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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions"

Gc 
977.3 

1914 
1405715 

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00877 8166 



Publication Number Twenty 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1914 



Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 
Illinois, May 7-8, 1914 



Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 



[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 



Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co.. State Printers. 

19 15 



p 



140S71S 




CAPT. J. H. BURNHAM. 

One of the Founders of the Illinois State Historical Society and a Director of the 
Society since its Organization in 1899. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

List of officers of the Illinois State Historical Society 5 

Editorial note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

Circular letter. An appeal to the public for contributions of historical 

material 11 

PART I. 

Record of official proceedings of the society. Fifteenth annual meeting, 

1914 13 

Business meeting of the society 15 

Report of the secretary of the society 23 

Directors' meeting 28 

Report of the committee on genealogy and genealogical publications 29 

PART II.— PAPERS READ AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, 1914. 

Program of the annual meeting 33 

Orrin N. Carter. Annual address. The Early Courts of Chicago and Cook 

County 35 

Henry A. Converse. The Life and Services of Shelby M. Cullom 55 

A. R. Crook. Some Effects of Geological History on Present Conditions 

in Illinois 80 

William W. Sweet.. The Methodist Episcopal Church and Reconstruction. . 83 
J. H. Burnham. The Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River. . . 95 

John H. Hauberg. Black Hawk's Home Country 113 

George W. Young. The Williamson County Vendetta 122 

W. H. Jenkins. The Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers (Yates Phalanx) 130 

Edith Packard Kelly. Northern Illinois in the Great Whig Convention 

of 1840 137 

Martha McNiell Davidson. Southern Illinois in the Great Whig Conven- 
tion of 1840 150 

Isabel Jamison. The Great Whig Convention at Springfield, 111., June 3-4, 
1840 160 

PART III.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATE HISTORY. 

John F. Steward. Further Regarding the Destruction of a Branch of the 
Fox Tribe of Indians 175 

Robert W. Campbell. Brief History of Seventeenth Regiment Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry 184 

Index 191 



List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society 
follows index. 



OFFICERS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Honorary President. 
Col. Clark E. Carr '. Galesburg 

President. 
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Y ice-President. 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice-President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice-President. 
EiCHARD Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice-President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President, University Illinois. . .Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. BuRNHAM Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President, Illinois College. .. .Jacksonville 

J . 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal University ... Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary-Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds 
of material: 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the co-operation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such co-operation and mutual undertaking 
that this society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this 
publication the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I— NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section 1. The name of this society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and stimu- 
late a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage historical 
research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect and 
preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of Illinois 
and its peoples. 

ARTICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIR ELEC- 
TION AND DUTIES. 

Section 1. The management of the affairs of this society shall be 
vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which board the president of the 
society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a president and as many vice-presidents, not 
less than three, as the society may determine at the annual meetings. 
The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, shall 
elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and shall have 
power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and committees 
as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently to 
promote the objects for which this society has beeen formed and to this 
end they shall have power: 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 
State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions 
as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may 
secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest as 
may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 



9 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 25, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the society. They may adopt by-laws 
not inconsistent with this constitution for the management of the affairs 
of the society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in office 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The president shall preside at all meetings of the society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the vice-presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither president nor vice-president 
shall be in attendance, the society may choose a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving upon 
such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed by 
the society or the board of directors. The treasurer shall keep a strict 
account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from the 
treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit an 
annual report of the finances of the society and such other matters as 
may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within such 
time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and after auditing 
the. same the said board shall submit said report to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

ARTICLE III— MEMBEESHIP. 

Section 1. The membership of this society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary, 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation of 
the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of the 
board of directors, be admitted as affiliated member of this society upon 
the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues as 



10 

active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be entitled to 
one duly credited representative at each meeting of the society, who shall, 
during the period of his appointment, be entitled as such representative 
to all the privileges of an active member except that of being elected to 
.office; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative becoming au 
active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Seo. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this society, may, upon recommendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the society. 

ARTICLE IV— MEETINGS AND QUOEUM. 

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 3. Special meetings of the society may be called by the board 
of directors.. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the president or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE V— AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the secretary to 
all the members of the society. 



11 



AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE 
GENERAL PUBLIC. 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTION DESIEED BY THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTOEICAL LIBEARY AND SOCIETY. 

(Members please read this circular letter.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the west; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co-operative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to the great rebellion, and 
the wars with the Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps 
and charts; engravings; photographs; autographs; coins; antiquities; 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical works. Especially do 
we desire 

EVEEYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; materials for Illinois history ; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and public 
men of every county either living or deceased, together with their por- 
traits and autographs; a sketch of the settlements of every township, 
village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first settlers. 
We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city; reports of boards of trade; maps of cities and plats 
of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; rail- 
road reports; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 
ents, and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and papers 
of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 



12 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State legislatures; earlier Governor's messages and reports of 
State officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illiiiois 
history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins; medals; paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc. ; sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and warriors, 
together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, ornaments, 
curiosities, and implements; also, stone axes, spears, arrow heads, pot- 
tery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the library and society, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the librarian and 
secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



PART I 



Record of Official Proceedings 



1914 



15 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



Business Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
May 8, 1914. 

The business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society was 
called to order in the Senate Chamber at 10 :30 o'clock Friday, May 8, 
1914, by the president of the society, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, who stated 
that no report was necessary for the president, as the secretary of the 
society would explain the work of the society in her report. 

The secretary, Mrs. Weber, then read her report. 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, the chairman. — You have heard the report 
of the secretary. What shall be done with it? 

Mr. Etisley Moore. — I move that it be accepted and placed on file. 

Hon. Eichard Yates. — I second the motion. 

Chairman. — It has been moved and seconded that the secretary's 
report be approved and placed on file. Those in favor say aye ; opposed, 
no. Carried. 

Chairman. — The next order of business is the presentation of 
reports. Has Miss Osborne a report on genealogy? 

The report was read by the chairman of the committee. Miss 
Georgia L. Osborne. 

Chairman. — What shall be done with Miss Osborne's report? 

Mr. H. W. Clendenin. — I move that it be placed on file. 

Chairman. — It has been moved and seconded that Miss Osborne's 
report be placed on file. All in favor vote aye; opposed, no. Carried. 

Chairman. — Are there any other officers to report? If not, the 
next order of business will be the reports of the committees. Mrs. Weber, 
are there any chairmen of committees who have prepared reports? 

Mrs. Weber. — I am the chairman of the program committee. We 
can submit to you our printed program as the result of our labors. 

Chairman. — Mrs. Weber is too modest to speak about the actual 
program, but we all know from the program of the last meeting, the 
Gettysburg meeting, and this meeting, that she has been very energetic 
and arduous in making up these splendid programs. As a matter of 
fact she deserves the credit for the whole program. If there are no 
further reports or suggestions contained in the report of the secretary 
which ought to be acted upon, we shall proceed. There is, however, a 
recommendation in regard to the Secretary of State for his interest and 
courtesy to this society. Will somebody present a motion ? 

Mr. J. Nick Perrin. — I move that the secretary be instructed to 
convey the thanks of this organization to the gentlemen mentioned in 
this report. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion that the secretary be asked 
to convey the thanks of the society to the Secretary of State, Honorable 



16 

Harry Woods, and Captain F. J, McComb, for their courtesy and kind- 
ness to the society in many ways. It has been moved and seconded. All 
in favor vote aye; opposed, no. Carried. 

Chairman. — I wish to include Professor Crook on account of his 
taking the place of Professor J. A. James last night, who was prevented 
from coming on account of illness. Mrs. Weber was not notified until 
about ten o'clock yesterday morning. It is highly desirable, I think, 
that Mr. Sidney Breese also receive a special vote of thanks. He gave 
to the society, manuscripts and documents inherited from his famous 
grandfather, which would not have been obtainable by purchase or 
otherwise. 

Mrs. Martha K. Baxter. — I move that the society express its thanks 
to Mr. Breese by a rising vote and that a vote of thanks be sent to him. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion that a rising vote of thanks 
be given to Mr. Breese for his gift of manuscripts and documents to the 
society and that a record thereof be made on the records of the society 
and notice thereof sent to Mr. Breese. Will the members of the society 
arise ? 

(Eising vote taken.) 

Chairman. — I think everything has been acted upon in your report, 
Mrs. Weber? 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. — I suppose it is not necessary, but I 
would like some recommendation on the request of the Centennial Com- 
mission that we cooperate with them— an acknowledgment of their 
message, at least. 

Hon. Richard Yates. — You do not make any definite recommenda- 
tion in your report except that we cooperate. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. — Governor, I simply report without 
recommendations on those points that I have been asked to report to 
this society that the Centennial Commission will be glad of its coop- 
eration. I thought to acknowledge the message in some way. 

Mr. J. W. Clinton. — The board of directors, I believe, recommended 
certain parties for honorary membership. Has that been acted upon ? 

Chairman. — Another motion is before the house. That the society 
acknowledge the recommendation from the Centennial Commission that 
we cooperate with it in its preparation for the centennial year, made 
by Governor Yates. Seconded and carried. 

Mr. J. W. Clinton. — The point I raised — I was not in here at the 
commencement of the meeting. I do not know whether the list of 
members recommended for honorary membership had been presented. 
It was presented in the directors' meeting. I raise that question. If 
it has not been read, I suggest that it be read and acted upon. 

Chairman. — No motion has been entertained in regard to that. 
Will you make the motion, Mr. Clinton? 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. — I have the list here. 

Mr. J. W. Clinton. — The list recommended and endorsed by the 
directory — recommended by the secretary and endorsed by the member- 
ship of the committee — includes Governor Edward F. Dunne, Dr. Will- 
iam Jayne, Judge J. 0. Cunningham, Dr. J. F. Snyder, Dr. M. H. 
Chamberlain, Hon. Clinton L. Conkling and Sidney S. Breese. I move 
that this society make them honorary members. 



17 

Mr. H. W. CleBdeuiu. — I second the motion. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion made and seconded that 
Governor Edward F. Dunne, Dr. William Jayne, Judge J. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. F. Snyder, Dr. M. H. Chamberlain, Hon. Clinton L. Conk- 
ling and Sidney S. Breese be made honorary members of this society. 
Those in favor of welcoming these gentlemen to honorary membership 
in this society vote aye; opposed, vote no. Carried. The secretary 
will please cast the ballot of the society for the election. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. — Mr. Chairman, I have cast the ballot. 

Chairman. — The gentlemen are elected. 

Captain J. H. Burnham. — The secretary made mention of the fact 
that next year will be the fiftieth anniversary of peace and in the 
directors' meeting we had some talk on that matter but nothing special 
concluded upon. I will make a motion in behalf of this society. I move 
that the society appoint a committee of three who shall be representatives 
to the meeting of the State Encampment of the G. A. E. at their forth- 
coming meeting on the 3d and 4th of June, giving welcome of this society 
to the G. A. E., if they choose to cooperate with this society in that 
celebration. 

Motion seconded. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion of Captain Burnham that 
this society extend an invitation to the G. A. B. to cooperate with us 
in the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of peace 

Captain J. H. Burnham. — I do not know whether to put it in that 
way. I thought it better to say we would welcome cooperation. 

Chairman. — That notice be given to the G. A. E. that this society 
will welcome any cooperation in the celebration of the fiftieth anniver- 
sary. That a committee of three be appointed. Those in favor, please 
say aye. Carried. 

Chairman. — Who shall appoint the committee. Captain Burnham? 

Captain J. H. Burnham. — The chair. 

Chairman. — I appoint Captain Burnham 

Mr. H. W. Clendenin. — I would request that I be not of that 
committee. My eyesight is very bad. I would probably not be able to 
go. Comrade Jenkins and Comrade Silliman may have no trouble with 
their eyes. 

Chairman. — The chair has appointed for this committee, Captain 
Burnham, Mr. Silliman, and Mr. Jenkins. Is there further miscella- 
neous business to come before the society? 

Mrs. I. G. Miller. — In Mrs. Weber's report she spoke of a letter 
she received from Moro, Illinois. I believe we ought to send greetings 
to this lady. She appreciated the works sent to her. I make this motion. 

Mrs. Martha K. Baxter. — Seconded. 

Carried. 

Chairman. — It is a very gracious motion and stimulates interest, I 
think, in the society. Is there any further miscellaneous business? I may 
possibly make a few remarks in regard to the centennial publication 
committee of the Centennial Commission. The subcommittee has been 
at work almost a year now in making preparations for the centennial 
publication which is to appear in 1918. After discvis?ion of the matter 

— 2 H S 



18 

from every standpoint and viewpoint, the consent of the Governor was 
obtained to proceed on the following plan: that as soon as possible — say 
within a year or two — a small volume of two or three hundred pages, 
"Illinois in 1818/' be issued. "The People, Civilization, etc., of the 
People of Illinois in 1818." This is to be a work drawing the attention 
of the people to the centennial. The large work on the anniversary of 
Illinois will comprise five volumes and will be edited by the best people 
obtainable in the State and undoubtedly will form a much desired work 
on this State. There is no work at present extant on the history of 
Illinois that is standard. The subcommittee and the commission so 
hope that this will be so. 

At the annual meetings we often have reports from the officers of 
the local societies. Will Mr. Freese please report on the work of his 
society ? 

Mr. L. J. Freese. — Mr. Chairman, I have no special report to make 
to this body. However, we are endeavoring to do the work that belongs, 
as I understand it, to the local historical society. We are collecting the 
history of our county and we are placing this in permanent form. We 
are — I should say we are hoping to. It is now in manuscript form. 
When our society becomes wealthy we shall put it in book form. Some- 
times we go before our board of supervisors and secure an appropriation, 
but the society is growing in interest and we are holding our meetings 
in different parts of the county. Last September, I went to Minonk to 
place the matter of holding our next meeting at Minonk. I visited the 
business men's association, which resulted in the meeting of such men 
in the First National Bank and they extended an invitation to our 
society to meet there. We had an excellent program and exhibited the 
relics. A few days ago, I went to El Paso to visit our people there to 
see if they would care for the mid-year meeting, and the commercial 
club has extended us an invitation for the meeting at that place. They 
are going to furnish the programs, etc. The meetings are growing in 
interest; and we cannot confine them to one section or one day; so we 
will have an evening meeting and a meeting the next day for the exhibi- 
tion of the relics; and the afternoon meeting will be given over to the 
D. A. R. Our society has endeavored to locate the graves — we have 
located two or three Revolutionary soldiers, 1812, 1833, and the Mexican 
War. The Peoria Daughters of the American Revolution will mark the 
graves oi soldiers at this meeting. The commercial club will see that 
automobiles convey the members to the scene. 

We celebrated the seventieth anniversary of the formation of the 
county; marked where Lincoln and Douglas made speeches. We expect 
to continue this work and especially invite you to attend this meeting of 
June 3-4 at El Paso. 

Mr. Ensley Moore. — Speaking about marking places — last Deco- 
ration Day — I don't know whether you noticed or not — but we ttiarked 
the camping place of General Grant and the marking was done in an 
official way by a gathering and speaking, etc. The story of the marking 
was one that in a way was a double marker. Some of the natives found 
a couple of boulders, and those had belonged probable to the Collins 
brothers, who established the second flour mill at Naples. Those two 



19 

stones were used as markers of the place where Mr. Grant's regiment 
encamped. It was a double monument. 

It is not for Mrs. Miller or Mrs. Weber to take this matter up. I 
want to say a thing to the men folks. That is, I think there is a class 
that has not been very largely referred to in our meetings, and that is 
the women of Illinois. If nothing happens to me I expect to write 
something and have it printed regarding three ladies of Jacksonville and 
they are the three ladies that have done much for Jacksonville and mucli 
for the State. I want to write that up sometime when I can get to it, 
and I suggest that the younger members like Professor Greene take an 
interest and find out about the women of Illinois. If you will turn over 
the pages of history that you know about, you will find that there would 
not be many of us here if it were not for the women of Illinois; and I 
think it is fair that you remember them, and I want them remembered 
in the annals of the Historical Society, and I want the other members to 
take hold of that point. 

Chairman. — Some time ago I read a valuable article about the value 
of museums of history by which an interest in history can be aroused, 
by Professor Page, of DeKalb. I would like to call on him to make a 
few remarks. 

Professor E. C. Page. — We have no historical society in DeKalb 
county, though the county is much interested in history and is doing a 
great deal in the way of promoting and stimulating interest. We are 
very much taken up with the new farm ideas; and an angle of that is 
the farmers' room, in which they use all sorts of implements, special 
harvest machinery, going back to the days of the reaping hook down to 
the present machinery; and other things connected with farm life and 
pioneer life are usually exhibited at that time — marking graves, and 
at present they are making plans to mark the site of the first courthouse 
in the county. Along these lines a great deal of interest is being taken, 
although no historical society has been organized. 

In the Kormal School we have taken the same idea of prompting 
historical interest and are endeavoring to interest our students in mak- 
ing use of historical material in their school work; and so, in the last 
two years, I began collecting a museum of history, what I call a working 
museum of history. President John W. Cook has been very kind in the 
setting aside of rooms for the collection. Outside these rooms is a 
spacious corridor. Through the kindness of our friends we have col- 
lected quite a museum in the last two years. I suppose we must have 
4,000 or 5,000 different articles showing the life of the past and all of 
them have been contributed. We have purchased nothing. We do not 
enter the field of purchase. If we did our purpose would be entirely 
defeated. We would be constantly besought to buy. We have everything 
from a wood hook to a Marsh Harvester. The latter we are not able 
to house with our collection, but we have it for exhibition purposes. 
This is nothing, because there should be a collection of historical mate- 
rial. But the use we are making of it is unusual. There are only a few 
schools that are making use of a historical museum. We are trying in 
every way to make the utmost possible use of it. The greatest use is in 
the grades and Normal school. Teachers going and coming and they 
make use of it just as books are taken from the library so that the 



20 

children can understand better the life of the past. That material is 
out all the time. Every morning one of my first duties is to check up; 
and only one morning in the past year have I found everything in the 
museum; something out all the time. Then we have special exhibits in 
the corridor in suitable cases and every device by which we can exhibit 
this matter. In view of the present Mexican embroglio, I thought it 
proper to have a war exhibit; and I found from the museum that I have 
exhibits from the Mexican War, War of 1813, Revolutionary War, Civil 
War and Spanish-American War and from distant countries; and the 
thing that surprised me, although I have collected all this material, was 
the number of articles that illustrated the various Avars and the variety 
of them. I discovered we had a complete file of the daily papers during 
the Spanish- American War; I have the music that was used during the 
Eevolutionary War, the score of the tune to which Cornwallis surren- 
dered, "The World's Turned Upside Down," secured from the Library 
of Congress ; the music from the Civil War and Spanish- American War ; 
one composed by Bert Morgan, "My Sweetheart Went Down with the 
Maine." What is the object of this ? Putting them in special exhibits. 
So that everybody in school going to and fro will see the different phases 
of history illustrated. It is attracting a great deal of attention, and 
profitable attention, not only in the school but in the community. People 
as a matter of fact are coming from outside communities to see these 
things. I am glad of the opportunity to call attention to this under- 
taking. I think I know the museums of the schools in this country. 
Outside of three or four universities, probably that exhibit could not be 
duplicated in any other school. It is there for use. It seems to me that 
that is the object of things. We ought to preserve these things and get 
them before the people who ought to see those things. 

Mr. L. J. Freese. — I move that this society express its thanks and 
appreciation to Mrs. Walker of the D. A. E. for the work she is doing 
in locating the graves of the soldiers of the American Revolution in 
Illinois. Motion seconded. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion made and seconded. Those 
in favor say aye. Carried. 

Chairman. — The next order of business is the election of officers. 
Mr. J. Nick Perrin. — This old life is short at its longest and I 
begin to believe in economizing it. I do not see any evidence of any job 
being put up on any of us. I would, therefore, move that the secretary 
cast the ballot of this society for all of the present officers, including the 
honorary president. Col. Clark E. Carr, with the exception of the secre- 
tary and that the president of the society cast the vote of this society for 
Mrs. Weber as secretary. 

Chairman. — You have heard the motion. It has been moved and 
seconded that the present officers be reelected for the coming year and 
that the secretary of the society cast the ballot of the society for the 
election of these officers with the exception of herself and that the presi- 
dent cast the ballot for the secretary. 

Mr. Richard Yates. — Most of the officers being officers cannot 

vote 

Mr. J. Nick Perrin. — I can vote on those members. I am not an 
officer. 



31 

Chairman. — Those in favor say aye. Carried. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. — I have the list of the officers here and 
by the direction of the society I cast the ballot for all officers except the 
secretary. 

Chairman. — I herewith cast the ballot of the society for the re- 
election of our very worthy and excellent secretary. 

Mr. J. Nick Perrin. — Would you allow me just one minute — pos- 
sibly two — on the matter — although it was passed — on the matter of the 
local historical societies or museums. We have a modest people who feel 
that St. Clair County has played a very humble part in the affairs of 
the society; and in St. Clair County we have both a museum, a historical 
museum and a historical society. The historical museum is in the court- 
house and the historical society is up here attending this meeting. St. 
Clair County, of course, embraced all of the State of Illinois except 
about one-sixteenth of the extreme southeast portion, plus all of the 
state of Wisconsin. Our museum is a record room. We call it an old 
record room. It contains old civil records west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains — a French record, etc., in Prance dating back to 1737. This 
museum contains records from 1737 to 1800. And the historical society 
was organized for the purpose of not only forwarding this movement but 
of allowing the school children to pass through this room every day, but 
also, for the purpose of taking care of and standing guard over these 
historic records and these official papers that are in its care and to see 
that they are not hawked about the State by anybody. There are twenty- 
seven of us. We do not want any more. We cannot do business with 
too many. Twenty-seven are enough. In addition to looking after the 
museum and meeting often enough to reelect ourselves — the meeting 
being subject to the call of the president — in addition to this, whenever 
anything of enough importance occurs we mark it. When the son of the 
distinguished novelist came to St. Clair County, seventy years after his 
father's visit, we took him in tow. We showed him a good time, although 
we hope we did not feed him too much. We showed him the places his 
father visited seventy years prior to that time, and then we put a nice 
brass marker on the mansion house and sent him back. We then marked 
when St. Clair County attained its centennial time, when the county 
seat attains its centennial; we marked the place where the first cabin 
stood, the cabin of the pioneer who started the county seat of Illinois; 
and as soon as the weather opens and we can get down into the old 
American bottom, we expect to mark the place which witnessed the assas- 
sination of the biggest red man of them all, Pontiac. We killed him at 
Cahokia. By the wa}^, that was the earliest settlement. We built the 
first railroad, etc. 

Captain J. H. Buriiham. — I hope our friend is not pluming liimself 
on having the oldest settlement because Kaskaskia has departed. 

Mr. J. Nick Perrin. — No, Kaskaskia commenced up here 

Mr. Eichard Yates. — That first railroad of yours was a horse car 
railroad. In Morgan County we built a real one. 

Chairman. — If there is no further regular business we will pro- 
ceed 

Mr. Eichard Yates. — I want to introduce one of the men who built 
the first railroad. (Presents Mr. William Bakor.) 



Chairman. — Ou account of the lateness of the hour I shall change 
the program and instead of asking for the paper on the Williamson 
County Vendetta, which I understand is a long one, I shall take the 
liberty of asking Mr. Jenkins to read his paper on the Thirty-ninth 
Illinois Volunteers, The Yates Phalanx. 

Captain J. H. Burnham. — Judge Young of Marion, who wrote the 
Williamson County Vendetta, is one of the original signers of the call 
for the organization of the State Historical Society. He has taken a 
great interest in State and local history and wrote the paper about the 
Williamson County Vendetta at my request when I met him at the 
State encampment at Alton. He has never been able to attend our 
meetings but has a warm interest in our work. 

Mr. Jenkins reads his paper. 

Chairman. — On account of the postponement of Judge Young's 
paper to this afternoon and that there are three other papers scheduled 
for that time, it will be necessary for us to meet promptly at 2 :30. 

The meeting is adjourned until 2 :30 this afternoon. 



83 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY- 
MAY, 1913-MAY. 1914. 



Matj 1, 1911,. 
To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society . 

Gentlemen: The Illinois State Historical Society is now fifteen 
years old, this being its fifteenth annual meeting. The society was 
organized June 30, 1899, as the result of the preliminary meeting held 
at the University of Illinois May 19, 1899. The first annual meeting 
was held at Peoria the following January (January 5-6, 1900), the 
second annual meeting was held at Springfield, January 30-31, 1901. 
At this meeting the secretary reported that there were about sixty 
members. 

An able address was delivered before the society by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, secretary and director of the Wisconsin Historical Society, in 
which he stated that that day (January 30, 1901) was the fifty-second 
birthday of the Wisconsin Historical Society. In the report of i\n\ secre- 
tary at the sixthwannual meeting held in Springfield, January 25-26, 
1905, two hundred and 'fifty-one members were reported. This included 
twenty-eight editorial or newspaper members. 

At the tenth annual meeting eight hundred members were reported 
and today the society numbers : 

Honorary members 17 

Life members 12 

Active 1,583 

N'ewspaper editors 47 

Total 1,659 

It is the largest state society in the United States in point of 
numbers. 

We have lost by death since our last annual meeting sixteen of our 
members. They are : 

Mr. H. L. Sayler, Chicago, Illinois, May 31, 1913. 

Miss M. Frances Chenery, Springfield, Illinois, June 7, 1913. 

Mr. Albert Atherton, • Pleasant Plains, Illinois, June 11, 1913. 

Mr. Eeuben Gold Thwaites, Madison, Wisconsin, October 22, 1913 
(an honorary member). 

Mrs. Katherine Goss Wheeler, Springfield, Illinois, November 19, 
1913. 

Mr. C. S. N. Hallberg, Chicago, Illinois, November 5, 1913. 

Mr. Thornton G. Capps, Greenfield, Illinois, December 11, 1913. 

Mr. Louis Waltersdorf, Chicago, Illinois, December 12, 1913. 

Mr. John H. Drawyer, Bradford, Illinois, 1913. 

Mr. J. M. Eyrie, Alton, Illinois, 1914. 

Professor Henry B. Henkel, Springfield, Illinois, February 26, 1914. 



24 

Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, January 28, 1914 (an honorary member 
of the society). 

Mr. Edgar S. Scott, Springfield, Illinois, March 22, 1914. 

Mr. Charles B. Campbell, Kankakee, Illinois, April 1, 1914. 

Mr. W. H. Thacker, Arlington, Washington, April 1, 1914. 

Brief biographies of these members have appeared in the Journal 
and I will not at this time repeat them. An address on the life of 
Senator Shelby M. Cullom will be a part of the proceedings of this 
annual meeting. 

I again desire to call your attention to the oft repeated requests of 
the secretary to be informed in the case of deaths in our membership. 
You are urgently requested to notify the secretary if you learn of the 
death of a member of this society. 

Membei's express their interest in the society and their pleasure in 
its publications by many kind letters. I beg to read a brief one from 
one of our members and I hope the society will see fit to send a word of 
greeting to the writer of the letter. 

"Moro, Illinois, May J^, WlJf. 

My Dear Mrs. Weber: I am enclosing the $1.00 for dues in the 
Historical Society and would be delighted to attend the meeting in 
Springfield and hear the interesting topics discussed so ably, as I am 
sure they will be, but alas ! I am a hopeless shut-in, not likely to enjoy 
attending anything beyond the walls of my room. But with all my 
limitations I find life worth living because of the majiy love feasts I 
can have in print and script. My mind can travel, yea even wander, in 
the realms of reason and I can have beautiful thoughts all of the time. 
In all good societies I can belong even if I can't throng. 

May the Illinois Historical Society live long and prosper ! 
Yours sincerely, 

(Mrs.) Katharine Stahl." 

On November 19, 1913, this society held a memorial meeting in 
observance of the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of the Gettysburg 
National Cemetery, at which time Mr. Lincoln delivered his celebrated 
Gettysburg address. Governor Dtinne by special proclamation called the 
attention of the people of the State to this historic anniversary and asked 
them to observe it. The Historical Society gladly acted upon the patri- 
otic suggestion of our Governor and on the evening of November 19, 
1913, the meeting was held. It was an occasion that will long be remem- 
bered by those who attended it. 

Governor Dunne, after being introduced by Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, 
president of the society, presided over the meeting and addresses were 
made by Judge J. 0. Cunningham, a personal friend of Mr. Lincoln: 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction F. G. Blair, and Hon. 
Everett Jennings. These were noteworthy addresses. Stephenson Post, 
G. A. P., attended in a body and the soldiers who had been participants 
at the Battle of Gettysburg were asked to come to the speaker's stand 
and there an eloquent address .was made to them, especially by Hon. 
Everett Jennings. The meeting was successful in every detail. 

Since the last meeting of this society the commission created by 
the last General Assembly to arrange for the celebration of the State's 
centennial anniversary has been organized, 



25 

The president and secretary of the State Historical Society are 
members of the Centennial Commission, as are Senator Ilearn, Senator 
Hay, Senator Johnson, President James, Professor Greene, Professor 
Garner, all members of the Historical Society. 

The commission met and organized by making Senator Hearn 
chairman, and Jessie Palmer Weber secretary of the commission. Com- 
mittees have been appointed and work has been laid out for them. The 
plan contemplates a significant celebration of the centennial year by a 
great historical publication; celebrations in every community in the 
State by schools, clubs, fraternal organizations, historical societies and 
a great celebration at Springfield; and it is hoped that there will be, as 
an enduring memorial by the State to its hundred years of progress, a 
Centennial Memorial Building, the dedication of which will be a part 
of the centennial celebration. Senator Logan Hay is the chairman for 
the Centennial Memorial Building; Dr. Schmidt for the Centennial 
Memorial Publications; President James of the celebration at Spring- 
field ; Senator Kent E'. Keller of the State Wide Celebration ; Professor 
Greene on Monuments and Memorials; Jessie Palmer Weber on the 
Historical Pageant. There are other important committees, but the 
above mentioned are of special interest to the Historical Society. 

The members of the Historical Society are expected to bear an 
important part in this great work and the Centennial Commission asks 
your aid and cooperation. 

Your secretary attended the State Conference of Daughters of the 
American Eevolution at Quincy last October and made a report of the 
working of the Fort Massac Park Trustees. A member of this society, 
Mrs. E. S. Walker, made at that same conference an admirable report, 
as State chairman of the Hlinois D. A. E. committee on historic research. 
You are all familiar with the splendid work that Mrs. Walker is doing 
in compiling the names and records of military services and the places 
of burial of Eevolutionary soldiers buried in Illinois. Mrs. Walker is 
doing this work by counties of Illinois. She is carefully verifying these. 
I suggest that the society express in some manner its appreciation of 
her labors. 

. Miss Georgia L. OslwDrne, chairman of the genealogical committee, 
will report to you that the list which she has compiled of the Historical 
Library's various works on genealogy, is nearly ready for distribution. 
She will not, however, tell you of how much labor she has bestow(^d upon 
it and how valuable it will be to genealogists and genealogical students. 

The secretary of the society has been asked by Mr. Scott Matthews, 
pure food commissioner of this State, to assist him in the preparation of 
a text-book for schools. This book is to contain historical information 
in regard to pure food legislation, and of the resources and history of 
the State. It is planned to have it in the hands of the school children 
of the State by the opening of the school year in the autumn. 

The secretary has also been invited by the Illinois Commission to 
the Panama-Pacific Exposition to place an exliibit in the Lincoln memo- 
rial room in the Illinois Building at San Francisco at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. This, it is hoped, will be a truly significant exhibit. 
The secretary begs the assistance of the society in the collection of 
Lincoln material that will be worthy of the State of Illinois. The 



26 

Panama-Pacific Exposition Commission, of which the Governor is a 
commissioner, with twenty deputy or associate commissioners is building 
for Illinois a splendid building; and the members of the commission 
desire that the people of this State who visit the Exposition will avail 
themselves of the comforts and conveniences of the Illinois Building as 
a resting place and meeting place; and the commission hopes that it 
will be the headquarters of Illinoisans at the Exposition. 

The secretary and several other members of the society attended 
the ceremonies at Starved Eock, attendant upon the presentation to the 
State of Illinois on September 6, 1913, by the D. A. E. of the State, of 
a splendid flag-pole and D. A. E. pennant. This was a notable gather- 
ing. Addresses were made by the State regent of the D. A. E., Mrs. 
George A. Lawrence; Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, Mrs. John C. Ames, vice- 
president general for Illinois of the D. A. E.; Hon. Samuel Alschuler, 
Hon. Charles Clyne and Mr. W. E. Osman, all of whom are members of 
the Historical Society. Other persons distinguished in historical and 
patriotic work made addresses. I mention those who are members of 
the society to show you the part taken by our members in the historical 
work in this State. 

The secretary visited the Eock Island County Historical Society 
on April 14, 1914, and had the pleasure of addressing the society. The 
Eock Island County Society which has such an interesting history to 
report has in its membership some of the best workers of the State 
Historical Society. The meeting was an interesting and successful one 
and your secretary derived much pleasure from her visit. 

Next year is the fiftieth anniversary of the termination of the great 
Civil War of America. It seems to me that if there is any historical 
event which should be commemorated by jubilee, it is this anniversary 
of the cessation of the hostilities between our own people. Four years 
ago we observed the fiftieth anniversary of the beginning of that great 
war. This was a solemn memorial observance, but fifty years of peace 
and progress should be observed in a different way. If it were not for 
the fact that the old soldiers who remain with us today are growing 
feeble and are few in number, it would be indeed, an anniversary of 
rejoicing; but it gives us an opportunity of doing special honor to the 
veterans who remain with us, and of showing them that their bravery 
and sacrifices are not forgotten by us who are heirs of the prosperity 
which they made possible. I suggest that the meeting of 1915 especially 
observe this semicentennial. 

Circular letters have been issued from time to time by the library 
and society asking the assistance of members of the Historical Society 
and of the citizens of this State in the collection of historical material of 
all kinds. I again make an appeal for such material. 

Mr. Sidney S. Breese of Springfield, grandson of Judge Sidney 
Breese, distinguished in the annals of this State, has presented the 
library with a large number of the letters and papers of his grandfather. 
These comprise letters to Judge Breese from most of his eminent con- 
temporaries. Among them are letters from Stephen A. Douglas, James 
Semple, Gustavus Koerner, William H. Bissell, John Wentworth and 
many others. The collection is most valuable and it is a splendid and 



37 

generous ^ift. Lists of gifts and names of donors are acknowledged in 
the Journal. Your assistance is earnestly solicited. 

This society has passed the experimental stage and it has a great 
work to do. It is too much to expect that each one of the members of 
the society be an active worker, but it is not too much to expect each one 
to be interested enough to help by suggestion and interest. 

It will be remembered that an appropriation for the purchase of the 
site of old Fort Chartres was made by the last session (Forty-eighth) of 
the General Assembly. The land has been purchased by the State and 
this truly historic relic is now a part of the State park system. Mr. 
William A. Meese, one of the directors of this society, was largely instru- 
mental in securing this appropriation. Eesidents of the county and 
locality have formed an association for the purpose of stimulating inter- 
est in and preserving local history. Surely the locality which this society 
represents has a history which is as fascinating and thrilling as any 
pictured by writers of romance. We welcome this new society to the 
field of State historical work. 

The research work grows rapidly and all of the employees of the 
library and the society are kept busy. The publications, the Journal and 
the Transactions, and indexing them, the cataloging and copying are 
all arduous labor. You have received copies of Illinois Historical Col- 
lection, Vol. IX, a bibliography of Travel and Description in Illinois, 
1765-1865, by Dr. Solon J. Buck. 

This is an excellent exhaustive piece of work, altho the casual 
student can form no idea of the amount of work, of laborious painstaking 
research which Dt. Buck devoted to the compilation of it. Dr. Buck 
has also been secured by the Centennial Commission to edit its first 
publication, "Illinois in 1818." The fact that he is to have supervision 
of this work insures its character and high value. 

The work of the society and library progresses steadily. Member- 
ship in the society continues to grow, but the members of the society 
do not personally attend the meetings as they should do. This gentle 
scolding applies particularly to Springfield members. I know that 
members are interested, but so many things come up these busy days 
that one cannot do everything, and then you receive the papers in the 
Transactions of the Society ; so the meetings are neglected. It is not 
very inspiring to speakers, however, to have such small audiences. Please 
do some missionary work with the members of the society in regard to 
this matter. 

The committees of the society, too, with notable exceptions, take 
their duties too lightly. There is, however, good excuse for this, as it is 
impossible to hold frequent committee meetings, owing to the fact that 
members reside in all sections of the State. It might be well to arrange 
committee meetings for the time of the annual meeting of the society; 
at which time plans for work of committees could be outlined, and 
subcommittees appointed. Please think this matter over and offer 
suggestions to the secretary of the society. 

As I have said, we are steadily progressing. We meet with dis- 
appointments along the way, but does not every one — the farmer, the 
teacher, the merchant, the housekeeper, workers in all lines of human 
endeavor — have difficulties with which to contend ? 



28 

We have every reason for encouragement and none for discourage- 
ment. These are some of the activities and some of the problems of 
the Illinois State Historical Society. But when all is said, the principal 
difficulty is the fact that we are so crowded in every line of our work 
that the congestion is getting most uncomfortable and even a semblance 
of order and tidiness is impossible. 

We must have more room. We hope for a new building as a cen- 
tennial memorial; but even if we secure it, we shall be very crowded 
during the intervening years. If we have a prospect of better things, 
we will bear present inconveniences with such patience and fortitude as 
we can muster. In closing I beg to thank the directors and members of 
the society for continued kindness and helpfulness to me. 

To mention what has been done by Miss Georgia L. Osborne would 
be telling you the work of my right hand. She is my coworker in 
everything, and she is never too tired to devote her energies to the 
service of the society and the library. I also desire to express my 
appreciation of the highly intelligent and unremitting assistance of my 
other assistant in the library. Miss Anna C. Flaherty. Permit me also 
to say that the society owes its thanks to Professor A. E. Crook, presi- 
dent of the State Academy of Sciences, for assistance. The secretary 
of state, Hon. Harry Woods, is most kind and thoughtful in extending 
services to the Historical Society, as is Captain F. E. McComb, superin- 
tendent of the Capitol Building. I desire to ask the thanks of the 
society for the three last named gentlemen. 

These, I believe, are the principal matters of interest to which I 
wish to call to your attention. 
Very respectfully, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 

Approved May 8, 1914. 



DIRECTORS' MEETING. 

May S, 1915. 

The board of directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in the office of the secretary of the society, Thursday morning, May 8, 
at 9 :00 o'clock. 

There were present : President, Otto L. Schmidt, who presided, and 
Messrs. Clendenin, Eammelkamp, Eussel, Burnham, Clinton, Page, 
Colyer, and the secretary, Mrs. Weber. 

Col. Clark E. Carr, the honorary president of the society, and Hon. 
Eichard Yates came in later. 

The report of the secretary was read. On motion of Mr. Eussel the 
report was accepted and approved and it was ordered that it be read to 
the business meeting of. the society. The report of the treasurer was 
read, accepted, approved and ordered placed on file. 

It was voted that the present committees of the society be continued. 

Dr. Eammelkamp called the attention of the directors to the fact 
that the annual meeting of the American Historical Association was to 
be held in Chicago during the Christmas holidays. It was voted that 
the president and the secretafy draft a resolution to the American 



29 

Historical Association on the occasion of its holding its meeting in our 
State. Captain Burnham spoke of the fact that next year, 1915, is the 
fiftieth anniversary of the close of the war between the states. 

It was moved that the attention of the program committee be called 
to this historic fact. Captain Burnham spoke of the committees of the 
society and said he would like to devise a plan to secure greater activity 
in their work. 

Governor Yates inquired as to the progress of plans for a new build- 
ing for the society. Dr. Schmidt explained what had been done toward 
that object and plans for future work. Captain Burnham spoke of the 
propriety of securing the cooperation of the State G. A. E. in plans 
for celebrating the anniversary of the close of the War. 

He said he would try to secure this cooperation. Governor Yates 
suggested that the matter be brought before the society, and it was 
decided that this be done. 

There being no further business presented, the meeting of the 
board of directors adjourned to meet at the call of the president. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GENEALOGY AND 
GENEALOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your committee on genealogy and genealogical publications had 
hoped to report that the list of works on genealogy to be found in the 
Illinois State Historical Library would soon be ready for distribution. 
We have this much to report, however, that we are reading proof on the 
list and that the work will soon be completed. This will be Publication 
Number 18 of the Illinois State Historical Library. 

Mrs. Edwin S. Walker is still continuing her careful work on the 
compilation of the names of Eevolutionary soldiers buried in Illinois. 
Lists of the soldiers, buried in the following counties : Cass, Clark, Cook, 
Greene, Iroquois, McLean, Macon, Madison, Marshall, Menard, Morgan, 
Ogle, Peoria, Sangamon and Warren, have been published in the Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society, beginning with the issue of 
Volume V, No. 7, April, 1912, and continuing through each succeeding 
issue, to the April, 1914, Journal (save the January Journal of 1914). 

Mrs. Walker asks the cooperation of members of the society in 
this work, and that as careful and accurate a record as possible be sent, 
as no name is to appear in the list unless carefully verified. 

This department in the library is used by students every day; and 
we are trying to collect such material as will be of the greatest benefit 
to these students and to the library, so that we may claim for the depart- 
ment a collection that will rank among the very best in the west. 
Eespectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman of the Genealogy and Genealogical 
Committee, Illinois State Historical Society. 

Mav 7, 1914. 



PART II 

Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 

1914 



33 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 



THURSDAY MOENING, MAY 7, 1914, 10:00 O'CLOCK. 

SENATE CHAMBER. 

Address — "The Methodist Church and Eeconstriiction," W. W. 
Sweet, DePaw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

Address — "Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi Eiver," J. 
H. Buruham, Bloomington, 111. Part I— "The Work of the Rivers," 
J. H. Burnham. Part II — "The Commons of Kaskaskia/' H. W. 
Roberts, Chester. 

THURSDAY AFTERNOON, 2:30 O'CLOCK. - 

Address — "In Black Hawk's Home," John H. Hauberg, Rock 
Island, 111. 

Address— "Chief Little Turtle," Mrs. Mary Ridpath Mann, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Address — "The Life and Services of Shelby M. Cullom," Henry 
A. Converse, Springfield, 111. 

THURSDAY EVENING, 8:00 O'CLOCK. 

"Some Effects of Geological History on Present Conditions in 
Illinois," Prof. A. R. Crook, President State Academy of Sciences, 
Springfield. 

"The Illinois State Park System" (illustrated), J. A. James, North- 
western University, Evanston, 111. 

FRIDAY MORNING, MAY 8, 1914, 9:00 O'CLOCK. 
Director's meeting in the office of the secretary. 

10:00 O'CLOCK, IN SENATE CHAMBER. 

Business meeting of the society. 
Reports of officers. 
Reports of committees. 
Miscellaneous business. 
Election of officers. 
Address — "The Williamson County Vendetta," Hon. George W. 
Young, Marion, 111. 

Address — "The Yates Phalanx. The 39th Illinois Volunteers 
Infantry," W. H. Jenkins, Pontiac, 111. 

— 3 H s 



34 



FEIDAY AFTERNOOi\T. 

General Topic — An Account of the Great Whig Meeting lield at 
Springfield, June 3-4, 1840. With music of the campaign. 

x\ddress — ^"Eepresentation at the Convention from Northern Illi- 
nois," Mrs. Edith P. Kelly, Bloomington, 111. 

Address — "Southern Illinois and Neighboring States at the Con- 
vention," Mrs. Martha McXeill Davidson, Greenville, 111. 

Address — "The Young Men's Convention and Old Soldiers' Meet- 
ing at Springfield, June 3-4, 1840," ]\Irs. Isabel Jamison, Spring- 
field, 111. 

FRIDAY EVENING, 8:00 O'CLOCK. 

Quartet — "Illinois." 

Annual Address — "Early Courts of Chicago and Cook County," 
Judge 0. N. Carter, Chicago. 

Reception in the State library. 



35 



1405715 



THE EARLY COURTS OF CHICAGO AND COOK COUNTY. 



(Annual address before the Illinois State Historical Society, May 8, 

1914, by Orkin N. Carter, Justice of the Illinois 

State Supreme Court.) 

I have found it somewhat difficult to decide what period of time 
to cover in this address. At first I considered giving the history of the 
courts, not only under the Constitution of 1818, but that of 1848, as 
fairly included within the subject, but decided that this would make too 
long an address, and therefore have limited it in a general way to the 
courts under the Constitution of 1818. 

Xo adequate history of the courts of Illinois has ever been written. 
While short sketches have been given of the courts of the Territory of 
Illinois, none are found of Chicago or Cook County. No separate 
history of those courts has ever been undertaken. Brief fragmentary 
sketches can be found in addresses and scattered through various histories 
of Chicago. On account of the burning of all the court records in the 
great fire of 1871 it is practically impossible now to get authentic infor- 
mation as to many historical questions of interest touching the courts, 
their officials and the cases tried therein. I shall sketch briefly some of 
the questions upon which information can be obtained. 

Most^laws creating courts in this country have given them jurisdic- 
tion with reference to county lines. In the early history of the State 
there was some legislation establishing various city courts. Much more 
frequently there has been legislation of this nature in recent years, owing 
to the great increase in urban population. When Col. G. E. Clark took 
possession of Illinois in 1778, under the authority of the Governor of 
Virginia, the County of Illinois, as a part of Virginia, was formed, 
including this State and all of the county known as the Northwest 
Territory, and continuing as such county until 1782. However, until 
1784 there was practically no legal authority in Illinois. The people 
were "a law unto themselves," but apparently conducted their affairs — 
although informally — with harmony and. honesty.^ The Northwest Ter- 
ritory was created by Congress July 13, 1787, including Illinois. There- 
after in 1790 the counties of Knox and St. Clair were formed, including 
a part of this State. The territory of the present Cook County was 
within the limits of Knox County. Indiana Territory was organized 
]\Iay 7, 1800, Knox County continuing as before. February 3, 1801, 
the boundaries of St. Clair County were changed so as to include Cook 
County and practically nine-tenths of the entire State. The Territory 
of Illinois was created February 3, 1809, but St. Clair County — as to 
the territory now in Cook County — remained unchanged until 1812. 
In that year on September 11 a new county was formed of which the 

1 Bross' History of Chicago. 



36 

southern boundary was the present northern boundary of St. Clair 
County, and which extended across the State to the east, taking in all 
the rest of the State to the north and including all north of that to the 
Canadian line. This new county was called Madison. On November 
28, 1814, a change was made in the counties so that all of the eastern 
half of the State as theretofore existing was included in a new county 
called Edwards, which had within its boundaries the present Cook 
County. On December 31, 1816, the northern limits of Edwards 
County were moved south near to their present location, and all of the 
territory formerly in Edwards County lying north of its new northern 
boundary was formed into a new county called Crawford. This was the 
situation when Illinois was organized as a State. The next change that 
affected Cook County was made on March 22, 1819, when the northern 
boundary of Crawford was made coincident with the present northern 
boundary of Crawford extended west, and all the remaining portion of 
Crawford County as originally designated (including the present Cook) 
was included in a new county called Clark. On January 31, 1821, Pike 
County was created, including within its limits all of Illinois west of 
the Illinois Eiver and north of the Illinois and Kankakee Eivers. On 
January 28, 1823, the new county of Fulton was created out of a portion 
of Pike. The western boundary of Fulton as then created was the 
present western boundary extended. To the north it took in the southern 
part of present Knox and the southwest portion of Peoria. The act 
provided that "all the rest and residue of the attached part of the County 
of Pike east of the fourth principal meridian shall be attached to and 
be a part of said County of Fulton until otherwise disposed of by the 
General Assembly." By this wording Cook County was attached to the 
new County of Fulton at least for all governmental purposes. On Janu- 
ary 3 of the same year, however, the new County of Edgar was created 
with its present boundary lines. By that act it was provided that all 
that tract of country north of Edgar County to Lake Michigan be 
attached to Edgar County. By this last provision that part of Cook 
County south of a line extended west from the point where the eastern 
Illinois State line joins the shore line of Lake Michigan was included 
within Edgar County. January 13, 1825, the County of Peoria was 
created, with its present county lines. Section 8 of the act creating 
such county, however, provided, "That all that tract of said country 
north of said Peoria County, and of the Illinois and Kankakee Rivers, 
be, and the same is hereby attached to said county, for all county pur- 
poses." On the same day another act was passed by the Legislature 
creating the counties of Schuyler, Adams, Hancock, Warren, Mercer, 
Henry, Putnam and Knox. The boundary lines of Putnam County 
included all that territory north and east of Peoria County and north 
of the Illinois and Kankakee Eivers. Construing together these two 
acts, it appears that geographically it was intended to place Cook County 
and all that part of the State north of the Illinois and Kankakee Eivers 
and east of the western boundary line of Peoria County, extended, within 
Putnam County but that all this territory should remain under Peoria 
County for governmental purposes until Putnam County had a sufficient 
number of inhabitants to authorize a judge of the circuit court to call 
an election for county officers in said Putnam County. It is sometimes 



37 

stated that at least a part of Cook County was at one time within the 
boundaries of the County of Vermilion and was taxed as of that county.^ 
Vermilion County was create^ by the Legislature January 18, 182G. 
During the year previous, as already stated, all of the territory north of 
the Kankakee Eiver, including the present Cook County, had been made 
a part of Putnam County. We are inclined to think some of the early 
writers made the mistake of including Cook County as a part of Ver- 
milion, because Vermilion was created out of Edgar, and Edgar, as we 
have seen, at one time included for governmental purposes that part of 
Cook County south of a line drawn east and west from the junction 
point of the Illinois State line with the shore line of Lake Michigan, but 
as a matter of fact that portion of Cook County became a part of Put- 
nam County before Vermilion County was created. There was no other 
legislation affecting the territory now within Cook, until the passage of 
an act of the Legislature January 15, 1831, whereby Cook County was 
created, including within its limits all of the present County of Cook, 
the northern half of Will, all of DuPage, a small part of Kane and 
McHenry, and all of Lake. By the same act Chicago was made the 
county seat. Will County was created January 12, 1836, including 
within its boundaries the present Will County and that part of Kankakee 
north of the Kankakee Eiver ; Kane and McHenry counties were created 
on January 16 of the same year, Kane County having within its 
boundaries practically all. of the present counties of Kane and DeKalb 
and the northern part of the present Kendall ; McHenry County includ- 
ing within its borders all the present County of McHenry and the present 
County of Lake. DuPage County was created out of Cook County with 
its present boundary lines on February 9, 1839. Since then the boun- 
daries of Cook County have remained as they are at present. 

The population of Cook County from the beginning of the eighteenth 
century until Illinois was organized as a State was so small that no 
courts of civil or criminal jurisdiction were required. On August 3, 
1795, Gen. Wayne signed a treaty with the Indians by which they 
granted title to six miles square of territory at the mouth of the Chicago 
Eiver to the United States. It is stated in some of the writings that at 
that point there had previously been a fort built by some French 
explorers.-'' The first person, not an Indian, who settled at this point 
was DeSaible, a San Domingan Negro, who came in 1779. He lived 
here until he sold his cabin in 1796 to one Le Mai, a French trader. In 
the summer of 1803 the United States ordered the building of Fort 
Dearborn at the mouth of the Chicago Eiver. A company of soldiers 
under Captain John Whistler, U. S. A., then stationed at IDetroit, were 
ordered to go to Chicago for that purpose. When the party arrived there 
they found three or four cabins occupied by Canadian French and their 
Indian wives ; among the inhabitants being Le Mai, Ouilmette and 
Pettell.-'' In 1804 John Kinzie bought the house of Le Mai and moved 
into it with his family. He lived there until his death in 1828, except 
the four years after the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812.^ Fort Dear- 
born was rebuilt in 1816. A few white persons came to Chicago shortly 

2 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus Historical Series, 
"b Qaife, Transactions, Illinois State Hist. Soc. 1912, p. 115. 

"c 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, p. 72. 

3 Vol. l,'€urrey's History of Chicago, 89. 



38 

after this but there was little business there of any kind except trading 
with the Indians or with the soldiers at the garrison or any practical 
settlement for farming or other business purposes until a law was passed 
for the building of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. On the south 
branch of the Chicago Eiver one Charles Lee settled at a place called 
Hard Scrabble in 1S04. In 1816 this place was used as a trading post 
and so continued until 1836. .Major Long of the United States govern- 
ment topographical engineers visiting Chicago in 1823, said "it was 
.inhabited by a miserable race of people in a few log or bark huts, dis- 
playing not the least trace of comfort and affording no inducement to 
the settler.* In 1821 one Ebenezer Childs visited Chicago, and made a 
second visit in 1827, when he wrote the place had not improved since 
1821, that only two families resided there.^ When Peoria County was 
•created it had Chicago within its governmental jurisdiction, as we have 
seen, but even then it had only a mythical existence, the name sometimes 
applying to the river and sometimes to the cluster of inhabitants on its 
sandy, marshy banks.'' The Illinois and Michigan Canal having obtained 
its magnificent grant of land from the government on August 4, 1830, 
the original plat of the town was made, lying east of the south branch 
and south of the main river.^ Previous to this time this land had been 
mostly fenced in and used by the garrison of the fort as a pasture.® At 
the time of this platting the place contained only five or six log houses 
and the population was less than 100.^ In estimating or approximating 
the population of Chicago at this time one of the writers gives the 
following: 1829, 30; 1831, 60; 1832, 600; 1833, 350; 1834, 1,800.^" 

In 1833 the village of Chicago was incorporated under a general 
act of the State. At an election held August 10, 1833, 28 voters appeared 
and the trustees elected met August 12, 1833, for their first regular 
meeting.^^ The charter incorporating Chicago as a city was passed by 
the Legislature March 4, 1837. The first city election was held May 2, 
1837. From that time dates the existence of Chicago as a city.^- 

Previous to the organization of the County of Cook, January 15, 
1831, naming Chicago as the county seat, there had been little need by 
the few inhabitants of the territory within Cook County for the settle- 
ment of their disputes by courts of justice. Indeed it may well be 
doubted whether, had there been courts, there would have been any 
business for them. The history of this pioneer community in this regard 
was similar to that of every small community first settling a new country. 
Any disputes between the inhabitants were settled by compromise, the 
advice of other settlers, or by force. As there was a United States 
garrison at this point during most of the years from the time the first 
white inhabitants arrived until the county was organized, the officers of 
the garrison exercised a restraining influence over the few inhabitants 
not connected with tlie fort. This was illustrated at Chicago when John 



< Directory of Chicago, 1839, Historical Sketch, 2 Fergus Historical Series; 1 Currey's History of 
Chicago, 131. 

'" 1 Currey's History of Chicago, 135. 

« 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 174. 

' 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 174; 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, 181; 1 Currey's History 
of Chicago, 227; Part 1, James' Charters of Chicago, 18. 

8 Annals of Chicago, Balestier, 1 Fergus Historical Series, 23. 

9 Annals of Chicago, Balestier, Fergus Historical Series, 24. 
' 1 Andreas History of Chicago, 159. 

1 1 Part 1, James' Charters of Chicago, 20. 

12 Part 1, James' Charters of Chicago, 22, 23. 



39 

Kinzie, who had been having trouble for years with a trader named 
Lalime, finally was attacked by him and as a result of 'the combat Lalime 
was killed. Kinzie, after having his wounds dressed by his wife, escaped 
to Milwaukee, where he remained until he was satisfied the officers of 
tiie garrison were convinced — as he had maintained from the first — that 
he had killed the man in self-defense. He then returned to his home in 
Chicago and nothing was done to try or punish him. During the few 
years immediately preceding the organization of Cook County the grad- 
ual increase in the number of white inhabitants gave cause for occasional 
requirements for the settlement of disputes by civil courts. More often 
there was a desire to have these civil officials perform marriage cere- 
monies, as there were no resident ministers. IJntil 1826 justics were 
appointed under the law by the Legislature on the recommendation of 
the local authorities and held office during good behavior. This law 
was changed in that year so that thereafter justices of the peace were 
elected every four years. ^'^ There seem to have been no justices of the 
peace living within the present territory of Cook County before 1821 and 
perhaps not before 1823. On June 5, 1821, the commissioners of Pike 
County (Cook County was then within that county) recommended John 
Kinzie as a suitable person to be appointed as justice of the peace ;^* 
there is no record showing that Kinzie was then appointed. In 1823, 
Cook County being set off as under the government of Fulton County, 
John Kinzie on December 2, 1833, was again recommended for the office 
of justice of the peace.^^ This date is sometimes given as February 11, 
1823, and sometimes as July 5, 1823.^" One Amherst C. Eansom, some- 
times called Eausam, was recommended for justice of the peace on June 
17, 1823, and qualified for the appointment. It is not at all certain, 
however, that he ever resided in Chicago. ^^ Some writers on that subject 
may have been misled into thinking he resided here because in June, 
1823, as assessor he levied a tax on all personal property in Chicago 
under the order of the Fulton County authorities.^^ On January 13, 
1825, one "Kinsey" was confirmed by the State Senate as justice of the 
peace for the County of Peoria, just then organized. It is generally 
supposed that this name "Kinsey" was intended for John Kinzie. John 
Kinzie, however, was. not commissioned imtil July 25, 1825. The 
authorities agree that he was the first resident justice of the peace in 
Chicago — his previous recommendations apparently had not been fol- 
lowed by appointment." Two other justices, Alexander Wolcott and 
Jean B. Beaubien, were appointed September 10, 1825, and they with 
Kinzie were the judges of election in the Chicago precinct of Peoria on 
December 7, 1825. The office of justice of the peace, as already stated, 
was made elective in 1826 and several of them were elected between that 
date and 1831. Among others, Eussell E. Heacock became justice Sep- 
tember 10, 1831. The writers state he was probably the first justice in 
Cook County before whom trials were held.-" He was also the first resi- 
le Historical Sketch of Courts of Illinois, Carter, U. 

•< 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, 152. 

I'' 1 Andreas' Historj^ of Chicago, 426, 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, ir)2. 

1^ Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus Historical Series, "lO. 

" John Wentworth's Reminiscences of Chicago, Supplement, 7 and S Fergus Historical Series, 41. 

'8 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, Supplement, 7 and S Fergus Historical Series, p. 42 

'5 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 420. 

2" 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 18. 



40 

dent lawyer in Chicago/^ unless we except the first Indian agent, Charles 
Jouett, who came here in 1805, and returned in 1816. While he was 
here he did not attempt to follow his profession, but simply acted as 
agent of the government. Later he Avas a judge in Kentucky and 
Arkansas.-- 

There seem to have been some duties for a constable to perform, as 
September 6, 1835, Archibald Clybourn, then residing at Chicago, was 
appointed constable in and for the County of Peoria.-^ There is no 
authentic record that any civil suit was tried before any of these justices 
previous to the organization of the county in 1831. Their business, if 
they had any, consisted of performing marriage ceremonies, drawing and 
acknowledging legal papers and serving as officials at various elections 
that were held. The first marriage that occurred in Chicago was per- 
formed by John Hamlin, a justice of the peace of Fulton County, on 
July 20, 1823, between Dr. Alexander Wolcott, then Indian agent here, 
and Eleanor Kinzie, daughter of John Kinzie. Justice Hamlin seems 
to have been passing through Chicago and performed the ceremony there, 
filing on September 4, 1823, the marriage certificate in Fulton County.^* 
One of the provisions of the act creating Cook County was that an elec- 
tion should be held at Chicago on the first Monday in March next for 
"one sheriff, one coroner and three county commissioners." There was 
only one voting place for this election. The first commissioners elected 
were Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval and James Walker. These men, 
under the laws then in force, formed the first county commissioners' 
court of Cook County. They organized that court and took the oath of 
office on March 8, 1831, before Justice of the Peace J. S. C. Hogan. 
William See was appointed clerk.^^ At the first session of the court, 
grand and petit jurors were selected. On April 13 of the same year a 
special term of court was held, largely for county business. The county 
. commissioners' court had jurisdiction over public roads, turnpikes, 
canals, toll bridges, and in all things concerning public revenues, county 
taxes, licensing ferries, taverns and all other licenses, but without any 
original or appellate jurisdiction in civil or criminal suits, except in 
cases where the public concerns of the county were involved and in all 
public business.-'' This court practically did all the business that is now 
done by the board of supervisors or county commissioners of counties 
and in addition did a considerable part of the work that is done now' 
by the county courts of the various counties. Commissioners were elected 
biennially at the time Cook County was organized. In March, 1837, the 
law was changed, providing that three commissioners should be elected 
at the next election, one to hold for one year, one for two years and one 
for three years, and every year thereafter an election for one commis- 
sioner to hold for three years. 

No general election was held until 1832. The first sheriff, Stephen 
Forbes, seems to have been elected in that year.^'' He taught school for 

21 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus Historical Series, 18. 
2 2 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 419-420. 

2 3 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus Historical Series, 42; 1 Andreas 
History of Chicago, 103. 

2< i Andreas' History of Chicago, 90; Chapman's History of Fulton County, 248. 

2 5 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 116. 

26 Laws of 1819, 17.5; Historical Sketch of Courts of Ulinois, 9. 

2' 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 114. 



41 

three months iu Chicago in 1830 and was selected justice of the peace 
on December 13, 1830.-^ The first coroner was John R. Clark.'^ 

By an act of February 16, 1831, it was provided that the counties 
of Cook, LaSalle, Putnam, Peoria and eleven other counties should con- 
stitute the Fifth Judicial Circuit. This circuit included all of the organ- 
ized counties then in the State north of Pike County and west and north 
of the Illinois and Kankakee rivers. The act further provided that there 
should be two terms of the circuit court held annually in each of the 
counties — in Cook County on the fourth Monday of April, and second 
Monday in September. Judge Eichard M. Young was named as the 
judge to preside in the circuit. This court had then practically the 
same general jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters as now. No 
definite information can be obtained, the records having been destroyed 
by the Chicago fire, as to the time of holding the first term of the circuit 
court. The late Governor Bross in 1853 in a historical sketch of the 
city of Chicago (p. 26) stated that the public minutes (apparently the 
minutes of the county commissioners court) provided, September 6, 
1831, that "the circuit court be held in Fort Dearborn in the brick house, 
and in the lower room of said house." The same writer states (p. 27) 
that the county commissioners authorized April 4, 1832, the sheriff ±o 
procure a room or rooms for the April term of the circuit court at the 
house of James Kinzie, "provided it can be done at a cost of not more 
than $10." At the funeral of Col. Hamilton (the first clerk of the cir- 
cuit court) in 1860, Judge Manierre stated that the first term was held 
in September, 1831. It is also stated by another authority that Judge 
Young during this year on a trip to Chicago to hold court was accom- 
panied by lawyers Mills and Strode, bringing fresh news of the Indian 
troubles which culminated in the Black Hawk War. Charlesr Ballance 
in his history of Peoria states that Judge Young made his appearance 
in Peoria in May, 1833, and announced that he was on his way to Chi- 
cago to hold court, and that on that occasion he (Ballance) attended 
court at Chicago. ^° Thomas Hoyne, who was deputy circuit clerk under 
Col. Hamilton in 1837, states in a lecture that he gave on the "Lawyer 
as a Pioneer," that the first term of the court was held in Cook County 
in September, 1833^^^ by Judge Young and that Judge Young also held 
a term in May, 1834, in an unfinished wooden building known as the 
Tremont House; that Judge Sidney Breese held a term there in the 
spring of 1835, exchanging with Judge Young, and in the fall of that 
year Judge Stephen T. Logan exchanged with Judge Young and held 
the next term there. John D. Caton, formerly a member of the Supreme 
Court of the State, came to Chicago in 1833. In his reminiscences pub- 
lished in 1893 he states that the first term held there for the trial of 
cases before a petit jury was the May term, 1834. In another place he 
states that this was the first case ever tried in Chicago in a court of 
record.^^ He believed this to be true because he remembered his case 
was number one on the docket of the circuit court of Cook County. If 
this is correct. Judge Young may have come to Chicago on any or all of 

»« Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus Historical Series, Snpp. 11. 

"9 Bross' History of Chicago, 27. 

"> 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 420. 

'I The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Hoyne, 22 and 23 Fergus Historical Series, 77. 

" 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 308; 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, 153. 



42 

the terms for the j^ears 1831, 1832 and 1833, though no regular court 
was held for the trial of cases until the spring term of 1834. Writers 
on this subject generally accept Judge Caton's statement as correct. I 
am disposed to question its aecurac3\ His statement was made after the 
records were destroyed, when Judge Caton was an old man. I have no 
doubt that he believed he was speaking the absolute truth, but it would 
seem passing strange that Judge Manierre, who made his statement when 
the records were still in existence and Attorney Hoyne, who was as 
familiar with the early records in the circuit clerk's office as any man in 
Chicago, should have made incorrect statements as to the time when 
the first term of court was held, and that all those statements should be 
published without some one calling attention to the error. On the infor- 
mation that I have been able to obtain I should hesitate to state posi- 
tively that the first term of court was held either in 1833 or 1834. I am 
inclined to think, however, that the data at hand fairly justifies the 
conclusion that a term of the circuit court was held earlier than 1834. 

Judge Thomas Ford, afterwards Governor, was circuit Judge in 
this district from January, 1835, until about the first of March, 1837. 
John Pearson succeeded him as Judge of the circuit court, and presided 
in Cook County from 1837 until he resigned in November, 1840'. Feb- 
ruary 10, 1841, the circuit Judges were all legislated out of office and 
five new Judges of the Supreme Court appointed. The Supreme Court 
was then composed of nine members, not only to hear the cases appealed 
to that court, but to try all the cases in the circuit courts in the State. 
To the circuit in which Cook County was located. Judge Theophilus W. 
Smith of the Supreme Court was assigned for circuit court work. He 
held his first term in Chicago in April, 1841. In 1843 Stephen A. 
Douglas, who was then on the Supreme bench, held circuit court at 
Chicago in July. 

The first public prosecutor in the circuit in which Cook County was 
placed was Thomas Ford, afterward circuit Judge. Later James Grant 
was prosecutor. Grant afterward moved to Iowa and served as a Judge 
of the district court of that State. 

Col. Richard J. Hamilton was not only the first clerk of the circuit 
court, but the first probate Judge. The first will placed on record was 
that of Alexander Wolcott, for years Indian agent at Chicago, filed April 
27, 1831, before Judge Hamilton. 

There was when Cook County was organized, a court of probate in 
each county. The Judge was selected by the General Assembly on Joint 
ballot, to hold his office during good behavior. That court had Jurisdic- 
tion in all matters touching the probate of wills, granting letters testa- 
mentary, and the settlement of estates. The law was amended in 1837 
so that at the first election, to be held on the first Monday of August, 
1839, and every fourth year thereafter, there should be elected an addi- 
tional Justice of the peace for each county to be styled "Probate Justice 
of the Peace;" to have the Jurisdiction in civil cases conferred by law 
upon all other justices of the peace and to be vested with all Judicial 
powers theretofore exercised by the Judges of probate. In 1845 the law 
was changed so that they were elected for two years. Col. Hamilton held 
the office of probate Judge until 1835, when he resigned. He resigned 
as clerk of the circuit court in 1841, at the time Judge Theophilus W. 



Sjuitli came Jieie to hold circuit cuiiit. Judge Smith appointed one of 
his sons-in-law, Hoiut ii. Hid)hai-d, as circuit clerk to succeed Col. 
Hamilton. ^-^ Jt may be stated in this connection that Col. Ilamilton, 
shortly after he arrived here, was appointed to fill a vacancy as clerk of 
the connty commissioners' court and held the office of school commis- 
sioner for years, and was also recorder of Cook County. Jt is apparent 
that there were then more offices than there were men com])etent to fill 
them, or at least men who desired to fill them. 

The fiist city charter of Chicago provided (section (58), that the 
mayor should liave the same jurisdiction within its limits, and be entitled 
to the same fees and emoluments as were given to justices of the peace, 
upon his conforming to the requirements of the law of the State with 
reference to that office.^"' I cannot find that any mayor of Chicago exer- 
cised the functions of justice of the peace until in March, 1849, when 
Mayor Woodworth of Chicago sent a message to the council stating that 
he would cooperate with them in liolding such court, and in pursuance 
of that idea a mayor's court was instituted and notices given to all police 
constables that violators of any city ordinance Avould be brought before 
the mayor daily at 9 :00 o'clock in his office in the north room of the 
market.^^ By section 69 of the first charter it was provided that there 
should be established in the city of Chicago a municipal court, to have 
jurisdiction concurrent with the circuit courts, in civil and criminal 
cases arising within the limits of the city, or where either the plaintiff 
or defendant resided, at the commencement of the suit, within the city. 
By a supplemental act passed July 31, 1837,^*^ it was provided that the 
judge of the municipal court of Chicago should perform all the duties 
pertaining to the office of the judge of the circuit court. This court was 
created because of the great increase in business in the circuit court in 
Cook County. Judge Thomas Ford, who had 'recently resigned as circuit 
judge, was appointed by the Legislatui'e as the first judge of this munici- 
pal court. The terms were held alternate months. 

An attem])t was made during the hard times of 1837 to prevent 
the opening of this court. Many of the obligations created during the 
speculative period — which was then about at an end — were maturing 
and the debtors were unable to meet them. The dockets were crowded 
in both the circuit and municipal courts and many thought that some- 
thing must be done to prevent the collection of these claims. Some of 
the debtors felt that no court should be held. A public meeting was 
called at the New York House — a frame building on the north side of 
Lake Street near Wells. It was held at evening in a long, low dining 
room, lighted only by tallow candles. The chair was occupied by the 
State Senator from Chicago, one Peter Pruyne. James Curtiss, nomi- 
nally a lawyer, but more of a politician, who had practically abandoned 
his profession, was one of the principal advocates of the suspension of 
the courts, as was also a judge of the Supreme Court, Theophilus W. 
Smith. On the other side were Butterfield, Ryan, Scammon, Spring, 
Ogden, Arnold and others. The opponents of the courts claimed that if 
they remained open, judgments would be entered against debtors to the 

" 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 14'). 

'* Laws of niinois, 1836-7, p. 75. 

" 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 448. 

'« Special Session, Laws of Illinois, 1837, p. 1.'). 



44 

amount of $2,000,000, or $500 to each man, woman and child in Chicago. 
Curtiss said no one was to be benefited but the lawyers by keeping the 
courts open, and that he had left that profession. Eyan, afterwards chief 
justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, a man of large frame, great 
intellect and great in debate, arose and said, pointing to Curtiss, that if 
the debtors expected that kind of a lawyer to save them they would be 
mistaken; that it had long been a question whether Curtiss had left the 
profession of the law, or the prof ession of the law had left him. Butter- 
field sharply scored Judge Smith for descending "from that lofty seat 
of a sovereign people, majestic as the law, to take a seat with an assassin 
and murderer of the law like Judge Lynch." The debate waxed fast 
and furious, but in the end the good sense of the meeting resulted in the 
resolution being laid on the table and the courts were kept open, as they 
have ever been since in this State.^' Out of the discussion over that 
question arose an agitation which resulted February 15, 1839, in the 
Legislature abolishing the court and transferring its business to the 
circuit court of Cook County. Judge Ford was shortly after commis- 
sioned as judge of the new circuit created a few days later.^^ Within a 
year after the municipal court was abolished it became evident that the 
increase of business in the circuit court required some relief. Special 
terms of that court were authorized for Cook County. February 31, 
1845, the Legislature of the State established the Cook County Court, 
the judge to be chosen and hold office the same as a circuit judge, and 
the court to have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court; the court 
to hold four terms a year; the clerk of the court to be appointed by the 
judge. Hugh T. Dickey was chosen by the Legislature as the first judge 
of this court, and James Curtiss was appointed by him as first clerk.^^ 

The first United States Court was opened in Chicago, in July, 1848. 
In the absence of Circuit Judge John McLean, the court was held by 
Judge Nathaniel Pope of the Federal District Court, with his son Will- 
iam as clerk.*" 

In March, 1845, the JoDaviess County Court was established with 
the. same jurisdiction as the Cook County Court, the Cook County judge 
being required to hold the JoDaviess County Court. The Constitution 
of 1848 provided that these two courts were to be continued until other- 
wise provided by law. The next year the JoDaviess County Court was 
abolished and the Cook County Court was changed into the Cook County 
Court of Common Pleas, which afterward became the Superior Court 
of Chicago and later the present Superior Court of Cook County. 

The first public building of which any mention is made was the 
"estray pen," erected on the southwest corner of the public square. The 
next public building was the jail, erected in the fall of 1833, "of logs 
well bolted together," on the northwest corner of the public square. It 
stood there un'il 1853.*^ Chicago has had four different court houses 
located on the public square on which stand the county building and city 
hall. This ground was conveyed by Congress in 1837 to the State of 
Illinois as a part of the canal grant. Twenty-four lots were deeded to 

3' 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 444; The Lawyer as a Pioneer, 88; 22 and 23 Fergus Historical 
Series, 88. 

'8 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 444. 
39 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 446. 
*" 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 448. 
<i Brnss' History of Chicago, 27. 



45 

Cook County January 16, 1831, to aid in the erection of public buildings. 
Of these twenty-four lots thus given, sixteen were afterwards sold to pay 
current expenses.^- The remaining eight lots (bounded by Clark, Ean- 
dolph, LaSalle and Washington streets) were retained as the public 
square." In 1835 a substantial brick court house was erected. This ap- 
pears to have been located on the northeast corner of the block facing Clark 
Street. The basement was for the office of the clerk and the first floor 
was for the court room, which would seat about 200 people.** The city 
authorities never had any office in this building. In 1850 or 1851 the 
county and city authorities agreed to build jointly a court house and 
city hall on this block. The corner stone was laid September 12, 1851. 
The building was three stories high, the main part being 100 feet square 
and the jail being in the basement. In 1853 it was ready for occupancy. 
The Court of Common Pleas first occupied the edifice in February of 
that year.*^ This building was soon found too small and another story 
was added, but this became inadequate for the growing needs of the 
count}^, and in 1870 it was extensively added to by wings on the east 
and west. This work was completed shortly before the Chicago fire.*^ 
After the fire the county and city authorities were obliged for several 
3'ears to find quarters in a temporary building hastily erected on the 
southeast corner of Adams and LaSalle, which from the rough manner 
of its construction became known as the "Eookfery.'^ In 1877 the city 
and county entered into an agreement for the construction of a building 
which was completed in 1885 and occupied as a city hall and county 
building until the present structure was commenced, the building being 
completed in 1911." 

Thus, in bare outline, I have named the various courts in Cook 
County under the Constitution of 1818 and some of the officials of those 
courts, but a history of the courts is necessarily incomplete unless it dis- 
cusses some of the cases tried and gives an account of some of the 
lawyers who practiced therein. Eussell E. Heacock, as stated, was the 
first resident lawyer in Chicago, coming in 1827.*^ Col. Hamilton had 
been admitted to the bar and evidently advised people on legal matters 
while he was acting as circuit clerk and probate judge. Isaac Harmon 
was a justice of the peace and advised occasionally on legal matters, as 
did Archibald Clybourn, who lived outside of the city. None of these 
men had at that time opened an office or tried to earn a living by law. 
Heacock followed his early trade of carpenter and Harmon worked in a 
tannery.*^ Judge Caton in his reminiscences, states that he came here 
June 19, 1833, and found Giles Spring had preceded him by a few days. 
Caton and Spring therefore seem to have been the first men that located 
here and opened offices to practice law. Between that time and the date 
when Thomas Hoyne came in 1837, several lawyers had located in Chi- 
cago who became prominent not only in the courts but in other ways in 
the later history of the city. He states that at that time there were 

<2 Prospects of Chicago, Brown, 9 Fergus Historical Series, 16. 

<3 3 Currev's History of Chicago, 302. 

**3 Currey's History of Chicago, 302; Bross' History of Chicago, 119. 

<s 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 180. 

" 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 302-303. 

" 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 303. 

<8 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 107. 

** Caton's Early Bench and Bar of Hlinois, 2. 



46 

twenty-seven persons engaged in the practice of law in Cook County.^". 
Among this number were Judge Caton, Giles Spring, James Grant, 
Ebenezer Peck, Grant Goodrich, J. Young Scammon, Mark Skinner, 
Isaac N. Arnold, Alonzo Huntington, Hugh T. Dickey, Joseph N. 
Balestier, James H. Collins, A. N. FulJerton, Buckner S. Morris, Henry 
Moore, Edward W. Casey and Justin Butterfield. 

Judge Caton had studied law with James H. Collins in Xew York 
State. Collins came the next year after Caton and located on a farm 
in what is now Kendall County. Judge Caton persuaded him to come 
to Chicago and the two entered into partnership, under the firm name of 
Collins & Caton. Later Collins became a partner of Butterfield. He 
was chief counsel for Owen Lovejoy when the latter was being tried in 
Bureau County for assisting rilnaway slaves to escape. This trial was 
held before Judge Caton, then on the Supreme Court, but holding circuit 
court, and resulted in the acquittal of Lovejoy. Collins was a man of 
great perseverance and' resolution, and a hard worker, a strong lawyer, 
but without great brilliancy. 

Isaac N. Arnold came to Chicago in 1836. He was the first city 
clerk after the incorporation of the city.^^ He was a great personal 
friend of Abraham Lincoln. He was elected in 1860 as a member of 
Congress and served until 1864. He wrote a history of Lincoln, which 
is held in high esteem. He tried many important cases; among others, 
while a young lawyer in Chicago, was one to test the constitutionality of 
the "stay law," so called, which he claimed was a step toward repudiation. 
The law provided that no land should be sold under a mortgage before 
being appraised, and unless it should bring at least two-thirds of such 
appraisal. He filed a bill in the courts in 1841 to foreclose a mortgage 
praying for the sale to the highest bidder regardless of the redemption 
and"^ State laws. The United States Supreme Court upheld his conten- 
tion and enforced a strict foreclosure.^- Another case involving the 
land laws was heard in the State courts^^ (Brainerd v. Canal Trustees), 
in which he and Senator Douglas Avere counsel. This is one of the few 
cases that Douglas argued before the Supreme Court of Illinois, after 
he resigned his membership in that court to become a member of Con- 
gress. Hugh T. Dickey, as already stated, was the first judge of the 
Cook County Court, being appointed in 1845. He resigned in 1848 on- 
his election' as a circuit judge under the new Constitution. He was 
succeeded by Giles Spring as judge of the Cook County Court. Judge 
Dickey resigned as circuit judge in 1853 and was succeeded by Buckner 
S. Morris. Morris had been mayor and alderman of Chicago before he 
was a circuit judge. In 1860 he was a candidate for Governor of Illinois 
on the Bell-Everett ticket. Grant Goodrich was a leading lawyer in 
Chicago from the time he came until the time of his death, and served 
for a time on the bench. Lincoln's biographers state that Goodrich in 
the 50's offered Lincoln a partnership if he would come to Chicago, but 
Lincoln declined because he was afraid the climate would not agree with 
him.^* Ebenezer Peck came to Chicago in 1835 and soon took a very 
active part in public affairs. In 1849 he was chosen as reporter of the 

6« The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Hoyne, 22 and 23 Fergus Historical Series, 84. 
^1 1 Andreas' History of Cliicago, 435. 
52 Bronson v. Kinzie, 1 How. (U. S.) 311. 
5 3 Brainerd v. Canal Trustees, 12 111., 448. 
5 < Lincoln the Lawyer, Hill, 161. 



Supreme Court to succeed Giluuin and held tluit position until 1863, 
when he resigned on heing appointed hy Lincoln one of the judges of the 
Court of Claims of the District of Columbia. Among the most remark- 
able lawyers in the early history of the Chicago courts was Justin Butter- 
field. Arnold and others of his associates state that he was the best trial 
lawyer of his day in the city, if not in the State. He served as United 
States prosecuting attorney for the District of Illinois from 1841 to 
1844. He was appointed commissioner of the General Land Office by 
President Taylor, a position which Lincoln was also then seeking. It is 
said that Butterfield was appointed because of the warm personal friend- 
ship of Daniel Webster. Perhaps no other lawyer in the history of 
the State has had so many anecdotes told of him. illustrating his power 
of sarcasm and repartee. He was a very forceful speaker, but not always 
a persuasive one before juries. 

Samuel Lyle Smith came to Chicago in 1838 and made his head- 
(piarters in the office of Butterfield & Collins. In 1839 he was chosen 
city attorney. The lawyers of that day speak of him as one of the most 
eloquent men ever at the Chicago bar. In 1847, at the Eiver and Harbor 
Convention in Chicago, he especially distinguished himself as an orator. 
Henry Clay is said to have stated that he was the greatest orator he ever 
heard. ^^ He died in 1854 when a little past 40, during the cholera 
epidemic. James H. Collins and several other lawyers were among the 
many who passed away at the same time by this dread disease. 

Thomas Hoyne, the father of Thomas M. Hoyne, one of the oldest 
practicing lawyers now in Chicago, and grandfather of the present State's 
attorney of Cook County, came to this city in 1837, studying law after 
his arrival. He was elected city clerk of Chicago in 1840, and elected 
probate justice of the peace in 1*845, holding the latter position until the 
court was abolished by the Constitution of 1848. When the first Univer- 
sity of Chicago was established, he was elected one of the hoard of trus- 
tees. He was connected with the law schools of Chicago practically 
from the time the first one was started as teacher or trustee. In 1876 
he was elected mayor of Chicago, but served only a few months, as 
there was a dispute about whether the election was properly held and a 
special election was called.^*' He was considered one of the greatest 
ornaments of the bar of Chicago. Edward G. Eyan was for several years 
a practicing lawyer in Chicago, and also edited a newspaper. He after- 
ward moved to Wisconsin and became one of the great chief justices of 
the Supreme Court of that state. Time will not permit a further dis- 
cussion of the members of the bar of that period. 

I have already referred to the first term of court held in the circuit 
court of Cook County. Before taking up and discussing any of the trials 
in courts of record, it is proper to refer briefly to the first criminal case 
of which we have any account, tried within the limits of Chicago. This 
was prosecuted by Judge Caton shortly after his arrival, the complaint 
being sworn out before Justice Heacock. The charge was that of robbing 
from one Hatch thirty-four dollars in eastern currency while stopping 
at the tavern. On a change of venue to Justice Harmon on the north 
side, the case was prosecuted by Caton and defended by Giles Spring and 

*' 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, •132. 
6 6 2 Andreas' History of Chicago, 464. 



48 

Col. Hamilton, and the man held to the circuit court for trial. He was 
let out on bail and disappeared, so the case was never further prosecuted. 
Judge Caton, in his reminiscences, says this was the first case entered 
of record in the circuit court, and also that he had the first civil case, 
an attachment proceeding filed in the circuit court. This last mentioned 
is the case he claims was the first jury case tried in Cook County. 

The first divorse suit was started at the May term, 1834, in the 
circuit court of Cook Count}', which was then being held in an unfinished 
loft of the old Mansion House, just north of where the old Tremont 
Building stood." The first murder trial was at the fall term in 1834, in 
an unfinished store 20 x 40 on Dearborn, between Lake and Water 
streets. Judge Young presided. A laborer in a drunken fit went home 
in the month of June that year, and finding something wrong in his 
domestic affairs — apparently his supper not ready — manifested his dis- 
satisfaction by beating his wife. The physicians testified she died from 
the effects of the beating and the coroner's jury held him to answer for 
the murder and he was indicted for that crime. He was prosecuted by 
the district attorney, Thomas Ford, and defended by James H. Collins, 
Judge Caton's partner, and acquitted.^® 

So far as I am able to ascertain, the second murder trial in Cook 
County was in 1840, that of John Stone for the killing of Mrs. Lucretia 
Thompson. The evidence against him was purely circumstantial. Stone 
was indicted for murder and on the trial convicted and sentenced to be 
hanged.^'' The case was taken to the Supreme Court of the State on a 
writ of error and the judgment affirmed.^" He was accordingly executed 
on July 10, 1840, the place of execution being about three miles south 
of the court house in Chicago, not far from the lake shore. 

This case was tried before Judge John Pearson. One of the jurors 
was John Wentworth, Avho at that time and for years afterward was 
the editor of The Democrat, a paper published in Chicago. A rival 
newspaper, The Chicago Daily American, charged that Wentworth was 
writing editorials in the jury room while the case was being conducted. 
The case was tried at the April term, 1 840. Contempt proceedings were 
instituted at the May term, 1840, before Judge Pearson and a rule 
entered against the editor, William Stuart, of The American, to show 
cause why he should not be punished for contempt of court. After a 
hearing the court adjudged Stuart guilty and fined him $100 and costs. 
The case was taken by Stuart's attorneys, Justin Butterfield and Isaac 
N. Arnold, to the Supreme Court and re versed. ^^ The opinion in the 
Supreme Court was written by Judge Breese, holding that while the 
court had the power to punish for contempt under such circumstances 
if the communications had a tendency to obstruct the administration of 
justice, the writings in question had no such tendency. The opinion said, 
among other things : "An honest, independent and intelligent court will 
win its way to public confidence, in spite of newspaper paragraphs, how- 
ever pointed may be their wit or satire, and its dignity will suffer less 
by passing them by unnoticed, than by arraigning the perpetrators, and 

5' 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 421; Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 and 8 Fergus 
Historical Series, 33. 

''1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 421; Caton's Early Bench and Bar of Hlinois, 41. 
5^1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 152, 445. 
6" stone V. People, 2 Scam., 326. 
6' Stuart V. People, 3 Scam., 395. 



49 

trying them in a summary way. . . . Eespect to courts cannot be 
compelled; it is the voluntary tribute of the public to worth, virtue and 
intelligence, and whilst they are found upon the judgment seat, so long, 
and no longer, will they retain the public confidence. ... In restrict- 
ing the power to punish for contempts to the cases specified, more 
benefits will result than by enlarging it. It is at best an arbitrary power, 
and should only be exercised on the preservative, and not on the vin- 
dictive principle. It is not a jewel of the court, to be admired and 
prized, but a rod rather, and most potent when rarely used." Stephen 
A. Douglas dissented and Judge Caton, not having heard the argument, 
took no part in the decision. 1 am disposed to agree with the sentiments 
expressed and the conclusion reached by the opinion. 

Judge Pearson had considerable difficulty in Chicago while serving 
as circuit judge. The majority of the lawyers, without regard to politics, 
were opposed to his appointment. The new circuit, the Seventh, was 
created February 4, 1837, including the counties of Cook, Will, McHenry, 
Kane, LaSalleand Iroquois.*^^ Judge Pearson then resided at Danville, 
outside of this judicial circuit. The lawyers thought he was incompetent 
for the position, not only in learning, but in other judicial qualities. 
His appointment from the first was very unpopular with the Chicago 
bar. Most of the lawyers in Chicago were Whigs, while Judge Pearson 
belonged to the Democratic party, and the lawyers charged that this 
new circuit was created for his appointment, in the same manner that 
in England sometimes younger children were provided for in a new 
colony. In 1838 writs of mandamus were issued by the Supreme Court 
in two different cases requiring certain action by him in the trial of 
those cases."^ At the May special term in 1839 in the circuit court at 
Chicago, the case of Bristol v. Phillips was tried before him. Bristol^s 
lawyer was J. Young Scammon, while Isaac N. Arnold was on the other 
side. A dispute arose over the signing of the bill of exceptions by the 
judge, who refused to sign the one Scammon thought should be signed. 
At the July term, 1839, of the Supreme Court, Scammon as attorney 
for Bristol, moved for a writ of mandamus against Pearson to require 
• him to sign a bill of exceptions which had been tendered him. The 
court allowed the petition to be filed and issued an alternative writ. 
Scammon, the attorney in the case, attempted to hand the writ to Judge 
Pearson while in court, but he, fearing that Scammon would thus serve 
the writ, refused to recognize him when he arose to make motions, claim- 
ing to be engaged in other matters at the time. Scammon had previously 
been fined for contempt in another matter by Pearson. Scammon, 
therefore, when he found the court would not recognize him, put 
the bill of exceptions and writ to be served on Pearson in Justin 
Butterfield's hands. It was in the afternoon, just before the closing of 
the term of court, with practically all of the members of the bar present. 
Mr. Butterrfield arose and said he had received a communication from 
Col. Strode who had been called out of town in relation to business of 
the court, requesting him to present a motion in the case of People v. 
Hudson for the trial or discharge of Hudson at this term of court. The 
judge directed the clerk to file the paper and motion, which was done. 

•' Laws of niinois, 1836-37, 113. 

•' People ex rel Teal v. Pearson, 1 Scam, 458; People ex rel Brown v. Pearson, 1 Scam., 473. 
— 4 H S 



50 

Tlien Mr. Butterfield handed up the papers given him by Scammon, 
saying it was a bill of exceptions in a case tried at a former term. The 
court said that he had not signed the bill of exceptions. Mr. Butterfield 
replied that he knew that was true, but, handing him another paper, 
said, "Here is a writ of mandamus from the Supreme Court, directing 
you to sign it." The court said, "What's that, sir?" Mr. Butterfield 
repeated his statement. The court, then, holding the paper towards 
Butterfield, said, "Take it away, sir." Butterfield said, "I cannot take 
it away, sir, it is directed to your honor, I will leave it with you. 1 
have discharged my duty in serving it upon you and cannot take it back." 
The court then told the clerk to enter a fine of $20 against Butterfield 
and threw the papers, bill of exceptions and writ of mandamus, on the 
floor over the railing in front of the desk between the bench and the 
l)ar. The court then said, "What do you mean, sir?" Butterfield said, 
"I mean to proceed by attachment if you don't obey it!" The court 
then commanded, "Sit down, sir; sit down, sir," and ordered the clerk 
to proceed with the reading of the record. The judge afterward asked 
the clerk if he had entered the order for the fine of $20, and when the 
clerk told him he had, asked him to read it to him, and then told him 
to enter as a part of the order, "for an interruption." Mr. Butterfield 
objected to the change in the order, saying that the fine was not for an 
interruption. A somewhat complete history of this matter is found in 
the Illinois Supreme Court report of the case (People v. Pearson"), 
and also in an address of the Hon. Thomas tloA'ne, "The Lawyer as a 
Pioneer.""" Mr. Hoyne states that when the court adjourned and the 
judge left the bench, Mr. Butterfield stepped up to him and said, "Sir, 
you have now disgraced that bench long enough; sit down, sir, and let 
me beg you to attend a meeting of this bar instauter in which we are 
about to try your case, and rid ourselves and the people, once for all, of 
your incompetency and ignorance." The judge left, but the members of 
the bar prepared papers and that winter presented them before the House 
of Representatives at Springfield asking for articles of impeachment. 
The house, Avhich was composed largely of the political friends of Judge 
Pearson, refused to order impeachment proceedings. They charged that 
the attack was a political prosecution gotten up by the old Federals 
and Whigs, but Mr. Hoyne, who himself was a Democrat, states that 
Edward G. Eyan, a lifelong Democrat, who was then running a Chicago 
paper called the Tribune, and who afterwards — as has been stated — 
became a chief justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, was one of 
Pearson's strongest opponents and critics, and that the charges against 
Pearson were not based on political differences. The case was heard late 
in 1839. In 1840 a motion was made in the Supreme Court for an 
attachment against the defendant for contempt in disobeying the writ 
of mandamus. The motion was allowed and the attachment issued. On 
a hearing before the court, at which Judge Pearson was represented, the 
jurisdiction of the court to punish was questioned for several reasons, 
among others, that Judge Pearson was no longer judge of the court. 
Under the advice of his friends, after the Supreme Court ordered him 
to sign the bill of exceptions, he had resigned as judge and had been 

"2 Scam., 189. 

^5 The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Hovne, 23 and 23 Fergus Historical Series, 90; 1 .\ndreas' History of 
Chicago, 444. 



51 

elected as State senator for the clistnCl coinijrisiiig Cook, Will, DuPage 
and MeHenry counties. It appears that altci- his appointment as circuit 
judge, he had moved from his home in Danvilk' to Jolict, Will County, 
and lived there while he was circuit judge aud when he was elected as 
senator. The Supreme Court, after a full hearing, decided it had juris- 
diction and fined liim $100 and costs of the proceeding."'' Stephen A. 
Douglas was one of the Supreme Court judges at the time this fine was 
entered. He took no part in the decision because before his appointment 
as judge he had been counsel for Judge Pearson in the first case. The 
court was otherwise unanimous, except that Judge Breese wrote a sepa- 
rate concurring opinion in which he stated that possibly Judge Pearson's 
actions were based on the ground of misapprehension of his rights and 
duties as judge of the court. It also appears on a supplemental motion 
filed in this case by J. Young Scammon, that when the writ of attach- 
ment was issued. Judge Pearson could not be found in Springfield, and 
that he was pursued and overtaken and placed under arrest in Clay 
County, and brought back to Springfield. The court on this supple- 
mental motion allowed the costs of this arrest to be charged against 
Pearson. This was at the December term, 1841. At the December 
term, 1843, counsel for Pearson made a motion for rehearing but this 
was denied.''^ It may also be noted that in the original case of Bristol 
v. Phillips the Supreme Court on motion for the attorney for Bristol 
after Judge Pearson had resigned, ordered the bill of exceptions that he 
had refused to sign, to be filed in the original case and taken to be true, 
the same as if it had been signed by the judge."^ This case was never 
decided in the Supreme Court. It appears by stipulation filed in the 
clerk's office of that court July 8, 184S, that the case was settled by the 
parties, the judgment being reversed, each party paying his own costs. 
It may be interesting to note that this lawsuit was brought by Phillips 
against Bristol — the latter being captain of the steamboat James Madi- 
son — to recover for the loss of two trunks. That steamboat ran in 1838 
between Detroit and Chicago. The wife and son of Phillips took passage 
on the boat at Detroit for Chicago. The claim was made that they took 
two trunks on the boat with them at Detroit and the trunks could not 
1)6 found afterward. Phillips recovered this judgment against Bristol 
for the value of the trunks and contents. I do not think that Judge 
Pearson was dishonest or corrupt in his actions in this regard, but 
rather a man of strong passions, a warm friend and an uncompromising 
enemy. He was not broad-minded and was very impatient of criticism. 
He died at Danville, Illinois, in 1875. 

While we cannot tell with certainty when the first case was tried in 
the circuit court of Cook County, the records of the Supreme Court show 
that the first ease that was brought up by appeal or error from the Cook 
County courts to the Supreme Court was Webb v. Sturtevant at the 
December term, 1835, of that court.**'^ This case was tried at the May 
term, 1835, of the Cook Circuit Court by Judge Sidney Breese. The 
lawyers were B. S. Morris and James Grant for appellant and Giles 
Spring and Ebenezer Peck for appellee. The opinion was written by 

'* People ex rel v. Pearson, 3 Scam., 270. 
" People V. Pearson, 3 Scam., 400. 
«8 Bristol V. Phillips, 3 Scam., 280. 
"1 Scam.,lSl. 



52 

Justice Lockwood. It was a dispute as to the possession of certain real 
estate to which both parties laid claim. The next case from the county 
was at the same term of the Supreme Court/" (Lovett v. JSToble.) This 
case was also tried before Judge Sidney Breese in the circuit court. The 
lawyers for appellant were Judge Caton and Stephen A. Douglas and for 
appellee Ebenezer Peck and Giles Spring. The first people's case coming 
from Cook County reviewed by the Supreme Court was heard at the 
December term, 1836, of that court^^ (Baldwin v. People). Judge 
Caton represented the plaintifE in error and James Grant the people. 
Baldwin was charged with stealing a horse, and the proof showed it was 
a mare. The court held that the proof that the defendant had stolen a 
mare or gelding would sustain an indictment for stealing a horse and 
that the indictment charging that the horse was stolen and carried away 
would be sustained by proof that it was ridden, driven or led away. That 
seems to be a sensible decision, but to those who talk about technicalities 
(as the layman understands that term) controlling a case in the courts 
of review, it will be found that the Supreme Court of that time now 
and then reversed cases for reasons that laymen now would say were 
purely technical. As an example, the third criminal case reviewed by 
the Supreme Court of the State from Cook County" (Bell v. People) 
was on an indictment found in the municipal court of Chicago. The 
indictment purported to be found "by a grand jury chosen, selected and 
sworn in and for the City of Chicago and County of Cook." The court 
held that the municipal court could only have an indictment returned 
by grand jurors chosen within the City of Chicago, and that this indict- 
ment on its face showed that the jurors might have come from Cook 
County outside of Chicago; that the indictment alone must be taken for 
evidence of that fact, and that such an indictment on its face was bad, 
whereupon the court reversed the case. As the City of Chicago was 
within the County of Cook and the indictment could fairly be construed 
as meaning that the grand jurors were chosen and selected from the City 
of Chicago, within the County of Cook, I think the indictment might 
well have been sustained. 

In the first Scammon Eeport of Supreme Court decisions are found 
twenty-nine cases brought up from Cook County for review by writ of 
error or appeal. Of the twenty-nine, eighteen were reversed, ten were 
affirmed, and one was partially affirmed and partially reversed. The 
critics of today who are of the opinion that all or most cases ought to be 
affirmed would here find data justifying an argument that the courts of 
that day were reversing cases unnecessarily. Let me say in passing that 
I do not agree with the argument that most cases are improperly reversed 
by courts of review. If no cases ought to be reversed, there would be 
no necessity of having courts of revicAv. While courts of review should 
give weight to the real facts rather than to joleading; to the substance 
rather than the shadow; to substantial justice rather than to form, if 
justice is to be fairly and properly administered in this or any other 
state, it is frequently necessary for courts of review to reverse some cases. 

T> 1 Scam., 185. 
" 1 Scam., 303. 
"1 Scam., 397. 



53 

The first case appealed from the Municipal Court of Chicago for 
review" is Peyton & Allen v. Tappan. This case was heard before 
Judge Ford on the municipal bench. lu the two cases immediately 
preceding this one, found in the same volume of Supreme Court Reports, 
it is curious to note that in one appealed from McLean County and in 
the other from Cook Count}', Judge Ford took part. In the Cook County 
case he sat as judge of the circuit court when the summons was issued. 
In the case from McLean he was one of the lawyers. Evidently Judge 
Ford was a very busy man. 

In May, 1835, Gen. John B. Beaubien went to the general land 
office and purchased for $94.61 the entire Fort Dearborn reservation. 
He had derived his military title of general from the fact that the State 
at that time was divided into military districts, the people electing a 
general in each district. He had lived upon the reservation for many 
years, and a law had been found which satisfied the land office that he 
could make the purchase. There was great excitement over this pur- 
chase. The newspapers published articles and the people discussed it at 
length. Some asked if he bought the fort or the land, and what were 
the officers to do? -Some of the people congratulated him on having a 
fort of his own, and others asked if there would not be a confiict between 
the United States troops and the State militia. General Beaubien him- 
self was in command of the militia. Nothing serious, however, occurred. 
A case was agreed upon for the courts and submitted in 1836 to Judge 
Ford in the circuit court of Cook County. Judge Ford decided against 
Beaubien's claim. On appeal to the Supreme Court of the State, that 
court reversed the circuit court, upholding Beaubien.'^* The case was 
then taken to the United States Supreme Court, which reversed the 
decision of the Supreme Court of the State, effectually wiping out every 
pretense of a right to the land as claimed by Beaubien. ^^ Beaubien was 
glad to call at the United States land office and receive his money back 
without interest. This, however, did not end the agitation over the 
reservation. During the previous years, while the litigation was pending, 
the secretary of war authorized the solicitor of the general land office 
to come to Chicago and sell the land in the reservation. It was surveyed 
and platted as the Fort Dearborn Addition to Chicago and contained 
about fifty-three and one-fourth acres. All of this was sold by the 
government except what was needed for the occupancy of the public 
buildings. Beaubien had lived for years on some of the lots in this 
subdivision. He had many friends and there was a general public 
demand that when these lots were sold no one should bid against him; 
he was expected to buy his homestead for a nominal sum. Attorney 
James H. Collins was opposed to this plan to give the lots to Beaubien. 
He put in a sealed bid for the Beaubien homestead and it was struck 
off to Collins. His action aroused great excitement. His life was 
threatened and he was burned in effigy.'^" 

Many other interesting trials and other matters could be referred 
to and much more could be said of the courts and the lawvers connected 



'M Scam., 387. 

'< McConnell v. Wilcox, 1 Scam., .344. 
" Wilcox V. .Tackson, 38 U. S., 4. 

'« Address on Ft. Dearborn, Wentworth, IG Fergus Historical Series, 40, 41; Kirkland & Moses' 
History of Chicago, 191. 



54 

with the early histoiy of Chicago. One cannot read the history of these 
men and their times without feeling that in the judicial forum -as in 
other walks of life "there were giants in those da3's." There were Davis, 
Trumbull, Stephen T. Logan, Baker, Breese, Palmer, Douglas, Lincoln, 
and in Chicago, Butterfield, Arnold, Eyan, Goodrich, Spring, Hoyne and 
many others of great ability, who gave their best efforts to the enforce- 
ment of the law, so that every person, whatever his condition, might 
obtain justice in the courts. 

I can appreciate how Arnold felt, when on a visit to England, he 
met in Westminster Hall Eev. Edward Porter, then a minister of Chi- 
cago, and when they were talking over the great trials that had been 
held there. Dr. Porter said, "This is the grandest forum of the world. 
And yet I have seen justice administered on the prairies of Illinois, 
without pomp or high ceremonial, everything simple to rudeness, yet 
justice has been administered before judges as pure, aided by lawyers 
as eloquent, if not as learned, as any who ever plead or gave judgment 
in Westminster Hall.''" I believe that the same may be truly said of 
the courts and lawyers today in Illinois. If they are faithful to the 
traditions of their great predecessors, justice will be as fairly adminis- 
tered by judges as honest and pure, aided by lawyers as learned and 
eloquent as were those in the early history of the State, or even in West- 
minster "in the great Hall of William Rufus." 

" Recollections of the Early Chicago and Illinois Bar, Arnold, 22 Fergus Historical Series, II. 

Note— The original records have been examined in Pike, Fulton, Peoria and Putnam counties as 
to the facts stated herein as shown by the respective records of said counties. I am indebted for this 
examination in Pike County to Judge Harry Higbee, in Fulton County to Hon. B. M. Chiperfleld.in 
Peoria Countv to Gerald H. Page,attorney-at-law, and in Putnam County to Judge John M. McNabb. 




^JoiMi^JliU^y^^ 



55 



THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF SHELBY M. CULLOM. 



(B}' Henry A. Converse, of the Sangamon County Bar, Springfield.) 

The year 1830 ushered in an era of great industrial activity in the 
United States. On November 2 of that year the first American railroad 
train made a trial trip from Schenectady to Albany, in the State of 
Now York, a distance of seventeen miles. This diminutive and experi- 
mental forerunner of modern methods of transportation was hauled by 
a mere P3'gmy of a locomotive bearing the dignified and somewhat high 
sounding name, "Dewitt Clinton," having been named in honor of ail 
early distinguished Governor of the Empire State. Within the space 
of half a century, the inventive and financial genius of our people had 
so developed the steam locomotive and the railway that by leaps and 
bounds railway mileage was increased to thousands and our nation, 
throughout its length and breadth, was indissolubly bound together bv 
the great shining artificial channels of commerce, the American railway 
systems. It was the development of rapid transportation by means of 
the railroads that did more than any other agency in making our nation 
commercially one. It was the railroad that opened up and settled the 
prairie and forest. Ovei- these highways were transported from the 
sea coast to the interior, all those blessings and comforts that go to 
make for the prosperity and well-being of a civilized and educated people. 

The nation, the states and the smaller subdivisions of government 
all vied one with another in aiding and encouraging the building of 
railroads. Rights of way, vast tracts of land, and large sums of money 
were donated to the railroad buildei*. The credit of states and counties 
was pledged to promote this industry and vast issues of bonds were voted 
to carry on the good work. 

At last the inevitable happened. The railroad systems when they 
had waxed fat and powerful, from the lavish generosity of the people, 
ceased to be disinterested benefactors and became benevolent monarchs 
and finally giew arrogant and tyrannical. 

The people suddenly realized that they were entangled in the meshes 
of a vast network so interwoven that it could contract and strangle whole 
communities, that in order to further their own selfish ends the heads of 
the great railway systems could arbitrarily foster or destroy whole indus- 
tries, and that favored individuals and localities could get such special 
privileges that competitors would be forced out of business. The vast 
business of the railroads was interstate, and under our National Consti- 
tution the individual states could not cope with this commercial monster. 
The question was momentous. To solve this great problem so that both 
the people and the I'ailroads would get their rights without a financial 
upheaval called for statesmanship of the highest order. The time was 
ripe for a man, wise, discreet and foresighted, one who was courageous 



56 

enough to undertake a battle along the only line that could surely solve 
this troublesome question, the regulation of railroads engaged in inter- 
state commerce. 

In the year 1830, the same year that the "Dewitt Clinton" so bravely 
pulled the first American railway train, a man child, less than one year 
old, was brought by his parents from Wayne County, Kentucky, to Taze- 
well County, Illinois. This babe was named Shelby, after Governor 
Shelby, an early and distinguished Governor of the state of Kentucky. 
This babe grew to manhood, nourished and hardened by the clean, 
frugal, open air life of the Illinois prairie. 

After half a century of industry and training, at the bar and in 
public life, in that most interesting period of our State's history, we 
find him a matured and trained lawyer, a successful politician, honored 
by his State as its Chief Executive. As Governor we find him studying 
and solving the question of railroad regulation. We see him step from 
the Governor's office into the United States Senate. At once he brings 
to that distinguished body his experience in railway legislation, and, 
within four years after entering the United States Senate, he writes 
upon our National Statute books the most constructive and progressive 
economic act ever passed by our National Legislature, "The Act to 
Eegulate Interstate Commerce," commonly known as the "Cullom Act." 
The passage of this act of Congress is generally looked upon as the 
crowning piece of w-ork in the career of Shelby M. Cullom. It will be 
in connection with this great law that his name will go down in history. 
The act was constructive because it curbed a great industrial evil without 
injury to the rights of property. It created an eminent tribunal which 
felt its way so carefully and administered its duties so wisely that Con- 
gress gradually added to its powers until finally the great interstate 
railway systems have been brought to the realization that they are public 
servants and not commercial masters. The act was progressive because 
it was the first real act of Congress exercising the power to regulate 
commerce among the States, a power that had lain dormant for practi- 
cally one hundred years. It blazed the way for the passage of numerous 
acts based upon the National power to regulate commerce among the 
states, until this power is recognized as the seat of most of the authority 
in Congress to legislate for our commercial and industrial welfare. The 
free exercise of this power has made us one people, commercially, and 
has completely laid the very ghost of State's Eights. 

The subject of this sketch, Shelby M. Cullom, has been presented 
thus far, by a portrayal of the accomplished act of a matured man. The 
purpose in thus presenting the subject is, that we may have clearly in 
mind a full realization that this noble son of Illinois, who has but a few 
days since passed to the great beyond, this man whom many considered 
behind the times, one of the old guard, a practical politician of the old 
school, a time serving office holder, possibly lacking in initiative, was 
in fact a great public spirited soul, who patiently, ploddingly and cour- 
ageously, almost single handed, attacked in its stronghold one of our 
most strongly entrenched special interests, made that special interest 
amenable to the law and emancipated a people who were on the verge of 
industrial slavery. Having thus given our subject a stage setting, as it 
were, let us examine further into the acts and doings of our fellow 



57 

citizen, and we will find that in private life, at the bar, in the legislative 
halls, in the executive chair, he moved steadily forward, ever at work, 
always accomplishing something worth while, clean in public and private 
life, honored and respected by his fellow man, by his public servic^ a 
public benefactor. 

Shelby Moore Cullom was born in Wayne County, Kentucky, Novem- 
ber 23, 1829. He died at Washington, D. C, January 28, 1914. He 
was the seventh child resulting from the marriage of Richard Northcroft 
Cullom to Elizabeth CofEey. The elder Cullom moved his family to 
Tazewell County, Illinois, in 1830. 

Shelby M. Cullom received such a common school education as the 
limited facilities of a rural community then afforded. As the result of 
teaching school for two terms and farming for himself he succeeded in 
securing enough funds to take a two-year course at Mount Morris Semi- 
nary. It was here that he met and formed a lifelong attachment for 
the distinguished Illinoisan, Robert R. Hitt. 

Young Cullom by reason of his clean, open air life was vigorous and 
strong although tall and spare. In traveling from Tazewell County to 
Mount Morris he underwent such an exposure and strain that he seri- 
ously impaired his health and from that day to his death he had a 
veritable thorn in the flesh. The trip from Peru to Dixon was by stage 
coach. A terrific snow storm came up and the driver could not follow 
the road. Young Cullom went ahead of the horses to lead the way. In 
the struggle through the blinding storm he overtaxed his heart, the over- 
exertion causing what is known as a leaky heart, an affliction which 
during his long life frequently subjected him to fainting spells, greatly 
to his embarrassment. For many years prior to his death, while he was 
actively engaged in public life, or in the stress of a political struggle^ 
his close friends were in constant alarm lest one of these fainting spells 
would carry him off. 

After completing his education young Cullom determined to follow 
his ambition to practice law and came to Springfield, the State Capital. 
He sought permission to read law in the office of Abraham Lincoln, but 
Mr. Lincoln at that time was absent from his office so much, riding the 
circuit, that he advised young Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & 
Edwards, which he accordingly did in the year 1853. In 1855 Mr. 
Cullom was admitted to the bar and shortly after his admission was 
elected to the office of city attorney of Springfield. He was soon busily 
engaged in the local courts prosecuting violations of the local ordinances. 
The majority of his cases grew out of the illegal sale of intoxicating 
liquors, a decidedly disagreeable class of practice, but a wonderfully 
fertile field for the study of all phases of human characters. 

His first partnership was with Antram Campbell, but this business 
relation was of short duration. In 1861 he formed a partnership with 
Milton Hay, one of Illinois' most distinguished lawyers. The firm of 
Hay & Cullom continued until 1867, and during its existence it enjoyed 
a lucrative and extensive practice in the State and Federal courts. The 
mere fact that young Cullom was taken in as the junior member of this 
firm, by ]\Iilton Hay, is all the proof that is necessary to establish the 
fact that Cullom had talent, energy and integrity. Milton Hay knew 
men and he would not tolerate for a moment 



58 

dullard. Mr. Hay could choose where he pleased and he demanded and 
drew to him men worth while. Mr. Cullom next formed a partnership 
with Charles S. Zane, who was elected Circuit Judge shortly hefore Mr. 
Cullom became Governor. In 1883 Judge Zane was appointed Chief 
Jikstice of the Territory of Utah, Senator Cullom securing his appoint- 
ment, where he made an enviable record as a fearless and just judge. 

As a lawyer Mr. Cullom was energetic, painstaking and devoted to 
his client. He was not an orator in the ordinary sense of the term. He 
did not seek to sway the court or jury by high-sounding phases, but 
preferred rather to know his subject from every angle and then present 
it with the power of conviction. He was a forceful and convincing' 
speaker, simple and pleasing in expression, appealing always to the heart 
and the head, but never to the prejudices. He outlived by many years 
his friends and associates at the Sangamon County Bar. 

A partial list of those eminent men with wliom he associated 
includes the following sons of Illinois : 

Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, Stephen T. Logan, John 
T. Stuart, Benjamin S. Edwards, John M. Palmer, David Davis, 0. H. 
Browning, Edward D. Baker, Milton Hay, William H. Herndon, Richard 
Yates. James C. Conkling, Henry S. Green, and John A. McClernand. 

To have the esteem and friendship of such a galaxy of legal stars 
is proof conclusive that Shelby M. Cullom ranked high at the central 
Illinois bar. Some of those great men were Cullom's political backers 
in the early days, some of them were for him from city attorney to 
United States Senator. Some of them were his political opponents and 
some were defeated by him at the polls. 

The legal education and experience of Senator Cullom were of great 
assistance to him in later years, in executing the great public trusts that 
were imposed upon him. His intimate association with Milton Hay, 
John T. Stuart and Benjamin S. Edwards taught him to be discreet and 
cautious, to weigh well his words and acts. From these men he learned 
the value of sound and matured judgment. It was characteristic of Mr. 
Cullom, that while he always reserved the privilege of making up his 
own mind, he was ever ready to accept and profit by the advice of those 
whom he recognized as men of discretion and sound judgment. He was 
never swayed by the opinion of the mere lip talker. 

It is remarkable that Mr. Cullom gained any particular recognition 
at the bar, because of his early and active interest in politics. The law 
is a jealous mistress and political activities soon compelled Mr. Cullom 
to give up active practice of the law. It was but natural that one pos- 
sessed of such a bent for politics should so readily take up this most 
alluring science.' In the early da3^s the law was the most convenient 
stepping stone to political preferment. 

When Mr. Cullom was admitted to the bar, in 1855, a great new 
political party was just coming into existence. The wliole country was 
smouldering, about to blaze up with the fires of civil war. Great con- 
stitutional questions were being discussed by the judges and laymen. All 
eyes were turned toward Illinois. In the United States Senate we had 
Stephen A. Douglas, the Little Giant, the champion of States Eights. 
Young Cullom was not thirty years of age when our whole nation was 
stirred to its very soul by the debates between Lincoln and Douglas. No 



59 

wonder that the vouiig eitv tittoniey. Fresh rioiii his \ ietorv at tln' polls, 
so soon utter his admission to the bar, shouhl (hish iido the i)()litieal 
arena. 

In his book, "Fifty Years of Public Service," Senator Cunom speaks 
of his entry into politics as follows : 

"Ilavijig been inducted into the otlice of City Attorney 1 was fairly 
launched upon a political career, exceeding in length of unbroken service 
that of any other public man in the country's history. In fact, I never 
accepted but two executive appointments, the first was an unsought 
appointment by Abraham Lincoln, after he had become the central 
figure of his time, if not all time, and second, an appointment from 
President McKinley as chairman of the Hawaiian Commission." 

Possibly Shelby M. Cullom may have inherited a taste for politics. 
His father, Eichard N. Cullom, represented Tazewell County in the 
State Legislature four terms, as a member of the House of Representa- 
tives in the Tenth General Assembly, convened at Vandalia, as a mem- 
ber of the Senate in the Twelfth and Thirteenth General Assemblies 
and as. a member of the House of Representatives in the Eighteenth 
General Assembly, the last three terms being served at Springfield, the 
new State Capital. The elder Cullom had but scarcely left the legisla- 
tive halls ere the younger Cullom appeared as Representative from 
Sangamon County, in the Twentieth General Assembly, having been 
elected in the fall of 1856 by a local coalition of the American and 
Republican parties. This same year he was a candidate as a Fillmore 
elector, but was defeated. He was again elected to the Twenty-second 
General Assembly in 1860 as a Republican, the same year that Mr. 
Lincoln was first elected to the Presidenc}', receiving a larger popular 
vote in Sangamon County than did Mr. Lincoln. In the Twent3'-second 
General Assembly young Cullom was signally honored by election as 
speaker of the House, a great honor for a young lawyer but thirty-one 
years of age. 

It was while acting as Speaker, on April 25, 1861, he introduced 
to the General Assembly, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, who appeared to 
make his famous address in which he urged all his friends to set aside 
party prejudice and come to the rescue of Mr. Lincoln and preserve the 
Union. This was one of the great events in Illinois lii story and Senator 
Cullom always delighted in telling of the wonderful magic of Senator 
Douglas's oratory. As an adherent of President Lincoln, ^Fr. Cullom 
was none too friendly to Senatoi- Douglas, but when he heard that great 
patriotic address, all antagonism to the Little Giant of D'emocracy was 
swept away forever. 

After the session of 1861 Mr. Cullom was a candidate for delegate 
to the State Constitutional Convention but was defeated. Tie again 
suffered defeat in 1862 as a candidate for State Senator. These two 
defeats, together with his defeat at the primaries for renomination for 
United States Senator in 1912, were the only defeats he ever suffered 
at the polls, the early defeat as a Fillmor elector not being a ])ersona1 
defeat. The defeat in 1862, however, was anticipated and Mr. Cullom 
purposely courted defeat to accomplish a rather shrewd i)olitieal coup. 

Having been elected to the Legislature at the same election when 
Mr. Lincoln was chosen President, he desired to 1)(' a nicnilifr of Con- 



60 

gress during the presidency of Mr. Lincoln. The congressional districts 
were reapportioned as a result of the census of 1860, and Mr. Cullom 
as speaker so brought it about that Sangamon County was placed in a 
Eepublican Congressional District, and declared himself a candidate for 
Congress as a Eepublican for the election to be held in 1862. At the 
earnest solicitation of Mr. Leonard Swett, however, whom he greatly 
admired, he jdelded the nomination to Mr. Swett, who was defeated. 
To keep himself in touch with the voters Mr. Cullom ran for the State 
Senate, although the four counties comprising the Senatorial District 
were strongly Democratic. By thus keeping himself in line he was able 
to secure the nomination and was elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress 
in 1864. He was reelected to Congress from this the Eighth Con- 
gressional District in 1866 and again in 1868. Thus he brought about 
his election to Congress while Mr. Lincoln was President by creating for 
himself a Congressional district, so Gerrymandered as to give his party 
sufficient strength to elect its candidate. 

It is most interesting to observe that in 1864 Mr. Cuflom defeated 
for Congress John T. Stuart, and in 1868 he defeated Benjamin S. 
Edwards, both opponents being his law preceptors when he entered the 
law office of Stuart and Edwards as a student in 1855. 

Before Mr. Cullom went to Congress he was appointed by President 
Lincoln in 1862 on a commission with Governor George S. Boutwell 
and Hon. Charles A. Dana to go to Cairo and settle claims against the 
Government for property purchased by commissary officers and quarter- 
masters in the volunteer service. Judge Stephen T. Logan had orig- 
inally been appointed on this commission but could not serve and Mr. 
Cullom was appointed as his successor. It was a distinct honor to young 
Cullom to be appointed to serve with such distinguished gentlemen, and 
it was a great compliment to one so young, to be selected by the Presi- 
dent to succeed so able a man as Judge Logan. 

In Congress Mr. Cullom became intimately associated with James 
G. Blaine, Roscoe Conkling, General John A. Logan, E. B. Washburn, 
Thaddeus Stevens, James E. Garfield, William B. Allison, S. S. Cox, 
and many other famous men. Here he formed a great attachment for 
William B. Allison, a firm friendship that continued all through the 
long senatorial career of Mr. Allison as United States Senator from 
Iowa. 

Allison and Cullom were the campaign managers for Mr. Blaine 
when he was elected Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives in the 
Forty-first Congress, and it was generally thought that Mr. Blaine would 
give Mr. Cullom considerable recognition in the matter of committee 
assignments. In this respect Mr. Cullom and his friends were doomed 
to considerable disappointment. Mr. Allison fared but little better. 

The attempt of Mr. Cullom to serve a fourth consecutive term in 
Congress was a failure, as he was defeated for the nomination by Col. 
Jonathan Merriam. Mr. Merriam, however, was defeated by Col. James 
C. Eobinson, the Democratic candidate. Sangamon County continued 
to be in a Democratic district from that time until Major James A. 
Connolly was elected as a Eepublican in 1894. The result was that 
Mr. Cullom was the only Eepublican who could successfully carry 



61 

the Congressional district which he so carefully laid out as his own 
preserves. 

After being retired from Congress Mr. Cullom decided to give up 
politics and enter the business world. Shortly afterwards he became 
president of the State National Bank at Springfield, Illinois. At this 
time there was launched a spirited movement to remove the State Capital 
from Springfield. To combat this movement Sangamon County wanted 
able men. Accordingly Mr. Cullom was prevailed upon to be a candi- 
date for the Legislature. He was elected and had for colleagues from 
this district, his old law partner, Milton Hay, and Hon. Alfred Orendorff, 
a rising young Democrat. 

It was with the greatest difficulty that Mr. Hay was induced to 
become a candidate or stay in the race. This was the first campaign 
in which the voters could cast three votes for a candidate, the system 
that is known as plumping. Mr. Hay continually complained that Cul- 
lom was such a smooth hand at politics that he would get so many 
plumps that he. Ha}', would get badly left. Mr. Hay practically with- 
drew as a candidate on numerous occasions until finally Governor Eichard 
J. Oglesby, who was a candidate for United States Senator, made such 
a personal appeal that Mr. Hay consented that his friends might go 
ahead with the campaign. When Mr. Cullom saw how fearful Mr. Hay 
was that too many plumps would be cast for him, Cullom, he put forth 
every effort to get a square deal for his old law partner, and when the 
votes were counted they were scarcely fifty votes apart. 

Mr. Cullom was promptly elected Speaker of the House, and it goes 
without saying that the State Capital was not removed. This was in the 
Twenty-eighth General Assembly, 1872-1874. Mr. Cullom was again 
elected to the Legislature in 1874, serving in the Twenty-ninth General 
Assembly. At this session of the Legislature he was the caucus candi- 
date of his party for Speaker of the House, but the independents held 
the balance of power and by forming a combination with the Democrats 
elected Elijah M. Haines, Speaker. This was the most notoriously 
do-nothing session of the Legislature in the history of Illinois. Mr. 
Cullom was offered the election as Speaker if he would form a combina- 
tion with the Independents, but he spurned the offer. 

Having reentered politics Mr. Cullom decided to be a candidate 
for Governor. He was nominated as the Eepublican candidate in 1876 
after a stubborn contest. It was during this campaign that an attempt 
was made to connect him with the notorious "Whiskey Ring" scandals, 
but although every effort was made to involve him and besmirch his 
reputation, he came through the ordeal unscathed and was elected as 
Governor. 

Governor John L. Beveridge, who succeeded Governor Oglesby 
when he was elevated to the United States Senate, was the opponent of 
Mr. Cullom for the Republican nomination. Considerable alleged evi- 
dence was dug up to show that Mr. Cullom had been connected with 
and profited from the notorious "Whiskey Ring" which had operated at 
Pekin, Illinois, and defrauded the United States Government out of 
large sums. Mr. Beveridge and his friends made continual threats to 
expose him but he went serenely on his way and the proof never mate- 
rialized. After Mr. Cullom was nominated certain affidavits were made 



62 

by persons claiming to have positive proof of iiis connection Avitli the 
"Whiskey King." These affidavits were placed in the hands of Mr. 
Charles B. Farwell, of Chicago, who laid them before Mr. John W. Bunn, 
who was then chairman of the Republican State Central Committee, and 
demanded that Mr. Cnllom withdraw as a candidate. Mr. Bunn called 
the State Central Committee together and notified Mr. Cullom to appear 
before it. Mr. Cullom appeared and when he learned why he was called, 
it is said that he was almost majestic in his wrath. He denounced his 
traducers and challenged them to produce their proof. He was so 
aroused and pugnacious that his warmest friends were fairly astounded 
at his conduct. The charges were immediately dropped and never again 
put in their appearance, although Mr. Cullom continued in public life 
for full thirty years. In the election Mr. Cullom had for an opponent, 
Lewis Steward, who had the nomination on both the Democratic and 
Greenback tickets. The fight was stubbornly fought and it was nearly a 
week after the election before the final returns showed the election of 
Mr. Cullom. He defeated Mr. Steward by less than seven thousand 
votes. 

In 1880 he was reelected Governor, being the first Governor to 
succeed himself. At this election he defeated Lyman Trumbull, who had 
been United States Senator from Illinois when Mr. Cullom was a 
Congressman. 

In 1883 the term of David Davis as United States Senator expired 
and Governor Cullom was elected to succeed him. Governor Richard 
J. Ogleshy and General Thomas J. Henderson were candidates against 
Mr. Cullom, but he easily controlled the Republican caucus. The only 
serious question was as to whether or not as Governor he was eligible 
to election to the United States Senate. The preparation of the argu- 
ments to show that Governor Cullom was eligible to this office was 
entrusted to two young men, William J. Calhoun and J Otis Huniphrey. 
The right to the office was established to the satisfaction of the Legisla- 
ture and the decision thus gained by these two young men has ever since 
been recognized as the law by the United States Senate in similar cases. 

Senator Cullom succeeded himself as United States Senator in 
1889, 1895, 1901, 1907, serving in all, thirty years. Dniring all this 
■period his colleagues from Illinois were all one termers, that is to say, 
no one of them was able to succeed himself. 

In 1889 Mr. Cullom succeeded himself without opposition. In 
1894 it seemed that he would surely be retired, as the Democratic party 
appeared certain to control the Legislature. Fortunately 'for Senator 
Cullom, the Republicans controlled the State Legislature and he was 
again returned to the Senate, defeating George E. Adams and George 
R. Davis, both of whom became candidates after it was discovered that 
the Republicans controlled the Legislature. The reelection in 1901 
was secured only after a most spirited contest. The campaign lasted 
for practically two years. As opponents Senator Cullom had Governor 
John R. Tanner, who had just served as Governor of the State, Hon. 
Robert R. Hitt, Hon. Joseph G. Cannon, and Hon. George W. Prince. 
This was his last great fight under the old system. The struggle was 
to control the delegates to the State convention, and to nominate and 
elect friendlv members of the Legislature. The friends of Senator Cul- 



63 

loin controlled the State convention and it endorsed him for reelection, 
hut failed to nominate Walter Eeeves, the Cullora candidate for Gov- 
ernoi'. But the endorsement did not settle the contest. It went on with 
renewed vigor until the meeting of the Legislature. When the l^egishi- 
ture convened, the question was still in douht and it was not until enough 
memhers of the Legislature had signed an agreement to vote for Mr. 
C'uUom that his election was finally brought about. 

This campaign divided the Kepublican party in Illinois into the 
State and Federal crowds and caused so many contests in the various 
conventions and caucuses that it was one of the principal causes that 
biought" about the adoption of the State-wide primary law. The contest 
of. 1900 and 1901 was bitterly contested to the last ditch because the 
in-incipal opponent of Senator Cullom was the late John E. Tanner, who 
liad behind him a solid State organization, built while he was Governor, 
and further, because for many years Governor Tanner had been an 
ardent supporter of Senator Cullom and in previous campaigns had been 
his campaign manager. 

The new alignment of Cullom forces in this campaign brought 
jirominently to the front as active managers, Hon. J 0. Humphrey and 
Hon. S. H. Bethea, both of whom, afterwards, were appointed as district 
judges on the Federal Bench. The great probabilities are that Senator 
Cullom would have retired from the field and yielded to Governor Tan- 
ner, but for the insistence of his managers and friends. The Senator 
did not relish the struggle with Governor Tailner because he appreciated 
his power as an organizer and knew that he Avas an adroit and fearless 
antagonist. In previous years he had had Tanner for his right hand 
man, now he had to marshal his forces for a veritable death struggle^ at 
least so it turned out to be for Governor Tanner, who did not long- 
survive his defeat. 

In 1906 Senator Cullom was compelled to ]nake an entirely new 
kind of a battle. He was compelled to go before the Eepublicans of 
Illinois in an open primary, seeking the preferential vote of his party. 
This was the first vote of the kind in Illinois. In 1905 the Illinois 
Legislature passed a primary law providing for an advisory vote on 
United States Senator. The primary election was to be held in the 
spring of 1906. The term of Senator Cullom expired on ]\Iarch 3, 1907. 
It was necessary to start his campaign practically two years before the 
time for his election by the Legislature. It had been intimated in some 
f|uarters that Senator Cullom won the primary election easily. Such an 
impression is unfair both to the friends of Senator Cullom and Governor 
Yates, who was his opponent. Senator Cullom probably never fully 
appreciated the magnitude of this campaign. He had as an opponent a 
magnetic popular young man, one who had just made a creditable show- 
ing as Governor and who was one of the best campaigners in the State. 
The friends of Governor Yates were numerous and devoted. On the 
other hand Senator Cullom was past seventy-six years of age, had not 
l)een before the people at large for twenty-six years, was in poor health 
and the general belief was that he would not live out his term if electerl. 
"Many thought that he had been honored enough and that it was time to 
select a young and coming man. To many. Governor Yates was an 
ideal successor. Further, Governor Yates had the support of the State 



64 

organization, a united and powerful body of men who had served under 
him while he was Governor. In the Eepublican State convention of 
1904 it was Mr. Yates who had brought about the nomination of Gov- 
ernor Deneen. Governor Deneen permitted the friends of Mr. Yates 
to remain in office and gave Mr. Yates his friendly cooperation. Mr. 
Yates made his campaign against Senator Cullom on the grounds of 
Federal interference in State afEairs. The friends of Senator Cullo^n 
very neatly turned the tables on Mr. Yates by replying that Mr. Yates 
was espousing the doctrine of States Eights, that he had forsaken the 
true doctrines of the Eepublican Party and had gone back to an old 
Democratic doctrine, antedating the Civil War. Of course, this was 
nothing but campaign talk, but it put Mr. Yates at once on the defensive 
and it subjected him to no little embarrassment to be continually called 
upon to prove his loyalty to the Federal Government. He conducted 
a whirlwind campaign, speaking in every county, attracting as usual 
good crowds and receiving most favorable press comments. Again Sena- 
tor Cullom was fortunate in his campaign managers. Down State his 
principal lieutenants were former Lieutenant Governor William A. 
JSTorthcott, Charles P. Hitch, John C. Ames, Corbus Gardner, and 
Colonel Frank L. Smith. In Chicago he relied principally upon Mayor 
Fred A. Busse and Senator D. A. Campbell. The plan of campaign, 
however, that really won the day was laid out and engineered by Mr. 
Northcott, who, as a popular organizer and vote getter, had few, if any, 
equals in this State. The primary law provided for a form of petition 
for the candidate. A Cullom petition was circulated in every township 
and city ward in the State. When completed this petition contained 
practically 130,000 names, the greatest petition ever filed in this State. 
The circulating of this petition required the organizing of a good sized 
army and aroused enthusiasm all over the State. Then an executive 
committee of five was organized in each county, and in turn an execu- 
tive committee of five in each ward and township. When completed this 
constituted an organization of practically 20,000 active Eepublieans. 
By means of these committeemen, names and addresses were secured 
until the Cullom mailing list comprised about 150,000 names. A 
literary bureau was organized that kept all these Eepublieans supplied 
with up-to-date literature and press items. While Governor Yates was 
making great headway with his fiery speeches, Senator Cullom was mak- 
ing quiet but certain progress through his ever-strengthening organiza- 
tion. The primary election was to have been held on the last Saturday 
in April, 1906, and everything was keyed up for action when the Supreme 
Court declared the primary law unconstitutional. 

The Legislature was called together, and on May 23, 1906, a new 
law was passed, in force July 1, following. By this new law the primary 
election was fixed for August 4. The suspense while the new law was 
being passed was fearful, and it was only by heroic efforts that the 
Cullom organization was not going again. At the primary Senator 
Cullom received 158,732 votes and Governor Yates, 113,171. This 
popular vote was so decisive that Governor Yates promptly and honor- 
ably withdrew as a candidate, when the Legislature convened, and 
Senator Cullom was reelected for the fifth and last time. This popular 
endorsement was a great tribute to one who had been so long in public 



65 

office and was no discredit to Governor Yates, but Governor Yates would 
have handily won if Senator Cullom had not, as usual, had lieutenants 
on the ground who could fight in his behalf the right kind of a fight 
at the right time. In this primary fight Senator Cullom was supported 
and returned to office by the sons and grandsons of those who had been 
his loyal supporters in previous generations. In this connection it is 
worth noting that when the joint assembly met to elect Senator Cullom 
for the fifth and last time, he was placed in nomination by Hon. Logan 
Hay, Senator from Sangamon County, son of Milton Hay, the old 
law partner and counselor of the Senator, and grandson of Stephen T. 
Logan, the acknowledged leader of the Illinois bar when Mr. Cullom 
commenced the practice of the law. 

It was while Senator Cullom was serving his last form in the Senate 
that he was called upon to face the gTcatest crisis of his career, the cast- 
ing of his vote in the contest that was waged against his colleague 
Senator William Lorimer of Chicago. No attempt will be made in this 
memorial to explain away or apologize for the vote of Senator Cullom, 
but rather a conscientious effort will be made to give the situation as it 
was, and then state his views as nearly as they can be gathered from his 
conduct and what he told his friends. 

When Senator Cullom entered upon his last term he had for a 
colleague Hon. Albert J. Hopkins whose term expired March 3, 1909. 
Senator Hopkins had been a candidate in the Eepublican primary having 
as opponents William E. Mason and Greorge Edmond Foss. Senator 
Hopkins received the plurality party vote and it was supposed that the 
joint session of the Legislature would elect him, as it had in the previous 
election of Senator Cullom. When the Legislature met, Mr. Foss and 
Mr. Mason continued to be candidates, and many members of the Legis- 
lature, contending that they should follow the preferential vote in their 
respective districts and not that of the State at l-arge, refused to vote 
for Mr. Hopkins and a deadlock ensued lasting from January, 1909, until 
May following. From March 3, to May 26th the seat of Senator Hopkins 
was vacant and Senator Cullom was the sole Senator from Illinois. On 
May 26th, fifty-five Bepublicans and fifty-three Democrats suddenly voted 
for William Lorimer, who had not previously been a candidate, and Mr. 
Lorimer was declared elected to succeed Senator Hopkins and forthwith 
took his seat in the United States Senate. 

Nearly a year later on April 30, 1910, the Chicago Tribune pub- 
lished a confession of one Charles A. White to the effect that he and 
several other Democrats, members of the Illinois Legislature had l)een 
bribed to vote for Senator Lorimer. A resolution to investigate the 
election of Senator Lorimer was introduced in the United States Senate," 
and the committee on elections and privileges conducted extensive hear- 
ings for several months. The Chicago Tribune kept thundering away 
demanding that Mr. Lorimer's seat be declared vacant because of cor- 
ruption at his election. The case became notorious and resulted in a 
terrific exposure of political conditions and practices in Illinois. Several 
other members of the Legislature confessed to having been bribed and 
testified against their colleagues only to be denounced and repudiated by 
their fellow legislators and part of the press. Finally the Senate com- 
— 5 H S 



66 

mittee on elections reported to sustain Mr. Lurimer, The case was 
debated in the Senate from January 22 to February 28, 1911, and on 
March 1 by a vote of 46 to 40 the Senate permitted Mr. Lorimer to 
retain his seat. During all this turmoil Senator Cullom had refused to 
indicate how he would vote, but when the question finally came to a vote 
he voted for Mr. Lorimer. He gave as the ostensible reason for his vote 
that the evidence did not satisfy him that Mr. Lorimer had any jjersonal 
knowledge that his election was corrupt, and further that the committee 
on elections having seen and heard the witnesses and having reported in 
favor of Mr. Lorimer, he felt it his duty to give his colleague the benefit 
of the doubt and follow the recommendations of the committete. By 
thus voting. Senator Cullom lost thousands of his friends, as he knew 
he would, but the people of this State were charitable and his conduct 
was quietly accepted without questioning his motive and integrity. 

Now let us endeavor to analyze the situation as it appeared to 
Senator Cullom. 

At the time he was called upon to cast his vote he was past eighty- 
one years of age. For months he had been importuned by his friends to 
vote both for and against Mr. Lorimer. Most of his old friends and 
colleagues in the Senate, whose judgment he most highly prized were 
friendly to Mr. Lorimer. Some of the men in the Senate who were most 
vigorously denouncing Mr. Lorimer were of the class that he was wont 
to regard as flamboyant and unmindful of the prerogatives and dignity 
of the Senate. To fall in line with these was most distasteful to him. He 
was loath to vote contrary to the findings of the committee on elections, 
because in his day, in the Senate, the report of a committee was of the 
greatest weight and not to be turned down except for the gravest reasons. 
The Senate was largely controlled by its committees, and to this system 
Senator Cullom had for years yielded steadfast allegiance. He had 
risen to his position of influence by committee appointment and service, 
and when his party controlled the machinery of the Senate, he con- 
sidered a committee report almost controlling. The thunderings of the 
Chicago Tribune and its followers fairly disgusted him. He had long 
since rebelled at the modern method of so-called newspaper muckraking, 
and was fearful that the powerful metropolitan press was becoming a 
dictator and instead of molding public sentiment by a fearless and im- 
partial publishing of the news of the day, was becoming so powerful that 
it could combine and astracize public officials who would not yield to the 
dictations of the press. If he voted against Mr. Lorimer he considered 
that it would be a public confession on his part that his State Legislature 
was corrupt, thereby casting suspicion upon many of his old friends and 
supporters. He was too old to grasp the changed conditions. He had 
heretofore dealt with men as individuals and not in masses. He thought 
that the popular wave against Mr. Lorimer would soon die out. He 
believed that the public had a short memory and would forget but that 
the organization of Mr. Lorimer had a long memory and would never 
forget. He could not bring himself to accept the testimony of self 
confessed bribe takers and affidavit makers. He could not erase from 
his memory the recollection of the men who had made affidavits and 
offered evidence against him in the days of the old "Whiskey Eing" 
scandals. If he voted against Mr. Lorimer he believed that it would be 



67 

claimed that lie was dictated to' by the press, that he would appear weak 
and subservient and that he would be charged with trying to ride a 
popular wave for his personal advancement. He knew that the popular 
thing to do was to vote against Mr. Lorimer. He questioned the sincerity 
of the attack on Lorimer and thought that if he were unseated, it would 
simply strengthen the opponents of Mr. Lorimer, who in turn would 
advance themselves without the least consideration for him, Cullom, so he 
contented himself with saying, that as a judge the evidence did not con- 
vince him of the personal giiilt of Mr. Lorimer and he would follow the 
recommendations of the committee on elections. At last we find the 
man, who for sixty years had read the sentiments of the people of the 
State of Illinois as an open book, failing to grasp the new conditions, 
unable to keep step with the new order of the day. 

The vote seating Mr. Lorimer did not settle the question. The 
people did not and would not forget. Alleged new evidence was dis- 
covered and on June 1, 1911, the United States Senate reopened the 
investigation, the new evidence was heard and the hearings continued 
^for another year. Finally on July 13, 1912, the question was again 
brought to a vote, in the senate and by a vote of 55 to 28 Mr. Lorimer 
was unseated. This time Senator Cullom voted against Mr: Lorimer, 
giving as his reason that the new evidence produced had changed his 
views. 

While the Lorimer investigation was at its height, the term of 
Senator Cullom was fast drawing to a close. If he was to be a candidate 
again he must submit his name to the primary in the spring of 1912. He 
decided to be a candidate again and his friends once more rallied to his 
cause. He had as opponents Hon. Lawrence Y. Sherman, former 
Lieutenant Governor, and Hon. Hugh S. Magill, a young man of pro- 
gressive tendencies, who had made a fine clean record as State Senator. 

At the primaries on April 9, 1912, Mr. Sherman defeated Senator 
Cullom by about 60,000 votes and Senator Cullom in turn defeated Mr. 
Magill by about 40,000 votes. Senator Cullom accepted his defeat grace- 
fully. It was in the following July that he cast his vote against Mr. 
Lorimer. After his defeat Senator Cullom stated that he had entered 
the race reluctantly and only after the urgent solicitation of his friends. 
Just why he made the race again for a six year term when he was on 
the verge of being eighty-three years of age can not be stated to an abso- 
lute certainty. No doubt many of his friends did urge him to run 
again, but the truth probably is that he thought his old organization could 
again carry the day and he could not give up an ambition which had 
become almost an obsession, to die in the harness as United States 
Senator from the State of Illinois. Many of his friends realized the 
futility of this last race and on several occasions some of them went to 
Washington for the purpose of advising him not to make the race and 
to throw his influence to some strong young man, one of his followers, 
but whenever they undertook to broach the subject the Senator in his 
inimitable way would deftly turn the conversation and no one could ever 
be found who could successfully face the aged statesman and deliver an 
ultimatum. During the entire campaign the Senator continually com- 
plained against being dragged into the fight at his advanced age. but 
his friends bravely went ahead with the campaign knowing all the time 



that they were doing as he wished. Both Mr. Sherman and Mr. Magill 
made state-wide speaking campaigns, while Senator Cullom remained at 
Washington, and it is to the everlasting credit of both of these gentle- 
men that during the entire campaign neither one of them said an unkind 
or harsh thing against the aged man. 

In the fall election of 1912 the Eepublican State and National 
tickets were defeated so that Mr. Cullom, who did not retire until March 
3, 1913, remained in office some months after the Eepublican State 
officers were retired. The Republicans did not control the General 
Assembly so Mr. Sherman did not succeed Senator Cullom, but after an 
extended deadlock Mr. Sherman Avas elected to fill out the imexpired 
term of Mr. Lorimer and Hon. James Hamilton Lewis was elected for 
the full term of six 5^ears to succeed Senator Cullom. x\fter serving 
thirty years consecutively as United States Senator from Illinois, Mr. 
Cullom was finally succeeded by a Democrat. 

In addition to keeping his own fences in good repair. Senator Cullom 
and his followers were always in line for the Eepublican ticket, and no 
campaign was waged in Illinois during the last half century in which 
Senator Cullom did not have a distinct part. He always attended the 
party conventions and his lieutenants were alwaj^s prominent in the 
councils of the party. In 1872 Mr. Cullom was chairman of the Illinois 
delegation to the National Eepublican convention and had the honor of 
placing in nomination for the Presidency General U. S. Grant. Again 
in 1884, 1892, 1904, and 1908, he was a delegate and chairman of the 
Illinois delegations to the Eepublican national conventions. Thus is 
detailed the principal political activities of Shelby M. Cullom. 

For length of service and variety of honors achieved, his political 
record has no equal in the history of our country. 

His political successes were contemporaneous with the successes of 
his party, nay even more, he frequently enjoyed the fruits of victory 
when his party was in the throes of defeat. 

His espousal of the Eepublican party at its inception was accom- 
panied by election to office. He continued to share in all the triumphs 
of his party and did not succumb until his great party had received its 
most crushing defeat, when its forces were divided by the creation of a 
new party. He came on the scene at the birth of a new party. He left 
the stage at the birth of a new party. 

In fullness of years he spanned more than two-thirds of the life of 
our nation. He knew intimately every President from Lincoln to Wil- 
son, one-half of all our Presidents. For more than half a century he 
knew personally every man who reached any prominence in. the councils 
of our nation. 

He was a practical politician. He knew the value of patronage and 
secured appointments for men who counted. He was loyal to his friends 
and his friends reciprocated by delivering full measure in his behalf. He 
played the game according to the rules. No doubt he did many things 
which were most distasteful to him, many things which he preferred not 
to do, but he had put his hand to the plow and was determined to plow 
a straight furrow to the end. His political life was one continual battle. 
He stood ever ready to fight his enemies and was compelled to be ever 
on o-uard a"-ainst faithless friends. He saw New England States select 



69 

worthy Senators and then return them terra after term, without a strug- 
gle, until by length of service they reached positions of influence and 
power. No such honor was accorded to hini. No matter what honors 
he achieved, no matter what great laws he got upon our Statute books, 
he came from a western state and must ever stand ready to fight for his 
election. While he was at his post of duty his opponents were always 
busy out in the State undermining him and continually seeking to com- 
pass his defeat. His early political training was secured in the school 
founded by Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was the master politician of our 
Eepublic. Cullom knew, as did Lincoln, that to do things for the State 
and the nation, it was necessary, first, to get and then to hold the office. 
To get and to hold public office, one must get votes. To get votes one 
must be a politician and a practical one at that. Our form of govern- 
ment is republican. The citizen at the ballot box is the sovereign. Under 
our system of government the public office holder and public servant 
must first secure the consent of the sovereign people at the polls. Shelby 
M. Cullom ofl^ered himself repeatedly and the people as repeatedly gave 
him the necessary votes. If he would be a statesman he must first be a 
politician. This he knew and this he freely acknowledged. 

Although poor in this world's goods he forged steadily ahead, ever 
ascending, always respected, clean in personal and public life, the acme 
of political success and perfection. Not only was he content to remain 
a man of limited means, but so constituted was he, that the many 
opportunities that came to him to acquire wealth did not tempt him in 
the least nor for an instant absorb his time or attention to the detriment 
of his public service. 

To read the long list of his political successes naturally gives rise 
to the question as to whether or not he stood for things that were for 
the real and lasting benefit of the people, or to hold office did he shift 
with each changing popular whim ? Was he a politician simply to be a 
timeserving officeholder, or did he, after he got the office, use it to give 
the people real service, service that would make our country better in 
the years to come, service that would make our people freer and happier ? 
Will he be known to history as America's most unique and successful 
politician, or will he go down in history as a real statesman ? 

Let us take a brief survey of the things he accomplished, and pos- 
sibly we may find the answer in the things done rather than in the 
words spoken. 

In his first elective office, that of city attorney of Springfield, he so 
favorably impressed such men as Mr. Lincoln, Judge Logan and others 
that they gave him their support for the Legislature. He so conducted 
himself as a member of the Legislature during his first term, that 
although scarcely thirty years of age he was selected Speaker of the 
House, for his second term, in 1861. Mr. Cullom himself is authority 
for the statement that he made more friends in the conduct of the office 
of Speaker than were ever made by him subsequently in any office or 
service. His conduct as Speaker of the House gave him such standing 
that he was sent to Congress for three successive terms. In these cam- 
paigns many of his most ardent supporters were men who were opposed 
to him politically but who supported him because of their faith in him. 



70 

He served in Congress during the days of reconstruction, days that 
were fraught with the greatest peril to our reunited nation. He sup- 
ported the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Constitution. 
He witnessed the struggle between Congress and President Johnson with 
fearful forebodings. Together with Judge Orth of Indiana, he went in 
person to plead with the President to conciliate Congress and avoid the 
dangers of impeachment, but found the President obdurate and self- 
willed. He saw the crisis approaching and counseled earnestly with his 
friends, Senator Lyman Trumbull, James G. Blaine, and others, and 
upon their advice finally decided to vote for the impeachment of Presi- 
dent Johnson. Imagine his surprise when Senator Trumbull denounced 
the impeachment proceedings in the Senate ' and voted to sustain the 
President. 

In the Forty-first Congress Mr. Blaine cavalierly gave Mr. CuUom 
the choice of the chairmanship of the committee on claims or terri- 
tories. He chose the committee on territories and while serving in this 
capacity he introduced and secured the passage of a bill in the House 
providing stringent measures for the suppression of polygamy. He was 
so intent on stamping out this great evil that subsequently he secured 
from President Arthur the appointment of his old law partner, Charles 
Zane, as Chief Justice of Utah; and it was the fearless and masterly 
way in which Judge Zane handled the situation that did so much to 
destroy the "twin relic of Barbarism." Thus Mr. Cullom in his prac- 
tical way accomplished his desire by sending directly to the seat of the 
difficulty a man, ready, willing and able to enforce the law as it was 
written. 

After retiring from Congress tbis lawyer-politician became presi- 
dent of the State National Bank in Springfield. This was certainly a 
distinct recognition of his integrity and standing with the business 
interests of his home city. 

Soon we find him again in the Legislature and Speaker of the 
House. It was while serving in the State Legislature after returning 
from Congress that Mr. Cullom seemed to get a new inspiration to serve 
his State and Nation in a bigger and broader way. Illinois had adopted 
a new Constitution in 1870 and it was while Mr. Cullom was Speaker in 
1873 and 1874 that a complete revision of the State laws was undertaken, 
resulting in the publishing of the "Eevised Statutes of the State of 
Illinois, A. D. 1874." The early 70's witnessed the so-called "Granger 
Legislation" and the construction of State laws for the control of rail- 
road transportation. Illinois at that time was in the forefront in rail- 
road mileage, and naturally the wave of popular sentiment demanding 
State controland regulatioi^ swept over this State. In 1871 our Legis- 
lature passed a law on the subject of railroad regulation but it was 
rather ineffective. 

Speaker Cullom saw the great possibilities in the wise solution of 
this great question and seized the opportunity to make this the ambition 
of his life. He appointed a select committee of the Legislature to draft 
amendments to the law. In the work of this committee he took the most 
intense interest. The committee reported a bill which was passed and 
became the Illinois law on the subject of railroad and warehouses, an 
advanced and highly meritorious law, a law that remained practically 



71 

unchanged until the Eailroad and Warehouse Commission was absorbed 
by the State Utilities Commission in 1914. 

After Mr. Cullom became Governor in 1877 he appointed a new 
and strong Eailroad and Warehouse Commission, which immediately 
went to work under his supervision to carry out, enforce and test the 
workings of the law. 

It was the study of this question of railroad regulation and the 
practical experience in the enforcement of such a law, while he was in 
the Legislature and as Governor, that prepared Mr. Cullom for the great 
work that was to come. In this connection it is interesting to note what 
influences surrounded the Governor, influences of his own choosing, and 
how he proceeded to accomplish the ends he desired. 

Above all he was wise in the counsels he sought. ' He had for a 
private secretary Mr. E. F. Leonard, a well poised, polished gentleman 
but a few years his junior. Mr. Leonard was more than a secretary; he 
was a friend and counselor, one who was willing to stay in the back- 
ground ; but who gave lavishly of his many talents to the sustaining and 
guiding of his superior. Mr. Leonard was ever on guard and by reason 
of his matured judgment was privileged to press his convictions upon 
the Governor. It is claimed by those in a position to know that to Mr. 
Leonard is due a large share of the credit for the attitude Governor 
Cullom took towards the railroads. Contrary to his usual conservatism 
Governor Cullom appeared somewhat carried away with the popular cry 
against the railroads and seemed in danger of being too radical. The 
instinct of the politician to please his constituents was strong, but Mr. 
Leonard was the brake on the wheel and his calm judgment kept the 
Governor in check, caused him to make haste slowly. But for this deter- 
ring influence, radical and possibly illy advised steps might have been 
taken, that would have forestalled the accomplishment of the great suc- 
cess in coming years. 

As chief legal advisor. Governor Cullom leaned largely upon Milton 
Hay. When in doubt about a law or legal procedure it was the judgment 
of Mr. Hay that controlled. A prominent Chicago lawyer, once seeking 
the support of Governor Cullom for a proposed law, was heard to ask 
repeatedly, "Who is the Governor of the State — Hay or Cullom?" 

In the background was John W. Bunn, who at that time was promi- 
nent in Illinois politics, serving repeatedly as chairman and member of 
the Eepublican State Central Committee. In shaping the policies of 
the administration it was the function of Mr. Bunn to sound out and 
find the sentiment of the influences of the State. Governor Cullom was 
big enough and broad enough to rely upon the combined judgment of 
Messrs. Leonard, Hay and Bunn, three eminently successful business 
men, of unquestioned integrity and devoted to his interests. A most 
interesting illustration of how Mr. Cullom relied upon these three friends 
is shown in the great sound money speech that Governor Cullom made 
at Eockford, Illinois. In the seventies one of the catchy new isms of the 
day was the "Greenback" craze. Mr. Cullom had shown some temerity 
in facing this question. In those days it took real courage to come out 
firmly for sound, honest money. Governor Cullom received an invita- 
tion ito speak on this issue at Eockford, but hesitated to accept. Ho was 
fearful of the results and bated to declare himself. Mr. Leonard insisted 



72 

that he make the address and take a positive stand. Finally the Gov- 
ernor consented to accept the invitation on condition that Mr. Leonard 
would write the speech. Mr. Leonard prepared the addresses and it was 
gone over line by line, sentence by sentence Math Mr. Hay and Mr. Bunn. 
It was an address to the point, without dodging or begging the question; 
it was for sound, honest money first, last and all the time. The three 
friends were fearful that the Governor would not have the courage to 
deliver it. On the appointed day the Governor gave the address exactly 
as written. It rang out all over the country and was copied in New 
York and hailed with delight by the opponents of the "Greenback" craze. 
Thus did Governor Cullom array himself on the side of sound money 
and he did not waver from this position during the balance of his days. 
It is but" fair to Mr. Leonard, who is still living an honored and retired 
life at Amherst, Massachusetts, to state that he is not authority for what 
has just been said about him and has not been consulted about thua 
giving him such a share in the administration of Governor Cullom. 

Governor Cullom had served as Governor but six months when the 
great railway strikes were declared in July, 1877. Instantly traffic 
ceased and disorder and destruction of property was imminent. One of 
the worst conditions was at East St. Louis. To this city the Governor 
went in person and tried to relieve the situation by moral suasion, but 
failed. Seeing that it was futile to temporize he called out the State 
troops and soon had the situation in hand. In Chicago he found the 
State troops practically worthless, so he promptly called upon the 
National Government for aid. Upon the arrival of several companies of 
regulars, order was at once restored. Thus we see how he met one of 
the most trying situations that can ever confront a Governor. 

When it came to considering applications for pardons, he instituted 
the practice of publishing in the county where the trial occurred, a 
notice of the application, and also required written statements of the 
trial judge and State's attorney giving their views of the merits of the 
case. This practice has since been extended by the creation of a State 
Board of Pardons, which follows largely the same procedure. 

His administration was strictly a business one. Under his super- 
vision the penitentiary was built at Chester and an additional hospital 
for the insane was constructed at Kankakee. His administration also 
saw the paying off of the last of the State debt. 

He studied the State and its peoples. He became familiar with 
the great families and their descendants who settled the various parts 
of the State. He was able to select representative men who stood well 
in their localities. Having appointed such representative men to office, 
he left them free from executive interference, but held them strictly 
accountable for the trust imposed. Thus he drew to him strong, able 
men and these men of affairs and their descendants became the strength 
and backbone of the so-called Cullom organization that was so effective 
in Illinois for so many years. His administration was rather uneventful 
but eminently successful. He was never embarrassed by any unseemly 
scandals in any of his departments. 

His relations with the Legislature were most friendly, and the 
charge was never made that he, as Governor, ever tried to organize or 
dictate to the Legislature; and yet, it can be safely said, that no Legis- 



•73 

lature convened during his administration that was not organized by 
his friends and on a basis entirely friendly to him. So skillful Avas he 
in handling men and so versed was he in legislative practices, that he 
brought about a friendly organization without his influence being felt 
or suspected. 

When Governor Cullom became United States Senator he had 
already acquired considerable prestige as a national character. Having 
served several terms in his State Legislature and in Congress and 
having been twice Governor of Illinois, he expected some recognition in 
the Senate, compatible with his services. He found, however, like all 
new Senators, he must bide his time and that he could command atten- 
tion only by meritorious service. The caucus of the Senate assigned him 
to the committee on railroads, a purely ornamental committee, having 
practically no excuse for existence other than to furnish, a chairmanship 
for one of the majority. Then occurred one of those incidents so rare 
and remarkable but such a source of delight to all students of legislative 
bodies and procedure ; this new Senator by the magic of his genius, took 
this insignificant appointment, this purely honorary position, and ele- 
vated it and clothed it with power and dignity until in a brief space of 
time, before he had completed his first term as Senator, he reported 
from the committee and had passed through the Senate the Interstate 
Commerce Act, now generally admitted to be the most constructive 
economic act ever passed by Congress. The passage of this act was the 
culmination of the years of struggle and toil, out in Illinois, struggling 
with the great question of railroad regulation commencing, as Speaker 
of the House in 1873. 

The great principles underlying the act are now recognized by 
everyone as self evident ; but at the time of its passage it was considered 
by many most able men to be radical and dangerous. 

When Senator Cullom reported this bill from his committee on 
railroads, it created but little stir. It was regarded as a new legislative 
wrinkle that would give its author some notoriety but not worthy of 
very serious consideration. The great conservative, deliberative Senate 
surely would not pass such a measure, striking such a terrific blow at 
the greatest of all vested interests, the American Railway System. 
Nothing daunted, Senator Cullom secured the appointment of a com- 
mittee to investigate the question throughout the country. He of course 
was chairman of this committee and after taking evidence, prepared the 
committee's report to the Senate, favoring the bill. Then the battle 
began, then the special interests all rallied to the defense of the rail- 
roads, but to no avail. The campaigTi had been planned by a master 
mind, one skilled in the ways of legislative bodies. At last the bill was 
attacked most fiercely on that ground upon which all great remedial and 
constructive measures are fought, the ground that it was unconstitu- 
tional. Many of the ablest and strongest lawyers in the Senate opposed the 
bill on this ground, when almost providentially, at the very height of 
the battle, the United States Supreme Court on October 25, 1886, 
decided the very question at issue, in the case of Wabash Railway 
Company v. Illinois, reported in 118 U. S., 557. What a remarkable 
coincidence ! That this case which decided the law in favor of the con- 
stitutionality of the Interstate Commerce Act, should be appealed from 



74- 

the Supreme Court of the State of Illinois and should involve the inter- 
pretation of one of the railroad regulating acts, passed when Mr. Cullom 
was Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives, in 1873. In this case the 
National Supreme Court held that commerce among the states could 
be regulated by Congress alone and that the states must keep hands off 
of such commerce even for that portion of the haul within the State 
boundaries. With the law thus settled the opposition to the act became 
purely and simply, the vested interest against the general welfare, and 
the latter won the day. To Shelby M. Cullom and to him alone belong 
the honor and glory of this accomplishment. No one but a strong man 
could have taken a position on a most insignificant committee and from 
the humble position attack so powerful a special interest and defeat it 
in its veiy citadel. No one but a genius in legislative procedure could 
have successfully piloted his way to victory with such a momentous issue, 
during his first term in the United States Senate. No one but a man 
of courage would have attempted such a thing, when he knew so well the 
powers that must be overcome. No one but a man of patience, per- 
severance and indomitable stick-to-it-tiveness • could have trod the long 
toilsome, tortuous road that lead to victory. 

Time does not permit a discussion of this law. Suffice it to say 
that this law reinforced by amendments and administratton now governs 
in justice two hundred and fifty thousand miles of railway. The law 
was attacked in the courts and gradually the powers of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission were curtailed, by judicial construction, but each 
judicial decision pointed out the necessary remedy; and Senator Cullom 
was fortunate to remain in the United States Senate to maintain and 
defend this great act until finally, before his death, he saw the law inter- 
preted, amended and clarified until all doubts were swept aside and the 
law now stands supreme, a complete and unassailable act. 

It took more than a generation to accomplish this result. This illus- 
trates a great charactetristic of the man. He eked out for the people 
their rights an inch at a time. He got what he could at the start and 
then added to it little by little, until the people and the railroads were 
educated up to accepting the completed work. The passage of this one 
act, the living and defending it until it was impregnable, is honor enough 
for one man; but the passing and enforcing of the act did more than 
remedy the mere evils aimed at; it opened a vast field of legislative 
endeavor. It was the first real exercise by Congress of the power to 
regulate interstate commerce. 

Immediately upon the passage of the act the Senate created the 
Committee on Inter State Commerce and placed Senator Cullom in 
the chairmanship. This committee at once took rank as and still is one 
of the greatest committees of the Senate. As chairman of this com- 
mittee Senator Cullom introduced and had passed through the Senate 
another great act, this one a remedial, a humane law, the safety 
appliance law of 1893. This law required inter state railroads to equip 
their cars with automatic couplers and operate their trains with air 
brakes connected with the engines. We hear much today of social justice, 
of legislation to protect the life and limb of the lalDoring man; and 
these and kindred subjects are treated as modern and progressive ideas ; 
and yet more than twenty years ago, Senator Cullom secured the passage 



75 

and enforcement of an act that has saved untold numbers of lives and 
limbs. 

The mere fact that such an act, requiring such an enormous expendi- 
ture for equipment, could be introduced without unfavorable comment 
is a testimonial to the standing of Senator Cullom. Bare it is, that such 
a bill can ever be introduced in any legislative body without the charge 
that it was introduced as a sandbag and to hold up the corporations. 

The principal energies of Senator Cullom for forty years were along 
the lines of corporate regulations; yet during all that period the charge 
was never made that he was not sincere or that he was seeking personal 
gain. 

On the heels of the safety appliance act came the act regulating the 
hours of employment of employees engaged in interstate traffic, the- 
employer's liability act making interstate carriers liable for injury or 
death of employees, all relating to the regulation of interstate railroads. 

A partial list of the great laws following the Interstate Commerce 
Act and based upon the same power which this act invoked, includes the 
following: The Anti-Trust Act, the Anti-Eebating Act, The Act to 
Suppress Lotteries, The Food and Drugs Act, and the White Slave Act, 
Numerous other acts could be mentioned. All of these acts based solely 
on the power to regulate commerce among the states are constructive and 
progressive. They give extensive powers to our National Government 
and relate to the industrial and moral freedom and welfare of our 
people. They give to the General Government the powers necessary to 
cope with these great questions with which the individual states are 
unable to deal. 

Senator Cullom remained as chairman of the Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce until 1901, when he became chairman of the Committee 
on Foreign Eelations, the most distinguished committee of the Senate, 
remaining however as the ranking member of the Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce. 

He was prouder of his position as chairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Eelations than any public service he ever performed. The 
position was highly dignified and the committee composed of Senators 
of the highest standards and ideals. To this committee come for con- 
sideration our relations with foreign nations and all treaties entered into 
by the President. This committee always stands in a highly confidential 
relation to the administration. A partial list of chairmen preceding 
Senator Cullom contains the following names : Barbour of Virginia, 
Henry Clay, James Buchanan, Eives, Benton, Cass, King, Sumner, Han- 
nibal Hamlin, Windom, John Sherman and Cushman K. Davis. 

At one time while Senator Cullom was chairman of the Senate 
committee, Hon. Eobert E. Hitt, his old schoolmate, was chairman of 
the House Committee on Foreign Eelations, and John Hay was Secre- 
tary of State . Thus we find three distinguished sons of Illinois intimately 
associated in this great branch of Governmental service. 

It was while Senator Cullom was chairman of this committee, 
serving in connection with the Secretaries of State, John Hay and Elihu 
Eoot, that the diplomatic service of the United States was reorganized 
and a distinct and new type of American diplomacy was instituted. The 
reorganization completely changed the personnel of our foreign diplomatic 



76 

corps by attracting to the service and appointing trained men who were 
given an opportunity to rise in the service by demonstrating their merit 
and capacity to serve. The new type of diplomacy had for its watch- 
words "frankness" and- the "square deal" — the kind of square deal that is 
illustrated by our paying to Spain $20,000,000 for the Philippines, when 
we were able to take the islands without compensation as spoils of war. 

Time will not permit any detailed account of the numerous and 
important treaties handled by Senator Cullom. 

Suffice it to say that he was most diligent and succeeded in securing 
the ratification of more treaties than was ever secured in an equal length 
of time. 

As chairman of this committee he earnestly supported and had much 
to do with securing the ratification of the treaty with Panama, making 
possible the building of the Panama Canal, thus closely connecting his 
name with the greatest engineering feat of the ages. In this service he 
became greatly attached to Elihu Boot, first, as Secretary of State and 
then as Senator from New York, and frequently expressed his desire to 
see Mr. Eoot President of the United States. 

Senator Cullom also served as the third ranking member of the 
Committee on Appropriations and was chairman of the sub-committee 
having in charge the legislative, executive and judicial bill, in which 
capacity he had charge of appropriations amounting to about thirty 
millions of dollars annually. 

Early in his service as Senator he was chosen as one of the board of 
regents of the Smithsonian Institution, a great national institution 
located in Washington for the diffusion of knowledge among men. Over 
this board the Chief Justice of the United States presides. Mr. Cullom 
enjoyed the honor of this appointment at the hands of the Senate for 
more than twenty-five years. 

At last, by virtue of his long years of service, he became the chair- 
man of the Senate Committee on Committees. To this committee is 
given the power of making the assignment of the various senators to 
the Senate committees. This appointment gave him great distinction 
and much authority over the organization of the party machinery of the 
Senate. 

Aside from his service on these great Senate committees Senator 
Cullom was greatly honored by appointment by President McKinley as 
Chairman of the Commission to visit the Hawaiian Islands which had 
then just been acquired. The other members of the Commission were 
Senator Morgan of Alabama, and Hon. Eobert R. Hitt, Chairman of 
the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Commission visited the 
Islands for the purpose of framing a law providing for their civil govern- 
ment and defining their relation to the United States. Senator Cullom 
was in charge of the bill recommended by the Commission, which was 
enacted and stands as the organic law of these Islands today. 

In the foreign diplomatic service there are today many men who 
received their appointments by the personal endorsement and solicitation 
of Senator Cullom. So it comes about that, by reason of the many 
treaties ratified during his service and the appointment of his friends 
abroad, his influence is still felt across the seas. 



77 

There is still one other field in which he left his impress, lie had 
a large part in the passage of the act creating the (Jircuit Court of 
Appeals. The Supreme Court of the United States had hecome so con- 
gested that it was several years hehind with its work. Several remedies 
were suggested. Senator Cullom favored the creation of intermediate 
courts modeled largely after the Appellate Court system in Illinois and 
this plan was adopted. Now we have some nine Circuit Courts of 
xA.ppeal hearing hundreds of appealed cases annually and greatly reliev- 
ing the Supreme Court. Here the Senator left his impress, in the field 
of his chosen profession. 

The last activities of Senator Cullom were in connection with the 
huilding of a great Memorial to President Lincoln. The erecting of 
this testimonial of a grateful people had been his fondest hope for 
several years. His love for the martyred President grew with the years. 
As he advanced in years, like all aged men, he harked back to the early 
days, the days of youth, of energy, of ambition. As he looked back in 
retrospection, the giant form of the Emancipator grew larger and more 
majestic, until the ideal of his youth became the realization of the ages. 
Seator Cullom was the last remaining link, in public life, connecting 
the present day directly with that interval of time when the martyred 
President preserved inviolate the Union of our forefathers. The boy, 
Shelby, when but twelve years of age, had met Mr. Lincoln as a guest 
at his father's house. As he grew to manhood his ambition to study law 
was inspired by the tales of Lincoln and his fellow circuit riding lawyers. 
When he started to study law he sought admission to Mr. Lincoln's law 
office. Subsequently he became a member of the law firm to which Mr. 
Lincoln had belonged. He tried law suits with Mr. Lincoln. In his 
first political campaigns, those for city attorney and member of the 
Legislature, he had the support of Mr. Lincoln. He sat at the feet of 
Lincoln and heard him deliver the famous "House Divided Against 
Itself" speech. He received appointment at the hands of Mr. Lincoln 
and during his presidency made trips to Washington, where he had the 
privilege of easy access to the White House. In order that he might go 
to Washington and serve in Congress and thus support and defend the 
administration, he carved out of the Illinois prairies a district for him- 
self. Por decades after Mr. Lincoln and his associates had passed from 
the scenes, Shelby M. Cullom stood forth strong in the councils of his 
nation, pointed out as one who not only had seen and met Lincoln, but 
as one who had enjoyed his friendship and merited his support and 
confidence. 

In his last years in the Senate, Senator Cullom secured an appro- 
priation amounting to two million dollars to erect the National Lincoln 
Memorial. A fitting location and a magnificent design for the monu- 
ment were chosen. March 3, 1913, arrived and found this work unfin- 
ished and Shelby M. Cullom about to retire to private life. Without 
his knowledge and entirely unsolicited the colleagues- of Senator Cullom 
made him the resident Commissioner to supervise the building of the 
memorial. Not only was he appointed as resident Commissioner without 
his knowledge or solicitation, but not one single numiber of the Senate 
or the House voted against his appointment or raised any objections to 



78 

it, one of the greatest tributes ever paid him. In this capacity he served 
until his death. 

And so we find him to the last engaged in a great public service, a 
labor of love and devotion. What a wonderful record of things well 
done ! What a magnificent part he played in the history of his Nation ! 
For sixty years he stood in the limelight of public scrutiny with unsul- 
lied name and reputation. His hands were clean. His life was beyond 
reproach. No one can fairly read the record of noble things done and 
ever sneeringly refer to him as a timeserving politician, a chronic office 
seelcei*, without hanging his head in shame. We can read his record at 
the bar; we can marvel at his success as a politician; we can hear tales 
of how he halted and hesitated, trimmed his sails, temporized, played 
the ordinary political tricks, tramped from department to department 
seeking appointments for his followers ; but when we read the record of 
the things well done, of how he stamped his impress upon our Nation's 
history, all the doubts, fogs and mists vanish forever; and we see his 
personality standing forth in the bright light; we see nothing but an 
erect, gaunt, kindly disposed, patient, plodding, modest man among men, 
a noble and practical type of American statesman. 

Now we see why he played the game as he did. He had his ideals 
and ambitions. He would do big and lasting things. He knew the 
American people and he knew that political success was the science of 
second bests. He knew that the ideal could not be reached in one leap. 
He so ordered his ways that he could progress step by step, keeping con- 
stantly in touch with his fellowman, but never too far in advance. As 
has been aptly said, "He marched in the procession but always saw a 
day's journey ahead." 

Let us not intrude upon the sacred inner circle of his family life. 
Suffice it to say that his home life was ideal but in his family relations 
he was a man of many sorrows. His whole immediate family, two wives 
and four children preceded him to the grave. He left two grand- 
daughters as his only direct decendants. He left no male child to 
perpetuate his name. 

From Washington his remains were brought to Springfield, Illinois, 
for interment. On Sunday, February 1, 1914, funeral exercises were 
held in Eepresentatives Hall in the State Capitol, to which the public 
was admitted. In this legislative hall in which he had been five times 
elected to the United States Senate, beautiful and impressive services 
were held. Here former United States Senators and Governors, mem- 
bers of Congress, eminent Jurists and lawyers, representatives of strong 
business interests from all parts of the State, friends and neighbors, the 
distinguished and the humble reverently paid their last respects to the 
memory of this man who had so long and faithfully represented the 
State. Looking down upon his remains were the portraits of Lincoln 
and Douglas, the two great sons of Illinois, both friends and associates 
of the deceased, \^ho had preceded him to the grave beyond a half 
century ago. Fitting addresses were delivered by Governor Edward F. 
Dunne, Senator Lawrence Y. Sherman, Dr. Donald McLeod, pastor of 
the First Presbyterian Church, and Hon. Clinton L. Conkling of the 
Sangamon County Bar. 



79 

Memoi-ial exeiciscs were held in the Sangamon County Circuit 
Court, Judge James A. Creighton presiding. The Sangamon County 
Bar Association adopted fitting resolutions which together with addresses 
delivered by distinguished members of the bar were spread upon the 
records of the court. T\w members of the bar attended the funeral 
ceremonies in a body. 

Memorial exercises were also held in the United States District 
Court for the Southern District of Illinois, Judge J 0. Humphrey 
presiding. On this occasion the members of the Supreme Court of the 
State of Illinois attended in a body and occupied the bench with Judge 
Humphrey. The resolutions of the Sangamon County Bar and addresses 
bv eminent members of the bar were made a matter of record and placed 
in the archives of the court. 

On a beautiful knoll in Oak Eidge Cemetery, in the shadow of the 
toml) of Abraham Lincoln, sleeps in peace all that is mortal of Shelby 
M. Cullom. 

SHELBY MOORE CULLOM. 



FUNERAL SERVICES IN THE CAPITOL. 

The body of the dead statesman lay in state in the Capitol from 
to 13 o'clock in the morning, Sunday, February 1, 1914, with non- 
commissioned officers of the Illinois National Guard standing guard. 
Many hundreds of persons, including visitors who had come in during 
the course of the night for the final services, viewed the features. 

At the funeral hour, 2 :30 o'clock. Representatives' Hall was filled. 
A large space had been reserved for members of the family and personal 
friends, but further than this the service was public. 

The groups of men were noticeable. Near the front of the reserved 
section sat three former Illinois Governors^Joseph W. Fifer, of Bloom- 
ington ; Richard Yates, of Springfield, and Charles S. Deneen, of 
Chicago. Sitting nearby was former United States Senator Albert J. 
Hopkins, of Aurora. Judge J Otis Humphrey, one of Senator Cullom's 
closest friends; Adj. Gen. Frank S. Dickson, Supreme Justice Orrin 
N. Carter, and others. 

Sitting side by side a few seats back of the casket, which occupied 
a position in front of the Speaker's stand in Representatives' Hall, were 
John W. Bunn, veteran business man of Springfield, and Dr. William 
Jayne, territorial governor of the Dakotas, whom Abraham Lincoln 
appointed, and both of whom not only were Lincoln's friends but inti- 
mate friends of the late Shelby M. Cullom as w^ell. 

The section to the left of the casket was reserved for the relatives. 
To the right sat the pallbearers, all friends of the departed states- 
man. The choir of the First Presbyterian Church which sang, occupied 
the west press box of the chamber. 

Dr. Donald McLeod, Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church,, 
officiating minister, occupied a place on the Speaker's rostrum with 
Governor Edward F. Dunne, United States Senator Lawrence Y. Sher- 
man and Mr. Clinton L. Conkling, who delivered the memorial address. 

The reading of a passage of Scripture by the officiating clergyman 
marked the opening of the service. Members of the choir, including 



Mrs. Will Taylor, Mrs. Frank Y. Partridge, Harry Smith, and Law- 
rence Flinn, with Miss. Ethel Lynn Eoss accompanying, sang "Lead 
Kindly Light." 

A prayer by the minister preceded the reading of the Twenty-third 
Psalm, after which Dr. McLeod gave a short address. 

In turn, the addresses of Governor Pranne, United States Senator 
Lawrence Y. Sherman and of Mr. Conkling, followed. 

With the pronunciation of the benediction, the service was closed, 
and pallbearers bore the remains from the hall while the hundreds of 
friends stood reverently. 

The casket occupied a position north of the Speakers and clerk's 
desk, the bier extending for a distance up the center aisle. The floral 
tributes of distinguished donors were piled about the coffin. Black 
draperies were hung from the lights about the clerk's desk. 

The tributes included pieces sent by President and Mrs. Wood- 
row Wilson, Eobert T. Lincoln, members of the Lincoln IMemorial 
Commission at Washington, the citizens of Cairo, the piece of eighty-five 
roses from Fred A. Busse, John C. Ames, D. A. Campbell. Frank L. 
Smith, C. P. Gardner, James H. Wilkerson, L. T. Hoy, and Garfield 
Charles; one from Mrs. John A. Logan, and numerous pieces from 
others, including a tribute from the Sangamo Club, of which the deceased 
was an honorary member. 

The ushers at the Capitol were : Owsley Brown and Frank L. Hatch, 
assisted by E. S. Scott, Stuart Brown, Walter M. Allen, Scott Humphrey, 
James A. Easley, Colburn F. Buck, H. H. Dickerman, Jerome A. Le- 
land, George Pasfield, Latham T. Souther, Hay Brown, John H. Mc- 
Creary, Ernest Helmle, P. B. Warren, Henry Abies, Logan Coleman, 
Will H. Conkling, Colonel Henry Davis, George E. Keys, Eobert C. 
Lanphier, Y. Y. Dallman, George M. Brinkerhoff, jr., W. B. Jess, S. 
Leigh Call, and Dr. C. L. Patton. 

The military guard used to assist at the Statehouse and at the 
grave was as follows : 

First Cavalry — Sergeant Major F. H. Clarke, Color Sergeant F. J. 
Lippert, Quartermaster Sergeants Edward Spearing, J. C. McGregor, 
James Doorley; Sergeants Edward Fiebig and Finer Schjerven; Trump- 
eter W. H. Buchanan. 

First Infantry — Sergeants Melvin W. Bridges, Eaymond E. Darrow, 
Louis C. Hilgeman, James H. O'Brien, John E. Hayes, Frank S. Boland, 
Hoyt M. Peters, Fred C. Berk. 

Second Infantry — Sergeants Albert F. Lind, Max L. Gronow, C. A. 
Lindvall, W. E. Martin, Thomas Smith, Harry Cohen, Willis E. Slim- 
mer and John L. Stafi'ord. 

Seventh Infantry — Sergeants James Burns, John Caldwell, Peter 
Eosenwiez, James Cull, Clarence Bernhardt, Charles C. Southern, and 
James Johnson. 

Illinois Naval Eeserve — Pettv Officers W. H. Brown, P. L'. Sipp, 
K. K. Brad berry, and W. T. Shiplock. 

The pallbearers were: 

Preceding the casket — Garfield Charles of Chicago, former secre- 
tary to Senator Cullom. 

Following the casket — George B. Stadden of Springfield. 



79b 

Paired off and serving at opposite sides of tlie casket — Frank Fisher 
and Shelby C. Dorwin, Senator Logan Hay and Jac'ob Bunn, Harry x\. 
Converse and Edward S. Robinson, Postmaster Loren E. Wheeler and 
Henry Merriam. 

The cortege, proceeding east on Capitol Avenue after it had formed 
at the north doors of the Capitol, moved east to Sixth Street, north to 
Washington, west to Fourth and out north to the cemetery. Hundreds 
of persons were grouped in numerous places to witness the passing of the 
funeral procession. 

The Sangamon County Bar Association met at the Leland Hotel at 
2 o'clock and marched in a body to the Statehouse. 

BURIAL m OAK RIDGE CEMETERY. 

Friends lowered into the grave, a stone's throw northeast of the 
Lincoln Monument, the remains of the martyr's distinguished protege 
and friend, Shelby M. Cullom. 

The simple little ceremonj', accompanied only by a brief word from 
the officiating pastor and a short prayer, closed the book upon the epochs 
of a life of more than fourscore years in length and of half a century 
of continuous service to the public. 

Concluding the significant services of the day, the burial scene in 
simplicity emulated the career of the famous man and emphasized more 
vividly than ever the imprint of the Emancipator's influence upon the 
life just closed. 

Past Governors of Illinois, former United States Senators, present 
State officials, and a host of friends looked on as the mortal remains 
of the statesman were made ready to pursue the biblical injunction of 
earth to earth, dust to dust, and ashes to ashes. 

The funeral day was one which Springfield will not soon forget. 
Perhaps not a greater representative body of political folk has been as- 
sembled since the funeral of Lincoln; it is certain that the ends of the 
State never were more thoroughly represented. 

The near relatives of Senator Cullom were present at the services. 
]\Iiss Victoria Fisher, of Washington, sister-in-law of the senator; Miss 
Kate Fisher, of Springfield, also a sister-in-law of Senator Cullom ; 
William Barrett Ridgely, son-in-law ; two nieces and four grandnieces 
Avere there. Mrs. G. H. Schimpff', of Peoria, niece, and two sons, Her- 
man and Charles; Mr. and Mrs. George Davis of Peoria; another niece, 
and two children, George and Shelby Cullom Davis ; Postmaster John 
Culbertson and Herbert Skelly; Mrs. Yerenice McGee and ^Irs. Florence 
Harwood of Williamsville and John Fisher of Ohio, 111. 

The only sister of the departed Senator, ^Mrs. Lina Leeper, of Farm- 
ington, was not able to attend on account of her advanced age. 

Those attending from Springfield were : Miss Fannie Fisher, Miss 
Lillie Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Dorwin. :\[r. and Mrs. Shelby C. Dor- 
wi)i, Frank R. Fisher, Reed S. Fisher, :\Iiss Bertha Fisher, ;^iiss Anna 
Fisher, Miss Laura Fisher, Miss Kate Fisher, George T. Fisher, Miss 
Sarah Fisher, Miss Sue Fisher, ]\Iiss Elizal)eth Fisher, ^Irs. Julia Bates, 
]\Iiss Ethel Bates, Mrs. Louise Wieties, and ^[rs. Avery Bea. 



79c 

111 addition to^the resident State officials, many prominent men 
came from Chicago and other parts of the State for the service, and 
several organizations were represented. 

Among those who were here from a distance were : Former Governor 
Charles S. Deneen, Chicago ; Former Governor Joseph W. Filer, Bloom- 
ington; Former United States Senator i^lbert J. Hopkins, Aurora; For- 
mer United States Senator AYilliam E. Mason, Chicago; Lieutenant 
Governor Barrett O'Hara, Chicago; Former Secretary of State Cornelius 
J. Doyle, Springfield; Speaker A¥illiam McKinley, Chicago; Former 
Mayor Fred A. Busse, Chicago; Postmaster Daniel A. Campbell, Chi- 
cago. 

John C. Ames, James H. Wilkerson, Lyman T. Hoy, David E. Shan- 
ahan, Chicago ; C. P. Gardner, Mendota ; John A. Sterling, Bloomington ; 
Ealph Bradford, Pontiac; P. T. Chapman, Vienna; Frank L. Smith, 
Dwight; A. C. Bartlett, Chicago; J. W. Kitchell, Pana; Mayor W. H. 
Wood, Cairo ; Sidney S. Miller, Cairo ; Eobert H. Lovett, Peoria ; George 
C.Eankin, Monmouth; T. B. Needles, Nashville; J. V. Graff, Peoria; 
James B. Searcy, Thomas K. Einaker, George Jordan, Will B. Otwell, 
James E. McClure, George J. Castle, M. L. Kcplinger, all of Carlinville ; 
Charles E. Cox, Pittsfield; L. A. Townsend, Galesburg; William Win- 
nans, Chicago; T. S. Chapman, Jerseyville; Lafayette Funk, Blooming- 
ton; W. A. Eodenburg, East St. Louis; W. E. Trautman, East St. Lbuis; 
E. S. Nicholson, Beardstown; William H. Behrens, Carlinville; 0. A. 
Harker, Champaign; Thomas C. Milchrist, Chicago; Zeno J. Eives, 
Litchfield; David Davis, Litchfield; Homer J. Tice, Greenview. C. P. 
Hitch, Paris; John S. Spry, Chicago; John M. Glenn, Chicago; Col. 
Frank 0. Lowden, Chicago; Alva Merrill, Peoria; Walter S. Louden, 
East St. Louis; Theodore G.Eisley, Mt. Carmel; V. A. Fritchey, Olney; 
J. W. Becker, Jerseyville; A. J. Scrogin, Lexington; Garfield Charles, 
Chicago ; W. F. Calhoun, Decatur ; John J. Eeeve, Jacksonville ; Thomas 
Worthington, Jacksonville; P. G. Eennick, Peoria; T. C. MacMillan, 
Chicago; J. S. Aisthorpe, Cairo; H. IST. Schuyler, Pana; W. F. Bundy, 
Centralia; C. T. Beckman, Petersburg; John A. Montelius, Piper City; 
Elijah ISTeedham, Virginia; Josiah Kerrick, Minonk; Julius S. Starr, 
Peoria; Frank E. Milnor, Litchfield; Eoger Sullivan, Chicago; Judge 
W. A. Vincent, Judge Dennis Sullivan, Judge McKinley, Chicago ; E. S. 
Jones, Flora; former Secretary of State Henry Dement. 

Citizens of Cairo, who feel indebted to the dead statesman specially 
for the original $350,000 which Congress appropriated for the improving 
of levees in the Cairo district after the disastrous flood a year ago, 
appointed a delegation to represent them at the service. This quarter 
of a million dollars was the nucleus of nearly $1,000,000 which since 
has been raised for the project of levee and drainage improvement. 

In the Cairo party were : Mayor W. H. Wood, chairman ; former 
Mayor George Parsons, Postmaster Sidney B. Miller, former State 
Senator Walter Warder, John S. Aisthorpe, Judge W. N. Butler, M. F. 
Gilbert, H. S. Antrim, John Greaney, E. L. Gilbert, P. T. Langan, W. 
F. Crosslev, George T. Carnes, A. S. Frazer, sheriff; Frank Spencer, 
Eichard Gannan, C. V. Neff, E. E. Cox, and J. B. Magee. 

The Cairo visitors, with all others from out of the city, assembled 
at the Sangamo Club, where club officials and members received them 
preparatory to their march to the Capitol for the funeral services. 



79d 

FUNERAL SERMON. 

Eev. Donald McLeod, D. D., Pastor First Presbyterian Church, 
Springfield, J 11. 
Of all the transformations effected in this world, through nineteen 
centuries, by the gospel of Jesus Christ, there is none greater and more 
blessed than the change in the attitude of human thought and sentiment 
toward the great event in the progress of human destiny before which we 
reverently bow todaj'. 

The age-long night of darkness and fear that enshrouded death has 
been gradually disappearing before the increasing splendor of the rising 
and ascending sun of the triumphant resurrection flay of the great Son 
of Man; and when this sun shall have reached its meridian, the last 
lingering shadow of the fear of death will have passed from the Christian 
horizon, and in the full light of divine revelation we will see with God, 
that death is not a loss, but an incomparable gain; death is not a 
catastrophe, but a consummation; death is not the eclipsing of the 
luminous ideal ; the lowering of the lofty aim ; the overthrow of the 
magnificent plan; the paralysis of the heroic purpose; the suspension 
of the altruistic service — death is the translation of them all for richer 
and greater fruition to the larger and more gorgeous stage of the eternal. 
Death is not the end of a career, nor the beginning of a career, but a 
significant event in the continuous progress of an immortal destiny. 
Jesus said : "I am the resurrection and the life ; he that believeth in me, 
though he die, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth on 
me shall never die." The great poet adds : "There is no death ; what 
seems so is transition. This life of mortal breath is but a suburb of the 
life Elysian whose portal we call death.'' 

While God has much of promise, power, attainment and hope 
mixed with burden, weakness and pain for his children in this world, it 
is beyond the gate of death God beholds for us the beautific vision. To 
unveil its glory he exhausts the last resource of human language and 
imagery; "Ancl he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, 
proceeding out of the throne of God and of the lamb in the midst of the 
street thereof. And on this side of the river and on that was the tree 
of life, bearing twelve manner of fruits, yielding its fruit every month ; 
and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations." "And I 
heard a voice from heaven saying, Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord from henceforth ; yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest from their 
labors; for their works follow with them." "For we know that if the 
earthly house of our tabernacle be dissolved we have a building from 
God, a house not made with hands eternal in the heavens." 

In response to our Heavenly Father's abounding comfort, we should 
sorrow not today as those who are Avithout hope. The clouds of our 
sorrow are pierced and streaked with the radiant light of an immortal 
hope. God's song of comfort and consolation for us today has a suc- 
cession of great notes. 

We should be comforted because here was one that enjoyed the full 
measure of the promised span of earthly existence. God says : "The 
days of our years are three score years and ten, or even by reason of 
strength the four score years. Yet is their pride but labor and sorrow. 



79e 

For it is soon gone and we fly away." Our distinguished friend, Sen- 
ator Shelby M. Cullom, in the full enjoyment of his mental powers, 
carried the burdens of exalted position and large responsibility past the 
three score years and ten; past the four score years, and well toward 
the four score years and ten. He rounded out a full age, and went to 
his home "Like as a shock of corn cometh in in its season."' 

We should be comforted because here was an actor that played his 
part upon the world stage for more than half a century, the most spec- 
tacular and thrilling in its events, the mightiest and most magnificent in 
its achievements in the history of modern times, if not indeed in all the 
history of the world. What dramatic scenes have been enacted upon the 
world stage during these memorable years ! He saw the Eepublic pass 
through its baptism of blood and emerge from it to enter upon the most 
phenomenal period of progress in the history of nations. He witnessed 
the formation of the German empire; he watched the unification of the 
various states and principalities of Italy under a constitutional mon- 
archy; he saw the sun of Japan rising over the crags of Port Arthur; 
through the triumphs of steam and electricity he witnessed the annihila- 
tion of space, so that London, Paris or Berlin are closer to Xew York 
than Washington and Pittsburg used to be when he entered upon the 
stage. 

Through telegraph, telephone and wireless telegraphy he has seen 
the whole world converted into a veritable whispering gallery. By 
means of the cylinder press he has seen universal education brought out 
of the land of dreams and made a commonplace of everyday life. He 
has lived in tbe golden age of democracy, liberty, equality, opportunity. 

We should be comforted because our honored and distinguished cit- 
izen was not a mere curtain raiser or scene shifter, but a conspicuous 
actor upon the national and world stage during the enactment of the 
wonderful drama of the last half century. Twice elected Governor of 
this great sovereign State, five times elected United States Senator. In 
the greatest deliberative body in the world, in length of service exceeded 
only by two men in all the history of the Eepublic. In patriotism, in 
devotion to duty, in loftiness of purpose, purity of motive and integrity 
of character, the peer of any of the immortals who have graced the halls 
of the United States Senate. 

We should be comforted because in the stress of the insidious temp- 
tations of public life, peculiar to an era of rapid progress, great enthu- 
siasms, phenomenal wealth, laxity of conscience, while other men, dis- 
tinguished in achievement, brilliant in attainments and high in public 
esteem were taken off their guard and beguiled into slippery places, 
Senator Shelby M. Cullom maintained his integrity unsmirched unto the 
end. In the blazing light that shines upon his exalted position, no sel- 
fishness can be seen in his motive, no dishonesty in his conduct, no stain 
upon his character. 

We should be comforted because the Senator realized the fruition 
of his hoix's. He has not gone into the great future with the Avorm of 
disappointed ambition gnawing at his soul. His last ambition was to 
assure the erection of a monument in the National Capital worthy of 
the character and achievement of his immortal friend and fellow citizen, 
Aljraham Lincoln. For the form and fact of that monument, which 



79f 

will soon be a thing of beauty and an honor to the National Capital and 
the Xation — the credit belongs supremely to the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom. 
The coronation of our comfort is that the highest and best in this 
world is only the vestibule of the palace — the porch of the great temple. 
God says : "Abraham died and he was gathered to his people. Job died 
and was gathered to his people." "Thou shalt go to thy fathers in 
peace." "Thou shalt see the king in his beauty." Weary and burdened 
with the weight of age and infirmity, longing for the companionship of 
friends and loved ones gone before, can faith not see the door of death 
opening into chambers more gorgeous than senate chambers of earth, and 
welcome to the companionship of loved ones and into the fellowship of 
all the great souls of all the ages. 

ADDRESS^SHELBY M. CULLOM. 

Hon. Edwabd F. Dunne, Governor of Illinois. 

Man dies but his memory lives. His material part dissolves and 
decays; his spiritual and intellectual elements survive and endure. 

All that was mortal of Shelby M. Cullom lies before us helpless and 
inert. The spiritual and intellectual record of his past lies before us 
vigorous and forceful. 

It falls to the lot of few men to have their lives so long and so 
prominently woven into the history of his State and country as was the 
life of Senator Cullom. 

To fewer still does it fall to leave behind him, after such a life, so 
fragrant and wholesome a memory. For over half a century he held 
public office continuously down to the hour of his death. 

During that half century parties were born and died, policies of 
government changed, leaders rose and fell, party ties were broken and 
realigned, and during that half century this man living continuously 
in one small county, by his force of character, lovable disposition, and 
above all, by his irreproachable integrity, secured and retained the con- 
fidence and respect of -the people of a gi-eat State, who kept him amidst 
all the vicissitudes of political warfare in positions of the highest dignity 
and responsibility. 

His was not the blazing light of the flaring comet which dazzles 
the eye and soon is lost in darkness, but the steady, sober light of the 
heavenly star which shines throughout the long 3'ears with unvarying 
purity and splendor. 

The secret of Senator Cullom's marvelous hold upon his fellow 
citizens is easily understood. No man has ever succeeded in retaining 
the confidence of tbe public for any great length of time unless the 
public were convinced of his integrity. 

Brilliant men have arisen in public life in this and every other 
country by sheer force of their intellectual strength. For a time they 
have succeeded in arousing and holding the admiration of their fellow 
men, but no man, however brilliant he may be, has ever succeeded in 
keeping himself in positions of public trust and honor unless he had tliat 
first essential of a successful statesman, inbred honesty. 

If a flaw be found in the armor of that integrity, the people will 
drive such a man from public life. Jefferson once said, "That the whole 
art of government consists in the ai't of being honest," and that is the 



79g 

reason, iu my judgment, why Senator Cullom was so adept in the art 
of government. 

I knew him not, personally. I differed with him, as many have, on 
political issues. I believed his party erred repeatedl}', and that he erred 
with his party, but as I look over his long career I cannot find a time 
when I ever believed that he was dishonest in his votes, or in the advocacy 
of his party principles. 

All men in public life are subjected to fierce criticism by their 
political enemies, and he did not escape it. Most of this criticism is, as 
a rule, unjust, and actuated by party rancor, but no critic that I have 
ever read or heard during the one-half century of his political life ever 
questioned Senator Cullom's integrity. 

For thirty years he was a member of an exalted body of legislators, 
where opulence was the rule and a moderate competency the exception. 
He had before him the temptations thrown around every man in public 
life. He became intimately acquainted with the ease and luxury which 
wealth produces, and which make other men envious of such possessions, 
and yet this man lived and died comparatively a poor man, which is the 
best test of integrity and devotion to duty. 

May this life of integrity which he led and this reputation which 
he leaves behind him be an incentive to the public men of the day, and 
of the days to come, to devote their lives as he did to their country's 
welfare, without price or reward, except such as is given by the law 
of the land. 

His friends and relatives have the consolation of knowing that he 
left behind him a heritage greater and grander than all earthly riches — 
the heritage of an honest name and a record of duty done. 

The State of Illinois numbers among its illustrious sons the names 
of many whom history would record among the Nation's great. The 
name of Lincoln is titanic. The name of Douglas, Yates, Oglesby, Logan 
and Altgeld will go down in history, not only among the great men 
of Illinois, but among the great men of the American Nation, and in 
the long roster of the names of which Illinois feels proud, and which she 
has given to the American Nation, let us now record, as he sleeps in his 
grave, the name of Shelby M. Gullom. 

ADDRESS OF UNITED STATES SENATOR, L. Y. SHERMAN. 

This day mortality's last tribute to the dead is paid. Our voices 
l)reak a fleeting moment the gathering silence of the grave. We, who 
still walk for a certain period on time's ever-changing shore, will soon 
from this place separate each to his several way. Our generation like 
its predecessors., will swiftly pass to its appointed end. 

To few of ITS will be given Senator Cuilom's length of years and 
full measure of honor and usefulness. 

Nearly all of his contemporaries have joined the silent majority. 
But this brief service in this legislative hall does not mark the beginning 
of forgetfulness. Death has stricken his name from the roll of the 
living, but it cannot obliterate his deeds of Mty years. 

He was of the type who build states and successfully govern na- 
tions. 

Neither the agitator nor the destroyer found in him a response. If 
sometimes he seemed to plod, it was but a patient pause that sprang 



79h 

from the research and deliberation that songht the path of safety. He 
dealt with the vital and the elemental, and he knew instinctively that in 
such things errors were costly. He always feared mistakes. He never 
feared criticism. When an evil existed he saw it and spent no time in 
idle denunciation and self-advertisement. He devised remedies and 
sought their adoption. In the remarkable development following the 
Civil War, he observed that the distribution of things was as needful 
as their production. He made no crusade on common carriers. He 
supported wise regulation, but never the destruction or emljarrassment 
of railways. After twenty-seven years, all now recognize the sound, 
far-sighted understanding that guided his course in the uncertainty that 
beset and clouded the problem then. 

His interstate commerce law was a pioneer and it survives. Like 
the fathers who saw with prescient eye the strength of plan and princi- 
ple, leaving the superstructure for worthy sons, so he too, sketched with 
unerring hand ancl hewed with sturdy strokes until the foundation was 
strong and the plan secure. 

What matters it that some of its sections failed ? Every adverse 
judicial decision was creative criticism that served to perfect and 
apply his original thought. Today his act is reenforced and fortified 
by legislation and administration until the law that CuUoni penned 
governs two hundred and fifty thousand miles of railroad in justice. 
His name is imperishablv entwined with one of the great laws of the 
United States. 

Bronze and marble can add nothing to the monument he builded 
for himself while on earth. 

It was no mere accident that kept him in public life for more than 
fifty years. His associates were some of the most remarkable men of 
our country. He kept pace with them in peace and war and met his 
duties with ability, dignity and power. His integrity, simplicity and 
greatness of common sense linked his name with Illinois for half a 
century. 

For thirty years he was a Senator of the United States. The simple 
statement is the eloquent eulogy that no elaboration can strengthen or 
surpass. For more than twenty years he served our State before he 
passed into the wider theatre of national life. 

Within thy limits. Oh Springfield, many of his comrades rest from 
their toil I In future years the generations yet to come will turn their 
footsteps to Lincoln's grave as of old, the shrine of freedom and liberty 
under the rule of law. Within that hallowed ground, consecrated by the 
sacred memories of an heroic age, we commit the mortal Ijody of Cullom 
to his tomb. 

MEMORIAL ADDRESS. 

Mi;. Clinton L. Conkling. 

To a thoughtful mind, the study of the lives of ciiiinout men is 
both interesting and instructive. 

When this study is of one whom we have known and admired Ihero 
is an added pleasure and profit. 

Today we meet to briefly review the career of one of these notable 
men of our day and express our ap])recinti()n of his virtues. 



79i 

Among those men who have achieved emiiieuce in the State and 
in the Xation, Senator Shelby M. Cnllom has occupied an enviable 
position. 

The story of his life as legislator. Governor, Congressman, Senator 
and statesman has been most eloquently presented. This is the record 
of his public life, but it is, however, not complete without some reference 
to the years wherein he was engaged in the study and active practice of 
the law at the Sangamon County Bar. 

Like many another successful lawyer, his early years were spent on 
a farm. The pure air and active physical employments of the country 
made him strong to endure the stress of the years of mental activity 
which were to follow. The life of a country school teacher in a com- 
paratively primitive community added to his experiences. The lure of 
the land, however, soon lost its hold upon his ambitious mind. He was 
looking into the future endeavoring to forecast what the fates might 
have in store for him. The way that led most directly to prominence 
and political preferment, in that day, much more than it does now, was 
the study and practice of the law. To this he determined to devote 
himself. Coming to Springfield, he sought the advice of Abraham Lin- 
coln, who was a warm personal friend of his father. Mr. Lincoln 
advised him not to enter his office, because he was away so much of the 
time on the circuit, that he would be unable to give him that personal 
attention in his studies which he should receive from his preceptor. 
He advised him to study with Stuart & Edwards, then in the forefront 
of the Sangamon County Bar. So in 1853 he commenced to read law 
with that firm and incidentally, as Avas the custom of that day, swept 
out the office, made the fires when necessary, and was general assistant. 
After the prescribed two years' course of reading, he was in 1855 
admitted to the bar and almost immediately was elected City Attorney 
of Springfield, then but a small toAvn. Thus early did he utilize his 
newly acquired profession to enable him to Avin political as Avell as 
professional position. 

In the Courts of the Justices of the Peace — the so-called Courts 
of the People — he learned his first lessons as a practicing lawyer. Much 
of his term Avas occupied in the prosecution, under the city ordinances, 
of Avhat Avere "called liquor cases. In these courts, humble though they 
AA^ere, he acquired habits of ready speech and resourcefulness which stood 
him in good stead in the future. He here learned, as the laAvyers say, 
"to l)e ready on his feet." 

His first partnership was with Antrim Campbell as Campbell & 
Cullom. A^ery soon ^Milton Hay, one of the most eminent laAvyers in 
the State, became, about 1861, the senior partner and the firm Avas 
knoAvn as Hay, Campbell & Cullom. 

Presently Mr. Campbell retired to accept an official position in the 
United States Circuit Court and the name then became Hay &' Cullom. 
The firm had a large and lucrative practice for that day, much of AAdiich 
'was in the United States Courts at Springfield. They frequently ap- 
peared in the so called "cotton cases" arising out of the operations of 
the Federal Armies in the South and in many most important cases in- 
volving the title to valuable lands in the Military Tract, a region lA'ing 
between the Illinois and ^Mississippi Eivers. 



79j 

]\Ir. Hay, as senior ineinber of the firm and by reason of his great 
experience and ability, bore the brunt of the trials and arguments be- 
fore the court, but Mr. Cullom was an able assistant. The wide acquain- 
tance of the latter and his agreeable personality l)rought to tliem many 
clients. 

This partnership lasted until about 1S6(). Xot long thertaftei' ^Ir. 
Cullom became associated with Charles S. Zane, who, in l8?o, was 
elected one of the judges of the Fifth Judicial Circuit, of which Sanga- 
mon County was a part, and afterwards, in 1883, became Chief Justice 
of the Territory of XTtah, and had much to do with the suppression of 
polygamy among the Mormons. A short time before Judge Zane's elec- 
tion Mr. Cullom seems to have abandoned the legal profession and to 
have gone into the banking business, but this was soon forsaken and he 
returned to the profession of politics in which he had heen so successful 
and which in the future was to bring to him many years of success and 
abundant rewards in honor and usefulness. 

Mr. Cullom was a zealous and painstaking lawyer. While he was 
not a great orator he was a forceful speaker and was persuasive in 
manner and speech. His code of ethics was admirable and he possessed 
the confidence of the Bench. 

His legal education and experience were of great assistance to him 
in his subsequent legislative, executive and congressional work. 

At the time he entered the legal profession and for some years there- 
after the Bar of Sangamon County was as brilliant and able as any in 
the country. By frequent contact in the courts and elsewhere with the 
eminent men of those days he was being fashioned and formed to become 
the statesman of later years. 

He numbered among his friends and associates of that bar, Abraham 
Lincoln, the Great Emancipator, Stephen A. Douglas, the Little Giant 
"and the great patriot, Stephen T. Logan, the distinguished jurist, John 
T. Stuart and Benjamin S. Edwards, both most able lawyers. General 
John M. Palmer, soldier and friend of the oppressed Xegro, Judge David 
Davis, later of the United States Supreme Court, 0. H. Browning, the 
polished gentleman, of the Old School, Colonel Edward D. Baker, the 
brilliant orator, who died at Ball's Bluff, Milton Hay, a friend and ad- 
visor of the Martyr President, William H. Herndon, the erratic law 
partner of Mr. Lincoln, Eichard Yates, the great War Governor of Illi- 
nois, James C. Conkling, a brilliant and cultivated speaker, General 
John A. McClernand, impetuous and fiery but thoroughly loyal to the 
Fnion ; and with these were many others of note. The inspiration de- 
rived from personal contact with these men had a lasting effect upon 
Mr. Cullom. From these experiences and this environment he learned 
to weigh well his words and his acts while they were yet within his 
control, and to consider their future effect as well as present ailvantage. 
He was always level headed. 

Shelby M. Cullom, as farmer, teacher, student, lawyer, legislator. 
Governor. Congressman and statesman is before you. It seems that these 
should round out the story of his life and that the record should now 
be closed, but there is something still to be said, 

Into the sacred circle of that happy home life wbicb was bis for 
so many years we will not enter. Suffice it to say. it was ideal for its 
purity and sweetness. 



79k 

But we wish to s&j a few words of him as a neighbor. He was 
alwaj's genial and cordial towards those who lived near him. His 
friendh', cheerful ways endeared him to all. Those who differed with 
him politically were socially his firm friends. To the poor and un- 
fortunate he was kind. The struggling young man seeking wise advice 
could depend upon his aid. 

Even as I write there comes to me from a perfect stranger in a far 
distant city the fervent words of a successful lawyer who begs that at 
this time he may pay his tribute at the bier of this fallen chieftain, who, 
he says, "to him and to his fellow Negroes of the Nation was a second 
Lincoln.*' As a Negro orphan boy, born in slavery this writer through 
his aid, counsel and advice passed through grammar school, high school 
and rmiversity, up to professional success. 

Mr. Cullom, as a lawj^er, in his early manhood obtained a lucrative 
practice ; as a politician of the best type he was eminently successful ; as 
a statesman, he was conservative and safe. Amid all his successes he 
was always democratic in feeling and readily accessible to any of his 
constituents. He was hard-working, painstaking and conscientious in 
his public duties. 

His private life Avas pure and in public life no scandal attached 
itself to his name. He was beloved by his friends. In his death, this 
State has lost one of its most eminent sons, and his neighbors a warm 
personal friend. 

And jfinally, with the last page of his record of "Fifty Years of 
Public Service" open before us, let us rejoice that the doubts Avbich 
beset him in the "dark day when the light was dim," passed away before 
the last supreme moment came and that he who "longed to meet the 
loved ones Avho have gone before," could say: 

"I shall one day stand by the water cold. 

And list for the sound of the boatsman's oar ; 
I shall watch for a gleam of the flapping sail, 

I shall hear the boat as it gains the strand, 
I shall pass from sight with the boatman pale. 

To the better shore of the Spirit Land. 
I shall know the loved ones Avho have gone before, 

And joyfully sweet will the meeting be, 
When over the river, the peaceful river, 

The angel of death shall carry me." 

LETTER FItOM MR. EDWARD F. LEONARD, AMHERST, MASS., INTIMATE 
FRIEND AND FORMER SECRETARY OE SHELBY M. CULLOM. 

Amherst, Mass., March 18. 191^. 
My Dear .Judge: In answer to your favor of 16th inst., I cannot tell you 
anything which you do not know, but I have briefly noted some things which 
will serve to remind you of subjects worthy of your notice. 

Some of the most important characteristics of Cullom's career cannot 
be fully emphasized — such as his habits of living and his relations to party 
politics because it would challenge comparison with others who have been 
Governor and might seem to be said for that purpose. 

But you can afford to say that Cullom enjoyed while he was Governor 
in a very high degree the respect and confidence of the people of the State, 
which he fully merited both by his official conduct and by the many virtues 
which marked his career in private life. 



791 

In Cullom's "Fifty Years of Public Service," pages 160-168, for some 
good suggestions — especially about the East St. Louis strike — and his closing 
remarks about the character of his administration. Also about liis relations 
to the Legislature, when his varied personal experience in legislative bodies 
gave him great and useful influence. Governor Cullom inaugurated the 
requisition of public notice of the hearing of applications for pardons by 
advertisement in the county where the trial and conviction occurred, and 
also required statements from the judge and State's attorney, giving their 
views of the merits of the case. This has since been adopted in the practice 
before the Pardon Board, and has been very effective in securing good 
results in this important branch of the Governor's duties. 

In Cullom's term the care of the public institutions formed in volume 
and importance the chief part of his work and on this subject see what 
follows. 

His administration and management of the penal and charitable depart- 
ments of the State Avere eminently successful. 

During his term of office a number of important new institutions were 
authorized and their location and construction have proven to have been 
well chosen and designed. 

No man in Illinois had a more intimate and accurate knowledge of the 
State and its people, and by this he was enabled to select capable and effi- 
cient boards of trustees and commissioners, and while he left to them the 
details of organization, he kept in close touch with them and was always 
accessible for consultation and advice. 

As a result, there were no scandals, and under his direction and that 
of the State Board of Charities and the State Auditing Department, the 
finances of the State institutions were never involved or embarrassed. 

And privately, I add to you that none of the recent legislation on this 
subject would have been necessary if Cullom's methods of appointment and 
control had been followed by his successors. 

This does not amount to much, but it may be of some use to you. 
Yours sincerely, 

E. F. Leoxarp. 

To Judge J. O. Humphrey. 



80 



SOME EFFECTS OF GEOLOGICAL HISTORY ON PRESENT 
CONDITIONS IN ILLINOIS. 



B}' Prof. A. E. Crook, Springfield, Curator of the Illinois State 
]^atnral History Museum. 

It affords me pleasure as President of the State Academy of 
Science to extend greetings to the State Historical Society and to express 
the admiration of our young Academy which is but six years old, for 
your society with its fifteen years of achievement. The high character 
and faithful work of 3^our officers together with the enthusiasm and 
activity of your members, has vouchsafed a splendid past and gives 
promise of a more glorious future. We delight in your prosperity. We 
desire its continuance in enlarged measure and earnestly covet similar 
success for ourselves. 

The Historical Society and Academy have much in common. While 
cultivating distinct fields, they are closely related in method, purpose 
and results. The historian employes the scientific method. The man of 
science devotes much study to the history of his subject. A zoologist 
may not confine himself to present forms alone. He must devote much 
time to paleontology. The geologist investigates present conditions in 
order to learn of past events. Historical geology forms one of his main 
fields of investigation. He claims to be the historian par excellence. 
No man of science can master his subject without reviewing all that has 
been done in the past. The historian and the man of science both strive 
to increase knowledge in the earth to the end that beauty, virtue and 
happiness may more abundantly abound. May their common lal)ors add 
to the wealth, Avisdom and general welfare of the people of Illinois. 

May I invite your attention to the fact that this State, its cities, 
villages, people, fields and underlying rocks are in their present condition 
because of forces which were active in infinitely remote times and have 
been continuing up to the geological present. ' If the glacial epoch had 
not left its impress on the surface of the ground now com]Drised within 
the State, if, under the surface, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic rocks 
had been laid down ; if the Carboniferous period had been wanting ; or if 
the Devonian or Silurian period of a hundred million years ago had in 
any degree been different from what they actually were, Illinois might 
today have been a mountain region, an arid waste or the bottom of the 
ocean. 

The minerals in the rocks under us, the soils which furnish our 
food, and the streams of this State are the result of forces working 
through the ages. 

Thus not only the events of yesterday, of recent years or even cen- 
turies with their human activities, but events of the most ancient 



81 

sort claim oiu" attention if we would thoroughly understand present 
conditions. 

Illinois is well watered. The rivers are equitably distributed. They 
have not eroded too deep channels. Their flow is reasonably consistent. 
A map of the Illinois basin makes this evident. At one time Lake 
Michigan emptied through the valleys of the Chicago, D'es Plaines and 
Illinois Eivers into the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. A series of 
photographs which 1 took some fifteen 3^ears ago in this valley while the* 
Chicago Drainage canal was building, furnish an excellent opportunity 
to study the geological strata of the region and show how level were the 
rocks deposited in Silurian days and what forces have been at work 
since then. 

Illinois rocks have been subjected to no great stresses such as have 
produced the wonderful scenery of California. A Yosemite Valley within 
a few miles of Chicago would be very attractive, but to form it, hundreds 
of square miles of inaccessible and rugged mountain chains would be 
required. While there is room for it in California, with its 750 miles of 
length and 200 miles of breadth, Illinois cannot well afEord to devote 
much of its territory to scenic purposes. This State has never been the 
seat of volcanic activity, such, for example, as that which makes the 
Island of Staffa so picturesque. Because of our ancient and placid past, 
Illinois scenery is made up of broad fertile valleys, of low plains, of 
gently rolling prairie lands. 

What an interesting procession of fauna and flora have inhabited 
these plains. Many of them were curious in shape and form; many 
peculiar to tropical countries; many the precursors of types highly de- 
veloped and useful today. Their study gives an insight into the pro- 
cession of events which have led to present conditions. 

It would be impossible for six million people to live as happily here 
as they now do were it not for the mineral content of our soils and of 
the undexlying rocks. Consider for a moment just one of the constitu- 
ents of the soils. If this one constituent, phosphorus, were wanting, 
men could not live. There would be no material for bones or teeth. In 
the fields there would be no corn or wheat or other grains. Food and 
life itself are dependent on phosphorus in the soil. If conditions had 
been different in the State, phosphorus might not have been available. 
Or take the most productive of our mineral resources, coal. It might 
not have been deposited in this region or it might have been so deeply 
buried that it would have been impossible to mine it. But in later Car- 
boniferous times it was deposited in accessible form. It represents the 
stored up energy of the sun for a million years. Without it a city like 
Chicago would be an impossibility. People could not be kept warm. 
^Machinery could not run, giving employment, clothing, housing, and 
food for millions. There could be no railroads, since rails could not be 
made, nor the rolling stock itself, nor could trains l)e run transi)orting 
people and produce. Our civilization is entirely dependent on this con- 
triI)ution which the Pennsylvanian geological system lias made to man- 
kind. 

In this State are numerous other mineral resources which required 
a complex series of events for their formation and which are indispena- 

— 6 H s 



82 

able to our happiness if not to our very existence. So bountifully are we 
supplied that last .year the mineral production in the State amounted to 
$137,000,000.00. This amount is exceeded in two states alone, namely, 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, Illinois ranking third. 

A glimpse at a few of these things convinces us that it was a for- 
tunate series of events which prepared the State for mams occupancy. 
A study of rivers, of soils, of minerals and rocks, of plants and animals, 
is interesting in itself, but becomes most attractive when viewed in their 
relation to mankind and through the eyes of the historian and the stu- 
dent of human affairs. The world would be empty indeed if it contained 
mountains and plains and rivers alone. But to find it inhabited by 
human beings excelling each other in good deeds, in creative activities 
and noble aspirations, makes it become a beautifully inhabited garden fit 
for the dwellings of noble spirits. 



83 



THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND 
RECONSTRUCTION. 

(By William W. Sweet, DePauw University.) 

In a paper as brief as this one must necessarily be, I can barely 
hope to touch upon the possibilities of this subject and to suggest the 
general lines along which such an investigation might be expected to 
follow. One of the neglected fields of historical investigation in America 
is that of church history, especially in its relation to social and political 
movements, but there are indications at present, however, that would 
point to a growing interest in this particular field. Among the indica- 
tions pointing to an increased interest in this field is the fact, that at 
the last meeting of the American Historical Association, at Charleston, 
South Carolina, a conference was conducted on "American Eeligious 
History'^ and it is hoped that such a conference will be made a perma- 
nent feature of not only the annual meeting of the American Historical 
Association, but of other historical societies as well. 

The general outline I propose to follow in this discussion of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and Reconstruction is : 

1. The Status of the Methodist Church at the close of the war, and 
its relation to the Church South. 

2. The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Freedmen. 

3. The position of the Church on the question of political recon- 
struction. 

4. Some observations in regard to the influence of the Church on 
parties and individuals during the period of reconstruction. 

I. 

During the progress of the Avar the Methodist Episcopal Church 
had given the Government of the United States a most loyal support. 
Its 127 conferences in their annual sessions had passed strong, loyal 
resolutions;^ the eighteen official periodicals of the Church had sup- 
ported the cause of the Union by vigorous editorials, urging enlistments, 
by printing patriotic sermons and addresses, and by calling upon the 
people for supplies for the Christian and Sanitary Commissions, and by 
devoting a large share of their space in every issue to the giving of war 
news.^ This Church* furnished over five hundred chaplains to the armies 
and navies of the Union, ^ besides over four hundred Methodist minis- 
ters who served as delegates under the Christian Commission, all of 
whom gave some of their time free of charge, to the work of the Com- 
mission, many of them going to the front.* It is impossible to tell how 

1 "The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War." Sweet, pp. 47-95. 
» Ibid. Chapter VI, pp. 111-132. 
» Ibid. Chapter VII, pp. 133-141. 
< Ibid., p. 164. 



84 

many Methodist" soldiers served in the Union Army, but the number has 
been variously estimated from 100,000 to 300,000, and Mr. Lincoln's 
statement in his address to a Methodist delegation representing the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1864, of which Methodists are so proud, is no doubt 
strictly true: "That the Methodist Episcopal Church sent more soldiers 
to the field, more nurses to the hospitals, and more prayers to heaven 
than any."^ And lastly when the body of the martyred president was 
l-aid to rest here in Springfield, at the close of the war, a Methodist 
bishop, Matthew Simpson, was chosen to speak the last words at the 
tomb. 

Before the close of the war the Methodist Episcopal Church had 
already entered the South with a two-fold mission — first, to carry on 
the work of their Church in those localities in the South, from which 
the ministers of the Methodist Church South had fled, on the approach 
of the Union Armies, leaving their churches vacant. Such churches 
were, by the order of the War Department at Washing-ton, to be turned 
over by the various military commanders to the loyal bishops of the 
North, who were to appoint loyal ministers to go down and take posses- 
sion. And, second, the Methodist Episcopal Church had gone into the 
South to look after the freedmen, whose helpless condition appealed 
strongly to Christian people of every denomination. 

Naturally when the war was over and the Methodist Church South 
began to lay plans for the reorganization of their societies throughout 
the South, they came in contact and conflict with these representatives 
of the Church from the North. There was considerable protest on the 
part of the Church South against the Southern policy of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, for in many instances, when they came to take pos- 
session of their churches, they found them occupied by their Northern 
brethren. "There was much trouble," writes a minister of the Church 
South, "especially in the Tennessee part of our territory, where our 
houses of worship had been taken from us by force and our preachers 
threatened with all sorts of violence if they should dare come into the 
country to preach.** The Southern bishops in their first meeting after 
the close of the war, drew up a pastoral letter, which was sent out over 
the South, in which they state that "the conduct of certain Northern 
Methodist bishops and preachers in taking advantage of the confusion 
incident to a state of war, to intrude themselves into several of our 
houses of worship, and in continuing to hold these places against the 
wishes and protests of the congregations and rightful owners," which 
they say, causes them pain, "not only as working an injury to us, but as 
presenting to the world a spectacle ill calculated to make an impression 
favorable to Christianity."'' 

The Church papers of both branches of Methodism, at the close of 
the war were filled with discussions relating to the reconstruction of 
Methodism in the South. There seemed to be a widespread feeling on 
the part of the leaders in the North that these two largest branches of 
Methodism should reunite, now that the cause of the split — slavery — 
was forever removed. Dr. J. P. Newman, who had been placed in charge 
of the activities of the Methodist Episcopal Church at New Orleans and 

■> McPherson's Rebellion, p. 499. 

6 Recollections of an Old Man— Seventy Years in Dixie. By D. Sullens, p. 307. 

7 Annual Cyclopaedia 186,-), p. 620. 



85 

vicinity, in 18G4, and who was familiar witli the situation through first- 
hand knowledge, says in a communication to one of the Church papers : 
"The authorities of our Church should make overtures for a reunion to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, on two general conditions : 
Uncjualified loyalty to the general government, and the acceptance of 
the anti-slavery doctrine of the Church," and he further advises that if 
this proposal be rejected, "then let the Methodist Episcopal Church 
plant a loyal, living Church in every city and hamlet of the South."* 
Another writer some weeks later, however, looks upon the prospect of 
reunion as very doubtful, owing to the fact that the leaders in the 
Church South "realize that their only hope of influence, or even re- 
spectability, is in holding together, as an independent body, the Church 
they have ruled so long." And further on the same writer says, "They 
hate the Union, the North, and especially the Methodist Church."^ 
There were some leaders in the Southern Church who seemed very 
receptive of the idea of restoration of fraternal relations between the 
Churches. A correspondent of one of the influential Southern Metho- 
dist papers has this to say on the question : "We will, the whole Southern 
Church, will entertain any proposition coming from the North for 
fraternal relations, when that proposition comes from a proper source, 
and with reasonable and Christian conditions and suggestions. But no 
proposition has yet been offered, no official communication has yet been 
made to us as a Church, and perhaps none ever will be."" Still another 
leader in the Southern Church says, concerning Church conciliation : 
"The South is ready for conciliation," and infers that his Church is 
ready to hear and consider, in a Christian spirit, whatever proposition 
the Methodist Episcopal Church sees fit to make.^^ 

A correspondence was held during the spring of 1869 between a 
committee of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church and a 
committee of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, in 
reference to the reunion of the two branches of the Church. The 
Northern bishops said in part: "It seems to us that, as the division of 
those churches of our country which are of like faith and order has been 
productive of evil, so the reunion of them would be productive of good. 
As the main cause of the separation has been removed so the chief 
obstacle of the restoration. It is fitting that the IMethodist Church, 
wdiich began the disunion, should not be the last to achieve the re- 
union."^- The Southern bishops replied that they regretted the contro- 
versies and expressed a disposition to cooperate to bring about a hotter 
state of things. They suggested, however, that the establishment of 
fraternal feelings and relations between the churches would be a neces- 
sary precedent to reunion, and called attention to the fact of the rejection 
by the General Conference of 1848 of Eev. Dr. Pierce as fraternal dele- 
gate of the Southern Church. In their reply they also make complaint 
of the Northern missionaries and other agents who have been sent South 
'and have attempted to disintegrate and absorb tholr societies and have 
taken possession of their houses of worship. The address ended by 

8 Christian Adv. and Journal (New York), May 25, 1865. 

9 Ibid. .Tune 28, 1865. Article on Methodist Reconstruction by Rev. Geo. Tv. Taylor. 

10 Southern Christian Advocate, Sept. 21, 1865, quoted in article on "The Spirit of the Southern 
Press," Methodist Quarterly Review, January, 1866, p. 128. 
""Episcopal Methodist," quoted as above. 
>2 Annual Cyclopaedia, 1869, pp. 432-433. 



86 

stating that, "'We have no authority to determine anything as to the 
propriety, practicability and methods" of reunion "of the churches 
represented by you and ourselves." 

In 1866, and for several years thereafter, there was considerable 
fear expressed by the Southern Church leaders of their Church being 
"swallowed" by their more powerful rivals of the North,^^ and in order 
to prevent such an unwelcome assimilation, it was proposed to change 
the name of the Southern Church to "Episcopal Methodist Church." 
The General Conference of the Methodist Church South meeting in 1866 
passed a resolution to that effect but the annual Conferences failed to 
concur, as the proposition could not command a three-fourths majority 
of the members." The activity of their Northern brethren in the South 
urged the Southern Church on to an increased effort to rehabilitate their 
disorganized and depleted societies,^^ and there was even an attempt 
made as early as 1866 to invade the Forth. In the fall of 1866, Bishop 
Doggett of the Southern Church, met with the council of the Christian 
Union Church, an organization made up largely of Southern sympa- 
thizers, who had separated from the Methodist Episcopal Church during 
the war. This Church was very small, most of its membership being 
found in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Their general council met in 1866 
at Clinton, Illinois, and was made up of about one hundred delegates. 
Bishop Doggett, however, on looking the situation over, decided that it 
was not best to attempt affiliation with the Church South at that time. 
A Northern editor of a Methodist journal, commenting on this meeting 
and the suggested affiliation, says: "We invite the Church South to 
any field in the North it can occupy. The people they propose to serve 
in Illinois, as God knows, need all possible moral influences. Their 
preachers may be compelled to go on short rations, but we will not duck 
them, or hang them. We will stand by them against all violence. We 
give them a free North, and demand for ourselves a free South."^® 

The aggressiveness of the Northern Church in the South, immedi- 
ately after the war, resulted in the organization by 1869 of ten new 
annual conferences as follows : 

Holston Conference, organized at Athens, Tennessee, June 1, 1865. 

Mississippi Conference, organized at New Orleans, Louisiana, 
December 25-27, 1865. 

South Carolina Conference, organized at Charleston, April 23, 1866. 

Tennessee Conference, organized at Murfreesborough, Tennessee, 
October 11-14, 1866. 

Texas Conference, organized at Houston, Texas, January 3-5, 1867. 

Virginia Conference, organized at Portsmouth, Virginia, January 
3-7, 1867. 

Georgia Conference, organized at Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-14, 
1867. 

Alabama Conference, organized at Talledega, Alabama, October 
17-20, 1867. * 

Louisiana Conference, organized at New Orleans, January 13-18, 
1869. 



18 "The Two Methodisms, North and South," Methodist Quarterly Review, April, 1866. 
I < Annual Cvclopaedia, 1867, pp. 494-4P5. . 

>5 For an able discussion of the future of Southern Methodism, with quotations from the "Southern 
Christian Advocate," see "The Christian Adv. (New Yorlc), February 22, 1866. 
i6"The Church South in Illinois," Western, October 10, 1866. 



87 

North Carolina Conference, organized at Union Chapel, !North 
Carolina, January 14-18, 1869," numbering ten in all. 

In 1867 there were 66,040 full members reported, and 16,447 pro- 
bationers and 220 charges.^^ Some of these churches had been founded 
by army chaplains, as for instance, the church at Baton Eouge, where a 
chaplain had been appointed pastor of the Northern Methodist Church 
by Bishop Ames, in 1864, while he was still serving in the army.^^ By 
1871, the membership of these churches had grown to 135,424, and the 
number of preachers had become 630. Of the preachers, 260 were white 
and 370 were colored, while of the membership 47,000 were white 
people and 88,425 were colored.-'' The most conspicuous loader of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in the South at the close of the war was Dr. 
J. P. JSTewman, who had been sent to New Orleans in 1864 to superintend 
the work in that vicinity. Later Dr. Newman became the pastor of the 
Grant family and a close personal friend of President Grant. 

As a matter of course the ministry and membership of these 
Northern Methodist Churches, planted in the South, were Eepublicans, 
and w£re supporters of the radical reconstruction policies. It is also 
true that their membership included some carpet-baggers, employees of 
the Freedman's Bureau, and scalawags. A conspicuous example of the 
former is Eev. B. F. Whittemore,^^ who was a member of the South 
Carolina Conference, and in 1867 was superintendent of schools in South 
Carolina, and later under the carpet-bagger Scott's administration rep- 
resented the First Congressional District of South Carolina in Congress. 
He was accused of the unblushing sale of cadetships at West Point and 
Annapolis, and these charges were investigated by a committee, of which 
General Logan of Illinois was chairman, and he would have been expelled 
had he not resigned. ^^ I think it may be stated without any hesitancy, 
that the Methodist Episcopal Church in the South was one of the strong 
factors in organizing the Eepublican party there, and is therefore partly 
responsible for perpetrating carpet-bag government and Negro rule upon 
the prostrate South. The missionaries of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, working in the South, realized that the success and perpetuity 
of their work there depended largely upon the triumph of the radicals 
in Congress. One missionary writing from the South, states that if 
President Johnson's policy succeeds, "Union men, missionaries and 
teachers of freedmen" will be in danger, and '^every church and school- 
house we have established will be destroyed," and further along he says, 
"If Congress fail we fail; if Congress succeeds we succeed."^^ And it 
is undoubtedly true that Greeley's definition of a carpet-bagger would 
apply to some of these Northern Methodists in the South. Some of 
them were "long-faced, and with eyes rolled up, were greatly concerned 
for the education of the blacks, and for the salvation of their souls. 

i"'The Methodist Episcopal Church in the Southern States," By L. C. Matlack, in Methodist 

Quarterly Review, January, 1872, pp. 103-126. 
1 ' General Minutes of the Methodist Episcopal Church for 1867. 
' » Western Christian Adv. , April 26, 1865. Letter by Chaplain N. L. Brakeman. 
2° Quarterly Review, January, 1872. 

21 General Minutes, 1867. 

22 Rhodes, Vol. VII, pp. 149-150. 

"Christian Advocate (New York), September 13, 1S66, p. 3^2. Ann. Cyclo. 1866, p. 489. "The 
progress of the M. E. Church in the late slave-holdin? states continues to be more rapid than that of any 
other of the Northern anti-slavery churches and to augur important results, ecclesiastical as well as 
political." 



88 

'Let us pray/ they sai'd, but they spelled pray with an 'e' and thus 
spelled, they obeyed the apostolic injunction to 'prey without ceasing.' "-* 

To infer, however, that the motives of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in sending Northern missionaries into the South, and establish- 
ing their churches there, was purely a political one or was primarily 
selfish, is inferring too much. Many of the Church's leaders were sin- 
cere and unselfish, though perhaps many were overzealous, in their 
feeling that their Church was needed in the South to perform a work, 
which could not be performed by the Church South because of its pov- 
erty and disorganized condition.-^ And also many felt that the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church was needed in the South as a center about which 
loyal people might congregate, in order to offset the reputed disloyalty 
of the Methodist Church South. Concerning, however, the position of 
the Church South in respect to loyalty to the United States Government, 
at the close of the war, there is much conflicting opinion. The Church 
South had been practically a unit in the support of the Confederacy, 
as there is much testimony to prove, but there is also much evidence 
that at the close of the war the Southern Church accepted the verdict 
and were sincere in their attempt to become once more loyal supporters 
of the Government at Washington. The pastoral address of the Southern 
bishops, issued in the summer of 1865, advises their people to adjust 
themselves "as citizens of the United States promptly, cheerfully, and in 
good faith, to all your duties and responsibilities," and this course they 
feel is called for "both by a sound judgment and. an enlightened con- 
science."^'' Bishop Paine advises the Southern Methodists "to resume 
in good faith their former positions as law-abiding and useful citizens," 
and he urged the ministers "to use their influence, both publicly and 
privately, for the promotion of peace and quietness among all classes.""'^ 
Bishop Pierce likewise advises the people to accept "the issues of the 
war as the will of God," and tells them not to leave their toyalty in 
doubt by unmanly repinings, "or by refusing the terms of offered 
amnesty. "-* Indeed a Southern Methodist paper went so far as to claim 
that the "Southern Methodist Church today is more thoroughly loyal to 
the Government, more to be trusted, than the Northern Methodist 
Church. * * * Our oaths have been taken in good faith and we 
intend to keep them."^^ While still another Southern writer asserts, 
"We take our position under the Government to promote peace," and 
the South "may rest assured that Providence has restored us to the 
Union, and the Union to us, for purposes and ends wise and beneficent, 
and reaching far into the future."^" 

On the other hand, there is much Northern opinion to the con- 
trary, and there was a very strong feeling in the North that the Southern 
Church was still far from loyal. And it is not at all strange that there 
should have been such diversity of opinion as to the loyalty of the 
Southern Church, since Generals Grant and Schurz disagreed on the 
same general question in regard to the whole South. One Northern 

2< Reports of Com. House of Rep., 2 S. 42. Cong. Vol. 11, p. 477. 

25 Christian Adv., Februarv 22, 1866. 

2 6 Annual Cyclo., 1865, p. 620. 

" Methodist Quarterly Review, January, 1866, p. 125. c ■ -^ . ^-u c i-v. 

28 Methodist Quarterly Review, January, 1866, p. 125, from an article on "The Spirit of the Southern 
Methodist Press." 

29 "The Episcopal Methodist" (Richmond), October 11, 1865. 
30 "The Southern Christian Advocate," October 5, 1865. 



editor says, "The loyalty of the Southern Methodist Church is probably 
much the same kind and degree with that of the mass of 'reconstructed 
rebels/ "^^ and again the same editor suspects that "Much of the loyalty 
of the South (meaning the Southern Church) is only from the lips 
outward and that only where Union bayonets compel it."^^ Still another 
writer asserts that the Southern Methodists "hate the Union and the 
North/'=^3 while Dr. J. P. Newman felt the need of a "loyal, living" 
Methodist Episcopal Church "in every city and hamlet of the South."^^ 

11. 

A second reason which called the Methodist Episcopal Church into 
the South at the close of the war, was the great mass of ignorant and 
needy freedmen. The Church in the North had already begun work 
among the freedmen, before the close of the war, and missions for colored 
people had been established as early as 1862,^^ and by the end of the war, 
the Church was giving general support to a number of Freedmen's 
associations.^*^ During the years 1864 and 1865 the Methodist Church 
had sent out several missionaries to Negroes in the South, and the Mis- 
sionary Society had appropriated a considerable sum of money for their 
support, and for the establishment of churches, Sunday schools and day 
schools. The Church papers and the various conferences had urged upon 
the Government the necessity of establishing a Freedman's Bureau, and 
among the resolutions passed by the General Conference of 1864 was 
one stating "that the best interests of the freedmen, and of the country 
demand legislation that shall foster and protect this people," and they 
urge upon Congress to 'establish a bureau of freedmen's affairs.^^ And 
after the organization of the Freedmen's Bureau the Methodist Church 
became a staunch defender of its work, and a number of Methodist min- 
isters and laymen found employment in it. The best known Methodist 
layman engaged in the work of the bureau was General Clinton B. Fisk, 
who was assistant commissioner for Kentucky, and his work was given 
extravagant praise in the Church press. ^® 

When the war was over the Methodist Church greatly increased 
their work among the freedmen, and by 1871 there were 88,425 colored 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the South, and a num- 
ber of schools had been established for them, in various sections. In 
1866 the Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist E'piscopal Church 
was organized in Cincinnati, by a convention of ministers and laymen, 
called for that purpose, and in 1868 the organization was given official 
recognition by the Church and has remained one of its principal benevo- 
lent organizations ever since. ^^ 



'1 Christian Adv. and Journal, January 25, 1866. 

3 2Ibid., Augusts, 1S65. 

3 3Ibid., Junes, 1865. 

3< Ibid., May 25, 1865. 

'5 Christian Advocate and Journal, February 27, 1862. 

3« Sweet, pp. 171-172. 

" General Conference Journal, 1864, p. 130. 

'8 Western Christian Adv., October 18, 1865. An editorial on the "Freedmen's Bureau" in which 
General Fisk receives high praise. 

" Report of the Freedman's Aid Society, 1868, pp. .5-8. The first ofTicers of the new society were: 
President, Bishop D. W. Clark: vice presidents, Gen. C. B. Fisk, Hon. Grant Goodrich, Rev. J. W.Wilev; 
corresponding secretary. Rev. J. M. Walden; field secretary, Rev. R. S. Rust; recording secretary, Rev. 
J. M. Reed; treasurer, Rev. Adam Poe. 



90 

The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church at Baton Eouge, which 
was organized in the spring of 1864, is a -typical example of the better 
class of colored churches of this period. This Church, according to the 
report of the Union chaplain at that post, had nearly three hundred 
members in 1865, and was in a flourishing condition generally. The 
congregation worshipped in the basement of the white Methodist Church, 
and often Union chaplains or ministers from the ranks preached for 
them. The colored churches were, as a rule, well supplied with local 
preachers, exhorters and class leaders, and in the church above referred 
to there were two local preachers, six exhorters and eight class leaders — ■ 
an excellent training for future political leaders among the colored race.""^ 

The attitude of the Southern Church toward the Negro seemed 
most commendable. At least the editors of their Church papers pro- 
fessed a humane and Christian interest in them, and they further 
profess that they will meet in the spirit of Christ, the Northern mis- 
sionary who comes among them to do good and they also state that they 
do not intend to be outdone in deeds of kindness towards the Negro 
race. One editor says : "As the father would tenderly nurture the child, 
and stimulate, encourage and direct his labor to bring it to the pro- 
ductive point, so a wise political economy would impel Southern people 
to do the same by the Negro."*^ Again the same editor says some months 
later, "The duty is no less ours (to bring the gospel to the Negro) now 
than it was before the slaves were emancipated. It is as much our duty 
to look after their spiritual interests as it is to send missionaries to the 
Indians or to China."*^ Still another Southern editor says they will 
rejoice if the "Northern Christians" do half as much as they declare 
they intend to do, and as to their own work he says, "While we boast 
of no great wealth, and a very humble share of piety is all we claim, yet, 
when the genuineness of our regard for the colored race is brought fairly 
to the test the logic of facts will vindicate us."*^ The Southern minis- 
ters as well as the editors were also kindly disposed to the Negro, though 
in many instances they advised them to leave the Methodist Church 
South, and enter the Negro churches, such as Zion's Methodist Church 
or the African Methodist Episcopal Church. One minister states that 
he told the colored members of his church about Zion's Methodist 
Church, and "We got the colored people together and after a little talk 
they agreed to go in a body to that Church, so I took the church register 
and transferred them."** 

The attitude of the Methodist leaders in the North toward the 
Negro was, as we now look at it, foolishly sentimental. They advo- 
cated, from the beginning of the war, not only emancipation, but the 
enfranchisement of the Negi'o as well. They exalted and exaggerated 
his virtues, and were more or less blind to his ignorance and glaring 
weaknesses and faults. Eesolutions were passed by the conferences recog- 
nizing the freedmen as "native born citizens entitled to all the privileges, 
immunities and responsibilities of citizenship, including * * * the 
protection of law and the right of suffrage," and they further declared 
that they would not slacken their efforts until these rights are obtained 

<» Western, April 2G, 1865. 

<' Southern Christian Adv., September 21, 1865. 

< 2 Ibid., September 21, 1865. 

*' Richmond Christian Adv., October 26, 1865. 

** Recollections of an Old Man. D. SuUens, p. 327. 



91 

for the Negro.^^ Editors wrote stirring editorials on the subject of 
Negro enfranchisement, and glowing reports from the missionaries in 
the South were printed from time to time, telling of the great progress 
of the Negro, and of his fitness for citizenship. 

Nothing, perhaps, could have been better fitted for the organization 
of the Negroes into groups for the purpose of their political control by 
white leaders than their organization into congregations under the guid- 
ance of a white missionary. But just how much of a political role such 
congregations played during the period of Negro rule, I am not pre- 
pared, because of the lack of evidence, to state, but that they did play 
a considerable political role, I think may be maintained without doubt. 
As I have already suggested, the Methodist Church particularly, is a 
good school for the training of speakers, for it gives the layman, as well 
as the minister, plenty of opportunity in that direction and statistics 
show that the Negro churches were well supplied with local preachers, 
exhorters and class leaders. We also know that a number of Negro 
preachers became prominent and occupied important political positions 
during the years of Negro supremacy. For instance, in the constitu- 
tional convention of South Carolina, at the beginning of carpet-bag 
rule, there were seven colored preachers out of fifty-seven colored dele- 
gates,*® and a colored preacher by the name of Cain was one of South 
Carolina's congressmen at this time.*^ And also one of the only two 
colored men who ever became members of the United States Senate was 
a colored preacher, one Eev. Hiram E. Kevels, from Mississippi.*^ The 
other colored United States Senator was Blanche K. Bruce, also of 
Mississippi. 

III. 

There remains yet for us to discuss the position of the Church on 
the question of political reconstruction. 

It would be natural to expect that the Methodist Church, haviuo^ 
been an extremely loyal church during the war, should at the close of 
the war take an extremely radical position on the question of reconstruc- 
tion. And this is exactly what happened. In fact, nowhere have I 
found a more bitter denunciation of the South, or a more extreme 
yindictiveness toward those lately in rebellion than that expressed by 
the leaders in the Church and by the Church press. Especially was this 
spirit manifest after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln. Even Bishop 
Simpson, in his funeral oration*'' over the body of the martyred presi- 
dent, delivered here in Springfield, is not entirely free from this spirit 
and says, toward its close, "Let every man who was a senator or repre- 
sentative in Congress and who aided in beginning this rebellion and 
thus led to the slaughter of our sons and daughters, be brought to 
speedy and certain punishment. Let every officer, educated at public 
expense, who having been advanced to position, has perjured himself and 
turned his sword against the vitals of his country be doomed to this. 
* * * Men may attempt to compromise and to restore these traitors 

<5 New York East Conference Minutes, 1865, pp.' 41-42. 
<« "Voice from South Carolina." Leland. 

<' Proceedings of South Carolina Constitutional Convention, pp. 522-52.5. 
<8Schouler,Vol. VII, p. 170 (foot-note). „. ., , , ^, ,t>- ,. o- 

<9 Christian Advocate (New York), May 11, 1865. Gives the funeral oration of Bishop Simpson 
in full. 



92 

and murderers in society again, but the American people will arise in 
their majesty and sweep all such compromises and compromisers away, 
and will declare that there shall be no peace to rebels.'' The resolutions 
passed by the Boston Methodist preachers' meeting, at their first meeting 
following the death of Lincoln, are equally vindictive. "Never," they 
declare, "will the nation feel its sense of honor and justice vindicated 
until the leaders of this unprovoked and wicked rebellion shall have 
suffered condign punishment, the penalty of death." And they further 
resolve that "we hold the national authority bound by the most solemn 
obligation to God and to man, to bring all the civil and military leaders 
of the rebellion to trial by due course of law, and when they are clearly 
convicted, to execute them."^° 

The Methodist press generally supported the early acts of President 
Johnson's administration,^^ but no journals were quicker to question his 
later acts and motives than the Church papers, and Congressional recon- 
struction found no more loyal supporters than the Methodist editors, 
and other Church leaders. The editor of the Western Christian Advo- 
cate of Cincinnati has this to say of President Johnson's reconstruction 
policy in an editorial at the time of the convening of Congress in 
December, 1865 : "The experience of the President in the exercise of a 
broad and even excessive magnanimity, seems not to have been .more 
satisfactory to him in the end, than it was to many of us in the begin- 
ning."^- And the editor of the New York Advocate, at the time of the 
New Orleans riot, begins a long editorial with, "Among the severest 
chastisements that Divine Providence inflicts upon sinning nations, is 
giving them incompetent, obstinate and violent rulers."^^ And then the 
editorial proceeds to lay the blame for the riot and the bloodshed at 
the President's door. In the next issue of this same journal, the Presi- 
dent again comes in for a scathing rebuke, in an editorial entitled, "The 
Nation's Peril."^* 

As the contest between the President and Congress became more 
and more bitter, the Methodist papers became more and more open in 
their hostility to President Johnson. Commenting, in January, 1868, 
on the removal of two Union generals from commands in the South, one 
Methodist editor remarks : "Unless reasons more plausible than any 
that have hitherto been adduced, shall be furnished for this act, it will 
add a still darker hue to the reputation of the chief magistrate of this 
nation."^^ And when the news came that President Johnson was im- 
peached, this editor exultingly announces at the beginning of an editorial 
entitled, "Impeachment" : "Andrew Johnson is impeached before the 
Senate of the United States for high crimes and misdemeanors. * * * 
He has at last * * * boldly set at defiance the laws of the land. 
* * * Our readers will remember how the beastly drunkenness of 
Mr, Johnson, three years ago at Louisville and Cincinnati and Washing- 
ton on the day of inauguration, was denounced in our columns, and how 
we begged the people forthwith to demand his resignation. His moral 

5" Minutes of the Boston Methodist Preachers' Meeting (Mss.), April 24, 186.5. 
" Western Christian Adv., June 14, 1865. 
52 Western Christian Advocate, December 6, 1865. 
5 3 Christian Adv. (New York), Aueust 30, 1866. 

5< Ibid., September6, 1866. See still another editorial in the issue of October 4, 1866, on "The 
Before the Country." 

65 Western Christian Adv., January 8, 1865. 



93 

corruptiou has ever made him a disgrace to the nation.'"^" How much 
of this righteous indignation is due to Mr. Johnson's supposed hahits, or 
to disgust at his reconstruction policy, would be hard to determine. 

On one occasion, when Bishop Ames was presiding at tlie Indiana 
conference in the fall of 1867, in Indianapolis, a retired Methodist 
preacher was making a fervent speech, bearing upon his long experi- 
ence in the ministry, and in the course of his remarks said, "I would 
rather be a Methodist preacher than to be President of the United 
States." Just at that juncture Bishop Ames, who had been a strenuous 
supporter of the Union during the war, said in his piping voice, "Most 
anybody else would, than the kind of president we've got now." This 
remark brought out the most boisterous laughter, and so long did it 
continue that the old brother could not finish his speech.^" 

Such bold statements of political opinion, as we have noticed, both 
in the Methodist press and on the platform, is evidence in itself, that 
the Methodist Church in the North was practically a unit on the ques- 
tion of political reconstruction, and in their opposition to President 
Johnson. If there had been a divided opinion in the Church on this 
issue, such bold statements as I have given, would not have been reiter- 
ated again and again, and there would have appeared some protest. But 
nowhere have I been able to find even a breath of protest. 

IV. 

In conclusion I wish first of all to draw some rather general con- 
clusions in regard to the influence of the Church on the politics of the 
period, and then to observe in a couple of instances the influences of the 
Church over important individuals during the reconstruction period. 

After the evidence which we have just read, I think I am safe in 
observing that at the close of the war the Methodist Episcopal Church 
was practically a unit in favor of the radical or Congressional reconstruc- 
tion policies. They favored such policies because they had felt strongly 
on the question of slavery and the war, and a feeling of vindictiveness 
toward the South was the natural result. Second, the Methodist Church 
exerted political influence of no small power in the South, as we have 
already pointed out, through its missionary operations among the Xegroes 
especially, and thirdly, the political influence of the Methodist Church 
in the Xorth was perhaps stronger at this period than it had ever been 
before or since, and it is a rather significant fact that both General 
Grant and President Hayes were Methodists. 

And now in closing I wish to call brief attention to some interesting 
personal relations which seem to me significant. One of the most inter- 
esting of such relationships was that existing between President Grant 
and Eev. Dr. J. P. Newman. As already noted, Dr. Newman was the 
most influential man sent into the South by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at the close of the war, and his positions on Southern questions 
were as might be expected, extremely radical, and he was not at all 
reluctant in letting his opinions be known. During President Grant's 
administrations, Dr. Newman became pastor of the church in Washing- 
ton attended by the Grant family, and with tliem and especially with 

*• Western Christian Adv., March 4, 1S68. 

»' This incident occurred September 14, 1867. Recollections of Dr. II. A. Gobin. 



94 

the President, he became very intimate. Dr. George F. Shrady, who was 
one of the consulting surgeons during the last illness of Grant, and who 
had opportunity of seeing these two men often together, observes that 
"There could be no doubt of a great bond of sympathy between these two 
men, who from long association, understood each other perfectly ,"^^ and 
while General Grant was at Mt. McGregor, Dr. Newman was in more or 
less constant attendance, and it was there that he on one occasion, when, 
they thought the General was dying, administered to him the sacrament 
of baptisni^^ and received him into membership of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

Knowing the susceptibility of General Grant to be influenced by 
men for whom he had a personal liking, and knowing Dr. Newman's 
position and strong feeling on the question of Southern reconstruction, 
and knowing that the success of his Church in the South depended more 
or less upon the triumph of radical reconstruction, I can hardly escape 
the conclusion, that Dr. Newman had something to do with determining 
General Grant's personal attitude. 

Another interesting personal relationship was that between Dr. 
Newman and the Logans. Mrs. Logan especially was a staunch Metho- 
dist and was a great admirer of Dr. Newman. Speaking of him in her 
Eeminiscences, recently published, she says : "His sermons were, without 
exception, full of inspired language. * * * He was a large man with 
a big head full of brains. * * * He was intensely patriotic and 
courageous, and there was never any doubt as to the meaning of his 
utterances. He was devoted to General Grant, and losing all patience 
with General Grant's detractors, he was ever ready to defend him 
valiantly." Mrs. Logan says that when President Hayes, himself a 
Methodist, became President, he refused to attend the Metropolitan 
Church, where Dr. Newman was the pastor, because General Grant 
attended that church, and Dr. Newman was always defending Grant and 
all the "skulduggery" of his administration.®" It was Dr. Newman, also, 
who was at the deathbed of General Logan,''^ as he had been in constant 
attendance at the deathbed of his chief. General Grant. 

It is very interesting, if not significant, that this minister. Dr. 
Newman, afterwards Bishop Newman, should have had such close per- 
sonal relationships with these two public men, both of whom played 
such an important role in the reconstruction of the Southern States. 

As suggested at the outstart, this paper is simply meant to be 
suggestive, rather than conclusive, though I am convinced that the 
lines of investigation here indicated so imperfectly, would yield, if 
followed, direct clarification to the period under consideration, as well 
as illuminating and interesting sidelights. 

68 "General Grant's Last Days," by Geo. F. Shrady, M.D., Century, June, 1908, p. 276. 

"t Ibid. 

'» "Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife." By Mrs. John A. Logan, pp. 369-370. 

«» Ibid., p. 430. 



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95 



DESTRUCTION OF KASKASKIA BY THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



(By J. H. BuRNHAM, Bloomington.) 

Historical societies generally confine their efforts to the preservation 
of the records of community development, but in some rare instances 
Mother Nature has violently taken it upon herself to ruin her own 
handiwork, such as happened when the mighty Mississippi Eiver moved 
its bed from its old-time course and in spite of engineering obstructions, 
wandered away in a far different direction, causing the destruction of 
hundreds of acres of valuable lands, together with the well known and 
important historical town of Kaskaskia. Other rivers have been known 
to wander away from their ancient courses. Chinese records tell us that 
the Yellow Eiver changed its course nine times in twenty-five centuries, 
and that in 1851 to 1853, it went hundreds of miles across the country, 
abandoning the old channel and making a new mouth to the sea, five 
hundred miles distant from its former outlet. We have nothing on our 
continent to compare with this tremendous change of water courses,^ but 
the events to be described well deserve to be pictured and recorded in 
the annals of Illinois, not only for the benefit of its own inhabitants but 
for the instruction of the entire northwest. Comparatively few people 
anywhere in the world have as yet been accurately informed concerning 
this remarkable catastrophe. 

The waters of the great Missouri Eiver unite with the mighty Missis- 
sippi a few miles above St. Louis, and this magnificent river begins at 
once to acquire the peculiar characteristics of the Missouri, in that it 
then flows for the most of its course through an alluvial valley, from the 
mouth of the Missouri Eiver to the ledges of rqck above Thebes, which 
valley is known as the American Bottom. The geological characteristics 
of the American Bottom can be tolerably well imagined by careful 
geologists, but their imaginations do not fully satisfy present day 
students as to its actual origin. 

We are told that in the distant past, enormous bodies of water 
flowed from north to south through this ancient valley, which was 
formerly an immense bed of solid stone. Age^s of washing and cutting 
through this rock, hollowed out the tremendous channel through which 
the current poured for unknown centuries. The evidences of such action 
appear to be plainly visible in the almost perpendicular stone walls of 
these two lines of beautiful bluffs, the front faces of which are from one 



' Changes of the courses of rivers have occasionally happened in America. In 1904 the Colorado 
River largely left its channel near the line between Mexico and Arizona, mainly owing to a diversion of 
its water to irrigation purposes. During the years 190-1, 190.'') and 1906 these waters poured into th» 
remarkable basin known as the Salton Sea, which was two hundred seventy-three feet below the level of 
the Pacific Ocean, cutting wide and deep channels through the silt and soft soil, increasing the ar»a of 
the lake by over one thousand square miles, and raising the level of this large body over ninety feet. 
The Southern Pacific Railroad Company expended large sums of money in the remarkably dlfTicult 
operation of closing the channel of the runaway river, to the amount of over one million dollars. Smith- 
sonian Report for 1907, 331 to 3Ao. 



96 

hundred to two hundred feet in height. There are no present day 
evidences of the sources of such tremendous currents as must have flowed 
through this valley, except the fact that no other known power could 
possibly have eroded a channel of such great proportions as now exists 
between these tremendous cliffs of lime stone, which are on an average 
about four miles apart. The sources of this immense current must have 
proceeded from enormous floods of water which nature somehow fur- 
nished in her own way. 

An alluvial deposit with a marvelously fertile surface, partly prairie 
and partly timber, now lies in this valley, overlying a rock floor varying 
in depth in its upper portion from eighty to ninety feet on the west 
side, to considerably over one hundred feet on the east side, as has been 
demonstrated by the construction of bridge piers at St. Louis and by 
different borings. Thru this soft alluvial soil the mighty river of the 
past has, for an unknown period, taken its course, sometimes bathing 
the eastern shores and at others reaching the foot of the bluffs at the 
western side. At present it is washing the rocky east bluffs of the State 
of Missouri nearly all of the way from St. Louis to St. Genevieve. There 
are several lakes and lake beds in this alluvial valley, showing that at 
some time in the past the river probably meandered and wandered wildly. 
One of these lakes a few miles northwest of Prairie DuEocher is called 
Conner Lake, and it is said by tradition that some of the stone used in 
the walls of ancient Fort Chartres were boated across from rock quarries 
at the bluffs. This lake has been drained into the Mississippi Eiver, and 
several other lakes now have artificial outlets. 

The St. Louis & Iron Mountain Eailroad carries the traveler from 
East St. Louis to Chester, in places, thru almost the very center of this 
magnificently fertile valley, in other parts, within a short distance from 
the eastern line of bluffs. A ride over this line in the latter part of 
October is full of exciting enjoyment. Apart from the historic associa- 
tions of almost every mile of the road, crowding on the mind in a never 
ending succession, the eye is charmed by the changing scenery on every 
hand. Many of the bluffs are partially evergreen, as beautiful cedars 
grow on some of the most picturesque positions, while white or cream 
colored perpendicular bluffs are mingled with weather-stained ledges of 
varying brightness of color. 

Openings in the walls prove that rain or spring water and creeks 
come down occasionally from the higher lands back from the line of 
bluffs. The autumn colors of maple, oak and other foliages mingled with 
the dark evergreens, furnish a panorama of ever changing beauty. The 
charm of the ride is enhanced by the occasional glimpse of an ancient 
Indian mound. Some of the highest bluffs, which are nicely tapered 
off, as if carved by human hands to the very tops, are holding an unknown 
number of nearly square shaped, ancient, stone burial crypts^, which are 
scattered among the venerable mounds. Let us hope that here, at 

2 These burial places consist generally of pits about three and one-half feet square lined at the sides 
by thin slabs of stone. The bodies were buried, not deeply, in bent or sitting; position. This method 
of burial is not common in this State, but it was practiced quite generally in regions southwest of Illinois. 
On very many of the tapering hill tops of these bluffs may be found these peculiar graves. 







Map of the Country of the Illinois, date, I'i 



from Collot's voyage. 



97 

least, a few of these remarkable monuments^ of a vanished race may be 
permanently preserved in this beautiful valley of historic memories. 

At the northern end of the valley, near the present railroad station 
DuPont (now printed Dupo in the railroad tables), are several very fine 
mounds plainly visible from the railroad. On Collot's 1796 map of this 
region, the lower part of which is republished in this paper, these mounds 
are called "Ancient Indian Tombs," and the locality is pro})erly printed 
"Prairie DuPont." 

At one place a few miles from Prairie DuKocher, on the way to 
St. Genevieve, in 1879, I saw. three very large and very remarkable 
mounds. Upon one stands a farmhouse apparently above the highest 
floods. A cattle yard occupies a second in close proximity, while the 
third is near enough to become a valuable refuge in case of high water. 

A feeling of awe steals over the mind as one reflects that in early 
ages this valley and the adjacent hills must have been the homes of these 
pre-historic tribes or nations, whose records are utterly lost, except such 
as are imperfectly chronicled by our industrious archaeological friends, 
whose studies in and around this valley on both sides of the river are 
among the most instructive in the whole United States. 

Cahokia, Prairie DuPont, Prairie DuEocher and other historical 
places are passed in rapid succession; and crossing the Okaw River about 
three or four miles above the point where the Mississippi Eiver now 
meets it, we begin to reach the region where we wish to investigate the 
causes of the destruction of the town of Kaskaskia. At least three sudden 
changes in the course of the Mississippi Eiver have occurred since the 
American Bottom began to be the home of the first French settlers. The 
first one took place at Cahokia, which town was started on fairly high 
ground at its present location, about the year 1700*, but which was 
seriously threatened with destruction in the year 1704, at which time the 
river altered its course over a mile and came near forcing the inhabitants 
to move; but the fickle stream changed its mind and ever since has 
behaved itself at that point remarkably well. 

Fort Chartres^ was constructed in 1753 and was the means of the 
upbuilding of the village of St. Anne, outside of its walls. It was so 
seriously threatened in 1772 by the encroachment of the river which 
ruined its southwest wall that all of its cannon and military stores were 
removed to Fort Gage. The treacherous river soon retreated to its old 
bed, but the fort was never reoccupied and the village of St. Anne lived 
but a short time longer. 



' Very few or none of the remarkable archaeological monuments and remains of this valley have 
been mapped and described by the Illinois Historical Society, while the Missouri Historical Society 
has been careful to investigate these matters quite thoroly on the Missouri side of the river, and the same 
society has also done very important work of this description on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River. 
The cataloged remains which the society found in the famous Montezuma Mound near the bank of the 
Illinois River in Pike County, are among the most remarkable in the United States. 

* Dr. J. F. Snyder says in a private letter, "I wish the Illinois State Historical Societv would in- 
stitute a commission to thoroly investigate the dates of the founding of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, and 
definitely settle the matter, so as to leave no room for further controversy on that point. I have devoted 
much research to that question and my conclusion is that the definite settlement of Cahokia by Indians 
and Canadian French was in 169S, and that Kaskaskia's origin was in 1700." 

' It appears the river early began to change its channel towards the fort because we are told by 
Wallace (Illinois and Lousiana. p. 316) that as early as 1758 the river was but eighty paces away; but 
the capricious stream afterwards commenced filling its new channel and the fort was "occupied until the 
great overflow of 1772, at which time its cannon, military stores and soldiers were removed to Fort Oage 
at Kaskaskia, which was not on top of the blufls opposite, as many have believed, but was at the village 
of Kaskaskia. 

— 7 H S 



98 

The zig-zag course of the lower Mississippi below Cairo and else- 
where, should have been sufficient warning to the early settlers of Kas- 
kaskia ; and with the well known records of its great floods of 1726, 1785, 
1844 and others, we are left to wonder why the town site was continued 
at that particular location. Perhaps the fact, that boats of that day 
could come up to Kaskaskia at any stage of the river, and that river 
craft could remain in comparative safety there during the icy winter 
months, may have been what decided the Kaskaskians to remain until 
the soil of their town site was ready to be dissolved and to leave their 
streets and alleys where, since the great- catastrophe, they are charted, 
in the bottom of the Mississippi Eiver. 

Through the cordial assistance of Judge Walter B. Douglas, of the 
Missouri Historical Society, I obtained the hearty and enthusiastic 
cooperation of the officials in charge of the United States Mississippi 
River Commission at St. Louis, who placed all of the maps and plats of 
the commission at my service. These were examined and inspected as far 
back as the year previous to 1881, when the union of the two rivers took 
place. 

Under the advice and assistance of these officials in the office of 
the commission, I decided to have two new plats constructed from their 
official documents; the first of which exhibits the river's condition in 
1880, while the second shows the later channel as it existed in 1913. It 
appeared best to connect as far as possible, without too much labor, the 
territory on both sides of the Mississippi between the present town of 
St. Genevieve and the old mouth of the Kaskaskia near Chester. The 
line of bluffs on each side of the American Bottom is thus plainly indi- 
cated. Places on the Missouri side are also marked, adding greatly to 
the value of these maps. The true latitude and longitude of the area 
included is given and the maps are constructed with geographical 
accuracy ; and at the same time they furnish us with very much historical 
information, and they are most admirably executed. 

The area, formerly known as the Kaskaskia Commons, and Kas- 
kaskia Island, a very large and immensely fertile district, is to be largely 
embraced within a large drainage and levee district, and within a few 
years will become one of the most desirable" agricultural regions in the 
west. The contrast between the past history of this region and its prob- 
able future history will be almost as striking as the difference between 
our early Indian corn patches and our most highly improved agricultural 
districts. The 1913 map will give a toleral)ly correct idea of this future 

s At the time of our societ3'-'s annual meeting in May, 1914, a paper was read, erroneously entitled 
on the program, "Old and New Kaskaskia". This paper was written by Harry W. Roberts of Chester, 
a member of the Illinois State Historical Society, and the correct title of the same is "The Commons of 
Kaskaskia". Mr. Roberts has long been engaged in the business of abstracter of land titles in Randolph 
County, and his experience with the ancient records and exceptionally complicated descriptions of the 
old French claims and surveys in this, the earliest settled region of Illinois, enables him to furnish the 
society with accurate information concerning this subject. He has made a thoro and exhaustive 
investigation of these lands for the Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District , now being inaugurated, 
which qualifies him to speak with authority. This district will contain over 11,000 acres, and is being 
organized under the provisions of an Act of the Legislature passed in 1909. Mr. Roberts has had a care- 
ful re-survey made by the County Surveyor of Randolph County of what remains of the original town 
site of Old Kaskaskia, and an accurate plat will be drawn covering the results of this survey for the use 
of the society. This plat will include the entire site within the boundaries as determined by the United 
States Government surveyors about 1812, and will be based on the County Surveyor's plat made in 1873, 
showing all lots, blocks arid streets and historic localities, and the present course of the Mississippi River 
thru the corporation. The remnant of old Kaskaskia is also marked on our newly published plat 
of the river in 1913. Unfortunately the pressure of other duties has prevented Mr. Roberts from com- 
pleting his monograph relating. to the Kaskaskia Commons and therefore this important paper must be 
deferred for the society's next volume of its transactions. 







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yi'oject^, that is, by reincniboriug that the new drainage and levee district 
is between the "old channel" and the present Mississippi Kiver. 

The plats exhibited here show that the old town of St. Genevieve, 
Missouri, which was settled as early as 1735^, was first located on the 
banks of the Mississippi about four miles below the present site of the 
town at the edge of "LeGrande Champ," or the Big Field, as it is called 
by present day Americans. This old French-Spanish town was thus 
situated on the west bank of the Mississippi, only seven or eight miles 
in a straight line from Kaskaskia, and during the whole period of the 
American Eevolution it was the Mecca to which a stream of emigration 
continually flowed from the French villages of the American side. 
During the high water of 1785, which is said to have been fully equal or 
superior to the flood of 1844, and according to Eozier's History of the 
Mississippi Valley, old St. Genevieve was so badly injured that its 
inhabitants migrated almost in a body to the present beautiful site of the 
town on high land, and thus avoided a worse fate, which would certainly 
have occurred at a later date, had they followed the example of the 
Kaskaskians in remaining on the overflowed lands of the American 
Bottom. 

Perhaps the fact that there was no convenient town site on the 
narrow strip of land on the eastern side of the Kaskaskia under the 
immediate protection of Fort Kaskaskia, which was built in 1734 on 
top of Garrison Hill, decided the Kaskaskians to remain at the low lying 
site which was never a suitable place for a town. The high water of 
1844 was eight feet deep at Kaskaskia village, and the water of 1785 is 
said to have been higher. 

A highway and two railroads now traverse this narrow strip between 
the bluffs and the river, and the two railroad stations there are called 
Fort Gage, instead of Kaskaskia. In the April number of our Journal 
for 1913, Dr. J. F. Snyder, one of the most careful and accurate of our 
Illinois historians, by the most unmistakable authority, tells us that 
Fort Gage was never located on the east side of the river on the bluff, but 
that it was always at Kaskaskia, having been constructed at the site of 
the old Jesuit stone building, which was with some changes, turned into 
a fort and called Fort Gage. This location is now identified as having 
been a part of block 28 of the old town according to our Chester map 
maker, which map will sometime be published. The cut furnished in 
the Journal of April, 1913, shows the construction of Fort Gage at 
Kaskaskia and is published herewith, together with the fine illustration 
of Fort Kaskaskia on the top of Garrison Hill, opposite Kaskaskia and 
just above Fort Gage station, both of which were prepared by Dr. J. F. 
Snyder for our April Journal of 1911. 

The name of this station, if not changed, will make it almost impos- 
sible for our society to correct the well established historical error as to 
the actual location of Fort Gage. It will be necessary to ask the railroad 

' The river plat of 1913 shows the corner of old Kaskaskia, which in October, 1913, had not been 
'3stroyed or washed away. There were indications at that time that the fickle stream had stopped its 
^ qrk of destruction, tho even at this very present time the "remnant" mav not have remained. 
It IS still in existence, it forms a starting point for the town of New Kaskaskia, which has been largely 
f "inized by the annexation of a long strip of territory reaching from tho old town to the now town site, 
■ . n )re several blocks and streets have been laid out at a point over one mile distant from the edge of the 
' d town. The new church and schoolhouse and village at that place, New Kaskaskia, are near the 
, oint marked on our plat of 1913. 

• Rozler's History of the Mississippi Valley, pp. 97-98. 



100 

company, in fact, two railroad companies, to change the name of the 
station from Fort Gage to Kaskaskia, for the sake of correct history. 

Eocher, pronounced by brakemen as spelled, was the name iirst given 
to Prairie DiiEocher by the railroad company, and it required quite an 
effort from its citizens before the company was willing to give the station 
its longer historic name. Let us then resolve that the Illinois State 
Historical Society will request the Iron Mountain & Southern, and the 
Illinois Southern 'Eailroad to rename Fort Gage and assist us in out 
effort to thoroly eradicate an important historical error. 

In the April number of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, Dr. J. F. Snyder, a vigilant and careful student of Illinois 
History, gives us an indisputable record of the true location of the 
historic Fort Gage at the town site of old Kaskaskia, and also of the real 
Fort Kaskaskia, situated on the bluff opposite the old town. This is 
accompanied by cuts which plainly show all essential points. These cuts 
are published herewith, and this paper is illustrated still further by a 
plan of Fort Kaskaskia on the bluff, prepared from an actual survey 
made in 1895 by Mr. H. W. Beckwith, the first president of the Illinois 
Historical Society. The plan of Kaskaskia, to be published with Mr. 
H. W. Eoberts' future paper, will show the location of Fort Gage, on 
block 28 of the old town, and these different cuts and descriptions appear 
to be needed in order to fully and completely illustrate our points. 
Altho Mr. Beckwith's illustration of old Fort Kaskaskia calls it Fort 
Gage, 3^et in all other instances where he refers to this fort he calls it 
"the so-called Fort Gage." 

I have not learned when the Mississippi began to make its move 
from the Missouri shore at St. Genevieve towards its final connection 
with the Kaskaskia above the ill-fated town. In 1863, when I embarked 
at St. Genevieve on the Steamer Illinois, with a portion of the army 
of southeast Missouri, bound for the region about Vicksburg, there was 
a good steamboat landing at St. Genevieve. In December, 1867, I 
was detained several days on a steamer a mile or two below St. Gene- 
vieve. The river channel had. then moved away from the town and the 
boat was about to be frozen into the ice for the winter, being grounded 
in the shoaling water. In December, 1879, I drove from "Prairie Du 
Eocher to Kaskaskia, and when near the old Governor Bond stone 
mansion, a short distance above Kaskaskia, I was astonished to learn 
that but for the efforts which had just been made by the Mississippi 
Eiver Commission, the Mississippi would probably have broken thru 
into the Okaw Eiver at the time of the last high water, and as it was 
then within half a mile of the smaller stream, it might perhaps force a 
passage at the next overflow. From that time to the present I have 
been exceedingly interested in everything relating to that remarkable 
freak of nature, which occurred on April 18, 1881.^ 

During the winter of 1880 and 1881, there was an unusually heavy 
fall of snow in northern Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Eailroad 



» Some have wondered why the change which took place in 1881 had not been duplicated at some 
previous high water many years ago. No one can give reasons for all of the vagaries of the Mississippi, 
but it must be remembered that the main channel of the river ran much nearer to the Missouri shore 
at St. Genevieve previous to Februarv, 18S1, and that this channel had then moved over nearer to the 
Illinois shore. It can be easily understood that had the channel remained where it was formerly, the 
ice flood of 1881 might have moved away peacefully; and the high water of that year might have taken 
the course of previous floods, and have followed the old bed around St. Mary's, and left the Okaw to 
follow its original course. 




ScolU V'^Z x^ = /00 ft 
Eartk work lines of oia. ht Gage 
On. tke kigk bluff E ctst i( across "tke river 

from KfiLsko-sklo- ^ ^^ 
As survey ecL bjj H,W. Beckwitk 8f <Soyu 



101 

travel in these states was very generally interrupted. The ice was also 
remarkably heavy in the Mississippi Eiver from St. Louis to Cairo. 
The river commission had been attempting for several years to control 
the river in the interest of navigation, up to the fall of 1880, and with 
great difficulty and heavy cost had held the river channel from connect- 
ing with the Okaw by the construction of protection piers and other 
obstructions. But the remarkably heavy ice of the following winter, 
1880 and 1881, caused the river current to penetrate behind the engi- 
neer's protections, and the government officer's report, an extract from 
which follows, graphically describes what happened. 

Capt. 0. H. Ernst, of the United States Engineering Corps, in his 
report to his superior. Brigadier General H. S. Wright, written June 
30, 1881, says: 

"During the severe winter which followed these operations, ice 
formed in the river, varying from one to two feet in thickness. On the 
tenth of February, 1881, the river rose eight feet in St. Louis, the most 
extraordinary rise in a single day on record. The enormous forces 
developed by this rise were disastrous to the work. Great fields of heavy 
ice thrown against the outer portions of the hurdledike promptly de- 
stroyed that portion. The ice soon gorged in the channel south of St. 
Genevieve Island about four miles above Kaskaskia Bend, forcing a 
large body of water down the north chute. This chute was rapidly 
enlarged and the dike attacked in the rear. The ice gorging between 
the chute and the northern Illinois shore, a deep channel was cut 
through the foot of the dike between the latter and St. Genevieve Island. 
The water rapidly arose above the dike, and the latter, what is left of 
it, has been submerged ever since. It is probably almost wholly, if not 
wholly destroyed. The direct protection suffered severely also, standing 
as it does really at right angles to the direction by which the stream 
approaches from above, it was exposed to such assaults as immense fields 
of ice two feet thick could cause, moving with a velocity of seven or 
eight miles an hour. A field of this character striking the shore seemed 
checked for a moment, but it was presently observed to be moving slowly 
up the bank, carrying a slice of the bank protection with it. Many 
layers were piled up over each other on top of the bank thirty feet above 
low water. In this manner a part of the bank which was above the 
water surface was stripped of its protection. As this enabled the river 
to cut in behind the mattress at the foot of the slope, it is probable that 
most of this work is destroyed. The prolonged high water of this spring 
has rendered it impracticable to ascertain with accuracy what the con- 
dition of it is. After the ice had done its work of destruction the river 
rose steadily with but few and slight oscillations until the latter part of 
April it rose above the banks and there was a flood, the overflow concen- 
trating in a slight depression in the strip of land which separated the 
Kaskaskia Eiver from the Mississippi, forming a stream which poured 
into the former river with a fall of about six feet. The overfall soon 
cut a deep hole in the soft alluvial soil which constitutes the river bed, 
and then began the process of cutting back towards the Mississippi, with 
which a junction was soon formed. This cut was opposite the lower 
end of the work, upon which further damage was inflicted. 



102 

A deep excavation approaching the revetment from the rear totally 
destroyed it thruout the width of the cut. The cut is now about 500 
feet wide and 30 feet deep, when the Mississippi Eiver is at a 22-foot 
stage. There has been no enlargement as yet of the Kaskaskia Eiver 
below the cut."' 

The report^" goes on to show that great damage is threatened and 
that to turn the mighty river back from its new course will be a tremen- 
dous undertaking. It says further that the river must be straightened^, 
or it might force a passage at the next overflow. 

While this great torrent was pouring through the bed of the Kas- 
kaskia, it must be remembered that this narrow stream could not at once 
carry ofl; the flood flowing down the valley at this high stage of water, and 
that the greater width and depth of the old channel was taking care of 
much the larger share of the onrushing flood. All the widening and 
deepening of the new channel must take place on the side next to Kas- 
kaskia; because at the foot of the high blufi" on the other side was a 
solid stratum of hard rock.^^ Exactly what happened during a few of 
the next severe overflows, was that all of the widening and deepening 
took place on the Kaskaskia side of the river, until nearly every vestige 
of the alluvial site of the ill-fated and historic town has dissolved and 
melted away and gone towards the Gulf of Mexico. 

I consider myself remarkably fortunate in having been able to 
locate several living reliable witnesses of the Avonderful freak of nature 
which took place on the 18th to the 23d of April, 1881 ; and part of 
this good fortune has been owing to having had my mind turned repeat- 
edly to this remarkable occurrence during the past thirty-three years. 

These eyewitnesses' accounts are published in full in our Trans- 
actions. The following are extracts from the carefully prepared state- 
ment by Mr. Gustave Pape, of Chester, who was for many years a 
merchant of Kaskaskia and who was an eyewitness to the overflow. 

ME. PAPE'S STATEMENT. 

"Chester, III., September 21, 1913. 
I came from Germany to Kaskaskia Landing, Illinois, with my 
parents in 1834, having been then eight years old. I lived on a farm 
nine miles northwest of Kaskaskia on Hill Land, until about 1848, and 
in 1850 went to clerk for a man in a general store in Kaskaskia, George 
W. Staley by name. In 1861 I went into partnership with Mr. Staley 
from 1861 to 1865. In the fall of 1866 I went into business for myself, 
having bought the brick building in which the old Territorial Legislature 
used to meet, and where the first State Constitutional Convention met 



i» The engineer's report is too lenghty for publication here, but it goes on to estimate that the 
river, if not controlled immediately, would probably destroy 2,00n acres of fine farm land, then worth 
at least fifty dollars per acre, or onehundred thousand dollars, and that probably at least this sum would 
be needed to control the river channels and that it would even then be a difficult engineering job. Judg- 
ing by the cost of controlling the Colorado River in 1906, alluded to on a previous page, it is likely the 
expense of turning the new channel of the Mississippi River would have run into the millions. As 
the real work of the Mississippi River Commission is to care for the interests of navigation, we are left 
to conclude that the reason why Congress did not undertake the control of the mighty river was because 
it could not be satisfied that it was the duty of the United States Government to protect the dying old 
town of Kaskaskia and two thousand acres of land owned by private individuals. 

I » The Mississippi flows all of the way from Alton to a short distance above old Kaskaskia without 
touching anywhere on the Illinois shore the rock bottom of its great valley. In many places on the 
Missouri side the rock actually comes to the surface, and is washed and worn by the river. Just below 
the point where it broke thru into the Okaw the current strikes rock at the foot of the great rock 
blull, and of course the channel must widen itself entirely on the Kaskaskia side where the rock was very 
far beneath the bed of the river. 



102 

A deep excavation approaching the revetment from the rear totally 
destroyed it thruout the width of the cut. The cut is now about 500 
feet wide and 30 feet deep, when the Mississippi River is at a 32-foot 
stage. There has been no enlargement as yet of the Kaskaskia Eiver 
below the cut." 

The report" goes on to show that great damage is threatened and 
that to turn the mighty river back from its new course will be a tremen-- 
dous undertaking. It says further that the river must be straightened, 
or it might force a passage at the next overflow. 

While this great torrent was pouring through the bed of the Kas- 
kaskia, it must be remembered that this narrow stream could not at once 
carry ofl; the flood flowing down the valley at this high stage of water, and 
that the greater width and depth of the old channel was taking care of 
much the larger share of the onrushing flood. All the widening and 
deepening of the new channel must take place on the side next to Kas- 
kaskia; because at the foot of the high bluff on the other side was a 
solid stratum of hard rock.^^ Exactly what happened during a few of 
the next severe overflows, was that all of the widening and deepening 
took place on the Kaskaskia side of the river, until nearly every vestige 
of the alluvial site of the ill-fated and historic town has dissolved and 
melted away and gone towards the Gulf of Mexico. 

I consider myself remarkably fortunate in having been able to 
locate several living reliable witnesses of the wonderful freak of nature 
which took place on the 18th to the 23d of April, 1881 ; and part of 
this good fortune has been owing to having had my mind turned repeat- 
edly to this remarkable occurrence during the past thirty-three years. 

These eyewitnesses' accounts are published in full in our Trans- 
actions. The following are extracts from the carefully prepared state- 
ment by Mr. Gustave Pape, of Chester, who was for many years a 
merchant of Kaskaskia and who Avas an eyewitness to the overflow. 

MR. RAPE'S STATEMENT. 

"Chester, III., September 21, 1913. 
I came from Germany to Kaskaskia Landing, Illinois, with my 
parents in 1834, having been then eight years old. I lived on a farm 
nine miles northwest of Kaskaskia on Hill Land, until about 1848, and 
in 1850 went to clerk for a man in a general store in Kaskaskia, George 
W. Staley by name. In 1861 I went into partnership with Mr. Staley 
from 1861 to 1865. In the fall of 1866 I went into business for myself, 
having bought the brick building in which the old Territorial Legislature 
used to meet, and where the first State Constitutional Convention met 



>» The engineer's report is too lenghtv for publication here, but it goes on to estimate that the 
river, if not controlled immediately, would probably destroy 2,000 acres of fine farm land, then worth ' 
at least fifty dollars per acre, or one hundred thousand dollars, and that probably at least this sum would 
be needed to control the river channels and that it would even then be a difficult engineering job. Judg- 
ing by the cost of controlling the Colorado River in 1906, alluded to on a previous page, it is likely the 
expense of turning the new channel of the Mississippi River would have run into the millions. As 
the real work of the Mississippi River Commission is to care for the interests of navigation, we are left 
to conclude that the reason why Congress did not undertake the control of the mighty river was because 
it could not be satisfied that it was the duty of the United States Government to protect the dying old 
town of Kaskaskia and two thousand acres of land owned by private individuals. 

II The Mississippi flows all of the way from Alton to a short distance above old Kaskaskia without 
touching anywhere on the Illinois shore the rock bottom of its great valley. In many places on the 
Missouri side the rock actually comes to the surface, and is washed and worn by the river. Just below 
the point where it broke thru into the Okaw the current strikes rock at the foot of the great rock 
bluff, and of course the channel must widen itself entirely on the Kaskaskia side where the rock was very 
lar beneath the Ised of the river. 





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103 

in 1818. The brick of this building were brought from Pittsburg in 
1803. I understand there is a picture of this building in the rooms of 
the Illinois State Historical Society in Springfield, Illinois. 

When the Mississippi Eiver had changed its course below St. Gene- 
vieve, and had come within a short distance of the Okaw (Kaskaskia) 
Eiver, at a point from one and one-half to two miles above Kaskaskia, 
about the fall of 1879, we all believed there would be danger at the next 
high water of the Mississippi breaking through into the Okaw, and 
thus damaging the town. It was at this time within half a mile of 
the Okaw, and when the high water came, in April, 1881, we were 
exceedingly anxious as to what might happen. The distance across 
from. river to river was barely 400 feet in April, 1881. The Missis- 
sippi Eiver began to run across this narrow neck of land about April 
21, 1881. 

At first the water ran over the surface, which was loose soil and 
sand, and which soon began to cut away and form a channel, especially 
at the lower edge, which was the west bank of the Okaw Eiver. The 
fall was rather steep, and the land soon began to crumble and go away, 
making at first not a very wide or deep channel or passageway. Had 
the Mississippi soon stopped rising, there might not have been a very 
big channel until another high water would come, because the great 
current of the Mississippi Eiver was still going around in its old chan- 
nel, which was wide enough and deep enough to carry the whole river. 

It was several days before the cut was very deep, but before long 
the passage became deeper and wider, and then the force of the Missis- 
sippi was terrific. I was there part of the time, when the people were 
coming from all directions to see the action of the flood. I believe I was 
there just before the current was deep enough for a steamboat to go 
through. I wish some one had been there to take a picture of the scene 
at the time of the greatest effect of the flood. It is my impression that 
the first steamboat went through in about a week after the stream first 
began to go over the surface, and it is to be hoped some person may be 
able to give the exact date when the two rivers became united into one 
as the result of the high water of 1881. 

The new channel was not wide enough or deep enough at first to 
carry the whole current of both rivers, and it took several high waters 
to wear away enough of the bottom and sides of the great channel to 
carry away the whole of the town site of Kaskaskia; but in the course 
of a number of years, nearly every acre of the old town was carried off. 
During these years the old channel of the river carried the most of the 
Mississippi, but finally the whole current could go through and the old 
channel began to fill up. I am told that at the present time, the Missis- 
sippi Eiver being low, it is possible to cross it on a sand-bar and drive 
a team across from Missouri to Kaskaskia Commons, or rather to that 
portion of the Commons now left. 

The east bank of the present main river is, of course, what was once 
the east bank of the Okaw Eiver; and as this is a bluff resting on a solid 
rock bottom, it is but little worn away; and the whole wasting or wearing 
away has taken place along the west shore. Therefore our dear old town 
of Kaskaskia has had to vanish, leaving only its memory and important 
history to console the many friends of old Kaskaskia. 



104 

I moved from Kaskaskia to Chester in 1898, at which time most of 
the town had disappeared, and here I expect to reside for the rest of my 
life. 

GUSTAVAS PaPE." 

This remarkable action of the Mississippi Elver, carrying off only 
as much water as the narrow bed of the Kaskaskia could accommodate, 
a bed from 350 to 500 feet in width, perhaps for a year or two, merely 
threatened the ruin of Kaskaskia, and its total destruction was delayed 
for several years. 

A careful search of the newspaper files of the time convinces one 
that it was the general belief of the public that the Mississippi might yet 
conclude to go around the old bend in all stages of water, and that the 
great losses might be delayed. The St. Louis papers of the months of 
April and May, 1881, give feeble hints of the disaster at Kaskaskia Bend. 
The Globe-Democrat of April 28, 1881, has only this meager sketch, 
while column after column is given to the overflow at East St. Louis and 
other nearby localities, where tremendous losses were daily occurring: 

THE FLOOD AT KASKASKIA. 

"At the ancient city of Kaskaskia the Mississippi has opened an 
outlet into the Kaw, the tongue of land between the two streams having 
been growing narrower for many years by the encroachments of the 
larger stream, until the space between them was only 300 to 400 feet. 
The present rise in the Mississippi has broken across this narrow penin- 
sula, and a strong current is flowing from the Father of Waters into 
the Okaw, on the west bank of which stands the old town of Kaskaskia, 
once the capital of Illinois and the metropolis of the Korthwest Terri- 
tory. Kaskaskia was a populous town long before Laclede landed at 
St. Louis. It was captured from the British during the Revolution by 
George Eogers Clark, and was subsequently the home of many distin- 
guished men. Col. Don Morrison is a Kaskaskian by birth, and once 
owned a great deal of the land there that has gone into the river. The 
flood of 1844 drove many of the inhabitants from the town, which had 
suffered from a similar disaster sixty years previously. The present 
freshet threatens to make a finish of the ancient village, and its site will 
soon be the swimming-school of the catfish and the kindergarten of the 
bullfrog." 

The Chester papers have preserved no files and the St. Genevieve 
Fair Play furnishes, on the date of April 30, 1881, this brief announce- 
ment : 

"The cut at Kaskaskia point has now reached the width of 500 feet 
with more water coming down. Parties from St. Marys who have visited 
the cut, report, however, that the suction of water is not near as great at 
present as when it first broke through. We hear that the Kaskaskians 
are becoming alarmed and are deserting their ancient village." 

The Fair Play of same date quotes as follows from the St. Louis 
Dispatch of a previous date : 

"The pilots of the Ed Richardson, Messrs. Fulkerson and Reed, 
report that the long expected cutoff at the Okaw River from Kaskaskia 
Bend, has takgn place and a stream 200 yards wide is pouring rapidly 



104 

I moved from Kaskaskia to Chester in 1898, at which time most of 
the town had disappeared, and here I expect to reside for the rest of my 
life. 

GUSTAVAS PaPE." 

This remarkable action of the Mississippi Elver, carrying off only 
as much water as the narrow bed of the Kaskaskia could accommodate, 
a bed from 350 to 500 feet in width, perhaps for a year or two, merely 
threatened the ruin of Kaskaskia, and its total destruction was delayed 
for several years. 

A careful search of the newspaper files of the time convinces one 
that it was the general belief of the public that the Mississippi might yet 
conclude to go around the old bend in all stages of water, and that the 
great losses might be delayed. The St. Louis papers of the months of 
April and May, 1881, give feeble hints of the disaster at Kaskaskia Bend. 
The Globe-Democrat of April 28, 1881, has only this meager sketch, 
while column after column is given to the overflow at East St. Louis and 
other nearby localities, where tremendous losses were daily occurring: 

THE FLOOD AT KASKASKIA. 

"At the ancient city of Kaskaskia the Mississippi has opened an 
outlet into the Kaw, the tongue of land between the two streams having 
been growing narrower for many years by the encroachments of the 
larger stream, until the space between them was only 300 to 400 feet. 
The present rise in the Mississippi has broken across this narrow penin- 
sula, and a strong current is flowing from the Father of Waters into 
the Okaw, on the west bank of which stands the old town of Kaskaskia, 
once the capital of Illinois and the metropolis of the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Kaskaskia was a populous town long before Laclede landed at 
St. Louis. It was captured from the British during the Revolution by 
George Eogers Clark, and was subsequently the home of many distin- 
guished men. Col. Don Morrison is a Kaskaskian by birth, and once 
owned a great deal of the land there that has gone into the river. The 
flood of 1844 drove many of the inhabitants from the town, which had 
suffered from a similar disaster sixty years previously. The present 
freshet threatens to make a finish of the ancient village, and its site will 
soon be the swimming-school of the catfish and the kindergarten of the 
bullfrog." 

The Chester papers have preserved no files and the St. Genevieve 
Fair Play furnishes, on the date of April 30, 1881, this brief announce- 
ment : 

"The cut at Kaskaskia point has now reached the width of 500 feet 
with more water coming down. Parties from St. Marys who have visited 
the cut, report, however, that the suction of water is not near as great at 
present as when it first broke through. We hear that the Kaskaskians 
are becoming alarmed and are deserting their ancient village." 

The Fair Play of same date quotes as follows from the St. Louis 
Dispatch of a previous date: 

"The pilots of the Ed Eichardson, Messrs. Fulkerson and Eeed, 
report that the long expected cutoff at the Okaw Eiver from Kaskaskia 
Bend, has takgn place and a stream 200 yards wide is pouring rapidly 







/ > 



MISSISSIPPI ^"° KASKA5K1A 
RIVERS 

FROM SVRVTXS MADE IS 

11 SEPTEMBER 1913 

is. I t 



Mississippi and Kaskaskia Rivers from Survey made in September, 1913. 



as 
ab 

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Api 

The 

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The 

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suffe 

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Fair 
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Dispa 

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Bend, 



105 

through the Okaw Eiver and into the Mississippi River, and the distance 
above Chester will be fully six miles. It leaves the little town of Kas- 
kaskia on an island which is being cut away very fast and will soon be a 
thing of the past." 

If we bear in mind that, notwithstanding the great 'river had broken 
into the narrow Okaw, the greater portion of the bottom land above and 
below Ivaskaskia was not by this overflow flooded to the highest water 
marks in history, it will be seen that even a width of 500 feet could not 
contain enough water to carry away the town until the Mississippi River 
had time to scour the bed of the Kaskaskia to the same depth as the old 
bed around the old channel and until the narrow Okaw had been widened 
enough to carry the whole of the mighty Mississippi. Therefore, as a 
matter of course, it must have taken considerable time to deepen and 
widen this new channel. 

Nearly twenty years ago I became acquainted with Mr. J. T. Doug- 
las, of Sparta, County Surveyor of Randolph County, who told me that 
just at the time of the high water in the month of April, 1881, he accu- 
rately measured the difEerence of levels in the water in the Mississippi 
and in the Okaw at the point of the overflow and found it was about 
eight feet, which is nearly two feet greater than the difference estimated 
by the government engineer in the report^^ quoted, and which did in fact 
vary from day to day in times of high water. The irresistible force of a 
fall of water of the Mississippi at flood stage from a height of eight 
feet, or even six feet, is such a remarkable operation of nature, that a 
full account of the wonderful event deserves a place in our society's 
archives. 

How many mountain waterfalls, how many brooks, and rivulets, 
unite to form all of the branches of our mighty rivers? How many 
creeks and other streams gather themselves to create the great Missouri, 
and how did the Mississippi furnish a similar quota to form that enor- 
mous body which was to fall over such a barrier and plow its way 
through the strip of solid ground which then lay between the two rush- 
ing streams, and which in that fateful month of April became wedded 
into a mightier stream to flow forever to the Gulf of Mexico? The 
question is well worthy of our thoughtful meditation. 

Mr. John H. Burch, of St. Genevieve, Missouri, eyewitness of the 
famous overflow, furnished me a carefully prepared description which is 
fortified by reference to his diary. 

STATEMENT OP MR. JOHN H. BURCH. 

"St. Genevieve, Mo., October 26, 1913. 
"I distinctly remember some of the circumstances of the way the 
Mississippi River broke through into the Kaskaskia River in 1881. T 
kept a diary of such events as most impressed me; and I find by refer- 
ence to this diary, which I have here at hand, that on the 18th and 19th 
of April. 1881, the Mississippi, by constant encroachment at times of 

n The engineer's report previously quoted, estimated that the Mississippi had a fall of about sLx 
feet at the point of overflow, and does not necessarily conflict with the measurement given by Mr. 
Douglas, because the stage of water in the Okaw might easily have been lower in April than in February, 
or the stage of the Mississippi might have been higher in April than in February. The fall of the mighty 
Mississippi from a height of either eight or six feet would readily furnish all of the phenomena described 
by our eyewitnesses. 



106 

high water, had shifted its course from the Missouri shore at St. Gene- 
vieve, Missouri, to a point on the Illinois shore, very near the bank of 
the Ivaskaskia Eiver. 

I was there on the 18th and 19th of April, 1881. The water was 
passing over the narrow strip of land, perhaps from 400 to 500 feet in 
width, which separated the two rivers. On the night of the 18th the 
water broke thru, and I was there the next morning in company with 
many other persons. The surface of the ground was mostly black soil 
about two feet in depth, which was more packed and solid than the 
surface lower down at the edge of the Kaskaskia Eiver. As the water 
ran over the surface, before the river broke entirely thru, it first 
carried away the sand which was at the edge of the Kaskaskia, and then 
rapidly cut back underneath the black soil which rapidly crumbled away. 

I remember that as the flood of water came over the surface it 
looked like water falling over a mill dam, and the height of the fall 
appeared to be fully from six to eight feet in height. The opening on 
the morning of the 19th was quite large, and the scene was a most 
remarkable one, and not likely to be forgotten. People would stand as 
near as they dared to the rushing stream. Pretty soon some one would 
notice the ground was cracking and opening behind the spectators, and 
then there would be a rush back to ground that appeared to be safe, 
which sooner or later would also crumble and drop into the fast widen- 
ing channel. 

The Kaskaskia Eiver was perhaps 600 feet wide at this point and 
could not at once take care of this great flood, and the water spread 
itself over the land on the further side from the Mississippi, striking 
the bank with such force that it uprooted large trees on the shore, and 
along in what was then called the "Eeiley's Bottom." Such pecan and 
other large trees as were on the west bank were torn up by the roots. 
Some sank out of sight at once and others moved ofi: with the flood, 
their tops uppermost, while the weight of dirt in their roots partly held 
them down. There was a great rush and roar of waters, and masses of 
foam and froth drifted off with the boiling, rushing and eddying waters, 
and the force of the current was terrific. 

The Mississippi spread itself out both up and down the narrower 
river into which it was pouring, and, of course, forced the Kaskaskia 
up stream. I remember that large masses of dirt piled themselves up 
stream to the apparent height, in a few instances of 15 feet, which later 
dissolved, but which actually largely impeded the downflow of the 
Kaskaskia. 

A new highway bridge was being built at Evansville, several miles 
higher up the stream, and the county was compelled to construct a draw, 
or swing, in this bridge, to enable steamboats to go up the river. New 
Athens in St. Clair County was legally the head of navigation; and 
there being a swing or drawbridge in the railroad bridge above Evans- 
ville, the river became, in fact as well as in law, navigable to New 
Athens. 

Sand and dirt were deposited in the M^oods near the new channel 
to such an extent that many acres of trees died and stood there dead 
for several years. I owned considerable of this land and much of it was 
actually improved, being raised by this deposit. The rush of water con' 



107 

tinned for several months, but when the Mississippi was low again, the 
current had cut a new channel in the Kaskaskia Eiver and about mid- 
summer the boats commenced to use it as a permanent channel, the first 
boat to go through being the Emma C. Elliott. The destruction of old 
Kaskaskia did not occur for several years after the rivers came together. 

At the time this happened, I was living on my farm near Kaskaskia. 

Dr. E. L. Brown, of Bloomington, Illinois, who as a young man 
lived at Eeiley's Mill, a little over a mile from the new chute, has also 
very kindly given us a statement of what he witnessed at the time of the 
overflow. He was then a young man living in Randolph County, and 
has a distinct recollection of the event. 

DE. BROWN'S STATEMENT. 

"Bloomington, III., Feb mar ij 20, lOlJt. 

In the years of 1880 and 1881, under the name of H. B. Brown & 
Son, my father and I were running the old Eeiley Mill near Kaskaskia. 
This was the oldest mill in Illinois. It was about a mile and a half 
north of the town and across the Okaw Eiver, and about one mile from 
the point where the Mississippi Eiver cut thru into the Okaw. 

Previous to the year 1881 the Okaw Eiver emptied into the Missis- 
sippi Eiver near Chester, some seven miles south of Kaskaskia. About 
one and one-half miles north of the town the Okaw bends somewhat to 
the west. Just opposite to this bend the Mississippi had a big bend to 
the eastward. For several years the big river had been undermining 
and carrying away many acres of rich farming lands, and, among other 
farms, that on which stood the Bond Mansion, the house of the first 
governor of Illinois. "The Narrows,'' as this shrinking strip of land 
between the rivers was called, was only a few hundred feet wide in April, 
1881. At the time of high water in the Mississippi the back water in 
the Okaw was some seven or eight feet lower than the headwater in the 
big river just across the narrows. There had been a large grove of pecan 
trees between the rivers, but only a small part of it remained. Through 
this grove there ran a small ravine into the Okaw. 

When the flood of 1881 was at its crest, and aided by high north- 
west winds which rolled up immense waves, the water hegan to run 
across to the Okaw. Soon the rivulet became a swift stream, which cut 
out the sandy subsoil, and soon became a swirling, seething, foaming 
torrent. It began to dash over on April 18, was a rushing mill race on 
the 19th, and on the 20th it was a boiling, resistless river. The current 
was so swift and terrible that it was several days before it was safe for a 
boat of any kind to pass through the cut. 

I remember seeing large pecan trees on the banks of the cut, as it 
was widening, bend out and over the water as a half acre strip of land 
caved in, and go down with a splash and a boom — the foam and spray 
flying high ; and we never saw a leaf show above the surface for a half 
mile down stream. 

On the east bank of the Okaw at this point lie the Eeiley bottoms, 
consisting of several hundred acres of low timberland. As the rushing 
waters of the big river crossed the little river, the full force of them 
struck this timber. Trees were uprooted and carried away in great 



108 

numbers. Months later I saw many trees four to six inches thru, 
many yards back from the bank of the river that were broken off ten or 
twelve feet from the ground. 

There was a large crowd of people there for days before the break, 
and .also for several days afterward. I recall seeing a rescue boat with 
four oarsmen go up to rescue two men from a tree. They had tried to 
go up near to the cut from down stream, but the current had been too 
swift and overturned their boat against a tree. 

A few days later, when the force of the current had abated some- 
what, some men drifted thru the cut and took soundings. They re- 
ported it as sixty-six feet deep. As the strips of land a half acre or 
more in area and perhaps fifty or more yards in length caved off into 
the water, the sound was like distant thunder or the booming of cannon. 
Because this cut shortened the Mississippi more than ten miles, and so 
made a very fierce current, and also raised the water at Kaskaskia eight 
feet, it was necessary for many people living in the lowest part of the 
town to move out at once. We boys thought it fun to help the moving 
with our boats. 

The entire town was not flooded that year. But the swift cutting 
current showed that the town was doomed, and now the Father of 
Waters has swallowed up the site of the old town, the town Col. Clark 
captured from the British in 1778. Today the site of old Fort Kaskaskia 
looks down on a muddy, boiling river where once the Kaskaskia Indians 
built their chief town." 

Mr. Gustave Pape's touching lamentation concerning the memory 
and history of old Kaskaskia, which is all that is now left to console 
its many friends, in America, in Canada, in France, and the entire world, 
finds reverberations in the hearts of many now living, and these will not 
disappear in ages to come. Our hearty sympathy has always gone out in 
behalf of the pioneers of the old French regime. We seem to see them 
living in peaceful, harmony with the converted Illinois Indians, who 
flocked to the old mission to see and hear the simple-minded Christian 
fathers. We almost imagine we can witness the tearful departure of the 
hearty hunters, voyagers, and soldiers who left home and kindred for 
their long and dangerous trading and hunting expeditions. We think 
of the joyous and noisy welcomes given to the survivors on their return, 
and can almost hear the lamentations of the widows and orphans of 
those whose unannounced deaths many months previous had now for the 
first time reached the ears of the desolate dear ones at home. 

We consider the hearty and cheerful loyalty of the entire settlement 
as the joyful news of the French alliance was proclaimed in 1778 by 
George Rogers Clark and his brave Virginians, and their ready accept- 
ance of the new freedom gained by the young American nation. We 
then see how the high hopes of this simple and trusting population were 
a few years later poisoned by destitution and woe, thru the neglect and 
poverty of the boasted American Empire, which by forcing a harsh 
and bitter military occupation upon these simple-minded patriots com- 
pelled them to bear vastly more than their share of the trials and suffer- 
ings caused by the American Eevolution. 

We have united in heartfelt sympathy for the ancient pioneers and 
their revolutionary successors; and the people of the whole northwest 



109 

now join in never ending regret for the disastrous catastrophe which has 
unfortunately annihilated the hearthstones of ancient Kaskaskia. 

The cutting away of the town site of Kaskaskia has been proceeding 
through a series of years, some of them not long after 1881, but mostly 
between 1886 and 1909. The Government lights were removed in 1898^^ 
from the old river. Slice after slice of its soil, buildings and improve- 
ments have fallen into the ever widening channel of the river, until now 
only a small corner of the old village is left, as can readily be seen by the 
plat which was accurately surveyed within the last few months. This 
plat when published will be a remarkable addition to the history of 
Kaskaskia. The streets and alleys will lie exactly in the bottom of the 
present river. The beds of the two rivers side by side, form the present 
Mississippi. As the town fronted on the Kaskaskia Kiver which was 
several hundred feet only in width, the greater part of the old streets 
will be shown in the western part of the present stream, while the 
smallest portion of the great river bed will lie in the old bed of the 
original river, and the dotted lines will show the original boundaries of 
the old town. 

The society will place a granite marker on remnant of the town site 
which is still left, and on the marker will be indicated the distance and 
directions from it to the old church or cemetery, old Fort Gage, or per- 
haps a few other historical locations. The Mississippi is reported to 
have lately commenced filling its bed in front of the town site and it is 
quite possible that, as in the case of Fort Chartres, there may be no 
further disturbance for centuries. 

On October 26, 1913, I drove from St. Genevieve to old Kas- 
kaskia, passing over the site of the old St. Genevieve," where nothing 
but a few pieces of broken crockery can now be found. It was almost 
impossible to believe that on this lonesome spot was the earliest settle- 
ment of Missouri (in 1735) ; and one could but return thanks to its 
enterprising residents who in the year of the high water,^^ 1785, decided 
to remove their homes and all of the belongings to the charming site of 
the thrifty and tasteful little historic city of St. Genevieve. I passed 
thru the famous Big Field, still without fences except at the bluffs ; and 
it is my impression that this field of 2,000 acres is the richest and most 
productive field of its size anywhere in America. Following along in 
the direction of Kaskaskia thru many hundred acres of the former river 
now grown up with willows and cottonwoods, marked "The Cottonwoods" 
on the plat, I passed over the old bed of the Mississippi where for ages 
this magnificent river poured its mighty floods, whose surface was some- 
times twenty-five feet higher than the highway, which is no highway, 
but a mere temporary passageway to the town site. Climbing the steep 
bank, a short drive brought me to what is left of old Kaskaskia, where 

1 3 United States Mississippi River Commissioners' Reports. 

»< It will be noted that on the plat shown on page 97, the word "portage"is marked opposite the site 
of old St. Genevieve, called on the plat ".Vlisere". It will be seen that the distance between the rivers 
at that point is but five or six miles; and we can readily imagine the people descending the Mississippi 
would prefer when possible, to make the portage across from that river to the town of Kaskaskia, rather 
than to proceed down the main river to the mouth of the Okaw and then work six miles against the cur- 
rent of this river up to the site of Kaskaskia. 

's "It is a remarkable fact that the first four permanent settlements in the great west, on the banks 
of the 'Father of Waters', have been completely destroyed and washed away by the floods of this mon- 
arch of rivers: and strange it is to sav that of Fort Chartres, Kaskaskia, 'LoV'ieux village de St. Ciene- 
vieve', and new Madrid, nothing is left. Their old landmarks and monuments, even many of the tombs 
and graves of the pioneers, have been carried away by floods". Rozier's History of the Mi.ssissippi 
Valley, p. 134. 



110 

four or five families at present reside. An uninhabited old house pre- 
serves the high water mark of 1844, which is apparently eight feet above 
the highest point of land ; and here will probably be placed the Historical 
Society's permanent marker. Permanent if the river never again passes 
thru its old channel, but irretrievably lost if the river ever pours 
thru what is now called the remnant of old Kaskaskia, and opens out 
once more its original channel. 

This old channel, reduced in places to a mere thread of dry sand, 
in others growing up to willows and cottonwoods, is now the boundary 
between the states of Missouri and Illinois. The old territory formerly 
called Kaskaskia Island, around which poured the great river, has not 
changed its allegiance and is still governed by the laws of Illinois. 

It appears to have been decided by the courts that where changes of 
river courses take place under similar conditions to those under con- 
sideration, the line between the states will follow the old stream and 
the territory so affected shall remain in the original states. This being 
the case, it is believed that as soon as this old channel has become 
actually closed, filled by sediment and grown up with trees and brush, 
the states of Illinois and Missouri, thru a properly organized joint 
state commission, will proceed to mark this old channel by metes and 
bounds and permanently define the boundaries of the two states. 

The rapidly increasing encroachments of the river early attracted 
the attention of the members of the parish of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the Holy Virgin, not only on account of the general danger to 
the town; but also because it was seen that the dearly beloved church 
built in 1756, must go, and then would be scattered the precious bones 
of several generations of devoted Christians buried in the consecrated 
cemeteries. 

The church name dates from 1675, at which time the Indian^" 
Mission near Utica in LaSalle County was founded by Father Marquette, 
under the title still given at the church in New Kaskaskia,^^ which not 
only bears the same name but possesses the sacred bell donated by Louis 
Buyat in 1743. He was the ancestor of the well known Eandolph County 
family of Buyat; and the bell and altar of the new church are fondly 
cherished as relics of the old building, which had remained in the dif- 
ferent church buildings for more than 150 years. This bell was cast in 
France in 1741. As the river came nearer and nearer to the church and 
cemetery, steps were taken to induce the Legislature of Illinois to remove 
the human remains from the cemeteries to a new cemetery on Garrison 
Hill, on the top of the bluffs opposite the river from Kaskaskia, to about 
twenty acres of ground purchased by the State, up-river^ ^ from the site 
of old Fort Kaskaskia. 

Father Darnley was the priest in charge at this time, and when the 
sad and sorrowful work was completed at a cost of ten thousand dollars, 
by a commission appointed in accordance with an act of the Illinois I^egis- 
lature in 1901, it was generally felt that as far as the State was con- 

i6<<The original St. denevieve was known by the name of 'LeVienx Village'. The old town was 
locitofl about three miles .south of the present St. "Genevieve and what is known as 'Le Orande Champ', 
the big field, and was settled in 1735, being the oldest settlement in upper Ivouisiana, a portion of which 
is now ^fisso^ri, west of the Mississippi River." Rozier's History of the Mississippi Valley, p. 90. 

1' New Kaskaskia will be nearly two miles from the edge of the present river, and its organization 
and origin will be treated bv Mr. M. W. Roberts in the next volume of the society's Transactions. 

18 The location of the (larrison Hill Cemetery Monumebt is only a very short distance to the left 
of the site of Fort Kaskaskia, as shown on our published cut of the Fort. 



Ill 

cerned an important -public duty had been performed. Performed it 
certainly was, but not in a manner satisfactory to the people of Kaskaskia 
and vicinity. The funds provided by the act in question have not proved 
to be sufficient to keep these new Catholic and Protestant cemeteries in 
proper condition. The fences are out of repair and the growth of bushes 
and thorny vines is altogether beyond control. The soil and even the 
subsoil washes down hill, leaving graves exposed and the condition of 
the cemetery is a disgrace to the State. No complaints are made by the 
members of the parish who appear to have inherited the patience of 
their ancestors whose good will during and after the Eevolution has well 
deserved the praise of all our historians, but I feel it my duty to call 
attention to the State's neglect of this sacred place. 

There is no harm in mentioning here that it was impossible to 
remove in any satisfactory manner, the sacred remains of the pioneers 
who were buried in the old cemeteries. The removal seemed so much 
like sacrilege that in very many instances, surviving relatives would feel 
more consolation if no effort had been made to remove the relics, and if 
one and all had been allowed to follow the course of the raging Missis- 
sippi in its new channel towards the Gulf of Mexico. 

It is also unfortunate that territorially the Garrison^ ^ Hill cemetery 
lies in Chester parish, and that the old parish of Kaskaskia is not 
canonically connected with this important burial place. It has been 
suggested that if our Legislature will attach these cemeteries with the 
neglected gi-ave of United States Senator Kane, about a mile and a half 
up river from Garrison Hill, together with the recently purchased site 
of Fort Chartres in Eandolph County, to the Illinois State Park Com- 
mission, by a very slight amendment of the poAvers of that commission, 
then all of these matters can be attended to systematically as long as the 
State of Illinois shall endure. I suggest that our society encourage an 
effort in this direction. 

JSTo jDhotograph of the granite monument erected on Garrison Hill 
had ever been taken until a beginning was made towards the prepara- 
tion of this paper. A cut of the same accompanies this publication. The 
monument is twenty-six feet in height, and is just above and outside of 
the Catholic portion which adjoins the Protestant cemetery. Both ceme- 
teries are surrounded by partly burned cheap wooden fences which 
should be replaced by something more appropriate and more permanent. 

The view from this monument on Garrison Hill is one of the most 
remarkable to be found in the whole length and breadth of the State of 
Illinois. It is my unbiased judgment from extensive journeys over the 
State, that nowhere else is there to be found such a varied and beautiful 
picture of natural scenery as is visible at this very point, from the base 
of this monument on top of Garrison Hill, which is 360 feet above the 
bed of the river below, just opposite the old town of Kaskaskia and above 
the low lying station of Fort Gage, which is on the two railroads just 
below. 

Altho the Mississippi bluffs on the western side of our State, and 
the beautiful hills and white faced limestone bluffs of the lower Illinois 
Valley, in Greene, Jersey, Pike and Calhoun counties, are tolerably well 

i» This cemetery is Icnown locally and perhaps generally as Fort Gage Cemetery. Its proper name, 
that is, its legal name, is Garrison Hill Cemetery. Fort Kaskaskia was on Garrison IliU and it is to bo 
hoped the name of Garrison Hill Cemetery will finally be adopted. 



112 

known to the residents of the State, there are comparatively few of our 
citizens who are at all familiar with the grandeur and the beauty of the 
American Bottom in the region of old Kaskaskia; and I feel that this 
is the proper place to emphatically praise the natural and impressive 
beauty of this locality opposite the site of unfortunate old Kaskaskia. 

If our State Historical Society decides to procure a first-class 
painting of a truly grand and beautiful landscape, for the use of our 
much desired new State historical hall, no more appropriate selection 
can be made than the magnificent view from the base of the monument 
to the State's pioneers on Garrison Hill. 

There is a grand view of the Missouri bluffs in the distance, upon 
which was situated the old Spanish town of New Bourbon. The Island 
of Kaskaskia is to be leveed. It broadens out magnificently in front of 
us, and we dimly see beyond this fertile tract the narrow threadlike 
channel of the old Mississippi. The wide expanse of open water to the 
west and north is visible, where the calamitous junction of the two rivers 
was made at the time of the overflow; and the new Mississippi is barely 
visible at the base of Garrison Hill, with the edge of the remnant of old 
Kaskaskia at the front part of the view. All taken together it is a sight 
long to be remembered, and one which should be painted by some well 
qualified landscape artist and given a place in the rooms of the State 
Historical Society. 

The seeds of bitterness which were often sown on this soil, failed 
to grow to maturity, and when the monument was erected on Garrison 
Hill, it was possible to inscribe these sentiments which do honor to the 
past history of Kaskaskia, and also to the present inhabitants of the 
State of Illinois, as is shown by the following comprehensive and appro- 
l)riate inscription : 

"those who 8LKEP ilEItE WERE FIRST BURIED AT KASKASKIA, AND 
AFTERWARDS REMOVED TO THIS CEMETERY. THEY WERE THE EARLY 
PIONEERS OE THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. TIIEY PLANTED FREE INSTITU- 
TIONS IN THE WILDERNESS AND WERE THE PIONEERS OF A GREAT COM- 
MONAVEALTH. IN MEMORY OF THEIR SACRIFICE, ILLINOIS, GRATEFUL, 
ERECTS THIS MONUMENT, 1892." 

This great valley became British territory at the peace of 1763; and 
one of the first grand results of the French-American Alliance of 1778 
was the gaining of the good will of the French residents of this same 
region, which finally caused the whole Mississippi Valley to become the 
choicest portion of the American nation. 

Here, then, in full view of the vanished homes of the principal 
actors in the great drama of 1778 and later, by the side of the honored 
remains of many of those heroes of various nationalities and religions, 
is the place to properly set forth the patriotic emotions of the people of 
the middle west. Shall it be accomplished by the construction of a far 
more imposing and appropriate monument to those who are buried 
here, by a patriotic centennial Kaskaskian celebration, a historical 
painting of this grandly beautiful landscape, or shall this desirable 
accomplishment be something more thoughtfully appropriate? 



113 



BLACK HAWK'S HOME COUNTRY. 



(John H. Hauberg, Secretary Eock Island Coiuity Historical Society.) 

"This is the most dramatic spot in Illinois/' exclaimed an Illinois 
admirer of things historic and beautiful. 

He was standing upon an ancient burial mound at the westernmost 
point of the bluff known as Black Hawk's Watch Tower. Before him 
was the broad valley at the intersection of the Eock and the Mississippi 
rivers. Two miles to the northwest and in plain view the waters of the 
Eock Eiver joined those of the Father of Waters in the march to the 
sea. The village of Sears immediately at the foot of the hill, and the 
farms and gardens, rivers and islands and forest, all intimately con- 
nected, were spread before him and extended to where the view was 
dimmed by the haze which screened the far side of the great river and 
the bluffs over on the Iowa side. Interested as he was in the stirring 
events of history, this beautiful landscape had the greatest fascination, 
for this spot witnessed the rise and fall of one of the most powerful of 
western Indian nations. Here the conquering Sauk and Fox had come, 
driving before them the Illini; here was dispensed a lavish hospitality 
to friend, and from this place sallied forth the messengers of death to 
the foe; here Lieutenant Zebulon Pike had in 1805 presented the Indians 
with the beautiful banner of Stars and Stripes which was to be the first 
to be raised to the breeze of the upper Mississippi shores; here in 1814 
might have been heard the din of the desperate battle at Campbell's 
Island in which many brave Americans were killed ; here, too, was wit- 
nessed the smoke and roar of British cannon in the battle of Credit 
Island, as Briton and savage Indian united, in the War of 1812, against 
the young American republic; and in this instance against the forces 
led by the gallant young officer, Major Zachary Taylor, afterward Presi- 
dent of the United States ; and here cluster most of all the memories of 
the war which bears the name of one of the most widely known individu- 
als among our American Indians. 

For this was the birthplace and home of Black Hawk, the famous 
Sauk war-chief, central figure in the most stirring events of his nation's 
history; and of other numerous chiefs of varying degrees of prominence 
and importance, coworkers at times, and at other times divided in their 
councils; Keokuk, Quashquame, Pashepaho, Ouchequaka, Hashequare- 
qua, Matatas and others whose names appear in published records. For 
a century this was the permanent home of the largest band of the 
Sauks; was claimed to be the largest Indian village on the continent. 
Together with the Fox tribe they constituted one of the most formidable 
of the Mississippi Valley nations, and with the tomahawk and rifle ruled 
the northwestern part of Illinois, all of Iowa, the northern part of Mis- 

— 8 H S 



114 

souri and the southwestern part of Wisconsin. The Sioux of the north- 
west feared them; the Osages were kept under discipline on the Mis- 
souri; their ancient enemy, the Cherokees, to the southwest, knew their 
abilit}^ to lift scalps; the Kaskaskias and Ivickapoos were driven to the 
southerly part of Illinois ; and they had similar diplomatic relations with 
the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Winnehagos and the Menomi- 
nees of the north and east, among whom the ability to present some 
enemy's scalp served as a passport to their respect. 

The Sauks and Foxes were a united nation and were tillers of the 
soil as welJ as hunters and trappers, and today we find marks of their 
farming operations in not less than five sections of the government sur- 
vey of lands, in South Eock Island. It was the bronzed squaw and tlie 
dark-eyed maiden, however, who did the farming ; and it is interesting to 
note that while Black Hawk was protesting, in later years, that their 
chiefs who were claimed to have sold their home land"s to the United 
States Government, had not been authorized by the tribes to sell; the 
v/omen of the village also had their representative, one of their own 
sex who argued with General Gaines that the corn fields had never been 
the property of the men, and that these fields, at least, had not changed 
hands, for the women had not sold them nor had they been consulted in 
any proposed sale of them. 

The method of cultivation was by hoeing the field into little mounds 
or hillocks and planting the corn in the top of these hillocks, which were 
from fifteen to twenty inches in height. Providentially, it seems, large 
areas of these ancient corn fields have never been molested by the farm- 
ing implements of the white man, but were fenced, and have since been- 
used for pasture. A fine blue grass sod has grown over all, and so they 
have been preserved much as the Indian left them, except for the large 
forest trees which have since grown up ; and while the weather, cattle and 
other causes have obliterated most of the hillocks, hundreds upon hun- 
dreds of these Indian corn hills ruffle the surface of pasture and wood- 
land in the vicinity of the Watch Tower and constitute one of the most 
interesting and fascinating remains of Indian occupation. With these 
real evidences before one, it is easy to see in the mind's eye the busied 
squaAV, assisted by the young boys and aged men, laboring at the planting 
and the harvest; the imagination peoples the nearby village with its 
hushed prattle of voices ; the children playing at the water's edge ; the 
warrior overhauling his weapons of offense and the implements of the 
chase; now a season of birds and blossoms, and again the Indian Sum- 
mer, each Avith its own schedule of activities, and all of it, primitive 
man and his primeval surroundings blending into a picture beyond the 
brush of any human artist. 

Following the planting of the corn came the festival devoted espe- 
cially to the gentler sex, and called the Crane Dance. At this festival 
the young maidens adorned themselves with feathers and heightened 
their complexions with the use of paint. It was this occasion which 
called for the definite proposal of marriage on the part of the brave, 
tho Black Hawk, as mere man, bluntly says, "The young men selected 
their wives at this time." One July day as these primitive villagers 
were scattered about their fields hoeing the corn, there occurred the 
culmination of a romance and the tragedy of Indian Lover's Spring. It 



115 

is interestingly told by Black Hawk in his autobiography and we will 
listen to his words. Unfortunately^ we would be unable to comprehend 
the meaning of his native speech, and so we have it in our own English, 
done over perhaps imperfectly by the Indian's friend and interpreter, 
Antoine LeClaire : "In 1827, a young Sioux Indian got lost on the 
prairie, in a snow-storm, and found his way into a camp of the Sacs. 
According to Indian customs, altho he was an enemy, he was safe while 
accepting their hospitality. He remained there for some time on account 
of the severity of the storm. Becoming well acquainted, he fell in love 
with the daughter of the Sac, at whose village he had been entertained; 
and before leaving for his own country, promised to come to the Sac 
village for her at a certain time during the approaching summer. In 
July, he made his way to the Eock Kiver village, secreting himself in 
the woods until he met the object of his love, who came out to the field 
witli her mother to assist her in hoeing corn. Late in the afternoon her 
mother left her and went to the village. No sooner had she gone out of 
hearing than he gave a loud whistle which assured the maiden that he 
had returned. She continued hoeing leisurely to the end of the row, when 
lier lover came to meet her. She promised to come to him as soon as 
she could go to the lodge and get her blanket, and together they would 
flee to his country. But, unfortunately for the lovers, the girl's two 
brothers had seen the meeting, and, after procuring their guns, started 
in pursuit of them. A heavy thunderstorm was coming on at the time. 
The lovers hastened to and took shelter under a cliff of rocks at Black 
Hawk's "Watch Tower. Soon after, a loud peal of thunder was heard, the 
cliff of rocks was shattered in a thousand pieces, the lovers buried 
beneath, while in full view of her pursuing brothers. This, their unex- 
pected tomb, still remains undisturbed." 

Perhaps a more historically important object than the corn hills is 
the embankment or mound upon which was built the Sauk Council 
Lodge. Part of this mound still remains, having outlived a spur of 
railroad which absorbed part of it; a canal or tail-race which missed it 
by a few yards; and escaped being covered up with refuse rock taken 
from the bottom of the river when the nearby hydro-electric plant was 
installed. The mound stands about one hundred and fifty paces from 
Rock River and was well toward the east end of the Indian village. This 
was the capital, if you please, of a country greater than any state in the 
Mississippi Valley, as well as the town hall of what is reliably men- 
tioned as the largest Indian village on the continent. Here brave and 
chief met in council and decided upon important matters of state — and 
what is more, the legislators personally saw to the execution of their 
enactments : 

"In this engagement (with the Osages), I killed five men and one 
sfpiaw, and had the good fortune to take the scalps of all T struck with 
one exception, that of the squaw who was accidentally killed. • The 
enemy's loss in this engagement was about one hundred braves; ours, 
nineteen." 

Next in turn. Black Hawk, with the council, took action regarding 
tlie Cherokees, with the following report: "In this battle I killed tliree 
men and wounded several. The enemy's loss was twenty-eight; ours, 
seven." Again: "We started in the third moon witli five hundred Sacs 



116 

and Foxes and one hundred lowas determined upon the complete and 
final extermination of the dastardly Osages. We fell upon forty lodges, 
killed all the inhabitants except two squaws, whom I took as prisoners." 

"Early next morning the council lodge was crowded," says Black 
Hawk, speaking of the occasion, when certain chiefs, sent to St. Louis 
in 1804, had come to give their report. They had been sent to secure 
the release of a fellow tribesman who had gotten himself into prison 
for killing a white man; but, instead of bringing back the culprit, they 
returned with a story of a sale of lands — these very lands upon which 
stood their village — tho they afterwards professed ignorance of that fact. 
Again we will let their war chief tell the story: "The party started with 
the good wishes of the whole nation, who had high hopes that the emis- 
saries would accomplish the object of their mission. The relations of 
the prisoner blackened their faces and fasted, hoping the Great Spirit 
would take pity on them and return husband and father to his sorrowing 
wife and weeping children. 

"Quashquame and his party remained a long time absent. They at 
length returned and encamped near the village, a short distance below 
it, and did not come up that day, nor did anyone approach their camp. 
They appeared to be dressed in fine coats and had medals. From these 
circumstances we were in hopes that they had brought good news. Early 
the next morning the council lodge was crowded ; Quashquame and party 
came up and gave the following account of their mission: 

"'On our arrival at St. Louis, we met our American Father (William 
Henry Harrison) and explained to him our business, urging the release 
of our friend. The American Chief told us he wanted land. We agreed 
to give him some on the west side of the Mississippi, likewise more on 
the Illinois side, opposite Jeffreon (now called North Fabius Eiver) in 
Missouri. When the business was all arranged we expected to have our 
friend released to come home with us. About the time we were ready to 
start, our brother was let out of the prison. He started and ran a short 
distance when he was shot dead.^ " 

The crowded council on this occasion had listened to the account of 
the treaty which passed the title to all their lands east of the Mississippi ; 
which, the chief said, was the origin of all our serious difficulties with the 
whites, and which ended with the Black Hawk War in 1832. 

Another important meeting held at this old council lodge was during 
the War of 1812, when Keokuk was elected a war chief. Black Hawk 
with the main force of his warriors had gone to assist the British in 
their operations against the Americans about Detroit. The women, 
children and old men had been left at home with but a small party of 
braves to care for them, and would have been unable to defend themselves 
had they been attacked by th? Americans. Black Hawk soon became 
disgusted with the Britishers' n\etliod of warfare, returned to his village, 
and was introduced to the new chief, who was destined to be his most 
hated rival for leadership — Chief Keokuk. We will quote from the 
autobiography : "I inquired how he had become chief. They said that 
a large armed force was seen by their spies going toward Peoria. Fears 
were entertained that they would come up and attack the village; and a 
council had been called to decide as to the best course to be adopted, 
which concluded upon leaving the village and going to the west side of 



117 

the Mississippi to get out of the way. Keokuk, during the sitting of the 
council, had been standing at the door of the lodge, not being allowed to 
enter, as he had never killed an enemy, where he remained until old 
Waeome came out. He then told him that he had heard what they 
decided on, and was anxious to be permitted to speak before the council 
adjourned. Waeome returned and asked leave for Keokuk to come in 
and make a speech. His request was granted. Keokuk entered and 
addressed the chiefs. He said : 'I have heard with sorrow that you have 
determined to leave our village and cross the Mississippi merely because 
you have been told that the Americans were coming in this direction. 
Would you leave our village, desert our homes, and fly before an enemy 
approaches? Would you leave all, even the graves of our fathers, to the 
enemy without trying to defend them ? Give me charge of your warriors 
and 1 will defend the village while you sleep in safety.' 

^'The council consented that Keokuk should be war chief. He 
marshaled his braves, sent out spies and advanced with a party himself 
on the trail leading to Peoria. They returned without seeing an enemy. 
The Americans did not come by our village. All were satisfied with the 
appointment of Keokuk. He used every precaution that our people 
should not be surprised. This is the manner and the cause of his 
receiving the appointment. I was satisfied." 

Ancient mounds are numerous in the vicinity of the Watch Tower. 
The most interesting group being one mile east of the Watch Tower Inn, 
It has twenty-two large burial mounds, besides a number of low eleva- 
tions about a foot in height, about six feet in width and fifty feet in 
length. Considering the fact that our Indians held the burial places of 
their dead in the highest reverence, and that among the mounds of this 
group are found numerous corn hills not only between the mounds but 
extending up their sides, we are led to believe that these mounds M^ere 
built by a people of such remote antiquity that even the traditions regard- 
ing them had failed or had lost their force upon the Sauk who turned 
this cemetery into a cornfield. These mounds crown a high bluff from 
which an inspiring view is to be had over Eock River and its bottoms, 
and from them have been taken such fragments of pottery as is com- 
monly found among the works of the ancient Mound Builders. At the 
foot of the bluff, along the river bank, several hundred yards from these 
mounds we find more fragments of this clay product which is identical 
with that classed by students as typical upper Mississippi, or north- 
western pottery, as distinguished from that found in the mounds of the 
lower Mississippi. By whom were these mounds built? 

The so-called Mound Builders made and used pottery. Our Sauk 
and Fox Indians and their contemporaries neither made nor used it. 
According to Black Hawk, his people drove the Kaskaskias from Rock 
River. An authority states that the Kickapoos preceded them. Neither 
of these tribes used pottery. We have here a subject suited to the 
liveliest imagination; for, we are undoubtedly considering a lost and 
forgotten race. Who will write their story? Who will venture to call 
upon this valley of dead men's bones; recall them to life and set them 
about their tasks, such tasks, of course, as only a fertile imagination 
could assign ? 



118 

An interesting explanation of the causes ^vhich led to the apparent 
difference between the ancient Mound Builder and our western Indian 
is given by Clark McAdams in an article on the "Archaeology of Illinois" 
(Vol. 12, Publication of Illinois State Historical Library). Mr. Mc- 
Adams pictures a community of Indians — we will call them Mound 
Builders — of an advanced type of civilization, capable of supporting 
themselves necessarily by a more or less intensive agriculture in very 
])opulous communities, and executing great works of a public nature, 
e. g. the Cahokia Mounds. Into this community wanders the buffalo, an 
animal heretofore unknown to them; and it is discovered that just to 
the west and crowding eastward, there are hordes and hordes of these 
animals. The family breadwinner soon learns that it is easier to make 
a living by the chase than by cultivating the soil. He drops his imple- 
ments and tools, retaining only what is necessary for the chase. Nearly 
all the household necessities of his former mode of living are found to be 
a burden and a nuisance. To insure greater success in the chase, the 
tribe is divided into small bands, which, with the least equipment pos- 
sible, follow the trail of the wild herds, and, in a few generations have 
degenerated into the nomad of our western plains, as our people found 
them. 

Let us consider for a moment the position held by Black Hawk's 
people among the aborigines of our continent. The Sauk and Fox 
occupied a place midway between the nomad and the farmer. One-half 
of the year was spent at their home village; the rest of the time they 
roamed over their wide extent of territory. As farmers, they must live 
in a fixed locality; while, as nomads, their impedimenta must be as 
nearly nil as possible. It requires more than one season to change a 
native prairie sod into a good crop-producing field, so they necessarily 
stayed by their old cornfields. As to their civilization indicated by their 
household utensils, we find from the old account books of the Indian 
trader on Rock Island, Col. George Davenport, that the sole article of 
kitchen wares sold by him to the Indians was the kettle. Nothing else, 
aside from blankets, weapons, etc., appears until after they had been 
driven to the west side of the Mississippi and were receiving annuities 
from the Government, when they indulged in such luxuries as the tea 
and coffe pot, tin pans; and the height of luxury was reached in the 
purchase of an item, by one of the chiefs, of twenty tin cups. Col. 
])avenport's credit book for 1830, has accounts of 250 individual Indians. 
Out of the lot the following is a fair sample of the nature of the goods 
purchased : 

1830. Pow-we-shick. Upper Mines. 

1 Stroud $0 00 1 Tomyhawk..$ 2 00 1 Bell $1 00 

1 Pt. Blanket. 3 00 Salt 1 00 1 Pr. Combs.. 1 00 

1 Molten Man- 1 Breachcloth. 2 00 1 Knife 50 

tlet 4 00 1 Tin kettle.. 4 00 

2 Knives 1 00 4 Traps 24 00 $49 50 

The blulf known as the Black Hawk Watch Tower is three-fourths of 
a mile in length, its highest point being at the western extremity men- 
tioned in the opening paragraph above. A half mile east of this point 
the bluff rises sheer from the water's edge to a height of one hundred 
seventy-five feet and here the Watch Tower Inn is located. One can 




Cabin on site of Black Hawk's Wigwam where he lived I 
loss of a son and daughter. It is on the bluff overlookinf 



/o years mourning the 
the Indian Village. 



119 

scarcely imagine a more beautiful scene than is to be had from this 
point. Visitors never tire of it but return to it time and again. Rock 
Eivcr flowing immediately by the foot of the bluff is here divided by 
islands and at the far side is the Hennepin Canal ; and beyond, is the 
village of Milan, which at this distance seems perpetually to be dozing 
in the summer's sun. Thousands of visitors come by trolley every week 
of the warm season and many an evening finds the gi'ounds covered with 
parties gathered about the picnic basket. 

It is interesting to know that this spot attracted the Indian no less 
than the varied population of the Tri-cities of today. Here they came on 
pleasure bent, and Black Hawk in his autobiography says : "This tower 
to which my name was applied was a favorite resort, and was frequently 
visited by me alone, when I could sit and smoke my pipe, and look with 
wonder and pleasure at the grand scenes that were presented by the Sun's 
rays, even across the mighty waters. On one occasion a Frenchman who 
had been making his home in our village, brought his violin with him 
to the tower, to play and dance for the amusement of a number of our 
people who had assembled there; and while dancing with his back to the 
cliff, accidentally fell over it and was killed by the fall." The Indians 
declared that always at the same time of the year, soft strains of the 
violin could be heard near that spot. 

The famous chief at one time moved from his village below the 
hill to the top of the Watch Tower bluff, where he lived for two years 
doing penance over the death of a beloved son and daughter. The exact 
location of his cabin is vouched for by one of our grand old pioneers 
still living, to whom it Avas pointed out by other pioneers (now deceased), 
who lived here among the Indians, previous to their going, finally, across 
tlie Mississippi. We will let Black Hawk tell the story in his own words: 

"My eldest son was taken sick and died. He had always been a 
dutiful child and had just grown to manhood. Soon after, my youngest 
daughter, an interesting and affectionate child, died also. This was a 
hard stroke, because I loved my children. In my distress I left the noise 
of the village and built my lodge on a mound in the cornfield, and 
enclosed it with a fence, around which I planted corn and beans. Here 
I w^as with my family alone. I gave away everything I had and reduced 
myself to poverty. The only covering I retained was a piece of buffalo 
robe. I blacked my face and resolved on fasting for twenty-four moons, 
for the loss of my two children — drinking only of water during the day 
and eating sparingly of boiled corn at sunset. I fulfilled my promise, 
hoping that the Great Spirit would take pity on me." 

From the location of this lodge of penance we will step fonv^ard 
some thirty paces to the vantage point mentioned at the beginning of 
this story — the Indian burial mound at the extreme western end of the 
bluff. The time is June, A. D. 1831. All has changed. For three years 
the white man and the Indian had lived side by side, the former having 
plowed up and occupied many of the cornfields of the latter. It was no 
use trying to live together, and the determined Black Hawk told the 
whites they must go. Terror-stricken, the settlers fled to the protection 
of Fort Armstrong, on Rock Island. On June 20 came the white 
man's answer, to which the chief and all his braves together could make 
no reply. To the south of Rock River, from where Andalusia now 



120 

stands, came a cavalcade of sixteen hundred horsemen, headed by His 
Excellency, Governor John Eeynolds, and Brigadier General Joseph 
Duncan, and a further contingent of two hundred men acting as a spy 
battalion under Major Samuel Whiteside. To the right from our van- 
tage point came the company of Eock River Eangers, deployed as skirm- 
ishers, followed by nine companies of the United States Regulars and a 
piece of artillery, all commanded by John Bliss, Commander at Fort 
Armstrong. As if this were not sufficient there came up by way of Rock 
River a steamboat carrying the Commander-in-Chief, General Edmund 
P. Gaines, with more United States soldiers and more artillery. But 
the Indians' messenger service had always been reliable; they had not 
doubted its spies now; so the white man this day found not an Indian; 
all were safe beyond the broad Father of Waters. With two thousand 
five hundred soldiers encamped for a distance of ten miles along the 
Mississippi, Black Hawk and his people, horses, dogs and all, had crossed 
under cover of darkness, and not a sentry so much as suspected that any 
one had passed. 

Chagrined that the wily enemy had so easily slipped by them, the 
pale-faced militia gratified their bent for destruction by firing the lodges 
and in a little while the village which for a century had been the home 
of a happy people, had gone up in smoke, a sacrifice upon the altar of the 
higher civilization. 

But Black Hawk was not so easily to be disposed of. To his utmost 
he used his powers of persuasion upon the warriors of the unhappy 
tribes. Against him was pitted Chief Keokuk, who argued the useless- 
ness of further protest against the whites. Bitter dissensions aggravated 
their condition. A miserable year passed, but with the return of spring, 
came the overwhelming desire to return to their villages, as had been 
the custom all of their lives. This time but a thousand people came with 
him. The squaws, old men, children and supplies, came up the Missis- 
sippi in canoes, while the chief with his warriors, well armed, came on 
horseback up the Illinois side of the river. As they reached the mouth 
of Rock River, they beat their drums to show the soldiers at Fort Arm- 
strong they were not afraid. Again the settlers fled to the fort, and 
again the scenes of the previous year : great columns of mounted militia ; 
Rock River Rangers and United States Regulars; thousands of enlisted 
Americans participated in the summer of 1832 in removing for all time 
from his beloved Watch Tower and village this determined son of the 
forest and plains. Among those with whom he measured his valor and 
strategy were two who became Presidents of the United States; one 
who presided over the Southern States in their revolt of the 60's ; three 
who afterwards served as United States Senators ; Judges of the Illinois 
Supreme Court; five Governors of Illinois and many more who became 
famous in the military as well as the civil affairs of the nation. 

It is not within the province of this paper to follow the fortunes 
and misfortunes of these contending forces. Enough to say that in the 
first engagement. Black Hawk and a small part of his forces completely 
routed their antagonists, who outnumbered the Indians seven to one, and 
spread the greatest consternation among the settlers of the middle west. 
Their frightful battle yells caused the panic-stricken militia of Major 



1?1 

Stillman's to report that they had been attacked by two thousand blood- 
rhirgty savages. 

Early in April, 1832, the Indians, fearful, yet buoyed with hope, 
had crossed the Mississippi to return to Eock River. On April 12 they 
passed the ruins of their old home village, and that night found them a 
little way above where Milan now stands, for the last time encamped in 
sight of their old favorite resort, the Black Hawk Watch Tower. Less 
than four months later they were in such straits that the chief says of 
them: "Our only hope to save ourselves was to get across the Missis- 
sippi;" but first they must find means of reaching that stream. Some 
had gained the Wisconsin River, which they began to descend in liastily 
constructed canoes, but there were soldiers along the way, and their 
chief's account of it says: "Some of our people were killed, others 
drowned, several taken prisoners, and the balance escaped to the woods 
and perished with hunger." This experience was repeated at the Bad 
Axe as the remnant of his faithful followers were swimming the Missis- 
sippi for their lives. "One hundred and fifty were killed, most of them 
in the water." Of the one thousand who had announced their presence 
with the beating of drums as they entered Rock River in April, only 
three hundred lived to reach what was henceforth to be their home — the 
country farther west; and the proud old chief, now past sixty years of 
age, who in his day had led his warriors against the enemies of his 
people; who had extended and kept clear of trespassers, their hunting 
grounds, and who among all the famed Indian warriors of American 
history had not a peer in generalship on the field of battle; the old 
war-chief. Black Hawk, broken in spirit and utterly humiliated, was 
given over to the care and custody of his hated rival, Keokuk. 

"Bitter reflections crowd upon my mind," said the chief afterwards. 
"How different our situation now from what it was in those happy days. 
Then we were as happy as the buffalo on the plains, but now we are as 
miserable as the hungry wolf on the prairie." * * * "When I called 
to mind the scenes of my youth and those of later days, when I reflected 
that the theater on which these were acted had been so long the home of 
my fathers who now slej^t on the hills around it, I could not bring my 
mind to consent to leave this country for any earthly consideration." 

Truly, there is a charm about Black Hawk's home country for all 
who visit it, and a benediction for all who gaze from the heights of the 
tower upon the scenes of beauty beneath it, and contemplate the great 
drama enacted within its sacred precincts. 



122 



THE WILLIAMSON COUNTY VENDETTA. 



(By George W. Young, Marion.) 

In speaking of that part of the State of Illinois commonly called 
Egypt, the reader usnally has in mind that portion of the State lying 
south of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which traces almost a straight 
line from East St. Louis, in St. Clair County, through Carlyle, the 
county seat of Clinton County, Salem, the county seat of Marion County, 
Flora, the county seat of Clay County, Olney, the county seat of Rich- 
land County, Lawrenceville, the county seat of Lawrence County, ending 
at Vincennes on the east bank of the Wabash River in Indiana. 

Williamson County is bounded on the north by Franklin, on the 
west by Jackson, on the south by Union and Johnson Counties, on the 
east by Saline County. It is eighteen miles north and south by twenty- 
four miles east and west. Marion, the county seat, is in the geographical 
center of the county. It is a great coal producing county and has some 
of the largest and best equipped mines in the southern part of the State. 
It occupies a rather central position between the Mississippi River on 
the west and the Ohio River on the east and south, being about sixty 
miles north of Metropolis and the Ohio River, about seventy-five miles 
north and a little east of Cairo at the junction of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers. 

Williamson County and Franklin County were both embraced in 
one territory until eighteen hundred and thirty-nine (1839), when by 
act of the Legislature the territory of Franklin County was divided and 
the southern half was called Williamson County. Marion was estab- 
lished as the county seat. 

The early settlers of the county were emigrants, principally from- 
the southern states, Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. They were 
imbued with strong southern proclivities, having been used to slavery 
and raised under the influence of the slave-owning aristocracy of these 
slave-holding states. JSTotwithstanding all of this, they were, as a rule, 
men of sterling integrity and great force of character; and when they 
once became settled in an opinion which they believed to be right, they 
were strong and determined in defending their notions of right and 
wrong. 

This being true, of course, the prevailing political sentiment was 
Democratic, leaning towards the Southern Democracy. In order to show 
how strong this sentiment was, it is only necessary to refer back to the 
presidential election of 1856, when James Buchanan, Democratic candi- 
date, received 1,419 votes; John C. Fremont, the Republican candidate, 
received but ten (10) votes; Fillmore and Donaldson received 188 votes; 
total number of votes cast, 1,617. Four years later, at the election of 



123 

1860, Stephen A. Douglas, the Democratic candidate for President, 
received 1,835 votes; Breckenridge, the southern wing Democratic 
candidate, received 40 votes; Bell and Everett, the Constitution-union 
candidates, received 166 votes; Lincoln and Hamlin, the Repuhlican 
candidates, received only 173 votes out of a total 2,214 votes cast. 

At the election of 1864 which took place during the war, at which 
Illinois soldiers were not allowed to vote while in the field, Lincoln 
received 859 votes, while McClellan received 1,121 votes. Total votes 
cast, 1,908. It will be observed that from 60 to 64 the Republican, or 
Abraham Lincoln, vote had increased from 173 in 1860 to 859 in 1864; 
but during the period of the Civil War, from 1861 to 1865, Williamson 
County furnished the Union army with more than fifteen hundred troops. 

During the Civil War there were a great many southern refugees 
came to this county, principally from Tennessee and Kentucky. These 
refugees were what we usually termed Southern Unionists, or, in other 
words, they were opposed to secession, and favored the old Stars and 
Stripes, and the Union of our fathers; and as a natural result they had 
a great many relatives in the Union army; and this being so, they were 
ostracized and abused by the strong rebel element in many localities in 
the states from whence they came. These southern refugees, as a rule, 
brought with them their fiery southern spirit. The southern tinge of 
honor and bravery and fight was at all times ready to resent any insult 
or supposed insult reflecting upon their integrity and honor. They 
could not, and, as a rule, would not, brook an insult, or supposed insult. 
Such meant fight. A great many of these refugees, as they were called, 
settled in the western portion of Williamson and the eastern portion of 
Jackson counties. 

It must not be forgotten, or lost sight of, that the major portion of 
the original settlers and residents of the western portion of Williamson 
County, and all other parts of the county for that matter, were the lineal 
descendants of the families emigrating from the southern states during 
the Civil War ; and that they brought with them to this State that degree 
of fiery spirit and resentment to any insult or supposed insult that might 
be given to them for any cause or from any source. Thus it can be 
readily seen that any physical trouble terminating in force or fight was 
just as ready and as natural from the old settlers as it was from the 
more recent immigrants, or refugees; in this you have one blood, one 
sentiment, one disposition, one nature and one ambition. 

It cannot be Avell or truthfully said that the Williamson County 
Vendetta, as it has passed into history, originated and was conducted 
along political lines ; that is, it was not a war of Republicans on the one 
side and Democrats on the other; while there was some politics devel- 
oped, yet such was incidentally thrown in, and had no relative bearing 
upon results which appeared to be killing certain persons. As the ani- 
mosities, hatred, and revenge grew and spread out from one family and 
kindred to another, and apparently from one settlement to another, there 
seemed to be a growing desire to assassinate and kill whomever some one 
individual, or one or more individuals, seem to decide upon without any 
special or given reason for such conduct. 



134 

It will be impossible to go into all of the minute details connected 
with what is generally referred to in history as the Williamson County 
Vendetta of 1874 to 1876. 

When we come to look at the first beginning, and trace it thru all 
of its meanderings and connecting circumstances at this distant day; 
when we attempt to analyze the different families and forces that were 
connected in this deadly strife extending over three years, we are lost 
in wonder and amazement at the results. It seems there were about six 
families lined up in the foreground at the beginning of the trouble; 
namely, the Eussell family, the Sisney family, the Henderson family, 
the Bulliner family, the Grain family, -and the Hinchcliff family. So 
far as the Eussell family is concerned, it could never be ascertained that 
more than one of them was engaged very extensively in the strife; that 
is Thomas Eussell, who is still living. He was the son of Jefferson 
Eussell. The said Jefferson Eussell, long since deceased, was an old 
resident of the county, had lived in the west side of the county, perhaps, 
since the year 1838. There was a large family of the Eussells. I think 
they originally cam« from Tennessee in an early day. George W. Sisney 
was one of the old-time settlers. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, 
and was also a captain in the Eighty-first Illinois Infantry Volunteers 
during the Givil War. James Henderson was allied with a large family, 
but they did not come to this county until about the year 1863. Politically 
the three families I have mentioned were all Eepublicans. Then we 
have the Bulliner family; and the Grain family; and the Hinchcliff fam- 
ily. They were considered Democrats, but they were not looked upon 
as mean, or reckless in their conduct and manner of living. They owned 
large tracts of land and followed farming for a living. 

I attribute the animosities growing out of the little bouts and fights 
which were at the inception of this extensive feud to the war spirit of 
the times. All of these leading families were in a measure connected 
with the outbreak, the progress and result of the Civil War. Passions 
ran high. And while it might be said that the war had been closed for 
nearly eight years, yet there had been one continuous battle of politics 
going on in this county since 1866, and the blood was never allowed to 
cool down. 

I will give only a few little incidents which appear in the fore- 
ground in connection with the character and disposition of the actors, 
and which go a good way toward explaining the results that developed 
later. 

The first fight in the Vendetta history occurred in July, 1872, in a 
saloon near the west side of Williamson County, in which it appears 
that some of the Bulliner boys were playing cards. A couple of the Hen- 
derson boys came in and, watching the run of the game, began to bet 
on results; and this, of course, caused them to, as the saying goes, "put 
in" or "butt in" and interfere with the conduct of the game. This 
enraged the players, who were the Bulliners, and they soon got into a 
fight, and it was claimed that the Hendersons got the worst of it. They 
carried it with tlicm for some time and perhaps it was renewed at differ- 
ent places; like the rolling of a snow ball, the more it is rolled the more 
it gathers. They began to gather in those taking sides and renewed the 
fight in various ways for something like three years. This had the effect 



125 

of bringing in the Sisneys and the Eussells. Another little occurrence 
came along between one of the Bulliners and the older Mr. Sisney in the 
settlement and payment of some rent which was due from one of Mr. 
Sisney's tenants. Mr, Sisney's farm joined Mr. Bulliner's on the east. 
The tenant sold some oats to Mr. Bulliner to pay a debt, and also let 
Mr. Sisney have the same oats as pay on the rent. This brought up a 
controversy between David Bulliner and George W. Sisney, as to who 
was the rightful owner of the oats. They had a lawsuit. Sisney held 
the oats; along in connection with this trial Mr. Bulliner accused 
Mr. Sisney of swearing a falsehood at the trial and that was the reason 
why he gained the lawsuit. This conversation was in a blacksmith shop 
on Mr. Sisney's farm. This enraged Mr. Sisney to such an extent that 
he picked up a shovel and knocked David Bulliner down. There were 
some four or six of the Bulliner boys living on the adjoining farm. 
David Bulliner ran home and got three of his brothers and his father. 
They came back with their guns and pistols; and Sisney, seeing them 
coming, retreated out of his house into a field, and they began firing on 
Sisney. It is said that he was hit by four of the balls, which took effect 
in his leg and hip, rendering him helpless. The old man Bulliner and 
one of the boj^s took Mr. Sisney into his house, and cared for him as 
best they could. Sisney was able to be up and about in the course of five 
or six weeks. It is proper to mention here that Sisney had three grown 
sons Avho were full of grit and fight, and they never got over the treat- 
ment their father received. It would seem they gradually went with the 
Eussells and Hendersons as new actors came upon the stage. 

There were several men and boys belonging to the Grain family. 
In fact, this being an old and populous family, there were really more 
of them than of any other family connected with the feud, and, as a rule, 
they were all fighters. 

Along at first — that is, for the first year or so — 1872 and 1873 — it 
would seem that there was more of a family or settlement feud than 
anything else. In looking over the map of the territory which embraced 
so much fighting, shooting and killing, J find that the whole scene of the 
troubles is embraced in about six miles square, not more territory than 
is embraced in one township; but in this locality is situated the little 
railroad station called Crainville, in the vicinity of which most of the 
Grains lived. Then we would have the Sisneys and Bulliners on the 
south, the Eussells on the west, the Hendersons and HinchclifPs on the 
north, and the Grains on the east and center. At this little railroad 
station called Grainville there were two stores, a blacksmith shop, drug- 
store and some other little huckster stands as a part of the accessories of 
the little village. The drug-store, of course, furnished "spirits fermenti" 
on prescriptions. Every time any of the different warring factions came 
together there was more or less fighting of some kind. This of itself did 
not amount to much at the time, but as usual it is claimed that some one 
or the other of the factions took an undue advantage of the other and 
thereby left a tinge of hard feeling and malice on, the part of those who 
got the worst of it, claiming that an undue advantage was taken of them 
by the victorious factions. 

I speak of the parties as boys. I do not mean by this that they were 
little schoolboys; on the contrary, I mean that they were ostensibly 



126 

growu-up men, none of them perhaps under eighteen years of age, rang- 
ing from that to thirty years and over. Strictly speaking, they were 
young men and old men and they all got into it, and it spread out so 
.that before the high tide was reached several were killed, mostly by 
assassination; but a vast number were driven from the country. 

It would make this article entirely too lengthy to review, and men- 
tion in detail all of the actors who were connected in this terrible drama, 
beginning in 1872 and ending in 1876. 

To tell of all of the different fights and personal injuries inflicted 
and received would make a long chapter; but the enormity of this con- 
spiracy consists in the taking of life by assassination of the prominent 
citizens and heads of families, who were living in the county at th^ time, 
and looked upon as reliable, honest citizens. The record shows the fol- 
lowing: December 12, 1873, George Bulliner, sr., who was a man of 
some wealth and prominence and looked upon as honest, sober and indus- 
trious, and possessed of considerable energy and enterprise, and was 
the father of the Bulliner boys heretofore spoken of, was assassinated in 
broad daylight as he was riding along on the public road on horseback 
near the west line of Williamson County by some parties who were con- 
cealed in a tree top and who had made a blind and were waiting for his 
appearance. He was shot four times, receiving the discharge of two 
double-barrel shot guns held by two assassins. The next in line was his 
son, David Bulliner, a young man about thirty-two years old, who was 
living with his father adjoining the Sisney farm. He had been to 
church that night, and on his way back in company with some young 
people he was fired upon by some parties hidden in a fence corner near 
the road. He died in a few hours. That was March 27, 1874. The 
next was, May 15, 1874, James Henderson, a farmer and head of a 
family. He came from Kentucky and was opening up a farm north of 
Crainville. He was working in his new ground one afternoon mending 
log heaps. He lay down to rest on the ground and was fired upon from 
the woods near by and killed. The next was, May 25, 1874. John 
Ditmore, a farmer, was assassinated while plowing in his field. It was 
thought he was killed because he saw the parties who shot James Hen- 
derson. Next was, October 4, 1874, Dr. Vincent Hinchcliff. He had 
been out to visit some patients after night and was returning home 
horseback. He Avas fired upon from the woods and killed. 

Next was, December 12, 1874, Captain George W. Sisney, who was 
at that time living adjoining Bulliner's farm in Williamson County. 
He was shot thru the window in his house while in a conversation with 
another man by the name of Hindman. It was a severe wound tearing 
the muscle off of his left arm and severely wounding him in the side. 
He recovered sufficiently to go to his place. He soon afterwards moved 
to Carbondale in Jackson County, Illinois, where he lived until July 
28, 1875. He was sitting in his house on the north side of the square in 
Carbondale, conversing with a friend by the name of Overton Stanley 
when Marshal T. Grain slipped up. and watching his opportunity, shot 
him with a double-barrel shot gun heavily charged, killing him instantly. 
Next was, July 31, 1875, William Spence, a merchant at Crainville, 
who owned a store and was sleeping upstairs. Some parties went and 
called him down under the pretense of wanting to buy some shrouding. 



As he was coining to the door with a hamp in his hands he was shot dead. 
Here we have a list of seven prominent farmers, business men and 
professional men, who became the prey of the assassin's bullet. There 
were others who were wonnded and injured, but so far as my research 
goes these are the only deaths that I can find. 

Of course, the indignation of the people became aroused in 1874, 
but the scene of the tragedy and the murders was nearly 12 miles from 
the county seat; and the county officers, and officers of the law, living 
mostly at the county seat, were slow to gather up the enormity of the 
crimes that were being committed. But finally, public sentiment became 
aroused and two of the best lawyers in this end oL' the State were em- 
ployed to assist the prosecution. They were Andrew D. Duff, ex-circuit 
judge, and Hon. William J. Allen who died while filling the office oL' 
United States District Judge at Springfield January 2G, 1901. Several 
of the parties who were most actively engaged in the bloody work were 
a^jprehended and one or two of them turned State's evidence on the 
rest. Quite a number of them were sent to the penitentiary for long 
terms. Prosecution of these parties, it was estimated, cost the county 
over $13,000— $4,000 in rewards, attorneys' fees alone $3,650. 

The man who assassinated Captain George W. Sisney on the north 
side of the public square in Carbondale, Illinois, was arraigned before 
the circuit court of Williamson County, the Hon. Monroe C. Crawford, 
judge presiding, who is still living at Jonesboro, Union County, Illinois. 
Marshal T. Crain when so arraigned on the 19th day of October, 1875, 
entered his plea of not guilty. The Hon. William W. Clemens, now 
judge of the city court of Marion, a good lawyer and an old practitioner, 
who has been in the law practice in this city ever since 1863, was 
appointed by the court to defend Mr. Crain; when they were preparing 
to take the evidence Mr. Crain changed his mind, withdrew his plea of 
"not guilty" and entered the plea of guilty. I was present at the trial. 
It was a most singular occurrence. The State's attorney and those who 
were assisting him, Hon. A. D. Duff and W. J. Allen, objected to his 
withdrawing his plea of not guilty on- the ground that it was a case of 
murder and that the jury was the only tribunal empowered by the Con- 
stitution to pass upon his guilt or innocence; that it was not necessary 
for the defendant to plead at all, but by standing mute it was a plea of 
not guilty. Judge Crawford finally decided to let him withdraw his 
plea of "not guilty" and let the case be decided by the court. Judge 
Crawford took up nearly two days hearing the evidence in connection 
with the two witnesses who had turned "State's evidence" and those to 
whom Marshal T. Grain himself had confessed to the killing of Captain 
Sisney. I have before me the partial report of that remarkable hearing. 

i will insert the substance of what was said by Judge Crawford, as 
I believe it is the only case, up to that time, where the court had passed 
the death sentence upon a defendant upon a ]ilea of guilty of murder. 
The judge said : 

"It is natural to all men to avoid serious responsibility and I Avould 
much rather this case had been tried by a jury; but the defendant per- 
sisted in his plea of guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the court; 
and that I might act advisedly, I had the witnesses summoned and 
brought into court to see if the plea of guilty was really true, as plondod 



128 

in this case; and it clearly appears, not only by the plea, but by the 
mouths of the witnesses that the defendant is guilty of murder — a murder 
that seldom occurs in any county, among any people, a murder without 
passion. Out in the still woods, God's first temple, they coolly and 
deliberately planned to take the life of their fellow man." The judge 
and whole audience were much affected. He then went over the circum- 
stances of the killing in a feeling and touching manner. The judge said: 
"The Legislature in making the death penalty, clearly contemplated that 
there would be cases arise which would deserve this penalty. By the law 
we stand or fail. No other crime equals this in coolness and by all the 
laws of God and man this man has forfeited his life to the people of the 
State, The responsibility is a great one. I hope to God that never 
again will a court in a civilized country have this duty to perform. The 
people in my position, make it my duty to administer the law, and pro- 
nounce its judgment. Before God and my fellow man I must do my 
duty.''' There were other expressions from the judge in reference to the 
powers that could give him relief, a warning as to his future; but the 
closing sentence is as follows: "The sentence of the court is that the 
defendant, Marshal T. Grain, be hanged by the neck until he is dead, 
within the walls of the prison in the town of Marion, county of William- 
son and State of Illinois, on Friday, the 21st day of January, 1876, 
between the hours of ten o'clock in the morning and two o'clock in the 
afternoon of the same day. May God have mercy upon your soul." 

With the hanging of Marshal Grain public sentiment became aroused. 
The leading men and property owners of the county came boldly to the 
front. They organized a company of militia and set their faces hard 
against the murderous element. Money was subscribed liberally to 
employ attorneys, hunt up witnesses, and obtain evidence. Those who 
were foremost in acting the leading parts were indicted; some plead 
guilty; some took change of venue to Alexander and Jackson counties, 
were tried and convicted and sentenced to a series of years in the peni- 
tentiary. I have it from the record there were eight of them. I shall 
not insert their names in this paper, for the reason that some of them 
are still living. I will only add that most of their sentences were com- 
muted after they had served a major portion of their time; and it is but 
justice to them to say that since they have resumed their relations of 
citizenship, they have been honorable, industrious, and law-abiding 
citizens. 

In concluding this paper, I will say that I debated the question in 
my own mind for some time as to whether or not it would be the proper 
thing to place this part of our county's history upon the records of this 
society ; but upon reflection I thought it would be as well to let the 
world know the truth of the terrible tragedies as they actually occurred 
at the time. It would hardly be expected that I could give all the facts 
in detail; but only a few of the leading incidents, which show the record 
of a few of the leading actors of the "Williamson County Vendetta" 
that has passed into history. 

I will close by adding that while our afflictions have been severe, 
yet, I believe that they have, in the main, had a good effect, because 
Williamson County now stands amongst the foremost counties in lower 
Egypt. We have the best and largest coal mines, the best equipped and 



139 



conducted railroads. We have the best school system in lower Egypt. 
Our people, as a rule, are sober, honest, intelligent and industrious ; and 
while we have passed through trials and great tribulations, yet, we stand 
forth now before the people of this great State as a splendid county, a 
splendid community and an honor to this great commonwealth. 



— 9 H S 



130 



THE THIRTY-NINTH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS, YATES 
PHALANX. 



(By W. H. Jenkins, Pontine.) 

The Thirty-ninth Eegiment had its birth during that period of 
great excitement and the intense feeling of indignation that followed 
upon the opening act of rebellion — the firing upon Fort Sumpter, 
Charleston Harbor, April 13, 1861. 

A party of gentlemen had assembled in the law office of Moore & 
Osborn in the old Tremont Building on Dearborn Street, Chicago, to 
give expression to the feelings engendered by this outrage and insult to 
the flag of our country, when it was suggested that a company of 
infantry be raised at once, and tendered to the Governor of the State. 
Action M^as taken and the names of Thomas 0. Osborn, Frank B. 
Marshall, Dr. S. C. Blake, Joseph A. Cutler, George Coatsworth, Dr. 
Charles M. Clark and a few others were enrolled as members. Soon the 
idea occurred that it might be as easy to organize and raise a regiment 
as a company and measures were taken to that end. In less than six 
weeks' time some thirteen hundred men were ready and impatient for 
muster into the United States service. 

Unfortunately the State had filled its quota under the first call for 
troops and it was found that the regiment could not be accepted at that 
time, but was requested to await the next call which it was expected 
would soon be made ; but the men were impatient to get to the front and 
into active service, and learning that the state of Missouri was behind 
in raising its proportion of men, the regiment was tendered to the 
Governor of that state but with a like result, for which I have always 
been thankful, as we thus had the honor of serving under the name of 
our own beloved State. 

The regiment decided upon bearing the name of His Excellency, 
Eichard Yates, the Governor of the State, and became known as the 
"Yates Phalanx." 

On the 10th day of October, 1861, a beautiful silk flag was pre- 
sented to the regiment by Miss Helen Arion, the daughter of C. P. 
Arion, who had taken a lively interest in the regiment from the first. 
The presentation was made at the close of dress parade by Fernando 
Jones on behalf of Miss Helen Arion, and the flag was received by 
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas 0. Osborn, who in a few well-chosen words 
thanked the fair donor in behalf of the regiment and ended by naming 
her the "Daughter of the Eegiment." 

On October 11, 1861, at seven o'clock in the morning the officers 
and men were formed for inspection and for "Muster-in" by Captain 
Webb, U. S. A. Eight hundred and six officers and men were in line, 
all being present except Company H, which was in process of recruiting. 




W. H. JENKINS, 
Young Soldier. 



181 

Some little time was occupied by the inspection and when the order was 
given to raise the right hand and be sworn, the sight was solemn and 
inspiring, as this body of stalwart and eager men took the oath to defend 
and ever uphold the Government of the United States of America. 

The regiment left that night via the C. & A. E. E. for Benton 
Barracks, Mo., and from there, on October 31, for Williamsport, Mary- 
land, where they went into camp. On December 15, 1861, the regiment 
broke camp and departed for Hancock, Maryland, some sixteen miles 
distant and arrived there on the following day and at once crossed the 
Potomac Eiver to Alpine Station, Va., having orders to guard the 
Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad. 

The various companies were distributed as follows : Companies A, 
B, C, and F at Alpine Station and vicinity; Company E at Sir John's 
Eun, six miles distant up the road in the direction of Cumberland, and 
Companies D, K, and I at Bath or Berkeley Springs, six miles in the 
interior back of the river. The regimental headquarters being at Alpine 
in the vacant house belonging to Johnson Orrick, then a member of the 
Confederate Congress, and who had removed his family to Eichmond. 
Some earthworks were thrown up near the Orrick house for the protec- 
tion of headquarters that was christened Fort Osborn, but there was 
never occasion for their use. 

The first engagement came on January 8, 1862, when a battalion 
was attacked by Gen. Stonewall Jackson, with a force of 15,000. By 
the aid of artillery, the battalion held the enemy in check for twenty- 
four hours with the loss of three slightly wounded and eight taken pris- 
oners. The service after this was constant and severe. The regiment 
participated in the battle of Winchester March 23, 1862, in which came 
the defeat of Stonewall Jackson. The remainder of the year was devoted 
to service under Gen. McDowell and Gen. McClellan, and finally retreat 
with the army to Fort Monroe; and from there the regiment proceeded 
to Suffolk, Va., reaching there September 3, 1862, and made encamp- 
ment just outside the town. 

The regiment was kept busy cutting timber, throwing up entrench- 
ments and forts and occasionally participating in expeditions out to the 
Blackwater Eiver eighteen miles distant, where there was quite a force 
of the enemy. On one of these reconnoissances, the regiment had a 
lively brush with the enemy, capturing two pieces of artillery and forty 
prisoners, without the loss of a man. 

The regiment lost two men at Suffolk — one killed by being struck 
by a falling tree while at work with his comrades in felling timber for 
use in constructing redoubts; the other dying from tj^phoid fever. The 
work devolving upon the soldiers at this post was immense, and very 
seldom was there a day that could be devoted to rest or amusement; for 
when not engaged in work on the entrenchments and forts, there was 
sure to be an alarm from the advance-guard of the enemy's approach, and 
the men held in constant readiness for defense. 

On January 5, 1863, our division moved out for Chowan Eiver, 
seventy-five miles distant, which was reached on the afternoon of January 
8. It was taken on board transports for Newbern, N. C, which was 
reached the following morning, January 9. 



133 

We were now in the department commanded by General A. J. 
Foster, Colonel Thomas 0. Osborn was placed in temporary command 
of the brigade here. We were sent some three miles out of the city to 
make encampment. While at JSTewbern the regiment received an elegant 
flag from Governor Eichard Yates of Illinois, bearing his portrait, and 
on the day of its reception at the hour of "dress parade/' it was placed 
in the hands of the "color guard" with appropriate ceremonies. Short 
speeches were made by several of the officers, the sum and substance being 
"Never submit to its dishonor or permit its capture by the enemy." The 
history of the Thirty-ninth shows how well it was guarded and cared for 
by the many brave men who have constituted the "color guard" during 
the long and bloody years they were called upon to sustain it. Fully two- 
thirds of the guard who first received the flag were killed while support- 
ing it at the battles of Drury's Bluff, Hatchers Eun, and Darbytown 
Cross Eoads ; and it with the other colors of the regiment was honorably 
and proudly borne back to the "muster-out" at the capital of the State in 
December, 1865, their folds scarred and rent with rifle balls, but covered 
all over with glory. The archives of the State contain no better symbols 
of the braverv and devotion of her sons than the banners of the "Yates 
Phalanx." 

The regiment then was taken to Hilton Head, S. C, where it par- 
ticipated in the siege of Fort Wagner, and was the first to enter, planting 
the regiment's colors on the parapet two hours before the time set for 
the general charge. 

In January, 1864, the Thirty-ninth was the first in the Department 
to reenlist for another three years or during the continuance of the war, 
and be sent home on a thirty days' furlough. 

All was in readiness, on the morning of January 28, 1864, to move 
down to the wharf for the purpose of embarking for home; but it was 
fully afternoon before the march was commenced, and this delay was 
occasioned from the fact that three brigades of the division were pre- 
paring to escort us, a compliment which gratified every man of the regi- 
ment, and the march to the wharf was a perfect ovation. The regiment 
numbered at this time four hundred and fifty men. 

The Thirty-ninth was popular and a favorite in the Department, as 
evinced on all sides at this time, and the following letters given to 
Colonel Osborn by Generals Gilmore and Seymour for Governor Yates 
plainly showed the esteem to our commanders: 

"Headquarters, Hilton Head, January 25, 186Jf. 
To His Excellency, the Governor of Illinois. 

Sir: The Thirty-ninth Eegiment Illinois Volunteers, Colonel T. 0. 
Osborn, having reenlisted as a 'veteran regiment,' has been furloughed 
and will soon proceed homeward. I cannot permit it to leave my com-- 
mand without expressing, so far as I am able, my entire satisfaction with 
its conduct under all circumstances. 

It will display to you, possibly, a state of discipline and excellence 
of instruction that will not be diminished by contrast with the very best 
of our volunteer regiments, and you may be justly proud of its past and 
present efficiency, for which Colonel Osborn, a most excellent officer, 
deserves great praise. 



133 

Your Excellency will, I am sure, afford Colonel Osborn every reason- 
able facility for filling his command, and you can entrust the interests 
of your citizen-soldiers to no better hands. And I am, 
Your Excellency's obedient servant, 

T. Seymour, Brig. Gen. Commanding." 

On the back of this letter was the following endorsement by General 
Gilmore : 

"Headquarters, Department of the South, 

Hilton Head, January 25, 186U. 

I heartily endorse everything Brigadier General Seymour says of 
the Thirty-ninth Eegiment Illinois Volunteers, and their commanders, 
and hope the Governor of Illinois will use his influence to have the regi- 
ment returned to my command when recruited, unless Colonel Osborn 
prefers some other. 

Q. A. Gilmore, Maj. Gen. Commanding." 

On February 6, 1864, the regiment arrived in Chicago and were 
given a hearty reception and a good supper in Bryan Hall by the lovely, 
loyal and patriotic ladies of Chicago. After a feast of good things 
seasoned with the loving smiles of the pretty waiters, some speech- 
making was indulged in by Lieutenant Colonel Mann and Colonel 
Osborn, and the festivities closed with a song or two by the Regimental 
Glee Club. The men then marched to North Market Hall and bivouacked 
for the night. The following morning the regiment again repaired to 
Bryan Hall for breakfast and were more than satisfied with what they 
received at the hands of the ladies. 

After breakfast the boys were given furloughs to proceed to their 
homes and report back to Camp Fry, Chicago, within ten days. 

On February 28, 1864, having received about three hundred recruits, 
we were instructed to report at Washington, D. C. It was a sorrowful 
time, to break loose from the home ties that bound us, but the remorse- 
less clutch of war had its grip upon every one of us, and it was. Forward, 
March ! We could not help but reflect upon and repeat the sentiments 
of the poet "I B," who says : 

"When fortune has severed the home ties that bind us, 

Though peaceful vocations have called us away. 
How anxious we feel for the loved ones behind us. 

And deprecate every unlooked for delay. 
No less do the loved ones partake of the sorrow, 

Who bide by the hearthstone, though silent, yet sad; 
Xot sustained by excitement, or hope for the morrow. 

Even fancy refuses to make the heart glad. 

But when ruthless war has, with power unrelenting, 

Torn warm loving hearts from each other's embrace, 
And made to face death with no time for repenting. 

How fearful the picture no pencil can trace ! 
If love to our country and God, without measure, 

Shall rule and prevail in each patriot's breast, 
We can welcome such trials — yes, hail them with pleasure. 

And anchor our hopes in the land of the blest. 



134 

It is well at all times to prepare for the parting, 

Which falls to the lot of us mortals below, 
Earth is transient at best, and the brin}^ tears starting, 

Should point to the land where the tear does not flow. 
Yes, there is a land that is free from all sorrow. 

Where friend can greet friend without fearing to part; 
Earth is hollow — our footsteps may crumble tomorrow; 

Then 'build on the Rock' and have peace in thy heart." 

We arrived in Washington on March 3, 1864, and were provided 
with quarters for the night at the "Soldiers' Eest." 

The following day we crossed the Potomac and went into camp at 
Arlington Heights, where we remained until April 25, 1864, drilling 
the new recruits, when we marched to Alexandria and took* transports 
to Gloucester Point on the York Eiver where we were assigned to the 
First Brigade, First Division of the Tenth Army Corps, temporarily 
commanded by Brigadier General Eobert S. Foster, while the corps was 
temporarily under the care of General Alfred H. Terry. We remained 
at this point for several days, reorganizing the regiments, brigades, and 
divisions of the corps, turning over all surplus equipage and baggage, 
even to our extra clothing, which was boxed up and either stored away 
or sent home — thus reducing the command to a fighting condition. On 
May 4 we embarked on transports to accompany General Butler's expedi- 
tion up the James River to City Point. 

At daylight, May 5, the whole fleet got under way and went gal- 
lantly down the York River to Chesapeake Bay, reaching Fort Monroe 
at 9 :00 o'clock a. m. We halted just long enough to get instructions 
that ordered us to proceed up the James River. We reached City Point 
about 4:00 p. m., where there were the ruins of some recently burned 
buildings and where the advance of our fleet had a skirmish with a 
small body of the enemy. Our division did not stop, but proceeded on 
to Bermuda Hundred, so called from the fact that a settlement was made 
there by one hundred persons from the island of Bermuda many 
years ago. 

We landed at Bermuda Hundred and bivouacked for the night in 
an open field. We were now within fifteen miles of Richmond, and only 
seven from Petersburg. At break of day we took up the line of march 
in the direction of Drury's Bluff for a distance of six miles, where we 
were put to work throwing up intrenchments. At 2 :00 o'clock on the 
morning of May 14, the Thirty-ninth was ordered to advance, being 
called upon to guard an ammunition train to the front. We reached 
the front at 2 :00 o'clock p. m. and at 5 :00 o'clock received orders to 
advance to the extreme left of Gilmore's line to support a battery of 
artillery near the railroad. While advancing, the enemy opened up a 
lively firing with grape and canister, and the men were ordered to lie 
down. Colonel Osborn, however, still remained upon his horse, "Old 
Mack," and here it was that he received a wound in the right elbow 
joint, which confined him to a hospital for some months. Colonel 
Osborn remained on the field until his regiment occupied the desired 
position and then reported at the field hospital only because forced to 
do so from pain and loss of blood. 




W. H. JENKINS, 
Veteran Soldier. 



135 

The battle of Drury's BlufE was in fact the first real battle that 
the Thirty-ninth was engaged in, and it lost in killed and wounded, one 
hundred nineteen officers and enlisted men ; and the loss to Butler's army 
numbered fully three thousand. It lasted fully thirteen hours, and was 
most hotly contested and in many respects it was a remarkable battle, 
considering the early morning hoar in which it began, the dense fog that 
obscured the combatants up to 7 :00 o'clock, and the surprise and the 
greatly superior number of the assailants. The Thirty-ninth was at one 
time nearly surrounded, but they heroically cut their way out, bringing 
with them a laTge number of prisoners. The deportment of the regi- 
ment in this battle was such that it received the personal thanks of the 
General commanding for their display of heroism and endurance. 

On May 20 the Brigade attacked the enemy at Wier Bottom 
Church, accomplishing their purpose in a most gallant manner. The 
loss sustained by the regiment in this engagement amounted to seventy 
killed and wounded and the loss to the brigade was three hundred. On 
June 2 the regiment sustained about an equal loss in an engagement on 
the same ground. During the middle of June the command fought 
General Longstreet's Corps and the regiment lost thirty-five men. On 
June 22 President Lincoln, accompanied by General Butler and a bril- 
liant staff rode along our line of entrenchments and was greeted with 
hearty cheers. Nothing of any particular interest took place after the 
fight of the 16th of June until August 13, there being a lull in military 
operations along our line. 

A heavy loss was met with on August 16, when the regiment assisted 
in the reconnoissance toward the works at Eichmond. In the charge of 
Deep Eun, one hundred and four men were either killed or wounded. 
Later in the month the regiment fought in the trenches in front of 
Petersburg, where it was under fire night and day. 

On October 7 the Battle of Chapin's Farm was fought, and on 
October 13 that of the Darbytown Cross Eoads, seven miles from Eich- 
mond. Of one hundred and forty men who went into that battle fifteen 
were killed and forty-seven were wounded, of whom I was one. But 
three officers were left after this battle. During the winter many re- 
cruits arrived, and by spring almost a new regiment had been formed. 
In that period the regiment took part in the military movements which 
finally wrested the strongholds of Petersburg and Eichrnond from the 
enemy. 

On April 2, 1865, the regiment took part in the charge upon Fort 
Gregg, the key to the works about Petersburg and Eichmond. This 
fort was surrounded by five other forts and redoubts, and a ditch six 
feet deep and twelve feet wide. It fell to the lot of the Thirty-ninth to 
make this charge and take the fort. It was the first regiment to gain 
the waterway and plant its flag. Only by digging with swords and 
bayonets could footholds be secured on the slippery ascent to the parapet. 
Here a desperate hand-to-hand struggle ensued and lasted until the fort 
was captured. Sixteen members of the Thirty-ninth were killed and 
forty-five severely wounded in this bloody conflict. Soon after reaching 
Eichmond a grand review of the corps was held, and was made the occa- 
sion for the presentation of a new flag to the Thirty-ninth by General 
Gibbons. On the standard was perched a magnificent bronze eagle which 



136 

had been especially ordered by him and suitably engraved, to commemo- 
rate the gallant conduct of the Thirty-ninth at the assault on Fort Gregg, 
Va., April 2, 1865. 

This was the last general review before the disbanding of the old 
corps, and it passed ofE in the most satisfactory manner to all concerned, 
and especially so to the officers and men of the Thirty-ninth, who were 
proud as well as grateful to be honored in such a complimentary manner. 

After the taking of Fort Gregg, the regiment took the advance of 
the Army of the James in the pursuit of Lee, and after a series of forced 
marches by a wide detour succeeded in heading him off, and had the 
proud satisfaction of seeing the final surrender at Appomattox Court 
House. 

On December 16, 1865, the regiment was mustered out in Spring- 
field, 111., and its remarkable career ended. The casualties, etc., were: 
83 were killed in battle. 
■ 61 died of wounds. 
25 died in prison. 
90 died of disease. 

411 were wounded. 
4 were drowned. 

118 were taken prisoner. 

293 were discharged for disability. 
34 lost limbs. 

191 men were mustered out at expiration of three years' service. 

350 men reenlisted as veterans. 

844 men enlisted in 1861. 

608 recruits were received during the war. 

525 officers and men mustered out at close of the war. 

The regiment traveled by rail and water 5,038 miles. It marched 
1,425 miles, making a total of 6,463 miles traveled. 



137 



NORTHERN ILLINOIS IN THE GREAT WHIG CONVENTION 
OF 1840. 



(By Mrs. Edith Packard Kelly, Bloomington.) 

I am indebted to your very worthy secretary and her assistants, 
The Sangamon Journal, Eock River Express, Chicago American, Peru 
Gazette, The Whig, Peoria Press, Register and North Western Gazetteer, 
a number of our pioneers, and my mother for the facts in the following 
paper : 

June 1, 1840, from paper called Old Soldier. Invitation to Spring- 
field Convention, June 3 and 4, 1840 : 

"One more fire — Suckers to your tents. 

"To the old soldiers and log cabin boys of this and adjoining 
states — G reetings. 

"Come in wagons, on foot, canoes, brigs, horseback or schooner — 
Come. Representatives from Northern Illinois to the Presidential Con- 
vention at Springfield, June 3 and 4." 

Realizing that the days and years are fast slipping by when one can 
obtain facts of those by gone days and men from those who were actors 
or witnesses of such facts, I have endeavored to learn what I could of 
that memorable campaign of 1840 and those who took part — from 
research — old newspaper files, old pioneers, and my mother who was at 
that time a girl of 10 years. What makes the following facts of McLean 
County so clear to her, was the illness of her father and his part in the 
celebration. Therefore, as she says, the picture is as vivid to her as if it 
were but yesterday. That campaign which held so much of weight for 
our country's welfare was probably the most thrilling, noisy and unique 
campaign the country had ever known. The Democrats said of the 
Whigs, that they conducted the campaign on the platform of noise, num- 
bers and nonsense. Many issues of vital interest to the country were 
taken up at this time and it required candidates not only of brain and 
brawn, but of much conservative force, decisive yet tactful, to satisfy the 
people. Some of the most pressing questions of that time were protec- 
tion versus free trade (a subject still discussed), anti-Masonic factions, 
Mormonism, Banking Laws and Slavery. Many of the Mormons affili- 
ated themselves with the Whig party, and wished to make stump speeches 
in Bloomington, but were not allowed to. One man, a Mormon, came to 
make a speech and was asked to leave town by the Democrats.- My 
great-grandfather. Dr. Isaac Baker, fearing trouble, took him in, fed 
him and his horse and sent him on his way. I am not much of a politi- 
cian and do not know what was the best course for the country at that 
time. But with the Whig party concentrating on William Henry Har- 
rison for President and John Tyler for Vice President, they certainly 
combined all the forces needed to run something besides noise and non- 



138 

sense. Harrison was an Ohio farmer and the Democrats said he lived 
in a log cabin and drank much hard cider (not a very serious charge) ; 
at any rate the Whigs took the hint and adopted both log cabin and 
hard cider. They held their meetings in log cabins built in the groves 
and drank much hard cider and sang many stirring songs. Blooming- 
ton, McLean County, my home, in 1840, was a flourishing, growing town. 
The fields of growing corn each year had grown larger, and the tassels of 
golden grain grew thicker under the thrifty, economical tutorage of the 
pioneer. The spring of 1840 had been wet and cold, and with a hard 
times panic, things had looked pretty blue from one end of the country 
to the other so that a Presidential campaign meant the welfare or woe 
of all. Bloomington took no little interest in the fight. She was all 
agog with would-be politicians and some of the real article stump 
speeches were made in log cabin, hall and tavern; and warm debates 
made of friends and neighbors bitter enemies all over the country. The 
Whigs of McLean County were fortunate in having two gentlemen of 
the highest character and ability who served under Gen. Harrison — Gen. 
Bartholomew who commanded the militia infantry at the battle of Tippe- 
canoe and Dr. John Henry who was surgeon at the battle of the Thames — 
and other noble men who took an active part in our country's making. 
The great state convention and meeting of the campaign was held in 
Springfield June 3 and 4, 1840, and Bloomington, being the breastpin 
of Illinois, centrally located, was the meeting place of all the delega- 
tions from the north part of the State going to Springfield. The little 
town had planned a celebration and parade on the day the delegations 
should arrive there ; so for weeks it was busy preparing speeches, building 
log cabins, obtaining coon skins and live coons, getting cider, etc. Many 
a red-cheeked apple got its first squeeze in preparing this beverage. The 
young people, both boys and girls, were rigging themselves out for the 
great day. Skirts and dresses were starched and dried over a barrel to 
make them stand out and the white vests got an extra bleach. There 
had been a hard rain (thunder storm) on May 29 and the ground though 
wet was dotted here and there with spring flowers. The trees wore their 
most beautiful green and the sweetbrier rose and cinnamon pink made 
the air fragrant with their perfume when June 1, Monday, the day of 
the town's celebration, arrived. Delegations came pouring into town 
from every direction and the toot of the stage horn brought visitors to 
most of the homes. Babbs Tavern situated on Front Street between 
Center and Main was the meeting place of politicians of both factions, 
and I fear some strong arguments were held there over the lunches 
served. Banners and flags and great streamers of red, white and blue 
hung from every house top and steeple. The little town looked like a 
flower garden. A rope was stretched across the street at the corner of 
Main and Front Streets, from Cheeney's store to the building opposite, 
from east to west, and strung with small barrels labeled hard cider, coon 
skins and red, white and blue. Barrels of hard cider, mother says 
exceedingly hard, some say whiskey, were placed at short intervals along 
Main Street from Olive to North Street with a tin cup hung at their 
side and an invitation for everybody to help themselves. There was no 
charge for food or drink in the town that day. Some of the Whigs were 
dressed in Continental costume and others with coonskin caps, buckskin 



139 

blouse and trousers. At a previous meeting it was arranged that eight 
men who had served under Gen. Harrison should represent McLean 
County at the Springfield Convention. After this was done the question 
of transportation, costume, decorations, etc., was' discussed. It was 
decided to cut an immense walnut log and hollow it to form a canoe. 
This was to be the conveyance for the eight men. It was twenty feet 
long and was mounted on wheels. On the sides were white banners 
on which was the motto, "A long pull, a strong pull and a pull alto- 
gether." The decorations were coon skins and flags and a small log 
cabin. It was drawn by eight of as fine white horses as the county 
possessed. Each delegation vied with its neighbor as to who should 
have the most unique turn out. The canoe with its eight prancing horses 
was brought to Babbs Tavern, from which place the procession was to 
start. People from all portions of the State north came from all direc- 
tions bringing their provisions and blankets for camping out. The 
prairies for days were covered with crowds of people on horseback, in 
wagons, and on foot, singing songs, drinking hard cider and discussing 
the issues of the day until arriving in Bloomington. A merry, noisy 
time was had, yet no' drunkenness was seen anywhere. At a given signal 
of fife and drum, the parade started, headed by the first brass band of 
the town and three men with fife, drum and flag in Continental costume. 
Mother says of these three men, one was very tall. Then came the 
canoe in which rode the eight venerable men. They were dressed in 
Continental costume, three-cornered, cocked hat, wearing epaulets with 
red and white rosettes, and with strips of red flannel cut in a fringe 
down the sleeves and around the bottom of the blouses and down the 
pants legs. The oldest men were seated, the younger ones standing. 
Those in the canoe were Benjamin Haynes, William Bay, Timothy Gates, 
my great-grandfather, William Goodheart, Zera Patterson, Jonathan 
Cheeney, Mr. Haggard and Cunningham. Kersey Fell Newcomb of 
Sangamon County rode horseback, also Dr. Conkling. The canoe was 
driven by Andy Hodge, who afterwards lost his life in the Mexican War. 
Then came a log cabin on wheels with a colored man sitting by the door 
on a barrel labeled "hard cider," playing his banjo, with a live coon by 
the cabin and coon skins hung from its walls. Then with a long caval- 
cade of men and women on horseback, in wagons and on foot, they 
started east on Front Street. 

Hark ! can't you hear the fife and drum. 
The boys all yelling — here they come — 
The tramp of feet, the laugh of the girls 
That looked so sweet with their flaxen curls? 

From Front Street, they went north on Main to North Street, now 
known as Monroe, west on North Street to Center, south on Center to 
Front Street, east on Front to Main, south on Main to Olive — you see 
they did not miss a single cider barrel — then west on Olive Street to Cen- 
ter, where a halt was made. My grandfather, Seth Baker, son of Dr. Isaac 
Baker, lived on this corner where "My Store" now stands. He, being a 
staunch Whig and very patriotic, but at that time very ill, had his bed 
moved to the front window upstairs from which he waved a white rag 
at the men in the canoe. They acknowledged with a salute and songs. 



140 

To the tunes of Old Dan Tucker and Yankee Doodle, the parade was 

now ready for its start to Springfield. They moved down Center Street 
south, probably to what is now Wood Street, then struck the Springfield 
road, with delegations from Old Town, Elkhart and places to the north, 
each section seeing who could sing the loudest or whose fife and drum 
could play the fastest. The line was a long one, many ladies riding all 
the way to Springfield. Some of the men footed it all the way in their 
enthusiasm. The ladies who took part in the parade and all others who 
could obtain them wore small green and white irregular plaid silk aprons. 
They were made from a dress of Susanna Dodge Baker, wife of Dr. 
Isaac Baker; and as dresses of that time were of great dimensions, a 
good many aprons were made. Some of those wearing these aprons were : 
Mary A. Baker, Mary Jane Baker, Adeline Greenman, Lucy Dodge and 
Hannah Harkness. It must have been late when the procession got on 
its way, for it camped the first night on Salt Creek near Waynesville 
and it rained. Then at the spring in Elkhart Grove. When they came 
to the Sangamon Eiver they found it so high they were obliged to swim 
their horses and wagons across. Those who could swim, did so, those 
who could not, crossed on a flatboat. They arrived at Springfield the 
morning of the 3d and found it a very muddy village. No place could be 
found to stay. Every tavern, boarding house and house was full, so my 
uncle, Sidney D. Baker, says ; so everybody camped out. But all having 
taken a goodly supply of fried chicken and corn cake, were happy. Dr. 
Henr}^, who was one of McLean County's greatest politicians, was one of 
the best speakers. Thoroly acquainted with all the public questions of 
the day and age, he was in great demand all over the State delivering 
speeches. It was largely through him McLean County changed from 
Democrat to Whig. He was a great admirer of Henry Clay and like 
him, an emancipationist. He emancipated his own slaves. Gen. Barthol- 
omew, who joined the procession as it wended its way south and who 
presided at the convention of old soldiers, rode from his home in Mack- 
inaw to Springfield horseback, about 140 miles, in two days. Being 
enfeebled with age (then 74) and the severe labor of pioneer life and 
hero of two wars, the exertion proved too much for him. Before he 
reached home he was taken violently ill and died at his Money Creek 
residence November 2, 1840, the same day of Harrison's election. No 
regular army was ever better equipped or drilled than the contending 
hosts on either side in this big meeting at Springfield. The Whigs had 
never elected a President and were for the first time united under one 
banner with bright prospects of success. A most wonderful enthusiasm 
prevailed in their ranks, such as the Democrats were not able to arouse. 
Consequently this meeting was one of unusual triumph. Close your eyes 
and imagine, if you can, what it meant when twenty thousand people 
assembled in that small town, nearly 5 per cent of the State's population, 
among whom with Chicago, Cook County's delegation, were Charles 
Cleaver, Thomas B. Carter and Stephen F. Gale. Securing fourteen of 
the best teams available and four tents, they captured a Government 
yawl which was rigged up as a two-masted brig. These masts were made 
so they could be lowered by hinges, when passing under the trees en route 
to Springfield. The brig was placed on wheels drawn by six fine gray 
horses. It was equipped with sailors in white dress with red sashes. 



141 

Ten delegates rode in the brig. The Chicago baud was on a truck 
drawn by four bay horses. The musicians were also dressed in white 
with red sashes. A six-pounder cannon to fire salutes along the way 
with Captain, afterwards Maj. Gen., David Hunter in command. The 
brig was thirty feet long, completely rigged from keelson to truck in 
the most seamanlike manner, from her foremast a streamer and banner 
bearing the name of the delegation. From her main mast a large 
streamer bearing the words, "Tippecanoe." From her peak floated the 
Star Spangled Banner, her signal, a blue flag with a single star, on her 
bow and stern the name of the vessel, Tippecanoe, on her larboard side 
this inscription, "After so many shipwrecks a harbor appears," on the 
starboard side this, "A long pull and a pull together." The deck was 
manned by officers and regular sailors, amongst the number three young 
midshipmen. The residue of the delegation were on foot in platoons 
with a number of banners. One had this inscription, "We demand the 
keys of the White House." Another bore this motto, "The Whigs of 
Cook County, tho often beaten, never conquered." This campaign found 
Cook County solidly Democratic and political enthusiasm ran high 
Thursday evening, April 6, of that year. A meeting of Federals, or 
Whigs, as they were then called, was held in the largest assembly hall 
(called the Saloon) in the city. Archibald Clybourn was called to the 
chair and John Eogers, Charles Sisson and Dr. Spencer elected vice 
presidents; George W. Meeker and John Sears, secretaries. Amoug the 
many resolutions adopted at this meeting, I quote the following: 
"Eesolved: That the nomination of William Henry Harrison affords the 
most gratifying evidence that the relentless war of the present adminis- 
tration upon the patience and prosperity of the people is about to be 
stayed, and that the suffering people are arising in their might to drive 
the Goths and Vandals from the Capital and restore the glory and pros- 
perity of the Eepublic. Eesolved: That Martin Van Buren is unfit to 
be the ruler of a free people because we believe him to be neither a sound 
statesman, a practical Democrat nor an honest man, and further, that 
especially in this State he has shown himself hostile to her interest by 
voting against appropriations for the great National Eoad, for the con- 
struction of Hlinois and Michigan Canal and the improvement of our 
harbors. Eesolved : That in the venerable John Tyler, the people's can- 
didate for Vice President, we have a fit compatriot of tne illustrious 
Harrison. Born in the same State, reared in the same noble school, 
hand in hand, they will ably support the threatened columns of the 
Eepublic. Eesolved: That this city and county will send 100 delegates 
to meet the old soldiers at Springfield in June. Eesolved : That we 
establish a Tippecanoe Club." J. Butterfield, Giles Spring, William 
Stuart, John Gage and S. Lysle Smith were appointed a committee to 
draft a constitution for said club. The campaign was decidedly hilarious 
up to the time they started for Springfield May 25. The brig sailed U]) 
Lake Street in gallant style, the band playing Hail Columbia and Yankee 
Doodle. The whole affair was done up in the handsomest manner and 
reflected great credit on the Chicago boys. All this was characterized 
by the opposition as being the extravagance of the "Young Men's Party," 
as the Whigs were called. The prairie brig was reported to have the 
handsomest carriage, horses, harness, etc., that the city contained. And 



142 

it was added, "The general opinion is, Chicago has taken an effectual 
emetic and the people can now sleep nights without being disturbed by 
the drunken brawlers singing Tippecanoe songs." The first night on the 
way to Springfield was spent at "Barrys Point," starting for Joliet at 
6 :30 the next morning. Here they were almost mobbed by the op- 
posing force. It seems a red petticoat was captured from the enemy 
in Chicago and was exhibited at the public meeting held in Joliet that 
evening as one of the trophies of war. This stirred up the ire of the 
Democrats and the next morning when the little procession with flying 
banners and patriotic music, after crossing the river, passed the store 
of Messrs. Allen, "Locofoco merchants," a large newly made petticoat 
hung from ropes stretched across the street with the evident design of 
impeding the progress of the brig. A part of the rigging was carried 
away. On the hill tops were crowds of boys and a few men, hooting and 
throwing stones, disgracing the better element of Joliet's citizens. There 
were wild rumors of casualties but these proved unfounded. The whole 
affair was insolent and riotous. But the brave boys marched on and 
reported that the dwellers in log cabins, our pioneer farmers were with 
them, with few exceptions. As they approached Springfield, delegates 
from other places joined them. One of the most interesting things of 
the convention was the presentation of the brig to the Whigs of Sanga- 
mon County by William Stuart, editor of the Chicago American, the 
Whig organ of Chicago, and the response when Sangamon County recip- 
rocated in presenting Cook County delegates with a noble gray eagle 
securely tied, asking that it remain so bound while our country was 
manacled as now by misrule. 

All delegates en route observed Sunday, May 30, in the usual way. 
The Chicago delegation was joined by the Tremont delegation and both 
spent Sunday at Mackinaw, where services were held by Elder Merriman 
of the Baptist Church. 



COOK COUNTY WHIG DELEGATES— 100 IN NUMBEE— TO 
CONVENTION. 



Sidney Sawyer. 
Giles Spring. 
Isaac D. Harmon. 
James A. Marshall. 
Chas. K. Bingham. 
Walter L. Newberry. 
Lewis W. Osborne. 
Geo. Raymond. 
L. B. Cobb. 
S. F. Gale. 
Walter Vail. 
Chas. T. Stanton. 
Wm. H. Davis. 
Geo. W. Meeker. 
Grant Fredrick. 
Buckner S. Morris. 
Daniel Hunter. 
Geo. Dole. 
C. A. Brooks. 
John M. Smith. 
H. O. Stone. 
John S. Wright. 



Dr. Leonard Proctor. 
Dr. Lewis Post. 
Geo. E. Shelley. 
John C. Dodge. 
Chas. E. Avery, 
Wm. Stuart. 
Wm. M. Larrabee. 
N. K. Towner. 
Jas. Marbeck. 
S. Lysle Smith. 
Robt. Freeman. 
G. S. Hubbard. 
John Rogers. 
John H. Kinzee. 
David Hatch. 
Geo. W. Snow. 
E. H. Haddock. 
Erastus Bowen. 
James A. Smith. 
H. G. Loomis. 
Jabez K. Botsford. 
L. B. Goodsell. 



J. W. Steele. 

Geo. Randolph. 

C. S. Philips 

A. F. Clark. 

H. H. Magie. 

J. L. Hanson. 

J. W. Hooker. 

Wm. 0. Snell. 

Wm. H. Stow. 

John Pfund. 

J. M. Underwood. 

Alex McClure. 

A. Chapron. 

Sherrod Gilbert. 

Theodorus Doty. 

G. A. O. Beaumont. 

S. Sherwood. 

Agustus Burley. 

P. F. W. Peck. 

F. Mosely. 

A. V. Knickerbocker. 

C. L. Harmon. 



143 

Geo. W. Merrell. Seth Johnson. Philo Carpenter. 

A. Clybourn. Jas. H. Collins. L. C. P. Freer. 

Sylvester Marsh. Jacob Russell. John Funk. 

A. Rossiter. Justin Butterfield. Henry Wolcott, jr. 

Stiles Burton. J. Young Scammon. Geo. L. Collins. 

Thos. Church. Wm. W. Brackett. S. W. Salisbury. 

Wm. H. Taylor. Herman Bond. Jas. H. Doyle. 

L. W. Holmes. L. D. Boon. Eli Reynolds. 

Geo. Chacksfield. Peter Cure. J. Beecher. 

John Jay Stewart. J. O. Humphrey. Thomas Brock. 

C. DeWolf. J. B. Weir. J. N. Balestier. 

Wm. H. Brown. 

Shortly after the election of Whig delegates in Cook County, a 
called meeting of Cook County Democrats was held in the same hall and 
the following committee was appointed to draft a constitution for the 
organization of a Hickory Club : Hiram Pearson was chairman, George 
Dellicker and William Church, secretaries.. 

Among the resolutions adopted was one declaring "That a residence 
in a log cabin, or the nse of hard cider as a beverage, does not endow 
men with the necessary qualities to rule over a free people. Democracy 
comes not with eating and drinking but moves with the power and 
majesty of the people. The log cabins now freckling our eastern cities, 
sending out in the still hours of the night the drunken sounds, more 
hideous than ancient orgies of Bacchus, are but trenches to entrap the 
populace to whom liberty is dear." 

An interesting incident : The steamer. United States, came into port 
flying the flag of the Federal's. There were several Democrats with their 
families waiting on expense for a passage, but refused to go as they 
considered her a "political brat" wishing to carry no passengers but 
Whigs. The feeling between the opposing parties was indeed bitter — 
brother against brother. The Whigs were called the rich man's partj^, 
the Democratic party the poor man's party — the former strong in money, 
the latter strong in votes. A Harrison campaign paper was issued 
weekly during the time, called The Hard Cider Press, and its prospectus 
read, "The Presses are warranted to squeeze the juice out in the most 
thoro manner and will be in full operation till the November election. 
Let the hard cider suckers come forward and give us their custom. Only 
50 cents for the Campaign, published weekly." 

SANGAMO JOURNAL, JUNE 26, 1840. 
(Meeting of the Chicago Delegation.) 

At a meeting of the Chicago delegates on their return from Spring- 
field at the City Hotel on Saturday evening last, Colonel Johnson was 
called to the chair and William Stuart appointed secretary. 

On motion of the delegates it was unanimously resolved that the 
thanks of the delegates be presented to Captain Hunter and Colonel 
Johnson, marshal and assistant marshal, for their satisfactory services 
on the expedition. 

It was unanimously resolved that the hearty thanks of the Chicago 
delegates be returned to the Sangamon Whigs and citizens at different 
places on the route for their liberality, hospitality, kindness and atten- 



144 



tions, and that this resolution be published in the Chicago American with 
the request that the Sangamo Journal copy the same. 

Seth Johnson, Chairman. 

Wm. Stuart, Secretary. 

Delegates from Tazewell County were Henry E. Green (Delavan), 
Niel Johnson, Derret Higgins, Dr. A. L. Davidson (Tremont), H. 
Hatch, E. A. Whipple, E. Cullun, Washington Pond. 

Washington Precinct — Peter Menard, Benj. Briggs, James Brawhill. 

They arrived in Springfield the morning of June 3, together with 
Cass County and others. 

At a meeting of the Young Men's Convention held in the pavilion 
in the encampment, the following were appointed for president, vice 
president and secretaries of this convention. Gov. A. M, Jenkins, presi- 
dent. Vice presidents as follows : 



E. A. Whipple, Tazewell County. 
John Hogan, Madison County. 
Wm. Hodge, Fayette County. 
Henry I. Wills, Edwards County. 
W. Kellogg, Lake County. 
C. Ward, Stark County. 
Jas. Hinde, Wabash County. 
E. H. Eose, Schuyler County. 
W. J. Philps, Peoria County. 
J. H. Thompson, St. Clair County. 
Morris Still, Dupage County. 
N". W. Edwards, Sangamon County. 
W. F. Gray, Knox County. 
John Casswell, Morgan County. 
Gen. J. B. Moore, Monroe County. 
H. H. Gear, JoDaviess County. 
J. Blackstone, Will County. 
Amos Prentiss, Shelby County. 
W. B. Stapp, Warrpn County. 
John Bennett, ¥ "bounty. 

J. K. Lawrence, Mac^, .^jm County. 
John Chestnut, Lawrence County. 
John Hinton, McDonough County. 



Wm. Stuart, Cook County. 

Dt. H. Conklin, McLean County. 

E. Latham, Logan County. 
C. B. Hudson, Kane County. 
Hardin Bigelow, LaSalle County. 

C. G. Thomas, Eock Island County. 
A. Langworthy, Bureau County. 
Wm. Fund, Marshall County. 

S. P. Doty, Boone County. 
Wm. Lowry, Dewitt County. 
S. C. Hagans, Ogle County. 
J. C. Pugh, Macon County. 
Wm. Moore, St. Clair County. 
Chas. Gregory, Greene County. 
Dr. Fitch, Bond County. 

F. C. Eussell, McHenry County. 
S. H. Little, Hancock County. 

D. Eichards, Stark County. 
John Hite, Coles County. 

Eli Hall, Winnebago County. 
Z. M. Garbutt, Pike County. 
S. Hallery, Montgomery County. 
A. M. Brailey, Lee County. 



SECRETARIES. 



B. C. Haines, McLean County. 
J. H. Mitchell, Warren County. 
Wm. Brown, Morgan County. 
John Eogers, Cook County. 
G. G. Bowman, Wabash County. 
Benj. Bond, Clinton County. 
E. L. Wilson, Will County. 

A resolution was passed that five men be appointed by the chair to 
draft resolutions expressive of the objects and views of the convention. 
They were : Dr. Henry, McLean County ; J. J. Hardin, Morgan County ; 
J. K. DuBois, Lawrence County; C. D. Morrison, Eandolph County; 
William Stuart, Chicago. S. Lysle Smith of Chicago, and others, 



W. Wise, Peoria County. 

Gen. J. Eabb, Marshall County. 

B. Kellogg, jr., Tazewell County. 
Dan L. Webster, LaSalle County. 
Jos. Gillespie, Madison County. 

C. H. Morton, Shelby County. 



145 

addressed the convention. Delegations from Cook, Will, Lake, Bureau, 
Stark and Marshall arrived and were shown their encampment in 
Springfield, 2 :00 p. m., June 2. Then Tazewell, Peoria, Menard and 
Macon counties arrived. 

Mercer County sent 2 delegates to the convention. Rock Island 
County sent 11 delegates, one John Miller. Whitesirle County sent 7 
delegates, one Jahez Warner. Carroll County sent 15 delegates, one 
J. A. Wakefield. JoDaviess County sent 19 regular and 107 other dele- 
gates. Ogle County sent 17 delegates, one J. D. Stephenson. Winne- 
bago County sent 12 delegates. Lee County sent 14 delegates, as follows: 
Thomas McCabe. S. A. Mason. 

I. Cutshaw. W. W. Graham. 

S. C. McClunn. Cyrus Chamberlain. 

Horace Benjamin. Z. Philipps. 

Oliver Everett. ^ G. A. Martin. 

Elijah Dixon. W. Y. Johnston. 

John Morse. Thomas March. 

W. F. Bradshaw. Joseph Crawford. 

David Welty. Eichard Bailey. 

F. W. Coe. . D. A. Hawley. 

Appointed at Galena, April 18. From "Galena Gazette." 

There were delegates from Indiana with badges bearing this in- 
scription, "The enemy are giving. One more fire and victory is ours." 

LaSalle County delegation bore a banner on which was the inscrip- 
tion, "Our constitution as it is, and not as demagogs choose to under- 
stand it." On the reverse side was a likeness of General Harrison and 
Van Buren and this motto, "Corruption wins not more than honesty." 
Its delegates to the meeting were Daniel Webster, Mr. Coffin and Mr. 
Hawley. The latter was a very eloquent speaker. 

June 5th Sangamo Journal has the following: "After the pro- 
cession was over a barbecue was held, after which Messrs. Webster, 
Coffin and Hawley of LaSalle addressed those assembled." 

SANGAMO JOURNAL OF JUNT i ^'40. 

Mr. Editor: I was among a large number of ladies who listened 
at Dr. Houghan's after the barbecue to the delightful speaking of the 
three young delegates from LaSalle : Daniel F. Webster, Mr. Coffin 
and Mr. Hawley. Pray call on those gentlemen to make their speeches 
public. 

Mr. Hawley's winding up was one of the most impressive specimens 
of eloquence I ever heard. 

By making this call you will much oblige a Whig lady of Sangamon. 

This speech was made at the barbecue and the reply in the Peru 
Gazette and copied by Sangamo Journal. 

SANGAMO JOURNAL, JUNE 26, 1840. 

(Incidents connected with the 3d and 4th of June.) 

The readers will recollect that Messrs. Webster, Coffin and Hawley 
were called upon through this paper by a Whig lady and others for 
—10 H S 



146 

publication of the speeches delivered by them on the 4th at Dr. 
Houghan's. Mr. Hawley, editor of the Peru Gazette, thus replies : "We 
copy the following communications from the Sangamo Journal. For 
our own part, as one of the individuals referred to in them, we would . 
procure a stereotype mould and melt our material, head, brains and all, 
and run them into a speech to gratify the wish of a Whig lady. But, 
after all, we fear it would not be the speech which the enthusiasm of 
the great convention called forth. The individual who could not have 
been eloquent on such occasion, before such an audience so large a 
portion of whom were ladies, must have had a stony heart, carroty 
brains, whip leather veins, and look of curdled milk colored with elder- 
berry juice, running through them. If, however, we can get the Whig 
steam up sufficiently high to recall the words which came, 'Skelper 
rank and file/ on that occasion, we may perhaps hereafter answer the 
call made upon us. We presume the feelings of the other gentlemen 
named correspond with our own." 

Schuyler County delegation had band of music, a flag, the Stars 
and Stripes, with the motto, "The spirit of ^76," and on tlie reverse side, 
"Unceasing Hostility to IJsurpation." On a streamer over the flag, 
"Harrison and Eeform," on another flag, the log cabin and barrel of 
hard cider, motto, "Harrison, Tyler,* and Eeform." A flag from the 
young men of the county, the Stars and Stripes — the motto on one side, 
"Our Country's Hope," on the other side, "The Boys of Schuyler," also 
a streamer with motto, "Old Tip & Tyler." Stephenson County delega- 
tion had a banner device, a representation of the aurora borealis; 
motto, "The North Will Come to the -Rescue." There were ten dele- 
gates, one of them 0. W. Brewster. 

Dupage, Knox and Boone counties all sent delegations. Tazewell 
County delegation was preceded by their fine band of music. This 
delegation had one large banner, on one side of Avhich was represented 
a post rider in full haste, followed by the Irish schoolmaster and 
boys from a schoolhouse in the background. Over the top was a scroll 
containing the words, "Boys, Do You Hear That?" On the reverse 
was the American Eagle with an appropriate motto. A great variety 
of banners and flags followed. Dewitt County delegation had the 
following delegates: Hugh Bowles, William Lowrey, Charles Maltby, 
Henry Deshon, James Brown, Dr. Thomas Laughlin. 

Winnebago County with Eli Hall, George Lee and Anson Burnum 
delegates. 

June 19, 1840, the Sangamo Journal has the following: Notice 
of resolutions adopted by the Tazewell County delegation, thanking the 
people of Springfield for their kindness to the delegation. Signed, 
Wm. Davenport, Chairman; David March, Secretary. 

SANGAMO JOUENAL, MAY 29, 1840. 

(Dewitt County Meeting.) 

At a meeting of the citizens of Dewitt County, friendly to the 
election of Harrison and Tyler, held m Clinton on the 16th day of 
May, 1840, Hugh Bowles was called to the chair and Wm. Lowrey 
and Charles Maltby appointed secretaries. 



147 

On a motion of Henry Deshon, James Brown was called upon to 
state the object of the meeting. 

On motion the chair appointed Dr. James Brown, Dr. Thomas 
Laughlin and William Lowrey a committee to draft resolutions expres- 
sive of the design of the meeting. 

The committee, after being absent a short time, returned with the 
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted. 

Delegations from Iowa had a banner bearing this inscription, 
"Iowa cannot vote but she can and will speak." My great-uncle, John 
Baker, attended. 

Lake County delegation had banner; motto, "To Harrison, Tyler 
and Reform." 

Macon County had delegation with badges. 

There was a delegation from Bureau County and delegates: 
Dr. R. J. Woodruff. Daniel F. Webster. 

Jos. W. Kinney. Oliver Boyle. 

Mell Thompson. B. G. Simpleton. 

James Wilson. Egbert Colter. 

David A. Glenn. Theodore Nichol. 

S. Ferril. Joseph Smith, jr. 

Enos Smith. Alexander Boyd. 

Alfred S. Thompson. J. L. Ament. 

Seth Clapp. E. H. Phelps. 

— (Sangamo Journal, April 10, 1840.) 

Bureau, Lake and Marshall counties had canoe called The Two 
Paths, 33 feet long and drawn by four gray horses. Canoe contained 
twelve old soldiers. There were six teams with tents and provisions. 

Montgomery County delegation had seven banners, one as follows : 
on one side, "A four years' nest," on the other side perpendicular, "Har- 
rison & Tyler." 

McHenry County, Edwards County, Warren County and Stark 
County each had a delegation. 

Hancock County delegation had a banner with this motto: "Har- 
rison and Tyler." "Set down to the credit, a Whig majority of 600." 

Will County delegation bore a satin flag. On the one side an 
anchor and a motto, "Harr^on." On the reverse, "Constitution." Also 
another white flag. On one side the American E'agle, seated on a barrel, 
labeled, "Hard Cider." 

Menard County delegation carried a blue banner with the motto, 
"Harrison and Tyler," on the reverse, "Menard." 

Peoria County delegation had a number of flags and banners. 
First, a banner on one side represented a log cabin over which is the 
American Eagle and over this the names of Harrison and Tyler. On 
the other side a barrel of hard cider with a boy engaged as tapster and 
the motto over, "Old Tip's claim to the White House cannot be jumped." 

Second, a flag, American eagle, with thirteen stars on each side. 
On the one side is the motto, "Harrison and Tyler — By these we con- 
quer." On the other, "Illinois true to her first Governor." 

Third, a flag with the eagle and thirteen stars on each side. On 
the one side, "No sub-treasure." On the other, "No standing army." 

Fourth, the National Flag. Motto, "Harrison and Tyler." 



148 

At the Peoria County meeting May 4, T. IST. Welles, Isaac Cutter, 
C. W. Stanton, D. H. Frisby, S. Alexander, James Waters, W. P. Smith, 
W. P. Blanchard, J. Wolcott, D. Belcher, A. P. Lane, J. Adams, George 
Kellogg, J. W. Phelps, Edson Harkness, Calvin Cass, Eli Willson, J. 
Wickware, S. F. Bollinger, D. E. Gregory, J. Congleton, J. R. Congle- 
ton, Thomas Smith, Nelson Buck, William Martin, I. G. Lineback, 
Ebenezer Martin, J. H. Work, G. S. Evans, L. L. Cryer, Hiram Wiley, 
J. E. Forsythe, William Adams, Henry Aiken, J. Jackson, W. G. Wil- 
kinson, G. B. Harlan, Samuel Chase, H. C. Merrill, E. Campbell, J. 
Hines, J. Schnebly, West Hide, N. Chapin, E. B. Hamlin, S. Eeed, 
A. Laveille, H. Cleveland, M. Pratt, C. Kimball, E. N. Powell, G. T. 
Metcalie, E. S. Buxton, G. W. Eead, Benjamin White, Jos. Detweiller, 
A. A. Benjamin, J. C. Frye, J. A. McCoy, L. Holland, C. W. McCallen, 
H. 0. Merriman, G. W. C. Huse, C. Douglas, M. T. Greeley, F. Summel- 
roth, J. M. Crane, J. K. Cooper, G. P. Dickinson, Edward Dickinson, 
E. Mason, Alva Moffet, H. Hahn, J. W. Caldwell, John Tuttle, G. C. 
Bestor, Charles Ballance, J. K. Lowry, J. M. Smith, Lewis Horard, 
James Crawley, L. McCormick, E. Eouse, S. S. Veacock, N. McKane, 
W. C. Stevens, William Nixon, James Morrow, J. Harrison, John Hill, 
J. C. Armstrong, T. E. Mayne, J. H. McCall, J. Hunter, H. A. Green, 
Thomas J. Moore, George Pulsifer, J. M. Wiley, Alyff Schepard, Samuel 
Eoedecker were made delegates to convention. 

Ogle County delegation with the banner on which the motto was, 
"Death or Victory for Harrison and Tyler"; badges with the motto, 
"Ogle to the rescue." 

Clinton, Lee, Mercer, Cass, Whiteside, Sangamon, delegations two 
miles in length, six abreast. 

Brown County with banners was in line. 

Cass County delegation had one of the most beautiful devices in 
the procession. The following is the description: A large boat — the 
"North Bend of Beardstown," right banner representing General Har- 
rison as the farmer of North Bend at his plough, in the rear, a log cabin 
and barrel of hard cider, left banner — a steamboat, the "Old Tippe- 
canoe," with a signboard hanging out for Washington City; with three 
barrels of hard cider on the boiler deck; on the pilot's stand, a painting 
of Sam Weller with his fingers on his nose, saying: "You can't come 
in, Matty." On the right side of the boat was a motto, "Freemen 
rally!" On the left, "Union of the Whigs for the sake of the Union." 
On the stem, "North Bend." This exhibition was drawn by six horses 
with .postilions. 

Fulton County, Whiteside County and Calhoun County had each a 
delegation. 

Morgan County delegation had banner and agricultural implements. 
Motto, "Morgan County will attend to her crops and her rights, too." 
Also, a canoe with twenty old soldiers. 

St. Clair delegation had A. M. Jenkins, who was made president 
of the young men's convention, as one of her delegates, together with 
William Padfield, Samuel Eedwood, John Stuntz, John Messenger, J. 
E. Cannon, Edward W. West, William Moore, V. Jarrot, John Flanna- 
gan, John Murray, Benjamin Hypes, George Stuntz, G. W. Ealph, L. 
Penconneau, Abram Lincoln, William Primm, F. Moffett, John Hogan, 



149 

T, Grimsley, W. D. Morrison, J. Deuny, delegates, and 300 young men 
in line. The call of duty to our country was heard with the naked ear ; 
duty never has to yell through a megaphone, talk on its fingers or write 
follow-up letters. The Nation heard the call. At any rate, all sucker- 
dom awoke as if an audible voice from heaven called to "Awake to the 
country's need." 

"WHEN THE SUCKERS WOKE UP." 

Oh, it's splendid to know 

We have never lost track of that long, long ago — 
The old gate of memory swings open wide. 
The folks that you knew and others beside 
Are again side by side in grand parade. 
Walking the street our thoughts have made. 

The men who attended that convention are about all passed to their 
reward, and of those men how little of the real facts of their lives has 
been preserved. Family tradition points to this ancestor or that, but 
when you look for something official there is usually the long search in 
some State archive, adjutant general's report or pension office. Then 
how little is found. .What a mistake not to preserve more carefully 
what in after years but seems the hinges for opening the doors of 
the past. 

The last three stanzas of one of the 1840 campaign songs: 

Before the unfurl'd flag "Eeform," 

We'll swear to do or die. 
And every Western bosom warm 

Eaise Freedom's battle cry. 

Loud let the song from vale and hill 

Eesound the Union through. 
And loud huzzas that Union fill 

For brave Tippecanoe. 

And let the spotless robe of one 

Who wore it long and well 
Fall stainless on our Harrison, 

Our second Washington. 

From the Chicago Tribune, 1840 (then a semi religious paper, 
before it united with the Chicago Democrat.) 

The Springfield carouse is one procession of flags, ships, log cabins 
and hard cider barrels, the last not always empty * * * everything 
to excite and delude, nothing to convince; every appeal to the imagina- 
tion, nothing to the judgment. * * * ^ drinking frolic on a great 
scale — a mere political orgie. 

We thus describe it, more in sorrow than in anger; we had hoped 
better things. 

We have no fear of the hard cider celebration, tho it is claimed it 
is to be the cure for the hard times. * * * Wonder if they mean it 
for legal tender? A light head is but a fool's consolation for a light 
pocket ! 



150 



SOUTHERN ILLINOIS AND NEIGHBORING STATES AT THE 
WHIG CONVENTION OF 1840. 



(By Mrs. Martha McISriBLL Davidson, Greenville.) 

I have been assigned to recount the part that Southern Illinois 
took in that memorable meeting which occurred in this city nearly three^ 
quarters of a century ago. A glance back over the sweep of years and 
all the events which have occurred in Illinois, "with all her wondrous 
history" and "without which the nation's history could not be writ/' is 
so bewildering and so stupendous that it almost appalls one to attempt 
to recount in any methodical manner even a synopsis of the record of 
any special event. 

Our subject perhaps partakes largely of a political nature, and one 
friend has jokingly charged me with coming to Springfield to join in a 
"love feast," to which I returned no dissenting rejoinder, since it is 
a "love feast of reminiscences," a review of rich historical data, which 
to a large extent has been neglected or, perhaps o'ershadowed by what to 
some seemed of greater moment. 

But the meeting of 1840 was the culmination into form of a growing 
unrest which found expression in certain well defined issues in this city 
of Springfield in June, 1840. The meeting was a protest against the 
then existing political conditions and the adm,inistrations which had 
immediately preceded it, and which I have no intention to discuss. It 
might be well, however, to note in passing that politically the convention 
declared for certain reforms which have since seen full fruition, though 
brought about by political agencies which had other names than that of 
Whig. The name Whig was an importation from Scotland and England, 
and in that day was a common term which generally designated those 
who advocated reforms and more generally and naturally those who were 
most often opposed to existing forms of government. The term as thus 
understood was particularly applicable at this time. The Whig party, 
was really the "John the Baptist" of the Eepublican party. 

In those days the campaigns of education did not find their chan- 
nels through the newspapers then existing, as now, due largely to the 
lack of the present day facilities now afforded that great channel of 
education, but were exhibited through great parades, crudely fashioned 
after the old Eoman parades and visual demonstration of sentiment by 
overt acts and signs. The political parades and the conventions con- 
stituted the great national means of political education. The exhibition 
of banners labeled with all sorts of terse sentences, designed to catch the 
eye and carry a mental impression, appeals to the intellect and the 
prejudice as well of the observers, of whom there was no lack, was a 
chief endeavor. This convention was not unlike the customary one of 
that day. The political convention which delegates attended and which 



151 

was the glory of the men folks, has only in the last few years passed 
away, to the great regret and sorrow of those who knew them best. 

Southern Illinois was at that time the older section of the State in 
settlement and civilization. It, having been settled first, naturally con- 
tained many of the foremost and most influential men of the State at 
that time. Among those from Southern Illinois who participated in that 
convention, who were noted at that time or who became so afterwards 
were: John M. Palmer of Macoupin County, Benj. Bond of Clinton 
County, Col. J. L. D. Morrison of Kaskaskia, James Gillespie of Ed- 
wardsville, John Hogan of Alton, E. Yates of Morgan County. 

I shall deal principally with what might properly be termed the 
minor details of that convention, because it is with that subject that 
this society just now is concerned. It is interesting to know the names 
of delegates from each county, those who led, and the details of the 
proceedings. 

YOUNG MEN'S STATE CONVENTION, SPEINGFIELD, ILL. 
Wednesday, June 3, 1840. 

At a meeting of the Whig Young Men's Convention, held at the 
pavilion in the encampment, this day at 8 :00 o'clock a. m., the com- 
mittee appointed by the convention to recommend suitable persons for 
presidents, vice presidents and secretaries of this convention, reported the 
following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, to wit: 

"Resolved^ That we recommend to the Whig Young ]\Ien's Conven- 
tion to meet at this place at 2 :00 o'clock p. m. this day, to organize by 
choosing Gov. A. M. Jenkins, president, and as vice presidents from 
Southern Illinois: John Hogan, of Fayette County; Amos Prentiss, of 
Shelby County; J. K. Lawrence, of Lawrence County; John Chestnut, 
of Macoupin County; J. H. Thompson, St. Clair County; N. W. Ed- 
wards, Sangamon County ; John Casswell, Morgan County ; Gen. J. B. 
Moore, Monroe Countv; William Moore, St. Clair County; Charles 
Gregory, Greene County ; Z. M. Garbutt, Pike County ; Dr. J. W. Fitch, 
Bond County; S. Hallerey, Montgomery County. 

The secretaries chosen were: G. G. Bowman, Wabash County; Jos. 
Gillespie, Madison County: Benjamin Bond, Clinton County; C. H. 
Morton, Shelby County; William Brown, Morgan County." 

The log cabin and hard cider jug were adopted as Whig emblems 
because of the Democratic charge that if Harrison had a jug of hard 
cider in a log cabin he "would be content the rest of his life." The 
parade seems to have been, if not the most important, the most spectacu- 
lar feature of the convention, which proves that youth naturally clings 
to pompous exhibition or military display — 

"Men are only boys grown tall. 
Hearts don't change much after all." 
I am greatly indebted to Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, honored secre- 
tary of this Illinois State Historical Society : also to H. W. Clendenin, 
editor of Illinois State Register; to the editor of the Illinois State 
Journal, and to W. A. Kelsoe, one of the editors of the St. Louis Post- 
Di^-patch, for their aid in securing authentic data from the files of some 
of the oldest newspapers in regard to this convention in 1840. 



152 

From the "New Era" of June 8, 1840, a Whig newspaper published 
in St. Louis, the following item concerning the Whig rally was found: 
"The convention of young men at Springfield, 111., was a grand affair, 
and there were about 10,000 pe'i'sons in the procession, which was two 
and one-half miles long. The number of strangers in town was esti- 
mated at from 12,000 to 15,000." 

Mr. A. B. Chambers, one of the proprietors of the Missouri Eepub- 
lican, now known as the St. Louis Eepublic, attended the Whig conven- 
tion as a reporter for his paper. Letters telling of his trip to Springfield 
and of the arrival of many delegations were printed in the issues of June 
5 and 6, and on June 9 a full report was given of the several meetings 
and the big parade which occurred on the morning of June 4. He 
speaks thus of "things on the way" : "On our journey it soon became 
evident that unusual enthusiasm pervaded the whole country. In numer- 
ous instances, from farmhouses on the road and off at a distance, banners 
were streaming and flags floating. Most of the delegates from Madison, 
St. Clair, Monroe, etc., had preceded us. At Locust Grove, the residence 
of Mrs. Paddock, a few miles beyond Edwardsville, the ladies of that 
beautiful residence had erected a Civic arch. Posts were planted at 
either side of the wide road and a post in the center, all ornamented 
with wreaths of flowers and evergreens. A garland of roses and other 
flowers was extended over the entire road and on the center post hung 
a transparent banner with Harrison's name inscribed in gilt letters, the 
delicate work of the fair hands which made the wreaths." Mr. Chambers 
said he tried to make note of all the delegations as they marched by, but 
found the task too irksome to describe all in full. The Illinois State 
Register and Springfleld Journal also wrote up the different delegations. 
Each county had its own delegation, generally preceded by a band. 

DELEGATIONS AND THEIR BANNERS. 

Greene County delegation preceded by a band of music. This dele- 
gation was dressed out with green bushes and nearly every man had 
several heads of green wheat in his hand. The following is a list of the 
banners : 

1. A beautiful flag presented by the ladies of Carrollton of white 
silk with a representation of the White House and William H. Harrison 
ascending the steps, beneath a motto, "To Save the Country," with 
thirteen stars of gold leaf — the above encircled with a wreath of roses; 
on the opposite, two bushes of thorns and encircled with a wreath of 
roses, with thirteen stars of gold leaf ; motto, "Thorns for her Country's 
Foe — Fragrance for her Defenders." 

2. Blue silk flag with twenty-six silver leaf stars on each side. On 
one side, "Harrison and Tyler," and on the other, "Down with Exper- 
iments." 

3. Yellow flag from Whitehall with an eagle, "Harrison and Tyler," 
and on the opposite, a motto, "In time of peace we support him who in 
times of danger protected us." 

4. White flag from Bluff dale. Motto, "Harrison and Tyler"; on 
the other side, "Don't give up the ship." A bark canoe, drawn by two 
horses, filled with Harrison soldiers ; motto, on one side, "Don't give up 
the canoe," and on the other, "Wm. H. Harrison, the People's Friend." 



153 

St. Clair County delegation. — This delegation had a number of 
devices and flags. One of their flags had a log cabin upon it with the 
motto, "We will never abandon the Constitution." 

2. A banner surmounted by the American eagle. Motto, "Harrison 
and Tyler." 

3. A large banner, likeness of Van Buren sitting on a sub treasury 
chest, clasping a bag of mint drops; on his right appears 200,000 
militia and blood hounds. Motto, "Patent Democracy." 

4. The American flag. Motto, "The prairies on fire — the people 
moving — Baltimore Convention, 30,000! Boys, do you hear that?'' 

5. A flag on which was the likeness of General Harrison. Motto, 
"Farmers' Choice, American Liberty of '76." The portrait of Harrison 
encircled by the implements of husbandry. 

Clark County delegation with badges. Motto, "True as Steel." 

Fayette County delegation was preceded by a veritable log cabin 
ornamented with raccoon skins and other emblems of frontier life — latch 
string not pulled in — a canoe drawn by four horses — on the sides, "Har- 
rison, Tyler and Eeform" — in it a barrel of cider. On the canoe, a 
banner presented by the ladies of Vandalia through Miss Jane Field — 
above on a scroll, "Our Hope," and the whole length, "Harrison and 
Tyler"; at the left, below, a log cabin with a bell to the latch string — in 
the green yard a barrel of cider and a plow — towards the right a lake 
and on it a canoe on the miniature flag of which was "The prairies on 
fire," and at the extreme right, "Fort Meig, Tippecanoe and the Thames." 

2. A plain, white flag, on one side of which was, "Union for the 
sake of the Union." Another, "Herald of Better Times." There were 
other banners having various devices. 

Montgomery County delegation with seven banners, four of them 
with the following mottoes: "Spirit of '76"; "Ra'al yearnest"; "Per- 
pendicular"; "Harrison and Tyler." The three others, the Stars and 
Stripes. 

Christian County. — Delegation with badge and banner with this 
inscription : "W. H. Harrison, a safe sub treasurer, that never gave leg- 
bail to his farm or his country." 

Then followed delegations from Missouri, Indiana and Iowa. 

Lawrence County delegation with badge and banner on which was 
printed a log cabin with motto : "Lawrence — she will teach the palace to 
respect Log Cabins." 

Monroe County delegation with over one hundred delegates in line. 

Madison County — 

1. Banner, "Old Madison good for 600 Majority." 

2. "The old Dominion for our gallant son." 

3. "Harrison and Tyler and Reform." 

4. "Old Virginia never tires." 

5. "Wm. Henry Harrison, the American Cincinnatus." 

6. "Democracy without Corruption." 

7. "General Harrison is a coward." — Tom Benton. " 'Tis false — I 
have fought under him and know him to be a brave man and soldier. — 
R. M. Johnson." 

8. Alton City delegation. 



154 

9. A splendid white silk flag with purple stripes and gold stars 
presented by three ladies of Alton upon which were the following devices : 
the eagle in gold with a scroll, "Harrison, Tyler and Eeform/' under it 
a motto, "See the Conquering Hero conies." On the reverse side, "Sons 
of Freedom wake to Glory." 

10. A serpent entwined around the staff of the American flag 
nearly prostrated — a large eagle is perched upon the staff with the head 
of the serpent in his beak — over the top of the banner was the motto, 
"The voice of the people" ; under it, the motto, "So perish tyrants." 

11. A white silk flag borne by a gardener upon which was the device : 
a rake, hoe, shovel and fork, grouped with the motto, "No cash sweetens 
the gardener's toil." 

12. A banner borne by the Upper Alton delegation painted and pre- 
sented by a lady, representing a scene at Washington on the 4th of 
March, 1841 — Clay and Webster standing on the steps of the porticoes of 
the White House receiving Harrison and Tyler. A group of ladies were 
strewing flowers in their paths. Matty is seen in the distance in his 
English coach and liveried servants drawn by six horses, with his head 
projecting from the window, exclaiming, "My name is Haines" — turned 
toward him is the porter with the key of the White House, saying, "You 
can't come in, Matty." 

13. A second banner borne by same delegation and painted and 
presented by the same lady, representing the union of Purse and Sword, 
a massive stone building representing the sub treasury with Van Buren 
seated upon a large iron chest between the pillars at the entrance and 
the key upon his knee, casting about a very stealthy look — directly in 
his rear stands General Jackson with his finger upon Matty's shoulder, 
also surrounded by Benton, Kendall and other confidential friends — in 
front of Van Buren is a person with a very submissive and imploring 
look, pointing with one finger to the purses which Matty grasps in his 
hands, the one labeled $50,000 and the other $100,000— in the back- 
ground is Van Buren's standing army of 200,000 men in the clouds of 
whose dust is to be dimly seen a demon approaching Van Buren with a 
crown — in the foreground is to be seen Swartout and Price, making off 
with lengthy and rapid strides, bearing on their shoulders the frame of 
a sack labeled $1,200,000, the latter $600,000 ; the whole of this repre- 
sentation a moonlight scene. 

14. A banner representing Van Buren's grammar and arithmetic 
with exercises in each. 

15. A flag borne by an old soldier of the Madison precinct, repre- 
senting the Stars and Stripes with an eagle and scroll Avith the motto, 
"Harrison, Tyler and Eeform." 

Clinton County delegation with a banner, on one side of which was 
the motto, "Once for Jackson, now for Harrison, Tyler and Eeform." 
On the reverse side the motto, "Woe to the man who styled us 'Flag 
enders.' " 

Pike County delegation had a number of flags, banners and devices: 

1. The National Flag, on the one side, "Harrison and Tyler" ; on 

the reverse, "Union and Eeform." Next came a canoe, 26 feet long 

(drawn by six white horses), painted white with fine, blue streaks and 

called, "Tippecanoe of Griggsville," bearing on it a banner with a por- 



155 

trait of General Harrison — the Illinois Coat of Arms with the motto, 
"We come to the rescue." "One Term." "Wm. H. Harrison for the 
Presidency in 1841." 

2. Another flag with a small miniature ship placed on the flagstaff 
Avhich they called the Harrison banner — with the motto, "Don't give 
up the ship." 

3. The National Flag — a banner with the motto, "Hard Cider," 

4. After this came a white flag embossed with roses ; motto, "Har- 
rison and Tyler." On the reverse, "To save the Union." Then came a 
canoe 15 feet long painted white with blue streaks and a banner on it 
called the Montezuma National; motto, "Harrison and Tyler." 

Bond County delegation in this part bore, first, a flag with the 
device of a log cabin and a barrel of hard cider on one side; on the 
other, motto, "'Suckers to the Eescue." 

2. A banner with the likeness of Harrison on one side and' on the 
other, "Martin can't come it." Following this was a banner which was 
presented to the delegation by the Whig ladies of Montgomery. On the 
reverse side, the motto, "The log cabins shelter grateful hearts." 

Eandolph County delegation with a badge. Motto, "The People's 
Choice — Eandolph, the older county in the State will go for Old Tip 
as sure as fate. Springfield Convention, 1840." 

In the Morgan County delegation was a large number of the sons 
of Erin who carried a banner of green silk with streamers of the same 
color. The device was a harp surrounded with shamrocks. Over the 
device was, "Harrison and Tyler." The motto was, "Where Liberty 
dwells there is my country." "Montgomery — Where is there a battle- 
field for freedom where Irish blood has not been spilt?" was the motto 
on the reverse. 

Crawford, Hamilton, Marion, Jersey, Clay, Jackson and Washing- 
ton counties were represented in parade but not described by newspapers. 

One of the parade floats was a beautiful log cabin drawn by ten 
yoke of oxen, and in the cabin was a brass band. Several hundred women 
were in the parade, whether in carriages, on foot, or on horses is not 
stated. 

Nearly 300 old soldiers also marched in the procession. The Eevo- 
lutionary soldiers rode in a large carriage drawn by four gray horses. 

Those who attended from Missouri, Iowa, and Indiana, were there 
as guests. In the parade the Missourians marched six abreast. How 
many were there is not stated, probably not more than two or three 
hundred. Mr. Chambers complained of the meager representation of 
St. Louisians. Iowa was then a territory. 

The following item was taken from the files of the Springfield 
Journal, May 29, 1840 : 

At a meeting in Brownsville, x\pril 27, 1840, of the citizens of 
Jackson County friendly to the election of Gen. Harrison, the meeting 
was organized by calling to the chair B. F. Conner, and J). B. Tuthill, 
secretary. 

After the object of the meeting had been stated, Daniel H. Bush, 
James Eoberts and James Harrold were appointed a committee for the 
purpose of drafting resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. 
Upon motion, it was resolved that Dr. James Eoberts, Guy Scwartz, 



156 

Thomas L. Eoss, Russell Tuthill, P. C. Hull, Richard Budding, Gar- 
rett Will, Ben Boon, H. S. Legate, Joel Chitwood, Daniel H. Brush, Alex 
Koser, Richard Worthen, B. F. Conner, Ira Byers, John Mayfield, Peter 
Krifer, James Harrold, James M. Reynolds and William Boner were 
chosen as delegates to attend the said meeting. 

The Morgan County delegation, about 1,100 in number, encamped 
at the Methodist camp meeting ground, on Spring Creek, six miles west 
of the city on Tuesday night, at which place, by invitation. Rev. W. D. 
R. Trotter delivered a sermon which was highly spoken of. 

Prior to the Springfield convention, great mass meetings were held 
in the different counties, when delegates were elected for the prospective 
Whig meeting. 

HAERISON AND REFORM. 

At a public meeting of the friends of Harrison and Reform held 
in Waterloo, Monroe County, on the 16th of May for the purpose of 
selecting delegates to the Springfield convention. Gen. James B. Moore 
was chosen president of the day and Daniel Converse, secretary. 

The preliminary arrangements being completed, a company formed 
on horseback in rear of regular built canoe, mounted on wheels and 
drawn by four gray horses, and proceeded to meet a large company of 
gentlemen and ladies from St. Clair County, and notwithstanding the 
very busy season of the year, farmers and mechanics, boys, girls, ladies 
assembled and formed ready to receive them. They soon made their 
appearance with flags, banners and music, when all formed a procession 
and marched round the square to a bower prepared for the ladies and 
the stand for the speakers in the canoe in front of the log cabin, when 
Mr. Morrison of Kaskaskia delivered a very able, spirited and eloquent 
address and was followed by Mr. Burd, both proving the very best 
authority; the corruption and misrule of the present administration, 
and showing from equally good authority the patriotic and valuable 
services rendered the country by William Henry Harrison. After which 
the Rev. Peter Rodgers, an aged Revolutionary soldier, arose and ad- 
dressed the audience in the language and spirit of '76. Then the music 
struck up "Yankee Doodle" and the company repaired to a long table 
covered with an abundance of good bread, ham and cider and cake and 
pie for the ladies. 

At early candle light they met at the courthouse and about 100 
names reported as delegates to the Springfield convention, after which 
Mr. Lawhead delivered a spirited, patriotic and animating address, which 
was received with loud cheers of applause. 

Resolutions of thanks were then passed, thanking the company from 
St. Clair and also Messrs. Morrison, Bond and Lawhead. Also that the 
proceedings of the meeting be signed by the president and secretary and 
forwarded to the editors of the Great Western, St. Louis Republican and 
Springfield Journal for publication. 

After singing a few patriotic and Tippecanoe songs, the meeting 
adjourned in good order, nothing having occurred to mar the feelings of 
any one, except a few of the locos who have taken some pains to prepare a 



157 

dinuer, etc., aud having failed to carry out tlicir designs, could only vent 
tlieir rage in sullen murmurs. 

J. B. Moore, President. 
D. Converse, Secretary. 
One hundred and thirty-two delegates chosen from Clinton County : 
At a meeting held in Carlyle, Clinton County, 111., the following 
delegates were appointed to attend the convention at Springfield, June 
3-4, 1840: 

Daniel Collins, John Dougherty, Jones Hicks, Fountain Nichols, 
Benjamin Watts, William Tolliff, George W. Brooks, John Pratt, John 
Milton White, Hugh L. White, Thomas Mattox, Napoleon Mattox, Hiram 
F. Johnson, Alex Apperson, Alex H. Johnson, David Fleetwood, 0. H. 
P. Maxey, Lewis Allen, Jona Sharp, H. H. McNelley, J. C. Moore, 
James Wightman, John Claybaugh, jr., J. W. Davenport, George 
Kenower, David Claybaugh, Ben Nicholson, Harrison Voden, St. Clair 
Stewart, Abner J. Stewart. Pennington Powers, Samuel Hull, Charles 
McDonald, Squire M. Stitts, Eeuben Eutherford, Daniel Eutherford, 
Patrick Mullikin, Owen Mullikin, John Coleman, William Lewis, Alva 
Lewis, William Johnson, sr., William Johnson, jr., Manasseh Cole, 
Wesley Johnson, Benage Cox, Elan Silkwook, Asa Cannada, Theodore 
Vornholt, Conrad Vornholt, Peter Young, Francis Wiegers, A. G. Maxey, 
William Mc Adams, Martin McFerran, Daniel Griffith, Amos Nicholson, 
Joseph Gordon, James E. T. Orton, Peter L. Maxey, Ira Burke, Gaza- 
way Nicholson, William Cole, sr., William Cole, jr., Asa Entrekin, 
Thomas Hooper, Jesse Dunn, Joshua Sharp, John Blackwell, William 
Nichols, William Puryear, John G. Gillespie, John Gillespie, William 
J. Foster, Lewis Allen, F. Findley, Abraham McNeal, Isreal Ferree, 
Cornelius Ferree, Benjamin Nicholson, Jos. Collier, William Eobinson, 
James Lecompte, E. A. Haden, F. Hervey, James Eankin, Zaphas Case, 
N. Loughry, J. C. Moore, James Jolliff, A. B. Miller. Samuel Webster, 
Benjamin Bond, Alex Sharp, Levi Sharp, A. Briggs, James Thompson, 
John Brown, Benjamin Matchler, David Wolcott, William Gipson, jr., 
James Maddox, James Prather, Peter Cole, Thomas Suggs, Tiirner L. 
Nichols, Samuel Tharp, William J. Cooley, John Drake, B. Drake, Abel 
Pratt, Samuel Loughry, Jubilee Posey, William Frazer, George W. Eow, 
Alex Wells, George W. Burkholder, Henry Sharp, Ira Mattox, Eobert 
E. Tucker, James H. Watts, Isaac Stites, John Clark, sr., John Clark, 
jr., F. Maddox, B. Drake, John Johnson, Lewis Johnson, William 
Petrea, Balsam Hicks and Laban Petrea. 

EEPOET OP A EEPUBLICAN WHIG MEETING. 

A meeting of the Whigs of Shelby County was held at the court 
house in Shelbyville on Tuesday, the 26th day of May, 1840. 

On motion of Capt. James Duncan, James Fruit, Esq., was ap- 
pointed chairman, and F. C. Thornton, secretary, of the meeting. 

A committee of five was appointed by the chair, the members of 
which were: Dr. William Hedden, D. A. Ferguson, Thomas Williams 
and C. H. Martin. 

General Harrison was endorsed for President and the following 
named as delegates to the convention at Springfield on June 3 : 



158 

Major John Fleming, Dr. William Headen, Captain Jolin Tackett, 
John Ward, William Todd, Judge Hums, A. F. Stewart, Thomas Wil- 
liams, E. D. Lee, James Hichman, Thomas Handy, C. E. Morton, 
William Oakley, John Trimble, Thomas Boye, David Elliott, Israel 
Carpenter, James Fruit, Edward Armstrong, John S. Dooden, M. Dun- 
can, M. Turney, D. A. Ferguson, Major Poor, William Elder, John H. 
Todd, John Evy, William M. Wright, Isaac Eeeve, Jacob McKeene, 
Charles Tackett, F. C. Thornton, Kinzie Robertson, Charles Wakefield, 
William Moore, Litten Smith, JST. E. Jones, Thomas Headen, John Eose, 
B. Dunkey, William F. Hilasbuck, Addison Smith, James Hilasback, 
Amos Prentice, E. B. Erving, John Cook, Benjamin Sims, William 
Thomason, George Thomason, Henry Bland, Thomas Howe, David 
Michel, Samuel Montgomery, Ormsby Vanwell, M. M. Basye, Samuel 
Wright, J. B. Harris, William Hooper, E. M. Doyle, Eavel Wilhams, 
John Eichardson, Charles Eiiber, Oliver StanM^ood, K. B. Surdam, 
James Colwell, Abel Stanwood, T. Engler, Mason Kelly, H. A. Dulton, 
Joel Wagner, William Waddle, James Babcock, George Dye, Christian 
Hoe, Christian Hines, J. Mclver, John B. Harrison, E. Kirtley, T. W. 
Craddock, James Levers, Bartley Selley, Thomas Starms and Charles 
Harmon. 
To the Editors. 

Gentlemen: I am a citizen of White County — am a devoted per- 
sonal and political friend of General W. H. Harrison. Having served 
under him during the late war, I had a strong desire to attend the 
convention to be held at Springfield on the 3d and 4th of June next, 
but I find that it will be out of my power to do so. 

I can assure you that White County will tell well for General Har- 
rison on the first Monday of Kovember next — at least I can speak for 
the neighborhood in which I reside. Myself, with six sons, together with 
every voter within several miles of me, go in solid phalanx for the hero 
of Tippecanoe. 

One word with regard to my deceased father. He was a Eevolu- 
tionary soldier and pensioner and died on the 16th of ISTovember last. 
The day on which he drew his last pension, on the 4th of September last, 
while in the pension office, some person present remarked to him : "You 
fought for our liberties, Father Johnson." "Yes," said he, "I did" (and 
the tear moved in his eye), "but I have nearly outlived them." The 
sentence was uttered in reference to the measures of the administration. 

I send you a toast to be drank at your celebration. Being a cold- 
water man myself, I request that it be drunk with nothing stronger than 
hard cider — "Martin Van Buren and his party : You may begin to quail, 
for a Waterloo defeat awaits you." 

John Johnson. 

Carmi, May 26, 1840. 

Joseph Gillespie of Edwardsville, who was secretary from Madison 
County at this convention, was elected State Senator in 1847, and Was 
one of the thirteen members who, when the bill for the chartering of the 
Illinois Central Eailroad came up, determined to preserve the principle 
of taxation as opposed to the payment of a straight percentage on the 
gross earnings. At this time there was a great scarcity of money, owing 



159 

to bank failures. Eepudiation of the State's indebtedness thereby in- 
curred became a matter of serious consideration. 

John Hogan, one of the principal orators on this occasion, was at 
one time a Methodist minister, and his home was in Alton, but later he 
moved to St. Louis. He was afterwards elected to Congress, and was 
known as "Honest John Hogan." 

John M. Palmer, afterwards Governor of Illinois, and Kichard 
Yates, of Morgan County, our famous War Governor, were prominent 
delegates at this convention. 

The then experiment of self-government was in the crucible of test 
and actual experience. Tho those of us who participate in this meeting 
are the great-great-grandchildren of those who took part in that conven- 
tion, and while we have advanced tremendously in modern conveniences, 
science and refinement, yet it is pleasing to know that our forebears 
counted among their number those who were then and now as noted for 
their foresight, knowledge, refinement, and ability as any who live today. 
Human nature has not changed, and at this time we pause in the for- 
ward, splendid march of progress to turn and look back down the slope 
of time to observe and contemplate the road over which the former 
generations have passed. 

And so has this noted but heretofore unnoticed convention been a 
material part of this State's history. Geographically located in a veri- 
table Garden of Eden, Illinois has written her history in glory and taken 
her stand among the foremost states. Her sons have been found worthy 
and glorified by the sister states. The impulse which prompted the con- 
vention of 1840 was greater and deeper than the mere carrying of ban- 
ners and the participation in parades. These were only the outward 
signs. Deeper in the hearts of those who now sleep the sleep from which 
there is no waking on earth, was the desire for a freer and a better 
government, a greater opportunity for the higher spirit of men to reign, 
a determination that all that was best in government should survive and 
a patriotic desire that full freedom of mind and body should find its 
fullest fruition in the future life and history of the government which 
they were determined should live — live as a shining answer to those who 
sneeringly predicted its downfall and demonstrated that the common 
citizen was worthy to govern and that it might always be truthfully said, 
"One flag, one land, one heart, one hand, one nation evermore." 



160 



THE YOUNG MEN'S CONVENTION AND OLD SOLDIERS' 
MEETING AT SPRINGFIELD, JUNE 3-4. 1840. 



(By Isabel Jamison.) 

Probably the most spectacular political campaign ever staged by the 
American people was that of 1840, popularly known as "The Log Cabin 
and Hard Cider Campaign/' which resulted in placing General William 
Henry Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe, in the Presidential chair. 

The "log cabin and hard cider" designation was said to have orig- 
inated with the Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Eepublican, 
who sneeringly said of General Harrison: 

"Give him a barrel of hard cider and settle a pension of $2,000 a 
year upon him, and our word for it, he will sit the remainder of his 
days contented in a log cabin." 

The Whig party supporting General Harrison was quick to take 
advantage of this suggestion, perceiving that the log cabin idea would 
appeal more strongly to the masses than did the notion of the Van Buren 
gold spoons and gilded dinner service. 

Accordingly, the Whig papers ran cuts of log cabins at the head of 
their editorial columns, and openly gloried in the plebeian tastes of their 
candidate. 

In the Sangamo Journal of November 3, 1838, the editor, Simeon 
Francis, flung to the breezes of Sangamon County, the Harrison banner, 
in the following words : 

"We, this week, raise the standard of William Henry Harrison as a 
candidate for President. This stand we have not taken without much 
reflection, but now that we have taken it, we shall not be induced to 
abandon it unless we conceive that the harmony of our friends absolutely 
requires it." 

Mr. Francis, being a man who had no use for political fences as a 
roosting-place, and who was always to be found with both feet on the 
ground, either on one side or the other, was as good, or better, than his 
word; and in the stormy political weather that followed, his Sangamo 
Journal shone like a beacon light to the Whigs of Illinois, and his 
editorial utterances were delivered with no uncertain voice. 

It was long before the lazy days of "patent insides" and news 
bureaus, but there abode in the struggling prairie town of Springfield, a 
firm of silversmiths and engravers, the De Riemers, who fashioned the 
solid cups and tankards and bowls put up as prizes for fat cattle and 
pigs and running nags at the first county fairs, and who prepared some- 
what crude cuts for the infrequent illustrations that appeared in the 
newspapers of the county. 

They engraved for the Sangamo Journal two styles of log cabins, the 
most popular one showing a canoe moored at one side of the building. 



IGl 

with a cannon standing at ease beneath a tree on the other ; a hard cider 
barrel reclined on its side near the front door, whose latchstring dangled 
conspicuously outside. A flag with twelve stripes and fifteen stars floated 
from one end of the ridgepole, while a "stick and daub" chimney emit- 
ting a fat, solid-looking curl of smoke, peeped up at the other end. 
Below the cabin was the inscription : 

"We thank the enemy for giving us the log cabin for our party 
emblem. It is a most fitting illustration of our principles. It carries 
the mind back to a period of republican simplicity when our rulers were 
faithful and honest. Fortunately, our country is not so old in years, nor 
our people so enervated by luxury as to forget their log cabin origin. 
We all know that patriotism resides among our yeomanry. The watch- 
fires of liberty are guarded and fed by the dwellers in log cabins. We 
are proud, therefore, of the opportunity of supporting a log cabin candi- 
date for President. We joyfully accept the log cabin as our coat of- 
arms." 

The other style of cut showed the log cabin from a different angle. 
Apparently the cider barrel had been shifted to the other end of the 
cabin, or, possibly, they had two barrels. In the foreground of this 
picture, was General Harrison in civilian garb, being interrupted in 
garden work by an old soldier, in full uniform, whom he was greeting 
with outstretched hands and an invitation to dinner, as the text beneath 
explained. 

. A lusty crop of campaign poets sprang up, and the newspapers of 
the day teemed with Tippecanoe, log cabin and hard cider doggerel, 
which could be sung to various popular tunes, "Old Rosin the Beau" 
being one of the favorites. This literary activity was not confined to the 
Whig party, as the "Loco-focos" or Van Burenites also burst into song 
as frequently and spontaneously as their opponents. 

A "Rallying Song" of the Whigs appeared in the early part of the 
winter of 1839-40, which contained a number of stanzas, two of them 
being as follows: 

"They're rousing, they're rousing in valley and glen — 
The noble in soul and the fearless in heart ; 
At Freedom's stern call, to the combat again 
They rush with a zeal she alone can impart. 

From wild Madawaska's dark forests of pine 

To the far, fertile glades where the Illinois flows. 

True sons of their fathers, the people combine 
To shake off the chains of their tyrants and foes." 

On May 1 the Sangamo Journal printed : 

"A LOCO-FOCO AND AN ECHO." 

"A Loco-foco exclaimed, 'Who is Harrison — who?' 
Echo responded : 'Tippecanoe !' 

'Of his bravery and service, what proof now remains?' 
Echo responded : 'The Thames, Thames, Thames !' 

—11 H S 



162 

But, being still doubtful, more evidence begs; 
Echo responded : 'Fort Meigs, Meigs, Meigs !' 

'Oh, where shall I find my country's best friend?' 
Echo rei^lied: 'At North Bend, Bend, Bend!' 

'Two years from now, I shall find him — where?' 
Echo responded : 'In the Presidential chair.' " 

It was seldom that the name of the author was appended to these 
literary efi'orts, but many of them were the productions of local bards. 

Another popular song that went with a swing and also served to 
show the temper of the western people was the following : 

"In the White House, Van Buren may drink his champagne 
And have himself toasted from Georgia to Maine, 
But we, in log cabins, with hearts warm and true, 
Drink a gourd of hard cider to Old Tippecanoe." 

A campaign paper called "The Old Soldier," was printed at the 
office of the Sangamo Journal, its publication being superintended by 
the members of the Whig State Central Committee, A. G. Henry, E. D, 
Baker, J. F. Speed, Abraham Lincoln, and R. F. Barrett. Later, on 
being elected Fund Commissioner, Dr. Barrett withdrew from the staff 
of The Old Soldier. A Democratic campaign paper, called "Old Hick- 
ory," was issued in Springfield, the editors being John Calhoun and 
Stephen A. Douglas. 

The focal point of the Whig campaign in Illinois was the "Old 
Soldiers' reading room," which was opened in the building occupied by 
the Sangamo Journal. The Tippecanoe singing clubs met there for 
practice ; thunderous editorials, satirical campaign quips and stinging 
personalities manufactured there, were injected into the campaign with 
an abandon and disregard of consequences that would turn the editors 
of the present day green with envy. There the plans for the county 
campaigns were laid ; there the "publicity committee" met nightly, and 
the most brilliant minds of the Whig party in Illinois, bent with enthu- 
siasm to the task of organization. 

Without going into the question of whether or not Martin Van 
Buren had sowed the wind, he certainly began reaping the whirlwind in 
1839. Business definitely and decidedly collapsed. There was no money 
and little credit in the western country, and it did not soothe the pangs 
of the hungry and thirsty pioneers to read of "Matty" Van Buren rolling 
through the streets of Washington in his cushioned coach of state, or 
reclining luxuriously upon his imported, upholstered furniture. His 
gold teaspoons, duly exploited in the columns of the Whig papers, were 
a direct slap at the enforced simplicity of western table furnishings. All 
the effete luxuries which wrapped him so softly about, were, in fact, so 
many direct insults to the horny-handed toilers of the middle west. 
William Henry Harrison, who drank hard cider out of a gourd, was a 
m,an after their own hearts. The thing to do was to elect him. 

A special session of the Legislature during the winter of 1839-40 
brought to the State Capital, Springfield, in one way or another, the 
political leaders of both parties. Also, there were a number of bright 



163 

young lawyers assembled at Springfield to attend the court sessions, very 
few of whom were of the "say nothing but saw wood" variety. Thus it 
happened that the most brilliant orators of the State, all interested in 
politics and the sound of their own voices, met night after night in 
political debate in the Hall of Kepresentatives. The new State House 
not being ready for occupancy at that time, the House met in the Second 
Presbyterian Church, a brick building on Fourth Street between Wash- 
ington and Adams. It was at that time, the largest church building in 
the central and northern part of the State, but was torn down in 1875. 

j\Iany of the speeches delivered on the occasions of these debates 
were printed in pamphlet form, and sent out to do missionary work 
among the voters, thereby creating a state-wide interest in the campaign. 

During this campaign the convention plan of nominating candi- 
dates became a political factor, and State conventions were held by both 
parties. At the Democratic convention of December 10, 1839, various 
resolutions were passed containing a scathing denunciation of Whig 
individuals. Whig policies and the Whig party in general. The Whigs 
were so much incensed by this direct attack that a meeting of the State 
leaders was called for December 11 at the Hall of Representatives, at 
which Cyrus Edwards of Madison County presided. J. J. Hardin of 
Morgan, chairman of the committee to draft resolutions, reported to the 
meeting that it was apparent to all earnest-thinking, fair-minded men 
that the time was approaching when a proper organization of the Whig 
party would be necessary to save the country ; therefore, it was recom- 
mended that a convention of the Whig young men of Illinois be held 
in Springfield on Wednesday after the second Monday in June for the 
purpose of more effectually organizing the Whig party of the State. 
After able speeches by Messrs. Baker, Browning, Field and others, the 
resolutions were adopted. 

Abraham Lincoln, of Sangamon, offered for adoption, a preamble 
and resolutions, calling a meeting the following night to debate with 
the opposition party the resolutions passed at the Van Buren State Con- 
vention on the 10th inst., denouncing the Whig party and policy. 

The resolution being adopted, Mr. Lincoln was nominated to open 
the debate for the Whig side. The debate took place Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Friday evenings, Mr. Lincoln leading in a speech of great force 
and wit. Mr. Douglas replied for the Democrats, and E. D. Baker 
wound up the debate for the Whigs. These political pvrotechnics at the 
State Capital attracted great attention, being exploited in the local 
papers and widely disseminated in the shape of pamphlets. 

In his "Personal Eecollections," John M. Palmer mentions visiting 
Springfield in December, 1839, to obtain a license to practice law. He 
said, "The city was filled with strangers, including most of the public 
men of the State." He attended a public meeting held in the Second 
Presbyterian meetinghouse, and heard speeches made by Alex P. Field, 
Secretary of State, John Calhoun, 0. H. Browning and Stephen A. 
Douglas. He added, "Discussions of this character were kept up night 
after night." 

A second meeting was held by the young Whigs at Springfield, 
January 31, 1840, at which a more formal organization of the Sangamon 
County Whigs was effected ; and recommendations were made that the 



164 

Whigs in the various counties of the State hold meetings for the pur- 
pose of electing delegates, any number they might choose, to represent 
their respective counties at a great central meeting to be held in Spring- 
field on Wednesday after the first Monday in June. The call for this 
meeting appeared regularly in each issue of the Sangamo Journal there- 
after, and the newspaper correspondents throughout the State began to 
report their counties having taken favorable action in the matter. An 
address to the people of the State was prepared, and a confidential cir- 
cular was sent out to some prominent Whig in each county, unfolding a 
plan of the State central committee for getting into touch with each 
county of the State. The counties were to be divided into small dis- 
tricts, each having a subcommittee whose duty it was to make out a list 
of the voters and their political preferences ; to watch dobbtf ul voters and 
supply first aid to wavering minds, and especially to report progress the 
first of each month. 

About this time (the latter part of February), the old soldiers of 
the Northwestern Army under command of General Harrison during the 
late war with Great Britain, held a meeting in Springfield, at which 
John Lindsay presided; a suggestion made by a Jacksonville patriot in 
the last issue of the Old Soldier was adopted. This was to the effect 
that the old soldiers who had served under General Harrison in the late 
war should meet at some central point in convention on July 4. An 
address was prepared, signed by those present at the meeting: 

"The Springfield old soldiers desire to second the convention sug- 
gestion most cordially, and invite the Sangamon County old soldiers who 
served under Harrison to meet March 14 at the courthouse." 

The meeting took place on the above date, with Josiah B. Smith in 
the chair. Judge Logan was present, and, being invited to address the 
meeting, responded in a pertinent and happy manner. A resolution was 
offered by Dr. Todd, in which the old soldiers pledged themselves to use 
all honorable means to elect Harrison, and, further, that the old soldiers 
of the State, including all who had served their country in any war, be 
invited to meet in convention at Springfield June 4, the date of the Whig 
meeting. These resolutions were adopted and signed by those present. 
John 0. Verstreet, a soldier of the time of Washington, attended 
this meeting. The Whig committee of correspondence, in accordance 
with a resolution adopted at a meeting of the Morgan County old soldiers 
April 11, forwarded an invitation to General Harrison to attend the 
meeting June 4, but he was unable to accept. 

All this time the Whig young men were working like beavers, and, 
owing to their contests and conventions. Governor Ford said in his 
History of Hlinois, that no standing army was better organized and dis- 
ciplined than the Harrison forces in Illinois. State politics was pushed 
into the background for the time being. The Democrats began to show 
that they were puzzled. They tried argument, ridicule, and, finally, 
imitation, but too late; they were outsung, outshouted, outtalked, and 
outlaughed. The "Vannies" had talked of holding a State meeting in 
emulation of the Whigs, but fearing that they might not be successful 
in outdoing their political opponents, the Democratic State Central 
Committee, consisting of Stephen A. Douglas, I. R. Diller, V. Hickox, 
M. K. Anderson, and W. M. Walters, issued an address to the rank and 



1G5 

file of the part}', through the columns of the Illinois State Eegister, 

which read as follows : 

"To the Democratic Party of Illinois: 

"We have received intelligence from our friends in various parts of 
the State, assuring us that at this busy season of the year, the Democratic 
farmers cannot, without great inconvenience, leave their farms for a 
period of time necessary to attend a convention at Springfield; a very 
few counties have already appointed their delegates and have shown a 
disposition to make every sacrifice for the interests of their party and 
their country. 

"In view, however, of the times and the inconvenience to which the 
Democrats will be subjected at this busy season of the year, in leaving 
their work to attend a convention hundreds of miles from home, we beg 
leave to suggest to our friends in all parts of the State that it is inex- 
pedient to hold a young men's convention in June next. The Democratic 
party is eminently a sober and reflective party. It believes not in pomp, 
parade nor show. It leaves such humbuggery to that party whose opin- 
ion of the public intelligence is so low as to lead them to act upon the 
unworthy principle that the people are to be led by show, and not moved 
by sober, honest appeals to their judgment. To that party we are willing 
to yield all the benefits of pomp and the exhibition of picturesque log 
cabins, canoes and old cider barrels ; but for our own cause, we trust to 
the quiet but certain influence of truth and correct principles to again 
conduct us to victory." 

In 1840 the Federal Census gave Sangamon County a population 
of 14,716, of which number, 2,579 resided in the town of Springfield 
that had been for three stormy years the Capital of the State, and was 
still a struggling village; altho it had been that year incorporated as a 
city, and an abortive attempt had been made to corral some of the live 
stock that perambulated its streets and wallowed blissfully in its gutters. 

East and south of the little town, stretches of blue stem and rosin 
weed waved in the wind, where the prairie rolled to meet the sycamores 
of the Sangamon, and west and north hovered the tender, misty purple 
of forest trees. The old stage roads still threaded the prairie grass and 
wound in and out of the groves ; but, as yet, no bands of steel linked the 
ambitious little State Capital with the outside Avorld ; and, even with the 
best will in the world, the fourteen thousand odd inhabitants of Sanga- 
mon County had made but scanty progress in mussing up the landscape 
with coal mines, factories and tin cans. 

But that Sangamon County of 1840 possessed a stupendous amount 
of energy, enthusiasm and executive ability, is evidenced by the planning 
and successful accomplishment of the Whig young men's convention and 
old soldiers' meeting on June 3-4 of that year. It was a great under- 
taking for those days, when traveling was a very strenuous matter at 
best; and to carry out the plan of such a meeting successfully required 
an amount of faith and optimism from start to finish that only pioneer 
days seem able to supply. The results justified that faith more com- 
pletely than faith is often rewarded. It was an outpouring of the people, 
the bone and sinew of the Prairie State ; and, like soldiers marching to 
battle, thcv came to the music of fife anrl drum, with flags and banners, 



166 

tents and commissary, in lumbering wagons drawn by mules or horses, 
or plodding oxen, some of them eight and ten days on the way. 

They journeyed through mud and shifting quicksands, fording 
creeks, ferrying across rivers, straining over bumpy hillocks by day and 
serenaded by prairie wolves as they gathered around their camp-fires at 
night. Among the pilgrims were between two and three hundred hoary- 
headed veterans of the Eevolution and grizzled soldiers of 1812, all 
journeying for days to what proved to be a final rendezvous for some, 
and a last pleasant memory of reunion for others. 

As the delegations neared Sangamon Count}', the enthusiasm of the 
people living along the various roads over which they traveled, became 
more manifest. Men were plowing their fields with Tippecanoe flags 
fluttering from their horses or oxen, or riding rampant upon the plows 
themselves. Many of the tavern-keepers refused to take payment for 
provender furnished, and patriotic old soldiers made the travelers free 
of gardens and smokehouses. 

Women vied with men in the heartiness of their greetings. At 
Irish Grove, a woman stood in front of her log cabin, waving her shawl 
and shouting that all Irish Grove's forty families were Whigs but one. 

The weather on Tuesday, June 2, was clear and brilliant, and the 
marshals, under direction of their chief. Dr. Merryman, were on parade, 
mounted and in uniform, at 2 :00 p. m. The uniform was a dark coat, 
black hat, white pantaloons and white gloves. The assistant chief mar- 
shals, William Prentiss, F. Webster, W. G. Abrams, Albert T. Bledsoe 
and Z. P. Cabiniss, wore pink scarfs with white rosettes and carried 
white batons; the marshals, about 76 in number, wore blue scarfs with 
white rosettes, and carried white batons. 

Following an announcement that the Chicago and other northern 
delegations were nearing the city, a detachment, accompanied by the 
Springfield band, was detailed to meet and escort them to the place of 
encampment, under a salute from the ubiquitous cannon that had ushered 
in so many Xational holidays and broken so many windows since they 
were first unlimbered by the Springfield artillery in 1835. The arrival 
of the Chicago delegation with its miniature brig from the lake, its 
streaming banners and quickstep music, to say nothing of the volcanic 
cheers that l)urst forth with such a hearty good will, formed a fitting 
prelude to the stirring events of the two or three gala days that followed. 

The encampment was formed on the green north of Elijah lies' 
residence, which stood at the corner of Sixth and Cook streets, now 
occupied by the First Christian Church, and soon the camp-ground 
became a mass of life and color. Immediately upon the arrival of a 
delegation, it was waited upon by marshals, with wagons and carts in 
their train, which supplied hay and corn for the horses and oxen and 
wood for the camp-fires. Tents sprang up like mushrooms after a spring 
shower, and the smoky incense of hundreds of camp-fires floated out 
upon the air. If the tents were too crowded for comfort, lodging was 
supplied tlie overflow in the private residences of the town. 

^Fore delegations were constantly arriving, and the gayly capari- 
soned marshals flew about like gorgeous leaves in an autumn gale. Some 
neighborhoods turned out with almost their entire population, bringing 
their minister with them; and, as the reveille sounded morning and 



160' 

evening, they gathered for a short service of prayer. It is not meant by 
this to imply that all the delegations behaved like a Sunday school pic- 
nic ; that would have been too much to expect of a political meeting. 

Three-fifths of the delegates, according to a letter written upon the 
ground by one of them, were farmers, and he declared that it looked as 
if all the suckers in the State had come up stream and down stream to 
gather in the country of the Sangamo. 

The spectacle in the evening was one to linger in the mind's eye for 
many years. A clear, silvery moon hung in the west, while in the north, 
above the purple line of forest, a black mass of high-piled clouds now 
and then spat out vicious tongues of lightning. Thousands were en- 
camped upon the rolling prairie, their illumined tents glowing like radi- 
ant balls and their camp-fires flickering like fireflies. Bands of music 
played in different parts of the camp ; glee clubs rolled out the doggerel 
of the Tippecanoe campaign, set to the music of popular songs ; rockets 
shot up from the prairie heae and there, and dripped flecks of fire from 
the dark blue vault above; ambitious orators tried their prentice hand 
upon good-natured audiences gathered in the open spaces, and mighty 
shouts of approval greeted each telling point in the discourse ; and all 
these diverse elements mingled in a whirl of sound and motion that 
surged through the veins of the spectators like the spirit of the hard 
cider of which the glee clubs sang. 

Wednesday morning, June 3, the sun rose clear, but clouds soon 
liegan to gather, and for a time it was feared that rain would fall, 
dampening the clothing, if not the ardor, of the thousands encamped 
upon the rolling prairie. However, Chief Marshal Merryman and his 
aides rendezvoused at 8 :00 a. m. at the office of The Old Soldier, in 
readiness to receive the early delegations. The threatened storm passed 
over, and at a very early hour, the Morgan, Greene, Cass, Tazewell, the 
"Hunters of Macoupin," and other county delegations arrived, and were 
escorted into the city. 

At 2 :00 p. m. the formal meeting began in the pavilion that had 
been erected on the camp-ground, and which held about 5.000 people. 
As soon as the speakers were called to the stand, the pavilion was packed 
to suffocation, and thousands lingered around the outside. J. Hogan, of 
Madison, S. Lisle Smith, of Chicago, E. T). Baker, of Sangamon, and 
Richard Yates, of Morgan, delivered addresses, after the routine business 
of organizing and electing officers had been disposed of. 

Mr. Hardin, of Morgan, chairman of the committee on resolutions, 
reported the resolutions, which, among other things, expressed the object 
of the meeting as being an assertion of the inviolable rights of the free 
people; approved the nomination of William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, 
for President, and John Tyler, of Virginia, for Vice President : con- 
demned the lavish expenditure of public money as wholly unworthy of 
a Chief ^lagistrate ; denounced a hard nionev currency as likely to 
impoverish the day laborer and enrich the officeholder; asserted that 
Van Buren had acted unwisely in creating a State debt in times of peace, 
and pointed out the inexpediency of maintaining a large standing army. 

After the adoption of the rosohitions, IMessrs. Davenport, of Taze- 
well ; Butler, of Bureau ; Webster, of LaSalle; Wilkinson, of Morgan, and 
Judge Pobins, of Kentucky, addressed the crowd. Speaking was con- 



168 

tinued at intervals during the evening by Messrs. Davis, of Alton ; Vau- 
deventer, of Schuyler County; Bond, of Clinton, and Doyle, of Peoria. 

The camp of the Chicago delegation was considered the most attract- 
ive. On Wednesday evening, a party of ladies and gentlemen, composed 
of the elite of Springfield, paid a visit to the camp, accompanied by the 
Springfield band. Cotillion parties were formed on the prairie and con- 
tinued until the moon went down. 

The meeting of the old soldiers took place on Thursday, June 4. A 
State organization was elfected, John F. Henry being elected president. 
Eesolutions were passed, pledging those present to work and vote for 
the soldier candidate. 

On motion, the Eevolutionary soldiers attending the meeting were 
invited to the platform. Nine responded and were introduced to the 
audience. One of these veterans was nearly one hundred years old. 
Two others who were in town were unable to attend the meeting. One 
of the old soldiers, past eighty, wore a hunting shirt which he had worn 
at Fort Meigs; another brought a tomahawk that he had taken from an 
Indian near the battlefield of the Thames. One soldier proudly wore a 
sword that had been presented to him for gallant conduct during the 
time of General Wayne. 

Thursday morning opened for the Whigs with a reception to the 
delegates by the Sangamon County delegation, after which, at 9 :30, the 
different delegations assumed the positions assigned them at a signal 
of one gun. The Sangamon delegation formed on Sixth Street, also 
the old soldiers, their right resting on Edwards Street. 

At 10:00 a. m., after a salute of twenty-six guns, the different 
detachments moved into column of march, and proceeded a mile and a 
quarter out onto the prairie south of town, then countermarched until 
the head of the column arrived again on Sixth Street just as the rear 
left it, making a procession two and one-half miles long, six abreast, in 
close marching order. 

The order of the procession was as follows : 

Salute party, with two field pieces. 

E. H. Merryman, Chief Marshal. 

Assistant Chief Marshals. 

Music. 

Committee on Arrangements. 

State Central Committee. 

Banner : State Coat of Arms ; William Henry Harrison, on the 
reverse; "The Eobe of the Civilian over the Armor of the Soldier." 

A full length likeness of General Harrison, borne by two men. 
(This was painted by Major Cabiniss, a portrait painter of Springfield, 
who made a trip to General Harrison's home at North Bend for the 
purpose. ) 

Soldiers of the Ecvolntion. in a long canoe, drawn by four gray 
horses. 

Dr. John F. Henry, president of the old soldiers' organization. 

Vice Presidents, consisting of soldiers of the Eevolution, also those 
who served under Wayne, and with Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe. 

Soldiers of the late war (1812), six abreast, with banner and 
National Flag. 



169 

Delegations from other states : Missouri, six abreast, with tri- 
eolored flag and state coat of arms, with the motto, "Union for the sake 
of Union;" Indiana delegation with badges bearing the inscription, 
"The eneni}^ is giving way; one more tire and victory is ours." 

Iowa delegation, with banner inscribed : "Iowa cannot vote, but she 
can, and will, speak." 

Carriages with ladies. 

President of the Young Men's Convention, Hon. A. M. Jenkins. 

Twenty-six young men selected from the various delegations, serv- 
ing as vice presidents. 

The county delegations, in six detachments, with bands, floats and 
banners. The first detachment was led by Assistant Chief Marshal 
Prentiss, and headed by the Cook County delegation; four bay horses 
drew a wagon containing the musicians, dressed as sailors, in white, with 
red sashes. 

The second detachment was led by Z. P. Cabiniss, Morgan County 
heading the line, preceded by the Jacksonville band in a carriage drawn 
by six Avhite horses. This delegation carried a banner inscribed : "Mor- 
gan County will attend to her crops, and her rights, too !" Next to 
Sangamon, it was the largest delegation in line, numbering about 1,100. 
Twenty old soldiers riding in a canoe drawn by six gray horses, attracted 
much attention. Among other banners carried by the hundreds of Mor- 
gan County farmers was one bearing the legend : "The farmer of Nortli 
Bend— from the cabin to the Cabinet." 

The third detachment was led by Thomas Hewitt, and headed by 
the Tazewell County delegation. 

The fourth detachment, led by J. Shackelford, was headed by the 
Greene County men, decked with green bushes and carrying heads of 
green wheat. They bore a !)eautiful white silk flag presented by the 
ladies of Carrollton. 

The fifth detachment was led by F. Webster and headed by the 
Scott County delegation. 

The sixth detachment, acting as rear escort, led by J. Corneau, 
consisted of the Sangamon County delegation, carrying at its front a 
banner inscribed : "Old Sangamon— Harrison and Eeform." 

A large canoe, 33 feet long, containing two sailors in costume, fol- 
lowed, drawn by four horses. A pair of large deer horns was fastened 
to the bow. After this float came about 1,500 men carrying flags,^an- 
ners and mottoes. Wolf Creek, Upper and Lower Lick Creek, Eichland. 
Fancy Creek, Mechanicsburg and Island Grove were well represented. 
Eochester brought a steam engine drawn by horses and a canoe -float; a 
little band of shoemakers carried a banner inscribed: "To accomplish 
our ends we will stake our awl." A log cabin followed, with a band 
playing inside, the float being drawn by ten yoke of oxen. 

Cotton Hill came with a monster log cabin of cottonwood logs, in 
the most approved style of pioneer architecture, drawn by twenty-six 
yoke of oxen. In the rear of the cabin was a tree of sufficient size to 
support several men. while eighty men were gathered in, upon and 
around the cabin itself. The Sugar Creek delegation followed a banner 
inscribed : "Sugar Creek will do her duty," 



170 

Two IilukIi'lmI Iiisluncu selected from tlie Sangamou aud Morgan 
county delegations, carrying green banners with green streamers, excited 
great enthusiasm. 

The old soldiers were a remarkable feature of the procession. There 
were the eyes, now growing dim, that had' beheld the redcoats fall at 
Xew Orleans; ears that had listened to the warwhoop of the Indian 
allies at Mauraee, Fort Meigs and Tippecanoe; lingers that had pressed 
the triggers at the Thames, Monmouth and Stony Point ; and feet, steady 
then, but all too faltering now, that had followed Washington over frost 
and snow and floating ice, to capture the Hessians at Trenton. Every 
battlefield from Xew Orleans back to the Revolution was represented. 

The enthusiasm along the line of march w^as indescribable. The 
roar of fifteen thousand voices, the swaying banners, fluttering handker- 
chiefs of the spectators, the thud of hoofs, the music of the bands, the 
gayly uniformed marshals on their prancing horses, all aided in creating 
a scene that even the wildest imagination (probably the one owned by 
editor Francis) had surely never anticipated as likely to be staged in 
the little prairie town of Springfield. Moses, describing the event in his 
history, estimates the crowd at 20,000 people, although the State Regis- 
ter people could see but . about 3,000, and the Sangamo Journal was 
satisfied with the claim of 12,000 in the line of march. The procession 
was two and one-half miles in length, embracing 1,463 sections of six 
individuals abreast, besides a long line of carriages, horsemen, men in 
canoes, log cabins and other floats. 

Before countermarching on Sixth Street, the detachments passed 
in review before the Sangamon County delegation, drawn up in line to 
receive them. After the procession had passed, Sangamon County 
wheeled into line in the rear. The line of march continued on Sixth 
to Adams, Adams to Fifth, Fifth to Jefferson, Jefferson to Second, 
Second to IMadison, Madison to Fifth, and thence to Houghan's Park, 
just south of the present Edwards Place, where the barbecue was in 
readiness. The park was reached about 1 :00 p. m. and the tables were 
loaded with plain, substantial, log-cabin fare, to which a crowd of 15,000 
people did ample justice. No wine or spirituous liquors were allowed 
at the barbecue. Awnings and seats had been prepared at the park for 
the ladies. 

After the multitude had been fed, they collected in groups and were 
addressed by Mr. Hogan, of Alton, Mr. Brigham, of Massachusetts, 
Judge Todd, of Missouri, Mr. May, of Sangamon, Mr. Hardin, of Mor- 
gan, Mr. Morrison, of Kaskaskia, and Messrs. Webster, Hawley and 
Coffin, of LaSalle. The speaking was concluded at 6 :00 o'clock p. m., 
and the people returned to town. 

The home of Dr. Houghan (now known as Edwards Place) was 
thrown open to the ladies at the barbecue, and the space in front of his 
piazza was occupied by a large crowd, which was addressed by talented 
young citizens of the north and south parts of the State. Mrs. Smith, 
the mother of Dr. Todd, a lady nearing her eightieth birthday, was 
present, and was introduced to the people as the early friend and 
guardian of General William Henry Harrison. When she arose and 
stood before the crowd, every lieftrt thrilled in unison with the pride she 



171 

felt in tlio honor paid to llie child that had ,i;f()\vii to luanliood niuler 
her protection and guidance. 

In the evening, the convention reasseinhled at the pavilion on the 
camp-ground, Hon. A. M. Jenkins presiding. ^Ir. Stuart, oi" Cook, Mr. 
Chambers, of St. Louis, Judge Huntington, of Indiana, Mr. Bond, of 
Clinton, and Mv. Hogan, of ]\Iadison County, delivered speeches of great 
power. 

Mr. Hardin, of Morgan County, offered a set of resolutions, which 
were adopted with enthusiasm, thanking the citizens of Springfield and 
Sangamon County for their kind hospitality, and the ladies in particular, 
for the spirit and enthusiasm they had shown. Mr. Hogan, of Madison, 
offered a resolution, thanking Hon. A. M. Je'nkins for the acceptable 
manner in which he had presided over the meetings, and after the adop- 
tion of this resolution, the convention adjourned sine die. 

On the morning of June 5, after the tents of the Chicago delega- 
tion had been struck, it marched in procession with banners flying, to 
the music of the band, through the streets of the town to the office of 
the Sangamo Journal. Here, Mr. Stuart, of the Chicago American, 
made a happy address in behalf of the Cook County delegation, in which 
he presented to the Sangamon County Whigs the brig brought down 
from Chicago, as typical of the ship of state, which tliey were willing 
to intrust to the keeping of the latter. 

After the applause had ceased, Mr. Baker, on behalf of the citizens 
of Sangamon County, presented to the Cook County delegation a large 
gray eagle, as typical of the young Eepublic. While Mr. Baker was 
describing the broad flight of the noble bird when he should be released 
from his cage by the election of General Harrison, the eagle, either in 
anticipation of that joyful event or because his bearer pulled his tail 
feathers,, reared his head and gave a resounding squawk, that was fol- 
lowed by a burst of applause from the assembled crowd. 

Many of the delegations spent the following Sunday in camp on 
their homeward Avay, while others did not start until Monday morning. 
Like many other political meetings, the greatest benefit to the party was 
not secured in the open and formal work of the convention, but rather 
in the secret conferences, the private exchange of ideas and information, 
and the personal acquaintance of leaders and lieutenants, which resulted 
from this assemblage of the brightest minds of the Whig party in Hlinois. 
The firmer organization and closer relationship coveted by the leaders 
had been effected, and they separated with a firmer faith that victory 
would crown the efforts of the Whig party to seat their log caKin candi- 
date in the presidential chair. 

As for the local politicians, they felt assured that Sangamon County 
had set a high-water mark in the entertainment of crowds that would 
stand for many a year. In fact, it is very doubtful whether any town 
of 2,500 inhabitants ever carried a more stupendous undertaking to such 
a successful finish, and when Springfield is counting up her honors as a 
convention town, she should not forget to brush the dust of years from 
her well-earned, if slightly passe, laurels of IS 10. 



PART III 



Contributions to State History 



1914 



175 



FURTHER REGARDING THE DESTRUCTION OF A BRANCH 
OF THE FOX TRIBE OF INDIANS. 



(By J. F. Steward.) 

The writer of this article recently received a letter from the author 
of a work on western history who was invited to visit the hill of slaughter 
at the writer's expense, containing a declination to do so^ stating that 
"The place has never been found;" hence the following: It is clear that 
negative statements cannot eiface landmarks. 

Francis Parkman, in his Half Century of Conflict, says: "The 
accounts of the affair are obscure and not very truthworthy." This 
statement will be found to be correct, only the landmarks can show where 
the event took place. Davidson, in Unnamed Wisconsin, says: "The 
worst event of the war occurred near Rock St. Louis on the Illinois 
Eiver." He does not say at, but near. The place of my discoveries is, 
by the old trail, a day's run, about twelve French leagues away. Heb- 
bard, in Wisconsin under the Dominion of the French, tells of the 
affair, but gives no place. DeLery, in his two sketches, dated October 
15, 1730, states that the place is situated between the Illinois and the 
Wabash rivers, at 50 leagues to the east southeast of the Eock in New 
France. He does not distinguish between the Rock that gave our Illinois 
stream its second name in history and the Rock on the Illinois River. 

Hoquart (Hocquart) in his letter to the French Minister, dated 
January 15, 1731, says : 

"Monseigneur : I have no doubt * * * that you have learned, by 
way of the Mississippi, of the defeat of the Renards, savages (Foxes), 
that happened on September 9, the last, in a plain situated between 
the River Wabash and the river of the Illinois, about sixty leagues to the 
south of the extremity or foot of Lake Michigan; to the east southeast 
of the Rock in the Illinois country." 

The region between the Illinois River and the Wabash was not 
known as the Illinois country. The Illinois were further west; some 
of them beyond the Mississippi. "In the Illinois country," is indefinite. 
This statement of Hoquart is referred to in a recent work, where it is 
said that the location of my discovery does not accord therewith. This 
is true, but, I reply that Hoqnart was in Quebec and received his infor- 
mation second hand ; such was also true of DeLery. The two localities 
pointed out by Hoquart are wide apart, and DeLery's places do not 
accord with those of Hoquart.^ 

Charlevoix passed down the Illinois River in 1721 to Fort St. Louis 
on what we know as "Starved Rock." The Peorias had clung to their 
old hunting grounds, about our river, although the other branches had 
moved to our side of the ^lississippi, below St. Louis, taking the name 

■ DeLerv's sketches, as procured from Paris for me, can be seen in the library of the Illinois His- 
torical Society. 



176 

of their original town, Kaskaskia, with them. The French league was 
commonly stated to equal two and forty-two one-hundredths of an 
English mile. DeLery's place of slaughter, we find, would be one hun- 
dred and twenty-one miles from the "Eock" on the Illinois, near Delphi, 
Indiana, and Hoquart's sixty leagues would move the place beyond the 
Wabash, near Kokomo, Indiana. Hoquart's sixty leagues from the 
southern extremity of Lake Michigan would place the slaughter a few 
miles from Terre Haute, Indiana. Taking our large Government map 
as a guide, DeLery's position would be about six miles west of the 
Wabash, while Hoquart's first place would be about twenty-five miles 
beyond the Wabash, near Spencer, Indiana, which is about eighty-two 
miles from Terre Haute. We thus see that three places of the event are 
given. The military officers, no doubt, had maps of that day before 
them, but Hoquart and DeLery seemed to have ignored the work of 
cartographers. On Homan's map of 1684, our river is given as "Eiviere 
des Illinois, E. de Macopin,"^ including the Kankakee. Fox Eiver of 
Illinois is shown, but not named. Following the authors mentioned, the 
place of slaughter would be beyond the Wabash, following the scale of 
leagues there shown. On an early French map, entitled, "Carte de la 
Nouvelle France," etc., not dated, but evidently drawn about 1710, 
Fort St. Louis is shown. Following the authors referred to, the place 
would be far beyond the Wabash. 

On a map published in Amsterdam, "1710-1720," the place of the 
"Eock" is not shown, but its situation is apparent; following the two 
accounts the place was beyond the Wabash. On the map of Herman 
Moll, in the year 1720, the place would be between the Wabash and a 
branch of the St. Joseph Eiver, called Oumanie. 

Following Franquelin's map of 1688, the place would be near the 
Wabash. Following DeLisle's map of 1703, sixty leagues puts the place 
beyond the Wabash. This is also true of DeLisle's map of 1722. On 
this map is given a scale of English miles, and by it I find that the 
place would be far beyond the Wabash, and fifty leagues from the Eock 
on the Illinois would make it very near the Wabash. Fifty leagues 
from the Eock on the Fox Eiver, of Illinois, will put the locality about 
one hundred and twenty-one miles east southeast between the Kankakee, 
on the early maps sometimes called the Illinois, and the Wabash. 
Hoquart's sixty leagues would place the locality a little further east. 
These confusions led me to my supposition that the Eock referred to 
was that on Fox Eiver of Illinois and not that on the Illinois Eiver. 
The Fox Eiver of Illinois is first shown on an undated map (probably 
of 1679, as we are informed by Harrisse, the French authority on early 
French maps of America), and on Franquelin's map of 1684, where is 
the name Pestekuoy, the Algonquin name of the buffalo of our early 
prairies. 

Our early map-makers often copied the en-ors of others; but, in 
time, cartographers became more correct in their work. It is thought 
that the information which enabled Popple in his map of 1732 to draw 
our stream more correctly than before Maramech was abandoned, was 
received from traders, as the position is properly shown, nlthougli there 

» The river of our beautiful pond lilies, 



177 

called Maraux.^ The region was on a well-known trail, mapped in by 
early map-makers. There are the hills, properly placed, particularly 
the isolated one, prominently shown. 

On sixt3^-five early maps of my collection, the Mascoutins, sometimes 
given as Assistaeronnous or Nation de Fen, are shown as inliabiting the 
gTeat prairies about the head of the Fox Eiver of Illinois, and as far 
down as to reach Fox Eiver, in Kendall County. Illinois, and they are 
shown nowhere else. Beckwith, who gave more attention to the history 
of Illinois than any other, quotes from an old record, as found in the 
article on "Mysterious Indian Battle Grounds in McLean County, Illi- 
nois," by John H. Burnham in the Transactions for 1908. He says: 
"Confirmatory of this is a reference in a letter written by M. de Lon- 
gueil. the French commander at Detroit in 1752, where, referring to 
the difficulties the French were encountering with their Indian subjects 
between the Illinois and Wabash rivers, it is stated among other matters 
of grievance, the Piankeshaws, Illinois and sages were to assemble at 
the prairies of the Mascoutins,* the place where Messrs. de Villiers and 
de ISToyelle attacked the Foxes about twenty years previous. And when 
iliey had built a fort to secure their families, they were to make a general 
attack on all the French. M. de Yilliers and M. de Noyelle, as is well 
known, were officers at Fort Chartres. 

Few will charge Beckwith with inattention to details. The prairies 
of the Mascoutins was undoubtedly correct. 

It was the Mascoutins and Illinois of the Eock (Peorias) that held 
the Foxes, located between them, until the French arrived. 

The trail known to early arrivals as the Sac and Fox trail crossed 
Fox Eiver west of Chicago, probably where the early settlers passed over 
(including my parents, in 1838) at the shallow rapid, divided by the 
island near the northeast corner of Fox township, Kendall County, 
Illinois. The river shown on the French map of 1679 has a line cross- 
ing it marked "Saut," the French word for a rapid. The old trail is 
there still seen, winding up the hill. Later maps than that of Fran- 
quelin, and others, give the name as "Eiviere du Eocher," — Eiver of the 
round-summited rock. The rock that gave the river its second name in 
history is about an acre in extent and more than forty feet in height. 
Whence the present name of the two creeks? Simply creeks of the 
Eock; their entrance into the Eiver of the Eock (before being turned 
by the hand of man) was only a half French league from the Eock. 
Eiver of the Eock, Big Creek of the Eock, Little Creek of the Eock, the 
names of the creeks remain and are commemorative of the older name 
of the Eiver of the Eock. In the years of the century following the first 
discoveries, the French cartographers mapped in the river as "Eiviere 
des Eenards" — Eiver of the Foxes. Why this change in name? The 
two previous names had been characteristic. Eiver of the buffalo that 
roamed its adjacent prairies, and river of the mounds of hard Galena 
limestone, so hard as to resist the great glacial plowshare that had cut 

3 The French traders and explorers accustomed themselves to shorten the Indian names; for in- 
stance, Nadowessioux they shortened to Sioux; the Pottowatomies they shortened to Poux; Osaukees 
they called Sacs; Ouiatandns they and the Enfrlish shortened to Wias. It seems probable that they 
shortened the people of Maramech to Maranx. CTn English this would mean Mararose.) 

< The prairies of the Mascoutins extend from the northern border of Illinois to far beyond Mara- 
mech hill, the place of slaughter of the Foxes. The Mascoutins were within the boundary of La Salle's 
colony. Opacole, a Mascoutln town of two hundred warriors, was not far fronj -vyhere Auror^i now is. 
—12 H S 



1?8 

away the softer overlying Ordovician strata — why do we now find two 
rivers that rise in the same state, of the same name? And why was its 
lower portion changed in name to Eiver of the Foxes? The upper por- 
tion of our river, above Pestakee (Pistakee) Lake, as late as 1838, still 
retained the Algonquin name, Eiver of the Buffalo. For some reason, 
plain to me, it was not considered inappropriate to give the lower portion 
a name commemorative of some important event — Eiviere des Eenards — 
Eiver of the Foxes — Fox Eiver. 

The larger creek of the Eock, from which rises "the gentle slope" 
of the islet-like hill, a few miles to the north, is composed of two 
branches, one of which is laid down in Eand & MeXally's map of Kane 
County, Illinois, as "Battle Creek." Thoro investigation was made by 
the surveyor (with whom I talked) as to the name of the branch when 
came the early settlers. Why did this name linger, only eight miles 
from the place of my discoveries? May not this be the remnant of a 
name once given to the creek referred to in the French accounts as a 
"Little Eiver," as the head of the larger stream recently echoed the 
erstwhile name, the Eiver of the Buffalo? Why, at first, called "Battle" 
Creek unless some military event took place along the stream? 

The lower reach of the creek returned to its original French name, 
Grand crique du Eocher — hence our name. Big Eock Creek. Little 
Eock Creek, from early times, passed eastward along the southern bluff 
of the historic hill, and with a letter S joined its larger brother, both 
reaching the river that "leads to the Macopin" (the Illinois or Macopin 
of Franquelin's map and DeLery's sketch of 1730). From the conflu- 
ence of the two creeks rises the island-like hill, of about thirty acres in 
extent; on other side is a gravel spit, across the swamp, formed since the 
denudation of the hill of great trees that once formed two groves on 
its summit. On the southern crest of the hill, in early childhood, I 
sought the shade of these great trees, and caught the finny tribe at the 
foot of the bluff, before the hand of man had turned the course of the 
smaller stream. From the higher points of the eminence one can over- 
look the immense Mascoutin prairies, across the narrow ^yooded valleys 
and the timber lands that thinly skirted the bluffs. 

When Maramech (the town of the Miamis of the Crane) was aban- 
doned, we do not know. There Perrot was long in command, in the' 
interest of New France. DeBacqueville de la Potherie, who received 
from Perrot much information regarding Maramech, tells us, in his 
early history of America, of events that there took jolace. Perrot was 
told by the Governor of New France to instruct the Miamis of Mara- 
mech to join the other branches of the tribe on the St. Joseph Eiver; 
but when they abandoned their village on our larger stream, we have 
not yet been able to determine. In 1695, two runners came from the 
northwest and stated to the chief of the village that the Sioux were 
coming, and the chief ordered all out to build a fort. The town was 
at the foot of the hill, scattered along the Eiver of the Eock. Upon 
the eastern crest of the hill, near by, a ditch, hip-deep at places, is still 
seen, and it is probable that the work of two days was there consumed; 
the rumor proved to be false, and the efforts were discontinued. That 
Maramech was, at first, a place of importance, is shown by the fact that 
many French articles are found in the graves near by. 



179 

The country, although early mapped in, soon became no man's 
land, attracting only fur hunters, in bands so large as to be safe when 
meeting bands of other tribes. The region was little known in 1730, on 
account of the rare visits at that time made, and the French found it 
not easy to get guides, hence they had difficulty in reaching the scene 
of the event. 

The Eock, on the Illinois River, then was in a well-known region."^ 
No guides were needed to find that place, as it had been known fifty-two 
years and was well mapped. The locality of which I write had then 
become obscure. Historians before me had not then found the place. 
The destruction of the branch of the Foxes is well told, in some respects, 
but confused as to location. It took place in Louisiana, as the region 
drained by the Mississippi was known. In his search for the band of 
Foxes, hemmed in by the allied tribes, and the Illinois from the new 
Kaskaskia and Cahokia (mostly Peorias), St. Ange at first traveled in 
a well-known country. The letter of May 16, 1731, tells that: "The 
Kickapoos, Mascoutins and Illinois of the Rock had taken possession of 
the northeast quarter, and it was probably that which constrained the 
Foxes to build a fort at the Rock, a league below them, in order to get 
under cover from their assaults." "We had news of the enemy on the 
12th from one of our scouts, who informed us where their fort was, 
and that he had counted one hundred and eleven cabins."^ 

The two events, the attack made on the Foxes while on their way, 
and the siege, are badly mixed in the accounts. 

Des Kaillons (Deschaillons), Commandant at Detroit, in his con- 
fusing letter to Beauharnais, dated August 22, writes that two Mascou- 
tins had arrived from the St. Joseph River. They reported that the 
Renards were fighting with the Illinois, between the Rock and the 
Ouiatanon (a branch of the Miamis). When the Poux, Mascoutins and 
Quiquapoux (Kickapoos) learned of this, they marched thither; and 
while they advanced by slow stages because they had with them a wounded 
man whom they were obliged to carry, a couple of young men pushed 
ahead ; but after marching a short distance, the two young men saw in a 
plain the Renards fighting against the Illinois ; they at once came back 
to warn the main body of tlieir troops, who fell upon the Renards. Con- 
sequently the Renards found themselves by this attack hemmed in by the 
Illinois on one side and on the other by the Poux, Quiquapoux and Mas- 
coutins. But hardly had the last mentioned tribes attacked the Renards, 
trusting that the Illinois would keep them in check on the other side, 
when the Illinois took flight." 

It is thus seen that the Foxes had an opportunity to escape, which 
they undoubtedly did, and fled. In DeVillier's letter to Beauharnais, 
date not given (page 113, Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XVII), 
he says: "They defeated the Renards and put them to flight; but the 
latter rallied and gained renewed vigor." Query : When and where did 
they rally? "During the night" (after the battle) "the Poutouatamis 
posted themselves on a hill in the prairie and dug holes in the earth by 
way of a fort. On their side,' the Renards, with their families, took 



' About a French league northeast of the place of the stockade is a perpetual pond of good water, 
In a deep depression; its banks are well shaded. It is possible that there the Mascoutins, Kickapoos 
and Illinois remained while holding the Foxes in check. 

«The natives always took with them the materials for their cabins, the rush mats, and usually 
the poles. 



180 

poasession of a small grove of trees and fortified themselves." ... "1 
started from my post on the 10th of August." . . . "I found their 
village very small, although 1 do not refer to that in which they were 
shut up, but two of their camps which I saw in the prairies where they 
had lived during the summer." We thus see that the Foxes had been at 
another place. "The Eenards' fort was in a small grove of trees, on 
the bank of a little river running through a vast prairie, more than four 
leagues in circumference, without a tree, except two groves about sixty 
arpents from one another."^ ... "I camped, with my savages, and 
the Frenchmen who had joined me, on the right of their fort" (right 
relative to the course of the little river), "where I erected two others, 
with a cavalier^ in each to beat them back into their own and prevent 
them from descending into the ditches they had outside. I had a 
trench opened to approach them more closely, without risk to anybody, 
and had an attempt made to set fire to their fort. This trench made 
them uneasy, and caused them to move about more than usual: ^ As 
soon as they saw that the earth was being excavated a shower from gun- 
shots fell in good fashion." 

In a digest of several letters (page 110, same volume) we read: 
"Meanwhile, the Illinois of the village of the Cakokias came, in the 
month of July, 1730, to tell us that the Eenards had taken some of 
their people and had burned the son of their great chief near the Eock 
on the Illinois Eiver." (Observe the word "near"; not at but near. 
The Eock on the Illinois Eiver is but twelve French leagues from the 
Eock in the adjoining County.) "St. Ange placed himself at the head 
of the French, and on the 10th of August the latter joined the three or 
four hundred savages who had preceded them by a few days." St. 
Ange may have started between the first and sixth. "The Quikapoos, 
Mascoutins and Illinois of the Eock had made themselves masters of 
the passes on the northeast side, and this probably compelled the Een- 
ards to build a fort at the Eock, a league below them (that is, down the 
river), to protect themselves against their attacks." St. Ange traveled 
along the wooded banks of the Illinois and Fox rivers. Eeferring to 
the fort, the account says : "This was a small grove of trees surrounded 
by a palisade situated on a gentle slope rising to the west and northwest 
from a little river, so that on the east and southeast sides they were 
exposed to our fire. Our men were posted, by order of Monsieur de 
St. Ange, so as to blockade the Eenards, who made two unsuccessful 
sorties that day. Trenches were dug the following night and every man 
worked to fortify himself in the post assigned to him." On the night 
of the 8th of September the Foxes escaped. "Our savages, who were 
fresher and more vigorous, soon overtook them." 

The foregoing extracts are the essential points of the affair, and I 
close the selection by quoting from Hoquart's letter dated November 
14, 1730: "Monsieur Chaussegros de Lery has drawn up a plan of the 
same with a note accompanying it, which is addressed to you ... by 
Monsieur de Beauharnais." 



' At the northeast of the hill of my discovery was a grove, and at the south end, where was the 
stockade, another. These groves now cut away, all but the second growths, were about one hundred 
and sixty rods apart. 

' A little fort to protect our advance. 



181 

(The above quoted statements are scattered through many letters, 
mainly found in Vol. XVII of the Wisconsin Historical Collections.) 

The trenches at the north end of the hill are irregular and dupli- 
cated, which is accounted for by the haste in which they were made. 
The ditch of approach intended to reach the stockade to set fire to it 
follows the brow of the hill, diagonally relative to the stockade and is 
three hundred and forty-six feet in length; its ends still visible, altho 
an early plowman obliterated a large portion of its length. 

We find that DeVilliers was approximately ten days in reaching 
the locality of the event, which was a ridiculously long time to pass 
from the St. Joseph River to any place pointed out by DeLery and 
Hoquart, unless the event took place near Terre Haute, which is not 
probable. DeVilliers was commander in chief, and we may well think 
he made haste; but the distance must have been much greater than 
stated in the digests of the letters. From the Eock on the Fox Eiver, 
in Illinois, to the nearest point on the St. Joseph River, is about 180 
miles. Eighteen miles, dragging two cannon, over swajnps, was a fair 
day's march. 

DeLery's sketches (obtained for me by the Map Department of 
the Congressional Library), as stated, are dated October 15, and there 
seems to be little agreement between them and the military accounts. 
He shows no bunch of woods, no islet, no slope rising gently to the 
west and northwest from a little river, but abrupt bluffs rising north- 
ward. He does not show the position of DeVilliers' little forts; does 
not show St. Ange's correct position. He does show, however, the 
smaller creek from which the bluff abruptly rises, flowing eastwardly, 
but no covered way leading to the little stream, so plainly seen before 
the denudation of the hill, which permitted the heavy rainfalls to cut a 
wide gully that laid bare a French axe that, no doubt, was used in 
building the stockade. Flis underground cells and passageways, so well 
shown, were undoubtedly drawn from his own imagination, as construc- 
tions of the kind were unknown to our natives. Dr. William Jones" 
once passed over the ground with me and agreed with me that the place 
had, at last, been found. 

Pokagon, an educated Indian, and the last chief of the Pottowato- 
mies, to whom I sent some of my writings, wrote: "So it appears to 
me, by your close observation, you have established the site of the ancient 
village and the fort correctly." 

What support does Hoquart get from the military reports? None. 

What support do I get from those sources? The following: 

Why wa5 the name of the river changed to Riviere des Renards? 
As we say, Fox River? "Near the Rock on the Illinois River?" The 
place of my discovery is but thirty miles away. The little river? The 
gentle slope rising from the little river? The amphitheater-like gentle 
slope of the hill, rising both to the west and northwest from the little 
river? The two bunches of great trees were there until 1869, when the 
axeman denuded the hill. The islet still remains.^" The swamp and 
the creeks still hem in the "islet." The half-circle ditch of the stockade 



' Dr. Tones was a quarter-blood Fox, a graduate of Harvard College, and he also received a degree 
from Columbia College. He was killed in the Philippine Islands while making ethnological researches 
for the Field Museum. 

1° The French termed any rise from a valley or low country an islet, or island; for instance, Stony 
Island and Blue Island, in Cook County, Illinois. 



182 

completing with the steep brows of the hill west and south, made the 
place a strategic point, which would not be true of a bunch of woods in 
an open prairie. The ditch of the defense is still plainly marked. The 
ditch to the water of the smaller creek was still plain at the time of my 
discovery, Ijefore the denuded hill had allowed the heavy rainfalls to cut 
the approach to water away. A French axe that helped to make the 
stockade was found in the gravel where the rush of heavy rainfalls, after 
the denudation, had laid it bare. And a gunflint was found nearby. In 
the waterway a stone axe was also laid bare. The "Rock," nearly a 
French league below, its foot bathed by the water's flow, altho silent, 
stands as proof. Two rifle pits are seen at the southern brow of the 
hill. The irregular trenches, first made by the French and allies, at 
the north, still scar the sod. The unfinished ditch of approach, strik- 
ing diagonally southwest, is still plain, altho partly obliterated by an 
early plow, after one hundred and eighty-four years. The close position 
of DeVilliers' little fort on the bluff at the right, across the swamp 
(relative to the ^ow of the little and the larger river), a musket-shot 
away is another proof. To the north of Maramech hill, a rifle-shot 
away, is a continuation of the hill to the west, and it is quite possible 
that DeVilliers' second little fort was there placed. A flintlock horse- 
pistol barrel was recently there found. 

The place on the northern spur of a southern bluff, across the east- 
wardly running smaller creek, then at the foot of the hill, two pistol- 
shots away, opposite the waterway, is evidently where St. Ange made 
his little ineffective fort to cut off the water supply. The covered coun- 
try referred to, and followed by St. Ange, borders the larger river. 
From the southeast the hill and the slope are plainly seen, as stated in 
the accounts. The country is mainly a vast prairie, especially the route 
taken by DeVilliers, nearly all the way from St. Joseph River. The 
last stand, a mile away, seems to be marked by vast numbers of arrow 
heads. The trenches first made are irregular, as one gathers from 
accounts. They are a short musket-shot from the stockade. They are on 
the brow of the hill, at the north, as near as safe to approach the stock- 
ade, where few trees now obstruct the view, and proloably none did in 
1730; the second growths all sprang up since the coming of the whites. 
The custom of our natives to burn off the prairies and leaves of the 
woodland was destructive to tender growths, hence the open woods at 
the time of the coming of the whites. 

Let those who doubt stand by the great boulder I have placed, and 
with a military eye judge where the open attack must have first been 
made, then go in that direction and find the scars of the trenches in 
the virgin sod. Pass to the southern foot of the hill and follow the 
old bed of the smaller creek, thru its S, where oft, in youth, I fished, 
eastward to the "little river," and there notice the gentle slope. Stand 
at the highest parts of the hill, that of the south and tliat of the north- 
east, and judge if the approach of an army could not be discovered. 
Stand at the point of the hill, opposite the gully, where the ditch 
approached the water, and say if that place is more than two pistol-shots 
away fi-om the northern spur of the approaching hill at the south. Go 
to the rocks and judge whether they are not near a short French league 
away. Pass to the west, now dry sod, across the swamp to the brow of 



183 



the hill and judge whether or not there, at the right, was the position of 
DeVilliers' little forts to protect those in the advance to attack the 
stockade. Stand at the eastern bank of Big Eock Creek, the little river, 
and look up the gentle slope. Notice whether or not the slope is to the 
west and northwest from that little river. 



184 



BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1 7TH REGIMENT ILLINOIS 
VOLUNTEER INFANTRY— 1861-1864. 



(Compiled b}' Egbert W. Campbell, Peoria.) 

Ten companies went into camp at Peoria, Illinois, May 10, 1861 : 
Co. "A," Capt. A. S. Norton; Co. "B," Baldwin; Co. ''C," Eose; Co. 
"D," Bush; Co. "E," Smith; Co. "F," Moore; Co. "G," Burgess; 
Co. "H," Eoss; Co. "I," Wood; Co. "K," Walker. 

May 20, the 17th Eegiment was organized by electing Capt. Eoss, 
Co. "H," Colonel; Capt. Wood, Co. "I," Lieutenant Colonel; Capt. 
Smith, Co. "E," Major. Lieut. A. H. Eyan, Co. "A," was appointed 
Adjutant; Lieut. C. C. Williams, Co. "'F," Quartermaster; Dr. Lucius 
D. Kellogg, Eegimental Surgeon; Dr. C. B. Tompkins, Assistant 
Surgeon. 

After spending about one month at Peoria, engaged in drilling and 
making preparation for service, we were moved by steamboats to Alton, 
Illinois, where we went into camp and spent another month in drilling. 
About the middle of July we were transported by steamers to St. Charles, 
Missouri, thence by railroad to Warrenton, where we spent a week. The 
regiment was then ordered to St. Louis, where it became a part of the 
command of Gen. Fremont; and accompanied him August 1 on his 
expedition to Cairo via steamers. August 3 it went into camp at Bird's 
Point, Missouri, and Avas engaged for about two weeks in building forti- 
fications ; was then ordered up the Mississippi to a landing about thirty 
miles below St. Louis, known as "Sulphur Springs"; thence by railroad 
to Ironton, Missouri, where the regiment was encamped for a short time. 
While here the officers of the regiment, about August 20, had the pleas- 
ure of meeting for the first time Brig. Gen. U. S. Grant, who had 
recently received his commission as brigadier general. 

From Ironton the regiment was ordered to move to Fredericktown. 
Missouri, and garrison the place, where it remained about a week; when, 
Ijeing attached to the command of Gen. Prentiss, moved under that 
officer to Jackson ; thence to Cape Girardeau, reaching the latter place 
September 2, 1861. About September 10 the regiment was removed to 
the Kentucky shore opposite Cairo and aided in constructing Fort Holt. 
By this time Gen. Grant had established his headquarters at Cairo. 
From him came orders to Col. Eoss to take his regiment, the 17th, the 
19th, Col. Turchin, and the 7th Iowa, Col. Lawman, and a section of 
artillery and occupy Elliott's Mills, a place about half way between 
Fort Holt and Columbus, Kentucky. This place, about twelve miles 
from Columbus, was named Camp Crittenden, and was held only four 
days when the brigade was ordered to fall back to old Fort Jefferson, 
and soon after to Fort Holt, where work was resumed on the fortifica- 
tions. This proved a very unhealthy location, and a large portion of 



185 

the regiment was very soon in the hospitah As a sanitary means, the 
regiment was riioved from Fort Holt, Kentucky, by steamer to Cape 
Girardeau, Missouri, a higher and more healthy location. This change 
was made October 3, 1861; disembarked October 4; went into camp, 
and those who were able went to work on the forts being constructed 
at that place. 

On the 18th of October, the 17th Kegiment composed a part of 
the forces of Col. Plummer, with which he moved to Fredericktown, 
where on the 21st of October, Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson was met and 
defeated. As the 17th Regiment had the advance in this engagement, 
bore the brunt of the battle and had the enemy about conquered before 
anv other infantry reached- the field of battle, it is usually referred to 
as "the "fight of the 17th Boys." Loss: killed, 1; wounded, 30, 1 mor- 
tally — Lieut. J. Q. A. Jones, of Co. "C," who died three days after 
the battle. 

In this, the first engagement of the 17th Eegiment, Thomas Lay ton 
was killed, who, so far as the writer is informed, was the first Illinois 
soldier killed in battle in the War of the Eebellion. The battle of Fred- 
ericktown was but a skirmish compared with those which soon followed. 
But it was a decided victory for the Union forces, which at that date 
were not frequent in the west. It gave the members of the regiment 
confidence in themselves as soldiers, and proved of great advantage in 
their future operations. 

October 23, the regiment started on the return march to Cape 
Girardeau, where it arrived October 25 ; November 5 moved out and 
made demonstration on Bloomfield, and went into camp at "Round 
Ponds." The next day was moved back to camp. It was afterwards 
learned that this demonstration was made in order to prevent reinforce- 
ments being sent to oppose General Grant while he fought the battle of 
Belmont. November 29, 1861, Col. Ross of the 17th was assigned to 
the command of the post of Cape Girardeau. On the 30th of November, 
sent Lieut. Col. Wood on expedition to Benton with 150 men to chastise 
guerrillas and protect Union families. December, 1861, was spent in 
drilling, in holding weekly officers' meetings and discussing various 
subjects on the efficiency of our soldiers, giving instructions in regard 
to guard and picket dut}^, enjoining temperance, pointing out the great 
danger of intemperance and excess with soldiers, etc. December 14, on 
invitation of Gen. Grant, embarked on steamer Illinois with Companies 
"A" and "B" for Cairo, to attend a review of the troops at that place. 
December 16 attended review and inspection at Bird's Point, Missouri, 
and Fort Holt, Kentucky. On December 18 there was review and 
inspection of the 'troops at Cape Girardeau by Generals SAveeney, Stur- 
gis and Van Rensselaer. The month of January, 1862, the regiment 
encamped still at Cape Girai'deau, was engaged in drilling, strengthen- 
ing the defenses of the place and making preparation for more active 
service. Several expeditions were sent out from the Cape into the inte- 
rior in pursuit of bands of Gen. Thompson's forces. January 15, three 
expeditions were sent out, one to Benton in command of Major Smith, 
one to Bloomfield under Capt. Murdock and the third to Dallas in 
command of Maj. Rawalt. January 25, Col. Wood and Maj. Smith 
went again on expedition, the first with 200 infantry, the latter with 



186 

200 cavalry, to go to Benton and below to capture guerrillas who had 
been tiring on passing steamers. 

February 8, 1862, the 17th Eegiment was ordered to break camp 
and proceed by boat to Fort Henry on the Tennessee Eiver. i\.rrived 
there and disembarked, went into camp; on the 11th received orders to 
take two days' rations and leave all tents and camp equipage in charge 
of a camp guard, and report to Gen. John A. McClernand, commanding 
the right division ot the advance on Fort Donelson on the Cumberland 
River. 

On the 12th, arrived within view of the outer defenses of Donelson. 
Col. Koss and Lieut. Col. Wood being absent, ]Maj. F. M. Smith was in 
command of the regiment. The brigade, consisting of the 17th, 48tb 
and 49th Illinois Regiments, Infantry, and Capt. McCallister's Battery, 
was cninmauded by Col. William Morrison of the -19th Regiment. 

On the 13th, Gen. McClernand ordered the brigade to make an 
assault on the enemy's works, with a view of capturing a batter}^ which 
had been annoying our troops very much. After charging up to within 
a few yards of the works, it was found impossible to get inside; the 
order was given by Gen. Grant to withdraw, which was done in good 
order under a severe fire of shot and shell from the battery. Col. 
Morrison was severely wounded while on his horse leading the charge; 
loss of the 17th regiment was quite severe. February 11 the 17th regi- 
ment was under fire all day; during the afternoon it rained and by 
night turned quite cold, and by morning of the 15th' there was two 
inches of snow on the ground, much to the discomfort of the troops. 
While in line waiting for orders, the regiment was a target for the 
gunners in the fort, who got such good range that the second shell killed 
four men in the four right companies and wounded two others. 

Company "A" and "B" were sent on the skirmish line, and the 
regiment was moved to the left, without ordering in the skirmishers; 
they were cut ofE by some rebel cavalry and several captured. The 
enemy attempted to cut their way out and were successful in driving 
the right of our line back, but with reinforcements the lost ground was 
all retaken. 

Col. Ross returned and was assigned to command of the brigade 
and directed to report to Gen. Lew Wallace at the front. After so 
reporting, the 17th and balance of the brigade supported Gen. Wallace 
under severe fire and protected his left flank while the last fight was 
made on Saturday night prior to the surrender. 

Sunday, February 16, the 17th regiment was in line ready for the 
general assault, which was to be made all along the line, when, to the 
joy of all, a messenger came galloping up with the information that the 
enemy had surrendered to General Grant. The regiment was soon inside 
the works. The loss of the regiment was: killed, 11; wounded, 58; 
captured, 7; total, 79. 

From date of sui-render on the 16th of February to 4th of March, 
remained in camp at Fort D'onelson. In the meantime was brigaded 
with the 43d, 29th and 49th Illinois Infantry and McCallister's and 
Schwartz's Battery, Col. Ross commanded. March 4th, started to march 
to Mineral Landing on the Tennessee River ; March 6th, embarked on 
the steamer Minnehaba and arrived at Savannah, Tennessee, March 



187 

14th. On the 18th moved out on an expedition to Tinhook, twenty-five 
miles southeast of Savannah to destroy flour being ground for rebels at 
mill five miles from town; destroyed considerable flour and then distri- 
buted 150 sacks among the poor of that vicinity. Then returned to 
Savannah where arrived at 10 :00 a. m. on the 20th of March, and there 
received orders to move further south at 9 :00 o'clock a. m. on the 21st. 
High winds delayed the embarkation till night, when the entire brigade 
was on board of four steamers which landed at Pittsburg Landing and 
went into camp about two miles from landing on the morning of the 22d 
of March, 1862. The 17th regiment was assigned to the First Division, 
commanded by General John A. McClernand, and was brigaded with 
the 29th, 43d "and 61st Illinois regiments. Col. Ross being unavoidably 
absent, the brigade was commanded by Col. Raith of the 43d Illinois. 
On Sunday morning, April 6, the battle of Shiloh opened; the 17th 
regiment was ordered to support Taylor's Battery, located near Shiloh 
Church, on the left of General Sherman's Division. All day long the 
battle raged; the regiment with others was driven back step by step 
until 4:00 p. m., when General Grant succeeded in getting his lines 
more compact and checking the advance. 

On Monday morning, the 7th, a general advance was ordered and 
the fight opened early, fierce and furious; the enemy was gradually 
driven back and by nightfall the 17th regiment had regained possession 
of their camp which had been abandoned Simday morning. The loss of 
the regiment in the two days was: killed, 16; wounded, 114. 

The regiment remained near Pittsburg Landing till April 25, when 
it moved five miles south to Camp Stanton ; then on the 28th to Camp 
Tecumseh, four miles further on the road to Corinth. May 5, encamped 
near Monterey. The regiment was now in the memorable advance on 
Corinth, where General Halleck was in command, which continued to 
May 31, when it was discovered that the enemy had evacuated the place 
anci the Union forces moved in and took possession. 

Among the changes in field officers up to this time were the fol- 
lowing : 

Col. Leonard F. Ross promoted to Brigadier General, April 25, 1862. 

Capt. Addison S. Norton, Co. "A," promoted Colonel. 

Lieut. Col. Enos P. Wood, resigned, April 19, 1862. ^ 

Maj. Francis M. Smith promoted Lieutenant Colonel. 

Capt. Frank F. Peats, Co. "B," promoted Major, April 23, 1862. 

After several moves, the regiment was stationed at Jackson, Ten- 
nessee, where, July 10, 1862, it was brigaded with the 43d, 48th. 49th 
and 61st Illinois Infantry and 12th Michigan. July 18, 1862, regiment 
with entire brigade removed to Bolivar, Tennessee, where Gen. Ross was 
in command of the post and all the forces stationed there. Here was 
a long line of railroad to guard ; scouting parties were sent out almost 
daily to keep advised of the movements of the enemy. This was con- 
tinued until in November, 1862, the regiment was moved to LaGrange, 
Tennessee ; thence to Daviss Mills, Holly Springs, Abbyville and Oxford, 
Mississippi. The 17th was distributed along the railroad guarding the 
bridges. 

December 20, Gen. Van Dorn captured Holly Springs and destroyed 
the large accumulation of munitions of war, food and forage, thus 



188 

cutting off communication with the north. Tlie campaign was aban- 
doned, the troops returning to Holly Springs and LaGrange. The 17th 
regiment assembled at Abbyville December 26, and arrived at Holly 
Springs next day and was transferred from Gen. Logan's to Gen. John 
Mc Arthur's Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps, comma]Kled by 
Gen. James B. McPherson. 

Left Holly Springs on the 29th to Moscow and went into camp at 
Collierville, Tennessee, January 2. January 12, marched to Memphis 
and encamped in the navy yard, guarding Government propert}^ and 
doing provost duty until January 18, embarked on steamer for the 
Vicksburg campaign. 

January 25, arrived at Youngs Point, Louisiana. February 1, em- 
barked on steamer for Lake Providence, Louisiana, where went into 
camp, remaining there until April 30. During the time while at Lake 
Providence, the regiment went on frequent expeditions up the river 
and out through the country for forage and were engaged in several 
skirmishes. 

While the regiment was encamped at Lake Providence, Adjutant 
General Lorenzo D. Thomas came down the river for the purpose of 
organizing colored regiments and several members of the 17th Illinois 
Infantry were selected as officers for the two regiments being formed 
at this time. Sergt. Maj. Prank Bishop, Color Sergt. Eobert M. Camp- 
bell, Corporal William M. Voris were commissioned as officers in the 
47th United States Colored Infantry and W. T. Sullivan and C. E. 
Berry were commissioned as officers in the 48th United States Colored 
Infantry. 

Just prior to leaving Lake Providence, an order had been issued 
transferring the regiment from Gen. Mc Arthur's Division to Gen. 
Logan's Division, and in order to gain time, before the order had been 
promulgated, the 17th Illinois Infantry was sent up the river near Green- 
ville, Mississippi, to drive some guerrillas away who were annoying 
passing boats at that point ; we were gone several days, but on our return 
to Lake Providence, found an order for the regiment to join Gen. Logan's 
Division at once, this Lt'ivision having left a few davs before, so on April 
30 we embarked on boat for Milliken's Bend and disembarked the same 
evening, and on May 1 took up our line of march for Grand Gulf by way 
of Perkin's Plantation and Hard Times Landing. Arrived at Hard 
Times Landing May 4 and the same evening the regiment was ferried 
across the river to Grand Gulf, Mississippi. On landing, Col. Green B. 
Raum. of the 5fith Illinois Infantrv commanding post, delayed us here 
until May 14 for the purpose of assisting in imloading and forwarding 
ammunition and supplies for the army in front ; on this date, the regi- 
ment again started on its march to join the 3d Division, 17th Armv 
Corps. The regiment came un to the Division during the battle of Black 
Eiver Bridge on May 17. On the 18th we crossed Black Eiver and 
were ordered to report to Gen. Smith, commanding 1st Brigade, 3d 
Division. 17th A. C.'; reported about 10:00 o'clock that night to Gen. 
Smith, who informed Maj. F. F. Peats, commanding regiment, that he 
had more troops than ho could use on his part of the line, that thev were 
three lines deep at that time. On 19th. reported to Gen. John A. Logan 
in person, and explained situation of the regiment ; Gen. Logan ordered 



189 

the regiment to the left of his Division, saying at the same time he 
would place the regiment in person, and that it would be the post of 
honor, being the nearest troops to the enemy's works. Our position was 
close up to Fort Hill on the Jackson Eoad and some distance in front 
of our batteries which threw shot and shell over our heads into the rebel 
works. The regiment held this position for some time after the charge 
on the enemy's works on the 22d of May, but owing to an accident 
caused by a defective shell bursting that was being fired over us from 
Capt. Bolton's Battery, Chicago Light Artillery, and severely wounding 
one member of the regiment, we were ordered to the rear of the battery. 

In the charge on the enemy's works on the 22d of May. the 17th 
Illinois Infantry was selected by Gen. Logan as skirmishers for the 3d 
Division, driving in the enemy's outposts at an early hour and holding 
an advanced position until the storming column was formed, and when 
repulsed, falling back and maintaining the same line as originally formed 
before the assault; this line was held by the regiment until relieved by 
other troops about' 3:00 p. m. After the failure of this assault, the 
regiment was continually under fire until the surrender of Vicksburg, 
July 4. When Gen. Logan was ordered to occupy and take possession 
of the city with one brigade of his Division (1st Brigade, 3d Division, 
17th A. C.>, he took with him the 17th Illinois Infantry (3d Brigade, 
3d Division, 17th A. C.) as an appreciation of services during siege. 
Loss during the siege of Vicksburg. 9 killed and 34 wounded. During 
the siege, the 17th Illinois Infantry was attached to 3d Brigade, 3d 
Division, 17th A. C. The 3d Brigade was commanded by Gen. John D. 
Stevenson, a good, brave and efficient officer, ably assisted by Capt. Frank 
Whitehead, his A. A. A. General. After the capture of Vicksburg, the 
regiment did provost duty and was on several scouting expeditions, both 
in Mississippi and Louisiana, until February 3, 1864, when the regi- 
ment started with Gen. Sherman on his Meridian expedition. At and 
near Clinton, Mississippi, the 17th regiment being in the advance, had 
quite a little skirmish with the enemy, wmcn earlier in the war might 
be termed quite a severe engagement, but here General Hurlbut's Corps 
took the advance and kept it until we occupied Meridian, Mississippi. 
Here the regiment rested for a few days and then began the return to 
Vicksburg. While at Meridian, the regiment had some prisoners cap- 
tured while on a foraging expedition, the only ones captured from the 
regiment when on duty during their terms of service — seven in all as 
reported. 

After returning to Vicksburg, March 1, the regiment was scouting 
and doing garrison' duty until Mav 20, when the regiment was ordered 
to Springfield, Illinois, to be mustered out of service. 

At this time a number of the 17th who had enlisted as veterans 
were left at Vicksburg and afterAvards consolidated Avith the 8th Illinois 
Infantry Volunteers. 

LIST OF OFFICEES OF THE 17TH EEGIMENT MUSTERED 
OUT WITH THE REGIMENT JUNE, 1864. 

Field and Staff. 
Francis M. Smith, Lieutenant Colonel. 
Frank F. Peats, Major. 



190 

William S. Eeynolds, Adjutant. 
Charles B. Tompkins, Surgeon. 
Wilbur P. Buck, Assistant Surgeon. 
Rev. S. A. Kingsbury, Chaplain. 
Henry S. Smith. Quartermaster. 



XOX-COMMISSIONED StAFF. 

William H. Struthers, Sergeant Major. 
William H. Sehell, Quartermaster Sergeant. 
George B. ^Millard, Commissary Sergeant. 
John R. McDowell, Hospital Steward. 
John W. Wonder \ ^^ ■ ■ 
Addison Fillmore \ ^I^^^'cians. 



Co. ''A." 
Gawn Wilkins, 2d Lieut. 

Co. "B." 

John A. Collier, 1st Lieut. 
Thoinas McFarland, 2d Lieut. 

Co. "C." 

Chauncoy Black, Captain. 
James B. Rowley, 1st Lieut. 
Cyrus Allen, 2d Lieut. 

Co. "D." 

Henry H. Bush, Captain. 
Edward C. Robbins, 1st Lieut. 
Henrv K. Stewart, 2d Lieut. 



Co. "F." 

Josiah ]\roore. Captain. 
Charles C. Williams, 1st Lieui. 



Co. "G." 

Jonathan H. Rowell,, Captain. 
Henry D. Clark, 1st Lieut. 

Co. "H." 

William W. Hull, Captain. 
William C. Stockdale, 1st Lieut. 
William E. Yarnell, 2d Lieut. 

Co. "I." 

William A. Lorimer, Captain. 
Theodore Glancy, 1st Lieut. 



Co. "E." 

William J. Merrill, Captain 
David Clough, 1st Lieut. 
John H. Wells, 2d Lieut. 



Co. "K." 

Jacob Wheeler, Captain. 
James H. Mitchell, 1st Lieut. 
George R. Buck, 2d Lieut. 



191 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abbeville, Miss 187, 188 

Abbyville, (Abbeville) Miss 187, 188 

Aborigines , (Illinois) 118 

Abrams, W. G 166 

Academy of Sciences, Illinois State 33 

Account of the Great Wnig Meeting held at 
Springfield, 111., June 3-4, 1840. Three Ad- 
dresses 34 

Act to Regulate Interstate Commerce, ("Cul- 

lom Act") 56, 74 

Adams County ,111 36 

Adams, George E 62 

Adams , J 148 

Adams , William 14g 

Agriculture, Indian 114 

Aiken, Henry 148 

Albany, New York 55 

Albion, 111 5 

Alexander County, 111 128 

Alexander, S 148 

Alexandria, Va 134 

Algonquin Indians 176, 178 

Allen, (Lieut.) Cyrus 190 

Allen, Lewis 157 

Allen, William J 127 

Allison, William B 60 

Alpine, W. Va 131 

Alpine Station, Va 131 

Alschuler, Samuel 26 

Alton, 111 5,23,151,153,154,168,170,184 

footnote 102 

Alton,Ill.,G. A. R-. Encampment 17,22 

Ament, J. L 147 

America (See also U.S.) 69, 108, 109, 176, 178 

footnote 95 

American (Newspaper) 48 

American Bottom 21.95,97,99, 112 

American Eagle (Banner Whig Convention 

1840) 153 

American Historical Association 28 

American Nation 108 

American Party 59 

American People. 78, 99, 116, 117 

American Railway System 55, 56, 73 

American Revolution {See also Revolutionary 

War) 99, 108, HI 

Ames , John C 64 

Ames, (Mrs.) John C 26 

Amherst, Mass 72 

Amsterdam 176 

"Ancient Indian Tombs" Dupont, 111. Collet's 

Map, 1796 97 

Andalusia, 111 119 

Anderson, M. K 164 

Andreas. History of Chicago, Vol. I. Foot- 
notes 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 

Annals of Chicago. Balestier, Joseph. lergus 

Historical Series, No. 1. Footnote 38 

Anti-Rebating Act 75 

Anti-Trust Act 75 

Appellate Court System of Illinois 77 

Apperson, Alex 157 

Appomattox Court House 136 

Appropriations, U. S. Senate Committee 76 

"Archaelogy of Illinois" Clark McAdams 118 

Arion , C. P 130 

Arion (Miss) Helen 130 

Arizona. Footnote 95 

Arkansas 40 

Arlington Heights, Va 134 

Arlington, Wash 24 

Armstrong, Edward 158 



PAGE. 

Armstrong, J. C 148 

Army, Standing 147 

Army of the James 136 

Arnold, Isaac N 43, 46, 47, 48, 54 

Arnold, Isaac N., Recollections of Early Chi- 
cago and Illinois Bar. Fergus Historical 

Series, No. 22. Footnote 54 

Arthur, (President) Chester A 70 

Assistaeronnons or Nation de Feu, Mascoutin 

Indians 177 

Atherton, Albert 23 

Aurora, 111. Footnote 177 

Avery , Charles E 142 



Babbs Tavern, Bloomington, 111 

Babcock, James 

Bad Axe 

Bailey, Richard 

Baker, David Jewett, jr. (?). 



..138,139 

158 

121 

145 

54 

Baker, Edward D.. . . 1 58, 162, 163, 167, 171 

Baker, (Dr.) Isaac 137,139,140 

Baker, John 147 

Baker , Mary A 140 

Baker, Mary Jane 140 

Baker, Seth 139 

Baker, Sidney D 140 

Baker , Susan Dodge 140 

Baker, William 21 

Baldwin, (Capt.) Benjamin T 184 

Baldwin vs. People _. 52 

Balestier, Joseph N 46 

Balestier, J.N 143 

Balestier, Joseph, Annals of Chicago, Fergus 

HistoricalSerie.SjNo. 1. Footnote 38 

Ballance, Charles 41, 148 

Ballance, Charles, History of Peoria County, 

111 41 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 122, 131 

Baltimore Convention. 1840 153 

Baltimore Republican (Newspaper) 160 

Banking Laws : 137 

Banks, First National Bank, Minonk, 111 18 

Banks, State National, Springfield, 111 61,70 

Banners , Whig Convention , 1840 

141, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 155 

Barbour, James 75 

Barrett, (Dr.) R. F 162 

Barrys Point , 111 142 

Bartholomew, (Gen.) Joseph 138, 140 

Basye,M. M 158 

Bath,W. Va 131 

' 'Battle Creek" 178 

Battles— Black River Bridge 188 

Battles— Chapin's Farm, Va 135 

Battles— Fredericktown, Mo 185 

Battles— Fort Meigs 170 

B attles— Shiloh 187 

Baxter , (Mrs.) Martha K 16, 17 

Bay, William : 139 

Beaubien , Jean B . , Justice of Peace and Judge 

of Election , Chicago 39 

Beaubien, (Gen.) John B., Purchase of Ft. 

Dearborn Reservation by 53 

Beauharnais (Beauharnois) Charles de la 

Boische, marquis de 179, 180 

Beaumont, G. A. O 142 

Beckwith, Hiram W 100, 177 

B€Ckwith, Hiram W., Old French Records, __ 

quoted 1'" 

Beecher, J 143 

Belcher, D 148 

Belvidere, 111 5 



192 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Benjamin, A. A 14? 

Beniamin, Horace 145 

Bell, John 123 

Bell-Everett Ticket 46 

Bell vs People 52 

Bennett, John 144 

Benton, Thomas Hart (?) 75, 153, 154 

Benton , Mo 185 186 

Benton Barracks, Mo 131 

Berkeley Springs, W. Va 131 

Bermuda Hundred 134 

B erry , C. R 188 

Bestor, G. C 148 

Bethea, (Hon.) S. H 63 

Beveridge, (Gov.) John L 61 

Big Creek of the Rock 177 

"Big Field" ("Le Grand Champ") 99,109 

"Big Rock Creek." Grand CriquedeRocher.. 

178,183 

Bigelow, Hardin 144 

Bingham, Charles K 142 

Bird's Point , Mo 184, 185 

Bishop, (Sergt. Maj.) Frank 188 

Bissell, William H 26 

Black, (Capt.) Chauncey 190 

Black Hawk's Children, death 119 

Black Hawk War, 1832 41, 116 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower 

113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121 

Black Hawk's Home Country— Address by 
John H. Hauberg before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, May, 1914 3,33, 113-122 

Black River 188 

Black River Bridge Battle 188 

Blackstone, J 144 

Blackwater River 131 

Blackwell, John 157 

Blaine , James G 60, 70 

Blair, F. G 24 

Blake, (Dr.) S. C 130 

Blanchard, W. P 148 

Bland, Henry 158 

Bledsoe, Albert T 166 

Bliss , John .120 

Bloomfleld,Mo 185 

Bloomington,Ill 5,33,34,95, 107, 133, 138, 139 

Blue Island, 111. Footnote 181 

BlufTdale, 111 152 

Bolivar, Tenn 187 

Bollinger, S. F 148 

Bolton's Battery 189 

Bond County, 111 144, 151, 155 

Bond County (111.) Delegation, Whig Conven- 
tion, 1840 155 

Bond, Benjamin 144, 151, 156, 157, 168, 171 

Bond, Herman 143 

Bond,( Gov.) Shadrach, First Governor of Illi- 
nois 107 

Bond, (Gov.) Shadrach, Mansion 100, 107 

Boner, William 156 

Boon, Ben 156 

Boon, L. D 143 

Boone County, 111 144, 146 

Botsford, Jabez K 142 

Boutwell, (Gov.) George S 60 

Bowen, Erastus 142 

Bowles, Hugh 146 

Bowman, G. G 144, 151 

Boy d , Alexander 147 

Boye , Thomas 158 

Boyle , Oliver 147 

Brackett, William W 143 

Bradford, 111 23 

Bradshaw, W. F 145 

Brailey, A. M 144 

Brainerd v. Canal Trustees 46 

Brawhlll , James 144 

Breckenridge , John Cabell 123 

Breese, (Judge) Sidney 26, 41, 51, 52, 54 

Breese, (Judge) Sidney, Decision quoted 48-49 

Breese, (Judge) Sidney, held court in Chicago 

1835 41 

Breese, Sidney S 16, 17, 26 

Brewster, O. W 146 



PAGE, 

Brief History of the 17tb Regiment Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry 1861-1864. Compiled by 

Robert W. Campbell 184-190 

Briggs , A 157 

Briggs, Benjamin 144 

Brigham, 170 

British Army 104, 108, 112, 116 

Bristol vs Phillips 49, 51 

footnote 51 

Brock, Thomas 143 

"Bronson V. Kinzie." Footnote 46 

Brooks, C. A 142 

Brooks, George W 157 

Bross, (Gov.) William, Historical Sketch o'f 

Chicago 41 

footnotes 35, 41, 44 

Brown, (Dr.) E. L 107 

Brown, Henry, Prospects of Chicago, Fergus 

Historical Series, No. 9. Footnote 45 

Brovtm, James 146,147 

Brown, John 157 

Brown, William 144,151 

Bro^vn, William H 143 

Brown & Son, H. B 107 

Brown v. Pearson. Footnote 49 

Brown County, 111 148 

Browning, O. H 58,163 

BrovTOSville, 111 155 

Brush, Daniel H 156 

Bryan Hall, Chicago 133 

Buchanan, James 75, 122 

Buck, (Lieut.) George R 190 

Buck, Nelson 148 

Buck, (Dr.) Solon J., Travel and Description 

in Illinois 27 

Buck, (Dr.) Wilbur P 190 

B ulTaio (Algonquin ' ' Pestekuoy ") 176 

Buffalo in Illinois 118 

Bulliner, David 125, 126 

Bulliner, George, sr 126 

Bulliner family 124,126 

Bunn,JohnW 62,71,72 

Burch, John H., quoted on Kaskaskia Missis- 
sippi Flood 105-107 

Burd , , Whig Convention , 1840. Speech . . 1.56 

Bureau County, 111 144,145,167 

Bureau County , Illinois Delegation, Whig Con- 
vention, 1840, Springfield, 111 147 

Burgess, (Capt.) Otis A 184 

Burke, Ira 157 

Burkholder, George W 157 

Burley , Augustus 142 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H 5,17,21,22,28,29,95 

Burnham, J. H., Destruction of Kaskaskia by 
the Mississippi River, Address before the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, May, 1914 

3, 33, 95-112 

Burniiam, John H., Mysterious Indian Battle 
Grounds in McLean County, 111. , Reference. . 177 

Burnu m . Anson 146 

Burton, Stiles 143 

Bush, Daniel H 155 

Bush (Capt.) Henry H 184,190 

Busse , Fred A 64 

Butler, 167 

Butler, (Gen.) Benj. F 134, 135 

Butterfield, Justin. . .43, 44, 46, 48, 49, 50, 54, 141, 143 

Butterfleld, Justin, Butterfield & Collins 47 

Butterfield, Justin, Prominent in the early 

courts of Chicago 47 

Butterfield & Collins, Law Firm of Chicago. . . 47 

Buxton , E. S 148 

Buyat Family HO 

Byers , Ira 156 

C 

Cabiniss, (Major) Portrait Painter of Spring- 
field, 111 168 

Cabiniss, Z. P 166, 169 

Cahokia, 111 21, 97, 179 

footnote 97 

Cahokia Indians 180 

Cahokia Mounds 118 



193 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Cairo, III 9S, 101, 122, 184, 185 

Caldwell, J. W 148 

Calhoun County, 111 1 11, 148 

Calhoun, John 162,163 

Calhoun, William J 62 

California State 81 

California State, Yosemite Valley 81 

Camp Crittenden 1S4 

Camp Fry, Chicago 133 

Camp Stanton 187 

Camp Tecumseh 187 

Camp, Whig Convention. Springfield, 111., 1840.166 
Campbell, Antram, law partner of Shelby M. 

Cullom 57 

Campbell , Charles B 24 

Campbell, (Senator) D. A 64 

Campbell, R 148 

Campbell, (Color Sergt.) Robert M 188 

Campbell, Robert W., Brief History of Seven- 
teenth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry 

3,184-190 

Campbell's Island 113 

Canada 108 

Canal Grant 44 

Canal Trustees, Brainerd v. Canal Trustees. 

Illinois Reports. Footnote 46 

Canals. Illinois and Michigan Canal. U. S. 

Government makes grant of land 38 

Cannada, Asa 157 

Cannon, J. R 148 

Cannon, (Hon.) Joseph G 62 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 184, 185 

Capps, Thornton G 23 

Carbondale, 111: 5, 126, 127 

Carlyle, 111 122, 157 

Carmi, 111 158 

Carpenter, Israel 158 

Carpenter , Philo 143 

Carpenter, Richard V 5 

Carr, (Col.) Clark E 5,20,28 

Carroll County, 111 145 

Carrollton, 111 152, 169 

"Carte de la Nouvelle France" , an early French 

Map 176 

Carter, Orrin N., Historical Sketch of Courts 

of Illinois. Footnotes 39, 40 

Carter, Orrin N., Justice of the Illinois State 
Supreme Court. The early courts of Chicago 
and Cook County. Annual address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, 1914.3,34,35-54 

Carter, Thomas B ^ 140 

Case, Zaphas 157 

Casey, Edward W 46 

Cass County, HI 29,144,148,167 

Cass, Calvin 148 

Cass, Lewis (?) Foreign Relations, U.S. Com- 
mittee.- 75 

Casswell, John 144, 151 

Caton, John Dean 45, 46, 47, 48, 49,52 

footnotes 45, 48 

Caton, John Dean (Collins & Caton) 46 

Caton, John Dean, Earlj Bench and Bar of 

Illinois. Footnotes 45,48 

Caton, (Judge) John D., Reminiscences. Ref- 
erence 41,42 

Cemeteries, Catholic. Garrison Hill, 111 Ill 

Cemeteries— Ft. Gage. Footnote Ill 

Cemeteries— Garrison Hill HI 

Cemeteries— Garrison Hill. Bodies transferred 

from Kaskaskia 110 

Cemeteries— Garrison Hill Cemetery (Ft. Gage 

Cemetery.) Footnote Ill 

Cemeteries— Kaskaskia. Bodies transferred to 

Garrison Hill Cemetery 110 

Cemeteries— Oak Ridge, Springfield, 111 79 

Cemeteries— Protestant, Garrison Hill Ill 

Census, Federal , 1840 165 

Centennial Commission (Illinois) 24, 25, 27 

Centennial Memorial Building (Illinois) 25 

Centennial Memorial Publications (Illinois) . . ; 25 

Centennial State Celebration (Illinois) 25 

Chacksflftld , George 143 

—13 H S 



Chaillon (Chevalier) de. See Deschaillons, 
Jean Baptiste St. 0ms. 

Chamberlin, Cyrus 145 

Chamberlin, (Dr.) M. H 16,17 

Chambers, A. B 1.52,155,171 

Champaign, 111. 5 

Chapin, N 148 

Chapin's Farm, Va., Battle 135 

Chapman, History of FultonCounty,Ill. Foot- 
note 40 

Chapron, A 142 

Charleston Harbor, S. C 130 

Charlevoix, (Father) Francois Xavier, French 

Explorer 175 

Charters of Chicago, James, Edmund J., Part 

1. Footnote 38 

Chase, Samuel 148 

Cheeney, Jonathan. 139 

Cheeney's Store, Bloomington, 111 138 

Chenery, (Miss) M. Frances 23 

Cherokee Indians 114 , 115 

Chesapeake Bay 134 

Chester,Ill 33,96,98,99, 102,104,105, 107, 111 

footnote 98 

Chester, 111. , Penitentiary 72 

Chestnut, John 144, 151 

Chicago, 111-. -.5, 23, 28, 33,34, 40,41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 
48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 62, 65, 71, 72, 81, 140, 144, 167, 177 

Chicago American 137, 142, 144 , 171 

Chicago. Andreas History of Chicago. Foot- 
note 37 

Chicago— Arnold, Isaac N. Recollections oi 
early Chicago and Illinois Bar. Fergus His- 
torical Series, No. 22. Footnote 54 

Chicago— Balestier, Joseph, Annals of Chicago. 
Fergus Historical Series, No. 1. Footnote.. 38 

Chicago Band. 141 

Chicago Bar 49 

Chicago— Bross, Wm., History of Chicago, 

quoted, footnotes 35,41,44 

Chicago— Brown, Henry, Prospects of Chicago, 
Fergus Historical Series, No. 9. Footnote. . 45 

Chicago— Camp Fry 133 

Chicago— Canadian-French settlers 37 

Chicago— Charter, First city, jurisdiction 43 

Chicago— City attorney 47 

Chicago— City clerk 47 

Chicago— City Directory of 1839. Fergus His- 
torical Series, No. 2. Mention. Footnote.. 38 

Chicago— City Hall 44, 45 

Chicago— Constable appointed 1825 40 

Chicago County Building 44, 45 

Chicago County seat of Cook County, Act of 

Jan. 15, 1831 38 

Chicago— Court held in building called Tre- 

mont House 41 

Chicago Court Houses 44 

Chicago— Court Records of, destroyed in great 

fire of 1871 35 

Chicago— Courts of Chicago and Cook County. 

Address by Judge Orrin N. Carter 35-54 

Chicago— Criminal case, first tried 47 

Chicago— Curry, J. Sevmour, History of Chi- 
cago, Vol. 1. Footnotes 37, 38 

Chicago Daily American, Newspaper published 

Chicago, 111. William Stuart, Editor 48 

Chicago delegation. Whig Convention, 1840, 

Springfield, 111 143, 166, 168, 171 

Chicago Democrat 149 

Chicago— Drainage Canal 81 

Chicago— Early Courts of Chicago and Cook 
County. Annual address by Orrin N. Carter 

; 3,35-54 

Chicago— Election, first city, May 2, 1837. . . .38, 40 

Chicago— "Estray pen" 44 

Chicago fire 41,45 

Chicago— Fire of 1871 destroyed court records.. 

35,41 

Chicago— Heacock, Russell E., first resident 

lawyer .39, 40 

Chicago— In Peoria County for governmental 
purposes 38 



194 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Chicago— Incorporated as a citj', 1S37 38 

Chicago— Jail erected in 1S33 44 

Chicago— James, Edmund J., Charters of Chi- 
cago, Parti. Footnote 38 

Chicago— J ouett, Charles, Indian Agent 40 

Chicago— Justices of Peace in 39, 40 

Chicago— Lawyer, first resident 40, 45 

Chicago Light Artillery 189 

Chicago— Made county seat of Cook County, 

January 15,1831 37 

Chicago— Marriage, first celebrated in 40 

Chicago— Mayor 43 

Chicago— Murder Trial, first held in Chicago, 

111. in 1834 48 

Chicago— Named as county s eat of Cook County 

by Actof January 15,1831 38 

Chicago— Original plat of town 38 

Chicago— Population of 1804-1834 38 

Chicago— Probate Justice of the Peace 47 

Chicago River 37, 38, 81 

Chicago River, French fort at mouth of 37 

Chicago River and Harbor Convention of 1847. 47 
Chicago— Samuel Lyle Smith, chosen city at- 
torney , 1839 47 

Chicago streets 43, 45, 48 

Chicago Tribune 50, 65, 66, 149 

Chicago University, first 47 

Chicago— Village of , incorporated, 1833 38 

Chicago, village, trustees of, elected 38 

Chicago— Visited by travelers in early day, 

described by them 38 

Chicago— Wentworth, John, Address on Fort 
Dearborn, Fergus Historical Series, No. 16. 

Footnote 53 

Chicago— Wentworth, John, Reminiscences of 
early Chicago. Fergus Historical Series , No. 

7 and 8. Footnotes 33,40,41,48 

Chief Little Turtle, Address before Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1914, by Mrs. Mary Rid- 

path Mann 33 

Childs, Ebenezer, visited Chicago 1821, and 

1827, describes settlement 38 

Chiperfleld,(Hon.)B. N. Footnote 54 

Chippewa Indians 114 

Chitwood , Joel 156 

Chinese records 95 

Chowan River 131 

Christian Church, First, Springfield, 111 166 

Christian County, 111 153 

Church , Thos 143 

Church , William 143 

Churches, Immaculate Conception of the Holy 

Virgin, built in 1756 110 

Churches , Indian Mission , Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the Holy Virgin, founded by Father 

Marquette , 1675 110 

Churches, (The) Methodist Episcopal Church 
and Reconstruction. Address by William 
W. Sweet before Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety May, 1914 3, 83-94 

Churches, Presbyterian (First) of Springfield, 

111 78 

Churches, Presbyterian (Second) of Springfield, 

111 163 

Churches, Protestant Ill 

Churches , Roman Catholic Ill 

Cincinnatus, Wm. Henry Harrison, the Ameri- 
can Cincinnatus ( Whig Banner, 1840) 153 

Circuit Court 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53 

Circuit Court, Chicago 49 

Circuit Court, Clerk, first 41 

CircuitCourt, Fifthjudicial.countiescomposing 41 

Circuit Court, Cook County, will, first filed 42 

Circuit Court Appeals, Act creating 77 

Circuit Judge Dickey, Hugh T., elected 1848... 46 

Circuit Court terms 41 

City Clerk, Chicago, 111 47 

City Hall , Chicago, 111 45 

City Point, Va 134 

Civil War {See also War of the Rebellion)... 

23,26,58,64,123,124 

Civil War, Williamson County troops 123 

Clapp, Seth ." 147 

Clark County, 111 29, 153 



PAGE. 
Clark County, 111., organized March 22, 1819, its 

boundaries 36 

Clark, A. F 142 

Clark, (Dr.) Charles M 130 

Clark, (Col.) George Rogers 35, 104, 108 

Clark, George Rogers, French alliance of 1778, 

proclaimed 108 

Clark, (Lieut) Henry D 190 

Clark, John, jr 157 

Clark, John, sr 157 

Clark, John R., Coroner First, Cook County. . . 41 

Clay County, 111 51, 122, 155 

Clay, Henry 47, 75, 140, 154 

Claybaugh, David 157 

Claybaugh , John, jr 157 

Cleaver , Charles 140 

Clemens , William W 127 

Clendenin , H. W 5, 15, 17, 28, 151 

Cleveland, H. 148 

Clinton County, 111. . . .122, 144, 148, 151 154, 168, 171 
Clinton County, 111. Delegates (Whig Con- 
vention , 1840) 157 

Clinton, J. W 5,16,28 

Clinton, Miss 189 

Clough, (Lieut.) David 190 

Clybourn, Archibald 40, 45, 141, 143 

Clybourn, Archibald, Constable for Peoria 

County, 111 40 

Clyne , Charles 26 

Coal mines, Illinois 122 

Coatsworth, George 130 

Cobb, L. B 142 

Coe,F. W 145 

Coffey, Elizabeth,MotherofShelby M.Cullom. 57 
Coffin, (Mr.) (Probably Coifing, 

Churchill) 145,170 

Coffing, (Coffin) Churchill 145,170 

Cole , Manasseh 157 

Cole, Peter 157 

Cole , William, jr 157 

Cole, William, sr 157 

Coleman, John 157 

Coles County , 111 144 

Collier, (Lieut.) John A .' 190 

Collier, Jos 157 

Collierville, Tenn 188 

Collins, David 157 

Collins, G eo. L .143 

Collins, James H 46,47,48,53,143 

Collins, James H., Chief Counsel lor Owen 

Lovejoy 46 

Collins, James H. , Butterfield & Collins 47 

Collins, James H., Collins & Caton 46 

Collins & Caton, law firm of Chicago, 111 46 

Collins Brothers , Anti-slavery agitators 18 

Collet's Map of 1796 , reference 97 

Colorado River. Footnotes 95, 102 

Colter, Egbert 147 

Columbia College. Footnote 181 

Columbus, Ky 184 

Col well, James 158 

Colyer, Walter 5, 28 

Commerce, (The) Act to regulate Interstate 

Commerce (CuUom Act) 56 

Commission. Hawaiian Commission Bill. . .59,76 
Commissioners, County Commissioners Court, 

Cook County 40,43 

Commissioners. County Commissioners Court 

of Cook County, jurisdiction 40 

Commissioners. County Commissioners of Cook 

County, organization of 40 

Commissioners , School Commissioner 43 

Commissions, Hawaiian Commission 76 

Commissions. Illinois State Utilities Com- ^ 

mission "1 

Commissions. Mississippi River Commission. 

100,101 

footnote 102 

Commissions. National Lincoln Memorial 77 

Commissions. Railroad and Warehouse Com- 
mission 71 

Commons , (The) Kaskaskia, An Address by H. 

W. Roberts, mention 33 

footnote 98 



195 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Confederate Congress 131 

Congress (See also U. S. Congress) 46. 77 

footnote 102 

Congleton, J 148 

Congleton, J. R 148 

Conkling, (Hon.) Clinton L 16, 17, 78 

Conkling, (Dr.) H 139, 144 

Conkling, James C 58 

Conkling, Roscoe 60 

Conner, B. F 155, 156 

Conner Lake 96 

Connolly, (Maj.) James A 60 

Constitution, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amend- 
ments , reference 70 

Constitution Illinois State 44, 45, 46, 47 

Constitution union, vote 123 

Conventions, River and Harbor Convention of 

1847 47 

Converse, Daniel 156, 157 

Converse, Henry A 3,33,55 

Converse, Henry A., (The) Life and Services of 
Shelby M. Cullom, address before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, May, 1914.. 3, 33, 55-79 

Cook, John 158 

Cook County , 111 .... 4, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 
41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 140, 144, 145 

footnote 181 

Cook County, HI., Act creating, provisions 40 

Cook County, 111., Boundaries 35,36 

Cook County, 111., Chicago made County Seat, 

January 15, 1831 37 

Cook County, 111., Circuit Court 44, 51 

Cook County, 111., Circuit Court, first term 47 

Cook County, 111., Commissioners, first 40 

Cook County, III. , Coroner, first 41 

Cook County, 111., County Building, Chicago, , 

111 45 

Cook County, III., Countj Commissioners 

Court of Cook County, jurisdiction 40 

Cook County, 111., County Commissioners 

Court of Cook County, organization of 40 

Cook County, 111., Court. Changed to Cook 

County Court of Common Pleas 44 

Cook County, 111., court house, erection 45 

Cook County, 111., courts of— address by Judge 

O. N. Carter 35-54 

Cook County, 111. , delegation Whig Convention 

1840, Springfield, 111 142, 143, 169 

Cook County, 111., Democrat 143 

Cook Coun.j, 111., Court, Dickey, Hugh T., 

first judge 46 

Cook County, 111., divorce suit, first 48 

Cook county. 111. , early courts of 34 

Cook County, 111., infifth Judicial Circuit, 1831. 41 
Cook County, 111., Justices of the Peace for, 

appointed by State Legislature until 1826.. 39 
Cook County, 111. , Justices of Peace in early day. 39 
Cook Countv, 111., organized by Act, January 

15,1831..: 38 

Cook County, 111., organized January 15, 1831. 

Boundaries of 37 

Cook County, 111. , part of Knox County, North- 
west Territory 35 

Cook County, III., part of Pike County 39 

Cook County, III. , population of before 1818 — 37 
Cook County, 111., sheriff, first, Stephen Forbes. 

40-41 

CookCount\,Ill., State's attorney of, mention. 47 

Cook County, 111., 'Whig Delegates, 1840 142 

CookCounty, 111., Whigs 141 

Coolej- , William J 157 

Cooper, J. K 148 

Corinth, Tenn 187 

Corneau , J 169 

Cornwallis,(Lord) Charles 20 

Cotton Hill, 111., Banner, Whig Convention, 

1840, Springfield, 111 169 

"Cottonwoods, (The)" Reference 109 

County Commissioners 40 

County Commissioners Cook Countv, jurisdic- 
tion ". 40 

County Commissioners Court 43 

County Commissioners Court, Cook County. 
Organization 40 



PAGE. 

County Commissioners, election of, and term of 

office 40 

Court House, Chicago, 111 45 

Court of Claims of the District of Columbia 47 

Court of Common Pleas 45 

Courts, Appellate Court of Illinois 77 

Courts, Chicago and Cook County Courts, Ad- 
dress by Judge O. N. Carter 35-54 

Courts, Circuit Court 41, 42, 43, 44, 53 

Courts, Circuit Court, Chicago, 111 49 

Courts, Circuit Court of Appeals 77 

Courts, Circuit Court of Cook County, 111 

46, 47, 48, 51, 53 

Courts, Cook County, 111., court establishment. 44 
Courts, Cook County, 111., Court of Common 

Pleas, Cook County, Court changed to 44 

Courts, County Commissioners Court 40 

Courts , Court of Claims of the District of Colum- 
bia 47 

Courts,Court of Common Pleas 45 

Courts, Federal District Court 44 

Courts, Illinois State Supreme Court 

46, 49, 50, 52, 53 

Courts, Jo Daviess County, 111., court estab- 
lishment 44 

Courts, Municipal Court 43,44,52 

Courts, Municipal Court of Chicago 52, 53 

Courts of Chicago and Cook County, 111. Ad- 
dress by Judge O.N. Carter 3. 34, 35-54 

Coiurts of Illinois, Historical sketch of, by O. 

N. Carter. Footnotes 39, 40 

Courts, Probate Court 42 

Courts, Sangamon County Circuit Court 79 

Courts , State Courts 46 

Courts, Superior Court of Chicago 44 

Courts, Superior Court of Cook County 44 

Courts, Supreme Court 

41,42,43,46,47,48,51,77,79 

Courts, Supreme Court Decisions, Scammon's 

Report 52 

Courts, Supreme Court of Wisconsin 44, 47,50 

Courts, Supreme Court reports 53 

Courts , United States Court 44 

Courts, United States District Court for the 

Southern District of Illinois 79 

Courts , United States Supreme Court 46, 53 

Cox, Benage 157 

Cox,S. S 60 

Craddock , T. W 158 

Grain, Marshall T 126 

Crain , Marshall T. , trial 127, 128 

Crain family 124,125 

Crainvllle ,111 125, 126 

Crane, J. M 148 

Orane Dance 114 

Crawford County, 111 155 

Crawford County, 111., organized December 31, 

1816, its boundaries 36 

Crawford , Joseph 145 

Crawford , Monroe C 127 

Crawley , James 148 

Credit Island 113 

Creighton, (Judge) James A 79 

Crook, (Prof.) A. R 4 28,33,80 

Crook, (Prof.) A. R., address before Illinois 
State Historical Society 1914. Some effects 
of geological history on present conditions in 

Illinois 3,33,80-82 

Crook, A. R., Curator Illinois State Museum, 

vote of thanks 16 

Crook, (Prof.) A. R., President Illinois State 
Academy of Sciences delivers address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, 1914. Some 
effects of geological history on present con- 
ditions in Illinois 3, 33, 80-82 

Cryer,L. L 148 

"Cullom Act" 56 

Cullom, Elizabeth Coffey, Mother of Shelby M. 

Cullom 57 

Cullom , Richard Northcroft 57, 59 

Cullom, Shelby M 3,24,33,55,56, 

58, 60, 61 , 62, 63 . 64 65, 67, 68, 69, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 
Cullom, Shelby M., Appropriations Committee, 
member 76 



196 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

CuUom , Shelby M. , bar admission in 1S55 58 

Cullom, Shelby M. , birth 57 

Callom, Shelby il. , burial 78, 79 

Cullom, Shelby M., came to Illinois in 1830 56 

Cullom, Shelby M., City Attorney, Springfield, 

Cullom, Shelby M., Congress. Candidate in i862 60 
Cullom, Shelby M., Congressman, 1866, 1868.. 60 
Cullom,Shelby M.,ConstitutionalConvention, 

candidate for delegate to 59 

Cullom , Shelby M. , crisis of career 65 

Cullom, Shelby M. , death 57 

Cullom, Shelby il., defeat for U. S. Senator in 

1912 67 

Cullom, Shelby M., Douglas Stephen A., intro- 
duced by, in Illinois General Assembly, 1861. 59 
Cullom , Shelby M. , "Fifty years of Public Ser- 
vice" quoted 59 

Cullom, Shelby M., Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee , Chairman 75 

Cullom,ShelbyM., General Assembly, member 61 
Cullom, Shelby M., Governor, elected U. S. 

Senator 62 

Cullom, Shelby M., Governor, nomination in 

1876 61 

Cullom, Shelby M., Governor of Illinois in 1877. 71 
Cullom. Shelby M. , Governor, re-election in 1880 62 
Cullom, Shelby M., Grant, U. S., placed in 

nomination for presidency in 1872, by 68 

Cullom, Shelby M., Hawaiian Commission, 

Chairman 59, 76 

Cullom, Shelby M., Interstate Commerce Act 

; 56, 74 

Cullom, Shelby M. , Interstate Commerce Com- 
mittee, Chairman 74, 75 

Cullom, Shelby M., Legislature, Candidate for. 61 
Cullom, Shelby M., Life and Services of. Ad- 
dress by Henry A. Converse, before Illinois 

State Historical Society, 1914 3,33,55-79 

Cullom, Shelby M., Lincoln Memorial 77 

Cullom, Shelby M., Lincoln's admirer and 

friend 77 

Cullom, Shelby M., Lorimer case, vote 66 

Cullom, Shelby M., Pardons, attitude towards. 72 
Cullom, Shelby M. , Polygamy suppression bill. 70 
Cullom, Shelby M., Presidential Jilector, Can- 
didate in 1856 59 

Cullom, Shelby M., Railroads Committee, 

Chairman 73 

Cullom, Shelby M., Railway strike 1877 72 

Cullom, Shelby M., Safety Appliance Law of 

1893 74 

Cullom, Shelby M., Senate Committee on 

Committees, Chairman 76 

Cullom, Shelby M., Smithsonian Institution, 

Member of Board of Regents 76 

Cullom, Shelby M., Sound Money 72 

Cullom, Shelby M., Speaker Illinois House of 

Representatives 59, 61, 69, 70, 74 

Cullom, Shelby M., State National Bank, 

President 70 

Cullom, Shelby M., United States Senate, 

candidate for re-election 1912 59 

Cullom, Shelby M., U. S. Senator in 1889, 1895, 

1901, 1907 62 

Cullom, Shelby M., Whisky Ring Scandals 

1876 61,62 

Cullom & Hay. Shelby M. Cullom and Milton 

Ha> 57 

Culiun, R 144 

Cumberland, Va 131 

Cumberland, W. Va 131 

Cumberland River 186 

Cunningham, f Judge) J. O 5,16,17,24 

Cunningham, Robert (?) 139 

Cure, Peter 143 

Currey, J. Seymour, History of Chicago Vol. 

I. Footnote 37 

Curtiss, James 43 

Curtiss, James, Clerk of Cook County Court, 

first 44 

Cutler, Joseph A 130 

Cutshaw, 1 145 

Cutter, Isaac 148 



P.4.GE. 

Dallas , Mo 185 

Dana, (Hon.; Charles A 60 

Dances, Indian 114 

Danville ,111 49, 51 

Darbytowm Cross Roads, Va 132, 135 

Darnley, (Father) Pastor at Kaskaskia in 1901.110 

Daughter of the Regiment (39th Illmois) 130 

Daughters of the American Revolution 18, 26 

D. A. R., Illinois 25,26 

Davenport, George, account books 118 

Davenport, J. W 157 

Davenport, William 146, 167 

Davidson's "Unnamed Wisconsin" quoted 175 

Davidson, (Dr.) A. L ..144 

Davidson, Martha McNeill, Southern Illinois 
in the Great Whig Convention of 1840. Ad- 
dress before Illinois State Historical Society, 

Maj ,1914 3,34, 150-159 

Davis, Levi (?) 168 

Davis, CushmanK 75 

Davis, David 54 , 58, 62 

Davis, George R 62 

Davis, William H 142 

Daviss Mills , Miss 187 

Deep Run, Va 135 

De Kalb County, III -. 5, 37 

Delavan, 111 144 

DeLery , Chaussegros 175, 176, 180 

DeLery, Chaussegros , sketch ol 1730 178 

DeLisle's Map of 1703 and 1722 176 

Dellicker, George. 143 

Delphi , Indiana 176 

Democrat, (The) (Newspaper) Chicago, 111., 

John Wentworth, Editor 48 

Democrat, Chicago Daily 48 

Democratic Convention (Illinois) 1839 163 

Democratic Party {See also Democrats) 

49, 50, 60. 62, 65, 68, 122, 123, 124 

Democratic Party (Illinois) Address 165 

Democratic State (Illinois) Central Committee. 164 

Democrats {See also Democratic Party) 

138, 140, 142, 151 

Democrats, Cook County, 111 141 

Deneen,(Gov.) CharlesS 64 

Denny, J 149 

De Pauw University, Greencastle,Ind 33 

De Riemers , Silversmiths 160 

De Saible, a San Domingau negro, first person 

other than Indians to settle at Chicago 37 

Deshon, Henry 146, 147 

Des Kaillons (Deschaillons) Jean Baptiste 

St. Ours 179 

Des Plalnes River 81 

Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi 
River. Address before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1914, by J. H. Burnham 

3 33 95—112 
Detroit ."Mich '.'..'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 37] 5i', 116, 177, 179 

Detweiller .Joseph 148 

De Villiers,Neyon de 177, 179, 181, 182, 183 

"De Witt Clinton" locomotive which drew 

first American Railroad train in 1830 55,56 

De Witt County, 111 144,146 

De Wolf , C 143 

Dickey, Hugh T 44, 46 

Dickinson, Edward 148 

Dickinson, G. P 148 

Diller,I. R 164 

District of Columbia 47, 57 

Ditmore, John 126 

Divorce Suit, Cook County, first 48 

Dixon, Elijah 145 

Dixon, 111 57 

Dodge , John C 142 

Dodge , Lucy 140 

Dole , George 142 

Donaldson, Sf« Donelson. 

Donelson , ( Donaldson) Andrew J 122 

Dooden, John S 158 

Doty, S. P 144 

Doty , Theodorus 142 

Dougherty , John 157 

Douglas, C 148 



197 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Douglas , J. T 105 

Douglas, Stephen A 

18, 26, 42, 46, 49, 51, 52, 54, 58, 59, 78, 123, 162, 163, 164 

Douglas, (Judge) Walter B 98 

Doyle, 168 

Doyle, E.M 158 

Doyle, James H 143 

Drake, B 157 

Drake , John 157 

DrawTer, John H 23 

Drewrys Bluff, Va 132, 134, 135 

Drury^s Bluff {See Drewry's Bluff). 

DuBois,J. K 144 

Dudding , Richard 156 

Duff, Andrew D 127 

Dulton, H. A 158 

Duncan, (Capt.) James 157 

Duncan, ( Gen. ) Joseph 120 

Duncan, M 158 

Dunkey, B 158 

Dunn, Jesse 157 

Dunne, ( Governor) Edward F 16, 17, 18, 24, 78 

Dupage County, 111 37, 51, 144, 146 

Dupage County, 111., organized February 9, 

1839, boundaries 37 

Dupo, (DuPont or Prairie Du Pont) 97 

Dupo, 111. , Indian Mounds 97 

Du Pont, St. Clair County, 111. {See also 

Dupo, 111.) 97 

Dye , George 158 

E 
Eagle Banner 153 

Eagle, gift to Chicago Delegation, Whig Con- 
vention, 1840. Springfield, 111 171 

Early Bench and Bar of Illinois. Caton, John 

Dean. Footnotes 45, 48 

Early courts of Chicago and Cook County. 
Annual address before Illinois State Histori- 
cal Society, 1914, by Judge Orrin N. Carter. . 

3 34 35—54 
East S t.'LouisVil'l. - . .' . . ." . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,' 96, 104, 122 

Eden, Garden 159 

Edgar County, 111., organized, boundaries 36 

Edgar County, 111., part of Cook County once 

included in 36, 37 

Education— Columbia College. Footnote 181 

Education— Harvard College. Footnote 181 

Education— Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111. . 5 

Education— Law Schools of Chicago 47 

Education— Mount Morris Seminary (Rock 

River Seminary) Mount Morris, 111 57 

Education— Northern Illinois State Normal 

School, DeKalb, 111 5, 19 

Education— Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, 111 5 

Education — Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C 76 

Education— Southern Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity , Carbondale ,111 5 

Education— University of Chicago 47 

Education — University of Illinois 5 

Edwards County, 111 144,, 147 

Edwards County, 111., organized November 28, 

1814 , its boundaries 36 

Edwards, Benjamin S 58, 60 

Edwards, Benjamin S., Stuart & Edwards 57 

Edwards , Cyrus 163 

Edwards , N. W 144, 151 

Edwards Place, Springfield, 111 170 

Edwardsville ,111 151, 152, 158 

Egypt (Illinois) 122,128,129 

Eighth Illinois Infantry, Volunteers 189 

Elder , William 158 

Election of Officers, Illinois State Historical • 

Society 20 

Elkhart, 111 140 

Elkhart Grove, 111 140 

Elliot's Mills (Ky.) (?) ; 184 

Elliott , David 158 

Elliott, Emma C, (Boat) 107 

El Paso, 111 18 

El Paso, 111., Commercial Society 18 



PAGE. 

Emigration, to St. Genevieve during Revolu- 
tionary War 99 

Empire State, New York State 55 

Employer's Liability Act 75 ■ 

England '. 49, 54 

Engler,T 153 

Entrekin, Asa 157 

Ernest, (Capt.) O. H.,U. S. Engineering Corps. 
Extractfromreportof June30,1881,onriseof 

Mississippi in 1881 . . 101-102 

Erving, R. B 1.53 

Evans , G. S us 

Evanston, 111 5 

Evanston, 111., Northwestern University 

located at 33 

Evansville, 111 106 

Everett, Edward 123 

Everett, Oliver. 145 

Evy , John 158 



Fancy Creek, 111 169 

Farwell, Charles B 62 

"Father of Waters" (Mississippi River) 

104, 108, 113 

Fayette County, 111 144, 151, 153 

Federal Census, 1840 I65 

Federal Courts .57 

Federal Goverimient 54 

Federal Party 50 

Federals {Sec Whigs). 

Fergus Historical Series, No. 1, Balestier, 

Joseph , aimals of Chicago. Footnote 38 

Fergus Historical Series, No. 2, Chicago Direc- 
tory, 1839. Footnote 38 

Fergus Historical Series, Nos. 7 and 8, Re- 
miniscences of early Chicago, by John Went- 

worth. Footnotes 37, 39, 40, 41, 48 

Fergus Historical Series, No. 9, Prospects of 

Chicago by Henry Brown. Footnote 45 

Fergus Historical Series, No. 16. Address on 
Fort Dearborn by John Wentworth. Foot- 
note 53 

Fergus Historical Series, Nos. 22 and 23. The 
Lawyer as a pioneer, by Thomas Hoyne. 

Footnotes 41, 44, 46, 50 ' 

Ferguson, D. A 157, 158 

Ferree, Cornelius 157 

Ferree, Isreal (?) 157 

Ferril , S 147 

Field, Alex P 163 

Field, (Miss) Jane 153 

Field Museum. Footnote 18I 

Fifth Judicial Circuit, counties composing 41 

Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry IS8 

"Fifty Years of Public Service." Shelby M. 

CuUom, quoted '. 59 

Fillmore , Addison 190 

Fillmore, Millard 59, 122 

Findley, F 157 

First National Bank, Minonk, 111 IS 

Fitch, (Dr.) J. W 144, 151 

Flaherty, (Miss) Anne C 28 

Flannagan, John 145 

Fleetwood , David 157 

Fleming, (Major) John 158 

Flora, 111 122 

Food and Drug Act 75 

Forbes, Stephen, school teacher, first sheriff 
of Cook County, Justice of the Peace for Cook 

County 40, 41 

Ford, (Judge) Thomas 42, 44, 48, 53 

Forsythe , J. R 148 

Fort Armstrong 119, 120 

Fort Chartres 27,96,97, 111, 177 

footnote 109 

Fort Dearborn, buill at Mouth of Chicago 

River under Gen. John Whistler,!'. S. A.. 37 
Fort Dearborn, Cook County, Circuit Court 

held in 1831 41 

Fort Dearborn Massacre 37 

Fort Dearborn, officers exercised jurisdiction 
over inhabitants of Chicago in early day. .38,39 



198 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE 

Fort Dearborn, rebuilt 1816 37 

Fort Dearborn, Reservation, platted as Ft. 

Dearborn addition to Chicago 53 

•Fort Dearborn Reservation, purchased by 

Gen. John B. Beaubien 63 

Fort Dearborn, Wentworth, John, address on 
Fort Dearborn. Fergus Historical Serie.s, 

No. 16. Footnote 63 

Fort Donelson - 186 

Fort Gage 97,99,100,109,111 

footaote 97 

FortGageCeinetery(GarrisonHill). Footnote.lll 

Fort Gage , location 99 

Fort Gregg, Va 135, 136 

Fort Henry -186 

Fort Hill 189 

Fort Holt, Ky 184, 185 

Fort Jefferson 184 

Fort Kaskaskia 99,100,108,110 

footnotes HO, 111 

Fort Kaskaskia, survey by H. W. Beckwith. .100 

Fort Massac Park 25 

Fort Meigs 162, 168 

Fort Meigs, Battle 170 

Fort Monroe 131,134 

Fort Osborn 131 

Fort St. Louis 175, 176 

Fort Sumpter 130 

Fort Wagner 132 

Forts, De Villiers Fort 182, 183 

Forts, Fort Dearborn 37,38,39,41,52 

footnote 53 

Forty-eighth Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, War of the Rebellion 186,187 

Forty-ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, War of the Rebellion 186,187 

Forty-third Regiment, Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, War of the Rebellion 187 

Foss, George Edmond 65 

Foster, (Gen.) A.J 132 

Foster, (Gen.) Robert S 134 

Foster, Wm. J 157 

Fox Indians ( Renards) 

113, 117, 118, 175, 177, 179, 180 

Fox Indians— Further regarding the destruc- 
tion of, paper by J. F. Steward 175-183 

Fox River 176,177,180,181 

France 21, 108 

Francis , Simeon 160 

Franklin County, 111 122 

Franquelin's Maps 176, 177, 178 

Frazer , William 157 

Frederick, Grant 142 

Fredericktown, Mo 184, 185 

Freeman, Robt 142 

Fremont, John C 122, 184 

French Alliance 108 

French American Alliance 1778 112 

French Axe 182 

French Explorers said to have built Fort at 

mouth of Chicago River 37 

French League 175, 176, 177, 182 

French Map of 1679 177 

French People 97,112,175,177,179,182 

footnote 181 

French Records 21, 177 

French Villages 99 

Frenchman's Spirit— Indian Legend told by 

Black Hawk 119 

Freer, L. C. P 143 

Freese, L. J 18,20 

Frisby.D. H 148 

Fruit, James 157, 158 

Frye,J. C 148 

Fulkerson & Reed, pilots of the Ed. Richard- 
son 104 

Fullerton, A. N 46 

Fulton County, 111 40, 148 

Fulton County, 111., Chapman's History of 

Fulton County. Footnote 40 

Fulton County, 111. Organized January 28, 

1823, boundaries 36 

Fulton County, 111. Original court records of 
examined. "Footnote 54 



PAGE. 

Fund, William 144 

Funk , John 143 

Further regarding the destruction of a branch 
of the Fox Tribe of Indians, by J. F. Steward 
175-183 



Gage, John 141 

Gaines, (Gen.) Edmund P 114, 120 

Gale, Stephen F 140, 142 

Galena Gazette 145 

Galesburg, 111 5 

Garbutt,Z. M 144,151 

Gardner, Corbus 64 

Garfield, James R 60 

Garner, (Prof.) James W 25 

Garrison Hill 111,112 

footnote Ill 

Garrison Hill Cemetery Ill 

footnote Ill 

Garrison Hill Cemetery— Bodies transferred 

from Kaskaskia 110 

Garrison Hill , Fort Kaskaskia built 1734 99 

Garrison Hill Monument Ill 

footnote 110 

Garrison Hill Monument Inscription 112 

Gates, Timothy 139 

Gear,H. H 144 

G enealogy 25 

Genealogy, Report of Committee, Illinois State 

Historical Society 29 

General Assembly, Illinois State 27, 42,68 

General Land office 47 

Geology , Illinois State mineral production 82 

Geology, some effects of Geological History on 
present conditions in Illinois. Address by 
Prof. A. R. Crook, before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, May, 1914 80-82 

Germany 102 

Gettysburg Address 24 

Gettysburg National Cemetery 24 

Gettysburg Celebration 15 

Gibbons (Gen.) 135 

Gilbert, Sherrod 142 

Gillespie , James 151 

Gillespie, John 157 

Gillespie, John G 157 

Gillespie, Jos 144, 151 

Oilman, Charles 47 

Gilmore, (Gen.) Q. A 132, 133 

Gipson, William, Jr 157 

Glancy , (Lieut.) Theodore 190 

Glenn, David A 147 

Globe Democrat, (Newspaper) St. Louis, Mo., 
April 28, 1881, quoted on Kaskaskia Flood.. 104 

Gloucester Point, Va 134 

Goodheart, WUliam 139 

Goodrich , Grant 46, 54 

Goodsell,L. B 142 

Gordon, Joseph 157 

Governor— Election to U. S. Senate legal 62 

Graham, W. W 145 

G. A. R. (Grand Army of the Republic) 

17,22,24,29 

Grand Army of the Republic, Encampment. 17, 22 
Grand Crique du Rocher, Big Rock Creek... 178 

Grand Gulf 188 

' ' Granger Legislation" reference 70 

Grant, James 42,46,61,52 

Grant, (Gen.) U. S 18, 68, 184, 185, 186, 187 

Grant, (Gen.) U. S., Camping Place marked 

at Naples, 111 18 

Gray,AV. F 144 

Great Western (Newspaper) 156 

Greeley, M. T 148 

GreenJH. A 148 

Green , Henry R 144 

Green, Henry S 58 

"Greenback" Craze, reference 71, 72 

Greenback Party 62 

Greencastle, Ind., De Pauw University located 

at 33 

Green County, 111 29, 111, 144, 151, 152, 167 



199 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Green County, 111., delegation Whig Conven- 
tion, 1840, Springfleld, III 152, 169 

Greene , (Prof.) Evarts B o, 25 

Greenfield, 111 23 

Greenman , Adeline. . , 140 

Greenville, 111 3,34,150 

Greenville , Miss 188 

Gregory, Charles 144, 151 

Gregory, D. R 148 

Grithth , Daniel 157 

Grimsley , T 149 

Gulf of Mexico 81,102,105,111 

H 

Haddock ,E.H 142 

Haden, E. A 157 

Hagans,S.C 144 

Haggard, Samuel H. (?) 139 

Hahn, H 148 

Haines, B.C 144 

"Halt Century of Conflict", by Francis Park- 
man, quoted 175 

Hall, Eli 144,146 

"Hall of William Rufus" in Westminister 54 

Hallberg, C. S. N 23 

Hallack, (Gen.) Henry Wagner 187 

Hallery,S 144,151 

Hamilton County, 111 155 

Hamilton, (Col.) Richard J 42, 45, 48 

Hamilton, (Col.) Richard J., first clerk Cook 

County Circuit Court, 1831 41 

Hamilton, (Col.) Richard J. , funeral of 41 

Hamlin, Hannibal 75, 123 

Hamlin, John, Justice of Peace of Fulton 
County, 111., performs first marriage cere- 
mony atChicago 40 

Hamlin, R. B 148 

Hancock County ,111 36, 144, 147 

Hancock, Md 131 

Handy, Thomas 158 

Hanson, J. L 142 

Hard Cider Press 143 

Hardin, J.J 144, 163, 167, 171 

"Hardscrabble" on south branch of Chicago 

River, Trading Post 38 

Hard Times Landing 188 

Harkness , Edson 148 

Harkness , Hannah 140 

Harlan, G.B 148 

Harmon , C. L 142 

Harmon, Charles 158 

Harmon, Isaac, Justice of the Peace, Chicago. 

45,47 

Harmon, Isaac D 142 

Hashequarequa 113 

Harris, J. B 158 

Harrison, J 148 

Harrison, Wm. Henry 

116, 137, 138, 139, 141 , 145, 148, 154, 

155, 156, 1.57, 158, 160, 161. 162, 164, 167, 168, 170, 171 
Harrison, Wm. Henry (American Cincinna- 

tus) 153 

Harrison and Reform 156-157 

Harrison Banner, Whig Convention 1840, 

Springfield, 111 

141 , 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 155, 158 

Harrisse , Henri, Historian 176 

Harrold , James 155, 156 

Harvard College. Footnote 181 

Hatch, O.M. (?) 47 

Hatch, David 142 

. Hatch , H 144 

Hatchers Run, Va 132 

Hauberg, John H., Black Hawk's Home 
Country. Address before the Illinois State 

Historical Societjr, May, 1914 3, 113-121 

Hawaiian Commission, bill recommended by. . 76 
Hawaiian Commission, Cullom, Shelby M., 

Chairman 59 

Hawaiian Islands, Commission to visit, per- 
sonnel of 76 

Hawley, (Mr.) , probably Holley, 

George W 145, 146, 170 

Hawley, D. A 145 



PAGE. 

Hay, John, U. S. Secretary ol State 75 

Hay, (Hon.) Logan 25,65 

Hay , Milton M 57, 58, 61, 71, 72 

Hay, Milton, Hay & Cullom 5'(,61,65 

Haynes, Benjamin 139 

Heacock, Russell E 47 

Heacock, Russell E., first resident lawyer in *-- 

Chicago 39-40,45 

Heacock, Russell E. , Justice of Peace, Chicago. 39 

Headen, Thomas 158 

Headen, (Dr.) William 158 

Hearn, Campbell S 25 

Hebbard, , "Wisconsin under the Do- 
minion of the French" 175 

Hedden, (Dr.) William 157 

Henderson Family 124 

Henderson , James 124, 126 

Henderson, (Gen.) Thomas J 62 

Henkel , (Prof.) Henry B [23 

Hennepin Canal 119 

Henry County, 111 1 3& 

Henry , A. G 162 

Henry , (Dr.) John 138, 140, 144 

Henry, (Dr.) John F .168 

Herndon, William H 58 

Hervey , F 157 

Hessians (in Revolution) 170 

Hewitt, Thomas 169 

Hilasback, James 158 

Hilasbuck, Wm. F 158 

Hichman, James 58 

Hickory Club, Chicago 143 

Hickox , V : 164 

Hicks, Balsam 157 

Hicks, Jones 157 

Hide, West 148 

Higbee, Judge Harry. Footnote 54 

Higgins, Derret 144 

Hill, Frederick Trevor, Lincoln the Lawyer. 

Footnote 46 

Hill , John 148 

Hill Land, 111 102 

Hilton Head, S. C 132, 133 

HinchclifE Family 124, 125 

Hinchcliff, (Dr.) Vincent 126 

Hinde, James 144 

Hindman, George 126 

Hines, Christian 158 

Hines , J 148 

Hinton , John 144 

Hitch, Charles P 64 

Hite, John 144 

Hitt, (Hon.) Robert R 57, 62, 7S 

Hitt,(Hon.) Robert R., Chairman House Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations 75 

Hocquart, Gilles, quoted 175,176,180,181 

Hodge, Andy 139 

Hodge, William 144 

Hoe, Christian 158 

Hogan, J. S. C, Justice of the Peace for Cook 

County , 111 40 

Hogan, John 144, 148, 159, 167, 170, 171 

Hogan, John (Fayette County) 151 

Holland, L 148 

Holley, (Hawley) George W 145,146,170 

Holly Springs, Miss 187, 188 

Holmes, L. W 14S 

Homan's Map of 1684 176 

Hooker, J. W 142 

Hooper, Thomas 157 

Hooper, William 158 

Hopkins, (Hon.) Albert J, United States 

Senator 65 

Hoquart (Hocquart) Gilles, quoted.175, 176, 180, 181 

Horard, Lewis 148 

Houghan, (Dr.) Thomas 145,170 

Houghan's Park, Springfield, 111 170 

"Hou.se Divided Against Itself" Speech, 

Abraham Lincoln, reference 77 

How, — ■ — (See Howard, Benjamin C.) 

Footnote 46 

Howard, Benj. C, U. S. Reports, Bronson vs." 

Kinzie. Footnote 46 

Howe , Thomas 158 



200 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Home, Thomas 42, 45, 47,54 

Hoyne, Thomas, Depui\ Clerk, Cook County 

Circuit Court ^ 41 

Hoyne, Thomas, "Lawyer as a Pioneer" 41,50 

Hoyne, Thomas, Lawyer as a Pioneer. Fergus 

Historical Series, No. 22. Footnotes 

41, 44, 4(5, 50 

Hubbard, G. S 1-12 

Hubbard, Henry G., Circuit Clerk 43 

Hudson, (People vs. Hudson) 49 

Hudson, C. B 144 

Hull, P. C lotj 

Hull , Samuel 157 

Humphrey, J. O 143 

Humphrey,(Hon.) J. Otis 62,63,97 

Hunter, (Capt.) Daniel 142, 143 

Hunter, (Maj. Gen.) David 141 

Hunter,! 148 

Huntington, (Judge) Elisha Mills 171 

Huntington, Alonzo 46 

Hurlbut, (Gen.) Stephen A 189 

Hums, (Judge) 158 

Huse, G. W. C 148 

Hypes , Benjamin - 148 



"I. B." When fortune has severed the homes 

ties that bind us 133 

lies, Elijah 166 

"lUini' ' Indians 113 

Illinois , Aborigines 118 

"Illinois and Louisiana" by Wallace, reference. 

Footnote 97 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 141 

Illinois and Michigan Canal. Law for build- 
ing passed 38 

Illinois and Michigan Canal, United States 

Government makes grant of land for 38 

Illinois Buffalo 118 

Illiiois Central Railroad 158 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111 5 

Illinois Country 175 

Illinois County Seat 21 

Illinois in 181S 18, 27 

Illinois Indians 108, 113, 175, 177, 179, 180 

footaote 179 

Illinois River 36,41,81, 17.5, 176, 177, 179, ISO, 181 

footnote 97 

"Illinois" (Song) 34 

Illinois Southern Railroad 100 

"Illinois" (Steamer) 100, 185 

Illinois State 7, 11, 12, 17, 18, 44, 47, 51, 54, .56, 

57, ,58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, 
78, 80, 81, 82, 95, 100, 101, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 
116, 132, 150, 159, 163, 177, 181, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189 

footnotes 96, 97, 98, 100, 102 

Illinois State, Academy of Science 33 

Illinois State, Appellate Court system 77 

Illinois State, Arnold, Isaac N., Recollections 
of early Chicago and Illinois Bar, Fergus His- 
torical Series, No. 22. Footnote 54 

Illinois State Bar 58, 65 

Illinois State, Board of Pardons 72 

Illinois State Building, Panama-Pacifle Ex- 
position 25 

Illinois State Capital 57, 61 

Illinois State Capitol 78 

Illinois State , Carter, Orrin N. , The early courts 

of Chicago and Cook County 3,34, 35-54 

Illinois State, Caton, John Dean, early Bench 

and Bar of Illinois. Footnote 45, 48 

Illinois State Centennial Commission 16 

Illinois State, Centennial Publication Com- 
mittee 17 

Illinois State, Chester Penitentiary (2 

Illinois State, coal mines 122, 165 

Illinois State, Commission Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position 25 

lUinoi'; State, Constitution 46 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818 35, 45 

Illinois State, Consitution of 1848 35, 44, 47 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1870 70 

Illinois State, Constitutional Convention 59 



PAGE. 

Illinois State , Constitutional Convention of 1S18 

102-103 

Illinois State, Contributions to State History. . 

175-191 

Illinois State, Courts , 57 

Illinois State, courts of. Historical sketch of 
courts of Illinois by O. N. Carter. Footnotes. 

39,40 

Illinois State, Cullom, Shelby M., Governor... 56 

Illinois State, D. A. R 25, 26 

Illinois State, Delegations to Republican 
National Conventions, 1872, 1884, 1S92, 1904, 

1908 68 

Illinois State Democratic Central Committee. .164 

Illinois State Democratic Convention 1839 163 

Illinois State, General Assembly 24, 42, 68 

Illinois State, General Assembly, 10th 59 

Illinois State, General Assembly, 12th ". . 59 

Illinois State, General Assembly, 13th 59 

Illinois State, General Assembly, 20th 59 

Illinois State , General Assembly, 22d 59 

Illinois State, Geological History of 3, 33, 80-82 

Illinois State, G. A. R " 17,22,24,29 

Illinois State, Grand Army of the Republic, en- 
campment 17 

Illinois State, (The) Great Whig Convention at 
Springfield, III., June 3-4, 1840. Address by 
Isabel Jamison before the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, May, 1914 3,34,160-174 

Illinois State, Hall of Representatives 163 

Illinois State, Historians 99 

Illinois State Historical Collections 7 

Illinois State Historical Library 7, 11 

Illinois State Historical Library, list of publica- 
tions, end of this volume. 
Illinois State Historical Library, Publication 

No. IS 29 

Illinois State Historical Society 4, 5, 8, 9, 

ao, 11, 15, 17,23,80,100,103,109,110,111,112,151 

footnotes 97, 175 

Illinois State Historical Society, annual ad- 
dress before, 1914, by Judge O. N. Carter, 
The Early Courts of Chicago and Cook 

County 3, 33, 35-54 

Illinois State Historical Society, Appeal to the 
Public for contributions of historical ma- 
terial 11-12 

Illinois State Historical Society, Archives 105 

Illinois State Historical Society, Business meet- 
ing 3, 15-22 

Illinois State Historical Society, Committee 
appointed to attend State Encampment, 

Grand Army of the Republic 17 

Illinois State Historical Society, Constitution. 

'. 8-10 

Illinois State Historical Society, Directors' 

meeting 3, 28 

Illinois State Historical Society, Fifteenth 

annual meeting 3, 13-29 

Illinois State Historical Society. Fifteenth 
annual meeting. May 7-8, 1914, program of 

exercises 33, 34 

Illinois State Historical Society. Genealogy 
and Genealogical Publications Committee 

report - 3, 15, 29 

Illinois State Historical Society, Honorary 

members 16, 17 

Illinois S tate Historical Society, Journal 

7, 27, 29, 99, 100 

Illinois State Historical Society, List of Publi- 
cations, end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Society, OfTicers 5 

Illinois State HistoricalSociety, Organization.. 

22,23 

Illinois State HistoricalSociety, Papers read at 

anmial meeting 3, 33-160 

Illinois State Historical Society, Program of 

annual meeting 3, 33 

Illinois State Historical Society, Publication 

Committee 5 

Illinois State Historical Society, Secretary's 

report .3,15,23-28 

Illinois State Historical Societv, Tran.sactions. . 
27,102,177 



201 



INDEX — Continued. 



~ PAGE. 

Illinois State Historical Soci et j-, Transactions of 

1912. Footnote '. 37 

Illinois State Historical Soc.ety, Vote to co- 
operate with Illinois State Centennial Com- 

5 mission 16 

Illinois State Historical Society , Vote ol thanks 

of, to Mr. Sidney Breese 16 

Illinois State Historical Society , Vote of thanks 
of, to A. R. Crook, curator Illinois State 

Museum 16 

Illinois State Historical Society , Vote of thanks 
to F. J. McComb, Superintendent Capitol 

Building 16 

Illinois State Historical Society , Vote of thanks 

to Hon. Harry Woods, Secretary of State... 16 
Illinois State Historical Society. Women of 

Illinois 19 

Illinois State History 69 

Illinois State Hospital for the Insane, Kanka- 
kee, 111...: 72 

Illinois State House 163 

Illinois State, House of Representatives 50, 59 

Illinois State, House of Representatives, Cul- 
lom, Shelby M., elected Speaker in 1861.. .59,69 

Illinois State Journal 151 

Illinois State, Judicial History 35-54 

Illinois State , Kaskaskia , first capital 104 

Illinois State, Laws of Illinois, 1819. Footnote. 40 
Illinois State, Laws of Illinois, 1836-37 and 

Special Session 1837. Footnote 43 

Illinois State, Laws of Illinois 1836-37. Foot- 
note 49 

Illinois State, Laws of Illinois Special Session 

1837. Footnote 43 

Illinois State Legislature 

43,44,59,61,62,63,64,65,66,72,73,110,111 

Illinois State Legislature, Act of 1909 authoriz- 
ing organization of Kaskaskia Island Drain- 
age and Levee District, reference. Footnote. 98 

Illinois State Legislature, Deadlock, 1909 65 

Illinois State Legislature, Railroad regulation 

1871 70 

Illinois State Legislature. 10th. 12th, 13th, 

18th, 20th, 22d General Assemblies 59 

Illinois State Legislature, Lorimer campaign 

controversy 65 

Illinois State Library, Illinois State Historical 

Society holds reception in 34 

Illinois State, Local Historical Societies re- 
ports 18 

Illinois State Militia 53, 72 

Illinois State, Mineral production 1913 82 

Illinois State Natural History Museum 80 

Illinois State, Northern Illinois in the great 
Whig Convention of 1840. Address by Edith 
Packard Kelly before Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, May, 1914 3,34, 137-149 

Illinois State, Northern Illinois State Normal 

School 5, 19 

Illinois State , Park Commission HI 

Illinois State Park System, Address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, 1914, by 

Prof. James A. James 33 

IlliQois State "(The) People, Civilization, etc., 

of the People of Illinois in 1818" 18 

Illinois State, Railroad and Warehouse Com- 
mission 71 

Illinois State, Railroad and Warehouse Legis- 
lation 70 

Illinois State Records of County Courts ex- 
amined. Footnote 54 

Illinois State Register 137, 151, 152, 165, 170 

Illinois State , Reports of Illinois State Supreme 

Court, J. Y. Scammon. Footnotes 

48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 

Illinois State, Representatives Hall 78 

Illinois State. Republican Central Committee. 71 
Illinois State, Republican Central Committee, 

chairman 62 

Illinoi.s State, Republican Convention, 1900.62 63 
Illinois State, Republican Convention, 1904 ... 64 

Illinois State. Republican State officers 68 

Illinois State, "Revised Statutes of the State 
of Illinois A. D., 1874" 70 

—14 H S 



Illinois State, Secretary ol Slate 15 

Illtoois State Senate 60 

Illinois State Senate Chamber, Illinois State 
Historical Society holds anoual meeting in. 

15,33 

Illinois State , Some ellects of G eological history 
onpresentconditionsin Illinois. Address by 
A. R. Crook, before Illinois State Historical 

Society, May , 1914 3, 80-82 

Illinois State, Southern Illinois in the Great 
Whig Convention of 1840. Address by Martha 
McNeill Davidson before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, May, 1914 3,34,l.i0-159 

Illinois State, Southern Illinois State Normal 

University 5 

Illinois State, Supreme Court 

....35,41,42,43,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,64,74,79 

Illinois S tate Supreme Court report 50 

Illinois State, Thirty-ninth Volunteer Infantry 

Regiment 3, 33, 130-136 

Illinois State, Travel and Description in Illi- 
nois. S.J. Buck 27 

Illinois State, IT. S. Prosecuting Attorney for 

the District of Illtaois 47 

Illinois State University 5 

Illinois State Utilities Commission 71 

IllinoisState, Warof the Rebellion, 8th Infantry. 189 
Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 17th Volun- 
teer Infantry 184, 185, 186, 188, 189 

IllinoisState, Warof the Rebellion, 17th Volun- 
teer Infantry, 1861-1864, Brief history com- 
piled b\ Robert W. Campbell , Peoria, 111 . . . 

'. 184-190 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 17th Vol- 
unteer Infantry, officers mustered out . . . 189-190 
Illinois State, War of the Rebellion,18th Illinois 

Volunteer Infantry 184 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 29th Vol- 
unteer Infantry 187 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 39th Vol- 
unteers, (Yates Phalanx). Addre.^s by W. 
H. Jenkins before Illinois State Historical 

Society, May, 1914 3. 33, 1.30-136 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 43d Volun- 
teer Infantrv 187 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 48th Vol- 
unteer Infantry 186, 187 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 49th Vol- 
unteer Infantrv 186, 187 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 56th In- 
fantry 188 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 61st Volun- 
teer Infantry 187 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 81st Volun- 
teer Infantry 124 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, Illinois 
companies of soldiers encamped at Peoria, 

111. in 1861 184 

Illinois State, Williamson Countj, Vendetta, 
Address by George W. Young before Illinois 
State Historical Society, May, 1914.3,33, 122-129 

Illinois Territorial Legislature 102 

Illinois Territory , History of courts of 35 

Illinois Territory organized February 3, 1809 .. 35 

Illinois Territory Part of Virginia 35 

Illinois Valley Ill 

Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin, 
Indian Mission, Utica, 111., founded by Mar- 
quette 110 

Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin, 

Parish 110 

In Black Hawk's Home. Address before the 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1914. 

John H. Hauberg 3,33,113-121 

"In the White House, Van Buren may drink 

his Champagne" (Song) 162 

Indian Agent account book 118 

Indian Agriculture 114 

Indian Dances 114 

Indian Legend, Frenchman's Spirit 119 

Indian Lover's Spring 114-115 

Indian Marriage 114 

Indian Mounds (See also Mounds Indian) 

96,97,115,117,118,110 



102 



INDEX — Continued. 



FAOE. 

ladiaa Murderer 116 

Indian Trader 118 

Indian Tribes, Locations 175, 1 , 6 

Indian V illage 115 

Indian Women 114 

Indiana State 70, 145, 153, 155, 171, 176 

Indiana State Delegation, Whig Convention 

1840, Springfield, 111 169 

Indiana Territory , organized May 7, 1800 35 

Indians 38, 113-121, 175-183 

footnote 97 

Indians , Algonquin 176, 178 

Indians, Assistaeronnons or Nation de Feu 

(Mascoutins) 177 

Indians, Black Hawk's Home Country, Ad- 
dress by John H. Hauberg before Illinois 
State Historical Society, May, 1914.-3,33, 113-121 

Indians, Cahokias Indians 180 

Indians, Cherokee 114, 118 

Indians, Chippewa 114 

Indians, Fox or Renards 175-183 

footnote 181 

Indians, Further regarding the destruction of 
the Fox Tribe, by John F. Steward. . .3, 175-183 

Indians, Hoquart quoted 175 

Indians, Illinois Indians... 108, 113, 175, 177, 179-180 

footnote 179 

Indians, Indian Agent 40 

Indians. Indian Mission, Utica,Ill. (Immac- 
ulate Conception) 110 

Indians, Jouett Charles, Indian Agent at Chi- 
cago 40 

Indians, Kaskaskia Indians 108 

Indians, Kickapoo or Quiquapoux Indians. ..1*9 

footnote 179 

Indians, Little Turtle 33 

Indians, Mascoutin 177, 179, 180 

footnote 179 

Indians, Mascoutins (Assistaeronnons or Nation 

deFeu) 177 

Indians, Miami 178, 179 

Indians, Montezume Mound in Pike County. 

Footnote 97 

Indians, Nadowessioux or Sioux Indians. 

Footnote 177 

Indians, Osage Indians 177 

Indians Osaukee (Sauks or Sacs). Footnote.. 177 

Indians, Ouiatanonor Wias Indians 179 

footnote 177 

Indians, Peorias 175, 179 

Indians, Piankeshaw Indians 177 

Indians, Pokagon an educated Pottawatomie, 

quoted 181 

Indians, Pottowatomie (Poux) 179, 181 

footnote 177 

Indians, Poutouatamis 179 

Indians, Poux or Pottawottamie 179, 181 

footnote 177 

Indians, Quickapoo 180 

Indians, Quiquapoux (Kickapoos) 179 

Indians, Renards (Foxes) 

113, 117, 118, 175, 177, 179, 180 

Indians, Renards (Foxes) defeat 175,176 

Indians, Sacs or Osaukees 177 

footnote 177 

Indians, Sioux or Nadowessioux 178 

footnote 177 

Indians, Treaty with Gen. Anthony Wayne 

ceding land at mouth of Chicago River 37 

Indians, Wias (Ouiatanons). Footnote — 177 

Interstate Commerce Act .• . 73 

Interstate Commerce Act, Supreme Court 

Decision 73 

Interstate Commerce Committee, Cullom, 

Shelby M. , Chairman 74 

Interstate Commerce regulation (Cullom Act). 56 

Interstate TrafTic, Act regulating 75 

Iowa Delegation Whig Convention, 1840. 

Springfield, 111 169 

Iowa State 42, 60, 113, 147, 153, 155 

Irish Grove. Ill 166 

Irish Whig Convention, 1840, Springfield, III.. 170 

Iron Mountain <fe-*outhern R. R 100 

Ironton , Mo 1S4 



Iroquois County, III 

Island Grove, 111 

Islands, Island of Stafla. 



PAGE 
-.29,49 
.---169 



Jackson County, 111 122, 123, 126, 128, 155 

Jackson, (Gen.) Andrew 154 

Jackson, J 148 

Jackson, (Gen.) Thomas J- (Stonewall) 131 

Jackson. Wilcox v. Jackson. Footnote 53 

Jackson, Mo 184 

Jackson, Tenn 187 

Jacksonville, 111 5, 164 

Jacksonville, (111.) Band 169 

Jacksonville, (111.) Delegation Banner Whig 

Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840 169 

James, E dmund J 5, 25 

James, Edmund J., Charters of Chicago, Part 

I. Footnote .' 38 

James, James A 5, 16 

James, J. A., Address before Illinois State 
Historical Society 1914, on Illinois State 

Park System 33 

James , Army 136 

Jamison, (Mrs.) Isabel, Address before Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1914. "The Young 
Men's Convention and Old Soldiers' Meeting, 
Springfield, 111., June 3-4, 1840. (The Great 

Whig Meeting) - . .3, 34, 160-170 

James Madison, Steamboat 51 

James River 134 

Jarrot , V 148 

Jayne, (Dr.) William 16, 17 

Jetfreon River {See North Fabius River). 

Jenkins, A. M 144, 148, 151, 169, 171 

Jenkins, W. H 17, 22 

Jenkins, W. H., The Yates Phalanx. The 
39th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Address 
before Illinois State Historical Society, 1914. 

3, 33, 130-136 

Jersey County, 111 Ill, 155 

Jesuit College. FortGageconstructedonsite.. 99 

Jennings, Everett 24 

"John the Baptist" 150 

Jo Daviess County, 111 144, 145 

Jo Daviess County, 111. Court established, 

1845 44 

Johnson Coimty, 111 123 

Johnson, Alex H 157 

Johnson, (President) Andrew, Impeachment- - 70 

Johnson, Henry W , 25 

Johnson, Hiram F 157 

Johnson, John 157, 158 

Johnson , Lewis 157 

Johnson, Niel 144 

Johnson, R. M 153 

Johnson, (Col.) Seth .143, 144 

Johnson , Wesley 157 

Johnson , William, jr 157 

Johnson, William, sr 157 

Johnston, W- Y 145 

Joliet,Ill 51,142 

Jollifl, James 157 

Jones, Fernando 130 

Jones, (Lieut.) J. I. A 185 

Jones, W. R 158 

Jones, (Dr.) William 181 

footnote 181 

Jonesboro. Ill 127 

Jouett, Charles, Indian Agent at Chicago 40 

Jouett, Charles, Judge in Kentucky and Arkan- 
sas 40 



Kane County, 111 37, 49, 144, 178 

Kane, Elias Kent, United States Senator from 

Illinois HI 

Kankakee County, 111 37 

Kankakee, 111 24 

Kankakee River 36,37,41,176 

Kankakee (111.) State Hospital 72 

Kaskaskia Bend 101, 104 



203 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Kaskaskia Commons 98, 103 

footnote 98 

Kaskaskia, Destruction of, by the Mississippi 
River. .Address by Capt. J. H. Burnham 
before the Illinois State Historical Society, 

May, 1914 3,33,9.5-112 

Kaskaskia (The) Flood 104 

Kaskaskia, Fort Kaskaskia. High Water of 

1785 and 1844 99 

Kaskaskia, 111 21, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 

104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 151, 170, 176, 179 

footnotes 97, 98, 102 

Kaskaskia, 111. (First) Capital of Illinois 104 

Kaskaskia, 111. Captured from the British, 

1778 108 

Kaskaskia, 111. Catholic Church, Pastor 1901, 

Father D arnley 110 

Kaskaskia, 111. Church of the Immaculate 

Conception, bell of 110 

Kaskaskia, 111. Marker 109,110 

Kaskaskia, Indians 108,114,117 

Kaskaskia Island 98,110,112 

Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Sewer District 

organization. Footnote 98 

Kaskaskia Landing, 111 102 

Kaskaskia, New Kaskaskia. Footnote 99 

Kaskaskia. Old Kaskaskia. Footnote 99 

Kaskaskia, Old. Resurvey made of original 
town under direction of Harry W. Roberts, 

reference. Footnote 98 

Kaskaskia River 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 109 

Kaskaskia River, Kaskaskia-Mississippi Flood. 

105-107 

Kaw River 104 

Keller, (Sen.) Kent E 25 

Kellogg, B . , jr 144 

Kellogg, George 148 

Kellogg, (Dr.) Lucius D 184 

Kellogg, W 144 

Kelly, Edith Packard, Northern Illinois in the 
Great Whig Convention of 1840. Address be- 
fore Illinois State Historical Society, May, 

1914 3,34,137-149 

Kelly, Mason 158 

Kelsoe, W. A 151 

Kendall County, 111 37, 46, 177 

Kendall, Amos 154 

Kenower, George 157 

Kentucky State 40, 56, 122, 123, 167, 184, 185 

Keokuk (Chief) 113,116,117,120 

Kercheval, Gholson 40 

Kickapoo Indians or Quiquapoux 114, 117, 179 

footnote 179 

Kimball, C 148 

King, Rufus(?) 75 

Kingsbury, (Rev.) S. A 190 

Kinney, Jos. W 147 

"Kinsey" Probably John Kinzie 39 

Kinzee, John H 142 

Kinzie, Bronson v. Kinzie. Footnote 46 

Kinzie, Eleanor 40 

Kinzie, James 41 

Kinzie, John 40 

Kinzie, John, Daughter of, Marries Dr. Alexan- 
der Wolcott 40 

Kinzie, John, Difficulty with trader Lalime. .38, 39 
Kinzie, John, First resident Justice of the 

Peace for Cook County 39 

Kinzie, John, settles at Chicago 1804 37 

Kirkland and Moses. History of Chicago, Vol. 

2. Footnotes 38, 39, 4 1, 53 

Kirtley , E 158 

Knickerbocker, A. V 142 

Knox County, 111 36, 144, 146 

Knox County, Northwest Territory 35 

Koerner, Gustavus 26 

Kokomo, Indiana 176 

Koser, Alex ..156 

Krifer, Peter 156 



Laclede, Pierre Ligueste. 
La Grange, Tenn 



PAGE. 

Lake Coiuity, 111 37, 144, 145, 147 

Lake Michigan 36, 37, 81, 175, 176 

Lakes, Pestakee 178 

Lalime, Trader, killed in difficulty with John 

Kinzie 39 

Lane, A. P 148 

Langworthy , A 144 

Larrabee, Wm. M 142 

La Salle County, 111 41, 49, 144, 145, 167, 170 

La Salle County, 111., in Fifth Judicial Circuit, 

1831 41 

Latham, R 144 

Laughlin , (Dr .) Thomas 146, 147 

Laveille, A 148 

Lawhead, • 156 

Lawman, (Col.) 184 

Lawrence County, 111 122, 144, 151, 153 

Lawrence, George A 5 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A 26 

Lawrence, J. K 144, 151 

Lawrenceville, 111 122 

Laws, Anti Rebating Act 75 

Laws, Anti Trust Act 75 

Laws, Employers' Liability Act 75 

Laws, Food and Drug Act 75 

Laws, Interstate Commerce 73, 74 

Laws, Interstate Traffic 75 

Laws, Lotteries, Act to suppress 75 

Laws, Primary Law 63 

Laws, Safety Appliance Act 74, 7c 

Laws, "Stay Law" 46 

Laws, White Slave Act 75 

Lawyer, (The) as a pioneer. By Thomas 
Hoyne, Fergus Historical Series, Nos. 22 and 

23. Footnotes 41, 44, 46, 50 

Lawyers, Arnold, Isaac N., Recollections of 
early Chicago and Illinois Bar. Fergus His- 
torical Series , No, 22. Footnote 54 

Lawyers, Caton, John Dean, Early Bench and 

Bar of Illinois. Footnotes 45, 48 

Lawyers, Heacock, Russell E., First resident 

Lawyer in Chicago 39, 40 

Lawyers, Hill, Frederick Trevor, Lincoln the 

Lawyer. Footnote 46 

Le Claire, Antoine 115 

Lecompte, James 157 

Lee Countv, 111 144, 145, 14S 

Lee, Charles, Settled at Hardscrabble, 1804. . . .^38 

Lee,E. D 158 

Lee, George 146 

Lee, (Gen.) Robert 136 

Legate, H. S 156 

Legislature (Illinois) 44, HO 

Le Grand Champ (Big Field) 99 

footnote 110 

Le Mai, French Trader at Chicago 37 

Leonard, E.F 71 

Levers , James 158 

"Le Vieus Village." Original St. Genevieve. 

Footnote 110 

Lewis, Alva 157 

Lewis, (Hon.) James Hamilton 68 

Lewis , William 157 

Life and Services of Shelby M. Cullom, Address 
by Henry A. Converse before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, May, 1914. . .3, 33, .55-79 

Lincoln, Abraham 18, 24, 46, 47, 

54, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 69, 78, 79, 123, 135 148, 162, 163 
Lincoln, Abraham, "House Divided against 

Itself" speech, reference 77 

Lincoln, the Lawjer, Hill, Frederick Trevor. 

Footnote 46 

Lincoln, Abraham, National Lincoln Memorial 77 
Lincoln, Abraham, Offered a partnershio in 

Chicago in 1850 by Grant Goodrich ' 46 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, reference 58 

Lincoln Memorial Room, Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position 25 

Lindsay , John 164 

Lineback, I. G 148 

Little Creek of the Rock 177 

"Little Giant", Stephen A. Douglas 58 

"Little River" 178 

Little Rock Creek 178 



204 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Little, S. H 144 

"Little Turtle." Address belore Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1914, by Mrs. Mary Kid- 
path Maan 33 

Lockwood, (Justice) Samuel D 52 

"Loco Foco and an echo" 1(51 

Locofoco merchants 142 

Loco-focos 161 

Locust Grove, III 152 

Logau County, 111 144 

Logan, (Gen.) John A 60, 188 

Logan, (Judge) Stephen T. .41,54, .58,60,65,69, 164 

Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign 160 

Long, (.Major) Stephen H., United States Topo- 
graphical engineers visited Chicago, 1823, de- 
scribes settlement 38 

Longstreet , (( ien.) James 135 

Longueil, M. de, French Commander in Detroit 

inl752 177 

Loomis, H. G 142 

Lorimer, (Senator) William 65, 66, 67 

Lorimer, William, Case reopened in U. S. 

Senate 1911 67 

Lorimer, William, election investigation reso- 
lution, U. S. Senate 65 

Lorimer, (Capt.) William A 190 

Lorimer Case debate in U. S. Senate 66 

Lorimer Case, vote before U. S. Senate Com- 
mittee 66 

Lorimer Case, vote in U. S. Senate, Second 

hearing 67 

Lorimer Case, Vote of Shelby M. Cullom 6fi 

Lotteries, Act to suppress 75 

Loughry , N 157 

Loughry , Samuel 157 

Louisiana (Purchase Territory) 179 

Louisiana State 189 

Lovejoy , Owen, Trial and acquittal 46 

Lovett vs. Noble 52 

qower Lick Creek, 111 169 

Lowrey , William 146, 147 

Lowry, J. K 148 

Lowry , William 144 

Lynch , (Judge) 44 



McAllister, (Capt.) Edw. {See McCallister). ...186 

McArthur (Gen.) John 188 

McCabe, Thomas 145 

McCall, J. H 148 

McCallen,C. W 148 

McAdams, Clark, "Archaeology of Illinois"... 118 

McAdams, William 157 

McCallister, (Capt.) {See McAllister) 186 

McCallister's Battery 186 

McClellan; (Gen.) George B 123, 131 

McClernand, (Gen.) John A 58,186,187 

McClunn, S. C 145 

McClure, Ale.x 142 

McOomb, (Capt.) F. E 16, 28 

McComb, F. J 16 

McConnell (McCoimel) Murray McConnell v. 

Wilco.x. Footnote 53 

McCormick, L 148 

McCoy, J. A 141 

McDonald, Charles 157 

McDonough County, la 144 

McDowell , (Sergt.) John R 190 

McDowell, (Gen.) Irvin 131 

McFarland , ( Lieut.) Thomas 190 

McFarran , Martin 157 

McHenry County, HI 37,49, 51, 144, 147 

Mclver , J 1.58 

McKane , N 148 

McKeene, Jacob 158 

Mackinaw ,111 140 

McKinlev, (President) William 7fi 

McLean County, 111 29, 53, 137, 138, 139, 140, 144 

McLean, (Judge) John 44 

McLeod, (Dr.) Donald, Pastor First Presby- 
terian Church , Springfield ,111 78 

McNabb, (Judge) John M. Footnote 54 



PAGE. 

McNeal, Abraham 157 

McNelley.H.H 157 

Macon County, 111 29, 144, 145 

Macopin River 178 

Macoupin Hunters (Whig Delegation 1S40) 167 

McPherson,(Gen.) JamesB 188 

Madawaska 161 

Maddox.F 157 

Maddo-x , James 157 

Madison County, 111 

29, 144, 151, 152, 153, 154, 158, 163, 167, 171 

Madison County, 111., organized, its bound- 
aries 35, 36 

Madison, Wis 23 

Madrid , New Madrid. Footnote 109 

Magie,H. H 142 

Magill, Hughs 67,68 

Maine (Ship) 20 

Maltby, Charles 146 

Manierre,X Judge) George 41, 42 

Marm, (Mrs.) Mary Ridpath. Address "Chief 
Little Turtle" delivered before Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1914 33 

Mann, (Lieut. Col.) Orrin L 133 

Mansion House, Chicago, 111 48 

Maps, Amsterdam, 1710-1720 176 

Maps,Collot's 1796 Map, reference to 97 

Maps, De Lisle 's Map of 1703 and 1722 176 

Maps, France (New) early French Map 176 

Maps, Franquelin's Map 176, 177, 178 

Maps , Franquelin's Map of 1684 176 

Maps, Franquelin's Map of 1688 176 

Maps, French Map 176 

Maps , French Map of 1769 177 

Map, Government Map 176 

Maps, Harrisse, French authority .on early 

French Maps of America ". 176 

Maps, Herman Moll's Map of 1720 176 

Maps, Homan's Map of 1684 176 

Maps, Map Department, Congressional Li- 
brary 1 81 

Maps, Popple's Map of 1732 176 

Maps, Randife McN ally's Map 178 

Maramech, (Maraux) 176, 177 

footnote 177 

Maramech, Date of Abandonment unknown ..178 
Maraux, Maramech shortened probably by 

French. Footnote 177 

Marbeck, James 142 

March, David 146 

March, Thomas 145 

Marion County, 111 155 

Marion, 111 22,33,122,127,128 

Marquette, (Father) Jacques, French Mission- 
ary and Explorer 110 

Marriages, First, performed in Chicago 40 

Marsh, Sylvester 143 

Marsh Harvester, Northern Illinois State Nor- 
mal School History Museum 19 

Marshall County, 111 29, 144 , 145, 147 

Marshall, Frank B 130 

Marshall , James A 142 

Marshals, Whig Convention 1840, Springfield, 

111 166 

Martin , C. H 157 

Martin, Ebenezer •. 148 

Martin, G. A 145 

Martin, William 148 

Mascoutin Indians, Sometimes called Assis- 

taeronnons or Nation de Feu, Location 

177,179,180 

footnote 179 

Mascoutin Prairies 178 

Mason, E 148 

Mason, S. A 145 

Mason, William E 65 

Massachusetts State 72, 170 

Matatas, Indian Chief 113 

Matchler, Benjamin 157 

Matthews , Scott 25 

Mattox , Ira 157 

Mattox, Napoleon 157 

Mattox, Thomas 157 

Maumee , Battle 170 



205 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

JVIaxev,'A.[G 157 

Maxey ;0. H. P 157 

Maxey, Peter L 157 

May, Wm. L 170 

Mayfield, John 156 

Mayne, T. E 148 

Mechanicsburg, 111 169 

Meeker, George W ] 41, 142 

Meese, William A .■ 5, 27 

Meigs, Fort 162 

Memphis, Term., Navy Yard 188 

Menard County, 111 29, 144, 145, 147 

Menard, Peter 144 

Menominee Indians 114 

Mercer County ,111 36, 145, 148 

Meridan, Miss 189 

Merrell, George W 143 

Merriam, (Col.) Jonathan 60 

Merrill, H.C 148 

Merrill, (Capt.) William J 190 

Merriman, H. O 148 

Merryman, (Dr.) E. H 166, 167, 168 

Messenger, John 148 

Metcalie, G. T 148 

Methodist Camp Meeting Ground 156 

Methodist Episcopal Church and Reconstruc- 
tion. Address by William W, Sweet, before 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1914. . 

8,33,83-94 

Methodist minister 159 

Metropolis, 111 122 

Mexican War 20, 124, 139 

Mexico. Footnote 95 

Miami Indians 178, 179 

Michel , David 158 

Michigan State 187 

Michigan State, Twelfth Volunteer Infantry. .. 187 

Milan, 111 119,121 

Millard, George B., Commissary Sergeant 190 

Miller, A. B 1.57 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 17 

Miller, John 14.5 

Miller, Samuel, One of the first County Com- 
missioners of Cook County, 111 40 

Milliken's Bend 188 

Mills, Benjamin, Lawyer 41 

Mills, Oldest { § j/gyTg^ } Mill 107 

Milwaukee, Wis 39 

Mineral Landing (On the Tennesee River) 186 

Minnehaha, (Steamer) 186 

Minnesota State 100 

Minonk,Ill 18 

Minonk, 111., Bank, First National 18 

■"Misere" (Old St. Genevieve, Mo.) Footnote.109 
Mississippi River 81, 95, 96, 97, 98, 

99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
110, 111, 112, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 175, 179, 184 

footnotes 97, 98, 100, 102, 105, 109, 110 

Mississippi River Commission 100, 101 

footnote 102 

Mississippi River, Destruction of Kaskaskia by 33 
Mississippi River, Father of Waters, so called. 

104, 108, 113 

Mississippi Iliver, Kaskaskia-Mississippi 

Flood, Burch, John H., quoted 105-107 

Mississippi River, Plats showing condition of 

River in 1880 and Channel of 1913 98 

Mississippi State 188, 189 

Mississippi Valley 1 12 

Mississippi Valley, Rozier's History, quoted... 99 

footnotes 99, 110 

Missouri Republican 152 

Missouri River 95, 97, 114 

Missouri State 96, 97, 98, 99, 

100, 103, 106, 110, 112, 130, 153, 155, 169, 170, 184, 185 
footnotes 100,102,110 

Missouri State, Historical Society 98 

footnote 97 

Mitchell, J. H 144 

Mitchell, (Lieut.) James H 190 

Moffet , Alva 148 

Moflfett ,F 148 

Moll, Herman, Map 176 



PAGE. 

Money Creek, 111 mi 

Monmouth, Battle 170 

Monroe County, 111 144, 151, 152, 153, 156 

Monterey, Tenn 187 

Montezuma, National (Float Whig Convention, 

1840) 155 

Montgomery County, 111 144, 147, 151, 153, 155 

Montgomerj', Samuel 158 

Monuments 25 

Monuments, Garrison Hill Ill 

Monuments, Garrison Hill Monument Inscrip- 
tion 112 

Monuments, Lincoln Memorial 77 

Moore, Ensley 15, 18 

Moore, Henry 46 

Moore, J. C 157 

Moore, (Gen.) James B 144, 151, 156, 157 

Moore, (Capt.) Josiah 184, 190 

Moore, Thomas J 148 

Moore, William 144, 148, 151, 158 

Moore & Osborn , Chicago 130 

Morgan County, 111 

21, 29, 144, 148, 151, 159, 163, 164, 167, 169, 170, 171 
Morgan County (111.) Baimer, Whig Conven- 
tion, Springfield, 111., 1840 169 

Morgan, Bert, "My Sweetheart Went Down 

with the Maine" 20 

Morgan County, HI. Delegation Whig Con- 
vention 1840, Springfield, 111 155, 156 

Morgan, (Senator) John T., of Alabama 76 

Mormonisni 137 

Moro, 111 17, 24 

Morris, Buckner S 46, 51, 142 

Morris, Buckner S., Candidate Bell-Everett 

Ticket 46 

Morrison, CD 144, 170 

Morrison, (Col.) James Lowery Donalson 

104,151,156 

Morrison, W. D 149 

Morrison , (Col.) AVilliam 186 

Morrow, James 148 

Morse, John 145 

Morton, C. H 144, 151 

Morton , C. R 158 

Moscow, Tenn 188 

Mosely , F 142 

Moses, John, Illinois Historical andStatistical.. 170 
Moses, John, Kirkland and Moses, History of 

Chicago, Vol . 2. Footnotes 38, 39, 41, 53 

Mound Builders 117, 118 

Mounds, Cahokia 118 

Mounds, Illinois 119 

Mounds, Illinois, Cahokia 118 

Mounds, Indian 96, 97, 115, 117, 118, 119 

Movmt Morris, 111 57 

Mount Morris Seminary (Rock River Semin- 
ary) Mount Morris, 111 57 

Mullikin, Owen 157 

Mullikin , Patrick 157 

Municipal Com-t of Chicago 43, 44, 52, 53 

Murder Trial, First held in Chicago 48 

Murdock, (Capt.) John O. (?) 185 

Murray, John 148 

"My Store" 139 

"My Sweetheart went down with the Maine". 20 
"Mysterious Indian Battle Grovmds in McLean 
County, 111.," by John H. Burnham, refer- 
ence 177 



N 

Nadowessioux or Sioux Indians. Footnote. . . 177 
Naples, 111., General U. S. Grant's Camp 

marked 18 

"Narrows" (The) Strip of land between the 

O kaw and Mississippi 107 

Nation de Feu, or Assistaeronnons, Mascoutin 

Indians sometimes called 177 

National Constitution , reference 55 

National Flag 168 

National Legislature 56 

National Lincoln Memorial Commissioners 77 

National Road 141 



206 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

National Republican Convention, Illinois Dele- 
gation 68 

National Statute Book 56 

National Supreme Court 74 

New Athens, 111 106 

New Bourbon, Mo. Old Spanish Town 112 

New England States 68 

"New Era" St. Louis 152 

New France 175. 178 

New Kaskaskia 110 

footnote 110 

New Orleans, Battle 170 

New York House, Chicago, 111 43 

New York State 46, 72 

Newbern, N. C 13 1, 132 

Newberry, Walter L 142 

Newcomb, Kersey Fell 139 

Newspapers, (The) American 48 

Newspapers, (The) Chicago Daily American.. 48 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune .50, 65, 66 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune of April 30, 1910. 65 

Newspapers, (The) Democrat 48 

Newspapers, Globe Democrat, St. Louis, Mo., 

April 28, 1881, quoted on Kaskaskia flood.. 104 
Newspapers, St. Genevieve, Fair Play., April 
30, ISSl, quoted on the High Water' at Kas- 
kaskia 104 

Newspapers, St. Louis Dispatch, April, 1881, 

quoted on rise of Mississippi 104 

Nichol , Theodore 147 

Nichols, Fountain 157 

Nichols, Turner L 157 

Nichols, William 157 

Nicholson, Amos : 157 

Nicholson, Benjamin 157 

Nicholson, Gazaway 157 

Ninawa (Peru) Gazette 145 

Ni.\on , William 148 

Noble, . Lovettvs. Noble 52 

North Bend, Ohio 162,168 

"North Bend of Beardstown" (Boat) 148 

North Fabius River 116 

North Market HaU, Chicago 133 

Northcott, (Lieut. Gov.) William A 64 

Northwest Territory 104 

Northwest Territory, created by Congress Julv 

13, 1787, What it comprised '. 35 

Northwestern Army, 1812 164 

Northwestern G azetteer 137 

Northwestern University, Evanston, 111 5, 33 

Norton, (Capt.) A. S 184,187 

Norton, W. T 5 

Noyelle, Nicolas Joseph de, French officer at 
Fort Chartres 177 



Oak Kidge Cemetery, Springfield, 111 

Oakley, William 

Ogle County, 111 29, 144, 145, 

Ogden, Mahlon Dickerson 

Oglesby, (Gov.) Richard J 

Ohio River 

Ohio State 82, 

Okaw River 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 

footnotes 100, 102, 105, 

"Old and New Kaskaskia" by Harry W. 

Roberts, reference, Footnote 

Old Dan Tucker (Song) 

Old Hickory (Newspaper) 

Old Mack 

Old Rosin the Beau 

Old Soldier (Newspaper) 137, 162, 164, 

Old Tippecanoe 

Old Town, 111 

Olney, 111 

Ordovician Strata 

OrendorfT, Alfred 

Orrick, Johnson 

Orth, (Judge) Godlove Stoner (?) 

Orton , James R. T 

Osage Indians 114, 115, 116, 

Osaukee Indians (Sacs). Footnote 

Osborn , (Col . ) Thomas 130, 132, 133, 



PAQE. 

Osborne, (Miss) Georgia L 15, 25, 28, 29 

Osborne, Lewis W 142 

Osman, W. R 26 

Ottawa Indians 114 

Ouchequaka 113 

Ouiatanon or Wias Indians 179 

footnote 177 

Ouilmette, Early Settler and Trader at Chi- 
cago 37 

Oimianie, mention 176 

Oxford, Miss 187 



Pacific Ocean. Footnote. 
Paddock, (Mrs.)- 



. 95 
.152 
.148 
5,28 
. 54 
. 25 



Padfleld, William 

Page, Edward C , 

Page, Gerald H. Footnote 

Pageant 

Palmer, John M 54, 58, 151, 159 

Palmer, John M., "Personal Recollections".... 163 

Panama Canal 76 

Panama, Treaty 76 

Panama Pacific Exposition 25 

Panama Pacific Exposition Commission 26 

Pape, Gustave 108 

Pape,G us tave, Statement regarding high water 
of Mississippi as it afl'ected to\vn of Kaskas- 
kia 102-104 

Pardons, Attitude of Shelby M. Cullom 72 

Paris, France 175 

Parkman, Francis, Half Century of Conflict, 

quoted 175 

Pashepaho 113 

Patterson , Zera 139 

Pearson , Hiram 143 

Pearson , John 42, 48, 49 

Pearson, (Judge) John, Attempt to impeach ... 50 
Pearson, John, Brown v. Pearson. Footnote . 49 

Pearson, John, Election as State Senator 51 

Pearson, (Judge) John, Objection to appoint- 
ment as Judge of the 7th Circuit 49 

Pearson, John, People V. Pearson 50 

footnote 51 

Pearson, John, Teal V. Pearson Footnote 49 

Peats, (Maj.) Frank F 187,188,189 

Peck, Ebenezer 51 

Peck, Ebenezer, Chosen as reporter of Supreme 

Court in 1849 46 

Peck, P. F. W 142 

Pekin, 111., "Whisky Ring" 61 

Penconneau, L 148 

People vs. Hudson 49 

People vs. Pearson, History of the case, refer- 
ence 50 

Peoria, 111 18, 41, 117, 168, 184 

Peoria, 111., Illinois Soldiers encamped, May 

10,1861 184 

Peoria Commercial Club 18 

Peoria County, 111. .29, 36, 39, 40, 41, 144, 145, 147, 148 
Peoria County, 111 . , Ballance, Charles, History qf 41 
Peoria County, 111., Chicago in, for Govern- 
mental purposes 38 

Peoria County, 111., in Fifth Judicial Circuit, 

1831 41 

Peoria County, 111., organized January 13, 1825, 

boundaries 36 

Peoria County, 111., original court records of, 

examined. Footnote 54 

Peoria Indians 175, 179 

Peoria Meeting Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 23 

Peoria Press 137 

Perkin's Plantation 188 

Perrin, J. Nick 20, 21 

Perrot, Nicholas, In command of Maramech . .178 

"Personal Recollections", John M. Palmer 163 

Peru, 111 57 

Peru Gazette, Probably Ninawa Gazette. .137, 145 

Pestakee (Pistakee) Lake 178 

Pestekuoy— Algonquin name for the buffalo.. 176 

Petersburg, Va 134, 135 

Petrea, Laban 157 



207 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Fetrea, William 157 

Pettell, Early settler at Chicago 37 

Peyton <& Allen v. Tappaa 53 

Pfund,Jolin 142 

Phelps, E. H 147 

Phelps, J. W 148 

Philippine Islands 76 

footnote 181 

Philips, C.S 142 

Phillips, , Bristol v. Phillips 49 

footnote 51 

Phillips, Z 145 

Philps, W. J 144 

Piaubeshaw Indians ■. 177 

Pike County, 111 41, 111, 144, 151, 154 

footnote 97 

Pike County, 111., Cook County once a part of. 39 
Pike County, 111., organized January 31, 1821, 

boundaries 36 

Pike County, 111., Original court records of ex- 
amined. Footnote 54 

Pike, ( Lieut.) Zebulon 113 

Pinhook , Tenn 187 

Pistakee Lake 178 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn 187 

Pleasant Plains, 111 23 

Plummer , (Col.) J. B 185 

Pokagon, An educated Indian, quoted 181 

Political Parties 122 

Political Parties. Whig Meeting, Springfield, 

111., June 3-4, 1840 34,137-174 

Polo, 111 5 

Pond, Wash 144 

Pontiac, (Chief) 21 

Pontiac,Ill 33,130 

Poor, Major 158 

Pope, (Judge) Nathaniel 44 

Popple's Map of 1732 176 

Porter, (Rev.) Edward, of Chicago, quoted 54 

Posey, Jubilee 157 

Post, (Dr.) Lewis 142 

Potherie, De Bacqueville de la 178 

Potomac River 131 , 134 

Pottawatomie Indians 114, 181 

footnote. . : 177 

Poutouatamis (Indians) 179 

Poux, (Pottawatomies) Indians. Footnote... 177 

Powell, E.N 148 

Powers , Pennington 157 

Pow-we-shick 118 

"Prairie du Pont" Du Pont or Dupo on Collet's 

1796 Map 97 

Prairie du Rocher, Rocher, 111 96,97, 100 

Prairies of Illinois, reference 56 

Prairie of the Mascoutins 177, 178 

Prairie S tate ■. 165 

Prather, James 157 

Pratt, Abel 157 

Pratt , John 157 

Pratt , M 148 

Prentiss, (Gen.) 184 

Prentiss , Amos 144, 151, 1.58 

Prentiss, William 166, 169 

Presbyterian Church, (First) Springfield, 111.. 78 
Presbyterian Church, Second, Springfield, 111.. 163 

Price, John W. (?) 154 

Primary Law, Advisory vote on U. S. Senator 

1905 63 

Primary Law, State wide, reference 63 

Primra, William 148 

Prince, (Hon.) George W 62 

Probate Court, Jurisdiction 42 

Probate Justice of the Peace 42, 47 

Proctor, (Dr.) Leonard 142 

Prospectsof Chicago, Brown, Wm. H., Fergus 

Historical Series, No. 9. Footnote 45 

Prnyne, (Senator) Peter 43 

Pugh, J. C 144 

Pulsifer, George •. 148 

Puryear , William 157 

Putnam County, 111 36, 41 

Putnam County, 111., in Fifth Judicial Circuit, 

1831 41 



Q 

PAGE. 

Quaife, Milo M. Footnote : 37 

Quebec , Canada 175 

Quashquame 113, 116 

Quickapoo Indians 180 

Quincy , 111 25 

Quiquapoux or Kickapoo Indians 179 



Itaiiroad, American, First train, trial trip.. 55, 56 

Railroad & Warehouse Commission 71 

Railroad and Warehouse Legislation, Illinois 

State '70-71 

Railroads, Illinois Southern Railroad 100 

Railroads, Iron Mountain & Southern Rail- 
road 100 

Railroads, Safety Appliance Law 74 

Railroads, St. Louis & Iron Mountain Rail- 
road 96 

Railroads , S trikes of 1877, reference 72 

Railway System, American 55, 56, 73 

Raith, (Col.) Julius 187 

Rallymg Song (Whig) 161 

Ralph, G. W 148 

Rammelkamp, (Pres.) Charles H 5,28 

Rand & McNally 's Maps 178 

Randolph County ,111 105, 107, 110, 111, 144 

footnote 98 

Randolph County (111.) Delegation Whig Con- 
vention 1840 155 

Randolph, George 142 

Rankin, James 157 

Ransom, Amherst C, Justice of Peace 39 

Raum, (Col.) Green B 188 

Rausam, Amherst C. , (See Ransom) 39 

Rawalt, (Maj.) Jonas 185 

Raymond, George 112 

Rebate (See Anti Rebate Act). 

Read, G. W 148 

Recollections of Early Chicago and Illinois Bar. 
Arnold, Isaac N., Fergus Historical Series, 

No. 22. Footnote 54 

Reconstruction Period, Connection of Metho- 
dist Church, mention 33 

Redwood, Samuel 148 

Reed, Fulkerson & Reed, Early Pilots 104 

Reed, S 148 

Reeve, Isaac 158 

Reeves, Walter R 63 

^ijgj^' I Bottoms 106,107 

iS^^lMill 107 

Religion, Protestant HI 

Religion, Roman Catholic Ill 

Reminiscences of Early Chicago by John Went- 
worth, Fergus Historical Series, Nos. 7 and 8. 

Footnotes 37, 39, 40, 41, 48 

Renard or Fox Indians 175, 180 

Representation from Northern Illinois, at the 
Whig Convention, Springfield, 1840, Address 
before Illinois State Historical Society, 1914, 

by Mrs. Edith P. Kelly 3, 34, 137-149 

Representatives ( Illinois State) Hall 163 

Republican Congressional District 60 

Republican National Convention of 1884, 1892 

1904, 1908, mention 68 

Republican, National Ticket 68 

Republican Party. ... 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 121, 1.50 
Republican Party, Preferential vote of 1906 ... 63 
Republican State Central Committee, Illinois. 

62,71 

Republican State Convention of 1904, Illinois. . 64 

Republican State Officers, Illinois 68 

Republican State Ticket, Illinois 68 

Republican Vote 123 

Reservation, Ft. Dearborn purchased by Gen. 

JohnB. Beaubien ." 53 

"Revised Statutes of the State of Illinois, A. 

D., 1874", mention 70 

Revolutionary Soldier (John O. Verstreet) 16^ 



208 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Revolutionary Soldiers 25, 29, 156, 158, 16b, 168 

Revolutionary Soldiers (Whig Convention 

1840)...; 155 

Revolutionary War 20, 104 

Revolutionary War, Hessians 170 

Reynolds, Eli 143 

Reynolds, ( Gov.) John 120 

Reynolds, James M 156 

Reynolds, (Adj.) William S 190 

Richards, D 144 

Richardson (The) Ed. (Boat) 104 

Richardson, John 158 

Richland County ,111 122 

Richland, 111 169 

Richmond, Va 131, 134, 135 

Sy}»°«oms 106,107 

ReUps } ^^''^ (Oldest Mill in Illinois) 107 

River & Harbor Convention of 1847, held in 

Chicago, 111 47 

River of the Buffalo 178 

River of the Foxes 178 

River of the Rock 177, 178 

Riviere des Illinois, R. de Macopin (The River 

of our Beautiful Pond Lilies) 176 

Riviere des Renards, ( River of theFoxes) . . 177, 181 
Riviere du Rocher, "River of the Round Sura- 

mited Rock" 177 

Rivers, Chicago River 81 

Rivers , Colorado River. Footnotes 95, 102 

Rivers, Cumberland River 1.S6 

Rivers, Des Plaines River 81 

Rivers, Fox River 176, 177, 180, 181 

Rivers, Fox River, Riviere des Renards, River 

of the Foxes 178 

Rivers, Illinois River 

41, 81, 175, 176, 177, 179, 180, 181 

footnote 97 

Rivers, Kankakee River 41, 176 

Rivers, Kaskaskia River. . 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 109 

Rivers , Kaw River 104 

Rivers , Mississippi River 81 , 95, 96, 97, 98, 

99, 100, 101, 102, 103,104,105,106,107,108,109, 

110, HI, 112, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 175, 179, 184 

footnotes 97,98, 100, 102, 105, 109, 110 

Rivers, Missouri River 95 

Rivers, Okaw River.... 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 107 

footnotes 100. 105, 109 

Rivers, Riviere des Renards, River of the 

Foxes, Fox River 178 

Rivers, St. Joseph River 176, 178, 181, 182 

Rivers, Sangamo 167 

Rivers , Tennessee 186 

Rivers, Wabash 122, 175, 176, 177 

Rivers, Yellow 95 

Rives, WUliam Cabell (?) 75 

Rabb, (Gen.) J 144 

Robbins, (Lieut.) Edward C 190 

Roberts, Harry W 100 

footnotes 98, 110 

Roberts, Harry W. (The) Commons of Kaskas- 
kia, Address by, mention 33 

Roberts, Harry W., Old and New Kaskaskia. 

Paper read before Illinois State Historical 

Society, May, 1914, mention. Footnote 98 

Roberts , (Dr.) James 155 

Robertson , Kinzie 158 

Robins , (Judge) Silas W 167 

Robinson, (Col.) James C 60 

Robinson , Wm 157 

Rocher, 111., (Prairie du Rocher) Name first 

given by Railroad Company 100 

Rochester, (111.) Banner Whig Convention 

1840, Springfield, 111 169 

Rock Island, 111 33,118,119 

Rock Island County, 111 113, 144, 145 

Rock Island County Historical Society 26, 113 

Rock on the Illinois River 180 

Rock River 113, 115, 117, 119, 120, 121 

Rock River Express 137 

Rook River Rangers 120 

Rook St. Louis on the Illinois River 175 

Rockford.Ill 71 



P.iGE. 

Rodgers, (Rev.) Peter 156 

Roedecker , Samuel 148 

Rogers, John 141, 142, 144 

"Rookery" Temporary building erected in 

Chicago for County and City authorities 45 

Root, Elihu,U. S. Secretary of State 75,76 

Rose, (Capt.) Allen D 184 

Rose, John 158 

Rose, R. H 144 

Rosin the beau 161 

Ross , (Col.) Leonard Fulton 184, 185, 186, 187. 

Rossiter , A 143 

"Round Pounds" 185 

Rouse, R • 148 

Row, George W 157 

Rowell, (Capt.) Jonathan H 190 

Rowley, (Lieut.) James B 190 

Rozier's History of the Mississippi Valley, 

quoted 99 

footnotes 99, 109, 110 

Ruben, Charles 158 

Russel , Andrew 5, 28 

Russell Family 124 

Russell , F. C 144 

Russell, Jacob 143 

Russell , Jefferson 124 

Russell , Thomas 124 

Rutherford, Daniel 157 

Rutherford, Reuben 157 

Ryan, (Adj.) Abraham H 184 

Ryan, Edward G 43,44,47,50,54 

Ryrie, J. M 23 



Sac Indians (Osaukee). Footnote. 
Sac or Osaukee Indians. 



....177 
.-74177 

Safety Appliance Act ,75 

St. Ange, Louis de, quoted 179,182 

St. Anne, (Village) 111 97 

St. Clair County, 111. . .106, 122, 144, 151, 152, 153, 156 

St. Clair County Historical Society 21 

St. Clair County, Northwest Territory 35 

St. Clair County, its boundaries 35,36 

St.Charles , Mo 184 

St. Genevieve Fair Play, Newspaper, April 30, 

1881 , quoted on rise of Mississippi 104 

St. Genevieve Island 101 

St. Genevieve , Mo. ... 96, 97, 98, 100, 103, 105, 106, 109 

footnote 100 

St. Genevieve, Mo., High Water of 1785 drove 

inhabitants of Old Genevieve to present site 

of the town 99 

St. Genevieve, (Old) Mo., (Misere) Earliest 

Settlement 1735 109 

footnote 109 

St. Genevieve, Mo., original St. Genevieve 

called "Le Vieux Village." Footnote 110 

St. Genevieve , Mo. , Settled 1735 99 

St. Joseph River 178,179,181,182 

St. Louis, Mo 

95,96, 98, 101, 104, 152, 159, 171, 175, 184 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad 96 

St. Louis Dispatch, Newspaper, Issue of April 

1881, quoted on rise of Mississippi 104 

St. Louis, (Mo.) Globe Democrat, Newspaper 

April 28, 1881, quoted on Kaskaskia flood... 104 

St. Louis Post Dispatch 151 

St. Louis Republic 152 

St. Louis Republican 156 

St. Louisians 155 

St. Mary's , Mo 104 

footnote 100 

Salem, 111 122 

Salisbury, S. W 143 

Salt Creek, 111 140 

Salton Sea. Footnote 95 

Sangamo Journal 

143, 146, 147, 160, 162, 164, 170, 171 

Sangamo River 167 

Sangamon County, III 29, 59, 60, 61 , 

65, 139, 144, 148, 1.51,160,163,164,166,167,168, 170 
Sangamon County Bar 5.'^, .58, 78, 79 



209 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Sangamon County Bar Association 79 

Sangamon County Circuit Court 79 

Sangamon County, Illinois, coal mines 165 

Sangamon County, (111.) Delegation Banner, 

Whig Convention 1840, Springfield, 111 169 

Sangamon County, 111. , population 165 

Sangamon County, (111.) Whigs 143, 171 

Sangamon Journal 137 

Sangamon River 140, 165 

Sauk Council Lodge 115 

Sauk Indians 113, 114, 117, 118 

"Saut" (Rapids) Fox River 177 

Savannah, Tenn 186, 187 

Sawyer, Sidney 142 

Sayler,H. L 23 

Scammon, J. Young 43, 49, 50, 51 , 143 

Scammon, Jonathan Young, Illinois Reports. 

Footnotes 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 

Scammon's Report of Supreme Court Decisions 52 
Schell, William G., Quartermaster Sergeant 
17th Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry. . 190 

Schenectady, N. Y 55 

Schepard, Alyff 148 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L .>.... 

5, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 28, 29 

Schnebly , J 148 

Schools , Law Schools of Chicago ; 47 

Schuyler County, 111 36, 144, 146, 168 

Schwartz, Guy 155 

Schwartz's Battery 186 

Sciences, Illinois State Academy of 33 

Scott County Delegation, Whig Convention 

1840, Springfield, 111 169 

Scott, Edgar S 24 

Scott, (Mrs.) Matthew T 26 

Sears, 111 113 

Sears, John 141 

Secretary of State, U. S 75,76 

Secretary, Illinois State Historical Society, 

Report 22 

See, William, Clerk of Cook County, 111 40 

Selley, Bartley 158 

Semple, James 26 

Seventh Army Corps 188, 189 

Seventeenth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, Brief History by Robert W. Camp- 
bell 3, 184-190 

Seventeenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, List 

of Officers, mustered out June, 1864 189-190 

Seymour, (Gen.) T 132,133 

Shackelford, J 169 

Sharp, Alex 157 

Sharp, Henry 157 

Sharp, Jona 157 

Sharp, Joshua 157 

Sharp, Levi 157 

Shelby County, 111 144, 151 

Shelby, (Gov.) Isaac of Kentucky 56 

Shelbyville, 111 157 

Shelley, George E 142 

Sherman, John 75 

Sherman, (Gen.) William T 187, 189 

Sherman, (Senator) Lawrence Y 5,67,68,78 

Sherwood, S 142 

Shiloh, Battle 187 

Shiloh Church, Tenn 187 

Silk wook. Elan 157 

Simman,E. C 17 

Simpleton, B. G 147 

Sims, Benjamin 158 

Sioux (Nadowessioux) Indians 114, 178 

footnote 117 

Sir John's Run 131 

Sisney, (Capt.) GeorgeW 124,125,126,127 

Sisney Family 124 

Sisson , Charles 141 

Sixty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry War of 

the Rebellion 187 

Slavery, Question 137 

Slaves, Runaway 46 

Smith, Addison 158 

Smith, (Gen.) Andrew J 188 



PAGE 

Smith, (Mrs.) (See Mrs. Smith Todd) 170 

Smith, Enos 147 

Smith, (Lieut. Col.) Francis M 

184, 185, 186, 187, 189 

Smith, (Col.) Frank L 64 

Smith, George W 5 

Smith, Henry S.,Quartermasterl7th Regiment 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 190 

Smith, James A 142 

Smith,J.M 148 

Smith, John M 142 

Smith, Joseph, jr 147 

Smith, Josiah B 164 

Smith, Litten 158 

Smith, Samuel Lyle 47, 141, 142, 144, 167 

Smith, (Judge) Theophilus W 42, 44 

Smith, Thomas 148 

Smith, W. P 148 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. . 76 
Smithsonian Reports, 1907, reference. Foot- 
note 95 

Snell, William O 142 

Snow, George W 142 

Snyder, (Dr.) J. F 16,17,99 

Snyder, (Dr.) J. F., Proves location of Ft. 

Gage at Kaskaskia 100 

Snyder, ([Dr.) J. F., quoted on Kaskaskia and 

Cahokia. Footnote 97 

Soldiers (Harrison's) Meeting, Springfield, 111., 

1840 164 

Soldiers' Rest, Washington, D. C 134 

Soldiers War of 1812 166-168 

Some Effects of Geological history on present 
conditions in Illinois. Address before Illi- 
nois State Historical Society, 1914, by Prof. 

A. R. Crook 33,80-82 

South Rock Island 114 

Southern Democratic vote 122, 123 

Southern Illinois and Neighboring States at 
the Whig Convention, Springfield, 1840. 
Address before Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, 1914, by Mrs. Martha McNeill David- 
son 34, 1.50-159 

Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Foot- 
note 95 

Southern Unionists 123 

Spain Purchase of Philippines 76 

Spanish American War 20 

Sparta, 111 105 

Speed, J. L 162 

Spence, William *. 126 

S pencer, Ind 176 

Spencer, (Dr.) 141 

Spring, Giles 43, 45, 46, 47, 51, 54, 141, 142 

Spring, Giles. Judge Cook County Court 46 

Spring Creek, 111 156 

Springfield, 111 

5, 33, 34, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 69, 78, 80, 

103, 127, 13S, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 149, 
150, 151. 152, 156, 157, 158, 162, 163, 164, 168, 170, 189 

Springfield, (111.) Artillery 166 

Springfield, (111.) Band 166,168 

Springfield, 111., Banks, State National 61, 70 

Springfield, 111. , Christian Church, First 166 

Springfield, 111., Population 1840 165 

Springfield, 111., Presbyterian Church, Second. 163 
Springfield, 111., (The) Great Whig Convention 
at Springfield, 111., June 3-4, 1840. Address 
by Isabel Jamison before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, May, 1914 .3, 160-171 

Springfield Journal 152, 155, 156 

Staffa Island on West coast of Scotland 81 

Stahl,(Mrs.) Katherine 24 

Staley , George W 102 

Stanton, C.W 148 

Stanton, Charles T 142 

Stamwood, Abel 158 

Stamwood, Oliver 158 

Stanley, Overton 126 

Stapp, W. B 144 

Stark County, 111 144, 145, 147 

Starms, Thomas ! 158 



210 



INDEX — Continued. 



Starved Rock 26 

Starved Rock (Fort St. Louis) 175 

State Academy of Sciences, Illinois 28,80 

State Board of Pardons, Illinois 72 

State Debt 167 

State House (Illinois) 163 

State National Bank, Springfield, 111 61, 70 

State Park System 27 

State's Rights, reference 56 

State Rights, Stephen A. Douglas, Champion. 18 

State Utilities Commission 71 

State Wide Primary Law, reference 63 

"Stay Law" 46 

Steamer Illinois 100 

Steele, J. W 142 

Stephenson County, 111 146 

Stephenson, J. D 145 

Stephenson Post, G. A. R 24 

Stevens, Thaddeus 60 

Stevens, W. C 148 

Stevenson, (Gen.) John D 189 

Steward, John P., Further regarding the de- 
struction of a Branch of the Fox Tribe of 

Indians 3, 175-183 

Steward, Lewis 62 

Stewart, A. F 158 

Stewart, Abner J 157 

Stewart, (Lieut.) Henry K 190 

Stewart, John Jay 143 

Stewart, St. Clair 157 

Still, Morris 144 

Stillman, (Major) 121 

Stites, Isaac 157 

Stitts, Squire M 157 

Stockdale, (Lieut.) William C 190 

Stone, H. 142 

Stone, John 48 

Stone V. People. Footnote 48 

Stony Island. Footnote 181 

Stony Point, Battle 170 

Strode, James M. (Lawyer) 41,49 

Struthers, (Maj.) William H 190 

Stuart, John Todd, Stuart & Edwards. . .57, 58, 60 

Stuart, William 141, 142, 143, 144 

Stuart, Wilham, Editor (The) Chicago Daily 

American 48, 142, 171 

Stuart & Edwards, Early law firm in Spring- 
field, 111 57,60 

Stuart V. People. Footnote 48 

Stuntz, George 148 

Stuntz, John 148 

Sturgis, (Gen.) Samuel D 185 

Sturtevant, , Webb vs. Sturtevant 51 

Suffolk, Va 131 

Sugar Creek, 111., Banner Whig Convention 

1840, Springfield, 111 169 

Suggs, Thomas 157 

Sullivan, W. T 188 

Sulphur Springs, Mo 184 

Summelroth , F 148 

Sumner, Charles 75 

Superior Court of Chicago 44 

Superior Court of Cook County 44 

Supreme Court of Illinois 

41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 63, 64, 79 

Supreme Court Decisions, Scammon's report 

of 52 

Supreme Court Reports 50,52,53 

Supreme Court, Scammon's report 52 

Supreme Court of Wisconsin 47, 50 

Surdam, N. B 158 

Swartout, Samuel (7) 154 

Sweeney, (Gen.) Thomas W 185 

Sweet, William w. , Methodist Episcopal 
Church and Reconstruction. Address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1914. . 

3,83-94 

Swett, Leonard 60 



Tappa 



PAGE. 

-, Peyton & Allen vs. Tappan. 53- 



Tackett, Charles 

Tackett, (Capt.) John.. 
Tanner, (Gov.) John R. 



. . . 158 
...158 
.62,63 



Taylor, Wm. H 143 

Taylor, Zacharv 47, 113 

Taylor's Battery 187 

Tazewell County, 111 56, 57, 59, 144, 145, 167 

Tazewell County, 111., Delegation, Whig Con- 
vention, 1840, Springfield, 111 169^ 

Teal V. Pearson. Footnote 49 

Tennessee River 18& 

Tennessee S tate 122, 123, 124, 186, 187, 18& 

Tenth Army Corps 134 

Term, Presidential, "One Term" (Whig Ban- 
ner 1840) 155 

Terre Haute, Ind 176, 181 

Terry, (Gen.) Alfred H 134 

Thacker, W. H 24 

Thames Battle 138,161,168,17a 

Tharp, Samuel 157 

Thebes, 111. (?) 95 

Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers 22 

Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regi- 
ment, The Yates Phalanx, Address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, 1914. By 

W. H.Jenkins 33 

Thomas, C G 144 

Thomas, (Adj. Gen.) Lorenzo D 188 

Thomason, George 158 

Thomason, William 158 

Thompson, Alfred S 147 

Thompson, J. H 144, 151 

Thompson, James 157 

Thompson, (Mrs.) Lucretia 48 

Thompson, (Gen.) M. Jefi 185 

Thompson, Mell 147 

Thornton, F. C 157,158 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold 23 

Tippecanoe . . . 138, 142, 156, 158, 160, 161, 167, 168, 170 

Tippecanoe, (Brig) 141 

Tippecanoe Club, Chicago 141 

Tippecanoe Flags 166 

Todd, (Dr.) John 164,170 

Todd, (Judge) David (?) 170 

Todd, John H 158 

Todd, (Mrs.) Smith 170 

Todd, William 158 

Tollifi, William 157 

Tompkins, (Dr.) C. B 184, 190 

Towner, N. K 142 

Treaties, Panama Treaty 76 

Tremont Building, Chicago 48, 130 

Tremont House, Chicago 41 

Tremont, 111 144 

Tribune, Chicago, 111 50 

Trimble, John 158 

Troops, United States Troops 53 

Trotter, (Rev.) W. D. R 156 

Trumbull, Lyman, United States Senator from 

Illinois 54, 62. 70 

Tucker, Robert R 157 

Turchin, (Col.) John B 184 

Turnev, M 158 

Tuthill, D.B 155 

Tuthill, Russell 156 

Tuttle,John 148 

Twelfth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, War of 

the Rebellion 187 

Twenty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, War 

of the Rebellion 187 

Tyler, John 137, 141, 167 



Underwood, J. M 142 

Union County, 111 122, 127 

Union Families, War of the RebelUon 185 

Union Forces 185, 187 

United States 55, 70, 75, 76, 97 

footnote 97 

United States (Boat) 143 

United S tates Colored Infantry, Forty-seventh. 188 
United States Colored Infantry, Forty -eighth. .188 

United States Congress 

44,46,56,60,69,70,73,74,77,78,102 

footnote 102 



311 



INDEX — Continued. 



United States Congress, Foreign Relations 
Committee "' 

United States Congress, Interstate Commerce 
Committee 73, 74, ; 

United States Congress, Cullom, Shelby M., 
candidate 1862 t 

United States Congress, Thirty-ninth Con- 



gress. 



United States Congress, Forty-first Congress. 

60,70 

United States Congressional Library, Map 

Department 181 

United States Congressional Reapportionment 

1860 60 

United States Court 44 

United States Engineering Corps 101 

United States Federal District Com-t 44 

United States Government 61, 109, 114 

footnote 102 

United States Government, defrauded by 

Whiskey Ring 61 

United States Government Map 176 

United States Government Survey 1812, 

reference. Footnote 98 

United States House Committee on Foreign 

Relations 75 

United States Indian Treaty, August 3, 1795 . . 37 
United States MississippiRiver Commission. . 98 
United States Mississippi River Commissioners 

Reports. Footnote 109 

United States, Lincoln Memorial, National 77 

United States Navy Yard, Memphis, Tenn... .188 

United States Presidents, reference 68 

United States Prosecuting Attorney, District 

of Illinois 47 

United States Secretary of State 75, 76 

United States Senate 

56,58,61,62,65,68,73,74,75,78 

United States Senate, Appropriations Com- 
mittee 76 

United States Senate, Committee on Com- 
mittees 75,76 

United States Senate, Committee on Elections 

and Privileges 65, 66 

United States" Senate, Lorimer Case, debate... 66 
United S tates S enate , Lorimer Case re-opened. 67 
United States Senate, Resolution introduced 

to investigate election William Lorimer 65 

United States Senate, Vote on Lorimer Case. . . 66 
United States Senate, Vote on Lorimer Case, 

second hearing 67 

United States Senator 61, 67, 68 

United States Senator, Primary Law (Illinois, 

1905) providing for advisory vote 63 

United States Senator, Cullom, Shelby M., 

election 1883 62 

United States Senator, Cullom, Shelby M., 

re-elected 1889. 1895, 1901, 1907 62 

United States Supreme Court 46, 53, 77 

United States Supreme Court Decision October 

5, 1886, Wabash Railway Co. v. Illinois 73 

United States Troops 53, 72 

University of Chicago, first 47 

"Unnameci Wisconsin," by Davidson, quoted. 175 

Upper Alton, 111 154 

Upper Lick Creek, 111 169 

Urbana.Ill 5 

Utah Territory, Zane, (Judge) -Charles, Chief 

Justice 58, 70 

Utica,Ill 110 



Vail, Walter 142 

Van Bin-en, Martin 

141, 145, 153, 154, 160, 162, 163, 167 

Van Burenites 161 

Vandalia,Ill 59,153 

Vandeventer, Cornelius (?) 168 

Van Dorn, (Gen.) Earl C 187 

"Vannies" (Democrats 1840) 164 

Van Rensselaer, (Gen.) Henry 185 

Vanwell, Ormsby " 158 



PAGE. 

Veacock, S . S 148 

Vermilion Coimty, 111., organized January 18, 

1826, boundaries 37 

Verstreet , John O 164 

Vicksburg, Miss 100,188 

Vicksburg, Miss., surrender 189 

Villiers, (Capt.) Neyon de— Officer at Fort 

Chartres 177, 179, 181, 182, 183 

Vincennes, Ind 122 

Virginia State 75,122,167 

Virginia, Illinois once part of 35 

Voden, Harrison 157 

Voris, (Corporal) William M 188 

Vornholt, Conrad 157 

Vornholt , Theodore 157 



W 

Wabash County, 111 144, 151 

Wabash Railway Co. v. Illinois 73 

Wabash River 122, 175, 176, 177 

Wacome 11 

Waddle, William 158 

Wagner, Joel 158 

Wakefield, Charles 158 

Wakefield, J. A 145 

Walker, (Mrs.) E. S 20.25,29 

Walker, James, One of the first County Com- 
missioners of Cook County, 111 40 

Walker, James P 184 

Wallace, Joseph, "History of Illinois and 

Louisiana." Footnote 97 

Wallace, (Gen.) Lew 186 

Walters , W. M 164 

Waltersdorf, Loms 23 

War, Black Hawk War 41, 116 

War of 1812 18,20,113,116 

War of 1812, soldiers 166, 168 

War Exhibit, Northern Illinois State Normal 

School History Museum 20 

War Governor 159 

War, Mexican War 18 

War of the Rebellion 185 

War of the Rebellion , Camp Stanton 187 

War of the Rebellion, Camp Tecumseh 187 

War of the Rebellion, Fredericktown battle... 185 
War of the Rebellion, Illinois Companies en- 
camped Peoria, 1861 184 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 17th 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Brief history by 

Robert W. Campbell 3, 184-190 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 19th 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 184 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 29th 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 187 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 39th 
Illinois Volunteers (Yates Phalanx). Ad- 
dress bv W. H. Jenkins before Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1914 3, 130-136 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 43d 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 187 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 48th 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 186, 187 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 49th 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 186, 187 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Regiments, 61st 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 187 

War of the Rebellion, Iowa Regiments, 7th 

Iowa Volunteer Infantry 184 

War of the Rebellion, Michigan Regiments, 

12th ISfichigan Volunteer Infantry. 1ST 

War of the Rebellion, Schwartz's Battery 186 

War of the Rebellion, Shiloh Battle 187 

War of the Rebellion, Taylor's Battery 187 

War of the Rebellion, Union forces 187 

War of the Rebellion, Yates Phalanx. The 
39th Illinois Volunteers. Address before Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 1914, by George 

W. Young 3, 33, 130-136 

War of the Revolution 18,99, 104, 111 

Ward,C 144 

Ward, John 15» 

Warner, Jabez 14S 



212 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Warren County, 111 29, 36, 144, 147 

Warrenton, Mo 1S4 

Washburn, E. B 60 

Washington, George 164, 170 

Washington, D. C 

57, 67, 68, 75, 77, 78, 133, 134, 148, 160 

Washington County, 111 155 

Washington Precinct 144 

Watch Tower Inn 117, 118 

Waterloo, 111 156 

Waters, James 148 

Watts, Benjamin 157 

Watts, James H 157 

Wayne, (Gen.) Anthony 168 

Wayne, (Gen.) Anthony, Treaty with the 
Indians August 3, 1797. Lands ceded to U. 

S.by 37 

Wavne, (Gen.) Anthony, Treaty with Indians 

August 3, 1795 37 

Wayne County, Ky 56, 57 

Waynesville, 111 140 

Webb, (Capt.) Alex. S. (?) U. S. A 130 

Webb V. Sturtevant 51 

Weber, (Mrs.) Jessie Palmer 

5, 12, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 26, 28, 137, 151 

Webster, Daniel 154 

Webster, Daniel F 145, 147, 167, 170 

Webster, Dan L. (probably Daniel F) 144 

Webster, F 166,169 

Webster, Samuel 157 

Weir, J. B 143 

Weller , Sam 148 

Welles, T.N 148 

Wells, Alex 157 

Wells, (Lieut.) John H 190 

Welty, David 145 

Wentworth, John 26, 48 

Wentworth, John, Address on Fort Dearborn. 

Fergus Historical Series, No. 16. Footnote. . 53 
Wentworth, John, Reminiscences of early 
Chicago. Fergus Historical Series, Nos. 7 

and 8. Footnotes 37, 39, 40, 41, 48 

West, Edward W 148 

Westminister Hall, England 54 

Wheeler, (Capt.) Jacob 190 

Wheeler, (Mrs.) Katherine Goss 23 

Whig, (The) 137 

Whig Campaign Pictures 160-161 

Whig Convention 1840, Springfield, 111. . . .137-171 
Whig Convention-1840, Springfield, 111., Camp. 166 
Whig Convention 1840, Springfield, 111., Dele- 
gations 152 

Whig Convention, Springfield, III., Great 
Whig Convention at Springfield, 111., June 
3-4, 1840. Address by Isabel Jamison before 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1914. . 

3, 34, 150-171 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840, 

Marshalls 166 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111.; 1840. 
Northern Illinois in the Great Whig Con- 
vention of 1840. Address by Edith Packard 
Kelly before Illinois State Historical Society 

May, 1914 3, 34, 137-149 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840. 

Procession 168 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840. 

Secretaries 144 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840. 
Southern Illinois in the Great Whig Con- 
vention of 1840. Address by Martha McNeill 
Davidson before Illinois State Historical 

Society, 1914 3, 34, 150-159 

Whig Convention, Springfield, 111., 1840. 

Vice Presidents 144 

Whig-Democrat Debate 1839 163 

Whig Meeting, Springfield, 111., Jime3-4, 1840. 34 
Whig Party. 49, .50, 138, 139, 140, 143, 160, 161, 163, 171 

Whig State Central Committee (Illinois) 162 

Whigs, Sangamon County, 111 142 

Whipple, E. A 144 

"Whiskey Ring" Scandals 61, 62,66 

Whiskey Ring Scandals of 1876. CuUom, 
Shelby M., attempt to connect with 61, 62 



PAGE. 

Whistler. (Gen.) John. (U. S. A.) Fort Dear- 
born built by 37 

White County, iTU 158 

White, Benjamm 148 

White, Charles A 65 

White, Hugh L 157 

White, John Milton 157 

White House, Washington, D. C 77 

White Slave Act 75 

Whitehall, 111 152 

Whitehead, (Capt.) Frank 189 

Whiteside County, 111 145, 148 

Whiteside, (Maj .) Samuel 120 

Wias or Ouiatanon Indians. Footnote 177 

Wickware, J 148 

Wiegers, Francis 157 

Wier Bottom Church 135 

Wightman, James 157 

Wilcox, (Col.) De Lafayette. McConnell v. Wil- 
cox. Footnote 53 

Wilcox V. Johnson. Footnote -53 

Wiley, Hiram 148 

Wiley, J. M 148 

Wilhams, Ravel 158 

Wilkins, (Lieut.) Gawn 190 

Wilkinson, Ottawa (?) 167 

Wilkinson, W. G 148 

Will County, 111 : 37, 49, 51, 144, 145, 147 

Will County, 111., organized January 12, 1836, 

boundaries 37 

AVill, Garrett 156 

Williams, (Lieut.) Charles C 184, 190 

Williams, Thomas 157, 158 

Williamson County, 111 122 

Williamson County ,111. Early settlers .... 122, 123 
Williamson County, 111. Troops, Civil War. . 123 

Williamson County Vendetta 22 

Williamson County Vendetta. Address by 
George W. Young before the Illinois State 

Historical Society, May, 1914 3,33,122-129 

Williamson County, 111. Vendetta, origin 124 

Williamsport , Md 131 

Wills, Henry 1 144 

Wills, First will filed in Cook County Circuit 

Court 42 

WillsonjEli 148 

Wilson, James 147 

Wilson, R. L 1,44 

Wilson, Woodrow 68 

Winchester, Va. , Battle 131 

Windom, William 75 

Winnebago County, 111 144, 145, 146 

AVinnebago Indians 114 

Wisconsin River 121 

Wisconsin State 44, 47, 100, 114 

Wisconsin State Historical Society 23 

Wisconsin State Historical Collections 

1 Zg-lSO, 181 

Wisconsin State Supreme Court 44, 47, 50 

Wisconsin Territory 175 

"Wisconsin under the French" by Hebbard, 

reference 175 

Wisconsin, "Unnamed Wisconsin," Davidson, 

quoted 175 

Wise,W 144 

Wolcott , (Dr.) Alexander, Indian Agent 40, 42 

Wolcott, Alexander, Justice of Peace and 

Judge of Election in Chicago 39 

Wolcott, (Dr.) Alexander, Married Eleanor 

Kinzie 40 

Wolcott, David 157 

Wolcott, Henry, jr 143 

Wolcott , J 148 

Wolf Creek, 111 169 

Wonder, John W 190 

Wood, (Lieut. Col.) Enos P., 17th Regiment, 

Illinois Volunteer Infantry 184, 185, 186, 187 

Woodford County Historical Society 18 

Woodruff, (Dr.) R.J 147 

Woods, (Hon.) Harry, Secretary State of Illi- 
nois ." 15, 16, 28 

Woodworth, (Mayor) James H. of Chicago 43 

Work, J. H 148 

"World's Turned Upside Dowm (The)" (Song). 20 



213 



INDEX— Concluded. 



PAGE. 

Worthen, Richard : 156 

AVright, (Brig. Gen.) H. S 101 

Wright, John S 142 

Wright, Samuel 158 

Wright, William M 158 



Yarnell, (Lieut.) William E 190 

Yates, Richard (the elder) 

58, 130, 132, 151, 159, 167 

Yates, (Governor) Richard, (the younger) 

5, 15, 16, 20, 21, 28, 29, 63, 64, 65 

Yates, Richard, jr.. Candidate for XJ. S. Senator 63 
Yates, Richard, jr.. Withdrawal of candidacy 

forU. S. Senate 64 

Yates Phalanx, Thirty-ninth Illinois Volun- 
teers. Address by W. H. Jenkins before the 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1914.. 

• 3, 22, 44, 130-136 

Yellow River 95 

York River, Va ^ 134 



PAGE . 

Yosemite Valley 81 

Young, George W 22 

Young, George W., (The) Williamson County 
Vendetta. Address before the Illino's State 

Historical Society , May, 1914 3, 33, 122-129 

Young, Peter 15 '^ 

Young, (Judge) Richard M 41,48 

Young Men's Convention, (The) and Old 
Soldiers' Meeting, Springfield, 111., June 3-4, 
1840. Address before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1914, by Mrs. Isabel 

Jamison 3, 34, 160-17 1 

Young Men's Convention, Whig, 1840 144,151 

Young Men's Party 141 

Youngs Point, La 188 



Zane, Charles, Appointed Chief Justice of Utah 
Territory 1883 58, 70 

Zane, Charles, Early law partner of Shelby 
M. Cullom 58 



214 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

No. I. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1S60. Prepared by Edmund 
J. James, Ph. D., and MiloJ. Loveless, graduate student in the University ol Chicago. 94 p. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809 to 1812. Prepared 
by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. lop. Svo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., professor in the 
University of Chicago. 170 p. Svo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. Edited by E. B. 
Greene, Ph. D., secretary of the Societv. 55. p. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. ^^ 

No. 5. * Alphabetic Catalog of the" Books, Manuscripts, Pictures a3ra*Curios of the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by Jessie Pdlmer Weber. 363 p. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1900. 

No. 6 to 20. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 1901 to 1914. (Nos. 
6 to 12 out of print.) 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 642 p. Svo. Springfield, 1903. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by Clarence W. Alvord. 
CLVI and 663 p. Svo. Springfield, Illinois, 1907. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. Lincoln Series. Vol. 
I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparke, Ph. D. 627 p. Svo. Springfield, Illinois, 1908. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Governors' Letter-Books 
1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 p. Svo 
Springfield, Illinois, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II. Kaskaskia Records, 1778-1790. 
Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 p. Svo. Springfield, Illinois, 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. Newspapers and Periodi- 
cals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV 
and 610 p. Svo. Springfield, 1910. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II, Governors' Letter-Books, 
1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 p. Svo. 
Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George Rogers Clark Papers, 
1771-1781. Edited with Introduction and Notes by James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 p. Svo. 
Springfield, 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II, Travel and Description, 
1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck, 514 p. Svo. Springfield, 1914. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. 1, No. 1, September, 1905. Illinois in the 
Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, University of Illinois. 38 p. Svo. Springfield, 
1905. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2, June 1, 1906. Laws of the Territory 
of Illinois, 1S09-1811. Edited by Clarence W. Alvord, University of Illinois. 34 p. Svo. Springfield, 
1906. 

♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1 , November, 1905. An Outline for the Study 
of Illinois State History. Compiledby Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 p. Svo. Spring- 
field, 1905. 

Publication No. 18. List of the Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical Library. Georgia 
L. Osborne, Compiler. Svo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908 to Vol. 7, No. 4, January, 
1915. 

Journals out print, Vols. I, II, III, IV. ' 

* Out of print.