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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions"

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GENEALOGY. 
977.3 
jILSP 
1916 



Publication Number Twenty-two 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



Transactions 



OK THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1916 



Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 
Illinois, May 11-12, 1916 



Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 



[Primed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 



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Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co., State Printers 

19 17 

P5000— 3M 



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CONTENTS. 

Officers of the Society 

Editorial Note 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 

Local Historical Societies 

PART I— RECORD OF OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS, ANNUAL MEETING, 

1916. 

17 
Annual Meeting 

21 
Business Meeting 

PART II.— PAPERS READ AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

Hon. Fred J. Kern. The First Two Counties of Illinois and their 

People ^^ 

N. H. Debel. The Veto Power of the Governor of Illinois 43 

Ralph Linton. The Indian History of Illinois 51 

Joseph J. Thompson. Oddities in Early Illinois Laws 58 

Rev. Ira W. Allen. Early Presbyterianism in East Central Illinois 71 

William J. Onahan. Random Recollections of Sixty Years in Chicago. . 79 

Orlando W. Aldrich. Slavery and Involuntary Servitude in Illinois 89 

Mabel E. Fletcher. Old Settlers' Tales 100 



PART III.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATE HISTORY. 
John F. Steward. The Fox River of Illinois (River of the Bos. Bison, or. 



as we name it, the Buffalo. 



107 
.117 



Index 

List of Publications Illinois State Historical Library and Society 135 



ice«> 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Honorary President. 
Hon. Clakk E. Cark Galesburg 

President. 
Dk. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
EicHAED Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
Geoege a. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directoi'S. 

Edmund J. James, President, University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President, Illinois College. .. .Jacksonville 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State JSTornial University 

Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

EiCHARD V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years^ this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matteir 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds 
of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking 
that this Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this 
publication the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such correctrons of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



AETICLE I— NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section 1. The name of this Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and stimu- 
late a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage historical 
research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect and 
preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of Illinois 
and its peoples. 

AETICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIE ELEC- 
TION AND DUTIES. 

Section 1. The management of the affairs of this Society shall be 
vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which board the President of the 
Society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice Presidents, not 
less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meetings. 
The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, shall 
elect its own presiding officer, a Secretary and Treasurer, and shall have 
power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and committees 
as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently to 
promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and to this 
end they shall have power : 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 
State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions 
as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may 
secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest as 
may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 



(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,'" approved May 25, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889 ; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt by-laws 
not inconsistent with this Constitution for the management of the affairs 
of the Society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the Society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaining meml^ers, the persons so elected to continue in office 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice President 
shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President pro tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving upon 
such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed by 
the Society or the board of directors. The Treasurer shall keep a strict 
account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from the 
treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit an 
annual report of the finances of the Society and such other matters as 
may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within such 
time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and after auditing 
the same the said board shall submit said report to the Society at its 
annual meeting. 

ARTICLE III— MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary, 

Sec, 2, Any person may become an active member of this Societv 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member Avith all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation of 
the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of the 
board of directors, be admitted as affiliated members of this Society upon 



10 

the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues as 
active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be entitled to 
one duly credited representative at each meeting of the Society, who shall, 
during the period of his appointment, be entitled as such representative 
to all the privileges of an active member except that of being elected to 
office; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative becoming an 
active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this Society, may, upon recommendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the Society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 

AETICLE IV— MEETINGS AND QUOEUM. 

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the board 
of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the President or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE V— AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. The constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the Secretary to 
all the members of the Society. 



11 



AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE 
GENERAL PUBLIC. 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTIO>^ DESIRED BY TPIE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

(Members please read this circular letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West; works on Indian tribes, 
and American arclu"eology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, cooperative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to the great rebellion, and 
the wars with the Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps 
and charts; engravings; photographs; autographs; coins; antiquities; 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical works. Especially do we 
desire 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; materials for Illinois history ; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and public 
men of every county, either living or deceased, together with their por- 
traits and autographs; a sketch of the settlements of every township, 
village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first settlers. 
We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade ; maps of cities and plats 
of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; rail- 
road reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 
ents, and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and papers 
of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 



13 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures; earliei' Governor's messages and reports of 
State officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspaj)ers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illinois 
history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements ; also, stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 
Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



13 



COUNTY AND LOCAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES IN ILLINOIS. 



Ada7ns County. — Quincy Historical Society, Quincy, Illinois. 

President J. W. Emery 

First Vice President Horace S. Brown 

Second Vice President Henry Bornmann 

Recording Secretary Miss Carrie Somerville 

Corresponding Secretary Miss Mary Bull 

Treasurer Mrs. C. J. Parker 

Librarian Mr. Wm. H. Gay 

Historographer E. F. Bradford 

Boone County Historical Society, Belvidere, Illinois. 

President Jackson G. Lucas 

Secretary Richard V. Carpenter 

Bureau County Historical Society, Princeton. Illinois. 

President Edwin B. Gushing, Tiskilwa, 111. 

Vice President C. C. Perrier, Sheffield, 111. 

Recording Secretary P. E. Anderson, Princeton, 111. 

Corresponding Secretary Miss Fannie Moseley 

Assistant Corresponding Secretary H. C. Roberts, Princeton, 111. 

Champaign County Historical Society, Champaign, Illinois. 

President J. 0. Cunningham 

Secretary E. B. Greene 

Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois. 

President Clarence A. Burley, 79 West Monroe Street 

Vice President George Merry weather, 606 Strauss Building 

Vice President Otto L. Schmidt. 120.5 First National Bank Building 

Secretary Seymour Morris, 112 West Adams Street 

Treasurer Orson Smith, 112 West Adams Street 

Librarian Miss Caroline Mcllvaine, 632 North Dearborn Street 

Elgin Scientific Club. 
W. H. Brydges, Elgin, 111. 

Evanston Historical Society, Evanston, Illinois. 

President J. Seymour Currey 

Vice President Frank R. Grover 

Secretary William C. Levere 

Chreene County Historical Society, Carrollton, Illinois. 
No officers reported. 

Jersey County Historical Society. Jerseyville, Illinois. 

President Mr. O. B. Hamilton 

Secretary John W. Vinson 

Joseph W. Becker 

Johnson County Historical Society. Vienna, Illinois. 

President Wm. M. Grissom, Jr. 

Secretary J. C. B. Heaton 



14 

Kankakee County Historical Society, Kankakee, Illinois. 

President Dr. B. F. Uran 

Vice President Mrs. W. F. Kenaga 

Secretary Mrs. 0. B. Spencer 

Treasurer Mrs. M. S. Leavitt 

Kendall County. — The Meramech Historical Society, Piano, Illinois. 

President George McCormock 

Secretary and Treasurer George S. Faxon 

Knox County Historical Society, Galesburg, Illinois. 

President Clark E. Carr 

Secretary Mrs. Charles A. Webster 

LaSalle County Historical Society, Ottaioa, Illinois. 

President Marshall N. Armstrong 

Secretary C. C. Glover 

Manlius, Rutland Totonship Historical Society, Marseilles, Illinois. 
Auxiliary to the LaSalle County Historical Society. 

President Terry Simmons, Marseilles, 111. 

Secretary-Treasurer Frank T. Neff 

Logan County Historical Society, Lincoln, Illinois. 
No officers reported. 

Macon County Historical Society, Decatur, Illinois. 

President John H. Culver 

Vice President Luther F. Martin 

Secretary John F. Wicks 

Treasurer Letha B. Patterson 

Macoupin County Historical Society, Carlinville, Illinois. 

President C. A. Walker 

Secretary George Jordon 

McDonough County Historical Society, Macomh, Illinois. 
No officers reported. 

McLean County Historical Society, Bloomington, Illinois. 

President George P. Davis 

Secretary J. H. Burnham 

Madison County Historical Society, Alton, Illinois. 

President E. P. Wade 

Secretary Miss Julia Buckmaster 

Meramech Club. 
Listed under Kendall County. 

' Morgan County Historical Society, Jacksonville, Illinois. 

President Dr. C. B. Black 

Secretary F. J. Heinl 

Montgomery County. 
A. T. Strange, Hillsboro, 111. 

Ogle County. — Polo Historical Society, Polo, Illinois. 
J. W. Clinton, Polo, 111. 

Peoria Historical Society, Peoria, Illinois. 

President Edw. McCullough 

Secretary Helen M. Wilson 



15 

Piatt County Historical Society. 
No organization. 

Pike County Historical Society, Pittsfield, Illinois. 

Fort Chart7-cs Association, Prairie Du Rocher, Killian Coerver, Pres. 

Rock Island County Historical Society, Rock Island, Illinois. 

President Sherman W. Searle, Rock Island 

Vice President Judson D. Metziier, Moline 

Secretary Jolin H. Hauberg, Rock Island 

Treasurer Mrs. K. T. Anderson, Rock Island 

St. Clair County Historical Society, Belleville, Illinois. 

President J. Nick Perrin 

Vice President E. A. Woelk 

Secretary E. AV. Plegge 

Treasurer W. A. Hough 

Whiteside County Historical Society, Sterling, Illinois. 
Secretary W. W. Davis 

Will County Pioneer Association, Joliet, Illinois. 
No officers reported. 

Woodford County Historical Society, Eureka, Illinois. 

President L. J. Freese, Eureka, 111. 

Secretary Miss Amanda Jennings, Eureka, 111. 

Treasurer W. H. Smith, Eureka 

Custodian Amos Marshall 

Tazewell County Historical Society. 

President W. L. Prettyman, Pekin, 111. 

Vice President Mrs. J. T. Foster, Washington, 111. 

Treasurer Levi Mosiman, Morton, 111. 

Secretary Mrs. W. R. Curran, Pekin, 111. 



PART I 

Record of Official Proceedings 
1916 



-2 H S 



19 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. MAY 11-12, 1916. 



The Historical Society convened in annual session, in the Senate 
Chamber in the Capitol Building. 

The business meeting was held Frida_y morning, May 12. The 
President of the Society, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, presided at all sessions. 

At the close of the evening meeting, after the presentation of the 
annual address by Mr. Kern, a resolution of thanks to the Governor and 
Mrs. Dunne, to the speakers at the meeting and others who had con- 
tributed to its success was otfered by Professor J. A. James. The reso- 
lution was adopted by a rising vote. 

Professor James, in offering the resolution, said : Mr. President, 
because of the success of the seventeenth annual program of this Society, 
I wish to move a vote of thanks to those who have contributed thereto — 
especially to the Hon. Pred J. Kern, of Belleville ; 0. W. Aldrich, of 
Columbus, Ohio ; the Rev. W. A. Provine, of Nashville, Xenn. ; the Eev. 
Ira W. Allen, of Paris, 111.; W. J. Onahan, of Chicago; Miss Mabel 
Fletcher, of Decatur; notably also to Mrs. Dunne and the ladies assisting 
her in the most enjoyable reception, and to the ladies and gentlemen who 
have added to our pleasure by the fine musical numbers. 

The program as printed was carried out. It is as follows : 

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OP THE ILLINOIS STATE HIS- 
TORICAL SOCIEY. 

Thursday and Friday, May 11-12, 1916. 
Senate Chamber, Illinois State Capitol Building, Springfield. 

The Public Cordially Invited to Attend All Sessions. 

Order of Exercises. 
Senate Chamber. 

Thursday Morning, May 11, 10:00 o'Clock. 

Mr. N. H. Debel The Veto Power of the Governor of Illinois 

University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Mr. Ralph Linton The Indian History of Illinois 

University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Mr. Joseph J. Thompson Oddities in Early Illinois Laws 

Chicago, 111. 

Thursday Afternoon, 2:30 o'Clock. 

Rev. W. A. Provine Jacques Thimete DeMombreun 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Rev. Ira W. Allen Early Presbyterianism in East Central Illinois 

Paris, 111. 



20 

Thursday Evening, 8:00 <)"Ci>ock. 
Reception — Governor and Mrs. Edward F. Dunne will receive the Historical 

Society at the Executive Mansion. 
Mr. W. J. Onahan Random Recollections of Sixty Years in Chicago 

Chicago, 111. 

OUUEB OF EXEBCISES. 

Meeting of Directors in Office of Secretary at 9:00 o'Clock. 
Senate Chamber. 

FiUDAY MoKNiNG, May 12, 10:00 o'clock. 
Business Meeting of the Society, Senate Chamber, 10:00 o'Clock. 
Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
Election of Officers. 

Professor J. A. James 

Xoithwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

The Work of the Illinois Park Commission and the Preservation of 
Historical Sites. 

FiuDAY Afternoon, 2:30 o'Clock. 
Mr. O. W. Aldrich Slavery and Involuntary Servitude in Illinois 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Miss Mabel E. Fletcher Old Settlers' Tales 

High School, Decatur, 111. 

Friday Evening, 8:00 o'Clock. 

Hon. Fred J. Kern, Annual Address 

Belleville, 111. 

The First Two Counties of Illinois and Their People. 



21 



BUSINESS MEETING, MAY 12, 1916. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was called to order at 10 o'clock Friday, May 13, 1916, by the iPresident, 
Doctor Otto L. Schmidt. The reading of the previous years minutes 
Avas dispensed with. 

Doctor Schmidt then introduced Mrs. George A. Lawrence, of 
Galesburg, 111., who has been very active in the work of planning and 
procuring a State flag not alone in the legislation but also in the 
planning of the flag itself as well as in the making of it. 

Mrs. Lawrence then signified her desire to present to the Illinois 
State Historical Society a silk flag, banner or insignia of the State. 
She explained that she was unable to bring the flag with her but that 
there were a number of people present at the meeting who had seen it 
and could testify as to the feasibility of its acceptance. Some four 
years ago she stated she had felt the necessity very strongly of a flag or 
banner for the State of Illinois. At the time in question Mrs. Lawrence 
was Illinois State Eegent of the Daughters of the American Eevolution 
and had felt the need in Congress in Washington and at other large 
committee meetings of a banner to designate the people of Illinois. She 
took the matter up with the Daughters of the American Eevolution of 
the State and had the support of about 5,000 members. Then steps 
were taken to introduce a bill in the Senate and House for the adoption 
of the flag and the Daughters of the State were greatly indebted to Mr. 
Eaymond B. Meeker of the Twenty-fourth Senatorial District of the 
State, who introduced a bill in the Senate for that purpose. 

This bill after passage in the Senate was sent to the House of Eep- 
resentatives and was in charge of the Hon. Thomas Gorman. It is now 
a law of the State and we are authorized to reproduce in black or in 
the national colors upon a white sheet or background for use as a State 
banner the great seal of the State of Illinois and it is available to our 
use as an organization and as a distinctly State flag. 

In Februar}^ 1916, Mrs. Lawrence secured from the Secretary of 
State, Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson, Jr., for use the emblem of this great 
State, the seal of Illinois, and ordered several flags of white silk 3 by 5 
feet in size. They have gold fringe and the emblem in the national 
colors is shown on this white backgTOund and the flag itself is very 
attractive. One was presented at the State Conference of the Daughters 
of the American Eevolution at Ottawa in March, 1916, another given 
to the Secretary of State, Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson and another to 
Memorial Continental Hall, Daughters of the American Eevolution, at 
Washington, D. C, where it hangs with the forty other state flags. The 
fourth flag is the one which Mrs. Lawrence expressed a desire to present 
to the Illinois State Historical Society. 



22 

Colonel Clark E. Cair made a few remarks and spoke of the public 
spirit and generosity of Mrs. Lawrence and expressed his pleasure at her 
wish to present to the Historical Society this beautiful tiag. He also 
expressed his pleasure at the fact that Mr. Lawrence was a vice president 
of the Society. He also was glad that there is an Illinois flag. 

While yet speaking, Colonel Carr said he wanted to thank the 
Society of which he had been president for so many years and to express 
his gratitude for the way he had been treated. Ho also spoke of his 
high regard for the president of the Society, Doctor Schmidt, and 
dwelt on the capable manner in which the affairs of the Society were 
conducted. 

Mrs. Weber said she wanted to state that she had had the pleasure 
of seeing the flag at Ottawa and that it was very effective and very 
beautiful. That the Daughters of the American Kevolution were very 
enthusiastic about it and felt that they should have one in Washington 
and were very proud of its appearance and that she was sure that the 
members of the Illinois State Historical Society would be pleased, 
indeed, to receive this generous gift. 

Doctor Schmidt stated that the matter of the adoption of this flag 
was a matter of such great labor and that the development of the flag 
and the presentation of it to the Historical Society a matter of such 
moment and value that he thought it required more. He suggested 
somebody, possibly Professor James, to make a motion of thanks to 
Mrs. Lawrence. 

Professor James said he had watited to make such a motion but 
thought perhaps that the Society might have another order of business. 
He then moved that the Society tender to the donor of the flag, Mrs. 
Lawrence, their high appreciation of the thought back of it in recogniz- 
ing the need of such an emblem. The motion was seconded by Mr. H. 
W. Clendenin. 

The next order of business was the reading of reports. Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer Weber, Secretary of the Historical Society then gave her report. 
The Chairman asked what should be done with the report and it was 
moved by Doctor Greene that it be placed on file. Motion seconded and 
carried. Mrs. Weber then gave her rcjiort as Treasurer of the Society. 
The Chairman asked what should bo done with this report and it was 
moved by Mrs. T. G. Miller that it be adopted. Seconded ami carried. 

Mr. Clendenin spoke of the death of Mr. J. l\IcCan Davis, a member 
of the Historical Society and suggested that the Secretary be requested 
to call on the widow of Mr. Davis and express to her the condolences 
of the Society and its desire to assist her in every way. 

Doctor Schmidt put the motion to the Society that the condolences 
of the Society he given to the family of Mr. Davis and that resolutions 
on the death of Mr. Davis ho drawn u]i. Tbo motion was socondod and 
carried. 

Doctor Schmidt sjmke of the rojiort of Afrs. Weber aiid stated that 
the work of the Society had been so thoroughly covered in it that there 
was little for him to say outside of the fact that the work of the Society 
is done essentially l)y Mrs. Weber and not by the President. The work 
of tho President follows largely in assisting committees, such as the 



Building Committee. He stated that he thought it was the Historical 
Society that years ago offered the idea of a historical building for the 
purposes of the Society as the Society would never come into its own 
nor accomplish its work until it had a building of this kind, for its 
library and various departments. The project, however, was too large 
for the Society as an organization and necessarily through the various 
lapses passed into the hands of committees; the Buildino- Committee, 
the State Art Commission, the Centennial Commission. Valuable pro- 
gress has been made and finally a committee was appointed for the pur- 
pose of buying land. About three or five years ago plans were made for 
a building. It was suggested that an apartment building be purchased 
and transformed into a home for the Society and other departments of 
the State. That would have been waste of money, etc. Throu2fh the 
energetic action of Mr. Martin Eoche, the famous architect of Chicago, 
and a member of the Art Commission, the plan of the building was for 
sometime dropped and more land sought. His plan was a great plan for 
the future of Springfield. It was not alone the State building but the 
beautification of the entire citv, the removal of the Chicago & Alton 
Eailroad viaduct and all such things ; the purchase of the land south and 
west. The eventual disappearance of this building, of course, not within 
a short time but within 20 or 30 years. This plan was somewhat too 
ambitious but finally the plan was to purchase the land south. The last 
Legislature a year ago voted $125,000 for the purpose of purchasing this 
property provided that the citv would raise $100,000. This agreement 
was made after considerable discussion because $100,000 seemed a very 
large sum. Dr. Schmidt stated, however that he had noticed by the 
morning papers that $93,000 of this sum had been raised and there 
remained but the sum of $7,000* yet to raise. At the next session of the 
Society will come up undoubtedly the matter of the building of this 
building. This building, of course, will be associated with the centennial. 
Here, of course, comes in the Centennial Building Committee with Mr. 
Waller at its head. This is the first meeting where positive progress 
towards the final obtainment of the wish of the Society could be definitely 
stated. Dr. Schmidt said that he thought that at the next meeting of 
the Society progress on the building proposition could be reported as he 
understood that the Governor had intimated that the Historical Society 
would be the first to be taken care of. He also spoke of his part in the 
work of the previous Centennial Commission which was instituted by 
resolution introduced by Senator Campbell S. Hearn, of Quincy, who, 
it is a matter of great regret, departed a year and a half ago but who 
nevertheless saw the fulfillment of his wish in the direction of a com- 
mission for the accomplishment of the work and the assurance of the 
permanent carrying out of his plans. Senator Hearn was succeeded by 
Senator Magill as president of the commission. At the last regular ses- 
sion another commission was appointed and was declared illegal in the 
summer of 1915. A second commission was appointed at the special ses- 
sion in the Fall. This bill was not signed by the Governor on account of 
certain irregularities which would also have been illegal and declared 
void and would have been associated with further expense and loss of 

* The entire sum of $100,000 was raised by the citizens orSprinjifield. 



24 

time. So at the second special session held early this year another bill 
was passed and on this commission tliere were to be no legislators of the 
State consequently it was necessary for the Governor to appoint private 
citizens. Dr. Schmidt then spoke of the personnel of the present Cen- 
tennial Commission and said he thought that the Governor had been 
very fortunate in securing such an active and able commission. He 
stated that tlie Historical Society had been honored by the Governor in 
the selection of three of its members, Mrs. Weljcr, Doctor Greene and 
himself, and assures the Historical Society its representation in its work, 
etc., in the final celebration of the Centennial. Senator Magill is the 
chairman of the celebration in Springfield, that is at the Capitol. Dr. 
Edward Bowe, of Jacksonville, is also a member. Of the State-wide 
Celebration Rev. Royal W. Einiis, of TTillsboro, is chairman ; of the 
Publicity Committee Rev. Frederick Siodenburg, of Chicago, is chair- 
man. Excellent progress has been made and in a few weeks all the 
county officials from judges to clerks will be notified and requested to 
begin their work of appointing committees, etc. Dr. Schmidt spoke of 
how fortunate it was that Senator Hcarn started this work a few years 
ago and spoke of the efforts of tlie Indiana Centennial Commission, they 
organized last summer with only a small amount of money and have 
had great difficulty in elaborating plans to celebrate this year. Some 
of their celebrations have already begiin. 

He then told of the historical monuments to be placed on the Capitol 
grounds. This matter is also in the hands of the Centennial Commis- 
sion, although tlie State Art Commission has the planning of the monu- 
ments — one of which is to Lincoln, the other to Douglas. He spoke very 
highly of the Art Commission and its pei'sonnel and spoke of the interest 
expressed by all and especially by Senator IMagill in securing a sculptor 
to do this work, especially for the Lincoln statue which is to be placed at 
the main approach. to the building. The model of this monument in plas- 
ter can be seen in the workshop of the sculptor, Mr. O'Connor, and it is 
said to be of exceptional beauty. Senator Magill has a photograph of 
Lincoln. It represents Lincoln leaving Springfield and according to this 
photograph the monument certainly surpasses any monument at present 
extant — better even than the St. Gaudin's. This monument is to be 
unveiled during the Centennial year. 

The Douglas monument was in the hands of the late C. J. Mulligan, 
who passed away four months ago and the final completion of this work 
has nofe yet been decided upon.* 

Doctor Schmidt called attention to the fact that while as President 
of the Historical Society he was not very busy in the Society except at 
the meetings, he has been in Springfield on an average of every two 
weeks during the course of the year. He requested a report from Pro- 
fessor Greene. President of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State 
Historical Library, asking that he give a short resume of the work of this 
board also a few remarks as to the Publication Committee of tlie Illinois 
State Centennial of whicli Professor Greene is chairman. 

Professor Greene slated that he had not projiared any fornuil rejiort 
but that he would be very glad to state briefly the work of the Library 

• Gilbert P. Riswold sculptor of Chicnuo, has bcoii soloctoil for iho I)oiii,'liis slnlin'. 



25 

Board during the past year especially the work on the publications 
issued by the board. During the last year and a half, Dr. Greene, said, 
there has been issued three rather notable volumes of the Historical Col- 
lections. This is the first volume of its kind ever gotten out by any State 
of the Union up to this time. That is the report of the archives of the 
State prepared by Professor Pease. This is the result of a special appro- 
priation made by the Legislature to the Library Board about four years 
ago. Three men were sent out at different times up and down the State 
to look into the condition of the various county buildings and how kept 
and to bring all these things together in a report. In a single volume, 
therefore, is to. be found a brief account of the more important classes 
of papers and books to be found in any particular building. Mr. Pease 
received very helpful advice from the county clerks in the State. The 
volume will do a great deal of practical service in bringing up. the stand- 
ard of the keeping of these county records. Doctor Greene stated he 
hoped that the members of the Historical Society in general would pro- 
vide themselves with a copy of this volume and interest themselves in 
the records of the counties in which they live. A great deal can be done 
in improving the character of the records and how they are kept. 

Two other volumes have been published in which have been brought 
together the material available not only in Illinois, not only in the 
United States but in Paris and London during the British occupancy 
until the coming of George Eogers Clark in 1778. 

The board has in view the jiublishing of volumes in the near future 
which will include a continuation of the work of Professor James' work 
on Illinois in the Bevolution and a continuation of other volumes which 
when completed will bring together practically all that can be learned 
of the condition of Illinois during that period of history. The Library 
Board is also considering rather seriously as the special contribution of 
the Library to the Centennial a volume of Statehood documents. This, 
however, has not been definitely decided upon. 

Doctor Greene spoke of the work of the Centennial Commission and 
stated that the commission acting through the Publication Committee 
has made arrangements for the publication of tAVo things. First, a 
volume which it is hoped to have issued during the year 1916 containing 
material descriptive of Illinois as it was in 1818. This is expected to 
be an advance volume preparing for the Centennial Celebration. There 
is also in hand a centennial history in five volumes from the Indian 
archaeology of the State down to the present time. These are all under 
the general editorship of Professor C. W. Alvord and under contracts 
which call for the completion of the work during the centennial year. 
This centennial history is going to be made as accurate as possible but 
also to make it the sort of book that people would like to read. 

Doctor Schmidt, the chairman of the Society, then called for the 
report of the Genealogical Committee, which was read by Miss Georgia 
L. Osborne. 

This report was received and placed on file. 

Doctor Schmidt then called on Miss Lotte E. Jones, of Danville, to 
make a few remarks on a piece of work in which she has been actively 
engaged, namely the Lincoln Circuit. 



26 

Miss Jones said that about a year ago the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution of the counties between Danville and Springfield — Ver- 
milion, Champaign, Macon and Sangamon — organized for the purpose of 
marking the routes of Lincoln from one county seat to another in the 
active pursuit of his work during the years immediately preceding his 
life as president. In Greene County there was no D. A. R. It seemed 
that it would be necessary to go out of the organization for help, but 
the matter has been attended to and the route is to be marked which 
Lincoln, the man, traveled in his actual daily work. Miss Jones stated 
that the D. A. }i. were led to do this through Judge Cunningham, who 
was the last one of his group that traveled from one county to an- 
other, and it was found that there were fifteen counties. These coun- 
ties have the same right to be marked as from Danville to Springfield. 
So there^will be fifteen counties to cover and it will be the ambi- 
tion and desire of the D. A. R. to secure the moral support of the 
Centennial Commission and to accomplish this marking of the Lincoln 
Circuit as a part of the centennial work. It is expected to have this 
circuit marked by 1918. It would be the plan to have large committees 
of women in each county. Fifteen or twenty designs were submitted, but 
it was finally decided to have simply a dull stone stating that this was 
the old Lincoln route. There are difficulties in the way of getting the 
proper kind. 

Doctor Schmidt asked if there were any further reports of com- 
mittees. 

Mr. Ensley Moore of Jacksonville made a suggestion to the effect 
that the Secretary be authorized to cast tlie ballot for the officers at 
present incumbent. 

Doctor Schmidt stated that he thought the motion was out of order, 
that the election of officers was the last order of business to be performed. 

Doctor Schmidt then announced that Professor J. A. James had 
consented to give his paper at the afternoon session as Professor Carl 
Fish, one of the speakers was unable to come. He then asked if there 
were any other historical reports. 

Mrs. Weber read a letter from the Jersey County Historical Society. 

Mr. George W. Smith gave a brief talk on the activities of the 
Jackson County Historical Society. He said that they had started out 
with the idea of getting up a centennial celebration and felt that the 
people quickest to interest would be the school teachers. That they 
expected to interest a large number of people in the Jackson County 
celebration ; that they had organized the Jackson County Historical 
Society with a small membership and that they hope to have the coopera- 
tion of the couTity board for expenses, room, etc., and that they were 
beginning at this time a work that should have been done ten or fiftetMi 
years ago. Mrs. P. T. Chapman, of Vienna, has put up three monu- 
ments on the trail of George Rogers Clark running through Jackson 
County; one on Indian Point, one directly due west of the town of 
Vienna and on the gap of the Ozark Ridge. He said he had asked 
Representative Chiipiuiiii if he could not secure an appropriation of 
sonu' nion(y when a member of Congress for the ])urpose of olVieially 
declaring the route that George Rogers Clark took from Fort Massac to 



27 

Kaskaskia and from Kaskaskia to Vineennes and have it marked. Mr. 
Chapman said that there were so many demands that he was afraid he 
oonld not do it. ]\Ir. Smith thought that steps should be taken to get 
Congress or the State Legislature to make an appropriation for a survey 
of the route to be done officially. Mr. Smith told of a letter he had 
received from Mr. Eeuben Gold Thwaites with regard to this trail. 

Captain J. H. Burnham, of Bloomington, told of the activities of 
the McLean County Historical Society. He said that they had head- 
quarters in the court house, but as that building was becoming crowded, 
the Society were now looking around for a building of their own which 
they hoped to have by 1922, the one hundredth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of the county. 

Doctor Schmidt suggested that it would be a good idea to appoint a 
committee to keep alive the matter of the George Eogers Clark trail. 

Professor J. A. James said that he was glad that Mr. Smith brought 
this matter to the attention of the Society. He said that the question 
had been asked him as to the trail of Clark to Kaskaskia, as the Sons of 
the American Revolution of Chicago want to make a trip from Kaskaskia 
to Vineennes and that he had had to tell them that he did not know. He 
believed that the means to officially place it could be obtained and that 
the matter should not be let go longer. That it was a good piece of work 
to do and that now was the time to do it. That this State is not alone 
interested in it but that the states surrounding Illinois also had an 
interest in it. Professor James then made a motion that such a com- 
mittee be appointed to be composed of three or five members. Doctor 
Greene seconded the motion. Carried. 

Mrs. "Weber then read a communication to the Governor from Mr. 
Dowdall relative to the heirs of Shabbona, the white man's friend, on 
which the Governor wished some action taken. 

Doctor Schmidt asked what should be done in regard to this letter. 

Doctor Eammelkamp moved that the matter be placed in the hands 
of the President and Secretary of the Historical Society for action. 
Motion seconded by Mr. Andrew Eussel. Carried. That the matter 
was to be placed in the hands of the President and Secretary and that a 
report should be made to the next nieeting of the directors. Carried. 

Doctor Schmidt then told of having received a communication from 
a bonding house with reference to the log hut in which Lincoln lived. 
That from 1832 to 1838 he was said to have lived in the house of 
Bowling Green and there he studied law. After the death of Ann 
Eutledge he was greatly depressed and Mr. Green interested him in the 
study of law and thus performed a great service for the country. This 
hut was later taken to the Chautauqua grounds near Petersburg where it 
was seen for a number of years and finally allowed to fall into decay. 
Doctor Schmidt showed pictures of the hut and read affidavits in regard 
to it. He also spoke of the prices asked for it and pointed out how little 
of the original building still remained. 

Captain Burnham called attention to the newspaper account that 
he had recently seen in this connection and said that the Chautauqua 
Association was about to go into bankruptcy for $10,000. That this 
building is on ground worth four or five thousand dollars. He said that 



28 

he understood that ]\Ir. Williain Randolph Hearst of Xew York gave 
the Chautauqua Association tlie option of making certain improvements 
and that the Society has been unable to carry out these conditions and 
are much embarrassed. 

Doctor Schmidt said that of course the Society could not do any- 
thing. That a Jew weeks ago he had intended going down there simply 
to look over the remnants of the old hut. 

Doctor L'anniielkanip agreed with Captain Burnham that the matter 
ought to be looked into carefully. He wondered if it could not be accu- 
rately determined by persons who had experience in this line if a log 
that had been cut down and exposed for a matter of eighty-two years 
or more would still l)o in existence. How long it would take for it to 
return to the soil. 

i\rr. Clinton of Polo suggested that Rev. John A. I/^mmon who 
was present at the meeting was familiar with the Chautauqua affairs 
and might be helpful in deciding what the Society should do. 

Eev. Mr. Lemmon said he was a product of Sangamon County. 
He said he had attended the Old Salem Chautauqua about sixteen years 
and liad seen the cabin in its normal condition. He was present when 
Mr. Hearst made the deed over to the Chautauqua Association. What 
Captain Burnham had said about the conditions there was practically 
official. 

Doctor Schmidt said if there was no further business to place 
before the Society the motion of Mr. Ensley Moore would then be in 
order. 

Mr. Moore made a motion that the Secretary be authorized to cast 
ihe vote of th.e Society for the reelection of the present officers. 

Mrs. Miller seconded the motion. Carried. 

Mrs. Weber as Secretary of the Society cast the vote that all present 
officers be reelected. 

Adjournment. 



29 



DIRECTORS' MEETING. 



The Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met 
in tlie office of the Secretary, May 13, 1916. 

There were present: 

The Chairman, Doctor Otto L. Schmidt who presided and Messrs. 
Eussel, Greene, Burnham, Smith, Clinton, Eamnielkamp, J. A. James 
and the Secretary, Mrs. Weber. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The annual report of the Secretary of the Society was read, received 
and approved, and the Secretary was directed to read it to the Society in 
its business meeting. 

A letter from Judge J. 0. Cunningham, a director of the Society, 
was read by the Secretary in which Judge Cunningham expressed regret 
that he was unable to be present at this meeting. 

The Secretary was directed to send a letter of acknoAvledgment to 
Judge Cunningham conveying good wishes of the directors. 

The report of the Treasurer was read and approved and it was 
directed that it be read to the Society in the business meeting. 

Mr. Clinton moved that the Secretary send out a questionaire, ask- 
ing members to make suggestions as to what changes or improvements 
in their opinion would l)e beneficial to the Historical Society. This 
motion was amended by Captain Burnham who suggested that the matter 
be referred to the President and the Secretary of the Society. The 
amendment was accepted and the motion was carried. Captain Burnham 
spoke of a plan to hold directors' meetings at a time separate from the 
annual meeting in order that more time be available for the directors 
to consider the business of the Society. 

After some discussion Captain Burnham moved that a committee 
of five of which the President of the Society be Chairman and the Secre- 
tary be a member, be appointed by the Chairman, this committee to meet 
within six months from this time, at the call of the Chairman. This 
motion was seconded by Mr. George "W. Smith and was carried. 

The President reported that members of the Society had been 
invited by the National Bureau of Historical Portraiture and other 
firms of photographers to have photographs taken to be placed on file 
in the Library, this to be without expense to the Society or its members, 
the photographers expecting to make their profit from the additional 
photographs ordered by individuals after the negatives are made. 

Professor Greene moved that it is the opinion of the Board of 
Directors that the Historical Society take no action with regard to the 
matter of photographs as presented. This motion was seconded and 
was carried. 



30 

It was moved that the committee appointed at the annual meeting of 
1915 to consider the subject of the articles of incorporation of the 
Society, the necessity of their amendment, etc., be continued and that 
it be asked to report to the next meeting of the Board of Directors. This 
motion was seconded and carried. 

^Ir. Clendenin spoke of tlie death of ^Ir. J. MeCan Davis, long a 
member of the Historical Society and formerly its secretary, ^fr. Clen- 
denin was asked to prepare a suitable memorial to Mr. Davis to be 
presented to the Society and published in its transactions. 

There being no further business presented the Board of Directors 
adjourned. 



31 



REPORT OF GENEALOGICAL COMMITTEE. 



To the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications begs 
to submit the following report: 

The interest in the department continues to grow and we have 
students working daily from all parts of the State and other states in 
the Union. We are trying to secure for our collection the county histories 
of the states which comprised the Northwest Territory, namely Ohio, 
Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin. These with the one hundred and two 
county histories of Illinois are valuable for the biographies of the pio- 
neers of these states, which we cannot find in any other way. We have 
also been searching for a long time around the old dealers and through 
correspondence for county histories of Virginia, Kentucky, North and 
South Carolina and Tennessee, as the central and southern parts of the 
State of Illinois were largely settled by people from these states. We 
have recently learned that Kentucky, while it has one hundred and nine- 
teen counties has only published twenty county histories. Of this num- 
ber we have eight in the library. Of Virginia, we have ten county 
histories out of the one hundred counties; Indiana, eighteen out of the 
one hundred and two counties; Ohio, nine out of the eighty-eight coun- 
ties. While we may be able to secure some late county histories of these 
states, still for genealogical research the older county histories are the 
most valuable. 

We are constantly on the look-out for family histories compiled by 
Illinoisans and have secured by gift the following for our collection : 

The Blin Family — Gift of James W. Hill, of Peoria. 

Blish Family — Gift of James Knox Blish, of Kewanee. 

Fox Family — Gift of William A. Fox, of Chicago. 

Goodwin & Morgan Ancestral Line — Gift of James J. Goodwin, of 
Hartford, Conn, 

Hall Family— Gift of Dr. Omar 0. Hall, Milford, 111. 

Major Family — Gift of James Branch Cabel, Dumbarton, Va. 

Moore Family — Gift of A. A. Moore, Oakland, Calif. 

Plumb Family, Preston B. Plumb— Gift of A. H. Plumb, of Em- 
poria, Kan. 

Lawrence Family, Williams Lawrence — Gift of Miss Cornelia Bar- 
ton Williams, Chicago. 

Paine Family; John Paine and Mary Ann May — Gift of Lyman 
May Paine, Chicago, 111. 

Loomis Family — Gift of Charles J. Loomis, Joliet, 111. 

Shiver Family — Gift of Harry Lawrence Shiver, Topeka, Kan. 



32 

These gifts we also acknowledge in the Journal of the Society. We 
ask the cooperation of the members of the Society in our efforts to secure 
ioT the department these valuable additions in the way of county his- 
tories of other states above mentioned, and will be glad of suggestions 
from you for other genealogical material that will add to the interest 
and usefulness of our collection. 

Respectfully submitted, ' ■ 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman of the Genealogical Committee. 



PART II 



Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 

1916 



— 3 H S 



35 



140999 



THE FIRST TWO COUNTIES OF ILLINOIS AND THEIR 

PEOPLE. 

(Hon. Fred J. Kern.) 

Mr. Kern was introduced to the audience by Dr. Otto L. Schmidt 
the President of the Illinois State Historical Society, and spoke in sub- 
stance and in part as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : "History is only a confused heap of 
facts." — Lord Chesterfield. 

"So very difficult a matter it is to trace and find out the truth of 
anything by history."- — Plutarch. 

"What is history but a fable agreed upon?" — Napoleon Bonaparte. 

"All history is a lie." — -Sir Eobert Walpole. 

The two oldest counties in our State, St. Clair and Randolph, and 
their people, have been assigned to me for discussion to-night. I am a 
native and resident of the former and thoroughly know every square foot 
of its ground and many of its people. I have traveled over Eandolph 
County and once had the honor to represent its people in the Congress 
of the United States. I also know many of them. Some are my intimate 
friends. 

The two counties were the cradle of the history of Illinois. Their 
story reads like a romance and there are people now living who listened 
spell-bound to the recital of the charming traditions and thrilling ad- 
ventures as told by the original settlers and their immediate descend- 
ants. I myself have received and learned much of the history of St. 
Clair County, and our State, not from musty books, but by word of 
mouth, directly from those who helped make it and as it is handed from 
generation to generation, sitting in the semi-circle around the family 
fire-side, at the wayside inn, or at more pretentious and conventional 
social centers. 

These two counties were in the truest sense of the word an integral 
part of the famous melting-pot of our composite American civilization 
which we hear so much about in these days. The phrase that it takes all 
kinds of people to make a world, was never and nowhere more strikingly 
exemplified than in the early history of these counties. 

When Louis Joliet and Father Marquette first landed on the site 
which was destined to become St. Clair County, they not only found the 
friendly Illini Indians inhabiting the hospitable primeval forests, but 
unmistakable foot-prints of vanished races that had left behind them evi- 
dence of industry and sacrifice and activity which challenged admiration 
and respect. 

Almost within the range of a rifle shot of the Cahokia Mission, 
which they founded and established, there rose from the even and un- 
broken flat surface of the river bottom, a stupendous mound, built by 



36 

the liiiiid iiiul l;il)i)i' and skill of man which is a more wonderful relic 
of aiiti(|uity, and frrcator in nia^niitiult' and extent than the largest 
pyramid of ancient E<ryi)t, siiiTouudcil hy a hundred smaller but no less 
wonderful and symmetrical structures, equally curious, suggestive and 
mysterious. 

Across the river where the metropolitan city of St. Louis now 
stands, were similar ])re-historic remains. There could be no doubt of 
the fact that they were on a section of the earth where millions of human 
beings had lived their lives and ])layed their ])art thousands of years 
ago, and where an ancient civilization had flourished. 

All they found in the way of living people was a motley aggregation 
of untutored and superstitious, half-naked, not overly cleanly, brown- 
skinned savages and barbarians, living a nomadic life and roving through 
the trackless forests and camping in rude, illy-kept villages in the woods. 

The vast empires of the past had decayed and been deserted and 
left their melancholy ruins behind them, the only record by which the 
imaginations of the intruders and invaders and adventures could even 
guess and conjecture at their achievements and speculate on their de- 
parted glory. 

Tlie French discoverers founded the Mission of Cahokia in St. Clair 
County and of Kaskaskia in "Randolph County. They laid the foundation 
for a new and greater civilization under a new religion and a new faith 
for the new world. They brought with them the benign teachings of 
the lowly Xazarene and erected sanctuaries in TTis name, with their 
own hands, in the mellow shadow of the spreading boughs of gigantic 
sycamores and oaks and hickories and elms and cotton-woods and wal- 
nuts and pecans, within hearing distance of the murmuring music of the 
eteiiial Father of AVaters. 

Both holy Missions were established on ground located in the low 
bottoms f)f the Mississippi "River. Cahokia, the first ]ierin.anent white 
settlement in Illinois, founded in 1700, still stands a quaint little village 
of several hundred population, nestling in a veritable garden spot of the 
earth and showing unmistakable traces of its remote and early origin and 
historical significance. A frame church building surmounted with a 
plain wooden cross, attracts the attention of the tourist, as does also the 
old cemetery near by. Both serve to awaken mehiories of long ago. 
'i'liey show you in the village of Cahokia the spot Avhere Pontiao, the great 
liulian chief and warrior and oiator and statesman, was foully murdered, 
after having been basely betrayed through British treachery and perfidy. 
They .show you where the courthouse stood when Cahokia was the county 
seat of St. Clair County. They show you where the people used to dance 
and make merry. Many of llu^ direet desiuMidants of the first settlers 
are still there, ami while speaking the English languag(> as fluently and 
as correctly as any of us. they cultivate and retain in addition the ability 
to s|)eak Freiu'h and to read and write that language. The ajicient 
taverns remain in their pristine glory, and are patronized and sustained 
largely by St. Tiouis people, particularly on \]\o first day of the week, 
conimoidy called Suiulay. They ar<> iVoni Missouri and have to be 
shown — often the wav to i^o home. 



37 

The Cahokia common fields remain on the map, and extend in 
narrow parallel strips back to the Bluffs, which at this point form a steep, 
perpendicular, limestone wall, rising into the sky a hundred feet and 
more, from the rich alluvial soil of the fertile lowlands. At Palling 
Springs is a fascinating waterfall, and, on both sides of the cataract, the 
rock-bound Bluffs ai'e perforated with dark and ominous-looking caves, 
penetrating deep into the interior of the earth and leading into dark 
caverns adorned witli stalactites and stalagmites. Such was the back- 
ground and a part of the natural playground of the ancient village of 
Cahokia. 

Kaskaskia was founded only a year later than Cahokia. It was the 
first capital of Illinois, as Cahokia was the first and original county seat 
of St. Clair County. Kaskaskia is situated in Randolph County. Almost 
adjacent to it is Prairie du Eocher, near which Fort Chartres Avas located. 
The city of Kaskaskia was doomed to a sad and tragic fate. In one of 
those fantastic freaks of the Mississippi Eiver, which the great and fame- 
crowned Mark Twain so charmingly and graphically describes in his 
classic book on the Father of Waters, the restless and wayward stream 
sought a new bed and course for itself and the ancient city of Kaskaskia, 
with its wealth of poetic tradition and historic memory obstructed the 
track of the waters and impeded its right of way. The irresistible force 
could not be stemmed, nor by human power or agency diverted back 
into the old or some other and less disastrous channel. Thousands of 
acres of the richest and most desirable land in Illinois were swept into 
innocuous desuetude by this fierce cataclysm and their soil washed into 
the Gulf of Mexico, and old Kaskaskia including the old Statehouse 
with it. 

The Mississippi River joined the Kaskaskia River, further up stream, 
and an island of large area was detached from the mainland on which 
was established the new Mission and village of Kaskaskia, to which the 
refugees of Old Kaskaskia fled, to build new homes, a new church and a 
new schoolhouse for themselves and their children and to begin life 
anew. 

Not a remnant of old Kaskaskia remains. Every house in it and 
every street and the entire area of the city's limits was swallowed up by 
the waters of the raging river. 

New Kaskaskia provides the paradox of being located west of the 
Mississippi River, but still in Illinois. 

The city of Chester is the county seat of Randolph County. It is 
located on the high bluffs of the Mississippi River. It is a beautiful and 
historic city. Two of the State's great public institutions are located 
near that city, viz. : the Southern Illinois Penitentiary, one of the world's 
famous prisons, and also Chester State Hospital, the asylum for the 
criminal insane in Illinois. No city in America has a more picturesque 
location than Chester, no city offers finer scenery or commands a grander 
and more imposing view. 

I was in Chester a few days ago and visited the grave of Shadrach 
Bond, the first Governor of Illinois. It is located in the Chester City 
Cemetery, marked by a beautiful gTanite monument built by the State. 
I also visited the archives at the courthouse and the Randolph County 



38 

Histuiital Musfuni which is located in a .specially built fire-»proof build- 
ing. The historical records are kept in this building. Many of them 
are in the French language. 

I visited the parochial schools at Prairie du Rocher in Randolph 
County some years ago. I saw many colored children attending the 
Roman Catholic parochial .<Jchool on equal terms with the white children 
and without the slightest sign of segregation. They spoke the French 
language as fluently as they sjx)ke the English, just as the negroes, and 
those of native American stock and even the Irish in St. Clair County 
speak German. 

It must not be gathered from the above that the majority of the 
people of Randolph County are of French descent, for they are not. 
There are many native Americans in Randolph County whose ancestors 
came from Virginia and Kentucky, the same sturdy and superior ele- 
ment which joined the French in St. Clair County, and soon outstripped 
and outnumbered them as they themselves were later superseded and 
outnumbered by the efficient, the patient, the plodding, the thoughtful, 
frugal and hard-working Germans. 

There are many Scotch people in some parts of Randolph County, 
just as there are manv Irish and Polish people in the East St. Louis 
end of St. Clair County. 

The city of Belleville is the county seat of St. Clair County. It 
celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of its existence as the county 
seat of the first county in Illinois, two vears ago, with appropriate cere- 
mony and much solemnity. St. Clair County is now the second county 
in the State in point of population and material wealth, ranking next to 
Cook. 

The city of Belleville has played a leading role in the development 
of the history of Illinois. It furnished three of the Governors of the 
State, two of the Lieutenant Governors and two United States Senators, 
and two State Superintendents of Public In-^truction. Governor "NTinian 
Edwards, Governor John Reynolds and Governor Wm. II. Bisjiell were 
from Belleville. So were Wm. Tvinnev and Gustavus Koerner. Lieu- 
tenant Governors; and James Shields and Lyman Trumbull, United 
States Senators: ami James P. Slade niul Henry Raab, State Superin- 
tendents of Public Instruction. 

The remains of Governor John Reynolds are buried in Walnut Hill 
Cemetery in Belleville, where his home still stands in a perfect state of 
preservation, as does that of Governor Xinian Edwards, only a little more 
than one block away from the Reynolds' mansion. John Revmdds was 
not only Governor but also a Supreme Jiisti('(\ a member of the Legisla- 
ture, a Speaker of the House, a member of Congress, a Foreign Diplomat 
and the State's leading historian. He reached the topmost round of the 
ladder of fame in each of the three departments or branches of our State 
Government, vi/., the executive, the legislative and the judicial. Governor 
Ninian Edwards died in Belleville during the cholera epidemic, in work- 
ing to help those who could nol b<'lp tbenis(>lv(>s and who were down with 
the dread disease and in helping to bury the dead. His remains were 
buried in one of the old abandoned eenieleries in Belleville. The very 
location of his grave is lost. 



39 

Governor Wm. H. Bissell died while he was Governor of the State 
and his remains repose near those of the immortal Lincoln, whose in- 
trepid champion and devoted friend and follower he was, in Oak Ridge 
Cemetery in Springfield. 

The statue of Senator Shields adorns a pedestal in the hall of fame 
in the city of Washington. He achieved the distinction of having been 
the only man who ever enjoyed the honor of representing three separate 
and distinct states in the npper house of Congress. 

Lyman Trumbull was stricken with his last and fatal illness while 
delivering an eloquent eulogy at the open grave of his intimate friend and 
former law partner, Gustavus Koerner at Walnut Hill Cemetery in 
Belleville. I was an eye witness to this sad tragedy. Lyman Trumbull 
was the greatest and most illustrious of the United States Senators of the 
Civil War period. He distinguished himself by his activity in the upper 
house of Congress during the Rebellion and during the wildly exciting 
reconstruction days. 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground. 
There silent tents are spread, 
And glory guards with solemn round. 
The bivouac of the dead." 

Strangely conflicting and antagonistic social forces met and clashed 
in the original settlement and development of the counties of Randolph 
and St. Clair, particularly the latter. , 

The original American settlers hailed largely from Kentucky, 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. Most of them were of Cavalier stock. They 
had little in common with the descendants of the Puritans who came 
from Massachusetts and settled mostly in the northern part of the State. 
They were less religiously inclined. They were fond of sports including 
horse-racing, hunting and fishing. They had no use for township 
organization. There were no abolitionists among them. They had no 
scruples against the institution of slavery, either from moral or economic 
considerations, believed that the negroes were born to servitude, pre- 
ferred Douglas to Lincoln, and some of the most conspicuous leaders 
preferred Jeff Davis himself. 

Opposed to them, in their ideals, tendencies and convictions on 
this question, and hated and looked down upon by them, were the stolid 
Germans who came in the thirties, and in the forties and in the fifties, 
particularly after the Revolution of 1848 in Germany, led by Koerner, 
by Hecker, by Hilgard and by Scheel, who in turn received their inspira- 
tion from Schurz and Pretorious. 

The Germans were practically all abolitionists, openly and defiantly 
or at heart. They had left the Fatherland to escape tyranny and oppres- 
sion. They came to America to realize their dreams of liberty and 
equality. 

They could not understand the institution of slavery and despised 
and condemned and denounced it as robl^ery and injustice. They were 
opposed to the economic system of which it was the cornerstone and 
believed human slavery made a lie and a cheat and a fraud out of the 
Declaration of Independence. They were in favor of freeing the slaves, 
everywhere, without condition and without compensation to the owners. 



40 

Many of them were free thinkers. All of the forty-eighters belonged to 
this class and ty])e of men. All of them favored the liberty of man, 
woman and child. 'Ihcy were for ficH? men and equal rights. They voted 
for Abraham Lincoln and rallied around the flag of the Union after the 
first bullet pierced the folds of Old Glory over the sombre walls of Fort 
Sumpter. Then came the matchless Douglas to the front, the peerless 
patriot, loyal and true, and rallied his followers to the standards of the 
Union and to the cause of Lincoln and much of the hatred and the 
old antagonism and the old class consciousness and the old group separ- 
ation and isolation was forever obliterated and effectively wiped out. 
It made us one people, gave us higher and better ideals and a uniform 
purpose in life. The war gave the blacks liberty and the whites economic 
independence and equality of opportunity. The best friends of the 
L'nion and the staunchest and most uncompromising friends of liberty 
had come from a foreign land and were immigrants within the borders of 
our State and country. 

The irreconcilablcs became the southern sympathizers, the copjier- 
lieads, the Knights of the Golden Circle, who secretly or openly aided and 
abetted and sanctioned the rebellion, believing slavery a divine institu- 
tion, involuntary servitude the only thing the niggers were good for 
anyhow, which should be left intact and not abolished, and these men 
denounced Douglas for his loyalty to the Union and hianded him as a 
renegade, a deserter, a turn-coat and an apostate. 

It is well to consider how \'ery little history there is after all. The 
men who ought to have written the story of their experience and covered 
their time, went to their graves without having performed that service. 
That certain men were elected to the offices and tilled out their allotted 
terms and that certain wars came and that certain battles were fought 
and that certain shifts of boundary lines were made is certain. That we 
know. That history tells us about. But it does not tell us nmch more. 
It only furnishes the anatomy and the frame-work to go by, the skeleton 
as it were. The flesh and the blood and the fair skin and the other 
details of the organism which round it out and render it beautiful are 
gone and-lost and can never be re-sup]died. I have sj)oken for the generals 
and for the leaders. 1 wish to ])ay my respects to the humble privates 
now. 1 wish to throw the searcldight on the every-day man, the every- 
day life and the every-day family. I bow in humble reverence to the 
sacred memory of the old settlers of our State and country. They were 
the chosen people of God. They were the salt of the eartli. They were 
all pioneers and frontiersmen. They were bold, brave, adventurous, in- 
tri'i)id people. 1 admire them for their superb wurage. their great 
fortitude, their (Icvotion. their ])atience, lluir endurance and their pluck, 
and I pay them now the tribute of my ^^incere res])ect. They \v<>re not 
afraid to stand alone and to walk alone and to face adversity, hardship 
and danger. Looking bankruptcy, ruin, starvation, i)(>stilence and war 
in the face, they still remained steadfast and luner shirked and never 
blenched. They preferred the wilderness, peopled by savage men and 
infested with wild beasts, wher(> they would Ix^ free, free to worship God 
according to the dictates of their own consciences, free to live their own 
lives in llieir own way, to l']urope, i)rovided with the comforts and con- 



41 

veniences of civilized life, but ruled by kings and cursed by the system of 
caste and class. They wanted to be free. They wanted to see their 
children born in an atmosphere of liberty and in a land that was free. 
They believed that the Indians and the panthers and the wolves of the 
new world would be kinder to them and give them and their children a 
better chance for the future, than the tyrants and despots, the usurpers 
and drones and grafters of monarcliial and militaristic Europe. 

But they did more than that. They believed in hard work and hard 
knocks and practiced both. They worked long hours, out of doors, in 
liod's sunlight, in God's pure air, in the little clearings, on the broad 
prairie, out in the woods. The women could handle the ax, the plough 
and the rifle as well as the men. There was no race suicide and no 
divorce. There were few scandals in domestic life. 

The pioneers practiced self denial and self control. Though free 
as nature itself, free as the birds, free as the air, and liberated from all 
conventionalities and social and other artificial restraints, they remained 
stoically and stubbornly virtuous and pure as the driven snow, pure as the 
rays of the stars reflected in perfumed dew drops. 

These hardy people lived in humble homes, lived the simple life, 
lived in Spartan simplicity, had few books, no luxuries, no fineries, no 
dainties, and yet they were usually satisfied, contented and happy. 

The rude huts which they inhabited were built of logs and built by 
themselves. They were frequently without wooden floors. The floors 
were made of leveled yellow clay. The roofs were made of clap-boards, 
the fences of rail or split paling. The roofs on the outbuildings were of 
straw. The houses were furnished with home-made and hand-made 
furniture. There were few dishes and no surplus of linen or clothing. 
The women could spin at the wheel and knit and the men knew the art 
of basket making and carpentry and cabinet making. They had no large 
store of household goods, but they had hope and imagination and ambi- 
tion and looked forward to a better and a brighter day. They had poor 
schools and poor churches, ignorant teachers and miserable preachers, 
and practically no newspapers and yet they were educated, they were 
lithe, they were healthy, they were active, they were virile, they were 
educated in nature's school, they were firm in temperament, strongly 
marked in personality and gifted with initiative and originality which 
after ajl is culture and can be but little augmented and improved in 
schools, in colleges and in the highest universities and never supplied, 
when wanting in the original makeup. 

This completes my theme. I have nothing more to say. I ask you 
to read the masterful works of Governor John Eeynolds, the Old Eanger, 
the Theodore Eoosevelt of his day. He went through the chairs. He 
filled all the offices worth while. The only known reason why he didn't 
fill more was because he had exhausted the list. His memory makes all 
of your modern politicians and office-seekers look like amateurs, like 
pikers, so to say. I ask you to read tlie works of Francis Parkman. I 
ask you to visit St. Glair and Eandolph Gounties. Visit the Missions in 
your own State first at Gahokia and Kaskaskia and Prairie du Eocher, 
before you go to Europe or Galifornia. Visit and study the antiquities 
of Hlinois in St. Glair, Madison, Monroe and Randolph Gounties. Visit 



42 

Monk's Mound, visit Sugar Loaf. Get a touch of real St. Clair County 

hospitality by visiting Bcllcvillo. See Illinois first, and while you are 
studving tlio history of Amorica don't omit to pay some attention to the 
big chapter wliich constitutes tlie history of Illinois. 

Mr. Kern prefaced his remarks by paying a high compliment to ^Irs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, the Secretary and Treasurer of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, and to her assistant, Miss Osborne. 

Mr. Kern said: ''I would, indeed, be remiss in the performance of 
my duty if I failed to congratulate your Society upon the useful and 
patriotic service which it is rendering. You are educating the masses 
of the people and stimulating love of country and State and home. Your 
work is a grand educational work. You are the guardians of the legacy 
which our generation owes to future ages. Especially are your Secretary 
and her assistant to be complimented on their work. Mrs. Jessie Palmer 
AVeber, is the daughter of one of the great Governors of Illinois and of a 
brave General of the Union Army during the War of the Rebellion. 
The showing made by Mrs. Weber and Miss Osborne at the San Francisco 
Exposition with their splendid Lincoln memorial exhibit was nothing 
short of remarkable and won merited praise from many people at home 
and abroad. Their exhibit was one of the finest features of the latest 
and irreatest World's Fair." 



43 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VETO POWER OF THE 
GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS. 



(N. H. Debel, University of Illinois.) 
The veto power, like so many others of our political institutions, 
is an adaptation of a British institution transplanted to American soil. 
In England it was a royal prerogative. The king enacted laws upon the 
petition of his people. In the course of the development of Parliament 
he was forced to agree not to alter petitions, which had come to be pre- 
sented in the precise form in which it was desired to have them enacted. 
But his assent was still necessary to give them validity. He could refuse 
his assent as late as 1707 — when the last veto of a parliamentary act 
occurred. 

Though the veto power at home declined, it was found convenient to 
maintain it for colonial purposes. Legislation in British colonies is still 
subject to disallowance by the king. That he always acts "in council" is 
simply a convenient method to insure that he does not act contrary to 
the will of the party in power. Wliile vetoes of colonial legislation are 
sparingly made in the British Empire to-day, that can hardly be said of 
the practice of a hundred and fifty years ago. Here the veto power was 
practically undiminished. That the power was wielded not in vain is 
abundantly testified by the fact that the first of the long list of griev- 
ances against the king of Great Britain enumerated by the Declaration of 
Independence is on account of the use of the veto power. "He has refused 
his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good," 
so runs the indictment. 

In the American colonies before the Eevolution no uniformity with 
regard to the veto power existed. In Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
where the governors were elected by the people, no veto power existed. 
In the proprietary colonies the veto power was exercised by the proprietor 
or his deputy. In Pennsylvania, besides, the king retained the right to 
veto colonial legislation. In the royal colonies the governor was given an 
absolute veto. Not only that, but his power of assent was limited. 
Finall}', all measures assented to by the royal governor were subject to 
disallowance afterwards by the king. 

During the strugcfle with Great Britain, the governor had been the 
ally of the king. The popular assembly, on the other hand, had truly 
represented the people. The result was that our early American state- 
builders had confidence in legislative assemblies, with a corresponding 
distrust of the executive. This is clearly reflected in the absence of the 
executive veto power in most of our early state constitutions. Of the 
thirteen original states only two provided for a veto power, namely, New 
York and Massachusetts. 

The veto provisions adopted by these two states differed widely. The 
one in New York, adopted in 1777, vested the veto power in a council of 



44 

ri'visioii cuiiii»).SL'd of the governor and the members of Supreme Court. 
A bill passed by the legislature had to be presented to the council for 
revisal and consideration. If thoy approved it, thoy were to sign it. If 
not, they were to return it with their objections in writing to the IIou.so 
in which it had originated. Here it might be passed over the disapi)roval 
of the council by the vote of two-thirds of the total membership. It was 
then to be sent to the other House where two-thirds of those present migl'.t 
pass it over the veto. 

The council was given ten days for the consideration of bills. 
Failure to disapprove a bill within that time resulted in its becoming law 
without a])])r()val. If the Legislature l)y adjournment within the ten day 
period should jircvent the return of a l)ill. return was to be made on the 
first dav of the next meeting of the Ix'gislature or the bill would l)ecome 
law. 

The chief importance of the Xew York plan is that it was prac- 
tically unique. It is of special interest only to lis, for Illinois was the 
only other State in the Union to adopt it. 

Another ])rovision, the one adopted by Massachusetts in ITSO. was 
destined to have much wider influence. Most of its essential features were 
adopted by the National Constitutional Convention of 1787. and there- 
after by most states of the Union. It provided that a bill or resolve 
passed by the General Court should be submitted to the governor for 
approval or disapproval; that if he should approve it, he should sign it; 
l)ut that if he did not, he should return it with the reasons in writing to 
the House in which it had originated ; that his message should be entered 
on the jo\irnal ; and that upon reconsideration two-thirds of the members 
of each House might jiass the bill over his veto. The time given the 
Governor for the consideration of bills was five days. If any bill should 
not be returned by the expiration of that period, it was to become law 
without his assent. No provision was made for the contingency of 
adjournment before the expiration of the five days. Bills could therefore 
not 1)e vetoed after adjournment. To remedy this defect an amendment 
was ado])ted in 1<S20 ])ro\iding that bills vetoed, the return of which had 
been prevented by the adjournment of tiie (icneral Court, should not 
become law. 

The situation in regard to the veto power at the time of the admis- 
sion of Illinois in 1818, may be briefly summarized as follows: Ten 
states, or exactly one-half, still denii'd their (Jovernors the power U) 
disapprove bills. The other ten gianted that power in varying degrees. 
New York, 'as we have s(>en, ]irovided for a council of revision. Nine 
states had granted the veto jHJwer to the (Jovernor. The time allowed fm- 
the consideration of bills varied from five to ten days. The vote required 
to over-ride the veto varied from a majority to two-thirds of each House 
of the Legislature. In all cases except New York, as noted above, the 
majorities re<|iiired were based on the total mendvrship of the houses 
respectively. 

The Illinois Conslilulioiial Conveiilion of 1818, therefore, hatl two 
general ])recedents to follow, 'i'wo ditl'erent plans were fornuillv ad- 
vanced and considered by it. One, which was eventually adopted, was 
the New York council of revision plan. The other was a strong veto 



45 

power lod^'cd in the hands of the (4ovenior. It was siniihu" to the pro- 
visions in force in Louisiana and Pennsylvania. Both of these states 
required a two-thirds vote to over-ride the Governor's veto. Both gave 
him ten days for the consideration of bills. And both required that bills 
vetoed after the adjournment of the Legislature should be returned within 
the first three days of the following session. The plan proposed in the 
Illinois convention differed only in that it required bills vetoed after 
adjournment to be returned on the first day of the following session 
of the General Assembly. 

It was noted above that not a single state had followed, the New 
York plan of a council of revision, but that on the other hand since then 
nine states and the United States had vested the veto power in their chief 
executives. That Illinois nevertheless adopted the New York plan must 
be ascribed mainly to the influence of Elias Kent Kane, who was a 
member of the convention. Mr. Kane was born in jSTew York, educated 
at Yale, and had studied law in New York. He had removed to Illinois 
in 1814. In the convention of 1818 he was a member of the committee 
of fifteen entrusted with the work of drafting the new Constitution. He 
appears to have been one of the most prominent and influential members. 

The committee of fifteen reported as section 15 of Article III, 
dealing with the executive department, almost word for word that section 
of the New York Constitution of 1777 establishing the council of 
revision. A few days later, while the plan of the committee of fifteen 
was being considered, an alternative plan already referred to was offered. 
It gave the veto power to the Governor. It allowed him ten days for the 
consideration of bills. It required a two-thirds vote of each House to 
over-ride the veto. It provided that if the Legislature by adjournm,ent 
should prevent the return of bills Avithin the ten days allowed, such bills 
were to be returned on the first day of the following session or become 
laws. 

This plan is not heard of any more, however. Three days later, on 
August 17, Article III being considered section by section, the council of 
revision plan as originally proposed by the committee of fifteen was 
adopted. The vote required to over-ride the veto, however, was placed at 
a majority of each House and not at two-thirds as in New York. This 
section without any further change was adopted on the final reading. 

The veto power in its final form was found in section 19 of Article 
III of the Constitution. It provided that : 

■^'The Governor for the time being, and the judges of the Supreme 
Court or a major part of them, together with the Governor, shall be and 
are hereby, constituted a council to revise all bills about to be passed into 
laws by the General Assembly; and for that purpose shall assemble them- 
selves from time to time when the General Assembly shall be convened, 
for which nevertheless they shall not receive any salary or consideration 
under any pretense whatever ; and all bills which have passed the Senate 
and House of Eepresentatives shall, before they become laws, be presented 
to the said council for their revisal and consideration ; and if, upon sucli 
revisal and consideration, it shall appear improper to the said council or 
a majority of them, that the bill should become a law of this State, they 
shall return the same, together with their objections thereto in writing, 



46 

to the Senate or House of Representative's (in whichsoever the same shall 
have originated) who shall enter the objections set down by the council at 
large in their minutes, and proceed to reconsider the said bill. But if, 
after such reconsideration, the said Senate or House of Representatives 
shall, notwithstanding the said objections, agree to pass the same by a 
majority of the whole number of members ek-cted, it shall, together with 
the said objections, be sent to the other branch of the General Assembly, 
where it shall also be reconsidered, and if approved by a majority of all 
the members elected, it shall become a law. If any bill shall not be 
returned, within 10 days after it shall have been presented, the same 
shall be a law, unless the General Assembly .shall by their adjournment, 
render a return of the said bill in 10 days impracticable; in which case 
the said bill shall be returned on the first day of the meeting of the 
General Assembly, after the expiration of the said 10 days, or be a law." 

The council of revision lasted for thirty years, 1818 to 1848. Though 
its record was very creditable indeed, it was not destined to continue a 
part of our constitutional system. The purely judicial work of the 
members of the Supreme Court demanded all of their time. This was 
especially true after 1841, when they were required to hold Circuit Courts 
as well. A change had become imperative. 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1848 there was never any doubt 
that the council of revision would be discontinued. There seems to have 
been no sentiment at all for its retention. On the other hand, several 
resolutions proposing alterations in the Constitution contained provisions 
for its abolition. The attitude is clearly reflected in a statement made 
by Mr. Alfred Kitchell, a member of the Convention. He objected to the 
presentation of too many questions at once. He urged that they should 
be presented one at a time. "For example," he said, "let it be tiio 
al)olition of the council of revision. There is probably not a member not 
prejiarcd to discuss and vote on that proposition." 

However, there was considerable diversity of opinion regarding the 
merits of a veto power lodged in the hands of the Governor. On the one 
hand there were the customary speeches against the power of one man to 
thwart the will of the people. It was said to be a vestige of royalty and 
unrepublican. On the other side it was urged that the tyranny of one is 
less dangerous than the tyranny of many ; that the Governor is more 
nearly tJie representative of all the people than is the Legislature ; that 
he could l)e held to more definite responsibility; and that as a matter of 
fact it had proved satisfactory wherever tried. 

Perhaps only a small percentage of the convention would- have 
favored the abolition of the veto power altogether. On the question of 
granting a strong or weak veto power to the Governor the members were 
very nearly evenly divided. On the whole the Democrats seem to have 
favored the former while the AVhigs seem to have favored the latter. 

The coniinittce of ten apjiointed to draft the article on the executive 
was headed by Samuel 1). Lockwood, who had been a member of the 
Supreme Court and the council of revision since 1825. On June 18 they 
reported to the convention. Section 20 of the article reported proposed 
to vest the veto power in the hands of the Governor. It required a two- 
thirds vote of those present to ov(M--ride the veto. 



47 

In the convention itself section 20 had a rather checkered experi- 
ence. It Avas considered in committee of the whole on the 16th and 17th 
of July. On the 16th an amendment offered by Mr. E. J. Cross, pro- 
viding that a majority of the total membership of each House of the 
Legislature should be sufficient to over-ride the veto, was rejected. On 
the following day an amendment offered by Mr. William A. Minsliall 
was accepted. It required a three-fifths vote of the total membership to 
over-ride the veto. But on August 11 at the final consideration, of the 
report of the committee of the whole by the convention, it was again 
amended. This amendment, offered by Mr. J. M. Davis, lowered the 
vote required for repassage from three-fifths as in the Minshall amend- 
ment to a majority of the total membership as proposed by the Cross 
amendment. 

The veto section as finally adopted by the convention is found in 
section 21 of Article lY of the Constitution of 1848. It provides — 

"Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and House of Eep- 
resentatives shall, before it becomes law, be presented to the Governor ; if 
he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his 
objections to the House in which it shall have originated; and the said 
House shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to 
reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, a majority of the members 
elected shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the 
objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; 
and if approved by a majority of the members elected, it shall become a 
law, notwithstanding the objections of the Governor; but in all such 
cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, to be 
entered on the journals of each House respectively. If any bill shall not 
be returned by the Governor within 10 days (Sundays excepted) after it 
shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner 
as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly shall, by their 
adjournment, prevent its return, in which case the said bill shall be 
returned on the first day of the meeting of the General Assembly, after 
the expiration of said 10 days, or be a law." 

An examination of the provision just quoted shows that it provided 
merely a suspensive veto. Elsewhere the Constitution provided that no 
bill should become a law without the concurrence of a majority elected 
to each House of the General Assembly. Should the Governor object to 
the passage of any bill the same majority would be able to pass it over his 
veto. The most that he could do would be to force a reconsideration. 

Nevertheless, the Governor's hands had been strengthened. The 
veto power had not been changed essentially from what it was under the 
council of revision. But it had all been placed in his hands. He was 
not obliged to share it with the members of the Supreme Court, who 
might outvote him in the council. 

However, the suspensive veto proved inadequate. This is especially 
true of the period after the Civil War. The demand for private legisla- 
tion — especially for charters of incorporation — became too strong Cor 
the General Assembly to resist. The Governors, especially Oglesby and 
Palmer, had striven valiantly to stem the tide. But these efforts had 
been largely in vain. Most of the important bills disapproved had been 



48 

repassed. The tyranny of the many liad ])rove<] intolerable. The people 
in 1S70 were ready ^o strengthen the (iovernor's hand very considorably. 

'i'he Constitutional Convention of 1H(i2 had projiosed a strengthen- 
in<f of the veto power. 'I'he veto jtrovisioii of the ])ro]>osed Constitution, 
found in section 11 of Article X, required a two-thirds vote of the whole 
membership of each House of the General Assembly to over-ride the 
(lovernor's disap])roval. It would have allowed the Governor ten days 
for the consideration of bills both after adjournment as well as durin<^ 
the session. 

Unfortunately this Constitution was not ratified by the people. 
Thou>,di the State had been l?epnblic:in at the election of ISfiO, neverthe- 
less a majority of the members of the Constitutional Convention were 
Democrats, 'j'he l?e|)ublican press found it comparatively easy to dis- 
credit their work. The conv<'ntion itself played into the hands of its 
enemies by foolish ]n-etentions to sovereign powers. 

The Constitutional Convention of ]8fiO-1870 was overwhelmingly 
ill favor of strengthening the veto power. The orgies of special legisla- 
tion indulged in by recent Legislatures were fresh in the minds of the 
members. So were also Governor Palmer's heroic efforts of 1S(>9 to 
stem the tide. But it was equally well realized that he had been largely 
helpless against the will of the General Assembly. 

Before the convention had ajipointed its committees, a resolution 
urging that the veto jiower be strengthened was offered. Very early in 
its proceedings the convention requested a reprint of Governor Palmer's 
veto messages of 1869 together with a report of the action of the General 
Assembly on the vetoes. Many speeches and resolutions referred to the 
evils of special legislation and expressed the belief that a strong veto 
power would have checked it. To quote one member, Mr. James C. Allen 
of Crawford County, in supporting the strong veto power proposed by 
the committee on the executive, he said that an effective veto would have 
saved the State from "the curse of much of the vicious legislation that 
has prevailed for the last few years." 

The committee of nine to whom the task of drafting the article on 
the executive department was entrusted, reported on January 26, 1870. 
They unanimously reported a veto section providing that a two-thirds 
vote in each House shoidd be required to over-ride the Governor's dis- 
approval, and that the Governor shoidd have ten days for the consider- 
ation of bills both during the session and after adjournment. 

On February 19, the article on the executive department was taken 
up for consideration. Mr. l^^.lliott .\nthony of Chicago, the chairman of 
the comniittcc of nine, refcning to section 20 of the proposed article 
Siiid. "ITad our present (Jovernor been clothed with this veto power, what 
untold miseries would he have saved us from." Kejilving to i-ritii's of the 
so-called one num ])ower he contend(Ml that the argument did not turn on 
that point but \ipon the facts proved by experience, that the Legislature 
was not infallible, that love of power miglit cause it to encroach upon 
the other departments, that factional strife might prevent deliberation, 
and that it might 1m' led astray by haste or by the impressions of the 
moment. He believed that it was necessa^-y to give the executive the 
M'to power to enalile him to defend himself and to increase the chances 



49 

of the communit}^ against the enactment of bad laws either through 
haste, inadvertence, or design. As for the argument that the veto power 
might be invoked to prevent the passage of good laws, he held that there 
was less danger of that contingency. 

Efforts were made to reduce the majority required to over-ride the 
veto, on February 22 and April 20. Both would have reduced it to a 
majority of the total membership as under the Constitution of 18-18. 
The attitude of the convention is shown by the vote on two amendments 
offered on April 20. The first was an attempt to have inserted the 
provision of the Constitution of 1848, that bills vetoed after adjournment 
should be submitted to the next meeting of the General Assembly for 
reconsideration. It was rejected by the vote of 47-11. The second was 
a proposal that the General Assembly, if it should fail to pass a bill over 
the veto, might by majority vote submit it to the people for adoption or 
rejection. This amendment was rejected by the vote of 53-12. 

The veto provision as adopted by the convention is found in section 
16 of Article V of the Constitution. It provides that — 

"Every bill passed by the General Assembly shall, before it becomes 
a law, be presented to the Governor. If he approve, he shall sign it, and 
thereupon it shall become a law ; but if he do not approve, he shall return 
it, with his objections, to the House in which it shall have originated, 
Avhich House shall enter the objections at large upon its journal, and 
proceed to reconsider the bill. If, then, two-thirds of the members 
elected agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; and 
if approved by two-thirds of the members elected to that House, it shiill 
become a law, notwithstanding the objections of the Governor. But in 
all such cases, the vote of each House shall be determined by yeas and 
nays, to be entered on the journal. Any bill which shall not be returned 
by the Governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall ha^'e 
been presented to him, shall become a law in like manner as if he had 
signed it, unless the General Assembly shall, by their adjournment, pre- 
vent its return, in which case it shall be filed, with his objections, in 
the office of the Secretary of State, within ten days after such adjourn- 
ment, or become a law." 

The Constitutional Convention of 1870 did not complete the task of 
perfecting the veto power. The power to veto items in appropriation 
Isills was still lacking. It was not added in Illinois before 1884. Agita- 
tion had started early in the eighties. A resolution offered by Senator 
Kelly of Adams County during the session of 1881 is of interest as point- 
ing toward an early adoption of the power to veto items in appropriation 
bills. The resolution read : 

"Whereas, Appropriation bills have often been delayed to nearly 
the end of the session before they are put upon their passage, and reduc- 
tions that have been carefully considered and adopted are frequently 
reinstated by committees of conference of the two Houses without much 
deliberation, at the closing hours of the session ; therefore. 

Resolved, That all appropriation bills be considered and disposed of 
at least three days before the day fixed for adjournment." 
— 4 H S 



50 

Though the resolution failed it is of interest to note that it received 
twenty votes as against twenty-three opposed. 

Governor Culioni in his regular message to the General Assembly of 
188.') recommended that an amendment to tlie Constitution giving the 
Governor tlie power to veto items in appro|)riation bills be submitted 
to the jK'dple. lie called attention to the fact that manv State Governors 
possessed this power; that the mayors of Illinois had been given this 
power in 1875; and that President Arthur had just recommended its 
adoption for the United States. Early in the session Senator Wm. R. 
Archer of Pike County introduced a resolution for an amendment to 
the constitution requiring appro])riation hills to be itemized and giving 
the Governor the power to veto distinct items or sections. Senat<ir 
Archer had been a member of the Constitutional Conventions of 1847 
and 1869 in both of wliieli lie had urged the adoption of a strong veto 
power. The resolution without change was adopted by both Houses of 
the General Assembly by overwholmin<2: majorities — in the Senate by 
tlie vote of 35-7, and in the House of Eepresentativcs by 107-2. It was 
submitted to the people for ratification at the general election November 
4, 1884, where it was approved by the vote of 427,821-60,244 out of a 
total vote of 673,096 cast at the election. The amendment adopted was 
inserted in the body of section 16 of Article V of the Constitution and 
reads as follows: 

"Bills making a])pvopriations of money out of the treasury shall 
specify the objects and purposes for which the same are made, and nppro- 
])riatc to them respectively their several amounts in distinct items and 
sections, and if the Governor shall not approve any one or more of the 
items or sections contained in any bill, but shall approve the residue 
thereof, it shall become a law as to the residue in like manner as if he 
had signed it. The Governor shall then return the bill, with his objec- 
tions to the items or sections of the same not approved by him. to the 
House in which the bill shall have oriijinated. which House shall enter 
the objections at large upon its journal, and proceed to reconsider so 
much of said bill as is not approved by the Governor. The same pro- 
ceedings shall be had in both Houses in reconsidering the same as is 
hereinbefore provided in case of an entire bill returned bv the Governor 
witli his objections; and if anv item or section of said bill not approved 
by the Governor shall be passed by two-thirds of the members elected to 
each of the two Houses of the General Assembly, it shall become part of 
said Inw, notwithstanding the objectious of the Governor." 

The present veto power of the Governor of Illinois has proved verv 
effective. It "is practically impossible to pass a bill over his disapproval. 
But thousrh this power is practically absolute there has never occurred 
an instance of serious abuse. The Governors of Illinois have on the 
whole exercised this power wiselv and conscientiously. The people expect 
the Governor to exercise indi'Pendent judTment on l>i11s pn^scnted to him 
for approval or rejection. Thev have confidence in him. He more nearly 
than any other officer in the State Government represents all the people. 
Thus we have the strange spectacle of the veto power, once a roval pre- 
rocrative, havincf become mi indispensable power in the hnnds of a 
Democratic executiv(>. 



51 



THE INDIAN HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 



(Ralph Linton, University of Illinois.) 

Every one knows the so-called earlj^ history of this State, the story 
of the wars and intrigues of the French, English and Americans with 
each other and with the Indians, but few of us realize that behind this 
lies a period many times as long, during which nations rose and fell and 
people of many tongues swept back and forth across what is now the 
State of Illinois. The history of this pre-Columbian period can never 
be written in terms of kings, policies, and dates, for among people who 
have not yet discovered the art of writing these things are lost in a few 
generations, but it can be written in terms of peoples and cultures. It 
passes out of the field of history into that of archaeology and ethnology. 

The tribes who occupied the State in early times have left us 
numerous monuments, in the form of earth works, and it is to these that 
we must go for our data in writing the pre-history of Illinois. A vast 
amount of work still remains to be done, but it has been proved beyond 
doubt that the so-called "Mound Builders" were only barbarous or semi- 
civilized tribes of Indians, and that far from becoming extinct thousands 
of years ago, their characteristic culture persisted for at least two cen- 
turies after the discovery of America. The term mound huilder is in 
itself most deceptive, for there is hardly a race or nation which does not 
construct earth works of some sort. We ourselves are no exception, as 
anyone who walks through a graveyard must realize. Within the State of 
Illinois the mounds bear internal evidence of being the work of at least 
four different tribes, and a careful investigation would probably double 
or triple the number. Some of these tribes may still have been in the 
State when it was first visited by white men, others had certainly been 
driven out long before by attacks from hardier and less civilized hunting 
tribes. To the former class belong the makers of the effigy mounds, who 
were pretty certainly some tribes of the Siouxian stock, perhaps the 
Winnebago, or some other group which has now lost its identity. The 
pottery and implements found in these effigy groups are quite crude, and 
correspond exactly with similar material picked up on the sites of 
villages which we know to have been occupied within historic times. 
We have no account of the building of a effigy mound, but the Dakota 
of the present time make boulder outlines of men and animals which are 
quite analagous. The center of these effigy mounds seems to be in Wis- 
consin, and from there they extend, constantly growing rarer, into the 
northwestern part of Illinois, where they are met on the south by the 
mounds of the second type. These are very varied in form, but corre- 
spond, on the whole, to these of Ohio. The circles, enclosures, and 
geometric works are lacking, but the burial mounds are often identical, 
and the artifacts buried with the dead show a good deal of similarity. 



52 

The works are alinosl always found along the large rivers, and it seems 
prohahle that the makers, while not the same tribe as the mound builders 
of Ohio, were allied peo])les who had ])iished northwest by way of the 
river valleys, while the main stock had gone directly north into Ohio. 
These people had been expelled by savage tribes in both localities before 
the coming of the whites, and it is not possible to identify them posi- 
tively, but they were probably tribes of the Muskogie stock, half civilized 
peoples occupying the southeastern United States at the time of the 
discovery. Cyrus Thomas, who made an exhaustive study of the subject, 
even goes so far as to assign these works to a single tribe, the Cherokee. 
In any case, the mound builders of this second group were settled 
peoples, largely agricultural. They made a good grade of pottery, which 
was tempered with pounded shells, and often iinely shaped. Moulded and 
incised figures were used for decoration rather than color, although 
paint was sometimes used. This pottery was in marked contrast to that 
of the norlherii effigy mound people, who used a ware tempered with 
sand, crudely shaped and usually undecorated. The pipes of these people 
also corresponded to those from Ohio, being small, with a flat base and a 
bowl often carved to represent some animal. Still further south, in the 
neighborhood of St. Louis, this culture is replaced by yet a third, that 
of the great Cahokia Mound group. This differs less from the second 
than the second does from the first. The pottery is of the same shell 
tempered sort, but the use of color is more common. The flint imple- 
ments are, on the whole, a little better made, and the digging tools, 
notched hoes and spades, are much commoner. The small monitor pipes 
of the second class give place to large ceremonial pipes, often finely 
carved in the form of kneeling figures. Most characteristic of this cul- 
ture, as compared with others in the State, is the temple mound, large 
structures on which were built the chiefs houses and public buildings of 
the town. It has been recently shown that the great Cahokia l^Iound is 
really a natural formation which the Indians have cut into the desired 
form, but the other mounds of the group seem to be artificial. These 
mounds were in universal use throughout the southern states at the time 
of Dc Soto's ex))edition, and La Vega describes the Indian towns as fol- 
lows: "They themselves throw uj) elevations in this manner, they chose a 
spot to which they bring a (|uaiitity of earth, and this they ])ile uj) in the 
shape of a platform two or three pikes lengths in height and large enough 
on top to hold ten, twelve, fifteen or twenty houses, in which are lodged 
the cacique and his attendants. At the foot of this mound they lay out 
a square, proportioned to the size of the intended town, and around this 
the ])rin(i|)le men of the village build their cabins. The common people 
are lioused in the sani<^ manner and thus tlu'y surround the dwelling of' 
their chief. To ascend this mound they have a graded way from top 
It) bottom on one side, but the other sides are made so steep as to be 
dillieiilt of access." Du Pratz, who has left us an interesting account of 
the Natchez Indians, relates that their temple was alwiut thirty fiH»t 
square, and was situated on an artificial mound alxnit eight feet high, 
which sloped insensibly from the main front, which was on the northern 
side, hut was somewhat slee|ier on the other sides. 1'he cabin of the 
chief was also j)laced ujion a mound about eight feet high, but larger, 



53 

being some sixty feet across. All the evidence points to the Cahokia 
group as being the northern outpost of a civilization which reached its 
full flower in the lower Mississippi Vallt\y. The pottery of the Cahokia 
type, for instance, reaches its highest development in the Pecan Point 
district of Arkansas. The most highly civilized tribe of this region 
when it was first visited by the whites was the Natchez, a people who 
spoke a language related to the Creek and Cherokee, but who were dis- 
tinguished from all other tribes of North America by their cast system 
and the absolute power of their rulers. Within historic times raiding 
parties from this tribe frequently invaded Southern Illinois, and it seems 
likely that the settlement of the American Bottom, which is our third 
mound builder type, was a colony of the Natchez or some closely related 
people, which had been abandoned before the coming of the whites. It is 
extremely hard to draw the line between this and the second type, and 
remains of the second type extend for some distance south of the Cahokia 
group. 

The fourth great ancient culture represented within the State is the 
so-called stone grave culture, which takes its name from the method of 
burial, which is thus described by Loskiel, who saw it practised among 
the Delawares. He says : "The Delawares buried their dead by digging 
a grave of the required size and about one or two feet deep. They put 
flat stones at the bottom, and set others at each end and on each side on 
the edge. Then laid the body in, generally on the back, at full length, 
covered the grave with the same kind of stone, laid as closely together as 
practicable, without cement, sometimes covering the joints or cracks with 
smaller stones to keep the earth from falling into the grave. Then they 
covered the grave with earth, not generally more than two or three feet 
high." Hunter, in his account of his captivity among the Osages, also 
speaks of "elevations which were formally and are at present exclusively 
devoted to the burying of their dead, which are composed of earth and 
stones placed in such a manner as to cover and separate one dead body 
from another." As the descriptions Just cited show, the custom was wide- 
spread among tribes who were still in a low stage of development, and the 
term "stone grave culture" seems much too broad for our purpose. The 
particular people with whom we are dealing occupied Southern Illinois 
and a large part of Kentucky and Tennessee. They are distinguished 
by their work in shell and copper, and above all by the designs which 
they engraved on gorgets (pieces of conch shell worn about the neck) 
and copper plates. These designs show human figures, and figures half 
bird and half human, which closely resemble some of the Mexican pic- 
tures of gods. While it is possible that there was some connection 
between ancient Mexico and ancient Illinois, it is not probable. The 
figures, except the human ones, are also shown on pottery, but always 
insized instead of painted. It seems likely that this art was a local 
development. The use of stone graves continued well into historic times, 
but the only tribes which usually buried their dead in this manner were 
those who had come in contact with the Shawnees. There is much uncer- 
tainty as to the original home of this tribe, who are noted by early writers 
as occurring at many widely different points, but it seems likely that they 
were in Illinois, about the great Salt Springs, at almost the time that 



54 

r.a Salle visited the fonntrv. We aie fairly safe in believing that at 
some quite i-eeeiit linio the Shawnee lived in the State, and had an art 
unequalcd east of the Rockies and north of Mexico. This brings us to the 
beginning of the historic period, and from here on we shall have firmer 
ground to stand on. AYc can sum up the archaeological evidence as fol- 
lows: The northwest part of the State was occupied in ancient times 
by rude hunting peoples, probably the ancestors of the present Sioux 
and Winjiebago. The bottom lands of the Missouri and Illinois Rivers 
were for a time occupied by tribes related to the present Creeks and 
Cherokee, but these had been dispossessed and driven south before the 
white people entered Illinois. The southern tip of the State had been, 
and probably was occupied at the time the whites came, by the Shawnee, 
a semi-civilized people who spoke the same tongue as the hunting tribes 
to the north, although they had borrowed their way of life from the farm- 
ing tribes of the south. 

The classification that I have just given is not at all final, for there 
is surprisingly little known about the mounds and old village sites of 
the State. There is great need of a systematic survey as these monu- 
ments are being leveled by the plow and otherwise destroyed. 

Passing now to the Indians of recent times, we find that when 
La Salle entered the State, most of it was ho\d by five tribes who spoke 
the same language and modestly called themselves Iliniwek, the men. as 
distinguished from all the rest of the world, who did not amount to much 
in their eyes. In the northwestern part of the State, the tribes who were 
later to occupy it were waiting for the break-up of the confederacy, while 
along the Lake, the Miami and Mnscoutens had their villages and derived 
much revenue from the trade with the far off tribes, who were glad to get 
the French goods at any price. Far to the south lay the Shawnee, and 
the Choctaws, who the French called the flat heads, and the latter tribe 
derived much pleasure and profit from raiding the Illinois from time to 
time. They were also at war with the Sioux across the river, but did 
not live up to fheir vain glorious title, for they were always beaten when 
they met anything like equal numbers. Of the customs of the Illinois 
we know that they farmed a little and hunted a good deal. In the fall 
tliey went off to hunt bulfalo. They kept up their hunt as long as the 
weather permitted, and when the cold berrme too severe, they went into 
winter quarters, living on the stored up meat and grain. Winter was a 
time of great festivity, if all had gone well, and the food was spent reck- 
lessly, so that only too often the year ended with famine, and an eager 
wait for the coming of the ducks and other game in the spring. During 
the winter season, the hous(>s were mnde of poles covered with closely 
woven mates of ruslu's, which wore fairly watertight, jiarticularly when 
they were two or three layers thick. There was a single low door, and 
a single smoke hole in the middle of the roof, .sjo that one unaccumstomed 
to the establishment had often to travel on hands and knees and keep his 
face close to the floor for the sake of air. The Illinois themselves were 
more or less hardened, but the .T(>suit Fathers relate that the old people 
were often blind, a strong argument for thos(^ averse to smoking. At 
last the spring broke, and with it ciiine a never ending sujijily of l^ood in 
the vast flocks of ducks and geese. 'IMie .^(pniws began to plant their 



55 

crops, simply thrusting down a pointed stick and then dropping in the 
seeds, without any attempt to break the ground. Later on, they, with 
the possible help of the old men and captives, would cultivate it with 
digging sticks and hoes made out of a deer's shoulder bhide. It might 
be noted in passing that Illinois was one of the original slave states. 
The tribes of the confederacy had a regular ])ractice of raiding the Man- 
dan and Pawnee who lived farther up the Missouri and carrying ofE 
prisoners who were kept to work in the fields or sold to other tribes 
farther east. Captives of other tribes were usually too wild to make 
good slaves, and were either killed or adopted into the tribe to take the 
place of some member who had been killed, in which case they had all the 
rights of the person they replaced, and might rise to hold any office in 
the tribe. The people of the Caddoan stock alone proved docile enough 
to enslave, another proof that it does not pay to be too good natured. 
Presently the crops began to ripen, and with this there came a time of 
feasting again, until the green corn was ripe, and the husking over, then 
it was time to hide the grain before setting out on the hunt. Part of it 
was shelled and put in bags of woven bass wood twine, which the squaws 
would carry with them on the hunt. Por the rest, a place was chosen 
where the digging looked eas_v, and the sod carefully cut out for a space 
perhaps two and a half feet across. Then a hole Avas dug carefully, the 
grass being covered wath hides on which the earth was deposited. The 
hole broadened as it went down, until finally it assumed the form of a 
bottle. Into this cellar, often six or eight feet deep, the corn was lowered, 
and the neck finally was stopped with a layer of rods on which the sod 
was replaced. The dirt Avas carried far off, and water was poured on the 
ground or a fire kindled over it the more perfectly to hide the place. 
This hiding completed, the whole village set forth on the hunt, the 
squaws carrying the baggage. Not always the whole village however, for 
too often there would be old people who were unable to accompany them, 
and to these they gave a little food and left them to the mercies of provi- 
dence. The hunt did not go very far from the rivers, for to the Indian 
before the coming of the horse, the plains formed almost impassable 
barriers. They hung on the fringes of the buffalo herds, creeping up on 
detached animals and shooting them with the bow and arrow, or perhaps 
cutting off a small herd by setting the prairie on fire on three sides of it, 
and then killing the animals as they dashed out through the narrow open- 
ing left. The meat was cut in strips and dried on frames over a slow 
fire, and the hides were tanned by the women, who scraped them with bone 
tools, and rubbed in a mixture of fat and brains, stretching them, drying 
them and then working them soft. At last, when the nights grew too 
cold, and the snow began to fall, back they came to their village, to spend 
the winter in easy living, if their luck had been good. If not, the spring 
was sure to find many missing. 

This, as far as we can restore it from the accounts of the early 
explorers, was the life of the Indians of Illinois at the time the whites 
first encountered them. They are described as well built men, but talk- 
ative and merry, but easily discouraged, cowardly and treacherous. How 
far we can rely on the reports in things of this kind is doubtful, for 
repeatedly we find two men who visited a tribe within a few years of 



56 

each other describing them as diametrically opposite. One thing at least 
is certain, they lacked courage, the one quality which they were about to 
need above all others. 

In the East there had already arisen an Indian empire, organized 
for conquest. The Ix'ague of the Iroquois. These people were not 
hunters like the Algoiikins, but farmers, settled in permanent stockaded 
towns, surrounded with corn fields which their women and slaves tilled. 
By their own legends, they and their relatives, the Ilurons, had come 
into their country, which was in what is now Xew York State from the 
south, and being peaceful timid folks, had settled down among the Algon- 
kins, to whom they traded corn for skins. They were much oppressed, 
and at last they rose against the other tribes, and after long years of 
war with other tribes, and with each other, they formed the great league. 
This was one of the most remarkable political organizations that has ever 
arisen. It consisted of an upper and a lower house, to which the tribes 
sent representatives, elected for life. The power of election, and of recall, 
was vested not in the warriors, but in tiie child-bearing women of the 
tribe. In it the idea of universal citizenship was fundamental. Any 
tribe, no matter what their speech and customs, might be adopted into 
the league, and would be given representatives in the lower house, but 
the upper house was composed of men of the clans and tribes of those 
who had come together to found it long before. To all tribes who wished 
to join the league, it extended a welcoming hand, against all others it 
waged a war of extermination. Champlain, ignorant of the true condi- 
tions helped some of the smaller tribes on a war party against it. anil the 
war so begun cost France her i^ossessions in the new world, for with their 
position between the French and English, the League held the balance of 
power. 

But to return to Illinois, the Iroquois had either destroyed or 
adopted all the tribes which surrounded them, and their war ]iarties, in 
quest of new captives, swept across Ohio and Indiana and into Illinois. 
They fell upon the great village of the Illinois, and scattered the tribe, 
driving it before them down and across the river. Tonti, who was with 
the Illinois at the time, did much to save them, and the Iroquois linally 
retired. The Illinois returned to their great village, which seems to 
have been near Starved Rock, and around the fort which La Salle built 
there many tribes gathered by his invitation for protection against (heir 
merciless foe. The peace was short lived, for when the fort was 
abandoned, the attacks of the Iroquois recommenced, and coupled with 
this, the Sioux and the ever restless northern tribes began to harras them. 
Later the French came to their rescue again, when posts and missions 
wore established among them, but the tribe was already doomed. Its fate 
was sealed when in 17(10 a Kaskaskia Indian killed Ponliac, and the 
tribes lliaf had fought with him turned against the Illinois, and almost 
annihilated them. As the Illinois became weakened tliere tlowed a stream 
of Inmling tribes from the Northwest into the lands thus left vacant, 
the Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Sauk and Fox, with the Winnebago and 
Chippewa at their heels. They spread over the lands formerly held by 
the Illinois and Miami. The Potawatomi established themselves in 
Northwestern Indiana and Eastern Illinois, while to the south of them 



57 

the Kickapoo took np their position. Both laid chTiiiis to vast stretches 
of land in Illinois and Indiana, covering not only each others claims, but 
also those ceded by the Illinois and later by the Sac and Fox. If we are 
to believe the maps of the various Indian purchases, the United States 
Government bought the soil of Illinois some three or four times over, but 
the conflicts are always in the North, between the tribes who are new- 
comers. The southern part of the State was the property of the Pian- 
kashaws on the east and the Illinois on the west, and their claim was 
never disputed, although the northern Peoria claim was disputed by Sac, 
Fox, Kickapoo, and Potawatomi. Part of this conflict can be explained 
as the result of the nomadic habits of the newly arrived tribes, but there 
is no doubt that the Indian, as a foil to the shrewd dealing of the Gov- 
ernment was glad to sell it, not only his own land, but that of any one 
else who was not present. Thus in the famous Sac and Fox treaty of 
1803, the United States acquired from the small group of hunters who 
wintered at St. Louis, and who were not even chiefs, all of the land 
between the Illinois and the Missouri, including a strip at the north 
which was the property of the Chippewa and Winnebago, as the United 
States afterward admitted by ceding it back to them. 

However, the overlapping claims were settled one at a time, with 
remarkably little difficulty, if we consider the organization of an Indian 
tribe of the hunting type, in which the authority of a chief does noti 
extend beyond his influence. The Piankishaw ceded the last of their 
claims on December 30, 1805, the League of the Illinois on September 
25, 1818, the Kickapoo, July 30, 1819, the Potawatomi on September 26, 
1833, the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Winnebago on July 29 and August 1, 
1829. The Sac and Fox September 13 and 14, 1815. 

So passed the Indians of Illinois, swept out of the State and out of 
existence as well. Of the tribes which gave their name to the State only 
a handful survive, and these are so mixed with the whites that it is 
doubtful whether any of them are of pure blood. We shall never know 
what possibilities of progress the Indian had within himself. Over- 
whelmed by a hardy and civilized people, numerically many times his 
size, he went down to defeat and passed forever from the theater of 
world history. 



68 



ODDITIES IN EARLY ILLINOIS LAWS. 



Phkpakki) roR the Annual Meeting of the Illinois State 
PIiSTORiCAL Society, 191G. 

(By Joseph J. Thompson, Chicago.) 

By "odditii'.s" as used in the sul)jcct of tliis paper, is meant the 
unusual, the striking. And the odd laws to which reference is made are 
such as would arrest one's attention and cause more or less surprise 
that such laws were enacted at the time and under the circumstances. 

In organized society, legislation is, however, the essence of history. 
To understand tlic history of a period, one must know its laws, and if one 
be thoroughly conversant with tlie laws of a nation or state, he has taken 
the most im])ortant step toward the mastery of its history. 

Naturally, this paper deals chiefly with written laws since to fol- 
low the varying decisions of courts haphazardly constituted as they were 
in the very early days would give more or less importance to individual 
notions. There were some customs and rulings, however, amongst the 
very earliest peoples, even including the Indians, which seem to have had 
sufficient vogue to virtually become laws. 

INDIAN customs. 

It was the custom amongst many tribes of Indians, apparently for 
the purpose of stimulating energy and activity, to dedicate little male 
papooses to one or the other of two colors ; either black or white, and as 
the little Indians grew up, they were counted amongst the number of 
their corresponding color and eooperntod with them in all games and 
contests. 

Another odd cuslom is found in the form of punishment meted out 
to false or supposedly false consorts. Upon the testimony of an Indian 
brave that his squaw was false to him, such derelict was punished by 
having her nose cut off. 

FIJENCII CUSTOMS. 

Due to the fact, jwrhaps, that money was a very scarce article 
amongst the French in early Illinois, it was quite common to adjudge 
payment in kind ; that is, if one member of the community Imrrowed a 
liorse from another and through some misfortune, sueh as an Indian 
attack, the horse 'were killed or stolen, ujion action i)rought, the court 
would decree the return of iinother horse without attiMnpting too nicely to 
balance values. 

Many instances are found in the French times wIkmv a party i>lain- 
tiff in a demand was given the growing ero|)s of the d(>fendant out of 
wiiich to nuike his demand, it was also permissible, it seems, to adjudge 
the services of a defcnilnnf in ])ayment of a claim against him. 



59 

ODD LAWS AND USAGES DUIJING THE VIRGINIA PERIOD. 

The declaration of principles and many of the laws nnder the Vir- 
ginia regime were odd in the sense that they were surprisingly advanced. 
These and the public and private communications and instructions to 
George Eogers Clark and John Todd by the Assembly of Virginia and 
Governors Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were models of govern- 
mental solicitude. 

The declaration of principles adopted by the representatives of the 
^"Good People of Virginia" on June 12, 1776, prior to the Declaration 
of Independence asserted: 

"That all men are by nature equally free and independent. 

That they have certain rights; viz, the right to the enjoyment of 
life and liberty with the means of acquiring and possessing property and 
pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety, of which they can not 
by any compact, upon entering into a state of society, deprive or divest 
their posterity. 

That all power is vested in and derived from the people. 

That magistrates are the people's trustees and servants and at all 
times amenable to the people. 

That that form of government is best which is capable of producing 
the greatest degree of happiness and safety and is most effectually secured 
against the danger of mal-administration. 

That elections should be free and that all men having sufficient evi- 
dence of permanent common interest with and attachment to the com- 
munity have the right of suffrage. 

That no one can be taxed or deprived of his property for public uses 
without his consent or that of his representatives elected by him, nor 
bounden by any law to which he shall not, in like manner, have assented 
for the public good. 

That all power of suspending laws by any authority without the 
consent of the representatives of the people is injurious and ought not to 
be exercised. 

That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused has the right to 
demand the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with 
the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, to a speedy 
trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage without whose unanimous con- 
sent he cannot be found guilty. 

That no man can be compelled to give evidence against himself or 
deprived of his liberty except by the law of the land or the judgment 
of his peers. 

Excessive bail ought not to be required nor excessive fines imposed 
nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

That general warrants are grievous and oppressive and ought not zo 
be granted. 

That trial by jury is preferable to any other and ought to be held 
sacredly. 

That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty 
and can never be restrained but by despotic governments, 



60 

I'hat the blessings of liberty can be preserved to any people only by 
a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality and virtue 
and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles. 

That religion or the duty which we owe to our Creator and the 
manner of discharging it can be directed only by reason and conviction, 
not by force or violence, and therefore, all men are equally entitled to 
the free exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience, and 
that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love 
and cliarity towards each other." 

MORE DEMOCRATIC THAN THE ORDINANCE OF 1787. 

Contrasting this declaration of rights with the ordinance of 1787, it 
is found much more democratic. The ordinance of 1787 has been higlily 
and justly praised, but as Moses, in his "Illinois, Historical and Stat- 
istical," has pointed out : 

''It appears that some of the most important declaration of rights 
contained in these early constitutions and since re-enacted, were not 
included in the ordinance ; namely, the liberty of the press, the right of 
free speech, the right of petitions, the freedom of elections, the right 
to bear arms and the prohibition of ex-post-facto laws." 

POPULAR RIGHTS. 

As early as 1778, the Assembly of Virginia adopted a complete elec- 
tion code by which most of the local of!icers and officers of the common- 
wealth were to bo elected. Under the ordinance of 1787, no officer was 
to be elected during the first grade of territorial government and none 
but members of the Legislature during the second grade. The qualifica- 
tions for voting even for memlx'rs of the Legislature were exacting, 
including heavy property qualifications, which reduced the electorate to 
a small class. 

Further evidence of the democracy of the Virginia regime !.- fur- 
nished by acts of the assembly of that colony. On DecemlH'r 5, 1185, an 
act was passed declaring that none shall be condemned without trial and 
that justice shall not be sold or deferred, and on December fi, 1785. an 
act was passed with an elaborate preamble declaring that all men are 
free to profess and maintain any religious belief, that such rights shall 
not be the cause of aii\- disability and are tlie ''natural riijflits of nuin- 
kind." 

WITCHCRAFT. 
Strange as it may seem, and in contrast with the enlightened ]iolicy 
of A'irginia. amongst the first public acts of the government under the 
^'irlrinia colony administered by John 'fodd as lieutenant of the County 
of Illinois created by the (Jeneral Assembly, was a prosecution and execu- 
tion for witchcraft. A doting old negro was adjndued truilty of sorcery 
and witchcraft and was shot by order of Lieutenant Todd. 

PURE FOOD. 

ft is only in recent years that national and state governments have 
awakened to the necessity of inspection and supervision of foods, but as 
early as November 27, 178fi, and before the Illinois country had any 



61 

other goveninioiit than that of A'irginia, an act was passed by the Vir- 
ginia Assembly wliich forbade a butcher to sell the flesh of any animal 
dying otherwise than by slaughter and forbidding a baker, brewer, dis- 
tiller or other person from selling unwholesome bread or drink. The 
punishment for violation of any provision of the law was, for the first 
offense, amercement ; for the second offense, by the pillory ; for the third, 
fine and imprisonment, and for each subsequent offense, the person con- 
victed was adjudged to hard labor for six months in the public works. 

THE TERRITORIAL PERIOD. 

While democracy and broad humanity were the cardinal principles 
of the Virginia regime, precision and efficiency were marked character- 
istics of the administration of the Northwest Territory. 

Whatever other criticisms may be visited upon the Governor, General 
Arthur St. Clair, lawyers must agree that he and the court appointed by 
the President, and constituted by the ordinance of 1787 the legislative 
power of the Territory, proved highly capable as law-makers. 

What is known as the "Maxwell Code" was an admirable body of 
laws and to this day forms the basis of our statutes. Good lawyers will 
concede that many of the laws enacted by this early law-making body 
were distinctly superior to any that have been passed by any succeeding 
body exercising legislative functions over Illinois territory. 

There were, however, numerous acts or provisions in acts in those 
early days that provoke a smile or occasion surprise. 

ATTORNEYS. 

As of interest to lawyers, it is somewhat surprising that as far back 
as 1792, an act was passed regulating the practice of law which, on com- 
parison, would, I think, be considered a far better law than that of the 
present day. 

We must smile at an act of August 1, 1793, which limited the em- 
ployment of counsel to two on one side of a case and provided that when 
there are no more than two attorneys practicing at any bar, a client will 
not be permitted to hire more than one of them. 

Present day lawyers will rejoice that an act of August 1, 1792, is not 
now in force. It contained this interesting provision relative to attor- 
neys' fees : 

"For a pleading fee wdien counsel is employed on an issue in law or 
fact joined in the Supreme Court, two. dollars; for all other causes in 
the Supreme Court and for all causes in the court of common pleas and 
court of general quarter sessions of the peace where an issue in fact or 
law is joined, one hundred and fifty cents; and for all other causes in 
the common pleas court of quarter sessions as a retaining fee one dollar ; 
in criminal causes where one or more defendants are tried by jury at 
the same time or where a cause is determined by an issue at law a plead- 
ing fee for the counsel in the Supreme Court (but to one counsel only) 
two dollars ; and when no trial is had by jury nor the cause determined 
by an issue in law, one dollar and an half; and in the court of general 
quarter sessions of the peace the fees shall be the same as is allowed in 
the court of common pleaj." 



62 

By 1798 it was tliou^dit advisable to amend the laws relating to 
attorneys' fees and on May 1 of that year, an act was passed, section 
seven of which reads as follows : 

"Sec. 7. Attorneys' fees in common pleas and quarter sessions. — 
Retaining fee one dollar; pleading fee where issue or demurrer one dollar 
and fifty cents; term fee fifty cents; the Attorney General's deputy in 
the court of connnon pleas or quarter sessions one-half the fees by law 
allowed the Attorney General in the general court for similar services." 

An act of October 1, 1795, prescribed the oath which an attorney or 
counsellor at law was required to take and which, no doubt, some people 
would think quite salutary now. It was as follows: "You shall behave 
yourself in the office of counsellor at law (or attorney as the case may 
be) while within this court according to the best of your learning and 
with all fidelity as well to the court as to the client. You shall use no 
falsehood nor delay anv person's cause for lucre or malice (so help vou 
God)." 

CANALS. 

Preferring to direct attention to the peculiarities in the laws in 
somewhat of an alphabetical order, rather than chronologically, we come 
upon an interesting act of the Indiana Legislative body; that is. Governor 
Harrison and the territorial judges with reference to a canal. By an act 
passed August 24, 1805, the "Indiana Canal Company'' was incorporated. 
This was the parent canal act and concerned a canal at the falls of the 
Ohio. It was most interesting in the personnel of the board of directors 
appointed by the Legislature, many of whom have come down to ns as 
prominent historical figures. This first canal board consisted of George 
Rogers Clark, John Brown, Jonathan Dayton, Aaron Burr, Benjamin 
Ilavey, Davis Flovd, Josias Stevens, William Croghan, John Gwathmey, 
John Harrison, Martin C. Clark and Samuel C. Vance. 

In following the canal legislation through the territorial period, 
it is interesting to note that the incorporation of the "liittle "Wabash 
Navigation Company," on December 24, 1817, was the first act creating 
a corporation bv a distinctly Illinois hnvmaking body, the Territorial 
Legislature of Illinois. 

This first distinctly Illinois Corporation Act contains some features 
that are sometimes talked of in these days; for instance, the property of 
the canal, although a private concern, was to be exempt from taxation 
])erpetually. That provision would be illegal under our present Constitu- 
tion. The coniijauy was enijiowered to collect tolls, and a distinguishing 
feature of the act was that the canal was to become the ]n<)|terty of the 
State at the end of thirty years. A similar provision with refereiu'c to 
State ownership was included in the act of January 9, 1817, iiu^orpo- 
rating the "Illinois Navigation Company." giving Henry Bechtel and 
his associates the right to cut a canal and build locks from the Mississ- 
ippi to the Ohio River near the town of America, in Johnson County. 

CORPORATIONS. 

TJH' (list general ineorporation act to which the Illinois country was 
ever subject was ]iass(>d May 1, 1798, by Governt^r St. Clair and the 
territorial judges of the Northwest Territory. 



63 

The general provisions of this law did not differ materially from 
general incorporation acts of the present day, but it contained this signifi- 
cant limitation : "Provided always that the clear yearly value or income 
of the messuages, houses, lands and tenements, annuities or other hered- 
itaments and real estate of the said corporations respectively and the 
interest on money by them lent shall not exceed the sum of fifteen hun- 
dred dollars." 

Quite frequently, the question of limitation upon corporation hold- 
ings is spoken of at the present time. 

CRIMINAL LAW. 

In the first year after the organization of the Northwest Territory, 
1788, by an act adopted September 6 of that year, quite a complete 
criminal code was adopted. It dealt with the usual crimes, but the 
notable features in connection therewith were the punishments provided. 
Treason and murder were the only crimes punishable by death in this 
first law though arson, horse stealing and bigamy were made punishable 
by death in later laws. For arson, the convicted person might be whipped 
not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, pilloried for two hours, confined in jail 
three years, made to forfeit all his estate and if a death resulted from 
the burning, the convict should be put to death. For robbery or burglary 
with theft, thirty-nine lashes, a fine of treble the value, one-third of the 
fine to go to the territory and two-thirds to the party injured. For 
robbery or burglary with abuse and violence, the same punishment as 
burglary with theft and in addition, forfeiture of all property and con- 
finement in prison for not to exceed four years. Robbery or burglary 
with homicide was punishable by death and all persons aiding or abetting 
were deemed to be principals. For obstructing authority, one might be 
fined and whipped not to exceed thirty-nine lashes. For larceny, one 
might be adjudged to return double the value of the goods stolen or to 
receive thirty-one lashes. For forgery, a fine of double the loss caused 
and not to exceed three hours in the pillory. For disobedience on the 
part of servants or children, imprisonment was provided; for striking a 
master or parent, not to exceed ten lashes. For drunkeness, a fine of one 
dollar was payable and the person convicted might be required to sit in 
the stocks for one hour. 

As early as 1790, gambling of every species for money or property 
w^as forbidden under severe penalties and all gambling contracts were 
declared void. 

Under an act of January 5, 1795, for the trial and punishment of 
larceny under $1.50, upon conviction, the accused might be publicly 
whipped upon his bare back not exceeding fifteen lashes or fined not to 
exceed three dollars, thus apparently fixing a whipping value of twenty 
cents per lash. 

On December 19, 1799, an act was passed to punish arson by death. 

On August 24, 1805, under the authority of the Territory of Indiana, 
a stringent law was passed to prevent horse stealing. For the first offense, 
the thief might be required to pay the owner the value of the horse 
stolen, to receive two hundred stripes and be committed to jail until the 
value of the horse was paid. On a second conviction, the offender should 
suffer death. 



64 

By the same law, hog stealing was made punishable by a fine of not 
less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, and the thief 
might be given not to exceed thirty-nine lashes on his bare back. This 
same act provided a fine for swearing. 

By an act of October 2G, 1808, the law was further amended making 
horse stealing punishable by death and making the receiver equally guilty 
with the thief and also punishable by death. 

The governor and judges as legislators for the Territory of Indiana, 
dipped into the proposition of conclusive presumptions when, on Decem- 
ber 5 of that year, they passed an act to prevent altering and defacing 
marks and brands and the misbranding of horses, cattle and hogs. It 
l)rovided a penalty for misbranding equal to the value of the animal 
misbranded, ''one dollar and forty lashes on the bare back well laid on," 
and for a second offense, the same fine and "to stand in the pillory two 
hours and be branded in the left hand with a red hot iron with the letter 
"T" (meaning "thief"). 

It provided further that any person bringing to market or to ship 
"any hog, shoat or pig without ears, he or she so olTending shall Ix! 
adjudged a hog stealer." 

The first Territorial act to impose any duty upon counties was that 
"of August ], 1792, which required each county to build and maintain a 
coui't house, a jail, a pillory, whipping post and stocks. 

The whi])i)ing post, jullory and stocks were institutions of the law to 
which tliis State was subject from their institution in 1788 to 1832. 
This character of ])unishment was justified on the ground that there 
were no penitentiaries in which to confine criminals and there was still a 
sharp division of sentiment as to which, confinement or whipping, was the 
better mode of punishment, in 1829, when the movement for a peni- 
tentiary, led by the rough old liackwoodsman. John Ueynolds, afterwards 
Governor, was launched. 

DIVORCE. 

The first divorce law was passed by the governor and judges of the 
Northwest Territory July 15, 1795. It contained but three causes of 
absolute divorce; namely, (1) former wife or husband living at the time 
of marriage; (2) incomi)etency ; (3) adulteiy, and but one cause of 
divorce from bed and board, namely, extreme cruelly. Tracing divorce 
legislation through the territorial changes, it is found that the Legisla- 
tures, despite the fact that general laws existed, reserved to themselves 
the right to grant divorces outright. An amusing divorce act appears 
in the Session Laws of 1818. On January G of that year, an act was 
passed granting a divorce to Elizabeth J. Sj)ingy. Tiie act recites in the 
preamble that James Spingy, her husband, is unfaithful and it has beiMi 
represented to this Legislature that said Kli/.al)eth must l)e considerably 
injured if she cannot obtain a divorce sooner than in the ordinary way 
and emic'ts that the bands of nuitrimony are liereby dissolved. 

ELECTIONS. 
About Ihe only elections with which the people were concerned in 
territorial days were those of represiMitatives in the (^icneral .Vssembly 
alter the Territory attaiiiecj to tlie second grade of territorial govern- 



65 

ment. The greater territory got to that stage in 1T99 aud a compre- 
hensive election hiw was passed which reflects credit upon the framcrs; 
but it contained a striking provision with reference to the manner of 
voting. It provided that the elector should approach the bar in the 
election rooms and addressing the judges in an audible voice so as to be 
heard by the judges and poll keepers, mention by name the person or 
■persons he desired to vote for, and the poll keepers shall enter his vote 
accordingly. This was the viva voce vote. 

A few years later, an act was passed providing that all voting should 
be by written ballot, but on December 8, 1813, the Legislature of Illinois, 
"to prevent fraud and imposition," passed an act abolishing voting by- 
ballot and making only voting viva voce legal. 

Following the election laws a little further, we find that at the time 
of the adoption of the Constitution of 1818, a law was in force requiring 
all voting to be by ballot, but that, in 1821, the ballot law was again 
repealed and a provision made that the voting should be viva voce. In 
1823, an act was passed providing for voting by written or printed ballot. 
In 1834, voting by written or printed ballots was abolished, but in 1839, 
a new act was passed providing again for a written ballot. 

The Constitution of 1848 provided for a written or printed ballot 
and ever since we have voted in that way. 

PEEEIES. 

It is quite amusing to hit upon the small politics that sometimes 
influence public action. By an act of January 9, 1816, of the Illinois 
Territorial Legislature for regulating ferries, free ferriage was granted 
preachers of the Gospel but by an act of December 17 of the very next 
year, the provision for free ferriage for preachers of the Gospel was 
expressly repealed. 

FISHERIES. 

There were some special favors in these days also. By an act of 
December 29, 1817, "William Morrison, of Eandolph County, a familiar 
name in early Illinois history, was authorized to erect a dam three feet 
high, on the falls of the Kaskaskia Eiver, opposite the mouth of the 
Xine Mile Creek, for the pa]-pose of catching fish. As noted farther on, 
Mr. Morrison also secured a bridge franchise. Numerous ferries and 
several toll bridges were established in the same manner. 

JURY SERVICE. 

A change in the significance of words, perhaps, deprives the ladies 
of an argument that women were formerly qualified to serve on juries. 
An act of March 3, 1810, established the grand jury and provided that 
the sheriff should summon twenty-four ''house keepers" for grand jury 
service, and an act of December 25, 1812, provided that any "house 
keeper" was qualified to serve on any jury whatsoever. 

In later laws, the term has been changed to ^^louseholder." 

KASKASKIA. 

The Territorial Legislature of Indiana, sitting at Yincemi?s, on 
December 16, 1807, passed an act having an historic interest. The act 
— 5 H S 



66 

])iovidod fur tlie appointment of Michael Jones, Robert Robertson, George 
Fisher, John Edgar and William Morrison, as commissioners and the 
first board of trustees of the town of Kaskaskia. 'J'hey were authorised 
to appoint a clerk, an assessor and collector and empowered to levy a tax 
not exceeding 2 per centum on the value of lots for surveying the town, 
paying the expense of the officers and cleaning and keeping the streets iji 
repair. Subsequent boards were to be elected by the residents. All 
owners of lots in Kaskaskia resident therein were qualified to vote for 
trustees. Nothing appears in this act or in the ordinance of 1787 to 
prevent women from voting provided they were residents and owners of 
lots in Kaskaskia. 

LEGISLATURES. 

Under each Territorial government, acts were passed fixing the com- 
pensation of legislators and it is a matter of considerable interest that 
by the act of the very first Legislature of the greater territory, passed 
December 19, 1799, the compensation of members was fixed at three 
dollars per day for attendance and mileage at the rate of three dollars for 
every fifteen miles, "at the commencement and end of every session." 
Xo subsequent act contains that qualification. A difference of opinion 
has long existed as to whether legislators are entitled to their traveling 
expenses for necessary trips to and from the seat of government during 
the session or only at the beginning and end thereof. The omission of 
the restrictions in all acts since that of 1791, and in the three Constitu- 
tions would seem to indicate the intention to allow traveling oxpen.«es 
at other times besides the beginning and end of the session, but the 
Supreme Court has, within the year, held otherwise. 

In comparison with our present formidable appropriations, the 
appropriation acts of early Legislatures are real curiosities. The first 
one, that of 1799, and indeed, all of the Territorial appropriation acts, 
indicate the most rigid economy and provoke a smile at their comparative 
insignificance. 

LICENSES. 

It was quite common in early days to regulate the sale of any or all 
kinds of merchandise as well as liquor. The legislation of the greater 
territory on that subject included merchandise and liquors under the 
same acts. The Territory of Illinois imposed a general license for the 
sale of merchandise of fifteen dollars a year. 

LIQUOR. 

In all the early acfs authorizing the licensing of tavern-keejXM's. fair 
dealing and ])roper treafiiicnt of the ciislomers were the ])riiuipal aims. 
There was ])lainly no ])rejudice against the selling of li(]Uor, b\it a de- 
termined intent tiiat the public .should be well treated. 

To that end, the tavern-keeper was obliged to furnisli good eating 
and sleeping accommodations and to refrain from oviM-i'harging. The 
judges or others empowered to grant licenses were authorized to fix a 
scale of prices for board, lodging and drinks whirh must he rigidly 
adhered to under severe penalties. 



67 

MARRIAGES. 

The first law regulating marriages, to which the Illinois country was 
subject, required no formal license, except as an alternative to publica- 
tion, but simply an application to any of the judges of the General Court 
or of a County Court of Common Pleas, or to a minister of any religious 
society or congregation, or to the society of Quakers ; but it was provided 
that "previously to persons being joined in marriasfe * * * the in- 
tention of the parties shall be made known, by publishing the same for 
the space of fifteen days at the least, either by the same being publicly 
and openly declared three several Sundays, holidays or other days of 
public worship, in the meeting in the towns where the parties respectively 
belong, or by publication in writing, under the hand and seal of one of 
the judges before mentioned or a justice of the peace within the county, 
to be affixed in some public place in the town wherein the parties 
respectively dwell, or a license shall be obtained of the Governor, under 
his hand and seal, autliorizing the marriage of the parties without publi- 
cation, as is in this law before required." 

The law in relation to marriage was modified by the Territory of 
Indiana in 1806, to j)rovide that licenses might be issued by the clerks 
of the court of common pleas instead of the Governor, and by an act of 
September 17, 1807, of the Indiana Legislature, the provisions of the 
act of 1788 with regard to the publication of banns, was re-enacted. 

By an act of November 4, 1803, adopted by the Governor and judges 
of Indiana Territory, forcible and stolen marriages were forbidden and 
bigamy was declared a felony and made punishable by death. 

MILLS AND MILLERS. 

By an act of December 2, 1799, the milling business was quite 
minutely regulated. The act fixed the toll for grinding and bolting 
wheat and rye into flour at one-tenth part; for like service with respect 
to corn, oats, barley and buckwheat, one-seventh part; if the grain be 
only ground and not bolted, one-eighth part. For grinding malt and 
chopping rye, one-twentieth part. 

The proprietor of a horse mill was entitled to less toll than that of 
a water or wind mill. Penalties were imposed for taking excessive tolls 
and the miller was made accountable for all grain received and required 
to provide correct measures whereby to ascertain the toll, which must be 
compared with government standards. 

By act of August 24, 1805, the writ of ad quod damnum was intro- 
duced into our jurisprudence. Such writ might issue from the court of 
common pleas for the purpose of impaneling a jury to view mill sites and 
assess damages. 

The Legislature of Illinois in 1817 by an act of December 17, 
reduced somewhat the amount of toll which the miller might take for 
his services. 

PRISONS. 

By an act adopted in 1792, the sheriff and other officers were made 
responsible for the safe keeping of prisoners. If a prisoner escaped, the 
officer was severely punished, and if he were imprisoned for debt, the 
officer could be held liable for the debt. 



G8 

It is interesting to know that there has been on foot for several years 
past, a movement to have a stringent liability provision inserted in the 
statutes of tlie several states relating to mob^ law, riots and unlawful 
assemblies, and it is of still further interest to' find that the Legislature 
of the greater territory, by an act of December 19, 1799, repealed the 
liability provisions of the early law above referred to, expressly upon 
tlie ground that escapes were consummated by collusion in order that the 
officers miglit be held responsible. 

An act passed by tlie Territory of Indiana on September 17, 1807, 
and another by the Territory of Illinois on July 22, 1809, are genuine 
curiosities, as regulating the manner of holding prisoners in confinement, 
out of doors. The one providing for fixing a boundary, (200 yards at 
the highest), beyond which prisoners were not allowed to pass. It is 
presumable that when the prisoners were numerous, it was easier for them 
to escape, and consequently the act of 1809 provided that guards might 
be hired to keep them within the bounds, or if none could be found 
willing to engage for the purpose, power was given to impress guards. 

All of this was before we began building prison strongholds. 

PRIVILEGES. 

Privilege from arrest was quite extended in the early days. By an 
act of the Indiana Territory of September 17, 1807, virtually all per- 
sons performing any public duty were exempt from arrest during the 
performance of such duty. No person could be arrested while doing 
military duty or while going to or returning from parade. None could be 
arrested on Sunday or in any place of religious worship or in either 
House of the Legislature during its sitting, or in any court during the 
sitting thereof, nor on the Fourth of July. These exemptions did not. 
however, extend to charges of treason and felony. 

REVENUE. 

It is quite po])uhir nowadays to advocate the levy of a tax upon 
bachelors, but it is by no means new. As early as June 19, 1795, the 
Governor and judges of the Northwest Territory included a tax of $1.00 
per head on single men, and such a tax was imposed throughout the 
territorial period. 

The Governor and judges of the Illinois Territory by an act of July 
20, 1809, fixed a license of $15.00 per annum for the sale of merchandise, 
and the Territorial Legislature of Illinois by an act of December 52, 
1814, levied a tax of $40.00 annually on billiard tables. 

By an act of January 9, 181 G, the tax on billiard tables was raised 
from $40.00 to $150.00 ;'$100.00 to go to the Territorial treasury and 
$50.00 to the county treasury. 

It became tlie settled policy of the several territories to levy a tax 
on Dunkards and (^)nnkers as a consideration for their b(>ing released from 
military duly, and a similar provision as to all persons having scruples 
against military duty still exists in the Constitution of 1870. 



69 

ROADS AND BRIDGES. 

As early as August 1, 1792, the inhabitants of the various localities 
were required to work upon the roads and keep them in good condition. 
The road laws of 1792 and 1799 were very comprehensive acts. 

By an act of the Illinois Territorial Legislature of January 6, 1818, 
Mr. "William Morrison, of whom we have before spoken, was granted 
power to build a floating bridge over the Kaskaskia Eiver, in the county 
of Washington, at his own expense, and he was empowered to collect as 
toll the same rates as ferries, for seven years. 

It was further provided that "no one shall build a bridge within 
three miles thereof." This was the first toll bridge act. 

SERVANTS. 

The first of the "Black Laws" which played such an important part 
in the history of this State and which were in reality devices for the 
evasion of the provisions against slavery contained in the ordinance of 
1787 was passed by the Territory of Indiana, September 22, 1803. It 
was several times amended and enacted into the laws of the Territory of 
Illinois. It was against these laws that Lovejoy and the other anti- 
slavery men railed and these laws were the culminating influence upon 
slavery in Illinois. 

TRESPASS. 

Our forefathers were direct if anything. In many cases instead of 
putting an aggrieved person to the trouble of bringing several suits or 
prosecutions, relief was afforded in a single proceeding; as, for instance, 
the act of August 15, 1795, to prevent trespassing by cutting of timber, 
provided that any one convicted of such trespass should pay to the owner 
for black walnut trees, white wood, wild cherry or blue ash cut down, 
$8.00, and for any other kind of a tree, $3.00. 

VAGRANCY. 

For several years past, there has been, a great deal of agitation con- 
cerning the manner of jailing delinquents, thus depriving their families 
of their support, and it is suggested that such persons be obliged to work 
and their earnings, or part thereof, be available for the support of their 
families. The Indiana Territory accomplished this purpose nearly one 
hundred and ten years ago. By an Act of September 14, 1807, concern- 
ing vagrants, it was provided that "every person suspected of getting 
his livelihood by gaming, every able-bodied person found loitering and 
wandering about, having no visible property and who doth not betake 
himself to labor or some honest calling ; all persons who quit their habita- 
tion and leave their wives and children, without suitable means of sub- 
sistence, and all other idle, vagrant and dissolute persons ramblinsr about 
without any visible means of subsistence, shall be deemed and considered 
vagrants." 

The act further provided for arrest of all such and upon conviction 
that such as are adult, shall be hired out by the sheriff and their earnings 
paid to their families, if they are in need of them, and if not, to the dis- 
charge of their debts. 



70 

It further provided that if no one woidd hire them, such vagrant 
should receive not to exceed thirty-nine lashes. Adults migiit be dis- 
charged by giving bond conditioned upon their going to work and keeping 
at it. If the vagrant be a minor, lie sliaM be bound out until of age. 

These are a few of the striking laws selected from the great body of 
our Territorial legislation. It is not intended to indicate that the odd 
laws ended with the organization of the State. As a matter of fact, there 
were some very striking acts adopted by the State Legislature; such, for 
instance, as the act of February 14, 1823, making drastic regulations 
concerning the sale by peddlers of wooden clocks, which no doubt resulted 
from numerous frauds committed by peddlers in the pioneer community. 
Or such as the act of January 17, 1825, which prohibited justices of the 
peace from receiving payment upon any claim or demand placed in their 
hands for collection, passed, no doubt, as a result of numerous failures 
of J. P.'s to turn over their collections. 

All these acts illustrate the statement made early in this paper, that 
law is the essence of the activities of the community. It arises from what 
is being done in the community and is the final record of the community 
mind. It is, therefore, the most reliable historical criteria. 



71 



EARLY PRESBYTERIANISM IN EAST CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 



(Rev. Ira W. Allen, A. M., D. D., Paris, 111.) 

Let me ask you to call upon your historical imagination and paint 
in the inner chambers of the mind a picture, indeed, a pictorial series. 

A farm in Kentucky is the background of the first scene. A mis- 
sionary has just started for the New Purchase in Indiana. It is Sep- 
tember of the year 1822. The day is one of golden sunshine and almost 
summer warmth. The pioneer sits upon the driver's seat of a covered 
wagon, holding the reins that guide four horses, and beside him sits 
his wife holding a two-year old girl in her lap. Trom the rear an older 
girl looks out. 

Within are the supplies usual for a migration to a home in the 
wilderness, but in addition to these are a few books and some missionary 
reports as well as the minister's Bible. 

Scene second: A lovely autumn day is coming to a close. Kot by 
the roadside, for their is no road, but in a glen stands a covered wagon. 
Not far away four hobbled horses are eagerly biting the half dried grass. 
A camp fire is burning beneath a giant hickory, and near it sits the 
missionary's wife. A large iron kettle is suspended by a long pole 
sloping high enough above the fire not to burn. The pole's lower end 
is under a log. It runs upward supported by a forked branch driven in 
the ground. The older child is feeding the fire. The father is picking 
the feathers from a wild turkey. A rifie lies on the ground beside him. 
The youngest child is asleep in her mother's arms. 

Scene third : It is raining steadily. The horses are sinking every 
step into a miry road. Their sweaty coats steam in the rain as they 
struggle slowly onward. In great coat and coonskin cap the missionary 
sits on the driver's seat. The back flaps of the wagon are drawn down 
tight. He is the only human being visible. The wagon wheels sink, 
sometimes sharply and deeply. Then the smoking horses strain against 
their collars and the wheels give curious sucking sounds in the water 
and mud. Around a curve the wagon disappears. 

Scene fourth : A log cabin stands where great trees have been 
cleared away. Near it are some stumps, testifying by their size to the 
forest giants that fell before the missionary's axe. Between the logs of 
the cabin walls appear the chips that await the plaster to make them 
firm and keep the wind away. The rough stone chimney is unfinished, 
but smoke is coming from it. Little patches of snow are on the gi'ound. 
The clearing is shut in on every side by mighty trees. 

Scene fifth: The cabin is finished. AAQiite plaster, flush with the 
outside of the squared logs, shows in all the cracks and crevices. The 
chimney is up to its full height; A door squarely fills in the doorway, 
with a leather thong hanging out through a small hole where the knob 



72 

« 

of a modern door would be. The clearing is much larger aud iu oue 
place young corn is growing and bean vines are showing themselves. On 
one log of the cabin is roughly carved : ''Cottage of Peace." 

Scene sixth: Under the trees of a grove a small settlement are 
gathered some scores of people. Of homespun goods are their clothing, 
rough and clumsy their shoes. They are all brown from the sun and 
wind. They all face one way and their heads are bowed, for with uplifted 
face the missionary is praying. On many cheeks are tears, but it is very 
still in the grove. The only sounds are the missionary's voice and the 
stirring of the leaves. 

Scene seventh : In the corner of a room so small as to seem a 
toy room, a chamber of a child's playhouse, is a bed of poles and skins. 
On it lies an emaciated, white haired woman. Beside it sits the mis- 
sionary. A Bible is open in his hands. To the dying woman he reads 
the words of Jesus : 

''My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me ; 

And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, 
neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand." 

Mr. President, unless some such pictures illustrate the text which 
is to follow, it will seem dry and juiceless, as lifeless as a survcyoi-'s 
description. To understand at all what a farm is, after we have read a 
legal designation of its metes and bounds, we must picture its fields and 
meadows, its spring and its woodlot, its fertility and lush life. These 
last indeed give the farm its value and make its legal description worth 
the writing. 

So is it in this paper. The real religion, the desire for God, the 
longing for eternal life, the aspiration for noble living, the craving for 
some assurance of acceptance with God, the hunger of the heart for the 
divine sympathy and compassion, and the complete satisfaction of all 
these desires in the simple gospel preached by the missionary — these give 
the real meaning to the accounts which follow. 

Further, the hardships and struggles of pioneer life did not smother 
these desires, nor the dangers of river and wilderness deter the mis- 
sionary. Sacrifice and courage on his part and on theirs, faith, prayer, 
trust and persistence in religious duties on his part and on theirs, must 
be understood to get the real significance of the organization of Illinois' 
early churches. 

The Presbyterian history of eastern Illinois really begins with the 
coming of isolated members of that church from eastern states, princi- 
pally Ohio, Virginia, and east Tennessee. Here and there a communicant 
could be found in one of the log cabins, in the forests or on the edgv 
of the prairie, who longed for the coming of a missionary, desiring to hear 
the gospel preached and to partake of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper. 

How real that longing was in many breasts may be judged from the 
fact that often a man or a woman would walk eight or ten miles to attend 
a meeting, would ride or drive twenty or thirty. But the formation of 
churches began when the IJev. Isaac Heed, a minister of a little pioneer 
church in Owen County, Indiana, and a missioiuiry of the Connecticut 
Missionary Society crossed the Wabash Biver on a journey to Paris. 111. 



73 

There he organized the first churcli in this section of our State. I quote 
from a report he made and from his diary, 

"The Cottage of Peace, Ind., No%^emher 24, 1824/" 

GOOD NEWS FROM THE FRONTIER. 

"I have just returned from a short missionary tour across the 
Wabash. I was as far out as Paris, Edgar County, Illinois. Indeed this 
was the point of my principal aim. I went by the particular and earnest 
solicitation of some people, in that vicinity, (who had removed there from 
Ohio and from East Tennessee, but whom I had never seen) that I would 
come and bring them into church order. They had been about two years 
there with their families, and no minister had yet found his way to their 
settlement. The appointment had been a good while made, and I was 
therefore expected. Brother D. Whitney also went with me. We crossed 
the Wabash three miles above Fort Harrison the fourth inst. That night 
we had a meeting two and a half miles from the river. There were 
present three female members of our church, all of them from the state 
of Kew York, One had been seven years there, and the others four years ; 
neither had been at communion since they came into the country, nor had 
they heard a sermon for almost two years — and this purely because they 
had no opportunity. The next day at evening we began our meeting in 
the neighborhood of Paris. Nothing unusual appeared. The people 
seemed pleased to receive us, and in the prospect of a church and the 
sacrament. 

"On the sixth we preached in town. It was a new and small place, 
though the seat of justice of Edgar County. The services were performed 
in a schoolhouse. Whilst preaching, a very uncommon solemnity and 
deep attention seemed to prevail. Numbers were affected to tears. After 
sermon the church was constituted out of the members present. They 
were twelve ; three elders were chosen. An examination then commenced 
of persons who desired to become members; and on the following day, 
thirteen were admitted on examination, and another by letter, making 
twent5^-six. Four adults were baptized. And a very deep and tender 
impression seemed to exist in the minds of many of the hearers - -many 
shed tears, and confessed, when enquired of, that their minds v/ere 
awakened into concern for their souls. It seemed that a revival of the 
Lord's work was begun. They had for nearly two years kept up society 
meetings on the Sabbath, and seemed to have desired and hoped and 
prayed for a preacher to come and see them, until they were prepared, 
when he came, to receive him as sent them of the Lord ; and they seemed 
to wish to attend to his message and to follow the Lord's will. The 
eighth we constituted a Bible Society auxiliary to the American, and 
left them. But we did not so soon leave the traces of the Lord's work. 
Where we held a meeting that night, a woman convinced of sin, when 
repentance was the subject of discourse, wept aloud. 

"The next day we had preaching seven miles further toward the 
Wabash; here also members seemed concerned, and at night, in another 
part of the settlement, five miles distant, it was yet more manifest. There 
were several children baptized; one household of eight; and two days 
after, six persons were admitted on examination to the communion of the 
church. 



74 

"111 short ill livo days we cxaiuiiied and admitted iiiiietecii persons 
to communion, constituted a church in a settlement beyond the point to 
wliich any of our ministers hefore had traveled — administered the 
Sacrament twice, baptized four adults and nineteen children." 

Now I read an extract from the I?ev. Isaac Iteed's diary: 

"A Macedonian call had been sent me at Vinceunes, the first week 
of Au^st, from Paris, 111. ; I had returned word I would come. 

"Sept. 14th, 1825. — I left the Cottage of Peace on my way to 
preach the gospel to them. Pode 25 miles and preached at 5 o'clock p. in. 
Baptized 5 children. This was the household of one of the members of 
the new formed congregation of Greencastle." 

"15th. — Started at sunrise, and went on to Greencastle, 5 miles to 
breakfast; found my friend Mrs. — , very sick of a fever. Prayed 
with her . Hope she may recover. Stopped only for breakfast and went 
on. Passed through 17 miles woods with only a single cabin. Met and 
passed numbers on the road. Though very new, it is the leading way 
from Ohio to the upper parts of Illinois, and near where the Xational 
road is expected to pass. Rode this day 31 miles, and stopped with ^Ir. 
Samuel Adams; found the woman ill. Spent the evening in reading 
loud to the family a printed missionary report, and part of two sermons."' 

"16th. — Started at sunrise, and rode to Mr. T's, 4 miles. He is an 
elder of our little church, on Big Eaccoon Creek. It was formed near 
three years ago, by a missionary of the General Assembly, l)ut has no 
minister nor meeting house, nor meeting, except when a missionary 
comes along. Went on through a very lonely and wet tract, 10 miles to 
the Wabash Piver. Crossed it 12 miles above Fort Harrison, a place 
famous in the late war. Pode 14 miles further to Mr. M'C — 's, where I 
had appointed to preach. This is on an arm of the Grand Prairie in 
Illinois." 

"On my way I met a man whom I had known 6 years ago at Xew 
Albany. He had been used to attend my ministry, but I had not known 
anything of him since. Enquired of him respecting his mind — found it 
troubled and dark, without a Christian hope; but uneasy. Exhorted him, 
and requested him to come to the meeting at Paris. This prairie has a 
grand and beautiful appearance. It is dry, grassy, and flowered. 
Preached — the attention was good. Had an interesting conference with 
the man of the house, his wife and another woman. They are zealous 
Cliristians in their first love; each has united with tlu' cliurcli in less 
than a year." 

"17th. — Pode into Paris S miles. ]\Iet the congregation at the 
(ourt iiouse. Preached immediately. Text, Act 1():10. A large number 
of hearers and very good attention. Ordained a ruling elder and gave a 
charge to him, and another to the congregation. Held a meiHing with 
the session; examined and received 2 jiersons, both young converts. 
Preached again at night to a numerous ami solemn assembly." 

"Paris is the county seat of Edgar County, but is a very small ])hu'«' 
of about 8 cabins. It lies on the prairie. The church here was formed 
by my ministry, last Novendxn-. with twelve members. It seemed in a 
state of revival, aiul I left i( with 26. Sixteen had been added — 
Now 42." 



75 

"18th. — Sabbath. Hekl prayer meeting at the court house half 
after nine a. m. Baptized one adult. Preached and administered the 
Lord's Supper. There were three tables. A large number of hearers, 
very well behaved. Eode 4iA miles to lodge. Eead aloud to the family 
a missionary report. 

"19tli. — Eode to Paris and preached at 11 a. m. The sermon was 
a funeral one for Mr. John Young, missionary, who died at Vincennes, 
Aug. 15th, aged 28 years. He had spent some months with these people, 
Avhere his labors appear to have been greatly blessed. Dined and took 
leave of these interesting people. They are anxious to obtain a minister, 
and I hope they can soon support one. Eode 10 miles and preached 
at night." 

"20th. — Eode 9 miles to ISTew Hope meeting house. Met the congre- 
gation and preached the same funeral sermon as yesterday. Here, too, 
Mr. Y. had labored — been successful, and was much beloved. It was a 
feeling time. Baptized 1 adult and 1 infant. This is a wonderful society. 
It has grown up from 9 to 70 members in 10 months, and there seems 
still a reviving influence. They subscribed $10 toward printing the 
funeral sermon. They have built a new meeting house. Preached again 
at night, and baptized four children.'' 

"21st. — Found where there is a pious lad, now a scholar of the 
Sabbath school; anxious to learn and makes great proficiency. I expect 
he is to be called to the ministry. Eode 11 miles to the village Terre 
Haute. This is a singular place — has about 200 population and much 
mercantile business. It has no religious society of any order. But at 
present a great disposition to hear preaching. And its gentlemen have 
formed a Sabbath reading meeting at the court house. They read printed 
sermons. There is also a new-formed Bible society and there is a small 
Sabbath school. I am told, $300 salary might be raised here for a 
preacher. Preached to a large congregation at night. In the afternoon, 
visited and prayed with the school." 

"22d. — This day was rainy. Eode 21 miles — rested for the night; 
but not without being solicited to preach." 

''■23d. — Preached a funeral sermon for the death of a married 

woman — she has left children. Eode 13 miles and lodged at D 's on 

Eaccoon Creek — this is a Presbyterian family from Ireland." 

"24th. — Eepassed the long woods to Greencastle, 18 miles — preached 
at night. My friend appears recovering from her fever, but is very 
weak." 

"25th. — Eose early and retired to the woods. Visited and pra3'ed 
with a sick woman. Met the congregation — prayed — ordained a ruling 
elder, and gave him and the congregation a charge. Preached and 
administered the Lord's Supper, in the new church at Greencastle. 
There were few to commune, but many to hear — went home with the 
elder. When we entered his house, his son was weeping aloud. The 
Bible lay open on the table — and the first words he spoke were, "The 
Lord has found me." He seemed greatly agitated and distressed. I 
endeavored to direct him to the Savior and read and explained to him 
and the family the parable of the Prodigal son." 



76 

"26th. — The young man was still serious but more calm. Left him 
a reference to some chapters. RoJe home about 24 miles and found my 
family in peace. I had been absent 13 days — rode 222 miles — preached 
13 sermons — administered the Lord's Supper in 2 churches — ordained a 
ruling elder in each church — baptized 2 adults and 6 children." 

And now the account of the organization of the Paris church from 
the minutes of the meeting: 

"At a meeting held in the schoolhouse at Paris, Illinois, Xovember 
6th, 1824, after public worship, the following persons, members of the 
Presbyterian church were by prayer solemnly constituted into a church, by 
the name of the Presbyterian Church of Paris: John Bovcll, William 
Means, James Eggleton, Adriel Stout, Amzi Thompson, Samuel Vance, 
Christian Bovell, Nancy Thompson, Barbara Alexander, Elizabeth 
Blackburn, Hannah Baird, Mary Vance." 

"Samuel Vance, John Bovcll, and William Means were then unani- 
mously elected Ruling Elders — they each having held that office in other 
congregations." 

"The Session then held a meeting to examine persons for member- 
ship, when, at a meeting on Sabbath morning, Nov. 7th, the follow- 
ing were examined and admitted to communion : James Ashmore, Cas- 
sandra Ashmore, Rebecca Ives, Susanna Means, Elizabeth Jones, Polly 
Wayne, Eliza Stout, Jane Ewing, Margaret Crozier, Betsy Burr, Miron 
Ives, Sarah Ives, Asenath McKown, Rachel Ashmore. 

Four of these, viz : Mrs. Means, i\Iiss Ashmore, Mr. Ives and Mrs. 
Ives, his wife, were baptized; and the communion was administered. 

Isaac Reed, Moderator. 

(Copy from the Original, abridged May 22, '27. Sam'l Vance, 
Clerk.)" 

Here are further records of early Presbyterian activity in church 
organization : 

"The Records of New Providence Church, Edgar Co., 111." 

"According to previous notice a number of people of the settlement 
of Sugar Creek met at the house of Mr. Martin Ray on the 15th of May, 
1829, for the express purpose of organizing a Presbyterian ChurcJi. 



"The Revd. Clayborne Young being present oi)ened the meeting with 
prayer, presided and by appointment acted as temjwrary clerk. Motion 
being made, an election was held, for two persons to serve as Ruling 
Elders and the votes being counted it appeared that Messrs. Alexander 
Ewing, 2nd and John W. McNutt were duly elected and this election was 
])ublicly announced and the meeling then adjourned until Saturday the 
16th, Concluded with prayer." 

"Saturday, May IGth, 1829 Messrs. A. Ewing and J. W. McNutt 
having signafyed their willingness to serve and presented certificates from 
New Providence church (E. Tenn.) were sollemnly ordained of this 
church according to the Presbyterian form of govcTument. A door was 
then opened for the admission of members — the following persons were 
then received as UKMulx'rs of this church." 

"See Tabular Eorm No. 1, ])age W'l. 

Alexanukr Ewing, CVk. 



77 

Sabbath, May 17th. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered." 

"Monday, 18th. Session convened, Revd. C. Young, Moderator and 
rocd. on Profession iSrc." 

"See Form No. 1, page 112." 

Turning to page 112 of the same book we find ruled columns ex- 
tending across the two leaves of the opened book. It is the "Form N"o. 
1," referred to in the minutes. Across the tops of the extended pages 
is written : 

"Form No. 1. Acts of the Session." 

The columns from left to right have the following headings : 

"Names, When Eecd., How Eecd., Baptized, Dismissed, Suspended, 
Excommunicated, Eestored, Died." 

Here we find the names of the charter members : 

Thomas Art, Mary Art, Elven Tucker, Elizabeth Tucker, Margaret 
L. Ewing, Elizabeth McNutt, George Ewing, Elen Ewing, Martin "Eay, 
Jane Ewing, Eachel Ewing, Eliza I. Tucker, Nathaniel Ewing, Elisa- 
beth Ewing, Margaret Eay. 

To these names must, of course, be added those of Alexander 
Ewing and John W. McNutt, the elders elected. Thus the church was 
organized with seventeen members. 

The following records of historic value explain themselves: 

"At a meeting held in Palestine, Crawford County, Illinois, on the 
14th, 15th and 16th of May, Anno Domini 1831, attended by the Eevd. 
Isaac Eeed and the Eevd. John Montgomery, the following persons, 
members of the Presbyterian church from different parts, gave in -their 
names and requested to be set apart and constituted into a Presbyterian 
church, to be called the Palestine church. And after due enquiry and 
examination they were set apart by prayer and constituted into a church, 
(viz:) John Houston, (sen.) and Nancy Houston Ann Logan, Jane 
Houston, Eliza Houston, "Wilson Lagow and Nancy Lagow, Alfred G. 
Lagow, James Eagleton, James Caldwell, Phebe Morris and Anna Piper. 
These were constituted into a church on the 14th and on the next day 
there were added Margaret Eagleton, John Malcom and Ann Malcom 
and Hannah Wilson (Sen.)" 

"The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered and an 
election held for two ruling elders when John Houston and Wilson* 
Lagow were duly elected. Jolm Houston being already an ordained 
elder, Wilson Lagow was ordained on the 16th and a charge was given to 
both the elders and to the congregation. 

Signed, 
Isaac Eeed, Missionary of B. M. G. A." 

The little village of Grandview, ten miles southeast of Paris, has 
a history of idyllic flavor. A foresighted pioneer named John Tate 
gathered a party in Augusta County, Ya., and led them to Illinois, where 
they arrived in September, 1837. 

They came in wagons and by families. In this spot on the Grand 
Prairie they settled, giving it a name it well deserved. West and north 
they had as boundary to their view only the horizon. East and south 



78 

llicy looked to great woods. Fertilitv and beaiitv combined said to them: 
"Here shall ye stay !" 

The thoughtfuliiess of these emigrants and their liigh valuation of 
religion and education appear when it is known that they brought with 
them their minister and school teacher, the Kev. John A. Steele, and 
their doctor, a brotlier of the clergyman. 

Immediately divine service was held after the simple Presbyterian 
fashion in their houses, but the following year a church building was 
erected. The congregation was constituted a church in proper ecclesi- 
astical form qn the twent3'-seventh day of July, 1838. 

The record follows : 

'•Gkaxdview, Jultj 27, ISSS. 

Notice having been jjreviously given that a Presbyterian church 
would be organized at this place on this day, immediately after sermon, 
the Rev. John A. Steele, a missionary of the Board of Missions of the 
General Assembly, having received certificates or other satisfactory 
evidence of church membership from the following persons, viz : James 
Hite, Ann W. Kite, John Tate, Nancy Tate, Robert M. Tate, Susan 
Tate, Margaret I. Tate, Jacob S. Brown, Ellen B. Brown, Wm. A. Cale, 
Sarah Cale, John Shultz, Susan Shultz, Catherine Steele, Rachel France, 
Matthias Snapp, proceeded to organize them into a church. On motion 
Joseph Brown was chosen secretary of the meeting. On motion it was 
resolved that four persons be elected ruling elders in this church and the 
following persons being nominated to that effect, to-wit : James Hite, 
Wm. A. Cale, John Tate and Joseph Brown were elected. On motion it 
was resolved that this church be known as the Presbyterian Church of 
Grandview. 

On motion Robert M. Tate was elected treasurer. 

Adjourned w^ith jirayer. 

Joseph M. Brown, Secretary of the meeting." 

These, Mr. President, arc the names of the early Presbyterians of 
East Central Illinois and these are the records of meetings that meant 
much to the organizers of the churches and were intlueiitinl for good 
then and to the present day. 



79 



"SIXTY YEARS IN CHICAGO." 



(By William J. Onahan.) 

It is a long, \ er}' lung look baL'kward to strive to recall the memories 
and recollections of sixty j^ears; to go back to that earlier and brighter 
period of life when the future was all before us — with its prospects, its 
enthusiasms, its visions, and its hopes. And sixty years of Chicago life 
and experiences now seems like a century ! It brings us back to primi- 
tive conditions so different in many respects from what we are now 
accustomed to — not indeed so far back as the early pioneer days of the 
1830's when Chicago had its beginning. My recollections go back to 
1851 — when I first set foot in Chicago. 

It was before the days of horse cars, no electric conveyances had 
then been invented — The Killomobile — was undreamt of. AVe made our 
limited trips within the city on foot or by omnibus — these latter made 
the journey on the south side from the Courthouse to State and Twelfth 
Streets — over a planked roadway — on the Avest side to Halsted Street 
and later to the "'Bulls Head" — now Ashland Avenue and on the north 
side to Chicago Avenue. Pedestrian exercise Avithin the city was in 
those days a precarious and often a perilous experience owing to the 
inequality of the sidewalks — scarcely any hundred feet being on the 
same level. It was up and doAAai — up and down — all the time nor did 
the street offer an inviting alternative since few if any were paved. 

There Avere no "^'sky scrapers" in those days — the buildings seldom 
rose higher than three stories and the third story Avas usually difficult 
to rent— there being no elevators to ease the burden of climbing. The 
population of Chicago AA'hen I came was I should say principally from 
New England and Old Ireland. The German population had begun to 
arrive, but there Avere fcAV or no Poles or Italians — and none at all of the 
various slavic peoples Avho now form so numerous a part of Chicago's 
population. 

The New England or strictly American citizens mostly engaged in 
commercial pursuits — these controlled the business interests of the city. 
My countrymen AA'ere engaged in the more laborious and less profitable 
employments — and of course had already begun to be quite an influence 
and factor in local politics — almost all being Democrats and naturally 
ardent and devoted folloAA^ers of Senator Douglas. Since I am speaking 
of the Irish element in Chicago alloAv me to quote and adopt as my OAvn 
judgment this testimony to their influence and character, AA^hich T find 
opportunely at hand. It is from the pen of James O'Shaughnessy, Presi- 
dent of the Irish FelloAvship Club. 

"The Irish in Chicago's History, by James O'Shauo-hnessy, former 
President Irish FelloAvship Cluli. Irish influence in Chicago from the 
beginning of its continuing history has been large. The first Fort 
Dearborn was built by an Irish-born soldier of the revolution. The first 



80 

mau to till a farm and tlie first white family to which a child was born, 
as well as the first to teach a school where now Chicago stands, were all 
Irish. The two heroes of the Fort Dearborn massacre were Irish. The 
beginning of Chicago proper was made possible by the influence in 
Franco of an Irishman who found the money for the Illinois and Mich- 
igan Canal. The first man of prominence, influence and ability to 
])roclaim Chicago a future great city was an Irit^hman. The first great 
builder of churches, hospitals and institutions of learning that attracted 
the first large influx of Irish homcbuilders was an Irish bishop. Since 
its corporate existence the percentage of Irish in its population has been 
very large — and so potent as to exert a marked influence on the com- 
mercial spirit, civil pride and social life of the community. 

It is chiefly through Irish influence that Chicago has preserved a 
higher moral tone than any other very large city in history. The Irish 
have built more churches, hospitals and charitable institutions than all 
the other nationalities in Chicago, and every one of them is as free to 
the people of other races as to their own. Leaving out the public schools, 
the Irish have built more schools than all others in Chicago and the Irish 
chiefly maintain these schools privately, but hold them open to all. 

The Irish are not gregarious — they arc not apart in any quarter 
of the city. They give themselves to all the communities out of the love 
of common welfare. They deserve well of this city of Chicago. All 
they ask of it is that they may continue as their generation before them, 
holding Chicago to its distinctions as the fairest, most Just and kindliest 
— the most democratic of large cities — the most affectionately favored 
by Divine Providence." 

This brings to mind an Irishman who was a well known character 
in my early days — Doctor William B. Egan. Although by ]irofession a 
physician he was more given to real estate — than to pills and potions. 
Once when prescribing for an old lady she asked him "IIow often am T 
to take this. Doctor"? The Doctor who at the moment was thinking of 
his real estate deals absently replied — ''Oh — a quarter down. The bal- 
ance canal time, one, two and three years" — the terms for land deals then 
much in vogue. I heard another story of Dr. Egan worih tolling. The 
Doctor I should say was a man of fine education, a classical scholar and 
an attractive public speaker. He had been nominated by the Whig party 
for the oflice of Lieutenant Governor — unlike most of his countr}inen 
in C'hicago — he was a AVhig — of course, he was not elected — But to 
the story: At the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal a grand 
celebration was planned to be held at the Chicago end. or beginning — 
at Bri(lgc]K)rt at the time and for long afterwards settled by Irish people 
— many of whom had been engaged in work on the canal. 

For this celebration Dr. Egan was selected as the orator of the 
occasion. The time was midsummer, and naturally a crowd was expected. 
The Doctor had taken thought as to the conditions and being largely 
interested in Bridge]iort lots he conceived a plan for unloading a few. 

The niglit before the celebration he sent out a barrel of Bourbon 
whiskey — which then was verv cheap, and had it dumped into a well that 
had been opened to provide the thirsty aiid ]i<'rspiring crowd with liquid 
solace. 



81 

The heat of the clay and tlie crowds quickly drew the people to the 
well— and there sure enough it was flowing with tempting toddy ! This 
was a revelation and a temptation — and it is said every Irishman in the 
crowd — hurried to the Doctor's agent who, providently had a real estate 
shanty nearby in order to secure a lot in the near vicinity of the wonder- 
ful well ! I don't know anything of the Doctor's speech on the occasion, 
but I should guess he must have unloaded a good many lots by his 
ingenious Bourbon ruse. The allusion to the canal brings to mind that 
Irish labor, as Ave know, was largely employed in its construction — 
moreover an Irishman named Eyan did the most difficult and skillful 
work in the engineering problems incident to the work — and the same 
Eyan, when the State of Illinois was hard pressed for funds to carry 
on the canal work was sent to London and there negotiated a loan from 
the Baring Brothers — Bankers, which enabled the State to tide over its 
financial difficulties and pay the canal contractors. 

It may be of interest here to note that the Irish settlements along 
the lino of the Illinois and Michigan Canal from Joliet to LaSalle — 
was due in part at least to the hampered condition of the State finances. 
When the State was unable to pay the canal contractors the alternative 
of land scrip or land warrants was resorted to. These gave the holders 
the right to take upland within the limits of the grant given by the 
TJ. S. Government in aid of the canal. So it was that Irishmen in 
large numbers, who as contractors or laborers, were engaged in the 
work, failing to get cash, took the land scrip and so settled on the land 
contiguous to the canal, thus making the Irish settlements once well 
known from Joliet to LaSalle. 

To have lived sixty years in Chicago — to have seen it grow from an 
ambitious sprawling town of sixty or seventy thousand, to a mighty 
world renowned city of nearly three millions ; to have known and been in 
touch with the men and the great interests that worked for and made 
possible this marvelous growth and development — would be, I might 
say subject for a long story. My unambitious aim is merely to recall in 
these random recollections to recall the public men and other notable 
personages my opportunities brought me in touch with — who figured 
in the public life of the city in my time. Perhaps I may be expected 
to offer in proof of my experience the credentials entitling me to credit. 
My opportunities I may say were in some respects exceptional. 

Of the sixty years I am dealing with more than twenty were 
employed in the service of the city of Chicago in different stations, which 
naturally brought me in contact with the public men of the city and its 
principal citizens. 

I was at an early period, 1863, elected by the common council — 
as the rule then was — a member of the school board — filling the vacancy 
caused by the death of Walter L. Newberry — My associates on the board 
at the time — were John Wentworth, Deacon Carpenter, Dr. Foster, Eev. 
D. Eyder, James W. Sheahan, Eedmond Princeville — all of these my 
seniors in years and in experience and capacity. I was later, in 1869, 
elected city collector on the ticket with Col. E. B. Mason for mayor 
and David A. Page, city treasurer. 

— 6 H S 



82 

Ten years afterwards when the same oflice had been made an 
appointive one I was appointed by flavor JIanison and held it four 
or live times in succession — subsequently 1 held the ollice of comptroller 
under Mayor Cregier. I had already served three years as a member of 
the public library board, one year as president. My latest public service 
was on the first jury commission of which I was likewise president — I 
mention these facts regarding my public service not assuredly from 
vanity or ostentation but merely to emphasize my opportunities for 
acquiring the knowledge of men and aifairs. It will be seen by this 
list of positions how much I owe to Chicago and its peoi)le. 

I was early trusted with positions of dignity and responsibility. I 
am proud to have enjoyed the confidence of the people — and I shall ever 
feel grateful for this high trust given to me in early and later years. 
The consi)icuous iigures in Illinois politics in my early days were 
.Senators l)ouglas and Shields. The latter who had such a memorable 
l>ublic career was then passing out of Illinois — as he had failed of 
re-election to the U. S. Senate — and moved to Minnesota where he 
gathered an Irish Colony. He was chosen one of the first U. S. Senators 
from Minnesota, and later in life ( — he was a great rover — ) he was 
appointed to fill a vacancy, V. S. Senator from Missouri — so that Shields 
had the unique distinction of having been U. S. Senator for three states. 
For his services to Illinois, and to the luition in the ^lexiian War and 
the Kebellion, deservedly has Illinois placed his statue in the National 
Memorial Hall, Washington, i came to know General Shields in the 
later years of his eventful life and I frequently heard from him at my 
own fireside, stories of his war experience in j\Iexico and in the Civil 
AVar. He was said to be the only Federal General who "whipped Stone- 
Avall Jackson" — although I fancy it was ratlier that it suited Jackson's 
plans to abandon the field to his op]xuient. 

Senator Douglas had become the idol of the Illinois Democracy. 
I heard him speaking from the balcony of the Trenu)nt House in one 
of his most famous speeches, which resulted in the nomination of Lincoln 
for the Presidency — though Douglas won in the issue then in question, 
the U. S. Senatorship for Illinois. 

I would not be an impartial witness — even now of the merits of 
the discussion in the famous debates. I was then a young Douglas 
enthusiast, and had little or no esteem for his rival. I marched in the 
funeral procession of Senator Douglas from Bryan Hall where he had 
been carried from the Tremont House (where he died) to the site of 
tlie present Douglas monument, where his remains were laid. Bishop 
Duggan, tlie Catholic bishoji of Chicago, delivered the oration at the 
gi'ave, the Senator ha\ iiig been received into the churdi in his last days. 

I remember seeing Lincoln in Si)ringiield sonu^ years before liis 
election to tlie Presideiu-y — the next time was when his l)ody lay in state 
in Chicago on its way to the State Capitol where it now rests. 

The men most in the public eye in early dixy^ in Chicago were John 
Wentworth and J. T. Scammon, Wentworth or ''Long John" as we 
• ailed him — because of his extraordinary stiture had been nu^mber of 
Congress and was later on elected nuiyor. Between "Tiong John" and 
Scamnu)n there was an everlasting feiul. Long Jolm's paper ('The 



83 

Democrat') named misnomer at the time — since it was "Free Soil" and 

Eepublican in politics the paper constantly abused Scammon. This 

controversy — which was wholly one-sided grew out of some financial 
affairs of the school board — the details I have forgotten. 

The most notable incidents of Wentworth's mayoralty were his 
reception of the Prince of Wales afterwards King Edwarcl VII, and 
presenting the Prince to the eager crowds — assembled in front of the 
Richmond House. 

The other incident was clearing out "'The Patch/' as it was called — 
a nest of shanties that squatters, mostly Irish — had put up on the north 
shore sands — then regarded as '"No man's land" which had long been 
regarded as an eyesore. The occupants had been inveigled by the allure- 
ment of a pic-nic — some distance away — so taking advantage of their 
absence a police squad with assistants pulled down all the shanties and 
made a clearance of the unwelcome squatters. 

Curiously that once forbidding squatter settlement, the North Shore 
Drive — is now the swellest and most aristocratic part of Chicago. In 
referring to the early citizens of Chicago who planned for the greater 
Chicago to come I should not omit to name the foremost of these — its 
first mayor and while he lived here its most honored citizen — William 
B. Ogden. 

There were many others of those early days who were active and 
energetic in pushing Chicago to the front : The McCaggs, the New- 
berry's the Kinzies's, Blatchford, Hubbard — but the list is too numerous 
for mention here. All these and more will be found in J. Seymour 
Currey's invaluable and exhaustive History of Chicago — in five volumes. 

My earliest familiarity with art, I may say, was acquired in my 
visits in early years to Geo. P. A. Healy's gallery, then on Lake Street, 
where was exhibited several of his most celebrated pictures including the 
Presentation or Eeception of Franklin at the Court of Louis XVI. He 
had a liberal patron in Thomas B. Bryan — and in my boyhood friend 
Bishop Duggan. 

Many of Mr. Healy's pictures are in Chicago. Several in the New- 
berry Library. I must mention a great physician whose name and 
memory deserves to be held in high honor in Chicago — Doctor N. S. 
Davis. During his day he was the acknowledged head of his profession — ■ 
but he will be remembered longer and better by his shining charity, his 
consideration for the afflicted poor, and by his indifference to "fees." 

One of my earliest and closest friends shortly after I came to Chi- 
cago was James A. Mulligan who became later a Civil War hero and 
victim. We were in societies and clubs together. He was a fascinating 
personality, commanding in stature, most attractive in manner— and a 
brilliant public speaker as well as an interesting writer. He was one of 
the first graduates of the old time Catholic University St. Marys of the 
Lake — which I may remark was the first University in Chicago. 

Colonel Mulligan will be remembered for his gallant defense of Lex- 
ington in the early stages of the Civil War. He was in command for a 
time of Camp Douglas wherever so many — thousand Confederates were 
held there. When disaster overwhelmed his command in battle in West 
Virginia and he was shot down from his horse — seeing the standard 



84 

bearer of the regiment — the Irish Brigade — shot and the colors in 
danger of falling into the hands of the enemy — as his men were trying 
to Jift him from the ground — he pointed to the fallen standard — and 
exclaimed "Lay me down and save the llag^' ! 

1 have a touching and characteristic incident to relate of his last 
hours. 

He had been carried by the Confederates to a farm house near the 
scene of the battle and Federal defeat. The Colonel was shot in several 
places and was suU'ering great agony from his wounds — The woman of 
the house realizing his distress came to the bed on which he lay, with a 
bottle and a glass. The bottle contained either whiskey or brandy. She 
poured out a glass full and offered it to the suffering soldier — "Take^this," 
she said "it will allay your pain." He looked at the glass asking "What 
is it Madam"? "Brandy or whiskey (I forget now whieh was told me) 
she replied. 

He shook his head, waved the glass away. "No," he said, "I never 
took any in all my life and now that I am about to die I shall not break 
my pledge" ! 

And this was the end of the gallant and chivalric James A. ]\[\fl- 
ligan. 

I am glad to mention that in his last hours he had the happiness 
and grace of receiving the last sacraments from a Confederate Chaplain 
of a Louisiana regiment who was fortunately within reach — and who 
administered the last rites of the church. I need not tell of the anguish 
of the devoted wife who followed him after the battle — and arrived only 
to find her idolized husband lying dead before her when she entered 
the house. 

This war period was eventful for Chicago. It served to lift it up 
above and beyond the rivalry of our western competitors — St. Louis and 
Cincinnati. These two cities had the advantage before the Mar in wealth, 
solidity and assured position. 

St. Louis especially regarded herself as the head centre of Western 
and Southern trade. Chicago's efforts to break in were laughed at by 
our powerful rival — but even before the breaking' out of the war Chicago 
was making great inroads on the ascendancy of St. Louis. But the 
war ended the rivalry. St. Louis and Cincinnati Avere both in the danger 
zone. 'J'hc former notoriously Southern in leaning and sympathies. 
Trade naturally then was diverted to Chicago, which received an enor- 
mous impetus in consequence. 

As well known many of the great fortunes of our then business men 
grew out of the war conditions. Potter Palmer, The Farwells, the Field 
and Leiter concern and many others made big fortunes in the trallic and 
business brought to Chicago at the time. The ascendancy then acquired 
has never been wrested from Chicago — even what seemed the overwhelm- 
ing disaster of the great tire did not disturb that supremacy. Of course 
I could relate many stories of that eventful fire — but I am admonislied 
that my narrative grows dangerously long — so I must skip that event. 
The business men who gave to Chicago the ascenchincy to which I have 
made allusion include of co\irse the well known nanu>s of Potter Palmer, 
Marshall Field, Philip 1). Armour, the Spragues, the Farwells. 



85 

Then too the wonderful and unexampled spread of our railway 
systems, extending into far distant states, north, south, east, and west. 
It seems impossible to realize how these surprising achievements in 
railroad building was accomplished — but we had at the head of our 
railroads men of large ideas, of the highest capacity — whom no difficul- 
ties or dangers could daunt. We had too, a powerful and influential press 
to second and support every scheme and plan for the advancement of 
Chicago and its trade interests. 

The pioneer Chicago Tribune of early days was edited by an Irish- 
man, Edward T. Ryan — who later became Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin — a man of power and capacity. A subsequent 
Editor of the Tribune was Charles H. Eay, who had no love for Irishmen 
as his Editorials occasionally demonstrated. 

Under Scripps, Bross and Spears the Tribune widened in power 
and influence and with Medill at the helm it became an increasing factor 
in jSTational politics. The paper did much towards securing the nomina- 
tion of Lincoln. The Times originally started by Senator Douglas had 
for its first editor James W. Sheahan, who to the end of his life bore an 
honorable renown as journalist and citizen. When Wilbur F. Storey 
came into control of the paper he notably changed the character of the 
paper — and sensationalism first made its appearance in its columns. It 
was nominally Democratic, and during the Civil War was not notably 
"loyal" — indeed it will be remembered that a Federal general — Burnside 
— made an attempt to suppress it by military authority, but he was over- 
ruled at Washington. 

The famous editor of the New York Sun, Charles A. Dana, was for a 
time in the editorial harness in Chicago as manager of the Inter-Ocean — 
but the conditions or the atmosphere proved uncongenial, and he returned 
to ISTew York — to win renown by his brilliant editorship of the Sun. The 
cleverest and most versatile writer on the Chicago press in my judgment 
and that of others was a woman — Margaret Sullivan. Her editorial work 
was scarcely equalled then or since by any writer on the Chicago daily 
press. Since I have mentioned the name woman — I must recall that of 
another woman who was also a power — a great power, though in a dif- 
ferent sphere Frances E. Willard. First at the head of the Women's 
College of the Northwestern University, Evanston, she won her most 
enduring renown as the organizer and chief of the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union. Miss Willard possessed a wonderful gift as an or-' 
ganizer, and she had great power as an orator over public audiences. I 
remember her well and had a most pleasant intimacy with her during 
several years — due to my sympathy with her efforts and zeal in the 
cause of temperance. 

One of the best known public men m Chicago before and after the 
Civil War was Dan O'Hara. He long held the position of clerk of the 
Eecorders Court — as it was then known — and towards the end of his 
life was elected city treasurer. He was universally popular — an efficient 
public officer, he was obliging to everybody and became an important 
political factor in local and State politics. 

Another man of this type was John Comiskey — father of the famous 
baseball leader who has achieved so great renown in that line — Comiskey 



86 

was foi- long alderman of one of the west side wards, and was quite a 
])owor in local ])olitics. He had an unblemished record, I am glad to 
testify during his aldermanic career. 

Another one time democratic leader was B. G. Canfield. He aspired 
to no office until near the end of his life when he was tempted to run for 
Congress. Ho did so — was elected and acquitted himself creditably — 
unhappily he became involved financially was obliged to leave Chicago — 
and sad to say died I may say in poverty in Dakota. 

The most interesting and picturesque figure in our public life for 
many years — was the well known Carter Harrison. Originally devoted 
to real estate he first came into public notice as county commissioner — 
later as member of Congress and finally many times mayor — when he 
met his tragic death — at the hands of an assassin. Probably no public 
man in Cliicago attained to greater renown and popularity. Ho knew 
how to be all things to all men and women and he acquired after he 
entered on his political career a readiness and versatility in lublic 
speaking — which surprised himself — as he once told me. 

I recall another man of a different type who was not in public life, 
but came prominently before the world as chairman of the different 
Congresses held during the World's Fair. As I had an oflicial part in one 
of these — the Catholic Congress, I was often in opportunity with Mr. 
Charles C. Bonney. These Congresses were almost innumoraljle. They 
covered and included the widest range of subjects — religious, educational, 
scientific, social, pathological, civic — industrial — in fact it is bewildering 
to try to recall the number and variety. At each of these it was Mr. Bon- 
ney's task or duty to make the opening address. To accomplish this 
fittingly, to make each speech fit the occasion and the character and 
purpose of each Congress certainly demanded great readiness and ver- 
satility — and these qualities Mr. Bonney exhibited in a remarkable 
degree — so as to be the wonder and admiration of all. Tf was an im- 
portant duty and I am glad to pay this tribute to his talent and character. 
I must say a word regarding Tim Brenan with whom T was associated 
through many years in congenial work of duty and charity. He was the 
ideal of a perfect, pure minded, anil charitable num. 

There is another man once and for long a ]iower in Chicago of whom 
I cannot forbear to speak, John 1\. Walsli. From a poor boy he suc- 
ceeded by his industry and unflagging perseverance to attain to a position 
of wealth and influence. His life through the long struggle was without 
blemish, ho had no bad habits, and he was held in highest repute by all. 
He beeanio the head of three leading financial institutions, he controlled 
an ini])ortant daily paper, and by his acuten(>ss he was regarded as a 
])ower in all local ntl'airs. 

Unha])j)ily towards the end, he ainu'd at IxMug a railroad magnate — 
uiulertook to build unaided a road from Terre Haute to Chicago, became 
involved thereby, imprudently used his banks to carry the securities of 
the unfinished railroad, violated in so doing the Federal Banking Laws — 
his banking institutions were closed and he himself made to suffer the 
consequences of violating the law. 

It was a sad and pitiful (Muling of a notable career for whiih T have 
not ceased to huni'ut. John \i. Walsh was boundless in his charities. No 



87 

church, no institution, no person in need appealed to liim in vain. He 
gave generously and freely — as I can testify. 

He did not long survive his misfortune — which beyond doubt has- 
tened his death. 

It should be remembered too that no depositor in his banks suffered 
any loss — all were paid in full — the directors having pledged their private 
fortunes to this end. Walsh's contribution to this being in excess of a 
million dollars. 

The men through whose foresight and business enterprise Chicago 
achieved its present position and world renown, would include a long 
list of names. Amongst the foremost of these I name Marshall Field, 
Philip D. Armour, Potter Palmer. I knew them all. On his last return 
trip from Europe I met Marshall Field on the steamer — it was the ill 
fated "Lusitania." One day in conversation with him I remarked that 
I frequently met him mornings in town going to his wholesale house — 
and I added that I supposed he no longer paid much attention to his 
great retail establishment. "On the contrary," he replied. "When you 
have seen me making for the wdiolesale house I liave already gone through 
every department of the retail — which I visit daily." This is an example 
of his order and method. 

With Mr. Armour I long had a pleasant and familiar acquaintance. 
I recall a curious little episode of our intercourse. Meeting me one day 
at a street corner he stopped to speak to me of some passing events and 
then, much to my surprise he said to me, "What's this we hear about 
the Pope leaving Eome?" The question was naturally a surprise to me 
as I fancied Mr. Armour would be about the last man to be interested in 
the movements or affairs of the Holy Father. This was at a time when 
Eome was threatened by the Piedmontese invasion, and there was conse- 
quently talk of the Pope seeking a refuse and asylum out of Eome. I 
answered Mr. Armour's inquiry, as far as I remember, suggesting that 
Malta, Austria or Spain, might offer him an asylum. "Why don't you 
get him to come to Chicago," he asked — at which I know I burst out 
lauofhing'. "^\niat are you laughino; at," he said. "The Pope has to go 
somewhere — why not to Chicago"? I answered, "I am afraid Mr. 
Armour that you do not realize the Pope's condition and responsibilities. 
The Pope means a government of 250 millions scattered all over the 
world — over whom he watches spiritually. This requires quite an armv 
of subordinate ministers, functionaries and clerks to carry on the world 
work; and he has in Eome his Vatican Palace with innumerable depart- 
ments and he has the renowned Cathedral at St. Peter's, etc." 

Mr. Armour listened patiently to my harangue on the necessities of 
the Pope — and then proposed another conundrum to me — "How much 
would it take to provide all these buildings?" I did not know — could 
not guess. Would it take ten millions — twenty millions? 

Look here, he added, you undertake this affair. You know how to 
manage these things. You get the Pope to agree to come to Chicago. We 
can arrange and provide everything suitable for his needs. "Why how 
on earth could you do these things," I asked in bewilderment. "I'll tell 
you my idea," he said. "We will get a big tract of land outside Chicago — 
ten or twenty thousand acres — we will build necessary offices, a palace, a 



88 

great Catliedral, whatever may be necessary. Half that land set apart 
and turned over to the Pope — don't you see that we will make enough 
out of the other half to pay for the whole business." 

I was duni founded at the audacity of the idea, the ingenuity and 
method of carrying it out — and the characteristic Chicago aim — "There's 
money in it." When, many years afterwards I saw the wonderful 
"White City" — the World's Fair — its marvelous architectural beauty, the 
vastness and symmetry of its buildings, the beauty of all the arrange- 
ments, I said to mvself, Chicago could indeed, if put to it, build a new 
Eternal City. 

I am fully conscious how imperfect and perhaps inconsequential 
those random recollections must seem to those who give me honor of their 
attention. The throng of personages I have known in my time, the inci- 
dents and episodes of my life during the past sixty years would naturally 
furnish material for a good sized volume. 

To compress sixty years of Chicago life in a sixty-minute speech, I 
may as well confess is a diflficult if not impossible task. 

How many names and memories are recalled to me as I pen these 
lines that deserved at least mention — I have omitted. 

In looking back over that long vista of years how can I fail to 
remember or forget the loyal friends of my youth who stood bv me — and 
the throng of friends in later years who gave me their confidence and 
support. 

The early friends are gone — few if any are left of my youthful 
days. I cherish their memory in my heart of hearts — in this at least I 
am faithful — I do not forget my old time friends and companions. 

In the surging multitude that throng our streets daily how rare it is 
to see a person one knows. There was a time I knew almost everybody — 
and now to think I should pass so many, who as Mark Twain said, have 
not the honor of my acquaintance. 

But such is life — especially after an experience as extended as mine 
has been. Sixty years in Chicago full of memories, some bright — some 
sad and painful. But in joy or sorrow I could not but be proud of 
Chicago — proud of its position and rank, proud of its public spirit, and 
of its freedom from all sectarian bitterness and proud of the large hearted 
generosity of its people shown on so many notable occasions — from the 
time of the frightful famine in Ireland to the latest appeals in behalf of 
desolated Belgium and suffering Poland. 



89 



SLAVERY OR INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE IN ILLINOIS 
PRIOR TO AND AFTER ITS ADMISSION AS A STATE. 

(By 0. W. Aldrich.) 

As slavery, in the territory now embraced in the State of Illinois, 
depended upon conditions prior in time to its separate existence as a 
political division, it will be necessary to consider these conditions, the 
documentary provisions upon which its existence in the State was based, 
and as a preliminary to this examination, it will be proper to consider 
the origin of the institution in the territory from which the State was 
formed. 

Slaves were imported into that part of the country, which afterward 
became the Northwest Territory, from two sources, both from French 
provinces. 

The first introduction of Africans into the Illinois Territory was 
in 1720, by Eenault, agent and manager of The Company of St. Phillipe, 
who brought a colony from France and purchased five hundred slaves at 
St. Domingo, which he sold to the colonists before his return to France 
in 1744. 

In 1615 an edict of Louis XIII of France first recognized slavery in 
the French provinces in America, and settlers from Canada in these 
regions, brought with them the French laws and customs, and among 
them were those which recognized slavery, and in 1724 Louis X^^ pub- 
lished an ordinance which re-enacted the edict of Louis XIII, for the 
regulation of the government and administration of justice, policies, 
discipline and traffic in negro slaves in the province of Louisiana, of 
which Illinois was then a part. This included the provision of the civil 
law that if one of the parents were free, the offspring should follow the 
condition of the mother, and prohibited the sale separately of husband, 
wife, or minor children either by contract or execution. 

By the treaty of peace between England and France in 1763 this 
territory, as a dependency of Canada, was ceded to Great Britain, and 
when General Gage took possession he issued a proclamation in 1764, to 
the late subjects of France, that those who chose to retain their lands and 
become British subjects, should enjoy the same rights and privileges, the 
same security for their persons and effects, and liberty of trade, as the 
old subjects of the king. 

At this time slavery was recognized in all the American colonies, and 
this proclamation extended the colonial laws and customs to the inhabit- 
ants of Canada and her dependencies, and of course recognized slavery 
as legal. 

When George Eogers Clark, by his expedition made the conquest of 
the territory, as soon as the news was received, the Virginia House of 
Burgesses declared the whole of the Northwest Territory a part of her 



90 

chartered territory, provided by an act to erect it into a county, and 
extend her laws and jurisdiction to it. The preamble of the act recited 
that, "The inhabitants had acknowledged themselves citizens of the com- 
monwealth of Virginia, and taken an oath of fidelity to the state," and it 
was declared that they shoidd enjoy their own religion, with all their 
civil rights and i)roperty. 

The treaty of peace with England in 1783 ceded the whole of this 
country to the United States and in 1784, Virginia ceded the territory to 
the United States. 

This deed of cession from Virginia contained a stipulation, ^'That 
the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of Kaskaskias, 
St. Vincents and the neighboring villages, who have professed themselves 
citizens of the state of AHrgiuia, sliall have their possessions and titles 
confirmed to thorn, and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights ami 
liberties." 

These provisions cover substantially all classes of persons but one, 
which was that of the older inhabitants, who had not claimed citizenship 
of Virginia, who were not protected. 

But by treaty made between CJreat Britain in 1794 connnonly called 
the "Jay Treaty" under which the British finally evacuated the west, 
the rights of the ancient inhabitants who had not claimed citizenship of 
Virginia, were protected, and one year was given them to accept American 
citizenship. This also embraced the inhabitants of the north part of the 
Xorthwest Territory which was not conquered by Clark. 

Jn 1784 the first ordinance for the government of the Territory was 
passed. As originally drawn there was an article of compact providing, 
"That after the year 1800, there shall be neither slavery or involuntary 
servitude in any of the said states, (those provided for in the ordinance) 
otherwise than in punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been 
convicted to have been personally guilty." Under the rules of Congress 
the afTinnativc vote of seven states was required to carry any measure. 
A motion having been made by a delegate from a southern state, to strike 
out the provision, the votes of six northern states were opposed to ihe 
motion. As each state had but one vote, and two delegates, one of the 
delegates from New Jersey being absent, that state had no vote, and tho 
motion prevailed and the provision was stricken out. 

The measure was drafted by Mr. JelTerson, and he was greatly 
chagrined at the striking out of the slavery clause. Two years later, he 
wrote, "The voice of a single individual would have ])revented this 
abominable crime from s])reading itself over the new country. Thus we 
sec the fate of millions unborn hanging on the tongue of one man. and 
Heaven was silent in that awful moment, but it is to be hoped that it 
will not always be silent; and that the friends to the rights of hunuin 
nature will in the end prevail." 

From this language it will be simmi that Mr. JelTerson did not con- 
sider the language of the Declaration of Independence, a string of 
glittering generalities, but that he intended to express a self evident 
truth, when he said that all men were endowed with certain inalienable 
rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of lia|i])iness, and that he did not 
exclude the slaves then in servitude. 



91 

On the 27th day of October, the Ordinance of 1787 was passed with- 
out one dissenting vote. At first blush it would seem that the terms of 
this ordinance were prohibitory and prevented slavery in this territory. 

The sixth article provides plainly that, "There shall be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in such territory, otherwise than in 
the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed," with a provision for the reclamation of persons, from whom labor 
or service was lawfully claimed in any of the original states, who had 
escaped from their masters. 

Standing alone this was sufficient to prohibit slavery in the territory, 
if Congress had the authority to enact it under the circumstances, and 
these circumstances were recognized in other portions of the instrument. 

This is seen in the suffrage clause which restricts suffrage to free 
male inhabitants, and in estimating the population it was restricted to 
free inhabitants, and in the provisions for the conveyance of property, the 
act of Virginia, preserving the civil rights of the inhabitants who recog- 
nized the authority of the state to their rights and property was sub- 
stantially copied, thus recognizing the rights of that class of inhabitants 
to hold their slaves. 

Taking these matters into consideration, there seems to be no doubt 
that the rights of the masters to their slaves was recognized by all class-is, 
so long as the territory remained undivided, and in the different divisions 
imtil they become states. 

There seems to be no decision upon this matter so long as the terri- 
tory remained together, but there was one case at Vincennes in the 
summer of 1794, where a negro and his wife applied for a writ of 
habeas corpus to test their right to freedom, but before it was reached 
for trial, the colored people were kidnapped and carried away. 

The first cases in any of the territories after their separation, were 
some habeas corpus cases in the Territory of Michigan, after its separa- 
tion from Indiana. 

As this territory had remained in the possession of the British forces 
until 1796, the court held that slavery existed as preserved by Jay's 
Treaty, in favor of British masters who held their slaves in the territory 
in the actual occupancy of the British troops on June 16, 1796, but that 
every other man coming into the territory, was a freeman, unless he vas 
a fugitive escaping from service from a master in some American state, 
or territory, in which case he must be restored. 

This same view was taken in 1845 by the Supreme Court of Mis- 
souri, when a N^egro claimed that his mother had been freed, by a 
residence of four j^ears in Macinac and Prairie du Chien, from 1791 to 
'1795, when she was taken to Missouri and sold. Plaintiff was born after 
his mother had been taken to Missouri. The court held that residence 
in that part of the Northwest Territory not embraced in the Virginia 
conquest, before the British evacuation, did not free a slave. 
Chouteau v. Peirre, 9 Mo., p. 3. 

I have found no cases holding the contrary doctrine. 

The sixth article of the ordinance, which prohibited slavery, aside 
from the excepted cases, did not give unqualified satisfaction to the 
inhabitants of the territory. 



92 

In 1796, four residents of Kaskaskia filed a petition asking Congress 
to suspend the operation of this restriction in tlie ordinance. 

In 1802, a convention was called by General Harrison, the Governor, 
and a memorial was sent to Congress asking for a suspension of the sixth 
section of the ordinance. In 1803, Mr. Randolph, chairman of the special 
committee, reported against the adoption of the prayer of the memorinl, 
but the matter came up at each of the next three sessions, and was 
favorably reported but not acted upon, and in 1807, a remonstrance was 
filed. 'J'he matter was referred to a committee which reported unfavor- 
ably, which ended the matter. 

INDENTURED AND REGISTERED SERVANTS. 

The friends of slavery, however, were not satisfied, and after the 
admission of Ohio as a state in 1802, an act of the territorial legislature 
of Indiana, including Illinois, which had probably been adopted a year 
or two before, was re-adopted, and reported as bearing date of September, 
which was intended to materiallv avoid the prohibition of the Ordinance 
of 1787. 

The first section of the act provided that, "It shall be lawful for any 
person, being the owner of any negroes or mulattoes of and above the 
age of fifteen years, and owing service and labor as slaves in any of the 
states or territories of the United States, or for any citizen of the United 
States purchasing the same, to bring the said negroes or mulattoes into 
this territory." 

The second section provides "That within thirty days after bringing 
the slaves into the territory, the owner or master should take them before 
the clerk of the court, and have an indenture between the slave and his 
owner entered upon record, specifying the time which the slave was 
compelled to serve the master." (The term was usually fixed at ninety- 
nine years.) 

Section three provided that if the slave refused to consent to the 
indenture, the master should have the right within sixty days, to remove 
the slave to any state or territory where such property could be legally 
held. 

Section four, gave the right to punish the slave with stripes for 
laziness, misbehavior, or disorderly conduct. 

Scclion five provided that any person removing into this territory, 
and being the owner of any negro or mulatto under the age of fifteen 
years, it should be lawful for such person, owner or possessor to register 
the same and to hold the said negro or mulatto to service or labor, the 
males until they arrive at the age of thirty-five and the females until the 
age of thirty-two years. 

Section thirteen, provided that children born in the territory, of a 
person of color, owing service of labor by indenture, aceordimj to law. 
shall serve the master or mistress, the males until the age of thirty, and 
females until the age of twenty-eight years. 

There were provisions in the act for the sale of servants by the 
assignment of the indenture, thus making them virtually slaves, .under 
the name of "indentured servants." 



93 

In 1812, at the first session of the Legislature of Illinois, the act 
which had been adopted by the Governor and judges of the whole terri- 
tory, was re-enacted as the law of Illinois, though repealed in Indiana in 

1810. There seems to be no question that this act was void, as repugnant 
to the sixth section of the "Ordinance of 1787, which was the fundamental 
constitution of this territory. 

I find no reference to any decisions as to the validity of the Ordi- 
nance in the territorial courts, but some time after the admission of the 
State, it was decided that the act was void, and that the validity of such 
contracts was based upon the Constitution of 1818. 

At the session of the Legislature of Illinois in 1817, a bill was 
passed, by both Houses to repeal so much of the act as authorized the 
bringing of negroes and m-ulattoes into -the State, and indenturing them 
as slaves. The Governor vetoed the bill, giving as his reason, that there 
was no such law in Illinois as the act of 1807, as it was a law of Indiana, 
which was technically true, although re-enacted in Illinois. The Governor 
was himself the owner of a number of indentured servants. 

SLAVERY UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. 

The state of Ohio was the first state admitted into the Union from 
the Korthwest Territory. As this was in 1802, the act of 1807 of the 
Territory of Indiana, was never in force in that state. 

As the settlement of the state was not made until about the time of 
the passage of the Ordinance of 1787, there was nothing in the terms of 
the Ordinance, which would affect that part of the Northwest Territory, 
in contravention to the terms of the prohibitory sixth section of the 
Ordinance, so that the Constitution of 1802, which absolutely prohibited 
slavery and involuntary servitude, except for crime, and made void 
indentures of persons unless made in a state of freedom, and also pro- 
vided that indentures thereafter made, either outside the state or in the 
state for more than one year, should be of no validity except in cases of 
apprenticeships, is the only document governing that state. 

I have never seen any statement in any historical work that slavery 
ever existed in the territory or state of Ohio, but in the life of John 
Brown by Elbert Hubbard, it is stated that slavery existed in the state in 

1811, but this work can hardly be recognized as historical. 

The Constitution of Indiana adopted in 1816, is the next in order, 
and provided that "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in this state, otherwise than for the punishment of crimes, 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, nor shall any inden- 
ture of any negro or mulatto hereafter made and executed out of the 
bounds of the state, be of any validity within the State.'' 

The committee has adopted additional matters against indentures 
similar to those in the Ohio Constitution, but the anti-slavery delegates 
who had always contended that the act of 1807 was unconstitutional, 
objected to anything which might concede its validity and those pro- 
visions were stricken out. 

The adoption of the constitution did not result in the immediate 
abolition of slavery and involuntary servitude, as in 1840 the census 
credits Indiana with three female slaves. 



94 

That this condition prevailed, on account of the ignorance of many 
of the shives, may be seen from the case of State v. Lasselle, 1 Blackford, 
60, which was a habeas c&rjms case decided by the Supreme Court in 
1820. The defendant answered that Polly, the name of the woman on 
whose behalf the case was brought, was his slave by purchase, the issue 
of a woman bought of the Indians prior to the Treaty of Greenville. The 
lower court decided in favor of the defendant. In the Supreme Court, it 
was argued for the defendant, that the Ordinance of 1787 did not pro- 
hibit the slavery which existed at its adoption, but that it expressly 
preserved it, and that the property granted by it, could not be divested 
by the Constitution. 

The court held, that the Virginia deed of session and the ordinance 
were immaterial, that the question must be decided by the provisions of 
the Constitution. 

They hold that it was within the legitimate powers of the convention 
in framing tlie Constitution, to prohibit the existence of slavery in that 
State, and that they could conceive of no form of words in which the 
intention to do so could have been more clearly expressed, and it was 
accordingly held that Polly was free. 

The framers of the first Constitution of Illinois, certainly did not 
use language to express a present intent to abolish slavery, and it is the 
opinion of some writers that it was only because of the requirement of 
the Enabling Act of Congress, that the convention enacted Section 1 of 
Article VI : "Xeither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter 
be introduced into this State." 

It not only failed to prohibit slavery as it then existed, but made 
legal the indentures which had been illegal before that date, because of 
the void act of 1807 re-enacted in Illinois in 1813, by the third section 
of the same article, of the Constitution which provides that: 

"Each and every person who has been bound to service by contract 
or indenture, in virtue of the laws of Illinois Territory, heretofore exist- 
ing, and in conformity to the provisions of the same, without fraud or 
collusion, shall be hrld to a specific performance of their contract or 
indentures, and such negroes and mulattoos as have been registered in 
conformity with the aforesaid laws, shall servo out the time appointed 
by said laws; provided, however, that the children lu>roaftor born of such 
persons, negroes or mulattoos, sliall become free, the males at the age 
of twenty-one years, the females at the age of eighteen years. 

In the case of Phoebe v. Jarrot, Broose, 268, the court held that 
the act of ScplcinlMM' 17, 1807, was void, as being repugnant to the sixth 
arlicle of the Ordinance of 1787, but that the contracts of indenture were 
roiidci'od valid by the third section of .Article Sixth of the Constitution, 
and that the ado))tion of the Constitution and the admission of the State 
into the Union under it, abrogated so nuuii of the Ordinance of 1787 as 
was in conflict with it." 

As this provision of the Constitution was ihe oidy ground for keep- 
ing persons legally frw, in bondage, it I'oidd not have been enforced 
under that portion of Section 1 of the fourteenth Ameiulment to the 
Constitution of (ho Fi'doral Constitulion ; that no state should deprive 
any ])erson of life, liberty, or properly without duo jirocfss of law. but 



95 

as there was in 1818 no sueli provision, it liad the effect of keeping 
slavery in the State nntil the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. 

A number of questions as to the rights of persons from, and in the 
State, have been presented to the courts of the State, and some decisions 
have been made by the courts of other states. Among those questions 
decided at rather an early date, was that in Illinois the presumption of 
law is in favor of the freedom of any person. 

Bailey v. Cromwell, 3 Scam., 71. 
and that the onus prohandi is on the one who claims that any person is 
a slave or a registered servant. 

Kinney v. Cook, 3 Scam., 232. 

This holding was different from that of the courts of jMissouri, and 
other slave states in cases of colored persons. 

A construction of the third section of Article VI of the Constitution 
was given in Choisser v. Hargrave, 1st Scam., page 17, which held that 
this act of 1807 only applied to persons registered, in conformity to the 
provisions of the laws governing the registration, which required that it 
be done within thirty days from the entrance into the State, and it being 
shown that the registration was not made until eighteen months after the 
party was brought into the State, it was held he was entitled to his 
freedom. 

ATTEMPT TO AMEND THE CONSTITUTION TO ALLOW SLAVERY. 

At the time of the admission of the State it is probable that the pro- 
portion of voters in favor of unlimited slavery was greater than those of 
the opponents, and that the convention only adopted the Sixth Article, 
because of the opinion, that an attempt to make a slave State, was likely 
to defeat the admission into the Union on account of the sixth article of 
the Ordinance of 1787.' The animus of the majority is shown by the 
enactment of what are known as the Black Laws, and the laws against 
kidnapping free negroes and mulattoes in which the only penalty pro- 
vided was a civil action on behalf of the kidnapped person, who would 
have been carried out of the State and could not enforce it. 

In the election of 1822 which largely depended upon this question, 
the aggregate vote of the two candidates of anti-slavery principles, was 
but 3,330, while that of those in favor of slavery were 5,303, nearly 2,000 
greater, but the election being by a plurality vote, the leading anti- 
slavery candidate for Governor received the greater number of votes, 
while the Legislature had nearly two-thirds in each House, of the pro- 
slavery party, which also elected the Lieutenant Governor. During the 
first half of his term, the Governor and Legislature clashed over these 
matters. The Governor recommended a revision of the Black Laws, and 
the enactment of adequate penalties for repression of the crime of kid- 
napping which had become frequent. 

This immediately precipitated a struggle to amend the Constitu- 
tion, and a committee to whom the matter was referred reported and 
recommended the adoption of a resolution to submit the question of the 
call of a convention to amend the constitution, at the next election for 
the election of members of the General Assembly. 



96 

As this required tlie allinnatioii vote of two-thirds of each body, 
there was a lack of one vote in tlie House, lu a contested election case, 
the sitting member had been held to be entitled to his seat, but when 
he refused to vote for the resolution, a motion to reconsider the vote 
was carried, and the contestant was seated, which gave the required 
two-thirds vote in that body, and the vote of the Senate was sullicient, 
so the resolution was adopted. For eighteen months the contest was 
carried on with great violence in the State, but at the election in 18*,i4, 
the resolution was defeated by a majority of nearly 1800. 

In the Constitution of 1848, slavery and involuntary servitude, 
except as a punishment for crime, was prohibited, but the Black Laws 
prohibiting the immigration of persons of color into the State was 
carried by nearly a two-thirds vote, and another section was adopted 
requiring the Legislature at the next session to pass laws which should 
prevent free persons of color from coming into the State for residence, 
and prevent parties from bringing them into the State for the purpose 
of freeing them. Pursuant to this provision, the Legislature in 1855 
passed an act making it a high misdemeanor for a colored person to 
come into the State for the purpose of residence, and remain for ten 
days, with a penalty of a fine of $50 and if the fine was unpaid, the 
party might be sold to the person who would agree to take him for the 
shortest period for that sum, and costs. In a case decided in 1SG4, the 
Supreme Court held the law to be valid, because as the sale was but for 
a limited period, it was only in the nature of an apprenticeship, and that 
the State had the power to define offenses, and the exercise of such 
power could not be inquired into by the court. 
Nelson v. People, 33 111., 390. 

These Black Laws were continued with slight modifications until 
1865 when they were repealed by the act of February 7. 

A number of decisions concerning the rights of persons claimed to 
be slaves^ have been decided by the courts of this State, and the courts 
of other states, growing out of the laws of this State and of the other 
states in the territory. 

No case has been found in the Supreme Court of this State as to 
the status of children of slaves of the old French settlers until that of 
Jarrot v. Jarrot, 2 Oilman, 1, decided by the Supreme Court at December 
term, 1845. 

Plaintiff was the grandson of a woman who was proven to have 
been a slave at Cahokia in 1783, and son of her daugliter born in 1704, 
Avho was kept in slavery by the father of defendant, who bequeathed her 
to defendant in February, 1818, and plaintiff, who was then about 
twenty-five or twenty-six years old, was born afler liis mother was 
bequeathed to defendant. The lower court found for tlie defendant, but 
the Supreme Court reversed the judgment, and as the exact date of the 
birth of the plaintiff did not appear, but as it was so near the adoption of 
the Constitution, that it miglit have been before that date, the court 
decided that the cliildren of a slave of a French master born after 
adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, whether before or after the ad(^ptioii 
of the Constitution, were free. The court cited a number of eases from 
other states, but tlie only one exactly in j^oint was ^ferry v. Tiflin, 



97 

1 Mo., 725, where the mother of phiintiff who had been held as a slave 
in Virginia, had been taken into Illinois before the Ordinance of 1787. 
The plaintiff was born after the ordinance was passed, and it was held 
that he was free. 

The court held that tlic provisions of tbc deed of session of Virginia 
were satisfied by securing to the masters the rights they then had, with- 
out including things not in existence, and there was nothing in that 
cession which forbade Congress to fix a limit to things which might 
afterward be the subject of property. 

The same question came up later in the same state in a case by 
Aspasia, a colored woman born in Illinois after the Ordinance of 1787, 
and the court upheld the former doctrine. The case was taken to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, which held that the right to hold 
a child born after the ordinance, as a slave ivas not given by the ordi- 
nance, and that the court had no jurisdiction in the matter. 
Menard v. Aspasia, 5 Peters, 504. 

In 1830 the same question was decided in the same way by the 
Supreme Court of Louisiana. 

Merry v. Chlxnaider, 26 Martin, 699. 

That the constitution of a state may prohibit slavery, notwithstand- 
ing the provisions of the exceptions to Article VI in the Ordinance of 
1787, was held by the Supreme Court of Indiana in State v. LaSalle, 1 
Blackford, 60. 

This view is also announced by the Supreme Court of Mississippi, 
in the case of Harvey v. Decker, et al., Walker 36. 

The effect of bringing slaves into this state for the purpose of resi- 
dence and of hiring them out, has been decided by the courts of several 
states, as well as of this state. In the case of Willard v. People, 4 Scam., 
461, it was held that passing through the state with his master did not 
free a slave. The first outside case I have found is Winning v. Vvliite- 
sides, 1 Mo., 472, where the plaintiff had been taken into Illinois from 
ISTorth Carolina about 1797, where she had been kept in slavery for 
three or four years and then taken into Missouri, where she had remained 
in slavery for nearly twenty years. The court held that her residence in 
Illinois gave her freedom and that the masters right did not revive 
when taken to a state where slavery was permitted, if she failed to claim 
her right in the free state. This doctrine was upheld by the Supreme 
Court of Virginia, when a slave girl was sold to an Ohio resident, and 
delivered to the agent in Ohio, but the bill of sale was made to defendant 
who knew of the transaction. The girl remained in Ohio for two years 
when she returned to Virginia and was taken possession of by defendant. 
It was held that she became free. 

Fanny v. Griffith, Gilmer 143. 

The Supreme Court of Missouri recognized the same doctrine in 
seven other cases, but later, in 1853, when there was a hostile feeling 
in the slave states by reason of the greater activities of the abolitionists 
in the free states, it overruled all the foregoing cases arrogating to itself 
the powers of a legislature, in Scott v. Emerson, 15 Mo., 576, and Sylvia 
V. Kirby, 17 Mo., 439. For the same reason, the legislature of Louisiana 

— 7 H S 



9g 

in 1848, changed the law in that state, by the passage of an act providing 
that residence in a free state should not free a slave who returns to that 
state. 

In Kentucky it was held that an infant domiciled in Ohio for six 
months became free, and that a return to Kentucky while still a minor, 
did not prejudice his claim. 

Henry v. Evans, 2 Duvol, 259, 
but it was held that sending a slave girl twice with his daughter to 
Ohio, while on visits, remaining less than a month each time, did not 
give her her freedom when she returned to the state. 
Collins V. America, 9 B. Monroe, 565. 

A number of questions have arisen as to the character of registered 
and indentured servants. In the case of Nance v. Howard, Breese, 183, 
it was held that registered servants were property, and could be sold 
under execution. 

In Phoebe v. Jay, Breese, 20T, it was held that indentured servants 
under the Constitution of 1817, do not become free by the death of the 
master, but pass to the legatees, executors or administrators, but not 
to the heirs-at-law, but that an administrator can only sell the servant, 
and cannot require the performance of service. The doctrine as to the 
validity of indentures was re-affirmed. 

Sarah v. Borders, 4 Scam., 545. 

In the case of Boon v. Juliet, I Scam., 258, it was held that the 
children of registered servants under the tifth section of the act of 
September 17, 1807, were not within the provisions of the third section 
of Article VI of the first constitution, but were free and could not be 
held to service. As the constitution only provided that persons who had 
been bound by contract or indenture, should serve out their time, and 
did not mention the provision of the act of 1807 as to their children, 
the children became free. 

In Kentucky a case arose as to the eU'ect of the Kegistration Act 
of 1807 of Indiana, on the status of slaves owned before the removal into 
that territory. 

Rankin v. Lydia, 2 A. K. Marshall, 471. 

The court says that as the article of the Ordinance of 1787, pro- 
vides that shivery or involuntary servitude is prohibited, that when a 
l>crson was brought into the territory and indentured or registered, 
that they were no longer slaves, and that when taken back to Kentucky, 
fhcy brought an action for their freedom, the former master was estoppel 
from claiming them as slaves. In this case while in Indiana, the regis- 
tered servant had been sold several times and the last tinu' to a resident 
of Kentucky, who took her back to that state, where she broiight an 
action of assault and battery to test her right to freedom. It was held 
that the act of registration was equivalent to emancipii.tion and she 
l)ecame free. The question of the right to her as a servant was not 
made. This is more consistent than the decision of the Illinois courts, 
holding the servants to be property. 



99 

THE EFFECT OF THE ADMISSION OF A STATE UPON THE PROVISIONS OF THE 

ORDINANCE OF 1787. 

The authorities to the effect that the adoption of a state constitu- 
tion and admission by Congress, abrogates by common consent, all the 
Drovisions of the ordinance which were contrary to the provisions of 
the constitution are too numerous to require citation, but the statement 
by Chief Justice Taney in the opinion in Strader v. Graham, 10 Howard, 
that the adoption of the federal constitution superceded the provisions 
of that ordinance, are not so generally known, and I have found no other 
case which decides this question. It seems to be unnecessary to the 
determination of the case, and may well be doubted. 

The number of negroes in Illinois at the close of the British occu- 
pation, has been estimated at about. 650, but whether this number 
included negroes and mulattoes brought in and indentured or registered 
under the act of 1807, I have not been able to learn. 

Of course the effect of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, 
made slavery and involuntary servitude illegal in Illinois. Whether 
there were any of the original slaves living at that time, I have not been 
able to learn, but they must have been few, if any; but these may have 
been indentured servants, as they might have been brought in up to 
1818. 



100 



OLD SETTLER TALES. 



(By Mabel E. Fletcher.) 

COMFORT'S WEDDING. 

Once upon a time a groat many years ago, there lived in the western 
wilderness two young people so good and handsome and true that they 
were loved by their neighbors for a distance of one hundred miles. The 
young man's name was Severe Stringfield, and the young woman's name 
was Comfort Rhodes. Xow Severe's disposition did not suit his name, 
as you may already have guessed, for he was a bright, smiling youth, 
always ready to do any one a favor. Comfort's name did suit her, for 
a better maid of eighteen never washed the faces of her little brothers 
and sisters, combed their hair, and taught them to "'''make their manners." 

When Comfort's mother heard that Comfort and Severe were to 
be married, she immediately put her homespun apron to her eyes and 
wept. Then she withdrew it and began to plan the wedding feast and 
the wedding gown. 

"You must be married in blue," she said, "for that's your color; 
and you must wear your grandmother's lace shawl." 

"And we will have a wedding supper," boomed Comfort's father. 
Mr. Rhodes was a giant of a man Avith grizzled hair and black eyes 
under white brows. 

Comfort smiled and agreed to everything, for she was very happy. 
The greater part of every day now she sat in the corner and merrily 
turned her spinning wheel, for down in Pone Hollow Severe was building 
a small new cabin. No linen could be too carefully spun for that cabin. 

The wedding was set for the first of May. All spring Severe had 
been ])lowing his little patch of ground in Pone Hollow by moonlight, 
because of the green-hoailcd flics. Tlicse insects were a great trouble 
to the early settlers, for they were everywhere, and if the young horses 
and cows were exposed to them, they were often stung to death. Hence, 
men plowed and planted and even travele<l by the light of the moon. 

A neighbor woman, Drusilla Harvey, rode fifty miles across the 
l>rairi(' to help make the wedding dress. She was a thin woman with a 
sharp tougiK! and a twilchiiig thumb, but she coidd sew bettor tban any 
one. Comfort th(»ught. 

At last the wedding day came, seemingly a perfect day in May. 
The wild crab apple blooms lay like a pink, fragrant blanket on all the 
little hills, and in the rcdbud trees the boos hummed aiul hummed. The 
redbirds whistled down in the valley, aiul all the father thrushes in the 
country warbled while their mates sat on nests cunningly hid in the 
wild rose bushes, waiting for their babies to come. 



101 

Then, about nine o'clock, there came over a cloud from the north- 
east. It was followed by another, then another. In a half hour the 
rain was falling fast, and pretty Comfort stood in the open door of the 
cabin, gazing sadly out at the streaming landscape. 

"There, don't you mind," said her mother. "A little rain won't 
keep anybody away. The men'll be glad to stop their planting. I 
reckon everybody'll be here." 

There were three seasons for the pioneers of that time : winter, 
spring, and fall. In the winter they hunted involves and deer; in the 
spring they plowed the rich black soil and planted oats, corn, and a little 
wheat, in the fall they drove to Chicago (200 miles) to sell their oats 
at twelve and one-half cents a bushel. 

"I'm not crying for that," said Comfort. "It's the river I'm 
afraid of. You know Omey said yesterday that it's been raining hard 
up north for a week. All the creeks up there are out of their banks. 
Severe said yesterday that the river had risen a foot. And then we 
hadn't had a drop of rain. What will it be by night? I'm afraid we 
can't go h-home to-night." 

Severe's cabin lay a half mile from the Ehodes cabin, on the other 
side of the river. There was not a bridge within fifty miles ; you forded 
the muddy waters on horseback, or else, if you were on foot, you crossed 
gingerly on the trunk of a great fallen oak. 

"The water was up to the log yesterday," said poor Comfort. 

"jSTever mind; I reckon Severe can ford the river on old Jinny, 
if the worst comes to the worst. Now you'd better help me with those 
pies." 

The hour of the wedding had been set for three o'clock in the 
afternoon, so that the guests (there were to be twenty in all) might 
arrive in ])lenty of time. Some of them lived thirty miles away. Then 
would come the marriage feast. The guests who lived only a short 
distance away, ten or fifteen miles, would return that night ; the rest 
would be disposed of somehow in the Ehodes cabin. Luckily it had 
a loft. 

By one o'clock the guests had arrived. First came the Pancake 
family, with five little- Pancakes of varying degrees of roundness and 
thickness. The children were' all so jolly and healthy looking as they 
crawled out of the covered wagon and scampered into the house, that 
both Comfort and her mother kissed every rain-wet cheek. The Pan- 
cake baby was so joyful over being allowed to come to a wedding at 
such a tender age that he crowed until he doubled up and hung motion- 
less over Comfort's arm. 

Next came the two Stringfield's, Severe's father and mother. They 
were simnle, kindlv people in rough homespun. They greeted Comfort 
happily, for they felt that their son was getting a good wife. 

After that there was a thin trickle of guests for over an hour. Old 
Granny Sharks, who was rheumatic and very ill-tempered, had insisted 
on coming, in spite of the rain. She was in a pet by the time she was 
put down on the hearth, still glued to her rush-bottomed chair, from 
which she had refused to be separated. 



102 

''Them a-tryin' to mek me stay to hum !" she sniffed to Comfort. 
''1 told 'em I was comin' to see you married if I had to swim ! And I 
be comin', I be !" 

She glared at Comfort and repeated violently, "I be!" 

Finally (iranny took out from her pocket her corncob pij)e an«"l 
began to smoke. Gradually her anger melted, and by the time Com- 
fort was dressed in her bridal finery, Granny was fast asleep, her chin 
dropped on her bosom. 

When it was three o'clock. Comfort began to dress. Her gown was 
of blue and white calico. There were four widths to the skirt, the two 
front ones being gored. The waist was very short, and fastened behind 
with a draw string. The sleeves were immense, tapering from the 
shoulder to the wrist. "Sheep-shanks' sleeves," they called them. You 
will smile when I tell you that they were thickly padded with feathers 
to make them keep their shape. 

No big sleeves and no queerly hanging skirt could dim the rosy 
beauty of Comfort's face, however. She was well satisfied with her new 
calico — didn't it cost forty cents a yard? And when she threw about 
her plump white shoulders the shawl which had come from England, 
there was not a prettier sight in the whole world. 

But the bridegroom — where was he? 

When the rain had started, he was in the new cabin, putting up a 
shelf for Comfort's few precious pewter dishes. As the drops came faster 
and faster, until in fact, the very heavens seemed to pour down upon 
the earth, ho decided to wait there until after the deluge passed. As the 
hours went on, the rain came faster, if possible. There was plenty to 
eat in the hoaise, for he had furnished it well for his young bride, but 
Severe would not eat. He wished to break bread for the first time in 
the new home with Comfort. 

Finally, when it drew near to three o'clock he became alarmed. He 
had intended to dress here; he had brought his wedding clothes — new 
butternut jeans and a pleated shirt. Such finery would be ruined in five 
minutes in such a rain. 

Then a bright idea came to him. He snatched up a buckskin meal 
sack and thrust the garments into it. Tying the mouth of the bag 
tightly with a bit of buckskin string, ho gave one last glance at the cozy 
cabin, and then walked out into the down]iour. 

Tt was an anxious bride who greeted him ten minutes later, as he 
stood dripping on the "Rhodes threshold. He answered the banter of the 
guests smilingly, and then looked soberly at pretty Comfort. 

"Comfort," he said, "I hadn't calklated on comin' like a frog the 
first time T married you. But I've got all my glory in this mealbag. I 
reckon T'd bettor crawl into the loft and put it on. .\nd then if there's 
any eatin', T move we eat first and be married afterwards. I'll tell you 
why. The river's rose awful, and T know Old Liveforcver's goin' to have 
a hard time gettin' here." 

Comfort nodded gravely. "It seems as if everything's just trying 
to spoil my wedding day," she said with tears in her eyes. "The Blaines 
haven't come — on account of the high water, I suppose — nor the Joneses 
nor the Wheelers." 



103 

"All the more for us to eat, then," cried Severe cheerfully, as he 
crawled into the loft. 

The minister who was to marry them was to come from the settle- 
ment thirty miles away. He was called Old Liveforever, because of his 
peculiar beliefs. Man, he said, was not meant to die. He himself never 
meant to die. Old Livefoiever had made preaching engagements for five 
hundred years ahead. 

When Severe descended from the loft, he took his place at Comfort's 
side, and good Mrs. Rhodes, aided by a very fat neighbor who wheezed 
as she wallved, waited on the guests. 

Such slices of bear bacon as were eaten — such haunches of venison ! 
What a number of pies disappeared, and what quarts of coffee made from 
roasted wheat ! And what happiness there was in the log house, even 
though the rain poured outside and the minister was many watery miles 
away ! 

Just about dark, Mr. Ehodes suddenly lifted his hand for silence. 

"I hear someone shouting," he said. 

Sure enough, there came a long call. "Severe ! Severe Stringfield !" 

"It's the minister," cried Severe joyfully, and ran to the door. The 
rain had ceased at last. 

"I'll run down to the river and meet him," said Mr. Ehodes, and 
off he splashed. 

A little later he came back with a sober face. 

"He can't get across," he said. "The water's turrible high, and his 
horse won't swim it. He says for you to come down to the bank and 
he'll marry you anyway." 

Severe turned to look at Comfort. 

"I suppose that we might as well," she said. 

Then what a hurrying to and fro there was in that little backwoods 
cabin ! Granny had come to life again, and she gave more shrill com- 
mands in one minute than two people could possibly fulfill in a half hour. 
Mrs. Stringfield looked down the path to the river; then she turned 
doubtfully to Comfort's mother. 

"I'm thinking," she said, "that if we see our children married, we'll 
have to wade." 

And that is exactly what they had to do. 

Soon there rode forth from the little house, on old Jinny, the 
bridegroom and his bride. Comfort clung lightly to the stalwart form of 
Severe, and she wore around her shoulders the delicate web of the white 
shawl. As the horse paused for a moment in the light which streamed 
out from the open doorway, Mrs. Stringfield thought that she had never 
seen a lovelier sight than the face behind that of her boy. The dampness 
had made little straying ringlets around the edge of the straw bonnet, 
and on the girl's breast some one had pinned a fragrant cluster of wild 
crab apple blossoms. Then old Jinny, of her own accord, started with 
important steps down to the river. After her came the wedding guests, 
shrieking and laughing as they waded bare-footed through the mud and 
water. Ruin their shoes, even for a wedding? Never ! When I tell you 
that the best imported calfskin boots of those days cost five hundred 



104 

dollars, you will not wonder that tiu'se thrifty people tried to save their 
sturdy foot covering. 

Presently all reached the shore of the river. The tall form of the 
parson could barely be made out as he sat on his great horse under the 
big willow on the opposite bank. 

''I can't see you," he called. 

Then by dint of much coaxing, ho forced his horse out into the yel- 
low water, until it came u]) to Old Dobbin'.s flanks. And tlj^en and there, 
by the light of a flickering jiine torch, with the river hurrying by and the 
whip-poor-wills calling in the timber, Severe and Comfort were married. 
Severe had no money, but he promised to pay his fee in maple sugar the 
following spring. 

It was here that old diniiy surprised everybody. Whatever made her 
do so, no one ever knew, but she calmly walked out into the river and 
was stemming the current before Severe could tighten the reins. She 
swam steadily through the water and finally come out on the opposite 
bank, where she stopped by Dobbin. 

How the wedding guests shouted and laughed ! And how pleased 
was Severe ! How concerned Comfort was over her bedraggled gown ! 

In pioneer days, however, few tears were shed over the unex])octed 
and unpleasant, and in a few moments the young people were smiling to 
think how much sooner they had come home than they had expected. 
They waved a good-by, which no one saw, to the little group with the 
torch, and shouted to them a last message for Granny, who had been 
left in the cabin. 

Then, with the preacher, they rode slowly up the bank and through 
the woods to their own little cabin with the bed, the blue chest used as 
a table, the settle, and the shelf for the precious pewter. This was home. 



PART III 



Contributions to State History 
1916 



107 



THE FOX RIVER OF ILLINOIS, 

(Kiver of the Bos Bison, or, as we name it, the Buffalo ) 



(By the Late J. P. Steward.) 
On an old map, without date, and its legends in latin, but probably 
made before 1632, as it shows none of Champlain^s delineations of that 
year but copies many errors of the earlier Spanish cartographers, is 
sho^vn a lake named "Ilagonantens," at the head of the St. Lawrence 
Eiver. This lake represents some vague idea of Lake Michigan, as 
advanced by the natives, as evidenced by a bay marked "Puants," the 
region then occupied by the Indians of Green Bay. Other lakes are 
omitted. Beneath the last word quoted is found "Assistagueronons," the 






'Cole 






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3fa^ 



'^ 2^ 



•^^ o 



^ 



Gk, 



,dJ^ 



5oo^ 






stehoh 



r 



<>^^ 



?■'« 260 : 






.w 



^tii^9^ 



3oo' 






i> 



'JS 



J^ 



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Fragment of Franquelm's map of 1684. 



'i 



■^ 



word having reference to a tribe later known to the French as "JSTation 
de Fue,'' (Nation of the fire) ; the last word quoted being a misinterpre- 
tation of the Algonquin term for our prairies, "Muscoda"). 

The Mascoutens, the people of the prairies, (the name spelled a 
score of ways), later sometimes called by the French ("Gens de Prair- 
ies") were, possibly, a branch of the Pottawottomies of the prairies, who 
occupied tjie region roamed over by the buffalo at the head of, and over 
the prairies that border, our historic river, the "Pestecuoy'^ of Fran- 
quelin's maps of 1684 and 1688. The name of the river, variously 
spelled by the French traders, in all Algonquin tongues, was that of the 
great bison then of our prairies but later limited to the western plains. 



108 

On (he Fi-niiqiioliii maps are shown some of the names of the Mas- 
coutiii tribes whoso hunting grounds and villages bordered the head- 
waters of our beautiful stream. 

The nuip of IGSl. one of the lirst to show the stream in its entirety, 
places its course approximately correct, but its windings are much 
exaggerated. The crooks are due to the fact that the great trail passing 
from Kaskaskia, the town of the Illini tribe on the river of their name 
near Utica, (traveled by La Salle and his men) approached the river 
only at its western bends. 

The long sweeps to the east are thrown too far. Nicolet traversed 
the region west of the lakes, but left us few details, and none regarding 
the trails. Medart Chouart dcs Groseillers and his brother-in-law 
Kadisson, traveled the region before 1660, and that year learned of the 
oxistonco of the Mississippi "River, disguised in n Dakota name. 




IG 7 9 



An earlier map shows our stream, however; although not dated, it 
is considered by llarrisse, the French critic of the American maps, to 
have been produced in 167!). This maj), reproduced by Pinart and said 
by him not to have been nu\de later than KISO, is of much importance, 
as at the river's head is shown a small lake which, although not named, 
nnswer.s for Pistakee Laki' of our day, or ])erhaps one of the other small 
lakes. Although tlu' river hears no name, its showing is of moment 
because, west of Chicago, is .seen a short line crossing the stream and 
thereby the French word *'Saut," that word meaning a rapid. How can 
we account for this showing except by assuming that a wi'll known trail 
there cro.ssed and had been traveled by various traders? 

"We find other old I'^reneh mai)s. De Lisle's. for instance, showing a 
trail passing from the Missi.s.sippi to "("hieagou," and crossing our stream 



109 

some distance above its mouth. It is believed that the trail shown on 
map No. C. 17701,* in the Bibliothequo National, at Paris, was laid 
clown by mere guess. On this map, along the Fox l\iver of Wisconsin, is 
a dotted line and the words "Chemin de I'AUee"; and from opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines, a cross-prairie line to the place of the Kas- 
kaskias, below the mouth of our river, marked "Cliemin du Retour," 
meaning, in plain English, route of the return. 

The last named trail does not agree with those of other maps antl 
liesides, Joliet and Marquette did not return that way, as implied. 

Eeliable maps, however, show a dotted line passing up Rock River, 
(the Assi]inesepe), to the Grand Detour, thence striking olf to the south- 
east, thence eastwardly and then deflected toward '"Chicagou." The 
southeastwardly deflection is undoubtedly the part laid down by Blancli- 
ard as the Kishwaukee trail that crossed our Fox River at one of the 
several I'apids along the great bend in Kendall County, and there joined 
the path known to the early settlers as the Sac and Fox trail. There 
is little doubt that the particular rapid is that which passed over the 
rock bottom at the southeast corner of Little Rock Township, crossed 
by my jjarents in prairie schooners in 1838, they having followed the 
Kishwaukee trail for a little distance from the northwest, crossing the 
river by the Sac and Fox trail it there joined. Along the river, both in 
the township last mentioned and Fox Township, are evidences of early 
occupation. Here was the Miami town of Maramech, on the historic 
trail; and not far distant, on the hill, bared to the midday sun, still rest 
many of the denizens of "That great village." Father Allouez is sup- 
posed to have visited our region at an early date. LaSalle, from early 
in 1679 to 1683, became well acquainted with our river, as he traveled 
on foot several times from his military headquarters and trading post 
at Fort St. Louis, (on Starved Rock, of our day) to Chicagou, sometimes 
passing along the "Divine" (Desplaines), and at other times taking the 
trail west of and along the "Pestecuoy," soon crossing the latter near 
the middle of the western line of Kendall County ; or continuing to the 
large bend where, earlier in 1679, he had established the headquarters 
of his "Colonie du Sieur de LaSalle." It was LaSalle who gave to 
Franquelin, the Official Cartographer of New France, the information 
that enabled the latter to so well map in our river in his 1684 and 1688 
delineations, the bends exaggerated, but correctly showing the native 
villages along its banks, and its general course not bad. The sites of 
some of the villages have been located by implements and fire pavements 
of the cabins. 

As we find villages laid down far above the "Colonic," it may yet 
be learned that, far earlier than the mention of the route by St. Cosme, 
traders had passed up the Root River of Wisconsin, at the mouth of 
which is Racine, and portaged across to the headwaters of our stream; 
and it may have been they who first made known to the map makers 
of 1679 and later, the crossing trails and the towns of our river. It is 
not out of place to here state the fact that all researches have shown 
that the erstwhile river of our Buffalo was better known, as shown by 

* It is largely copied from Joliet's rnap of 1673, but is allet,ed to be a "map of the new discoveries 
that the Jesuit Fathers have made in the year 1672 aad continued by the Rev. Father Marquette of the 
same company, accompanied by some Frenchmen, etc." 



110 

ilie maps of 1679 to that of Popple, early after 1732, than any part 
of the west. 

*Maramech, (also spelled Maramee, Maramek and Maraux) was the 
principal town of the Miamis (as recently made clear in my article 
published in the transactions of our Society), where Nanangousi, (also 
spelled Kanangousista) as promised by LaSalle, and Mesatonga were 
chiefs of the village. It was there that French traders early made their 
appearance, as shown by the relics (guns, axes, blankets, paints and 
trinkets) found in the graves of the Miami cemetery near by. 

Of the villages along our river it was at Maramech that Nicholas 
Perrot was sent to supervise the Miamis and Illinois and keep them 
faithful to the French interests, and there made his headquarters. He 
had several trading posts, the one most mentioned bemg on the west 
bank of the Mississippi River, above Dubuque ; and I have reasons to 
believe, one at Maramech, as it was there his infiue;K-e wap most felt. 

The Mascoutins were largely at the headwaters of our river as 
stated, and it was they, the nearest neighbors to Maramech, who robbed 
him. Messitonga, it is most probable, was the war chief of the village, 




French axe, found in passage to water down from the stockade ou Maramech Uill, nine inches long. 

and while in conference with Perrot, in 1694, some Mascoutins arrived 
at the cabin, when this was taking place, and reported that the chief 
was wanted at the village, as they were likely to be attacked by the 
Sioux, who were then at the lead mines. The Chief hastened to notify 
the people to prepare to protect themselves by building a fort. It seems 
probable that the ]>coi)ie of the scattered village hastened to the island- 
like hill, "^'Eising gently to the Avost and northwest from a little river," 
a natural defence, high, in the forks of two small streams and on the 
other side bordered by swamps, where they worked for twD days. The 
exact place is not made clear in the accounts, but the bank on Maramech 
TTill that forms the (k'c])er jtortion of what, lUi years later served for a 
time as ])rotection for a branch of the Foxes, is ])i-obal)ly where tiie work 
began. Lying, as it does, within the limits of the erstwhile "great 
village" of Maramech (that cre})t along the clearer creek and along the 
river from the rock that gave the stream its second name, to a mile 
beyond Sylvan Spring) ; by common consent since my discoveries, the 
name Maramech Hill has been given to the eminence. 

♦ Tho writer suspects Ibiit tlip name was nover clianpod but Innf , followlni; n custom of thi> Freiioli 
traders, tho map makers also al)brevlale<l. For liistimoe: Nadoucssioux is merely iu» Alk'ouquin word 
meaninc enemies, or our enemies. The Fretichmen look II to l)e the name of 1 he Iiakoia tribes, and 
for short they wore called liv the l;isl syllable, Sioux. For sborl, 'or the same prison, the I'oltawalom- 
ies were Called Poux, and Maramech liiay have been shortened to Murau.x (the plunU of the |)eoplo of 
Maramech), as seen on several maps following the early ones. 



Ill 



There a great boulder marks the event which, more than else, makes 
the place, only a short pistol shot from the river, famous in our early 
history. No place was better known in the west and better detailed on 
the early maps than our river. Green Bay, the bay of the "Puants," 
was early shown, but the maps are blanks as to minor features. The 
early accounts make mention, hundreds of times, of the -tribes of the 
bay and the river that leads to it, but details that mark our stream so 




^Penff 



Fragment of one of Popples' maps. Note the isolated hill near Maraux. 

clearly, are there wanting. Although Perrot was in charge of the 
Miamis, at Maramech, for a number of years, he makes little mention 
of the principal village in his memorial, but gave to La Potherie* 
details that make the story clear. 

Popple's map, one of the latest to show our vicinity, only shows 
the position of the principal village, and the surrounding hills, in the 
"Big woods" that, for lumber, massive walnut trees were felled, no 




A relic oi ancient Maiamech, Miami stone mill. 

doubt, the heart of the metropolis. Here have been discovered many 
relics, and a mile upstream is still to be seen a great boulder, found with 
muller in place, under the accumulation of years of vegetable mold. 

Smaller mills for grinding the meats of nuts, to season the mess 
of pottage, have been found and potshards, near this and other springs, 
were abundant before the plows had turned them to the sun and frost. 
Many implements of agriculture f have been thrown to the surface and 

* De Lapotherie, "L'Histoire del'Amerlque Seprentrionale." 
t Six hoes have enriched my collection. 



112 

celts, and hammer stones have been carried away by relic hunters. The 
overflows of the river have often exposed the fire pavements of the cabins. 

And under the trees that, during my youth, stood near the mouth of 
"Rob Roy" creek may have been the potteries of the village, as here 
mure fragments of the ])otters art than d.-^ewhcre have been exposed. 
Sixty years of rcj)eated expu.^ure by tbc plow, to the frosts of winter have 
turned most of the fragments to dust. 

When the tribes and villages disappeared is not known, but Perrot 
was instructed to order the Miamis of Maramech (the ''Miamis of the 
grue" — the crane) to "move their fires" and join the branch of the tribe 
on the St. Joseph River. Charlevoix, who passed down the Illinois 
River in 1721, found scant remains of Fort St. Louis on Starved Rock, 
as we know the place, and makes no mention of tiie existence of La Salle's 
'•'Colonic, but he speaks well of our tributary river, saying: "The 
largest is named the Pisticuoi and comes from the beautiful country of 
the Mascoutins, and it has at its mouth a rapid named La Charboniere, 
because of the rich coal bods found on cither band. One sees on this 




The Rock. Forty-flve foet high and an acre in cxtont. 

route little more than rich i)rairios, sown with little bunches of woods 
that ajjpear to have boon planted by the hand of man. The grasses are 
so high that one becomes lost but for jiaths that are as well beaten as 
in \v('ll-poi)nlatcd countries. However, nothing jjasscs over them but 
Buiraio, and from time to time, herds of deer and antelopes." 

It was from our river that, in response to the orders of the Governor, 
Perrot took about two hundred warriors along the lakes and down the 
St. Lawrence to join the French in an attack on the Irocpiois, south of 
Lake Ontario. 

The change of name fnmi the ri\iT of tlu' Biitl'alo to that of the 
Rock was not accepted as a whole; its upper jxirtion, higluM- than the 
little lake, our summer resort, being beyond the fretnu-nt line of travel 
of French trade, the older name was late in use. 

The original name there clung as late as the year 1838, as shown on 
the map in Lanman's History of Michigan. The name of the little lake 
now only remains, as an echo of the majestic herds that gave the river 'ts 
poetic name, and sought its waters. The buffalo tiiat so long character- 



113 



ized the prairies and timber shelters along the river soon gave way to 
an9ther characteristic feature. The high rounded rocks (Eocher) each 
an acre in extent, their feet bathed by the stream, that were too hard to 
be cut away by the%reat glacial plowshare, as were the shales of the 
superincumbent strata. Riviere du 'Eocher (River of the Rock) ! 
Trading posts, if not at the village, were not far away, as proven by the 
implements, weapons and trinkets yielded to the spades of the curious 
ones, where slept the disturbed and where still lie the undisturbed 
remains of the many, on the beautiful bluff, awaiting the call from the 
far west, where the lisping (and oft angry) waters of the great ocean 
still beat upon the shores of their longed-for happy hunting ground. No 
grave stones mark the place of sepulture, and no owl hoots from crumb- 
ling bell towers, but there, bared to the sun, the violets of spring enrich 
the green sward that cover the gentle and the brave, and there, as then, 
the golden rod marks the ripeness of the year. Children of ISTature, they 
sleep in Nature's lap. 




K A NJ E Co. 



Two creeks bathe the foot of Maramech Hill and unite and pay their 
tribute to our stream, a mile above the rocks. What name before the 
reference, in the military accounts, to "line petite riviere," was known, 
has not come down to us. May they not have been known as the Big and 
Little creeks of The Rock ? When came the change to River of the Rock 
they became Big Rock and Little Rock Creeks, as now; but the larger 
creek, "The Little River" of the military accounts, may later have stag- 
gered under a new name, for a time, after the slaughter of 1730, and 
by common consent of the traders, assumed the name "Battle Creek," as 
was still echoed to the early settlers by its larger tributary, in Kane 
County.* 

Attempts to mark the trails at this late day are found to be exceed- 
ingly difficult, and hence it is believed that Blanchard erred in placing 
the crossing of the river, by the Sac and Fox trail, in that it is too far 
south. As late as 1838 the early settlers placed the trail from the west 
to the great bend between Little Rock Township and Fox Township, 

* Before me is a map of Kane county, published sometime ago by Rand & McNally. Consulting 
the map maker, he informed me that the names of the streams were carefully gathered from the old 
settlers, and on the map we find "Battle Creek." 

— 8 H S 



114 

where it crossed and wound np tlic hill and on to and beyond Specie's 
Grove, thence onward to Maiden, in Canada, whore the "British band" 
of Sacs and Foxes wont to receive annuities from the British Government. 
The Hon. Geor^je TTollenhack, the first white person born in Kendall 
County, believes as does Blanchard; as, when a boy he frequentlv saw 
Indians pass alonf; the trail. Indian trails were always as straiirht as 
the surface of the country would allow, and the early staore routes often 
followed the trails. This was e.'specially true at the fords. The Govern- 
ment survey of Kendall County, made in 1842, shows the stafre route 
from Ottawa to Chicag^o as enterinor the county and cutting the northeast 
corner of Big Grove Township and passing across the Hollonback claims 
and on to the trading posts at Chicago.* In Little Eock Township the 
Kishwaukee trail joined the one known as the Sac and Fox trail after 
passing over "the little river" at the small rapid at the northeast foot of 
the historic hill. For a mile, or more, I knew it well, for, on patient 
"Old Grey" who, with his mate, had trundled a "Prairie schooner" all 
the way from northeastern Pennsylvania, I struck the trail and tim- 
orously followed it across the little rapid and through the dense woods to 
Penfield Post Office, long ago abandoned, on the north bank of our 
river, where it joined the other trail and Stage road, and where the ever 
scarce twenty-five cents were required to pay the postage on a single 
letter. At the foot of the historic hill the trail parted, one branch 
climbing the steep and passing over at the lowest place, its scar still 
visible. After the departure of the Miamis our prairies and the valley 
of our river became no-mans-land, hunted only by bands when strong 
enough to dare the undertaking; but trade, no doubt, continued, as 
French guns, blankets and trinkets were still in demand, and the desire 
and necessity for these formed partial protection to the traders. 

The year 1730 brought to our river the climax of its history. War! 
On the hill is placed a boulder, and there we read : 

"In this stockaded fort 300 Fox warriors, with women and children, 
were besieged by thirteen hundred French and allies, Aug. 17, 1730: 

escaped SeptemlDer 9th. Captured, tortured, killed. French 

trenches on the north end of hill. "The Kock," spoken of by Ferland, 
(Ilistoire du Canada), two miles south, is partly quarried away. The 
Maramech of Franquelin's map of 1684, was near. Site identified and 
stone placed by John F. Steward, 1874-1900." 

The main grievance of the French was the resistence of the Foxes 
to special aggressions of the traders, mainly because the Foxes opposed 
the taking of arms and munitions of war by way of the Fox River of 
Wisconsin, to their deadly enomies west of them. They also taxed the 
traders for carrying goods to othor tribes by way of the region they 
claimed to monopolize. Early in 1730 information reached the French 
at Green Bay, the post on the St. Joseph River, and Fort (^hartres, on 
the Mississippi, that the Foxes, to escape the persecutions of the French, 
had started to go to the Iroquois, which tribe had made proposals to 
receive them. 



♦The early maps of Ili-ninplnmul D.- I-islo suppori my bolit-f aiul ih(< Tlii>\vnoi map dispiitrs imy 
opposing tbeory. 



115 

From the time of tlie destruction of the Foxes our river bore a still 
newer name which has perpetuated the sad event.* "Eiviere des Een- 
ards"; River of the Foxes, in our tongue. Our written history of the 
river, for a time, is silent as the rocks that gave its second name, but 
in 1752 we read: "A squaw, a widow of a Frenchman who had been 
killed at the Vermilion, has reported to Mr. Desligneris that the Pian- 
keshaws, the Illinois and the Osages were to assemble at the prairie of 

f , the place where Messrs. DeVilliers and De Noyelles attacked 

the Foxes about twenty years ago, and when they had built a fort to 
secure their families, they were to make a general attack on the French." 

The effort, however, miscarried, for some reason aside from trade. 
We thus find that the hill by our river was to be a hiding place for the 
old, the young and the women of the western tribes, while the main 
body of the warriors were to undertake to annihilate the French, or drive 
them from their hunting grounds. 

Again silence ; but early in the thirties of the last century or slightly 
before, a mission was established on our river and for a few years Indian 
students were taught our creeds. Then came the Black Hawk War, the 
history of which is yet well known. Suffice it here to say that near the 
mouth of Indian Creek, in LaSalle County, at the Davis farm, a number 
were slaughtered and two young women taken captive. On the east side 




of the river, in the townships of Fox and Big Grove, in Kendall County, 
a portion of the Sacs created havoc among the early settlers, but none 
were slain, because of the early warning from Shaubena, the friend of 
the whites, through his son and nephew. 

In digging a sewer, at Aurora, a few years ago, a lance blade, 18 
inches long was found about four feet below the surface of the soil. It 
was probably received in trade by some native who used it as a hand 
weapon, as shown by the fact that the tang of the socket had been bent 
inward, and thus unfitted for a shaft. It had long been buried. It may 
have found its way by some of De Soto's men, or by the Spaniards who 
marched through our region in 1781. The age of the weapon must 
remain problematical as the use of the lance has extended, even in our 
country, to within half a century. A regiment of lancers was raised in 
Pennsylvania and served in the war for the Union from 1861 to 18G3, 
after which carabines were substituted. 

Eeturning soldiers from the Black Hawk War took to the eastern 
states wonderful stories of the fertility of our prairies, and then came 
emigrants from the Atlantic Coast, and the bordering states in increasing 
numbers, from year to year. When the early settlers arrived an Indian 
village still remained at the northeast corner of Fox Township. The 
Indians then had ponies and here was the racetrack where the sportsmen 

* Tho story of the disaster is too long for this article, but may be found, in all its details, in "Lost 
Maramech and Earliest Chicago." 

t The word omitted is not" legible in the manuscript. 



116 

gambled as is the custom at our racetracks of to-day. In 1831 John 
Kinzic approached our river at our present Oswego, where he expected 
to iind the peoi)ie ol' W'auljansic'.s vifUige. Wiiuliansie's village was where 
Oswego now stand;^. The chief was a hard drinker but was not willing 
that his warriors should have what he so much liked. \ trader came 
down the river with a barrel of whiskey in his canoe. This did not suit 
the chief, so he stove the liciul of the barn.'! in, mikI emptied the contents 
into the river. 

Waubansie had two wives, which fact he ihought proper enough, but 
one day one did something that did not conforni to his sense of propriety 
and he ordered the other to kill her; the latter having no feeling of 
jealousy, or for some other reason hesitated, and the chief at once dis- 
jjatched the offender. 

The tribe had gone on its winter's hunt. Turning down the trail, 
for some distance, he found an Indian woman digging wild potatoes, 
so called. She had a canoe (a dug out), and helped the party to cross 
the river, where licr cabin was located. A lone Indian soon made his 
appearance, antl the next morning, after a stormy night, he piloted them 
to Specie's Grove. 

Near the "Eocks," where stands the "<)|(j stone mill/' that never 
turned a wheel, upon the eastern shore, in the ledge of rocks, now 
quarried away, was Black JIawk's Cave. At the opening a man could 
stand, -but at a distance of fifty feet the cave terminated in a mere 
crevice. Why given that name is not known uidess because of being 
near the trail, less than a mile away, over which, for years, had passed 
the British band of Sacs, with Black Hawk, the brave (never a chief) 
at the head. Hicks, in his history of Kendall County, makes a bad 
effort to describe the events at what we now call Maramech Hill. I told 
him of my discovery, then in its inci])ien(y, but he took no notes and 
later made a story that does not accord with the facts. 

Where roamed the majestic herds, are fields of corn ; at the stream, 
erstwhile so rich in the finny tribe, are now wheels of industry; our 
l)onds that grew the beautiful lillies (the macoujune of the natives) 
have largely disappeared; nnd where wild ducks aiul wild geese were in 
unbelievable riuantities, few are foujid. Wild pigeons, in the early days, 
clouded the sky, yet here, in 1730, war and famine reigned. In these 
regions are now happy honu's, and cities border the stream : the erstwhile 
chrijslal waters of our river are now a dream; and the shades of 
the giant trees, that bordered the stream, felled by the ruthless axman, 
are but a memory. 



117 



INDEX. 



A 

PAGE. 

Abolitionists 39 

Adams County, Illinois 13, 49 

Adams County, Historical Society, 

Quincy, list of officers 13 

Adams, Samuel 74 

Albion, 111 5 

Aldrich, Orlando W 19, 20, 89 

Aldrich, Orlando W., Slavery or in- 
voluntary servitude in Illinois prior 
to and after its admission as a 

State 20, 89-99 

Alexander, Barbara, Charter mem- 
ber Presbyterian Church, Paris, 

111 76 

Algonquin Indians 56, 107 

Allen. (Rev.) Ira W., Early Pres- 
byterianism in East Central Illi- 
nois 19, 71-78 

Allen, James C, Efforts in behalf of 

the veto power 48 

Allouez Father, Claude Jean 109 

Alton, 111 5, 14 

Alton, 111., Madison County Historical 

Society, officers 14 

Alvord. Clarence Walvi'orth, Editor of 
Centennial Publications on State 

History 25 

America 37,51 

America, Collins vs. America, Slave 

Case 98 

America, (Johnson County), Illinois. 62 

American Bible, Society 73 

American Bottom. Indian Mounds in. 53 
American Colonies, before the Revo- 
lution, no uniformity with regard 

to the veto power existed 43 

American Maps, Harrisse, French 

critic of American maps 108 

American State Builders, confidence 

in legislative assemblies 43 

Anderson, ( Mrs. ) K. T 15 

Anderson, P. B 13 

Anthony Elliott, quoted on the veto 

power 48 

Antiquities of Illinois in St. Clair, 
Madison. Monroe and Randolph 

Counties 41 

Archer. William R., of Pike County, 
member of the Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1847 and 1869 50 

Archer, William R., Resolution in the 
General Assembly for amendment 
to the Constitution, requiring ap- 
propriation bills to be itemized, 

etc 50 

Armour, Philip D 84, 87 

Armstrong, Marshall N 14 

Art. Mary, Charter member New 

Providence Presbyterian Church.. 77 
Art. Thomas, Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church. . 77 

Arthur, (Pres. ) Chester 50 

Artifacts, buried with the Indians... 51 



PAGE. 

Ashmore, Cassandra, Early member 

Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 
.Vshmore, James, Early member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris, 111 76 

Ashmore, Rachel. Early member 
Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 

Aspasia, , Menard vs. As- 

pasia. Slave Case 97 

Assinnesepe, ( Rock River) 109 

"Assistagueronons," ("Nation de 

Fue") Nation of the Fire 107 

Atlantic Coast 115 

Attorney.?, Act of 1792, regulating 

the practice of law 61, 62 

Augusta County, Virginia 77 

Aurora, 111 115 

Austria 87 



Bailey vs. Cromwell, Case in law... 95 

Baird, Hannah, Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 

Baring Brothers, London, England, 
Bankers 81 

Battle Creek .113 

footnote 113 

Bechtel, Henry 62 

Becker, Joseph W 13 

Belgium 88 

Belleville, 111 15, 19, 20, 38, 39, 42 

Belleville, 111., Edwards, (Gov.) Nin- 
ian. Death of, from cholera in 
Belleville 38 

Belleville, 111., Edwards, (Gov.) Nin- 
ian. Home of in Belleville in good 
state of preservation 38 

Belleville, 111., Koerner, Gustavus, 
buried in Walnut Hill Cemetery in 
Belleville 39 

Belleville, 111., Prominent Illinoisans 
from 38 

Belleville, 111., Reynolds, (Gov.) John, 
Buried in Walnut Hill Cemetery 
in 38 

Belleville, 111., Reynolds, (Gov.) John, 
Home of, in Belleville in perfect 
state of preservation 38 

Belleville, 111., St. Clfiir County, His- 
torical Society, officers 15 

Belleville, 111., Walnut Hill Ceme- 
tery 38, 39 

Belvidere, 111 5,15 

Belvidere, 111., Boone County His- 
torical Society, officers 13 

Bibliotheque National at Paris, 
France 109 

Big Grove Township, Kendall County, 
Illinois 114, 115 

Big Raccoon Creek 74 

Big Rock Creek, Tributary to the 
Fox River 113 

Bissell, (Gov.) William H 38,39 



118 



INDEX— Continued. 



I'AUE. 

Bissell. (Gov.> William H., Burieu 
in Oak liidge Cemetery, Spiinj;- 

tield, 111 3'J 

BlacK, ciJr.> Carl K 14 

Black Hawk llt> 

Black Hawks cave lit) 

BiacK Hawk War lli> 

"Black Baws" ol Indiana Teiritury, 

Illinois 'lerrilury, Illinois Slate... 69 
BlacK Baws, Stale of Illinois, .tia, 95, 96 
BlacKburn, Blizaoelh, Charier mem- 
ber Bresbyterian Cliurch, Paris, 

Bl 76 

Blackford, Isaac Newton 94,97 

Blaine I'amiiy 102 

Blanchard, ICutus 109, 113, 114 

Blatcluord lamily, Chicago 83 

Blin lamily 31 

Blish lanuiy 31 

Blish, James Knox 31 

Bloominglon, 111 5, 14 

BloominKion, ill., MoBean County 

Historical Society, orhcers 14 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, Quotation from. 35 
Bond, Shadrach, First Governor of 
the State of Illinois, Monument to, 
erected by the State at Chester, 111. . 37 

Bonney, Charles C 86 

Boon vs. Juliet, Slave Case 98 

Boone County, Historical Society, 

Belvidere, ill., officers 13 

Borders, , Sarah vs. Borders, 

Slave Case 98 

Bornmann, Henry 13 

Bos Bison, Kiver of the Bos Bison or 
as we name it the Buffalo, by J. 

F. Steward 107-116 

Bovell, Christian, Charter member 

Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 
Bovell, John, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris, 111 76 

Bowe, (Dr.) Edward 24 

Bradford, E. F 13 

Breese, Sidney 94, 98 

Brenan, Tim 86 

Briugeport, 111 80 

British Colonies. Legislation in, still 
subject to disallowance by the 

king 43 

British Empire, Vetoes of Colonial 

Legislation, reference 43 

Bross, William, Publisher Chicago 

Tribune 85 

Brown, Ellen B., Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 

111 78 

Brown, Horace S 13 

Brown, Jacob S.. Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 

111 78 

Brown, John, Life of, by Elbert Hub- 
bard, reference 93 

Brown, John, Member of the Board 

Indiana Canal Company, 1805 62 

Brown, Joseph, Charter member Pres- 
byterhin Church. Grandview, 111... 78 

Bryan Hall, Chicago 82 

Bryan, Tlu.mn.s B 83 

Brydges, W. H 13 

Buckmaster, (Miss) Julia 14 

Buffalo 55, 112 

Buffalo, herds 56 

Buffalo Ulver, Fox River of Illinois. . 

107-116 

Bull, (Ml.s.s) Mary 13 

Bureau County Historical Society, 

Princeton, 111., ofUccra 13 

Burlty, Clarence A 13 

Burnhnm, (Capt.) J. H. .5. 14, 27, 28, 29 



PAGK. 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H.. Report on 
McLean County Historical Society. . 27 

Buinside, (Gen.; Ambrose E 85 

Burr, Aaron, Member of the Board 
Indiana Canal Company, 1805.... 62 

Burr, Betsy, Early member Presby- 
terian Cliurch, Paris, 111 76 



Cabel, James Branch 31 

Cadaoau Indians 55 

LahoKia, 111 35, 36, 41, 52, 53, 96 

CahoKia, 111., Common tieids 37 

Cahokia, 111., Couniy seat of St. Clair 

County 36 

Cahokia, 111., First permanent \Chite 

seltienienl in Illinois 36 

CahoKia, 111., Group of Indian Mounds 

52, 53 

Cahokia Mission 35, 36 

Caldwell, James, Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 

111 77 

Cale, Sarah, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Grandview, 111... 78 
Cale, William A., Charier member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 

111 78 

Caliiornia, State 31, 41 

California State, Oakland, Cal 31 

Camp Douglas 83 

Canada 89, 114 

Canada, Ferland, J. B. A. Historie 

du Canada 114 

Canada, Maiden Canada 114 

Canals, Indiana Canal Company, act 

incorporating, 1805 62 

Canheld, B. G 86 

Carbondale. Ill 5 

Carlinville. 111.. Macoupin County, 

Historical Society, officers 14 

Carpenter, Philo 81 

Carpenter, lUchard V 5 

Carr. (Hon.) Clark E., Honorary 
President, Illinois State Historical 

Society 5,14,22 

Carrollton, 111 13 

Champaign County, Illinois 13,26 

Champaign County Historical Society, 

Champaign, 111., officers 13 

Champaign, 111 5. 13 

Champaign, HI.. Champaign County 

Historical Society, officers 13 

Cluimplain, Le Sr 56 

Chapman. P. T 26,27 

Chapman, (Mrs.) P. T., Marks trail 
of George Rogers Clark through 

Jackson County, Illinois 26 

Charlevol.x, I'ierre Francois Xavier 
de. Passed down the Illinois River 

In 1721 112 

"Chemin de V allee" 109 

"Chemhi du Retour" 109 

Cherokee Indians r>2. 53, 54 

Chester, 111., County seat of Randolph 

County 37 

Chester. 111., State Hospital for the 

Insane local. 'd at Cliester 37 

Chesterlield, Philip Dormer. Stan- 
hope. Lord CheslerlUld. Quotation 

from 35 

Chicago & Alton R. R 23 

Chicago. Ill 

..5. 19. 20. 23. 31. 48, 79-88, 101. 108, 109 

footnote 25 

Chicago. 111.. Court House 79 

Chicago. 111.. Currey, J. Seymour, 
History of Chicago 83 



119 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Chicaaro, 111., Democrat (newsnaper) 83 
Chicago, 111., Egan, (Dr.) William 
B., Physician and real estate agent 

in early Chicago 80-81 

Chicago, 111., German population in 

1854 79 

Chicago, 111., Healy, George P. A., 

Art Gallery in Chicago 83 

Chicago, 111., Historical Society, offl- 

cers 13 

Chicago, 111., Inter-Ocean (news- 
paper) 85 

Chicago. 111., Irish, builders of 
Churches, Hospitals and Charitable 

Institutions in Chicago 80 

Chicago, 111.. Irish influence in Chi- 
cago History 79-81 

Chicago, 111.. Ogden, William, first 

Mayor of (I^hicago 83 

Chicago, 111., Onahan, William J., 

Sixty years in Chicago 20, 79-88 

Chicago. 111., Prince of Wales visit 

to Chicago, reference 83 

Chicago. 111.. Stage route from Otta- 
wa to Chicago 114 

Chicago, III., Steward, John F., Lost 
Mpramech and Earliest Chicago 

reference 115 

footnote 115 

Cl.icago, 111., Times (newspaper) .... 85 
Chicago, 111., Tribune (newspaper) . . 85 

"Chicagou" (Chicago) 108. 109 

Chippewa Indians 56, 57 

Chippeway Indians, Ceded their 
claims to the United States Gov- 
ernment, 1829 57 

Chlxnaider — Merry vs. Chlxnaider, 

slave case in Louisiana 97 

Choctaw Indians 54 

Choisser vs. Hargrave. case in law. . 95 
Chouteau vs. Peirre, Slavery case. . . 91 
Churches, Allen. (Rev.) Ira W., Early 
Presbvterianism in East (Central 

Illinois 19, 71-78 

Churches, Presbyterian Church. . .71-78 
Churches, St. Peters Cathedral, Rome, 

Italy 87 

Cincinnati, Ohio 84 

Civil War, see War of the Rebellian 

39, 47, 82, 83 

Clark, George Rogers 

25, 26, 27. 59, 62, 89 

Clark, George Rogers. Member of 
Board Indiana Canal Company, 

1805 62 

Clark, George Rogers, Monuments on 
trail of Clark, through Jackson 

County, Illinois 26 

Clark. George Rogers. Route of, from 
Fort Massac to Kaskaskia and 
Vincennes. effort to mark trail.. 26, 27 
Clark. Martin C. Member of Board 
Indiana Canal Company, 1805.... 62 

Clendenin, H. W 5, 22, 30 

Clendenin, H. W.. To prepare a 

Memorial to J. McCan Davis 30 

Clinton, J. W 5. 14. 28, 29 

Clocks, Wooden clocks, act of Feb. 
14. 1823. making regulations con- 

cornin.g wooden clocks 70 

Collins vs. America. Slave Case 98 

"Colonie du Sieur de La Salle".. 109. 112 

Columbus. Ohio 19,20 

Colyer. Walter 5 

Comiskey, John 85 

Conn'^cticut. Before the Revolution, 

had no veto power 43 

Connpcticut, State, Hartford, Con- 
necticut 31 



PAGE. 

Connecticut State, Missionary So- 
ciety, Rev. Isaac Reed Missionary 

from, to Indiana and Illinois 72 

Con.stitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois 45, 46, 94 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois, Article III, Sec. 15, refer- 
ence 45 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois. Article III, Sec. 19, quoted. .45-46 
Constitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois, Article VI, Sec. 1, Slavery 

Clause, quoted 94 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illi- 
nois, Article VI, Sec. 3, quoted... 94 
Constitution of 1848, State of Illi- 
nois 47, 49, 50, 65. 95. 96, 99 

Constitution of 18 48. State of Illi- 
nois. Slavery prohibited 96 

Constitution of 1848, Veto Section 

found in Article IV, Sec. 21, quoted. 47 
Constitution of 1862, not ratified by 

the people 48 

Constitution of 1870, State of Illi- 
nois 49, 68 

Constitution, State of Illinois, 1870, 
Veto provisions of, Article V, Sec. 

16. quoted 49 

Constitution of 1777, State of New 

York 45 

Constitutional Convention, 1818, State 

of Illinois 45, 46. 65, 94 

Constitutional Convention. 1848, State 

of Illinois 46 

Constitutional Convention, 1862, Veto 
provisions of the proposed consti- 
tution 48 

Constitutional Convention, 1869-70.. 

48, 49, 50 

Constitutional Convention, 1869-70, in 
favor of strengthening the veto 

power 48 

Contributions to State History. .107-116 

Cook, , Kinney vs. Cook, case 

in law 95 

Copnerheads 40 

Corn crops of the Indians, hiding 

places of — reference 55 

Cottage of Ppace. Home of Rev. 
Isaac Reed. Missionary from Ken- 

tuckv to Indiana 72.73.74 

Council of Revision on the veto 
power of the Governor, plan adop- 
ted by members of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, 1818 45 

Council of Revision, State of Illinofs, 
lastpd for thirty years, 1818 to 

1848 46 

Prawford County, Illinois 48, 77 

Cre^k Indians B^, 54 

Crpgier. 'n-witt C, Mayor of Chi- 

casro. 1889 82 

Criminal Codo "Wnt-thwest Territorv. 

Act. Sept. fi. 1788 6S. 64 

Crng'bPin William. Member of Board 

Indiana Canal Comnany 62 

Cromwell. . Bailey vs. Crom- 
well. Case in Law 95 

Cro=s R. J, Member of the Consti- 

lutinnal Convpntion. 1848 47 

CroTiipr. MargarAt, Earlv member 

Presbytc-ian Church. Paris. 111... 76 
Cullom. (Gov.') Sb^l^iy M.. Message 
to General Assembly of 1883. with 
rep-ard to veto items in appropria- 
tion bills 50 

Culver, John H _. 14 

Cunningham, (Judge) J. O. .5, 13, 26, 29 



120 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Cunningham, (Judge) J. O., Interest 
in the marking of the Lincoin Cir- 
cuit 26 

Curran, (Mrs.) W. R 15 

Currey, J. Seymour 13, 83 

Currey, J. Seymour, History of Chi- 
cago 83 

Gushing, Edwin B 13 



D 

D. (on Raccoon Creelt) men- 
tioned in Diary of Rev. Isaac Reed . 75 

Daltota Indians 51, 108 

footnote lie 

Dana, Charles A., Editor, The New 

York Sun 85 

Dana, Charles A., Manager of the 

ChicasTO Inter-Ocean 85 

Danville, 111 25,26 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Illinois State Conference, Otta- 
wa, 111 21 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Illinois, Mrs. George A. Law- 
rence, State Regent 21 

Davis farm in LaSalle County, Illi- 
nois 115 

Davis, George P 14 

Davis, Jefferson 39 

Davis, J. M., Member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention, 1848 47 

Davi.s. J. McCan, Death of. Condo- 
lences of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 22 

Davis, J. McCan. Memorial on, to be 
prepared for the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 30 

Davis, fDr.) N. S 83 

Davis, W. W 15 

Dayton. Jonathan. Member of Board 
Indiana Canal Companv, 1805.... 62 

DeKalb. Ill ; 5 

DeLapothere L' Histoire de I'Amer- 

Ique. septentrionale, footnote Ill 

DeLisle, French map — reference lOS 

footnote 114 

DeMomhreun. Jacques Thimet4. By 

Rev. W. A. Provlne 10 

DeSoto, Ferdinand 52, 115 

DeVilliers, rCapt.) Nevon 115 

Dehel. N. H., The development of the 
veto power of the Governor of Illi- 
nois 19, 43-50 

Decatur, 111 14 19 oq 

Decatur, III.. High School 20 

Decatur, Til., Macon County His- 
torical Society, officers 14 

Decker. . TTnrvev vs. Decker, 

Slave Ca.^e, Ml.=slssipnl 97 

Declaration of Independence 

^ 39. 43, 59. 90 

Declaration of Independence, Refer- 
ence to the veto power of the king 

In. one of the grievances 43 

Delrfwnre Indians, Method of burial. 53 

Decllpnerls, Mr 115 

D^morrnf Ic party ! ! ! ! 4G. 85 

D'^sMnlnes, River 109 

Desnnvelles. Nicholas, Joseph Fleurl- 

mont 115 

Desnialnes River fDlvlne River) .!.. 1 09 
Develonm^nt of the veto power of 
the Governor of Illinois, by N. H. 

Dehel 19. 43^50 

ninrv of the Rev. Isaac Reed, Mis- 
sionary from Connecticut to Illi- 
nois 74-76 



PAQB. 

District of Columbia 21 

Divine River (Desplaines) 109 

Divorce law of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, passed July 15, 1795 64 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 

24, 39, 40,79.82,85 

footnote 24 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Monument 

to Stephen A. Douglas in Chicago. 82 
Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Riswold, 
Gilbert P., sculptor, selected to 
make statue of Stephen A. Douglas, 

footnote 24 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Statue to 
be placed on State Capitol grounds. 24 

footnote 24 

Dowdall, John A., Inquiry concern- 
ing the heirs of Shabbona. refer- 
ence 27 

Du Pratz, M. LePage, quoted on the 

Natchez Indian Temples 52, 53 

Dubuque, Iowa 110 

Duggan, (Bishop) James of Chicago 

82, 83 

Dumbarton, Va 31 

Dunkards, Tax levied on for release 

from military duty 68 

Dunne, (Gov.) Edward F 19, 20 

Dunne, (Mr.s.) Edward F 19,20 

Duvall, Alvin 97, 98 

Duvol, Error should be. Duvall, Al- 
vin 97, 98 

E 

Eagleton, James, Cliarter member 
Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 111. 77 

Eagleton, Margaret. Early member 
of Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 
111 77 

Early Presbyterianism in East Cen- 
tral Illinois, by Rev. Ira W. Allen. 
71-78 

East St. Louis, 111 38 

Edgar County. Illinois 73, 74 

l'](l.Lrar. John, Member of the Board of 
Trustees of the town of Kaskaskia 66 

Education, Decatur, III., Higli School 20 

lOducution, Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville, 111 5 

Education. Illinois, Northern Illinois 
State Normal School 5 

Education, Illinois, Southern Illinois 
State Normal University 5 

Education, Illinois, Universltv of Illi- 
nois ".5, 19. 43, 51 

Education. Northwestern Universltv, 
Evan.ston. Ill 5. 85 

lOducation. Parochial Schools, Prairie 
du Rocher, 111 38 

l-Iducation, Women's College of the 
Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, 111 85 

E<lucatlon, Yale University, New 
Maven. Conn 45 

Edwards, (Governor) Ninlan. death 
of, from cholera. In Belleville 38 

Edwards, (Governor) NInian. Honie 
of In Belleville In good state of 
preservation 38 

EfllKV Mounds in 'Wisconsin, Ohio 
and Illinois 51 

Eg.in. (Doctor) 'U'llllani B., Physician 
and real estate agent In early 
Chicago 80-81 

lOgi^lcton. James, Charter member 
Pri'shyterlnn Church. Paris, 111... 76 

Egypt, Pyramids of Egypt, refer- 

enro 36 



121 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Elgin, 111., Scientific Club 13 

Emerson, , Scott vs. Emer- 
son slave case, Missouri 97 

Emery, J. W 13 

Emporia, Kans 31 

England 43, 89, 102 

England, Last veto of a parlia- 
mentary act, reference 43 

England. Treaty between England 
and France, 1763 89 

England, veto power a royal preroga- 
tive in England 43 

English Parliament 43 

Ennis, (Rev.") Roval W 24 

Eureka, 111., Woodford County His- 
torical Society, officers 15 

Eui-ope 40, 41 

Evans, — , Henry vs. Evans, 

slave case ■ 98 

Evanston, III 5.13,20 

Evanston, 111., Historical Society, offi- 
cers 13 

Evanston, 111., Women's College of 
the Northwestern University 85 

Ewing, Alexander, Charter member 
New Providence Presbyterian 
Church. Edgar County, Illinois. . 76, 77 

Ewing, Blen, Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar Countj', Illinois 7 7 

Ewing. Elizabeth, Charter member 
New Providence Presbyterian 
Church, Edgar County, Illinois.... 77 

Ewing, George. Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar County, Illinois 77 

Ewing, James, Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar County, Illinois 76, 77 

Ewing. Margaret L., Charter mem- 
ber New Providence Presbyterian 
Church, Edgar County, Illinois.... 77 

Ewing, Nathaniel, Charter member 
New Providence Presbyterian 
Church. Edgar County, Illinois.... 77 

Ewing. Rachel, Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar County, Illinois 77 

ExDOsitions, World's Fair, Chicago. 
Ill 87, 88 



VAGE. 

Fort Dearborn, Two heroes of Fort 
Dearborn massacre were Irish.... 80 

L'ort Harrison 73, 74 

Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) 

56, 109, 112 

Fort Sumpter 40 

Foster, (Dr.) George P. ( ?) 81 

Foster, (Mrs.) J. T 15 

Fox family 31 

Fox Indians 

56, 57, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115 

Fox Indians, ceded their claims to 
the United States Sept. 13-14, 

1815 57 

Fox River of Illinois (River of the 
Bos Bison, or as we name it, the 
Buffalo), by J. F. Steward. . .107-116 

Fox River of Wisconsin 109, 114 

Fox Township, Kendall County, Illi- 
nois 115 

Fox, William A 31 

France 56, 80, 89 

France, Treaty between England and 

France, 1763 89 

France, Rachel, Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 

111 78 

Franklin, Benjamin, George P. A. 
Healy's painting of the Presenta- 
tion of Franklin at the Court of 

Louis XVI 83 

Franquelin, official cartographer of 

New France 109 

Franquelin's Map of 1684 107, 114 

Franquelin's Map of 1684 and 1688.. 

107, 108 

T'reese, L. J 15 

French and Canadian inhabitants of 
Kaskaskias and St. Vincents to 
have titles and possessions con- 
firmed to them and be protected, 
stipulation in deed of cession of 

Virginia to the U. S., 1784 90 

French Axe, found on Meramech 

Hill 110 

French Map of 1679 108 

I'rench Provinces in America, slavery 

in 89 

French settlers in Illinois, status of 
children of slaves of French set- 
tlers 96 

French Traders 110 



Falling Springs near Cahokia 37 

Fanny vs. Griffith slave case 97 

Farwell, John V 84 

Faxon, George S 14 

Federal Banking Laws 86 

Federal Constitution, Fourteenth 

Amendment. Section I, reference.. 94 
Ferland, J. B. A., Historic du Can- 
ada 114 

Field, Marshall 84, 87 

First Two Counties of Illinois and 
their People, by Fred J. Kern.... 

20, 35-42 

Fish, (Prof.) Carl 26 

Fisher. George, Member of the Board 
of Trustees of the town of Kas- 

kaskia 66 

Fletcher, Mabel E., Old Settler's tales 

19, 20, 100-104 

Floyd, Davis, Member of Board of 

Indiana Canal Company, 1805 62 

Fort Chartres 15, 37, 114 

Fort Chartres Historical Association. 15 
Fort Dearborn, First Fort Dearborn 
built by an Irish born soldier of 
the Revolution 79 



Gage, (Gen.) Thomas 89 

Galesburg, 111 5, 14, 21 

Galesburg, 111., Knox County His- 
torical Society, officers 14 

Gay, William H 13 

Genealogical Committee Illinois State 

Historical Society, report 31-32 

"Gens de Prairies," name given by 

the French to Mascoutin Indians.. 107 
German population in Chicago in 

1854 79 

Germans — Abolitionists 39 

Germans, opposed to slavery 39, 40 

Germany, Revolution of 1848 39 

Gilman, Charles H 96 

Gilmer, Francis W 97 

Glover. C. C 14 

Goodwin family 31 

Goodwin, James J 31 

Gorgets of the Indians 53 

Gorman, Thomas 21 

Graham, , Strader vs. Gra- 
ham, case in law 99 



12% 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Grand Detour i09 

Grand Prairie, Edgar County, Illi- 
nois 74, 77 

Grandvlew. (Edgar County), Illinois, 
Presbyterian Church Organization, 

1838 78 

"Granny" Sharks, attends the pioneer 

wedding 101, 102, 103. 104 

Great Britain 89. 90, 91 

Great Britain "Jay Treaty," 1794... 90 
Green Bay, the Bay of the Puants..lll 

Green Bay, Wis 107,114 

Green Bay. Wis., Indians of Green 

Bay 107 

Green, Bowling, Log cabin of, where 
Lincoln boarded, remnant of pre- 
served, offered for .sale 27, 28 

Green, William, Early friend of Lin- 
coln's, called "Slicky Green" 27 

Greencastle, Ind 74, 75 

Greene County, Illinois 13, 26 

Greene County, Historical Society... 13 

Greene, Evarts Boutell 

5, 13. 22, 24. 25. 27. 29 

Greenville. Treaty of Greenville, 1795 . 94 
Griffith, Fanny vs. Griffith, slave 

case 97 

Grissom, Wm. M.. Jr 13 

Groseillers M6dard Chouart des 108 

Grover, Frank R 13 

Gulf of Mexico .* 37 

Gwathmey, John, Member of Board 
of Indiana Canal Company, 1805.. 62 



H 

Hagonantens. Lake, At the head of 
the St. Lawrence River, shown on 

an early map 107 

Hall family 31 

Hall. (Dr.) Omar 31 

Hamilton, O. B 13 

Hargrave, , Cholsser vs. Har- 

grrave, case In law 95 

Harri.'son. Carter (The elder). Mayor 

of Chicago 82, 86 

Harri.son, John, Member of Board 

Indiana Canal Company. 1805.... 62 
Harrison, (Gen.) William Henry.. 62. 92 
Harrissp, Henry, French critic of the 

American maps 108 

Hartford, Conn 31 

Harvey vs. Decker, slave case, Mls- 

.sis.slppl 97 

Harvey, Drusilla 100 

Hauberg. John H 15 

Havf-y. Benjamin. Member of Board 

Indiana Canal Company, 1805.... 62 
Hcaly, George P. A., Gallery in Chi- 

„«'aKO • 83 

Hearn. Caniplxll S 23 24 

Hearst. William Randolph !..'28 

Hciilon, J. C. n 13 

Ilickor, Frederick 39 

llolnl, Frank J '.'.'.'.'. 14 

Hinntpln, Louis, map, reference, foot- 
note 114 

Henry vs. Evan.s. slave ca.se..!!.!!.' 98 

ironry, Patrick 59 

Hl.-k.s. Oiov.) E. W.. History 'of 

Ivndall Coimty 118 

Hllg.ird, Theodore... 90 

Hill. James W qi 

Hiiisboro. Ill !!!!!!!'' "14 '24 

Hlllsboro. 111.. Montgomery' County' 
Historical Society 14 

Hlle. Ann W.. Cli.arter member Pres- 
byterian Church. Grandvlew. Ill 78 



PAOE. 

Hite, James, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Grandvlew, 111... 78 

HoUenback, George 114 

Hough, W. A 15 

Houston, Eliza. Charter member 
Presbyterian Church. Palestine, 111. 77 

Houston. Jane, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Palestine, 111.... 77 

Houston, Joho. Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church. Palestine. III.... 77 

Houston, Nancy, Charter member 
i'resbyterian Church, Palestine. Ill . 77 

Howard, , Nance vs. Howard, 

slave case 9S 

Howard. Volney E 99 

Hubbard. Elbert, Life of John Brown, 
reference 93 

Hubbard family, Chicago 83 

Hunter. John D.. Quoted on the 
method of burial Osage Indians... 53 

Huron Indians 56 

I 

lliniwek. (The Men), Indians of the 
tribe in Illinois, called themselves. . 54 

mini Indians 35. 108 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 80.81 

Illinois and Michigan Canal, Irish 
.settlements along 81 

Illinoi.s and Michigan Canal, Michael 
Ryan's work in behalf of 81 

Illinois College. Jacksonville, 111.... 5 

Illinois Country, First general incor- 
poration act to which Illinois 
country was subject, May 1, 1198. . 
62. 63 

Illinois Country, marriages, law regu- 
lating 67 

Illinois Country, number of negroes 
in at the close of the British occu- 
pation 99 

Illinois, county of Virginia 60,61,90 

Illinois, county of Virginia — Act of 
tlie Virginia House of Burgesses.. 90 

Illinois, county of Virginia — Act of 
^'irginia Assembly on pure food... 61 

Illinois, county of Virginia, 1778, 
adopted a complete election code.. 60 

Illinois, county of Virginia, John 
Todd, Lieutenant of the County of 
Illinois 60 

Illinois, county of Virginia, Witch- 
craft, prosecution and execution 
for witchcraft 60 

Illinois Indians 54. 55, 56, 57, 1 10, 115 

Illinois Indians. Customs of the Illi- 
nois Indians 54. 55 

Illinois Indians. League of tlie Illi- 
nois ceded their claims to the 
I'nited States, Sept. 25. 1818 57 

Illinois Indians, tribes of the Con- 
federacy, reference 55 

Illinois Navigation Company, Act 
Jan. 9, 1817 52 

Illinois River 54, 57, 112 

Illinois I{lvei-, Charlevoix passed 
down the Illinois River In 1721... 112 

Illinois State 3. 5, 

7. 8. 9. 11, 12. 13. 14. ir>, 10. 20. 21. 23. 
24, 25, 26. 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 35. 36. 37, 
39, 40. 41. 42, 43. 44. 45. 4f., 47, 48. 49. 
50. 51. 53. 54. 55. Hfi. 57. 59. GO. 61. 64, 
ri5. 68. fi!i. 70-78. S2. SO 99. 100, 107-116 

Illinois State, .\dnilsslon to the 
Union. ISIS, rouiieil of l^.evlslon. 
veto power of the (^lovernor 44, 45 

Illinois State, Adopts the veto plan 
of New York State 44, 45 



123 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. Aldrich, Orlando W.. 
Slavery or involuntary servitude in 
Illinois prior and after its admis- 
sion as a State 20, 89-99 

Illinois State, Allen. (Rev.) Ira W., 
Early Presbvterianism in East 
Central Illinois 19, 71-78 

Illinois State, Antiquities of Illinois 
in St. Clair County 41 

Illinois State, Appropriation bills 
leg'islation on 50 

Illinois State, Appropriation bills, 
power to veto items in 49 

Illinois State. Archives. County Ar- 
chives of Illinois, by Theodore Cal- 
vin Pease 25 

Illinois State, Art Commission. .. .23, 24 

Illinois State, Aspasia, colored woman 
born in Illinois after the ordinance 
of 1787, case in law Menard vs. 
Aspasia 97 

Illinois State, Attempt to amend the 
Constitution to allow slaverj^. .. 95-96 

Illinois State, "Black Laws" .. .69, 95, 96 

Illinois State, Cahokia first perma- 
nent white settlement in 36 

Illinois State, Cap'tal 82 

Illinois State, Capitol Building- 19 

Illinois State, Centennial Building 
Committee 23 

Illinois State, Centennial Commis- 
sion 23, 24, 25, 26 

Illinois State. Centennial Commission 
Publications contemplated on State 
history 25 

Illinois State, Clocks, wooden clocks. 
Act of Feb. 14, 1823. making regxi- 
lations concerning sale 70 

Illinois State. Constitution of 1818.. 
45, 46. 65, 94 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818, 
Article III, Sec. 19, quoted 45, 46 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818, 
Article VI, Sec. 1. slavery clause.. 94 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818, 
Article VI, Sec. 3. reference 94 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1848.. 
47 49 65.95 99 

Illinois State. Constitution' of' 1848, 
prohibits slavery 96 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1848, 
veto section. Article IV, Sec. 21, 
quoted 47 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1862, 
not ratified by the people 48 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1870.. 
49, 68 

Illinois State. Constitution of 1870, 
veto provisions of, Article V, Sec. 
16. quoted 49 

Illinois Staffs. Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1818 44, 45 

Illinois State, Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1818, Council of Revision, 
veto power of the Governor 44, 45 

Illinois State. Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1848 46 

Illinois Stafo. Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1862 48 

Illinois State. Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1869-70 48.49.50 

Illinois State, Constitutional Conven- 
tion 1869-70. in favor of strength- 
ening the veto power 48 

Illinoi<5 State, Contributions to State 
Hi.story 107-116 

Illinois State. Council of Revision.. 
44, 45, 46 



PAGE. 

Illinois State, Council of Revision 
lasted for thirty years, 1818 to 
1848 1 46 

Illinois State, County of Virginia, odd 
laws and usages during the Vir- 
ginia period 59-60 

Illinois State, Daughters of the 
American Revolution 21, 26 

Illinois State, Daughters of the 
American Revolution to mark Lin- 
coln Circuit 26 

Illinois State, Debel, N. H., The de- 
velopment of the veto power of the 
Governor of Illinois 19, 43-50 

Illinois State, Effigy mounds in, 
reference 51 

Illinois State, Election by ballot and 
viva voce 65 

Illinois State, Election of 1822, candi- 
dates of anti-slavery, pro-slavery 
principles, votes cast 95 

Illinois State, Executive Mansion... 20 

Illinois State, flag or banner, work of 
Mrs. George A. Lawrence in se- 
curing 21 

Illinois State, Fletcher, Mabel, Old 
Settlers' Tales 20, 100-104 

Illinois State, French settlers in Illi- 
nois, Status of Children of slaves. . 96 

Illinois State, General Assembly. 
See Legislature 46 

Illinois State, Grand Prairie of Illi- 
nois 74 

Illinois State, Historical Building ap- 
propriations 23 

Illinois State, Historical Collections. 
7, 25 

Illinois State, Historical Library. . . . 
7, 9, 11. 12, 24, 25, 29 

Illinois State, Historical Library, Act 
to establish 9 

Illinois State, Historical Library, ap- 
peal for contributions of historical 
material 11,12 

Illinois State. Historical Library pub- 
lications, list »nd of th!=i volume. 135 

Illinois State, Historical Society. . . . 

5. 7, 8, 

11, 12. 13. 19, 20. 21. 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 42 

Illinois State, Historical Society An- 
nual meeting. May 11-12. 1916.. 19-20 

Illinois State, Historical Society ap- 
peal for contributions of historical 
material 11, 12 

Illinois State, Historical Society con- 
stitution 8-11 

Illinois State, Historical Society 
Genealogical Corrmittee report . .31-32 

Illinois State, Historical Society 
Journal 7,31 

Illinois State, Historical Society ofH- 
cers 5 

Illinois State. Historical Society Pub- 
lirationc list, enri o*' this voiniie . 135 

Illinois State. Historical societies, 
county and local 13-15 

Illinois State. Hosnital for the Insane 
located at Chester. Ill 37 

Illinois State, Indian Mounds in, 
work of four different tribes 51 

Illinoic; State. Indian tribes in, dis- 
tribution 54 

Illinois State, Indian tribes have left 
numerous monuments 51 

Illinois State, Indians 51,54.56,57 

Illinois State. James, James Alton, 
Illinois in the Revolution, refer- 
ence 25 



124 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State, James. Jatms Alton, 
The Work of the Illinoi.s Park 
Commission and the • preservation 
of historical sites 20 

Illinois State, Justices of the Peace, 
Act of Jan. 17, 1825 70 

Illinois State. Kuskaskia. first capital 37 

Illinois State, Kern, Fred J., The 
first two counties of Illinois and 
Iheir people 20, 35-42 

Illinois State, Lawrence, (Mrs.) 
George A., Work in behalf of 
State flag or banner 21 

Illinois State. Legislature 

9, 23, 25, 27, 45, 46, 47. 48, 49, 70. 95, 9C 

Illinois State. Linfon, Ralph, The 
Indian History of Illinois. .. 19. 51-57 

Illinois. Stale, Missions in the State 
of Illinois 41 

Illinois State, Moses, John, Illinois 
Historical and Statistical 60 

Illinois State, Northern Illinois State 
Normal School 5 

Illinois State, Northern part of settled 
largely by people from the eastern 
states 39 

Illinois State, Park Commission, work 
of and the preservation of histori- 
cal sites 20 

Illinois State, Penitentiar.v movement 
for. led by John Reynolds 6 4 

Illinois State, Pioneers of, tribute 
to 40, 41 

Illinois State, Prairies of Illinois.... 
55, 74, 107, 112. 114 

Illinois State, Prairies of, "Muscoda" 
Algonquin name for our prairies. . 107 

Illinois State. Proposed constitutional 
convention of 1824. defeated. .. .95, 9C 

Illinois State, Salt Springs 53 

Illinois State. Slavery in. See Aid- 
rich. Orlando B 69 

Illinois State, Sons of the American 
Revolution, Chicago 27 

Illinois State. Southern Illinois Nor- 
mal University 5 

Illinois State. Southern Illinois Peni- 
tentiary. Chester, 111 37 

Illinois State, Southern part of settled 
rhiefly by people from Kentucky, 
Virginia and Pennsylvania 39 

Illinois State. Spaniards march across 
Illinois 1781, reference 115 

Illinois State. Steward, J. F., The 
Fox River of Illinois (River of the 
Bos Bison, or as we have it the 
Buffalo) 107-116 

Illinois State, Supreme Court of Stat-^ 
of Illinois 46, 47. 66, 96 

Illinois State, Thompson. Joseph J.. 
Oddities in Karly Illinois Laws... 
19. 5S-70 

Illinois State. TTniversity of Illinois.. 
.1. 19. 43. 51 

Illinois State. Veto power of the 
Governor, ftrr Dehel, N. IT 43-50 

Illinois Stale. Virginia reglmf^. dem- 
ocr.icy and biond humanity, cardi- 
nal principles of 61 

Illinois State, Whipping post, pillory 
and stocks Institution of, law to 
1832 <"•• 

llllnol.s Territory 

6, 62. 64, 65, 66, 68. 69, 93. 9 I 

llliixils Territory, Acts of the Legis- 
lature In regard to slaves 93 

Illinois Territory, Africans Introduced 
Into the Territory by Renault.... 89 



PAOB. 

Illinois Territory, Billiard tables. Act 
of Dec. 22, 1814, levying tax 68 

Illinois Territory, "Black Laws".... 69 

Illinois Territory, Election Law... 64, 65 

Illinois Territory, Elections into the 
General Assembly 6 4 

Illinois Territory, Ferries, act regu- 
lating 65 

Illinois Territory, First Illinois Cor- 
poration Act, "Little Wabash Navi- 
gation Company" 62 

Illinois Territory, fisheries, act au- 
tliorizing , 65 

Illinois Territory, Illinois Naviga- 
tion Company, act of Jan. 9, 1817. 62 

Illinois Territory, Jury service, 
women qualified to serve on 65 

Illinois Territorj', Legislature of 1817, 
bill repealing act bringing negroes 
and mulattoes and indenturing 
them as slaves 93 

Illinois Territory, Licenses regulating 
sale of merchandise 66 

Illinois Territory, Little Wabash 
Navigation Company incorporation 
December 24, 1817 62 

Illinois Territory," Maxwell Code," 
of laws 61 

Illinois Territory, merchandise, act 
fi.xing license. July 20, 1809 68 

Illinois Territory, Roads and Bridges 
Law 69 

Illinois Territory, tavern-keepers 
licensing 66 

Illinois Territory, women qualified to 
serve on juries 65 

Indentured and registered slaves. 
See Aldrich, Orlando B 69.92.93 

Indian Creek in I^aSalle County, Illi- 
nois 115 

Indian History of Illinois, by Ralph 
Linton 19,51-57 

Indian Point, Jackson County, Illi- 
nois 26 

Indian purchases. LTnited States 
Government purchases with the In- 
dians 67 

Indian Trails 114 

ln<lian village, Fox Township, Ken- 
dall County. Illinois 115 

IiKliana Canal Company, first canal 
board 62 

Indiana State 

24, 31, 56, 57, 71. 73. 93. 94. 97 

Indiana State. Census of 1S40, credits 
State with three female slaves.... 93 

Indian.a State. Centennial Commission 24 

Indiana State, Constitution of 1S16 
prohibits slavery 93 

Indiana State, County histories de- 
sired 31 

Indiana State vs. LaSalle, slave 
case 94, 97 

Indiana State. Supreme Court 97 

Indiana Territory 

. . . 62, 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 69. 70. 91. 93, 98 

lM<liana Territory. Act of December 
16, ISO", provides for appointment 
i>r a Board of Trustees for the 
t<iwn of Kaskaskia 65, 66 

Imliaiia Territory, "lUack Ijiws" . . . . 69 

Indiana Territory, Governor and 
Judges 63, 64 

Indiana Territory, Horse stealing. 
Law of August 24, 1805 to prevent 63 

Indiana Territory. Indiana Canal 
Company, act Incorporating 1S05.. 62 

Indiana Territory, marriages, law In 
relation to 67 



185 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Indiana Territory. Registration Act 

of 1807, reference 98 

Indiana Territory, test case on the 
holding of slaves in Indiana Terri- 
tory 91 

Indiana Territory, vagrancy, Act of 

Sept. 4, 1807 69,70 

Indians 51-57 

Indians, Alqonquin Indians 56, 107 

Indians, American Bottom, Indian 

Mounds in 53 

Indians, artifacts buried with 51 

Indians, "AssistagLieronons," "Na- 
tion de Fue" (nation of the fire) . .107 

Indians, Black Hawk 116 

Indians, Black Hawk War 115 

Indians, Caddoan Indians 55 

Indians. Cahokia Group of Indian 

Mounds 52, 53 

India-ns, Cherokee Indians 52,53,54 

Indians, Chippeway Indians 56, 57 

Indians, Chippeway Indians ceded 
their claims to the United States, 

1829 57 

Indians, Choctaw Indians 54 

Indians, corn crops of the Indians, 

hiding place of, reference 55 

Indians, Creek Indians 53, 54 

Indians, Dakota Indians 51 

footnote 110 

Indians, Delaware Indians, method 

of burial 53 

Irdians. DuPratz, quoted on the 

Natchez Indian temples 52,53 

Indians, EfRgy Mounds in Wisconsin 

and Illinois 51 

Irdians, Flat Heads 5 4 

Indians, Fox Indians 

56, 57. 109. 110. 113, 114, 115 

Indians, Fox Indians ceded their 
claims to the United States, Sept. 

13, 14, 1815 57 

Indians, Gorgets of the Indians, de- 
signs engraved on, reference 53 

Indians. Green Bay, Wis 107 

Indians, Huron Indians 56 

Indians, Uiniwek (The Men) Indians 
of the tribes in Illinois called them- 
selves 54 

Indians, Ulini Indians 35,57,108 

Indians, Illinois Indians 

54. 55, 56. 57, 110, 115 

Indians, Illinois Indians, customs. . 54. 55 
Indian.s. Illinois Indians League of 
the Illinois ceded their claims to 
the United States, Sept. 25, 1818.. 57 
Indians. Illinois Indians, life of at 
the time the whites first encoun- 
tered them 55,56 

Indians, Illinois State, distribution of 

Indian tribes in 54 

Indians. Illinois State. Indian Mounds 

in, work of four different tribes. . . 51 
Indians, Indian village, Fox Town- 
ship. Kendall County, Illinois 115 

Indians, Iroquois Indians. .. .56. 112. 114 
Indians. Iroquois Indians, League of 

the Iroquois 56 

Indians, Kaskaskia Indians 56 

Indians. Kickapoo Indians 56. 57 

Indians, Kickapoo Indians ceded their 
claims to the United States, July 

30, 1819 57 

Indians. La Vega, description of the 

Indian towns 52 

Indians. Legends of the Iroquois, 
reference 56 



PAGE. 

Indians, Linton. Ralph, The Indian 

History of Illinois 19, 51-57 

Indians, Loskiel, George Henry, 
quoted on the method of burial 
practiced by the Delaware Indians. 53 

Indians, Mandan Indians 55 

Indians, Maramech. chief town of the 

Miami Indian.? 110, 111 

Indians, IMaramech, Miami Indian 

town, relic from Ill 

Indians, Mascouten Indians 

54, 107, 108, 110, 112 

Indians, Messitonga Indian Chief... 110 

Irdians, Miami Indians 

56, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114 

Indians, Miami town of Maramech 

(Meramech) 109, 110, 111 

Innian.s, INIuskogie Indians 52 

Indians, Nanangousi (Nanangousista) 

chief of the Miamis 110 

Indians, Natchez Indians 52, 53 

Indians, Osage Indians 53, 115 

Indians. Osage Indians, Method of 

burial 53 

Indians, Ottawa Indians ceded their 
claims to the United States, 1829.. 57 

Indians, Pawnee Indians 55 

Indians, Piankeshaw Indians 57, 115 

Indians, Piankeshaw Indians, ceded 
the last of their claims to the 

United States, Dec. 30, 1805 57 

Indians, Pontiac, Ottawa chief ... .36, 56 
Indians, Pontiac, death of, reference. 56 

Indians, Pottawatomie Indians 

56, 57, 107 

footnote 110 

Indians. Pottawattomie Indians, 

called Poux, footnote 110 

Indians, Pottawatomie Indians ceded 
their claims to the United States, 

Sept. 26. 1833 57 

Indians, Puant Indians Ill 

Indians, Sac (Sauk) Indians 

56, 57, 109, 113. 114, 115 

Indians. Sac and Fox Treaty. 1803 . . 57 
Indians, Sac Indians ceded their 
claims to the United States, Sept. 

13. 14. 1815 57 

Indians. Shaubena, Ottawa Chief.... 115 

Indians, Shawnee Indians 53. 54 

Indians. Sioux Indians 51,56,110 

footnote 110 

Indians, stone grave culture 53 

Indians. Thomas, Cyrus, quoted on 

the Mound Builders 53 

Indians. United States Government 

purchases with the Indians 57 

Indians, Waubansie, Pottawattomie 

Chief 116 

Indians, Winnebago Indians 

51, 54, 56. 57 

Ireland 75,79.88 

Irish Fellowship Club, Chicago 79 

Irish in Chica.go's History 79-81 

Irish settlements along the line of 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal.. 81 

Iroquois Indians 56, 112, 114 

Iroquois Indians. League of the Iro- 
quois 56 

Iroquois Indians. Lea.gue of the Iro- 
quois, great political organization. 56 
Ives, Miron. early member Presby- 
terian Church. Paris. Ill . 76 

Ives. Rebecca, early member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris. Ill 76 

Ives. Sarah, early member Presby- 
terian Church, Paris, 111 76 



126 



INDEX — Continued. 



J 

PAOB. 

Jackson County. Illfnois, Historical 

Society, report 26, 27 

Jackson County. Illindi.s, Indian Point 26 
Jackson County, Illinois, Trail of 
George Rogers Clark through Jack- 
son County, marked 26 

Jacksonville. Ill 5, 14, 24, 26 

Jacksonville. 111.. Morgan County His- 
torical Society, officers 14 

Jackson. Stonewall 82 

Jacques, Thimete De Mombreun, by 

Rev. W. A. Provine 19 

.lames, Edmund Janes 5 

James, James, Alton 

5, 19, 20. 22. 25, 26, 27, 29 

James, James, Alton, Illinois, in the 

Revolution, reference 25 

James. James. Alton. The work of 
the Illinois Park Commission and 
the preservation of historic sites. . 20 

Jarrot vs. Jarrot, Slave case 96 

Jarrot, , Phoebe vs. Jarrot, 

Slave case 94 

Jay, , Phoebe vs. Jay, Slave 

case 98 

Jay Treaty with Great Britain, 170 4 

90. 91 

Jefferson, Thomas 59, 90 

Jeffer.con, Thomas. Author of the 
Slavery Clause in the first ordi- 
nance of the Northwest Territory, 

Clause stricken out 90 

.Tennings, (Miss) Amanda 15 

Jersey Coimtv. Illinois Historical 

Society 13. 26 

Jersey County. Illinois Historical 
Society. Jerscyville, 111., officers... 13 

Jer.seyviile, 111 13 

.lerseyville. III.. Jersey County His- 
torical Society, officers 13 

Jesuit Fathers 54 

footnote 109 

Jinny — Fnithfnl old horse at the 

pioneer wedding 101, 103. 104 

.Johnson County. Illinois 13,62 

Johnson County Historical Society, 

Vienna. 111., officers 13 

.Toilet. Ill 15, 31. 81 

Joliet. in.. Will County Pioneer 

Association 15 

Joliet, T.,ouis 35. 109 

.Toliel's Map of 1673. reference, foot- 
note 109 

Jones, Klizaheth. Rarly memher Pres- 
byterian Church. Paris. Ill 76 

.Tones family 102 

Jnnfs. (Miss) T^otte R., T^incoln Cir- 
cuit renort 25. 26 

.Tones. Michael. Member of the board 
of trustees for the town of Kas- 

kaskia 66 

.Tordon, George 14 

Juliet. , T?oone vs. .Tullet. 

.Slave case OS 

K 

Kane Countv. Map of. published bv 
Rand & McNally. Chicago 113 

Kane, Klins TCent Influence In adopt- 
ing the New York plan of Council 
of Revision and veto power of tho 
Governor. In Illinois 45 

Kane. Flias Kent. Removes from 
New York to Illinois In 181 4 45 

Kane. KIIms Kent. Work of. In drnft- 
Ing with others, the new Constitu- 
tion for the State of Illinois, 1818. 45 



PAGE. 

Kankakee County, Illinois Historical 

Society officers 14 

Kankakee, 111., Kankakee County 

Historical Society officers 14 

Kansas, State, Emporia, Kans 31 

Kansas. State, Topeka. Kans SI 

Kaskaskia ... 26, 27. 41, 36, 37, 65, 66, 108 
Kaskaskia, Board of Trustees of the 

town of, 1807 66 

Kaskaskia, Destruction of 37 

Kaska.'^kia, First capital of Illinois.. 37 
Kaskaskia, French and Canadian In- 
habitants of to be protected, In 
the deed of cession from Virginia 

to the United States, 1784 90 

Kaskaskia. French explorers in 36 

Kaskaskia. In<lian Territory I.iegisla- 
ture pa.'-ses an act for appointment 
of a board of trustees for the town 

of Kaskaskia .65, 66 

Kaskaskia. New Kaskaskia 37 

Kaskaskia, Town of the Illinois Tribe 
on the River of their name, near 

Utica 108 

Kaskaskia. Indians 56 

Kaskaskia River 37, 65. 69 

Kaskaskia River, William Morrison 
authorized to erect dam on the 

falls of the Kaskaskia River 65 

Kaska.skia River. William Morrison 
builds floating bridge over Kas- 
kaskia River 69 

Kelly, (Senator) Maurice, of Adams 
County. Resolution offered by in 
1881, to veto items in appropria- 
tion bill 49 

Kenaga. (Mrs.) W. F 14 

Kendall Countv, Illinois 

". .14. 109. 113. 114. 115, 116 

Kendall County. Illinois. Big Grove 

Township in 115 

Kendall County. Illinois, Fox Town- 
ship in il5 

I-Cendnll County. Illinois. Government 
Survey of 1842. shows stage route 

from Ottawa to Chicago 114 

Kendall County, Illinois. Hicks 
(Rev.) E. W., History of Kendall 

Coimty 116 

Kendall County. Tllinols. Meramech 

Historical Society officers 14 

Tx'entucky, State.. .". . .3 1. 38. 39. 53. 71. 98 
Kentucky. State, County histories of. 

desired 31 

Kentucky, State, Henry vs. Evans, 

Slave case 98 

Kern, Fred J 1!», 20, 35 

Kern. Fred .T.. The first two coimtles 
of Tllinols and their people. . 20, 35-4? 

Kewnnee. Ill 81 

Kicknpoo Indians 56. 57 

KIckapoo Indians ceded their claims 
to the TTnited States, Julv 30. 

1819 R7 

Klnir F.lwnrd VTT of Englantl S3 

King of Grent Britain 43 

Tx'iiinev vs Cnok. case in law 95 

Kinney. WMllnm. TJeut. Governor, 

St.nte of Tlllnr.|<5 38 

Kln/le fnmllv. Chicago 83 

TCIn^rle. John. 116 

KIrby. Svlvia v.s. KIrhy, 

Slave case. ATNsoviri 97 

Ivlchwenkee Trail 109. 114 

TCItcbell. AKred Member of the Con- 
stltuHopnl Coiiver.tlon. 1S48, recom- 
mends the, abolition of the Coun- 
cil of Revision 46 

Knights of the Golden Circle 40 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Knox County, Illinois, Histoi-ical So- 
ciety, officers 14 

Koerner, Gustavus, Buried in Wal- 
nut Hill Cemetery, Belleville, 111.. 39 

Koerner, Gustavus, Lieut. Governor, 
State of Illinois 38 



La Charboniere, a rapid 112 

La Potherie. Sec De Lapothere. . . . Ill 

Footnote Ill 

La Salle. Indiana vs. LaSalle slave 

case 9 4, 97 

La Salle County Historical Society. . 14 
La Salle County, Illinois, Indian 

Creek, in 115 

La Salle, 111 81 

La Salle, Rene Robert Sieur de 

54, 56, 108, 109, 110, 112 

La Salle, Rene Robert Sieur de, 

Colonie du Sieur de La Salle. .109, 112 
La Salle, Rene Robert Sieur de, Fort 

( Starved Rock ) 56 

La Vega, Description of the Indian 

towns 52 

Lagow, Alfred G., Charter member 

Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 111. 77 
Lagow, Nancy, Charter member 

Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 111. 77 
Lagow, Wilson, Charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Palestine, 111. 77 

Lake Ontario 112 

Lannan, James H., History of Michi- 
gan 112 

Lasselle, Indiana State vs. Laselle 

slave case 94, 97 

Lawrence family 31 

Lawrence, George A 5 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A 21,22 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A., Illinois 
State Regent, Daughters of Ameri- 
can Revolution 21 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A., Work 
in behalf of securing State flag or 

banner for Illinois 21 

Lawrence, William 31 

Lawyers, Act of 1792, regulating the 

practice of law 61, 62 

Leavitt, (Mrs.) M. S 14 

Legends of the Iroquois Indians re- 
ference 

Leiter, Levi Z 

Lemmon. (Rev.) John A 



56 
84 
28 

Levere, William C 13 

Lexington, Ky 83 

Lincoln, Abraham 

24. 25, 26. 39, 40, 42, 82, 85 

Lincoln. Abraham, Lincoln circuit to 
be marked 25, 26 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln circuit, re- 
port on by Miss Lotte E. Jones. .25, 26 

Lincoln. Abraham, Lincoln exhibit, 
Panama-Pacific exposition, San 
Francisco, Cal 42 

Lincoln. Abraham, Log cabin of 
Bowling Green, where Lincoln 
boarded, remnant of, still in ex- 
istence 27, 28 

Lincoln. Abraham, St. Gauden's 
Statue of, in Lincoln Park, 
Chicago 24 

Lincoln, Abraham, Statue, to be 
erected at the Centennial of the 
State on the Capitol Grounds.... 24 

Lincoln circuit, Jones (Miss) Lottie 
E., report on 25, 26 



PAGB. 

Lincoln exhibit, Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position 42 

Lincoln, 111 14 

Linton, Ralph, The Indian His- 
tory of Illinois 19, 51-57 

Little Rock Creek, tributary to Fox 

River 113 

Little Rock Township, Kendall 

County 113, 114 

Little Wabash Navigation Company 

incorporation, Dec. 24, 1817 62 

Ijockwood, Samuel Drake, member of 
the Supreme Court and Council of 

Revision, State of Illinois 46 

Logan, Ann, charter member Presby- 
terian Church, Palestine, 111 77 

Logan County Historical Society.... 14 

London, England 25 

Loomis, Charles J 31 

Loomis Family 31 

Loskiel, George Henry, Quoted on the 
method of burial practiced by the 

Delaware Indians 53 

Lost Maramech and Earliest Chicago 
by John L. Steward, reference foot- 
note 115 

Louis XIII, King of France, edict of 
1615, first recognized slavery in the 

French provinces in America 89 

Louis XVI, King of France 83 

Louisiana State 45, 84, 89, 97 

Louisiana State, Legislation on 

slaves. 1848 97 

Louisiana State, Supreme Court.... 97 
Louisiana State, Veto power of the 

(Governor 45 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parish 69 

Lucas, Jackson G 13 

"Lusitania," steamer 87 

Lydia, • , Rankin vs. Lydia, 

slave case 98 



M 

M'c, (Mr.) . mentioned in 

Rev. Isaac Reed's Diary 74 

McCagg family, Chicago 83 

McCormock, George 14 

McCullough, Edward 14 

McDonough County Historical Society 14 

Mcllvaine, (Miss) Caroline 13 

Macinac, Mich 91 

McKown Asenath, early member 

Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 
McLean County, Illinois Court House 27 
McLean County, Illinois Historical 

Society, officers 14 

McLean County, Illinois, Historical 

Society, Report 2T 

McNutt. Elizabeth, Charter member 
New Providence Presbyterian 
Church, Edgar County, Illinois... 77 
McNutt, John W., Charter member 
New Providence Presbyterian 
Church, Edgar County, Illinois. .76, T7 

Macomb, 111 14 

Macon County, Illinois 14,26 

Macon County. Illinois, Historical 

Society, officers 14 

Macoupin County, Historical Society, 

officers 14 

Madison County, Illinois, Antiqui- 
ties in 41 

Madison County, Illinois, Historical 

Society, officers 14 

Magill, Hugh S., Jr 23,24 

Major family 31 



128 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Malcolm, Ann, Early member Pres- 
byterian Church, Palestine, 111.... 77 
Malcolm, John, Earlv member Pres- 
byterian Church, Palestine, 111... 77 

Maiden, Canada 114 

Malta, Chief of the Maltese Islands. 87 

Mandan Indians 55 

Manliu.s, Rutland Township His- 
torical Society, officers 14 

Maps — American maps, Harrlsse, 

French critic of 108 

Maps — De Lisle's map, reference. .. .108 

footnote 114 

Maps — Franquelin's Map of 1684. . . . 

107. 1 14 

Map.s — Franquelin's Maps of 16S4 

and 1688 107, 108 

Maps — French Map, 1679 108 

Maps — French Map of 1679, rt-pro- 

duced by Pinart 108 

Maps — Hennopin, Louis Map, refer- 
ence, footnote 114 

Maps — Joliefs Map of 1673, refer- 
ence, footnote 109 

^laps — Kane Countv Map published 

by Rand & McNally. footnote 113 

Maps — Map of 1632. reference 107 

Map.s — Pinart, reproduces French 

map 1679 108 

Maps — Popple Map 110,111 

Maps — Popple's Map, fragment of... Ill 
Maps — Thevenot's Map, reference, 

footnote 114 

Maramc'ch (Maramec, Maramek and 

Maraux), various spelling of 

109, 110. Ill, 112 

Maramech Hill 110. 113. 114. 116 

Maramech Hill. Boulder on marks 
site of extermination of Foxes, 

AuR. 17, 1730 114 

Maramech — Miami town of Mara- 
mech 109 

Maramech — Relic of ancient Mara- 
mech Ill 

Maramech, Steward. John F.. Lost 
Maramech and earliest Chicago, 

footnote 115 

Marriur-tte. (Father) James 35,109 

footnote 109 

Marriages, Illinois country law regu- 
lating marriages In, required no 

license 67 

Marseilles, 111., Manlius. Rutland 
Township Historical Society, offi- 
cers 14 

Marshall. A. K 98 

Marshall. Amos 15 

Martin, Francis Xavier 97 

Martin. T^uthor F 11 

Mascouten Indians. . 5 4. 1 07, 108. 1 10, 1 1 2 
Mnscouton Indians, "CJens de Pralr- 
if^s," name trlven liy the French to 

(ho IMasmutens 107 

Ma.son. (Col.) R. R,. Early Mayor 

of Chicago 81 

Massachiisofts .<?tate, one of the thlr- 
toon original, who jirovided for a 

\rto power 43.44 

"I^faxwll Code." adopted by earlv 
law makers of the Northwest Terri- 
tory 61 

May, Mary Ann 31 

Means. Susanna. Early member Pres- 
byterian Church. Paris. Ill 76 

Means. William. Charter mombor 

Presbvterinn Church. Paris. III... 76 
M.dlll. Jo.seph, Editor Chicago Tri- 
bune 85 



PAGE. 

Meeker, Raymond 13 21 

Meese, William A 5 

Memorial Continental Hall, Wash- 
ington. D. C 21 

Menard vs. Aspasia, Slave case 97 

Meramech Historical Society, Piano, 

111., officers 14 

Merry v.s. Chlxnaider, Slave case, 

Louisiana 97 

Merry vs. Tiffin, Slave case, Mis- 
souri 64, 65 

Merrywcather, George 13 

Me.satonga Indian Chief 110 

lyiessitonga Indian Chief 110 

Metzher, Judson D 15 

IMexico 53, 54 

Miami Indians 

54, 56. 109, 110, 111, 112, 114 

Miami Indians, Maramech chief 

town of 110 

Miami, town of Maramech 109 

Michigan State, County histories of, 

desired 31 

Michigan State, Lanman's History of 

Michigan 112 

^Michigan Territory, Test case on the 

holding of slaves in 91 

Milford, III 31 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 22,28 

jMinnesota State 82 

Minshall, William A.. Member of the 

Constitutional Convention. 1848... 47 
Missionaries, Trip from K'^ntucky to 
Indiana. See Allen, (Rev.) Ira 

W 71-72 

Missions in the State of Illinois 41 

Mississippi River 36. 37. 62. 110, 114 

I\lississiiipi State. Supreme Court.... 97 

Mississippi Valley 53 

Missouri River 54, 55. 57 

Missouri State 36. 91. 95, 97 

Missouri State, Merry vs. Tiffin. 

Slave case 64, 65 

^Missouri State. Supreme Court 97 

Missouri State, Test case of holding 

slaves in 91 

Missouri State, Winning v.s. White- 
side, Slave case 97 

MoUne, 111 5, 15 

Monk's Mound (Cahokia Mound)... 42 

Monroe, B. G 98 

IMonroe Countv, Illinois. Antiquities 

In 41 

Montgomery County. Illinois, His- 
torical Society 14 

Montgomery, (Rev.) John, Early 

Missionary In Illinois 77 

Moore A. A 31 

:\Toore. Ensley 26.28 

Moore fanillv 31 

ISIorgan (^oiuity. Illinois, Historical 

.'?oclet y . officers 14 

Morgan fnniil.v 31 

Morris, Phcbc. Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church. Palestine, 111 77 

ATnrris, Seyn'oui' 13 

Morrison. WIUi.Mn. Authorized to 
erect dam on the falls of the Kns- 

ka.oUla RIv.T 65 

Morrison. Willlnm, Builds floating 

bridge- ovor the Kaskaskin River.. 69 
Morrison. "U'llllam. Memlii>r of the 
Bonr<l of Trustees of the town of 

KnskasUln 66 

Alorton. HI 15 

Mo.srlcy. (Miss) Fnnnle 13 

IMoses. .Tobn. Illinois Historical and 
Statistical, quoted 60 



129 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Mosiman, Levi 15 

"Mound Builders," Barbarous or 

Semi-civilized tribes of Indians... 51 
Mound Builders of Ohio, reference. . 52 
Mulligan, C. J., Sculptor of the Doug- 
las statue, deceased 24 

Mulligan. (Col.) James A 83,84 

"JNluscoda," Alg;onquin name for our 

prairies 107 

Iiluskogie Indians 52 

N 

Nadouessioux, an Algonquin word 

meaning- "enemy," footnote 110 

Nanangousi (Nanangousista), Chief 

of the Miamis 110 

Nance vs. Howard, Slave case 98 

Nashville, Tenn 19 

Natchez Indians 52, 53 

National Bureau of Historical Por- 
traiture 29 

National Constitutional Convention 
of 1TS7, Veto provisions essential 
features of copied from Massachu- 
setts 44 

National Memorial Hall, Washing- 
ton, D. C, James Shield statue in, 

reference 82 

"National Road," reference to, in 

Rev. Isaac Reed's diary 74 

Neff, Frank T 14 

Negroes, number of negroes in Illi- 
nois at the close of the British 

occupancy 99 

Nelson vs. People, Case in law 96 

New Albany. Ind 74 

New England 79 

New France. Franquelin official cart- 
ographer of New France 109 

New Hope meeting house, Edgar 

County, Illinois 75 

New Jersey, State 90 

New Providence, East Tennessee 

Presbyterian Church 76 

New Providence, Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar County, Illinois, early 

records 76, 77 

New York City 28, 85 

New York City, Sun (Newspaper) . . 85 

New York State 43, 44, 45, 56, 73 

New Y'ork State, Constitution of 

1777 45 

New York State, Council of Re- 

. vision 43,44,45 

New York State, Illinois, adopts the 

veto plan of New York 44, 45 

New York State, one of the thirteen 
original, who provided for a veto 

power 43,44 

Newberry family, Chicago S3 

Newberry Library. Chicago 83 

Newberry, Walter L 81 

Newspapers, Chicago Democrat 83 

Newspapers, Chicago Inter-Ocean... 85 

Newspapers, Chicago Times 85 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune 85 

Newspapers. New York Sun 85 

Nicolet. Jean 108 

Nine Mile Creek, Randolph County, 

Illinois 65 

"No Man's Land." the patch so 

called in Chicago 83 

North America .- . . 53 

North Carolina, State 31,97 

North Carolina, State, county his- 
tories of desired 31 

— 9 H S 



PAGE. 

Northwest Territory 31, 

ei, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 89, 90, 91, 93 

Northwest Territory, Act of 1792, 
regulating the practice of law. . .61, 62 

Northwest Territory, arson. Act of 
Dec. 19, 1799, to punish arson by 
death 63 

Northwest Territory, Arthur St. 
Clair, Governor of the Northwest 
Territory 61, 62 

Northwest Territory, Arthur St. 
Clair and the court appointed by 
the President, proved capable as 
law makers 61 

Northwest Territory, Bachelor's tax. 68 

Northwest Territory, counties, re- 
quired to build, court house, jail, 
pillory, whipping post and stocks. 64 

Northwest Territory, criminal code. 
Act Sept. 6, 1788 63,64 

Northwest Territory, divorce law, 
passed July 15, 1795 64 

Northwest Territory, first General 
Incorporation Act, May 1, 1798... 62 

Northwest Territory, first ordinance 
was passed in 1784 90 

Northwest Territory, Gambling for 
money or property forbicTden in, 
under severe penalty 63 

Northwest Territory, Larceny, Act of 
Jan. 5. 1795, for the trial and pun- 
ishment of larceny 63 

Northwest Territory, legislators, com- 
pensation of 66 

Northwest Territorv. Mills and Mil- 
lers Act, Dec. 2, 1799 67 

Northwest Territory, Ohio first state 
admitted into the Union from the 
Northwest Territory 93 

Northwest Territory, Ordinance of 
1787 prohibits slavery 91 

Northwest Territory, prisons and 
prisone*^ -Aet adopted 1792 67 

Northwest Territory, slavery clause 
in the first ordinance, stricken out. 90 

Northwest Territory, slavery in 89 

Northwest Territory, States com- 
prising 31 

Northwest Territory, Trespass, law 
regarding 69 

Northwest Territory, Virginia, after 
Clark's conquest declares it a part 
of her chartered territory 90 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 
Ill ■ 5 

Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Women's College of the University 85 

Norton, W. T ■. 5 

O 

O- , (Mrs.) , Men- 
tioned in Rev. Isaac Reed's diary. . 74 

Oakland, Cal 31 

Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, 111. 39 
O'Connor, Andrew. Sculptor for the 
Lincoln Statue to be placed on 

the Capitol grounds 24 

Oddities in early Illinois laws, by 

Joseph J. Thompson 19, 58-70 

Ogden, William B., First Mayor of 

Chicago 83 

Ogle County, 111.. Historical Society. . 14 
Oglesby, (Gov.) Richard J.. Efforts 

in behalf of the veto power 47 

O'Hara, Dan 85 

Ohio River, Falls of the Ohio 62 



130 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAOB. 

Ohio state • „^ 

19. 20, 31, 51, 52. 56. Tli. 73, 74, 92, 93, 97 
Ohio State, Admitted to the Union, 

1802 92 

Ohio State. County histories of, de- 
si red 31 

Ohio Slate, EHigy Mounds in, refer- 
ence 51 

Ohio State, First state admitted Into 
the Union from the Northwest 

Territory 93 

Ohio Slate, Mound Builders 52 

Ohio State, Slavery did not exist in, 

as a Territory or State 93 

Ohio Territory, Slavery did not exist 

In 93 

Old Glory — United States Flag 40 

Old Liveforever Minister, pioneer 

wedding 102.103 

Old Salem. Chautauqua, near Peters- 

burg. Ill •• 28 

Old Settler's Tales, by Mabel E. 

Fletcher 20. 100-104 

"Old Stone Mill" 116 

Onahan, William J 19, 20, 79 

Onahan, William J., Sixty Years in 

Chicago 20,79-88 

Ordinance of 1787 

60. 61, 69. 92. 94. 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 

Ordinance of 1787, Article VI, refer- 

6nC6 •^ * 

Ordinance of 1787, Effect of the ad- 
mission of a state upon the pro- 
visions of the Ordinance of 1787.. 99 
Ordinance of 1787, Moses, John, Illi- 
nois Historical and Statistical, 

quoted on 60 

Ordinance of 1787, prohibits slavery 

69, 91 

Ordinance of 1787, Slavery pro- 
vision of. reference 69 

"Osage Indians" 53, 115 

Osage Indians, John D. Hunter, 
quoted on the method of burial... 53 

Osborne. Georgia L 25. 31, 42 

Osborne, Georgia L., Report. Gene- 
alogical Committee, Illinois State 

Historical Society 25, 31-32 

O'Shaughnessv, James. President of 

the Irish Fellowship Club 79 

O'Shaughnessv, James, "The Irish In 

Chicago's Illiitory," quoted 79-80 

Oswego, 111 116 

Ottawa, 111., Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, Illinois State Con- 
ference held In 21, 22 

Ottawa, 111., r..a Sallo County His- 
torical Society 14 

Olt.iwa, 111 . Stage route from Otta- 
wa to Chicago 114 

Ottawa Indians, ceded their claims 

to the United States, 1829 57 

Owen County, Indiana 72 

Ozark Ridge, Jackson County, Illi- 
nois ; 26 



P 

Page, David A., Early Chicago 

Treasurer 81 

Page, Edward C 5 

Paine family 31 

Paine, John 81 

Paine. Lyman May 31 

Palestine. (Crawford County'*, Illi- 
nois, Presbyterian Church, early 

record 77 

I'almer. (Gov.> John M 47.48 



PACK. 

Palmer. (Gov.) John M., Efforts in 

behalf of the veto power 47-48 

Palmer, (Gov.) John M., Veto mes- 
sages of 1869, reference 48 

Palmer, I'otter 84, 87 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., Lincoln Memorial Ex- 
hibit •»2 

Pancake family. Attend the pioneer 

wedding 101 

Paris. France 25. 109 

Paris. France, Bibliotheque National 

■ 109 

Paris, 111 19. 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77 

Pt'ris, 111., Presbyterian Church, 

account of organization 76 

Paris, 111., Presbyterian Church, be- 
ginning of. Work of Rev. Isaac 

Reed, missionary ." . . 73 

Parker, ( Mrs. ) C. J 13 

Parkman, Francis, Works of, refer- 
ence 41 

"Patch. The," on the .North Shore 

Sands, Chicago 83 

Patterson, Lelha B "14 

Pawnee, Indians 55 

Pease. Theodore Calvin, County Ar- 
chives of Illinois. Illinois His- 
torical Collections. Vol. 12 25 

Pecan Point, District of Arkansas. 

Natchez Indians in 53 

Pierre vs. Chouteau, Slavery case... 91 
Pekin. 111., Tazewell County. His- 
torical Society, officers 15 

I'enfielrl, 111., Post oflice abandoned. .114 
Pennsylvania, Before the Revolution 
the King retained the right to veto 

colonial legi.slaticn 43 

ivnnsylvania State.. . .39, 43, 45. 114. 115 
Pennsylvania State, Veto power of 

the governor in 45 

Pennsylvania State. War of the Re- 
t ellion. Regiment of Lancers served 

in from Pennsylvania 116 

I'lople. . Nelson vs. People, 

case in law 96 

People. . Wlllard vs. 

People, Slave case 97 

Peoria County, Illinois. Historical 

Society, officers 14 

Peoria, Illinois 14. 31. 57 

Peoria, 111.. Peoria County His- 
torical Society, officers 14 

Perrier. C. C IS 

Perrln. J. Nick 16 

Perrot. Nicholas 110, 111, 112 

Perrot, Nicholas. Sent to supervise 
the Miamls and Illinois Indians. . 

110, 111. 112 

"Pestecuoy" River 107, 109 

"Pestecuov River." of Franquelln's, 

Maps of 1684 and 1688 107 

Peters, Richard. Jr 97 

Petersburg. 111.. Chautauqua associ- 
ation and grovmds 27, 28 

Phoebe vs. Jnrrot, slave case 94 

Phoebe vs. Jay. slave case 98 

Piankeshaw, Indians 57, 115 

Plankeshaw. Indians, ceded the last 
of their claims to the ITnlted States 

Dec. 30, 180r. 57 

Piatt County. Illinois. Historical 

Society 16 

Pledmontesp, Invasion threatens 

Rome 87 

Pike County, Illinois. Historical 

Society 16 

Plnart, reproduces French Map 
1670 K'S 



131. 



INDEX — Continuea. 



PAGE. 

Pioneers of the State of Illinois, 

Tribute to 40, 41 

Piper, Anna, Charter member, Pres- 
byterian Church, Palestine, 111.... 77 

Pistakee Lake 108 

Pisticuoi River 112 

Pittsfield, 111 15 

Piano, 111., The Meramech Historical 

Society, officers 1| 

Plegge, E. W 15 

Plumb, A. H 31 

Plumb Family ^1 

Plumb, Preston B ^1 

Plutarch, Greek Philosopher, Quota- 
tion from 35 

Poland o° 

Political Parties, Democratic 

Party 46,79,85 

Political Parties, Republican Party. S3 

Political Parties, Whig Party 46,80 

Polly, , Slave Case in Indi- 
ana, State vs. Lasselle 94 

Polo, 111 5, 14, 28 

Polo, 111., Ogle County Historical 

Society 14 

Pone Hollow • 1^" 

Pontiac, Ottawa Chief 36, 56 

Pontiac. Ottawa Chief, Death of, 

rGf6r6n,CG ..-• ob 

Pope, Head of the Roman Catholic 

Church 87.88 

Popple's Map 110, 111 

Popple's Map, Fragment of Ill 

Pottawatomie Indians .... 56, 57, 107, 110 
Pottawattomie Indians, Called Poux, 

footnote 110 

Pottawattomie Indians, ceded their 
claims to the United States, Sept. 

26, 1833 57 

Prairie du Chien, Wis 91 

Prairie du Rocher, 111 15. 37, 38, 41 

Prairie du Rocher, Parochial Schools 38 

Prairie Schooner 109, 114 

Prairies of Illinois. . .57, 74, 107, 112, 114 
Prairies of Illinois, "Muscoda," Al- 
gonquin name for our prairies. ... 107 
Presbyterian Church. Allen (Rev.) 
Ira W.. Early Presbyterianism in 

East Central Illinois 19,71-78 

Presbyterian Church. Grandview, Ed- 
gar' County, Illinois 77, 78 

Presbyterian Church, New Provi- 
dence. Edgar County, Illinois, early 

records 76,77 

Presbyterian Church, New Provi- 
dence. East Tennessee 76 

Presbyterian Church, Palestine 
(Crawford County), Illinois, Early 

record 77 

Pretorius. Marthinas Wessels. South 
African soldier and statesman, the 
first president of the South African 

Republic 39 

Prettyman, W. L 15 

Prince of Wales, visit to Chicago, 

reference 83 

Princeton. 111., Bureau County His- 
torical Society, officers 13 

Princeville, Redmond 81 

Provine. (Rev.) W. A. • Jacques, 

Thimetg De Mombreun 19 

Puant Indians Ill 

"Puants, Bay," on an early map.... 107 
Pure food — Act of the "Virginia As- 
sembly, Nov. 27, 1786 60-61 

Puritans 39 



Q 

PAGE. 

Quakers 67,68 

Quakers, tax levied on for release 

from military duty 69 

Quincy, 111 13,23 

Quincy, 111., Historical Society, offi- 
cers 13 



Raab, Henry, State Superintendent 

of Public Instruction 38 

Pi,accoon Creek 75 

Racine, Wis 109 

Radisson, Pierre, Esprit Sieur d'....108 
Railroads, Chicago & Alton R. R. . . 23 

Kammelkamp, (Dr.) Charles H 

5, 27, 28, 29 

Rand & McNally Publishers, Chi- 
cago 113 

Randolph County, Illinois 

35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 65 

Randolph County, Illinoi^, Antiqui- 
ties in 41 

Randolph County, 111., Court House 
archives, historical records in, 

many in the French language 38 

Randolph, John 92 

Rankin vs. Lydia, Slave case 98 

Ray, Charles H., Editor of the Chi- 
cago Tribune ^- 85 

Ray, Martin 76,77 

Ray, Martin, Charter member New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, 
Edgar County, Illinois 77 

Reed, (Rev.) Isaac, Diary — extracts 
from 74-76 

Reed, (Rev.) Isaac, Missionary from 
the Connecticut Missionary So- 
ciety 72, 73, 74 

Registration Act of 1807, of Indiana 
Territory 98 

Renault. Philip Francois de. Agent 
and Manager of the Company of 
St. Phillipe 89 

Renault, Philip, Francois de. Brings 
slaves into the Illinois Territory.. 89 

Republican Party 48, 83 

Reynolds, ( Gov. ) John 38,41,64 

Reynolds, ( Gov. ) John, Buried in 
Walnut Hill Cemetery, Belleville, 
111 38 

Revnolds, (Gov.) John, Home of, in 
Belleville in perfect state of pre- 
servation 38 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John, "Old Ranger" 41 

Revnolds, (Gov.) John, Peniten- 
tiary in the State of Illinois, 
movement for, led by John Rey- 
nolds 64 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John, Works of 
reference 41 

Rhode Island. Before the Revolution, 
had no veto power 43 

Rhodes, Comfort, Wedding of, pio- 
neer scenes described 100-104 

Rhodes. Mr. — ■ ■. Father of the 

bride, pioneer wedding 100-103 

Rhodes. (Mrs.) . Mother of 

the bride, pioneer wedding 

.-. .100, 101, 103 

Richmond House. Chicago 83 

Riswold. Gilbert P., Sculptor, selected 
to make statue of Stephen A. 
Douglas, footnote 24 



i:j-. 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

River of the Foxes ("Riviere des 

Renards") 115 

Riviere du Rocher (River of the 

Rock) 112,113 

River of the Roclv (Riviere du 

Rocher) 112. 113 

Rob Roy Creelt 112 

Roberts, H. C 13 

Robertson, Robert, Member of the 
Board of Trustees of the town of 

Kasl(as){ia 66 

Rociie, Martin, architect 23 

Roclt Island County, Illinois, His- 
torical Society, officers 15 

Roclt Island. 111., Rock I.^land County 

Historical Society, officers 15 

Rock River, ( Tlie Assinnesepe) 109 

Rocky Mountains 54 

Rome, Italy, Threatened by the 

Piedmontese invasion 87 

Roosevelt. Theodore 41 

Root River of Wisconsin 109 

Ru.s.sel. Andrew 5, 27, 29 

Rutledse, Ann 27 

Ryan, Edward T., Early Editor of 
the Chicago Tribune, Later Chief 
Justice of tlie Supreme Court of 

Wisconsin 85 

Ryan. Michael, Sent to London to 
negotiate loan from Baring Brothers 
for Illinois and Michigan Canal... 81 
Ryan. Michael. Skillful work in the 
engineering problems of the Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal — refer- 
ence 81 

Ryder, (Rev.) D 81 



S 

Sac and Fox Trail 109,113,114 

Sac and Fox Treaty, 1803, reference. 57 

Sac ( Sauk ) Indians 

56, 57. 109, 113, 114. 115 

Sac Indians, Ceded their claims to 
the United States, Sept. 13, 14, 

1815 57 

St. riair, Arthur. Governor of the 

Northwest Territory 61, 62 

St. Clair County. Illinois 

15. 35, 36, 37, 38. 39, 41. 42 

St. Clair County, Illinois, Antiquities 

in 41 

St. Clair County, Cahokia, County 

Seat of 36 

St. Clair County, Illinois Historical 

Society, officers 15 

St. Clair County, Illinois, One Hun- 

drcdtli Anniversary. 38 

St. Clair County. Illinois, Second 
Coimly In the State In population 

and material wealth 38 

St. Cosmo 109 

St. Domingo. Renault purch.-ises five 

hundred slaves, at St. Domingo... 89 
St. rSaudins Statue of Lincoln, Lin- 
coln Park. Chicago 24 

St. .Joseph River 112,114 

St. Lawrence River 107.112 

St. Louis. Mo 36. 52. 57. S4 

St. Murvs, of the Lake, I'niverslty, 

Chicago 83 

St. Peters Cathedral. Rome Itily.... 87 
St. Vincents l-'rench & Canadian In- 
habitants of. In be prntectoil. in 
tlie deed of cisslon from Virginia 

to the Vnlled States. 17S| 00 

Salt Springs In Illinois 53 



PAGE. 

San Francisco. Cal., Panama-PaciHc 

Exposition, Lincoln Exhibit 42 

Sangamon County, Illinois 26,28 

Sarah vs. Borders, Slave Case 98 

"Saut" French word meaning a 

rapid 108 

•Scanunon, Jonathan Young. 82, 95, 97, 98 

Scheel, John 39 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L.. President, 
Illinois State Historical Society. 5. 
13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 28, 29. 35 

Schurz, Carl 39 

Scott vs. Emerson, Slave Case, Mo. . 97 
Scripps, John L., Editor Chicago 

Tribune 85 

Searle, Sherman W 15 

Shaubena, Ottawa Chief 115 

Shawnee Indians 53, 54 

Sheehan, James W. .• SI. So 

Sheahan. James W., Editor. The 

Chicago Times 85 

Sheffield, III 13 

Sherman, Lawrence Y 5 

Shield. James. Statue in National 
Memorial Hall, Washington. D. C. 

39. 82 

Shields. James, United States Sena- 
tor fiom Illinois 38 

Shiver I'amily 31 

Shiver, Harry Lawrence 31 

Shultz, John. Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church. Grandview, 111.. 78 
Shultz, Susan, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Grandview, 111... 78 

Siedenburg. (Father) Frederick 24 

Simmons. Terry 14 

Sioux Indians 51. 54. 56. 110 

Footnote 110 

Sixty years in Chicago. Bv William 

J. Onahan 20. 79-88 

Slade. James P.. State Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction 38 

Slavery 39. 40. 89-99 

Slavery, Aldrich. Orlando W., Slavery 
or involimtary servitude in Illinois, 
prior to and after its admission 

as a State 20, 89-99 

Slaverv. Germans opposed to 

slavery 39, 40 

Slavery in the French provinces of 

America 89 

Slaverv, Indentured and Registered 

slaves 92. 93 

Slavery. Ordinance of 1787. prohibits 

slavery 91 

Slavery or Involuntary servitude in 
Illinois, prior to and after its ad- 
mission as a State, by O. W. 

Aldrich 20, S9-99 

Smith, George W 5, 26. 27. 29 

Smith. George. W.. Report on the 
Jackson C o u n t v Historical 

Societv 26, 27 

Smith, Orson IS 

Smith. W. II 15 

Snnpp. Matthia.s. organized early 
Presbvterian Church, Grandview. 

Ill 78 

.«;omervllle, (Miss.) Carrie IS 

Sons of the American Revolution 

Chicago 27 

South Carolina State, County histories 

of, desired SI 

Spain 87 

Spaniards. March across Illinois 1781, 

reference HB 

Spanish cartographers 107 



133 



INDEX Continued. 



PAGE. 

Spears, Barton W., Publisher Chicago 

Tribune 85 

Specie's Grove 114, 116 

Spencer, (Mrs.) O. B 11 

Spingy. Elizabeth J., divorce granted 

to. Session laws of 1818... 64 

Spingy, James, Divorce case, 1818.. 64 

Sprague, W 84 

Springfield, 111 5, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 39 

Footnote 23 

Springfield, 111., Citizens, contribution 
to Historical Building. See Foot- 
note 23 

Springfield, 111., Executive Mansion 

in, reference 20 

Springfield, 111., Oak Ridge Cemetery 39 
Stage route from Ottawa to Chicago, 

reference 114 

Starved Rock (Fort St. Louis) 

56. 109. 112 

Steele, Catherine, Charter Member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 

111 78 

Steele, (Rev.) John A., Minister and 
Teacher of Augusta County, Va., 
accompanies party to Grandview, 

Edgar County, Illinois 78 

Sterling, 111., Whiteside County His- 
torical Society, Sterling, 111 15 

Stevens, Josias, Member of Board 

Indiana Canal Company, 1805.... 62 
Stevenson, Lewis G. Jr., Secretary 

State of Illinois 21 

Steward. John F., The Fox River of 
Illinois (River of the Bos Bison, 
or, as we name it, the Buffalo) . . . 

107-116 

Steward. John F., Lost Maramech 
and Earliest Chicago, reference, 

footnote 115 

Storey, Wilbur F., Editor, The Chi- 
cago Times 85 

Stout, Adriel, Charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris, 111 76 

Stout. Eliza, Early member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris. Ill 76 

Strader vs. Graham, case in law. . . 99 

Strange, A. T 14 

Stringfleld, (Mrs.) , Mother 

of the groom at the pioneer 

wedding 103 

Stringfield. Severe, Pioneer wedding 

of, described 100-104 

Sugar Creek, Edgar County, Illinois. 76 
Sugar Loaf, St. Clair County, Illi- 
nois 42 

Sullivan, IMargaret, Editorial work, 

Chicago Press 85 

Supreme Court, State of Illinois.... 

46, 47, 66, 96 

Supreme Court, State of Indiana. ... 97 
Supreme Court, State of Louisiana. . 97 
Supreme Court, State of Mississippi. 97 
Supreme Court, State of Missouri. . . 97 
Supreme Court of the United States. 97 
Supreme Court, State of Virginia... 97 

Sylvan Spring 110 

Sylvia vs. Kirby, Slave case, Missouri 97 



T. (Mr.) , Mentioned in Rev. 

Isaac Reed's diary 74 

Taney, Roger B 99 

Tate, John, charter member Presby- 
terian Church, Grandview, III 78 



FAGB. 

Tate, John, early pioneer of the 
State 77 

Tate, Margaret I., charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 
111 78 

Tate, Nancy, charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Grandview, 111... 78 

Tate, Robert M., charter member 
Presbyterian Church, Grandview, 
111 78 

Tate, Susan, charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Grandview, 111... 78 

Tazewell County, 111., Historical So- 
ciety, officers 15 

Tennessee, State 19, 31, 53, 72, 73, 76 

Tennessee, State, County histories of 
desired 31 

Tennessee, State, Nashville, Tenn... 19 

Tennessee, State, New Providence 
Presbyterian Church, East Tennes- 
ggg 76 

Terre Haute' iiid.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.15,86 
Thevenot's map, reference, footnote. .114 
Thomas, Cyrus, quoted on the Mound 

Builders 52 

Thompson, Amzi, charter member 

Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 
Thompson. Joseph J., Oddities in 

Early Illinois Laws 19,58-70 

Thompson. Nancy, charter member 

Presbyterian Church, Paris, 111... 76 

Thwaites. Reuben Gold 27 

Tiskilwa, 111 13 

Todd, John 59, 60 

Todd, John, Lieutenant of the County 

of Illinois 60 

Tonti, Henry 56 

Topeka. Kans 31 

Treaties with the Indians, Sac and 

Fox Treaty, 1803 57 

Treaty of Greenville. 1795 94 

Treaty of Peace with England, 1783, 

territory ceded to United States. . . 90 

Tremont House, Chicago, 111 82 

Trumbull, Lyman 38, 39 

Trumbull. Lyman, United States 

Senator from Illinois 38 

Tucker. Eliza I, charter member New 

Providence Presbyterian Church.. 77 
Tiicker, Elizabeth, charter member 

New Providence Presbvterian 

Church 77 

Tucker, Elven, charter member New 

Providence Presbyterian Church.. 77 
Twain, Mark (Samuel Langhorne 

Clemens) .' 37 



U 



"Une petite riviere" 113 

United States 25. 26, 27. 35. 

39, 40. 45, 52, 57, 82, 86, 90, 91, 92, 97, 99 
United States Congress 

26, 27, 35. 39, 82, 86, 90, 91, 92, 99 

United States. Flag 40 

United States Government, Indians 

ceded their lands to 57 

United States Government, purchases 

with the Indians 57 

United States. Supreme Court 97 

United States, Veto power in Chief 

Executive 45 

University of Illinois 19, 43, 51 

Uran. (Dr.) B. F 14 

Urbana, 111 5, 19 

Utica, 111 108 



13-i 



INDEX— Concluded. 



V 

PAGE. 

Vagrrancy, Act of Indiana Terii- 

tor>', tiept. 14, 1807 69.70 

Vance, Mary, charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris, 111 76 

Vance, Samuel, charter member Pres- 
byterian Church, Paris, 111 76 

Vance, Samuel C, Member of Board 
Indiana Canal Company, 1805.... 62 

Vermilion County, Illinois 26 

Vermilion River 115 

Veto power an adaptation of a British 
institution transplanted to Ameri- 
can soil 43 

Veto power of the Governor of Illi- 
nois, by N. H. Debel 19,43-50 

Veto power of the Governor of Illi- 
nois. Constitution of 1818 45 

Veto power in the thirteen original 

states 43 

Vienna, 111., Johnson County His- 
torical Society, officers 13 

Vincennes, Ind 27, 75 

Vinson, John W 13 

Virginia 

31. 38, 39, 59, 60, 72, 77, 83, 89, 90, 91, 97 
Virginia, Act of the House of Bur- 
gesses creating Illinois a county 

of Virginia 90 

Virginia, Augusta County 77 

Virginia, Cession of territory to the 

United States, 1784 90 

Virginia, County histories of desired. 31 
Virginia. Declaration of principles 
adopted by the representatives of 

Virginia, June 12, 1776 59,60 

Virginia, Deed of cession of 1784 of 
Virginia to the United States con- 
tains stipulation with regard to 
French and Canadian Inhabitants 
of Kaskasklas and St. Vincents... 90 

Virginia, Dumbarton, Va 31 

Virginia. House of Burgesses 89,90 

Virginia. Supreme Court 97 

W 

Wabash River 72, 73, 74 

Wade, E. P 14 

Walker, C. A 14 

Walker, R. J 97 

Waller, Peter A 23 

Walnut Hill Cemetery, Belleville. 111. 

38, 39 

Walpdle, (Sir) Robert, quotation 

from 35 

Walsh, John R 86, 87 

War with Mexico 82 

War of the Rebellion. .39. 42, 47. 82. 115 
War of the Rebellion, Pennsylvania 
Regiment of Lancers served in. 

reference 115 

Washington County, 111 69 

Washington, D. C 21,22,82 

Washington, 111 15 

Waubansie, Pottawattomlo Chief... 116 
Waubanaie's village where Oswego, 

111., is now lociitod 11 f! 

Wayne, Polly, early member Presby- 
terian Church. Paris. Ill 76 



PAGE. 

Weber, Jessie Palmer 

5. 12, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 42 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary Illi- 
nois Slate Historical Society, report 22 

Webster, (Mrs. Charles A.) 14 

Welch Creek 113 

Wentworth, John ("Long John")... 
gj g2 83 

Wheeler family '. . .102 

Whig Parly 46,80 

Whipping Post, pillory and stocks 
institution of law In Illinois to 

1832, reference 64 

"White City" World's Fair, Chicago, 

111., so-called 88 

Whiteside. , Winning vs. 

Whiteside, Slave case 97 

Whiteside Countj-, 111.. Historical So- 
ciety 15 

Whitney, D., accompanies Rev. Isaac 
Reed on missionary trip to Illi- 
nois 73 

Wicks. John F ." 14 

Will County, 111., Pioneer Associa- 
tion, Joliet, 111 15 

Willard. Frances E.. Organizer of the 
Women's Christian Temperance 

Union 85 

Willard vs. People. Slave case 97 

Williams, (Miss) Cornelia Barton.. 31 
Wilson, Hannah. Early member Pres- 
byterian Church, Palestine. 111.... 77 

Wilson. ( Miss) Helen M 14 

Winnebago Indians 51, 54, 56, 57 

Winnebago Indians, ceded their 

claims to the United States. 1829. . 57 
Winning vs. Whiteside, Slave case, 

Missouri 97 

Wisconsin State, County histories of 

desired 31 

Wisconsin State, Effigy mounds in. 

reference 51 

Wisconsin State, Fox River of Wis- 
consin 109. 11 4 

Wisconsin State, Racine. Wis l(t!» 

Wisconsin State. Root River 109 

Witchcraft, prosecution and execu- 
tion for witchcraft, Illinois as a 

county of Virginia 60 

Woelke. E. A 15 

Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, Frances E. Willard, or- 
ganizer 85 

Women's College of the Xorth- 

western University. Evanston 85 

Woodford County, 111.. Historical So- 
ciety officers 15 

World's Fair. Chicago, Congresses 

hold during S6 

World's Fair. Chicago, called "The 
White City" R8 



Tale University. New Haven. Conn.. 45 

Yates. Richard. (The Younger) 5 

Young. (Rev.) Clayborne, early Mis- 
sionary in Illinois 76. 77 

Young. John. Missionary In Illinois. 7.'> 



135 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 

AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 
1899 

No. 2. 'Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 
1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 15 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 
170 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Green, Ph.D. 55 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. 'Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authoi-s, Titles and Subjects. Compiled 
by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 22. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901-1916. (Nos. 6 to 12 and 18 out of print.) 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord. CDVI and 663 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1907. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1908. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Gov- 
ernors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I, News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1910. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books. 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1911. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1912. 

'Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New 
Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8vo. Springfield. 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The 
County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 
730 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1915. 

'Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 
1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 38 pp. 
8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

'Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
34 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1906. 

'Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. I. November, 1905. An 
Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber 
and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

'Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, to 
Vol. IX, No. 4, January, 1917. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and No. 1 of Vol. VIIL 

' Out of print. 
















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