give what President 
Jackson called a 'Tiealthful action to the system" (Annual Message to 
Congress, 1829). and changes in the Constitution were to be wrought 
chiefly if not solely through constitutional conventions elected by the 
people. 



58 

The third period began about 1845 or 1850, and was precipitated by 
the mistakes and incompetency of the legislatures, by the enormous 
development of log-rolling and private legislation, and especially in this 
part of the country by the extravagant and dangerously large expendi- 
ture for internal improvements. In the old Xorthwest Territor\-, Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois revised their constitutions and the other states came 
into the Union with constitutions formed under this impulse. Im- 
portant limitations, especially in financial matters, were put upon the 
power of the legislature, and a curb was placed upon private legislation. 
Generally the power and the length of term of the governor was increased, 
he was more than before regarded as the representative of the people — 
the fear of a strong executive was declining. The net result of this 
development was a relative conservatism. Change in state government 
became more difficult than before, and the policy of state governments 
became generally more conservative. 

We have for some years been passing into a fourth period in which is 
apparent a tendency toward more complete democracy. The lengthening 
of the constitution so as to make it a kind of direct popular legislation, 
the incorporation in new constitutions or grafting by amendment tipon 
old ones of measures such as the initiative, referendum, recall, and direct 
primary are indications of the tendency to bring the government more 
directly than before into the hands of the people. 

In addition to this formal development of our state governments wit- 
nessed to by changes in their organic law, there has been steadily taking 
place the usual development of a more informal sort by judicial inter- 
pretation and by custom. As has been frequently remarked, the shorter 
life, the easier methods of amendment, and the greater detail of our 
state constitutions, have given less scope to judicial interpretation in 
our state than in our national history. The question of constitutionality 
in state courts is more frequently a matter of getting some clear mean- 
ing out of obscure or ambiguous phrases, of overturning laws through 
technical errors in their construction, in short, more artificial and less 
satisfactory than is the case with questions of federal legislation and 
constitutionality. The repetition of this long and laborious process of 
construction is one of the strongest arguments against constitutional 
revision. Perhaps the most clearly established and universally developed 
principle of judicial action is this, that the state legislatures are bodies 
of residuary and not of merely delegated authority, or to state it differ- 
ently, that power not lodged elsewhere and not forbidden to the legisla- 
ture may be exercised by that body. Yet even this the character of some 
of the articles of some of the most recent constitutions, e. g. Oklahoma 
and the proposed constitution of Xew Mexico, seem to deny. 

Custom has been perhaps more active in developing a new character 
in our state governments than is generally supposed. Party organiza- 
tion, the lobb}^, the growth of commissions, the nonpartisan or bipartisan 
reform of state institutions such as prisons, reformatories and asylums, 
centralizing tendencies in the management of local institutions, the 
socializing of education, care of the public health, and numerous other 
easily recognized developments have transformed the condition in which 
our political life is lived. 



59 

It is easy to see now that democratic government in our state is not 
the simple thing it was at first thought to be. The reaction from the 
strong executive of colonial days to the omnipotent legislature, and the 
reaction back toward a strong executive, the complicated and unsystem- 
atic efforts in new constitutions to correct acknowledged abuses, show the 
need of something more than abstract theory to guide us. 

There are those who think that the old threefold division of govern- 
ment into the legislative, executive and judicial departments can no 
longer bo maintained. Certain it is that few if any recent state consti- 
tutions can be systematically arranged on that basis. They contain the 
divisions of the executive, the legislative and the judicial, and then a 
multitude of other provisions. Professor Dealey speaks not merely of 
the three historic departments of government, viz, the executive, the 
judicial and the legislative, but also of the differentiations from these, 
the administration, the electorate, and that nameless agency which in 
every state has the legal right to formulate the fundamental law, an 
agency which for want of a better name may be called the "Legal 
Sovereign." (Our State Constitutions, p. 2.) By administration he 
means the boards and commissions, the departments of state, treasury, 
education, the auditor, controller and other departments by which mOst 
of the expert work of state government is done. By the clrrtorate he 
means the voters, considered not as the "sovereign people," but as a 
government agency acting under the constitution and possessing power 
of appointment to office by election, judicial power through service in 
juries, and in some states the power of legislation through the referen- 
dum and initiative. By the legal sovereign he means practically the con- 
stitutional convention, i. e., the voters in their act of determining the 
fundamental law by which all other acts of government are determined. 
This he thinks "is the great agency through which democracy finds 
expression." 

Whether we agree with this rearrangement or not. we can easily see 
that the" simple outlines of the govcrnmenti; supposed in the time of the 
revolution to prevail are no longer sufficient and no longer prevail. 
Ijegislative, executive and judicial departments overlap in some in- 
stances (e. g. legislative reference departments, commissions) and leave 
gaps in other (for example, working men's compensation laws are ex- 
cluded by some constitutions). There is room for a still greater develop- 
ment of commissions or commissioners to deal with business and private 
interests than has yet taken place, and as Mr. Br\^ce points out in the 
last edition (1910) of the American commonwealth, the success in Eng- 
land of bodies with quasi-judicial powers in dealing with quasi-public 
interests would warrant a larger application of this department of 
government in the ITnited States. Eailroad, public utilities, and other 
commissions such as have been introduced in ^NTew York, Massachusetts, 
Wisconsin and to some degree in most states, have apparently been an 
effective and convenient method of dealing with a heretofore complicated 
problem. I am not certain that our constitutions would not be simpler 
and more intelligible instruments if we abandoned the threefold division 
of government in them entirely and, instead of trying to bring them 
under the old categories, outlined our state governments by the descrip- 



60 

tion of the organs of government and the functions of government as 
they are actually established. 

The rise of new industrial and social conditions and of new political 
devices not foreseen by the makers of our state constitutions has brought 
the amending power into greater prominence than formerly. There are 
many ways of amending constitutions in force in different states, on the 
initiative of the legislature by varying majorities in both branches and 
the popular referendum in varying required majorities, or on initiative 
of a commission appointed for that purpose (New York) and referen- 
dum of the people, or by the initiative o$ the legislature and by action 
of a convention with or without a popular referendum, or even by action 
of successive legislatures with two-thirds majority in each house 
(Delaware). It is even possible in some states to secure a sort of higher 
or second degree legislation by way of constitutional amendments. In 
cases where the constitution contains lengthy, detailed and complicated 
provisions which are really in the nature of legislation, ease of amend- 
ment is desirable and even necessary, if embarrassing situations are to 
be avoided. While there are objections to this sort of constitutions and 
to their flexibility, such as the complication of their judicial interpreta- 
tion, and the shifting of responsibility from the legislature, there is no 
inherent reason why this practice should not be condemned in toto and 
excluded from our governmental system. The tendency is certainly in 
this direction, as is seen in the greatly increased length of recejit con- 
stitutions, (Oklahoma, 175 pp., Alabama, 69 pp. fine print, Louisiana, 
144 pp.) and by the frequency of amendments. It has been figured that 
in the decade 1894-1904 there were 412 amendments to state constitu- 
tions formally and legally prepared, and 230 adopted. (Garner, Am. 
Pol. Sc. Eeview, pp. 245-6.) California is especially prolific in this 
respect, having adopted amendments forty-two times between 1888 and 
1908 (Stimson, p. 123). This year in California, after the victory of 
the Progressives caused an overturning in the state government, twenty- 
three amendments to the constitution have been submitted by the legis- 
lature to the people, providing among other things "for the initiative 
and referendum, the recall for all elective offices, including judges, and 
for woman's suffrage." (The Nation, Mav 11,' 1911, Vol. XCII, pp. 
459-460.) 

Illinois and Indiana have constitutions among the most rigid in the 
United States. The requirement by the former is that a proposed 
amendment must be approved by "a majority of the electors voting" 
at the election, while in the latter a majority of the electors is required, 
and the judicial instruction has been tliat this means a majority of the 
people qualified to vote whether they vote or not (69 Ind., 505, 1880), 
though the court has also maintained that in the absence of registration 
the number voting shall be presumed to be the number qualified to vote 
(156 Ind., 104, 1901). These and other restrictions have made it ex- 
tremely difficult to amend either constitution, with the result that in 
Illinois the agitation for direct primaries involved almost insuperable 
obstacles, and in Indiana of late years constitutional amendments have 
been apparently impossible. Indeed, the Indiana constitution has only 
been amended twice since its adoption in 1851, namely in 1873 and in 



61 

1881. The Governor of Indiana has this year embarked in a revolu- 
tionary scheme of procuring the passage in the legislature of a bill sub- 
mitting a new constitution to the people and providing means of count- 
ing all straight party votes as votes for or against the constitution 
according to "the party platform. The present constitution, while it 
prescribes a process for amendment, makes no provision for the calling 
of another constitutional convention, nor does it make any mention of 
procedure for securing a new constitution. The Governor and the ma- 
jority of the legislature argue that ''fhis leaves the door open for the 
legislature to prepare a new constitution to the people. As far as 
Indiana is concerned, however, there would be Just as much precedent 
for the Governor himself submitting a new constitution to the people 
without the intervention of the legislature. If on the other hand the 
new constitution be, as is claimed by the opposition, not in fact a new 
constitution but a series of amendments to the old, the whole procedure 
is plainly unconstitutional. The matter has, however, been brought into 
court by a petition to prevent the vote upon the proposed constitution. 

It seems, however, only a matter of comparatively few years until 
many of the states of the middle west which have not recently revised 
or substantially amended their conistitutions will have to call constitu- 
tional conventions. These conventions have in the past undoubtedly 
represented the highest intelligence and the best character of the people, 
they have been in many respects the most successful element of our 
political systems. Yet it is doubtful whether the immediate future will 
be an opportune time for the formation of new constitutions. There is 
such a rapid change of political conditions that constitutions would 
have to be made on the jump, and frequently the jump would be in the 
dark. The permanent effect of many recent devices such as the direct 
primary is not yet clear. The initiative and referendum with much to 
commend them have many vicious possibilities, and the recall may not 
be productive of a higher quality of office holder. The short ballot is 
perhaps the one agitation now becoming acute which has the greatest 
promise and the least weight of objection against it, but even this prob- 
ably can and should be tried out in city governments a little while longer 
before its effects can be absolutely counted on. In short, just as in the 
construction of dwelling houses so many new improvements are develop- 
ing, such as the open air sleeping porch, the sun parlor, electrical house- 
keeping and laundry appliances, that the perfect house of yesterday is 
unsatisfactory today, and the prospective builder 'gains by waiting a 
while, so in the construction of state constitutions the time for wise 
and permanent revision does not seem to be at hand. 

Meanwhile experience is being accumulated and definite scientific in- 
formation is becoming available. In our legislative reference libraries 
as well as in universities and text-books, a science of comparative legis- 
lation is rapidly taking form. We are becoming better able every year 
to judge accurately of conditions and to know the exact workings of 
political institutions. It ought not to be long before our law and con- 
stitution making bodies will have the' advantage which the English Par- 
liament enjoys of having expert commissions to study the effect of pro- 
posed legislation and expert political scientists to properly draft statutes. 



62 



LINCOLN AND THE BEGINNING OF THE EEPUBLICAN 
PAETY IN ILLINOIS. 

Oliver P. Wharton, Los Angeles, Calif. 



To write a chapter of my knowledge of, and acquaintance with Abra- 
ham Lincoln is to make it principall}^ marked by brevity. I bought the 
Eock Island Advertiser, a Whig newspaper, early in September, 1853, 
and then first heard of him as the acknowledged leader of that party in 
Illinois, a man of marked honesty and sincerity of purpose, utterly devoid 
of demagoguism and trickery in politics. The year following the Eock 
Island railroad was completed through to the Mississippi Eiver at Eock 
Island and a bridge across that river was built in 1855 and I was secre- 
tary of a meeting to lay the corner stone of the drawpier of that bridge. 
As soon as it was finished the St. Louis Merchants Association brought 
suit against the Bridge Company to compel the removal of the bridge as 
an obstruction to navigation. The suit was tried before Chief Justice 
McLean of the Supreme Court of the United States at Chicago. Abra- 
ham Lincoln was chief attorney for the Bridge Company and I was a 
witness in behalf of the Company, having been requested by Joseph 
Knox, resident attorney for it at Eock Island, to act in that capacity by 
assisting in testing the current of the river through the draw for the 
passage of boats. In this way I got more knowledge of the character 
of Lincoln, who conducted the case for the Bridge Company with such 
masterly ability that the opposition had no show of any consequence for 
its contention against the right to bridge the Mississippi Eiver at any 
point where the interests of transportation east and west required such 
a structure. 

But in 1856 I first became personally acquainted with Abraham Lin- 
coln. The Whig editors of Illinois found themselves rather destitute of 
a party, and sought a way to get a new organization of one to fight the 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise with its design to extend slavery into 
Kansas, and, in fact, to make the holding of negroes as slaves in all the 
states of the Union legal, as the act of the Dred Scott decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States declared that no negro could bring 
a suit in any court to gain his freedom from slavery because he was not a 
citizen entitled to sue in any court. 

So the AVhig editors of Illinois, to further their purpose of organizing 
such a new party, called a convention of themselves at Decatur in that 
State and invited Mr. Lincoln over from Springfield, his home, to meet 



63 

with them for consultation and advice. I attended that convention, was 
put on the Committee on Kesolutions, thus being brought into direct 
contact with Lincoln, who proved a very genial and capable adviser in- 
deed. If I remember rightly he was the author of the States' Bights 
Plank of the platform we drew up, and we were highly pleased with 
it. We ended the session by calling the convention to nominate a state 
ticket for the new party and complete its organization as a state and 
national party at Bloomington, May 29, following; this was done and 
Mr. Lincoln went there, made his first speech of adherence to the new 
Eepublican Party and it was victorious in the fall election. 

When I next met Mr. Lincoln in convention it was at Springfield two 
years after the Bloomington nomination, where the state Republican 
delegates met, re-nominated the state ticket previously elected and nomi- 
nated Lincoln himself for United States Senator to make that celebrated 
campaign against Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Missouri Compro- 
mise repealing act. It was at the Springfield Convention in 1858 that 
Lincoln made his memorable speech beginning with the scriptural quota- 
tion "A house divided against itself cannot stand." I was sitting on the 
steps of the rostrum of the Senate Chamber from which he spoke, and at 
the conclusion of his speech he sat down on the steps beside me and to 
my surprise demanded to know what I thought of it. Of course, I felt 
rather taken aback, but considering the brevity of his speech and its 
sudden conclusion, I replied that he had spoken too briefl}' — that he had 
made a brave speech, patriotic and pointed, but it seemed to me too lofty 
for his audience which appeared rather dazed by it and acted as though 
he had not said enough nor put enough of himself into it. It was plain 
that he should have said more to create enthusiasm and send the assembly 
away in a better humor. Lincoln responded that my criticism was per- 
haps correct as the audience did appear rather quiet, and that if I would 
write a resolution commending the re-nomination of the state ticket and 
the acts of the party during its brief existence, etc., he would offer it 
himself and make such further remarks as the case seemed to require. 
I wrote the resolution requested by him, and he did get up and offer it 
with some Lincoln-like remarks which had the effect desired and all went 
off apparently well satisfied. The truth came out afterwards that he had 
submitted his sj^eech to some of his party associates and they had strongly 
advised him against making such a speech, for if he did Douglas would 
carry the state and win the Senatorship. There was not then at that 
time much anti-slavery sentiment among the voters of Illinois and his 
speech actually sounded the death knell of slavery in the United States 
if they were to remain united. 

The result of the campaign was that Mr. Lincoln was beaten for the 
Illinois Senatorship, but his triumphant debate with Douglas made him 
President two years afterwards. 

I never saw Mr. Lincoln after that Springfield Convention in 1858 
and the way I happened to go to it was at the earnest request of Joseph 
Knox, of Eock Island, who was the regular delegate, as his proxy. I 
think Knox had a delicacy about going to the Convention as he knew 



64 

Mr. Lincoln would be nominated for Senator against Douglas, and Knox 
had always previously been a warm partisan of Douglas and bitterly 
opposed to Lincoln as leader of the Whig party, and was, in fact, chief 
orator for the Democratic party in Northern Illinois, and a public 
character of much prominence. He was, however, of Massachusetts 
birth and education and always opposed the extension of slavery, and 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. In fact, he voted for Fremont, 
the first Eepublican candidate for President, and the Eepublican ticket 
always afterward. 

Many stories of Lincoln I have heard and might repeat, but I will 
spare the reader further infliction on this subject. 

April 14, 1911. 




\V1L!>1.\N[ 11. roLLINS 



65 



WILLIAM HEETZOG COLLIXS. 

AN APPEECIATIOX. 



During tlie past year the State Historical Society has lost by the death 
of William Hertzog Collins one of its directors who was also one of its 
earliest and most highly valued members. He has joined the "Great 
Majority" who have passed into the other life. He died at his home 
in Quincy, Illinois, July 29, 1910, at the age of seventy-nine years. 

Mr. Collins was born in Collinsville, Illinois, March 20, 1831, and at- 
tended the public school in that place. Later he graduated at Illinois 
College in Jacksonville, a member of the class of 1850. He later served 
as trustee of the institution for several years. 

After leaving Illinois, he took a post-graduate course at Yale in phil- 
osophy and theology, and for six years was pastor of the Congregational 
church at LaSalle, 111. In 1858, he bought a controlling interest in the 
Jacksonville, (111.) Journal, which he conducted until 1861, when he was 
made Chaplain of the Tenth Illinois Infantry. A short time later he 
resigned this position for one in which he might perform a more active 
service, and assisted materially in raising the One Hundred and Fourth 
Illinois Infantry. He was chosen to command Company D of this regi- 
ment, and participated in the battles of Elk River, Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain, Mission Eidge and Einggold. In the spring of 186J:, he was 
appointed upon the staff of Major General John M. Palmer and he served 
with distinction during the campaign which ended with the fall of 
Atlanta. From December, 1864, to December, 1865, he served as 
Provost Marshal of the Twelfth district of Illinois. 

In 1866, Mr. Collins engaged in the manufacture of plows and agri- 
cultural implements in Quincy, and later organized the Collins Plow 
Company. He was also interested in other business enterprises in Quincy 
but for the last decade or two he had not been in active business. 

In politics, Mr. Collins was an ardent republican. While seldom being 
an avowed candidate for office, he has been the nominee of his party on 
numerous occasions, and for many responsible offices, and when elected 
proved himself to be worthy of the people's confidence. Though the rep- 
resentative district, city and ward were overwhelmingly democratic, he 
was twice elected to the State Legislature, was an alderman from the 
ward in which he lived, and when death occurred in the mayoralty chair 

— 5 H S 



66 

during his service as alderman, he was elected to the vacancy by a demo- 
cratic council. He was a member of the State Legislature from 1884 to 
1892. 

Mr. Collins was a member of the State Historical Society, and, for 
several years was Historiographer of the Quincy Historical Society and 
was much interested in matters pertaining to both. He had been presi- 
dent of the Anna Brown Home for the Aged in Quincy for many years. 
He was always interested in the various phases of education and did much 
to place the Quincy public school system on its present efficient basis 
He was president of the Board of Education for a number of years, and 
resigned on account of ill health a few weeks before his death. 

Mr. Collins was also a writer of ability, having contributed largely to 
the local press, and to magazines. His writings cover subjects of travel, 
hunting expeditions, economic questions, theological controversies, and 
general philosophy. Some of his magazine articles are "Elements of 
Truth in all Eeligions," "Eeaction of Law upon Theology," and "The 
Logos." 

During his service in the State Legislature, he gave by invitation, ora- 
tions upon Decoration Day, upon the occasion of the memorial service of 
Senator John A. Logan, and upon the occasion of the anniversary of the 
death of President Lincoln, both of the last two were extensively pub- 
lished by the daily press. 

It was upon such themes as these that Mr. Collins' oratory was 
especially strong. By reason of his training as a preacher and his strong 
religious faith, his highly poetic temperament, his unusually varied ex- 
perience in life, and his exceptional command of language, what he had 
to say upon such occasions found ready and wide appreciation and 
sympathy. 

He wrote a great deal of what may be called occasional poetry. All 
of it has been characterized by keen intellectual quality, true poetic con- 
ception and imagination, originality and facility in expression. 

Mr. Collins was a man of fine education, had read widely, and was 
familiar with literature and modern thought. He was abreast of the 
age in his views, and was ready to present them upon suitable oppor- 
tunity. He was often called upon to deliver addresses and he embodied 
his ideas in lucid and forcible language. 

He was a public-spirited citizen, deeply interested in the reform move- 
ments of the day, which he delighted to discuss, and on which he spoke 
with fullness and freedom. 

Mr. Collins was a splendid type of man, strong, high-minded, bright, 
cheery, and of noble purposes. Socially he was a delightful companion, 
and his hospitality was generous, his friends always delighting to visit 
with him in his home, young people, as well as those of his own age, find- 
ing in him a most congenial friend. His radiant disposition did not 
leave him in his declining years. It cheered him on and brightened the 
pathways of those about him. 

Mr. Collins was one of the men who helped to make Quincy. He was 
ever enthusiastic in her behalf. For the city he gave a portion of that 



67 

affection contained in the patriotic love of his country, for which later he 
rendered brave and faithful service on the battlefield. With his death 
Quincy lost one of her most estimable and best loved citizens. 

Mr. Collins was not only statesman and scholar but was gifted with 
poetic thought and fancy. When he was sixty-nine years old he wrote a 
poem for his birthday anniversary. It was retrospective in mood and 
abounded in the cheerful philosophy characteristic of the man. Ten 
years later, on the occasion of his seventy-ninth birthday — on March 20th 
last, he added in blank verse the reflections on another decade that left 
him standing on the brink of infinity. He wrote at his winter home at 
Biloxi, Miss., on the shores of the blue Gulf of Mexico, and beneath a 
glorious sun. The words he wrote in that placid environment were read 
as a part of the eloquent memorial tribute of Eev. James Eobert Smith, at 
the funeral services and are as follows : 

Ten years! The eager days have hurried by — • 

Like glimmering spokes in the swift wheel 
Of the revolving years. Familiar scenes 

Viewed in the perspective, now grow dim. 
Hands I loved to grasp; voices I loved to hear, 

Are still. Comrades, wrapped in the starry flag 
For which they freely shed their blood, are gone! 

Old shores, in outline indistinct, recede — 
Still here I loiter with a lazy sail. 

Or drift upon the tide that bears me on, 
The islands green, of oak and long-leaved pine. 

With emerald verdure clad, do slowly fade. 
Until dissolved, lost in the distant blue. 

My vision sweeps the all-embracing sea; 
My thought transcends the bounds of space and time; 

I ask, what waits me in the port I seek? 
Shall I know Light of thought, or flame of Love? 

Oft Silence mocks my spirit's earnest quest; 
Oft beams of kindly light illume my doubt. 

As sunshine gleams upon the dusky wings 
Of the gray seagull, sliding down the slope, 

Of the darkening seas at set of sun. 
I look again! I see the gray seagull 

On tireless pinion make his way, till lost 
In the bright splendor of the sinking sun. 

This be the symbol of my voyage end. 
Oh Spirit of Love and Light, guide me. 

So that my life shall prove a manly part 
Of the moral order of this great world. 

When end my four-score years or more, let me 
(My anchor cast, my earthly work all done) 

Step erect from deck to ampler life — 
Upon the eternal shore! 



68 



WILLIAM HERTZOG COLLINS, 1831-1910. 
Funeral Sermon by His Pastor, Rev. James Robert Smith. 



So speaks Jonathan to his beloved friend, David, when he knows he is 
not to be in his accustomed place the next day. And so say we today 
as we. come to lay the body of onr beloved dead beneath the trees, the 
grass and the flowers. For surely by the passing of this man a large 
place has been left vacant to those who remain. When a great tree falls 
in the forest we are strangely impressed by the place made vacant by its 
fall. It is difficult to become accustomed to its absence. So when a life 
which has grown strong in our world, and in our midst, is suddenly re- 
moved from its accustomed sphere of activity it is difficult to adjust 
ourselves to its absence. And here was a life which had come to occupy 
a large place, in many ways, in our world ; and as we stand by his bier 
we do but state a palpable fact when we say "Thou wilt be missed, 
because thy seat will be empty."' 

First, in the realm of politics, statesmanship and public affairs. 
Throughout his active career he was interested in the public affairs of 
the civilized world, and particularly of his own beloved country. He was 
a sincere believer in democracy and representative government. His 
loyalty to the principles which underlie constitutional government was 
demonstrated beyond all shadow of doubt when he offered his life on the 
field of battle for the preservation of the Union during the dark days 
of the war. "■(Treatcr love hath no man than this, that a man lay down 
his life for his (friend) country."' So there stands to his credit today an 
honorable record as a soldier of the Eepublic. 

Spared to return to the pursuits of peace he continued to live for his 
country as nobly as he liad offered to die for it in time of war. His 
example in the business world is one we might all emulate to the very 
highest advantage. Loved and honored alike by associates and em- 
ployees. Honesty was the very center of his life and character and he 
lived what he was in his daily dealings with his fcllowmen. 

In public life he stood for clean politics, an honest ballot, and for the 
general public welfare, as opposed to unrestrained selfishness and dis- 
honest men and measures. To attain these high ends he was willing to 
move slowly if he could feel ho was going in the right direction. Tie was 
an idealist who moved towai'd liis goal along the lino of tho [tractical; 
willing to take, of the good, what lie could get, if he could not get all 
he wanted. When re])r('sonting his comunmity in legislative halls, or 
in any public ca]iacity, he tried to si'ttle in his own mind, from all the 
facts and conditions, wliat he thought to be right, and this he proceeded 



69 

to carry out without liL'sitation. If he seemed at any time to waver it 
was on account of his scrupulous dct^ire to know wliat was true and right 
and wise, never for lack of integrity or courage. Thus he stood for the 
very best things in our State and national life; and when the seat of 
such a man is made vacant liy death most truly do we say "thou wilt be 
missed." 

But he was equally interested in tlie local community where he lived, 
and stood for the public welfare there. He leaves behind him a clean 
and honorable record as a member of our city council. And doubtless 
he will be most distinctly remembered by the entire community by reason 
of his long and enviable service as president of the Board of Education. 
This to him was a labor of love and conscientious public service. He 
believed that the stability of the government, the peace, prosperity and 
happiness of the people "vvere dependent upon public education ; that our 
public schools are the very citadel of our lil^erties. Thus without re- 
muneration of any kind, and sometimes in the face of liitter criticism, 
he gave his time and strength and ripe experience, through many years, 
to the advancement and l)ettei'ment of our public schools. It would be 
difficult to measure the debt we owe to him for the great development 
and improvement of our schools during the last few years. His unselfish 
spirit was manifest by his service rendered the public through his con- 
nection with the schools, as also through his devotion to important local 
charities and benevolences, after he had retired from his own active 
business life and deserved a complete rest. It is a noble tribute to his 
'character that he was willing to accept the annoyances incident to such 
a position simply that he might be helpful to the community. Through 
these schools the lives of the teachers in them, and the multitudes of 
young people who have been helped by his services here into an ampler 
life, he w411 live on for generaitions. From this field of his recent activity 
we but feebly express it when we say "Thou wilt be missed." 

And he believed most profoundly in the moral and spiritual culture 
of the individual and of the community, and was. therefore, a staunch 
supporter of the church and of religion. His religion was not a narrow 
dogmatic belief in creeds, rituals and services, but a large, deep, sweet, 
strong faith in God, in man, in the kingdom of heaven, the ultimate 
good. He could express himself in Tennyson's beautiful words: 

"Behold, I know not anything; 

I can but trust that good shall fall 

At last — far off — at last, to all. 
And every winter change to spring." 

Perhaps nothing more truly represents the honesty of his heart, the 
clearness and sincerity of his mind than the fact that he refused to 
preach what he could not understand and intelligently believe and teach 
others. To him liberty and honesty of thought were priceless. He knew 
the world had to throw off much ancient dogma, superstition and 
formality that the soul might l)e free to commune with the Eternal in 
spirit and in truth, first hand. So he lived the life of a layman through 
all these years, although a duly ordained minister, that he might be 
free in mind and soul and help others to a similar blessing. Thus 
through this silent lay ministry he helped to leaven the church "with a 



70 

larger and more ample faith. Even in these last years his mind was 
clear and his thoughts far in advance of multitudes of muclr younger 
men. It was one of the greatest inspirations of my life to talk with him 
upon the great themes of morals, ethics, religion and philosophy. How 
refreshing to find a man of his age ever ready to discuss these questions 
from the most modern point of view, and ever encouraging us of the 
younger generation to go on and try to lead the world into the larger 
ways of thinking and living. I must bear a word of personal testimony 
and say that I regard his life as one of the most helpful influences which 
ever touched my own. 

He believed that religion is an eternal fact of human consciousness 
because God is Father of the human race and man partaker of the Divine 
Nature. Thus he saw in all religious creeds and organizations the effort 
of man to know and worship God; and was, therefore, charitable to all 
religious creeds and faiths. He believed the human at its best is truly 
divine, and that the divine can express itself at the highest, in such a 
universe as this, only through the human; hence he believed in Jesus 
Christ as the incarnation of God, the Saviour and Eedeemer of the 
world; and in the Christian Church as the expression of His life, and 
the organization through which His Kingdom nmst come among men. 
Surely in our local church, as well as in the church universal, we must 
say "Thou wilt be missed, because thy seat will be empty." 

And in the more personal relationships of life how true this is. What 
a congenial, companionable friend and neighbor he was. Cultured, well 
read, familiar with the great literature of the world, of a genuine poetic 
temperament, democratic by nature and habit, kindly disposed toward 
all mankind, with a large and interesting life experience, he was a com- 
panion Avho brought to one's life a rich and high enjoyment and strength. 
No wonder his circle of friends was large and that multitudes in all 
walks of life feel a sincere loss in the passing of this firm and gentle 
man. He felt himself above no one who was true and honest. His was 
the aristocracy of heart and mind. He was truly a citizen of the world 
and was genuinely respected and honored by all classes of people who 
knew him. ^ 

Thus even those of us who stand outside his family circle can, in a 
measure, understand why he was idolized by his own family, and why 
his children sacredly revere his name and memory. None so feelingly 
and truly as those of his OAvn household — the ones who knew him best — 
can say "Thou wilt be missed because thy seat will be empty." Their 
loss is great; but, after all, how rich they are in the heritage of the 
name and memory he leaves. 

He made no pretension to perfection, and would be the first to check 
our unstinted praise. About all he would probably let us say is tliat he 
did sincerely try to so live that the mistakes of his life should be those 
of the human judgment and not the intention of the heart. But I am 
sure he will forgive us for what our love prompts us to say more than 
this. "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord ; they rest from their 
labors, but their works do follow them." He has lived a strong, natural, 
normal, beautiful life — a Christian in the truest sense of the word — • 



71 ■ 

and, having set his house in orckT, passed peacefully on to the larger 
life for which this had been a true preparation. 

For need we stay to argue the immortality of such a soul ? Its very 
strength, power and beauty are sufficient. Let the one who asserts that 
all this which we have known and loved in him can perish with the 
mere passing of a breath come forward Avith his frail arguments, but we 
shall still say : 

"There is no death! the stars go down 

To rise upon some other shore, 
And bright in heaven's jewelled crown 

They shine forever more. 

There is no death! although v/e grieve 

When beautiful, familiar forms 
That we have learned to love, are torn 

From our embracing arms. 

Although with bowed and breaking heart, 

With sable garb and silent tread. 
We bear their peaceful dust to rest. 

And say that they are 'dead.' 

They are not dead! they have but passed 

Beyond the mists that blind us here 
Into the new and larger life 

Of that serener sphere. 

And ever near us, though unseen. 

The dear, immortal spirits tread; 
For all the boundless universe 

Is life — there are no dead." 

So as we have seen this mind and soul live on above the failing body 
in the last few years we shall have an increasing faith in Paul's beautiful 
statement of the truth, "Tliough the earthly house of this tabernacle be 
dissolved, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, 
eternal, in the heavens." And in Jesus' words, "In My Father's house 
are many mansions; if it were not so I would have told you: for I go 
to prepare a place for you." For ourselves we say, "Thou wilt be missed,, 
because thy seat will be empty." But for him we say: 

"Servant of God, well done! 

Rest from tliy loved employ; 
The battle fought, the victory won. 

Enter thy Master's joy. 

The pains of death are passed; 

Labor and sorrow cease; 
And life's long warfare closed at last. 

His soul is found in peace. 

Soldier of Christ, well done! 

Praise be thy new employ; 
And, while eternal ages run. 

Rest in thy Saviour's joy." 

May God comfort and sustain this bereaved family ; and mav He lead 
us all on at last into the larger life whither our beloved has gone. 



72 



MILE-STONE STXTY-XIXE. 



"Written by Wm. H. Collins on his Sixty-ninth Birthday, March 20, 1 ;»;>(>. 

Across the sweep of nine and sixty years 
Fair was the dawning of my natal day. 
White cloud-fleets lay upon the azure sky, 
When, borne upon a tidal wave of life, 
From the silent realm of mystery, 
A helpless, naked immigrant, I came. 

Warm were the greetings. Canopied with smiles 
My cradle. Tender ministries of love 
Responded to my cry, and mother's hope 
Began in thought to cast my horoscope. 

Those little hands! What fabric shall they weave? 
Of hemp and silk some texture strong and fine, 
Strong to defy life's hardest wear and tear? 
Will they be skilled and used to make, or break? 
Those fingers, will they clasp the sword, or pen? 
The sculptor's chisel, or the artist's brush? 

. T'hose lips, so warm upon the springs of life! 
Will they give voice to harsh, discordant words 
To cut and wound and hurt the listening ear? 
Or shape to melody the charms of song? 
Or speak the burning words of eloquence. 
To charm or soothe or rouse the multitude? 

Those soft, pink feet! Will they be torn and bleed 
Upon some rugged, flinty path of life ? 
Or with firm step climb up the hills of God, 
And so, thio' service, gain the crown of life? 
That brain! What subtile thinking shall it do? 
What depths profound, what heights will reach? 

When doubt its shadows o'er the pathway casts, 
Will it converge the broken lines of light, 
And in the focus find the problem solved? 
When will is v/eak and on tem])tation"s point. 
Will conscience, like the magnet, tremble back 
In line with the eternal poles of right? 

By mile-stone "sixty-nine" I, pensive, stand 
To trace, again, in thought, my winding path. 
A barefoot child, his every pulse a bound, 
And careless as the butterfly he chased. 
Then, eager, restless boy, so full of life. 
Hands often torn by thorn pricks set to fend 



73 

The rosy bloom which he had rudely seized; 
Feet clogged with mire from dismal swamps, 
Where he the "will-o'wisp" had chased in vain. 
Oft with his dog and gun, o'er moor and fen. 
In air and sunshine tramped the live-long day, 
To gain a tougher fiber, stronger nerve, 
Commune with nature in her various moods, 
Her springs and winding creeks and gray old hills, 
Her flowered meads and forest solitudes. 
Not vain the visions of the mother's hope! 
In manhood's strength he led a strenuous life. 
Problems of life and thought he tried to solve. 
And so for others make the pathway clear 
In tangled shadows of the forest lost, 
The path that leadeth on and up to light. 
So, too, he served with tongue and pen 
For freedom on the battle fields of thought. 
And when the bugle blew, he answered, "Here!" 
On battle line, mid crash and roar of guns. 

And when the sword was sheathed, mid furnace fires 

And hammer blows upon the anvil's face. 

Mid smoke and showering sparks from glowing steel, 

He organized strong labor's force and skill 

To forge and fit the useful tools of peace. 

Love came to him, pure mated love, the love 
Of children and of children's children, too; 
And home with love, so sweet and beautiful. 
Pure as the dew-washed lily's cup, and warm 
As is its stamens' yellow flame within. 

On summer's bloom doth follow winter's frosts. 

The diamond gleams in sunshine; so do tears. 

I've stood beside the grave. The heart-string stretched 

To bleeding strain I know. Loved voices hushed, 

The welcome footfall heard no more, the eyes 

Once bright with love, dim with the mist of death. 

And shadows yet will fall, I know not when. 

But as the star of hope its radiance cast 

Upon my path in all the by-gone years, 

My trust is firm some star will always shine 

For me above the far horizon rim. 

I've lived an earnest, plain, contented life. 

Content to sink my Ego in the All. 

'Tis well: for single dew-drops little are. 

But myriad myriads of them make 

The sea which floats the commerce of the world; 

'Tis myriad stars make radiant the night. 

I cherish not a vain regret. Without a fear. 
Content, I await the outflowing tide. 
I soon will hear the stroke of muffled oar; 
From far the chimes of evening's Angelus, 
And know^ the- mystery of mysteries. 

All's well, since love is love and God is love. 
We'll place a wreath on mile-stone "sixty-nine" 
And crown my natal as a festive day, 
And hopeful wait for three-score years and ten. 
Quincy, March 20, 1900. 



74 

WILLIAM H. COLLINS. 



Ten years have passed since mile stone sixty-nine 
Was garlanded with loving thoughts by those 
Who gathered 'neath the roof tree to break bread 
"And crown his natal as a festive day." 

Three score and ten, and still the evening star 
Burned clear and bright, not less a star of hope 
Because a beacon light to sunset's shore, 
But still a token that the day's not done. 

The years pass on, almost a decade more. 

The glory lingers in the evening sky, 

The Master's brush is stayed; He hesitates 

To paint away the sunset tints, so long have they 

Sent radiance to the world in this man's day. 

Another mile stone reached, and we who love him 
Cannot gather round and touch his hand, or look 
Into his eyes with love and birthday cheer; 
But in our heart we consecrate the day. 
In thankfulness that one we hold so dear 
The father we all love, is with us still. 



Helen to her father upon 
his seventy-ninth birthday, 
March 20, 1910. 




OLD COLLINS HOMESTEAD, 1S22, COLLINSVILLE. ILLLN'iD 



75 



THE COLLINS SETTLEMENT IN ILLINOIS. 



William H. Collins was the only son of William Burrage Collins 
the son of William Collins and Esther Morris. William Burrage 
Collins was married to Elizabeth Wilt Hertzog in Madison County, 
Illinois, Feb. 26, 1826, by Rev. Salmon Giddings. He was for a time 
associated with his three brothers in business. Later he bought the 
larger part of the real estate, and continued to carry on the milling 
business, the farm and kept a store of general merchandise. He had 
the "Yankee" versatility, and could turn his hand to useful and skillful 
work along almost any line. He was a thorough miller, and his brand 
of flour found a ready market even in Boston, Mass. 

He loved the hunter's pastime, which was gratified by the abundance 
of deer, and other game about Collinsville. He had a compass and 
chain, and did surveying for neighbors as they needed his services. 

He was an "elder' in the church and superintended the Sunday school 
and led the singing. 

He was a man of good health, but he died of typhus fever at the early 
age of thirty-three, leaving a wife, four young daughters, and a son, 
William Hertzog Collins. 

Among some old papers Mr. Collins found a history of the business 
enterprises of the Collins brothers written by one of them, Anson Col- 
lins. Extracts were made in the Collins book which Mr. William H. 
Collins compiled, for which he wrote sketches, and finished in 1897— 
including data of the family from 1630 to 1897. 

The names of these brothers were Anson, Augustus, Michael, Fred- 
erick and William Burrage. William Burrage Collins was the father of 
William Hertzog Collins. Anson in one of these extracts writes : "In 
the month of September, 1817, niy brothers Augustus and Michael with 
myself left the state of Connecticut for the western country. Augustus 
had been in partnership with me in Litchfield, Conn., about a year and 
a half. We were not as successful as we wished to be. We settled up 
and started for New York. Our old goods and such as we bought new 
were worth $3,585.75. We had not five dollars in cash when we arrived 
in St. Louis after paying expenses of freight and passage. 

"In a few months we moved to the new State of Illinois, bought land, 
paying at the land otfice one-fourth of the purchase money. 

"The next summer we followed farming on a small scale, erected a 
small log house, distillery, and in the fall of 1818 built a borre mill 
costing three hundred and fifty dollars. 



7G • 

"In the spring of 1820 xVugust went to Connecticut for more good.--, 
which he brought to Illinois. 

"In the spring of 1822 he went again to Connecticut to bring hie 
family to the west. In the spring of 1823 he opened a store in St. 
Louis to dispose of goods and shoes. This store was removed to Collins- 
ville, 111., about May, 182-J-. In the fall of this year we erected a large 
distillery. In three years it paid a profit of five thousand dollars. 

"In 1821 we engaged in the tanning business. In 1827 we again tried 
a store in St. Louis. The name of the firm was Augustus Collins and 
Company. I (Anson) went east and bought goods in the spring, and 
again in December. During my absence at this time my brother 
Augustus died." 

Writing of the marriage of Augustus in 182-1 he states : 

"At the east he got him a wife with a marriage portion of some silver 
spoons, a pair of sugar tongs, a feather bed and some linen, all of which 
after my brother's death, we returned to her, and also one set of china- 
ware, and a gilt looking glass, paid for by the company. The marriage 
ring and her wedding clress he purchased for her with the money of the 
company, all of which met our entire approbation. As our property of 
everv name and nature was common, we kept no account against each 
other." 

The agitation of the temperance question reached the Collins brothers. 
Their old pastor. Doctor Lyman Beecher, preached and pul)lished his 
celebrated "Temperance Sermons." These they read. 

They brought their distilling business before the bar of conscientious 
judgment, and decided to abandon it. To avoid even the slightest ap- 
pearance of compromise, they cut their copper still into scrap. One 
large copper kettle did duty in preparing water for scalding hogs at the 
"liog killing time," which recurred each year, or was used for boiling 
cider or making soap. It yearly went the rounds of the immediate 
neighborhood in this line of service. The best of the stones under the 
old distillery were used in the foundation of a church building. 
.' Anson, Augustus, Michael and Frederick now moved to Naples on the 
Illinois Eiver. 

The counties on the river and eastward were producing large crops of 
wheat. Their plan was to grind these crops into flour, and ship by the 
river to the markets. They also built a steamboat to use in their trade. 
In their enthusiasm for temperance, they named it "The Cold Water." 
This meant no "bar" on board. It was a rebuke to the established cus- 
toms of the community. It was flaunting a red flag in the face of the 
majority of the people defying a time honored custom and fundamental 
right. The result was that when the Iwat made a landing at St. Louis, 
it was attacked by a mol), and it was allowed to do business only after 
a change of name. Doul)tk'ss many of the ruffians in this mob were the 
same Avho drove T^ovejoy out of St. Ix)uis. to meet martyrdom at Alton, 
for his devotion to liberty and free s])eech. 

The death of Augustus and Anson in their ju'imo. led to other changes. 
Michael and Frederick rcinnved to Adams County. Illinois. The former 
operated a farm at Liberty; the latter; after a few yrars at Columbus, 
made his lionn' in tlie city of Quincy. 



PART III. 



Papers Read at the Special 

Memorial Meeting, April 

14, 1911. 



Special Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society,, Held 
April 14, 1911, in Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of the Beginning of the War Between 

the States. 



Friday afternoon, 2:30 o'clock. 

Music — ''The Old War Songs,^' under direction of the Woman's Eelief 

Corps Quartette. Mrs. G. Clinton Smith, Leader. 
The introduction of speakers was made by Hon. Clark E. Carr, President 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Music — ''Tenting on the Old Camp Ground." 
Address — ''The Patriotism of Northern Illinois," Gen. Smith D. Atkins, 

Freeport, 111. 
Music — ''Battle Cry of Freedom." 

Address — '"The Slave Empire," Mr. Eugene F. Baldwin, Peoria, 111. 
Music— '-The Vacant Chair." 
Address — "Southern Illinois in the Civil War," Hon. Bluford Wilson, 

Springfield, 111. 
Music — ''Marching Through Georgia," "Just Before the Battle, Mother." 

Evening session, 8:00 o'clocTc. 

Music — Quartette, "Illinois," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp the Boys are 

Marching." 
Introduction of the Speaker by Col. Clark E. Carr. 
Music — Song, "Lorena," Miss Bessie O'Brien. 
Address — "The Civil War," Hon. Marcus Kavanagh, Chicago, 111. 
Music — Sonsr. "Kathleen Mavourneen." Miss Bessie O'Brien. 




GEN. SMITH D. ATKINS 



79 



"PATRIOTISM OF KORTHEEN ILLINOIS. 

Gen. Smith D. Atkins, Freeport. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle:men — July 4, 1778, General 
Clark captured Kaskaskia, replacing the English with the American 
flag, and all the country west of the Alleghanies, north of the Ohio and 
east of the Mississippi, became a part of the Colony of Virginia; July 
13, 178T, that Colony, with a magnanimity unparalleled, ceded that mag- 
nificent empire to the general government, coupled with the condition 
that slavery should not exist within the territory ceded. In 1789 the 
Constitution of the United States was adopted, that recognized slavery 
in two particulars, the continuance of the African slave trade, and the 
return of fugitive slaves. April 7, 1818, Congress being about to adopt 
an enabling act for the admission of the State of Illinois, JSTathaniel 
Pope, delegate in Congress from the Territory of Illinois, moved that 
the northern boundary of the proposed new State, instead of a line west- 
ward through the southern bend of Lake Michigan, be moved northward 
to 42 degrees 30 minutes, the present northern boundary, adding what 
became fourteen counties, and parts of others; Dec. 3, 1818, the State 
of Illinois was admitted with a free State Constitution. In 1820, 
Missouri applied for admission with slavery, and at the instance of 
Jesse B. Thomas, United States Senator from Illinois, Missouri was 
admitted as a slave state in 1821; but westward and north on the south 
line of Missouri no state with slavery was to be admitted. In 1832, 
South Carolina, technically on the tariff question, really on the slavery 
question, attempted to secede from the Union; but the incipient rebel- 
lion was quickly suppressed by Andrew Jackson, President of the 
United States, by a proclamation accompanied by appropriate pro- 
fanity. Sept. 3, 1850, California, south of the Missouri compromise 
line, was admitted with a free state Constitution, and many people 
believed that by that legislation the Missouri Compromise was re- 
pealed. July 21, 1851, the Kansas-jSTebraska bill was passed, directly 
repealing the Missouri Compromise, introduced by United States Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois. In 1856 Buchanan, Democrat, was 
elected President. In December, 1856, immediately after the election, 
the Dred Scott case was decided by the Supreme Court of the United 
States. The facts were simple : Dred Scott, a slave, was brought by his 
master, in 1834, to Eock Island. 111.; it is curious to note how intimately 
Illinois is connected with the slavery question from the beginning; 
for two years Dred Scott was held as a slave on the soil of Illinois, 
notwithstanding the Xorth West Ordinance of 1787, and the Free 



80 

State Constitution of Illinois of 1818; and after he was taken back to 
Missouri he brought suit for his freedom, and that case found its way 
by appeal into the Supren*ie Court of the United States, and that court 
decided that he was still a slave; that the North West Ordinance of 
ITS?, and the Free State Constitution of Illinois, of 1818, were entirely 
void on the question of slavery, because there was no power, legislative, 
executive, or judicial, tliat could exclude slavery from any place where 
the Constitution of the United States was supreme. Toombs of Georgia 
was right. If that decision of the Supreme Court of the United States 
was to stand, he might call the' roll of his slaves at the foot of the Bunker 
Hill monument in Massachusetts. 

In 1858 occurred the joint debates between Stephen A. Douglas and 
Abraham Lincoln, turning upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and the Dred Scott decision. I attended one of those debates, at Free- 
port, 111., Aug. 27, 1858. Mr. Lincoln arrived early in the day, and his 
room at the Brewster House was soon filled with callers. I was present. 
There was, in no sense, a consultation of Mr. Lincoln's supporters, but 
in a general conversation that appeared to come about naturally, Mr. 
Lincoln read the questions he proposed to ask of Mr. Douglas, the second 
of which was : 

Q. 2. Can the people of a United States Territory, in any lawful 
way, against the wish of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery 
from its limits, prior to the formation of such a state constitution? 

All of the prominent Eepublicans present who engaged in the con- 
versation objected to Mr. Lincoln's asking that question of Mr. Douglas, 
especially Mr. Joseph Medill, Mr. Elihu B. Washburne and Mr. Owen 
Lovejoy, because they argued that Mr. Douglas would, notwithstanding 
his unqualified endorsement of the Dred Scott case, answer that the 
people of a territory could exclude slavery by "unfriendly legislation,'' 
and that Mr. Douglas would please the people liy his answer, and would 
beat Mr. Lincoln for Senator from Illinois. After listening to all that 
was said against his putting that question to Mr. Douglas, Mr. Lincoln 
replied, "I don't know how Mr. Douglas will answer ; if he answers that 
the people of a territory cannot pxclude slavery, I will beat him; but 
if he answers as you say he will, and as I believe he will, he may beat 
me for Senator, but be will never be President." And Mr. Lincoln act- 
ing upon his own judgment, did ask that question of Mr. Douglas, and 
Mr. Douglas did answer as every one said he would and as Mr. Lincoln 
believed he would, and ]\Ir. Douglas did beat Mr. Lincoln for Senator 
from Illinois ; but by his answer he lost the Presidency of the United 
States, and that joint debate in Freeport made Mr. Lincoln so well 
known throughout the country that he was himself iiumediately talked 
of as a candidate for President. 

In 1860 there were four candidates for President : Abraham Lincoln, 
Stc])hen A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridgt', and John Bell. On the 
popular vote ^Ir. Lincoln received 1,857,010 ; "Mr. Dousilas, 1,3()5.9T(); 
Mr. Breckenridge, 847,55:5 : :\[r. Bell, 500,631. in the Electoral College 
]\Ir. Lincoln had 180; :\rr. Douglas 12; Mr. Breckenridge 72; Mr. Bell 
39. Mr. Lincoln had a majority in the Eleetin-al College of 57 over all 
opposing candidates, iindci' all tlic forms of law. 



81 

The southern politicians had deliboratoly divided the Democratic vote 
between Mr. Breckenridge and Mv. Douglas, making Mr. Lincoln's elec- 
tion certain, which the South desired. Almost instantly the South began 
preparations for the coming war; the southern members of Congress 
and Senators resigned; southern state after state passed ordinances of 
secession, and voted millions of dollars to arm and equip soldiers; on 
the 9th of February, 1861, Jelferson Davis, of Mississippi, and Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, of Georgia, at Montgomery, Alabama, were chosen 
President and Vice President of the "Southern Confederacy." Forts, 
arsenals, and public buildings were seized, and the South became an 
armed camp. 

What was the North doing all this time? Absolutely nothing. The 
North, like a giant, was still, waiting for the inauguration of the new 
President, who was inaugurated at Washington, March 4, 1861, speaking 
kindly to the South in his inaugural address, saying, in part : "In your 
hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the 
momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you." 
Although the South was an armed camp the new President, and the 
North, quietly waited for the South to begin the war. 

On April 14, 1861, fifty years ago today, Fort Sumter was fired upon 
by the Eebels. On the 15th, President Lincoln called for 75,000 three 
months volunteers. On the 18th of April, 1861, the proclamation of 
Governor Yates, of Illinois, calling for six regiments of volunteers, was 
read in the Court House at Freeport, and a few minutes later William 
Polk came into the Court House, and requested me to draw up an 
agreement to enlist in the army, which I did, and signed it before any 
one else had a chance to do so, and in that manner it happened that 
I was the first volunteer in Stephenson County that enlisted as a private 
soldier in the Civil War; before night the company was full, and I was 
elected Captain, and the company was accepted by Governor Yates, and 
was soon ordered to Springfield, and between Decatur and Springfield 
the train was side tracked to let a special train bearing Senator Douglas, 
wdio had spoken at Indianapolis the evening before, go ahead of our 
train, and upon arriving at the Wabash depot in Springfield some one 
on horseback told us to wait until Senator Douglas arrived from his 
hotel, and he soon came, and standing up in his open carriage, he wel- 
comed the volunteers to the capital of Illinois, and bade them God-speed 
in the work in which they were about to engage, saying among other 
things, "The time has come where there can be but two parties in this 
country, a party of patriots, and a party of traitors." I tell you, my 
fellow citizens, my hat went high in the air for Senator Douglas, and 
I have been one of his admirers from that hour. He was as loyal to 
his country as was Abraham Lincoln. Better than that, the Douglas 
Democrats of Illinois, and better still, the Douglas Democrats through- 
out all the loyal North were as lo3'al as their loyal leader. Had he 
lived he would have been a great leader of the loyal people. My com- 
pany was attached to the 11th Regiment, Col. W. H. L. Wallace. 

In that first call for volunteers in the Civil War the fourteen north- 
ern counties attached to this State, April 7, 1818, on the motion of 
— 6 H S 



82 

Nathaniel Pope, Territorial delegate in Congress, were especially dis- 
tinguished. That section was settled almost entirely by immigrants 
from New England, and the Free States, who loved liberty for them- 
selves, and for all the world besides. From one of those counties, under 
the command of General R. Iv. Swift, on April 21, 1861, went troops 
that occupied Cairo, keeping Illinois in the Union. 

How they did come from everywhere, the volunteers — Democrats and 
Eepublicans mingling together and crowding around the enrolling offi- 
cers, party sunk in patriotism — the sun-burned farmer boys from their 
fields, the grimy mechanics from their shops, the pale student from his 
school or college, the clerk from his store, the bookkeeper from his 
counting house, the lawyers from their offices; even the ministers from 
their pulpits, the grey-haired sire and the slender boy, from every walk 
in life, humble or exalted, until the ranks were more than full, and 
with sad hearts they were turned homeward, denied the privilege to be 
among the first. I think that if President Lincoln had made his first 
call for a million soldiers for the war, the call would have been quickly 
filled, and the war quickly ended; but in all probability slavery would 
not have been destroyed, and I think that I can now see the guiding 
hand of God in the halting provisions at first made for the great war. 
But the patriotism of the volunteers never cooled, it only grew deeper 
and stronger until other calls were made to fill the vacant ranks that the 
casualties of war had depleted; it was grand beyond any words of mine 
to tell; and grander and nobler was the abiding confidence and contin- 
uing patriotism of the volunteers, that not only in the hours of excite- 
ment flamed up, but in the darkest hours of disaster and defeat glowed 
warmly and brightly, sustaining them in the weary routine duties of 
dull camp life, on the long and tiresome marches, in the toilsome work 
of building fortifications, on the lonely picket post, in the sad hospitals, 
in the Confederate prisons, amid the awful shock of battle, everywhere 
and always during the long weary years until the final victory came, 
and the volunteers had saved the Union, had saved the Nation, had 
saved "the hope of freedom in the world by keeping the jewel of Liberty 
in the family of Nations." 

From one of those fourteen northern counties, Jo Daviess, came a 
quiet, silent gentleman, anxious to serve his country in any capacity, 
U. S. Grant, whom I saw in April, 1861, at a table in the hall under 
a stairway in the old State House ruling blanks to be printed for the 
volunteer soldiers, and who rose to the command of all the armies, the 
greatest General of the century in which he lived, twice President of 
the United States. And from that same northern county came General 
John A. Pawlins, whose patriotism never cooled, afterwards Secretary 
of War; and Major General John E. Smith, and Brigadier Generals J. 
A. Maltby and A. L. Chetlain, and Colonel Thomas E. Champion, and 
Lieutenant Colonel John C. Smith, and Captain J. Bates Dixon, Adju- 
tant General of the Army of the Cumberland. And from the adjoining 
northern county of Stephenson came Lieutenant General John M. Scho- 
field, at one time a clerk in the Freeport postoffice, one of the great 



83 

army commanders and Secretary of War; and Colonel Thomas J. Tur- 
ner, ex-Speaker of the Illinois General Assembly, and ex-Member of 
Congress; Colonel John A. Davis, mortally wonnded at the battle of 
Hatchie; and Colonel Holden Putnam, killed at the battle of Mission- 
ary Eidge. And from another northern county, little Boone, came 
Major General Stephen A. Hurlbut, as gallant and competent a soldier 
as ever served in any army ; and from Winnebago, Colonel Jason Marsh, 
and Thomas J. Lawler, Commander in Chief of the Grand Army of the 
Eepublic. From Lee County, Colonel Silas Noble, and Colonel John 

B. Wyman of the 13th Illinois, killed at Chickasaw Bayou; and John 
D. Crabtree, Judge of the Circuit Court; and Henry D. Dement, ex- 
Secretary of State. From Whiteside, Brigadier General Edward X. 
Kirk, killed early in the war, and William M. Kilgour; and from Lake 
County, Gen. John L. Beveridge, Governor of Illinois, and Gen, George 

C. Eodgers; and from Kane, General John F. Farnsworth, a Member 
of Congress, and Colonel John S. Wilcox; from McHenry County, 
Colonel Lawrence S. Church, a member of the Illinois Legislature, and 
Colonel T. AV. Humphrey, killed in battle; and from DeKalb, Daniel S. 
Dustin, and E. F. Dutton; and from Cook, General John McArthur, 
General Julius White, General Thomas 0. Osborn, General John Basil 
Turchin, Colonel of tlie 19th Illinois, one of the best fighting generals 
of the Army of the Cumberland ; Colonel David Stewart of the ooth 
Illinois; General James A. Mulligan, Colonel Ezra Taylor, Major 
Arthur C, Dncat, Inspector General of the Army of the Cumberland; 
Judge Henry Y. Freeman, and 0. L. Mann, sheriff of Cook County, 
R. W. Healey, F, A. Starring, Joseph A. Stockton, James A. Sexton, 
and General Charles T. Hotchkiss. I have only mentioned by name 
those with whom I was personally acquainted, a few only, a verj' few 
of the gallant soldiers among the thousands npon thousands who helped 
to illustrate the patriotism of northern Illinois in those trying days, all 
as worthy of mention. After all it was tlie men who carried the muskets 
who fought the battles of the great war, and saved lil^erty for the world, 
and northern Illinois furnished its full quota of patriotic soldiers. 

The war is over. Slavery is forever dead, and has only historical 
interest. The Union is restored, not only technically, but in the hearts 
of the people everywhere. One flag, one country, one destiny. May the 
victory endure "until the stars are old, and the sun grows cold, and 
the leaves of the Judgfment Book unfold." 



84 



THE DEEAM OF THE SOUTH— STORY OF ILLINOIS DURING 

THE CIVIL WAR. 



Eugene F. Baldwin, Peoria. 

The dream of the southern leaders was a great slave empire. In 
their imagination, they saw the southern states take in the West India 
Islands, Mexico, Central America, the states of South America fringing 
on the Caribbean Sea. As the Mediterranean Sea was once a Roman 
lake, they hoped to repeat the experiment in the new world. They saw 
in imagination themselves as the rulers of this new empire; divested of 
the evils attaching to military rule, each man was to be a feudal baron, 
supreme in his own domain, possessing upon his acres the power of life 
and death over his retainers, and only controlled by a loose attachment 
to a central authority. 

Jefferson foreshadowed it when he insisted that the policy of the Union 
was to discriminate against the growth of cities; to hold the agricultural 
class as the true source of power, the basis of a nation's wealth and the 
bulwark of the nation's freedom. So late as 1820 Jefferson bitterly 
opposed the Missouri Compromise, holding that this created a sectional 
feeling, and that it would be infinitely better to extend slavery over the 
whole Union than to confine it within territorial limits. 

Calhoun had, up to that time, been an ardent protectionist ; but now, 
he too, caught the inspiration and during the rest of his life, devoted 
himself to instilling into the southern mind a prejudice against northern 
methods and northern men. He -was never weary of saying tliat at the 
outbreak of the revolution, Charleston was a more important shipping 
point than New York City, and but for the tariff, it would still be the 
great entreport for the south.. Really, the tariff was only a pretext for 
the nullification acts of South Carolina in 1832 which Jackson so reso- 
lutely crushed. None of the southern statesmen were able to understand 
that slavery as an economical proposition was a failure, and while they 
grew poorer and poorer every year, they sought the cause, not in the 
failure of their system, but in legislation whicli they insisted was 
steadily framed in order to give the north the advantage in trade. 

Calhoun also saw that it was idle to attempt to cut the Mississippi 
Valley in two, and so, he endeavored to detach Illinois from the northern 
column and to make it a southern state, so that there would be no longer 
the reproach that the Mississippi must not be obstructed, but "that its 
waters must flow unvexcd to the sea." After the failure of the secession 
movement in 1832, he advocated the construction of a railroad from 



85 

Charleston to Cairo, knowing that with two great slave states — Illinois 
and Missouri — on each side of the Father of the Waters, the land west 
of the Mississippi must come into the scheme as a matter of course. 

The ordinance of 1787 which dedicated the northwestern territory to 
freedom was passed as a financial measure because Manasseh Cutler, the 
fiscal agent for that territory, declared that he could not sell the land if 
slavery were permitted, and the measure passed by the aid of southern 
votes. But the southern statesmen soon saw their error and a vigorous 
effort w^as made in 1818, when Illinois was admitted to the Union, to 
have slavery incorporated into its fundamental law. The effort failed 
by a narrow margin, but the effort two years afterwards vs^as renewed 
in Missouri and was successful. Encouraged by this effort, an attempt 
was made in the early 20's to call a constitutional convention for the 
purpose of admitting slavery, but this was defeated by the patriotism of 
Governor Coles who, although a Virginian, fought the measure and 
defeated the pro-slavery men. The conflict, therefore, in the west was 
fought out in this State under peculiar conditions. The early settlers 
in the southern part of the State were from the slave states. Numbers 
of these were poor whites. They settled along the banks of the streams ; 
devoted themselves to hunting and fishing; voted the democratic ticket; 
hurrahed for Jackson and "damned the nigger." "When Douglas and 
Lincoln were holding their joint debate, Douglas declared that Lincoln 
would not dare make the same speech in southern Illinois that he made 
in Freeport and Ottawa, and Lincoln never denied the accusation. 

When Sumpter was fired upon and Douglas exhorted his friends to 
stand by the Union, in the great wave of patriotism that surged over the 
land like a tidal wave, all classes sprang to arms, and this very element 
that originally came from the south speedily enlisted and did valiant 
service for the cause. The stay-at-homes, however, still nourished their 
old prejudices and frequently avowed that they were willing to contri- 
bute to the cause of the Union, but they wouldn't vote a man nor a 
dollar "to free the nigger." This sentiment speedily found voice. 

After the reverses of Bull Eun and the failure of the "On-to-Rich- 
mond" movement, public opinion steadily drifted away from support of 
the administration, and in the elections of 1862 a Democratic majority 
was returned, both in the Senate and the House of Representatives of 
the General Assembly of this State. They met in Springfield in angry 
mood. On January 1st the Emancipation Proclamation was to take 
effect. In the Senate were such men as William H. Green of Massac; 
W. A. J. Sparks of Clinton; John T. Lindsay of Peoria. Some idea 
may be obtained of the intensity of party feeling in that day when Lind- 
say in a public speech declared that "if hell were boiled down to the con- 
sistency of a pint of liquid fire and the whole contents poured down the 
throat of Abraham Lincoln, the dose would be altogether too good for 
him." In the House were Sam Buckmaster of Madison; Scott Wike of 
Pike; S. P. Shope of Fulton; W. W. O'Brien of Peoria and Melville W. 
Fuller of Cook, all of whom figured afterwards in the politics of this 
State as vigorous opponents of the administration. The House or- 
ganized by electing Sam Buckmaster speaker, and the Governor's mes- 
sage was laid before them on the 6th day of January. 



86 

Fortunately, we had as Governor, Eicliard Yates, who, although Ken- 
tucky bred and born, was an ardent patriot, a believer in liberty, and 
in his message to this Legislature, he alluded to the policy of emanci- 
pation by saying : "It is not to be overlooked that there exists a degree 
of prejudice in the minds of the people upon the subject of giving free- 
dom to the slave, to which politicians appeal with fatal injur}- to the 
cause' of that enlightened progress which has been so providentially 
placed Avithin the reach of the present generation. A grand opportunity 
is presented to us by the logic of events. By a wise and Christian policy 
we blot out a mighty wrong to one class of people now in bondage, and 
secure lasting peace and happiness to another. I am sure of two things. 
First, that when slavery is removed, this rebellion will die out and not 
before. Second, I believe and predict and commit the prediction in 
this State paper to meet the verdict of my successors in office and of 
posterity that the change brought about by the policy of emancipation 
will pass off in a way so quietly and easily that the world will stand 
amazed that we should have entertained such fears of its evils." 

This message fell upon deaf ears. The House proceeded to appoint 
a Committee on Federal Relations and the majority of this committee 
brought in a report which was as follows : 

"Whereas, The Union has no existence separate from the federal Con- 
stitution, but being created solely by that instrument, it can only exist 
by virtue thereof ; and when the provisions of that Constitution are sus- 
pended, either in time of Avar or in peace, whether by the North or the 
South, it is alike this Union, and, 

"Whereas, The federal government can lawfully exercise no power 
that is not conferred upon it by the federal Constitution, the exercise, 
therefore, of other powers not granted by that instrument in time of 
war, as well as in time of peace, is a violation of the written will of the 
American peo]3le, destructiA^e of their plan of government and of their 
common liberties, and, 

"Whereas, The Constitution cannot be maintained, nor the Union 
preserved in opposition to public feeling by a mere exercise of the co- 
ercive poAvers confided to the general government, and that in case of 
differences and conflicts betAveen the states and the federal government, 
too poAverful for adjustment by the civil departments of the goA-ernment, 
the appeal is not to the SAA'ord by the State or by the general govern- 
ment, but to the j)eople peacefully assembled by their representatives in 
convention, and, 

"Whereas, The allegiance of the citizen is due alone to the Con.-^titu- 
tion and laAvs made in ])ursua]icc thereof — not to any man or otlicer or 
administration — and whatever support is due to any officer of this gov- 
ernment is due alone l)y virtue of the Constitution and laws, and. 

"Whereas, Also,, the condition of the Avhole republic, but more 
especially the preservation of the liberties of the people of Illinois, im- 
peratiA-ely demands that we, their representatives, should make known 
to our felloAv countrymen our deliberate judgment and Avill, 

"We. therefore, declare, that the acts of the federal administration, in 
suspending the Avrit of linheas corpus, the arrest of citizens not sul)ject 
to militarv law. witlioiit warrant and without aulliorilv — t rausnortinir 



87 

them to distant statos, incarcerating tliein in political prisons, without 
charge or accusation — denying them the right of trial by- jury, witnesses 
in their favor or counsel for their defense ; withholding from them all 
knowledge of their accusers and the cause of their arrest — answering 
their petitions for redress by repeated injury and insult — prescribing in 
many cases as a condition of their release, test oaths, arbitrary and 
illegal; in the abridgement of freedom of speech and of the press by 
imprisoning the citizen for expressing his sentiments, by suppressing 
newspapers, by military force and establishing a censorship over others, 
wholly incompatible with freedom of thought and expression of opinion, 
and the establishment of a system of espionage by a secret police to 
invade the sacred privacy of unsuspecting citizens ; dec-laring martial law 
over states not in rebellion, and where the courts are open and unob- 
structed for the punishment of crime ; in declaring the slaves of loyal 
as well as disloyal citizens in certain states and parts of states free ; the 
attempted enforcement of compensation emancipation ; the proposed tax- 
ation of the laboring white man to purchase the freedom and secure the 
elevation of the negro; the transportation of negroes into the State of 
Illinois in defiance of the repeatedly expressed will of the people ; the 
arrest and imprisonment of the representatives of a free and sovereign 
State; the dismemberment of the state of Virginia, erecting within her 
boundaries a new state without the consent of her legislature, are each 
and all arbitrary and unconstitiitional. a usurpation of the legislative 
functions, a suspension of the judicial departments of the state and 
federal government, subverting the Constitution — state and federal — 
invading the reserved rights of the people and the sovereignty of the 
states, and if sanctioned, destructive of the Union — establishing upon 
the common ruins of the liberties of the people and the sovereignty of 
the states a consolidated military despotism. 

"And we here solemnly declare that no American citizen can, without 
the crime of infidelity to his country's constitutions and the allegiance 
which he bears to each, sanction such usurpations. 

"Believing that our silence would be criminal, and may be construed 
into consent, in deep reverence for our Constitution which has been 
nithlessly violated, we do hereby enter our most solemn protest against 
these usurpations of power, and place the same before the world, intend- 
ing thereby to warn our public servants against further usurpation ; 
therefore. 

''Bcsolved htf the House of Fepresentativcs. the Senate cmicurring 
herein, That the army was organized, confiding in the declaration of 
the President in his inaugural address, to wit : 'That he had no pur- 
pose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery 
in the states wliei'e it existed, and that he believed he had no lawful 
right to do so, and that he had no inclination to do so,' and upon the 
declaration of the federal congress, to wit : 'That this war is not waged 
in any spirit of oppression or subjugation or any purpose of overthrow- 
ing any of the institutions of any of the states,' and that, inasmuch as 
the whole policy of the administration since the organization of the 
army has been at war with the declarations aforesaid, culminating in 
the Emancipation Proclamation, leaving the facts patent, that the war 



88 

has been diverted from its first avowed object to that of subjugation 
and the abolition of slavery, a fraud both legal and moral has been per- 
petrated upon the brave sons of Illinois who have so nobly gone forth to 
battle for the Constitution and the laws. And while we protest against 
the continuance of this gross fraud upon our citizen soldiers, we thank 
them for that heroic conduct on the battlefields that sheds imperishable 
glory on the State, of Illinois. 

"Resolved, That we believe the further prosecution of the present war 
cannot result in the restoration of the Union and the preservation of the 
Constitution as our fathers made it, unless the President's Emancipation 
Proclamation be withdrawn. 

"Resolved, That while we condemn and denounce the flagrant and 
monstrous usurpation of the administration and encroachments of aboli- 
tionism, we equally condemn and denounce the ruinous heresy of seces- 
sion as unwarranted by the Constitution and destructive alike of the 
security and perpetuity of our government and the peace and liberty of 
our people; and fearing as we do that it is the intention of the present 
Congi-ess and administration at no distant day to acknowledge the inde- 
pendence of the Southern Confederacy and thereby sever the Union, we 
hereby solemnly declare that we are unalterably opposed to any such 
severance of the Union and that we never can consent that the great 
northwest shall be separated from the southern states comprising the 
Mississippi Valley. That river shall never water the soil of two nations, 
but from its source to its confluence with the Gulf shall belong to one 
great and united people. 

"Resolved, That peace, fraternal relations and political fellowship 
should be restored among the states; that the best interests of all and 
the welfare of mankind require that this should be done in the most 
speedy and effective manner ; that it is to the people we must look for a 
restoration of the Union and the blessings of peace, and to these ends we 
should direct our earnest and honest efforts ; and hence, we are in favor 
of the assembling of a national convention of all the states to so adjust 
our national difficulties that the states may hereafter live together in 
harmony, each being secured in the rights guaranteed to all of our 
fathers; and which convention we recommend shall convene at Louis- 
ville, Ky., or such other place as shall be determined upon by Congress 
or the several states at the earliest practical period. 

"Resolved, further, Therefore, that to attain the objects of the fore- 
going resolutions, we hereby memorialize the Congress of the United 
States, the administration at Washington and the executive and legisla- 
tures of the several states to take such action as shall secure an armistice 
in which the rights and safety of the government shall be fully protected 
for such length of time as will enable the people to meet in convention 
aforesaid, and we therefore earnestly recommend to our fellow citizens 
everywhere to observe and keep all their lawful and constitutional obli- 
gations, to abstain from all violence and to meet together and reason, 
eacli with the other, u]ion the best mode to attain the great blessings of 
peace, unity and liberty; and be it further, 

"Resolved, That to secure the cooperation of the states and the general 
goveiTiment, Stephen T. Logan, Samuel S. Marshall, H. K. S. Omel- 



89 

vcny., William C. Gaudy, Anthony Thornton and John D. Caton are 
hereby appointed commissioners to confer immediately with Congress and 
the President of the United States, and with the legislatures and execu- 
tives of the several states and urge the necessity of prompt action to 
secure said armistice and the election of delegates to and the early 
assembling of said convention, and to arrange and agree with the general 
government and the several states upon the time and place of holding 
said convention ; and that they report their action in the premises to the 
General Assembly of this State. 

"Resolved, That the Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives be 
requested to transmit a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions 
to the President of the United States, to each of our senators and 
representatives in Congress and to each of the governors and speakers of 
the House of Eepresentatives of the several states." 

These resolutions were simply carrying out the program outlined by 
the southern statesmen, looking forward to detaching Illinois from the 
cause of the Union and annexing it with its fortunes to the south. The 
resolutions were said to have been drawn up by a member from Cook 
County, a young lawyer who never obtained more than a third-class 
position at the bar of his home city; but who for his part in this trans- 
action attained sufficient notoriety to be afterwards appointed to the 
position of chief justice of the supreme court. i\.t the time of his 
appointment, he was so poor that it was currently reported that the 
question of fare from Chicago to Washington was a matter of consider- 
able importance to him. Twenty-two years afterwards, he died, leaving 
a fortune of a million dollars. When public attention was attracted to 
this fact, his family published a statement that this wealth was the 
result of successful real estate investments in Chicago, but, as a matter 
of fact, only $200,000 of his estate was in real estate. The rest was in 
securities paying a handsome dividend. Eepublics are not always un- 
grateful. 

A minority report Avas prepared, but this was voted down and the 
above preamble and resolutions were adopted by a vote of fifty-two 
'"yeas" to twenty-eight "nays." They would undoubtedly have passed 
the Senate at once, but on the 13th of February Senator Eodgers, a 
democrat, died and left the Senate a tie, so that the General Assembly 
took a recess until the 2d of June. 

When these resolutions were reported, they excited the greatest commo- 
tion throughout the State, but the democratic force was so strong in the 
General Assembly that the opposition was cowed until Senator Isaac 
Funk of McLean County rose to his feet. He was born in old Yiro-inia, 
but when a boy had crossed the mountains and sought a new home on 
the prairies of Illinois. He had been a successful farmer and was known 
as a man of probity and honor, and now, in his old age, he had been 
selected by his fellow citizens to represent them in the State Senate. 
"\\Tien the original draft of the resolution was published and read in the 
Senate, his soul boiled within him. Then he made the following speech : 

"Mr. Speaker, I can sit in my seat no longer and see such boys' play 
going on. These men are trifling with the best interests of the countrv. 



90 

They should have ass's ears to set off their heads, or they are secessionists 
and traitors at heart. 

"I say there are traitors and secessionists at heart in this Senate. Their 
actions prove 'it; their speeches prove it; their jibes and laughter and 
cheers here nightly when their speakers get up in this hall and denounce 
the war and administration prove it. 

"I can sit here no longer and not tell these traitors what I think of 
them, and, while so telling it, I am responsible myself for what I say. 
I stand upon my own bottom ; I am ready to meet any man on this floor 
in an}^ manner, from a pin's point to the mouth of a cannon, upon this 
charge against these traitors. (Tremendous applause from the gallery.) 
I am an old man of sixty-five. I came to Illinois a poor boy. I have 
made a little something for myself and family. I pay $3,000 a year in 
taxes. I am willing to pay $6,000 — aye, $12,000 — (great cheering) — 
aye, I am willing to pay my whole fortune and then give my life to save 
m}^ country from these traitors that are seeking to destroy it. (Tremen- 
dous cheers and applause.) 

"Mr. Speaker, you must please excuse me. I could not sit longer in 
my seat and calmly listen to these traitors. My heart that feels for my 
poor country would not let me. My heart that cries out for the lives of 
our brave volunteers in the field that these traitors at home are destroying 
by thousands would not let me. My heart that bleeds for the widows 
and orphans at home would not let me. Yes, these villains and traitors 
and secessionists in this Senate are killing my neighbors' boys now fight- 
ing in the field. I dare to tell this to these traitors to their faces and 
that I am responsible for what I say to one or all of them. Let them 
come on right here. I am sixty-five years old, and I have made up my 
mind to risk my life right here on this floor for my country. 

"These men sneered at Colonel ]\Iack a day or two ago. He is a little 
man; but I am a large man. I am ready to meet any of them in place 
of Colonel Mack. I am large enough for them and I hold myself ready 
for them now and at any time. (Cheers.) 

"Mr. Speaker, these traitors on this floor should be provided Avith 
hempen collars. They deserve them ! They deserve them I Tliey 
deserve hanging, I say ! The country would be better off to swing them 
up. I go for hanging them and I dare to tell them so right here to 
their traitors' faces. Traitors should be hanged and it would be the 
salvation of the country to hang them, and for that reason I would 
rejoice at it. (Tremendous cheering.) 

"Mr. Speaker, I beg pardon of the gentlemen in the Senafo who 
are not traitors, but true, loyal men. for what T have said. T only 
intend it and mean it for secessionists at heart. .They are here in ibis 
Senate. T see them joke and smirk and grin at n true rnion man. liur 
I defy them. I stand here readv for tliem and dare them to come on. 
((.ireat cheering.) What man witli a heart of a patriot could stand 
this treason any longer? T have stood it long enough. T will stand it 
no more. (Cheers.) T denounce these men and their aiders and abet- 
tors as rank traitors and secessionists. Hell itstdt' eonld not spew out 
a more traitoi'ous crew tlian some of tlie men who disgrace tliis TjCgis- 



91 

lature, this State and this country. For myself, I" protest against and 
denounce their treasonable acts. I have voted against their measures. 
I will do so to the end. I will denounce them as long as God gives me 
breath, and I am ready to meet the traitors themselves here or anywhere 
and fight them to the death. (Prolonged cheers.) 

"I said 1 paid $3,000 a year taxes. I do not say it to brag of it. It 
is my duty — yes, Mr. Speaker, my privilege — to do it, but some of the 
traitors here who are working niglit and day to get their miserable little 
bills and claims through the Legislature to take money out of the 
pockets of the people are talking about high taxes. They are hypocrites 
as well as traitors. I heard some of them talking about high taxes in 
this way Avho do not pay $5.00 in support of the government. T 
denounce them as hypocrites as well as traitors. 

"The reason that they pretend to be afraid of high taxes is they do 
not want to vote money for the relief of the soldiers. They want also 
to embarrass the government and stop the war. They want to aid the 
secessionists to conquer our boys in the field. They care about taxes ! 
They are picayune men, anywav". They pay no taxes at all and never 
did and never hope to unless they can manage to plunder the govern- 
ment. (Cheers.) This is an excuse of traitors. 

"Mr. Speaker, excuse me. I feel for my country in this, her hour 
of danger. I feel for her from the tips of my toes to the ends of my 
hair. That is the reason that I speak as I do. I cannot help it. I 
am bound to tell these men to their teeth what they are and what the 
people, the true, loyal people, think of them. 

"Mr. Speaker, I have said my say. I am no speaker. This is the 
only speech I have made, and I do not know that it deserves to be called 
a speech. I could not sit still any longer and see these scoundrels and 
traitors work out their selfish schemes to destroy the Union. They have 
my sentiments. Let them one and all make the most of them. I am 
read}' to back up all I say, and, I repeat it, to meet these traitors in 
any manner they may choose, from a pin's po.int to the mouth of a 
cannon." 

The speech of Farmer Funk was like a clarion peal. It was widely 
circulated all over the Union and it brought such confusion into the 
ranks of the opposition that when they assembled on the 3d of June, 
they began to quarrel over the question of adjournment. The two 
houses disagreed and Governor Yates took advantage of a clause of the 
Constitution and prorogued the whole l)ody until the Saturday next 
preceding the first Monday in January, 18(35. The majority of the 
members presented to the Supreme Court a question as to the legality 
of the Governor's action. Sidney Breese was at that time chief justice, 
and he delivered an opinion in which he said : "Admitting then that the 
act of the Governor was, in the language of the protest, "illegal, outrageous 
and unconstitutional,' both houses having adopted it and dispersed, they 
thereby put an end to the session, evincing at the time no intention to 
resume it. This, for all practical purposes, was an adjournment si?ie 
die." And thus ended the existence of that General Assembly and the 
controversy that grew out of it. 



92 

This was .the last effort of the great conspirac_y. The continued suc- 
cess of the troops in the field, the re-election of Lincoln as president 
foreshadowed the early collapse of the Confederacy, and the dream of 
a great slave empire faded away like frost under the beams of the 
morning sun. Slavery was accursed of God, and although, like the evil 
spirit in the Scriptures, "it rent its victims sore," it finally died and 
made no sign. But the effort to wrest Illinois from the column of 
freedom and make it the pinnacle point for the twin relic of barbarism 
failed as had the fight for polygamy failed twenty years before. And 
we may rejoice that in those days of fierce struggle, our fathers were 
as true to the cause as their fathers had been when they pledged "their 
lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor." 

The slave empire was crushed and the Union saved by the valor of 
Illinois men. Against the subtlety of Calhoun, the impetuous valor of 
Jefferson Davis and the ability of Lee were matched the statesmanship 
of Lincoln, the military genius of Grant and the patriotism of the 
citizen-soldier, John A. Logan. These three stand like mountain peaks, 
towering heavenward, the culmination of a vast range. As we recede, 
the foothills fade away. Chase and Stanton, Blair and Colfax, Welles 
and Winter Davis and Sumner and Wade and Phillips and a host of 
those who "loomed large in the public eye" are sinking into shadowy 
ghosts of the past. But Lincoln, Grant and Logan still abide. Their 
lofty forms tower like beacons on the distant horizon. The sunlight 
gilds their crests. The radiance of the dawn and the mellow tints of 
sunset irradiate the mass, while the shafts of malice, the arrows of 
envy and detraction lie broken and lost in the mists at their feet. 



SOUTHERN ILLINOIS IN THE CIVIL WAE. 



Bluford Wilson, Springfield. 

In a large way, my field embraces all of Illinois south of the geo- 
graphical center. Eor the sake of accuracy it may be said that this 
center has been determined by survey to be at or near Illiopolis, in 
Sangamon County. The claim, in behalf of that lovely little village, 
for the location of the State Capital, at the time of its. removal from 
Vandalia, was based on the fact that it was the exact geographical 
center of the State; but under federal legislation, dividing the State in 
1855 for judicial purposes, the "District of Southern Illinois" has in- 
cluded all that portion of the State, south of the north line of Hancock, 
McDonough, Fulton, Tazewell, McLean, Ford and Vermilion. 

This large territory embraced sixty-nine (69) counties out of the one 
hundred and two (102) in the State and included an important State 
judicial division, known as the "Southern Grand Division," which in- 
cluded the counties of Madison, Bond, Fayette, Effingham, Jasper, Craw- 
ford and all south to Alexander. 

Coming still nearer, to the especial subject of my study, we observe 
that all the territory south of the old Ohio and Mississippi railroad, 
from Vincennes to St. Louis, excepting St. Clair County has been for 
many years, known in politics as "Egypt." 

According to the ignorance or intelligence of the parties using the 
phrase it has been at times a title of contempt or of praise. To those 
who have given no thought to the subject it is usually an appellation of 
contempt. Historically, of course, the name came in natural sequence 
from Cairo, the thriving city, located at the junction of the Ohio and 
the Mississippi. Measured by the facts of which it is my privilege, to 
treat, it cannot be held to be other than a badge of highest honor. Like 
that illustrious land, ancient Eg}'pt, from which the name is derived, 
the home of ancient civilization, of libraries, of learning, of stupendous 
public works and of historic cities, the scriptural land of Goshen, of 
corn and wine, the modern Egypt of Illinois may well challenge attention 
and will stand proud and secure in its most patriotic record, indifferent 
alike to the tongue of slander or of adverse criticism. 

In her letter telling me that she had drafted or detailed me to {he 
duty of this half hour — imposing upon me a burden too heavy for me to 
bear in a manner equal to the occasion, or adequate to the just historical 
desert of mv beloved native section, the verv efficient Secretarv of the 



94 

State Historical Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, eased the burden, 
somewhat, to my shoulders by telling me that particular attention must 
be given by me to the "Ohio Eiver Border Counties." My thanks are 
due for this wise and kindly limitation, otherwise in treating of so large 
and so rich a field as all Southern Illinois, my sins of omission alone, 
to say nothing of overt acts in the way of positive mistake, inadequate 
treatment, or necessary limitation in the language of just panegyric 
would inevitably have brought \ipon me such an outcry and weight of 
adverse criticism and condemnation as would have covered me with 
shame and my friends with confusion. For in comparison with all that 
Illinois did in the war for the Union, the leading, dominating, most 
patriotic and heroic part born by the men of Southern Illinois in that 
tremendous struggle for the life of the nation, is a subject too large for 
adequate treatment in the time allotted me. It demands in order that 
full justice .may be done, the graphic pen of a Gibbon or a Motley and 
the eloquence of a Logan or a Lincoln. 

The natural and ultimate limitation of my study for the occasion 
should be then the territory embraced in the six border counties, Galla- 
tin, Hardin, Pope. Massac, Pulaski and Alexander, to which we must 
add, as closely allied, both in blood and territory, Johnson, Saline, Wil- 
liamson, Franklin, Hamilton and White. Even this limited territory 
is altogether too large for much detail or for aught but the most general 
treatment. 

My old comrades in EgA'pt, of whom after fifty years, many still sur- 
vive, must therefore, forgive me in advance for what are bound to be 
many grievous sins of omission. But having entered upon the work, I 
make them this promise, which they can take or leave, that if life and 
strength is spared a little longer, I will in the absence of a better and 
abler historian, and in a future more elaborate paper, as opportunity 
may serve, make special study of the whole' field from Vermilion on the 
east, to Hancock on the west and to Alexander on the south and will 
spare no effort to do justice to all. Fortunately several of my old 
friends, one in Johnson, one in White and one in Pope, have sent me 
im])ortant material, bearing on the noble part borne by tlieir particular 
counties, and I extend an invitation to old soldiers in every county to 
send me for future use such material as they may have in store or in 
memory. If this material can be compared, compiled and adequately 
treated with due regard to local environment and individual merit, it 
goes without saying, tliat amid the golden archives of the State His- 
torical Society, future generations will find nothing more interesting, 
nothing more patriotic, nothing more inspiring, nothing more glorious! 

Such are the geogra]:)hical limitations of my duty. To look upon, it 
is a goodly land, none fairer under tlie shining sun — a land of vine clad 
hills, of valleys fragrant with orchard bloom, of forests of stately oak 
and gum and maple and gloomy cypress — not then as now, a land of 
ambitious teeming young cities, noisy and busy with tlie luim of many 
industries, railroads, telegraph and telephone, but rather of many quaint 
sleeping villages and smiling plains underlaid with rich store of un- 
dreamed, undeveloped mineral wealth. Witlial. a land dedicated bv its 
Virginia conquerors and founders to freedom and separated from the 



1 



95 

laud of t?laveiT aiul soccssiau by tlio silver thread of La Belle Kiviere, the 
beautiful Ohio. In shape-a wedge! in the. end riving apart the ill-starred 
confederacy — a shining lance head, thrusting its way deep into the very 
vitals of slavery and rebellion. 

But what of the people, the hospitable, patriotic liberty loving people, 
descendants of those sturdy pioneers, followers of Clark's forlorn hope ! 
of Tippecanoe ! of those who fought with Jackson at jSTew Orleans and 
who could trace back over a thousand miles of wilderness and stream 
and mountain, the arduous path, to the old Virginia Eoof Tree. Or who 
could look across the beantiful river and see the smoke ascending from 
the hearth stones of the "Old Kentucky Home," which perhaps had once 
sheltered them where their kith and kin still dwelt or where their fore- 
bears had fallen on sleep. To the men of the Xorth-land the Civil War 
presented a stupendous political question, involving the life of the 
nation, but to the men of Southern Illinois it meant this and far more. 
It meant the rending of heart strings ! the tearing asunder of family 
ties ! brother to brother, face to face — in hostile deadly war-fare ! 

Virginia was for years in the 17th century, the refuge of those 
who were in turn, prominent, impoverished, endangered and exiled in 
the civil wars of Cromwell's time, and who were alternately proscribed 
for participation therein. According, as Puritan or Cavalier, triumphed 
at home, in Motherland, so changed the complexion of immigration to 
the Old Dominion. 

The result in the end was a population more diverse, with lines more 
distinctly drawn between high born, and low, rich and poor, than in 
any other colony, unless it might be Maryland. ' But in the end, tried, 
tested and hammered out in the fires of the Eevolutionary "War there 
remained a pure Anglo-Saxon stock— a virile and on the whole, a homo- 
geneous people. It was of them that Henry Adams in his History of the 
United States says: 

"Xo where in America existed better human material than in the middle 
and lower classes of Virginia. As explorers, adventurers, fighters, wherever 
courage, activity and force were wanted, they had no equals; but they had 
never known discipline and were beyond measure, jealous of restraint. * * * 

"Jefferson, with all his liberality of ideas, was Virginian enough to dis- 
courage the introduction of manufactures and the gathering of masses in 
cities, without which no new life could grow. Among the common people, 
intellectual activity was confined to hereditary common places of politics, 
resting on the axiom that Virginia was the typical Society of future Arca- 
dian America. To escape the tyranny of Cassar by perpetuating the simple 
and isolated lives of their Fathers, was the sum of their political philosophy; 
to fix upon the National Government the stamp of their own idyllic conserva- 
tism was the height of their ambition. 

"Debarred from manufactures, possessed of no shipping, and enjoying no 
domestic market, Virginian energies necessarily knew* no other resources 
than Agriculture. * * * 

"The Virginians concentrated their thoughts almost exclusively on politics 
and this concentration produced a result so distinct and lasting, and in 
character so respectable that American History would lose no small part of 
its interest in losing the Virginia School." — Henry Adams, History of the 
United States, Volume I, page 137. 

It was the descendants of these, impoverished by the War of the Eevo- 
lution that settled and organized Kentuckv. Tennessee and all Southern 
Illinois, as far north and even beyond the limits of McLean County. 



96 

The conquerors, founders and makers of Illinois were of this blood and 
lineage, with all the fighting instincts of their remote Danish and Nor- 
man ancestors, still alive and flaming. From the days of George 
Eogers Clark and his starved and ragged handful of heroic Virginians, 
on down through the days of Harrison, Old Tippecanoe, to Edwards and 
Pope, Moore and Wilson, assistants in organizing the territory, to Bond 
the first Governor of the State, on through Coles, Edwards, Duncan, 
Carlin, Yates, Oglesby, Palmer, Cullom, Eifer, Tanner, to Yates again, 
and last but not least, to Deneen, the present Chief Executive of the 
State, the strain continues unbroken, save by Reynolds and Eord of 
Pennsylvania, French of New Hampshire, Matteson of New York and 
Altgeld from the German Father-land. For more than thirty years after 
Edwards, or until 1841, when "Long John Wentworth" appeared in Con- 
gress, from Cook County and Chicago, the State in its relation to the 
nation was far the most part, Southern Illinois. The great names of 
Edwards, Bond, Cook and McLean will readily be recalled and are a 
tine balance against the coming of the inevitable Yankee in later days, 
in the persons of those great men, whose names are writ large on the 
pages of the history of Illinois, and the nation — Stephen A. Douglas, 
"The Little Giant," and Lyman Trumbull. 

It is a most interesting fact that the pro-slaveiT leaders in the great 
contest of 1824 over the absorbing question as to the nullification of the 
Ordinance of 1787, dedicating the North-west Territory, the gift of 
Virginia, to freedom and directly involving the question as to whether 
the new State of Illinois should be slave or free, were arrayed, on the 
side of slavery, men like Elias Kent Kane, Judge Theophilus W. Smith, 
both of New York, and the two Reynolds', John and Thomas of Penn- 
sylvania. Over against them, leaders in behalf of freedom, were that 
great Virginian, Edward Coles, and that brilliant son of Kentucky, 
Daniel P. Cook. Back of them were eighteen members of the legislature 
from slave holding states. 

AND FREEDOM WON. 

In that later and most tremendous struggle, over the far greater ques- 
tion as to whether the nation could live half slave and half free, it was 
fated that this stock and strain should again furnish to freedom's cause, 
its final mighty leatler — Abraham Lincoln. 

Of course, while Northern Illinois was a wilderness. Southern Illinois 
was the State. But by 1842, when Thomas Ford of Ogle — like Reynolds 
a Pennsylvanian, but from his youth a citizen of Illinois, and a pupil of 
Daniel P. Cook, was elected Governor over Duncan, the men of Northern 
Illinois began to assert themselves, but be it observed they never had a 
Senator until they called Douglas from Quincy and later Trumbull from 



97 

Belleville and last of all, that gallant and greatest Egyptian, General 
John A. Logan from Chicago, but late of Jackson, the very heart of 
Egypt. 

It was natural and to be expected in the Black Hawk War and in the 
war wath Mexico — a war of conquest waged in the interests of the South, 
that Southern Illinois should have taken the contract to do the fighting 
for the rest of the State, and should have borne the heat and burden of 
the day; Its Illinois hero, dead on the bloody field of Buena Vista, was 
Hardin of Morgan— of Kentucky and Virginia ancestry, Colonel of the 
Eirst Illinois. 

The historic names of Warren, Oglesby, Logan, Lawler, Haynie and 
Hicks appear upon the pages of its history, in training, doubtless, for 
their subsequent noble careers in the Civil War, as bright and honorable 
and glorious as any that appear upon its shining pages. 

But by 1861, fifteen years later, JSTorthem Illinois had grown by leaps 
and bounds. The center of population had shifted far northward from 
Kaskaskia and Vandalia and carried with it the political power of the 
State. And yet the blood of old Virginia still guided the ship of state 
and dominated its political fortunes. Eichard Yates, the elder and 
greater, was Governor. Lincoln, the Kentuckian, was President. 

Where all have patriotically toiled and suffered and many have bled 
and died in a great cause, comparisons are, to say the least, unkind if 
not odious. I do not challenge them. N"o more do I fear them. And 
yet, invidious and unfair comparisons have been* made between Demo- 
cratic Southern Illinois, as it surely was then, and Eepublican ISTorthern 
Illinois, greatly to the prejudice and cruelly unjust to the former. 
Except Edwards and St. Clair, Southern Illinois was not Eepublican 
and most emphatically was not for Lincoln. "If that be treason, make 
the most of it." 

In the great Presidential contest of 1860, Gallatin, my native county, 
gave Lincoln 221 votes, Douglas 1,020, Bell 88 and Breckenridge 13. 
Its total vote — and there were in those momentous days no "stay-at- 
homes" — was 1,342. Yet it sent to the War for the Union 1,361 as 
good, soldiers as ever shouldered a musket. It furnished, in addition, 
five colonels for as many full-blooded Egyptian Eegiments, the 18th 
Lawler, 29th Eeardon, 54th Harris, 56th Kirkham and 120th McKeiag. 
Michael Kelly Lawler, its indomitable hard-fighting brigadier general 
and James Harrison Wilson, its rough-riding major general, who, in 
his 27th year, in the last months of the war, was at the head of the 
largest and mightiest cavalry force ever organized under one command 
in the Western hemisphere and one of the largest in the history of any 
war. After defeating Eorrest at Franklin and turning Hood's flank 
at Nashville, it rode again rough-shod over Forrest, the greatest cavalry 
leader of the South, over the strongly fortified city of Selma — the 
Foundry City of the Confederacy — into and through Montgomery, its 
first Capital — battered down or charged over the fortifications of West 
Point, and Columbus, Georgia — burned rebel iron clads, destroyed the 
last resources of the Confederacy, rode down Howell Cobb, crushed the 
last hope of the rebellion and put an end to all danger of dreaded 
— 7 H S 



98 

guerilla war-fare by the capture of Jefferson Davis himself. It was 
Grant who wrote to Sherman : "I send you Wilson to command your 
cavalry. He will add 50 per cent to its efficiency." Can you imagine 
higher praise? It was Sherman who said to Joe Johnson, who had just 
surrendered: "Wilson's blood is up and he will be hard to hold." 

And may I say in this presence, as to old comrades and friends, it 
was Wilson's Virginia blood — the blood of the fighting Gordons and 
the Harrisons. 

The little county of Hardin gave Lincoln only 107 votes, Douglas 
499, Bell 62— in all 668 votes. It sent 569 fighting men to the war 
and furnished two sturdy colonels, one of whom Lucian Greathouse of 
the 48th has written opposite his name on Fame's immortal roll: 
"Killed in Action, July 23, 1863." 

Pope gave Lincoln 127 votes, Douglas 1,202, Bell, 83, Breckenridge 1. 
In all, 1,413 votes. It gave to the cause of the Union 1,253 good men 
and true, two colonels and one gallant brigadier general (Eaum). 

Massac gave Lincoln 121 votes, Douglas 873, Bell 84— in all 1,078. 
It furnished 880 soldiers tried and true ! 

Pulaski, Lincoln 220 votes, Douglas 550, Bell 45, Breckenridge 40; 
total, 855; and furnished 643 brave soldiers. 

Alexander, Lincoln 106 votes, Douglas 684, Bell 178, Breckenridge 
79; total, 1,047 and 1,358 soldiers. It rounded out its fine record by 
furnishing a most useful and efficient brigadier general (Haynie). 

Johnson County gave Lincoln but 40 votes against 1,563 for Douglas, 
but it furnished 1,426 trusty soldiers. My correspondent states the 
figures somewhat differently, but I give them as they appear in history 
and fully agree with my comrade's conclusion that it was indeed "a 
fair showing down here, where Northern Illinois people thought we 
were all disloyal." 

Jackson County gave Lincoln only 315 votes against 1,556 for Doug- 
las. But it gave to the Union 1,422 fighting men AND LOGAN". 

Saline gave Lincoln 100 votes, Douglas 1,338 and sent forth 1,280 
sturdy men of war. 

White, doing better for Lincoln than any other border count}', gave 
him 756 votes against 1,549 for Douglas. According to my correspond- 
ent, the county sent 2,250 of her gallant young men to the war. Accord- 
ing to history, 1,984. Either set of figures are enough to quicken the 
pulse of patriotism and to silence the tongue of slander. The names of 
Orlando Burrell, Crebs, Whiting, Graham, and Trafton, her hard-fighting 
rough-riding leaders, are an inspiration to her youth in all future 
generations. Her volunteers appear in thirty-five regiments from the 
8th to the 148th Infantry and from the 5th to the 14th Cavalry. 

There was not a county in all Egypt giving a large majority of its 
votes to Douglas — hardly one in all Southern Illinois in its largest 
limit, that did not do equally or nearly as well. And yet men of intelli- 
gence who ought to know better, and for whom, with the records of 
the Adjutant General's office open to them, ignorance is no excuse, have 
written and spoken of Southern Illinois as "a section of the State which 
furnished thousands of soldiers to the Confederate Army." The lie 



99 

or slanderous misrepresentation often repeated, though probably not 
willfully or intentionally, is no less false than it is unjust and cruel. The 
only troops that went South into the rebel army from all Egypt, were 
a mere handful of boys, not a half company, seduced bv a certain 
swashbuckler captain from Maryland. Some of them were spared to 
repent in sack-cloth and ashes and after awhile, finding their way home, 
made amends by serving gallantly on the Union side. The two counties 
(Williamson and Franklin) from which these men went or are alleged 
to have gone, sent more than 3,000 soldiers to fight the battles of free- 
dom and the Union. 

It is high praise and to the eternal credit of Edwards and St. Clair, 
the only two Eepublican Counties in Egypt, to say that they did better 
than the average Northern County and as well but no better than Will- 
iamson and Franklin. 

Finally there were 3,538 DEAFTED MEN" from Illinois and yet 
not ONE from Egypt. Every call and the whole quota under each was 
promptly filled by enthusiastic volunteers. 

After Douglas' most eloquent and weighty declarations in April, 1861, 
here in this City and later at Chicago, in favor of the Union, and which 
proved to be at once, his dying words and decisive of the ultimate 
issue of the War, there were no longer any adverse weighty influences 
against enlistment either in Southern Illinois or elsewhere in the North. 
Nor were his splendid speeches more needed in Egypt than in other 
parts of Illinois, notably the central portion and generally through- 
out the whole North-land. 

Both Leader and people have suffered alike from partisan phrase 
maker and the over-zealous historian. I borrow from the "Unpublished 
Memoirs"* of my distinguished brother. General James Harrison Wil- 
son, the thoughts about Douglas that follow : 

It has always appeared to me that the biographers of Mr. Lincoln, 
Nicolay and John Hay, went out of their way often to slur and belittle 
Douglas in order, apparently, to exalt their great Chief. In fact this 
only served to depreciate Mr. Lincoln. "Arts of the demagogue," 
^'^vicious methods," "quibbling," "success above principle," "plausible 
but delusive" are among the odious and unkind phrases applied by them 
in the course of their review of the points of contact between these two 
really great men. It is true they are not always unkind. Indeed, they 
concede Mr. Douglas' great ability and at times laud him highly, but 
always with the effect to leave the impression that he was actuated by 
motives less lofty and that he moved on a distinctly lower moral plane 
than Mr. Lincoln. They seem to have forgotten that in all the arts of 
the mere politician their wily Chief had served a full apprenticeship 
at the trade and could easily and did give Mr. Douglas large odds and 
beat him at the game. They pass by, at the end, the great and ines- 
timable service rendered by Douglas to the cause of the Union in his 
last days with slight or inadequate mention and could find no place 
for quotation from his two masterly and decisive speeches following his 
last personal conference with Mr. Lincoln in Washington April 14, 1861. 



* Since published by Appleton: "Under the Old Flag." 



100 

It is hardly too much to say of these speeches that they were decisive of 
the success of the Xorth in the impending conflict and that they were 
incomparably the greatest individual service rendered to the country 
by any public man, not even excepting Mr. Lincoln, in the crucial days 
following the attack on Fort Sumpter. In their far reaching results 
they have rarely been equaled and never surpassed by any forensic effort 
ancient or modern. 

At Springfield, April 25, 1861, before a joint session of the two 
houses of the Legislature, over which the present venerable, then the 
young and rising Shelby M. Cullom presided ,Mr. Douglas, in the very 
greatest speech of his life, aroused his great audience to a frenzy of 
patriotic enthusiasm when at the height of his eloquent appeal for the 
Union he said : 

"When hostile armies are marching under new and odious banners 
against the government of our Country, the shortest way to peace is the 
most stupendous and unanimous preparation for war." 

Of this speech Senator Cullom, a most competent judge, has since 
said : "Never, in all my experience in public life, before or since, have 
I been so impressed by a speaker." x\nother says : "His eloquence, his 
earnestness and power were such as to fairly transfigure him," while 
men and women were carried off their feet in an hysterical wave of 
patriotism. Later in Chicago in June, a few days before his death, in 
the last effort of his life, arousing the wildest enthusiasm of a vast 
audience and throughout the whole North, he said : 

"There are only two sides to the question. Every man must be for 
the United States or against it. There can be no neutrals in this war — 
ONLY PATRIOTS and TEAITOES."^ 

Of this Horace White says:- "That speech hushed the breath of 
treason in every corner of the State." And he might have added, it 
swept away for the time, party lines, unified the whole North, and 
brought to the unwavering support of Mr. Lincoln and the Union 
cause the million and nearly four hundred thousand devoted, cnthiisi- 
astic and loyal friends and followers of one who had fairly earned 
thereby the right to be acclaimed : "The Little Giant." His was truly 
one of the mightiest and most potential minds in all the galaxy of 
American statesmen. A month afterwards he was in his grave. He 
was only forty-eight years old. 

Since the above was written the attention of tlie veneral)le William 
Jayne of Springfield, Illinois, has been called to the subject. He was 
Mr. Lincoln's special friend — present at his wedding, and was appointed 
by him Governor of Dakota, and has always been a staunch Eepublican. 
He is one of the few surviving old friends of Mr. Lincoln, hale and 
hearty at eighty-four years of age. He did not hesitate to tell me, 
when interviewed : "I heard that speech in the State House April 25, 
1801. There would have Keen war in Illinois but for Douglas. Justice 
has never been done to his memory. He was a great man and a true 
patriot." 



1 Chicago Wigwam speech, New York Tribune, Jinio 13, 1861. 

2 Life of Lincoln, Hemdon & Wcik, Vol. II, pp. 120-7. 



101 

In this strong- statement and tribute to tlie just fame of Mr. Douglas 
another surviving intimate and trusted friend of Mr. Lincoln fully 
concurs. I refer to our distinguished, widely known, most estimable 
and highly respected fellow citizen Johli W. Bunn, Esq., Vice President 
Lincoln Centennial Association.* 

As further proof of the most resolute and unhesitating patriotism of 
my native section, I appeal to the fact of record, that General Michael 
Kelly Lawlers splendid regiment, the 18th Illinois, was raised, wholly 
in EgTpt, was enlisted and mustered in May, 18(5 1, before Turchin's 
19th, the first Chicago regiment. 

Lawler was a Catholic Irishman, a Mexican war veteran, and a Demo- 
crat to the backbone, but he never hesitated a minute after Sumpter. 
Nor did any other of the thousand noble men of southern blood, that 
were mustered in with him. And no regiment fought harder or rendered 
prompter or better service. At Donnelson, where he was wounded, it 
held fast and firm the gate through which the rebels sought to escape. 
For his gallant service, Lawler was made Brigadier General and after- 
wards highly distinguished himself and won the lasting good will of 
General Grant and his country by his smashing victory over the rebels 
at Big Black and by his fine behaviour in pressing the siege and capture 
of Vicksburg. He was born in County Kildare, Ireland, Nov. 16, 1814, 
and died at his home in Gallatin County July 27, 1882. He came to 
Gallatin, with his parents, when about five years old. 

It was of this quaint, but fine old soldier that General Grant, during 
the Chattanooga Campaign, said to those sitting with him around the 
camp fire discussing, among other matters, the several Illinois generals, 
of whom he was one and all of whom he knew : 

■^^hen it comes to just plain hard fighting, I would rather trust Old 
Mike Lawler than any of them." 

Lawler, although a very heavy man, almost Falstaffian in girth, was a 
strictly temperate man, a devout Catholic, and as imperturbable under 
fire as any Paladin. When asked to take a drink — not at all an unusual 
occurrence in the army, his invariable reply was : "No ! Thank you, I 
have a brother, I am sorry to say, who drinks enough for both of us.'^ 
Which was unhappily true. 

To a profane member of his staff, during one of the fighting days at 
Vicksburg, who was loudly violating the Third Commandment, the 
general said: "I am astonished to hear you praying at this time. I 
always say my prayers before going into battle." Which was also true. 

To his adjutant general, then a youth, undergoing his baptism of 
fire, in his first battle at Champion Hills, and who knew no better than 
to dodge the singing minnies, he said, quietly but firmly: "You dam 
little fool ! Don't dodge ! Don't you know when you hear the bullets 
they have already passed." It cured the captain of the habit, for Law- 
ler himself always "stood four square" to all the breezes that blew. The 
stiffer the gale the straighter he stood. 



* See also "Life of Stephen A. Douglas" by Hon. Clark E. Carr, formerly Minister to Denmark and 
now Prasiaent of the niinois State Historical Society. 



102 

In passing to the front one morning riding by a column of another 
command on the march a soldier was overheard to say to another : Bill ! 
who is that old tub of guts ? I'd hate to be in his place. He won't last 
a minute under fire." Lawler instantly said to the member of his staff 
riding next to him : "Huh ! dam fool ! I could lose two or three beef- 
steaks off my anatomy and not be hurt !" — A fact, which he had demon- 
strated at Donnelson, when he was badly wounded but did not leave the 
field till there was no longer need for his presence. 

It is due to Lawler's memory that it should be said, as it can now 
confidently be said on the authority of the Confederate General, Stephen 
D. Lee, who commanded in Lawler's front at Vicksburg, that there was 
only one point on the whole defensive line where our forces, in the 
general assault of May 22, 1863, succeeded in breaking through. This 
was entirely due to Lawler's soldierly provision in ordering his colonels 
to quietly arouse their men before daylight, which was done, and to 
move them up stealthily, under cover of darkness and to lodge them in 
the brush, on the side of the hill, under the salient or bastion and within 
fifty yards of it where they lay, unobserved, until the hour of the general 
assault, 10 :00 a. m. arrived. To that end the ground, a deep valley 
separating, by about four hundred yards, the ridge, which his brigade 
occupied, from that on which the enemy's works were planted was care- 
fully examined the evening before by himself and one or two of his 
regimental commanders and members of his staff. 

May not Egypt fairly claim that the names of Logan and Wilson and 
Lawler shall be written with Grants whose trusted lieutenants they were, 
high among the highest on the immortal roll of Civil War heroes. Its 
history I dare say does not disclose the names of any three men who, 
according to their opportunities, did more or harder or better fighting. 

Far more than all I have here said might be fairly said alone of that 
glorious fighter John Alexander Logan. Others have already said it and 
said it better and time forbids. His fame is secure and -written large. 
He was never accused but once of being slow and that was in stripping 
himself of the trammel of party affiliation and due doubtless to his 
official obligations as Member of Congress and to his southern blood and 
heritage. The 7th, 8th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 18th, 21st, 22d, 29th, 30th and 
40th regiments may have beaten him to arms and some of them to the 
field, but he was up and coming with the noble 31st and being in, he 
easily took the lead and ever afterwards with all his tremendous energy 
led the way to victory and undying fame — the most striking, the most 
successful general from civil life. But he was a born soldier and it was 
in the blood. 

In conclusion : 

Of the first six regiments called in April, 1861, for three months' 
service, four of them, the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th were from Southern 
Illinois, while of the 11th, Wallace, seven companies, A. B. D. F. H. I 
and K were from northern counties, and three, C, E and G from Central 
and Southern Illinois counties. Of the 12th, McArthur, six companies 
were from the north and four C, E, G and H w^ere from the heart of 
Egypt. 



103 

Of the ten regiments called in May, the 14th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 21st 
and 22nd were from central and southern counties, while four, the 13th, 
15th, 19th and 20th were from the northern counties. 

Of all the three year regiments of which there were 124, there were 
63 from Southern Illinois, 18 from the State at large, 43 from Northern 
Illinois. 

Of the fourteen major generals from Illinois, Grant, Schofield, Pal- 
mer, Pope, McClernand, Logan, Eawlins, Wilson, Merritt, Oglesby, Hurl- 
but, Prentice, Grierson and Giles A. Smith, all but three of them. Grant, 
Schofield and Hurlbut were from Central and Southern Illinois and 
everyone of them except Grant, Schofield and Merritt were of southern 
blood and lineage. 

Wallace, who died so gallantly, at Shiloh, was the son of a Virginia 
father and mother. 

Prentice, who so indomitably held the rebels until late on Shiloh's 
first great day, killing their great leader Albert Sydney Johnston and 
giving time for the arrival of Buell, was born in Virginia. McClernand, 
who at Shiloh fought his division to a frazzle, was a Kentuckian. As' 
were those well beloved, stalwart heroes Oglesby and Palmer. 

The fighting Logan was of full Virginia-Kentucky blood. 

Wilson's father was born in Virginia and his grandparents on both 
sides were Virginians to the manor born. He alone of his great con- 
temporaries is alive today. But he was the youngest of them all. 

And Eawlins — Grant's great chief of staff, one of the mighty names 
everyone of them except Grant, Schofield and Merritt were of southern 
that cannot die, though born in Northern Illinois, was Virginian on 
both sides, coming into Illinois through Kentucky and Missouri. 

EVen Grant had to turn to Southern Illinois to the very borders of 
Egypt to find his first command, and Grant, Schofield and Merritt were 
alone — of the illustrious fourteen — men of northern lineage. 

Merritt, one of the greatest cavalry leaders, of the war, although born 
in New York, was by adoption,- from his youth, one of Egypt's noblest 
sons whence he was appointed in the same class with Wilson to West 
Point. 

Hurlbut was a native of South Carolina. 

Such is the golden record, the most glorious and remarkable immortal 
record, which Egj-pt and Southern Illinois out of her rich southern 
strain and heritage tenders to the ignorant, careless or partisan critic. 
Match it ! Match it if you can ! 



PART IV. 

Contributions to State History. 



107 



GOVEENOE THOMAS FOED IN OGLE COUNTY. 



By Mrs. Rebecca H. Kauffman, Oregon, 111. 

The finest of all tributes to the pioneer comes from President Theodore 
Eoosevelt in an address made by him when he was Vice President, at the 
Minnesota State Pair, Minneapolis, Sept. 2, 1901. It is as follows : 

''In his admirable series of studies of twentieth century problems. Dr. 
Lyman Abbott has pointed out that we are a nation of pioneers; that 
the first colonists to our shores were pioneers, and that pioneers selected 
out from among the descendants of these early pioneers, mingled with 
others selected afresh from the Old World, pushed westward into the 
wilderness, and laid the foundations for our new commonwealths. They 
were men of hope and expectation, of enterprise and energy; for the 
men of dull content, or more, dull despair, had no part in the great 
movement into and across the New World. Our country has been popu- 
lated by pioneers, and therefore it has in it more energy, more enter- 
prise, more expansive power, than any other in the wide world." 

The facts pertaining to the life of Governor Pord in Ogle County I 
have gathered from every possible source within my reach; and I have 
endeavored to embody in this sketch an account of every connection of 
importance with Ogle County of the one resident, so far, of this region 
who has attained the honor of filling the office of the highest position of 
trust, within the gift of the people, of the State of Illinois. We can 
appropriately say, quoting from the immortal address of the greatest of 
all Illinoisans, "It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do 
this," — "fitting and proper" that we remember and honor a man who 
helped to settle this county, who worked to establish law and order, and 
to carry out strict principles of integi'ity and justice; and who left 
behind him at his too early death the record of a career highminded, 
pure, sensible, capable. 

It may be interesting to those present to have enumerated the sources 
of the information which I have gathered in this paper. They are, first 
of all, "Pord's History of Illinois," published by S. C. Griggs & Co., 
the edition of 1854, in which is written, in pencil, the name "E. E. 
Hitt," the volume having been owned by Mr. Hitt's parents; the 
"Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois," prepared by Dr. Newton Bate- 
man, so well known to the people of Illinois, and Paul Selbv, A.M. ; 
"Kett's History of Ogle County, 1878;" the "Portrait and Biographical 
Album of Ogle County," published by Chapman Brothers, 1886; 
"Mount Morris, Past and Present," published by Kable Brothers, 



108 

1900; the "Souvenir Edition of the Mount Morris Index," 1905, in 
whicli is a picture of the "Ford Cabin;" a paper on "The Criminal 
History of Ogle County," read by Attorney Franc Bacon, in 1905, in 
the series of Local History Lectures given by the Oregon Woman's 
Council; and conversations with Mr. Benjamin Fridley, who was four 
years of age when his father purchased the claim on which Judge Ford 
had built what is now known as the "Ford Cabin;" with Mr. Wilson 
S. Glasgow, who now owns the land on which this cabin stands; and 
with Mr. Michael Seyster, of Oregon. Some of the books consulted 
were obtained from Major Charles Xewcomer just two days prior to 
his death. 

I am pleased to record that the place of nativity of Governor Ford was 
in my own "Keystone State/' and not far from the much-loved waters 
of the picturesque Susquehanna of my former home. Thomas Ford 
(Judge and Governor) was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in the 
year 1800, his life beginning with the century and continuing just half 
way through. His mother, after the death of her first husband (Mr. 
Forquer), married Eobert Ford, who was killed in 1802 by the Indians 
in the mountains of Pennsylvania. She was left alone to support herself 
and a large family, mostly girls. With a view to improve her circum- 
stances she removed to Missouri in 1801; and, later, from there into 
Monroe County, Illinois, not far from Waterloo, and afterwards from 
there nearer to the Mississippi bluffs, where Thomas Ford grew up. 
His education was received in the common schools of those pioneer 
times. It is said that he early showed much mental ability, with 
particularl}' an inclination for mathematics. His proficiency attracted 
the attention of the Hon. Daniel P. Cook, a prominent Illinois states- 
man of that time, and for whom Cook County was named. Through 
the advice of Mr. Cook the young man turned his attention to the study 
of law. With the aid of his half-brother, George Forquer, he attended 
one term at Transylvania University, Kentucky, now the State LTniver- 
sity of that State, teaching school to help support himself while pursu- 
ing his law studies. He soon became a successful lawyer, and early m 
life entered the field of politics. 

In 1829 Governor Edwards appointed him prosecuting attorney; in 
1831 he was re-appointed. xA.fter that he was four times elected a 
judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a circuit judge, once 
a judge in Chicago, and an associate judge of the Supreme Court, Avhen 
in 1841 the State Supreme Court was re-organized by the addition of 
five judges, all Democrats. The Act creating the circuits legislated 
the circuit judges out of office and assigned the supreme judge and 
eight associates to circuit duties. Judge Ford was assigned to the 
Ninth Judicial District, which included Ogle County and extended down 
as far as, and including, McLean County. It was while holding court at 
Oregon, in Ogle County, in this capacity that he received notice of his 
nomination hy the Democratic Convention for the office of Governor.^ 



I The candidate for Governor, Adam W. Snyder, nominated by the Democratic State Convention at 
Springfield, Dec. 5, 1841, died on May 14, 1842. Thos. Ford was selected to fill the vacancy by a meet- 
ing of the principal Democrats, held at Springfield, June 7, 1842. 



109 

He immediately resigned his offiee of judge and entered npon the can- 
vass. In August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of December 
following- he was inaugurated at Springfield. 

The twelfth section of the Act of January, 1836, establishing Ogle 
County, constituted it a part of the Sixth Judicial Circuit, and provided 
for the terms of the circuit court to be held at such places as the county 
commissioners should designate, and that the circuit judge of the Sixth 
Judicial Circuit should have the power to fix the time for holding such 
court as, in his discretion, would promote the public good. Judge Ford 
presided over this court from January 17, 1839, and until becoming 
associate judge of the State Supreme Court. The first term of the 
circuit court commenced October 2, 1837, at Dixon, then in Ogle 
. County, Lee County not yet having been formed, the Hon. Daniel Stone 
presiding. The records show that Benjamin T. Phelps presented his 
commission as clerk signed by Judge Thomas Ford, judge of the 
Sixth Judicial District, before whom he had taken the oath of office, 
and that Judge Ford became bondsman for Mr. Phelps in the sum of 
$2,000. 

To Judge Ford belongs the credit of naming the county of Ogle. The 
name was suggested by him and was intended to perpetuate the memory 
of Captain Joseph Ogle, who had settled in Monroe County, and whose 
coolness, courage and daring were so conspicuous in the long and bloody 
conflict attending the siege of Fort Henry, during the early days of our 
country's histor3^ And it was through the earnest solicitations of Judge 
Ford that William W. Fuller came from Massachusetts in 1839 to settle 
in Ogle County and to practice law in Oregon — Margaret Fuller, who 
was a relative, later visiting him here in the Eock Eiver Valley. 

At a special session, Nov. 8, 1838. of the newly-elected members of 
the County Commissioners Board of Ogle County, Judge Ford was 
"appointed a commissioner to sell lots for the county of Ogle, situate on 
the quarter section on which the county seat was located by Charles Eeed 
and J. L. Kirkpatrick, being the southeast quarter of section four, town- 
ship twenty-three north, range ten, east of the fourth principal meridian, 
at public vendue, in Oregon City, on the first Monday in December 
next." Some other provisions and directions were added to this order 
of his appointment as county agent to sell lots. The proceeds of these 
lots were intended to apply on the erection of public buildings for the 
county, as provided in the Act of Congress of May 24, 1824. This duty 
as commissioner was held by Judge Ford till June, 1840. Though so 
closely interested in the erection of the county buildings, Judge Ford 
did not have the satisfaction of holding court in one of the buildings 
planned for. The court house was not entirely completed, but it was 
intended to be used for the spring term of the circuit court, set for 
Monday, March 22, 1841. The outlaws, however, willed it otherwise, 
and during the night before the court was to convene they set fire to the 
building and burned it to the ground. Until the next court house was 
built in 1843, the sittings of the courts took place in whatever building 
could be had that was large enough for the purpose. Sometimes in a 
house belonging to Mr. William Sanderson, but generally in a log house 
belonging to Mr. John Phelps, who was so largely interested in the 



110 

settlement of Oregon and vicinity. After the 30th day of August, 1838, 
the records show that it had been "ordered" that "the circuit courts of 
Ogle County shall hereafter be held at the house of John Phelps, in 
Oregon City, in said county, until public buildings shall be erected." 
As a result of this positive order, every one knew where to find the 
county commissioners in session, the circuit courts, the county and 
circuit clerks and other county officials. This house of John Phelps was 
situated in Oregon, on Third st., near Monroe, not far below, to the 
south, of the old Catholic Stone Church. On Nov. 1, 1843, D. H. L. 
Moss, who succeeded Judge Ford as commissioner to sell lots in Oregon, 
gave a deed from Ogle County to Thomas Ford, for lot 12, block 26, 
consideration $21.00. In this deed it recited the fact of the changing, 
by Act of Legislature, of the name of the place from Florence, its first 
name, to its present name of Oregon. This lot is on the corner diagon- 
ally opposite the old Catholic Stone Church, and is the lot now occupied 
by the brick dwelling of Mr. Stanley Jones, and in the neighborhood of 
the John Phelps house where court was held. Judge Ford^s home was 
on this corner lot. A little to the north of this, a street running east 
and west from Eock Eiver is named Ford street in his honor. 

It was in the September term of the circuit court, in 1841, before Judge 
Ford, that the trial occurred of the largest body of men ever presented 
under one indictment in this county. This was the trial of Jonathan W. 
Jenkins and 111 other men for the killing of the prairie outlaws, John 
and William Driscoll. In his charge to the jury Judge Ford gave it as 
his opinion that it would be impossible for 111 men to kill one man, 
and, therefore, the guilt of the men charged was not proven. Without 
leaving their seats the jury returned a verdict of "not guilty." It is 
said of Judge Ford that he publicly from the bench admonished the 
banditti that he was about to leave his home, and, that, if they dared to 
disturb his family or property, he would gather a posse and take sum- 
mary measures against them. It is also said of him that during the time 
when so many guilty men were escaping by verdicts of acquittal, a lawyer 
defending a client on a criminal charge was speaking of the policy of the 
law that it was better that ninety and nine guilty men escape than that 
one innocent one be convicted, when Judge Ford interrupted him, say- 
ing, "That is the maxim of the law, but the trouble here is that the 
ninety-nine guilty have already escaped." I have myself heard it stated 
that when asked for advice as to what to do in case the Driscolls were 
captured, he replied that if they were brought to court for trial, they 
would be acquitted as usual. 

Mr. Michael Seyster, who came with his parents to Oregon from 
Washington County, Maryland, in May, 1838, and who was then about 
thirteen years of age remembers Judge Ford very well. He has seen 
him preside in court and heard him make a speech. He describes Judge 
Ford as, in stature, "a little man," and says that he was "a good citizen 
and a fine man." Mr. Seyster had seen the Driscolls shot, and was one 
of the 112 men indicted for trial therefor. Of course he well remem- 
bers Judge Ford, as it was he who presided at this trial. 

It may be of interest to give from the records a copy of one of the 
cases tried by Judge Ford, in the June term, 1839 — which shows the 



Ill 

legal phraseology and method of procedure much the same as at the 
present time. The record reads as follows : 

"David Martin 

V. 

Thomas Medford, 
Appeal. 

Said plaintiff was three times solemnly called in open court and came 
not, nor any one for him. It is therefore ordered by the court that the 
suit be dismissed for want of prosecution, and judgment below reversed 
without prejudice to rights of parties." 

This Thomas Medford was the Englishman who lived along Eock 
Eiver, north of the mouth of Mud Creek, where is now the summer home 
of Dr. A. W. Hoyt, and who was said to have been a captain and one of 
the guard of Napoleon when imprisoned on the island of St. Helena. - 

Governor Ford retired from public life at the expiration of his term 
of office in 1846, and died at Peoria Nov. 3, 1850, in greatly reduced 
circumstances. These intervening years he spent in writing his History 
of Illinois. On his death-bed he left with Gen. James Shields the 
manuscript of this work to be published by him for the benefit of his 
destitute orphan children. In this history he makes the following refer- 
ence to Rock Eiver Seminary: 

"The Methodists established a flourishing seminary at Mount Morris, 
in the county of Ogle. * * * Opportunities for education in the 
higher branches were good for all who were able and willing to profit 
by them," 

The log cabin on the claim of Judge Ford in Eockvale Township, 
three miles east and a little to the south of Mount Morris, must have 
been built by him in 1836, as the grant to John Fridley, who purchased 
the claim from Judge Ford in 1837, was made out five years later than 
that year, being from the United States to John Fridley, June 24, 1841. 
Mr. Fridley paid Judge Ford $1,000.00 for 1,000 acres; and, later, when 
he proved up the claim he paid to the government the additional, and 
usual, $1.25 per acre. Mr. Fridley, who was from Washington County, 
Maryland, after making the purchase from Judge Ford went back to his 
home, returning Aug. 15, 1838, with his family to occupy the cabin. 
This cabin meanwhile had been vacant, and the first-comers of the Mary- 
land colony, as it came to be called, found a habitation in it while their 
own cabins were being hastily erected. Among those who found a tem- 
porary abiding place within its shelter were Henry and John Wagner 
and Captain Swingley, with their families. The parents of Mr. Michael 
Seyster, with their household, ten in all, lived in this Ford cabin for 
about a month, soon after their arrival in Ogle County. The table 
used by them in it, was hinged to the wall, with two legs also hinged to 
it, which could be folded back, and the whole table dropped against the 
wall out of the way. At this time the loft was reached at night by 
climbing up pegs set in the wall. Mr. Fridley's family used a movable 
ladder and a trap door, the ladder being set out of doors in daytime to 



2 Note — It is said, too, that a willow stick brought byhimfrom this island, was planted on the place 
between the house and barn, and grew into a tree which stood there for many years. Other cases of a 
similar vitality of the willow are of authentic record. Thomas Medford and his wife lie buried on this 
farm. Their son, after their death, removed from this region. 



112 

make more room inside. The cabin was 18 feet by 19 feet in size. Mr. 
Fridley found the cabin to be roughly built, and set about "trimming it 
up/' sawing off the logs jutting out unevenly at the corners and "chink- 
ing up" more thoroughly the cracks between the logs. The chimney 
had been made out of split sticks laid up one above the other in "mud- 
clay," and then thickly plastered, or daubed over with the wet clay. Of 
course, the fire-place was in the "living-room," just as it is in the ex- 
pensive houses of today, and the housewifely matron burned her fingers 
and apron with the "Dutch oven," much as the up-to-date college girl 
does with her chafing-dish nowadays. Originally the cabin stood a little 
farther up the hill to the north of its present location, west of the gar- 
den, with the door to the east. In it Mr. Fridley's sons, Benjamin, 
Andrew, David, Jacob and John — passed their boyhood till the larger 
house was constructed. It was then used as a workshop till it was re- 
moved to where it now stands at the foot of the hill with a spring of water 
running through the cellar-story, added for its use as a butcher-shop. 
In it the hogs were killed, then allowed to freeze.' Afterwards they were 
taken to market, as far even as Chicago and Peru. Now this cabin door 
has an old-fashioned sliding wooden bolt with peg outside ; but of course, 
in the "early days," it had the hospitable latchstring. 

It was while being shown through this Ford cabin by Mr. Glasgow in 
June last, that the thought occurred to me of bringing the matter of 
preserving permanently this historic landmark, before the attention of 
this Old Settlers' Eeunion. Why not today authorize the officers of this 
meeting to confer with the present owner and arrange for its pre- 
servation ? Many interesting relics of pioneer days could be accumulated 
and this Ford cabin could be made the repository for them. What a fine 
store-house indeed, of pioneer times could be made out of this Ford 
cabin, filled with the utensils and implements of those arduous times. 
"Opportunity," reminds John J. Ingalls, "knocks but once." 

This paper on "Governor Ford in Ogle County" was prepared by the 
writer for the Old Settlers' Reunion, held at Mount Morris, Aug. 29, 
1907, and read there upon that occasion by her. Since that time, in 
gathering material for the History of Ogle County, further interesting 
and valuable matter in connection with this Miject has been obtained, 
which is herewith added, by the writer: 

In "Peck's New Gazetteer of Illinois," published by Grigg & Elliott, 
Philadelphia, 1837, is this brief note: "Cir. Ct. at Dixon, Oct. 1837, 
Hon. Daniel Stone, Judge presiding, Thomas Ford, Prosecuting Attor- 
ney." 

From Reynold's "History of Illinois, My Own Times," published 1854- 
1855, republished by the Chicago Historical Society, 1879, is taken the 
following estimate made by one Governor of Illinois of the qualities 
which were found to distinguish another who occupied likewise the same 
high, responsible position: 

"Governor Ford possessed many of the high and noble traits of char- 
acter that constitute an eminent man. He was gifted with a strong and 
investigating intellect, and also a firm, open candidneSvS of character that 
was admired by all. His mind was original and self-sustaining. * * * 



113 

He possessed a nice sense oi' honor, bordering on tlie chivalric notions of 
olden times. His notions of probity and integrity were i*efined and well- 
defined. With these notions, speculation, talented financiering, was 
foreign to him; he never cared for wealth more than a support, and 
scarcely that much. The mind and character of Governor Ford qualified 
him for a judge l)etter than for any other station. He was frank, open 
and firm on the bench, and at the same time learned and competent in 
the exposition of the law. He was a good and sound lawyer, but not the 
advocate some others were at the bar." 

From the "History of Ogle County, Illinois,'' 1859, by Henry E. Boss, 
is taken the following written by him for the "Polo Advertiser," Polo, 
Illinois, of which paper he was the editor from 1858 to 1861 : 

"The first newspaper in Ogle Co., the 'Eock Eiver Eegister,' was 
issued by Jonathan Xnodle, in Mt. Morris, Jan. 1, 1842." * * * 

"On the 10th of July, the 'Eegister' abandoned its neutral position 
and hoisted the Whig flag, headed with the name of Joseph Duncan for 
Governor, in opposition to Thomas Ford, the Democratic candidate, and 
denounced Judge Ford as 'a Northern man with southern principles,' 
inasmuch as he was opposed to removing the northern l)oundarv of 
Illinois," ^ 

A note taken from another writer shows the esteem in which the histor- 
ical work, to which its author devoted his remaining vears and strength, 
in transcribing the stirring scenes and occurrences with Avhich he had 
been connected, was held by a well-known Englishman: "When John 
Walters, M. P., proprietor of the 'London Times,' yisited Chicago, he 
asked Mr. John B! Drake, of the Grand Pacific Hotel, to procure him a 
copy of Ford's History, pronouncing it a remarkable work, and stating 
that he thought of having it reprinted in London." 

The following paragraphs form the close of the "History of Illinois," 
by Governor Ford, and it is truly pathetic to know that the end of a life 
devoted so ably and unflinchingly to the service and welfare of the 
State, should be saddened by thoughts of the lack of appreciation by the 
people of his time. Fame often crowns the victor too late for personal 
triumph : 

"The people abroad have once more begun to seek this goodly land for 
their future homes. From 18-13 to 18-16, our population rapidly in- 
creased ; and is now increasing faster than it ever did before. Our own 
people have become contented and happy ; and the former discredit rest- 
ing upon them abroad for supposed wilful delinquency in paying the 
State debt, no longer exists. 

"It is a just pride and a high satisfaction for the author to feel and 
know that he has l3een somewhat instrumental in producing these grati- 
fying results. In this history he has detailed all the measures of the 
Legislature which produced them ; and if these measures did not all 
originate with him, he can rightfully and justly claim that he supported 
them with all his power and influence, and has faithfully endeavored 
to carry them out with the best ability he could command. For so doing, 
he has had to encounter bitter opposition to hi.s administration ; and 
enmities have sprung up personally against himself which he hopes will 

— 8 H S 



114 

not last forever. For altliougii he wants no office, yet lie is possessed of 
such sensibility, that it is jDainful to him to be the subject of unmerited 
obloquy; and for this reason, and this alone, he hopes that when those 
of his fellow-citizens who disapproved of his administration in these 
particulars, have time to look into the merits of these measures, and see 
Iiow they have lifted the State from the lowest abyss of despair and 
gloom to a commanding and honorable jDOsition among her sisters of the 
Union, they will not remember their wrath forever." 

This volume so highly regarded at the present time, and so difficult 
to obtain, was the sole legacy of Governor Ford to his orphan children — 
the death of his wife having occurred shortly previous to his own. One 
of the daily newspapers of Chicago, in the autumn of 1907, contained an 
account of the illness, and consequent need, of the only surviving child 
of Governor Ford, a widowed daughter, who had married a captain of 
the Mexican War while her father was still in office. The "Methodist 
minister of Middle town" (Illinois), referred to in the newspaper ac- 
count as a kind friend of this daughter, Eev. T. Lee Knotts, being 
written to by the author of this paper, replied as follows ; 

"Mrs. Anna Davies is comfortably located in the Deaconess Hospital, 
at Lincoln, Illinois. Mrs. Henry Gambrel, deceased, of this place was 
a daughter of Mrs. Davies and took care of her mother through many 
years. At the death of Mrs. Gambrel, Mrs. Davies took charge of the 
houseliold, caring for the children so far as she was able. Mr. Gambrel 
is an industrious, hard-working man, and supported the family. Mrs. 
Davies was well-cared for in his home until she was taken down watli 
pneumonia and, it being difficult to secure a nurse for her, she w^as taken 
to the Deaconess Hospital, where she is now permanently located." 

After living some little time in the Deaconess home, Mrs. Davies 
journeyed on to her long and final home March 17, 1910. 

Immediately following the reading of the paper on "Governor Ford in 
Ogle County," and the suggestion by the wa'iter in regard to the pre- 
servation of the "Ford Cabin," the President of the Ogle County Old 
Settlers' Eeuniou, Mr. Amos F. Moore, of Polo, appointed as .a com- 
mittee for that purpose, Messrs. Horace G. Kauffman, of Oregon, and 
A. W. Brayton and J. E. Miller, of Mount Morris. This committee, 
aided by Mr. Moore, took up the matter of the removal of the cabin to 
the campus of Mount Morris College. It was, however, found to be too 
much decayed to be removed without tearing it down and rebuilding it, 
and a hesitation in regard to its dignity of appearance amid modern 
surroundings led to the dropping of the plan. It still stands in the 
same place on the Glasgow farm. Before it is too far gone, some little 
part of it will be preserved among the pioneer relics of Ogle County. 



115 



MASHEENA. 



By Milo Custer. 
(Read before the McLean County Historical Society March 4, 1911.) 

The Kickapoo chief, Masheena, was one of the best known to the 
first white settlers, of all the Indians of Central Illinois. He was born 
probably abont the year 1760, but whether in AYisconsin, Illinois, or 
Indiana, we cannot say. 

As the father-in-law of Kanakuk (or Kee-an-na-knk) the Kickapoo 
Prophet, his position in the history of his people becomes second only 
in importance to that celebrated chief. 

. The earliest account of Masheena which I find anywhere, is given in 
the first history of McLean County, 111. Duis "Good Old Times," in 
the biographical sketch of Absalom Stubblefield, wherein Mr. Stubble- 
field says, "The Kickapoos were then [December, 1824] plentier than 
game. Old Machina, the chief, was very friendly. During the War of 
1812, he fought against the United States, as he was promised a great 
many ponies by the British if he would whip the whites [i. e. the Ameri- 
cans]. In the War of 1812, he led on his warriors to the fight", but saw 
them fearfully cut to pieces at Tippecanoe,^ and [as] he received no 
compensation for his trouble or his losses, he declared that he would 
never again fight against the whites." That tliis declaration was adhered 
to is evident from his subsequent conduct. There are a number of other 
references to Masheena in the "Good Old Times" of which I will take 
notice farther on. Tradition fixes the site of his bark-house residence 
in Blooming Grove, McLean County, at the time of the first white 
settlement there (in 1822) at a point about half-way between the present 
locatoins of the Blooming Grove Christian Church and the residence of 
Mr. George Deems, and close by a small branch of the Little Kickapoo 
Creek. How long Masheena and his family lived at this place, we of 
course do not know. 

It appears from all the accounts we have of him that he was on very 
friendly terms with most of his white neighbors, and that he often 
went among them and visited them in their homes. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that we have among us today, one 
man, Mr. William J. Ehodes,- who has a personal recollection of 
Masheena. 



1 Nov. 7, 1811. 

- Vice-President of the McLean County Historical Society; Son of John H. S. Rhodes. 



116 

Mr. Eliodes was a cliild about five years old Avhen he last saw 
Masheena. This was about the year 1829. Mr. Rhodes says the old 
chief would often come to liis father's house' and go to an old shed near- 
by which had no floor and which the Rhodes children used as a play- 
house, and taking a little kettle, with which the children used to play, . 
would set it up on stakes and build a fire under it, "Indian fashion." 
"Then," says Mr. Rhodes, "We imagined we were all Indians." 

With further reference to Masheena's great fondness for children we 
have the following: Of John Benson, Jr., a pioneer of White Oak 
Township, McLean County, Duis says, "He sings to his grand-children 
the song he learned of the Indian chief of tlie Kickapoos, Machina.* 
It was not nnich of a song, and was hummed in a monotonous way by 
Machina to the little white papooses who sat on his knee. It ran 'He-o, 
He-o, mee-yok-o-nee, mee-yok-o-nee,' continually repeated." 

Again in Duis' account of the life of Thomas Orendorff we find the 
following: "When Thomas and William Orendorff settled in McLean 
County, the old chief of the Kickapoos [La Ferine?] came with 
Machina (afterwards their chief) and ordered them to leave. But the 
old chief spolvt^ English in such a poor manner that Thomas Orendorff 
told him to keep still and let ]\Iacliina talk. Then Machina drew himself 
up and said, 'Too much come, back, white man, t'other side Sangamon.' 
Mr. Orendorff told Machina that the latter had sold the land to the 
whites; but the latter denied it, and the discussion waxed warm, and the 
chiefs went away, feeling very much insulted." 

This was in the year 1823. It is a matter of fact tliat Masheena was 
not a party to either of the two Ivickapoo treaties of cession for their 
lands in Illinois made in the year 1819, and that his name does not 
appear on any Kickapoo treaty of earlier date than the year 1832. Some 
of Masheena's descendants who reside on the Brown County, (Kansas), 
Kickapoo reservation, hold a claim against the government, to this day, 
based upon this fact, and notwithstanding that IMasheena was a party 
to a later treaty. 

It also appears from the account of John Dawson, (another pioneer 
of McLean County), as given by Duis, tliat ]\[aslieena also ordered the 
DaAvson family to leave Blooming Grove. Tliis account is as follows: 
"The Kickapoo Indians were very jealous of tlie incoming white men, 
and their chief, ^lachina, ordered Mr. Dawson's family to quit the 
country before tlie leaves fell. This he did by throwing leaves in the 
air. By this and other signs he gave them to understand that if they 
were not gone when the leaves in the forest shonld fall, he w(Mi1(1 kill 
all the 'bootanas' [?], (white men). 

"]\rrs. Dawson replied to him that the time he had given would be 
siiflicient to call togetlu'i' enough 'bootanas' to exiorminate all the 
Indians. The old chief was very wrathy at this, and made some terrible 
threats, which he had the good sen.'ie never to |attem]it to] carry out." 
This was about the year 1822. In the biography of Jeremiah Rhodes, 
(also given in Duis "Good Old Times,,), we get the following: "In the 
fall of 1823 I 1S22|, the Rhodes family came in Jlliuois, to Sangamon 



5 In See. 15, Bloomin^ton Township, McLean County. 
* Duis' spelling; pronounced Ma-shee'-na. 



117 

County. They luul no very excitin>;- julvciilures on tlieir jounioy, but 
when they arrived at their destination at Blooming Grove, matters be- 
came interesting enough. The Indians came for them and ordered them 
away from the country. j\Ir. Rhodes sen. [Eev. El)enezer Rhodes] was 
out "in the woods making rails, when a party of Indians came to his 
house and sent one of their number to bring him in. Old Machina, the 
chief, then told Mr. Rhodes not to make corn there, but to go back to the 
other side of the Sangamon River. The chief declared he had never 
signed any treaty ceding tbe laud to the whites, and that white men 
should never settle there. * '= * Old ]\Iachina threatened to burn 
the houses of the settlers, but at last consented to allow Mr. Rhodes' 
family to remain until fall to gather their crops." It seems that the 
question of the signing of the treaty was also thfe subject of an acri- 
monious debate between Masheena and John H. S. Rhodes. Part of 
their conversation (according to Duis), was as follows: "The old chief 
Machina was a very cunning Indian, and had some strange peculiarities. 
He always denied selling the country to the whites. John [H. S.] 
Rhodes told him that he did sell the country to the whites, and that 
"Boss-Stony" [?], (the President), had it on paper. Machina replied 
"D — m quick putting black upon white." 

About the year 1828, the Kickapoos held at Blooming Grove what was 
probably their last ceremonial dance ever celebrated in that part of 
McLean County. Mr. William J. Rhodes was present as a child of four 
or five vears, and from his own faint recollections of the occurrence, 
assisted by the information gi^-en him in later years by his parents, he 
Avas able to point out to me the spot where this dance was held. It is 
located upon a kind of l)ench or high point of land facing the east, 
towards a small branch of the Little Kickapoo, on the ]\[aik Livingston 
farm, near where the "Big Four" railroad now passes. Our pioneer, 
John Dawson' has left us a detailed account of this ceremonial dance. 
Jeremiah Rhodes, in the "Good Old Times" has also left us a detailed 
account of this danco wliieli is as follows: "Mr. Rhodes' recollection of 
the Indians is pretty clear. * * * At the great dance, about six or 
eight Indians [Kickapoos and Pottowatomies] formed in twos and 
jumped around flat-footed, witli tinkling bells attached to tlieir ankles. 
Old Machina had a gourd with stones in it and these he shook up and 
down to keep time. Another musical instrument was formed from a 
ten-gallon keg with a deer-skin drawn tightly over one end. This was 
carried on the back of a half -grown papoose, and was beaten with a 
stick. The" dancers had their bodies painted black, but over their breasts 
Avas painted in white a pair of hands and arms crossed. Outside of the 
circle of dancers an Indian held up a stick cut in the shape of a gun. 
The stick was pointed upwards, and was supposed to l)e an eml)lem of 
peace. Another Indian held up a tomahaAvk, Avith his hand close to the 
blade, lint what this meant is not easy to be seen. The Indians received 
a little assistance in their performance by old John DaAvson,'"' Avho danced 
and sans: Avith them. Tliev Avere Avilling to allow his dancing, but 



5 Son of John AVells Dawson, who settled at Blooming Grove in 1S22, along with John Hendrix 
and others. 

•^ John AVells Dawson. 



118 

stopped his singing as it spoiled the exquisite music of the gourd full 
of rocks and the keg. 

The Indians kept time by repeating monotonously the words: ''Hu 
way, hu way/"' etc., and the squaws Avho A\ere gathered in a circle around 
the dancers, looked on admiringly. 

In December, 1898, John Dawson gave an interview to a reporter of 
the Bloomington Bulletin, concerning the early history of Blooming 
Grove. This interview Avas published in the Daily Bulletin of January 
2, 1899. In it Mr. Dawson had the following to say with regard to 
Avhat was probably the same dance : 

''The most vivid thing in my life''s memory today, and I am past 
eighty years old, Avas an occurrence among the Indians before I was 
five 3'ears of age. My father [John Wells Dawson] was invited to par- 
ticipate in an Indian war [ ?] dance. For that form of amusement they 
fixed up a ring, just like a circus ring, and Avould dance round and 
round, brandishing their tomahawks and singing their songs — typical 
of only an Indian. 'No other race ever called such howls singing. Well, 
they dressed father in all the paraphernalia of a chief and took him 
out in the circle of dancers. Chief Masheena conducted my father out. 
His Avife [Macheepia] sat between my mother and Mrs. Orendorff, 
and I Avas near them, the most interested spectator of the lot. I verily 
believe Buffalo Bill's Avild Avest Indian dances of his famous shoAV can- 
not begin to compare in interest to the children of today as did that 
genuine one to me. All this, remember, was 200 [ ?] yards from our 
own door. Father was so great a success in the dance that he waxed 
enthusiastic and thought he could also sing, so he joined in the chorus, 
as it were. Chief Masheena stopped him, and said, 'No sing, friend 
Dawson, just dance.' At this my mother laughed heartily, and Mrs. 
Masheena solemnly said, 'No laugh, ofi'end friend Dawson.' '•■ * * 

From the meager accounts Ave can get, Masheena must have left 
McLean County about the 3'ear 1829 or 1830. He AA^as with Kanakuk 
and the 'Vermilion Band' somewhere 'near the southern end of Lake 
Michigan/ in 1831, Avhen Catlin painted his portrait, (and also that of 
Kanakuk, and four other Kickapoos). His signature appears upon the 
treaty of Castor Hill, St. Louis County, Mo., October 24, 1832. 

In his history of the Baptist Indian missions, Eev. Isaac McCoy, 
the pioneer missionary, Avho had established a mission to the PottoAvat- 
omies at Carey, on St. Joseph's Eiver, in southern Michigan, states that 
Kanakuk and his band passed his (the missionaries) house in the spring 
of 1833, 'on their way to the Indian Territory,' and it is highly probable 
that Masheena AA^as among them. 

Among the feAV traditions relating to Masheena and Kanakuk. Avhich 
Avere related to me by Mahkuk, or 'Old Jesse,' an old Kickapoo noAv 
deceased, but Avho Avas yet living at tlie time I first visited the Kansas 
Kickapoos in October, 190G, Avas the folloAving: "While they Avere com- 
ing over from Illinois, Masheena Avanted to give his daughter, 'The Long- 
Named One,' to Kanakuk, to be his Avii'e.'^ Kanakuk kneAv this before 
it was told him, because he was a prophet. 

' Kanakuk was a widower at that time; his Drst wife, Saukeeto(|ua, niotlicr of Chief Jolm Kennekuk, 
died in Illinois. 



119 

So after they eanie over to this time [i. e. the west side] of the Mis- 
souri, Kauakiik married her." She Avas the mother of Kachassa, wife 
of Katnamce, and an ancestress of all the living descendants of Kana- 
knk. 

That Masheena became affiliated with the so-called 'Church' of Kana- 
kuk, in Illinois, prior to the year 1831, is attested by the fact that. 
Catlin's portrait of him shows him holding one of Kanakuk's prayer- 
sticks. 

The Kickapoos under Kanakuk lived near Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
from about 1834 to 1854. Kanakuk died in 1852 and Masheena was 
shortly afterAvards elected to the position of head-chief of the Kansas 
Kickapoos, Avhich office he continued to fill until the time of his death. 

Though he is referred to as a chief in almost every early account we 
have of him, it is likely that Masheena was only a subordinate chief, or 
chief of a band while he lived in Illinois. 

In my correspondence on the subject of the Kickapoos, I have a 
number of letters and a large amount of original information received 
from my friend Mr. George J. Eemsburg, of Potter, Kansas. Among 
these letters is a partial copy of a letter written to Mr. Eemsburg by 
Mrs. Mary A. Jones, of Alamo, California. Mrs. Jones lived at Fort 
Leavenworth during the '30s and was well acquainted with both Ma- 
sheena and Kanakuk. 

Mrs. Jones says : "I heard Masheena, the old chief, preach with the 
aid of an interpreter, many times." She also says: "The old chief,. 
Masheena was at Fort Leavenworth one day and had trouble Avith a 
Delaware Indian, and they had a fight in which Masheena killed the 
Delaware. His (Masheena's) tribe tried him for it and they sentenced 
him to haA'e 120 lashes by the Regulators [i. e. the 'Whippers' of Kana- 
kuk's church], and a goodly number of his tribe offered to take part of 
the punishment, so he had only [about] 20 stripes. These Eegulators 
could be seen at any time with their long seasoned switches, ready to 
punish all [the Indians] they found doing wrong, men, Avomen and 
children." 

In the year 1854, the Kickapoos moved from their location near Fort 
LeaveuAvorth to a point near their present "diminished reserve" some 
thirty-five miles northwest of their former location. 

Masheena located on the west side of Grasshopper Creek^ within the 
present limits of Atchison County, Kansas. Here he built a "cabin'* 
(probably of poles and bark) upon a "bench" of bottom land facing the 
east, near the creek. He resided at this place until his death, and it 
was while he lived here that Mr. Henry W. Honnell of Horton, Kansas,, 
met and became acquainted with him. Mr. Honnell (a natiA^e of Ohio) 
Avas one of the first pioneers of BroAvn County, Kansas, having settled 
there in 1856. His brother, Eev. William H. Honnell, was pastor of 
the Presbyterian Mission on Horton Heights, during the years 1856 and 
1857, and Mr. Honnell says that Masheena often attended the prayer- 
meetings that were held there ; that he frequently took an active part 
in these meetings, offering lengthy prayers in his own language. On 



s Quequeta in Kickapoo. 



120 

one occasion, after the meeting was over, some one asked Masheena why 
tlie French always seemed to get along better with the Indians than did 
people of other white nationalities. 

Masheena got down upon the floor npon his hands and knees and with 
U piece of chalk^ of some kind, began to draw a kind of map or outline, 
upon the floor, to represent the different nations. He then began to 
explain his improvised course of instruction, pointing out different 
parts of the diagram, saying : "This one, he Americans, he fight Indians, 
take Indians land. This one, he British, he fight Indians. This one, 
he Spaniard, he fight Indians, take all they got I" etc., etc. Then coming 
to the last he said: "This one he French. Xo fight Indians, no take 
Indians land." 

Mr. Honnell says Masheena wore the clothing of civilization at the 
time he knew him, but that he allowed his hair to grow rather long. 
Mr. Honnell says he was a tall, strongly built Indian, and that even in 
his old age, his height and bearing would easily distinguish him from 
others in any gathering of his people. 

Masheena died in December, 1857, and was buried near where he 
had lived during his last years. The plow of the white man has turned 
the soil over his grave for nearly thirty years, until its exact location is 
now unknown. Mr. Honnell was only able to locate it within two or 
three rods. It is located on the Sautter farm about a mile and three- 
quarters soutli of tlic town of Horton and about the same distaiice 
southwest of the village of Kennekuk, in the northwest corner of Atchi- 
son County, Kansas. 

Some mention of his descendants may be of interest. Masheena 
was survived by his son, Mataskuk : his daughter Xubya Eshnoqua. and 
other members of his family. His descendants today number but twelve 
living persons. They are all said to be full-blood Kickapoos, and all 
reside upon the Kickapoo Eeservation, eight miles west of Horton, in 
Brown County, Kansas. Masheena's son, Mataskuk, died unmarried, 
in 1858, aged about 25 years. Nubya Eshnoqua, daughter of Masheena 
and Macheepia, said to have been the last surviving Kickapoo born in 
Illinois, died in 1907. She had been married to a Kickapoo named 
Kakahkali, and liad scNci-al childi-en, but left no living descendants. 
Kachassa, daughter of Kanakuk, the Kiekai)oo "Prophet" and Alisah- 
meenoteuAvawkwa. or "The Long Named One."" married Katnamee, a 
Kickapoo. They had tJiree sons, Wawawsuk (now deceased) ; Wapoahtek 
(or John Winsee), and Optukkee (oi' Coiuiiiodore) . Wawawsuk was 
married and died leaving two children, Etwenahpee (Eobert Wawaw- 
suk) who also died about three years ago. leaving two little sons, 

Wacheckwehwa (Leo Wawawsuk) now age(| ahoiil ten years, and • 

(Joseph Wawawsnk) now aged ahoiii ciglil. Wawawsuk's other ehihh 
a -daughter, Sliawakea (or ]\Iiniiie W'awawsidO a young woman aged 
about 24 years is now eini)loyed as assisiaiil niati'oii at tlie Kickapoo 
School, on tlie Kickapoo Kcservalion in Kansas. W'apoalek. or Jolm 
Winsee, is married to Nunmild)en, and has three children, viz. Wawsee- 
qua (Ella Winsee), Papeshcena, and one other small cdiild whose name 

•or "keel." 



121 

I do not have. Optukkci', or Coimiiodore, is inaiTiciI lo ;iii Indian 
woman failed Julia. They have one child, a son named 'I'apwal nk. 
now aged about nine or ten years. Taweena ( ?) another danghter of 
Masheena, was married, had a daughter named Ayachee, who married 
Xeeboqua (or William Honnell). Their daughter, Kawkeasauqua. is 
married to Grant Weeweenas, and has two children, a daughter named 
Xamkumgoqua (Bertha Weeweenas), now aged about 22 years, and 
one son, Xeepahkum (Philip AVeeweenas) aged aboid 14. 

All the descendants of Masheena except those of Taweena^" ai'e also 
descended from Kanakuk, and are the Prophet's only living descendants. 

The McLean County Historical Society has full-size reproductions 
in oil of Catlin's portrait of Masheena, Kanakuk, Ahtonwetuk, and tlie 
two Kickapoo squaws, Ahteewatomee and Sheenawee, also photogra})hs 
of Xubya Eshnoqua, Kachassa, Wapoatek and his family, 0])tukkee and 
family, the family of Xawkeasauqua, and Shawakea, all provided by the 
generosity of our president, Mr. George P. Davis. 

In attempting to analyze the character of an Indian, especially a full- 
blood, we should never fall into the error of judging him by the white 
man's standard. He is first and last an Indian, with ideas and thoughts 
quite alien to those of the white race, and from what we know of Ma- 
sheena, I cannot believe he was any exception to this rule, and had it not 
been for his full realization of the superior force of the United States, 
his loyalty to his own people would doubtless have led him to resist 
further the settlement of Central Illinois with the tomahawk and the 
scalping-knife. 

MiLO CUSTK '. 

Bloomington, Illinois, March 4. 1911. 



1 My informant was not sure this was her correct name. 



123 



INDEX. 



Abbott, (Dr.) Lyman 107 

A. B. Plot, reference to 30, 34 

Adams Coimty, 111 17, 76 

Adams, Henry— History of the United States, quoted on the Virginians 95 

Adams, John Quincy 32, 41 

African Slave Trade". 79 

Ahsahmeenotenwawkwa, (The Long Named One) Kickapoo Indian, daughter of Masheena US, 120 

Ahteewatomee, Kickapoo Squaw, portrait of in McLean County, Historical Society 121 

Ahtonwetuk, Kickapoo Indian, portrait of in McLean County Historical Society 121 

Ainsworth, Harry XI 

Alabama State, Constitution, amendments to 60 

Alamo, California 119 

Albany, N. Y 15 

Albion, mino;s VII, IX, 4, 20, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 53 

Albion, Illinois — early public library in 44 

Alexander Countj', Illinois 93, 94 

Alexander Coimty, Illinois— number of soldiers furnished by in War of the Rebellion 98 

Alexander Countv. Illinois— vote of for president in 1860 98 

Alexander, ( Dr.) "William 29, 32, 33, 41 

Allegheny Moimtains 79 

Allen, Lane it Scott, (publishers) Philadelphia, Pa 14 

Alschuler, Samuel X 

Altgeld, John P. — Governor of Illinois 96 

Alton, Illinois VII, XII, 9, 76 

America 5, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53 

American Charters, Constitutions and Organic Laws, by F. N. Thorpe — quoted 56 

American Commonwealth, by James Bryce — quoted 55,56,57 

American Commonwealth, new edition 1910, by James Bryce — quoted 59 

American Flag 45, 79, S3 

American Political Science Review, February, 1907 56 

American Republic 25 

American Union 27 

Americans 47, 49, 86, 87, 115, 120 

Ames. (Mrs.) John C XII 

Anderson, Andrew L XI 

Anderson, Sumner S XI 

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Mass., 1907— reference to 56 

Anti-Slavery Leaders in Illinois 96 

Applet on tt Company (pubs.) 15 

Appleton ct Company (pubs.) — foot note : 99 

Arbuthnot, Mariot, British Admiral, War of the Revolution 15 

Archaeologv, Illinois State Historical Society, Committee on, report of 17 

Arkansas— r. S. Land Office in 32 

Armstrong. John— foot note 27 

Army of the Cumberland — AVar of the Rebellion 83 

Aryan Colonists in Europe 43 

Atchison Coimty, Kansas 119, 120 

Atkins, (Gen.) Smith D. — Patriotism of Northern Illinois, paper read at Memorial Meeting, April 

14, 1911 78,79-92 

Atkins, Smith D., Captain of Regiment raised in Stephenson Countv, Illinois, War of the Rebellion SI 

Atkins, Smith D VII, XI, 4, 12 

Aurora, Illinois X, XI 

Ayachee, Kickapoo Indian 121 



Bacchus, (Mrs.) Lerov XIJ 

Bacon. (Mrs.) E. M . ." XI 

Bacon, Franc, The Criminal History of Ogle Co., 111.— reference to 108 

Bagby, John S X 

Baker. Virginia 15 

Ball, Farlin Q IX 



124 

Index — Continued. 

Page 
Baldwin, Eugene F., Dream of the South (The) — story of Illinois during the Civil War, paper read 

at the memorial meeting, Illinois State Historical Society, April 14, 1911 4, 12, 84-92 

Baltimore, Md 44 

Baptist Indian Missions — history of, by Kev. Isaac McCoy IIH 

Barradall, Edward 1') 

Barton, R. T 1.5 

Bateman & Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois 107 

Bateman, (Dr.) Newton, Bateman"& Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois 107 

Battle Crv of Freedom (war song) 78 

Battle of Big Black River 101 

Battle of Buena Vista 97 

Battle of Bull Run 85 

Battle of Champion Hills 101 

Battle of Chiekamauga 65 

Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, Miss 8.3 

Battle of Elk River 65 

Battle of ¥t. Donelson 101, 102 

Battle of Franklin, Tenn 97 

Battle of Hatchie 8:< 

Battle of Lookout Mountain 65 

Battle of Mission Ridge 65 

Battle of Missionary Ridge S3 

Battle of Nashville, Tenn 97 

Battle of New Orleans 95 

Battle of Ringgold, Ga 65 

Battle of Shiloh 103 

Battle of Talarera 51 

Battle of Tippecanoe 95, 115 

Baum ct Sloo — Business firm 28 

Baum, Martin— foot note 27 

Baxter, (Mrs.) Martha K IX 

Baxter, S. W XI 

Beair, 42 

Beardsto\\Ti, 111 X 

Beecher, (Dr.) Lyman 76 

Belgium 47 

Belleville, 111 XI, 42, 96 

Bell, John, candidate for President U. S., 1860— vote of 80, 98 

Bell, John— Vote of Gallatin Co., for president in 1S60 97 

Belvidere, 111 X, XI, XII, 16 

Bender, (Mrs.) Inez J XI 

Benson, John, Jr 116 

Bent, Charles XI 

Benton, Thomas, "Thirty Years View, " Vol. I— quoted, foot note 34 

Berry, (Dr. ) Daniel XI , 9 

Berry, Elijah C 37 

Berry, (Col.) James C. of Vandalia 41 

Berry, Orville F X 

Berry, R. L 13 

Berwick, 111 XII 

Beveridge, (Gen.) John L SJ 

Big Black River— battle of 101 

"Big Four"' Ra hoad : 117 

Big Wabash River 45 

Biloxi, Miss 67 

Birkbeck family 44, 48, 54 

Birkbeck, Morr.s 23, 43, 44, 45, 48, .5:^ 

Birkbeck, Morris — \\Titings of, reference to 4S 

Black Hawk War 97 

Black welder family ; .■ 16 

Blackwcldcr, I. S 16 

Blair, Francis G XI 

Blair, Frank P 92 

Blooming Grove, McLean Co., Ill 1 15, 1 16, 117, 1 18 

Bloomington, 111 VII, IX, XI, XII, 21, 121 

Blooming! on. 111., Bulletin— newspaper of Jan. 2, 1889 US 

Bloomington, 111., Republican Convention of 1856 — held at 63 

Bloomington Township, McLean Co., 111. — foot note 116 

Bond ( ounl y, 111 93 

Bond. Sliadrach, Governor of Illinois 96 

Bonpas J{i ver. . . ., 48, 53 

Boone County, 111 83 

Borglau's adoption and amendment of Constitutions, quoted 56 

Boss, Henry R.— History of Ogle County, published 1859 113 

Boston, Mass 15,75 

Bowman, E. M XI 

Braincrd, Legh K •. 9 

IJravl on, A. W 114 

Breckcnridge. John C .SI, 98 



125 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Breokcniidge, John C— candidate for President U. S., vole of SO 

Breckenridge, John C. — vote of Southern Illinois counties for President in 1860 97, 9S 

]$reesc, Sidney, Chief Justice Supreme Court — decision as to legality of Governor Yates, action in 

proroguing Legislature January, 1865 ." 91 

British Isles " 53 

British Race 115, 120 

Bronson Bros 14 

Bronson, Henry (M. D.) 14 

Brown. Anna, Home for the Aged, Quincy, 111 66 

Browni. ( Mrs. ) C. C XI 

Browni County, 111 17 

BroMii County, Kan 119, 120 

Brown County, Kan., Kickapoo Reservation in 116 

Browne, Thomas C 29, 30, 40, 41 

Browne, (Judge) Thomas C, candidate for Governor of Illinois, 1822 29, 30 

Bryce, James, American Commonwealth, Vol. II — quoted 55, .56, 57 

Bryce, James, American Commonwealth, last edition 1910 — quoted 59 

Buchan;m. James, elected U. S. President 1S56 79 

Buck, Solon J '. 12 

Buell, Don Carlos, Union Major-General, War of the Rebellion 103 

Buena \'ista— battle of 99 

Bullalo Bill's Wild West Show— reference to 118 

Bunker Hill Monument 80 

Biuni, John W., Vice-president Lincoln Centennial Association 101 

15urdock. J 47 

Burnet, Jacob '. 29 

Bmiiliam, J. H VII, IX, XI, XII, 6, 7, 17 

Burr, Horace 14 

Burrell, Orlando 98 

Burrows, ( Dr.) W. T X 

Butler College, Indianapolis, Ind 20, .55 



Cabin of Thomas Ford — preservation of, etc : 108, 111, 112, 114 

Cahokia Mound ; • 17 

Cairo, 111 21, 82, 85, 93 

Cairo, III. — occupation of by Union Troops under General R. K. Swift, April 21, 1861 82 

Calhoun, John C 29, 30,^6, 84, 92 

California State 4, 20, 62 

California State — admission into Union with free state constitution, September 3, 1850 79 

California State — Constitution amendments to 60 

Callender, Elliot XI 

Cambridgeshire, England 52 

Camden, 111 X 

Campbell, Charles B XII 

Canljv. Israel T.— letter to Thomas Sloo, dated Aug. 3, 1823, foot note • 31 

Candler, Allen D 14 

Capen, Charles L XI 

Carbondale, 111 VII, IX, XI 

Carey. Michigan, Pottowatomie Indian Mission at 118 

Caribbean Sea 84 

Carlin, Thomas, Governor of Illinois 96 

Carlinville, 111 XI 

Carmi, 111 XI 

Carolinas (The) 22 

Carpenter, R. V VII, X, XI, XII, 6,7 

Carr, Clark E VII, IX, X, XI, XII, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, 17, 20, 78 

Carr, Clark E.— Annual Address before the Illinois State Historical Society. "Illinois" 4,20,21-25 

Carr, Clark E — Life of Stephen A. Douglas, foot note 101 

Carr, Clark E— Minister to Denmark, foot note 101 

Carriel, ( Mrs. ) Mary Turner XI 

Carter, Robert 15 

Carthage, 111 X 

Casey, Zadoc 41 

Castor Hill— (St. Louis Countv, Mo.) Indian Treaty of, Oct. 24, 1S32, at 118 

Catholic Church, Oregon, III 110 

Catlin, Cieorge — Painter of Kickapoo Indian Chief's portraits 118,119,121 

Catlin, George — portrait of Masheena, reference to 118, 119,121 

Cat on, John Dean 89 

Catterall. Ralph C. H.— The Second Bank of the United States, quoted, foot note 28 

Central America 84 

Centralia, 111 21 

Chamberlin, (Dr.) M. H 4 

Chambersburg, Pa. — foot note 28 

Champaign, 111 VII, IX, X 

Champion Hills— battle of 101 

Champion, (Col.) Thomas E ; 82 



126 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Chapman Bro's. Portrait and Biographical Album of Ogle County, pub. 1886 107 

Charles, First King of England 47 

Charleston, 111 XI 

Charleston, S. C , 15, 84, S.i 

Charlottesville, Va 16 

Chase, Salmon P 92 

Chattanooga Campaign, War of the Rebellion 101 

Chepwell, Mary, wife of John de LaSerre II -51 

Chetlain (Brig.-Gen.) A. L 82 

Chicago, 111 VII, IX, X, XI, 3, 4, 5, 9, 16, 17, 24, 62, 78, 89, 96, 99, 100, 101, 112, 113, 114 

Chicago, 111., convention of 1860 20 

Chicago, 111., Historical Society '. 3, 4, 6, 7, 20, 1 10 

Chicago; 111., Ill nois North Central History .Teacher's Association hold annual meeting in 3-4 

Chicago, 111., Illinois State Historical Society hold annual meeting in 3-4 

Chicago, 111., Mississippi Valley Historical Society hold annual meeting in 3-4 

Chickamauga — battle of 6.i 

Chickasaw B ayou, Mi-'^s 83 

Cholera in New York City 1834 49 

Chr stian Church 70 

Christian Church, Blooming Grove, McLean County, 111 115 

Church. (Col.) LawTcnce S S3 

Churche.s— Baptist Indian Missions, historv of, bv Rev. Isaac McCov 118 

Churches— Catholic Church, Oregon, 111. . .*. ". 110 

Churches— Christian Church 70 

Churches— Christian Church, Blooming Grove, McLean Co., Ill 115 

Churches— Congregational Church, LaSalle, 111 65 

Churches— England, established Church of 44 

Churches— "Kanakuk( K ckapoo Indian) Church" 110 

Churches — Method st Church, establishes a seminary at Mt. Morrs, 111 Ill 

Churches — Presbyterian (Mission on Horton Heights, Horton, Kan.) 119 

Churches— Unitarian 44 

Churchill, George 1 2:3 

Church U, George II, professor in Knox College 23 

Churchill, Norman 23 

Cincinnati. Ohio 20, 27, 28, 29, 36, 43, 44 

Foot note 26 

Cincinnati, Ohio — Commercial Tribime Newspaper 43 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Universitv 20, 26, 38 

Cincinnati— Society of 16 

Civil War 4, 5, 6, 21 , 25, 78, 95, 97 

Civil Waf (The) — address by Hon. Marcus Kavanagh before the memorial meeting, April 14, 1911.. 78 

Clark, Arthur H. PubLshing Co., Cleveland, Ohio 15, 45 

Clark, George Rogers 79, 95, 96 

Clav, Henry 32 

Clinton Co., Ill 85 

Clinton, rSir) Henrv 15 

Clinton, J. W " VII, XI. 7 

Clute, ( Rev. ) Robert F 15 

Cobb, Howell 97 

Cold Water (The) Steamboat 76 

Coleman, Christopher B. — The Development of the State Constitutions. Paper read at the annual 

meeting Illinois State Historical Society, 1911 20, 55-61. 

Coles, Edward, Governor of Illinois 10, 22, 23, 30, 31, 33, 37, 85, 96 

Coles, Edward— Opposition to Slavery 22, 85, 96 

Colfax, Schuyler 92 

Collina, on the Rhine '. 47 

Collins, Anson 75, 76 

Collins, Augustus 75, 76 

Collins & Co., Augustus 76 

CoU.ns Family — history compiled bv William H. Collins 75 

Collins, Frederick ". 75, 76 

Collins, Helen 74 

Collins, J. H IX 

Collins, Michael 75, 76 

Colli IIS Plow Co 65 

Coll ins Sel I loment in Illinois (The) 75, 76 

Collins, A\ illiam 75 

Collins, Will iam Burrage 75 

Collins, ^\ ill iam Hertzog — an appreciation 65-67 

Coll ns, A\illiain Ilortzog 7, 65-67, 68-71, 72, 74, 75 

Collins, William Jlcrlzog— biographical skelfh of 65-67 

Collins, William llerlzog— Life of WiUiam Herzog Collins, by Rev. James Robert Smith 20,68-71 

Collins, Mill am Hertzog— poem on, by his daughter H elen 74 

Collins, William Hertzog — WTilings of 66, 67 

Collinsville, HI 65, 75, 76 

Cologne, city of Prussia 47 

Colony of Virginia 79 

Colored Historical Society, state of Illinois 11 



127 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

•C'oUunlnis, Christopher 5.'? 

Colunihus, (!a 97 

Cohunlius Township, Adams Co., Ill 70 

Colyer. Walter VII, IX, A, 51 

Colyer, Walter— The Fordliams and La Serres of the English Settlement in Edwards County, 111. 

» Paper read at the annual meeting Illinois State Uistorical Society, 1911 20, •1.3-.54 

Colyer, Walter— letter of Dr. Herbert de LaSerre Spenee to, dated Painesville, Ohio, May 0, 1906.51-52 

Committee on Federal Relations, Illinois State Legislature 86 

Commodore ( Optukkee) Kickapoo Indian 120, 121 

Concord. Mass 43 

Confederate Army, War of the ReljeUion 98 

Congregat icmal Church, LaSaUe, 111 65 

Conkling, Clinton L IX 

Connecticut State 14, 75, 76 

Constitution of ISIS, State of Illinois 80 

■Constitution of 1S4S, State of lUinois 56 

Const it ulional Convention of 1S62, State of Illinois. University of Illinois Studies — reference to 57 

Constitutional Convention of 1S70, State of Illinois 24 

Const ilufional Convent iorrs, agitation about in various states 61 

•Constitutional Conventions, the peoples' part in 57 

Constitutional Conventions and Constitutions of Illinois, address by Hon. Adiai E. Stevenson — 

reference to 57 

Constitutional Conventions in difl'erent states— journals and debates of, reference to 57 

Constitutional History of New York, by Lincoln — reference to 56, 57 

Constitutions — State— Amendments to," such as the initiative and referendum, recall, direct primary, 

etc., etc 58, 59, 60 

Constitutions— State — authorities on, quoted 56, 57 

Constitutions— State— in the Federal L'nion— first, second, third, foui-th periods of 57-58 

Constitutions — State — in the Federal Union tend toward a given model 57 

Constitutions— State — of the New England States, reference to 57 

Conwav, M. D 43 

Cook County, 111 83, 85, 89, 96, 108 

Cook, Daniel P 29, 35, 37, 39, 42, 96, lOS 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre — Treatise on the constitutional limitations which rest upon the legislative 

power of the states of the American Union, quoted 56 

Cooper, John L IX 

Corpus Christi, Texas XII 

Courier Co. (Pubs.) Evansville, Ind 14 

Cox. Isaac .1.— Thomas Sloo, Jr., A Typical Politician of Early Illinois. Paper before Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1911 20, 26-42 

Crabbe, (Mrs.) Edwin G XII 

Crabtree, John D 83 

Crawford, A. W XI 

Crawford County, lU 93 

Crawford, W. H., Secretary of the United States Treasmy 29, 32, 33, 36, 39 

Crebs, (Col.) John M— Col. Eighty-seventh Inf., War of the Rebellion 98 

Crowder. Thomas J 9 

Cromwell, Oliver 95 

Cromwell's Army 43 

Cuba, San Juan Hill 48 

Cullom, Shelby M., Governor of Illinois 96 

Cixllom, Shelby M.— quoted on Douglas Speech in Illinois Legislature, April 25, 1861 100 

Culver, James S 9 

Cunningham, J. O VII, XI, 7 

Cmrey, J. Seymour IX, XI, 4 

Custer, Milo — Masheena, paper read loefore the McLean Co. Historical Society, March 4, 1911 115-121 

Cutler, Manasseh 85 



Dakot a Territory 100 

Danville, 111 XII 

Davidson & Stuve — History of Illinois quoted, foot notes 30,31 

Davies, (Mrs.) Anna, daughter of Gov. Thomas Ford— death of 114 

Davis, George P., President McLean Co. Historical Society 121 

Davis, Henry W' inter 92 

Davis, Jefferson 92, 98 

Davis, Jefferson — chosen president of the Southern Confederacy Feb. 9, 1861, at Montgomery, Ala. . 81 

Davis, John A. (Col.) 83 

Davis, J. McCan IX 

Dawes, Charles G IX, 4, 6 

Dawes, (Mrs.) Charles G 4 

Dawson family, McLean County, III 116 

Dawson, George E '. XI 

Dawson, John, Pioneer of McLean County, 111 1 16, 118 

Dawson, (Mrs.) Jolin 116 

Dawson, John WeUs 117, 118 

Foot note 117 



128 
Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Dayton, (Geii.) Jonathan— foot note 2S 

Deaconess Hospital, Lincoln, 111 114 

Dealey, (Prof.) James C^uayle— Our State Constitution (Supplement to the Annals of the American 

.\cademv of Political and Social Science, Mass, 1907). quoted 56,59 

1 )ecatur. 111 XI, 81 

Decatur, 111. , Editorial Convention at, 1856 62. 63 

Deems, G eorge 115 

DeJersev, Carey 51 

DeKalb, 111 VII, XI, 83 

Delaware Indian 119 

Delaware State 14 

Delaware State Constitution amendments to 60 

Dement, Henry D 83 

Democratic Party 64, 66, 79, 81, 82, 85, 89, 97 

Democrat c State Convention at Springfield, 111., Dec. 5. 1841— foot note IDS 

Democratic State Convention of June 7, 1842, held at Springfield, 111 IDS 

Deneeu, Charles S., Governor of Illinois 96 

Denmark, Clark E. Carr. Minister to— foot note 101 

Dent, Thomas, President Chicago Historical Society 3,4 

Des Moines, Iowa 20 

Development of the State Constitutions — Address before the Illinois State Historical Society, 1911, 

by Christopher B. Coleman 20, 5.>-61 

Dickerman, I,uke 9 

Dickerson, O. M X 

Dixon, Henry S X 

Dixon, 111 X, 109, 112 

Dixon, (Capt.) J. Bates — Adjutant General of the Army of'the Cumberland .s2 

Dodd, Walter Farleigh— The Revision and Amendment of State Constitution, 1910, reference to 57 

Donelson, Fort— battle of 101, 102 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 25, 36, 63, 64, 80, 81, 85, 98, 99, 100 

Douglas, otephen Arnold, Candidate for U. S. President in 1860— vote of SO 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Candidate for U. S. President in 1860— vote of Southern Illinois counties 

for 98 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— Chicago Wigwam speech June, 1861 100 

foot note 1 Oil 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— extract from last speech of, in Chicago, June, ixtjl 100 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold — great speech ot April 25, LS61, Springfield, 111., reference to 100 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold — James Harrison Wilson quoted on 99 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— life of, by Hon. Cla,rk E. Carr, foot note 101 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold—' ' Little liiant " 96, 100 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— L'nited States Senator from Illinois. 79 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— vote of Gallatin County, 111., lor president in 1860 97 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold— Welcomes Volunteer Regiment of Stephenson County to capital at 

Springfield, III M 

Dover Castle, England 46 

Dover, P2ngland 46 

Drake, John B 113 

Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 20 

"Dream of the South (The)"— story of Illinois during the Civil war, address before Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1911, by Eugene Baldwin, Peoria", III 84-92 

Dred Scott case 79, SO 

Dred Scott case decided by IT. S. Supreme Court, December, 18.56 79 

Driscoll, John — prairie out-law, trial lor the killing of 110 

Driscoll, William — prairie out-law, trial for the killing of 110 

Druids, society in Dover, England -47 

Ducat, (Major) Arthur C. — Inspector General of the Army of the Cumberland 8:5 

Duis, (Dr.) E. — Good Old Times in McLean Co., published, Bloomington, 1874 115, 116, 117 

foot note 116 

Duke ol Wellington 46 

Duncan, Joseph, Governor of Illinois '. 96, 113 

Dupuy , George A IX 

1 Justin, Daniel S ■ S3 

Dutton, E. F 8.3 



Easthampton, Mass 14 

East St. Louis, III XI 

Eddy, Henry 23 

Edeiis, William G IX, 9 

Edict of Nantes, revocation of 51 

Editorial Convent ion of l,s.")6 at Decatur, 111 62, tW 

Educa'ion— IJullor CoUcup, Indiana ixilis, Ind 20, 55 

Education— Drake University, Drs Moines, Iowa 20 

Education— llliudis (;<)ll('i;e, Ja"ks()nville 7, 65 

Education — Illinois North' Central Teachers Association 3-1 

Education— Kentucky State University, Lexington, Ky If^ 

Education — Kickapoo School on the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas 120 



{ 



129 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Educatiou— Knox College, Galesburg, 111 23 

Education— Mount Morris, College, Mount Morris, 111 111,114 

Education— Northren Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 111 VII 

Education— Xortliwestern University, Evanston, 111 3 4, 20 

Education— Quiney Board of Education, (j uincy, lU 66, 69 

Education— Quiucy Public Schools, Qudncy , HI 66, 69 

Education— Kock Ivi ver Seminary, Mount Morris, 111 Ill 

Education— Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale, 111 VII 

Educajion — Transylvania U niversity, Lexington, Ky 108 

Education— University oT Cincinnati 20, 26, 38 

Education— University of Illinois VII 

Education — West Point Military Acadcmj- 103 

Education— Yale, University. . " 65 

Edwards county, 111 20, 52, 54, 97, 99 

Edwards county, EngUsh settlement, relics from in Fordham family 48 

Edwards county. 111.— The Fordhams and LaSerres of the English settlement in Edwards County, 
Illinois, paper read at the aimual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1911, by Walter 

Colyer 20, 43-54 

Edwards, I. F X 

Edwards, Ninian— Governor of IlUnois 10, 29, 30, 38, 40, 41, 42, 96, 97, 108 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian— appropriation asked of the Legislature for monument to 10 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian— Mexican mission, appointment to, reference to 30,34 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian— United St ates Senator from Illinois 34, 35, 36, 37 

Edwards, Ninian Wirt — history of Illinois, foot notes 30,34,37 

Edwards Papers quoted 37 

Foot notes 30, 34 

Edwardsville, 111 10, 42 

Eflingham county. 111 93 

Egle, William (M. D.) 15 

Egypt, country of 93 

"Egvpf— Southern Illinois so called 93,94,97,98,99,101,102,103 

Eight Illinois Infantry— War of the Rebelliott 98, 102 

Eighteenth Illinois Regiment— War of the Rebellion 97,101,102,103 

"Elements of Truth in all Religioni;," by William H. CoUins 66 

Eleventh Illinois Regiment — War of the'Rebellion 102 

Elk River, battle of 65 

El Paso, 111 XII 

Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln, reference to 87, 88 

Enabling Act, State of Illinois, April 7, 1818 79 

England 28, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 5152, , 59 

England— established church of 44 

English Bulls Eye watch, 150 years old carried by the Fordhams in Illinois, reference to 48 

English colonists in the Illinois country 43-54 

English Flag 79 

English forefathers 55 

English Government 44 

English. Lee F X 

English Parliament 60 

English race 45, 46, 49 

English settlement in Edwards county, 111.— The Fordhams and LaSerres of the English settlement 
in Edwards county paper read before the Hlinois State Historical Society, 1911, by Walter Colyer. .43-54 

English settlement in Edwards county. 111. — relics of in the Fordham farnily 48 

Enbs, (Miss) Louise 12 

Eshnoqua Nubya— daughter of Ma-heena, Kickapoo Indian 120 

Eshnoqua Nubya— Kickapoo Indian, portrait of in McLean County Historical Society rooms 121 

Established church of England 44 

Etwenahpee (Robert Wawawsuk) — Backapoo Indian 120 

Eureka, 111 XI 

Europe 22, 24 

Evanston, 111 IX, XI, 4, ..6.20 

Evanston. 111. — annual meeting of Illinois State Historical Society held at 3, 4 

Evanston, 111.— Historical Society 3, 6. 20 

Evanston, 111. — Mississippi Valley Historical Society hold annual meeting in 3-4 

Evanston HI.— North Central History Teachers Association hold annual meeting in 3-4 

Evanston, III. — Northwestern University at 20 

Evanston, 111. — pubUclibrary .' 3-4 

Evansville. Ind 14, 47 

Ewing, W. L. D 41. 42 

Ewing, (Mrs.) W. L. D 42 



Fairbanks, (Rev.) John 9 

Fairfield. Ill IX, XI 

Famsworth, (Gen.) John F 83 

"Father of the Waters" — Mississippi so called 85 

Faux, William — "Memorable Days in America," published in London, 1823, reference to 53 

Fayette County, 111 93 



— 9 H S 



130 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Fay, W. H XI 

Fearon, Henry Bradshaw — author of " A Narrative of a Journey of 5,000 Miles througli the Eastern 

and vVestern States of America," published, London, 1819, reference to 48 

Fearon, Henry Bradihaw — letter of Klias Fordham to, dated Royston, Eng., Dec. 23, 1818 48-49 

Federal and State Constitution, edited by F. N. Thorpe, U. S. Government, pub 56 

Federalrelations, committee on report of and resolutions— Illinois State Legislature 86-89 

Felmley, David X 

Filer, Joseph— Governor of Illinois ' 96 

Findlay, (Gen.) James 27, 28, 29, 36 

Foot notes 26, , 27 

Findlay, (Mrs.) James 27 

Findlay, (Mrs.) J ane— foot note 27 

Findlay, John— foot note 28 

Findlay, (Miss) Rebecca Smith— 2d wife of Thomas Sloo, Jr 28 

Flagg, Norman G XII, 12 

Flemish People 47 

Florence, 111., now Oregon, 111 110 

Flower fatnily .■ 44 

Flower, George 43, 48, 49, 50, 51 

Flower, George— History of the English Settlement Edwards County, 111. (Chicago HistoricalSocietv 

Col.Vol. I.Chicago, 1882) quoted 43,52 

Flower, George— old bank book of, reference to 48 

Flower, George II 49 

Flower, Richard 44 ., 53 

Foote family 16 

Foote, John Crocker XII, 16 

Foote, William Henry 15 

Ford county. 111 93 

Ford, Robert 108 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas— Governor Thomas Ford in Ogle Co., contribution to State History, by Re- 
becca H. Kauffman 107-114 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas— biographical sketch of 108-109. . 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas— cabin of, preservation of . . . .' 108, 111, 112, 114 

Ford, Thomas— elected Governor of Illinois 108, 109 

Ford, Thomas— family of 114 

Ford, Thomas— History of Illinois 107,113,114 

Foot note 34 

Ford, Thomas— History of Illinois, extract from 113, 114 

Ford, Thomas— History of Illinois, manuscript of given for publication to James Shields HI 

Ford, Thomas— mention 96 

Foot note 108 

Ford, Thomas— trial before, of Jonathan W. Jenkins and 111 other men for the killing of the prairie 

outlaws, John and William Driscoll 110 

Ford, (Mrs.) Thomas • 114 

Fordhams and La Serres of the English Settlement in Edwards County, Illinois— paper before the 

Illinois State Historical Society, 1911, by Walter Colyer 20, 43-54 

Fordham, Catherine 46 

Fordham, Charles— brother of EliasPvm Fordham 44,46,47,48,49 

Fordham, Charles— son of Edward King Fordham 44, 46, 47, 48 

Fordham, Charles— letter to Edward King Fordham, dated Albion, 111., Dec. 9, 1834 49-50 

Fordham, Charles II, of New York City 48 

Fordham, Charles H 50 

Fordham, (Mrs.) C. H.of Garmsck, Eng 50 

Fordham, E dward 44 

Fordham, Edward King 4'^, 49, 52 

Fordham, Edward King— contributes books toward the founding of the first publiclibrary in .\lbion, 

111 44 

Fordham, Edward King— letter of Charles Fordham to, dated Albion, 111., Dec. 9, 1834 49-50 

Fordham, Elias 44, 49 

Fordham, Elias— letter to Henry Bradshaw Fearon, dated Royston, Dec. 23, 1818 48-49 

Fordham, Elias Pym 4.3-46, 48, 51, 53 

Fordham, Elias Pym— his work in the establishment of the English colony in Edwards county, 

111 43-46 

Fordham, Elias Pym— old bank book of, reference to 48 

Fordham, Elias Pvm— Personal Narrative of Travels in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Indiana. Kontucky and of a Residence in the Illinois Territory, 1817-1818. The Arthur H. Clark 

Publishine Co. , Clevel and, ( )hio, 1906 45, 51 

Fordham , Klias Pvm— technical engineer 46 

Fordham family .' 43-50 

Fordham, Joli n 48 

Fordham, (Miss) Maria— wife of Charles de La Serre 44, 50, 51, 52 

Fordham, (Miss) Maria-wife of Charles de La Serre, memoir of 51-52 

Fordham, Richard B 48 

Fordham, Sophia. 50 

Fordham, William •. 48 

Fordhams of Royston— rich English bankers 50 

Forauer, George 108 

Forrest, Nathan B.— Confederal o General. War of the Rebellion 97 

Fort Chartros— bill for the purchase of reference to 10 



131 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Fort Donelson— battle of lOi ,102 

Fort Henry 1 09 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans 119 

Fort Russell 3 

Fort Sumter / 4,81,85,100,101 

Fort Sampler 1 

Fowler, William M XI 

France 16, 51 

Franklin county, Ilh 94, 99 

Franklin county, 111.— men in the War of the Rebellion, number of 99 

Franklin, Term.— battle of 97 

Fraternal organizations— Odd Fellows 47 

Freeman, (Judge) Henry V 83 

Fremont, John C 64 

Freeport, 111 VII. XI, 4, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85 

Freeport, 111.— Brewster House at 80 

Freeport, 111.— court house 81 

Freeport, 111. — Lincoln-Douglas Debate at 85 

Freeport, lU.— post office 82 

Freese, L.J XI 

Free states — immigrants from 82 

French, Augustus C— Governor of Illinois 96 

French Race 47,120 

Fridley, Andrew 112 

Fridlev, Beniamin 108,112 

FridleV, David 112 

Fridley, Jacob 112 

Fridlev, John Ill, 112 

Fridlev, John II 112 

Frink,"DwightE XII 

Fuller, Margaret 109 

Fuller, Melville W 85 

Fuller, William W 109 

Fulton county, m 85, .93 

Funk, (Senator) Isaac— great speech of, in Illinois Senate, in 1863 89-91 



Galesburg.IU VII, IX, XI, XII, 21, 23 

Gallatin countv, lU 94, 97, 101 

Gallatin county. 111.— vote of for president in 1860 97 

Gambrel, Henry 114 

Gambrel, Mrs. ilenry 114 

Garm, Robert H X 

Garmsck, E ngland 50 

Garner, Prof. James Wilford— amendment of State Constitutions, article on reference to 56, 60 

Gaston, Mrs 42 

Geddes, J ames 35 

Genealogical Committee — Illinois State Historical Society XII 

Genealogical Committee — Illinois State Historical Society, report of 14-16 

Georgia State 14,80,81 

Georgia State Constitution— how printed 56 

Georgia State Constitution — material on, not available 56 

German race 47 

Germany 47,96 

Gibbes, R. W., M. D 15 

Gibbon, Edward— eminent English historian 94 

Gidding, (Rev.) Salmon 75 

Gist, (Col.) Nathaniel 25 

Glasgow Farm, Ogle county, lU 108, 114 

Glasgow, Wilson S 108,112 

Godfrey, 111 .• 9 

Good, John W 9 

Good Old Times in McLean county. 111., by Dr. E. Duis, publisher, Bloomington, III., 1874, 

quoted 115,116,117 

Goode, G. Brown 15 

Goode, John 51 

Gordon Family 98 

Gordon, James X 

Government, state departments of — Legislative, executive, judicial department, other divisions, 

reference to 59, 60 

Goudy, WiUiamC 89 

Gough, (Miss) Sarah M XII 

Grand Army of the Republic — Thomas J. Lawler, commander in chief of 83 

Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago 113 

Graham, (Lieut.) John— Eighty-seventh 111. Inf. War of the Rebellion 98 



132 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Grant, Ulysses S 25,82,92,98,101,102,103 

Grant, Ulysses S.— Illinois Major General 103 

Grant, Ulysses S.— Termed by Smith D. Atkins, greatest general of century in which he lived 82 

Grasshopper Creek, Atchison, Kan 119 

Great Britain 27 

Greathouse, (Col. ) Lucian— Forty-eighth Reg. HI. Vol., War of the rebellion 98 

Green, William H 85 

Greene, E. B - .Vn,IX,6,7,ll 

Gridley, J. N "- I^ 

Grierson Benjamin H.— Illinois Major General, war of the rebellion 103 

Grigg & Elliott, publishers, Philadelphia, Pa 112 

Griggs, S. C. & Co., publishers '---- 107 

Guernsey, Island of— One of the Channel islands, belonging to Great Britain 51 

Gulf of Mexico 67 

H 

Haight,HaUy 9 

HaU, (Mrs.) George K XII 

Hall, Henry 6 

Hall, James 37 

Hall, James— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Vandalia, 111., Jan. 15, 1827 40-41 

Hall, James— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Vandalia, 111., June 3, 1827 41-42 

Hall, Ross C X 

Hamlin, (Miss) L. Belle— librarian of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, foot note 38 

Hamilton county. 111 29, 30, 31, 41, 94 

Hamilton county, Ohio, foot note 26 

Hancock county, 111 93, 94 

Hanson, Nicholas— contested seat of in the Illinois Legislature, reference to 23 

Hardin County, 111 94, 98 

Hardin county, lU — number of soldiers in War of Rebellion 98 

Hardin county. 111., —vote of in 1860 for president 98 

Hardin, (Col.) John J.— kiUed battle of Buena Vista, Mexican War 97 

Harker, 0. A X 

Harris, Abram W.— president of the Northwestern Unit, Evanston, 111 20 

Harris, (Col.) Thomas W. Fifty-fourth lU. Vol. Inf., War of the Rebellion 97 

Harrison Family 98 

Harrison, William Henry, foot note 26 

Harrison, AVilliam Henry-" Old Tippecanoe" 29, 96 

Harrison William Henry— U. S. Senator from Ohio 36 

Hassler, Edgar W 15 

Hastings, England 46 

Hauberg, John W Xu 

Hay, John ^ 

Hay, Logan IX 

Haynie, Isham Nicolas— Col. of the 48th lU. Reg. War of the RebeUion 97 

Head, WiUiam R 9 

Healey, R. W ^• 

Hearn, Campbell, S -X. 

Heflord & Langerfrey— merchants at New Orleans ,50 

Heinl, F.J IX 

Helena, St., Island of HI 

Foot note HI 

Herndon & Weik — life of Lincoln, quoted, foot note 100 

Herriott, Frank I— Massachusetts, the Germans and the Chicago Convention of 1860 20 

Hertfordshire, England 44, 49 

Hertzog, Elizabeth Wilt ^o 

Hicks, H. S XII 

Hicks, (Col.) Stephen G— Fortieth Reg. lU Vol. Inf., War of the RebeUion 97 

Hillsboro, lU XI 

Hitt, R. R 107 

HonncU, Henry W 119, 120 

Honnell, William (Neeboqua)— Kickapoo Indian 121 

Honnell, (Rev.) WiUiam H. . ., 119 

Hood, (Gen.) Jolm B.— Confederate General, War of the RebeUion 97 

Horton, Kan - 119 

Hotchkiss, (Gen.) Charles T 83 

House Div ded Against Itself— speech of Abraham Lincoln, reference to 63 

Houston, J. W XII 

Howey, (Mrs.) Jennie 13 

Hoyt, (Dr.) A. W Ill 

Hubble, (Mrs.) Lee J XII 

Huguenots- French Huguenots 51 

Hull, Charles E X 

HuU, Horace XI 



133 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Humphrey, (Judge) J. Otis XI 

Humphrey, (Col.) T. W 83 

Hunter, C. L 15 

Huntoon, (Mrs.) G. H '. XII 

Hurlburt, Stephen A.— Illinois Major General, War of the Rebellion 83, 103 

Hythe, England 46 

1 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 30, 32, 35, 42 

Illinois and Michigan Canal — First board of commissioners appointed 31 

niinoisans of Danish and Norman ancestry 96 

Illinois Country 45 

Illinois Country— English colonists in 43-54 

Illinois Country— prairies of 53, 54 

Illinois River 30, 35, 76 

Illinois State. .XI, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 

38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87. 

SS, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121 

Foot notes 29, 31, 38, 118 

Illinois State — admitted into Union Dec. 3, 1818, with free state constitution 22,79 

Illinois State — Adjutant General's office, State of Illinois 98 

Illinois State — annual address before Illinois State Historical Society, 1911. "Illinois." By Hon. 

Clark E. Carr 20, 21-25 

Illinois State— Anti-slavery men in 96 

Illinois State — attempts to amend the constitution of 22, 23, 85 

Illinois State — Bateman & Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois 107 

Illinois State — boundaries of 21 

Illinois State — capital 23, 93 

Illinois State — capitol building, Springfield, 111 4, 23, 93, 100 

Illinois State — capitol building, Springfield (old) 82 

Illinois State — circuit covirts 40, 41, 83 

Illinois State — circuit courts, 1827 40, 41 

Illinois State — Colored Historical Society 11 

Illinois State — constitution of 1848 56 

Illinois State — constitution one of the most rigid in the United States 60 

Illinois State— constitution, vote for and against amending with regard to slavery 23, 34, 85 

Illinois State — constitutional conventions and constitutions of lUinois — By Adlai E. Stevenson, in 

Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1903, reference to 57 

Illinois State — constitutional convention of 1S62 — by 0. M. Dickerson, A. M., University of Illinois 

studies, reference to 57 

Illinois State — constitutional convention of 1870 24 

Illinois State— County of Virginia 21 

Illinois State — Davidson & Stuve History of, quoted foot notes 30,31 

Illinois State — -District of Southern Illinois, counties included in 93 

Illinois State — Dream of the South, (The) — story of Illinois during the Civil War. Paper read at the 

memorial meeting April 14, 1911, Illinois State Historical Society, by Eugene F. Baldwin 81-92 

Illinois State — early emigration to 22, 25 

Illinois State — early settlers of 85, 95 

Illinois State — early settlers of Southern Illinois from the slave states 85 

Illinois State — Edward's History of Illinois, quoted, foot notes 30,34,37 

Illinois State — effort to have slavery incorporated into fundamental law of Illinois in 1818 85 

Illinois State—' ' Egypt" Southern Illinois so called 93, 94, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103 

Illinois State— Eighteenth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 97, 101, 102, 103 

Illinois State— Eighth lU. Vol. Reg. War of the Rebellion 98, 102 

Illinois State— Eleventh 111. Vols. Reg. War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State— Enabling Act, State of Illinois, Apr. 7, 1818 79 

Illinois State— Fifteenth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 103 

Illinois State— Fifth 111. Cav., AVar of the Rebellion 98 

Illinois State— Fifty-fifth 111. Reg. , War of the Rebellion 83 

Illinois State— Fifty-fourth Reg. 111. Vols, in the War of the Rebellion 97 

Illinois State — Fifty-sixth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 97 

Illinois State — First Illinois Reg., War with Mexico 97 

Illinois State— Ford's History of Illinois. 107, 111, 113, 114 

Foot note 34 

Illinois State— Fortieth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State — Fourteenth Cavalry, War of the Rebellion 98 

Illinois State— Fourteenth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 102, 103 

Illinois State — General Assembly (See Legislature) 4, 10, 85, 89 

Illinois State — Geographical center of at llliopolis 93 

Illinois State — H.storical collections Ill 

Illinois State— Historical collections Vol. 6 Illinois Newspapers 1814-1879, edited by F. W. Scott 11 

Illinois State — Historical collections Vol. VII, Governor's letter books, 1840-1853, edited by E. B.. 

iBi Greene and C. M. Thompson 11 

Illinois State — Historical Library, commission appointed by the legislature to prepare plans for 
^..building for 10 



134 

Index — Continue(J. 

Page. 

lUinois State — Historical Library, Genealogical Books in, partial list of 14-16 

Illinois State — Historical Library, list of Publications of 150 

Illinois State— Historical Library, publication No. 8, 1903, quoted foot note 26 

Illinois State— Historical Society 16, 65, 66, 93, 94 

Foot notes 38, 101 

Illinois State— Historical Society Annual Meeting, 1911, held at Evanston and Chicago 3-4 

Illinois State— Historical Society, Archaeological, committee of XII 

Illinois State— Historical Society, Archaeological, committee, report of 17 

Illinois State — Historical Society, Board of Directors Business meetings 6-8 

Illinois State — Historical Society, commission appointed by the legislature to prepare plans for a 

building for 10 

Illinois State— Historical Society, committees of, May, 1911, May, 1912 LX-Xn 

Illinois State — Historical Society, contributions to State History 105-121 

Illinois State — Historical Society, deceased members of, May, 1910— May, 1911 9 

Illinois State— Historical Society, financial and auditing committee of X 

Illinois State— Historical Society, Genealogy and Genealogical publications, committee on, report 

of Xn, 14-16 

Illinois State — Historical Society, Historic Spots in Illinois, committee on XI-XII 

Illinois State — Historical Society, .1 ournal of Ill, 7, 10, 12 

Illinois State — Historical Society, legislation committee on X 

Illinois State — Historical Society, list of publications of 

Illinois State— Historical Society, local Historical Societies, committee on XI 

Illinois State — Historical Society, membership committee XI 

Illinois State — Historical Society, number of members of, etc & 

Illinois State— Historical Society, oflicers of, 1911-1912 VII 

Illinois State — Historical Society, papers read at the annual meeting, 1911 19-76 

Illinois State— Historical Society, program committee of IX 

Illinois State — Historical Society, program of annual meeting of 20 

Illinois State— Historical Society, program of special meeting, Apr. i4, 1911 77,78 

Illinois State — Historical Society, publication committee of IX 

Illinois State — Historical Society, Record of official proceedings, 1911 1-17 

Illinois State — Historical Society, Secretary's and Treasurer's report 9-13 

Illinois State— Historical Society, special committee to confer with the commission appointed by 

General Assembly on the construction of the new building for the Historical Society and Library .XII 

Illinois State — Historical Society, special committee to mark Lincoln Army trail X 

Illinois State— Historical Society, special meeting Apr. 14, 1911, in commemoration of the 50th Anniver- 
sary of the war between the states 4,5,6,7 

Illinois State— Historical Society, special meetings suggested for 11 

Illinois State — Historical Society, transactions of for 1903, quoted, foot note 26 

Illinois State — Historical Society, transactions of Society for 1909 11 

Illinois State— Historical Society, treasurer's report 13 

Illinois State — Illiopolis, geographical center of 93 

Illinois State— Immigration to -• 22, 25 

Illinois State — Indian Mounds in 17 

Illinois State — Internal Improvements State of Illinois 11, 23, 24 

Illinois State — Jacksonian Party in 36 

Illinois State — Kickapoo treaties of cession for their lands in 116 

Illinois State — Legislature ' 

4,10,22,23,30,35,36,37,40,41,05,66,83,85,86,87,89,90,91,100,108,110 

Illinois State — Legislature, federal relations, committee, report of and resolutions 86-89 

Illinois State — Legislature, prorogued by Governor Yates, 1863 91 

Illinois State— Major-Generals (14) m the War of the Rebellion, list of 103 

Illinois State— Nineteenth Reg. 111. Vols. AYar of the Rebellion 83,103 

Illinois State— Ninth 111. Vols. Reg. "War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State— Number of men drafted from Illinois in the War of Rebellion 99 

Illinois State — Ohio River border counties of 94 , 

Illinois State— One hundred and forty-eighth 111. Inf 98 

Illinois State— One hundred and fourth lU. Inf., War of the Rebellion 65 

Illinois State— One hiuidred and twentieth 111., Inf., War of the Rebellion .' 97 

Illinois State— Opposition to slavery in 22, 23 

Illinois State — Park commission 10 

Illinois State— Patriot sm of Northern Illinois (The)paper by General Smith D. Atkins before special 

meeting Illinois State Historical Society, Apr. 14, 1911 78,79-83 

Illinois State— Peck's Gazetteer of Illinois, published in Philadelphia, 1837 112 

Illinois State— pioneers of 22, 23 

Illinois State— prairies of 22,24,43,48,89 

Illinois State— primary elections in 60 

Illinois State— Proclamation of Gov. Yates, Apr. 18, 1861, calling forsixregimentsvolunteers read at 

Court House, Freeport, 111 81 

Illinois State — Proposed boimdaries of 79 

Illinois State— Proi>osed constutitional convention of 1824, reference to 23, 34, 85 

Illinois State — pro-slavery leaders in 96 

Illinois State— Quarter Master General of the State Militia 37-38 

Illinois State— Reynold's History of Illinois 112 

Illinois State— Reynold's My < >\vn Times 112 

Illinois State— Seventeenth l Hindis \ ohinteer Regiment, War of the Rebellion 103 

Illinois State— Seventh Illinois N'olunlocr Regiment, War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State— Sixteenth Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, War of the Rebellion 103 

Illinois State— slavery fight in, loaders of , 96 



135 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Illinois State— Southern Illinois, description of 94, 95 

Illinois State— Southern Illinois in the Civil War, address at Memorial Meeting Illinois State Histor- *-i 

ical Society, April 14, 1911, by Bluford Wilson 78,931-03 

Illinois State Supreme Court 3'), 108 

Illinois State Teai'hers Association NorthCcntral- History— hold annual meeting in Evanston and 

Chicago, 111 ;....;..;..:..:. 3,4 

Illinois State— Tenth 111. Reg., Vol., War of the Rebellion 65, 102 

Illinois State— Thirteenth Reg. III. Vols., War of the Rebellion 83, 103 

Illinois State— Thirtieth Reg., III. Vols. in the War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State— Tliirtj'-first Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 102, 103 

Illinois State— Twelfth 111. Vol. Reg., War of the Rebellion 102 

Illinois State — Twentieth Reg. Vols., War of the Rebellion 103 

Illinois State— Twentv-lirst Reg. III. Vols., War of the Rel)ellion 102, 103 

Illinois State— Twentv-ninth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 97, 102" 

Illinois State— Twenty-second Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 102, 103- 

Illinois State — two miU tax in 24, 25 

Illinois State— U . S. land othces in 32' 

Illinois St ate— University of Illinois VIT 

Illinois State— Welcome to capital of Volunteer Regiment of Stephenson County by Stephen Arnold 

Douglas 81' 

Illinois Territory 79, 97 

Illinois Territory, 1812 — territory of the second grade 10' 

Illinois Territory— Fordham's Personal Narrative on 1817, 1818, quoted 45 

Illinois Territory — Second Territorial Legislature 97 

IlUopolis, lU. — geographical center of Illinois 93- 

Indian Campaigns — foot note 26' 

Indian Mounds— State of Illinois 17 

Indian Territory US 

Indian treaty at Castor Hill, St. Louis county. Mo., Oct. 24, 1832 118 

Indianapolis, Ind 20, 55, 81 

Indiana State 10, 22, 45, 58, 115 

Foot note 31 

Indiana State— constitution amendments to 60, 61' 

Indiana State — constitution, one of the most rigid in the United States 60' 

Indiana State — Governor of Indiana, 'work in behalf of a ne'w state constitution 61 

Indiana State — ne-w constitution ior, work in behalf of 61 

Indiana State— reports, 65, 1880 60' 

Indiana State— reports 156, 1901 60' 

Indians 3 . .7, 43, 45, 51, 108 

Indians— B aptist Indian Mission, history of by Rev, Isaac McCoy 118- 

Indians— Delaware Indians 119' 

Indians — Kickapoo Indians 115-121 

Indians— Kickapoo Indians school on the Kickapoo Indian Reservation in Kansas 120 

Indians "Masheena"' — paper read before the McLean County Historical Society, March 4, 1911, by 

Milo Custer 115-121 

Indians— Piankashaw 50 

Indians— Pottowatomie Indians 117, IIS 

Ingalls,- John J 112 

Initiative and Referendum Measure, amendment to State Constitutions, reference to 58,59, 60 

Internal Improvement in the Middle West, reference to 57 

Internal Improvements — State of Illinois 23, 24, 57 

Ireland — County Kildare 101 

Irwin, (Miss) Harriet— wife ot Thomas Sloo, Jr 27 



Jackson, Andrew 32, 37, 41, 42, 49, 50, 84, 85, 95 

Foot note 28 

Jackson, (President) Andrew — annual message to Congress, 1829, reference to 57 

Jackson, Andrew— called "Boss Stony" by Indians 117 

Jackson, Andrew, (President) — Proclamation of 1S23, reference to 79 

Jackson county, Illinois 97 

Jackson county. 111. — number of soldiers furnished in War of RebeUion 98 

Jackson county, 111. — vote ol 1860 for president 98 

Jacksonian Democracy .■ 38 

Jacksonian Party in Illinois ' 36 

Jacksonville, 111 VII, IX, X, XI, XII, 4, 7, 9, 65 

Jacksonville (Illinois) Journal, (newspaper) 65 

James, Edmund J Vlf, X 

James. J. A fx, 4, 8, 10 

Jameson, f Judge) J. A.— The Constitutional Convention, its history, power, etc., quoted 56 

JamestowTi, Va 43 

Jamison, (Mrs.) Isabel IX 

Jasper conntv. Til 93 

Jayne, (Dr.) William XI, XH, 17 

Jayne, (Dr.) William — friend ot Abraham lincoln lOO 

Jayne, (Dr.) William— Governor of Dakota Territory 100 

Jayne, (Dr.) William— quoted on Douglas speech at Springfield, April 25, 1861 100^ 



136 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Jefferson county, 111 30, 42 

Jefferson, Thomas 84, 95 

Jenkins, (Miss)— assistant librarian, Chicago Historical Society 4 

Jenkins, Jonathan W.— trial of, for the killing of the prairie outlaws .110 

Jersey, Carey de 51 

JoDaviess county. 111 82 

Johnson county. III , 94 

Johnson county. 111. — number of soldiers furnished in War of the RebeUion 98 

Johnson county. 111. — vote of for president in 1860 98 

Johnston, Albert Sidney — Confederate General, War of the Rebellion 103 

Johnston, James M X 

Johnston, Joseph E. — Confederate General, War of the Rebellion 98 

Jones, (Miss) Lottie E XII 

Jones, (Mrs.) Mary A— quoted on Masheena Kickapoo Indian 119 

Jones, Stanley 110 

Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Conventions in Various States of the Union, reference 

to 57 

Julia— wife of Optukke Kickapoo Indian 121 

"Just before the Battle Mother" (war song) 78 



Kable Bros., Pub. — Past and Present of Mount Morris, Illinois, Pub. 1905 107 

Kachassa— daughter of Kanakuk the Prophet, Kickapoo Indian 120 

Kachasf a— daughter of Kanakuk, portrait of, in McLean County Historical Society 121 

Kachassa— wife of Katnamee, Kickapoo Indian ." 119 

"Kakahkah — Kickapoo Indian 120 

Kanakuk (or Kee-an-na-kuk)— Kickapoo Prophet 115, 118, 120, 121 

Kanakuk (or Kee-an-na-kuk) — portrait of, by Catlin, reference to 121 

Kanakuk's praver sticks 119 

Kane Countv, 111 83 

Kane, Charles P IX 

Kane, Elias Kent 40, 96 

Kane, Elias Kent — United States Senator from Illinois 35 

Kankakee, 111 XII 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill— introduced by United States Senator Stephen A. Douglas, passed July 21, 

1854 79 

Kansas State 62, 119 

Kansas State— Kickapoo Indian Reservation in 116, 1 IS, 119, 120 

Kaskaskia.Ill 29,42,79, 97 

Kaskaskia , 111.— capture of July 4, 1778 79 

Kaskaskia, 111.— United States land office at 29 

' ' Kathleen Mavourneen ' ' (song) 78 

Katnamee— Kickapoo Indian 119, 120 

Kauff man, Horace O 114 

Kauffman, (Mrs.) Rebecca H.— Governor Thomas Ford in Ogle County, contribution to State 

History 107-114 

Kavanaiigh, (Judge) Marcus 5, 12, 13, 78 

Kavanaugh, (Hon.) Marcus- "The Civil War" paper read before Memorial Meeting Illinois State 

Historical Societv, April 14, 1911 78 

Kawkeasauqua— Kickapoo Indian, portrait of family in the McLean County Historical Society 

rooms ". 121 

Kelshall,Endand 43 

Kennekuk, (Chief) John — Kickapoo chief, foot note 118 

Kennekuk, Kans 120 

Kentucky State 10,14,21,22,26,27,95,96,97, 10? 

Kentucky — early settlers of 95 

Kentuckv Transylvania- T^niversitv in 108 

Kett, H.F. .k Co.. Pubs.— History of Ogle County, published Chicago, 1878 107 

■" Keystone Sta^e" — Pennsylvania lOS 

Kickapoo Indians 115-121 

Kickapoo Indians— ceremonial dance 117-118 

Kickapoo Indian Koservation, eight miles west of Horton, Kans., (Brown county) 116,118,119, 120 

Kickapoo Indians— treaties of cession for their lands in Illinois 116 

Kildare Count v. Ireland 101 

Kilcour, Wm . M 83 

Kinnev, William— candidate for Governor of Illinois 42 

Kirk, (Bri g. O en .•) Edward N S3 

Kirkham, f Cn! .) Robert— Fifty-sixth Reg. 111. Vols., War of the Rebellion 97 

Kirknatrick, J. L 109 

Knodle .Tonatli an, nubli.sher, the Rock River Register 11.3 

Knotts, (Rev.) T. Lee 114 

Knox Colleee, Galeshtirg, 111 23 

Knox, Joseph 62, 64 



137 

Index — Continued. 

L 

Page. 

La Belle Riviere— river (Ohio river) 95 

La Ferine (?)— old chief of the Kickapoos 116 

Lake couniy. 111 83 

Lake Michigan 30, 35, 79, 118 

Langenfrey & Hallord— merchants at Nevv^ Orleans 50 

La Pelly, Miss— second wife of John do La Serre 1 51 

La Salle, 111 65 

La Serre, Carey de 51 

La Serre, Charles de 50, 51, 52, 53 

La Serre, Eliza de 51 

La Serre, Emma de 51 

La Serre, Emily de 51 

"La Serre Fam'ily " (The) by Walter Colyer 43-54 

La Serre, George de 51 

La Serre, John de, 1 51 

La Serre, John de, II 51 

La Serre, Julia de 51 

La Serre, Marian de 51 

La Serre, Mary de 51 

La Serre, Matilda de 51 

La Serre, Nicholas de 51 

La Serre, Octavius de 51, 52 

La Serre, Peter de 51 

La Serre, Sophia de 51 

La Serre, Wiliam de 51 

Latham, (Miss) May XII, 51 

"Law of the Federal and State Constitutions of the United States," by Prof. Frederic Jesup Stim- 

son 55, 56 

Lawler, (Brig. Gen.) Michael Kelly 97, 101, 102 

Lawler, Michael Kelly— General Grant quoted on 101 

Lawler, Thomas J.— Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic 83 

Lee countv. 111 , 83, 109 

Lee, (GenO Robert E 92 

Lee, (Gen.) Stephen D 102 

Legislative reference libraries 61 

Legislature— message of Gov. Richard Yates to, reference to 86 

Legislature of Illinois— sfe Illinois Legislature. 

Letters— Israel T. Canby to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Aug. 3, 1823, footnote 31 

Letters— Charles Fordham to Edward King Fordhara, dated Albion, 111., Dec. 9, 1834 49-50 

Letters— Elias Fordham. to Henry Bradshaw Fearon, dated Royston, Dec. 23, 1818 48 

Letters— EUas Pvm Fordham, to Charles Fordham, dated Dover, England, Dec. 2, 1842 46-48 

Letters— James Hall to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Vandalia, 111., Jan. 15, 1827 40-41 

Letters— James Hall to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Vandalia, 111., June 3, 1827 41-42 

Letters— (Dr.) Herbert de La Serre Spence to Walter Colver, dated Painesville, Ohio, May 6, 1906. .51-52 

Letters— John McLean to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Washington, D. C, Jan. 16. 1825 39-40 

Letters— John McLean to Thomas Sloo, Jr., extract from, dated Washington, D. C, Jan. 16, 1825. . . 35 

Letters— John McLean to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Washington, D. C, Jan. 22, 1825 .' 40 

Letters— Samuel McRoberts to Thomas Sloo, Jr., extract from 37 

Letters— P. T. Schenck to Thomas Sloo, Jr., Dec. 4, 1811, foot note 27 

Letters— Thomas Sloo, Jr., letters of, in Torrence Papers, Quarterly, Ohio Historical& Philosophical 

Society 30,31, 32 

Letters— Torrence collection of the Historical & Philosophical Society of Ohio, Sloo Papers 26-42 

Foot note 26 

Letters— Graham A.Worth, to Thomas Sloo, Jr. , dated Aug. 2, 1820, foot notes 28, 29 

Letters— Graham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, written from New York City, 1822 30 

Letters— Graham A . Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated June 19, 1824 32-33 

Lewis, ( Gen . ) Andrew 15 

Liberty township, Ada ms county, 111 76 

Library of Congress 16 

Lincoln, Abraham 25,36,6680,81.82,85,92,94,96,97,98,99, 100 

"Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Party in Illinois, "paper by Oliver P. Wharton... 20, 62-64 

Lincoln. Abraham— attorney Rock Island Bridge Co 62 

Lincoln, Abraham (President)— call for volunteers April 15, 1861 81 

Lincoln, Abraham— candidate for president United States in 1860, vote of 80 

Lincoln, Abraham — Centennial Association 101 

Lincoln. Abraham— Illinois State Historical Society, committee of, to mark route of Lincoln's Army 

Trail from Beardstown to mouth of Rock river X 

Lincoln, Abraham— house divided against itself speech, Springfield, 1858, reference to 63 

Lincoln, Abraham — life of. by Herndon and Weik, quoted, footnote 100 

Lincoln, Abraham — Lincoln-Douglas Debates 11 

Lincoln, Abraham— "Lincoln Way," route traveled by the family of Mr. Lincoln from Kentucky 

to Illinois to be marked 7-10 

Lincoln, Abraham— Oliver P. Wharton, "Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Partv in 

Illinois " 20, 62-64 

Lincoln, .\braham— surveying papers of, given to the Illinois State Historical Library 12 

Lincoln, .\braham— vote of Gallatin county for president in 1860 97 

Lincoln Centennial Association 101 



138 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Lincoln, Charles Zebina— Constitutional History oi New York, quoted 56, 57 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate, volume 3, Illinois Historical Collections H 

Lincoln, 111 .XI, XII 

Lincoln, lU. — Deaconess Hospital of the Methodist Church, located at 114 

"Lincoln Way" (The) — route traveled by the family of Mr. Lincoln from Kentucky to Illinois, 

reference to 7, 10 

Lindsay, John T 85 

Lindsay, (Miss) Mary B.— librarian Evanston Public Library 4 

Litchfield, Conn 75 

" Little Britain, " — Albion, Edwards county, 111., so-called 53 

Little, Johns XII 

Little Kickapoo creek 115, 117 

Little Wabash river 45 

Liverpool, England ■. 51 

Livingston, Mark 117 

Lobingier, Charles Sumner — The People's Law, reference to 56 

Lockwood, Samuel Drake 42 

Logan, John Alexander 25,66,94,97,98,102, 103 

Logan, John Alexander (Maj. Gen.) — Illinois, war of the Rebellion 103 

Logan, Stephen T 88 

Logos (The)— by WilUam H. Collins 66 

London, England 43, 50, 52 

London, England— Quarterly Review, Vol. 27, 1822-, quoted 54 

London, England— Times-Newspaper 113 

"Long Named One" (The) — Daughter of Masheena, second wife of Kanakuk 118-119 

Lookout Mountain, B attle of 65 

Los Angeles, C al ■. 20, 62 

Louisiana, State 31 

Louisville, Ky 21,88 

Lovej oy , Owen 76, 80 

Lunt Library, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111 20 

"Lorena" (song) 78 

M 

McArthur, (Gen.) John 83 

McArthur, (Gen.) John— Col. 12th 111. Inf. , War of the RebeUion 102 

McClernand, John Alexander— Illinois, Major, General War of the Rebellion 103 

McCormick, Henry — - ■ X 

McCoy, (Rev.) Isaac, Baptist Indian Missions, history of 118 

McDonough County, 111 93 

Macheepia ( wife of Masheena) 118, 120 

McHenry County, 111 83 

Machina. see Masheena 115, 116, 117 

Mcllvaine, ( Miss) Caroline M.— Librarian, Chicago Historical Society Library 4 

Mack, Col. Alonzo W. —Illinois Senator from Kankakee countv 90 

McKeaie (Col.) George W.— One himdred and twentieth 111. Vol. Inf., War of the RebeUion 97 

McLean County, m 89,93,95,108,115,116,117 ,121 

Foot note 116 

McLean County, 111.— Duis, Good Old Times in McLean county, quoted 115, 116, 117 

Foot note 116 

McLean County, 111 — " istorical Society, foot note 115 

McLean County, III.— Historical Society, portraits of Kickapoo Indian Chiefs in ■ 121 

McLean, John— extract of letter from to Thomas Sloo. Jr., dated, Washington, D. C, Jan. 16, 1825. . 35 

McLean, John— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Washington, Jan. 16, 1825 39-40 

McLean, John— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., daled, Washington, D. C, Jan. 22, 1825 40 

McLean, John— papers and manuscripts in Library of Congress, footnote 36 

McLean, John— United States Senator from Illinois 34, 35, 41, 42, 96 

McLean, John— ( of Ohi o) Chief Justice Supreme Court of the U. S. at Chicago 62 

McLean, John ( of Ohio)— Postmaster General, U . S 36 

McLean, John (of Ohio)— quoted on Ninian Edwards election, as Governor 37 

McLeansbnro, Hamilton county, 111 29. 41 

McManis, C. J » 

Macomb, 111 X, XI 

McPike, n. G 9 

McRoborts, Samuel— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., extract from 37 

Madison County, Til 17, 75, 85, 93, 96 

Madisnn Countv— Centennial Anniversary, plans for 10 

Madison County, TU.-monument to Gov. Edwards to be located in Edwardsville, 111 10 

Madison Indiana, foot note 31 

Maertz, (Miss') Louise ^J 

Mankuk or ' ' Old Jesse" — Kick apoo Indian 118 

Maine State '. 21 

Maldener A: Son— Business firm Springfield, Til 13 

Maltbv f Brie. Gen.) J. A.— War of the Rebellion • 82 

Manhattan Gas Co.— New York Citv,N.Y 46 

Mann. O . T^.— SherifT of Cook count y. 111 83 

Marden— Home of George Flower iri England 43 



139 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Mariett a, Ohio 26 

MarseiUes, lU XII 

Marsh, (Col.) Jason— Winnebags county, War of tho Rebellion 83 

Masheena— paper read before the McLean county Historical Society, Mar. 4, 1911, by Milo Custer. 115-121 

Masheena— desendants of : 120-121 

Masheena— Kick apoo Chief, place of burial of 120 

Masheena— portrait of by Catlin, reference to 118-121 

Marshall. Samuel S 88 

Martin, David vs. Thomas Medford, trial of, before Judge Thomas Ford 110-111 

Maryland State 95,99,110, 111 

Massac County, 111 85, 94, 98 

Massac County, 111.— number of soldiers furnished in War of Rebellion 98 

Massac CountV, 111.— vote of, for president in 1860 98 

Massachusetts 14, 55, 56, 59, 64, 80, 109 

Massachusetts— constitution of, printed every year 56 

Massachusetts— the Germans and the Chicago convention of 1860 by Frank I. Herriott 20 

Massachusetts, secretary of state 14 

Mataskuk — Son of Masheena, Kickapoo Indian 120 

Matteson, Joel A. — Governor of the State of Illinois 96 

Mead , ( Dr. 1 Homer X 

Medford, Thomas, foot note Ill 

Medford, ( Mrs.) Thomas, foot note Ill 

Medford, Thomas— David Martin vs. Thomas Medford, case in law, reference to 110-111 

Medil! , Joseph 80 

Mediterranean Sea 84 

Meese, Wm. A VII, IX, X, XII, 6, 7, 9, 10 

Memt)ir ol daughter of Charles de La Serre 51-52 

Mercersburg, Pa ; 27 

Merritt, Edward L X 

Merritt, Wesley— Illinois Maj. Gen. in the War of the Rebellion 103 

Mesunes. Judith— wife of John de La Serre 51 

Methodist Church Ill 

Metzgar, Judson D XI 

Mexican Mission — Ninian Edwards and the appointment to, reference to 30-34 

Mexican War 101, 114 

Mexico 34, 84 

Miami, Ohio 26, 27 

Miami, Ohio— exporting company 27 

Michigan State '. 22, 118 

Middletown, 111 ." 114 

Milan, 111 X 

Mile Stone Sixty-nine, (Poem) by Wm. Hertzog Collins 72-73 

Miller, (Miss) Bell 13 

Miller, Mrs. I. G XI 

Miller, J. E . of Mount Morris, lU 114 

MillerJohnE XI 

Mills, B one Mill 70 

Mills— planing mill built in an early day by Elias Pym Fordham 45 

Mills— prairie, wind-mill for grinding grain the first erected north of the OhiointheHlinMs 45 

Minneapclis, Minn 107 

Minnesota State Fair, Minneapolis, Sept. 2, 1901 107 

Mission Ridge, battle of 65 

Mississippi River '. 62,79,84,85,93, 108 

Mississippi Raver, bluffs of 108 

Mississippi River, father of the waters 85 

Mississippi State 26, 67, 31, 84, 88 

Mississippi Valley, Historical Association 6 

Mississippi Valley Historical Association — Annual meeting held in Evanston and Chicago 3, 4 

Missouri Comprornise 62, 63, 64, 79, 80, 84 

Missouri Compromise, repealed July 21, 1854 79 

Missouri River 119 

Missouri State 31, 29, 55, 79, 80, 85, 103, 108 

Missouri State, admitted to the Fnion 1.S21 22 

Missouri State applies for admission into Union as slave statein 1820 79 

Missouri State— United States Land Office in 32 

Moline.Ill VII, IX, X, XI, XII 

Monmouth, 111 XII 

Monroe County, 111 • 10', 109 

"Monster " name given the Second United States Bank '. 22 

Montgomery, Ala 81> 97 

Moore. Amos F 114 

Moore , R isdon 96 

Moore. ("Hon /I Risdon, speaker of Second Territorial Legislature , 97 

Moorehead, ( Prof.'l W. K 13 

Morgan County. Ill 97 

Mormons ^11 

Moro. Ill ^11 

Morris, Esther 75 

Morrison, 111 XI 



140 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Moss, D. H. L 110 

Motley, John Lathrop — American Historian 94 

Mount Morris, lU 111-113 

Mount Morris, III. — college at 114 

Mount Morris, 111. — Index, Newspaper Souvenir Edition 1905, reference to 108 

Mount Morris, 111.— Old Settler's Reunion held at, Aug. 29, 1907 112 

Mount Morris, 111. — Past and Present,published by Kable Bros., 1905 107 

Mount Morris, III.— " Rock River Register" (Newspaper) published in 1842 113 

Mt. Vernon, 111 42 

Mud Creek Ill 

Mulligan, (Gen.) James A 83 

Munsell, Joel — (publisher) 15 

MunseU Publishing Co 15 

My Own Times, by John Reynolds, reference to 112 

Namkumgoqua (Bertha Wieweenas) Kickapoo Indian 121 

Naples, 111 76 

Napoleon Bonaparte Ill 

' 'Nation" ( The) Periodical May 11, 1911 , quoted 60 

Neeboqua (William HonneU) — Kickapoo Indian 121 

Neepahkum f Philip Weeweenas) — Kickapoo Indian 121 

Newcomer, Major Charles 108 

Newbury, Vt 15 

New Ensland 14, 82 

New England States — constitutions of 57 

New Hampshire, State 15, 96 

New Hampshire, State Constitution not printed with their general laws 56 

New Hampshire State constitutions of 57 

New Jersey State 48 

New Mexico, constitution, reference to 58 

New Orleans. La 26,28,38, 50 

Foot note 26 

New Orleans— B attle of : 95 

Newspapers— Bloomineton, III., Bulletin, Jan, 2, 1889 118 

Newspapers — Chicago Newspaper 114 

Newspapers — Cin'^'innati Commercial Tribune 43 

Newspapers— Illinois Newspapers, 1814-1879. Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 6, reference to.. 11 

Newspapers — Jacksonville Journal 65 

Newspapers— London Quarterly Review, Vol. 27, 1822 54 

Newspapers — London Times 113 

New=:p ipers— Mount Morris. Ill . Index Souvenir Edition 1905 108 

New=;piper3 — New York Tribune, June 13, 1861, foot note 100 

Newspapers— Niles Redster Vol XXVII, quoted 35 

Newspapers — Polo, Illinois Advertiser 113 

Newspapers — Rock Island, Illinois Advertiser 62 

Newspapers— Rock River Reeister Published in Mt. Morris, III., 1842 113 

Newspapers — Sunday School Times 53 

Newspapers — Whig Newspaper 62 

New York City 30,35,48,49,75, 84 

New York Cit'v Tribune, June 13, 1861, foot note 100 

New York State 14,15,48,59,60,96, 103 

New York State, constitution 60 

New York State — constitution of, printing of 56 

New York State— constitution, History of by Lincoln, quoted j . .56, 57 

New York State, Empire State 25 

New York State, CronRaloffical and Biographical Society 15 

New York State Historical Society 15 

New York State Library — Year Book of Legislation, reference to 56 

Nicolav, John O ." 99 

Nicholson, E. E X 

Niles Register. Vol. XXVII, quoted, foot note 35 

Noble. (Col.) Silas 83 

Norfolk, Va 44 

Northampton, Mass 14 

North Carolina, state of 14, 15 

North Carol ina— Daughters of the American Revolution 14 

Northwest Territory 22, 26, 46, 58, 79, 96 

Northwest Territory — Constitutions of States in, study of 55 

Normal. TU X 

Norton, W. T XII 17 

Nunnahben.( Wife of John Winsee)— Kickapoo Indian 120 



141 

Index — Continued. 



Page. 



Oakleaf, J. B I^ 

Oak Park, ni ■- X 

O'Brien, (Miss) Bessie ' ^^> ]° 

O'Brien WW °^ 

Ordinance 6il7S7y/^V^V//^V^V^'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 21,22,79,80,85, 96 

OTallen, (Col.) John, of St. Louis, Mo 41 

Ogden, ( G cneral) Aaron— foot note ^28 

Ogle County, HI.. 96,107,108,109,110,111,112,113, 114 

Ogle County, 111.— Boss, Henry R., History of Ogle County, published, 1859 113 

Ogle County, 111.— criminal history of, paper by Franc Bacon 108 

Ogle County, lU.— established Jan. 16, 1S36 109 

Ogle County— " Goyernor Ford in Ogle County", by Mrs. Rebecca H. Kauffman 107-114 

Oglo County, III.- Kett, H. F. & Co., History of Ogle County, published Chicago, 1878 107 

Ogle County, 111.— named by Goyernor Ford 109 

Ogle County, III.— old settler's reimion 114 • 

Ogle County, 111.— Portrait and Biographical Album of, published by Chapman Bros., 1886 107 

Ogle County, III.— trial of the killing of the prairie outlaws, the Driscolls, in 110 

Ogle, (Capt. ) Joseph — Ogle county, Illinois named for 109 

Oelesby, Richard J 96,97, 103 

Oglesby, Richard J.— Illinois Major General, War of the Rebellion 103 

Ohiocfe Mississippi R. R 93 

OhioRiyer.....:. 29,44,79,93 9o 

Ohio River — border counties of Illinois on 94 

Ohio R i yer (La Belle riviere) - 95 

Ohio State.. 22 26,27,36,38,48,50,51,58, 119 

Foot note 38 

Ohio State— Archaeological & Historical Society 17 

Ohio State — constitution not printed with general laws 56 

Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society • ■ 

mention foot notes 26-32, 38 

Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society Quarterly, Torrence CoUection, foot notes 26,32-38 

OhioVaUey 26-27 

Oklahoma State — constitution, amendments to 60 

Oklahoma — state constitution, reference to 58 

" Old Westmoreland, "Pa 15 

Omelyeny, H. S. K 88, 89 

One Hundred and Fourth Illinois Infantry, War of the Rebellion 65 

One Hundred and Twentieth Illinois, War of the Rebellion 97 

Optukkee (or Commodore) — Kickapoo Indian 120-121 

Optukkee and his family — Kickapoo Indians, portraits of 121 

Oquawka, 111 -^ 

Oregon, 111 107, 108, 109, 110, 114 

Oregon, 111. — Woman's Coimcil of 108 

Oregon— state constitution, how printed 56 

Orendorff, (Mrs.) 118 

Orendorff, Thomas 116 

Orendorff, WiUiam 116 

Osborn, (General) Thomas O 83 

Osborne, Georgia L XII 

Osborne, Georgia L.— report Genealogical Committee Illinois State Historical Society 14-16 

Ottawa, lU X, XI 

P 

Paden, (Hon.) Joseph E 3-4,20 

Paden (Mrs.) Joseph E 4 

Page, Edward C \ II, 6, 7 

PainesyillC;. Ohio 50, 51 

Palmer, John M.— Illinois Major-General, War of the Rebellion 65, 96, 103 

Paltsits, Victor Hugo 15 

Papesheena — Kickapoo Indian 120 

Park House, Albion, Ul 44, 49 

Patriotism of Northern Illinois— Address by General Smith D. Atkins, at memorial meeting, 

Illinois State Historical Society, April 14, 1911 78-83 

Patten, H.J 4 

Pawnee, 111 IX 

Pearson. J. M 9 

Peck, John M.— Gazetteer of Illinois, published Philadelphia, 1837 112 

Pennsylvania, State 14,15,25,27,48,96, 108 

Pennsylvania State—" Keystone State" 25, 108 

Peoria county, 111 85 

Peoria, lU ...-IX,XI,4,21,84, 111 

Perrin, J. Nick XI 

Personal Narrative of Travels in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky andSkfa; 
of a Residence in the lUmois Territory in 1817-1818, by Elias Pym Fordham, published by the f- 1 

Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1906 45 

Peru, lUmo s 112 



142 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Phelps, Benjamin T 109 

Phelps, H. L 13 

Phelps, John 109-110 

Phelps, John — court of Ogle county held in home of 109-110 

Philadelphia, Pa 14,112 

Phillips Bros., printers, Springfield 13 

Phillips, (Judge) Joseph 30, 38 

Phillips, Joseph— candidate for Governor of Illinois on a pro-slavery ticket 29 

PhiUips, WendeU 92 

Philo, 111 XI 

Piankashaw Indians ■. 50 

Piankashawtown — four miles northwest of the present city of Albion, Illinois 50 

Pierce Mr 47 

Pike County, lU 17, 85 

Pike, (General) Z. M— footnote 28 

Pittsburg, Pa 44 52 

Plymouth, Mass 43 

Poem, by William H. Collins 69 72-73 

Polk, WiUiam . 81 

Polo, lU Vn.XI, 114 

"Polo (Illinois) Advertiser" newspaper 113 

Polygamyfight on in lUinois 92 

Pope County, 111 94,98 

Pope County, 111.— number of soldiers furnished in War of Rebellion 98 

Pope County, lU.— vote of for president in 1860 98 

Pope, (Major-General) John 21, 103 

Pope, Nathaniel 79,82, 96 

Pope, (Judge) Nathaniel — his work in extending the northern boundaries of Illinois 21, 79 

Potter, Kans 119 

Pottowatomie Indians 117, 118 

Pottowatomie Indians Ceremonial dance 117, 118 

Prairies of Illinois 22, 24, 43, 48, 53, 54, 89 

Prairies of the Illinois Country 53, 54 

Prairie wind-mill for grinding grain, the first erected north of the Ohio in the Illinois 45 

Prentice, Benjamin Mayberry, Illinois Major General 103 

Presbyterian Mission or Horton Heights, Horton, Kan 119 

Presbyterian Mission on Horton Heights, Horton, Kan 119 

Primary elections, etc.— amendments to State Constitutions, reference to 58 

Princeton, 111 9 

Princeton, Ind 45 

Proalainat ions— Emancipation Proclamation 85, 87, 88 

Proalainatioa of President Andrew Jackson in 1832 in regard to secession of South Carolina 79 

Proslamatiou— of Governor Richard Yates, April IS, 1861, calling for six regiments read at court 

Ihouse, Freeport, 111 81 

■Prophetstown, 111 X 

Pro-Slavery— leaders in Ulinois 96 

Province of New York 16 

Prussia 47 

Pulaski County, lU "'.'. 94 

Pulaski County, 111.— number of soldiers furnished in War of Rebellion 98 

Pulaski County, 111.— vote of for president in 1860 98 

Putnam (Col.) Holden 83 

Q 

Quakers of Pennsylvania 48 

Quequeta Creek, (Grasshopper Creek) Atchison County, Kan.— foot note 119 

Quincy, lU X, XI, 7, 65, 66, 67, 73, 76, 96 

Quincy, 111.— Board of Education 66 

Quincy, III.— Historical Society 66 

Quincy, 111.— public schools 66, 73 

R 

Rahway, N.J 48 

Railroads—" Big Four " R. R 117 

Railroads— Ohio and Mississippi R. R ' 93 

Railroads— Rock Island R. R 62 

Raleigh, N. U 15 

Ramrael kamp, Charles H VII, IX, XII, 7 

Ramsay, David 15 

Randolph, Sir John 15 

Rapp, John M XI 

Rawlins, (Cieneral) John Aaron 82 

Rawlins, (Major General) John Aaron — Illinois Major General, War of the Rebellion 10 

"Reaction of Law upon Theology", by William H. Collins 66 

Reardon, (Col.) James S 9 



143 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

"Recall Measure"— amendment to State Constitutions, reference to 58 

Reed, Charles 109 

"Regulators" (i. e. the whippers of Kanakuk's church) 119 

Kemsburg, eorge J 119 

Republican Party 63,65,80,82.97,99 

Republican Party— " Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Party in Illinois," by Oliver P. 

Wharton 62-64 

Republican State Convention of 1856, Bloomington, 111 63 

Republican State Convention at Springfield, 111., 1858 63 

Resolutions— Illinois State Legislature Federal Relations, committee on, report of and resolutions 86-89 
Revision and Amendment of State Constitution (The), by Walter Fairleigh D odd— reference to. . 57 

Revolutionary War 95 

Reynolds, John 96 

Foot note 31 

Reynolds, John— History of Illinois and My Ovra Times, reference to 112 

Reynolds, Jolm— quoted on Thomas Ford 112-113 

Reynolds, Thomas 42, 96 

Rhine R iver 47 

Rhode Island— state of , 15-16 

Rhodes. Ebenezer 117 

Rhodes family, Sangamon and McLean County, 111 116-117 

Rhodes, Jeremiah 116 

Rhodes, John H. S 117 

Foot note 115 

Rhodes, WiUiam J 117 

Rhodes, William J., Vice-President of the McLean County Historical Society 115-116 

Richmond, John X 

Richmond, Va 15-16 

Rinaker, (General) John I XI 

Ringgold, battle of 65 

Rivet Wheat 49-50 

Robinson, John M 40 

Rockford, 111 XII 

Rock Island, 111 -. 63,79 

Rock Island, 111.— advertiser (newspaper) 62 

Rock Island Bridge over the Mississippi River built in 1855 62 

Rock River X, 110-111 

"Rock River Register" (newspaper)— published in Mt. Morris, lU., 1842 113 

Rock River Seminary HI 

Rock River Valley 109 

Rockvale Township, Ogle Co., Ill HI 

Rodgera, ( General) George C 83 

Rodgers, (Senator) James M. of Clinton Co., 111.— senate 22d gen. assn., 1860-62 89 

Rogers. (Senator) James M. (should be Rodgors) 89 

Romney, England 46 

Ronalds (Mrs.) 50 

Roosevelt, Theodore 48 

Roosevelt, Theodore— tribute to pioneers, extract from speech of at Minnesota State Fair, Sept.2, 

1901 : 107 

Roy ston, England 47, 48, 49, 50, 52 

Rushville, 111 X, Xn 

Russel, Andrew VII, X, 4 



SafTell, W. T. R ^'15 

St. Clair County, 111 93, 97, 99 

St. Helena — Island of HI 

Foot note HI 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 15 

St. Joseph River 118 

St. Louis, Mo XI, 21, 42, 75, 76, 93, 118 

St. Louis, Mo. — Merchants Association 62 

Salem, 111 X 

Saline Coimty, 111 94 

Saline Coimty, 111. — number of soldiers furnished in War of Rebellion 98 

Saline County, 111.— vote of in 1860 for president 98 

Sanderson, William 109 

Sandham, WiUiam A 9 

Sand on, England 43 

Sandwich, England 46 

Sangamon County, lU 93, 116, 117 

Sangamon River 116, 117 

San Juan Hill, Cuba 48 

Sautter, farm near Horton Kansas, Masheena, buried on 120 

Schenck, P. T.— Letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Dec. 4, 1811, foot note 27 

Scherer Family 16 

Schmidt, Otto'L :....X, VII, IX, X, XII, 4-6-7 

Schofield, (Lieutenant General) John M 82 



144 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Schofleld, John McAllister Illinois-Major-General, War of the Rebellion 103 

Scott Dred 79,80 

Scott, Dred— decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in case of 62 

Scott, Frankhn W.— editor Illinois newspapers, lS14-l.s7y .• 11 

Scott, Mrs. Matthew T XI 

Selby, Paul IX 

Selby, Paul— Bateman & Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois 107 

Selma, Ala 97 

Serre, Charles de La 50, 51, 52, 53 

Serre Family ol the English Settlement in Illinois 43-54 

See La Serre. 

Sexton, James A 83 

Seyster, Michael 108, 110, 111 

Shawakea family of Kickapoo Indian — ^portrait of in McLean County Historical Society rooms 121 

Shawakea (Minnie Wawawauk) — Kickapoo Indian 120 

Shawneetown, 111 23 , 44 

Shawneetown, 111.— United States land office at 29 

" Sheenawee" — Kickapoo squaw portrait of, in the McLean County Historical Society 121 

Shenandoah Valley of Virginia 16 

Sherman, Lawrence Y VII 

Sherman, ( General) William Tecumseh 98 

Shields, (General) James, Gov. Ford's manuscript of his History of Illinois left with to be published 

by Ill 

Shiloh— Battle of 103 

Shope, S. P 86 

Short BaUot — arguments in favor of adoption of 61 

Silver, (Miss) AnnaB XI 

Simmons, Terry XII 

Simms, W. Gilmore 15 

" Slave Empire," (The)— paper read at memorial meeting, April 14, by Eugene F. Baldwin 78 

Slavery 22,23,31,34,64,82,83,84,85,86,92,95,96 

Slavery — African slave trade 79 

Slavery— Illinois, opposition to 22, 23 

Slavery — IlUnois State Legislature Federal Relations, committee on, report of and resolutions 86-89 

Slaughter, (Rev.) Philip 16 

Sloo. Albert Gallatin— foot note 29 

Sloo. Howell 33 

Footnote 29 

Sloo, James C— foot note 29 

Sloo, John— foot note 29 

Sloo, Thomas, Sr. — connected with the U. S. lands offices at Kaskaskia and Shawneetown 28, 29 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr. — A Typical Politician of Early Illinois, paper before the lUinois Sta te Histcriral 

Society, 1911 , by Isaac Joslin Cox 26-42 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— candidate for U. S. Senator from Illinois 35 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr. — correspondence with Graham A. Worth, foot note 28 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— foot notes 26-29 

Sloo, Thomas.Jr.— Graham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr., letter of, dated Aug. 2, 1820, reference 

to, footnotes 28,29 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— Graham A . Worth to Thomas Sloo. Jr. , letter, New York Citv 30 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— James Hall, letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr. , dated V andali a , Jan. 15, 1827 40-41 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— James Hall, to Thomas Sloo, Jr., letter dated Vandalia, June 3, 1827 41-42 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr. (Dr.)— J. F . Snvder—" Forgotten statesman of Illinois"— foot notes 26-29 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— John McLean toThomas Sloo, Jr. letter dated Washington.D.C, Jan. 16,1825 39-40 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.— John McLean to Thomas Sloo, Jr., letter dated, Washington, D. C, Jan. 22, 1825 40 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr. — offered position as Aid-de-Camp to Governor Coles 31 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr. — opposed to slaverv 31 

Sloo, Thomas. Jr.— P. T. Schenck to Thomas Sloo, Jr., letter of, dated Dec. 4, 1811, foot note 27 

Sloo, (Mrs.) Thomas. Jr 32,41 

Sloo, Thomas, III of New Orleans, foot note 38 

Smi th it Findlay- pioneer merchants of Cincinnati, Ohio, foot note 26 

Smith, (Mrs.) G. Clinton : 5J8 

Smith, George W VII, IX, Xl 

Smith, Giles A.— Illinois Major General of volunteers in Civil War 103 

Smith, ( Rev.) James Robert— life and labors of William H. Collins 20, 67, 68-71 

Smith, (Lieut. Col.) John C 82 

Smith , (Maior General) John E 82 

Smith, ( Judee) Thcophilus W '. 41, 42, 96 

Snyder, Ad am W.— death of. May 14, 1842, foot note 108 

Snyder, (Dr.> JohnF 31 

Footnotes 31,38 

Snyder, (Dr. i John F.— "Forgotten Statesman of Illinois, Thomas Sloo, Jr." 26 

Foot notes 26, 27, 28, 29 

South America . . 84 

South Carolina State 14, 15, 103 

South Carolina. state— attempts secession from Union, 1S32 79 

Southern Confederaov SI, 88 

Southern Illinois in the Civil War— paper read before memorial meeting. April 14, 1911, by Hon."** 

Bluford Wilson 79, 93-103 



145 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Spanish Race 120 

Sparks, W. A. J 85 

Spear, Stephen L IX 

Spence, (Dr.) Herbert de LaSerre, grandson of Charles de LaSerre 51 

Spence,(Dr.) Herbert de LaSerre— letter of, to WalterColyer, dated PainesviUe, Ohio, May 6, 1906. .51-52 

Springfield, 111 VII, IX, X, XI, XII, 4, tj, <J, 14, 62, 78, 81, 85, 100, 109 

Foot note 108 

Springfield, 111. — Democratic State Convention of Dec. 5, 1841, held at, foot note 108 

Springfield, 111. — Democratic State Convention of June 7, 1S42, held at, foot note 108 

Springfield, 111.— Republican State Convention, 1858, reference to 63 

Springfield, ILL— Woman's Relief Corps 6 

Squire, H 50 

Standish, J.V.N XII, 17 

Stanton, Kd\\in M 92 

Stapp, I. T. B 41 

Starr, (Prof.) Frederick XII, 17 

Starring, F. A 83 

Starved Rock— purchase of, for a State Park, reference to 10 

State Constitutions— in force since 1776 56 

State Constitutions — invaluable materials for history 55 

States' Richts Plank of the Editorial Convention at Decatur, 1856— reference to 63 

Stennett. (Dr.) W. H 9 

Stephens, Alexander H. — chosen Vice President Southern Conspiracy Feb. 9, 1861, at Montgomery, 

Ala .". 81 

Stephenson County, 111 82 

Stephenson County — S. D. Atkins, first volunteer, private in Civil War from 81 

Stephenson County — Smith D. Atkins, Captain of V^olunteer regiment, raised in 81 

Stephenson , G eorge 44, 48 

Stevenson, Adlai E. — Constitutional Conventions and constitutions of Illinois — in transactions of 

the Illinois State Historical Society, 1903 57 

Steward, (Col.) David 83 

Stillman Valley. Ill 9 

Stinson. (Prof.) Frederic— "The Law of the Federal and State Constitutions of the United States," 

quot ed 55, 56, 60 

Stockton. Joseph A 83 

Stone, D aniel 109, 112 

Streator, 111 XII 

Stubblefleld, Absalom « 115 

Sumner, Charles 92 

Sumter, Fort Sumpter 4, 81, 85, 100, 101 

"Sunday School Times " 53 

Supreme Court Room, Capitol building 4 

Supreme Court— State of Illinois 108 

Supreme Court— United States 62 

Susquehanna River ... 108 

Sussex County, Del 14 

Swedish turnip seed 50 

Swift, (General) R. E. K 82 

Swinglev, (Capt.) N Ill 

Sycamore, 111 XII 

T 

Talarera— Battle of , 51 

T anner, J ohn R 96 

Tapwatuk — Kickapoo Indian 121 

Tartarian Oats 50 

Taweena .Daughter of Masheena — Kickapoo Indian, foot note 121 

Taylor, (Col.) Ezra 83 

Taylor, (Mrs.) Harriet Rumsey 9 

Taylor, James — foot note 27 

Tazewell County, 111 93 

Tehuantipec Canal— project of the 40's and 50's, reference to, foot note 29 

" Temperance Sermons, " by Dr. Lyman Beecher 76 

Tennessee State 22, 38, 95 

Tennessee— early settlers of 95 

Tennyson, Alfred — extract from poem of 69 

Terceira— one of the Azore Islands 46 

Tex as S ta te 38 

Therfield. E ngland 43 

Thomas, Jesse B 30, 38, 42 

Thomas, Jesse B.— United States Senator from Illinois 36, 79 

Thomas Sloo, Jr.— a typicalpolitician of early Illinois, papers before Illinois State HistoricalSociety, 

1911, by Isaac J. Cox 20,26-42 

Thompson, CM 11 

Thompson, Jacob C X 

—10 H S 



146 
Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Thornton, Anthony ; 89 

Thorpe, i^'. N.— American charters, constitutions and organiclaws, quoted 56 

Thorpe, F. N.— " Federal and State constitutions, " edited by 56 

Tippecanoe — B attle of 95, 115 

Toombs, Robert 80 

Tories 47 

Torrence, George Paull 29, 30 

Footnote 26 

Torrence, George P. — extract from letter of Thomas Sloo, Jr., to 30 

"Torrence Papers"— collection of published in the Quarterly of the Ohio Archaeological and 

Philosophical Society 26-37 

Torrence Papers— collection of the Historicaland Philosophical Society of Ohio, letters in, see appen- 
dix to Sloo Pa{)er 39-42 

Tratton, (Lieut . Col.) George W 98 

"Tramp, Tramp, Tramp the Boys are Marching" (song) 78 

Trans- Allegheny Pioneers 27 

Transylvania University of Kentucky 108 

Trenton, S. G 15 

Trumbull, Lyman 96 

Tunniclifl", (Mrs.) George D : XI 

Turchin, (Gen.) John Basil 83, 101 

Turner, C . H . B 14 

Turner, (Col.) Thomas J 83 

Tuthill, (Judge) Richard Stanley X, 83 

U iL_^ 

' 'Under the Greenwood Tree" (song) 51 

"Under the Old Flag," by James Harrison Wilson, footnote 99 

Union Army — War of the Rebellion 99 

Union County, 111 33 

Union County, Ky 14 

Uniontowii,'Pa 108 

Unitarian Church 44 

United States 33,34,59,60,63,79,80,82,89,100,115,121 

United States— Adams' History of, quoted on the Virginians 95 

United States Armv — foot note 28 

United States Bank 49 

United States Bank— C. H. Ralph, Catterall, The Second Bank of the United States, quoted, foot 

note 28 

United States Bank — failure of 50 

United States Bank — Cincinnati branch of 28, 32, 33 

United States B ank —Second United States Bank, known as the "Monster" 28 

United States Congress 35,36,37,39,41,79,82,96,102,109 

United States Constitution 80, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91 

United States— Constitution of, adopted, 1789 79 

United States Electoral College, 1860— vote for president 80 

United Stales Flag 83 

United States Government Printing Office 56 

United States Land Office, Cincinnati 27 

United States Land Oifice, Kaskaskia 29 

United States Land Office, Shawneetown 29 

United States— Library of Congress 16 

Foot note 36 

United States— official register for 1822, quoted, foot note 29 

United States President— inauguration of Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1861 81 

United States — President Jackson's annual message to Congress 1S29, reference to 57 

United States— President James Buchanan, 1856 79 

United States— Private Statutes at Large, 1789-1845, quoted, foot note 29 

United States— Quarter Masters' department for Cincinnati, Newport and vicinity 28 

United States— Secretary of War 83 

United States Senate 33,36,38,39 

United States Supreme Cohrt 62, 91 

United States Supreme Court— Chief Justice of 89 

United States Supreme Court— decision of Chief Justice Sidney Breese 91 

United States Supreme Court— Drcd Scott case decision (December, 1856) 79,80 

"Unpublished Memoirs, " by General James Harrison Wilson 99 

Urbana.IU VII, IX. X, XI 

V 

' 'Vacant Chair" (The)— old war song 78 

Vancil, Burke 13 

Vandalia.Ill 31,40,41,93,97 

"Vermilion Band" (Kickapoo Indians) 118 

Vermilion County, III 93,94 



147 
Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Vermont— state of 15 

Vicksburg— capture ol 101, 102 

Vincennes, Ind 93 

Virginia— oolony of 79 

Virginia Hotel, Chicago, 111 8 

Virginia, III IX 

Foot note 38 

Virginia State 14,15,16,21,22,87,89,95,96,98,103 

Virginia State— early settlers of— Adams' History of tie United States, quoted on 95 

W 

Wabash River , 48 

Wacheekwehwa (Leo Wanansuk) — Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wagner, Henry Ill 

Wagner, John Ill 

Walker, (Mrs.) E. S XII 

Walker, Evans & Cogswell 15 

WaUace. (Col.) W. H. L '. 81 

Wallace, (Col.) WilUam— 11th Illinois Infantry, War of the Rebellion. 102 

Waters, John M. P. — proprietor of the London Times 113 

Wapoatek (or John Winsee)— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wapoatek and family, Kickapoo Indians — portrait of in McLean County Historical Society 

rooms 121 

Warnock, ( Judge ) John 41 

War of the Revolution 95 

War of 1S12 27. 115 

War of 1S12— Battle of New Orleans 95 

War of 1S12— Battle of Tippecanoe 95, 115 

War with Mexico 97, 101, 114 

War with Mexico— Battle of Buena Vista 97 

War with Mexico — First Illinois Regiment ■ 97 

War of the Rebellion 4, 5, 6, 21, 25, 48, 68, 81, 82, 97 

War of the Rebellion — Army of the Cumberland - 82, 83 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Big Black 101 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Bull Run 85 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Champion Hill 101 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Chickamauga 65 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, Miss 83 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Elk R iver 65 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Fort Donelson 101, 102 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Franklin, Tenn 97 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Hatchie 83 

War of the Rebellion — Lookout Mountain, Battle of 65 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Mission Ridge 65 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Missionary Ridge 83 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Nashville, Tenn 97 

War of the Rebellion — Battle of Ringgold, Ga 65 

War of the Rebellion— Battle of Shiloh 103 

War of the Rebellion — call for volimteers, April 15, 1861, by President Lincoln 81 

War of the Rebellion — Chattanooga campaign 101 

War of the Rebellion — Chicago Board of Trade Regiment 83 

War of the Rebellion "The Civil War," address by Hon. Marcus Kavanaugh, before memorial 

meeting, April 14, 1911 78 

War of the Rebellion — Confederate Army , 98 

War of the Rebellion — Confederate prisons 82 

War of the Rebellion — "Dream of the South" — story of Illinois during the Civil War 84-92 

"War of the Rebellion — Emancipation Proclamation to take eflect Jan. 1, 1863 85 

War of the Rebellion— Fort Sumpter fired on, April 14, 1861 81 

War or the Rebellion — Illinois Major Generals in, list of 103 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fifth Illinois Cavalry 98 

War of the Rebellion — Illinois — Seventh Illinois Reg. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion- Illinois — Eighth Illinois Vol. Reg 98 

War of the Rebellion — Illinois — Ninth Illinois Reg. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Tenth Illinois Reg. Vols 65,102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Eleventh Illinois Vol. Reg 81, 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Twelfth lUinois Reg. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Thirteenth Reg. lU. Vols 83,103 

War of the Rebellion — Illinois — Fourteenth Cavalry 98 

War of the Rebellion — lUinois — Fourteenth Illinois Vol. Keg 102,103 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fifteenth Reg. 111. Vols 103 

War of the Rebellion — Illinois — Sixteenth Reg. III. Vols 103 

War of the Rebellion — Illinois— Seventeenth Reg. lU. Vols 103 

War of the Rebellion— lUinois— Eighteenth Reg. 111. Vols 97, 101, 102, 103 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Nineteenth Reg. III. Vols S3, 101, 103 



148 
Index — Continued. 

Page. 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Twenth-first Reg. 111. Vols 102-103 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Twenty-second Reg. III. Vols 102-103 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Twenty-ninth Reg. 111. Vols 97, 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Thirtieth Reg. 111. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Thirty-first Reg. lU. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fortieth Reg. 111. Vols 102 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fifty-fourth Reg. 111. Vols 97 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fifly-flfth Reg. 111. Vols 83 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— Fifty-sixth Reg. 111. Vols 97 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— One Hundred and Fourth Reg. 111. Vol. Infantry 65 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— One Hundred and Twentieth 111. Vol. Infantry 97 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois— One Hundred and Forty-eighth Reg. 111. Vols 98 

War of the Rebellion — number of men drafted in Illinois 99 

War of the Rebellion — number of soldiers in various counties furnished in 98 

War of the Rebellion— old war songs, reference to 5 

War of the Rebellion— proclamation of Gov. Richard Yates, April 18, 1861 81 

War of the Rebellion — Smith D. Atkins draws up agreement to enlist in army 81 

War of the Rebellion— Southern Confederacy 88 

War of the Rebellion— "Southern Illinois in the Civil War," papers read by Bluford Wilson, at 

Memorial Meeting, April 14, 1911 78, 93-103 

War of the Rebellion— Stephenson County— acceptance of Volunteer Regiment by Governor Rich- 
ard Yates 81 

War of the Rebellion— Union Army .....V...... ....... V". '.'. 99 

War of the Rebellion— Woman's Relief Corps 5 

Warren, R. 1 15 

Warren, WiUiam \\ 97 

Wars of the Protectorate— reference to '. ......... 43 

Washburne, ElLhu B 80 

Washmgton County, Ky 26 

Washington County, Md '.. .. " .'. '... iio," 111 

Washington, D. C ie, 21, 34, 35, 39, 40, si, 89, 99 

Waterbury, Conn 14 

Waterloo, 111 ] ./.......... '.'. 108 

Wattles, (Judge) James O ... . . . '". !!4i, 53 

Wattles, John D 53 

Wawawsuk— Kickapoo Indian .\.[..\..... ..[[...... \...... . 120 

Wawawsuk Leo (Wacheekwehwa)— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wawawsuk, Minnie (Shawakea)— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wawawsuk, Joseph— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wawawsuk, Robert (Etwenahpee)— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wawseequa (Ella Winsee)— Kickapoo Indian . . 120 

Wayland, John Walter (B. A. Ph. D.) 16 

Webb, H. L : 29, 33 

Foot note ' 29 

Webb, H. L.— extract from letter of to Thomas Sloo, Jr 33 

Weber, Jessie Palmer VII, IX, X, 6, 7, 12, 94 

Foot note 38 

Webster, (Mrs.) Charles A XI 

Weeweenas, Bertha (Namkumgoqua)— Kickapoo Indian '. 121 

" Weeweenas, Grant"— Kickapoo Indian 121 

Weeweenas, Philip (Neepahkum)— Kickapoo Indian 121 

Welles, Gideon .. 92 

Wells, Frederic P !]..".!.!!...!..... 15 

Wentworth, John, "Long John" . .. 96 

West, Edward M 42 

West, Emanuel J.— member of Canal Commission, State of Illinois ............................... 34, 42 

West India Islands 84 

West Point Military Academy, Annapolis, Md !.!97, 103 

Wharton, Oliver P.— "Lincoln and the Beginning of the Republican Party in Illinois," paper by, 

at annual meeting Illinois State Historical Society 20, 62-64 

Wheeler, (Mrs.) Catherine Goss IX 

Wheeler, Loren E 13 

Whig Party . ... .64 

Whitby, England . 15 

White County, III 94 

White County, III.— number of soldiers in War of Rebellion 98 

White County, 111.— vote of for president in 1860 98 

White, Horace— quoted on speech of Douglas in Chicago, June, 1861 100 

White, (General) Julius 83 

White Oak Township, McLean County, 111 116 

Whiteside County, 111 83 

Whiting, (Col.) E 98 

Wikc, Scott ..85 

Wilcox, (Col. ) John 83 

Williamsburg, Va 15 

Williamson County, 111 94,99 

Williamson County, 111.— men in the War of the Rebellion, number of 99 

Williamson, Oliver R XII 

Willcox, E. S IX 

Wilmington, Del .'. 14 



149 

Index — Concluded. 

Page. 
Wilson, (Hon.)IBluford—" Southern Illinois in the Civil War," paper read before Memorial Meet- 
ing, Illinois State Historical Society, April 14, 1911 78, 93-103 

Wilson, fCol.) Bluford 4,12 

Wilson, (General) James Harrison 97, 98, 102 

Wilson, fGeneraOJJamesSarrison— Illinois Major General, War of the Rebellion 103 

Wilson, (General) JamesjHarrison— " Under the Old Flag" by 99 

Wilson, William 42, 96 

Winnebago County, HI 83 

Winsee, EUa ( Wawseequa) — Kickapoo Indian 120 

Winsee, John (Wapoahtek)— Kickapoo Indian 120 

Wisconsin State 21, 22, 59, 1 15 

Wise, Jennings Cropper 16 

Woodford Covmty, 111. — Historical Society 11 

Woods, John — " Two Years Residence in the Illinois Country, " mentioned 45 

Worth, Gorham A 28, 31, 32, 33 

Foot notes 28, 31 

Worth, Gorham A. — extract from letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr 32 

Worth, Gorham A.— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated Aug. 2, 1820, foot notes 28, 29 

Worth, Gorham A.— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., dated June 19, 1824 32, 33 

Worth, Gorham A.— letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., written from New York City 30 

Worth, Gorham A. — quoted onjEdwards,Political Situation 34 

Worthington, (Mrs.) Thomas ". XII 

Wyman, (Col.) John B 83 



Yale, University 65 

Yates, Richard (the younger) VII, 4, 96 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard— Proclamation of April 18, 1861 81 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard— War Governor of Illinois 12, 81, 86, 96, 97 



150 



Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society. 



No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois prior to 
1860. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., professor in the University of 
Chicago; assisted by Milo J. Loveless, graduate student in the University 
of Chicago. 94 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information Relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois, passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 15 pages, 8 vo., 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph.D., professor in the University of Chicago. 170 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 
1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the Year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph.D., secretary of the society. 55 pages, 8 
■vo., Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. *Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Com- 
piled under the direction of the Board of Trustees of the Library, by the 
librarian, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6-14 inc. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901-08, inclusive. 9 vols.; numbers 6 to 11, inclusive, are out of print. 

^Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, presi- 
dent. Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pages, 
8 vo., Springfield, 1903. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Vii'ginia Series, Vol. I. Edited 
by Clarence W. Alvord. CLVI and 663 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 111., 1907. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. 627 pages, 8 
vo., Springfield, 111., 1908. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governor's Letter-books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 111., 
1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II. Kaskas- 
kia Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 
pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 111., 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pages, 8 vo., 
Springfield, 1910. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II. Gov- 
ernor's Letter-books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1911. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 
1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 
University of Illinois. 38 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1905. 



151 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2, June 1, 
1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence 
W. Alvord, University of Illinois. 34 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1906. 

*Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, November, 1905. 
An outline for the study of Illinois State history. Compiled under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, by 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Librarian of the Illinois State Historical Library, and 
Secretary of the Illinois State Historical Society, assisted by Georgia L. 
Osborne, assistant librarian. 94 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1905. 

Journals of the Illinois State Historical Society, Quarterly, Vol. I, No. 1, 
April, 1908, to Vol. IV, No. 3, October, 1911. 

Journals Out of Print. 

*Vol. I, out of print. Vol. II, out of print. Vol. Ill, out of print. Vol. IV, 
out of print. 

*Out of print.