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Publication Number Twenty-eight 





Illinois State Historical Society 


Twenty-second Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, Illinois, 
May 10-11. 1921 

Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 

■1656 — 3M — 1922 



Officers of the Society page 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and to the General Public 11 



Directors' Meeting 15 

Business Meeting 18 

Report of the Genealogical Committee 23 

Secretary's Report 26 


William E. Barton, D. D., LL. D. — The Making of Abraham Lincoln and 

the Influence of Illinois in his Development 32 

R. E. Hieronymus — ^Art in Historic Communities 54 

John M. Glenn — The Industrial Development of Illinois 55 

Chester J. Attig — Some Governmental Problems in the Northwest Terri- 
tory, 1787-1803 75 

John H. Hauberg— Indian Trails Centering at Black Hawk's Village 87 

E. Bently Hamilton — The Union League: Its Origin and Achievements 

in the Civil War 110 

William W. Sweet — Peter Cartwright in Illinois History 116 

Ralph Dempsey — William Reid Curran — In Memoriam, 1854-1921 124 


The Zearings, Earliest Settlers of the Name in Illinois, by Luelja Zear- 

ing Gross 129 

Sketch of the Life of Major James Roberts Zearing, M. D., 139 

Civil War Letters of Major James Roberts Zearing, M. D., 1S61-1S65 150 


List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society. 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents. 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

L. Y. Sherman ■ Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Charles L. Capex Bloomington 


Edaiund J. James, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College. . . .Jacksonville 
George W. Smith, Southern Ilhnois State Normal University.... 


Ricpiard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Stuart Brown Springfield 

Rev. Ira W. Allen LaGrange 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Orrin N. Carter Chicago 

Secretary and Treasurer 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies 


Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds 
of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly official 
publications of the State Historical Library. In historical research, as 
in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be achieved through 
the cooperation of private initiative with public authority. It was to 
promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking that this Society 
was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools or colleges, 
are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this publication the 
best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



Section 1. The name of the Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed is to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois ; to encourage 
historical research and investigation and secure its promulgation ; to 
collect and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the 
history of Illinois and its people. 


Section 1. The management of the affairs of this Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors of which board the President 
of the Society shall be ex-officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice-Presidents, 
not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and 
shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents 
and committees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same 
at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings 
and the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a ma- 
jority of members present and entitled to vote, some other method 
may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and 
to this end they shall have power : 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use 
of the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of 
the State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods 
and the history of the aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies 
of distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of 
the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as 
it may secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of 
all property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in 
accordance with an act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, en- 
titled, "An Act to add a new section to an act entitled, 'An Act to estab- 
lish the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 2:?, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying- out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt 
by-laws not inconsistent with this Constitution for the management of 
the affairs of the Society ; they shall fix the times and places for their 
meetings ; keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. A^acancies in the board of directors may be filled by elec- 
tion by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in 
office until the next annual meeting. 

Sfx. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice Presi- 
dent shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President pro 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the Society or the board of directors. The Treasurer shall 
keep a strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money 
from the treasury only as directed by the board of directors ; he shall 
submit an annual report of the finances of the Society and such other 
matters as may be committed to his custody to the board of directors 
within such time prior to the annual meetings as they shall direct, and 
after auditing the same the said board shall submit said report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 


Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to-wit : Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this Society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon 
payment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all 
the privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation 
of the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of 


the board of directors be admitted as affiliated members of this Society 
upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual 
dues as active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be 
entitled to one duly credited representative at each meeting of the 
Society, who shall, during the period of his appointment, be entitled as 
such representative to all the privileges of an active member except that 
of being elected to office; but nothing herein shall prevent such repre- 
sentative becoming an active or life member upon like conditions as 
other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing 
to lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the 
objects of this Society, may, upon recommendation of the board of 
directors, be admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting 
of the Society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon 
persons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or 
contributions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the 
privilege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 


Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called l)y the 
board of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be 
called by the President or any two members of the board. 

Slc. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 


Section 1. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting : 
Pyoiided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual , 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the Secretary 
to all the members of the Society. 


Objects of Collection Desired by the Illinois State Historical Librarj^ 
and Society. 

(Members please read this circular letter.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West ; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology ; reports of societies and in- 
stitutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co- 
operative, fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable ; scientific pubhca- 
tions of states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in 
which Illinois has taken part and the wars with the Indians ; privately 
printed works ; newspapers ; maps and charts ; engravings ; photo- 
graphs ; autographs ; coins ; antiquities ; encyclopedias, dictionaries, and 
bibliographical works. Especially do we desire — 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citi- 
zen, whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; material for Illinois 
history; old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts ; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois ; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory ; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the 
great rebellion, or other wars ; biographies of the pioneers ; prominent 
citizens and public men of every county, either living or deceased, 
together with their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the settle- 
ments of every township, village and neighborhood in the State, with 
the names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every subject 
connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council ; reports 
of committees of council ; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade and commercial asso- 
ciations ; m.aps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies ; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois ; political addresses ; 
railroad reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superin- 


tendents and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures ; earlier Governor's messages and reports 
of State Officers ; reports of State charitable and other State institu- 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially com- 
plete volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are 
earnestly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of 
which will be carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date ; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or 
photographs of scenery, paintings, portraits, etc., connected with Illinois 

9. Curiosities of all kinds ; coins, medals, paintings ; portraits ; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of our prominent chiefs, orators and 
warriors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, 
ornaments, curiosities and implements ; also stone axes, spears, arrow 
heads, pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports of 
the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State- 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Your attention is called to the important duty of collecting and 
preserving everything relating to the part taken by the State of Illinois 
in the late great World War. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 





The directors of the IlHnois State Historical Society met in the 
Clerk's office in the Supreme Court building on May 11, 1921. There 
"were present Doctor O. L. Schmidt, Mr. Andrew Russel, Mr. H. W. 
Clendenin, Walter Colyer, J. H. Hauberg, Charles H. Rammelkamp 
and the Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 

The minutes of the last previous meeting of the directors were 
read and approved. The Secretary's report was read and the various 
items presented were considered. The Secretary spoke of the new plan 
for consolidation of some departments of the State Library and of the 
proposed new Division of Archives. Doctor Rammelkamp spoke of 
the extreme importance of this step and said that he believed that the 
Secretary of State was the logical person to have this work in charge. 
The question was asked as to what constituted State Archives, and 
it was the consensus of opinion of those present that State Archives 
include papers and documents of the various departments of the State 
administration and also may include the records of the counties of the 
State. Some one spoke of various letters of Mr. Lincoln and Doctor 
Schmidt said that of course, these belonged to the department of 
biography, and that in any event Mr. Lincoln was not an official of 
the State of Illinois, and of course anything relating to him is of great 
importance. Dr. Schmidt spoke of the letters written by Mr. Lincoln 
to the War Governor Yates and said that he understood that the 
younger Governor Yates had sold them to some dealer in New York 
for the sum of $3,000, but that this was a rumor and he had made 
no effort to verify it. 

The proposed State Park Commission bill was considered. Mr. 
Hauberg spoke of the various historic sites in and about Rock Island. 
A memorial was presented from the citizens of Randolph County in 
relation to the proposed parks in that neighborhood, particularly the 
one known as Garrison Hill. The directors recommended that the 
Society pass a resolution on the subject of the purchase of these his- 
toric sites and its approval of the proposed State Park bill. 

The Librarian reported that the plan for the purchase of the 
property adjacent to the Lincoln Home had been received with favor 
by the Appropriations Committee of the General Assembly. Mr. 
Roberts, a member of the Llouse of Representatives, has 
taken a great deal of interest in the matter and will take care of it in 
the House. There is no doubt but what a reasonable appropriation 
will be made. 

The Secretary reported plans for the completion of the work of 
the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association and the directors gave their 


approval to them and suggestetl that the Historical Society aid in this 
work in every manner possible. 

The Secretary reported that plans were well on foot to mark the 
important places in Springfield which were connected with the life 
of Abraham Lincoln as a resident of this city. The Secretary also 
reported as to the progress of the Centennial Memorial Building and 
said that she hoped that within another year the Library and Society 
would be able to move into new quarters. 

She reported on the manner in which the names to be engraved 
on the exterior of the building were selected. There are 28 names 
and Doctor Schmidt, Professor Greene, Mr. Alvord and the Secretary 
of the Historical Society and other persons were asked to make a list 
of 28 persons connected with the history of Illinois from the very 
beginning. These lists were made and as a matter of course a large 
number of names appeared on each list. After the names appearing 
on each list were checked off those having a preponderance of votes 
were voted upon and in this manner a list was arranged. 

The Librarian reported that the records of the State Council of 
Defense including papers, films, etc., had been turned over to the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library by the Council when closing up its busi- 

The Secretary reported that the Genealogical Department of the 
Library is growing rapidly, has many patrons and much interest 
is shown in this department by persons studying family history or 
attempting to make up records for entrance into hereditary societies. 
The chairman of the Genealogical Committee will report at length on 
this work. 

The Secretary also reported on the progress ot the History of 
the 33d Division, by Lieutenant Colonel Frederic L. Huidekoper, now 
in press. She stated that the plan is to produce the work in three or 
more volumes. The first volume to be the narrative liistory of the 
entire movement of the division from the time it was mustered into 
the Federal service until mustered out. A copy of this history will be 
sent to each member of the division as far as the members can be 
located. The Secretary requests that the Society be urged to assist 
in the labor of finding the correct addresses of the soldiers of the 

The President of the Society has appointed in the place of Mr. 
William A. Meese, deceased, Professor J. A. James as a member of 
the Committee to locate the site of Fort Crevecoeur. The General 
Assembly has appropriated a small sum of money to place the marker 
on the site selected by the Historical Society as the site of the old 
fort, the site of which is so much disputed. The other members of 
this committee are Jacob C. Thompson and Professor C. W. Alvord. 

The Secretary spoke of the fact that the committees of the Illinois 
State Historical Society are doing very little and urged the members 
to make suggestions as to committees, their personnel and duties. The 
Secretary reported that she had sent letters to a considerable number 
of members of the Society asking suggestions for topics and speakers 


for the annual meeting and for publication in the Journal and that she 
had received very satisfactory response. 

The Secretary stated that Professor J. A. James, one of the Direc- 
ors of the Historical Society, has been invited to deliver a series of 
lectures at the University of Prague in Bohemia and he is about this 
time starting to assume these duties. He will probably be abroad 
through the summer and is accompanied by Airs. James. It was sug- 
gested that the best wishes of the Society go with Professor and Mrs. 
James for their good health and for the success of the lecture course. 

The Secretary also reported that Professor E. B. Greene usually 
unfailing in his attendance on the meetings of the Society is doing 
some special work in the libraries of Cambridge and Boston and will 
be unable to be present. 

The Secretary reported the deaths of a large number of the 
members of the Historical Society, among them being two directors, 
Mr. William R. Curran and Mr. Clinton S. Conkling. She also spoke 
of the death of Doctor J. F. Snyder, one of the founders of the Society 
and one of the most interested and painstaking historians of Illinois. 
She spoke of the death of Mrs. Alice Edwards Ferguson, a mem- 
ber of the Society, who had always been most interested in the work. 
Mrs. Ferguson was a member of an historic family, being the daughter 
of Judge Benjamin S. Edwards and the granddaughter of Governor 
Ninian Edwards, territorial and State Governor and United States 
Senator. Other members deceased were also mentioned. The report 
of the Secretary w^as read with attention, was approved and it was 
directed that it be read at the business meeting of the Societv. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical 
Society was held in the Supreme Court Building, Wednesday, May 
11, 1921, President, Doctor Otto L. Schmidt, presiding. 

The first order of business was a call for the reading of the min- 
utes of the previous meeting. As they had been published in the 1920 
Transactions of the Society, this formality was dispensed with. 

The Chairman then called for the reading of reports, the first 
being that of Secretary-Treasurer of the Society. Miss Osborne, the 
Assistant Secretary of the Society and Chairman of the Genealogical 
Committee, was called upon to give the report of that committee. 

The next order of business was the reports from the various local 
Historical Societies. 

Mr. Ensley Moore of Jacksonville took a point of order and 
asked if it would not be necessary to take action on the two reports 
submitted. Doctor Schmidt replied as there were no objections to 
either report they stood approved. 

Mr. Moore stated that he wanted to suggest that the Society rise 
in respect to the departed members and that the Reverend Ira W. 
Allen be asked to make a prayer. 

Doctor Schmidt requested that the Society arise in reverential 
memory of those who have passed on and Reverend Ira W. Allen 
ofifered prayer. 

The Chairman then requested that the local Historical Society 
reports be given. Doctor Rammelkamp was called upon for the report 
from Morgan County and stated his Society was not particularly active 
at this time. That during the Centennial year they cooperated with 
the Centennial Commission and the other counties in putting on an his- 
torical pageant at that time. Since then the Society has been rather 
quiescent, but will probably become active again as Morgan County 
will soon celebrate its own centennial. 

Mr. Hauberg spoke for Rock Island County. He told of the 
placing of cases in the corridor of the County Court House ; one case 
contained exclusively Indian relics, another pioneer relics and the third 
a mixture. People as they come through from all parts of the State 
and county see these cases, are attracted by them and through this in- 
terest the County is constantly receiving relics because the people 
seeing these things are reminded of things they have at home. 


Mrs. Weber stated she had received reports from County His- 
torical Societies as follows : 

Galesburg, Illinois, 
May 9, 1921. 
From Knox County. 
8ec"y Illinois State Hist. Society. 

Mt Deae Mrs. Weber: My brief report concerning the present status of 
the Knox County Historical Society has been delayed from various causes. 
I am now sending you a special delivery letter, hoping it may reach you 
before the meeting of tomorrow morning has progressed beyond the report 
from the various counties. As you already know, our Knox County organiza- 
tion has been inactive for some years. The war, politics and disturbed con- 
ditions in general have been unfavorable to the renewal of our activities. 
I am hoping that some time we may take on new life and action. I am trying 
hard to bring that good time about. In the meantime the officers continue in 
their respective offices until their successors are appointed, and so I will 
report the following officers: 

Mr. Fred R. Jelliff, editor of the Galesburg Republican-Register is the 
acting President, since the death of Dr. J. P. Standish, (President). 

Mrs. Charles Ashley Webster, Secretary. 

Mr. James H, Lacey (?), Treasurer. 

Mr, W. F. Boyes, County Superintendent of Schools, is acting Vice Pres- 

The four above named represent the present active interest in the organ- 
ization. It was not possible for either one of us to attend the meeting, 
although we all would have been very glad to do so. 

"Very truly yours, 

Maetha Faenam Webstee, 
(Mrs. Charles Ashley Webster) 

Apt. 1, 144 West Simmons St., 

Galesburg, Illinois. 
The following was received from St. Clair County : 
St. Clair County was 131 years old on April 27th. It was the first county 
organized in the Northwest Territory. We have the oldest and most valuable 
historical repository in the State at Belleville, the county seat. The oldest 
civil record west of the Alleghany Mountains is here; it dates back to 1737, 
and is bound in hog-hide. We have a County Historical Association composed 
of 27 members. 


(Signed) J. Nick Perrin. 
President St. Clair County Hist. Assn. 

From Kankakee County. 

Kankakee, Illinois, 
May 9, 1921. 
To OMcers and Memhers of the Illinois State Historical Society, in Session 
at Spring/ieM. Illinois. May 10th and 11th. 1921 : 

A hearty greeting of the officers and members of the Kankakee County 
Historical Society is extended, and an earnest wish for the successful carry- 
ing out of the very interesting and entertaining program prepared for the 
edification of those in attendance. Sorry not to be able to enjoy the interest- 
ing features of the session. 

Very Respectfully and Sincerely, 

Benjamin F. Uran, 
President Kankakee County Historical Society. 


Marseilles, Illinois, 
May 9, 19. U. 
Secretary State Historical Society, 

Springfield, Illinois: 
Dear Madam: — The invitation to the Manlius-Rutland Historical Society 
received. The society regrets that it is unable to send a personal delegate 
to Springfield to attend the annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical 
Society on Wednesday, May 11th, 1921. 

At a meeting held this afternoon, the society, by resolution, instructed 
the secretary to convey to the meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
their appreciation of the invitation extended to them, and desire to report 
to your meeting that the Manlius-Rutland Historical Society is meeting 
regularly each month, and are engaged in general research work relating 
to the history of the two townships in which the city of Marseilles is located, 
and collecting and preserving all historical data pertaining to this locality. 

With cordial greeting and best wishes for the success of the State meet- 
ing, I remain sincerely yours, 

Petet M. MacArthtje, 


Mr. Owen Scott spoke for Macon County. Said that the Society 
was moving along- with no great efficiency, but that Judge McCoy was 
doing his best to keep the Society together, and its progress is reason- 
ably satisfactory. He stated that Decatur had many historical inter- 
ests—the organization of the G. A. R. occurred in Decatur. Here also 
Lincoln's name as a candidate for president was presented for the first 
time to a Convention. 

Mr. L. J. Freese represented the Woodford County Historical 
Society. Told about the number of relics they had. Some years ago 
he stated he took steps to arrange an exhibit to show the people of his 
locality the necessity of having a museum for that county. The 
Society was very active until the war came, then interest waned and 
was diverted to other channels, but the Society is now planning to 
renew their efforts. He stated that the County has the old Court House 
in which Lincoln practiced law. That during his absence in the South 
effort was made to have the Legislature appropriate a sum to take 
over this building. 

Mr. Freese stated that his home was one of the oldest in the 
county, and ever since he was a boy he had collected relics and that 
he had over 4,000 in his collection containing Indian points. He has 
now sold his home and does not know what will become of the relics. 
If his county had a museum he would present his collection. 

Doctor Schmidt suggested that they be given to the State His- 
torical Society and was greeted with a chorus of approvals from the 
members. Doctor Schmidt then spoke of an archaeological survey for 
the State and said how backward we were on the archaeological his- 
tory of the State. Told how famous Ohio had become on account of 
its collection. Wisconsin, too, had a large collection. How tourists 
were going there to look at the Indian relics, mounds, etc., each year. 
Illinois had done practically nothing on this line. He spoke of the 
bill before the House of Representatives for the purchase of historic 
and beauty spots and stated that if this were done we would thus prob- 
ably secure Cahokia Mound and Black Hawk's watch tower. Stated 
little was known in Illinois generally about this archaeological material. 


Told about seeing an axe 2 feet long, prol)ably the largest in the coun- 
try, which was found in the American bottoms near Alton, Illinois, in 
a museum outside of this state. Missouri has a large collection of 
Indian tools. In one museum he said a ceremonial knife and other 
objects which came from Illinois — the American Bottoms — and yet 
there is no place in this State where you can see these things. Stated 
there should be a survey to know where these mounds are and what 
to do for them. Doctor Schmidt then told about a letter that had been 
received from Winnebago County, telling of the mound in that county. 

Mr. Moore suggested that action be taken toward securing the 
Woodford County collection. 

Mr. Freese stated there were 30 or 40 so called Indian mounds 
that had been ploughed over. Told of skeletons having been removed 
from them and taken out of the county, and hoped that there would 
be a survey. 

Mr. Colyer spoke of a collection of Indian relics of which he had 

The Chairman asked for further reports. Mr. Bates made the 
report for Tazewell County and spoke of the loss of Judge Curran, the 
President of the Society. He spoke briefly on the Union League and 
gave a list of the names of the first council of that League. 

Doctor Schmidt called his attention to the paper of the afternoon 
on that subject and asked for further reports. 

Mr. Lodge made the report for Piatt County. He stated they 
had a room in the Court house and were "developing a museum on cer- 
tain lines — cooking utensils, fire places, weaving, etc., of the pioneers. 
That the Lincoln Circuit had been privately marked in their county. 
Fort Clark-Wabash Trail marked. Place where arrangements were 
made for the Lincoln-Douglas Debates marked. Have a full line of 
exemption cards used by the Exemption Board. Have letters and 
portraits of all the boys from the county in the Service. A cabin on 
the banks of the river that next fall will be one hundred years old 
and which was the first built in the county. Expect to celebrate at that 

Mrs. I. G. Miller of Springfield said she had no report to make, 
but spoke of the effort of business men of this city to have the present 
court house, (the Third Capitol of Illinois), torn down to make room 
for municipal buildings, and desired that the Historical Society vigor- 
ously protest against any such action. 

Doctor Schmidt asked if there was any further business. Mr. 
Hauberg moved the appointment of a Nominating Committee. 

Before action w-as taken on this motion. Rev. Ira W. Allen, of 
LaGrange, presented resolutions as follows : 

"Whereas, Old Kaskaskia was the center of French influence in the upper 
Mississippi Valley, the key to the control of the Northwest by Great Britain, 
Virginia and the United States, the capital of Illinois Territory, and the 
first capital of the State, and is peculiarly the shrine of historic interest and 
memory for Illinois; and, 

Whereas, There has been introduced into the Senate of the Fifty-second 
General Assembly House Bill No. 310 entitled, "An Act in relation to State 
Parks and Preserves," providing an appropriation of $500,000 for the pur- 
chase of parks and historic sites; and. 


Whereas, There has also been introduced into the Senate House Bill 
526 entitled, "An Act making an appropriation for the purpose of creating 
and establishing a State Park on what is called the "Garrison Hill Tract." 
providing an appropriation of $25,000 for the purchase for a public park of 
old Garrison Hill. 

Resolved, That the Illinois State Historical Society in its annual meeting 
is deeply interested in the project of the preservation of this historic site, 
the site of Black Hawk's watch tower and other historic sites in the State, 
and earnestly urges its accomplishment under the terms of one or the other 
bill, whichever may to the Governor and the General Assembly seem more 

Resolved, That copies of these resolutions be transmitted by the secretary 
of the society to the Honorable Len Small, Governor of Illinois, to the Hon- 
orable Fred Sterling, Lieutenant Governor, and to the Honorable Gotthard 
Dahlberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

On motion, this resolution was seconded and passed. 

Mr. Hauberg asked if this was not taken care of in Mrs. Weber's 
report and was told her's was merely a suggestion. 

The matter of a nominating committee was then taken up and 
on motion the appointment of this committee was made by the Chair- 
man as follows : 

Mrs. I. G. Miller, Mrs. Isabel Jamison, Mr. Lodge, Miss Lotte 
E. Jones and Mr. Freese. The committee retired to the ante room. 

Doctor Schmidt then called upon Mrs. Chtibbuck, State Regent 
of the D. A. R. for a short talk. 

Mrs. Cubbuck said that as a D. A. R. she was deeply interested 
in the historical work of the organization as well as that of other 
organizations of the State. That with these societies combined and 
the same object before us, we will accomplish much that will prove 
valuable to us of today and to those who follow us. 

She thought the movement to encourage the young people of this 
State to read and search for these gems of history is most commend- 
able and deserves time and thought in its organization and develop- 
ment. It is not one of the least valuable issues of this movement 
that it will greatly enrich the lives of our children. She assured the 
Society of the cooperation of the State D. A. R. She then spoke of 
the formation of an Historical Commission and of its great value to 
the State. She told of how much the D. A. R. had accomplished in 
preserving historical spots, documents and relics and in encouraging 
historical research and of how much interested they were in the for- 
mation of an Historical Commission in the State of Illinois. 

Mrs. Chubbuck spoke of the Michigan Historical Commission 
and said she realized that changes would have to be made to adapt 
the plan for Illinois. She stated that Mrs. Weber, the Secretary of 
the State Historical Society, had been appointed by the Illinois Con- 
ference of the D. A. R. to look into this and make plans for this 
Commission. That the two societies could cooperate in the work and 
get a bill through the Illinois Legislature. 

Doctor Schmidt, the chairman, then called for the report of the 
Nominating Committee which had returned to the room. The Chair- 
man, Mrs. Miller, reported the nominations as follows : 

President — Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago. 


Vice Presidents — George A. Lawrence. Galesburg; L. Y. Sher- 
man, Springfield ; Richard Yates, Springfield ; Ensley Moore, Jackson- 
ville; Charles L. Capen, Bloomington. 


Edmund J. James. 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois. Urbana. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, Illinois College, Jacksonville. 

George W. Smith, Southern 111. State Normal School, Carbondale. 

Richard V. Carpenter, Belvidere. 

Edward C. Page, Northern 111. State Normal School, DeKalb. 

Andrew Russel, Jacksonville. 

Walter Colyer, Albion. 

James A. James, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

H. W. Clendenin, Springfield. 

John H. Hauberg, Rock Island. 

Orrin N. Carter, Evanston. 

Stuart Brown, Springfield. 

Rev. Ira W. Allen, LaGrange. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Assistant Secretary — Miss Georgia L. Osborne, Springfield. 

It was moved and seconded that the report of the nominating 
committee be accepted. Motion passed, and the report was adopted. 

Mr. James M. Graham moved that the candidates named by the 
Nominating Committee be now elected and that the Secretary be in- 
structed to cast the ballot at the meeting for those nominations. This 
motion was seconded and passed. The Secretary cast the ballot for 
the Society. 

Doctor Schmidt stated the next order of business was the me- 
morial of Judge W. R. Curran by Mr. Dempsey, who was present 
and gave his paper. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Dempsey's paper Mr. John Glenn was 
called upon for his paper on "The Industrial Development of Illinois," 
at the conclusion of which Mr. Pringle of Chicago made a motion that 
the thanks of the Society be given Mr. Glenn for his splendid con- 

The Society then adjourned until 2:45 in the afternoon. 

Report of Committee of Genealogy. 
To the Memhers of the Illinois Rtate Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications begs 
leave to report that, "The Ancestor Industry never lags." "After each war 
there is again the popular interest in ancestral and family trees. Genealo- 
gists object to the idea that there is a revival in genealogy now going on. 
because they say that a revival implies a lull of interest, and there has been 
no lull. Any way you put it. since the war there has been a great deal of 
ancestry hunting. Boys who fought in France met other boys with the same 
surname or some odd given name that ran in families, and after they became 
acquainted they would ask are you related to the Stewarts of Illinois, the 
Strouds of North Carolina, or the Headleys of Kentucky, or whatever the 
name might have been, and as a rule, the answer would be, "I do not know." 

In our library we have had many of these returned soldiers looking up 
their ancestors in former wars. The Ter-Centenary of the Mayflower cele- 


brations renewed interest in the Pilgrims, and the Mayflower passengers. 
Our workers along this line are our most industrious students. One young 
man has at last been successful in tracing his ancestors to one or more of 
the Mayflower passengers. 

We have recently purchased a set of "The Mayflower Descendant," a 
quarterly magazine of Pilgrim genealogy and history, published by the 
Massachusetts society of Mayflower descendants. We have also subscribed 
to The Boston Transcript, as on Wednesdays and Saturdays of each week 
they have a genealogical department as well as a fine one on Book Reviews. 

We are adding from time to time to our collection the books which will 
be most valuable to our workers. Have recently secured five volumes of the 
Delaware Archives, published by the Public Archives Commission of Dela- 
ware, two volumes and index of Rhode Island, Civil and Military Lists cover- 
ing the period from 1647-1850. This latter an exchange for our centennial 

We asked the State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
Mrs. H. C. Chubbuck, to appoint a committee on genealogy in the D. A. R., 
and if their chairman could suggest a list of books that would be of service 
to the Daughters in searching out family history we would be glad to pur- 
chase them for our collection. Our reference work by mail increases and 
in most instances we have been able to supply the information, if not to put 
the questioner in touch with persons or places where such material could 
be obtained. 

The gifts to the department we acknowledged through the Journal of 
the Historical Society. Some recent ones, however, are the following: 

Mrs. Charles E. Knapp, historian of the Springfield Chapter, D. A. R., 
has recently made a map of Sangamon County, showing the location of the 
graves of the Revolutionary soldiers buried in the county; also the location 
of the graves of "Real Daughters." This map has the old post roads and 
Indian trails marked. Mrs. Knapp has also compiled many interesting 
events connected with Sangamon County, Illinois, in which we were of 
service to her, and this material has been given to the library. 

In family histories we have received the following: 

The Conkling Family. Typewritten copy, gift of Miss Alice Conkling, 
sister of the late Clinton L. Conkling. one of our directors. 

The Devon Carys. Two volumes. Gift of Mr. Fairfax Harrison, of 
Farquier County Virginia. 

The Eiving Family. The Ewing Genealogy with cognate branches. Gift 
of Judge Presley K. Ewing, of Houston, Texas. 

The Minor F-amily. The Diary of Manasset Minor, Stonington, Conn., 
1696-1720. Prepared by Frank Denison Minor with the assistance of Miss 
Hannah Miner, 1915. Gift of Mrs. Lewis H. Miner, Springfield, Illinois. 

Morgan Family. Francis Morgan, an early Virginia Burgess and some 
of his descendants. By Annie Noble Sims, from the notes of Mr. William 
Owen Nixon Scott, and original sources. Savannah, Ga., 1920. Gift of Mrs. 
William Irwin Sims. 

Seirall Family. Gift of Miss Helen Goodell, of Beardstown, Illinois. 
Miss Goodell has deposited in the library a diary of her ancestor, William 
Sewall, son of Gen. Henry Sewall, on officers in the Revolutionary War and 
War of 1812. William Sewall came to Illinois from Augusta, Maine, and kept 
this diary from Sept. 1, 1819, to the date of his death, 1845, at Chandlerville. 
Cass County Illinois. There are many letters and documents also in this 
collection from the Revolutionary ancestor. Gen. Henry Sewall. 

Wood Family, of Shelf, Halifax. Yorkshire, England, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Long Island, N. Y.. and Canada, written by Dr. Casey A. Wood. 
Gift of Dr. Casey A. Wood, M. D., M. R. C. U. S. Army. Chicago, 1920. 

Mrs. Weber has suggested that we have a department in the Journal 
called "The Genealogical Department, Notes and Queries." If this is done 
we will solicit aid from the members of the society and trust we will have 
your hearty support, so as to make the department one of mutual benefit. 
Respectfully submitted, 
• Georgia L. Osborne, 

Chairman Genealogical Committee, 
Illinois State Historical Society. 



Order of Exercises. 
Tuesday Evening. May 10, 1921. 
Supreme Court Room. 

Address Art in Historic Communities 

R. E. Hieronymus, Community Advisor University of Illinois. Urbana. 

Address Illinois History and Ideals of Beauty 

Lorado Taft, Chicago. 

Song Hail Illinois 

The Springfield Art Association invites the Historical Society and its guests 
to attend a Tea and Exhibition at Historic Edwards' Place on Tuesday 
afternoon, May tenth, at three o'clock. 

We»xesday Morning, May 11, 1921. 
9. A. M. Directors Meeting in Conference Room. 
Supreme Court Room. 
10 A. M. Annual Business Meeting of the Society. 
Reports of Officers. 
The Secretary's Report — Includes brief biographies of deceased 

members of the Society. 
Reports of Committees. 
Greetings from Local Historical Societies, limited to five minutes 

Unfinished Business. 
Election of Officers. 
Memorial on the Life and Services of William R. Curran. late a Director of 
the Illinois State Historical Society, and President of the Lincoln Cir- 
cuit Marking Association, by 

Ralph Dempsey, Pekin, 111. 

Address The Industrial Development of Illinois 

J. M. Glenn, Chicago. 
12:30 O'clock. Luncheon— St. Nicholas Hotel. 

Address Poets and Poetry of Illinois 

Mr. Stuart Brown, Springfield. 

Wednesday Afternoon. 

2:45 O'clock. 

Address Some Governmental Problems in the Northwest Territory 

Chester J. Attig, Northwestern College, Naperville, 111. 

Address Indian Trails Centering at Black Hawk's Village 

John H. Hauberg, Rock Island. 
Address — The Union League — Its Organization and Achievements During the 
Civil War. 

E. Bentley Hamilton, Peoria. 

Address Peter Cartwright in the History of Illinois 

William W. Sweet, De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 
Wednesday Ea'ening. 
Supreme Court Room. 
The Illinois Hymn. 

Annual Address The Making of Abraham Lincoln 

William E. Barton, Oak Park, 111. 



Members of the Society : 

I beg to submit to you my report as Secretary of the Society for 
the year ending this day, May 11, 1921. 

Each year I must of necessity tell you of the same duties and 
accomplishments, for the main objects of our work do not change. 
The Society has, I believe, made a real growth in influence. The Sec- 
retary receive many letters commending our work, congratulating us 
upon some particular piece of work or upon our general progress. 

The New Centennial Memorial Building. 
We are looking forward now to moving into the new Centennial 
Memorial building, where we will have better facilities in every way. 
We will be sorry to leave the Capitol building, because of its close 
proximity to, and close co-operation with- — other departments of the 
State work. It has been so easy for friends to come into the Library 
when visiting the State House, and members of the Legislature have 
brought in new members and told them of the work of the Society, and 
we have made many staunch friends in this way. We think we have 
been of service, too, to members of the General Assembly and other 
State officials in research work, and our newspaper files have been most 
popular. We will probably miss this close association, but we hope our 
rooms will be so attractive and our material so well arranged and our 
service so much more efficient as to more than compensate for the 
losses above mentioned. There will be telephone service to the State 
House, and there will be two tunnels between the new building and the 
Capitol building, one for foot passengers and one will be a service tun- 
nel. We hope that next year our Annual Meeting will be held in the 
Auditorium of the new building and that the Society will be settled in 
its permanent home. The auditorium will comfortably seat about 500 
people. It will have a stage, a screen for moving picture films, etc. It 
is expected that the room will be used for many small conventions. On 
the second main floor will be the reading rooms and offices of the two 
libraries, the State Library and the State Historical Library and Soci- 
ety. The steel book stacks, which it is contemplated will eventually 
house more than a half million books, will not all be erected at present, 
but there will be ample room for both libraries and allowance made 
for more rapid growth than has been possible in our cramped quarters. 
One of the main features of the Historical Library will of course be its 
Lincoln collection. A beautiful Lincoln room will be a part of the 
new equipment. 


Collection of Lincolniana. 

The Library and Society continue the search for Lincoln material, 
manuscripts, books and pictures. Our collection is already one of the 
finest in the country. It should be the greatest and most complete in 
the world. 

Major E. S. Johnson, long custodian of the Lincoln Monument, 
died at Lincoln Lodge — the custodian'? house — on February 15, 1921. 

Mr. H. W. Fay of DeKalb, the noted collector of Lincolniana and 
other historical material, has been appointed custodian of the monu- 
ment. This is a most excellent appointment. Mr. Fay has brought 
to Springfield his unique collection, and as far as there is space for h, 
he will place it on exhibition at the monument. 

Newspaper Files. 

One of the most important and badly needed rooms will be the 
basement rooms for newspaper files. Our files are now scattered, and 
many of them almost inaccessible, though they are in constant demand, 
and in daily, even hourl}-, use. During the past year additions have 
been made to our collection of files besides the natural growth by the 
completion of volumes. As I have often before told you, we suscribe 
to three Chicago daily papers, one St. Louis paper, two Springfield 
papers, and to newspapers of several of the more important towns of 
the State. We bind the Chicago and St. Louis papers monthly, and 
the volumes are quite heavy. This makes 36 volumes a year. We bind 
the Springfield papers and some others every two months. This makes 
six volumes a year of each newspaper. Some of the smaller papers 
we bind quarterly, and so on, according to the size of the papers. 
Their growth is rapid and they require a large amount of shelf room. 

Some newspapers have beeen added because of the excellent his- 
tory of the part taken by its community during the great war, which 
they contain. We have also added some valuable old files, among 
them the Illinois Advocate, Edwardsville, 1832-1833; the Ouincy 
Whig, 1838-1850, and several other early newspapers of the State. 
The care and binding of newspapers is laborious and expensive, and 
yet some binders will not bid on our work, as they say there is no 
profit in it. 

Genealogical Department. 

Our genealogical department, which now suffers for want of space, 
will be conveniently arranged. 

I asked Mrs. Chubbuck, State Regent of the D. A. R., to appoint 
a committee to suggest books for a working genealogical library. She 
asked one of the best genealogical workers in the State to make up 
such a list, which she did, after consultation with the librarian of the 
genealogical department of the Newberry Library, and kindly sent 
me a list embracing some 200 titles of works which she considered 
important for this purpose. We had in the library all but two of the 
books suggested, and we have since acquired these two. 

The chairman of our committee on genealogy will make her annual 


Labor and Problems of Moving. 
The task of moving into the new building will be a considerable 
one, but by careful planning it can be accomplished expeditiously and 
much of our present equipment can be utilized. 

Department of Archives to be Organized. 
A bill is before the present General Assembly which contemplates 
among other provisions the organization of a department of Archives 
to be a part of the State Library. This seems to be an excellent plan 
as the Secretary of State is the Librarian of the State Library and he 
is also the natural custodian of State Archives. The Secretary of 
State will, under the terms of the law, have the power of appointing 
an archivist. 

Records of the State Council of Defense. 
The State Council of Defense, which did such wonderfvil work 
for Illinois during the great war, has turned over to the Historical 
Library and Society its great mass of records. These cannot be col- 
lated until we are in the new building, but they are well arranged in 
separate boxes, and papers relating to certain departments can be 
located if needed. These records include the films of moving pictures 
which were shown by the State Council during the war. 

The Gunther Collection. 
The great collection made with such infinite pains and labor and 
such a great expenditure of money by the late Mr. Charles F. Gunther, 
who was a member of this society, has been purchased by the Chicago 
Historical Society through a committee of which Dr. O. L. Schmidt 
was an active member. The work of arranging and classifying it is 
being carried on as rapidly as possible. I hope that at our next meet- 
ing, if not before that time, in the Journal, we can have a description 
of the collection and the work of arranging it presented to us by Miss 
Caroline M. Mcllvaine, librarian of the Chicago Historical Society, 
who is giving much labor and attention to this great task. 

War History. 
This Historical Library is vigorously pushing the collection of 
material relating to the history of the part taken by Illinois in the 
World War. In my last report I told you that a war history section 
of the library had been inaugurated with Mr. Wayne E. Stevens as 
secretary in charge of the work. Mr. Stevens gave up this position 
last November to go to Washington and assist in the preparation of 
the history of the air service in the late war. He was succeeded by 
his assistant. Miss Marguerite Jenison, who had been associated with 
the work almost from the beginning. Miss Jenison has recently at- 
tended a meeting in Washington of the war History Association in 
which the State of Illinois is represented. This is an association of 
officials of the various states, which maintains for the present a worker 
in the government archives at Washington, making a record of the 
papers contained therein relating to the war work of the several states; 


Within the next year or two the Historical Library will publish 
two volumes, at least, one containing statistics relating to Illinois war 
service, particularly in regard to its civilian or auxiliary service, the 
Red Cross, food and fuel conservation, the amount of war material 
furnished by Illinois manufacturers, etc. ; the other volume to be of 
documents, largely from the letters and diaries of the Illinois soldiers 

History 33d Division. 
This will be in addition to the History of the 33d Division by Lieut. 
Col. F. L. Huidekoper, w^hich it is believed will be ready for distribu- 
tion during the present summer. A copy of this last mentioned history 
is to be sent to each member of the Division and to the families of 
deceased soldiers. The officers of the Division are taking great in- 
terest in the history and will, with the Posts of the American Legion, 
furnish the lists of names and addresses to which the history is to be 
sent. This is another large task. Think of sending out more than 
20,000 volumes. Members, please let the soldier boys of your locality 
know that the State of Illinois is publishing an accurate history of the 
Division written by a scientific and eminent historian who was the 
adjutant of the Division during its service over seas. The histor^• 
must not be confused with any commercial history, no matter how 
meritorious the commercial history may be. Governor Small is taking 
the greatest interest in the history and is very desirous that each 
soldier shall receive a copy. 

State Park Commission. 

There is now before the General Assembly a bill, the purpose of 
which is to create a State Park Commission, which shall be an ad- 
visory commission, and shall have under certain restrictions, control 
of State parks. It shall from time to time recommend the purchase 
of sites of historical interest or scenic beauty. The plan is that this 
commission shall consider the merits of various sites, and shall gradu- 
ally and economicall}' acquire them, having due regard to the interests 
of various localities of the State. It is believed that if this commission 
is created one of its first objects will be to acquire the Great Cahokia 
Mound. This wonderful archaeological relic should belong to the 
State of Illinois. Its owners, the Ramey family, are anxious that it 
should not be destroyed, but it belongs to eight persons, the heirs of 
Thomas Ramey, and they naturally desire to close the estate. 

The author of this bill is Representative Kauffman of Ogle County. 
Mr. Kaufl^man was a soldier during the late war, and saw service 
across seas. He is a member of this society. 

Lincoln Homestead. 
We have several times at our annual meetings called the attention 
of the people of the State to the constant danger of fire to which the 
Lincoln Home is exposed. We have urgently called the attention 
of the State Department of Public Works and Buildings to this menace, 
and the department is taking steps to improve the condition, and at 
least lessen the danger. It would be a lasting shame to the State if 


this house, the only home ever owned by Mr. Lincoln, and which was 
presented to the State of Illinois by Mr. Robert T. Lincoln, Mr. 
Lincoln's only son, should be destroyed by fire without every possible 
safeguard being used to protect it. I hope to have a better report to 
make on this matter before the next annual meeting. 

Marking Sites Connected with Lincoln in Springfield. 
An association has been formed in Springfield, consisting of the 
State Historical Society, D. A. R. and private citizens to mark with 
bronze tablets, properly inscribed, places in Springfield which are 
connected in a significant manner with Mr. Lincoln's life in this city. 
A committee was appointed to select the places, for there are so many 
of them, another committee to write the inscriptions, and another to pur- 
chase the bronze tablets. Mr. L B. Blackstock, a member of this so- 
city, is the chairman of the committee to purchase the tablets, and I 
believe that these will soon be ready and will be placed with proper 
ceremonies. Perhaps they will be ready by Memorial Day. 

The Lincoln Circuit Marking Association. 
The Lincoln Circuit Marking Association hopes to place the 
markers on the county lines of the eighteen counties of the old Eighth 
Judicial Circuit during the coming summer and autumn. This is a 
D. A. R. project in regard to which you are well informed. Mrs. 
Chubbuck, State Regent of the D. A. R., is much interested in this 
work and is adding her splendid energy to the work already inaugurated 
by Miss Lotte E. Jones, Dr. Schmidt, Mrs. E. H. Waldo, Mrs. Geo. 
Busey, Dr. Anna Zorger, Mrs. Mary Lee and other pioneers of the 
movement. The Lincoln Circuit Marking Association, as has the 
Historical Society, has met with a sad loss in the death of Judge W. 
R. Curran, president of that association, and a director of this society. 
A biographical address on the life of Judge Curran will be presented 
at this meeting by Mr. Ralph Dempsey, of Pekin, law partner of 
Judge Curran. 

Site of Fort Crevecoeur. . 
The last session of the General Assembly appropriated a small 
amount ($1,500) to the Department of Public Works and Buildings 
for the purpose of placing a marker or memorial on the site of LaSalle's 
old Fort Crevecoeur, the site to be designated by the Illinois State 
Historical Society. The society has for several years had a committee 
on the site of Fort Crevecoeur. Captain Burnham and Mr. Wm. A. 
Meese, both deceased had been members of this committee. Dr. 
Schmidt, the president of the society, appointed on the committee 
Prof. C. W. Alvord, of the University of Illinois, and Prof. J. A. 
James, of the Northwestern University. Mr. Jacob C. Thompson, 
already a member of the committee, was made chairman of the com- 
mittee. There could hardly be three persons better fitted for the work 
of investigating impartially and intelligently the various sites and the 
sources of information. The committee held meetings and visited the 
several sites and made a report. In another Act of the General As- 
sembly the Department of Education and Registration was also re- 


quired to designate a site. This Act carried no appropriation. The 
Department of PubUc Works and Buildings is waiting for the Director 
of Education and Registration to make his recommendation which he 
will do before" the fund for the purchase of the marker lapses, which 
will be on September 30, 1921, unless it is reappropriated. 

One of the directors of this society. Prof. J. A. James, has been 
invited to deliver a course of lectures this summer at the University 
of Prague. He has accepted the honor and is about this time starting 
on his way to begin his duties. The society wishes for him success 
in his undertaking, a pleasant vacation and a safe return. 

Prof. E. B. Greene, another director of the society, is doing his- 
torical work in Boston and Cambridge, and will not be with us at this 
meeting, and we greatly miss him. 

This society has 1,475 members, men and women of all ages and 
walks of life, the best people in the State. We have not made a 
membership campaign, but new members come in by invitation and 
recommendation of our members. 

We have lost by death two directors of the society, Mr. Clinton 
L. Conkling and Judge William Reid Curran. We have also lost a 
former president and one of the founders of the society, the venerable 
and venerated Dr. John F. Snyder, of Virginia, who on March 22, 
1921, observed the ninety-first anniversary of his birth. I will ask 
Dr. Lyles, a member of the society, an intimate friend of Dr. Snyder, 
and who spoke feelingly at his funeral, to prepare an adequate tribute 
to this remarkable man. 

Publications of the Society. 
Our publications are so greatly delayed that I am almost ashamed 
to mention them. We have two Journals now ready for distribution 
and another in press. The story of the vexatious and provoking de- 
lays might be funny if it had not such serious consequences, and the 
present strike of the job printers may add another chapter to the story 
of disappointment and delay. I am hopeful, however, as usual, and 
I believe another year we will be able to do better. 

Historical Museum. 
I wish to again call your attention to the urgent necessity of col- 
lecting objects for our proposed Historical Museum. We are hoping 
when we move into the Centennial Memorial building to have space 
to make a beginning in this important branch of our work. Nothing 
appeals more to the public than an historical museum and it is of 
great educational value. These are some of the more important mat- 
ters of our work to which I desire to call the attention of the society. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretarv Illinois State Historical Society. 



By William E. Barton, D.D., LL.D. 

Lincoln and Illinois were twin-born. Abraham Lincoln first saw 
light on Sunda}', February 11, 1809. Nine days before his birth, IIH- 
nois, by Act of Congress, began its autonomous existence as a territory. 
The future commonwealth and its most illustrious citizen began life 
together, both unconscious of the influence which each was to exert 
upon the destiny of the other. 

The first seven years of Lincoln's life were spent in Kentucky, and 
twice seven years following were spent in Indiana. Both of those 
States did well by him ; but when he came to his twenty-first year, 
Illinois, his own State, beckoned to him, and he came. He came in 
the dawn of his young manhood, and the whole of that manhood he 
spent as a citizen of this, his State. From the time he entered the 
3^oung commonwealth in the Spring of 1830, driving an ox-team 
through the rich, deep mud of her prairies, until he left it to be inau- 
gurated President of the United States, he lived in Illinois- Gladly 
yielding him to the Nation, when the Nation called, Illinois still knew 
him as her own, and believed in him and loved him ; and when his work 
was accomplished, and crowned by his martyrdom, Illinois stood tear- 
fully awaiting the arrival of that majestic funeral train that wound 
its way westward through many cities from the Nation's capitol, and 
received back again into the heart of her soil the precious diist of her 
own Abraham Lincoln. 

It should be an interesting and profitable inquiry, what influence 
had Illinois upon Abraham Lincoln? Did she help or hinder in his 
development? Might it have been as well for him and the State had 
he lived otherwhere? These are legitimate questions, and not unprofit- 
able ; the more so because I do" not find that they have been answered, 
or even very seriously asked. Among the biographers of Lincoln, no 
one, I think, traced his life so lovingly in its relation to that of his 
State, as Hon. Isaac N. Arnold. He approached the possibility of 
considering this question, but did not pursue the inquiry far, nor did 
he, apparently, arrive at a convincing answer. He said : 

"When, in 18.30, Lincoln became a citizen of Illinois, this great common- 
wealth, now the third or fourth state in the Union, and treading fast upon 
the heels of Ohio and Pennsylvania, was on the frontier with a population a 
little exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand. In 1860, when Lincoln was 
elected President, it had nearly two millions, and was rapidly becoming the 
center of the Republic. Perhaps he was fortunate in selecting Illinois as 
his home." — ^^Life of Abraham Lincoln, p. 29. 


Mr. Arnold went on to show how central to the Union Illinois 
had become, and he wrote of the growing importance of Illinois geo- 
graphically, but he did not in any definite way undertake to answer 
his question, whether it was well for Lincoln to have lived here, other 
than with a judicial qualification. "Perhaps he was fortunate in select- 
ing Illinois as his home." 

It seems to me that the time has come for a more positive answer. 
I believe that Lincoln would have been a great man if he had lived 
in another State, but that Illinois contributed to his making some ele- 
ments which were of particular significance, and which may have been 
indispensable to his preparation for the particular work to which God 
and the Nation called him. 

Two Theories of the Origin of Great Men. 

There are two opposing theories of the origin of great men. One 
of them, derived from Buckle and his school, attempts to account for 
all men, both individually and racially, by their environment, and by 
the conditions of the times in which they live. The other, of whose 
conviction Carlyle is the indignant spokesman*, explains not the man 
by his times, but his times by the man. Emerson agreed with Carlyle, 
and went even farther. Emerson would seem to say that the Atlantic 
Ocean was there because nothing smaller would have answered the 
purposes of Columbus. Columbus needed a large earth and a round 
earth and a wide ocean to express what was inherent in himself. The 
world and all external conditions are to be explained by the man, and 
not the man by his world. 

Something of this latter theory must be held as to genius. It has 
its own laws. It produces its great exponents in manner and form 
which cannot be predicted- It is impossible to explain Robert Burns 
without Scotland, but Scotland alone does not explain Burns. Scot- 
land has been on the map for a long time, and still there is but one 
Robert Burns. Henry Ward Beecher stood at the foot of his class 
in Amherst College. Since his day many men in Amherst College 

* Thus, with hot indignation, dirt Carlyle reply to tho theory that great men are 
the product of their time and only that : "I am well aware that in their days hero- 
worship, the thing I call hero-worship, professes to have gone out and finally ceased. 
This, for reasons which it will be worth while some time to inquire into, is an age 
that as it were denies the existence of great men ; denies the desirability of great men. 
Show our critics a great man. a lAither, for example, they begin to 'what they call 
'account' for him : not to worship him. but to take the dimensions of him and bring 
him out to be a little kind of man ! He was the 'creature of the time.' thev sav ; the 
time called him forth, the time did everything, he nothing — but whatever the little' critic 
could have done, too! This seems to me but melancholy work. The time call forth? 
Alas, we have known times call loudly enough for their great man, but could not find 
him when he was called ! He was not there : Providence had not sent him ; the time 
calling its loudest, had to go down to confusion and wreck because he would not 
come when called. 

"For if we will think of it, no time need have gone to ruin could it have found 
a man great enough, a man wise and good enough : wishing to discern truly what the 
times wanted, valor to lead it on the right road thither : these are the salvation of 
any time. But I liken common languid times, with their unbelief, distress, per- 
plexity, with their languid doubting characters and embarrassed circumstances im- 
potently crumbling — down into ever worse distress toward final ruin — all this I 
liken to dry, dead fuel, waiting for the lightning out of heaven that should kindle it. 
The great man, with his free force out of God's own hand, is the lightning. The 
dry, mouldering sticks are supposed to have called him forth ! Thev are critics of 
small vision, I think, who cry: 'See is it not the sticks that make the flre?' No sadder 
proof can be given by a man of his own littleness than disbelief in great men." — 
Carlyle, Heroes and Hero Worship^, Chapter 1, pp. 14-15. 


have stood at the foot of the class, and it is not known that that envi- 
ronment has produced any more Beechers. Socrates was the product 
of the Hfe and spirit of Athens; but Athens has long since given up 
the expectation of producing by wholesale and as the product of Athe- 
nian environment men of Socratic mind. Of each of these men we 
must say that Drinkwater says first of other great leaders and then of 
Lincoln, "He was the lord of his event." 

But no great man can be understood entirely apart from his envi- 
ronment, and if he could, it would be unfair both to him and to his 
environment thus to attempt to interpret him. 

Lincoln would have been a great man in almost any environment. 
But Gray is not the only man who has had occasion to moralize con- 
cerning the "mute inglorious Miltons" or the Cromwells guiltless of 
their country's blood, and guiltless of anything else good or bad enough 
to be mentioned, who lived and died in environments unsuited to their 

If Lincoln Had Lived in Another State. 

Illinois has a right to remind herself of those elements in the 
character of Lincoln which were, we will not say produced or created, 
but developed, by his Illinois environment. 

Lincoln was born in the very heart of Kentucky. It was the claim 
of the La Rue County when its representatives asked to be severed 
from Hardin and to become a separate county, that La Rue County, as 
measured from east to west, and from the northermost point in the 
State direct to the southern boundary, was the precise geographical 
center of the State. Its centrality gave rise to some semi-burlesque 
oratory at the time, and this probably suggested to Proctor Knott a 
portion of his noted speech which many years later did so much for 
Duluth, and relieved the solemn tedium of the United States House 
of Representatives with a hearty laugh. 

It is conceivable that Lincoln might have lived and died in Ken- 
tucky. If so, it is not certain that he would have lived and died un- 
known. Men from his own county rose to distinction, and he might 
have done so. But it is certain that he would not there have lived in 
an environment such as evoked in him those qualities that made him 
Indiana has its honorable place in the development of Lincoln. 
We cannot spare the record of those years of frontier life, nor of 
its proximity to that highway of traffic and thought, the Ohio River. 
Lincoln's life-long interest in river navigation was prompted by his 
experience in Indiana. His strong convictions on the slavery question 
were influenced in no unimportant degree by his voyage to New 
Orleans and his visit to the slave-market. Even if we discount the 
statement of John Hanks that Lincoln then declared that if he had an 
opportunity to "hit that institution" he would hit it hard, we know from 
Lincoln himself that the sight of slaves, chained and sold, aroused in 
him emotions of enduring significance ; and this we must credit in no 
small part to his life in Indiana. 



The Notable Influence of a Short Migration. 

I have sometimes ventured to wonder what would have happened 
to the Lincoln family had Thomas Lincoln continued to live in the 
home on Nolin Creek where Abraham Lincoln was born until the 
time when the Lincoln family left Kentucky. He would not have 
sailed down the same stream. It might never have occurred to Thomas 
Lincoln to sail down the river at all, for the distance by Nolin Creek 
and Green River is several times as great.* By crossing Muldraugh's 
Hill and living on Knob Creek he was within much shorter distance 
of the Ohio River, and he reached it by an entirely different route. 
Had he continued to live on the Nolin Creek farm, and had he taken 
his long voyage from there, he would have landed much farther down 
the Ohio, at a point where the confluence of the rivers had already 
caused considerable settlements to be made. It is quite possible that 
he might have floated on as far as the shores of Missouri before finding 
land as convenient and as remote from settlement as he found in 
Spencer County, Indiana. 

If Lincoln had grown up in Hardin County, Kentucky, he might 
have received as good an education as he received in Spencer County, 
Indiana ; have studied law and been admitted to the bar ; have traveled 
the circuit and 'entered political life, and possibly have been elected 
to Congress. But it is hardly conceivable that Kentucky alone could 
have made him the man that he was when he left Illinois. 

Had the Lincoln family remained in Spencer County, Indiana, 
Lincoln's most feasible avenue out into life was by way of the Ohio 
river. That might have given him valuable contacts with life farther 
south, and have widened his influence and made him a man of note 
in some southern State. But that would not have done for him what 
was done for him in Illinois. 

Had the Lincoln family landed farther down the Ohio and made 
their home, as Daniel Boone did toward the end of his life, and as many 
other Kentuckians of Lincoln's day were doing, near the Mississ- 
ippi river and within the borders of the State of Missouri, it is hardly 
possible that he would have found there the environment which would 
have made him what he became. 

Social conditions in rural Kentucky, Missouri and southern 
Indiana were not notably different from those in the portion of Illinois 
where Lincoln made his home ; but Lincoln found at New Salem and 

* In response to my request, the Director of the United States Geological Survey 
furnishes me this information : 

From Knob Creek by way of Rolling Fork and Salt River, the flat boat of Thomas 
Lincoln floated 42 miles to the Ohio, and then, assuming that he landed at the point 
in Spencer County nearest his farm, 91 miles down the Ohio to his debarcation near 
the mouth of Anderson River. Had he embarked on Nolin River, at its point nearest 
to the Lincoln cabin before the removal from Nolin to Knob Creek, he would have 
floated down Nolin and Green Rivers 256 miles to reach the Ohio, and would have 
been 46 miles, by the Ohio channel, below the mouth of Anderson River. 

So far as I am aware, no one has considered the importance of this short removal 
from one sterile farm to another in the same county. I intend at some future time to 
work out more in detail the effects of the removal of the Lincoln family from Nolin 
Creek to Knob Creek. For the present it is enough to state that it appears to me 
that, while the distance was only about 15 miles, and within the same county, the 
effect upon the life of Lincoln was very great. Had the family remained upon Nolin 
Creek, they would not have been so likely to undertake a voyage of 256 miles to the 
Ohio ; and had they done so, they would have been very likely not to locate till they 
reached Missouri. 


at Springfield, and in the circuit of the Eighth Judicial District, some- 
thing which he did not find, and to the same degree was not very 
likely to have found, in any other place where he had lived, or was 
likely to have lived, had he not removed to Illinois. 

Remembering that wherever he lived he would have been an 
honest and influential man, and remembering further, that, in any 
environment which Thomas Lincoln would probably have chosen, con- 
ditions of his life would have possessed many elements in common with 
those which obtained in Illinois, we may move on from the realm of 
hypothesis and inquire what as a matter of fact Illinois did for Lin- 
coln that assisted in the development of his latent greatness- 

Illinois Stimulated Lincoln's Love of Learning. 

Lincoln found in IlHnois conditions which powerfully stimulated 
his ambition to learn. He had received valuable instruction in Indiana. 
He had learned to read, and had developed a strong desire to read. 
He had read the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress, a History of the United 
States, Robinson Crusoe, Weems' Life of Washington and the Stat- 
utes of Indiana. To this excellent list he had added a few other books 
which happened to be within reach, and so far as we know they were 
all remarkably good books. But he himself declared that "There was 
absolutely nothing to stimulate ambition to learn." He learned, not 
because his environment was favorable, but because he had within 
him the determination to learn. 

In Illinois, Lincoln found himself in an environment which greatly 
encouraged his love of learning. New Salem may seem to the modern 
student a poor, squalid little village, no one of whose few houses cost 
much more than one hundred dollars. To Lincoln it was a city. It 
was not sufficiently metropolitan to make him feel like a stranger, but 
it had within it and passing through it men who greatly assisted in 
making Lincoln what he would not have been likely to become in 
Spencer County, Indiana. There he met Mentor Graham, the school- 
master. The "few chicken-tracks" which Lincoln was able to make 
on paper when he arrived became a clear, strong chirography. He had 
already written his "Chronicles of Ruben," and certain treatises on 
Temperance and on Cruelty to Animals; but the debating society of 
New Salem encouraged him to write on many great themes, and gave 
him an appreciative audience. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes has reminded us that authors need a 
"mutual admiration society" in order to do their best work. Such a 
society, with its adjuncts of frank and robust criticism and free dis- 
cussion, Lincoln found at New Salem. 

There he studied Kirkham's Grammar under Mentor Graham. 
There he learned the rudiments of surveying. There he obtained his 
copy of Blackstone and read law. It was not simply that he found 
books in slightly larger number than had been available in Indiana; 
he found an atmosphere that encouraged him to make the largest pos- 
sible use of books. 


A College Education Not Impossible. 

At this time Lincoln may even have considered the possibility of 
a college education. Some of his associates at New Salem were stu- 
dents at Illinois College. Lincoln himself became possessed of a book 
of Greek exercises. He probably did not make large use of it ; but 
the fact that he owned it shows us that he did not think it impossible 
that he might learn Greek. After his removal to Springfield he engaged 
in a short study of German. Ann Rutledge desired him to spend at 
least one year at Illinois College, while she attended its academy. I 
have often wondered whether a college course would have made or 
unmade Lincoln. It might not have done either, but it is an interesting 
question, and one which I hope sometime to give a conjectural answer, 
whether a college course, such as Lincoln might have obtained at Illi- 
nois College in Jacksonville, would have developed his mind and 
character more directly toward his success in life than did his years 
at New Salem. He could probably have emerged from Illinois College 
less deeply in debt that he was when he left New Salem. Financially 
and geographically a college course was not impossible. At present we 
will not ask whether it would have been better for him and the world 
had he taken it, but only remind ourselves that Lincoln in Illinois was 
so situated that a college course was one of the possibilities. 

We cannot pursue the history of Lincoln's six years at New Salem 
intelligently and confine our study to the financial adventures of the 
firm of Lincoln and Berry, or the vicissitudes of Denton Offutt or of 
Lincoln's rough-and-tumble encounters with the Clary Grove boys. 
Lincoln was in an environment that gave him adequate mental stimu- 
lous and encouragement. 

Illinois Favored Lincoln's Political Ambition. 

Lincoln found in Illinois conditions highly favorable to his ambi- 
tion to become a political leader. He had hardly landed from the 
return voyage of the flat boat which had conveyed him to New Orleans 
than he announced himself a candidate for the Legislature. The out- 
break of the Black Hawk War, if it interrupted for a few weeks his 
campaigning, brought him a popular election as captain, and did not 
diminish his political ambition or his prospect of success in that field. 

Had Abraham Lincoln's flat boat stuck, not on Rutledge's dam, 
but let us say at the foot of Long Wharf, Boston, or at the Battery 
in New York, or in Mobile or New Orleans, and had he made any one 
of those cities his home, and there entered political life, he would not 
have found conditions as favorable either for his immediate entry, or 
for his prospective development, as he found in Illinois. 

Illinois offered Lincoln an opportunity to enter politics almost the 
moment he crossed the State line. After a year spent as a day laborer 
in the vicinity of his father's home near Decatur, he made his second 
flat-boat journey to New Orleans, and by good fortune his boat stuck 
on the dam of Rutledge's mill at New Salem. Returning from New 
Orleans, in the Summer of 1831, he took up his home in that micro- 
scopic and short-lived village, and almost immediately proclaimed him- 
self a candidate for the legislature. 


Illinois politics up to this time had been local and factional. The 
State was a Democratic State ; its southern part was settled very largely 
from Kentucky, and its northern portion as yet was almost uninhab- 
ited. National politics entered the State with the popularity of Andrew 
Jackson, and took a strong hold on the life and enthusiasm of the 
voters in 1840, when William Henry Harrison was a candidate, and 
the watchwords Were "Log cabin and hard cider." It was not neces- 
sary for a candidate to have any large political program in 1832. Abra- 
ham Lincoln fitted well into his new environment. An unlettered 
backwoodsman, just off a flat boat, could poll a very respectable vote 
as a candidate for a member of the legislature in 1832, and could be 
elected two years thereafter, and re-elected regularly once in two years 
so long as he cared to announce himself a candidate. But Abraham 
Lincoln and Illinois politics were both developing through that period. 
Neither he nor the political situation remained unmodified. Illinois 
was not too proud to receive Abraham Lincoln as a member of her 
legislature in 1834, and was gratified and honored to have a share in 
electing him President in 1860. Illinois furnished a part of the neces- 
sary environment for the political development of Lincoln. 

We know the political character of Illinois at the time when Lin- 
coln became a resident of the State. It was Democratic, and its De- 
mocracy was divided between the "whole-hog" Democrats and those 
whose devotion to Andrew Jackson carried them to less violent ex- 
tremes. Lincoln's personal backgrounds were those of Jacksonian 
Democracy. Thomas Lincoln was a Jackson Democrat ; John Hanks, 
as late as 1860, was "an old Democrat who will vote for Lincoln." 
Persons who heard what is believed to have been Lincoln's first stump 
speech at Decatur in the summer of 1830 say that he was then for 
Jackson and internal improvements. I have not found the personal 
recollections of those who profess to have heard this speech very clear 
or consistent, but they may be correct. Andrew Jackson was a name to 
capture the imagination, and he may at that time have been Lincoln's 
hero personally if not politically. Lamon holds that Lincoln at the 
outset was "a nominal Jackson man." He says on the authority of 
Dennis Hanks that Lincoln was "Whiggish but not a Whig." (Lamon : 
Life of Lincoln, 123, 126.) 

From the time of his first candidacy, however, there is nothing 
that identifies Lincoln with Jackson Democracy. His earliest announce- 
ment of himself as a candidate for the legislature did not name the 
party with which he was affiliated, and ht was warmly supported by 
local Democrats as well as Whigs. But as soon as he began to express 
any principles which could be alhgned with national issues, they were 
unqualifiedly those of the Whigs. He may have continued to admire 
Andrew Jackson, but he became immediately a disciple of Henry Clay. 
(See Nicolay and Hay, 1 : 102, 103; Morse, 1 : 38.) 

In this development his personal evolution was like that of the 
State. But Lincoln's own development was in advance of that of the 
State as a whole, and qualified him to lead in a movement that in time 
committed Illinois against the policy of the extension of slavery. 


The Incidental Values of Political Mistakes. 

It would perhaps be but fair to add that the standards which ob- 
tained in Illinois politics were the more favorable to the advancement 
of Lincoln because the mistakes of politicians in his day, in which mis- 
takes Lincoln participated, were so largely the mistakes of the whole 
body of the people and of Lincoln's constituents, that a public official 
was not too summarily condemned to oblivion for his errors of judg- 
ment. Governor Ford comments on this matter wdth characteristic 
severity, condemning the "Long Nine" whose log-rolling in connection 
with the removal of the Capital from Vandalia to Springfield cost the 
State, as he maintained, more than the value of all the real estate in the 
vicinity of Springfield, and he records the names of those members 
of the House of Representatives who voted for the disastrous "Inter- 
nal improvement system." He was especially indignant when he con- 
sidered how many of these men, who, as he believed, ought to have 
been repudiated by the people, were continued in office. Ninian W. 
Edwards and others were "since often elected or appointed to other 
offices, and are yet all of them popular men. . . . Dement has been 
twice appointed Receiver of Public Moneys. . . . Shields to be 
Auditor, Judge of the Supreme Court, Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, and Brigadier General in the Mexican War. . . . Lin- 
coln was several times elected to the Legislature and finally to Con- 
gress ; and Douglas, Smith and McClernand have been three times 
elected to Congress, and Douglas to the United States Senate. Being 
all of them spared monuments of popular wrath, evincing how safe 
it is to be a politician, and how disastrous it may be to the country to 
keep along with the present fervor of the people." — History of Illinois, 
pp. 195, 196. 

We need not claim for Lincoln in these matters wisdom superior 
to that of his associates, but may remind ourselves that his errors of 
judgment were not only shared by his associates in office, but that their 
errors did not prevent his repeated re-election, much to the disgust of 
Governor Ford, who counted him one of the "spared monuments of 
popular wrath." 

The historian of the future is certain to set enhanced value upon 
Governor Ford's History of Illinois. The future student is not likely 
to condemn with less severity than Governor Ford either the log-rolling 
of early Illinois politics or the folly of the financial methods by which 
it was undertaken to support the State banks and the Internal Improve- 
ment system which ended with the financial crash of 1837. In the 
main Governor Ford was right. But Governor Ford lacked perspec- 
tive. He was not strictly accurate in describing Lincoln and his asso- 
ciates as "spared monuments of popular wrath." There ought to have 
been more wrath than there was. The men who were responsible for 
those measures in the Legislature fairly represented the will and the 
wisdom or unwdsdom of their constituents. The law-makers and the 
men who elected them to make laws were involved in the same attempts 
to create values out of things that had no value. The long list which 
Governor Ford gives us of men who were responsible for the financial 


evils of their time and who nevertheless were thereafter elected and 
re-elected to office is its own answer. These men were as wise as their 
constituents, and not much wiser. Illinois had to learn from bitter 
experience, and Lincoln was one of the men who had his share in the 
education which the wdiole State was compelled to undergo. 

Lake and River Transportation. 

Lincoln became a factor in Illinois life just at the time when the 
question of transportation was becoming most acute. Whatever sur- 
plus Illinois produced in the early days, was floated down the Mississ- 
ippi, whose commercial outlet was New Orleans ; but there w'ere other 
agricultural states tributary to the Mississippi, and the wharves of 
New Orleans were piled high in time with unmarketable produce. It 
was less easy to float goods upstream than down, and New Orleans 
was not a manufacturing city. The goods which' Illinois required for 
her own use were largely produced in Philadelphia or New York. The 
accounts and bills payable of Illinois merchants tended to accumulate 
in New York ; the credits were in New Orleans. The money in circu- 
lation was largely issued by wildcat banks, and afforded no suitable 
basis of exchange. If this situation went on permanently, Illinois 
could have no great commercial future. Her banking was principally 
done in St. Louis. In 1831, for the first time, goods were imported 
from the East to St. Louis by way of Chicago at one-third less cost 
than by New Orleans. That fact did more than we can now imagine 
to compel the unification of Illinois. Lake Michigan became a neces- 
sity to Menard and Sangamon Counties, as certainly as to Cook County 
and the northern end of the State. We remember the disastrous experi- 
ments in public improvements by means of which creeks were ^-o have 
become rivers and canals were to have connected the heads of naviga- 
tion through the State. Let us not forget that these conditions with 
all their blundering and bankruptcy were potent in making Illinois a 
commercial unit and in securing her a place of influence in the com- 
mercial life of the nation. 

Illinois and the Unification of the Nation. 

The relation of Illinois to the unification of the nation was no 
accident. Governor Thomas Ford died in 1850, leaving the manu- 
script of his History of Illinois to be published after his decease. In 
that work he clearly set forth the aim of Hon. Nathaniel Pope, delegate 
in Congress from the Territory of Illinois, when, in January, 1818, he 
on his own responsibility amended the proposal for the admission of 
Illinois to the L'^nion by moving her boundary north from the southern 
extremity of Lake Michigan to the line of 42° 30' so as to include 
within the State fourteen additional counties and the port of Chicago. 
Governor Ford said : 

"It was known that in all confederated republics there w-as danger 
of dissolution . . . Illinois had a coast of 150 miles on the Ohio 
river, and nearly as much on the Wabash ; the Mississippi was its 
western boundary for the whole length of the State ; the commerce of 
all the western country was to pass by its shores, and would necessarily 


come to a focus at the mouth of the Ohio, at a point within this State, 
and within the control of Illinois, if, the Union being dissolved, she 
should see proper to control it. It was foreseen that none of the great 
States in the West could venture to aid in dissolving the Union, with- 
out cultivating a State situate in such a central and commanding posi- 
tion. What then was the duty of the national government? Illinois 
was certain to be a great State with any boundaries which that govern- 
ment could give. ... If left entirely upon the waters of these great 
rivers, it was plain that, in case of threatened disruption, the interest 
of the new State would be to join a southern and western confederacv. 
But if a large portion of it could be made dependent upon the com- 
merce and navigation of the. great northern lakes, connected as thev 
are with the eastern States, a rival interest would be created, to check 
the wish for a western and southern confederacv. It therefore became 
the duty of the national government, not only to make Illinois strong, 
but to raise an interest inclining and binding her to the eastern and 
northern portions of the Union. This could be done only through an 
interest in the lakes. At that time the commerce on the lakes was 
small, but its increase was confidently expected, and indeed it has 
exceeded all expectations and is still in its infancy. To accomplish 
this object effectually, it was not only necessary to give to Illinois the 
port of Chicago, and a route for the canal, but a considerable coast on 
Lake Michigan, with a country back of it sufficiently extensive to con- 
tain a population capable of exercising a decided influence upon the 
councils of the State." — Ford's History of Illinois, 22-23. 

If Governor Ford had written these words after the Civil War, 
we might have suspected him of attributing to Judge Pope more of 
political foresight than either he or Judge Pope really possessed. But 
he wrote before 1850, and we have no reason to doubt that this remark- 
ably clear view of the influence of IlUnois as a State that might bind 
together the expanding Union was really possessed bv Judge Pope 
when he secured for the new State her fourteen additional counties, 
including the port of Chicago, and keenly appreciated by Governor 
Ford in his stern opposition* to the proposals of Wisconsin that the 
northern counties of Illinois should be restored to the newer State. 

The Courts of Illinois Developed Lincoln. 

Illinois offered to Lincoln through her Circuit Courts an oppor- 
tunity of widening his acquaintance and influence and also of meeting 
in political and legal relations a circle of men admirably suited to his 
intellectual development. The lawyers of early Illinois represented 
widely divergent types. There were frontier shysters of small ability 

* The fight of Wisconsin was very strong in Ford's administration. Not only so, but 
the northern counties of Illinois were inclined to think they had more in common with 
Wisconsin than with Egypt. There was more than one petition fnun the enmities 
themselves or from some party within thei;' asking that they be severed from Illinois and 
joined to the State to the north. Governor Ford's argument in refutation of the claim 
of Wisconsin is given in extenso in his Historu and is a document of permanent 

A proposal to separate northern Illinois from southern Illinois is at this moment 
pending before the General Assembly. Those who propose such a sundering of what 
God hath joined will find instructive reading in some of the early literature <-:f this 


and less legal learning, but there also were men of large native ability, 
whose wits were sharpened by much experience. Lincoln's practice 
soon brought him before the Supreme Court of Illinois, where he had 
to plead before judges of learning and high standing. The courts of 
Illinois were not essentially different from those of Indiana and Mis- 
souri in the same period. Any of the frontier States then rapidly 
filling could have furnished him an arena for his legal skill; but the 
skill which Lincoln developed and the acquaintance which he formed 
in Illinois had their relation to a political situation which no other 
State could quite have duplicated. Mr. Arnold relates an interesting 
incident which occurred after Mr. Lincoln was elected President. He 
was asked to appoint a man named Butterfield to a position in the 
Army. This man Butterfield was the son of Justin Butterfield, who in 
1849 had secured an appointment to the Land Office, a position greatly 
desired by Lincoln at the close of his term in Congress. Arnold says : 

When the application was presented, the President paused, and after 
a moment's silence, said: "Mr. Justin Butterfield once obtained an appoint- 
ment I very much wanted, and in which my friends believed I could have 
been useful, and to which they thought I was fairly entitled, and I have 
hardly ever felt so bad at any failure in my life; but I am glad of an oppor- 
tunity of doing a service to his son." And he made an order for his commis- 
sion. He then spoke of the offer made to him of the governorship of Oregon. 
To which the reply was made: "How fortunate that you declined. If you 
had gone to Oregon, you might have come back as Senator, but you never 
would have been President." — Life of Abralimn Lincoln, 81. 

Lincoln assented to the foregoing and said he had always been a 
fatalist, believing with Hamlet in the Divinity that shapes our ends. 

Oregon could have made Lincoln a Senator, but it is not certain 
that any other State than Illinois could have made him President. He 
needed essentially the conditions which he found in Illinois to develop 
the qualities which were inherent in him ; and he needed a political 
situation such as existed in Illinois to make him at the opportune time 
the President of the LTnited States. We can never be too certain con- 
cerning the negative implications of a study like this. We can never 
be quite sure what another State might have done. We are quite 
certain that no other State, then in the L^nion, could have furnished 
all the conditions which Illinois supplied and which were so important 
both in the evolution of Lincoln and in his elevation. 

Illinois the National Keystone. 

Pennsylvania is proud of her soubriquet, "the Keystone state." 
Had that name not been pre-empted when the LTnion formed a smaller 
arch, it should have been reserved for Illinois. Both the shape and 
geographical position of Illinois entitle her to that designation. Her 
superficial area extends from the lakes to the confluence of the great 
rivers, and hence virtually from the northern boundary of the nation 
to Mason and Dixon's Line. In the beginning it shared with Ken- 
tucky and Missouri the status of a southern State, but Lincoln saw 
and had some reason to fear the development of its northern and larger 
portion. It was an ominous sign for Linocln when he who had done 
so much for the election of Zachary Taylor as President, was set aside 


in his application for the Land Office and that position was given to 
Mr. Justin Butterfield of Chicago * Lincoln had good reason to fear 
the growth of Chicago and of northern Illinois. As late as the State 
Convention of the Republican party at Decatur in 1860, the northern 
part of Illinois was for Seward. Not even the sight of John Hanks' 
two fence rails wholly convinced the politicians of the Chicago area 
that Lincoln was the right man for President. His solidifying of his 
own State was an important step toward the solidifying of the nation. 

The River and Harbor Convention. 

So far as I am aware no biographer of Lincoln has ever heard of 
the River and Harbor Convention of 1847. I do not find it mentioned 
by Nicolay and Hay, by Arnold, by Morse, by Miss Tarbell, or by any 
other biographer of Lincoln. But it was that which first brought 
Lincoln to Chicago. The Chicago papers, truthful then as always, 
stated that this was the first visit of the Honorable Abraham Lincoln 
to the "commercial emporium of the State."* He was more welcome 
than he might have been at some earlier periods in his career. In the 
first place he was the only Whig member of Congress from Illinois, 
was just elected and had not yet taken his seat. In the second place 
he was thoroughly committed to the policy of developing inland waters 
and of connecting the lakes with the rivers. It will some time become 
the duty of the historian to show what that convention did for Abra- 
ham Lincoln. The presiding officer of that convention was Edward 
Bates of Missouri. Lincoln probably did not know it at the time, but 
then and there he probably formed the impression which later made 
Bates a member of his Cabinet. It was there that Lincoln first heard 
Horace Greeley, and Greeley heard Lincoln in a short and tactful 
speech. Greeley did not know it, but he was forming an impression of 
Lincoln, which thirteen years later was to influence his judgment in 
accepting Lincoln as the compromise candidate who could not only 
defeat Seward in the Convention, but defeat the Democratic nominee in 
the election following. What Lincoln came to learn of the qualities 
essential to unifying his own State went far toward making him capable 
of unifying the nation. 

* Justin Butterfield was born in Keene, N. H., In 1790. He studied at Williams 
College, and was admitted to the bar at Watertown, N. Y., in 1812. After some years 
of practice in New York state he removed to New Orleans, and in 18.3.5 to Chicago. 
He soon attained high rank in his profession. In 1841 he was appointed by President 
Harrison United States District Attorney. In 1849 he was appointed by President 
Taylor Commissioner of the General Land Office. He was logical and resourceful, and 
many stories are told of his quick wit. He died October 25, 1835. 

Mr. Buttprfleld probably owed his appointment over Mr. Lincoln to the influence 
of Daniel Webster, who was his personal friend, and also to the growing importance 
of the northern portion of the State of Illinois. Taylor was, according to his own 
pre-election statement, "a Whig, but not an ultra-Whig." The Whig interests in 
Illinois could better afford to overlook the claims of a down-state ex-congressman than 
those of a strongly backed representative from the Whig end of the State. 

* "Abraham Lincoln, the only Whig representative to Congress from this State, 
we are happy to see in attendance upon the Convention. This is his first visit to the 
commercial emporium of the State, and we have no doubt his first visit will impress 
him more deeply, if possible, with the importance, and inspire a higher zeal for the 
great interest of river-and-harbor improvements. We expect much from him as an 
representative in Congress, and we have no doubt our expectations will be more than 
realized, for never was reliance placed in a nobler heart and a sounder judgment. 
We know the banner he bears will never be soiled." — Chicago Journal, July 6, 1847. 


The Chicago Journal in an indignant editorial inquired whether 
of the River and Harbor bill, on August 3, 1846, by President James 
K. Polk. That bill had contained appropriations of $15,000 for the 
Harbor of Buffalo, $20,000 for Cleveland, $40,000 for the St. Clair 
flats, $80,000 for Milwaukee, Racine, Chicago and other nearby ports, 
and sums for other lake harbors. President Polk affirmed that as these 
ports were not harbors of vessels used in international trade, "It would 
seem the dictate of wisdom under such circumstances to husband our 
means, and not waste them on comparatively unimportant objects." 

The Chicago Journal in an indignant editorial inquired whether 
this same James K. Polk was not squandering millions upon an inva- 
sion of Mexico for the sake of the extension of slavery? Was he not 
buying steamboats at exorbitant prices for use in the transportation 
of troops and supplies to Mexico, and leaving our legitimate commerce 
on the lakes unprotected, with lives liable to be lost for lack of safe 
harbors, and great territory of our own undeveloped while he sought 
to acquire other territory by bloody means and for ignoble ends? 
What an insult to the inteUigence of the nation for him to declare that 
these lake harbors were "comparatively unimportant objects !" 

A great convention assembled in Chicago on July 5, 1847, to pro- 
test against James K. Polk and all his works, to advance the interests 
of the lake harbors, and incidentally to promote the welfare of the 
Whig party. The significance of that convention has never been ade- 
quately understood.* 

The attendance upon the River and Plarbor Convention was not 
limited to residents of lake cities. There were seven delegates from 
Connecticut, one from Florida, two from Georgia, twelve from Iowa, 
two from Kentucky, two from Maine, twenty-eight from Massachu- 
setts, forty-five from Missouri, two from New Hampshire, eight from 
New Jersey, twenty-seven from Pennsylvania, three from Rhode 
Island, one from South Carolina. I have not tried to count the long 
lists from New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin. These are all located by counties, and show a widespread repre- 
sentation from all parts of these States. The Convention was felt to 
be of vast economic interest, and was by no means lacking in political 
importance. Theoretically it was assembled for the consideration of 
internal improvements ; but in addition to this it was convened for the 
sake of opposing James K. Polk and all his political associations. 

Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Thomas H. Benton, Lewis Cass 
and other national leaders all were invited, and responded in letters, 
that of Webster especially being a document of considerable size and 
importance. Anson Burlingame headed the Massachusetts delegation, 
and Ohio followed the lead of Thomas Corwin. 

Horace Greeley was there, and he wrote up the convention for 
the New York Tribune, and ever afterward advised young men to 
"Go West, and grow up with the country." Thurlow Weed reported 

* I am indebted to Mr. James Shaw, of Aurora, for first calling my attention to 
the significance of this convention. 


it in full for the Albany Journal, and gave an interesting account of 
his own journey around the lakes on "the magnificent steamer, 

The political aspects of the convention are suggested by the fact 
that Lewis Cass of Michigan, which State might have benefited by 
river and harbor improvements, remained away and sent a very dis- 
tant note of regret, while Daniel Webster, from Massachusetts, in a 
long letter read at the convention, came out unqualifiedly for all that 
the convention stood for. Cass wanted to be President, and greatly 
needed the vote of the slave States ; Webster's position was, of course, 
that of a politician who greatly desired to link the political and eco- 
nomic future of the new States with the North and East. 

David Dudley Field was present to speak for the administration. 
He did it with shrewdness ; Greeley gives the gist of his address. The 
convention did not treat him any too courteously ; and Lincoln followed 
with his one speech, a tactful one, of which we have no report, but 
one that appears to have stood for fair play while being ardently in 
favor of the whole plan of internal improvements. The convention 
at its next session apologized to Mr. Field for the uncivil treatment 
he had received, but did not alter its program, or change its convictions 
on account of this apology for bad manners. 

* The River and Harbor Convention of 1847 put Chicago upon the 
nation's map. It did more than any previous or subsequent assembly 
to link the fortunes of the great State of Illinois with the North and 

It must have been a very illuminating event to Lincoln. It was 
his first visit to Chicago, his first view of the great lakes.* It w^as his 
first important reminder that, while he was elected from Central Illi- 
nois, he, as the only Whig member of Congress from the State, must 
find his political support thereafter largely in the newer portion of 
the State where the Whigs were more largely in control. It must have 
reminded him, and he was soon to be rudely reminded again, that 
Chicago, and Northern Illinois with her, was thenceforth to be reck- 
oned with as an important political as well as economic factor. He 
had hoped to efifect the unity of Illinois by a canal connecting the lakes 
with the rivers ; whether this ever was accomplished or not, the whole 
future of Illinois, central and southern as well as northern, was tied 
up with Chicago, and through Chicago with the East and North. Illi- 
nois, with her whole western boundary washed by the Mississippi, her 
southern border hemmed in by the Ohio, and a large part of her east- 
ern border determined by the Wabash, and all of these streams bearing 
their cargoes through slave territory to New Orleans, was an indivis- 
ible political and economic unit, bound by Chicago and the great lakes 
to New York and New England, Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

* My good friends, Mr. J. Seymour Currey, of Evanston, and Prof. Julius E. Olson, 
of the State University of Wisconsin, are of opinion that Lincoln made two earlier visits 
to Chicago : and they may be correct. To me, however, the evidence does not appear 
entirely conclusive ; and in any event, those earlier visits, if they occurred, were with- 
out important significance. Prof. Olson's interesting study is published by the Wis- 
consin Historical Society, Vol. 4. p. 44, 1920, and Mr. Cnrrey's suggestive article is in 
the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. 12, No. 3, Oct., 1919, p. 412. 


Illinois and Slavery. 

In 1808, one year before the birth of Lincoln, the slave trade 
ceased by constitutional limitation. If slavery itself could have gone 
out with the importation' of slaves, the history of Lincoln and our 
nation had been quite otherwise. It was not so, and in 1820 came the 
Missouri Compromise. By this act Missouri was admitted to the 
Union as a slave State, and slavery which before that time had been 
held south of Mason and Dixon's line was extended for north on the 
west side of the Mississippi river; but by the agreement then entered 
upon, States thereafter to be admitted into the Union were to come 
in free unless they lay south of the parallel of 36 degrees and 30 min- 
utes north longitude, the southern boundary of Missouri. For thirty- 
four years that Compromise had stood, but thirty-four years is a long 
time, and slavery had been gaining ground. The Louisiana purchase 
had brought in material for a number of new slave states and the 
Mexican War had brought in others. CaUfornia had indeed entered 
the Union as a free State, but that was not the fault of the slave- 
holding element in Congress or even of the then occupant of the 
White House. 

The removal of the Capital of the United States from Washington 
and later from Philadelphia to a small district taken from and bounded 
by the two slave States of Maryland and Virginia did much to 
strengthen slavery socially and politically. In 1854 the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill repealed the Missouri Compromise, started Kansas to 
bleeding, set John Brown's soul and body to marching in the path 
that led to the gallows, and called Abraham Lincoln back into politics, 
from which he had retired in 1848. 

Abraham Lincoln could not remember the time when he had not 
believed slavery to be wrong, but he found no occasion in his early 
political life to make slavery a direct issue. It was well for him and 
the nation that his home was in a State where he had to define his own 
position on the slavery question in terms both ethical and legal. 

Illinois as a part of the Northwest Territory was forever dedi- 
cated as a shrine of freedom ; but Illinois as a State settled from Ken- 
tucky permitted a good many slaves to be held by families who moved 
into the State and brought their negroes with them. Illinois had a 
"Black Code" of disgraceful and revolting severity. On March 3, 
1837, Abraham Lincoln and Dan Stone, representatives from the 
County of Sangamon, filed their protest against resolutions adopted 
on the preceding day by their fellow members of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, violently denouncing abolitionists and expressing strong 
pro-slavery sympathies. This protest of Lincoln and Stone stated that 
its two signers, "believe that the institution of slavery is founded on 
both injustice and bad policy." In 1841 the sale of a negro girl named 
Nancy, resulted in the case of Bailey vs. Cromwell, which was carried 
to the Supreme Court of Illinois. There Lincoln contended that this 
slave girl was free by virtue of the Ordinance of 1787, which prohibited 
slavery in the Northwest Territory. This case which Lincoln argued 


when he was thirty-two years of age, compelled him to consider slavery 
both in its legal and its moral aspects. Such an issue could hardly 
have risen, except in Illinois or Indiana or Ohio.* 

The Repeal of the Missouri Compromise. 

The leader in the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was Stephen 
Arnold Douglas, Senator from Illinois, and at that time chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Territories. Whether he was the real author of 
the measure is hotly disputed. The most careful study of this question 
seems to me to be that of Prof. P. Orman Ray, who, after a careful 
analysis of the material available, supports the view of Colonel John 
A. Parker, in his pamphlet, "The Secret History of the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill", and derives the movement for the repeal to the fac- 
tional strife in Missouri between Thomas Hart Benton and David R. 
Atchison. Atchison, as Professor Ray believes, was the real author of 
the measure; and his conclusions appear to me to be valid. (See The 
Repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by P. Orman Ray, Ph.D., Cleve- 
land, 1909). Pie shows that much has been written about the part 
which Douglas took, and of his motive in the matter, is not sustained 
by adequate evidence, and that some things which Douglas claimed, 
as, for instance, that for eight -years prior to the repeal, he had stead- 
ily advocated it, appear to be unreliable. But conceding, as we may 
well concede, the authorship of the repeal to David R. Atchison, and 
perhaps also in part to Judge William C. Price, it is Douglas with 
whom we have to reckon as the man responsible for the form of its 
presentation, for its report from the Committee, and for its adoption 
by Congress and discussion by the country, and Douglas was proud 
to be known as its responsible author. 

And, whatever Douglas' motive at the outset, or even if he had 
then no motive except that of the possibility of being removed from 
the chairmanship of the Committee on Territories, to make way for 
Atchison to introduce the bill, he must ultimately have seen that he 
was certain to be held responsible for it, and it was well for him, if he 
expected to be a candidate for the Presidency, to use to his advantage 
in the Southern States what was certain to be used to his disadvantage 
in the States where a strong anti-slavery sentiment existed. 

Beyond any reasonable doubt Douglas hoped to gain sufficient 
political influence in the slave-holding states to make him President. 
In the two sketches of Lincoln's life which he himself prepared, 
Abraham Lincoln stated that after his return from Congress in 1848, 
he returned to the practice of law with more ardor than he ever had 
manifested before, but that the Missouri Compromise recalled him 
to political activity. When Abraham Lincoln found himself recalled 
to political life by a great moral crisis in the life of the nation, it was 
the good fortune of Illinois to be able to furnish to Abraham Lincoln 
a foeman worthy of his steel. He did not have to go out of his own 
State to meet the national issue. Illinois furnished him an arena of 

* Theoretically, such a case might have risen in any one of the five States carved 
out of the Northwest Territory, but it would not have been lilsely to rise in Wisconsin 
or Michigan, because they were newer and more remote from slave territory. 


national proportions. He did not need to go to Missouri or to bleed- 
ing Kansas, though he paid an important visit to the latter ; he was 
able to beard the slavery lion in his political den in his own State and 
the State of Douglas. 

An Illinois Foeman Worthy of Lincoln's Steel. 

Who can measure the influence upon Lincoln of the fact that 
Stephen A. Douglas was in 1854 and still in 1858 not only a resident 
of Illinois but a dominant force in national politics? The joint debate 
between these two great men stands out in our national life and occu- 
pies a place all its own. The significant fact of our present purpose 
is that this contest found both of its notable participants in this State 
and the State itself on tiptoe eager for the contest between them. 

Both Lincoln and Douglas knew that Illinois was not a unit, 
and each of them used that fact to the utmost to the disadvantage of 
the other. Douglas repeatedly charged Lincoln with uttering senti- 
ments in Northern Illinois which he would not dare to repeat in 
Egypt; and Lincoln succeeded in committing Douglas to the "Free- 
port heresy" which ultimately proved his undoing. 

But Lincoln forced the issue on this platform, that while the 
Constitution recognized slavery as existing, and he had no plan or 
purpose to interfere with it where it then was, the framers of the 
Constitution had clearly understood that slavery was an evil, and it 
was a thing to be faced as such. At Galesburg, Lincoln quoted Doug- 
las as saying that Douglas did not care whether slavery was voted up 
or voted down ; and he proceeded : 

"Judge Douglas declares that if any community wants slavery, they have 
a right to it. He can say that logically, if he says there is no wrong in 
slavery; but if you admit that there is a wrong in it, he cannot logically say 
that anybody has a right to do wrong. He insists that, upon the score of 
equality, the owners of slaves and the owners of property — or horses and 
every other kind of property — should be alike, and hold them alike in a 
new territory. That is perfectly logical if the two species of property are 
alike and equally founded in right. But if you admit that one of them is 
wrong, you cannot institute any equality between right and wrong. 

"Now, I confess myself as belonging to that class in the country who 
regard slavery as a moral, social and political evil having due regard for 
its actual existence among us and the difficulties of getting rid of it in any 
satisfactory way, and to all the constitutional obligations which have been 
thrown about it; but, nevertheless, desire a policy which looks to the pre- 
vention of it as a wrong, and look hopefully to the time when as a wrong 
it may come to an end. He is blowing out the moral lights around us when 
he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them." 

It was thus that Lincoln came to his position, not as an aboli- 
tionist, but as one who could say what Lincoln did say with great 
deliberation at Springfield on June 17, 1858: 

" 'A house divided against itself cannot stand.' I believe this govern- 
ment cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect 
the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect 
that it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the 
other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, 
and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course 
of ultimate extinction, or its advocates will push it forward till it shall be- 
come alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new, north as well as south." 


■ How carefully Lincoln had prepared this paragraph and its 
context is shown by the fact that when Douglas made quotations from 
it a few months later, Lincoln was able to repeat it word for word, 
saying as he did so, that Douglas had repeated it so often that Lincoln 
had learned it from him. That, of course, was only an excuse for 
knowing it so well that he could repeat it months after the occasion 
for which it had been prepared. The fact is, that when Lincoln went 
before the convention which on June 17, 1858, nominated him as a 
candidate against Douglas for Senator, Lincoln had determined to 
force the slavery issue upon moral grounds, indicated by the repeal of 
the Missouri Compromise ; and the man with whom he had to discuss 
that issue was not John C. Calhoun of North Carolina or any other 
statesman from the Southern States, but Stephen A Douglas, of 

The Slavery Issue National and Moral. 

Considered in their intellectual aspects, it is hard to decide which 
to admire the more, the speeches of Lincoln or those of Douglas. 
But what we are to remember is that Lincoln deliberately forced the 
consideration of slavery in its ethical aspects. Douglas set forth 
strongly his claim for "squatter sovereignty." He maintained that the 
founders of the republic never intended that there should be uniform- 
ity in matters of local concern, but that there should be large liberty 
in each State to decide its own policy in matters within its own bound- 
aries. The slavery issue thus was an issue for each State to determine 
in its own way. He insisted that to hold this principle was not to 
commit one's self to the pro-slavery view ; he did not care, so far as 
this principle was concerned, whether slavery was voted up or voted 
down, but he did care for the sacred right of each State to work out 
its own salvation in matters of its own concern. 

But what Lincoln said at the outset, he reiterated in nearly every 
speech, and stated thus in the debate at Ouincy: 

"The difference of opinion, reduced to its lowest terms, is no other than 
the difference between the men who tliinli slavery a wrong, and those who do 
not think it a wrong. The Republican party think it wrong; we think it is 
a moral, a social, a political wrong. We think it a wrong not confining itself 
to the persons or the states where it exists, but that it is a wrong in its 
tendency, to say the least, that extends itself to the existence of the whole 
nation. Because we think it wrong, we propose a course of policy that shall 
deal with it as a wrong. We deal with it as with any other wrong, in so far 
as we can prevent its growing any larger, and so deal with it that in the 
run of time there may be some promise of an end to it. We have a due 
regard to the actual presence of it amongst us, and the difllculties of getting 
rid of it in any satisfactory way, and all the constitutional obligations thrown 
about it." 

It was no political accident that drove Lincoln to this position. 
The Kansas-Nebraska bill and the Dred Scot decision had practically 
nationalized slavery. This he affirmed in his speech in Springfield, 
June 17, 1858, and in that speech declared that a house divided against 
itself could not stand. He knew what answer Senator Douglas would 
make. There was nothing in the Chicago speech of Douglas on July 


9, 1858, that surprised him, and Lincoln was present and heard- it. 
Douglas quoted Lincoln's "house divided against itself" paragraph, 
and commented. 

"In other words, Mr. Lincoln asserts, as a fundamental principle of this 
-government, that there must be uniformity in the local laws and domestic 
institutions of each and all the states of the Union. 

"Now, my friends, I must say to you frankly, that I take bold, unqualified 
issue with him upon that principle. I assert that it is neither desirable nor 
possible that there should be uniformity in the local institutions and domestic 
regulations of the different states of the Union. The framers of our govern- 
ment never contemplated uniformity in its internal concerns. Mr. Lincoln 
has totally misapprehended the great principles upon which our government 

Lincoln did not misapprehend. He knew just what he was doing, 
and he knew why he was doing it. He was determined to force the 
fight with Douglas on these two grounds, that the slavery issue was 
national, and that it was fundamentally moral. 

Illinois is not the only State in which Lincoln might have form- 
ulated or forced that issue ; but Illinois was the State in which, above 
all other States, that issue could be squarely Joined between himself 
and the advocate of "squatter sovereignty," Stephen A. Douglas. 
The event made Douglas a Senator again, and two years later it 
made Lincoln President. 

Illinois the Forum for Lincoln's Greatest Speeches. 

Illinois offered to Lincoln a forum for the delivery of very nearly 
all his greatest speeches up to the time of his departure for his Inaug- 
ural. If we except only the Cooper Union address, virtually all the 
other of Lincoln's outstanding speeches were delivered in his own 
State, and it was the best possible place for their delivery. The 
"House-divided-against-itself" speech has already been referred to. 
His "Lost Speech" at Bloomington, May 20, 1856, could not so well 
have been delivered in any other State convention. His Peoria speech 
of October 16, 1854, might have been ignored if delivered in another 
State, but in Illinois, it virtually made certain the contest four years 
later with Douglas. 

Illinois Gave Lincoln Most of His Offices. 

Illinois gave to Lincoln every office that he ever held, except 
that of the Presidency and the postmastership of New Salem. Even 
in those important positions Illinois exerted an influence far from 
negligible. When he was a candidate for the Presidency he recorded 
in a sketch of his life written with his own hand that his election as 
captain of his company in the Black Hawk war gave him at the time 
more satisfaction than any subsequent honor. He also recorded that 
his defeat in 1832 when he was a candidate for the Legislature was 
the only defeat he ever suffered at the hands of the people. The 
people who thus voted for him whenever they had opportunity were, 
down to 1860, wholly Illinois people. Even in the election of 1832 
when he was defeated, that part of Illinois that knew him, the part 


adjacent to and inclusive of New Salem, voted overwhelmingly in 
his favor. A Legislature declined in 1858 to make him Senator ; a 
President in 1848 declined to make him Land Commissioner, but the 
people of Illinois gave him every office which he ever asked of them. 

Illinois Fence Rails and Their Various Uses. 
Illinois did something for Lincoln worth remembering in pre- 
serving some of his fence-rails, and the memory of his making them. 
He made them in 1830, and the State Republican Convention of 1860 
was held in Decatur, only ten miles away from where those rails still 
formed some part of a fence. Thither came Lincoln, to attend the 
convention that on May 9 and 10, 1860, was to elect delegates to the 
National Republican Convention, to be held in Chicago, scarcely a 
week later, May 16. The northern part of the State was still strongly 
for Seward, though the Chicago Tribune had already come out 
squarely for Lincoln. But the Decatur Convention was not long 
divided. Richard J. Oglesby and old John Hanks had found two of the 
old rails, and at the opportune moment they were brought into the 
Convention, with a reminder that Lincoln was "the rail candidate." 
So he proved to be ; and the Seward boom fell flat in Illinois. From 
Decatur the Lincoln hosts went almost directly to Chicago, carrying 
with them the fresh enthusiasm of their Decatur experience. 

Illinois the Scene of the Convention that Nominated Lincoln. 

Finally, Illinois offered to Lincoln a place for the National Re- 
publican convention of 1860. In the boisterous young city by the lake, 
within the borders of the very State where Lincoln had split his rails, 
convened the delegates from all the States where there was organized 
opposition to the extension of slavery. We do not know what would 
have happened if the Republican Convention had been held in some 
other city where as many men were shouting for Seward as in Chi- 
cago were shouting for Lincoln. We do know that the galleries were 
potent then and even now not wholly lacking in their power to influ- 
ence a body of delegates. It was Lincoln's own State that furnished 
the theater for that dramatic act which made him President of the 

But the theater was not the whole play. Illinois was geographic- 
ally and politically even then a State whose support was of vast impor- 
tance to the ticket of the new political party. Illinois did not dictate the 
nomination ; that was done by the opponents of Seward, after failure to 
discover another candidate who could carry the convention with good 
prospect also of carrying the election ; but the influence of Illinois in 
both these matters was important ; and Illinois was by that time united 
in support of Lincoln. And, when all else has been said, it is not to 
be forgotten that Illinois furnished a large fraction of the shouting. 

Lincoln's Farevv^ell and Return to Illinois. 

The time came for him to say farewell to his own Illinois. He 
said it first to his aged step-mother, who remembered with loving 
heart how he had been dear to her as her own son, and had never 


spoken to her an unkind word. He said it to his old neighbors, as he 
stood on the rear platform of the train with the wet eyes asking them to 
commend him to God in their prayers. And then he went away. 

He came not back, save only the sacred memory of him, and 
the holy pride with which he was held to lasting honor, and the dust 
that once had enshrined his great soul. Thus wrote Walt Whitman 
in the spring of 1865 : 

"When lilacs last in the door-yard bloomed, 

And the great star early drooped in the western sky in the night, 

I mourned, and yet shall mourn with ever returning spring. 

ever-returning spring! trinity sure to me you bring; 
Lilacs blooming perennial, and drooping star in the west. 
And thought of him I love. 

Over the breast of the spring, the land amid cities. 

Amid lanes and through old woods (where lately the violets peeped from 

the ground, spotting the gray debris;) 
Amid the grass in the fields each side of the lanes— passing the endless 

grass ; 
Passing the yellow-speared wheat, every grain from its shroud in the 

dark-brown fields uprising; 
Passing the apple-tree blows of white and pink in the orchards; 
Carrying a corpse to where it shall rest in the grave. 
Night and day journeys a coffin. 

Coffin that passes through lanes and streets. 

Through day and night, with the great cloud darkening the land, 
"With the pomp of the inlooped flags, with the cities draped in black, 
With the show of the States themselves, as of crape-veiled women 

With processions long and winding, and the flambeaus of the night, 
With the countless torches lit — with the silent sea of faces and the un- 
bared heads, 
With the waiting depot, the arriving coffin, and the somber faces, 
With dirges through the night, with the thousand voices rising strong 

and solemn; 
With all the mournful voices of the dirges, poured around the coffin, 
The dim-lit churches and the shuddering organ — where amid these you 

With the tolling, tolling, bells' perpetual clang; 
Here! Coffin that slowly passes, 

1 give you my sprig of lilacs!" 

The long journey ended. The lilacs bloomed and drooped. The 
gates of Oak Ridge opened and closed. Abraham Lincoln was at 
home again, in his own Illinois.* 

As the body of Lincoln returned to the soil of his own State, 
Edna Dean Proctor, then a young woman, wrote a noble poem, a copy 
of which in her own handwriting hangs in the tomb of Lincoln, from 
which I quote a few lines : 

* Abraham Lincoln was assasinated on Good Friday night, April 14, 1865, and 
died the following morning. His funeral was held from the White House at noon 
on Wednesday, April 19. The body left Washington at 7 o'clock, Friday morning, 
April 21, and journeyed by way of Baltimore. Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, 
Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus, Indianapolis and Chicago. The departure from 
Chicago was at 8 o'clock p. m. on Tuesday. May 2. Springfield was reached next 
morning. The Springfield funeral took place on Thursday, May 4. Late on the after- 
noon of that day, his body was laid to rest in Oak Ridge cemetery. 


"Now must the storied Potomac 

Honors forever divide; 
Now to the Sangamon fameless 

Give of its century's pride; 
Sangamon, stream of the prairies, 

Placidly westward that flows. 
Far in whose city of silence 

Calm he has sought his repose. 

"Not for thy sheaves nor savannas 

Crown we thee, proud Illinois! 
Here in his grave is thy grandeur, 

Born of his sorrow thy joy. 
Only the tomb by Mount Zion 

Hewn for the Lord do we hold 
Dearer than his in thy prairies, 

Girdled with harvests of gold." 

Is Illinois Capable of Producing More Lincolns.^ 

Times have changed. We no longer have or need those same 
conditions, but we need men of the same spirit. Is Illinois adapted to 
produce men now^ of the Lincoln type? We have sung tonight our 
State song which has some merit, and some undeniably fine lines. I 
could wish that it had more idealism. It is not enough that we have 
rivers gently flowing or prairies verdant growing and straight roads 
leading along section lines to Chicago, nor that the breezes murmur 
the musical name of our State. What does that name mean ? To the 
Indians it meant, 'We are men.' It was a proud boast of the manhood 
of the State. Are we producing manhood like Lincoln's? I have not 
undertaken to write a new State song, but I have written a little 
rhymed sermon, and that is no apology : 

Not thy farms with cattle teeming, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Nor thy factories smoking, steaming, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Nor thy railroads hauling freight, 
Made thee, or can make thee great, 
Righteous manhood buids a State, 


By thy rivers gently flowing, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Are there any great men growing, 

Illinois, Illinois? 
Long before the white man's ken. 
Proud thy boast, "My sons are men"; 
This thy glory now as then, 


Lincoln's ashes thou dost cherish, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Guard his virtues, lest they perish, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Justice, righteousness and skill. 
Honor, faith and strong good will. 
These thy guiding beacons still, 




By R. E. Hiebonymus, Community Advisee, University of Illinois. 

A year and a half ago the Art Extension Committee was formed 
at the Better Community Conference of the University of IlHnois. One 
of the most important activities in any community is the making of 
that community a more beautiful as well as a better place in which to 

The special purpose of the Art Extension Committee is to assist 
in making Art a more potent elevating force in the lives of the people 
of the State of Illinois. It aims to help the people to discover beauty 
in Nature and to enjoy it, to recognize beauty in Art and to appreciate 
it, and to stimulate the production of beautiful things. 

For the development of its work the General Committee has sub- 
committees on Community Festivals, Club Activities, Competitions, 
Bulletins, Speakers, Legislation, etc. Three exhibits have been pre- 
pared and are now in circulation throughout the State, one of original 
Oil Paintings, another of photographs of Illinois Sculpture, and a third 
on Landscaping Plans for both large and small communities. Others 
are in preparation. 

The Illinois State Historical Society and the Art Extension Com- 
mittee may well join hands in beautifying still further the communities 
of the State. It is a happy thought that we are thus brought together 
in this Annual Meeting to study ways in which we may be helpful each 
to the other. 

Tablets, statues, monuments and memorials will increase in num- 
ber as the people come to appreciate the place that real works of art 
may come to have in enriching the life of the people. Instead of the 
vicious street carnivals now infesting all too many places, masques and 
pageants given by the people themselves would familiarize both young 
and old with the earlier history of their own community and at the 
same time create a deeper interest in dramatic art. City Planning is 
blazing the way for beautifying the cities of the State in many ways. 
And now plans are shaping through legislation and the sympathetic 
co-operation of State-wide associations and agencies for a State Plan 
and a comprehensive system of State Parks. We deserve little credit 
for what nature has already done for Illinois, but the obligation is upon 
us all to add through the various forms of Art to the natural beauty 
and charm of our boundless prairies, the wooded valleys and the many 
historic spots throughout the Commonwealth. 



By John M. Glenn, Secretary of tiie Illinois Manufacturers' Association, 
Chicago, Illinois, 

- The wresting of Illinois from the Indians and the wild beasts is 
one of the most interesting episodes in American history, and the story 
of the industrial development of the State which followed, so far as 
the manufacturing industry is concerned, is quite as romantic as the 
tales of Indian fighting and buffalo hunting. 

Nature endowed the territory with wonderful resources, but the 
means of transportation enjoyed by the early settlers were primitive 
and tedious. To these pioneers a trip across Lake Michigan in a craft 
which would not now be regarded as safe, or a voyage up the Mississ- 
ippi River in a steamboat like that described by Lincoln which had to 
stop every time the whistle blew, was as much of a luxury as a ride on 
the Twentieth Century train to New York or a trip to California on 
the Overland is to the present generation. 

The moving of lumber and logs down the Mississippi River and 
the traffic up and down the Illinois was no more of a novelty than a 
freight train is today. It was the way the traffic moved and it was a 
cheap and a convenient way and a sure way. 

The modern method of fabricating steel on the eastern coast and 
shipping it to San Francisco by rail instead of by water simply shows 
the impatience of the modern buyer. He would rather pay the price 
of rail transportation than wait for delivery by the water route. In 
Illinois, in the early half of the last century, when it took thirty days 
to go to the seat of government at Washington, a merchant put in an 
order for his goods far enough ahead to have the delivery made in 
time for next season's trade. 

I suspect that Louis Joliet, a French soldier of Fortune, who in 
company with Pere Marquette and five or six couriers du bois happened 
around this way in the spring of 1673 was about the first one to adver- 
tise our locality. He was sojourning up around Green Bay, where there 
was a French settlement, and he and Marquette did a lot of tramping 
around in these parts, if our early historians are correct. He stirred 
things up on the other side of the ocean with an occasional letter, in 
one of which he made the statement that we had "ready-to-wear" farm 
lands. He wrote to friends that one did not have to cut down trees 
preceding the spring plowing and that about all one had to do was to 
sow his grain, chase down a few buffaloes to get some hides from which 
to make shoes and cure a little wild meat and reap a bountiful harvest. 
He seemed to think that the effort to get food and clothes was mere 
play. Anyway, he got the French people started, and it was not long 
until some of the settlers in Ohio and Indiana who were chopping down 


trees to get a clearing upon which to raise food heard of the wonderful 
prairies and they came this way. The news spread farther east to Vir- 
ginia and down to the Carolinas and these states commenced to send 
settlers up through the Cumberland Gap. The Ohio River and the 
Mississippi River brought them in on one side and the great lakes 
brought them in on the other. 

These waterways upon which the government has spent millions 
of dollars in recent years in an effort to make them navigable were, so 
far as the early settler was concerned, the highways of commerce, and 
they were in their virgin state. Such streams as the Sangamon River, 
made famous by Abraham Lincoln and hundreds of others, now no 
longer navigated, were the mainstay of transportation during the long 
period between Louis Joliet's time and 1850. Yes, it was many years 
after 1850 before the iron horse superseded the steamboat. 

What I want to emphasize is that the men who first came to Illinois 
and those who lived here two or three generations afterwards used the 
waterways without the lavish expenditure on the part of the govern- 
ment which has been demanded in later years and which thus far has 
not been especially effective or helpful. When the early settler found 
an obstruction in a stream he went around it and he built the craft in 
which he transported his goods to conform to the gauge of the water. 
He did not try to change the waterway to conform to his style of a 
craft. Nor did he wait for a fourteen-foot lake-to-the-gulf gauge or a 
Mark Twain. 

Illinois always was a good market. Even before the farmer com- 
menced to turn over its fertile soil it carried on a wonderful fur trade, 
and I am sure the buffalo in the very early days found its prairies just 
as the Short Horn, Polled Angus and Herefords of today find its fat 
blue-grass pastures. 

Louis Joliet, it is claimed, was the first man to suggest a canal 
connecting Lake Michigan with the Illinois River. The first actual 
survey was made in 1820. The first earth was turned in 1836 and the 
canal was completed in 1848. As early as 1832 Congress commenced 
to spend money on the Chicago harbor. This was fourteen years after 
the State came into the LTnion and five years before Chicago was an 
incorporated city. Peoria and some of the down State settlements 
were much more important. But adequate means of transportation, 
which has been one of the factors in our development, and one of our 
chief hobbies, was felt to be very important. 

The first railroad was called the Northern Cross and it was pro- 
jected to extend from Springfield to Meredosia in Morgan County on 
the Illinois River. It was a crude affair. The first rails were laid in 
May, 1838.* It did not prosper and in 1847 was purchased by Nicholas 
H. Ridgely, a pioneer banker of Springfield, and a man of great ability, 
energy and vision, and was opened again for business in 1849. In 1850 
the State boasted of 111 miles of railroad. This included the line be- 
tween Chicago and Elgin. In 1837 the legislature passed an act author- 

* Its first division was between Meredosia and Jaclvsonville and it was completed 
first. On November 8, 1838, the first train was run. The road was completed to 
Jacksonville on January 1, 1840. 


izing the construction of a railroad from Galena to Cairo. This road has 
been referred to frequently as the first Illinois Central. Its estimated 
cost was $3,500,000. Several other lines, the estimated cost of which 
was $14,000,000, were part of a very ambitious program. A financial 
panic swept the country about this time and hampered the State in the 
disposal of the bonds, but the commissioners who had the matter of sell- 
ing the securities in hand disposed of almost $5,000,000 worth. The 
Galena & Chicago Union Railroad was completed to a point near the 
Desplaines River, twelve miles west of Chicago, in the latter part of 
1848. In January, 1850, it was extended into Chicago, giving the 
rapidly growing lake port a direct connection with Elgin. From that 
time on Illinois railroads boomed and the State now boasts of 13,000 
miles of first line track. 

So much for natural resources and transportation. The manu- 
facturing industry of the State dates its birth from 1850. It is true 
the census shows there were some factories prior to that time and, like 
all pioneer frontier settlements, we boasted of our prowess. But the 
fact is that we did not do much until the fifties and then we began to 
jump at an average rate of thirty per cent per decade. We had to 
learn the value of our cheap coal and how to take advantage of our 
cheap raw materials. We knew so little about coal in those days that 
we burned wood on our freight engines. 

Illinois embraces much of what is known as the central fields of 
bituminous coal, covering an area of 37,000 square miles and under- 
lying sixty counties, forty-five of which mine the coal on a commercial 
scale, principally Saline, Marion, Franklin, Williamson, Sangamon, 
St. Clair, Vermilion, Macoupin and LaSalle. In some of the southern 
counties coke also is manufactured. The first coal was mined near 
Springfield in 1840, wath an output of 16,000 tons for the year. Frank 
S. Peabody in a speech recentlv stated that the Illinois coal mines pro- 
duced 90,000,000 tons in 1918.' 

Salt mining was one of the earliest of Illinois industries, being of 
more or less importance, until it became more economical to bring the 
product from IMichigan. The lead mines in the neighborhood of Ga- 
lena assisted materially in the development of the northwestern part 
of the State. 

A review of census figures of 1850 shows that the invested indus- 
trial capital was $6,385,000, that the factories were employing 11,632 
men and 433 women ; that the wages amounted to $3,286,000 and that 
the value of the product was $17,263,000. Meat packing, and plants 
devoted to the fabrication of iron and steel began to expand as the 
manufacture of agricultural implements and the grinding of grain and 
the distilling of corn into liquor had grown during the earlier period. 
Illinois, and especially the northern part of the State, was accessible 
to the inexhaustible iron and copper mines of Michigan and after the 
construction of the Illinois Central railroad and the developmeni of 
the coal. mines vast stores of fuel were available for the manufacture 
of iron and steel. The first rail mill was established in 1857 by Captain 
E. E. Ward on the north branch of the Chicago River. This plant 


is now owned by the Illinois Steel Company. The growing influence 
of the railroads was indicated in the starting of this plant. The Union 
Car Works, another Chicago enterprise, started in 1852. 

The meat packing industry had its rise, like many other industries, 
in inconsequential beginnings. It developed in a marked degree at 
Peoria and in the early sixties flourished in Chicago where the first 
packing plants were established by the Armours, Swifts, Morris' and 
later the Cudahys and others, but the business did not reach its full 
stride until the development of refrigeration in 1870, which made it 
possible to ship dressed pork, beef and mutton to all sections of the 
country as well as abroad. 

The Civil War, as did the late World's War, created an enormous 
demand for food and clothing and for other commodities and ma- 
chinery. The great advance in prices caused tremendous expansion. 
Heavy war tariffs on imported goods encouraged the development of 
manufacturing enterprises. The population grew. The production of 
grain, live stock and other necessities was greatly stimulated. More 
railroads were built and people began to flock to the cities, higher 
wages were the rule and a more expensive standard of living was very 

For some time after the Civil War there was a period of high 
prices. Later the bottom dropped out and all industrial enterprises 
went through a period of depression and readjustment. Profits vvcre 
low or absolutely wiped out. Many manufacturing plants suspended 
operations but on the whole, in spite of financial and industrial re- 
verses, some advancement was noticeable. The federal industrial 
returns for 1870 showed Illinois as making progress. The next iwenty 
years were marked by great achievements. New labor saving machines 
were invented and new power methods devised. It is stated that in 
1881 alone more than 1,000 patents were granted to the residents of 
Illinois. Machinery replaced hand labor. The natural consequence 
was a great increase in the amount of capital invested and in the volume 
of output. The $94,000,000 of invested capital in 1870 had increased 
to over $500,000,000 in 1890. More women were constantly entering 
industry. In 1850 there were only 433. In 1870 there were 6,617; in 
1914, 82,888 ; and a careful estimate would indicate that the number 
in industry in 1920 was 132,040. 

Reference has been made to the influence of the railroads on the 
industrial development of Illinois. Other public utilities have been 
quite as important, notably the telephone, interurban traction lines, the 
development of gas and electrical power. Computing machinery and 
other time-saving devices now are quite as indispensable in the general 
offices as labor-saving machinery is in the shops. 

Transportation improved greatly in this period, along with manu- 
facturing and marketing facilities. In the Lake Superior region new 
ranges were opened from which iron ore could be transported quickly 
and cheaply to the Illinois factory districts. Improved loading devices 
were developed and larger boats were employed in lake transportation. 

The manufacture of steel rails, which began in 1867, made possible 
the transportation of heavier loads. 


The iron and steel industry in Illinois dates from about the sixties. 
Originally Hardin County gave promise of an abundant supply of ore, 
but the works were soon abandoned. The Iron Mountain district of 
Missouri next furnished the ore, but since sometime in the eighties the 
Lake Superior iron ranges have supplied the greatest amount of raw 
material for iron and steel plants. 

Eber Brock Ward, bom in 181k in New Hamborough, Upper 
Canada, was a pioneer in the iron and steel industry in the State. In 
1855 he built the first iron mill west of Pittsburgh at Wyandotte, Michi- 
gan, a suburb of Detroit. Two years later, finding the need for a 
larger field, he built iron works on the north branch of the Chicago 
river and in 1872 this plant, together with one he had established at 
Milwaukee, were consolidated as the North Chicago Rolling Mill Com- 
pany. The Chicago works rolled the first steel ever made in America, 
on May 24, 1865. 

Orrin W. Potter, a native of Rochester, N. Y., where he was born 
in 1836, had much to do with the development of the State's iron and 
steel industry. He became connected in 1857 in a clerical capacity 
with the rolling mill established by Captain E. B. Ward and was chosen 
secretary and general superintendent of the works on its incorporation 
in 1865. He afterwards became its president and occupied this impor- 
tant position for twenty-five years, until the consolidation of the enter- 
prise with the Illinois Steel Company. In 1869 the mill was credited 
with manufacturing about one-third of the iron and steel produced in 
the country. 

The first furnace was built in 1868 by the Chicago Iron Company, 
and the following year or two, more were built by the North Chicago 
Rolling Mills Company. The Joliet Iron & Steel Company was estab- 
lished in 1871 and two furnaces added in 1873. Two other mills were 
established near St. Louis and three more in the region about Grand 
Tower, in 1876. Of the total output of rails in 1875 Illinois produced 
about one- fourth, ranking second to Pennsylvania. The first Bessemer 
steel in this country is said to have been rolled at the North Chicago 
Rolling Mill Company in 1874. 

The Illinois Steel Company took in many of the works mentioned, 
but there were thirteen other steel plants in Chicago and vicinity. 

One of the striking figures of the advancing days of the iron and 
steel industry in Illinois was the late John W. Gates who, as a younj 
man, sold goods behind the counter in his father's hardware store at 
Turner's Junction, now West Chicago. Young Gates sold so much 
barbed wire that he was impressed with the possibilities of that product 
and made an eloquent plea to I. L. El wood to take him into the plant 
that had developed barbed wire, as a partner. Mr. Elwood declined to 
do so. After an exceedingly successful series of trips to Texas, during 
which he sold several train loads of barbed wire, Mr. Gates interested 
some St. Louis people and started a wire plant of his own. It was the 
beginning of the American Steel & Wire Company and the Gates 

Another great manufacturer who did not start at the bottom of the 
workmen's ladder, but who, like Mr. Gates, has developed wonderful 


capacity for organization, is Judge E. H. Gary, the present chairman 
of the board of directors of the United States Steel Corporation. Mr. 
Gary was born at Wheaton, IlHnois, in 1846. He served as mayor of 
that town for three terms and county judge for two terms. Then he 
removed to Chicago and devoted himself to corporation law. He be- 
came counsel for several railroads and industrial corporations and in 
1898 retired from practice of law to become president of the Federal 
Steel Corporation, which in 1901 was merged into the United States 
Steel Corporation. He is the most prominent captain of industry in the 
country and has more influence than any other man engaged in the 
manufacturing business. 

The general tendency of large scale operation, the inevitable con- 
sequence of improved processes of manufacture, the standardization 
of machinery, better transportation facilities and the economies made 
possible by efficient management was made evident in the 1914 census 
reports. The development and employment of corporate forms of 
organization for industrial companies, the organization of stock and 
produce exchanges have been potent factors in this modern drift. 

The tendency to concentrate in fewer establishments of larger 
units has been in the interest of the public. It has made most products 
much cheaper than otherwise would have been possible. It has made 
possible the installation of expensive machinery, specialization, more 
skillful management, the utilization of by-products, as in the meat pack- 
ing, iron and steel, woodworking and paper industries. Raw material 
can be bought to greater advantage and the finished product can be 
marketed more extensively. Large investments of capital are essential 
to economical operation. 

It might be worth while to say something about the attainment of 
the State and what it has reached in the way of development, so far 
as figures are concerned. The latest statistics, so far as the census 
enumeration is concerned, are for 1914. They show an invested capital 
of $1,943,836,000 and a value of the product reaching $2,247,323,000. 
It is more than probable that the figures for 1919 will- be double those 
of 1914, at least as far as the value of the product is concerned.* 

The industrial development of Illinois has been due largely, as we 
have tried to point out to the advantage of waterways, supplemented 
by railroads and cheap fuel, together with other natural resources. The 
location of these resources had much to do with the establishment of 
the numerous industrial centers, of w^hich Chicago is only one, although 
the largest. 

Peoria ranks next to Chicago, its important manufacturing lines 
being distilling, slaughtering and packing, and agricultural implements. 
It is the home of one of the largest wire products companies in the 

Joliet has important steel and rolling mills, blast furnaces and 
manufactories of wire and coke and advertising specialties. 

East St. Louis shows the greatest groAvth of any city in the State 
in the last decade, with flour and grist mills, chemical works, slaughter- 

* Since this was written the 1919 census figures have been secured. They place 
the value of manufactured products for 1919 at $5,426,662,000. 


ing and packing and rolling mills. It is the leading manufacturing 
center in the country for aluminum products and animal feed products. 

Rockford, in the last census, ranked fifth in the value of manufac- 
tured products, but second in the number of employes, the leading 
industries being furniture, knitting mills and foundries. It is one of the 
most important centers of the furniture industry in this country. 

Moline has immense agricultural implements plants and factories 
for the manufacture of automobiles, carriages and wagons. 

Alton has one of the largest glass and bottle plants in America and 
the only brass rolling mill west of Connecticut. It is also the location 
of one of the largest cartridge factories in the country. 

Decatur is a center of car repair shops and plumbers' supplies and 
has about eighty different plants of varied industry. A great concern 
for the manufacture of flour and feed is located there. 

Springfield is famous for its production of motor car accessories, 
watches, mill work and agricultural implements. It has ninety manu- 
facturing establishments, with an output of about $14,000,000 annually. 

Aurora has extensive railroad car repair shops, foundries and a 
number of plants devoted to the manufacture of heavy machinery and 

Elgin has achieved international fame as a center of the watch- 
making industry, also for the manufacture of scientific instruments. 
It has large plants for the manufacture of condensed milk and other 
dairy products and is the world's recognized butter market. 

Belleville shares with Quincy the distinction of having made Illi- 
nois the largest center of stove manufacturing in the world. It also 
has large plants devoted to the production of hosiery, mining and agri- 
cultural implements. 

Quincy is a well located manufacturing center on the Mississippi 
River, with excellent harbor and terminal facilities. It employs over 
7,000 persons in stoves, vehicles and varied industries. 

Bloomington, located near the center of the State, possesses good 
distribution facilities. Its principal industries are agricultural equip- 
ment, railroad shops, canning, foundries, candy and printing. 

Cairo, being a center of rail and water transportation, possesses 
the advantage of competitive freight rates. It handles over 150,000,000 
feet of lumber annually. It possesses inexhaustible quantities of silica, 
kaolin and ganister, used in the production of high grade china and 
crockery. Approximately $10,000,000 is invested in its varied indus- 

Galena was for many years the center of the lead mining industry 
of the West. It has important iron works. 

Danville's proximity to cheap coal has made it a prominent manu- 
facturing point. The principal products are zinc, brick and foundry 
specialties. It also has important glass works. 

Galesburg has fifteen plants devoted to agricultural equipment, 
boilers and engines and creamery specialties. 

Kankakee has large factories devoted to trucks and trailers, motor 
cars, tile and brick, and hosier\^ Agricultural implements, metal bed- 


steads and wagons are important industries in the adjoining town of 

LaSalle is the center of great deposits of fire clay, brick clay, 
cement rock, silica sand and coal in the LaSalle-Peru-Oglesby trio of 
towns. Zinc, cement, chemicals and allied products, machine tools, 
clocks and watches, are the principal manufacturing lines. 

Rock Island is the site of the U. S. Government arsenal and, with 
Moline and Davenport, forms the great manufacturing district known 
as the Tri-Cities. 

Steger, another important manufacturing town, owes its chief im- 
portance to the location of a great plant for the manufacture of pianos 
and phonographs. 

Champaign and Urbana together form an important manufactur- 
ing district for machinery, scientific instruments, road and locomotive 
cranes, hardware and tools and foundry products. 

Sterling is the largest center in the West for the manufacture of 
builders' hardware. It also has large plants for the manufacture of 
foundr}^ products, wire and rod products, and vehicles. 

Streator is the home of one of the largest bottle factories of the 
West and is noted for its plants for the manufacture of clay products, 
brick, canned goods, freight cars and tin. 

Waukegan has large plants for the manufacture of asbestos and 
magnesia products, including packing and roofing, envelopes, wooden- 
ware specialties, steel heating boilers and tanks, wire fences and wire 
products. It has advanced rapidly within the last year as an industrial 
center. North Chicago, in the same district, has extensive plants 
devotel to the production of conveying machinery, creamery machin- 
ery, brass and bronze, electrical steel and chemical products. 

Granite City, which adjoins East St. Louis, has large scale steel, 
granite, chemical and aluminum ware operations. 

Chicago Heights represents one of the numerous manufacturing 
districts formed by plants which found advantages outside of the me- 
tropolis. It has large terra cotta works, plants for the manufacture of 
manganese steel castings, brick, machine tools, mining and crushing 
machinery, aniline dyes and sectional steel buildings. Cicero is another 
important manufacturing center in the general Chicago metropolitan 
district, and so are Maywood, Argo, Arlington Heights, Pullman, West 
Chicago, DeKalb, Harvey, Lamont, Sycamore and Woodstock, a center 
of the writing machine industry. Gary, East Chicago, Hammond and 
Indiana Harbor, although located in Indiana, also are considered in the 
Northern Illinois manufacturing district. 

Freeport's leading industries are patent medicine and pharmaceu- 
tical preparations, soaps and spices, wind mills, foundry machinery, 
automobiles, toys and machine tools. 

Metropolis is located in "Egypt" and fast becoming the industrial 
center its founders predicted. The most important industries are plan- 
ing mill products, stoves, shafts, bows and gearwoods, staves and 
headings, and fruit baskets. 


Ottawa has several plants for the manufacture of silica sand, and 
establishments of allied character producing opalescent and colored 
sheet glass and plate glass. 

Pekin has one of the largest cooperage establishments in the West 
which ships its products to all parts of the world. 

Peru is the center of an important clock industry and zinc works. 

Piano is the location of one of the most important agricultural 
plants of the State. 

Now I have given you in a cursory way a review of the manufac- 
turing industry in Illinois, its various important centers, and said 
something about its achievements. The greatest feature of all, how- 
ever, in connection with the growth of industry has been the develop- 
ment of the wonderful men who have been responsible for its growth. 
Some one has said that "a great institution is the length of a shadow 
of a great man," and I am sorry it is not possible to mention all who 
are worthy of notice in a review of this kind, but I must single out 
a few. 

Among the famous pioneers should be mentioned Cyrus H. 
McCormick, the founder of the Harvester organization bearing his 
name, and John Deere, who established the immense implement plant 
at Moline. These men started at the anvil and they came to Illinois 
because Illinois had a market for the things they had in mind. 

Mr. McCormick was a native of Virginia which in his youthful 
^ days, was a great wheat producing state. After years of contriving 
and developing Mr. McCormick produced a crude but effective reaper. 
His first factory was a blacksmith shop in which he used a flat stone 
for an anvil. In 1847 he established his first Chicago plant. The next 
year he built 500 reapers and from that output the McCormick plant 
has grown until it is now the largest farm machine producer in the 
world, making- more than half a million farm machines annually. 

John Deere made his first two plows by hand at his blacksmith 
shop in Grand Detour, Ogle County, in 1833. He gradually increased 
his output until in 1848 he made a thousand finished plows which es- 
tablished his position as the foremost manufacturer of that day. 
John Deere is said to have made the earliest all-steel plows, as con- 
trasted with the still earlier ones which were supplied with wooden 
mold boards. The steel plows would scour in the sticky Illinois soil. 

WilHam Parlin, born in Akron, Mass., in 1817, journeyed over- 
land to Canton, Illinois, in 1840. He started the little shop that made 
plows and other agricultural implements which later became famous 
the world over. In 1852 William T. Orendorff, a brother-in-law of 
Parlin, and a native of Illinois, joined the firm and the firm became 
Parlin & Orendorff in 1860, the partnership continuing for thirty 
years. Mr. Parlin was a mechanical genius, who worked at the bench 
and forge and even in later years continued to perfect and develop 
agricultural implements. He was the first to make a plow bottom en- 
tirely of steel, replacing wooden mold boards. He also put the first 
crude stalk cutter on the market, originated the disk harrow and led 
in the manufacture of the double plow. 

> 64 

George Stephens, a pioneer manufacrurer of Moline, Illinois, and 
president of the second largest steel plow factory in the world at the 
time of his death, in 1902, was a native of Pennsylvania. He came 
west in 1841 without a dollar save what he earned at his daily work. 
But he was a skillful millwright. He had erected several mills in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, and consequently was well equipped for the 
task that awaited him at Moline. The first work he did in that grow- 
ing industrial center was installing the machinery for the flour mill 
of D. B. 'Sears, afterwards remaining with the mill in charge of the 
machinery. He erected other mills and in 1859, in company with 
Jonathan Huntoon and Timothy Wood, leased a saw mill, which also 
was utilized in the manufacture of furniture. In 1865 he engaged in 
the manufacture of plows in company with R. K. Swan and Andre 
Friberg, the venture proving so successful that in 1870 it was incor- 
porated as the Moline Plow Company, with a capital of $240,000. 
This was increased as the business expanded to a capital of $18,000,000. 

Daniel M. Sechler, founder of the Sechler Carriage Company of 
Moline, Illinois, organized that company in 1887. He was born at 
Danville, Pennsylvania, in 1818, learned his trade in Newark, N. J., 
and built carriages and engaged in other manufacturing enterprises 
in Ironton and Cincinnati and in Montgomery County, Tenn., before 
removing to Moline. 

Daniel C. Stover was born in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, in 1839. 
He left home at the age of 18 years and went to California and tried 
gold mining for a time, but in 1864 he came to Illinois. After two 
years in Lenark, Carroll County, he located in Freeport, where he lived 
until his death in 1908. A corn cultivator was his first invention and a 
windmill the next. He also invented an extensive line of barbed wire 
machinery and a machine to make a woven wire mat. He was at the 
head of the Stover Manufacturing Company, organized for the pur- 
pose of producing barbed wire machines, tripple geared grinders and 

Alvah Mansur w^as another of the long line of pioneer manufac- 
turers of agricultural implements in Illinois. A native of Lowell, 
Massachusetts, where he was born in 1833, he came west and entered 
the hardware business in Moline, where he made a friend of John 
Deere and afterwards became interested with his son, Charles H. 
Deere, in the Deere & Mansur Company for the manufacture of corn 
planters and other implements, developing into the largest corn planter 
works in the world. He died in 1898. 

Robert H. Avery, one of the industrial leaders, who made Peoria 
so important a manufacturing center, and was, the founder of the 
great agricultural implement fabricating firm now known as the 
Avery Company. He was confined in Andersonville prison during 
the Civil War, when he worked out his first idea of a corn planter. A 
smooth place on the ground and a pointed stick were his drafting 
equipment. In 1874, on land he pre-empted in Kansas, he built and 
put into successful operation the first working model of the corn 
planter he had conceived while an inmate of the southern prison. In 
1877 he returned to Illinois and in co-partnership with his brother, 


C. M. Avery, started to make planters at Galesburg, in connection 
with stalk cutters and other agricultural implements. The business 
grew so rapidly that in 1882 the brother removed to Peoria, which 
attracted them by the advantage of river transportation, railroad 
facilities and a dependable labor market. In 1889 the manufacture of 
steam engines and threshing machinery was taken up. Mr. Avery and 
his brother both have passed away, but the stupendous enterprise de- 
veloped by them still thrive* and employs more than 4,000 people, 
sending its machinery to all parts of the world. 

Other men who took high rank in production more or less de- 
pendent on the farm were Phillip D. Armour, Gustavus F. Swift, 
Nelson Morris, Michael Cudahy and Samuel W. Allerton. They were 
packers of meat and they builded great fortunes. 

Philip Danforth Armour, one of the founders of the packing in- 
dustry, was a native of New York. At the age of 19 years he started 
with several companions, on foot, for the gold fields of California, but 
he was the only one who reached the coast. He remained there sev- 
eral years, digging ditches, building sluices and keeping store. Re- 
turning with a few thousand dollars in capital, he was impressed with 
the possibilities of Milwaukee, then the stopping place for gold seekers 
on their way to the mines and returning from the West. He engaged 
in the slaughtering and packing of hogs, was quite successful, and in 
the sixties came to Chicago and laid the foundation for the immense 
packing business of Armour & Company. The invention of the re- 
frigerator car which permitted the shipment of fresh meat in the 
summer months contributed greatly to the extension of the meat 
packing business. 

Gustavus Franklin Swift, who was a contemporary of Mr. Ar- 
mour and other pioneer meat packers, was born in Massachusetts, 
with his first $20 capital, loaned by his father, he started the business 
wdiich before he died was worth millions of dollars. With this capi- 
tal he bought a heifer, killed and dressed it in one of the buildings of 
his father's farm. He peddled the meat about the country and cleared 
$10. Then he went to buying and selling pigs. Soon he found his 
way to the big stock yards at Brighton, just outside of Boston, where 
his ability was recognized. He continued to peddle meat, later open- 
ing a butcher shop at Barnstable, and still later other shops in nearby 
tow^ns, finally entering into buying and selling cattle on the Boston 
market under the firm of Hathaway & Swift. 

x\s Cyrus H. McCormick had seen the future grain market in 
the West, Mr. Swift foresaw the possibilities of Illinois as a livestock 
market and 1875 found him among the cattle buyers at the Chicago 
stockyards. The family found a home in Emerald Avenue and there 
Mr. Swift continued to work among his employes for twenty-three 

Nelson Morris, another of the pioneer meat packers, was a 
native of the Black Forest section of Germany, where he was born 
in 1839. He was a self-educated vouth who came to this countrv 


when he was twelve years old, reaching Chicago in 1854 and secur- 
ing employment in the stockyards, founding several years later the 
great house that bears his name. 

Michael Cudahy, the founder of Cudahy Brothers, meat packers, 
was a native of Kilkenny, Ireland, where he was born in 1841. He 
came to the United States with his parents at the age of 8 years. 
When 14 years old he entered the Milwaukee packing house of John 
Plankinton, afterwards a partner of Philip D. Armour. Later he 
became superintendent of Plankington & Armour and in 1875 was 
admitted as a partner in the firm of Armour & Company of Chicago. 
In 1881, with his brothers John and Patrick, he established the firm of 
Cudahy Brothers. 

Peter Schuttler of the Peter Schuttler Company, in 1843 started 
to make wagons in Chicago in a one story frame building at the cor- 
ner of Franklin and Randolph Streets. The six-year old town then 
had 3838 adult citizens. The high grade of his wagons made them 
popular with the ambitious gold seekers who went to California and 
other western states in the stirring days of 1849. The Mormons used 
his wagons in their exodus to Salt Lake in 1855. In 1865 his was the 
largest and best equipped farm wagon factory in the country. Mr. 
Schuttler was a native of Germany. 

Ludwig Wolfif was born in Germany in 1836. He emigrated to 
this country with his parents at the age of 17. The first work he did 
was clearing land for a Macoupin County farmer at $2.00 a month. 
He came to Chicago with a two cent copper coin. He had learned 
copper smithing in his native Germany and found employment at that 
trade until 1855, when he formed a partnership with Terence Maguire 
and engaged in the general plumbing and coppersmithing business. 
From this modest beginning grew the great industrial enterprise now 
known as the L. Wolff Manufacturing Company. 

Dorr E. Felt, inventor of the Comptometer, was born at Beloit, 
Wisconsin, in 1862. He was educated in the public schools until he 
was sixteen when he went to work. At twenty years he was foreman 
of a rolling mill that had a daily output valued at $2,000. He learned 
the machinist's trade, became a mechanical draftsman and developed 
his inventive genius. His first Comptometer was made from a wooden 
spaghetti box, meat skewers, rubber bands and a keyboard of crudely- 
cut wooden blocks. From the beginning his knowledge of mechanics 
and his theoretical education enabled him to construct his own work- 
ing models, and even now he frequently fashions some delicate or in- 
tricate tool utilized in his great computing machinery factory. He is 
a close student of governmental and economic problems, well versed 
in geology, biblical history and political science. He took up study 
of French at age of 18 years and speaks that language fluently. 

William Worth Burson, one of the pioneer manufacturers of 
Rockford, and inventor of the Burson knitting machine, was born 
in Pennsylvania and came west with his parents who settled in Fulton 
County in 1843. His inventive genius was displayed at an early age 
in labor saving devices and machinery. His first success was achieved 
in a self-raking reaper, completed in 1858, which was the first ma- 


chine to regulate the sheaf by weight. He obtained a patent on a 
twine binder two years later. As a result of a successful demonstra- 
tion in the great reaper trial in Dixon in 1862, Mr. Burson was en- 
couraged to engage in a large scale production of the binder and 
Emerson & Company contracted to make 1,000 machines for him to 
be ready for the harvest in 1863. It was the purpose of carrying out 
this contract that Mr. Burson went to Rockford, where he remained 
until his removal to Chicago in 1881. Unforseen difficulties attended 
his first venture in manufacturing. The production and sale of the 
binders was a financial failure and the large indebtedness that ensued 
was not entirely liquidated until twenty years afterward. Undaunted, 
Mr. Burson pursued the trend of his inventive genius and developed 
a number of important harvesting inventions. His chief success, 
however, consisted in the invention of the family knitting machine. 
In this enterprise he was associated for many years with John Nelson. 
In 1869 a knitting machine part, now known as the presser hook, was 
developed and the following year the first sock knit by an automatic 
machine in Rockford was turned out. Valuable improvements were 
added from time to time until a perfect machine was developed. 
Rockford seamless hose was the pioneer in seamless hosiery and 
"Burson fashioned hosiery" became a widely known commodity in 
this and foreign lands. Altogether, Mr. Burson was granted more 
than fifty patents in the United States and foreign countries on grain 
binders, harvesters, automatic knitting machine and other improved 
machinery of various kinds. He died in 1913. 

John Nelson, who was one of the founders of the great knitting 
industry in Rockford, was born in Sweden in 1830. He became a 
spinning wheel maker in his native land and was engaged in that trade 
until he emigrated at the age of 22 years. His association with Wil- 
liam W. Burson proved not only profitable for both, but of great ad- 
vantage to Rockford and industry in general. He died in 1883. 

P. A. Peterson, who has contributed so much to the industrial 
development of Rockford, was born in Sweden in 1846. He came to 
this country in 1852 and located four years later in Winnebago county, 
engaging in farming. He entered the furniture manufacturing indus- 
try in Rockford in 1875, and was one of the founders of the Union 
Furniture Company the following year. He has been called the 
"father of the furniture industry" in Illinois. 

Edward C. Hegeler, a leading zinc manufacturer and publisher 
of scientific periodicals of LaSalle, Illinois, for many years, was a 
native of Bremen, Germany. In his education he specialized in min- 
ing and mechanical engineering in one of the best German institutions. 
In 1857, at the age of twenty-two, he started for America in com- 
pany with Frederick W. Matthiessen, a friend and fellow student, who 
also was to become one of the leading manufacturers of Illinois. To- 
gether they journeyed to LaSalle where they ultimately developed the 
largest zinc works in the world. These two German students were 
the pioneers in the zinc industry in this country, where the smelting 
of zinc had been unknown until their arrival. LaSalle was selected as 


the location for the industry in consequence of the large available 
supply of coal underlying the earth's surface there, for it require 
three tons of coal to smelt one ton of zinc. 

Mr. Matthiessen did much to develop the Western Clock Com- 
pany at LaSalle, one of the greatest enterprises of its kind in the 
United States. 

Richard Teller Crane, founder of the Crane Company, came of 
New England stock. Born at Passaic Falls, N. J., 1832, he became 
cotton mill operative at age of 9 years. He died in 1912, for more 
than seventy years a toiler and producer. He worked for a time in 
a tobacco factory, but in 1847 an uncle found a chance for him to learn 
the brass and bell foundry and brass finishing business with a firm in 
Boston. He received $2.50 a week during the first year of his appren- 
ticeship. Later he worked in printing press works in lower New 
York, becoming a first class machinist. He came to Chicago in 1855 
where his uncle, Martin Ryerson, gave him permission to build a brass 
foundry in his lumber yard, corner Canal and Fulton Streets. From 
this small beginning came the Crane Com^pany, which today manu- 
factures probably 18,000 different articles for use in connection with 
steam, water, gas and air. 

John Crerar, founder of the Crerar Library, in Chicago, where 
he died in 1889, left a $2,500,000 endowment fund for that institution. 
Born in New York, 1827, at the age of 18 he became connected in a 
business way with William Boyd, who married his widowed mother 
and was American representative of an English firm, William Jessup 
& Sons, extensively engaged in the steel business. Afterwards he 
became connected with Morris K. Jessup & Company. In 1862, with 
J. McGregor Adams, he bought the Chicago branch of Jessup & Com- 
pany and the firm of Crerar, Adams & Company, dealers in railway 
supplies, was established. He was also largely interested in the house 
of Adams & Westlake and was one of the original incorporators of the 
Pullman Palace Car Company. He was one of the directors of the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad and at one time of the Chicago & Joliet 

Philetus Woodworth Gates, who was born in Fenner, New York, 
1817, and died in Chicago in 1888, was a nestor in the machine busi- 
ness in the middle and western states and it is probable that there are 
more large concerns in existence today which sprang from: his com- 
panies than from any other large corporation in this part of the coun- 
try. At the age of fifteen he was bound as apprentice to a blacksmith 
at Bristol Center, New York. After working for a time in that and 
other places in the east and also in St. Louis, he started for Chicago, 
but stopped at "Yankee Settlement", about twenty-five miles south- 
west of Chicago on the Illinois-Michigan Canal, in the neighborhood 
of what is now known as the "Sag". He found employment on a 
farm, and married there. In 1840 he and his father-in-law took a con- 
tract on a sub-section of the canal, but depreciation in the scrip in 
which they were paid left them financially bankrupt and heavily m 
debt. In 1842, with $3 in money and a horse which he sold for $7, 


Mr. Gates went to Chicago accompanied by his family and the family 
of his father-in-law. One thousand feet of lumber was bought on 
credit, for wdiich they paid an interest rate of 4 per ceiit a month. 
This lumber the men carried on their backs to a point on the Chicago 
River and erected a blacksmith shop and foundry. The firm pros- 
pered, several dififerent partners entering it with Mr. Gates, although 
they afterwards disposed of their interests on profitable terms. Car 
building was added to the manufacturing lines, after Andrew Fraser, 
E. S. Warner and Thomas Chalmers became connected with the 
house. Mr. Gates made many valuable inventions, one being the 
conical die for the continuous cutting of threads, which patent covers 
the principle in all dies which have since been manufactured for the 
continuous cutting of threads. He also made many of the improve- 
ments which finally resulted in the Gates rock breaker, now the 
standard gyratory rock crusher of the world. 

Eliphalet Wickes Blatchford was born at Stillwater, New York, 
1826. He was very young when his father, who was the first man 
to be ordained a minister of the gospel in Chicago, came to Illinois. 
He was graduated from Illinois college at Jacksonville in 1845. Five 
years later he went to St. Louis and engaged in the lead and metal 
business, also extensively in oils. He came to Chicago and founded 
E. W. Blatchford Company in 1854. For forty years he was at the head 
of the Chicago Theological Seminary. He was one of the directors of 
the Crerar Library and did much enthusiastic work in the interest of 
the Chicago Manual Training School. 

Robert Fergus, w^ho printed the first book in Chicago, a city 
directory in 1843, came to Illinois in an old side-wheeler from i\Iil- 
waukee in 1839. On the vessel that brought him to Chicago was 
Edward H. Rudd, with material for the first job printing office that 
was established in a city that now numbers them by thousands. In 
1842, with his partner, William Ellis, Mr. Fergus started Quid Nunc, 
the first 1-cent daily west of the Alleghenies. 

Morris Selz began the manufacture of shoes in 1871 in Chicago. 
He was a native of Neiderstetten, Wurttemberg, Germany. When he 
landed in New York in the early forties his entire capital consisted of 
seventy-five cents. He traveled with a pack on his back through Con- 
necticut, went to Georgia as soon as he made enough money to buy 
a horse and wagon, learned the English language, and advanced in 
business success. In 1849 he went to California and there, chiefly 
as storekeeper, amassed $20,000 and came to Illinois to go into busi- 
ness. At first he entered the clothing business, but his ambitions 
always were in the direction of production, and these were fulfilled 
when he began the manufacture of shoes on a large scale. From a 
small factory, at first employing not more than 100 men, the enter- 
prise grew until it now has a dozen large plants employing thousands 
of workers, sending its product all over this country and the world. 
When he died in 1913 he left $150,000 to the workers who had helped 
him achieve success. 


Patrick Joseph Healy, who founded the music house in Chicago 
that bears his name, was born on a farm near Bufort County, Cork, 
Ireland, in 1840, and died in 1905. He was 10 years old when the^ 
family removed to Boston. Through the influence of a music teacher, 
whose organ he blowed, young Healy found work when he was 14 
years old in a music store. The firm he was working for, Oliver Dit- 
son and John C. Haynes, sent Mr. Healy to Chicago in 1864 to revive 
their trade which had reached a critical situation. Later he and a 
fellow clerk, Mr. Lyon, started the music house that became famous, 
both before and after the Chicago fire. They were the first to sell the 
upright piano in Chicago, just before the fire. Mr. Lvon withdrew 
from the firm in 1889. 

Ambrose Plamondon was born in Quebec in 1833 and died in 
1896. He settled in Oswego, New York, and learned the millwright 
trade. Came west in 1856, superintended the erection of the Ottawa 
Starch works, subsequently building several flour mills in western 
states. In 1859 he started a small plant with a Mr. Palmer in a build- 
ing on West Water Street, Chicago. He did millwright work at first 
for flour mills and grain elevators, afterwards adding the manufacture 
of pulleys, gearing and shafting. He developed machinery for a new 
system of malting houses. 

George Mortimer Pullman, who more than any one man has con- 
tributed to the traveling comfort of the public, built his first two 
"palace cars" in a small shop on the west side of the present Union 
Station in Chicago. From this small beginning the Pullman Palace 
Car Company, later changed to the Pullman Company, advanced 
steadily to its place among the large industries of the United States. 
Plants were established at Detroit, in New York State and Pennsyl- 
vania, St. Louis and Delaware. It was not until 1880 that the model 
plant near the Calumet, fourteen miles south of Chicago, was estab- 

Mr. Pullman was at least seventy-five years ahead of his time 
and his vision was blinded by the people of Illinois. He erected in 
the state an ideal work-shop and a model home town for the men of 
his plant. The State of Illinois, through its courts, recognized that 
he had the right to build stables for his horses, but not the right to 
build homes for his men, and it was judicially decreed that the model 
town of Pullman should be dismantled. The judgment of the court 
was carried out, and not one reformer or one citizen, so far as we 
know, ever protested. 

Among the other manufacturers who built up the state were men 
like Jacob and John W. Bunn, who started the watch-making industry 
in Springfield ; George W. Brown, who in 1878 had what was said 
to be the world's largest corn planter works, in Galesburg; A. S. 
Cole, a pioneer flour manufacturer and distiller of Peoria ; John Ham- 
lin and John Sharp who had a large flour mill running on Red Bud 
Creek near Peoria as early as 1830 ; Jonas Clybourn and his son 
Archibald, who had a slaughter house on the north branch of the 
Chicago River, as far back as 1823, and began to furnish the settle- 
ment with meat; Frederick Weyerhaeuser, a native of Germany, 


who removed to Illinois in 1856, and was shrewd enough to perceive 
the possibilities of the lumber trade and as the head of the lumber 
company bearing his name became internationally known as the 
"lumber king". 

There were scores of others. Many of the sons, nephews and 
other kinsmen of the pioneers who contributed so largely to the indus- 
trial growth of Illinois are conducting the enterprises started by their 

The problems of business have increased with the extension of 
industrial enterprises and the present generation has not lost the grit, 
and the progressive spirit of the early days. All the large packing en- 
terprises continue to be operated by the families who founded them. 
T. E. Wilson, president of the institute of American Meat Packers, 
is one of the new generation. John A. Spoor, who has had so much 
to do with building up the Chicago Union Stock Yards and the surface 
transportation system of the city, as well as the great manufacturing 
district west of the Stock Yards, also belongs to a later generation. 
The large agricultural implement houses have developed new indus- 
trial talents, and there, too, the spirit of the founders still is vigorous 
and ambitious. A new generation of iron and steel fabricators has 
made modern history. 

There are many others worthy of mention in this paper who 
must be passed over, but in closing I want to again bring attention 
to the greatest captain of industry of the age, Elbert H. Gary, the 
head of the U. S. Steel Corporation, and in doing so I want to empha- 
size the fact that Judge Gary is only one of many men produced in 
Illinois who are now managing great industries in other states. 

Twenty-eight years ago a group of manufacturers, headed by 
W. B. Conkey, feeling the necessity of united action on the part of 
those producing goods, organized the Illinois Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion. It was the first group of its kind in America. The first board of 
directors was composed of W. B. Conkey, Joseph E. Tilt, Charles F. 
Wolfif, Percival B. Palmer and W. F. Holden. Its record for activity 
and accomplishment surpasses that of any organization of a similar 
character in the world. Its influence is unlimited and the sun never 
sets on its trail. It has developed a public-spirited set of men such as 
no other organization has brought forth and has been the example 
which other organizations in every industrial state in the union have 
followed. Its purpose is to stand for the best ; its object — the general 
good of the manufacturing industry in Illinois, as well as the public. 

The manufacturing industry in Illinois has been encouraged, 
fostered, and put upon a high plane by the Illinois Manufacurers' 
Association. Progressive measures in state and federal legislation 
have been supported, such as improved working conditions in the 
factories and workshops, compensation for injured workers, better 
transportation facilities, including improved highways and Avaterways. 
Legislative measures which would have had the effect of shackling 
industry, restricting its operation to the detrinfient of employes and 
the public, as well as to the manufacturers themselves, vigorously and 
successfully have been opposed. 


The Association has taken a leading position in the development 
of foreign trade. It has cooperated with the railroads. It has opposed 
dishonest practices in industry. It has always been in the front line 
of public enterprise. 

During the World War two former presidents of the association 
served respectively as chairman of the United States Shipping Board 
and director of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Other members 
were prominent officials of the National Counsel for Defense, the 
Fuel Commission, the Food Commission, War Trade Board and other 
vital governmental agencies. Member firms were represented in 
'much of the detailed work involved in the peace treaty. A special 
bureau of the association did effective service in securing millions of 
dollars worth of war contracts for Illinois. During the readjustment 
period following the war the association took an active part, among 
other things including "Our Country First" conference, lasting two 
days and attended by prominent business men from all parts of the 

William B. Conkey was the first president of the association, 
directing its affairs from 1894 to 1899. He was succeeded by the late 
Charles A. Plamondon, who, with Mrs. Plamondon, was one of the 
victims of the Lusitania, torpedoed during the war. Others who have 
served as president are : 

Martin B. Madden, Charles H. Deere, B. A. Eckhart, John H. 
Pierce, John E. Wilder, U. G. Orendorff, C. H. Smith, Fred. W. 
Upham, LaVerne W. Noyes, P. A. Peterson, Charles Piez, H. G. 
Herget. Edward N. Hurley, S. M. Hastings, William Butterworth, 
Dorr E. Felt, William Nelson Pelouze and the present incumbent, 
George R. Meyercord. 

The men who have served as counsel for the association have 
contributed much to its influence and success — Levy Mayer, William 
Duff Haynie, and Colin C. H. Fyffe. 

The Illinois Manufacturers' Association, in common with all 
progressive citizens, wants to see industry flourish and grow until 
Illinois stands first among the industrial states. 



United States Census Figures for Illinois and Thirty-two of its Cities 

Sixteen Illinois cities with between 10,000 and 25,000 inhabitants, 
and the same number of 25,000 and above, showed a large increase 
in their manufacturing population between 1914 and 1919. More than 
two years are required in calculating totals, hence the United States 
census figures for the latter year have become available only recently. 
Joliet showed the largest percentages of increase, 123.2, among the 
cities of 25,000 and over. In 1914 there were 5,922 people employed 
in Joliet factories and in 1919 there were 13,215. These figures in- 
clude the officers as well as factory employes. Among cities of be- 
tween 10,000 and 25,000 the greatest percentage of increase was made 
by Centralia, 261.5 per cent. The manufacturing population of Cen- 
tralia increased from 309 to 1,117. The greatest numerical increase 
was noted at Chicago Heights. There the manufacturing population 
rose from 5.018 to 6,621, or 31.9 per cent. 

Census figures for 31 cities follow: 



Aurora 36,397 

Bloomington 28,725 

Chicago 2,701,705 

Danville 33,776 

Decatur 43,818 

East St. Louis 66,767 

Elgin 27,454 

Evanston 37,234 

Joliet 38,442 

Moline 30,734 

Oak Park 39,858 

Peoria 76,121 

Quincy 35,978 

Rock Island 35,177 

Rockford 65,651 

Springfield 59,183 


Alton 24,682 

Belleville 24,823 

Cairo 15,203 

Canton 10,928 

Persons engaged Per 
in manufacturing, cent of 

























































in manufacturing. 

cent of 

















Persons engaged Per 

in manufacturing, cent of 

Population. 1914. 1919. increase. 

Centralia 12,491 309 1,117 261.5 

Champaign 15,873 549 504 —8.2 

Chicago Heights 19,653 5,018 6,621 31.9 

Freeport 19,669 3,013 3,772 25.2 

Galesburg 23,834 1,672 2,620 56.7 

Granite 14,757 5,698 6,220 56.7 

Jacksonville 15,713 1,162 1,307 12.5 

Kankakee 16,753 1,574 2,151 36.7 

Kewanee 16,026 3,261 4,546 39.4 

LaSalle 13,050 1,311 2,015 53.7 

Lincoln 11,882 327 279 —14.7 

Mattoon 13,552 889 1,342 51.0 

Pekin 12,086 860 1,069 24.3 

Streator 14,779 1,908 1,516 ..20.5 

Waukegan 19,226 2,744 3,071 11.9 

Slaughtering and meat packing, an industry in which Illinois leads 
the world, in the last census again tops the list as the largest manu- 
facturing industry in the United States, considered from the stand- 
point of value of output, as it has done during the last three census 
periods. In 1909 the value of this output was one and one-third bil- 
lion dollars; in 1914 almost one and one-half billion dollars; in 1919, 

The number of people employed in manufacturing in the entire 
State of Illinois increased 30.3 per cent from 1914 to 1919, or from 
617,927 to 805,008. 


WEST TERRITORY 1787-1803. 

By Chester J. Attig, Noethwesteen College, Napeeville, Illinois. 

At the close of the American Revolution the United States gov- 
ernment, through the treaty of 1783 and the cession of their Western 
Lands by the original states, came into possession of a large tract of 
land east of the Mississippi River. It was the first of a number of 
such tracts which were finally to make the Pacific Ocean our Western 
boundary. The story of the occupation and settlement of these lands 
constitutes a large part of our history as a nation — viewed from one 
angle our history is the story of colonization. The states of the Union 
assume the role of the mother country, sending colonists to the new 
and unsettled country of the west. These new communities develop, 
become states, and in turn send out other colonists to regions still 
farther west. And thus the process is repeated until the whole coun- 
try has become settled and organized as states of the Union. The 
organization of the Northwest territory as the beginning of this 
movement under the Federal Government is therefore of special in- 
terest and importance.^ 

No sooner were the land cessions completed than the Continental 
Congress began to wrestle with the problem of the government of 
this western territory. On April 23, 1784, they passed an ordinance 
providing for the division of the territory into districts which might 
be admitted as states when they reached a population of 20,000 free 
inhabitants. This was followed in 1785 by the famous land ordinance 
which committed us to the rectangular system of survey. But in spite 
of legislation there was scarcely anything in the territory north of 
the Ohio worthy of the name of law or government. The population 
was so far adrift that they did not know to whom they were respon- 
sible. Open anarchy prevailed. The people were too poor to provide 
an expensive government of their own. In an effort to get a show 
of authority for the little government which they did have, they 
petitioned the legislature of Kentucky, Feb. 5, 1787, to confirm their 
appointment of thirteen Frenchmen and two Americans as judges 
and magistrates. But even while they were doing this they found 
themselves at the mercy of lawless elements who said that they came 
from Kentucky, but who brought in liquor and sold it to the Indians, 

^ Both the settler in the West and the Federal Government in the Bast were con- 
sciously aware of this colonial relationship while it was tailing place. In the west the 
terms "'colony" and "mother states" were used frequently, and the leading men openly 
testified to their gratitude for the "paternal care" which the Federal Government 
"exercised over the colony." Western Spy, Sept. 30, 1799 : . The relationship was in 
fact not new at all, for it had been observed in the colonies farther to the East even 
in the days before the Revolution. 


thus jeopardizing the Hves and property of the inhabitants still 

Quite discouraged, many of the better citizens were removing to 
the Spanish side of the Mississippi, where the inducements held out 
were by no means unattractive. This left an element living in some 
of these places, like Kaskaskia, that was so lawless that even some of 
the officials refused to live there any longer and moved with their 
families to Cahokia.'' These were the days when unscrupulous men 
were making capital out of the necessities of widows and orphans, 
when neither life nor property was secure, when evil counsels pre- 
vailed on every side and even the troops which existed had been ille- 
gally raised and instead of proving a protection were actually a men- 
ace to rights and property.'* 

It was to meet such a situation as this that Congress on July 13, 
1787, passed the famous ordinance organizing the Northwest Terri- 
tory. The chief authority rested with the governor and the judges 
who were to be appointed by Congress. The governor was to reside 
within the territory and was to be the owner of at least one thousand 
acres of land. It was intended that the judges should act together 
with the governor in selecting laws from the old states for the use of 
the territory as well as in dealing out justice in the new territory. 
But when it was not possible for all of them to be present, any two 
of them constituted a court. ^ Besides the governor and judges there 
was the secretary who in the course of time was to exercise "all the 
powers and perform all of the duties of the governor in the absence 
occasioned by his removal, resignation or necessary absence of the 
said governor".*^ Then there were officials who acted as agents for 
the federal government among the Indians and others whose duty 
it was to survey and superintend the sale of public lands. 

Now the territory into which these officials were coming was one 
in which anarchy had prevailed, one in which there were neither laws 
nor court-houses. There had not been a single county erected to take 
care of the local government. On every hand there were the hostile 
Indians with whom it was imperative that terms should be made at 
once. All of these conditions in fact, called for immediate solution, 
but the obstacles and difficulties which confronted the governor and 
judges could not but result in delays and inefficiency. In the first 
place there were obstacles arising from the physical characteristics 
of the territory. Lack of roads and poor means of communication 

= L. C. MSS., Papers of the Continental Congress 48 : 111. They suggest that 
authorities in Kentucl^y should give passes to the people who leave them and come 
across the Ohio. They thought that if this were done they could the better determine 
whom they were to tmist. 

' Gabuniere to Congress, July 17, 1786, L. C. MSS., Papers of the Continental 
Congress 48 :9 ; Kasliaskia Records : 510. 

* L. C. MSS., Papers of the Continental Congress 48 :4 ; Boggess, Settlement of 
Illinois: 50-53. 

» Chase, Statutes of Ohio I :19. 

« U. S. Statutes at Large I :50. Often in the history of the territory was the 
secretary called on to exercise the duties of the Governor when the latter was no 
farther away than Kentucky, and he did not hesitate to make full use of his powers, 
even to the extent of laying out new counties, and erecting ferries over the Ohio. 
Archives, Bureau of Rolls and Library, Papers and Records of the Territories, II; L. C. 
MSS., Northwest Territory. 


made it next to impossible to get anything- done, e. g., when the gover- 
nor arrived in the territory he entered into negotiations with the Indi- 
ans at once. From the very nature of the case a great deal of time 
would have to elapse before he could get any returns. In the mean- 
time, however, he could not go to the Mississippi settlements, no 
matter how much they needed him in the anarchy which there pre- 
vailed, because in his absence those Indians for whom he had sent 
might arrive, and the whole of the Indian negotiations would be set 
at naught.^ 

All through the territorial period the immense distances that had 
to be traversed through the trackless forests added dangers and delays 
to the duties of the officers, and the appropriation of Congress for 
the governor's salary was, under these circumstances, quite inade- 
quate to meet the expense of travel, house rent, etc. The territory 
was 1500 miles in extent from southeast to northwest and the actual 
distance traversed by the judges in holding court in the settlements 
most remote from each other was 1300 miles. Taking into account 
the native trackless wilderness it is not surprising to find that justice 
was uncertain and that terms of court were held at long and uncertain 
intervals. All of this, of course, only added to the difficulties of ad- 
ministration, because the uncertainty of the courts made the people 
lose respect for the law and the government.^ 

The second class of difficulties arose from the character of the 
people themselves. The western settler as a rule was brave and 
courageous as well as adventurous. He came west in spite of the 
fury of the Indians or the hardship of the journey through the wilder- 
ness. It is true as was stated in Congress in 1789, that "forming 
settlements in the wilderness between the savages and the least pop- 
ulated of the civilized parts of the United Sates (required) men of 
enterprising, violent, nay, discontented and turbulent spirit ; such 
always are our first settlers in the ruthless and savage wild"." Set- 
tlers generally came west with the ambition expressed by Parsons in 
1788: "to place my family in easy circumstances". ^° Many of them 
were single young men. In spite of the signs which pointed to early 
Indian hostilities, they pushed right into the Indian country in 1790, 
although men like Putnam pronounced it risky and imprudent." They 
were not merely adventurous either, they seemed to be naturallv rest- 
less. Many of them settled here and there, but nowhere seemed to be 
a permanent abiding place for them. 

People of such characteristics were attracted by the wild country, 
the mild climate and the fertile soil and were determined to make it 

' St. Clair Papers II :86-87. 

8 It was reported March 3, 1800. that a certain law of March 3, 1791, granting 
land to certain individuals in the western part of the territory and directing the laying 
out of the same remained unenforced, and great discontent had resulted on the part 
of those concerned. All of this happened because the conditions in the territory Im- 
posed almost insuperable difficulties to the exercise of the function of government. 
Senate Files, Dec. 5, 1792 ; Bureau of Indexes and Archives, Domestic Letters 10 :210 ; 
Messages and Reports of Congress, 1799-1801 : 219-220 ; American State Papers, Public 
Lands I :206. 

"Benton, Abridgement 1:114; Kaskaskia Records: 445-446. 

1" Hall, Life and Letters of Samuel H. Parsons: 521. 

" Howe, Ohio Historical Collections II :309. 


their own, as many a traveler testified, but they did not Hke restraint 
of any kind. MiHtary rule such as that which became necessary in 
the days of Wayne's expedition, made them discontented. Insubor- 
dination was common in the militia. The westerner was far too much 
of an individualist to train well as a soldier. He did not obey orders 
of vigilance enough to. prevent horses from passing through the lines 
of the army at night. As Captain Doyle testified at the inquiry in 
Harmar's trial in 1790, "the Kentucky militia showed great signs of 

But if the settler sometimes showed signs of insubordination he 
made up for his short-coming in that particular by his alertness, which 
was almost equal to that of the Indian. The situation in which he 
found himself, his very isolation, forced him to stand on his own feet, 
taught him self-reliance ; but that frequently developed into an ex- 
treme form of individualism. It is not strange that the man who 
would come into the new country with nothing but his ax to rely 
upon for support and future success, should prefer to stand on his 
own feet in matters of government and social usage. Newspaper 
editorials deploring the fact that we constantly imitate Europe and 
borrow half our vices in that way are very well in keeping with the 
spirit of the West in this respect. "To imbibe their vicious principles 
and imitate their licentious manners is to betray our country," says the 
Northwest Centinel.^^ The western settler, therefore, generally did 
as he pleased and asked no questions. He carried out this idea in his 
relations with the Indians as well. Murders and robberies of the 
Indians by irresponsible whites brought great danger on innocent set- 
tlers, but that did not deter the men who had a private grudge to 
work ofif. In fact, this individualism even led to the organization of 
private expeditions against the Indians.^* 

If the frontier had the tendency to develop this sort of individual- 
ism, it also had the power to attract an element which was more than 
individualistic; it was the lawless, licentious and criminal element 
which had been rejected and driven out of the Eastern States.^^ It 
seemed but a matter of course for such a settler to set himself up as a 
'judge to decide how much of the law he should obey. Thus careless 
individuals set fire to the leaves in the forest and thereby endangered 
the property of many settlers. Others refused outright to obey the 
law forbidding the sale of liquor to soldiers." Then there were people 
who could not understand why they should give up the pleasure of 
shooting at mark within the limits of a town, because at sometime an 

" Draper Collection, G. R. Clark MSS. 40 :38-39 ; Frontier Wars MSS. IV :28, 64. 

" Northwest Centlnel, May 14, 1796 : 4 ; Old Northwest Genealogical Quarterly 
IV :3. 

" St. Clair Papers II :26 ; Philadelphia General Advertiser, Nov. 26, 1792 ; Howe : 
Historical Collections II :495 ; American State Papers, Indian Affairs 1 :166, 241. 

" Sargent to Symmes, Jan. 13, 1793, Archives, Bureau of Rolls and Library, 
Papers and Records of the Territories II ; Northwest Centlnel, Sept. 12, 1795 : 4. 

" One man in Detroit in 1800 said that he considered that he had a right to sell 
liquor to whomsoever, whensoever and wheresoever he pleased. Burton Collection, 
Sibley Papers, 912-913 :17. 


alarm for Indian attack might be mistaken for mere harmless shooting- 
for pleasure.^' Others considered it as perfectly within their rights 
to make all sorts of unnecessary noise and commotion near the court 
house to the inconvenience of the court, and still others were opposed 
to all internal revenue as a needless interference with liberty.^^ We 
may also cite instances of lawless disturbances perpetrated by some 
of the better class of citizens under the guise of Christmas celebra- 
tions. In Detroit in 1788 Patrick McNiff undertook to perform a 
marriage ceremony for a man and woman when he had absolutely no 
legal right to do so.^'* 

The audacity of this rampant individuaHsm is difficult to picture 
in all of its details, but it certainly had a tendency to complicate the 
problem of government. 

A third difficulty arose in connection with the interpretation of 
the powers given the governor and judges under the ordinance. That 
instrument stated that "the governor and judges or a majority of them 
shall adopt and publish" laws taken from the original states. The 
judges at one time wanted to interpret this as meaning a majority of 
the whole number including the governor. But this would mean that 
the judges could pass laws over the head of the governor. Naturally 
St. Clair objected to this interpretation. He said that in that case 
"the judges would be complete legislators, which is the very definition 
of tyranny ".2° Neither did the governor and judges agree altogether 
on the extent of their powers in actually initiating legislation. The 
judges seemed to think that they would be within their powers if 
they were to adopt laws as long as they were not repugnant to the 
laws of the older states, but Congress did not think so. When the 
laws were referred to a committee of Congress in 1794, the Commit- 
tee reported that "there is one objection which appHes to all of these 
laws which affords sufficient reason for disapproving of all of them". 
The power given to the governor and judges, they said, was merely 
to copy laws from the states, but "these laws seem to have been 
passed by the governor and judges on the idea that they possessed 
generally the legislative power and have not either in the whole or in 
part been adopted from the original states". They therefore advised 
that the laws be disapproved by Congress, thus making it necessary 
for the governor and judges to adopt other laws.^^ 

Now what was actually accomplished under these circumstances? 
The first legislative enactments came along the line of the greatest 
need, and the needs which seemed most insistent were proper defence 
against the Indians, and an adequate code to defend the lives and 
property of the inhabitants against the lawless elements which natur- 
ally drifted to the frontier. To meet the first need we have a law 

" Proclamation of Wlnthrop Sargent, March 26, 1792, Archives, Bureau of Rolls 
and Library, Papers and Records of the Territories II. 

18 Reynolds, Pioneer History of Illinois : 149 ; Burton Collection, Sibley Papers, 
113 : 3. 

" Burton Collection, Sibley Papers, 919 : 2. 

=° Archives, Bureau of Rolls and Library, Papers and Records of the Territories II; 
Chase, Statutes of Ohio I : 19. 

1 American State Papers, Miscellaneous 1 : 82. 


calling for universal military service of all men between the ages of 
16 and 60.^^ They were required to keep a certain minimum equip- 
ment of arms and ammunition on hand at all times and to report at 
drill at certain stated intervals set by the commanding officer. In ad- 
dition, every man was to have his house in a state of defense. 

As for the criminal code, a very elaborate system of law covering 
this point was adopted by the governor and judges in the first year 
of the territorial government. According to the code of 1788, there 
were listed 29 crimes ranging from treason and murder to improper 
language and Sabbath-breaking. Three of these crimes were punish- 
able by death and confiscation of property, four were punishable by 
death without the specification that the property of the criminal should 
be confiscated. There were twelve crimes mentioned which were 
punishable by whipping. Among them were arson, burglary, burglary 
with theft, robbery, obstructing authority, both first and second of- 
fences, perjury and subordination of perjury, which were all punish- 
able by the traditional forty stripes less one ; while larceny and receiv- 
ing stolen goods were punishable by 31 stripes. The lowest number of 
lashes mentioned was ten, which were administered in the case of dis- 
obedient children and servants. Five crimes, viz., arson, robbery, 
perjury subordination of perjury, and forgery were punishable by 
two hours in the pillory. Seven crimes were punishable by imprison- 
ment, among them, disobedience of children and servants. Six crimes, 
burglary, burglary with theft, robbery, riots, obstruction of authority, 
and assault and battery might entail the giving of bonds for good be- 
havior in the future. The period during which the bonds would be 
effective was all the way from six months to ten years. If a man 
were guilty of perjury or subordination of perjury, he might be de- 
prived of the right to hold office. On the second offense of larceny, 
a man might be bound out seven years as a laborer. In the absense 
of penitentiaries this was probably as effective a punishment as could 
be meted out, and in view of the opportunities which on every had 
surrounded the man who worked on his own initiative, it was prob- 
ably as severe a punishment as could be administered.-^ 

Another group of laws may be classed under the general heading 
of moral legislation. Most of these laws appear in the legislation of 
the first territorial legislature in 1799. They deal with such subjects 
as drunkenness, Sabbath observance, the use of obscene and profane 
language, fighting in which maiming or disfiguring of the body might 
result, cock-fighting, betting and gambling, dice, biUiards, shuffle- 
boards and the like."'^ There was no definite law against lottery, but 
when a request came from the people of Detroit for a lottery to build a 
protestant church and repair a catholic church, the legislature did not 
allow it. Thus did the legislature early take a definite stand against 
the practices that would be demoralizing and ruinous in their effect on 
the people. 

» Chase, Statutes of Ohio, I : 92. 
M Chase, Statutes of Ohio; I: 98-101. 
-* Chase, Statutes of Ohio I : 228-229. 


We also find a body of legislation that might be termed social 
legislation. It has to do with the regulation of charities and kindred 
subjects. The poor and the dependents of the community became a 
subject of legislation quite early in the history of the Territory. As 
early as Nov. 6, 1790, a law was passed providing for the appointment 
of overseers of the poor. In each county the justices were to appoint 
annually one or more overseers of the poor in each township of the 
county. They were not only to concern themselves about the paupers 
of whom there were probably few, but more particularly about the fam- 
ilies suffering from sickness, accident or any misfortune or inability 
which might render them proper objects of public charity. ^'^ Widows 
and orphans were especially mentioned as persons deserving attention, 
but any who had relatives who could support them were not to be 
accepted as objects of charity, it being decreed that they should be 
taken care of by their relatives, who were required by law to assume 
responsibility under penalty of a fine. 

According to the law of Dec. 19, 1799, the poor were to be 
farmed out. At a given time an auction would be set and men would 
bid on the poor. The man who bid the the lowest, i. e., the man who 
would agree to assume responsibility for the care and nourishment of 
the poor at the lowest expense to the community, would be allowed to 
take charge of said poor persons. Of course, they were to act as his 
servants in such capacity as they could. In order that the poor should 
not be reduced to slavery by this method, they were allowed to make 
complaint to the overseer of the poor. Besides these laws concerning 
the care of the poor, the widows and the orphans, there were laws 
governing the appointment of guardians for those who inherited 
property.-*^ Another group of unfortunates were idiots and lunatics, 
who were entrusted by the law of Jan. 4, 1802, into the care of the 
overseer of the poor, who were to take the property of such persons 
in charge and keep it safe for them subject to the direction of the 
probate court. 

An inquiry into the organization of the system of courts, which 
included the court of Justice of the Peace, the Court of Common 
Pleas, the Orphans Court, the Probate Court, the General Court of 
Quarter Sessions, the Circuit Court, and the Superior Court, cannot 
be undertaken within the limits of this paper, but a brief survey of the 
difficulties that had to be met in establishing them and their consequent 
course of development may quite properly be undertaken. 

When Governor St. Clair came into the territory in 1788 there 
were but the merest rudiments of justice as expressed in the local 
courts of the French settlements. The whole system of courts which 
we have mentioned had still to be instituted. Judges and justices had 
still to be appointed from among the citizens who had the best repu- 
tation for common sense and fair play. All of this took time and 
there was bound to be some delay in getting the courts established. 

-> Chase, Statutes of Ohio 1 :108. 

2«The best examples of the operation of this law are to be found in the St. Clair 
County Records at Belleville, 111. 


The governor and those who, with him, were responsible for the gov- 
ernment of the territory had to be ready for ahiiost any emergency, 
even the death of one of their associates. Judge Varnum, in the first 
year of the settlement at Marietta. ^^ 

The difficulties of organization were only increased by the extent 
of the territory. Until there should be a greater population in the 
territory, the counties perforce were large, and justice unwieldy. 
Probably a most extreme case is that of a suit at Cahokia involving 
the value of a cow. Most of the witnesses were at Prairie du Chien. 
Summons were issued and the sheriff undertook the journey to 
bring in the witnesses. The cost of a suit of this kind would run as 
high as $900.00. It was not only difficult under such circumstances 
to get the witnesses for the trial, but it was a burden for the people 
who wished to use the courts if they had to bring their difficulties 
before a court convening at a county seat so far removed from their 
place of residence. The judges themselves found difficulty in getting 
around over the territory to meet the various courts in session. Their 
times was so taken up in traveling that they had time neither to hear 
the courts nor to make laws for the territory as they were supposed to 
do with the aid of the governor. 

It will thus be seen that the difficulties presented in the vastness 
of the country and the primitive conditions as well as the scattered 
condition of the population, were in themselves great enough to cause 
the boldest leaders to hesitate. But the story is not yet complete. To 
all of these difficulties we must add that imposed by the presence of 
the Indians. One of the results which the court hoped to accomplish, 
of course, was the cessation of Indian bloodshed in the establishment 
of justice for the Indians, as well as for the whites. But how could 
that be done when the criminals escaped to Kentucky and there were 
sheltered because the jurisdiction of the territorial courts did not 
extend to that point? But worse still was the condition which we find 
reflected in the claim of Kentucky for jurisdiction to the North Bank 
of the Ohio, including the islands which were sometimes formed 
from land of the Northwest Territory in times of high water. To 
recognize this claim meant that the territorial judges could not claim 
any jurisdiction over deeds done on vessels anchored at the wharves 
or landing places on the north bank of the Ohio, and it meant a serious 
setback to the establishment of real justice in the Territory. ^^ 

At Detroit there was another difficulty in finding men as judges 
who could understand both French and English. Even in 1800 it 
was possible for a correspondent from Detroit to say, "Since the sus- 
pension of Mr. May we have no justice in Detroit who speaks the 
English language". 

Under these circumstances courts were established rather slowly. 
A committee reporting to Congress in 1800 said : "In the three west- 
ern counties there has been but one court having cognizance of 

" Archives, Bureau of Rolls and Library, Papers and Records of the Territories II 
St. Clair Papers II : 111. 
>« Burnet, Notes, 308. 


crimes in five years, and the immunity which offenders experience 
attracts as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned criminals and 
at the same time deters useful and virtuous people from making set- 

But probably no less effective in counteracting justice than the 
difficulties which we have just mentioned, were some of the courts 
which were established in the territory, courts which were known 
chiefly for their injustice, their unfairness and their inefficiency; such 
courts, for example, as Hamtramck found at Vincennes, where fees 
were so high that they amounted to robbery and the people would 
not use the courts at all. 

Then again there was the occasional tyrant among judges who 
would exercise his authority in absurd and arbitrary ways. There is 
the case of George Turner, for example. When his career as judge 
was investigated, Charles Lee reported the following charges to the 
House of Representatives, May 9, 1796: (1) He held courts in ex- 
treme corners of the population of the county without announcement 
or proper notice and then expected the people to attend, even though 
by so doing they exposed their families to attack by the Indians dur- 
ing their absence. There was one instance cited where the majority 
of the judges and jurors had to travel 66 miles. (2) He levied fines 
amounting practically to forfeiture. (3) He compelled the transfer 
of records to the extremities of the county, thus making them unsafe. 
(4) He denied the operation of the law of inheritance. (5) He even 
seized certain intestate estates and converted them into money to 
the damage of the heirs and creditors.^" 

It was but natural under such circumstances, that the people 
who were always inclined to be individualists should have doubted 
the value of the courts, and it follows very naturally that there was 
more difficulty than ever to get the authority of the courts established 
in the territory. Of lawless individuals there seemed always more 
than could be handled anyway. Many a murder that was blamed on 
the Indians was no doubt committed by some vagabond white, who 
covered up his mischief by making it appear to have been done by the 

Finally the infrequency of courts and the lack of proper jails 
and prisons had a great deal to do with the spread of crime and had 
a tendency to complicate greatly the task of the courts where they 
were established. There seemed to be almost an entire lack of prisons 
in Cahokia, Cincinnati, Detroit and other western places. The only 
punishment possible was a fine and that, the judges said, was not 
effective in producing desired results. ^^ It is no wonder that jus- 
tice limped along for about a decade after the first settlements. Gov- 
ernor St. Clair was well aware of this lack. In his opening speech to 
the House of Representatives in the first meeting of the territorial 

=» American State Papers, Miscellaneous 1 : 206 ; Messages and Papers, 1799-1800 : 
219-220, Senate Library. 

^ American State Papers, Miscellaneous 1 : 151-152, 157. 

=■1 Western Spy, August 27, 1799. 

»' American State Papers, Miscellaneous I: 206; Cahokia MSS. 

. 84 

legislature, Sept. 25, 1799, he spoke at length on the need of adequate 
jails and court houses. If justice was to he administered in the terri- 
tory, there must be adequate facilities for housing the criminals as 
well as a definite place in each county where justice would always be 
administered and where the important records of the county could 
be kept on file. This was the burden of the governor's speech. His 
advice was that it should be made compulsory upon the inhabitants 
of each county to erect proper jails and convenient court-houses.^^ 
When this lesson, taught by hard experience, became thoroughly im- 
pressed on the people, then the preliminary stages were past and 
justice was quite firmly established in the territory. 

To a large extent the justice awarded in the early trials in the 
Northwest was a matter of development just as much as were the 
facilities for administering that justice. By no means all of the 
decisions were given in accordance with precedent, nor was the law 
in the case always nicely weighed and considered. Where common 
sense alone was the guide almost invariably followed by the judges of 
the lower courts of the counties, irrespective of precedent or legal 
form, what could be expected of a justice of the peace? Yet there 
was such a nicely balanced sense of fairness in the judgment of these 
men that there seems to have been general satisfaction with their decis- 
ions in the great majority of cases. But there were many cases of 
dispute, even crime, that were settled out of court by a sort of tri- 
bunal made for the occasion. It was not always convenient to go the 
long distances to the courts and then it was not certain even if one 
went to the court whether the judges and the jurors would be there, 
as a consequence we have a great deal of improvised justice made on 
the spur of the moment. For this reason, the number of criminal 
cases coming into the courts is by no means a criterion of the amount 
of crime that was committed in the territory. A few instances will 
suffice to explain this type of justice. In the Draper Collection is to 
be found this instance which occurred in Cincinnati in 1790. A man 
lost a barrel of flour. He informed the first man that he met and that 
man proposed a search. They would search every house. As they 
left each house they would take the householder along with them to 
the next house, where search would be continued. This they did 
until there were thirteen of them. The fourteenth man would not 
admit them, so they forced an entrance and found the barrel of flour 
under the bed. The thirteen men then formed themselves into a court 
and determined punishment. They tied the culprit to a thorn tree 
and provided themselves with thirteen whips, after which each of 
them gave him three stripes, making the traditional forty less one. 
As for the flour, it was restored to the owner and the case was con- 
sidered settled.^* 

As late as 1797 we- have the case of a man by the name of Bran- 
non, who, aided by his wife, stole a great coat, shirt, and handkerchief. 
They were pursued and brought before a body of their fellow-citizens 

53 Western Spy, Sept. 30, 1799 : 2. 

=* Draper Collection, Daniel Drake Papers, I : 10. 


of Chillicothe for trial. One man, Samuel Smith, was appointed as 
judge. A jury was impaneled, an attorney was named for each side, 
the duty of this attorney being to conduct the case and call the wit- 
nesses. When all the testimony had been heard the case was given 
to the jury, who reported, "Guilty". The judge decided that the man 
should have ten lashes on his bare back or he should sit on his pony 
and let his wife lead the pony with her husband on it to every house 
in the village and proclaim, "This is Brannon who stole a great-coat, 
shirt and handkerchief". Brannon chose the latter punishment and 
it was duly executed, after which Brannon and his wife left town.^'' 

Coming one step nearer the regular courts, we have the following 
case similar to those cited above, tried in the court of a justice of the 
peace near Chillicothe in 1797. A man by the name of McMurdy had 
had a horse collar stolen from him one night. The next morning he 
examined the collars used by the plowmen and found his collar. He 
claimed it of the workman who was using it, but the latter refused to 
give it up, and threatened to beat McMurdy for accusing him of theft. 
McMurdy went to the justice of the peace who immediately had the 
constable bring the accused and the horse collar before him. Court 
was opened at once under a tree. McMurdy was asked if he could 
prove that it was his collar. The answer was that Mr. Spear, who 
was present, could identify it. Without waiting to be sworn in, 
Mr. Spear advanced, took the collar and turned back the ear and dis- 
closed the name of McMurdy which he had written there, "No better 
proof can be given," said the justice, and the culprit was then taken 
to the nearest buckeye tree and tied while five lashes were laid on. 
Thus was justice dispensed by a servant of the law.^*' 

As for the practice of regular criminal courts, it was just as free 
from strict adherence to form as was the procedure of some of these 
justice courts. The practice of referring matters to arbitration had 
such a hold on the imaginations of the men who composed the average 
court that it happened occasionally that a regular court referred a 
matter that had been brought to it for decision, to a board of arbitra- 
tors. At Cahokia in 1788, a Mr. German refused to accept some joists 
that had been made for him by a Mr. Brisson because they were not 
delivered on time. Brisson's plea was that the road was covered with 
water from a flood so that they could not be delivered. The court 
ap]:)ointed arbitrators to see if the joists were acceptable and if they 
were they should be delivered the next day.^" 

But there was nothing wrong in these decisions, because through 
all of these cases, whether decided in or out of court, there rin the 
same sound fundamental common sense. People were satisfied be- 
cause the decisions appealed to their sense of fairness. Yet a court of 
law is supposed to be guided a little more by precedent and actual 
law. However, that, too, was to be acquired in the course of time. 

^^ Howe, Ohio Historical Collections II : 492-493. 

2« Finley, Life among the Indians : 44-4.5. 

3^ Cahokia Records: 329-331, 345; Burton Collection 475: 71-72. As late as the 
April term, 1797, seven out of the twelve cases that had been filed in the court of 
Cahokia were decided out of court by arbitration. Cahokia Court Records, 1797. 


The more experience these settlers acquired, the more men of legal 
training found their place among- them, the more the cases began to 
conform to the established practice of the courts of law. As a resuU, 
by 1800, whether it be in Cincinnati, Steubenville or Detroit, and 
whether the case be a suit for damages because of the inundation of 
land caused by the construction of a mill-dam, a suit of libel, or a case 
of assault and battery, the case was in any event handled according to 
the recognized principles of law and the decision was reasonably m 
accordance with proper form.^^ 

Another point in which the advancement of the courts is to be 
noted is in their dealing with the crimes involving Indians. According 
to the law of Dec. 8, 1800, special provision is made for the trying of 
persons charged with homicide against Indians, and strenuous efforts 
were made to put it into effect. There were those who said that the 
sentiment against the Indians was such that no jury would find a 
white man guilty of the murder of an Indian. To a certain extent 
this may have been true, and yet the facts in the various cases involv- 
ing theft seem to belie this conclusion. In 1796, for example, a cer- 
tain Daniel McKean arrived in Cincinnati from New Jersey. Within 
a very short time he was brought before the court for stealing a horse 
f/om the Indians who had camped near the town. He had entered 
their camp under the pretence of friendly trade, and at night had se- 
cured the horse and made away with it. The jury brought in a ver- 
dict of "Guilty", He was sentenced to pay a fine of One Dollar to the 
Indian concerned when he returned the horse and was to receive 
thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, to be inflicted in the most public 
streets of the town. All the while the prisoner was to bear a placard 
bearing in large legible letters, the words, "I stole a horse from the 
Indians." The Centinel in commenting on the case was quite pro- 
fuse in its condemnations of the crime.^^ It is true, the feeling 
against the Indians was high, but the courts gave special care in the 
latter part of the territorial period that due justice should be given to 
any Indian offender, even the murderer of a white man. If necessary, 
they would summon military assistance to prevent his falling into the 
hands of a mob.*'' 

There are many other interesting phases connected with the insti- 
tution of government in the first of the Territories of the United 
States under the present form of government, but the limits of this 
paper will not permit a discussion of them. But probably sufficient 
evidence has been advanced to establish the fact that although there 
v^as a tendency to conform to Eastern practice, local conditions fre- 
quently imposed difficulties which seemed to make somewhat irregular 
and extra-legal methods necessary and desirable. 

^' Burton Collection 475 : 31 ; Jefferson County Deed Record A : 171 ; Archives, 
Bureau of Rolls and Library, Papers and Records of the Territories II. 
'2 Northwest Centinel, March 26, 1796 : 3. 
♦"Archives, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Ricker Files. 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower was a conspicuous landmark to all travellers 
coming from across Rock River. 



By John H. Haubebg. 

The facts set forth in the following paper were gathered during 
the last six years. In that time the writer has not neglected to see 
personally every man or woman claimed to have any knowledge of 
any Indian trail, or who was mentioned by others as probably having 
knowledge of a trail, and a diligent inquiry among the older residents 
of the counties of Rock Island, Henry and the northern part of Mercer 
County has been kept up. A liberal use was made of the automobile, 
and the method consistently followed was to make an appointment 
and take the person to the very spot which he knew, take photographs 
there, and carefully record the description given, as also all the side- 
lights in the way of a running narrative of the early-day life. This 
paper cannot, of course, give fully all these narratives. Nearly all of 
the informants had passed their three-score and ten, and some had 
passed the four score and ten years of life. Over and over again the 
writer would hear from their lips something like this : "If you had 
only started this a few years ago. Now nearly everyone that knew is 
dead", or one would say, "If you had begun this a year or two ago I 
could have directed you to a half dozen men who have since died". 
In practically every instance, the trail was fixed in the man's mind be- 
cause it crossed his father's farm ; or that he plowed it up ; used it as 
the path to the public school ; herded cattle over it ; hunted over it ; 
had seen straying bands of Indians using it ; that it was the common 
tradition among the pioneers that it was an Indian trail, and that it 
was not the kind of trail commonly made by animals or by white men. 

The Sauk and Mesquaki tribes, usually spoken of as the Sauk 
and Fox, formed a united nation. They had three villages about the 
vicinity of the mouth of Rock River. One of these, a Fox village, 
was on the west side of the Mississippi where Davenport, Iowa, now 
stands. The other two, both on the Illinois side, joined at the edges, 
but the distance from center to center of each village was about three 
and one-half miles as the crow flies. The one a Fox village, was 
located opposite the lower end of Rock Island, where the down-town 
part of the City of Rock Island now stands, and the other was the 
Sauk village which adjoined it to the south and extended to the blufif 
overlooking Rock River, known as Black Hawk's Watch Tower, 
practically all of the old Sauk village site also, is today included within 
the city limits of Rock Island, Illinois. 

This Sauk village was the home of the most prominent individuals 
of the United Nation. Both Black Hawk and Keokuk were born 
here. It had been the home of the former for seventy years when he 
was finally expelled in the contest known to history as the Black Hawk 

War. In its strictest sense, it was for possession of this particular 
village and its adjacent cornfields and pastures that the war was 

Numerous mounds are scattered all about these Indian village 
sites. These mounds are believed to have been built by a people ante- 
dating the Sauk and Fox Indians and their immediate predecessors 
here, and it is probable that when the latter located here, they found 
the principal highways mentioned in this paper already existent. 

The Indian trails, sections of which are described in this paper, 
are the following: 

(1) The "Great Sauk Trail" or "Sauk and Fox Trail" which is 
of especial interest to us because the War Chief Black Hawk and his 
band used this trail regularly in going from their village at Rock 
Island, Illinois, to Fort Maiden, Amherstberg, Ontario, to secure the 
annuities which the British authorities continued to bestow upon them 
for services rendered during the War of 1812-T4. 

(2) The Indian and Military Trail, which was a short-cut from 
Rock Island to Oquawka, Illinois, on the Mississippi, fifty miles south- 
wards. It was a well known Indian trail, and its greatest use as a mil- 
itary trail was in the two campaigns of the Black Hawk War, 1831 
and 1832 respectively, when the Illinois militia marched over it, to 
Black Hawk's village. 

(3) The Indian trail up the east bank of the Mississippi from the 
Sauk and Fox villages at Rock Island, to their lead mines in north- 
western Illinois and Southwest Wisconsin. 

(4) The trail up Rock River toward Prophetstown, followed 
alike by Indians, and by the Illinois soldiers of 1832, with Capt. Abra- 
ham Lincoln in command of a company. 

(5) Indian trails about Moline and' Rock Island; some of them 
doubtless branches of the main highways. 

Of the local trails, a section is pointed out by W. C. Wilson of 
Moline. Mr. Wilson says he has known this trace as an Indian trail 
for forty years. It is located in Prospect Park, near the east line of 
the park. It is visible, beginning at a point 150 feet west of the west 
line of Park 15th St. at 34th Ave., Moline, Illinois, and extends south- 
eastwards along the crest of the ridge. The ground here for forty-five 
paces is still covered with native timber of oak, hickory, etc., and has 
never been cultivated. The trail has recently been filled to a level with 
the surrounding ground, but it is easily followed because the natural 
soil here is dark, nearly black, and without stone or gravel, while the 
filling used was clay containing gravel and bits of crushed limestone. 
This trail would probably be one of the branches of the "Great Sauk 
Trail" and a short cut to the Fox villages where Rock Island and Dav- 
enport now stand, and to Fort Armstrong on Rock Island. It was 
doubtless used also by the Winnebagoes, whose village was 40 miles 
above the mouth of Rock River, as they came to the fort and to trade 
with George Davenport, whose establishment adjoined Ft. Armstrong. 
It is said (by Alex Craig, Moline,) that there was an excellent ford 
across Rock river opposite Blossomberg, on the section line between 
Sections eight and nine, Hampton Township, and the ford across 


Green river was less than a mile above this Rock river ford. It is 
probable that these fords had connection with the trail in Prospect 

Another section of an old trail is located along the crest of Black 
Hawk's Watch Tower — a bluff of about 150 ft., having a view of rare 
beauty overlooking Rock river. The trail is back (north of) of Indian 
Lovers' Spring and leads eastward to the creek. A few hundred 
yards eastward from the creek on a gentle rise of ground from Rock 
river, one may find at any time, numerous fragments of pottery and 
flints of the days of the Indians or their predecessors. The adjoining 
hill-tops have numerous mounds, probably of prehistoric age, and it is 
most likely that residents here, from prehistoric times, used the trail 
above mentioned in going to and from the Watch Tower. In his 
autobiography, Black Hawk says that this spot — the Watch Tower, 
to which his name had been applied, was a favorite resort for the 
Indians of his day. In our present day it is continued as a pleasure 
resort where tens of thousands go each year to enjoy the scene. This 
spot adjoins the city limits of Rock Island. 

The trail from the top of the Black Hawk Watch Tower, down to 
the Sauk village which lay at its foot, immediately to the west, is men- 
tioned by Airs. Mary Brackett Durham, late of Rock Island, in a poem 
entitled "Black Hawk's Watch Tower", as follows : 

(5) "Among the boughs of that tall tree 

The chief oft climbed to hide 
And plan his raids, while he could see 
The country far and wide." 

(6) "There, unobserved by friend or foe. 

Above the Indian trail, 
His piercing eyes watched all below, 
Isle, meadow, hill and dale". 

(7) "Narrow and deep the war trail ran, 

Diagonally down, 
Well worn by rain and foot of man, 
Down to the old Sauk town". 

Mrs. Durham, author of the above lines, secured her informa- 
tion at first hand from Mrs. Lewis, (as per letter of Col. C. W. Dur- 
ham in the writer's possession), mother of George L. and Bailey 
Davenport. Mrs. Lewis was a member of the Col. George Davenport 
household on the island of Rock Island, for many years preceding the 
Black Hawk War, was a good friend of the Indians, and became well 
informed as to the various phases of their life here. 

The site of a section of the trail from Black Hawk's village to the 
Fox village and to Rock Island, is pointed out by Phil Mitchell of 
Rock Island. It is on "Spencer Place, Out Lot 1" City of Rock 
Island, and this small section of it runs from a point beginning at the 
east Hne of 19th street, forty-four paces south of the south line of 


Sixth Ave., and taking a northeasterly course which would strike 
Twentieth St. at the northwest corner of 20th street and Sixth Ave. 
The location of this part of the trail is in a lot, an acre or so in extent, 
upon which is one of Rock Island's substantial residences. The 
ground was originally owned by John W. Spencer, who at the time of 
the Black Hawk War had his log cabin located on the adjoining block 
on what is now the southwest corner of 7th Ave. and 19th St., and 
that as long as this property was in the hands of Mr. Spencer, and 
that of his nephew, Spencer Robinson, this deeply worn trail was left 
as a relic of the olden days, but that when the property passed from 
their hands the lot was graded and the trail obliterated. It is prob- 
able that by digging cross trenches, the exact course of this trail might 
be found. 

Another trail which may have run somewhat parallel to the above 
named, or may even be a part of the same trail, and which may be a 
section of the "Great Sauk Trail" to the Mississippi and beyond, 
crossing at Rock Island, is to be found near the crest of the ridge 
from the Watch Tower, and passing northwards toward the island of 
Rock Island. 

A part of this trail is preserved just within the east edge of old 
Dixon Cemetery, now within the city limits of Rock Island. Another 
section of it is still to be seen in the virgin woodlands a little to the north 
in the west edge of the n. e. %, Sec. 14, South Rock Island township, 
which is owned by the Tri-City Street Railway Co., then after cross- 
ing a cultivated field a distance of about 40 rods, still going northward 
one finds another well preserved section of this trail in the woodland. 
To find this last mentioned section of the trail, start at the corner on 
the east side of Fourteenth Street, at the south side of Thirty-seventh 
Avenue, city of Rock Island, and go south one hundred sixty feet ; 
thence east seven hundred sixty feet, and you will find yourself right 
in the trail, and it is plainest as you travel northwards on it. 

On the testimony of Edwin Brashar and David Sears, both octo- 
genarians, and both of whom grew to manhood in this locality, this 
trail has always been known as an Indian trail. Mr. Brashar stated 
that it led from the Watch Tower to where the saw mill was on the 
Mississippi at 24th St., Rock Island, which is opposite the island of 
Rock Island. 

It is interesting to note that in 1908, when the grandson of Black 
Hawk visited here, Mr. Sears found him at the top of this same ridge 
looking for the trail back to the Down Town of Rock Island. This 
grandson of the old war chief was born here and was quite a boy at the 
time of their expulsion through the Black Hawk War, in 1832. This 
trail, since the early white settlements here, has not been used as a 
public highway. 

At page 26 of Armstrong's "The Sauks and the Black Hawk 
War" is to be found an account of a fence built of post and poles, 
extending from Rock river near the Watch Tower, northward for 
four miles to the Mississippi, to opposite the foot of the island of 
Rock Island. The southern part of this fence was kept up by the 
Sauks, and the northern part of it by the Foxes. Mr. Armstrong 

The Indian Trail from Black Hawk's Watch Tower to Fort Armstrong, 
'th Ave. Rock Island projected east 800 feet would intersect this Trail. 

The Section of an Indian Trail in Prospect Park Moline, 111., as located 
by W. C. Wilson, who is standing in the trail. 


continues : "Immediately west of, and following the west line of this 
fence was a well beaten and extensively travelled road, leading- from 
Saukenuk (the Sauk village) to the Mississippi, or the island, where 
Fort Armstrong and the trading house of Col. George Davenport 
stood". Beyond question, the trail or road referred to by Armstrong 
is identical with the one to be seen today in Dixon Cemetery and 
northwards. Mr. Armstrong is believed to have gained his knowledge 
of this trail from Hon. Bailey Davenport, son of the Indian trader, 
who came in 1816 and who had his post on Rock Island. (See page 
8, "The Sauks and the Black Hawk War", by Armstrong.) 

Another trail which should be mentioned, is one which follows 
closely the right bank of Rock river, from the Watch Tower to the 
Mississippi, a distance of about two and one-half miles. Today it is 
the usual fisherman's path. As you walk toward the Mississippi, you 
will find at your right hand, for more than half the distance, a high 
bank of, say thirty feet, while immediately at your left you pass the 
row-boats, canoes and fish-boxes of the natives of today. 

By the side of this trail one finds several fine springs from which 
the Sauk Indians, whose village was strung along these shores, got a 
part of their excellent water supply, as mentioned by Black Hawk in 
his autobiography (p. 62). 

This trail would be intimately associated with the life of the 
local Indian residents. In the mind's eye one can see, on a certain 
early morning in September, 1814, a throng of braves and spectators 
hurrying to the battle at Credit Island, opposite the mouth of Rock 
river, which Maj. Zachary Taylor, afterwards president, was hope- 
lessly waging against British artillery and an allied force under 
Black Hawk of 1000 to 1500 Indians, and again, a certain night of 
April, 1831, when Black Hawk's people, thoroughly frightened, fled 
under cover of darkness to the west of the Mississippi. There was a 
large force of U. S. Regulars on their right at Fort Armstrong and 
another force of 1500 Illinois militia a few miles below at their left. 
The Indians numbering perhaps a thousand all told, were taking their 
ponies, dogs, baggage and all with them, and not only the trail but 
every serviceable canoe was no doubt crowded. 

Of the Indian trail up the east bank of the Mississippi above 
Rock Island, Dr. William H. Lyford of Port Byron, Illinois, reports 
as follows : "The river road up here from Rock Island is the oldest 
road in Rock Island County and is on the old Indian trail between 
Black Hawk's Watch Tower and the lead mines around Galena. 
Sometimes the Indians went by way of the other side, but this (east) 
side had the main road. It was the only road through here, and 
Archibald Allen, who located on this trail in 1828, (in Section 24, 
Port Byron Township), traded with the Indians for their furs and 
skins, and carried mail on this road or trail between Fort Armstrong 
and Galena. December 30, 1833, he was appointed Post Master and 
kept the post office at his house. It was called Canaan and was the 
first post office in Rock Island County exclusive of the one on the 
island of Rock Island". 


"My father, Dr. Jeremiah H. Lyford, M. D., in 1837 built his 
log cabin along the river right on this trail. Father would be away 
days at a time, looking after his patients in Iowa Territory and in 
Whiteside and other counties in IlHnois. Mother and I would be 
home alone and the Indians would stop on their way up and down the 
river. Later, the stage Hne, Rock Island to Galena, followed this 
trail also". 

Of this trail Miss Mary Lydia Kelly, an octogenarian of Rock 
Island, had the following to say : "My father came to this county in 
1841. We lived on the Mississippi two and a half miles above Cor- 
dova. As to Indian trails I know when I was a little girl I used to go 
from our house to our neighbor's in an Indian trail. It was right on 
the bank of the river and was a well trodden trail. It was wide 
enough for one man to go single file". 

This trail for twenty miles from Rock Island was followed by an 
eager throng of Sauk and Fox warriors, on the occasion of Maj. 
John Campbell's expedition up the Mississippi in July, 1814. "The 
savages were seen on shore in quick motion ; canoes filled with Indians 
passed to the (Campbells) island, * * * the Indians firing from the 
island and the shore under cover", (p. 749, Western Annals, 1850). 
In this engagement sixteen Americans were killed. Campbells Island 
is about nine miles above Rock Island. The head of the rapids is 
about eight miles farther up-stream, at LeClaire, la. — Port Byron, 
Ills., and here the determined Indians overtook the Contractor's and 
the Sutler's boats which would have fallen to them (Niles Register, 
Vol. 6, p. 429), but for the fact that to the surprise of all concerned, 
they here found the large protected gunboat the "Governor Clark", 
anchored along the shore. The Indians evidentlv were in hot pursuit, 
both in canoes, and along the trail, which on this occasion was liter- 
ally a "War-path". 

"At the time of the (Campbells Island) battle. Captain Yeiser 
in the gunboat (Gov. Clark) from Ft. Shelby, had arrived at the head 
of the Rapids, where he met the Contractor's boat, still' in advance, 
and was fired on by the Indians, while lying at anchor near the 
shore in consequence of an unfavorable wind. The attack of the 
Indians induced him to haul off, and anchor beyond the reach of their 
small arms". (Page 443, History of the Late War, by McAfee. 1816.) 

The two trails, the one from Oquawka, and the one from the east, 
joined on the south bank of Rock river opposite Black Hawk's village. 
The place of junction was somewhere about the line between the east 
and west halves of the Northwest quarter of Section twenty-three, 
Black Hawk Township, Rock Island County. 

Mr. William O'Neal of Milan, 111., said: "The old Indian ford 
is really right in front of the main street of Milan. I could take you 
right across the (Ills, and Mich.) canal bank and show you where the 
ford is. It was right about where the old power dam was. There 
was a good rock bottom way across. I got this from Mrs. Ben Goble. 
Her father (Joshua Vandruflf, after whom Vandruff Island is named) 
built a cabin right beside the Indian trail (in 1828) and the ford 
across the northern part (main channel) of the river was between the 

The Ford across Rock River rapids to Black Hawk's Village site. 
was not a better Ford on any River in the World." 



present wagon bridge and the railroad bridge, about where the Davis 
Power House is now". 

Rock river rapids at this point flow over a bed of flat rock, which 
provides a fordable bottom of a width of a hundred yards or more. 
Rev. Peter Cartwright, the "backwoods preacher", (in his autobiog- 
raphy (1856) at page 334) mentions this ford and quotes the stranger 
who crossed just before him as saying that "There was no better ford 
on any river in the world, and that there was not the least danger on 

Of all the Indian trails mentioned herein, the "Sauk and Fox 
Trail" or "Great Sauk Trail" is the most widely known. The Chicago 
Historical Society has plats showing where it crossed certain sections 
in the State of Michigan, and also plats showing its location in some 
parts of Illinois. The Cook County, Illinois, Forest Reserve has at 
Chicago Heights, a wooded lot bearing the name "Sauk Trail Preserve." 
One hears mention of this trail among the residents of northern Indi- 
ana, about the sand dunes ; Mr. J. F. Steward has an article entitled 
the "Sac and Fox Trail" in Vol. IV, Journal of the Ills. State Hist. 
Soc, and at page 158 thereof he shows "Homan's map of 1687", 
which has a trail marked upon it, which is believed to be the same 
trace, later known as the "Sac and Fox Trail" or the "Great Sauk 

When the writer began his pursuit of Indian trails, he started 
with the idea that they were of rare occurrence ; that Indians roamed 
over the country regardless of any beaten highway. As we had heard 
of only two trails, the one connecting old Yellow Banks (Oquawka) 
with Black Hawk's village, and "The Great Sauk Trail", we began 
by asking old settlers if they knew anything about "the" Indian trail. 
We soon changed to asking if they knew of "any" Indian trail, for we 
learned that Indians, like white folks, prefer when travelling, to go 
over courses which are reputed to be the best, all things considered, 
and that there were principal highways, each with its diverging 
branches leading to other Indian villages ; to favorite hunting grounds, 
or merely a different route to the same place because of a different 
contour of the country. They had many trails, many of them perhaps 
but a foot in width, threading their way for miles upon miles through 
the prairie grass and through wooded country, while others, travelled 
probably for centuries and eroded by heavy rains, became wide and 
deeply worn, and in places the travellers would march beside the old, 
washed out trail, until there would be a dozen distinct, deeply worn 
traces side by side. Mrs. Kinzie, writing of this type of highways in 
northern Illinois in the early days, says : "We were to pursue a given 
trail for a certain number of miles, when we should come to a crossing 
into which we were to turn, taking an easterly direction ; after a time, 
this would bring us to a deep trail leading straight to Hamilton's. 
In this open country there are no landmarks. One elevation is so ex- 
actly like another, that if you lose your trail there is almost as little 
hope of regaining it as of finding a pathway in the midst of the ocean. 
The trail, it must be remembered, is not a broad highway, but a nar- 
row path, deeply indented by the hoofs of the horses on which the 


Indians travel in single file. So deeply is it sunk in the sod which cov- 
ers the prairies, that it is difficult, sometimes, to distinguish it at a 
distance of a few rods". (Waubun, c. XIV.) 

The Sauk and Fox trail of which we are writing, took its name 
from the Sauk and Fox Indians, who had their permanent abode in 
the vicinity where Rock River joins the Mississippi. It retained this 
name at least as far east as to Fort Maiden, at Amhertsburg, Ontario. 
One should confidently expect that it joined with other trails in an 
unbroken chain, reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. 

We will start the route of the "Sauk and Fox Trail" at the 
Mississippi. From times immemorial these Indians had regarded the 
island of Rock Island as a bit of an earthly paradise. In the cave near 
its lower end dwelt a good spirit in the form 'of a large swan (Black 
Hawk's autobiography, p. 61). From this island we will cross the 
"slough" probably iDy swimming part way, then take one of the trails 
mentioned above in a southerly direction to the rapids of Rock river, 
passing through the Indian villages on the way there, ford Rock 
river to the south shore, and turn eastwards. It is just one mile to 
Mill Creek. Thomas J. Murphy of Coal Valley, III, is authority for 
the location of the ford across this stream. He says (Interview of 
Apr. 9, 1917. "The Indian trail crossed right where the present pub- 
lis highway crosses", i. e. on the middle line of the north half of Sec- 
tion twenty-four. The creek bed here is of flat rock. Mr. Murphy 
says that after crossing the creek here the trail turned northeasterly 
to the shore of Rock river, which it followed for about three and a half 
miles to near Coal Valley creek, where it crossed that creek about the 
center of Section twenty-two, Coal Valley Twp., where it turned due 
south about a half mile to the point of the prominent bluff in the 
southeast corner of the southwest quarter of Section tw^enty-two, Coal 
Valley Twp., on the Charles Evener farm. 

We will retrace our course to Mill Creek. Two miles almost due 
east of the creek is a rise of ground forming a ridge of about one and 
a half miles in length, paralleling Rock river, and affording a fine 
view of the country on both sides. David W. Hunt of Moline, Ills., 
(interview of Feb. 3, 1921,) said: "I came to this part of the country 
in 1847, and it was in 1847 or '48 that I saw the Indian trail going 
over the sand mound near Rock river, east of what they called Cam- 
den Mills, now Milan. It was very distinct and went east and west, 
right up over the top of the hill, parallel with the present public road, 
but north of it". 

"It was very distinct and was well worn and looked dififerent from 
similar trails I'd seen. Folks said it was an Indian trail". 

"At the time the Drury farm, which was at the lower end of the 
sand mound, was the only house between Camden Mills and the 
Glenn's in Colona Township in Henry County (a distance of nine 

Messrs. W. C. Wilson and Alec Craig, both of Moline, Ills., took 
the writer to Coal Valley creek in Section twenty-two. At about forty 
rods north of the center line of the section a private bridge spans the 
creek. Here, said they, is where the Frink & Walker Stage line ford- 

The trail down the right bank of Rock River between the Watch Tower 
and where the Mississippi and Rock Rivers join. Black Hawk's village 
bordered this trail. 


ed the creek and Mr. Wm. Killing, who owned this place, also forded 
here until he built this bridge, and we think that in all probability the 
Indian trail crossed the creek here, and then turned south a half mile 
to the foot of the bluff, up which it then proceeded". 

The best vouched-for part of the "Great Sauk Trail" in this 
vicinity, is at the top of the ridge, starting on the Charles Evener 
farm in the south edge of Section twenty-two. Our first positive tes- 
timony to this location was by John N. Huntoon, of Rock Island, 
Ills., (Interview of June 30, 1916), who said, "Nathaniel Huntoon, 
my father, pointed out this hill top to me and said that in 1831, when 
he came here as advance agent for the Andover colony, to select a 
mill-site on Edwards river, he followed the Indian trail, and slept in 
the trail, at this point one night, with only a dog as a companion to 
keep the wolves off". Our next positive authority was T. J. Murphy, 
who said he used to be a great lad for hunting, and had followed the 
Indian trail all through here as far east as Sunny Hill, in Henry 
County. He came to this vicinity in 1857. Mr. John Campbell 
Bailey of Rural Township, Rock Island County, said he and his 
brother broke prairie hereabouts in 1853-'4 and '5, with six yoke of 
oxen to a single plow, and he knew the Indian trail. He said: "It 
was on the George Evener farm. It came up to Coal Valley, and 
passed along about where the public school house is". Mr. Austin 
Marshall, hotel keeper at LeClaire, la., knew the trail at this point 
also. He came here in 1842 when less than a year of age. He con- 
tinued: "We lived in the Washburne neighborhood, two miles east 
of Coal Valley, and a little north. I used to herd cows and I used to 
cross that Indian trail almost every day. This was three miles east 
of Coal Valley. It was washed out in places ; was six or eight inches 
deep and about eighteen inches wide. It was pretty near the line of 
the Rock Island & Peoria railroad". (Interview Feb. 14, 1921.) 

But best of all, the old trail itself is still there. For a distance of 
a quarter of a mile or more, one may walk in this very distinct trace. 
Approaching from the direction of the village of Coal Valley, one finds 
a fork in the trail. One course of it continues along the top of the hill, 
which it descends as shown in the accompanying picture. The other 
turns to the northward, leaving the hill-top by a more gradual descent, 
down the first hollow east of the western promontory of the hill. This 
last mentioned fork, from the depth and width of the trail, would indi- 
cate that it was the most used. From the point where they join, and 
southeasterly toward Coal Valley, the old trail is deeply worn. This 
ridge has never been plowed up. 

From the Charles Evener hill the trail follows the narrow crest 
of the hill, and crosses the Coal Valley school lot, according to the 
recollections of Messrs. T. J. Murphy and John C. Bailey, while 
Mr. John N. Huntoon remembered it as passing about seventy-five 
feet north of the school lot. All of them including W. C. Wilson and 
Austin Marshall remembered it as passing southeasterly from the Coal 
Vallev school. 


Two trips were taken to the northwest corner of Section five in 
Western Township, Henry County. Mr. W. C. Wilson hoped to 
find traces of the old trail at the very corner, while Mr. Huntoon, on 
a separate trip with the writer, pointed to its location several rods 
south of the corner, saying : 'T was born in our log cabin which stood 
on the east side of the road a quarter of a mile or so, north of where 
the public school is now, in Section twenty-nine, Colona township, 
and lived there until I was thirty years of age. I used to herd cattle 
on the prairies all over this part of the country and so passed over the 
Indian trail thousands of times, and I can tell you exactly in places 
and in some others I can tell pretty closely where it was." 

"From the top of the Evener hill, the trail passed back on the top 
of the ridge, and passed just north of the road where it passes the Coal 
Valley school, and continues in a southeasterly course. I can follow 
as far as Cambridge, excepting for a couple of miles, where I was not 
so familiar with it". 

'Tn the northwest quarter of Section five. Western township, is 
the Wes. Crampton place, on the east side of the road. One day I 
was hunting cattle horseback, and was thrown from the saddle very 
violently, right into the old Indian trail. It was worn about two feet 
lower than the regular lay of the land. This spot was next south of 
Crampton's barnyard". 

Mr. Huntoon then took us to Shafifer Creek, near the east edge 
of Section five, Western township, a quarter of a mile or so south of 
the north line of the said section and showed where the Indian trail 
came down the slope toward the creek. At this point we met two men 
who were leaving the adjoining field with their teams. We hailed them, 
and one of them, an employe on the farm, said, "Henry Washburn 
who just died recently, told me the old Indian trail passed up the hill 
over there (pointing toward the east side of the creek) and I found 
an arrow-head there the other day". Henry Washburn came here in 

The next location to the southeastward was pointed out by Mr. 
Huntoon. It was at the old Denton farm, three miles east of Orion. 
Mr. Huntoon said : "This farm was laid out in lots in the early days 
and was called East LaGrange. Later, during the stage-coach days, 
there was an Inn here called the Buckhorn Inn. The old Indian trail 
crossed this farm, and in my judgment crossed about where the resi- 
dence stands, on the east side of the public road, and north of the R. 
I. & Peoria railway tracks, near the northwest corner of Section thirty, 
Osco township. 

Nine miles due east of old East LaGrange, at the northwest cor- 
ner of Section twenty-seven, Cornwall township, stood the "Brown 
church" of Presbyterian faith. On June 12th, 1918, we were guided 
to this spot by a party consisting of Mrs. Ella Hume Taylor. Miss 
Lydia Colby and Mrs. Dr. J. E. West, all of Geneseo, Ills. Mrs. West 
and Miss Colby were members of this church during their girlhood, 
and told of their parents pointing to the Indian trail over which the 
church was built. 

Here the great Sauk Trail left the level of the high prairie country and 
descended into the valley of Rock River but a few miles from Black Hawk's 
village. Messrs. J. N. Huntoon and Charles Evener on the farm of the latter. 


Mrs. West said: "My father, Elijah Benedict, came here in 1855. 
He gave this lot for the church, and he used to say, as we would get 
out of the buggy at church, 'That's the old Indian trail', and Uncle 
Albert (A. J. Benedict) used to say the Pottawatomies took this trail 
going between Rock Island and Peoria, and that the trail ran diag- 
onally from the Brown church to Spring Creek, but I cannot tell you 
where the trail touched Spring creek". The brown church was so 
called because it was painted brown. It has long since been torn down. 

Miss Lydia Colby guided us to a spring, about three miles south- 
west of the Brown church, in Section four. Burns township, thirty 
rods or so west of the public highway, south of the small creek which 
flows easterly about midway of the north and south lines of the sec- 
tion. Miss Colby said : "My knowledge of the Indian trail comes 
through Mrs. Lucinda Clark. She Avas buried last week. She told 
me the trail passed by this spring, and that the Indians stopped here 
to refresh themselves". The spring is still flowing, and drains into the 
nearby creek bed. 

Miss Colby then took us to "Hickory Point", a hill on the public 
road, at the east edge of Section fourteen, Cornwall township. She 
said : "This point, too, was pointed out to me by Mrs. Lucinda Clark 
as a place over which the Indian trail passed". Later Miss Colby 
wrote as follows : "James A. Clark of Geneseo, son of Mrs. Lucinda 
Clark, remembers well seeing the Indian trail along the south side of 
Hickory Point. The trail was grass-grown but was sunken a foot 
and a half, and perhaps two to three feet wide. From Hickory Point 
the trail led northeast to the marshes north of Annawan. There in 
the marshes the Indians used to camp as late as fifty-five years ago". 

We made more or less diligent inquiry at Cambridge, Kewanee, 
Atkinson, Annawan, Sheffield and as far east as Wyanet, as also 
among the farmers who lived between these points, for people who 
might be able to locate the site of the Sauk and Fox trail to the east 
from the old Brown church, mentioned above, but were unsuccessful. 

Sheffield is about fifteen miles east of the Brown church, and at 
this point the trail may be pursued on the authority of N. Matson, 
who says : "The trail passed through Bureau County almost in an 
east and west direction, crossing Coal creek immediately north of 
Sheffield, Main Bureau east of Woodruff's, passing near Maiden and 
Arlington in the direction of Chicago". (Reminiscences of Bureau 
Tounty, 1872, p. 95.) 

H. C. Bradley says this Sauk and Fox trail was "Followed by 
Gen. Scott's army in 1832, from Chicago to the Mississippi river". 
He also says : "The last time Indians were seen on this trail was in 
1837 when the last of the Indians were being removed from Michigan 
to the Mississippi. Mrs. James G. Everett tells us she was on the 
occasion of the passing through the (Bureau) county of the last large 
body of Indians, teaching school just west of Princeton. She was 
then new in the west and knew but little of Indian character. She 
'V <; occupied with her school duties when the red men began sud- 
denly to surround the building. She was terribly frightened, but some 
of the children had heard at home of the Indians going to pass that 


day and explained to their teacher that they would not harm them, 
and in a little while the cavalcade passed along". (History of Bureau 
County, Bradley editor, 1885, p. 271.) 

Jesse W. Weik in an interesting article in which he speaks of the 
work of James M. Bucklin, Chief Engineer of the Illinois and Michi- 
gan canal, quotes the latter as saying: "While we were encamped 
on the (Calumet) river, on one occasion during our protracted stay, 
about two hundred Sac and Fox Indians on horseback passed on a 
trail not more than a hundred yards from our camp, without turning 
their faces to the right or to the left, on their way to Fort Maiden, for 
arms and ammunition. No doubt they marked us for their own, as 
the Sac or Blackhawk war was then about due, but was only post- 
poned for a year by the unexpected arrival at Fort Armstrong, Rock 
Island, of General Gaines with two or three companies of artillery", 
(p. 343, Vol. VII, Journal of the 111. State Hist. Soc.) 

We are not unmindful of A. M. Hubbard's (of Moline) descrip- 
tion of the Sauk and Fox trail from Black Hawk's village, eastward, 
across Henry county, and on to Tiskilwa. We found no corroboration 
of his trace, except that through the Townships of Western, Osco, 
Munson and Cornwall, all in Flenry county, we are but a mile apart, 
and at one place, in Munson township, our lines cross, his taking a 
more southerly course. (Hubbards is in Steward's write-up. Vol. IV, 
Journal 111. State Hist. Soc.) 

While pursuing the Sauk and Fox trail to the eastwards, we found 
that several of our Rock Island County men who located the trails for 
us, would mention Peoria as the destination of Indian travel over the 
trail past Coal Valley. Mr. John N. Huntoon believed it led to Peoria, 
and took us to the village of Andover, to which place he believed his 
father to have followed the trail in 1831. Here we made inquiry and 
were referred to George H. Johnson, as their most dependable author- 
ity. Mr. Johnson said : "I was born here in 1849. The Indian trail 
passed over that hill (pointing to it) and down there was a ford across 
Edwards river. Early settlers for many years before bridges were 
built here, used that ford. My dad and other old settlers all said this 
ford was on the old Indian trail. I remember it very well as a depres- 
sion worn down from travel. It passed on down into Knox County." 

The trail as indicated by Mr, Johnson passes through the center of 
Sections twenty-four, twenty-five and thirty-six, in Lynn township, 
Henry county. 

Mr. Johnson continued, "Wash. Hoyt was born just south of Ed- 
wards river, and now lives with his boys on a farm near New Windsor. 
He would know all about this Indian trail". (Interview Oct. 18, 1916.) 

We called on Mr. Wash. Hoyt, at his home near New Windsor, 
and he and his son accompanied us as guides. Mr. Hoyt said: "I was 
born in Connecticut in 1836. We landed at Stephenson, now Rock 
Island, July 3d, 1842. My father, Edson Hoyt, attended the hanging 
of the Col. Davenport murderers at Rock Island. Nearly all the people 
from around Andover went. They were neighbors then. Anyone who 
lived ten or fifteen miles away was a neighbor in those days". 


"The Indian trail went just east of Woodhull. It might still be 
traced out where the timber was — the white oak grove". 

"The trail used to be very plain, I can locate it nearly all the way 
from Andover to Woodhull, but not south of Woodhull. For most 
part it was a single trail not more than four to six feet wide. In 
some places it was deeper than others, but on the level prairies it was 
still a depression. We lived about three quarters of a mile from it". 

"I do not know of anyone who knows the trail now. There are 
very few of those people left in the country, I can tell you". 

Mr, Hoyt took us to the southwest quarter of Section five. Clover 
township, Henry county. In the west edge of this quarter section is a 
farm house, forty rods or more north of the south line of this quarter 
section. Mr. Hoyt pointed to a depression or trace running from the 
farm buildings south to the east and west road between Sections five 
and eight, where we were, and said, that was the Indian trail. He then 
took us northward, and in Section thirty-two in Andover township he 
again pointed to the location of the trail, but did not show us any trace. 
He said : "The trail crossed Edwards river where the big willows are, 
about thirty rods west of the north and south road which runs straight 
into Andover". This places the ford about one and three-quarters 
miles east of the location pointed out by George H. Johnson. 

In his autobiography Black Hawk speaks of his trips to Peoria, 
to which place he doubtless followed a trail. 

: " In 1780, during the contest for possession of the Illinois country. 
Col. George Rogers Clark sent Col. John Montgomery on a punitory 
expedition against the Indians of the Upper Mississippi. Col. Mont- 
gomery with an allied force of three hundred fifty men of Virginia, 
Kentucky, French of the Illinois villages, and Spanish subjects from 
St. Louis, moved up the Illinois river by boats, to Peoria. Here they 
began their overland march to the Sauk village located about the mouth 
of Rock river — now within the city limits of Rock Island. They burned 
the Indian village, and then, because of a desperate shortage of food 
supplies, they retraced their way to Peoria. (Vol. VIII, Ills. Hist. Col- 
lection, page CXXXV.) It is probable that they came over the trail, via 
Andover, East LaGrange, and Coal City. They came in pursuit of a 
defeated Indian and British force, and therefore could make bold to 
travel over the best route, regardless of danger. 

For a further study of the Indian trails to the south of Woodhull, 
in Henry county, the reader is referred to the "History of Knox county, 
Ills.", by C. C. Chapman & Co., 1878, which has a township map of the 
county with the Indian trails traced on them. 

The trail from Black Hawk's village to Oquawka, in Henderson 
County, Illinois, was doubtless the principal highway of the Sauk and 
Fox to their possessions to the southw-est, down into Iowa and Mis- 
souri. They owned all of Missouri north of the Missouri river. The 
Mississippi continues westerly from Rock Island for a distance of 
twenty-five miles ; then after flowing south for a dozen miles it turns 
southeasterly toward Oquawka. The trail under consideration was a 
short cut, twelve to fifteen miles nearer than if thev had followed the 
Mississippi. The distance to Oquawka by trail was fifty miles. 


This trail has been called the Indian and Military trail because 
both used it. It is a part of the route followed by Capt. Abraham 
Lincoln, in 1832, when the Illinois Volunteers marched from Beards- 
town to the mouth of Rock river in pursuit of Black Hawk, The Illi- 
nois State Historical Society at its annual meeting in 1909, appointed a 
special committee "To mark the route of Lincoln's Army Trail from 
Beardstown to mouth of Rock river", and Mr. William A. Meese re- 
ported that Hon. Frank O. Lowden had offered a gift of $750.00 to be 
used in marking the trail. The committee left its task unfinished — 
probably left it without having started work on it, and after a few years, 
further mention of the committee was dropped. 

Governor John Reynolds speaking of the march of the Illinois vol- 
unteers, says: "In this volunteer army were many of the most distin- 
guished men of the State. * * The brigade organized, and marching 
in the large prairies toward Rock Island, made a grand display". (My 
Own Times, p. 214), and Gov. Thomas Ford, speaking of the same 
cavalcade, says: "This was the largest military force of Illinoisans 
which had ever been assembled in the State, and made an imposing 
appearance as it traversed the then unbroken wilderness of prairie". 
(History of Illinois, Ford, p. 112.) 

It was on this trail also, directly south of Blackhawk's village, on 
the south side of Rock river, that the Illinois Volunteers, including 
Capt. Abraham Lincoln, were sworn into the Federal service, doubt- 
less Capt. Lincoln's first federal oath. It was administered here by 
General Henry Atkinson of the regular army. 

In 1828 Col. P. St. G. Cooke was ordered to take a detachment of 
recruits to Fort Crawford, at Prairie du Chien, Wis. One of his boats 
was left on the rocks of the Des Moines rapids, and it was necessary 
for some of his soldiers to march afoot. He says : "At a point fifty 
miles below Fort Armstrong (Rock Island) I heard that there was a 
trail to Fort Armstrong, which cut off much of the distance, so I imme- 
diately ordered my adventurous land detachment to take it". (Scenes 
and Adventures in the Army" by Cooke, 1859. Chapter III.) 

The history of Mercer and Henderson counties, Hill & Co., 1883, 
at p. 25, speaking of the Black Hawk war, says : "The brigade was ac- 
companied by Gov. Reynolds, and Joseph Duncan was Brigadier Gen- 
eral. On the 15th of June (1831), this the largest body of military 
that had ever been seen in the State, left their encampment at Rushville 
and marched to within a few miles of the Sac village. This line of 
march took them directly through the central part of Mercer county, 
and the exact route is still known and pointed out. It being the old 
Indian trail (which was nearly on the Henderson and Warren county 
line) and extending through Mercer county northward between Aledo 
and Joy". 

In the history of Mercer and Henderson counties, mentioned above 
at p. 300, history of Perryton township is the following regarding this 
trail : "Besides their knives and arrowheads of which numbers are still 
found, the Indians left no mark save the great trail their tribes followed 
in cutting off the bend of the Mississippi to the west. * * * in 1845 there 
were still five or six distinct, deep worn paths throughout the entire dis- 

Another View of the Camp Site of 1832 111. Vol. looking toward mouth of 
Rock River. All the Historians of that day speak of this Camp as being at 
"the mouth of Rock River." It is 3 Miles S. E. of the mouth of Rock River. 
The Oquawka to Rock Island Indian and Military trail passed through this 
Camp Site. 

Camp site on the open prairie of the Illinois Volunteers, which included 
Captain A. Lincoln and his company May 7-10, 1832. They were sworn into 
the Federal service here. The hill in background is Black Hawk's Watch 

The Army Ford Across Edwards River. 


tance, and were the guiding path to Rock Island and Oquawka, the two 
points where it left the river. This trail entered the town (Perryton 
township) on the south side of 31; thence along the divide to Camp 
Creek, crossing at a ford in 19 ; then along the ridge through 20 and 
17, and nearly diagonal through the north half of 9, southeast of 4, and 
northwest of 3". 

Attorney Isaac Newton Bassett of Aledo, says: (Interview 
Feb. 16, 1916.) 'T came to Aledo in 1852. The Indian trail crossed 
Edwards river on the section line between Sections eleven and twelve 
in Millersburg township. That is what they call the Army Ford. It is 
right at the road. There is a riffle there, and that is where they crossed. 
This was the Indian trail and is the same trail on which the military 
crossed in 1831 and in '32 when Abraham Lincoln was with them". 

Principal Norbury W. Thornton of Geneseo Collegiate Institute 
said (Interview, Nov., 1915) : "My father took me to the Edwards 
river ford when I was seven years of age and said this was where 
Lincoln and the army of the Black Hawk War crossed". 

On our way to see the Army Ford on Edwards river we stopped 
at the nearest farm house southeast of the ford and made inquiry to see 
if the local people knew of its historic interest. Here we met Mr. John 
Noonan, who had lived in the vicinity for seventy years. To our ques- 
tion as to whether such a place was anywhere around, he promptly 
replied : "It's right down there", pointing in its direction, "right by 
the 'Downey bridge'. It's right below the bridge on the west side of 
the road". Mr. Daniel Laughlin who was present said Mrs. Margaret 
McGovern, now deceased, a sister of Mr. John Noonan, told him that 
they used to ford Edwards river at this old ford before a bridge was 
built, and that this ford was on the old Indian trail". We were referred 
to Mr. Joseph Terry, at Millersburg, Mercer County, for further infor- 
mation. Mr. Terry was born in 1841 and came to Millersburg in 1850. 
They corroborated what the others had said of the ford, and said : 
"Go east one mile from Millersburg, then south one and one-half miles 
to the river. You will see the Army Ford to your right, just below the 

To reach this' interesting spot from Aledo, the county seat of 
Mercer county, go west two and one-half miles, then north one and 
one-half miles. It is in the east edge of Section eleven, Millersburg 

John Montgomery (formerly of Edgington township. Rock Island 
county), said: "That trail crossed by our farm and my brother Dan 
and I broke up a good part of it with a breaking plow. I can point out 
to you where it was. The trail was as plain — there were from four to 
a dozen tracks, and in places they were worn a foot deep. When the 
first settlers came here they used that trail for their first roads. There 
was no other road in the country. It ran from New Boston or Keiths- 
burg to Fort Armstrong". 

"One time — they used to tell the story, there were only a few 
whites anywhere around and they had an Indian scare. The settlers 
gathered together at New Boston for defense, and they wanted to send 
to Ft. Armstrong for help, but there were so few men they felt they 


couldn't spare any of them. A boy 12 or 14 years old said if he could 
have a certain pony he would go. They got him the pony and he was 
escorted out onto the prairie by the men, and then he took to the Indian 
trail and headed for the fort. When he got near the Cooper settlement, 
in Mercer county, he saw some Indians and, of course, he was scared 
and he ran his pony all the rest of the way to Fort Armstrong". 

Mr. Montgomery, in Nov., 1916, took us to see Mr. Eli Perry 
who, he said, would be able to assist in locating the trail in Mercer 

Mr. Eli Perry of Perryton township, Mercer county, said: "1 
have lived within a quarter to a half mile of this Indian trail all these 
years since I came here in 1843, at the age of two years. I know the 
old Indian trail and can pretty nearly follow it all the way from New 
Boston to Taylor Ridge. The trail was not used as a wagon road, but 
was used as a guide to go by. It wouldn't make a good road unless 
you were afoot or horseback. The trail led to the Bay Island where the 
hunting was excellent". 

Camp Creek is in Mercer county and is so named because the Illi- 
nois soldiers in the Black Hawk War made their noon-day camp there 
on the way from Oquawka to Black Hawk's village. Mr. Perry took us 
to Camp Creek, in Section nineteen, Perryton township, and taking us 
to the north side of the creek, at one hundred paces west of the public 
highway, said : "There used to be a walnut stump right here, and the 
story we got from way back, was that the walnut tree was cut down 
by the Black Hawk war soldiers, so it fell across the creek and they used 
it for a bridge. From the ford southwards and slightly southwesterly, 
across pasture land, to the crest of the hill, a distance of perhaps forty 
rods, one can walk in this historic old trail, for it is from a foot to two 
feet deep, and from about six feet to ten feet in width at the top, and as 
plainly to be seen as any natural object. It was deepest on the hill 
side where it had doubtless been washed by the rains. Mr. Perry 
said this was the Indian and military trail under consideration. It is 
on the Mrs. William VanMeter farm, in Sections nineteen and thirty, 
Perryton township. To find the trail, start at the fence, west side of 
the road, south of the creek, and go due west 100 paces. To the north- 
wards Mr. Perry pointed out the course of the trail as crossing the pub- 
lic highway near the foot of the hill and passing diagonally up the hill, 
in a northeasterly direction. 

In volume "A" of Roads, of the records of the county clerk's 
office of Rock Island county, at page 40 thereof, is a plat filed in 1856 
showing the public road in Section thirty in Black Hawk township, on 
which the crest of the ridge in the southeast quarter of the said section 
is designated as "Army Ridge Bluffs", and the creek below is called 
"Army Trail Creek". At the present, however, the creek is called Tur- 
key Hollow creek, and the bluff is Turkey FEollow hill. The public 
road leads from the high ridge down to the bottom land and to the 
Black Hawk village site, six miles to the northeast. We were taken to 
this "Army Ridge Bluff" by Mr. Almon A. Buffum of Edgington, 
Illinois, and William H. Miller who resides two and a half miles south 
of the spot under consideration. Air. Buffum's account of the trail 

|1 t: 'f^^^^ 

H^^^ r ^^H^M'^^^^M \X 



The Ford at Camp Creek. Messrs John Montgomery and Eli Perry are 
standing where the large Walnut tree was felled across the stream for the 
crossing of the 111. Vols, in the Black Hawk War. 

The Indian and Military Trail immediately south of Camp Creek. Mr. 
Montgomery at the left is standing in the trail. 


at this point was as follows: "There was a tree known as the "Lin- 
coln Tree" just at the edge of the bluff north of the school (which 
stands in the southwest corner of the s. e. quarter of section 30 in 
Black Hawk township). It was an ill-shaped tree, run over by 
wagons and the bark peeled off. I grubbed this tree out and planted 
potatoes there. It would be just south and a little west- of Vetter's 
house. There was an old road there which I broke up and planted 
to potatoes. This road or trail was known as the Indian trail and also 
as the military trail, along which the soldiers came during the Black 
Hawk war, and the reason the tree was called the "Lincoln Tree" was 
because Lincoln had come past there as a soldier in that war. This 
road or trail came by the "Scotch" Taylor place and came on along 
the top of the ridge, sometimes on one side of the present road and 
sometimes on the other. It passed down the hill from where the tree 
was and on down across where the ditch or creek now is. There 
wasn't any ditch there at the time I knew it first ; only a swale there. 
I could locate the old trail and location of the tree and will go with 
you some day and point it out to you," which he did in April, 1916." 
This place was the easiest way off the ridge. 

Mr. Miller's account was as follov/s : "I came here in 1847 at 
the age of sixteen months. When I was a boy I used to go to Rock 
Island over this trail driving oxen. * * * Our road was over this 
trail all the way down Turkey Hollow and on right across where the 
sand and gravel pit of the Peoria & Rock Island Railway is (at the 
west end of the line between Section 22 and 27, Black Hawk town- 
ship) and on east to Milan over the ridge on the bottom. The road was 
on an east and west line, at about the middle of the south half of the 
south half of Section twenty-two in Black Hawk township, and in the 
southeast part of the southeast quarter of Section twenty-two is 
where the military camp of 1832 was, when Lincoln and the 1800 
Illinois soldiers came to fight Black Hawk". Mr. Miller's knowledge 
covered about ten miles of the old trail, beginning at the Jahns' farm 
at the northeast corner of Section fourteen in Edgington township, 
crossing the public road south of the public school which is in Section 
Eleven, Edgington township, and continuing northeasterly passed 
east of the farm buildings on the "Scotch" Taylor place, in the south- 
east quarter of Section twelve, Edgington township, where the public 
road is now. From that point the old trail kept the top of the ridge, 
sometimes on one side, and at times on the other side of the present 
public road as it passes northward to the "Army Trail Bluff". It is 
a narrow ridge, some places being only a stone's throw across. 

Messrs. Buffum and Miller personally conducted us to the "Army 
Ridge Bluff" and showed us the old, abandoned public highway on 
the hillside which now is enclosed as pasture land. Both declared 
this road was originally the Indian and military trail; that when the 
pioneers settled this country they had no roads other than this trail 
and therefore used it. The rains washed the old highway considerably, 
and a re-location of the public highway was made a few yards to tlie 
north of the old, and the old trace is sodded over, an olden days relic 
which might well be preserved because of its historic interest. 


William S. Parks of Rock Island, and his brother, John Parks of 
Reynolds, Illinois, in October and November, 1915, took us to where 
the trail used to be on the "Prairie Home Farm" in Edgington town- 
ship. This was in 1915, our first trip to locate Indian trails here- 
abouts. They showed where it passed through the northwest corner 
of the southwest quarter of Section 26. The country here is rolling 
and the trail had from half a dozen to twelve or fifteen parallel traces. 
The rains undoubtedly would wash a worn trail and a new one would 
be made next to it. Mr. William Parks, giving his recollections of 
the trail, said: "We broke prairie here sixty years ago when we were 
little tots, and the trail crossed here. Brother John drove the three 
head yoke of oxen and I drove the three rear yoke. We had six 
teams of oxen to the plow". 

]\Ir. Fred Titterington of Rock Island took us to the east line of 
the northeast quarter of Section twenty-three, where the creek 
crossed the public highway. He expected to find some virgin sod 
there with the trail still visible, but was disappointed. He says he 
saw the trail there as late as 1860, at which time he, with his parents, 
frequently crossed it and he "remembers it as well as if it were yes- 
terday". It was deep on the side hill but on the top of the ridge it 
wasn't as plain". It had about four trails side by side, just south of 
the creek, which it crossed about where is now the public road. Mr. 
Titterington also remembers the location of the Lincoln camp as 
related to him by his Uncle George Crabs of Hamlet, Illinois, as being 
in the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of Section twenty- 
seven in Black Hawk township. Rock Island county. 

Mr. George Crabs of Hamlet, Illinois, was visited in company 
with his nephew, Mr. Fred Titterington, in December, 1915. Mr. 
Crabs," a nonogenarian, had a memory which as to the early times 
seemed as clear as a bell. He said : "The first time I saw that Indian 
trail was in August, 1844. I was on my way to camp meeting at 
Sugar Grove. There were four paths, worn a foot deep, three feet 
apart, plain as could be, like a cow path. At that time there was not 
a house on this prairie. T saw mounted soldiers on this trail once. 
They were on their way to Fort Armstrong from Oquawka and \Ytre 
traveling on a keen canter four abreast. About seventy years ago 
John Edgington and Jimmy Robinson went to mill where Quincy, 
(111.), is now, and they traveled down that old army trail. They 
drove four or five yoke of cattle and would be gone a week". Mr. 
Crabs gave the route of the trail all the way from Camp Creek in 
Mercer county to within a mile of Black Hawk's village at Rock 
Island, including the Lincoln camp site in the northeast quarter of 
the northeast quarter of Sec. 27. He was hardly in a physical con- 
dition to be taken over the course in person, but his testimony corrob- 
orated, without any suggestion or question on our part, the accounts 
given by men who personally conducted us to places where the trail 
was known to them. 

The reader will notice that two different descriptions are given 
for the Capt. Lincoln Camp site — the camp of the Illinois Volunteers, 
May 7th to 10th, 1832. In reality the two locations are just across 

TlK' liidiun and Alilitary Trail on the hillside at Turkey Hollow, showins; 
that the highways of the Indian suffered no less from heavy rains than do 
ours of today. Messrs. Miller and Buffum appear in the picture. 

Traces of the Indian and Military trail in Turkey Hollow, 
used by the early settlers as a public highway. 

It was also 


the public road from each other, and the eighteen hundred men with 
their mounts would probably more than cover both tracts. 

Jacob Harris, December, 1915, of Edgington, said: "Speaking 
of the Indian trail, it went down Turkey Hollow on the east side of 
the present road, the right hand side as you go down the hill. I used 
to play in the Indian trail when I was a boy. We didn't think any- 
thing about it then. There used to be lots of Indians come here in 
my time and I've seen them traveling on the old trail. There was 
more than one Indian trail. The one across Little's farm, east of 
Taylor Ridge, was not the main trail. The Indians would have a 
path and they'd follow the leader like sheep. If there were five hun- 
dred of them they'd keep one path. The trail passed right by the old 
Prairie Union school which at that time was a half mile north and a 
quarter of a mile west of where it is now". "The Parks boys, John 
and William, and I used to go to school part way in that trail." Mr. 
Harris' description places the old school where the trail was, at the 
northwest corner of the east half of the northwest quarter of Section 
twenty-six Edgington township, Rock Island county. 

The old "Scotch" Taylor farm is in the southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion twelve, Edgington township. The public road passes northward 
through it. To this place in December, 1915, we were conducted by 
Sam C. Taylor, a son. Mr. Taylor said he remember'ed the trail very 
well, as it passed through between their farm buildings which are 
located just where the public highway bends northeastwards. He 
said: "There were several tracks of the trail. One time when I was 
a boy a lot of Indians came to our house and mother was trying to 
drive them away with a broom. She was afraid to let them into the 
the house because the men were away. There had been some fencing 
done on the trail and the Indians were asking about the trail. It 
looked to me as if the trail between our buildings in the hollow was 
headed to the high ground which led toward Fancy Creek". 

Ex-Senator William F. Crawford, formerly of Edgington town- 
ship. Rock Island county, said: "Yes, I saw the old Indian and army 
trail very often. I used to see the old, deep ditch-like trail going off 
the point of Turkey Hollow hill and I asked what that was and they 
said, 'Why, that's the trail Lincoln marched over on the way to fight 
Indians. I asked old man Miller, father of William H. Miller, one 
time, and he told me this. 'There was an old tree on the trail which 
had been tramped down and scarred up from being rode over. I've 
been in the cavalry and I know how the brush is tramped down that 
way. The tree was at the top of the hill, just at the bend, or a little 
southwest of the bend. We called it the Lincoln tree, and the trail 
was just as plain as could be and crossed where Turkey Hollow creek 
is now. Then it was just a tiny bit of a ditch with a couple of logs 
in it to drive over. Then we passed on down to the lowlands toward 
Milan, not keeping the section lines at all, but just driving across 
country". We interviewed Mr. Crawford in November. 1916. 

George Washington Griffin of Milan, said (Nov., 1915) : "There 
were several Indian trails. Father and my uncles (the sons of 
Joshua Vandruff) would go out hunting and sometimes they'd go 


out to look for cattle, and we would go sometimes in one direction 
on an Indian trail and sometimes in another direction on an Indian 
trail, and Big Island had different trails that were called Indian trails." 
The village of Milan, Illinois, is situated on the south side of 
Rock River, opposite Black Hawk's village. We called on Mr. Ore- 
gon Pinekley, an octogenarian living at Milan, and an old resident 
there. He said : "There were two trails that met here, one from the 
east and one from the west, but I can't tell you just where they were. 
I know more about the old army trail in Mercer county. When I was 
a boy, we boys used to go swimming in Edwards river at the Army 
Ford. We lived in Millersburg at that time". 

The Oquawka-Rock Island trail as it came within ten or twelve 
miles of Black Hawk's village, had a fork, somewhere southwest of 
where the village of Taylor Ridge stands. It is possible that the loca- 
tion pointed out by Fred Titterington, mentioned above, is a part of the 
east fork. Another spot on this fork was pointed out to us by Deputy 
Sheriff R. E. Little of Milan, located on the farm of his boyhood, pass- 
ing along a line from the southwest corner of the north half of the 
northeast quarter of Section eighteen, Bowling township. Rock Island 
county, thence running diagonally to the northeast corner of Section 
eighteen. Mr. Little said: "The old Indian trail here was at least ten 
feet wide, and there was not a number of them, but just one path, 
which went in a straight line over hill and hollow, and on the hillside 
the water washed a sort of ditch, and part of this, when I saw it last, 
was grown over with grass. This trail could still be seen twenty-five 
years ago. Now it is pretty well obliterated". The field here was 
under cultivation. 

The next point on this fork was given us by C. P. O'Haver of 
Rock Island. It is located at the northwest corner of the northeast 
quarter of Section ten, in Bowling township, two miles due south of 
the camp ground of the Illinois Volunteers of 1832. 

Both the Indians and the soldiers followed the left bank of the 
Rock river in their ascent up-stream, in the 1832 campaign of the 
Black Hawk war. Judge John W. Spencer, who was an acquaintance 
of Black Hawk and who was one of the pioneers who disputed with 
the Indians for possession of their village here, says that : "When 
Black Hawk and his warriors returned in 1832, they kept on the south 
side of Big Island (at the mouth of Rock river), which I had never 
known them to do before". (Reminiscences, p. 44.) 

Gen. Henry Atkinson, writing from Fort Armstrong under date 
of April 13, 1832, says: "They (the band of Sauks under Black 
Hawk) crossed the (Mississippi) river at Yellow Banks * * and are 
now moving up on the east side of Rock river. * * toward the Proph- 
et's village". (Wakefield's Black Hawk War", p. 35.) 

Lieut. Albert Sydney Johnston's diary corroborates the above_ as 
follows: "April 13. Black Hawk's band was reported this morning 
to be passing up on the east side of Rock river. Their course indicates 
that their movement is upon the Prophet's village". (Life of Gen. 
Albert Sydney Johnston, p. 34.) 

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Attorney William Allen of Erie, Ills., says : "There was an 
Indian trail on the other (east) side of Rock river to Prophetstown, 
where there was a little city of Indians, and their lodges were strung 
out, down Rock river for a half mile. At the time of the Black Hawk 
War, Abraham Lincoln with the crowd of his company camped at 
Pink Prairie in the edge of Henry county where he was nearly eaten 
up by the mosquitoes. Lincoln told this to Judge Teets, of Erie. 
Teets was down to do some lobbying regarding a ferry boat across 
Rock river, in 1859, after the Lincoln-Douglas debates". (Interview, 
Aug. 10, 1917.) Nels Anderson, who had lived on an island in Rock 
river, in Coal Valley township, for thirty years, said : "I came here in 

1865, and old man Porter, who came here in 1833, told me 

Lincoln came up on the east side of Rock river on his way to Wiscon- 
sin to_fight Black Hawk". (Interview, April 9, 1917.) 

The Illinois Volunteers followed Black Hawk up Rock river over 
the same trail. Black Hawk and his followers were a religious people 
and in the course of their progress would make sacrifices to the Great 
Spirit. Gov. Reynolds, speaking of these evidences, says : 'Tt made 
us sorry to see often at the camp ground of Black Hawk a small dog 
immolated to appease the Great Spirit". (My Own Times, 229.) 

Black Hawk reached Prophetstown, April 26th, as told by Wake- 
field in the following words : "On the 26th Mr. Gratiot saw at a dis- 
tance, about two miles down Rock river, the army of the celebrated 
Black Hawk, consisting of about five hundred Sacs, well armed and 
mounted on fine horses, moving in a line of battle — their appearance 
was terrible in the extreme. Their bodies were painted with white 
clay, with an occasional impression of their hands about their bodies, 
colored black. About their ankles and bodies they wore wreaths of 
straw, which always indicate a disposition for blood". (Wakefield's 
History of the Black Hawk War, p. 38.) 

Prophetstown is on the east bank of Rock river, and is so called 
because it was the village of the Winnebago Prophet, Wa-bo-kie-shiek 
(see Handbook American Indians, Vol. I, p. 886) who was one of the 
foremost of the Indian leaders in the Black Hawk War, This village 
was reached by the Illinois Vols.- on May 10th, the same day they 
broke camp near Rock Island. The soldiers had made a march of 
forty miles, and "When they reached Prophetstown they found it de- 
serted, and at once applied the torch to the bark houses and reduced 
them to ashes". (Armstrong, Sauks and the Black Hawk War, p. 309.) 

In the march to Prophetstown both the Indians and the soldiers 
would follow the beaten trail ; in this case the Sauk and Fox trail from 
Milan is now, to the ford across Coal Valley creek, as located by 
Messrs. W. C. Wilson and Alex Craig, and Thomas J. Murphy. At 
the east side of this ford the two trails would part company, the one 
up Rock river continuing due east. 

Thomas J. Murphy "said: "An old trail followed right on the 
bank of Rock river going up stream, then there was another trail 
which followed on the high ground right where the yellow barn on 
the Killing estate is". This "yellow barn' 'is due east of the ford, and 
as we walked over the course of this trail of the higher ground, the 


writer found two flint arrow-heads not far from the barn, then as we 
proceeded eastward he began picking up chips of flint until he had 
thirty-three pieces; then seeing the plowed ground was full of them, 
the novelty of it dropped. Mr. Murphy continued : "The wider trail 
kept this ridge, and the one which followed the river bank was a nar- 
rower one and is still there just as it was when I was a boy". (April 
9, 1917.) 

The next point which we believed to be on this same trail up Rock 
river, was about five miles easterly, namely the ford across Green 
river. We located it by the process of elimination, under the guidance 
of Messrs. Craig and Wilson, above mentioned. Mr. Craig said: 
"Lincoln? Right here. This is the only place they could cross. This 
is the old Indian trail right across here. There is no ford between 
here and Rock river. I've been along it hundreds of times hunting 
and fishing and strolling", to which Mr. Wilson added : "We've 
seined every foot of it from Colona to the mouth of Green river, and 
I know there Avas no other ford". Mr. Craig mentioned that in places 
the river was twelve to sixteen feet deep, to which Mr. Wilson replied : 
"We seined through all of it just the same". 

The ford is being used by the farmer today. On the right bank 
of Green river, a few rods from the ford, is a farm house and barns. 
Our two guides said the house was built on top of a large Indian 
mound and when they dug the cellar they found a space walled in with 
rock "round or oblong" and they found skeletons, "either sixteen or 
twenty-three, I don't know which, and lots of implements". Mr. Craig 
said: "I was told about it by Gully (Gulliver) Adams and Sheldon 
Hodge. They got the rock out and told me of it". 

These men also told of a "Kitchen heap" on the left (east) bank 
of Rock river, a short distance above this Green river ford, "A mile 
below the old Colona ferry", which they found thirty-five or forty 
years ago. They "found brown Indian pottery, implements, needles, 
deer horns and bones, and, mostly clam shells". 

Green river ford is not on the public highway. To find it, take 
the "Geneseo road" between Moline bridge over Rock river, and 
Brier Bluff ; when you come to the section line between sections fif- 
teen and sixteen, Colona township, Henry county, follow this line 
north to Green river (a distance of a little over a half mile) then fol- 
low the river down stream until you come to the ford, a distance of 
perhaps twenty rods, or thereabouts, northwest of the section line 
where it strikes the river. 

Rock River was a favorite among our aboriginals. Continuing 
up stream, passing the old Colona ferry site (a fine bridge is there 
now), and about five miles farther up stream, passing the primitive 
Cleveland ferry, and five miles farther up stream, the old Angell's 
ferry, also a relic of pioneer days, one finds just above the last men- 
tioned ferry and on the east side of the river, other remains of Indian 
occupation. One day on a hike with our bands boys, we found there 
along a strip of higher land beside the river, a number of fragments of 
Indian pottery, a piece of a broken iron tomahawk, a stone celt, and ten 
well formed flint arrow-heads, and there are numerous pieces of chipped 

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The writer makes no pretense of knowing the exact course of the 
Indian trail up Rock river beyond the part located by Mr. Murphy, 
and the Green river ford located by Messrs. Wilson and Craig. En- 
quiry was made for information, but thus far without success. The 
evidences of habitations above mentioned, are included here, because 
they prove that the land was occupied, and there is no such occupation 
without its complement of highways or trails. 

In addition to the above one should expect to find trails radiating 
from Davenport, Iowa, to the north, west, and probably southwest, 
for the Sauk and Fox United Nation held Iowa by right of conquest 
(Kan. Hist. Coll. XI, 334), and during the latter years of their great- 
ness they had their principal villages, opposite Davenport, wdiere Rock 
Island now stands. Presiding over the Fox village was Wapella, 
Principal Chief of the Foxes, while the adjoining Sauk village had 
such men of note as Pash-e-pa-ho, Keokuk and Black Hawk. The 
writer merely suggests this as a subject for Trails-Hunters, who 
should begin their quest at once, while information can be had at first 
hand. One would expect to find a short cut northwards from Daven- 
port to the Dubuque mines, approximately along the "Dubuque Road", 
and as to a west-bound trail, the following extract from the reminis- 
cences of M. D. Hauberg may prove of value: "The next place we 
broke (virgin prairie in 1850) was for Claus Vieths, about seven miles 
west of Davenport. The second day we were there an Indian came 
along and stopped. When we came to the road he hailed us. The 
boss was afraid but I went up to him. He was riding an Indian pony, 
and he carried a rifle, a revolver and a bow and arrows. The pony's 
bit, the stirrups and the rifle were silver plated. He asked me how far 
it was to Davenport. While he stood here he would sometimes look 
toward the west. Then he went in that direction and was gone about 
ten minutes, when he returned with the whole tribe. There must 
have been two hundred of them. They had ponies running loose with 
baskets on each side, a papoose in each basket, and some were carry- 
ing the tents". 



By E. Bentley Hamilton. 

From the year 1680, when Robert LaSalle and Tonti, his miUtary 
aid, erected a pahsade fort on a high bluff overlooking the Ilhnois 
river and named it Fort Creve Coeur, Tazewell county has been rich in 
the history of the upbuilding of this western empire. In historical im- 
portance, the event of which I am to speak, is almost without parallel 
in any city in Illinois ; in its effect upon the greatest war on American 
soil, it will forever stand without a peer. 

Reflect for a moment that even in 1860 Illinois was the fourth 
state in the Union in population and wealth, in influence and power ; 
no voice was more potent than hers in shaping government policy and 
directing "the course of empire". Each of the two political parties of 
the North had selected its standard bearer from within the confines of 
this western commonwealth and he who had mounted their courthouse 
steps to try his cases across the street and within a hundred feet from 
the spot where the Union League was organized, was summoned to 
"the seats of the mighty". Later, after the lawyer had become the 
President, Abraham Lincoln extended his official aid and sanction to 
this organization. 

Following the attack upon Fort Sumpter on April 12th, 1861, and 
its capitulation on April 14th, the President issued his call on April 
15th for 75,000 volunteers. The same day Governor Yates issued his 
call for the legislature to convene in special session on April 23rd, 
Before the legislature convened, 61 companies had been accepted and 
thus Illinois had exceeded her complement on the first call of President 

It is worthy of more than passing comment that at first there was 
a suprising union of sentiment in this state. Leading Democratic 
journals condemned in strong terms the act of secession and urged 
sustaining the Government. The sum of $3,500,000 was at once ap- 
propriated by the Legislature for war ; a bill was passed defining and 
punishing treason to the state and everything was done that was 
deemed necessary "to suppress insurrections, repel invasion and ren- 
der prompt assistance to the United States Government". 

But this condition was not one which was long destined to con- 
tinue. Bull Run, with its Confederate victory, had demonstrated to 
a humiliated North that a three months' war was to become a three 
years' struggle ; Wilson Creek, from the death of the brilliant Lyons, 
had reversed the order of victory in Missouri and crowned the Rebels 
with her laurels ; New Madrid and Island No. 10 under the success- 
ful co-operation of Pope and Commodore Foote had fallen into Union 


hands; the first Confederate line was broken by the fall of Forts 
Henry and Donelson. 

Victory had been snatched at Pea Ridge in spite of the employ- 
ment of Indians by the Confederates, who scalped and tomahawked in 
the exercise of their savage and barbarous methods of warfare. 
Shiloh, wrenched from defeat, with its bloody toll of 15,000 lives, leav- 
ing the Union army shattered and demoralized, had been written upon 
the crimson pages of history. 

In the meantime certain changes had been taking place in the 
sentiment of the North which at first had been unreservedly and un- 
qualifiedly in favor of the suppression of the rebellion. The pure 
streams of an undivided loyalty were being polluted at their source. 
Unseen hands were attempting to paralyze the efiforts of those who 
were engaged at home in maintaining the armies in the field. The 
hushed voice of treason was whispering its venom for the perpetra- 
tio'i of abominable deeds. Treason, lurking in the cities and the coun- 
try, by its falsehood and its treachery, was far more monstrous in its 
danger than an enemy fighting in the open. Treason in all its deviltry 
was biting into the vitals of this loyal state with a tooth "bare gnawn 
and canker-bit". Through the "Knights of the Golden Circle" and 
similar organizations, it poured its dram of poison into loyal blood 
and sought to extinguish the sacred fires of Loyalty that burned in 
the hearts of all true patriots. 

"Never land long lease of empire won 

"WTiose sons sat silent when base deeds were done." 

Such were the circumstances when eleven men assembled on the 
third floor of the building at 331 Court Street in the City of Pekin to 
organize the first Council of the Union League of America. 

At that time the Knights of the Golden Circle numbered 350,000 
members in the northern states alone,, two-thirds of whom were 
organized into military units and drilled. A few of its traitorous prin- 
ciples were to harass the families of the Union soldiers so as to cause 
desertions from the army ; to combat and resist all recruiting in the 
north ; to liberate, by force if necessary, confederate prisoners con- 
fined in northern prisons. 

The source of the origin was undoubtedly attributable to the loyal 
men of Tennessee who, when driven from their homes soon after the 
opening of the Civil War, sought refuge in inaccessible places in the 
mountains of their state and took an oath of loyalty to the Government 
of their forefathers. 

The first Council was composed of leading Union men of Taze- 
well County, to-wit : John W. Glasgow, J. P. ; Dr. D. A. Cheever, 
Hart Montgomery, Maj. R. N. Cullom, Alexander Small, Rev. J. W. 
M. Vernon, Geo. H. Harlow, Chas. Turner, Jonathan Merriam, Henry 
Pratt and L. F. Garrett. One of the original eleven was a Tennessee 
refugee, who introduced the Union mountaineer's oath, which was ac- 
cepted pending the reorganization in the North. 


The first Illinois State Council met at Bloomington on September 
25, 1862, with representatives present from twelve counties. At this 
meeting the organization was completed and the following officers 
chosen : 

Hon. Mark Bangs, of Marshall County, Grand President; Prof. 
D. Wilkins, of McLean County, Grand Vice-President ; Geo. H. Har- 
low, of Tazewell County, Grand Secretary ; H. S. Austin, of Peoria 
County, Grand Treasurer ; J. R. Gorin, of Macon County, Grand 
Marshal ; A. Gould, of Henry County, Grand Herald ; John E. Rosette, 
of Sangamon County, Grand Sentinel, 

The Executive Committee chosen was as follows : Joseph Medill, 
of Cook County ; Dr. A. McFarland, of Morgan County ; J. K. War- 
ren, of Macon County ; Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of LaSalle County ; Hon. 
Mark Bangs, of Marshall County ; Enoch Emery, of Peoria County ; 
John E. Rosette, of Sangamon County. 

The obligation which the members assumed and which was offi- 
cially adopted by the National Grand Council, might well be made 
today the obligation of all who undertake to assume the privileges of 
American citizenship. The following was the solemn oath : 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm), in the presence of God and these 
witnesses, that I have never voluntarily borne arms against the United States 
since I have been a citizen thereof; that I will support, protect and defend 
the Constitution and Government of the United States and the flag thereof, 
against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and 
allegiance to the same; and that I will also defend this State against any 
invasion, insurrection, or rebellion, to the extent of my ability. This I freely 
pledge without mental reservation or evasion. Furthermore, that I will do 
all in my power to elect true and reliable Union men and supporters of the 
Government, and none otliers, to all offices of profit or trust, from the lowest 
to the highest — in ward, town, county, state and General Government. And 
should I ever be called to fill any office, I will faithfully carry out the objects 
and principles of this lodge. And, further, that I will protect, aid and defend 
all worthy members of the Union League. And, further, I will never make 
known, in any way or manner, to any person or persons not members of the 
Union League, any of the signs, passwords, proceedings, debates or plans 
of this or any other Council under this organization, except when engaged in 
admitting new members into this lodge. And with my hand upon the Holy 
Bible, Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United 
States of America, under the seal of my sacred honor, I acknowledge myself 
firmly bound and pledged to the faithful performance of this my solemn 
obligation. So help me God." 

The proud boast of Boston is Faneuil Hall where in that "Cradle 
of Liberty" the resolutions were adopted which proclaimed the free- 
dom of America ; Philadelphia has her Independence Hall, whose 
bricks are sacred because within those walls the terms of Liberty, when 
once it was achieved, were reduced to writing in the Constitution of 
the LTnited States ; but the simple bronze tablet placed on December 
7th, 1920, upon the historic building in the City of Pekin, 111., will 
forever commemorate the origin of that determined organization who 
dedicated themselves to preserving the liberty declared in Massachu- 
setts and to maintaining the Constitution adopted in Pennsylvania. 

It was like the seed which is borne on the breast of the wind to 
germinate 6n other soil. Its purpose was so invincible, its methods so 


effective, its vigilance so much the alpha and omega of Liberty itself, 
that Union League Clubs began to be formed throughout the North. 
From Pekin the idea spread to Chicago ; from Chicago to Philadel- 
phia; from Philadelphia to New York; from New York to New Eng- 
land, until the ripple became the wave inundating every specter of 
treason wherever it raised its ugly head. 

It was not an organization for the mere display of patriotic fer- 
vor ; it was no chimera or emotional effervescence ; it was as far above 
sentimentality as "mercy is above the sceptered sway". It was as fear- 
less as it was uncompromising. It neither tolerated nor condoned. It 
poured every man's citizenship into the crucible and tested it with the 
acid of undivided loyalty to the Union. 

If you would give full credit to the accomplishment of the Union 
League, consider the precarious condition which threatened even this 
loyal state of Illinois. A strong secret band had sworn to take her out 
of the Union and remove her as a factor against the Confederacy. 
For a while civil war threatened to divide the state against itself. By 
reason of its geographical location and its natural boundaries it was 
the great dividing wedge between the East and the West and the 
North and South. The torch of the incendiary and the bullet of the 
assassin threatened every true and loyal home. It required no statis- 
tician in 1862 to compute that all chances were in favor of the South, 
were Illinois lost. 

The spark that was here kindled became a flame. Every private 
citizen, every candidate for office, every public servant, every man of 
fighting age who came under the ban of suspicion was either prose- 
cuted under civil law, invited to leave for more hospitable climes, or 
branded with the 'scarlet letter' of disloyalty. The contagion of its 
spirit spread until it became a solid phalanx, making all of the people 
march in one direction, keeping step to the music of the Union, armed 
with an irresistible and triumphant faith. 

The summer of 1863 marked the crest of the Confederacy. Get- 
tysburg, which was fought with the highest courage on both sides, 
resulted in a loss approximating 50,000 lives. Had the Army of the 
Potomac failed, Harrisburg, Philadelphia and New York would have 
been taken. Vicksburg, the fit companion in victory to Gettysburg, 
was the crowning achievement of the Army of the Tennessee under 
Grant. It exhausted all known military science and surpassed all cam- 
paigns known to history. It dismembered the Confederacy and ranked 
him as the greatest military general of all the ages. Napoleon had 
but 72,000 men at Waterloo ; Grant took 75,000 prisoners in \"irginia 
alone and disposed of as many more of the enemy on the battlefield. 
Marching through a hostile country, he led his men farther than 
Napoleon marched going to Moscow and father than Hannibal marched 
in coming into Italy. 

When sanitary stores were sadly needed before the fall of Vicks- 
burg, the Grand Secretary of the League, Col. George H. Harlow, 
sent out the letters of urgent appeal that resulted in immediate sub- 
scriptions of the sum of $25,000 in cash, besides large quantities of 


Another notable instance of its efficacy was found at the time that 
Governor Yates urged the Government to permit organization of 
negro regiments in the North. It was in 1862 when another call was 
made for 300,000 additional volunteers. Dispatching an open letter 
to the President, urging him to summon all men to the defense of the 
Government, loyalty alone being the dividing line between the nation 
and its foe, he concluded, "in any event Illinois will respond to your 
call but adopt this policy and she will spring like a flaming giant into 
the fight". It was the unflinching course adopted by the Union 
Leagues throughout the United States with reference to the organ- 
ization of the black regiments that made the course possible. In New 
York not a single trumpeter .could be found that would for love or 
money lead the march of these regiments through that City. Not even 
one would raise the martial strains of the liberty loving people of this 
country at the head of the colored men who were going out to fight 
for it. But when the government band and an escort of the Union 
League, leading thousands ol citizens, did march down at the head of 
those black regiments, no triumph was ever greeted with louder ac- 
claim than swept throughout the length and breadth of Broadway. 
No more distinguished company of ladies ever gave colors to a regi- 
ment than the ladies who from the balcony of the Union League Club 
handed their colors to that first negro regiment. 

This was the factor then, that was able to turn hatred into favor 
and kindness into respect and thus directly became the most potent 
agency in furnishing these troops who assisted in turning the tide of 
battle for the North. The Union League Club of New York to fill up 
the strength of the army put into the field itself, with its resources, its 
money, its efifort, its organization and its encouragement, 6,000 men 
as its contribution to the tide of triumph in which the cause of the re- 
bellion was then finally to be drowned. And patriotism became 
mingled with cuisine when on Thanksgiving Day on November 18, 
1864, it distributed luxuries of the market among 200,000 soldiers at 
the front. Not in all history is there recorded a more gracious hospi- 
tality, a more generous host or a nobler company of guests than par- 
took of that generosity. 

In the darkest days of the war in 1863, when England was delib- 
erating as to whether she should formally and openly recognize the 
Confederacy, the representatives of the Union League who crossed 
the Atlantic in the cause of the Union, were a potent influence in de- 
terring her from an action that would have been disatrous to the 
cause of the Union. These men made it plain that if the British Gov- 
ernment should, by any interference or by oversight or by purpose, 
even to the jostling of a hair, in that struggle, recognize the claims of 
the South, we should never forgive it and when the Government in all 
its authority was maintained, would seek its redress. 

By October, 1862, the membership in Illinois had increased to ap- 
proximately 5,000; a few months later 50,000 were enrolled in its 
ranks, and by 1864 there were 175,000 members in this State. 


Here then was the full fruition of the movement conceived and 
executed by those eleven patriots whose names will be preserved "in 
characters of brass, 'gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion". 
From that humble room in which they gathered in that building in 
Pekin, on the 18th day of June, 1862, when Spring had hung her 
infant blossoms on the trees, emanated an active principle of loyalty 

"Swift as a shadow, 

Brief as the lightning in the collied night" 

electrified the spirit of devotion to the Union and served it nobly in the 
common cause. It became the strong right arm to execute the mani- 
festo of Lincoln that the Union must be preserved at all hazards. It 
sustained the unfaltering faith of that great, patient soul in the White 
House that no political policy founded on the immorality of slavery 
could endure. It tore the mask from the face of every citizen and 
scrutinized him in the light of his paramount duty to country. It 
instructed the youth, inspired the recruit and oft times handed to him 
the sword which he was not to sheath in its scabbard until the voice 
of Rebellion should be forever silenced. It struck the knife from the 
hands of the Copperheads who threatened to assassinate Governor 
Yates in 1863, and by its vigilance preserved the life of President 
Johnson when he was acting as Provisional Governor. At the second 
inauguration of President Lincoln, George H. Harlow and Dr. D. A. 
Cheever of Pekin and J. A. Jones of Tremont represented the Tazewell 
County Union League as a part of the secret body-guard to prevent 
the threatened assassination of the President. Like an angel of mercy 
it succored the wounded, fed the hungry and ministered to the sick, 
and thus maintained at high level the morale of the army in the field. 

From the time that those eleven founders assembled under Divine 
Guidance, until Appomattox, "they slumbered not nor slept" and their 
enduring reward is in the gratitude of a united people toward them 
who did something to leave the Union stronger than they found it ; 
who turned their gaze from the lowering clouds and angry rivers and 
the ashes of plantations and cities to the one bright gleam which was 
the harbinger of a reunited nation, over which "the morning stars 
might sing again to swell the chorus of the Union". 



By Willlam W. Sweet, DePauw University. 

Three generations ago no name was better known throughout 
north central Illinois than Peter Cartwright. No single individual 
from 1824 to 1870 was a greater factor in the social and religious 
life of the State than was this eccentric Methodist circuit rider, who 
will always remain the type of the frontier preacher.^ 

The son of pioneer parents, he was born in Kentucky in 1785 and 
grew up in the rudest and roughest region of the frontier, in the bor- 
derland between Kentucky and Tennessee. When sixteen years of 
age he was "converted" in the great revival which swept over the 
western country from 1795 to 1802 and united with the Methodist 
Church, then weak and despised and considered as little better than an 
"ignorant and excitable rabble." Immediately he developed such zeal 
and power in exhortation that he was soon licensed as an exhorter 
and was thus, while yet a mere boy, employed by the frontier Church 
in aivding the regular circuit preachers. He was ordained deacon at 
twenty-one, an elder at twenty-three, and in 1804 was admitted to the 
Western Conference,^ of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which then~ 
embraced all the vast territory west of the mountains. From 1804 to 
1811 he rode extensive circuits in Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio and 
Indiana. In 1812, when twenty-seven years of age, he became a 
Presiding Elder, overseeing a group of circuits and from this time to 
the end of his long, active career, with the exception of a very few 
years, he supervised vast districts in Kentucky, Tennessee and Illinois. 

He came to Illinois on horseback in 1823 to explore the country, 
and the next year moved with his family to Pleasant Plains, in San- 
gamon county. Here was his home for the remainder of his eventful 
life. He had requested the bishop to transfer him to Illinois, because 
as he stated : "I had seen with painful emotions the increase of a dis- 
position to justify slavery, and our preachers, by marriage and other 
ways, became more and more entangled with this dark question and 
were disposed to palliate and justify the traffic and ownership of 
human beings." Summarizing his reasons for his removal to Illinois 
he says: "First, I would get entirely clear of the evil of slavery. 
Second, I could raise my children up to work where work was not 

1 The chief sources of information concerning the career of Peter Cartwright is his 
autobiography, published in 1S56. A brief biographical sketch was published aft'ir 
his death, giving the events of his career from 1856 to 1872, in the Minutes of the 
Annual Conferences for the year 1S7.S, 115-117. Another book giving biographical 
material is Fiftii Years a Presiding Eider, by Cartwright, (Cincinnati. 1871). 

2 For the .Tournal of the Western Conference, see Sweet, Rise of Methodism in the 
West, (New York, 1920). 



thought a degredation. Third, I beUeved I could better my temporal 
circumstances, and procure land for my children as they grew up. And 
fourth, I could carry the gospel to destitute souls that had by their 
removal into some new country, been deprived of the means of grace.""* 

Sangamon county, to which he had come, was but newly settled. 
The condition of the country we will let Cartwright describe : "It was 
the most northern and the only northern county organized in the State. 
It had been settled by a few hardy and enterprising pioneers but a few 
years before. Just north of it was an unbroken Indian country, and the 
Indians would come in by the scores and would camp on the Sangamon 
river bottom, and hunt and live through the winter. Their frequent 
visits to our cabins created sometimes great alarm among the women 
and children."* 

The Illinois conference, to which Cartwright had been transferred 
on his removal to Illinois, had just been organized and included all the 
settled parts of Illinois, and southwestern Indiana. The Sangamon 
circuit, which was Cartwright's first Illinois appointment,^ had been 
organized but three years before and included all the scattered settle- 
ments in Sangamon county, and parts of Morgan and McLean coun- 
ties.^ The country was destitute of ferries, bridges or roads. After 
traveling this circuit for two years, Cartwright became Presiding 
Elder of the Illinois District and Superintendent of the Potawattomie 
mission. His district extended from the Kaskaskia river to the ex- 
treme northern settlements and included the Potawattomie Indian 
nation on Fox river." This district he superintended for two years, 
1826-1828, when a new district was formed called the Sangamon, over 
which he was appointed to preside. This district included much of the 
territory of his previous district and embraced the sparsely settled 
region in the northern part of the State. 

In 1832 two new districts were added to the Illinois conference, 
one called the Chicago and the other the Ouincy district. Over the 
latter Cartwright was now appointed. The first mention of Chicago^ 
in the list of Methodist appointments was in 1830. three years before 
the incorporation of Chicago. In the above year it appeared as a mis- 
sion in the Sangamon district, under the superintendence of Peter 
Cartwright, although it had formerly been a preaching place on the 
Fox river circuit. The first preacher assigned to Chicago mission was 
Jesse Walker, while the second year Stephen R. Beggs^ was appointed 

The Quincy district embraced the northwest corner of the 
State and even included a part of Wisconsin. It contained four 

^Autobiography of Peter Cartwriglit, the backwoods preacher, (New York. 1856) 

* Conditions in Sangamon County in 18.30, the year Abraham Lincoln came to 
Illinois, is described in Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln^ (New York, 1890) I, 47-69. 

•s General Minutes, I, (New York, "l840) 454. 

° Autobiography, 449-450. 

^Minutes, I, 516; Autobiography, 261. 

^ Minutes, II, 85 ; 128. S. R. Beggs, the second circuit preacher assigned to the 
Chicago circuit, has written a book, Pacjes from the Early History oj the West and 
Northwest. (Cincinnati, 1868). When Chicago was incorporated. In 1833, there were 
130 Catholics in the place, or ninety per cent of the population. They were mostly 
French or French and Indian. (Pease, The Frontier State, 1818-1848, (A. C. McClurg 
and Co.) 422. 

» Autobiography, 324, 326. 


missions and three circuits. Cartwright described the boundaries as 
"Commencing at the mouth of the IlHnois river, and running up the 
Mississippi river to Galena, the northwest corner of the State, and up 
the Illinois river on its west side to near Peoria ; thence due north to 
the northern line of the State and even into what is now Wisconsin." 
Over this vast territory Cartwright rode for four years and they were 
years of hardship. 

Much of the Quincy district consisted of new settlements, "formed 
or forming," which meant long hard rides, "cabin parlors, straw beds, 
and bedsteads, made out of barked saplings, and puncheon bedcords." 
The population he describes as "hardy, industrious, enterprising, game 
catching, and Indian-fighting set of men." The women were also 
hardy and they considered it no hardship to turn out and help their 
husbands raise their cabins, "they would mount a horse and trot ten 
or fifteeen miles to meeting, or to see the sick and minister to them, 
and home again the same day." With these hardy women of the 
early day, Cartwright contrasts the women of the latter fifties, "who 
have grown up in wealth and fashionable life, who would faint if they 
had to walk a hundred yards in the sun without a parasol ; who are 
braced and stayed at such an intemperate rate, that they cannot step 
over six or eight inches at a step, and should they by accident happen 
to loose their moorings and fall, are imprisoned with so many unmen- 
tionables, that they could not get up again. "^° The Presiding Elder 
of the Quincy district was frequently four or five weeks from home 
at a time, and on many a journey he had difficulty in finding his way 
across the wide, unsettled prairies. ^^ 

Again in 1836 Cartwright was appointed to the Sangamon dis- 
trict, which he served four years ; he was then sent to the Jacksonville 
district ; thence three years on the Bloomington district ; then four 
years on the Springfield district ; then two more years on the Quincy 
district, when in 1853 he was appointed to the Pleasant Plains district. 
After serving several more terms on other Illinois districts, he was 
relieved of the trials and hardships of the presiding eldership, at his 
own request, in September, 1869, when eighty-four years of age. 
He attended forty-six sessions of the Illinois conference, from 1824 to 
1871, missing only one session in that long period.^^ 

Peter Cartwright's career covered the first two generations of 
the history of the Church west of the mountains. He preached nearly 
eighteen thousand sermons ; baptised nearly fifteen thousand persons ; 
and received into the church nearly twelve thousand members, and 
licensed preachers enough to make a whole annual conference. This 
in brief represents the ministerial work of Peter Cartwright in its bare 
outline. For forty-eight years he lived and worked in Illinois, and in 
the early period of his Illinois residence his work lay in the newer 
sections of the State, whence he followed the advancing population 
as it pushed northward. He called himself one of the Lord's breaking 

i» Autobiography, 326-327. 

" For an interosting account of such a trip, see Autobiography, 327-331. 

" See Biographical sketch, Minutes of Annual Conferences, 1873, 115. 


plows, iaicj in physique, training and experience, and mental character- 
istics he was exceptionally well adapted for that task. 

In person he was about five feet ten inches tall and had a square 
built, powerful physical frame, weighing- nearly two hundred pounds. 
His complexion was dark, his cheek bones high, with small piercing 
black eyes. His hardships and exposure seemed to add to his vigor 
and produced almost perfect health. The roughs and bruisers, so 
plentiful on the frontier, at camp-meetings and elsewhere, stood in 
aAve of his brawney arm, and the tales of his courage and daring often 
sent terror through their ranks. Added to his physical strength and 
courage was a moral strength, which commanded attention wherever 
he went.^^ 

While he had little schooling, in fact but little more than had 
Lincoln, yet his mind readily perceived the central points of a subject 
and he never wasted his energies on side issues, and he became a man 
of acknowledged mental power. He understood politics and legislation 
and at times took a prominent part in public affairs. As a preacher 
he was a prince, of the Methodist frontier type. Sometimes he was 
full of humor and mirth, but underneath there was always plenty of 
good sense. At other times he "was like a fearful cloud charged with 
terror, thunder and lightning." Everything about his discourse was 
marked and original. In his sermons he made the truths of religion 
plain to his hearers. There was never anything misty or ambiguous 
in his statements. 

Not only was Cartwright an ardent Methodist, but he was also a 
staunch Jacksonian Democrat. Andrew Jackson had been a man 
after his own heart, while Jacksonian political philosophy exactly 
suited his way of thinking. Soon after Cartwright's removal to Illi- 
nois he became interested in the politics of the State ; the reason for 
this interest we will let him explain : 

"The year before I moved to the State there had been a strong 
move, by a corrupt and demoralized legislature, to call a convention 
with a view' to alter the Constitution, so as to admit slavery into the 
State. I had left Kentucky on account of slavery, and as I hoped had 
bid farewell to all slave institutions; but the subject was well rife 
through the country, for although the friends of human liberty had 
sustained themselves and carried the election by more than a thousand 
votes, yet it was feared that the advocates of slavery would renew 
the effort ,and yet cause this "abomination of desolation to stand where 
it ought not." I very freely entered the lists to oppose slavery in this 
way, and without any forethought of mind went into the agitated 
waters of political strife. I was strongly solicited to become a candi- 
date for a seat in the legislature of our State. I consented, and was 
twice elected as representative from Sangamon county."^* 

Of his experience as a state legislator he has left us several 
amusing incidents. While canvassing in Sangamon county, he came 

"Minutes, 1873, 116. 

" Autobiography, 261-262. 


one day to a ferry over the Sangamon river. He heard some one talk- 
ing in a very loud voice and he reined in his horse to listen, being hid 
by a thick undergrowth. The ferryman was engaged in cursing Cart- 
wright, calling him a d d rascal, finally ending up by threatening 

to whip him the first time he saw him. Just then the preacher candi- 
date rode up, and asked "who is it among you that is going to whip 
Cartwright the first time you see him?" The ferryman answered by 
saying, "I am the lark that's going to thrash him well." At that 
Cartwright warned the bully that the preacher was something of a 
man and it would take a man to whip him. To this the ferryman re- 
plied, 'T can whip any Methodist preacher the Lord ever made." 
"Well, sir," said Cartwright, "you cannot do it ; and now I tell you 
my name is Cartwright and I never like to live in dread; if you really 
intend to do it, come and do it now." At this the man looked confused, 
but insisted, however, that it w^as not Cartwright, and kept on cursing 
the preacher. Finally Cartwright asked one of the bystanders to hold 
his horse while he addressed the bully. "Now sir, you have to whip 
me or quit cursing me, or I will put you in the river, and baptise you 
in the name of the devil, for surely you belong to him." This, in the 
words of Cartwright, "settled him ; and strange to say, when the elec- 
tion came ofif, he went to the polls and voted for me, and ever after- 
ward w'as my warm and constant friend. "^^ 

On another occasion Cartwright was asked to dine with the Gov- 
ernor and his lady, with a "number of genteel people." He says, "We 
sat down to tea, and I found they were going to eat with graceless in- 
difference. Said I, "Governor, ask a blessing." The Governor at this 
rebuke blushed and apologized, and then asked Cartwright to say a 
blessing. After the blessing, and before the other guests, Cartwright 
proceeded to reprove the Governor and said, "the Governor ought to 
be a good man and set a better example."^''' 

W'liile Cartwright served but two terms in the State legislature, 
yet he continued his interest in politics and was high in the councils 
of his party in Sangamon county and in Springfield for many years. 
He was accused by his political opponents of belonging to a group of 
Springfield politicians who were not above attempting to control their 
party.^^ The last venture of Cartwright into politics was in 1846 
when he was named by the Democrats to compete with Abraham 
Lincoln for a seat in Congress. Lincoln and Cartwright had met be- 
fore in ])olitics, for both had run for the state Legislature in 1832 from 
Sangamon county, and Cartwright had been _ elected. Cartwright 
was now over sixty years old and was at the height of his popularity. 
He was altogther a formidable candidate because of his large personal 
acquaintance throughout the district, where he had continued to live 
since his coming to the state in 1824.^' The result of the election is 

't^ Autobiography, 262-264. 

!« Ibid, 268. 

"Pease, Tbe Frontier State, 1818-1848, 149: 2.''.7. 

IS Nicolav and Hay, Abraham Lincoln, I, 245-249 ; also Herndon and Weik, Lincoln, 
Cartwright, in his biography, fails to mention the campaign of 1846. The reason for 
this omission is doubtless the overwhelming defeat he suffered. Pease, The Frontier 
State, likewise fails to mention the candidacy of Cartwright against Lincoln in 184b. 


well known and was an overwhelming defeat for the preacher candi- 
date. A short time before the election Lincoln said to a Democrat 
friend, who had promised to vote for him if he needed his vote, "I 
have got the preacher, and I don't want your vote." Lincoln's majority 
over Cartwright in the district was 1511, while his majority in San- 
gamon county alone was 914, certainly a testimonial of the popularity 
of Lincoln. It was the largest majority ever given any candidate in 
the county during the entire period of Whig ascendancy until 1852. 

One incident of the campaign is worth relating. On one occasion 
during the canvass, Lincoln happened into a town where Cartwright 
was engaged in a series of revival meetings. Lincoln came to the 
Church, where the meeting was in progress, and took his seat in the 
rear of the room. At the close of the preaching Cartwright asked for 
all those who wished to be saved and go to heaven, to stand up. All 
stood except Lincoln. Then Cartwright tried again. He asked all 
who did not want to go to hell to stand up. Again all stood except 
Lincoln. Then Cartwright leaned across the pulpit and said : 'T have 
asked all those who desired to go to heaven to stand, and then I have 
asked all who do not want to go to hell to stand and all have responded 
on both invitations except Mr. Lincoln, and now I would like to know 
where ]\Ir. Lincoln expects to go." At this Lincoln stood up, stating 
that he had not considered himself a part of the congregation, but 
since Mr. Cartwright insisted on knowing where he expected to go 
he would be glad to state, and then he said, "I expect to go to Con- 

It is a difficult and perhaps an impossible task to correctly esti- 
mate the influence of such a career as that of Peter Cartwright. After 
Cartwright had served fifty years as a Presiding Elder, the Illinois 
Conference gave a Jubilee in his honor, which was held in Lincoln, 
Illinois, in September, 1869. The resolution passed by the Conference 
at that time stated, "The career of Dr. Cartwright has been one of the 
most remarkable and eventful known in the great west. No man west 
of the mountains has secured such wide-spread fame. There is 
scarcely a town, village, or city, within the borders of this great Re- 
public, where the name of Peter Cartwright is not familiar."^° ■ It is 
undoubtedly true that at the time of his prime he was at least the 
best known preacher in Illinois. He was a familiar figure in the north 
central part of the state for nearly a half century and he was always the 
deadly enemy of slavery, whiskey and immorality of all kinds. He 
was particularly adapted to the conditions of the frontier and perhaps 
his most effective work was in the period when settlements were 
under way. 

His preaching was the type best suited to conditions under which 
he worked. He appealed to the emotions more than to the reason of 
his hearers, and he had little patience with innovations either in 
theology or in Church organization. He has been accused of opposing 
college trained ministers and education generally, but such accusations 
are neither just nor true, for he himself established schools, and was 

Peter Cartwright, Fifty Years a Presiding Elder, (Cincinnati, 1871), 195. 


one of the founders of McKendree College.^*^ He had the greatest 
contempt for eastern preachers who came out from New England 
especially, with their manuscript sermons and attempted to preach to 
western congregations. Such a preacher he described on one occasion 
as "a fresh green yankee, from down east" who "had regularly gradu- 
ated, and had his diploma, and was regularly called by the Home 
Missionary Society to visit the far west — a perfect moral waste in 
his view of the subject."^^ 

Peter Cartwright's theology was as narrow as it was simple. It 
consisted chiefly of future rewards and punishments of the most con- 
crete character, and this formed the staple of his sermons. He was 
sometimes accused of hating the devil more than he loved Christ. He 
delighted in theological controversy and since he was a fluent and self- 
confident speaker he generally came ofif victor, aided by his fund of 
mother wit and keen sarcasm. On all possible occasions he delighted 
to attack the Baptists for their insistence on immersion and their prac- 
tice of close communion. On one occasion he said of certain Baptist 
preachers, "They made so much ado about baptism by immersion that 
the uninformed would suppose that heaven was an island and there 
was no way to get there but by diving or swimming.'"- Likewise he 
delighted to attack the Presbyterian and Congregational Calvinism. 
He preached free grace with a vengeance and had little patience with 
a gospel which did not give every man an equal chance. Peter Oart- 
wright, with other frontier preachers, exercised a powerful influence 
in maintaining law and order. The Methodist system of Church or- 
ganization and government was a well ordered and efficient system. 
Designed by John Wesley, it had been brought to America by Asbury 
and his colaborers. Bishop Asbury was a far better organizer than he 
was a preacher, and he stood always for obedience to the laws of the 
Church. Order was his passion, and the introduction of such an 
orderly system in a more or less disorganized community had a far 
reaching influence.^^ It is generally thought that the early Methodists 
welcomed excitement in their meetings and that the preachers desired 
to work the people up to a state of religious frenzy at every meeting 
and that they took special delight in such strange exercises as the 
"jerks", the "holy laugh" or the "barking exercise", and that they 
encouraged trances and visions, but this is an entire misconception. 
None of the preachers objected to hearty shouts during their preach- 
ing, indeed they encouraged it, but there were few fanatics among 
them, and certain it is that none were more level headed, or had a 
greater fund of common sense than had Peter Cartwright. He says 
concerning a certain camp meeting in Ohio where there was a ten- 
dency to go to an extreme, "The Methodist preachers generally 

*> Peter Cartwright had the following connections with educational institutions. 
He served as a trustee, agent and visitor to McKendree College; three years he was a 
visitor to Illinois Wesleyan University ; one year he was a visitor to Garrett Biblical 
Institute. (Fifty Years a Presiding Elder, 199.) 

" Autobiography, .370. For Cartwright's opposition to Presbyterian and Congrega- 
tional missionaries, sec Pease, The Frontier State, 1818-1848, 417 ; 438. 

"Autobiography, 133-138. Also Sweet, Rise of Methodism in the West, 51. 

*3 Tipple, Francis Asbury, the Prophet of the Long Road, 241, 242. 


preached against this extravagant wildness, I did it uniformly in my 
ministrations, and sometime gave great offense."^* 

Western morahty was extremely loose and in many communities 
there was little attempt to preserve order or uphold decent morality 
by the civil authorities."® In the face of this general looseness the 
preachers maintained and proclaimed an unbending morality. They 
waged war on vice of every kind ; not content to denounce sin in gen- 
eral, they often came to particulars and called out names in meeting 
and denounced sinners to their very face. In the early day when 
whisky was thought to be one of the necessities, the circuit preachers 
denounced its use and often pledged whole congregations to absti- 
nance.2° Nor was there to be found anywhere a more strenuous op- 
ponent to whisky and its immoderate use than was Cartwright. In his 
Autobiography he returns again and again to the subject, and wher- 
ever he went he was a potent influence for temperance and sobriety.-^ 

Besides his influence as a preacher and a Church administrator, 
Cartwright exercised a peculiar social influence. The average Meth- 
odist circuit rider in the early day had no home, and his only pos- 
sessions were his horse and saddle bags. As a consequence of the vast 
circuits and district over which the early preachers traveled, the 
preachers and presiding elders were compelled to spend their nights 
and eat their meals in the cabins of the settlers. Few settlers would 
turn away a stranger, and fewer still would turn away a preacher. 
For nearly fifty years Cartwright traveled among the people of Illi- 
nois ; he stayed in their homes ; he ate at their tables ; he sang and 
prayed at their firesides. It is difficult to estimate the influence which 
he exercised in this way, but it is safe to say that he and others like 
him brought a softening influence into the homes and lives of the peo- 
ple when such influences were most needed.^** 

This summary of the labors of Peter Cartwright can best be 
ended in the words of the greatest of Christian missionaries, describing 
his own labors, "in journeyings often, in perils of rivers, in perils of 
robbers, in perils in the wilderness, in perils among false brethren, 
in labor and travel, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fast- 
ings often, in cold and nakedness. "^^ In the face of such difficulties 
did Peter Cartwright, even as did Paul, preach the Gospel. 

^* Autobiography, 51, 52. 

=» McMaster's History of the People of the United States, II, 152, 578. 

28 Finley, Autobiography, 249, 250. Finley, Sketches of Western Methodism, 2.37, 

^ Cartwright, Autobiography, 212. 

=* T. M. Eddy, Influence of Methodism upon Civilization and Education of the 
West, Methodist Review, 1857, 280-296. 

^•^ II Corinthians, 11 :26-27. 



By Ralph Deiipsey. 

William Reid Curran was born in Hardin County, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 3, 1854, and died at his home in Pekin, Illinois, February 26, 1921. 

One who rises to distinction above his fellow men, does so by 
reason of his exceptional value as a citizen and a public servant. 
Those qualities of a man which, blended together, determine his char- 
acter, are difficult to portray. What Judge Curran achieved in his 
various activities evidences best the manner of man he was. From 
his works accomplished we may gain knowledge of his character and 
know why he was honored by his fellows. 

When one knows the habits and environment of the forebears, 
less difficulty is encountered in tracing to their origin, virtues and 
characteristics found in the ofifspring, than when that knowledge is 
wanting. Not much is known of the antecedents of William Reid 
Curran. His father, Thomas Smith Curran, and mother, Margaret 
Reid Curran, with their family, consisting of William Reid Curran, 
and another son Charles, who died in early manhood, moved from 
their home in Hardin County, Ohio, to a farm in Livingston County, 
Illinois, in 1859, where they lived until 1865, when the family moved 
to the Village of Chatsworth, Illinois. Here William Reid Curran 
grew to manhood, and availed himself of the rather limited school 
facilities which Chatsworth offered at that early period. 

He had none of the advantages that wealth, social position or 
family influence may offer and he must have concluded in his early 
youth that such progress as he was to make, must come from his 
unaided efforts. Certain it is that with limited schooling, he became 
an educated man ; with no assistance from his family, he established 
himself in the profession of the law and amassed a competency ; with- 
out family influence or prestige, he rose to distinction and honor in 
his State. 

Poorly equipped as he was, with knowledge gained from books, 
without college or university training and with his education in the 
law such as it was, gained by study in the office of Attorney Samuel 
T. Fosdick at Chatsworth, Illinois, over a period of two y-ars, during 
which he also taught a country school near Forrest, Illinois, on July 
4, 1876, at the age of twenty-one years, he was admitted to the bar 
of the State of Illinois. His admission to practice in the United States 
District and Circuit Courts took place in the month of April, 1888, 
and in March, 1897, he was admitted to practice before the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 



His first effort to establish himself in his profession was at the 
little town of Delavan, Tazewell County, Illinois, in the year 1876, 
immediately following his admission to the bar. He remained at 
Delavan with but indift'erent success until the year 1880, when he 
moved to Pekin, the County Seat of Tazewell County, where he con- 
tinued in the active practice of the law until a few days before his 
death. On December 28, 1876, not long after locating in Delavan, 
he was united in marriage with Mary C. Burgess and she and one 
daughter, Bessie C. Smith, survive him. 

His strong will, tenacity of purpose and determination to advance 
himself in the law, were put to the test wdien he entered the field in 
Tazewell County. Here he had to meet and cope with practitioners, 
ripe in experience and skilled in the arts of their profession, wdio were 
the peers of any of the lawyers of Central Illinois. Among these able 
lawyers he was soon accepted as an equal, and in time he was recog- 
nized as the leader of the bar of his County, a position which he held 
until he gave up active practice in the Courts two or three years 
prior to his death. 

William Reid Curran was possessed of unusual strength of will, 
a clear vision, confidence in his fellow men and an abiding faith in the 
Christian Religion. He had a logical and retentive mind, stored with a 
mass of useful information which he commanded with facility. 

He was fearless in the discharge of his duties and tireless and 
ardent in his labors ; once having formed his opinion and determined 
upon his plan of action, nothing would change his conviction or cause 
him to waver in his course, save proof that he was in the wrong. His 
influence in public affairs was always toward the right ; his mornJ 
courage never was questioned. 

No opponent ever concluded an engagement with him at the bar 
without respect for his ability as a lawyer. No difficult problem ever 
discouraged him. He was quick to see advantages in a situation which 
to his associates seemed hopeless. At all time respectful to the Courts, 
he maintained his dignity as a lawyer and a man, and nothing moved 
him from his chosen course in the furtherance justly of his client's 
cause. Of commanding presence, possessed of unusual -oratorical 
ability and dramatic talent, the recognition which he ganied among 
his fellow lawyers of Central Illinois as a trial lawyer of unusual skill 
and ability, he never lost. For a period of more than twenty-five 
years preceding his death, he appeared as counsel in every important 
ca.'^e tried in the Tazewell County Circuit Court and his aid and coun- 
sel were often sought by lawyers and litigants in the Courts of many 
Counties throughout the State. If he was intemperate in anything, 
it was in work and in times of business stress, he drew heavily upon 
his seeming abundance of physical and nervous strength. 

He was active in the affairs of the Tazewell Countv. State and 
American Bar Associations. He was president of the Tazewell County 
Bar Association in 1902-03, and the lawyers of this State honored him 
bv electing him president of the State Bar Association for the vear 


His rare attainments as a lawyer were recognized by the judges 
as well as the lawyers of his circuit, and from 1886 until 1894 he 
served as Master-in-Chancery of Tazewell County. The voters of his 
county honored him by electing him County Judge in 1894, a position 
which he held until 1898. 

While he was most widely known as a lawyer, and although the 
demands of his professional life were most heavy, he applied himself 
with diligence to many tasks in other lines, and took time to share 
with his fellow men the obligations of citizenship. 

In 1911 he oiganized the Banner Special Drainage and Levee 
District in the Counties of Peoria and Fulton in the State of Illinois, 
whereby thousands of acres of overflow land were reclaimed from the 
waters of the Illinois River and reduced to cultivation in spite of diffi- 
culties which would have disheartened one of more limited vision and 
less courage. 

As a Director of the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association, and as 
a member of the Tazewell County Historical Society, and a Director 
of the Illinois State Historical Society, he displayed a keen interest in 
the furtherance of the objects of those societies, as is so well known 
to members thereof with whom he was associated. 

He was instrumental in the organization of the Tazewell County 
Memorial Association, of which he was president at the time of his 
death, and during the last two years of his life, he gave freely of his 
time to the end that that association might bring about the erection 
of a suitable memorial in commemoration of the soldiers of all wars 
who had claimed Tazewell County as their home. 

His faith in men was constant. He was ever ready with encour- 
agement and aid for those who had failed or saw disaster confronting 
them. That his efforts to aid his fellow men sometimes came to 
naught, as seemingly they did at times, never discouraged him or 
weakened his conviction that the good in men far outweighed the evil 
in them and that his helping hand might be all that was needed to 
bring uppermost the good and turn them from the path of failure to 
the highway of accomplishment. 

His admiration of Abraham Lincoln knew no bounds, and he 
never lost an opportunity to add to his knowledge of the life of the 
great emancipator. His address on the life of Lincoln delivered at 
Pekin on the occasion of the Lincoln Day Celebration February 12, 
1909, later printed in pamphlet form, attracted favorable attention 
throughout the nation. This address was an unusual literary produc- 
tion and proved that its author had a rare knowledge of the character 
of the martyred President Lincoln. 

The Congregational Church, of which he was a member, knew 
him as a worker in the vineyard and as one always ready to give 
freely of his time and to aid financially in advancing the cause of the 
Christian religion. 

As one of the founders of The Pekin Union Mission, he had the 
satisfaction of living to see the abundant good work of the Mission 
bear fruit. A few years ago he purchased and gave to the Pekin 
Union Mission, a building adjoining the property then owned by the 


Mission, in order that the work of that institution might not be retard- 
ed for lack of proper space. Fully conscious that the gift without the 
giver is bare, he took an active part in the conduct of the affairs of 
the Mission and continued as a teacher in the Mission Sunday School 
long after his physical strength had so failed him, that he was com- 
pelled to remain seated in conducting his class work. His sincere and 
unselfish devotion to this work after he had been forbidden by his 
physician to continue it, best evidences his keen desire to aid in the 
laetterment of those in his home city who otherwise would have grown 
up without the good influences of the Pekin Union Mission. Although 
he reached a high station in his chosen profession and was honored for 
his activities in civic affairs, he will be as long and favorably remem- 
bered for what he gave and what he did to help make the poor boys 
and girls of his home city better men and women through his mission 
work, as for any other phase of his activities. 

To his memory can be most fittingly applied this tribute : 

He never failed to march breast forward, 

Never doubted clouds would break; 

Never thought though right were worsted, 

Wrong would triumph; 

Held we fall to rise, are beaten to fight harder, 

Sleep to wake. 


Contributions' to State History 




Compiled by Luei^ja Zearing Gross, the Daughtek of Dr. James Roberts 


The name of Zearing in the State of lUinois stands among those 
honored pioneers who made a path for future generations to follow. 
This family bravely sought new homes in a new country. Two 
brothers, John Zearing, 1792 to 1846, of Harrisburg, Pa., and Martin 
Zearing, 1794 to 1855, of Mechanicsville, Pa., sons of Henry Zearing, 
in the spring of 1834 made a tour of several months of inspection and 
investment in the far away West, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. When 
they reached Chicago, they were advised to look at the country about 
a hundred miles southwest, where they were told the best people who 
had arrived that year had decided to locate. The land was superior 
and the climate more healthy as there were less swamps with which 
to contend. What they heard of New England settlers, who were just 
ahead of them quite decided them to visit this location so highly recom- 
mended, and meet these people who had left a decided impression of 
genuine worth, stable character and were people of refinement and edu- 
cation. So to what was organized Feb. 28, 1837, as Bureau County they 
went in May of that year and there decided to invest in land in Berlin 
township adjoining what is now the town of Dover, laid out as a village 
July, 1837, and later they returned with their families to make this 
their future home. These families bravely turned their faces from 
comfortable homes, and the cities of the East with their many ad- 
vantages of wealth, education and civilization to invest their small for- 
tunes in the western prairies in all their barreness and their primi- 
tive modes of living. They were willing to forego the comforts of their 
early homes, and endure the trials and hardships of a new country that 
their children might have greater opportunities in the future. Such 
as these noble pioneers were many others who chose Bureau County as 
their new home. 

In later years the sons of these Zearing pioneers became large 
land owners throughout the country besides Bureau County — in Chi- 
cago, Cook County, and in the States of Iowa, Texas and Kansas, and 
the name was staunchly fixed as an established family name even be- 
fore the Chicago, Burlington and Ouincy Railroad named its cross- 
road town with the New York Central Railroad "ZEARING," and 
today, with miles of railroad side-tracks, this town has become the 
most active railroad center between Galesburg and Aurora. 

On May 9, 1836, Martin Zearing, his wife and seven children 
arrived in Princeton, after a five weeks trip from Pennsylvania. They 
left Harrisburg on a canal boat which had been chartered to take them 
and their household possessions to Pittsburg. They crossed the 


Alleghany Mountains on cars propelled with endless wire ropes. As 
these cars did not run at night, the travelers had to carry their bedding, 
their cooking utensils and provisions and stay over night in the stations 
which were rude houses built to accommodate travelers and furnished 
with rough beds and cook stoves. The trip over the mountains re- 
quired four days. Again the steamboat was their only mode of travel 
and when they reached the Ohio River they then traveled the Mississ- 
ippi to the Illinois and up the Illinois to Hennepin. The jour- 
ney had been almost beyond endurance in fatigue to the young chil- 
dren and their mother. When they were almost to St. Louis, the boiler 
on the steamboat burst and the cylinder head blew off. There was no 
way to repair it but for the engineer to take the broken machinery in 
a row boat to St. Louis and have it repaired. This took two weeks, 
and the passengers had to wait on the boat that length of time. The 
men could get off and have exercise and bring provisions to their 
families. A Mr. Needham, located near the landing heard of the delay 
of the boat and begged the passengers who could do carpenter work 
to help him in building a new home. The men, whether carpenters or 
not, volunteered to go. In the two weeks they accomplished all that 
Mr. Needham wished done and without a bargain, a contract or a 
building permit, they gladly gave their services. As each helper turned 
over his plate at the supper table daily, at Mr. Needham's he found a 
two dollar bill under it, but not a word had been said about pay. 
When the boat men returned with the boiler repaired, the travelers 
continued their journey and in the course of time completed that part 
of it and arrived at Hennepin where they crossed the river in a ferry 
boat to a cabin where they staid over night, their first night in Illinois. 
The dreary outlook was intensified by terrible rains and heavy roads. 
As soon as they could secure a man with team and cart to take them, 
they were ready to start for the long-looked for home at Princeton. 
When attempting to cross the creek, the horses and wagon went 
down in the mud out of their sight. The mother and girls were 
put into another cart that contained bags of flour for them to 
sit on. At the Doolittle place they stopped to water the horses. Mrs. 
Doolittle was baking bread which had run over the sides of the pan 
and she gave the children this warm overflow, which delighted the 
hungry children and is a lasting memory of the first neighborly act 
to these new comers. 

It was evening when the family reached the Princeton Hotel, 
which was a frame building of one room upstairs and one down, with 
round windows, besides the kitchen. In this space was kept all the 
boarders and travelers; the last to arrive slept on the floor nearest the 
door. The stage came every day. This Zearing family of nine with 
one son-in-law and a friend, who had traveled with them, occupied the 
up-stairs room. Mr. Zearing and his sons immediately begun to build 
a home on Main Street near what is now the Clark Hotel, that the 
family would not have to long remain in the crowded hotel. 

At this time there were only two frame houses in Princeton. The 
others were log cabins. The Zearing home was the third frame house 
built and was considered palatial and it was the talk and admiration 


of the whole country. In December of the same year the men had 
learned that log houses were much warmer in that severe climate and 
they built on the first Zearing farm, which still remains in the family, 
a house of split logs. Snow fell by the time the house was completed 
and it remained on the ground until the next April, the most intense 
and severe winter this family had ever encountered and caused great 
destitution and suffering to all inhabitants. The night before the 
family moved to the farm, a forest fire swept away everything but 
the house. Prairie grass was as high as a man on horse. The fire made 
a terrible crackle. The light could be seen the seven miles to Princeton. 
The stable for the stock was burned, the horses died of exposure, the 
cows were so frightened they strayed to the woods and fed on brush. 
It was spring before they were found, and when they were found each 
cow had a calf. For five months this family was without horses, which 
cut them off from markets and all social life, besides the horses were 
much needed to drag the logs for the fire places, and with the loss of 
the cows, which had been their main investment for butter, milk and 
food, they were in a sorry plight. Butter was fifty cents a pound. 
Wheat sold for $2.50, and corn $1.00 a bushel, and flour $16.00 a barrel. 
The inventions of necessity brought them some comforts, the men 
sawed a log off at the ends and made a box for the family to mix grain 
and water for food. 

We remember one family who traveled all night in a circle on ac- 
count of snow on the ground. They nearly perished. People 
often were lost in the tall slough grass. 

Supplies of clothing brought from the East began to wear out, and 
the mother and girls were kept busy supplying the needs of this large 
family. They made everj^thing that was worn, except shoes, even to 
plating straw for hats. 

In Pennsylvania Martin Zearing was a master builder. Many 
churches with hard wood and carved pulpits with winding stairs and 
box pews, pubHc buildings in Cumberland and adjoining counties were 
built by him. He kept more apprentices than any other builder in that 
part of Pennsylvania. When his work became known in the west he 
was very soon called upon to build the Methodist Episcopal church, 
the New England Congregationalist, the Baptist church and the school 
houses in Princeton, the academy in Dover and the public buildings 
and best residences in many nearby towns. 

Mr. Zearing built the Bryant home, which was the home of the 
mother and brothers of William Cullen Bryant. The Dover f_arm_ of 
160 acres was bought of the government. Martin Zearing and his wife, 
Sarah Shafer, of Cumberland County, Pa., are both buried in the 
Dover cemetery. Martin Zearing was a man of great fixedness of 
purpose, and of an indomitable will, honest and never uttered a word 
of complaint in any trouble. His wife was as heroic and uncomplaining 
of the trials of life as he. He was class leader and elder in the German 
Reformed Church at Frieden's Kirch. He was a justice of the peace 
for upwards of twenty years while living in Shirmenstov^'n, Cumber- 
land County, Pennsylvania. His sixty-one years of active and useful 
life were proof of his substantial character and noble endeavors. He 


was the leading spirit in church and school work on account of his 
earnest desire for the higher advantages for his large family, which 
advantages were at the best meager enough in those frontier days. 

John Zearing, the father of James Roberts Zearing, on his first 
trip to Illinois in 1834, selected his farm location on what was known 
as the Chicago Road, six miles northeast of Princeton, and adjoining 
on the southwest the town of Dover, but it was not until 1842 that he 
succeeded in purchasing this particular highly improved farm of 160 
acres, for which his brother had been negotiating. It had a well built 
house with forty acres broken and rail fenced, a grove of locust trees 
much enjoyed for the comfort it gave as a wind break and for the 
fragrance it gave to the air. This grove furnished material for fencing 
as well as fire wood. In the next five years all of the farm was well 
fenced. The state road, which divided this farm into two parts of 
eighty acres each, had a row of trees set out on each side, and the 
driveway from the house to the road had rows of these same trees, 
which were well cared for, and to this day this same driveway has 
retained its rows of green. This land was first bought from the govern- 
ment by a bachelor from Vermont, who set out fruit orchards which 
were the first orchards in that part of the country and bore the best 
fruits. This was the mother orchard. Its sprouts and clippings started 
most of the orchards for miles about. Stock purchased at the John 
Ament farm nearer Princeton put horses, cattle and sheep among Mr. 
Zearing's possessions. In two years his flock of sheep had increased 
to an enviable possession, envied, too, by the ever to be dreaded wolves 
and the large dogs. Martin Zearing also, had well stocked his farm and 
these two were for years the largest stock farms in that part of the 

John Zearing lived on Capitol Street facing Market Square in 
Harrisburg, Pa., opposite the Beuhler Hotel. In 1836 they moved 
to Walnut Street one mile east. The Colder family were neighbors 
whose missionary son returned to start the sect known as Colderites. 
John Zearing sold his wholesale and retail shoe business, also his many 
private canal boats. He was the first man to own such boats, to 
supply Harrisburg with coal and wood. He was well equipped for a 
start in a prairie country. He paid cash for his entire farm and for the 
stock he put on his farm. This was quite unusual, for few of the early 
settlers had money to invest, and many of them became discouraged 
before they could pay for their farms. He left plenty of money in the 
Harrisburg bank, not wishing to take all west with him, but loaned it 
to Mr. Stehley, who had been a dear friend. Mr. Stehley never re- 
turned this borrowed money. Lawyer Winrick was to settle Mr. 
Zearing's accounts, but little could be collected. 

Mr. Zearing's first trip in 1834 gave him information of the 
scarcity of goods purchasable in Illinois. On reaching Pittsburg in 
1842, the family spent two weeks while there making the chartered 
boat sanitarily clean and buying all necessary supplies for family and 
farm. They bought a supply of guns and rifles which the older boys 
made good use of in hunting deer, which kept the family well fed. 


They also bought saddles and farm implements which were wholly 
unknown in the west at that time. When they reached Cincinnati, 
Louisville and St. Louis a few days were spent in sight-seeing and 
more supplies were purchased, especially a large amount of dried 
apples, peaches dried whole and wertzle. So they arrived at Hennepin 
Landing on the Illinois River well supplied for their store house but 
there was little provisions to be had at this place and only the youngest 
children had a supper of cold potatoes. This was the first time this 
family had gone to bed hungry. 

From Hennepin the journey to Princeton was completed in farm 
wagons, leaving the boys and household goods until the next day. 
The landing at Hennepin was on the opposite side of the river and no 
canoe to cross. A long walk was taken before the neighboring farmers 
were enlisted to go these twelve miles to the Hennepin river with Mr. 
Zearing to bring the boys and the goods which had been stored there. 
These boys spent a night of great suspense awaiting the return of the 
father. All Indians looked ferocious to them even if they were told 
that the tribes there were peaceable. Mr. Zearing brought his house- 
hold furniture of splendid hand-made mahogany, many pieces of which 
had been in the family years before they were transported to the west. 
These pieces, except the old grandfather clock, are now in the posses- 
sion of John Zearing's grandchildren. 

This family accustomed to city ways and the comforts of a pros- 
perous life were now in Indian trod Illinois. In relating their first ex- 
periences none seems to bring to the memory of the sisters now well 
on in their eighty years, such merriment as to relate how their five 
brothers were dressed for the journey. Each boy wore a tuxedo suit 
of clothes, a silk hat, boots and carried a cane. Such costumes were 
not heard of in the west, and in the east those who could afford them 
indulged in these suits only on Sunday. The copper toed boys in 
Princeton soon laughed at these costumes and the Zearing boys begged 
to be real Romans and dress as the other Romans did. Dr. Zearing 
had the misfortune to lose his high hat in the Ohio River and he was 
thus obliged to make his first bow to Illinois at the age of fourteen, hat- 
less. The four girls had never known any other shoes than those hand 
made to fit their own feet and each one had her own last. Their hats 
vuere made fancy and always were called bonnets. Their dresses were 
of fine merino delaine and printed muslins, which were a striking con- 
trast to the cheap calico and linsey woolsey of the other girls. Their 
pantalettes were ankle length, which was a decided point of their high 
cost of living and position in life, for less fortunate girls wore theirs 
tied below the knees. To hang pantalettes on a clothes line with the 
rest of the washing was considered by some of the New England 
neighbors most indecent and the Pennsylvania families had done so 
before they realized they were making themselves a matter of discus- 
sion by these shocked Yankees. 

One of the cousins told me some of her first remembrances of 
prairie life and the terrors by night and by day of the seven hundred 
Indians about Dover, the first year of their home there. With no locks 
on the doors, the Indians would go through the house and pick up 


everything and look at it, but never stole anything, but would always 
eat the garden things, especially the yellow cucumbers. They called 
her mother the white squaw, and would bring their papooses to 
show her. They were always pleased to have their children noticed. 
Oft times the papoose was strapped on a board which the mother would 
set up against the fence, or the chief and squaw would tie a bed for 
the child on the side of the horse with trinkets to play ^ with. The 
Indian children were always sober looking babies. 

The Zearing boys learned to ride a horse or pony like the wind. 
Sometimes the girls tried cross legged, as this seemed the best way to 
escape any danger. Mother would talk different languages to the 
Indians to try to make them understand. They were always disgusted 
at our house not to find "fire-water." On one occasion when they 
acted as though they were furious because there was no drink for 
them, while they were going about the house howling and yelling for 
"fire-water" mother and the girls took a hatchet, went up the ladder 
stairs to the second floor, and pulled the ladder up after them. 

The family had formed many friends in the town of their birth, 
so on leaving Harrisburg, the shore was filled with friends to say 
goodbye. The Gondoliers, a pleasure boat club of that city, escorted 
them out of the city and bade them a tearful goodbye ; tearful, indeed, 
for those friends who had not seen Illinois and who had not foreseen 
its future, could only picture a life of starvation, privation and never 
more to return, so with a God-speed, they left this throng of loving 
friends to journey through canals and over mountains on to Pittsburg, 
where Mr. Zearing had chartered a boat to bring his family west. 

In crossing the Alleghany Mountains the endless wire chain was 
used as a propellor for the cars and this family had about the same 
experiences in crossing that the brother's family had undergone, as 
well as all other western families of those times. The season was late, 
the ice would collect on the wire rope so that it was necessary to heat 
water in tea kettles to thaw it. 

John Zearing's wife, Margaretta Herman, 1793-1859, was born 
in Dauphin County, Pa., and was a daughter of John Herman, 1767, 
and Sarah Bright Herman, 1770-1821. A friend who knew her inti- 
mately, particularly speaks of her thus : "She was very nice and quiet 
in manner. She had pretty black eyes and hair. She spoke English, 
German and Pennsylvania Dutch very fluently and played on her 
melodium and sang for her grandchildren. She was always regarded 
as queenly and wore real lace caps and collars. Some of these 
are yet in the family, although tinged with age and careful wearing. 

John Zearing had been a power in Harrisburg in business, in 
church and in politics. He had taken an active part in helping to elect 
Van Buren, Harrison and Governor Rittenhouse in Pennsylvania, 
John Zearing was spared only a few years to his family in the west. 
His wife, unused to farm life, and her sons preferring professioal 
lives, rented the farm and moved into Princeton. It was only five 
years after arriving from Pennsylvania that John Zearing who was in 
his timberlands where more rails were being split for fencing was 
struck in the jaw with an iron wedge which flew off. This resulted in 
his death a year later, 1846. 


Air. and Mrs. Zearing went back to Harrisburg after three years 
in the west to visit old time friends and relatives. They carrying many 
letters back from one friend to another. This was a trip equally as 
eventful as their coming west. It was unusual for one to return to 
his early home, as distance, lack of money, and home cares usually 
made traveling out of consideration. 

John Zearing belonged to the Masons in Harrisburg. His apron 
is beautifully embroidered on white satin, with the emblems of the 
order. The only other one that I have seen which is so elaborate is 
the one in a collection of Masonic emblems at LeRoy, Illinois, said 
to have belonged to Gen. George Washington. 

John Zearing resided in Harrisburg for thirty years. He was for 
many years an office bearer in Salem, German Reformed Church, serv- 
ing first as deacon, then as elder. When his country called them_ to 
defend the national honor of their country, and to repel the invading 
foe, he was one of many who in Captain Thomas Walker's company, 
first regiment, commanded by Colonel Kennedy, of Harrisburg, forming 
the first brigade, of which John Foster was Brigadier General — 
marched to Baltimore to defend that city, when an attack was made 
upon it Sept. 13, 1814, by the British, commanded by Gen. Ross. This 
was of course the second war with Great Britain, the war of 1812-1814. 
The Dover cemetery has but one marker of the war of 1812 and that 
one is at the head stone of John Zearing. 

All the Zearing children before coming west attended the William 
Mitchell School of Harrisburg in the Lancastrain school house. Wil- 
liam Mitchell was a cousin of the celebrated Dr. Weir Mitchell, of 
Philadelphia. The school had a large play room with iron beams to 
hold the roof. Many eminent statesmen of Pennsylvania attended this 
school. As William Mitchell's wife was Sally Herman, a sister of Mrs. 
Zearing's, the children remember that they were dealt very sternly with 
on account of relatonship. Uncle Mitchell in his home was amost 
gentle and sweet spirit, but in school he got his athletic exercise in 
flogging the boys. On Saturday afternoons he took his pupils to the 
banks of the Susquehanna River for learning and recreation. The 
WilUam Mitchell home was a three story brick house across the street 
from the capitol and the children loved to visit in this home. WiUiam's 
brother Joseph married Elizabeth Zearing, a sister of John Zearing, so 
the Zearing and Mitchell families were doubly bound in relationship. 
The early education of the Zearing family was far advanced above that 
of the usual pioneers, consequently they were urged to become teachers. 
The eldest daughter, Rebecca, took a school where the man teacher 
had been whipped out by the pupils. Her success with unruly boys 
made her services greatly sought, so she was moved from one location 
to another for seven years, and was one of the first teachers in the 
schools of Ohio township, LaMoille, Dover, Berlin Center and Perkins 
Grove. Before their ages would hardly permit, the little log school 
house in Dover had among its teachers Judge William Mitchell Zear- 
ing, and Dr. James Roberts Zearing, while they were studying their 
professions of law and medicine respectively. Later Dr. Zearing was 
interested in founding and supporting the Dover Academy, which was 


built in 1856 by contributions of the citizens and there is still in the 
possession of the family the certificate of shares of stock which show 
him to have been one of the first to subscribe. This school, before the 
Princeton High School was built, made Dover the educational center of 
not only Bureau County, but of the central part of the State. Many men 
and women who attained high position in life taught in this academy, 
and many more who have filled positions in life which were worth 
while, started their education here. This school was the outgrowth of 
the pioneer element who settled in Bureau County, well born and well 
bred, who begun at once to lay the foundation of educational institu- 
tions in order that their children might have educational advantages. 

When we think back to the log cabin days and the privations that 
were endured, and as we today motor over the State, it hardly seems 
possible that one man's life has covered the period. It is only by asso- 
ciating with those few who yet live that the experiences of early times 
may be appreciated by the living. But a few years more and the gener- 
ations must turn to biographers and historians to know of these facts. 
To enumerate the hardships and trials, the privations and homesick 
hours, and to describe the gradual climb to the great and prosperous 
Bureau County as it is today, is beyond a short sketch. These two 
are the points historians leave untold, yet they are most interesting. 
The type of neighbors and the stories of their often tragic lives is no 
better exemplified than by the experiences of Mrs. Electa Smith, who 
was the first pioneer widow in the locality. Her husband's death oc- 
curred before he had selected a home for her, and she was left with 
three little ones, a stranger with very little money, in a country swarm- 
ing with the Indians from whom she fled many times with her children 
to save their lives, yet she opened up a farm in the woods and reared 
those little boys so that they became successful farmers and business 
men, and aided greatly in the upbuilding of Bureau County. 

There was the other family of Smiths, the Alby Smith family. 
Alby Smith was one of the founders of the Congregational church of 
.which Owen Lovejoy was the pastor for over twenty years. Then 
came the Bryants, the Zearings, the Coltons and the Lovejoys. 

Chicago was the only market accessible to the pioneers of Bureau 
County, and all the grain raised was hauled by teams, the loads averag- 
ing 40 bushels. The Zearing boys looked forward to these annual trips 
to the city of Chicago, as it had been incorporated as a city in 1837, 
with an area of ten square miles, extending from North Avenue to 
Twenty-second Street, and from the lake west to Wood Street. To this 
was added a small stretch of ground on the lake shore, extending half 
a mile north of North Avenue and west to Clark Street, this was the 
old city cemetery afterwards. The population was at that time less 
than five thousand and about half of the people were young men under 
21 years of age. But this was where the business activity was going 
on in the west, and the distance of a hundred miles was of little con- 
sequence, although it often took a week to make the trip, very much 
depending on the depth of Illinois mud. The drivers slept on the load 
or by the side of the wagon on the ground. The exchange of grain for 
lumber and other supplies was frequent, and not until later years did 


much money change hands. The vicinity of Lake, Clark and South 
Water Streets during the middle of the day was completely filled with 
teams and wagons. The nights spent in town were usually on the lake 
front where the drivers would gather about camp fires to cook their 
meals and tell of their experiences in the new west. For many years 
the Clark Street bridge was the only bridge in the city and was of the 
jack-knife kind, dividing in the center and each side was raised by a 
windlass. In 1840 this lift bridge was taken away and replaced by a 
float bridge which was fastened at one end and floated on a scow at 
the other end, so it could be turned about, and the present bridge of 
this style, built by Mr. Samuel L. Rowe, is similar, yet with great im- 
provements. The only outlet to the west was the ferry across the 
south branch of the river, the west and north sides had so few residents 
there was little need of bridges. The population had located as near 
as possible to the main street which was Lake Street. 

From a tattered and stained newspaper, but with the print plainly 
visible, a copy of the Bureau County Republican, dated Dec. 8th, 1864, 
I take some extracts : 

The most prominent items of news deal with the war, which also 
dominates the editorial page. Among the leading advertisers were 
several names prominent in the town of Princeton, and such well known 
professional firms as Farwell and Herron, Stipp and Gibbons, S. M. 
Knox, J. M. Atwood. Chas. Baldwin, J. I. Taylor, Dr. E. S. Blanch- 
ard, Dr. C. F. Little, J. V. Thompson and W. M. Zearing, which were 
flourishing in Princeton when the paper was printed, as their names 
appear among the professional cards on the front page. 

The early maps of South Chicago register the land at the head 
of Lake Calumet as the Zearing Acres. In early days of Chicago 
Judge William M. Zearing bought seven acres here of the government 
with riparian rights. After his death surveyors' reports showed this 
property to be fifty-three and a fraction of acres. The Zearing build- 
ing on Dearborn Street, near Harrison was built by Judge Zearing in 
1886. It was then his intention to devote the building to law offices 
and he named it the Zearing Law Building. Before the Chicago fire, the 
Judge was a large owner of city property. As the city grew he grad- 
ually disposed of his holdings. His intention to carry out a plan which 
he had under way before the Chicago fire for a Zearing Public Library, 
was arrested by this calamity to the city, and before he was in a posi- 
tion to fulfill his desire, the Chicago Public Library was established. 
He was a man of great civic pride. He studied law at Dickinson Col- 
lege, Carlisle, Pa., and Harvard L'niversity. He traveled in Asia, 
Africa, Europe and South America for a period of ten years after 
completing his education. 

The town of Zearing, in Iowa, was named for Judge Zearing, who 
owned an adjoining farm. The town of Brazos, Texas, where the 
river of that name and the Texas and Pacific Railroad cross, was first 
named Zearing by General G. M. Dodge, as Dr. James R. Zearing 
owned a sheep ranch near. The Doctor asked that the town be named 
for his pet goats. Angora, but it was found another town of similar 
name made this confusing, so it was given the name of Brazos. To- 


gether these brothers, both of professional Hves and literary tastes, led 
useful lives for family, state and country. 

Bureau County has erected at Princeton a monument to its soldiers 
and sailors of the Civil War. This was a worthy action and does honor 
to the county. 

Some day Bureau County will see fit to ask its tax-payers to erect 
another monument, a companion piece to the one which they have now 
erected to those heroes of the Civil War and this one will show their 
gratitude to the pioneers who not only risked their lives among the 
barbaric Indians, but some of them sacrificed their lives. These were 
the people who laid the solid foundation upon which Bureau County 
is builded. The Indian was a harder foe to combat than the Confed- 
erate soldier. The thirty-one families who arrived before the Black 
Hawk War should head the list. Then on this pioneer's monument 
should follow names of those who first emblazoned the name and pre- 
served the honor of the country. Illinois soldiers of the Civil War 
brought home three hundred battle flags. The first United States Flag 
to fly over RichnTOnd after its surrender was an Illinois flag. 

Illinois has dedicated a State memorial of v\^hite Georgia marble, 
a dome 54 feet in diameter and 62 feet high, at a cost of $200,000 as 
a memorial of the Vicksburg engagements. The names (more than 
35,000) of the soldiers who then belonged to the 79 Illinois commands 
engaged in the operations commemorated by the Park, are inscribed 
in bronze on the interior walls of this memorial temple. The State 
has also placed 79 monuments and 85 markers in the Park. 

Bureau County furnished 3,626 soldiers, and paid $650,000 in 
bounties in the Civil War. When the board of supervisors, in 1860, 
appropriated $18,000 to remodel the court house, it was looked upon 
as a forerunner of bankruptcy to put such a debt upon the people, it 
was but a few years later when half a million of dollars was appro- 
priated cheerfully for soldiers' bounties. 

This county has done its part in all the wars of its country, and 
the sons of the pioneers gave a good account of themselves in the great 
World War. 

Some Descendents of John and Martin Zearing of Illinois, Who 
Served in the World War : 

Brigadier General D. Jack Foster, commander of the 66th Infantry 

Captain Pierre Steele, Physician and Surgeon, Michael Reese Hos- 
pital, Chicago. 

Second Lieutenant Louis A. Zearing, Attorney, Princeton, Illinois. 
Commissioned at Fort Sheridan Officers' Training Reserve Station. 

Lieut. Kingsley Buel Colton, 3600 Michigan Ave., Chicago, Com- 
missioned officer in the United States Navy. 



Class of 1850, Rush Medical College; Surgeon of the 57th 111. Vol. 
Inf. ; Surgeon in Chief of the 4th Division of the 15th Army- 
Corps ; Surgeon in Chief of the 2nd Division of the 
Army of the Tennessee, War of the Rebellion. 

Compiled by His Daughtee, Lxjelja Zeaking Geoss. 

These pages were compiled for family use and typewritten 
copies only were intended. Then a request came from Rush Medical 
College for a sketch of the life of Dr. James R. Zearing, also asking 
for his army letters, which are considered a connecting link between 
surgery of the Civil War and surgery of the late World War, and 
also his war and college mementoes, an album of his army friends, 
his few books of early surgery and medicine, his graduating essay, 
which is the only graduating thesis in existence, of the first class 
of Rush Medical College, which graduated in 1850, also his log book, 
his instrument case, his medicine chest, his saddle-bag, his epaulets 
and scarf of major's rank, the gold cord for his hat and other interest- 
ing things might be given to the Society of Medical History of Chicago 
for preservation. Later a letter came from the Illinois State Historical 
Society at Springfield making a similar request, so in deep apprecia- 
tion I have collected the facts as best I can and gladly hand them over 
to the Rush Medical College Historical Society and the State His- 
torical Society, and later a similar request from the American College 
of Surgery in Chicago. 

In preparing this sketch truth has been rigidly adhered to. Letters, 
note books, newspaper articles, army letters and papers from which 
these accounts are taken are in the possession of the writer. 

I should claim some fitness to write a sketch of Dr. Zearing. As 
I think over and try to recall his exact words I find he spoke so little 
of his own achievements. A number of calls were made on those 
remaining who were among his early patients, or knew him through 
the war. One neighbor for over thirty years, Joseph Donnersberger, 
well known Chicago citizen, when asked what he remembered father 
telling him of his early life, summed the whole matter into this sen- 
tence : "Your father was the freest from self praise of any man I 
ever knew. He seldom referred to himself. It was his modest retir- 
ing manner that made him so beloved by every comrade ; as well as 
his clever wit equally clothed in modesty, as was his whole life. If he 
ever uttered a slang word or an unkind expression, outside of his 
estimate of the city council of Chicago, it was not in my presence." 
And this is about what other earlier friends said of him. 


Once when playing with my doll near the window of his office, 
which was in the corner of our Dover yard, I heard my father laughing 
at the conversation of a neighbor who had stepped into his office, and 
he ended his merriment by saying, "By George !" My astonishment 
was unubounded to hear such a remark from him, and feeling that he 
would not wish me to hear it, my dolls and I ran away as softly as 
possible, but filled with great surprise at hearing him utter such words. 
This was the only time in my hearing he ever uttered even a mild pro- 
fane expression. In this he showed his natural instinct of a well-born 
and well-bred man. Such qualities are not usually made in one genera- 
tion, but are the result of many generations. His ancestors were gentle- 
men. If royalty was not at this time at such low ebb we might with more 
pride refer to the fact that Doctor Zearing had royal origin as well as 
valiant blood in his veins. His great-great-grandfather, Ludwig Zear- 
ing, came to the United States before 1732 and purchased land of 
William Penn near Johnstown, Pa. His great-grandfather, Henry, 
struggled for life, liberty and home and was one of those heroic pa- 
triots who sustained the colonies and assisted in their struggle for in- 
dependence. His grandfather, Henry, served with General Washing- 
ton at Brandywine, was an officer of the American Revolution ; his 
father, at the age of 16, furnished money and teams in the American 
Revolution; he also served in the War of 1812 with honor, and Doctor 
Zearing himself served with distinction and unusual ability in the Civil 
War, and his grandson, Kingsley Buel Colton, twenty-four years of 
age, of the class of 1915, Amherst College, served as a lieutenant in 
the United States Navy during the great World War. Doctor Zearing 
had in him the qualities that were in the Zearing blood, the traditions 
of this family and the influence that came into their lives, all helped to 
make them what they represent, noble-hearted, large minded, honorable 

Doctor Zearing was of a tall, slender build, yet was a man of great 
bodily endurance and agility throughout his life. He had a vigorous 
and well disciplined mind, and a remarkable memory. He was a 
close observer of men and their actions, an acute thinker and a man 
discerning between the genuine and the false. He was a man of large 
intelligence and highly interesting to those who enjoyed an intimacy 
with him. As to his moral qualities, he was strong and steadfast in 
every good sense. He was a staunch temperance man and was per- 
fectly willing to abolish whisky, even its use as a medicine. He advo- 
cated that physicians could find a substitute for patients with a snake 
bite equally as effective, and he prescribed intoxicants as a medicine 
less than most doctors of his period. A gentler, more considerate, 
and kinder man, beloved by family, friends, comrades in war and 
patients in both war and peace would be hard to locate. His generous 
sympathies, his noble impulses, his delicacy and tender consideration 
in the sick room, carried always in the minds of those to whom he had 
administered, a loving memory of the beloved family physician. 
Now he has gone to the Great Physician whom he implicitly trusted 
and reverently worshiped. 


In the late years of his life Doctor Zearing greatly enjoyed the 
visits of old friends, especially his comrades of the Civil War. One 
little incident may be of interest. In the cosy library room of Doctor 
Zearing's residence, four army friends were asked to luncheon and to 
meet Miss Ada Sweet, the pension lawyer, the daughter of a Civil 
War friend. Doctor Zearing and his four guests were all hovering 
about the 80th year mile stone, but no stranger would have rated any 
of them above 70 years. Miss Sweet ran her hands through the dark 
hair of the Colonel to prove to herself that it was his own hair, so re- 
markable was his youthful appearance. The Chinese cook. Chin Chuey, 
had prepared a chop suey luncheon and in his reverence for old men 
he served them most solemnly. When Miss Sweet was ready to depart 
she said to them, "This is one of the best days of my life, I never had 
more pleasure in my experience and I never met more interesting men 
than \ou three army physicians and you. Colonel. 

The w^ar stories, the reviews of battles, of extreme experiences 
and of what might have been different if the surgeons had had modern 
medical appliances and the new discoveries of anesthetics, of disin- 
fectants and the many things deemed absolutely necessary to hospital 
life now, the better food for soldiers and the faster transportation of 
supplies; all these subjects have been discussed over and over again 
in this self-same room by various groups of old soldiers, and with 
deep regret I realize that they were historical events and instances 
which should have been chronicled. 

One of Doctor Zearing's greatest delights all through life was 
horse-back riding. One of the memories that always comes to the minds 
of the men today who were little boys of long ago in the village of 
Dover is the antics of Johnnie Smoker, the Mexican pony, the Doctor's 
riding horse. This Johnnie spent most of his time on his hind feet when 
he had an audience. When the Doctor was ready to mount the small 
boys were there to see the fun for Johnnie and his master would have 
a real frolic while the Doctor was trying to mount, and Johnnie trying 
and succeeding usually to dodge the mount. This play would continue 
until the Doctor was weary of the fun and then shaking his whip and 
sometimes giving the pony a taste of it, the fun would be over and ofif 
they would go on a lively canter for several miles. 

Later in life the Doctor greatly enjoyed his handsome bay riding 
horse, and would start out every pleasant morning for a ride down 
Michigan Avenue. One neighbor said to my mother, '"Do yjou know 
how handsome your husband looks when riding? We ladies all run 
to the window to see him pass by on his single footer." Mrs. Zearing 
was a lover of the saddle, too, and could equal her companion in all 
equestrian feats, but did not continue riding as long as did the Doctor. 

Doctor Zearing brought west with him at the age of fourteen his 
favorite book, voluminous, heavy in its calf-skin binding, "Goldsmith's 
Animated Nature," profusely illustrated with copper-plate engravings. 
As a child he poured over these pictures and descriptions of animals. 
Among other family books is a large Nurnburg Bible, date of 1765, 
printed in German, bound in leather with brass corners and clasps. 
To this date some of the pieces of dress braid and tapes used for book 


marks still marks grandmother's pages. One cut alone, the Ausbury 
Confessions, makes this edition of especial value. Many smaller bibles 
and school books and hymnals of the early print are in this same 

In the years of few books well read, Doctor Zearing clung to his 
favorite writers, Plutarch's Lives, Shakespeare, Milton, Bobbie Burns, 
and Gray's Elegy, and in the many years of his sightless life, he recalled 
from memory stanza after stanza of these writers, which he had read 
in youth, and thought over many times in making those long rides to 
see his patients in Bureau and the adjoining counties. One time only 
do I remember his asking to have a poem of Milton's read to him, 
because he could not recall two lines. He said, "I have tried for two 
months to think this out and it will not come." To keep his mind 
active and useful was as systematic a procedure with him as to keep 
his body in good condition, with proper food and regular exercise. 
Long walks twice a day, and just before retiring, no matter what the 
weather, was his desire, and when hair cuts were needed, or a call 
upon uninformed voters, he often brought into service our long time 
houseman, the colored and faithful Abraham Lincoln, and later Chin 
Chuey, to escort him on such errands. 

Doctor Zearing was a member of Thomas G. A. R. post, Chicago, 
and a member of the Army of The Tennessee and of the Bureau 
County Soldiers' Association. He belonged to the Masons in Prince- 
ton, Illinois, He was frequently invited to become a member of the 
Loyal Legion and also the Pennsylvania Society, but he was cut off 
from attending such meetings by loss of sight, so he refrained from 
joining them. He was, during the World's Fair of 1893, in Chicago, 
a regular attendant. We have a pass with his name and photograph 
on it which was assigned to him. He spent many days there in the rail- 
road and transportation building, with too little sight to recognize his 
friends, but many saw him and thus he was afforded much pleasure, 
as this was the last time he had sight enough to be without a leader. 
He was always of military carriage and he would go about his home, 
with which he was so familiar, with ease and exactness. He would 
walk with his cane touching the grass along the edge of the stone 
pavement, not revealing loss of sight. On one occasion a confidence 
man rushed up to him, as he was turning to go up the steps to his 
door, saying, "Good morning. Doctor, how do you do. I am delighted 
to meet you again. I have not forgotten our pleasant meeting in Texas. 
What business are you in now. Doctor?" The reply was, "In the 
confidence business, sir," and walked on to his door. 

The biography of a pioneer is a heroic poem yet unset to musical 
strains. It is a long story, showing with each new chapter a chronicle 
of national progress, which is of absorbing interest if it could be told 
in detail, even until the last page is turned. As one of the pioneers 
of Illinois, Doctor Zearing's life of eighty-three years covered the 
eventful period of its growth from scattered settlements into one of the 
grand states of our Union. He saw the evolution of a commonwealth, 
as the school houses, churches, railroads and telegraph came to it; 
he heard the celebrated debates between Lincoln and Douglas. He 
attended the convention in 1860 in the wigwam of Chicago, which 

3600 Michigan Avenue, Ciiicago, 111. 


nominated Mr. Lincoln for President of the United States, also the 
ball that evening. He attended the reception given at the home of 
Doctor Paddock in Princeton, when Mrs. Paddock urged Mr. Lincoln 
to have his memorable picture taken by Masters, the Princeton 

The World's War today has brought forth the followers of the 
blood and iron man — Bismarck — not the German people in which the 
Zearing family had pride in and reverence for, those whom they had 
been taught throughout their lives to honor, as most people have, to 
believe in such men as Martin Luther, whose inspiration has been cast 
over the entire world. The German people as represented by Goethe 
and Schiller, by Bach and Mendelsshon and many others to whom the 
whole world gives honor, nor can we think German affairs of today 
represent the high standard of the better people, and we wonder how 
amazed the older generations would be were they here to wit- 
ness the terrible downfall of the ideals of freedom and democracy for 
which members of the Zearing family have fought to sustain in every 
war since the American Revolution. A family more staunch for liberty 
and humanity could not be found and which lives up to its democratic 
principles even in smaller matters. 

James Roberts Zearing, M. D., was born in Harrisburg, Pa., 
June 16th, 1828, son of John Zearing and Sarah Bright Harmon Zear- 
ing. He was married to Lucinda Helmer May 25th, 1854, and died 
April 16th, 1911, at the family residence 3600 Michigan Avenue, Chi- 
cago, and was buried in the family lot in Oakwood cemetery. Doctor 
Zearing is the lineal descendent of Ludwig Zearing, of Baden, Ger- 
many, who immigrated to this country prior to 1732 and settled in 
Johnstown, Pa. In 1842 he, with his parents, and family moved to 
Bureau County, Illinois. The father of John Zearing, Henry Zearing, 
was too young to take active part in the Revolution, but was instrumen- 
tal in furnishing money and teams for the use of the soldiers in the war. 

John Zearing resided in Harrisburg thirty years. He was for 
many years an office bearer in Salem German Reformed Church, serv- 
ing first as deacon, then as an elder. He was overseer of the poor 
and held other official stations. In the war of 1812 he was in Captain 
Thomas Walker's company, first regiment commanded by Colonel 
Kennedy, of Harrisburg, forming part of the first brigade, of which 
John Foster was brigadier general, marched to Baltimore to defend 
that city when an attack was made upon it by the British commanded 
by General Ross, September 13th, 1814. 

Doctor James Roberts Zearing was a graduate of the University 
of Missouri ,]\Iedical Department, 1848, of St. Louis, and of Rush 
Medical College, of Chicago, in 1850. He began the practice of medi- 
cine in the village of Dover, Illinois, where he resided until the out- 
break of the Civil War in 1861. In October, 1861, recruits to form the 
56th Regiment of Illinois Infantry were being enlisted in Camp Bureau, 
of Princeton, Illinois. Doctor Zearing enlisted and was appointed by 
Governor Yates, Oct. 27, 1861, surgeon of said regiment. December 
26th he was commissioned as first surgeon of the 57th Illinois, Colonel 
A. D. Baldwin. January, 1862, left Camp Douglas, Chicago, with the 
regiment for Ft. Henry, Tenn., then to Ft. Donelson and engaged in the 


battles of Ft. Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth and subsequently with 
the regiment through the campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta. 
In the summer of 1864, the regiment was transferred from the 16th 
Army Corps, Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, commanding to the 4th Di- 
vision of the 15th Army Corps, Gen. J. M. Corse commanding. Doctor 
Zearing served as Surgeon-in-Chief of Staff of Gen. J. M. Corse until 
the army reached Savannah, Ga., at which place Doctor Zearing was 
ordered by General Sherman to prepare and take charge of hospitals 
for the sick and wounded of the 15th Army Corps. 

On the breaking up of said hospitals, Doctor Zearing joined the 
advancing army tmder General Sherman at Raleigh, N. C., where he 
again took position as Surgeon-in-Chief on General Corse's staff until 
the command was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., in 1865. 

Doctor Zearing's children treasure a war album which was pre- 
sented to their father during the Civil War by his personal friends 
whose photographs it contains, among which are Generals Grant, Sher- 
man, Sheridan, McPherson and Logan; also a beautiful pen drawing 
of a cornucopia surrounded with cards on which are printed the names 
of some of the battles and dates in which Doctor Zearing saw active 
service. This, with other army papers and relics of his medical career 
in the army as surgeon is highly prized by the family of Doctor Zear- 
ing, who are asked to present these relics to the archives of the Rush 
Medical College. 

After the Civil War Doctor Zearing returned to Dover, Illinois, 
where he was received with great enthusiasm by the citizens of the 
entire county. He resumed the practice of medicine in Princeton, Illi- 
nois, where his family resided for many years and his children attended 

In 1872, on account of ill health he went to Texas where he was 
engaged for ten years with his former army friend. General Grenville 
M. Dodge in the construction of the Texas and Pacific Railroad. After 
this he moved to Chicago, where he resided until his death. In 1886, 
the eye strain which had been caused by operating so constantly at the 
battle of Fort Donelson, where he was without sufficient aid, either in 
assistant doctors or nurses, developed into glaucoma and iritis and pre- 
vented him engaging in any business and developed a total loss of sight 
for twenty-five years before his death. 

Doctor James R. Zearing, who was Illinois' first noted Civil War 
surgeon, began the study of medicine, as was the custom, in the office 
of a practicing physician. Dr. William Robinson, who had moved to 
Dover to be in a more central location of Bureau, Lee and LaSalle 
Counties, which his practice covered in that sparsely settled territory. 
The medical student became the druggist, that is, the compounder of 
many medicines and the maker of pills, those innocent little ones to 
appease the minds of the hysteria complainer, and also those robust 
dynamo blue mass concoctions ; the mortar and pestle was ever on the 
prescription desk, to be used to mix by careful rubbing together of the 
ingredients which were afterwards rolled into bullet-shaped pills, un- 
coated and bitter as gall. Then the doctor was the dentist 
and pulled the teeth with iron forceps, sterilizing only by washing in 


cold water. These were the days when the saddle bags were the useful 
adjunct to the pioneer physician, as they held the medicine, the instru- 
ments and the various sized bandages which the student physician had 
to roll in the office. Doctor Zearing was among the first doctors of 
Illinois to have a physician's gig which was a high two-wheeled vehicle, 
made as light as possible to stay on top of the muddy road. There 
were few physicians who preceded this time. The first three years of 
settlement on Bureau Creek, there were no doctors nearer than Peoria. 
In the year of 1831, Dr. N. Chamberlain came, and for many years 
he was the only one who could care for the sick. His practice ex- 
tended to the settlement on Rock River, and he continued these long 
trips to visit patients until 1837. The next pioneer physicians were 
Dr. William O. Chamberlain and Dr. Swanzy. Both of these men 
stood high in their profession and did most conscientious work. In 
1833 the first post office which had been named Greenfield, and kept 
for two years previous by Elijah Smith, had its name changed to 
Princeton, and Dr. N. Chamberlain was appointed postmaster, and 
Dr. William O. Chamberlain was the mail carrier from the first office, 
which was established and named Bureau. The rural people have 
always had the practice of going to the post office and seeing the 
Doctor after the day's work was done, and this was a great conven- 
ience to combine these two very important commissions. 

There was but one railroad in Illinois in 1848. That was the 
Northern Cross road, from Springfield by way of Jacksonville to 
Meredosia on the Illinois River. The Galena Railroad was the next 
built, and later the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. Dover fully ex- 
pected the road to come to it, but it passed two miles away, and Maiden 
was the nearest station. In 1850, when Dr. Zearing was attending 
Rush Medical College, the only way to get to Chicago was by way of 
LaSalle and the canal. It was the custom to drive to the end of the 
railroad, wherever that might be, to take the train. 

After the war Doctor Zearing was one of the first surgeons to per- 
form abdominal surgery in private practice. His success was phenom- 
enal. He was called to New York, to Indiana, to Iowa, and to Texas to 
perform such operations in the families of his war friends, who had 
more confidence in him than any other surgeon, knowing of the great 
success he had during the Civil War. His skill in straightening crooked 
limbs also brought him patients from afar. One boy whose arm had 
been broken and poorly set, and whose parents wished to educate him 
to be a priest, sent him to the famed surgeon, and his arm was made 
straight so as to do its ecclesiastical work. When one of his first 
patients was asked what she remembered of Doctor Zearing's early 
life as a physician, she replied, "He was one of the most beloved men 
in Bureau County and it was always said of him that he had fifteen 
hundred confinement cases without a mother's life being lost. This is 
a record to stamp a special Providence cross on early, and what would 
now be considered crude surgery. Oh, yes, I remember, too, that every 
farmer's wife knew his love for a glass of cream and a piece of cake, 
and if one knew he would pass her home, she was always ready with 
this lunch after a cup of hot coffee. It was a pleasure to them because 
they all loved him." 


My sister, Charlotte Zearing Colton, contributed the following: 

"My first remembrance of the country doctor's life is of hearing 
the clatter of horse's hoofs coming across the square at midnight, or 
being awakened in the middle of the night by some one calling from 
the gate for 'Dr. Jim' ; or the loud knocking on the door, or the wrap- 
ping with the whip handle of some excited person sent in haste for the 
doctor. When about ten years of age it was the ringing of the door- 
bell that awakened me, and here may I tell the story of one of the little 
boys who had heard of this door-bell, and had a great longing to ring it. 
He was not well acquainted with us, as his people were homeopathists. 
His curiosity was so great that one day he ventured to the door, planning 
to run as soon as the deed was done, but my mother, opening the door 
so quickly, frightened this from his mind, as well as an excuse of an 
errand. But she quickly understood the circumstance, and asked him 
if he would not like to come in and see her new door-bell, which he 
did, and was allowed to ring it several times. All through life he had 
a vision of my mother as an angel. 

So eager were the messengers to get the doctor started that they 
would offer to saddle Johnnie Smoker, or hitch up the horses and 
usually did it wrong. Before starting out father would go to the cellar, 
drink the cream from a pan of milk and eat some sponge cake. These 
two edibles were always in place for him on a swinging shelf. Then 
he was ready for the journey, which sometimes lasted three or four 
days, for people hearing that the doctor was coming into the neighbor- 
hood would leave word for him to journey on to another and another 
place. Many times I would not see my father for a week, as he would 
be sleeping when I went to school and be far out on the prairie when 
I went to bed. I remember standing by the window, watching for his 
return when there was a storm of thunder and lightning, and weeping 
at thought of his danger, and he would come in and tell me how much 
he enjoyed it. Then when I knew the creeks were high, how I grieved 
over his danger of fording; then when the snow drifts were over the 
fences, I wondered and wondered how he could ever make the journey. 
He never thought it possible to refuse making visits whether there was 
any pay from it or not. I remember the kindness of the people who 
had comfortable clean homes, in making him feel there was always 
a resting place, and a meal for the doctor whenever he passed, and he 
was not bashful in accepting this hospitality, for he knew the invita- 
tion came from the heart. 

I think one of the most pleasant remembrances of these days was 
in stealing into my father's office when I knew there was some surgical 
operation to be performed. I would hide until I knew father was well 
started then I would come forth, and soon be handing a bandage or 
an instrument to him, or holding a basin, and making myself generally 
useful. There were times when I was sent out. I can see a whole 
family in the office, the mother worn out, children with tooth-ache, 
cross-eyed, mumps, sore throats and itch, and the old man stiff with 
rheumatiz. Each one received more love and sympathy than medicine, 
and was sent home on the mend. 


I often wonder how father survived those severe winters, for he 
always rode in an open buggy or sleigh, and did not have the warm 
garments that people have today to protect themselves against rain and 
snow and wind. He depended on heated bricks, a buffalo overcoat and 
robes. His great protection from these relentless enemies was the love 
and admiration and gratitude these people gave the doctor for his 
care and sympathy and help in times of distress and suffering. 

After an early freshet, when Bureau Creek had become high and 
overflowed its banks, a farmer came into town one day and reported 
that he saw Doctor Zearing on horseback crossing the river and saw 
him go down and waited for some time, but did not see him come out on 
the other side. This report created great excitement to the family and 
friends of Doctor Zearing, and it was several days, when the creek was 
down enough to cross safely, before it was known whether he was 
safe or not, when he came riding into town to be greeted with great 
enthusiasm by all. 

When Gen. Grenville M. Dodge went to Texas to build the Texas 
and Pacific Railroad he asked his army friend. Major Zearing, to go 
with him. They had bunked together in war and there formed that 
peculiar deep affection for each other that only camp life brings to men. 
For more than ten years they were associated in railroad building. 

About this time he formed pleasant acquaintances with Col. 
Thomas Scott of Philadelphia, Col. George Noble, Jay Gould, Gov. John 
C. Brown of Tennessee, H. M. Hoxie, Capt. Grey, Morgan Jones, 
Major D. W. Washburn, long time friend, and with the more frequent 
association of Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, and others prominent in the 
building of the Texas and Pacific Railroad, Doctor Zearing counted 
many life long friends. 

The writer recalls the memorable occasion when Col. Thomas 
Scott and associates sold the Texas and Pacific Railroad to the Jay 
Gould interests, and a part of this interesting transaction took 
place outside of the New York offices and culminated in Marshall, 
Texas, in the home of Col. George M. Noble and in the presence of 
Col. James Scott, son of Col. Thomas Scott, and Doctor Zearing. 

After the tragic death of Major AVashburn in a railroad accident, 
the railroad civil engineer's work stood still. The ability and com- 
mand of such a man was hard to replace. The New York office, after 
diligent search sent a Scotchman to this vacant place. He had the 
usual stubborn methods of his kin, which was so unlike what had been 
given out by Major Washburn that the Scotchman soon had the ill 
will and hatred of every official on the whole T. & P. Railroad. The 
men realized the good of the road was interfered with. They appealed 
to Doctor Zearing to communicate conditions to General Dodge, who 
was in his New York office, as they deemed the General would consider 
what Doctor Zearing would recommend without a question. Doctor 
Zearing realized the necessity of doing something. He went to the 
office of the Texas and Pacific Railroad in Ft. Worth, Texas, and stood 
before the civil engineer, shook his fist in his face and told him he was 
a "Damn nuisance" and that every man connected with the railroad 
hated and despised him for his bulldogged meanness. He further told 


him of certain things he could not do and other things he should do, 
and demanded he change his course that minute. If not he would 
report him to General Dodge. Every man in the office stood aghast 
at Doctor Zearing's courage and authority as he plainly spoke to this 
red headed tryant, who at first looked furious, but calmed and heeded 
the advice given, which made life pleasant for all concerned. All along 
the telegraph line flashed this rebuke, extending to the M. K. & T. 
offices in Sedalia and St. Louis. The remarkable and unusual words 
used by the Doctor surprised all who received them, for the telegram 
read, "What do you think! Doctor Zearing swore, he called Mac a 
'Damn liar' and shook his fist in his face. The T. & P. office force is 

The superintendent of the M. K. & T., Col. J. M. Eddy, at whose 
home I was a guest, came in to dinner very care-worn. His wife said 
"Forget the day and cheer up for dinner." He replied, with a twinkle 
in his eye, "Forget, I cannot. Read this telegram. It looks as if the 
T. & P. might go to pieces when Doctor Zearing has begun to swear." 
This was but one departure from the method of kind words, a manly 
example and perfect deportment, that Doctor Zearing had always used 
in his profession and business and which was so unusual of him, but he 
felt that he must adopt beastly methods to arouse a beast, and the word 
flew among his friends, and has been spoken of often as "the one time 
that Doctor Zearing swore." 

Perhaps no instance we recall now shows the skill that Dr. Zear- 
ing possessed and which also shows him as peculiarly and distinctly 
a man who was cool and always in command of himself better than 
the account of an incident which occurred when he was with a party 
of men in a private car going over the T. & P. Railroad. A signal to 
stop was waved to their car as an accident was reported nearby. The 
men all went to the scene and found a man with a crushed leg which 
had to be amputated at once. Doctor Zearing sent the cook back to the 
car to bring him a saw and any knives he could find. With a meat saw 
and a carving knife the poor victim's life was saved. Another instance 
which happened in Louisiana when the Doctor was on horseback in the 
country, he met a runaway horse and wagon, dragging a negro, and the 
horse ran on into a pond and pulled the man under the water. The 
Doctor ran his horse to the stream and got the man's head above the 
water, then went to a darkey's cabin nearby for help, but these super- 
stitious people, having seen what had happened, ran in and locked their 
doors, and the only help that the Doctor found was a young boy he met 
on the road. 

Doctor Zearing was sitting on his front porch on Easter Monday 
morning, wrapped in his steamer rugs "just out for fresh air and more 
sunshine," as he often remarked to passing neighbors, and while thus 
resting and waiting the summons came. He was stricken with 
apoplexy. Doctor Zearing carried his eighty-three years with the erect- 
ness and grace of a soldier of fifty. So April 16, 1911 he closed his 
sightless eyes forever. As the telegraph and newspapers carried the 
words of his passing on, the responses to the family came promptly in, 
for the influence and extent of his early career had penetrated from 




"m' '.. '>> 



Bureau County to every state in the Union, and these letters seem to 
call for something of a memorial to be preserved by family and State 
to show how he was regarded by his generation. 

The Rush Alumni Association bulletin published the following 
notice : 


James Roberts Zearing, Chicago. Graduated 1850. Surgeon of 
the Fifty-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry and later Chief Surgeon 
of the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, serving throughout the 
Civil War ; said to have been the oldest alumnus of Rush Medical Col- 
lege. He had been blind for the last twenty-five years. Died at his 
home, April 16, 1911, from cerebral hemorrhage, aged 83. 


Lucinda Helmer, who was always called by her nick-name, 
"Puss," was born January 30, 1833, and married to James Roberts 
Zearing, of Dover, Bureau County, Illinois, May 25, 1854. Mrs. Zear- 
ing took an active part in club, social and progressive movements. She 
was one of the original subscribers to the first woman's suffrage paper, 
and one of the first members of the "Friends in Council," a literary club, 
of Princeton. She was educated in the boarding schools of Green- 
castle and Bloomington, Indiana, at the time her father, Melchert 
Helmer was in the legislature of that state. Three children survive, 
Charlotte (Mrs. Buel P. Colton), Luelja (Mrs. J. Ellsworth Gross), 
and James Helmer Zearing, and two grandsons, James Zearing Colton 
and Kingsley Buel Colton. 

A friend of mother's said recently of her, "Your mother was the 
handsomest girl I have ever seen. When she came to Illinois to visit 
her sister in Dover, many of us who had seen the attractive daugerro- 
type of her that always stood on the parlor table and admired it very 
much did not realize that any one could be so beautiful in feature and 
coloring as she. The first time I saw her, she came into church wear- 
ing an attractive straw poke bonnet. Her dresses were all low neck 
and short sleeve and her neck and arms were perfect. As she walked 
down the aisle every eye was upon her, but she, too, wanted to see. 
She carried the first gold framed monocle that Dover folks had ever 
seen. She was near sighted and during the singing she put the monocle 
to her eye and turned around to see the audience, who at the same 
time saw her face and every one was astonished that any human crea- 
ture could be so beautiful." Her father was with her. They had driven 
through from Bedford, with horse and buggy. He was just as hand- 
some a man as she was a girl, and his prominence in his own state 
added to his reception and warm welcome in Bureau County. The 
Hon. Melchert Helmer was of the Holland Dutch of New York, and 
as early as 1815 had gone with his family to Indiana, north of Louis- 
ville, Ky. At the age of twenty-two years he married Lucinda Burford 
Haggerty, of Kentucky, who was a cousin of President Polk. The 
inheritance of the combined New York and Kentucky ancestry was 


dominant in the Helmer daughters. Their father was a staunch Abo- 
Htionist, and he would not Uve as he had intended, in Kentucky, but 
moved to southern Indiana, where he was in the Indiana legislature, 
and was one of the members of the convention in October, 1850 to 
"Revise the Constitution of Indiana." He was a great man, always 
standing most firmly for the truth and right. Four daughters lived to 
womanhood, but two sons died in infancy, which was a source of great 
regret that the name of this family should die in the state of Indiana in 
which the father and grandfather had helped to pave the way to 

Mrs. Zearing was very much like her father and took part in 
Dover, Princeton and Chicago in all activities in which women were 
interested, especially during the World's Fair of Chicago, when women 
awoke to their usefulness, but when loss of sight overtook her husband, 
Mrs. Zearing devoted her life to him. She read, walked, traveled and 
was his strong arm, so other duties dropped from her Hfe. A life of 
devotion is seldom so remarkably faithful as was that of Doctor and 
Mrs. Zearing. They had twin bicycles on which they rode out Michigan 
Avenue to the south parks, taking the morning papers along and enjoy- 
ing the fresh air and the exercise. The Doctor loved a slow, quiet 
smoke, while he listened to the daily news. His alertness in regard 
to history and events was remarkable. His mind was keen, his hearing 
the best, as was Mrs. Zearing's. In fact, age seemed to forget them 
until the end came. Mrs. Zearing died December 28, 1912. 



CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865. 

Camp Douglas, Dec. 3, 1861. 
Dear Puss : 

I have neglected writing you for several days, although during 
that time I have received two letters from you for which I am very 
thankful. I have not, for the last week, been really able to write a 
letter, and if I had been, I would scarcely have had the time. About 
ten days ago I took a very bad cold, which settled on my lungs and 
leaves a severe cough, such as I had last winter. This has hardly left 
me fit for duty. As yet, however, I have been able to go through with 
it, but with the greatest effort, and all the time, too, through the in- 
crease of sickness, my labor has been largely increased. LTnless I get 
rapidly better I will have to give up my position in the hospital, which 
will make my labor much less. The service in the regiment, I can get 
along with very easily. I have not determined positively whether I 
shall remain permanently or not. It will depend on this, if the regiment 
goes into service soon, or if there is a prospect of it going soon, I think 
I shall go with them, but if the prospect is to stay here all winter, I will 
probably come home, as I do not think I would like staying here so 
long, although I am well situated. I cannot tell you what will be the 
result of the filling up of the regiment. We are getting more recruits 
than any other regiment in camp, and we have offers of full companies 


to join us. I wish I could tell you when I would be down to see you, 
but as yet, I do not see any chance for it. I was glad to learn by your 
letters that you were doing well, and that the little chips were thriving. 
You did not state whether you were weaning the baby or not. .1 hope 
you will immediately, as it would be much better for you. In regard to 
those safes that William sent, you had better have Joseph take care 
of them if they come. He says he shipped one by railroad and two by 
water ; the two by water will be frozen up on the way, as navigation is 
already closed. I enclose you a letter from Mat and Ehza, as it may be 
later than when you heard from them last. I will try and write them 
soon. Write me as often as you can. I will write you soon again. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Camp Douglas, Dec. 20th, 1861. 
Dear Puss : 

I just write you a few lines to inform you that I will not be home 
this week, but will certainly be at home on Monday next. My reason 
for not being able to fill my promise is that the regiment has been en- 
gaged in important matters this week that was necessary that I should 
be here. We have this day completed a consolidation of our regiment 
with that of the 57th regiment under Col. Baldwin. We have about 
an equal number of men and the offices have been equally divided. I 
have today selected an assistant surgeon, Dr. Blood, of this city. 
He appears to be a very fine man. This will be of much relief to me, 
as I can better feel that the regiment is provided for while I am gone. 
So goodbye till Monday, then I will see you. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Tennessee River, March 9th, 1862. 
Dear Puss: 

I left Cairo Friday evening. We had to lay over at Paducah all 
day, so that we did not reach Fort Henry until this afternoon. I found 
when we arrived at the Fort that our regiment had already got on 
board a boat and proceeded up the river. We run up six miles and 
found them in company with a large fleet. I soon got on board and 
was warmly received by the regiment. There are about a hundred of 
the boys sick, so that I will have work on hand immediately. We are 
on board the steamer Argyle. We will probably remain here over 
night. There are still more regiments coming up the river. There are 
now about sixty steamers loaded with troops here and more coming. 
Gen. Grant and Gen. Wallace are with us. Where we are going is all 
a matter of conjecture with us. Undoubtedly there is some well ma- 
tured plan arranged which we will be made aware of when the time 
comes for action. Some think we are bound for Memphis, some that 
we are to go as far into Alabama as we can get, but by looking up the 
"map, and comparing our location with the position of the enemy, you 
can judge of our destination as well as we can. There were three of 
our men taken prisoners today while out foraging. They had got 
several miles back from the river when a body of secesh cavalry 


pounced on them, one of the body managed to escape and brought the 
news to the boat. We sent out three companies in pursuit, but they 
had retreated back to a place called Paris, some twenty or thirty miles. 
Our men did not see proper to pursue them so far. They brought with 
them thirteen prisoners that were known to be hot secesh, although 
they were at their homes when taken. The officers thought they would 
have a chance to exchange them for their own men. They brought 
with them a fine lot of chickens and turkeys. One of the latter we 
purchased for our officers' mess, which will grace our table tomorrow. 
I am still getting better but feel "powerful" weak, but a few days will 
stiffen up my muscles so I can move about as lively as ever. I will 
write you as often as opportunity offers. You will still write to Cairo. 
The letters will be forwarded some time. Write often so that I need 
not be uneasy. We have seen no paymaster yet. Perhaps will not until 
the war is over. Kiss the babies for me, and one for yourself. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Tenn., March 15, 1862. 
Dear Wife : 

I wrote you several letters while on the way up, I do not suppose, 
however, that you will get them very soon as I presume the government 
will delay them so as to prevent the object of the expedition to become 
known. After I wrote you last we continued up the river, in passing 
a town on the river by the name of Clifton, by a few cavalry that were 
prowling around, they fired into us after we passed the village, one 
man was badly wounded, the ball passing through the elbow joint, 
fracturing the elbow joint; during the excitement one of our men dis- 
charged his gun and shot another of our men through the head, killing 
him instantly. We fired back at the rebels, and then backed the boat 
down to the village and landed but could not catch the cavalry, the 
citizens represented that they used their best endeavors to prevent the 
rebels firing, they all professed to be willing to come into the Union. 
We took two of the citizens prisoners for the good behavior of the rest. 
We arrived at a place called Savannah on Thurs. morning, we layed 
there until night when that part of the fleet consisting of our brigade 
went three miles up the river, where we were ordered to land ; we 
did so, and marched 4 miles into the country, the darkest and rainiest 
night you ever saw. We reached a place called Adamsville and 
camped. A large force of cavalry were sent out to scout, the object 
of the expedition was to attack a body of the enemy supposed to be at 
Purdy, the county seat of McNary Co., about 10 miles distant from 
where we were. This is an important point, as near there all the 
important railroads of the south converge. The enemy could not be 
found ; in the night we marched back to the boats where we still are, 
awaiting the plans of our generals. It is reported that the rebels are 
in large force somewhere near this point, we will have to be shrewd 
or they will destroy our transports and cut off our chance for advance 
or retreat. Whether we will succeed in cutting off more than their 
railroad communication is doubtful. They have by so many roads 


converging at this point an opportunity of throwing a large force 
upon us here, if they have them to spare, and as they have evacuated 
Columbus, Bowling Green and perhaps other points where they had 
other troops, they will probably make a desperate attempt to cut us 
off here. I have been delighted at the appearance of the country here. 
It looks fertile and is well cultivated. We are now in the land of 
cotton and on our expedition we saw some valuable piles already 
pressed and sacked on fire, and the owners fled. The most of the in- 
habitants, however, stayed at home with their "niggers," and thereby 
saved them. We did not take any cotton, though we might have taken 
a large quantity of it. 

I am getting along very well, though we have a great deal of sick- 
ness, and consequently we have to work very hard. Puss, I am pretty 
near tired of war, it is hard work and the most extreme kind of priva- 
tion. Just to think of a man of your husband's pretentions trotted out 
of bed at three o'clock in the morning and marched through the woods 
and then breakfasted on black coffee and pilot bread. Well, no matter, 
I can stand it if others can. Puss — we have just received a mail from 
up the river and no letter from you yet. I should be glad to hear from 
you. I received one from Dr. Isaacs dated March 6. 


J. R. Zearing. 
Tenn., March 18, 1862. 
Dear Puss : 

I will write you a few lines again today. I nearly forgot where 
it was I wrote you last, but we are now at a point 4 miles below 
Savannah, a pretty village of some size and considerable wealth. I 
went up yesterday to see it. I was invited into dinner at one of the 
plantations adjoining the village. The owner has 80 "niggers" and 
lives in princely style. We had all the luxuries that a well ordered 
farm can produce. I shall enjoy it for month or two, just thinking of 
it. We find a great many true Union men in this vicinity. I think a 
majority of them are. They have suffered a great deal from the rebels 
by the way of foraging and stealing and they are heartily tired of it. 
We are still on the boat. Tomorrow we will go on the shore and 
camp. It will be far more pleasant, as the men will all have tents, and 
the weather is superb. For a few days it has been clear and a-: mild 
as May, the surface is being covered with grass and some of the trees 
of the earlier varieties are showing their leaves quite plainly. We are 
still waiting here for orders to move. The designs of the commanding 
officers are still a mystery, though it is evidently indicated by the 
magnitude of the operations that there will be movements of great 
importance. Besides the force already here which must be 50,000 
troops are still coming up from below in large numbers. They are 
now bringing up the forces that have been operating against Price in 
Missouri. We have news that General Buel is only about 40 miles 
from us with his army, so you see that the forces concentrated here 
are immense. The rebels are said to be concentrating theirs to meet 
us. If so, it will be the most decisive battle of the war, and if we are 
victorious it will probably settle secesh. 


We lost another man today, who was shot accidently three nights 
ago while on picket duty. He was shot through the upper part of the 
left lung. 

I have got perfectly strong again and feel sound. I can digest 
salt pork and hard biscuit and drink Tenn. water thick with mud, and 
that requires a pretty strong stomach. I would feel better if I could 
hear from you. We have had several mails up the river, but I have 
received no letter since I saw you. Write often. Kiss the babies for 


J. R. Zearing. 

Savannah, Tenn., March 2lst, 1862. 
Dear Puss : 

I have nothing particular to write, but as there is a rtiail to leave 
this evening, I thought I would drop you a line. I was sent down from 
our brigade yesterday with a boat load of sick to put in hospital here, 
and leave them. Major General Grant ordered me to stop here and 
take charge of the hospital until further orders. How long it will be 
until those further orders come I cannot tell. Our regiment was or- 
dered to prepare ten days rations when I left and if I am compelled 
to stay here a few days I shall get separated from the regiment. Puss, 
I am tired out again. I have taken cold and have a pretty bad cough, 
but presume I shall get over it again in a few days. There is an im- 
mense amount of sickness in the army. I believe that one-third are 
unfit for duty. In some regiments a good many are dying. Dr. Brown, 
of the 11th Indiana, died day before yesterday. We need physicians. 
If Orlando Helmer was here I could get him a contract immediately 
at seventy-five or a hundred dollars per month. If he can come on soon, 
you had better send him. Puss I have received no letter from you yet. 
I presume some day I will get a whole batch, and then I shall enjoy 
them. I still write you every few days. I presume you get some of 


J. R. Zearing. 

Pittsburg, Tenn., April 8, 1862. 

Tuesday Evening. 
Dear Puss : 

I snatch a few moments this evening to inform you that we have 
just .gone through two days of the bloodiest fight that ever occurred 
on this continent. I wrote you a letter on Saturday last, stating that the 
night before we were attacked by a few regiments of the rebels on our 
extreme right, that in a short time they were driven back and we re- 
mained quiet the rest of the night. Saturday everything was quiet 
and we presumed that it was merely a reconnoitering party, but it 
proved to be the advance of the main body of the enemy. On Sunday 
morning at six o'clock the rebels advanced with their whole force, 
very rapidly and with great energy. Their wh'ole force was thrown 
upon our right wing. General Sherman's division. It was but a short 
time before his division was forced to retire. Our whole force was 


immediately thrown forward and we formed a line of battle about two 
miles back from the river. The fighting was furious on the line for 
about two hours, but for want of complete organization and the time 
consumed in getting our artillery into proper position, we were forced 
to retire and form a new line, about half a mile in our rear. Upon this 
line our men fought for four hours with great determination. The 
ground was covered' with the dead and wounded. No advantage 
seemed to be gained on either side. We had lost a large proportion of 
our field and line officers. The enemy moved up all their reserve and 
made a desperate onset. They were so far superior in numbers as to 
out-flank. At every gap in our line they would wedge in fresh regi- 
ments. After severe loss on both sides, we gradually retired fighting 
every inch of the way, holding the enemy at bay for a considerable 
length of time, and retiring so slowly was the only thing that saved 
our entire army from being captured. As soon as it was determined to 
retire from our second line, our general in command, Grant, had put 
in position on a new line, within a half mile of the river, a number of 
large siege cannon. Our troops retreated upon this line about five 
o'clock. The enemy rushed upon this line with great confidence. They 
knew if they drove us from this they would gain everything. Our 
men stood firm. The rebels came up apparently with undiminished 
numbers. Our large cannon opened upon them and mowed them down 
by hundreds. Our rifles poured a hail storm into them that completely 
checked them. They hesitated and fell back. It was growing dark 
and we were not in position to follow them. We remained behind our 
artillery. The rebels slept in our tents. We slept in the open air. 
So far they had the advantage of us. I must confess we were nearly 
whipped and feared the morrow. Twelve hours hard fighting and no 
time to eat. Just as dark set in we saw the most pleasant sight I think 
I ever saw in my life, the advance of Buel's army were seen marching 
down the blufif on the opposite side of the river. Never were friends 
more welcome. Our men sent three hearty cheers across the river to 
them, to which they replied. The steamboats were all put in motion 
and by dayhght Generals Nelson's and Cook's divisions, consisting of 
about twenty thousand fresh troops were landed within our lines. 
The rebels undoubtedly expected easy work in capturing, as the next 
day we got up in the morning ahead of them. General Nelson's and 
Cook's divisions were formed on the right. Our troops on the left. 
We made the attack and with such vigor that the rebels fell back a 
short distance. They rallied and fought desperately, well knowing that 
they were about to lose a prize that was almost within their grasp. 
Fresh troops arrived across the river all the forenoon, which were con- 
stantly thrown against the enemy. We drove them back slowly and 
steadily. About noon General L. Wallace's division arrived from 
Adamsville, four miles below and fell upon their left flank. This 
was too much for them. They now commenced retreating rapidly but 
in good order. We recovered all the artillery that we lost the day be- 
fore, and captured part of theirs. We drove them about six miles 
when night put a stop to the pursuit. This morning part of the army 
started again in pursuit. What the result of today's pursuit has been 


I do not yet know, but you can depend upon it, we are going to have 
a complete victory, though dearly purchased. From Sunday morn- 
ing until tonight we have worked' constantly and I can assure you I 
am tired. The wounded of the whole army were brought to the land- 
ing at the river, where we erected tents and used steamboats for 
putting them in. You may imagine the scene of from two to three 
thousand wounded men at one point calling to have their wounds 
dressed. We worked to the best advantage we could, but the crowded 
state of everything and the absence of extensive preparations for such 
an event caused a great deal of suffering, that might have been pre- 
vented. I think there is a much larger proportion of wounded in this 
battle that will prove fatal than at Donelson. It is impossible yet to 
give anything near the correct figure of our losses, especially of killed 
and wounded, as in the fight on Sunday we perhaps lost nearly two thou- 
sand prisoners, probably a good many of them wounded. Our regiment 
suffered severely. We have to report a loss of about two hundred 
killed, wounded and missing. We buried this morning twenty-three, 
all we could find, and have found about fifty wounded. Among the 
missing a good many will yet straggle in. Harrison Wood, of Dover, 
is seriously wounded, also George Cheney. Capt. Manzer is slightly 
wounded in the head, but the worst I have to tell you is the death of 
my warm friend, Major Page. He was shot in the groin on Sunday 
about one o'clock. The regiment was in the act of charging on the 
enemy when he fell. His men picked him up and carried him to the 
rear, but he died in about two hours. The regiment are unanimous in 
deploring his loss. He was as gallant and skillful an officer as there 
was in the regiment. We are going to send his body home. It will 
about end the days of his wife. We have also lost the commander of 
our division. General Wallace of Illinois. He was shot through the 
head on Sunday and died the next day. The general of our brigade. 
General Sweeney, of Illinois, was wounded in his left arm. He had 
lost his right arm in Mexico. The command of the brigade then de- 
volved on Col. Baldwin of our regiment. Captain of the 12th regiment 
from Princeton is shot through the chest. He will probably die. Lieut. 
Seaman, of Princeton, was killed immediately. Bureau County has 
suffered severely. As far as I can see, I have not been hurt. I heard 
a good many balls whistle as if they were pretty close. I was sitting 
on my horse talking with another surgeon, when a cannon ball passed 
through his horse just behind the surgeon's legs. The horse and sur- 
geon dropped immediately, the horse killed and the surgeon badl}^ 
frightened. Puss, I have no more time to write tonight. I will write 
soon again. 


J. R. Zearing. 

P. S. In the letter I wrote you on Saturday I enclosed twenty 
dollars. I hope you will get it. Friday morning — all well. Had a 
heavy frost this morning. Nothing by mail. 


Pittsburg, Tenn., April 30th, 1862. 
Dear Puss : 

The last letter I received from you was post marked Bedford, 
Ind., April 13th. The letter was without date. I presume it was 
written a day or two before that date. I have written you so many 
letters since the battle that it is not strange you did not receive some 
of them before that date. I wrote you one also about a week before the 
battle in which I enclosed you twenty dollars. As your last letter 
makes no mention of receiving it, I presume of course, you did not 
receive it. I regret very much that you did not receive the letters in 
due time, as they would have set your mind at rest in regard to my 
condition. I have no doubt, however, that before this time you have 
received several of my late letters and you will then know that I have 
gone through the battle all safe and that I am in most excellent health. 
You must not worry about me at all. Keep yourself cheerful as pos- 
sible. I, of course, will take good care of myself. We all expect to 
get through the war safe, but if I should never see you again, you must 
remember that there will be thousands of families in the same con- 
dition. There is some fighting on the front line every day now. Our 
army is steadily advancing toward Corinth. Our cavalry went out 
yesterday and burned two bridges on the railroad running north from 
Corinth. This was the purpose of cutting off their supplies from 
Tennessee. Our regiment broke camp yesterday and moved forward 
six miles. I remained in camp to attend to the removal of the sick. 
I must follow the brigade this afternoon. I must forward this line 
to the river and to do so must close briefly. Write often. 

Yours affectionately, 

J. R. Zearing. 

Pittsburg, Tenn., April 27th, 1862. 
Dear Wife: 

It has been several days since I wrote you and about a week since 
I heard from you. I presume I do not receive all the letters that you 
write or I would hear from you more often. It is Sunday today. At 
eleven o'clock we had preaching by the chaplain, but I was too busy 
at that hour to attend. All the forenoon of each day we are busy 
making prescriptions, visiting the sick, etc. The afternoon we devote 
to writing reports, making our requisitions and letter writing. We 
have had a few days of fine weather. The roads are improving rapidly. 
It has been so very wet and the roads so bad that no advance of much 
importance has been made. Still we are advancing. Our most ad- 
vanced troops are eight miles on the road to Corinth. The rebels are 
scattered all the way on the road. We do not know where their main 
body is. It is presumed to be at a point two miles this side of Corinth. 
We are pushing forward very cautiously. We do not intend to fall 
into any trap that Beauegard may be setting for us. The day before 
yesterday our cavalry surprised one of their camps nearest our lines. 
We captured about twenty prisoners, most of their equipments, burned 
all their tents and then retreated without losing a man. The probability 
is that we will have skirmishing every day now as our army advances 


until we meet their main forces and then another such a battle as 
Pittsburg or worse, and the war will be pretty much ended. I hope 
it will. Many here are of the opinion that they will not risk a great 
battle at Corinth, but will retreat further south, for the purpose of 
breaking our army by the diseases of the south, to which their own 
army are acclimated. If this should be their plan, they will fail in it, 
as we could march to the Gulf of Mexico before the yellow fever would 
prevail much, and their army will become so greatly demoralized 
by retreat that we could gain an easy victory, but in my opinion they 
have no idea of falling back except at the point of the bayonette. A 
very few days will decide the matter. We have but to march ten 
miles farther to prove the matter. Our army is twice as large as at 
the late battle, beside all of Buel's army nearly all of General Pope's 
army have arrived from the Mississippi. The 51st Illinois regiment 
is here. That is the one that Jonas Zearing and the Cochran boys 
are in. They are camped about six miles from our camp. I have not 
had an opportunity of seeing them yet. We hear of a great many of 
the wounded that have died since the battle. Captain Swain, of Tis- 
kilwa, Capt. Ferris, of Princeton, and I have heard that Harrison died 
in one of the hospitals below. We can expect to hear of as many 
dying from their wovmds as were killed in battle. Captain Manzer has. 
gone home on a furlough for twenty days. I would like to do the 
same. I was riding by the landing yesterday and saw a tent erected 
with a sign out, "pictures," so I went in and had one "tuck.'" You can 
judge if it is a good one, as I shall enclose it with this letter and send 
it to you. You will observe I have overcome my prejudices against 
mustachios and have concluded to sprout some. By the aid of your 
glasses you can discover my first attempt. It is folly to try to be civi- 
lized in the army. We live as near a natural life as possible. I am 
getting along finely. Can eat anything that I can get, and could eat 
many things that I can't get, such as fresh butter and eggs. The sut- 
lers bring them up the river, but they are so strong that nobody can 
eat them. I wish you would send me some. The best thing we have 
is a fresh milk cow. I sent the boys out a few days ago and they 
captured a nice one for the hospital. I think we can make butter from 
her after we kill the calf. I have quite an extensive cooking establish- 
ment. About forty boarders usually, sick and nurses. You would be 
pleased to see how neat we are. I send you an invitation to call and 
take tea with us. I promised to ride to the lines this afternoon with 
the Colonel, so goodbye. 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, July 27th, 1862. 
Dear Puss : 

I received yours of July 23rd today, the day you were to leave 
for home. It seems from your not mentioning it, that they have not 
heard yet of Dr. Isaac's sickness. He was taken sick on Friday, the 
18th, and I wrote several letters shortly after to Dr. Robinson inform- 
ing him of the case, and requesting him to inform his friends. I also 
telegraphed to his father that he was dangerously sick and desired 


him or his brother WilHam to come immediately here. I have as yet 
heard nothing from them, but still expect some of them down. Well, 
Puss, you will feel sorry, very sorr}', when I tell you that yesterday we 
buried the poor boy. It seemed to me hke burying a brother. He 
was always like one of the family. He was so kind, so cheerful, so 
good, but we had to part with him. He was attacked very violently 
with typhoid dysenter}\ The disease ran very rapidly and he died on 
last Friday night, just one week from the time he was taken sick. You 
may well suppose that we did all we could for him, watched him night 
and day, afforded him all the comforts we could, and yer we had to 
see him die. He had worked hard for the regiment — too hard for his 
own good. He was entirely exhausted so that when disease came on 
he had but little power to rally on. The regiment esteemed him highly, 
and yesterday we buried him with military honors. There was a large 
turnout and all seemed to regret his loss. He was conscious nearly to 
the last and was impressed with the belief from the first that he would 
not recover. He expressed great anxiety to have his body sent home. 
We could not keep him long enough to get a metallic coffin from Cairo, 
so I concluded it was best to bury him and await the arrival of his 
friends. It will be a sad blow to them and the community around 
Dover. Well, Puss, I suppose you are now safely at your own home. 
I hope you have found the friends all well. How did Lizzie and Lula 
endure their orphanage? I presume they jumped to see you. I would 
like to see them every day. You state in your letter that you are dis- 
appointed in not hearing from me. Did you not get a letter by Captain 
Manzer? He resigned and went home a few days after I arrived here 
and I sent a letter by him to you. I will try and write oftener. You 
must do the same. I have been very busy and tired, but I am well and 
think I can stand this climate, if not worked too hard. A kiss for you. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Aug. 10, 1862. 
Dear Wife: 

This is Sunday evening, very calm and brilliant moonlight, the 
night is very pleasant, comfortably cool, succeeding a very hot day. 
It is pleasant to sit in a quiet tent and enjoy these nights. The enjoy- 
ment would be complete if I could have you by my side to participate 
in the pleasure. 

Well, Puss — you did feel sad at the news of Dr. Isaac's death. I 
knew you would, it could not be otherwise. He spoke of you and the 
children before he died, very affectionately. His death will be re- 
gretted by all that knew him. I have not heard from Dover for some 
time. I wrote Joseph a letter last week, as you suggested for the pur- 
pose of encouraging him. He did much better with the farm than I 
supposed he would, but the season has been very discouraging and I 
am afraid he will relax his efforts. If he perseveres he will do pretty 
well as grain will bring a large price. The extensive issue of paper 
money will inflate prices and people will live fast for awhile. It will 
be a most excellent time for prudent people to get out of debt, and as 


we are among the prudent ones we will improve the good opportunity. 
I did not mean this as a lecture to you on economy, but just an acci- 
dental observation upon the times. I was notified this afternoon to 
send an ambulance to Corinth tomorrow to bring out the paymaster, 
as he is to pay our brigade tomorrow, so you see there is a prospect 
of having some money. We will receive pay up to the first of July,, 
two months from the previous pay day. As soon as I get mine I will 
express it to you, so that you will have something to make you com- 

I see by your letter that occasionally when you get the blues you 
still want me to resign. Well, Puss,. that is very pretty to talk about, 
but when it comes to resigning the game is all up. I could not on any 
pretext whatever get my resignation accepted. The government is 
now going to throw its whole strength into the war, and they will not 
listen to an offer of resignation from an officer that has been serving in 
the army ; they will need a great many new ones and they think the old 
ones are the best. When the 600,000 new recruits come into the field 
we will form a fine from the Mississippi to Richmond and march 
right down to the Gulf of Mexico and close the thing up. That will 
be in the fall, then I can get a chance to come Ihome. We are having 
some cavalry skirmishes every few days in front of our lines, the boys 
bring in some secesli prisoners frequently. The health of the army 
is good and every thing is ready for the secesh if they choose to come. 

I am going to give John the position of hospital steward, Goodell 
is a nuisance. I will offer him John's position. If he does not accept 
I will put him in the ranks or send him home. John received a letter 
from his father today. They are all well. Goodbye; a kiss for you 
and the babies. 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Sunday, Sept. 21, 1862. 
Dear Wife: 

We have had some excitement this week. For the last three days 
we have been under marching orders, rations cooked and all the usual 
preparations complete for a march. It has been rumored for some 
time that Price was meditating an attack upon this place or somewhere 
upon the forces in this vicinity. On last Thurs. it was ascertained 
that he had marched past this place with a large army going east, this 
would bring him in contact with Rosecrans' division which were en- 
camped about 20 miles east of this place near luka. On Friday all 
the troops from this place, comprising the 2nd and 6th divisions, except 
our brigade, were sent out to meet them. General Grant taking com- 
mand in person, in all about 8,000. They met Price's army three miles 
this side of luka. The battle commenced about nine o'clock Saturday 
morning. At noon we received a telegraphic dispatch from General 
Grant stating that he had engaged the enemy and defeated them and 
was in active pursuit. In the middle of the afternoon we received 
another dispatch that the rebels had made another stand and the fight- 
ing was severe. We had lost a good many men and one battery of 
artillery, before night the news was received that the enemy was again 


retreating, we had retaken the artillery and captured all the wounded 
of the enemy. This morning Rosecrans' troops have continued in pur- 
suit of Price, and the troops from this place are returning. It all 
amounts to considerable of a victory. The killed and wounded on 
both sides are estimated at 1,000. We have not yet received the par- 
ticulars of the battle. I cannot give the loss on either side. Yesterday 
and today we expected an attack on this place, as it was supposed that 
Price would endeavor to draw our troops off by an attack on luka, 
and in their absence make an attack here. We would have had but 
a small force to have resisted him, the prize would have been valuable 
as there is an immense amount of munitions of war and army stores 
here. Our regiment has been encamped about a mile outside the 
breastworks. Yesterday we moved inside to garrison the town while 
the main body of the troops were absent. Tomorrow we will move 
out again. We expect that Price will concentrate his forces and make 
another attack. It is getting to be good weather for army operations. 
It is only two or three hours in the middle of the day that it is uncom- 
fortably warm. The army is in good health and condition, the late 
news from the Potomac enlivens their spirit. I see by the papers that 
a large force of "hoosiers" have been captured at Mumfordsville, Ky., 
after some good fighting. Puss — I received your letter containing the 
stamps yesterday. You must have had the blues awfully when you 
wrote that letter. I have a great mind to scold you.. You must be an 
awful eater to have so man)- women entertaining you. What fruits 
have you been putting up? I will have to come home and enjoy them. 
I thought I had instructed you so much on canning that you would 
know perfectly well how to ship it. My plan is to let them alone 
and they will grow better. And be careful that you don't suspect 
that people are begging from you when they are not, or don't magnify 
little things into mountains. Some people do that. However, I will 
not make you feel worse by scolding you. The sentiments in your 
last letter were so good that I will forgive you. You say that you have 
had no Sabbath school in Springville. How much have you done di- 
rectly towards supporting one since you have been there? I wrote 
you in one of my letters about educating Lottie and in another about 
coming down here. As you have alluded to neither of the subjects in 
your letters, I presume you did not receive them. Perhaps you will 
receive them yet. I am in the best of health and would like to see 
you. I am glad to hear that you are canning peaches. I think I shall 
taste a few of them. 

Good night, 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Oct. 6, 1862. 
Dear Wife : 

I will write you a few lines today amid the excitement of war in 
its bloodiest character, to let you know that I am all sound. We had 
been anticipating a heavy attack on this place for some time, especially 
since the battle of luka. But presuming that we could keep open our 
communication with Jackson, there was not as large a force here as 


should have been to have made it secure against the heavy force. The 
first positive indication we had of the approach of the enemy in force 
was on Thursday. The regular train from Columbus failed to come 
in on Thursday night and we soon learned that the rebels had torn 
up the track for the distance of several miles at a point seven miles 
from here and broken the road at other points above. Thursday night 
our army was all ordered to have rations in haversacks and be ready 
to move at a moment's warning. At four o'clock on Friday morning 
the rebels attacked our outposts on the west side of the place on the 
line of the Memphis road. We had been encamped on the east side 
of the town. Our brigade was immediately ordered to the point of 
attack, which was some four miles distant, in company with the bal- 
ance of the division. They got into position on the extreme left of 
the line about eight o'clock, and had not been formed in battle line 
over half an hour before they were attacked by a largely superior force 
in a most desperate manner. Our men stood the shock nobly, deliver- 
ing the most steady and effective fire that I have seen during the war. 
It told fearfully on the enemy as a view of the field shows at present, 
but it had no effect in checking their march. They advanced on the 
double quick in the utmost disregard of human life. At this point 
the rebels overpowered us, taking some of our men prisoners and tak- 
ing from our brigade two Parrot guns. The country at this locality 
is heavily timbered and quite undulating, a bad condition for making 
an orderly retreat. Our division was ordered to fall back, which they 
accomplished in pretty good order, leaving our dead and badly wounded 
upon the field. They rallied in good condition and formed a line on a 
ridge about three-fourths of a mile in the rear. They had not to wait 
long for the approach of the enemy. They were soon seen advancing in 
solid column and again the firing became terrific, very destructive on 
both sides. Our artillery, which had chosen good positions, poured 
grape and cannister into their ranks with terrible effect, but they soon 
threw a large force around on our right, endeavoring to cut us off from 
the right of our army and get between us and the town. To ^void 
this we were again moved rapidly to the rear, and secured a position 
defeating their plan. The whole army had been retreating at differ- 
ent points through the day and were all equally towards the rear. 
The rebels attacked us in the last positions along our whole line, throw- 
ing the most of their force on our center. They were met with most 
determined energy. During the fight on this line our brigade, consist- 
ing of the 57th, 7th and 50th Illinois, made a charge on the run at 
their extreme right and drove them back a half mile, capturing some 
prisoners. From this time their onward progress was checked and as 
they did not advance our army held its position. It was now about five 
o'clock and the battle for the day ended, except some_ skirmishing to 
watch each others movements. Our army during the night was drawn 
in within a line of batteries or small forts which have been built by us 
since the occupation of Corinth. The works built by the rebels pre- 
vious to our taking the place were too extensive to hold with a small 
army, being about five miles in diameter. We had built a fortification 
within theirs enclosing the town, about two miles in diameter. The 


soldiers here slept on their arms awaiting an attack in the morning, 
which we would conclude must take place, as the rebels had the moral 
effect of a victory on their side, although dearly bought, and their object 
was not attained. We had not long to sleep; as early as four in the 
morning they commenced shelling our works and the town. At sun- 
rise they commenced an attack with their whole force. There seemed 
to be no end to their numbers as they swarmed out of the woods on 
the west and north sides of the town. It certainly did not seem that 
our small force could resist them an hour. Our batteries opened upon 
them terribly, but on they came as if on parade, closing up their ranks 
as fast as their men fell. We held them at a distance for several hours 
with artillery, they, in the meantime, making different points of attack 
without success, but with heavy loss. At one o'clock they tired of 
delay. They ceased firing seemingly bent upon some new movement. 
In a short time our army was put in the most favorable position and 
everything ready for whatever might occur. We knew their intent to 
sacrifice everything to gain their object. The prize lay in plain view 
before them, large storehouses filled with army stores, munitions of 
war and- everything needed for a destitute army. They advanced upon 
it, certain of obtaining it. They yet had a force largely superior to 
ours in numbers. The whole line was engaged, the rebels rushed for- 
ward, and here occurred one of the most desperate affairs of the whole 
war. They charged on our whole battery, which consisted of two 
30 lb. siege, two rifled Parrot guns and one large howitzer. The 
battery mowed them down with grape and cannister, while the in- 
fantry that was supporting it poured in rapid volleys of Minnie balls, 
but they took it, many of them being shot in the ditch and embrassures 
of the fort. They could only hold it for a few minutes. Our men 
charged upon them and drove them out. The dead in front of this 
battery were far more numerous than I have ever seen on the same 
space of ground. Defeated at this point, they still fought with courage 
at others. On the north side of town they succeeded in driving our 
men partly through the town and effected an entrance into it. My 
hospital, which was about half a mile on the east side was in great 
danger from the fire of both armies, the rebels approached within a half 
mile of it about three o'clock in the afternoon. It looked as if the day 
and the town was lost, but our men rallied for another desperate effort, 
and it succeeded. The rebels commenced giving away and soon they 
commenced a retreat along their whole line, which resulted in a panic. 
We drove them that night two miles and night was welcomed by every- 
body. The day following, Sunday, we started in pursuit in conjunction 
with part of the army from Jackson, which arrived Saturday night. 
We overtook them Sunday afternoon and captured their whole train 
and many thousand small arms and prisoners. Their whole army is 
broken up and scattered. The rebels were commanded by General 
Price, Villepigue and Lovel. Price had his old troops with him, prin- 
cipally from Missouri and Arkansas. Our forces were commanded 
by Rosecrans. Our loss in killed was not very large. We had a great 
many wounded. I will not give figures as we have not had time to 
count. We lost one general officer, Hackelman, from Indiana. Gen- 


eral Oglesby, from Illinois, is wounded in the chest and will probably 
die. I think the rebels have lost in killed six to our one. We have 
an immense number of their wounded. We have had already four 
times as many amputations as we had at Shiloh. I am in a good posi- 
tion for performing them. The loss in our regiment is forty-two 
wounded and twenty-eight killed and missing. How many of the 
missing are killed we do not yet know. We think, however, the most 
of them. 

In haste, yours, 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Oct. 11th, 1862. 
Dear Wife : 

Sunday has arrived again and I will steal time enough to write 
you a few lines. I have the rheumatism so bad in my right shoulder 
that I can hardly write, it was probably brought on by the storm, as 
we have had a real cold fall of the year rain storm. Such a change 
from the extreme heat and dust of the days of the battle is quite 
welcome. We are getting things in good order again. A fight musses 
up things in the army like wash day at home, though the soldiers are 
more cheerful than the women on such occasions. We have had an 
immense amount of labor to perform during the past week taking care 
of the wounded. Besides our own we have had about a thousand of 
the rebel wounded to take care of. The most of the latter have been 
removed to luka and left in charge of their own surgeons, a number 
of whom were captured. Our wounded are well provided for, and 
we are now sending them to hospitals in the north. I have not sent 
any of mine yet, but will probably in a few days. I would rather keep 
them with me until they recover, but we will have to dispose of them 
so as to be ready to march or to receive more wounded should another 
battle occur. The smoke of the battle has pretty well blown away 
and now we can get a pretty good view of the results. It has certainly 
been a severe defeat to the rebels. They have failed in their attack, 
been defeated and pursued with a loss to them of eight thousand killed, 
wounded and prisoners, a heavy loss of the munitions of war and 
transportation, and the moral effect upon their mind that the army 
of the southwest cannot be beaten. They were pursued on Sunday 
and Monday as far as the Hatchie River where they rallied for a 
fight. They had a severe but short fight at this point. They were 
defeated again. They then retreated in a panic, throwing away their 
arms and baggage in immense quantities. The woods were full of 
stragglers along the route. Our force pursued them as far as Ripley, 
where they stopped pursuit in consequence of the rebels dividing into 
so many small divisions as to make the pursuit useless. The rebel 
force, as near as we can learn was forty thousand. Our force on 
Friday and Saturday was about fifteen thousand, which were rein- 
forced on Saturday evening by troops from Jackson. The rebel pris- 
oners, as usual, are of all shades of uniform, the gray and butternut 
prevailing. We have been a part of Gen. Lovell's guard, a French 
company of Zouaves from New Orleans. They are very dashy in their 


dress. Our troops are now returning to Corinth. It is expected that 
the rebels will try it again as soon as they can get reinforcements from 
the south. I think the probability is that we will be marched farther 
south to meet them. Puss — I am afraid you will disappoint the chil- 
dren by telling them that they could expect me home, as you said you 
did in your last letter. Just at present I cannot see an opening to slip 
out. However, I shall watch the cracks closely and if any open I shall 
slip through. Part of our regiment started for St. Louis last Thurs- 
day as a guard with six hundred of the prisoners. We have another 
lot on hand which I presume will be sent to the same destination, and 
it is probable that the balance of the regiment will be sent with them. 
If it does the Colonel and staff will, I presume, go along and then I 
will try and slip across the country to see my wife and babies. If you 
are anxious to see me, don't raise your anticipations too high, as they 
may not be realized. I should indeed be anxious to see Ned before he 
goes to his long home, as I have no doubt from your description of him 
that he is tending that way rapidly, and I will not probably have the 
satisfaction of seeing him again. I presume you have by the time this 
reaches you stirring events in Kty. If the rebels are well whipped there 
the west will be quiet through the winter. Give my love to all and a 
kiss for yourself. 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Dec. 7th, 1862. 
Dear Wife : 

I received another letter from you this week in which you inform 
me that you are improving in health, which I was extremely glad to 
hear. I judge from the general tenor of your letter, although you have 
expressed no definite opinion, that you are well contented with your 
temporary residence in Thorntown. How would you like it as a 
permanent one? Or is your experience too limited as yet to reply? 
My reason for asking you the question is this, I received a letter from 
Joseph yesterday stating that he thought it, the Dover home, could be 
sold to a good advantage. That Dr. Grow, Dr. Robinston's partner, 
and also Dr. Conants wished to buy the place. It is probable that the 
place might be sold for more than it is intrinsically worth to us, as it ' 
would really be necessary for us to build a new house. Yet it seems 
pleasant to me as a home. We have spent many happy hours there, 
and it is a pleasant village to Hve in, though a very expensive one, as 
it requires large expenditures every year to keep up the place. I wish 
in your next letter you would get an opinion from Matt, as to the 
propriety and probable success of a good drug store in Thorntown. 
It is probable that I may leave the army in the spring and indeed it is 
possible that I may leave before that time, on account of difficulties ex- 
isting in the regiment, although there are none in which I am directly 
interested. There has been ever since the consolidation of the two 
regiments in Chicago a jealousy existing between the two. Lately it 
has grown to such proportions as to induce very open enmity. The 
cause most prominent is the superior military knowledge of our Lieut. 
Col. over that of the Col. and the greater esteem which the mass of 


the regiment had for the former. This jealousy induced the Colonel to 
prefer charge against the Lieut. Col. and also against a number of the 
line officers. They in return have preferred charges against him, so 
you will preceive that court martial will occupy our attention for the 
next few weeks, and may result in destroying the regiment. I have 
some feeling in the matter and my sympathy is with the Lieut. Col. 
If he should leave the regiment I should desire to do so also, and as 
my anxieties are to be at home it would not require any remarkable 
pressure to induce me to leave. I shall, however, be calm and wait the 
result of events. Mrs. Crossley started for home yesterday on a visit. 
She intends to return in a couple of weeks. You can imagine how 
lonesome I will be during her absence. Capt. Mills was married when 
he was at home. He told Mrs. Crossley to bring Alice down with her. 
If she comes you may presume it will relieve the monotony of camp 
life. Mrs. Linton and Mrs. Barr are still here enjoying themselves 
very well. We have no war news of any importance. I presume you 
get the news of Grant's advance sooner that we get it here. Wish we 
were with him in the field. It would keep us in better discipline. 
Being in garrison we have nothing to do but to keep up the memory of 
old causes of quarrel, and agitation of them begets more ill feelings. 
We are all in good health, and the weather is the most delightful I 
ever saw. We have the hospital in very comfortable condition. We 
have just received a box of delicacies from the ladies of Peru. We 
have also a box on the way from the ladies of Princeton. We will now 
have full supplies for the winter. Write soon and let me know how you 
feel. Accept a good night kiss. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Dec. 14th, 1862. 
Dear Wife : 

I write you again to inform you that I am in good health and en- 
joying myself very well. This is perhaps the most important news that 
I have to communicate. We are still having a pretty quiet time, though 
the last week has been a little more exciting than usual. The guerillas 
having become pretty bold of. late, an expedition was started out to 
drive them or capture them. The were found about forty miles south- 
east of this place and were attacked. There was a pretty sharp fight 
for a short time, resulting in the capture, wounding, and killing of 
about fifty of them and the destruction of their camp. We had about 
a dozen wounded. There is another expedition out which we have 
not heard from yet. We had a very serious accident happen to one 
of our Bureau County boys last week, Jacob Butts. He, in company 
with a number of soldiers from the 12th regiment, went out with a 
train to LaGrange as guard. On their return by R. R. a gun was 
discharged accidently, which shot him through both legs above the 
knees shattering the bones. We amputated both legs, he nearly di'id 
during the operation, but has since rallied and there seems to be some 
chance for his recovery. Such fearful mutilations hardly offers a 
chance to hope for his recovery, and if he does it will be a rare case. 
Capt. Mills immediately telegraphed to Alice to come down. She 


arrived last night. I have given her and the Capt. one of my rooms to 
stay in for the present. It looked really like home in Dover to see Alice's 
face here. She is the same frank, forward girl she was before her 
marriage. I fancied I could see her trooping across the street towards 
our gate as she used to do. She expressed a regret that you had not 
written to her. She sends her compliments to you. Her time will be 
closely occupied in attending on her brother as he will need the closest 


J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss., Jany. 6, 1863. 
Dear Wife: 

I take the earliest opportunity of opening communication with 
you to inform }ou that I am still alive and well, and very happy to have 
received two letters from you last night after long anxiety to hear from 
you. I received last night two letters, the last dated December 28th. 
Was very happy to hear that you were all well and enjoying yourselves. 
I wrote you a letter three days after the rebels cut the railroad and 
put it in the post office so that it would start as soon as the road opened, 
but it was a long time starting. The rebels destroyed the road very 
extensively, burning bridges and trestle work, so as to require nearly 
weeks to repair. They crossed the Tennessee River and made 
their first attack on the railroad at Trenton. They captured the garri- 
son at that place, consisting of one Illinois regiment. They then com- 
menced destroying the road for several miles on either side of that 
place. As soon as we heard of their attack the force here was marched 
north between the railroad and river to intercept them on their return, 
but instead of rettn-ning they crossed the road and marched south to 
Holly Springs, destroying the road in the rear of Gen. Grant's army. 
They captured Holly Springs. This had been the general depot for 
stores for Grant's army. Large quantities of military clothing and 
munitions of war were there, estimated in value at three millions of 
dollars. The rebels attacked the place, captured the garrison and car- 
ried off and burned all the property. Their force was all mounted and 
moved very rapidly, so it was impossible to catch them with the in- 
fantry. It is going to be very difficult to keep these roads open, and 
you must make up your mind that occasionally you will not hear from 
me very regularly. We have become very short of food here — on half 
rations for two weeks, but have not suffered. Now that the road is 
open we expect to be more liberally supplied. Puss, we still have lively 
times in our regiment quarreling. Our Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel 
and several company officers have been under arrest. I think, however, 
the matter will quiet down bye and bye. It is, however, a good time 
for me to get out of the service, and if circumstances permit I shall 
certainly improve the opportunity. I will watch events closely and see 
what I can do. Puss, I will write you again very soon, and I just 
write this to send by the first mail. 

Yours with a kiss, 

J. R. Zearing. 


Corinth, Jany. 27th, 1863. 
My Dear Puss : 

I write you a few lines this evening to let you know that I have 
arrived safe at home. I got through yesterday after a slow and tedious 
journey. I came through by Columbus and had to walk five miles 
through mud and water, through the swamps where the rebels had 
burned the trestle work. The water has been so high for three weeks 
past that the workmen have been unable to continue the work of repair- 
ing. I think they will leave it unfinished and repair and use the road 
running direct to Memphis. 

Puss, you will be astonished when I tell you that I met Mrs. 
Crossley and Stephen Studevant at Cairo. I accidently learned that 
there were some ladies aboard a boat that were acquainted with me, 
and going to see who they might be, I found the whole party ready to 
start for Corinth by way of Memphis. As they were well provided 
with company, I concluded to take the direct route to Columbus. They 
arrived all well, and it seemed to be a happy meeting with their hus- 
bands. A baby in the party is a very fine one and very quiet. The 
latter quality will recommend it to all the household. In a few days 
we will be well situated. We will have three good rooms for our own 
use, Mary, John and I will keep house, so you can imagine we will 
live very comfortably. Mary brought with her a trunk full of luxuries, 
which, while they last, will be a great addition to our table. Mary has 
no definite idea as to the time she will stay here. I presume it will be 
governed by the convenience of staying. I find things here pretty much 
as when I left. A division of troops had arrived here, but were im- 
mediately ordered to Memphis. Col. Baldwin's trial will commence 
this week. It will excite a good deal of interest, as there has been 
a great deal of talk about it. The paymaster will commence paying 
off in a few days, when I hope to have some money. He will only pay 
for two months. I will write you soon again. Write me immediately. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, Miss. Feb. 14, 1863. 
Dear Wife : 

I have received one letter from you of Feb. 1 and am anxiously ex- 
pecting another. I was very glad to hear that you were all remaining 
well. You say that the children were disappointed at my departure in 
the night. It has been a source of regret to me since that I could not 
have bid them goodbye when they were awake, as a person always likes 
to reflect upon the last look and expression of the friends we bid good 
bye to. But in this life we often have to sacrifice our feelings to the 
circumstances by which we are surrounded. 

I have written you three letters since I returned, in the last one 
I informed you that we had received two months' pay and I enclosed 
in that letter twenty dollars which I hope you have received in good 
time. I could spare you one hundred more which I would express to 
you, but we are expecting to be paid again in a few days. If we do 
I will express the whole to father Helmer to keep for us. If we are 
not paid soon I will send you some more for your own use and to buy 


the baby a dress. I wrote father a long letter this week which I pre- 
sume will please him, as he has not heard directly from me for some 

Puss, we are getting along here about as usual. Mary is keep- 
ing house for us and we are living very comfortably. We have ladies 
call on us frequently and have social times taking tea and playing cards. 
Nearly everybody plays cards here. They think it a very innocent 
amusement. I presume, however, if the ladies' friends at home knew 
of it they would be shocked at the knowledge of it. I hope they will 
not become so addicted to the practice as to retain their taste for it 
when they return home. I find there are a great many things practiced 
in the army that would not be considered strictly correct at home. 
I suppose it is because we are seldom instructed by our chaplains. 
They grow as lazy in their habits as the rest of us, and you know it 
would hardly be proper to excell our instructors. But then you need 
not fear that I will acquire any very bad habits for you know that I 
have always been very strict. Our army here is still very quiet ; more 
troubles about their northern peace-makers than the southern rebels. 
It is strange that the people would favor an armistiqe at this juncture 
of affairs and throw away all the lives that have been lost and the 
treasure expended and the Union with it. There is nothing more 
certain in my mind that if the people of the north would remain united 
and push the war vigorously for six months longer the rebels must 
return to their allegiance. Their resources are greatly exhausted, they 
have to resort to the most severe laws to fill up their armies, the mass 
of their people are discouraged and are becoming mutinous. This is 
shown by the numbers from this vicinity who are claiming protection 
or enlisting in our ranks. Since we have been here we have enlisted 
hundreds of able bodied good soldiers, and for the last two months 
they have been increasing rapidly, so much so that they are making 
for forming a full regiment. Those that have come in from a distance 
south represent that an immense number would enlist if they could get 
here. The army is as determined as ever to fight until the rebellion 
is crushed. There is scarcely a symptom of disaffection. The officers 
of the Illinois regiments here met a few weeks ago and passed reso- 
lutions in favor of sustaining the war, approving of the course pursued 
by the Governor of the State, and condemning the acts of the recent 
legislature of that State. They have been published in the Chicago 
papers. Perhaps you have had an opportunity of reading them. I 
think there will be a strong reaction in the present sentiment of the 
majority of those who are advocating peace, and they will contend for 
a more vigorous prosecution of the war than ever. Write soon. 


J. R. Zearing. 
Corinth, Miss., March 8, 1863. 
Dear Puss : 

I last wrote you from Burnsville, to which place our regiment had 
gone on an expedition. We returned day before yesterday and are 
now in our old quarters. We got through the trip nicely feeling re- 
freshed by the country air. There is nothing special in news here, all 


is very quiet. We are anxiously expecting important news from Vicks- 
burg or some other point. Last week all the troops at Memphis passed 
down to Vicksburg, among them the 93rd Illinois, the regiment that 
was partially raised in Bureau County. I understand the boys are in 
good spirits. They will see some rough soldiering down the Mississippi. 
This movement of the troops down, I think, indicates an immediate 
attack on Vicksburg. If the rebels take a few more of our rams they 
will drive us out of the river, but hereafter they will have to take them 
all together if they take them at all. 

The weather at present is very mild. Peach trees are in bloom 
and the small shrubbery will soon have leaves on, but it is almost rain- 
ing continuously. April showers with scarcely perceptible intervals 
between them. Yet with it all, it is not very muddy. The soil is not 
broken up by freezing, so that it is settled and firm. The ladies are 
cultivating flowers to some extent. They gather roots from gardens 
around town where they have escaped destruction, and transplant them 
in boxes. Mary has a few started, but John has not much taste for 
the cultivation of them, so that I fear they will suffer for want of care. 
I will, however, pay some attention to it myself, so as to have some 
for your pleasure when you come down. In my last letter I gave you 
an invitation to come down and visit me, presuming that you would 
like to. I presume by this time you have received the letter and are 
arguing the subject over pro and con. I hope the affirmative will 
prevail, as I would like very much to see you. I wrote you that Mrs. 
Linton had gone home and that if you would like to visit Dover, you 
might go around that way and start from there with her. Perhaps 
that would be the most agreeable way. I learned from Linton that she 
will start toward the last of this month, or if you wish to come more 
direct, you can come on to Cairo direct from where you are. With 
your experience in traveling I think you would not have any difficulty. 
The cars arrive at Cairo about daylight ; the boat leaves for Columbus 
immediately. You take breakfast on the boat, and arrive in Columbus 
in two hours, when you will immediately take the cars and come through 
to Corinth, the same day. I will be at the depot ready to receive you. 
You can bring one large trunk full of clothes. You will find men at 
the cars and boats to carry it for pay. I wrote you that if you thought 
best you could bring one of the children, either Lottie or Lizzie; not 
that I have any preference, but if you brought Lottie she would take 
care of herself, and if Lizzie, you would have the one that needs you 
most. Lula is half way between. Puss, I have just learned that there 
will be no more trains run to Columbus. That part of the road from 
Jackson to Columbus will be vacated, so you will have to keep the 
boat to Memphis. This will be a more pleasant route for you. Mr. 
Linton wrote his wife that you would come down with her. She will 
start in about two weeks, so you had better get ready as soon as possible. 


J. R. Zearing. 


The Other Side of Corinth, June 6, '63. 
Dear Puss : 

I write you a few lines in great haste this morning just to inform 
you that I have this day expressed to Father Helmer, at Bedford, 
Ind., seven hundred dollars, which you will please inform him so that 
he can send for it. 

I suppose you have read all about the evacuation of Corinth in the 
papers. I have not time to say anything, as we just received orders 
to march in haste. I have an opportunity of sending the express pack- 
age to the river this morning and hastily send this also. I am trying 
to get home soon when I will tell you all about it. It is my opinion 
a great victory at a small cost to us. I have no idea where we are 
going to, but if we ever reach the Mississippi, I will take boat and come 
up and see you. I have been somewhat unwell for a few days, but shall 
feel better soon. 

Yours affectionately, 

J. R. Zearing. 

Corinth, July 1st, '63. 
Dear Wife: 

I arrived at home yesterday and found the folks as we left them — 
all pretty well. It seems very lonesome to me since my return. I sat 
upon the porch last night, it was a beautiful calm moonlight, well 
adapted to thoughts of absent friends and I anxiously thought of your 
trip homeward. Today I received a Memphis paper, and as there is no 
reports of boats having been fired upon since your leaving Memphis. ^ I 
consoled myself with the belief that you had made the trip to Cairo in 

Today, or tomorrow, I presume, will find you receiving the wel- 
come of your friends at home. I fancy you had no difficulty in the 
transit over the railroad, as we learned by the papers that the raiders 
from Kentucky were all captured in Indiana. I am very anxious about 
your health, and almost regret I did not keep you here two weeks 
longer, that you might have fully recovered. I trust that you are rap- 
idly recovering. I shall await your first letter with interest. 

Baldwin was here when I arrived and has been actively engaged 
trying to get in command of the regiment. He called on General 
Dodge. The General would not see him personally, but sent him word 
that if he had any papers he could send them for his examination. 
Baldwin sent the papers. After examing them Dodge sent him word 
that there was nothing about them that made him anything but a civil- 
ian. Baldwin was non-plussed, but endeavored to excite sympathy. 
This morning the provost guard arrested him, took him to the cars and 
started him for Memphis. This, I think, will be the last of him in mili- 
tary circles. There is nothing new in military affairs since you left 
except increasing of an approaching attack on Memphis, Corinth, or 
both. Our cavalry is constantly out watching. We are now having 
all we want of blackberries. The boys get two or three pails full a day. 
I presume you will soon have them at home. Give my love to all the 
friends. A kiss for you. 

J. R. Zearing. 


Blynnville, Tenn., December 15, 1863. 
Dear Wife : 

I was very glad to receive your letter of December 6th, through 
in six days, quite an improvement in time. I was glad to hear of the 
continuous good health of all the family and friends. My own health 
is of the best kind, which is very satisfactory to my feelings, but 
severe on beef and corn. I eat very largely now of beef and corn 
bread for breakfast and dinner and invariably mush and milk for 
supper, good rich milk from our own cow. I am very fond of the 
mush and milk, and next to yourself and the babies, I love it better 
than anything else. Dunton, the old nurse in the hospital at Corinth, 
is cook, and a good one he is. He is as clean as a woman, and as sen- 
sitive as an old maid. So far as comfort is concerned I am well situ- 
ated, and if your good looking was here, I should be happy. We 
are still quietly situated as when I last wrote. Every few days detach- 
ments of our mounted infantry are sent out to scour the country along 
the Tennessee River for the purpose of preventing the rebels from 
getting supplies out of this state. Some of our forces came in this 
jiiorning from a scout. They brought in a rebel major and five pri- 
vates. They were surprised in their camps, and besides the prisoners, 
our men captured twenty horses and a number of small arms. This 
is represented to be part of the advance of Johnson's army from Mis- 
sissippi, who are crossing the Tennessee near Florence. They either 
designed making an attack somewhere in Grant's rear and cut off the 
railroads, or have come over for the purpose of gathering supplies. 
Since they have been prevented getting supplies of meat from across 
the Mississippi, they have received large amounts from Tennessee, 
especially this portion of the state, and they are undoubtedly in great 
need of it. It is very important to the rebels at this time that they 
keep up a show of power in Tennessee. The people of this state are 
rapidly becoming loyal. They seem to be generally impressed with the 
belief that the rebel cause is hopeless, and they are tired of spoliations. 
Since the late battles they are free in expressing a desire to have the 
Union restored. They still cling with tenacity to the negro, but in two 
months from now, if no serious reverses to our arms take place, they 
will go, nigger and all. They are daily becoming convinced that they 
would be better off without the negro. They are continually losing 
their best negroes by their joining the army. Last week I inspected a 
hundred and twenty, fine, sleek negroes for mustering in, all collected 
in this vicinity. Their masters feel relieved by having them join the 
army, as then they feel secure from any injury being done. The ne- 
groes that stay at home are worthless — even the females are impudent 
and saucy. The people generally are in a state of terror. They lock 
and bar their doors at night with as much feeling of fear as our fore- 
fathers did in the time of the Indian wars. In some instances resi- 
dents here have applied for guards to protect them from their own 

Puss, I was glad to hear in your last letter that you had received 
the money from Memphis. We have been paid again. I can send you 
six hundred dollars this time. Five hundred and fifty dollars in an 


order on the treasury at Louisville, which can be cashed any time, and 
a fifty dollar bill. I will enclose them in this letter. The only risk 
will be the fifty dollar bill, as the order, if lost will be replaced. Puss, 
I am still inclined to think that investment of those bonds will be a 
good thing-. They can be had in sums of fifty dollars and upwards. 
Those from fifty up to five hundred will be used as bank notes in circu- 
lation. Do, however, as father thinks best. You can start him on a 
pleasure trip to Louisville, and he can there get the bonds if he thinks 
best. * * * Are you getting ready to come ? Give my respects to 
all. A kiss for you. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Sunday, March 20th, 1864. 

Athens, Alabama. 
Dear Wife : 

One week ago today we arrived in this place ; we are still here, 
not knowing how long we will remain. The opinion of the officers are 
quite various, some thinking that we will remain for a long time, 
others presuming that as soon as the pontoon bridge at Decatur is 
finished, which will be in one week, that we will be ordered to march 
south of the Tennessee River. I think we will remain ; perhaps "the 
wish is father to the thought," as this is a desirable place to spend the 
summer. We are fixing up as if to remain permanently. The men 
are building barracks and will soon be comfortable. 

I am fixed comfortable beyond description, real luxury. In the 
first place, I have for a hospital a large two story brick house with 
basement for kitchen. The house is situated in a large enclosure con- 
taining shade trees, paved walks and a large variety of shrubs and 
flowers. In the same yard embowered in shade trees stands a small 
brick office, which is my offices, containing sofa, mahogany bedstead, 
table, chairs, etc. A large library of choice books here awaits my 
leisure hours. In the yard is a large green house filled with choice 
flowers in pots, growing well and awaiting the season's advance to be 
set upon the porch and along the walks to add fragrance and beauty 
to the scene. I have a variety of roses, geraniums, camelias, rhodo- 
dendrons, mosses, oleanders, cactuses, etc. Some of the more tender 
plants have been winter killed, the winter has been more severe than 
usual and some of the glass has been broken. I will, however, have 
a fine variety. Besides all of these luxuries I have been invited to 
board with one of the first families of the place. The house is a 
palatial residence and all things to correspond. I have a fine room 
to myself and plenty of servants at my command. The board is ex- 
cellent and the ladies of the house very pleasant. They desired my 
company as the gentleman of the house is absent a considerable por- 
tion of the time attending to his plantation. All this is free ; will not 
take a cent of pay. So you will perceive that I am doing well. I 
sympathize very much with you in your little eight by ten domicile 
and hope you are contented, but I don't think I will be able to relish 
such living in the future. But it is not all play with us at present. 
The same recruits are giving us a great deal to do. I have about twenty 


in hospital and increasing rapidly. The measles has broken out among 
them, we have about a dozen cases of that disease, some cases of lung 
fever and other diseases consequent upon exposure. But I think this 
sickness will not last long. They will soon become inured to exposure. 
Your letter of 13tli instant was received and was eagerly perused. 
You should have received my letter from Louisville before that time. 
I am sorry you feel so lonely. I wish I could be with you to cheer you. 
You must not think too much about our separation. The time will 
soon pass by when we will be together again. I was very glad to hear 
that Lottie has recovered and that the other ones were well. Take 
good care of them. Did Lew say anything about paying on that note? 
He enlisted while in Chicago and received a hundred dollars bounty. 
I saw him the day we left. He spoke of the note, expressing his great 
regret about, etc., and said before he left he would pay part of it. 
I presume that he had not much intention of doing so. I gave Will 
an order on you for forty dollars and money to pay a note which he 
said he had against me. I do not remember the note, but he said he 
had it among his papers at Princeton. If he produces the note it will be 
all right. You can pay it when Taylor pays that note. Have you 
money enough to live on? Don't stint yourself too closely. I am en- 
tirely destitute. We as yet hear nothing of paymasters. I hope they 
will come along soon. I am very fortunate, however, in not having 
any expenses as I am situated now. Mrs. Linton and Mrs. Bane are 
living in the same house. They are very pleasantly situated. I intend 
calling on them soon. I have received a call from them. I have called 
on Mrs. Dodge, they are very agreeable. I am glad to hear that Re- 
becca and Elizabeth are well situated. Give them my love. Has Mary 
heard again from John? I wish he was here. Good bye. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Athens, Ala., April, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

Your letter of the 10th instant came duly to hand, with the con- 
tents, $10.00. I had no especial use for the money, but now that I 
have it I presume that I shall spend it. If we do not get paid before 
we are ordered to march I shall need it. We have indications that 
military operations are coming on, and that the usual amount of 
alarms and marching will take place this summer as last. _ Last Sat. 
we were ordered to be ready to march with five days' rations. Sat. 
and Sun. we were held in readiness. Mon. things quieted and we are 
now in our usual condition. The cause of the disturbance was a 
threatened attack by the rebels on Decatur. They hovered around 
the place, but finally retired without making an attack. They are still 
in front of Decatur in considerable force watching our movements. 
I think if we move forward that there will be a fight in front of De- 
catur. I see from the papers that there is some fighting in a small 
way in all the departments, the prelude to heavier battles. The rebels 
are having their own way in west Tenn. since we left Corinth. For- 
rest's command is doing a large amount of injury by attacking and 


capturing small bodies of our forces, the capture and massacre at 
Ft. Pillow has excited a great deal of indignation throughout the 
army and they are anxious for retaliation. There will undoubtedly 
be some severe battles this spring and some probability that we will 
participate in some of them. We are still of the opinion that we will 
be moved from here in a short time. Sickness is lessening very fast 
and our men will be in a good condition for a march. We will soon 
have easy times again. I found a little leisure in the first of the week 
and improved it by takjng a visit to Huntsville, which is about forty 
miles by R. R. from here. I had heard so much of the beauties of the 
place that I had a great deal of curiosity to see it. It was called the 
gem of the south, and I think it is deserving of the name. It is situ- 
ated close to a range of the Cumberland range of mountains and sur- 
rounded by a very fertile country. The scenery is very beautiful and 
the inhabitants having been very wealthy and possessed of good taste 
have ornamented the village in fine style. There are many magnificent 
residences, and the yards and gardens are ornamented by flowers and 
shrubbery on a very extensive scale. While there I visited the camp 
of the 93rd III, had a very pleasant visit. Saw a good many Bureau 
County men, but failed to see many that I would liked to have seen. 
Lieutenant Lee's company are away from the regiment several miles 
guarding the regiment, consequently I did not see any of them. Lee is 
promoted to captain, a promotion I presume well deserved. I saw 
my old friend Dr. Hopkins. I was very glad to see him. He is doing 
very well and I think is pretty well liked by the regiment. Mr. Taylor 
was with the regiment. He was looking very healthy and seemed 
well contented. The money that Mr. Taylor paid you I wish you 
could loan out at interest. I think Dr. Robinson could loan it to good 
advantage if he would feel interested in it, but I don't think you can 
depend upon him too much in that way. I presume you can lend it 
safely at a low rate of interest, it would be better to put it out at six 
per cent than to have it lie idle. I saw a notice in the papers that the 
government was commencing to pay the interest on the 5-20 bonds. 
I presume that they will be paid at Chicago, or the brokers there will 
buy them at a small discount. I would cut off those coupons that are 
due the first of May and send them to Chicago, they are payable in 
gold, and as the gold is as high now probably as it will be, I would sell 
the gold for greenbacks. I am sorry that you had the difficulty about 
your letters. " It is very unpleasant to have one's private affairs so 
extensively read. 

Good bye and a kiss for the babies. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Letter of W. M. Zearing to Mrs. James R. Zearing. 

Chicago, III., 5th May, 1864. 
Mrs. J. R. Zearing: 

Dear Madam : Your kind letter of date 26thA pril, ult., enclos- 
ing forty-five dollars coupons on bonds, duly reached me. I was anx- 
ious to realize every cent on them and therefore did not dispose of 


them on the first day of May as I expected gold would advance some. 
It has advanced some, but there is some probability it w^ill advance 
more, still if you insist on it being sold I will do so forthwith. On the 
first Monday of May the brokers would not offer over seventy-four 
on account of the fears that gold would fluctuate or fall, and I did not 
like to sell it below their usual paying rates which is within one and 
two cents of the price gold brings in New York. Today I was offered 
seventy-seven cents, but gold sold today in New York seventy-nine and 
a half and during a part of today it reached as high as one dollar and 
eighty-one cents in New York. If it does not soon take arise I will 
sell it in a few days as I think it safest not to wait long. Still I am 
certain it cannot fall much and may go up higher, but if you write to 
sell it I will do the best I can and let it slide immediately. I will send 
the amount it brings in a draft. In reference to the note I will look 
over my papers here as soon as I get leisure, but I think it is with my 
papers down there. I saw it a few months ago in my large pocket 
book, but I changed some of the papers from there. In excellent 
health. Hoping you and your friends are all well. 


W. M. Zearing. 

In Maj. Zearing's letters to his wife he repeatedly speaks of his 
anxiety of keeping his family in money and the danger of sending 
money home. 

Snake Gap, Ga., May 12, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

I last wrote you from Chicamauga on Wed. last. I am informed 
that no mails are allowed to pass north of Chattanooga until this ex- 
pedition has been brought to some conclusion, so I fear that you will 
have some time of anxious suspense until the mail embargo is removed. 
General Dodge's and General Logan's commands under McPherson, 
moved from Chickamauga in a southwest direction until we arrived 
at this gap in the mountains which is 18 miles directly south of Dalton 
and 57 miles of Chattanooga. Thomas' army still lies at Tunnel Hill im- 
mediately north of Dalton, and Hooker's command is about half way be- 
tween the two. We arrived at this gap yesterday, the rebels attacked our 
front with cavalry at this point, but we drove them from our front 
as we proceeded until we arrived within one mile of the R. R. near 
Resaca. At that place is a large R. R. bridge. The rebels are in 
large force at that place and have strong fortifications. We were not 
ordered to attack the place so at night we fell back to this gap, which 
is naturally a very strong position. Our division lost in the skirmishing 
throughout the day four killed and twenty-three wounded. The rebels 
lost eight killed and near forty wounded, which fell into our posses- 
sion. We also captured about fifty prisoners. When I last wrote you 
I supposed that the whole force would immediately march on Dalton 
and bring on a general engagement, but it seems that our generals are 
adopting some strategic measures which I do not understand, but which 
I hope will result in something important. The army may lay in their 
present position for some days or we may move any moment. It will 


perhaps depend on the movements of the rebels. The present position 
of our part of the army is rather hazardous, one being so far in the 
rear of so large an army as the rebels have at Dalton. They might, 
unless Thomas in their front, watches them very closely, throw the 
larger part of their army against us, but I do not fear it as we are 
watching them very closely. We are living very rough here in the 
woods. We are all on short rations on account of the difficulty of 
transporting them. However, our appetites are in a condition to con- 
sume all and everything we can get in the way of eatables. I never 
felt better in my life, perfectly well, though exposed to hot sun and 
cold rains. I think we shall get far worse before we fare better. 

We hear of important victories for the army of the Pot-.mac and 
an opinion prevails that they will take Richmond. I have not leceived 
a letter from you since I left Huntsville. Am anxious to hear from 
you. I hope you are doing well. 

Good bye, yours, 

J. R. Zearing. 

May 17, 1864. 

I have had no opportunity of sending the within. We have been 
fighting for the last three days. Today the whole of Johnson's army 
are on the retreat. Our army is pursuing in haste. We have been 
busy night and day with the wounded. Our division has suffered con- 
siderable. The 57th has not had any casualties. We are now in he 
advance of the pursuit. 

Yours well, in haste, 

J. R. Zf.artnc. 
Lays Ford, Ga. 

Rome, Ga., May 24th, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

I believe I last wrote you from Kingston while in pursuit of the 
enemy. At that place the whole army rested for three days. We 
had then marched night and day in the pursuit and were completely 
tired out. The rebs had the advantage of us in the retreat as they 
had the bridges to pass over the streams and would burn them in their 
rear, and they were retreating on their supplies while we had to bring 
our forward. At Kingston our brigade was sent to occupy this place 
until the 17th Army Corps came up to relieve us. Gen. Dodge assured 
us we would not have to remain here over ten days. I hope we will 
not as I would much prefer being in the front where the fighting is. 
We have now been here one week and we learn that the troops that 
are to relieve us are within fifteen miles of the place, so I expect in 
two days we will be marching towards Atlanta. It was expected that 
Johnson would make a stand at the Altona Mountains on the Chata- 
hoochie River, fifteen miles south of Kingston. Sherman, it seemes, 
stopped his army at Kingston a purpose to give the rebels a chance 
to stop and fortify that place. It being on the railroad Johnson sup- 
posed we would necessarily come that way. When Sherman ascer- 
tained they had stopped at that place, he left the railroad and marched 


around them on the right to get between them and Atlanta. He suc- 
ceeded in getting equaUy near Atlanta as the rebels were. When find- 
ing out his intentions they commenced retreating again. The two 
armies are now racing for Atlanta, fighting as they go, side by side. 
It is confidently hoped that Sherman will get there soon enough to 
prevent Johnson from taking advantage of the strong works that have 
been built there. Two days longer will determine, as the armies were 
within a few miles of Atlanta yesterday. I hope we will be in at the 
taking of the place. Sherman will destroy Johnson's army before he 
quits it, and if Grant succeeds equally as well with Lee's army, I shall 
expect to be home at the doings you are going to have next fall. I 
have not determined yet whether to call the boy Grant or Sherman. 
We are very pleasantly situated here in Rome. Quite a number of 
famihes moved away on the approach of our troops so we have plenty 
of vacant houses to occupy for our quarters. It is a town of about 
three thousand inhabitants, with all the appurtenances of a city, as 
gas works, town hall, churches, etc. There was a foundry for the 
casting of cannon and a large rolling mill had just been completed. 
There was also a dry dock for the building and repair of boats. It 
is a very beautiful city. Next to Huntsville it is the handsomest I 
have seen. The streets are shaded with magnificent shade trees. It is 
like walking in a continuous bower. The houses are on such large 
lots that ample space is given for trees and flowers. And such flowers ! 
The rose is now in its perfection. The whole town seems to be one 
vast rose bed, every variety of size and color. I never before saw 
such magnificence. In riding through the streets the perfume is per- 
ceptible at all times. This town was a place of a good deal of busi- 
ness. It has direct communication with Mobile by steamboat and by 
railroad communication with all parts of the south. The inhabitants 
at present seem very peaceable and talk very mildly. But every man 
in the place belonged to some military organization. We find arms 
in every house. In one of the town wells we found three pieces of 
cannon. It was near this place that Col. Streight was captured. The 
citizens all turned out to assist in his capture. We have just learned 
that the 15th and 16th Army Corps have had a severe fight near Dallas. 
Our division suffered considerably. The rebels were whipped with a 
very heavy loss. It makes me feel anxious to be with them. We lost 
a very fine young man yesterday by drowning in the river. He was 
attempting to swim across the river but became exhausted and sank 
His name was John Van Law, of Arlington. I received your letter 
of May 18th today ; was very sorry to learn that your health was uncom- 
fortable. I hope you will soon grow better. I am surprised that Mary 
does not hear from John again. I see by the papers that they have 
been removing the prisons more into the interior from Richmond, 
which will make it more difficult for him to communicate. In regard 
to the amount of pay for the tombstones for father's and mother's 
graves, I would leave that to you. Whatever you think is right will 
suit me. It seems that you do not find a very ready market for money. 
If you cannot loan it, it will do to keep. I am sorry that Joseph is 
still borrowing money. I don't believe there is any real need of it. 


At what period in his Ufe does he expect to get out of debt? I think 
the less chances he has to bonow money the better it will be for him. 
If he wants to borrow of you it would be better to discourage him. 
If Will has not already sold the coupons he had better do so at once. 
I think gold will tumble down rapidly soon. A kiss for you. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Kingston, Georgia, May 20th, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

I last wrote you from Lays Ford on the Eustenow River, which 
was last Tuesday. The day after we crossed the river in pursuit of 
the enemy. They resisted our crossing with a good deal of earnest- 
ness. We had some severe skirmishing and artillery firing. We drove 
them off during the day. Our division lost over a hundred men killed 
and wounded. The 57th lost two killed and ten wounded, also two 
missing, none, I presume that you were acquainted with, the nearest 
living to Dover was a man by the name of Irwin who lived at Lamoille. 
He was killed. After dressing the wounded we sent them back to 
Resaca, from which place they will be sent to Chattanooga by railroad. 
We are still marching in pursuit of the enemy, not giving them a mo- 
ment's rest. As we have to skirmish with them continually it makes 
our progress slow but very tiresome. We frequently have to march 
half the night, and under orders to move at a moment's notice at all 
times. You may well suppose that we are all tired, but all en- 
thusiastic. We still hope to capture a good many of them and also 
their supply trains. We expected they would make a stand at this 
place, so we marched here in the night, but this morning we find they 
are still retreating. We expect to move after them immediately, it is 
still expected that they will resist us at some point this side of Atlanta, 
which is about fifty miles from here. The country so far has furnished 
us but small quantities of supplies, so that we have been compelled to 
live exclusively on army rations and of those we have had very short 
supply, but we learn that after we proceed fifteen miles further the 
country is more fertile and better cultivated and we will have more 
variety of food, which will be duly gathered and appreciated. We 
will also receive some supplies by the R. R., which is repaired as fast 
as we move. The rebels burned the large bridge at Resaca when they 
evacuated, but in three days the bridge was rebuilt and our cars_ are 
now running to this place. It was considered certain that the bridge 
would be burned so that before the fight our authorities had the bridge 
framed and loaded on cars at Chattanooga and ready to put up. 

The result of the battles around Dalton and Resaca from official 
sources show that the enemy lost in all about 2,500 killed and wounded 
and near 2,000 prisoners. We also captured 14 pieces of cannon. Our 
loss is very considerable, amounting to 2,000 killed and wounded. We 
also captured some supplies at Resaca. Well, the troops are beginning 
to move, where I will write you from next I do not know, but shall 
improve the first opportunity. I presume that you will find the letters 
to be long on the way to you as yours are now to me. I have received 


none since the one dated May 1 and am very anxious to hear from 
you. I take it for granted that you are all well. You will find that by 
taking a great deal of outdoor exercise and letting plenty of fresh air 
into your bedroom at night you will be much more comfortable. My 
health is so good that it is perfect luxury. I never was better in my 
life. I think Joseph would hardly stand the exposure of camp life. 
If he could I would not object to his going in. He should not read 
the Chicago Times as it undoubtedly poisons his mind with false prin- 
ciples. There is danger in time of war in adhering to party at the ex- 
pense of our patriotism. Good bye. A kiss for you and the babies. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Rome, Ga., June 28, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

You will find a long interval between this and my last letter to 
you, I think nearly two weeks. The cause of it is that I have been 
away from Rome and no opportunity for writing. Last week I went 
down to the front to see about some business and curious to know 
the positions of the armies. The rebels were occupying the Kennesaw 
Mountains which lay around Marrietta, about 15 miles this side of 
Atlanta. They have a strong natural position and are strongly forti- 
fied. Their rear extends to the Chattahoochie River. Our army is 
laying inside of breastworks, which are within rifle shot of the enemy 
along the whole front. There is continual firing from one side to the 
other by the sharp shooters and every day a good many on either side 
are killed and wounded. This skirmishing scarcely attracts much 
attention but will foot up largely in the aggregate losses of our army. 
The position now gained by Sherman has required a good deal of 
fighting to secure and his advance has been very slow for the last ten 
days. The general belief was that Johnson could not retreat from his 
position without heavy losses, and I think he intends to make a stand 
where he is and give a severe fight. When I left day before yesterday 
it was expected that Sherman would make a general attack on that 
day, but there was nothing unusual occurred. Yesterday it was re- 
ported here that the whole army was engaged and that a desperate fight 
was going on. I think it is the case as we could hear heavy firing here 
yesterday and last night. I should liked very much to have stayed 
down if a battle had taken place. I expect to be at the taking of Atlanta 
as Gen. Dodge issued an order for me to report to the 2nd Division. 
I probably will leave here day after tomorrow. When I get down 
there I can give a better account of affairs in general. I can assure 
there will be but little comfort or leisure at the front. If I were to 
consult my own comfort I should much prefer remaining at Rome. 
I have everything here in nice order. I have established a very fine 
post hospital as comfortable as a hospital can be made. But I think 
I can be of more service in the field. There will soon be a great deal 
of sickness among the troops in the field. The weather is getting very 
hot. Dr. Kendall is sick and unfit for duty for the last three weeks. 
Dr. Wood is useless with rheumatism. He has just received a leave 


of absence and will go home as soon as he gets a little better, so you 
perceive we are getting short of medical officers. 

Your last letter arrived while I was absent, dated June 14th. I 
hope Lula enjoyed her birthday. I should be very glad to see the girls 
all together again. Give them all a kiss for me. I am afraid Mary 
will not enjoy herself very well in her little cabin. It will do no harm 
to try it. As soon as I can see a paymaster I will enquire as to the 
mode of getting John's pay for her. I do not presume we will get paid 
very soon. You are not suffering for money I presume. I think it 
would be safe to lend the $200.00 to Kellogg, as he is a money making 
man. You will have no trouble loaning money soon, as I see that an 
act of Congress has passed to lesson the amount of money in circula- 
tion. This will make a demand for money. I am glad that you are 
having tolerable health at this time. I am afraid you will melt some 
during these hot days. Take good care of yourself. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Which of the hundred day regiments did John go in, and does he 
remain in? 

July 6th, 1864. 
Three miles north of Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Dear Wife : 

I wrote you on the "Fourth" from a point four miles north of this. 
I do not know how it will be in regard to your receiving my letters, 
but I think that they will be very irregular. I shall write you occasion- 
ally, but hope that you will receive them sometime. Our communica- 
tions with the rear are hable to be interrupted any day, as Sherman 
left the R. R. with twenty days' rations and seems determined to ad- 
vance without much regard for his rear. The rebel cavalry may cut 
the R. R. and perhaps capture the mails. I am afraid that I shall not 
receive your letters for some time, as they will go to Rome, and it will 
be very doubtful if I can get a chance to send for them very soon. 
I shall regret this very much as my chief pleasure is to receive a letter 
from you. When I last wrote you I was anticipating a quiet fourth, 
but was disappointed. In the afternoon our corps was moved forward 
two miles and soon came upon the rebs, every move of a corps or a 
division brings on fight of greater or less magnitude. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon we came upon a line of breast- 
works of the enemy and the skirmishing commenced. At sundown in 
the evening the 2nd and 4th divisions charged the breastworks and 
captured the first line which they held. In the night the rebels evacu- 
ated all their works and retreated, so we will have another march and 
another fight. So it continues from day to day. We feel now as if 
we would soon be at the end of our journey — Atlanta. The late at- 
tack on the fourth kept us busy all night dressing the wounded, so 
I think I shall remember this fourth. 

This morning we are marching for the river. What will happen 
there I cannot tell. It is expected that we will have a heavy fight. 
I must saddle up and start. I saw Charlie Pool this morning. He is 


looking very well. His time will be out the middle of the month. He 
then intends going home. I shall write to you as soon as we get to a 
stopping place. Good bye. 


J. R. Zearing. 

RoswELL, Chattahgochie River, Georgia, July 11th, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

I believe I last wrote you on the 6th, since which time we have 
nothing of unusual importance occur. On the 8th we moved down to 
Chattahoochie River at Baker's Ferry to attract the attention of the 
enemy. While Gen. Stoneman crossed the river several miles below 
with four thousand cavalry for a raid south of Atlanta. We have 
not heard from him since he left. On the 9th our corps was ordered 
to march from where we were on the extreme right to this point on the 
extreme left. We started at noon of that day and arrived here at noon 
yesterday, a distance of thirty miles. We marched nearly all night. 
It was very dusty and tiresome. We marched through Marietta, a 
beautiful place of about two thousand inhabitants, the most of whom 
are gone farther south. Roswell has been a considerable manufactur- 
ing place. There are two cotton factories and one woolen. They were 
in full operation until a few days ago when our cavalry came and 
burned them. The operatives were still here, all very short of pro- 
visions. We have had to provide for them. To do so we sent them 
to Marietta. It was a very fine sight to see four hundred girls all at 
once, a sight we do not often see in the army. The river is fordable 
at this point. We crossed over to the south side and are now in camp 
here. I think it is the intention to move the whole army in this direc- 
tion and cross the river. We will probably stay here until the whole 
army has crossed to protect the ford. This point is fifteen miles from 
Atlanta and less than that to the principal railroad connecting Atlanta 
with Richmond. We will probably cut the road very soon. I think 
the question of taking Atlanta will soon be settled. We are certainly 
getting affairs so arranged that Atlanta will soon fall. We may have 
a very heavy battle first. It is expected that we will. I hope the 
campaign will soon end. It is getting late in the season and the army 
is getting to be terribly exhausted. It has been a very long campaign. 
The troops have been on the watch or march night and day. Sickness 
is increasing rapidly. The army is seriously affected with scurvy, 
caused by living exclusively on salt pork and hard tack. We send the 
sick to general hospital in the rear as fast as they accumulate. I 
sent Lute Fish to Marietta yesterday, sick. Dr. Marsh was left at 
Marrietta, sick. I take his place as surgeon in chief of division. I 
have as yet received no letter from you since I left Rome. I will direct 
Dr. Crosby to send them to me here. I am in first rate health and hope 
you and the babies are the same. 


J. R. Zearing. 


Near Peachtree Creek, Georgia, July 18, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

The last I wrote you was from Roswell. We lay at that point on 
the Chattahoochie River just one week. The army was occupied in 
getting forward suppUes and making repairs in general. It was neces- 
sary to have a good supply of rations on hand before the army was 
moved any further. As the railroad is not being carried any farther 
than Marietta, it would be unsafe to move until a quantity of rations 
had been accumulated, as our communications with supplies could be 
very easily cut off. Yesterday we moved forward again. Today we 
are at a point nearly due east of Atlanta, about twelve miles from the 
place and about eight miles north of Decatur, a place on the railroad 
from Atlanta to Richmond. The rebel position, as near as we can 
learn, is a semi-circle on the north side of Atlanta. It seems now to be 
the intention of Sherman to move his army down on the east side of 
Atlanta ; again flanking him ; to prevent it Johnson will have to come 
out of his fortifications and fight, or again retreat and give up Atlanta 
without a severe fight, and as we have rations enough on hand to sup- 
ply us until we march to such a point as will determine the matter. 
A very few days will bring the campaign to a crisis. We are getting 
along about as well as usual. I think the health of the army is im- 
proving. I attribute this to the rest we have had on the river, and 
to the large supply of black berries the men are getting. They are 
also getting apples in any quantity, some ripe and all good for cooking. 
In a few days we will have roasting corn, then we will live just as if 
we were at home, except the butter. You know how well I like butter. 
I would like to sit at your tea table this evening and eat some of your 
nice butter and biscuit. I think many times of the comforts of home 
down in this wilderness, and I cannot think of asking for the oppor- 
tunity of enjoying them for a long time yet. I hope you are living 
so snug and comfortable that you do not often think of the miserable 
in this life. How do you manage your household affairs? How are 
the girls prospering? Are they getting well instructed? How many 
of them go to school? I presume you are taking a good deal of care 
in their training. Teach them to read carefully and think systemati- 
cally. I received Mary's letter of June 24th this week. I hope she 
will succeed well in her enterprise. I will do all I can to carry out her 
wishes in regard to John's pay. I do wish we could hear from John 
again. It would be so satisfactory. The letter was brought to me from 
Rome. I was much disappointed in not getting a letter from you at 
the same time. I have not heard from you since I left Rome. I feel 
very anxious to hear from you. They will send my letters to me as 
often as opportunity offers, but the chances are very few. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Utoy Creek, West of Atlanta, Ga., August 26, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

Yesterday we moved our camp from the north side of Atlanta 
and are now on the west side. We moved our hospital and trains 
today several miles in advance of the troops. We are giving up. our 


lines around Atlanta and will probably move entirely away from it. 
We have to move our trains by day and the troops leave their en- 
trenchments at night, one corps at a time, commencing on the left. 
This is necessary to prevent a heavy attack on our column while we are 
moving. So far the movement is going on very favorably. The enemy 
threatened an attack this morning, but were easily checked. Tomorrow 
we will move again and as the rebels have learned by this time that 
we are making a general move, we may have some' fighting, but the 
whole movement seems so well managed that I think we will let go of 
Atlanta without any disaster. 

I presume you would like to know where we were going. I would 
like to know positively myself. I heard General Sherman tell General 
Dodge a few days ago that he was going to move the army south of 
Atlanta and take permanent possession of their railroads and cut off 
all their communications. He thought that would draw them out of 
their works and he could attack them at his owri option. The rebels 
cannot afford to let him do this, and I think the attempt will bring on 
a fight of large proportions. The whole army joins in the movement 
except the 20th corps, which will be thrown back across. 

Near Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 1, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

I received your letter of July 24th, today. I also received this 
week yours of June 26th and July 23rd. I have been so very busy since 
the battle of the 22nd that I have only written you once. I hope to 
have time to write you more frequently soon, but fear that we shall 
be kept continually busy until Atlanta falls. We are just now getting 
through operating upon the wounded of the late battle. There has 
been so many amputations, exsections, setting of fractures and cutting 
generally that I have become almost sick of it. The poor fellows en- 
dure it bravely, and it is really a pleasure to do all that we can for 
them. We have not sent away any of our wounded yet. In a few 
days we will send to their homes all the slightly wounded, those that 
are able to travel alone. The severely wounded will be retained here 
until there is better accommodations for sending them to the northern 
hospitals. We have our hospital in a beautiful pine forest, which 
furnishes a very fine shade. The wounded are as comfortable as it 
is possible to make them in the woods so far away from supplies. 
We have the most of them on bunks with branches of trees for bed- 
ding. You would call it a cheerless bed at home, but the boys seem 
well satisfied. A good soldier is always content with the best on 
hand. We sent to Marietta a few days ago and received a good sup- 
ply of sanitary stores ; without them our wounded would have suf- 
fered much more than they are now doing. The rebel wounded we 
have are much more difficult to treat than those of our own. They do 
not have the nerve to bear up under their suffering and consequently die 
more rapidly from the same character of wounds. They seem very 
grateful for attentions and seem glad that they fell into our hands. 
Since the battle of the 22nd our corps with the rest of the army of 
the Tenn. have moved around on the right flank, so that they are 


now on the west side of Atlanta. Tonight Burnside's army, the army 
of the Ohio, will move on their right, which will extend the army on 
the south side of the city. The rebels will then have to come out and 
fight or fall back. I think tonight's movement will bring on a fight 
tomorrow. The enemy have such very strong fortifications around 
the city that it would be imprudent to make a direct attack upon them. 
We have skirmishing and cannonading day and night and more or less 
wounded. General Howard is now in command of the army of the 
Tenn. in place of General McPherson. 

T was really rejoiced that you have received such favorable news 
about Jonas. He is such a worthy man that it gives me great pleasure 
to hear that there is a possibility that he is yet alive. I am in first rate 
health but very tired. We are all waiting anxiously to get into Atlanta, 
as we expect no rest until we get there. You say you are getting short 
of money. I hope that you will not suffer. It is uncertain when we 
will get paid, so you will have to engineer yourself through. Kiss all 
the children for me. I hope they are all good girls. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Near Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 7th, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

This is Sunday evening and we have pretty much finished hospital 
work and are taking a quiet sit-down in our tent. The surgeons are 
principally engaged in writing to their wives or sweethearts. You 
may suppose that after a hard day's work we would be getting off to 
bed to rest our weary bodies. This we would do but it is the only time 
we have to attend to our correspondence, write our reports and all 
business that requires a little retirement. And then going to bed does 
not always secure a night's rest. There is so many changes take place 
through the night in the symptoms of the wounded, that we are fre- 
quently awakened to give advice or visit them and now is the time 
for secondary hemorrhages. For the last four nights we have been 
called up every night to attend to some bleeding vessels. This is one 
of the most serious complications that arises in the treatment of 
wounds. A stump or wound in the body may seem to be doing finely, 
and suddenly a large vessel will break loose and endanger a man's 
life in a very short time by bleeding. Then we have to go to work, 
night as it is, and ligature the vessel. All this is very disagreeable, but 
it must be gone through with. Sunday, as usual, is a very quiet day 
along the lines. There seems to be a mutual disposition to suspend 
firing through respect for the Sabbath. But I notice they make the 
Sabbath as short as possible, for they scarcely wait for the sun to set 
when the firing commences as lively as usual. They are at it now and 
the woods resound with the sharp crack of the rifle. This night firing 
is usually quite harmless as the pickets are safely stowed away behind 
trees or pits dug in the ground. Sometimes, however, it wounds a man 
and he comes into hospital. The object of this continuous night firing 
is to prevent a night surprise, which is always to be apprehended, 
when the lines are so close together, as it would be but a short run 


from one line of breastworks to the other. It requires constant watch- 
fulness to prevent disaster and it cannot for a moment be relaxed. 

We are very much in the same position as when I last wrote you, 
except that our army has swung around more to the right. This 
places our left flank in a position on the north of Atlanta, the main 
body encircling it on the west side and our right flank extending to a 
point south of the city and across the Macon R. R. This cuts off all 
communication by R. R. that the enemy have had outside their Hues. 
It is a very great advantage, as it will compel them to live exclusively 
on the supphes now in the city. I presume they have supplies to last 
them a month or six weeks, but I think Sherman will not give them 
time to eat them all up, as he is constantly advancing his lines and will 
dig into them before very long. Our lines are not farther than three 
miles from the city at the most distant point, and some places do not ex- 
ceed two. Several of our batteries can easily throw shell into the city, 
which they do occasionally. Every inch we advance now occasions 
pretty severe fighting, but we are daily gaining ground and in a few 
days will reach their works. While the infantry are thus busy, the 
cavalry are actively engaged in inflicting damage upon the 


J. R. Zearing. 

Near Atlanta, Ga., August 12th, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

I was just sitting outside my tent looking at the brilliant moon 
shining through the tops of the tall, straight pine trees, and fell into a 
reverie, and my thoughts all centered upon the loved ones at home. 
I fancy I saw you sitting upon the front door step or over on Sarah's 
porch gossiping about village affairs or war matters, the children 
playing and scampering around as in olden times, when we were all 
at home together. I can assure you that it reminded me of many 
pleasant days gone by. I would like very much to be with you this 
moonlight evening and talk over the events of the last three years. 
It would be real happiness, if the same time we could be assured that 
I could remain with you at home. I would much prefer the quiet of 
our home to this noise, confusion and suffering of war. I should like 
to go out in the morning to feed the horses and pigs while you and 
Lottie are getting breakfast. Lula would assist me and Lizzie is now 
large enough to throw an ear of corn to the pigs. I would like to 
visit your garden and hoe out some of the weeds. I presume there are 
some in it, and then walk down to the orchard and prune off some 
of the surplus branches. Are you going to have any fruit this year? 
I presume, as usual, you will have a good supply of apples. Reports 
all seem to concur that you have had a summer of very little rain 
and that vegetation of all kinds has suffered to a disastrous extent by 
drought. If as bad as reported, I fear it has so affected the crops as 
to make rather hard times in Illinois next winter. I have no fears that 
any of you will starve, but it compels poor people to live hard. How 
does Libbie and Rebecca get through in a financial way? I have 
most apprehension for Rebecca as Libbie has more property and is a 


better manager. I am afraid Mary will find it hard to keep house with 
so small an income. The Colonel wrote me that the regiment would 
be paid off this week. If I was there I could find out by inquiring of 
the paymaster how she could get her pay. I will not get my pay until 
the paymasters come down here, and I presume they will not be here, 
until we take Atlanta. I have not had a dollar in my pocket for two 
weeks, which is just as well as I have no expenses. I will get all the 
information for Mary as soon as I can and write her. Does Isaac 
collect any money on the old debts? If he does he can pay you my 
share, if you need it and you can receipt to him for it. 

I received your last letter of July 31st in eight days. That is 
very quick time. And Will is really married? Well, that is a sur- 
prise. I really have a curiosity to see the woman that would have 
him. I decline to believe that he has caught a Tartar. It would be 
almost a pity that a clever girl should be tied to such an old weed. I 
hope she may have a good influence over him. I wrote another letter 
to father this week. I wonder if he gets my letters. I have received 
but one reply from him and that was before we left Athens. 

Army matters are about the same as when I last wrote you. We 
every day get closer to the city. Sherman is getting some heavy seige 
guns. When he gets them in position we will probably have something 
exciting. Stoneman's raid has proved a failure. He has been taken 
prisoner with most of his command. So we need not look for John 
so soon. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Hospital, Second Division, 16th Army Corps. 

JoNESBORO, Ga., September 4th, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

The last time I wrote you was about the 25th of August. Since 
that time we have been entirely cut off from communications, receiving 
or sending no mail. We have been through such eventful scenes since 
that time that have much diminished our anxiety to hear from home, 
though I have no doubt the same circumstances would increase your 
anxiety to hear from us. At the time I last wrote you we were about 
moving to the right of Atlanta. The whole army moved suddenly 
from our works in front of Atlanta and on the 28th we were on the 
Montgomery and Alabama Railroad. We here stopped one day and 
entirely destroyed fifteen miles of the road, burning the ties and heat- 
ing and bending the rails. On the 30th the army moved in three columns 
for this place, one column marching on the open road, the other two 
making roads parallel with it, all within view of each other. We marched 
by extraordinary labor, thirteen miles on this day, bringing us within 
two miles of this point on the Macon R. R. We there stopped for the 
night, working all night throwing up breastworks. The enemy were 
busy through the night bringing up troops from Atlanta to our front 
to oppose our reaching the railroad. They were permitted to go on 
undisturbed until they had as many troops as we thought proper, when 
in the middle of the day a portion of the army swung around between 


them and Atlanta, thus cutting their army in two. The rebels finding 
this to be the case, attempted to cut their way back. To do this they 
were compelled to attack us in our works. Three times on the after- 
noon of the thirty-first they charged our lines, each time being re- 
pulsed with heavy loss. The next day they repeated the attempt, but 
with worse defeat than before. On the afternoon of the third they 
commenced retreating in confusion, taking a course south. We pur- 
sued them to a point seven miles south of this. The balance of their 
army in Atlanta hearing of the defeat of this portion of it, and fearing 
to be attacked, hastily evacuated the place, and fled to the southeast. 
They destroyed in Atlanta large quantities of ammunition and other 
material of war and much railroad machinery. This is a glorious result 
of the campaign and we feel as if we had got through and would find 
a resting place. In these battles we have captured three thousand 
prisoners, killed and wounded as many more and captured ten pieces 
of artillery, and disorganized their army generally. Our losses have 
been remarkably small, yet we have had plenty to do in our line, and I 
begin to feel worked down. My position as Surgeon in Chief of the 
Division imposes a great deal of labor during and subsequent to an 
engagement, in collecting the wounded and providing for their treat- 
ment and all pertaining to their welfare. Tomorrow we fall back 
toward Atlanta.^ The army will encamp in and around Atlanta. The 
army of the Tennessee will, I understand, encamp at last point eight 
miles south of the city. We will probably have our hospitals in the 
city. We will probably have a short rest there, not very long, however, 
as I think Sherman will soon be after them again. The army will be 
paid off and be reclothed and fed. I will then have some money for 
you which I presume you are in need of. I presume when we get 
to Atlanta I shall receive some letters from you which I shall be very 
gbd to receive. 

Headquarters, Fourth Division, 15th Army Corps, 

Rome, Ga., Oct. 13, 1864. 
Dear Wife: 

It has been a long time since I wrote you for the reason that 
there has been no communication by mail, the rebels having destroyed 
the road, nor have I received any letters from you for some time until 
yesterday our mail came through, but this will be the last for some 
time, as the rebels under Beauregard, with all their forces are on the 
railroad above and are destroying extensively at Dalton. Since I 
last wrote you we have been just as busy as during the summer cam- 
paign. The design of the rebel's is to destroy the railroad, and 
compel Sherman to evacuate Atlanta, which they may yet succeed 
in doing. In their moving around Atlanta they first struck the rail- 
road at Big Shanty, the first station above Marrietta. They cap- 
tured the small garrison there and at Ackworth. They then sent a 
strong force against Alatoona. Our division was ordered down to 
defend the place. On account of a break in the railroad, only one 
train load containing the seventh Illinois, the thirty-ninth Iowa and 
the twelfth Illinois and two companies of the 57th reached the place 


in time for the fight. The whole force of the garrison numbered about 
fifteen hundred. They were attacked by French's division of Hardee's 
corps, amounting to 3,000 men, on the morning of the 5th of October 
and continued fighting for six hours without intermission. It was 
perhaps the severest battle of the war for the number of men engaged. 
The depot contained a million rations of provisions which the rebels 
'needed for their campaign and they fought desperately. The loss 
was very heavy on both sides. General Corse was wounded and many 
other officers killed and wounded. Major Fisher was severely 
wounded. He is here with me and is doing well. Oscar Webb, I am 
sorry to say, was killed. He died instantly. This will be sad news 
to the family. Some others from the 93rd from near Dover were 
killed. I brought all the wounded here to Rome. Martin Taylor was 
wounded, but not very severe. Abel Hansel is very severely wounded. 
For the last fcAV days the rebels have been crossing the Coosa 
River, ten miles from here going north. Yesterday we moved out from 
here and attacked them, capturing two cannon and a number of pris- 
oners. Colonel Sherman has started his whole army in pursuit. They 
will, however, do great damage to the railroad before he can reach 
them, so you need not worry if you do not hear from me for some 
time. I send this by Colonel Cummings who is going through by some 
means and will probably be not long delayed. The two letters I re- 
ceived from you in last mail were dates — September 25th and October 
2nd. I was very glad to receive them, and glad to know that you 
were getting along so well. I received a letter from Commissary of 
Prisoners at Washington. He says he has received no notice yet of 
the death of John Garvin. I would write you more but the Colonel 
is waiting. A kiss for you. 

J. R. Zearing. 

My health is pretty good. I have enjoyed this trip very much, as 
it has been one of continual excitement. The weather has been very 
pleasant, comfortably cool all the time. We are now in the midst 
of splendid corn fields which affords plenty of food for -our stock and 
the men enjoy the eating of it by roasting it on the coals. It has im- 
proved their health very much. I will write you again when I arriv^e 
in the city of Atlanta. Till then, goodbye. Take good care of Aoin-- 


J. R. Zearing. 

Headquarters 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, 

Surgeon-in-Chief's Office, 
Rome, Ga., November 4th, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

I have been anxiously waiting a letter from you this week, but 
so far have been disappointed. I did not write you last Sunday as 
I usually do when Sunday comes, as I was so very busy with a variety 
of duties and have had no time since until this evening. Tonight I 
feel a good deal reHeved as today I succeeded in clearing out the hos- 
pitals and sending the sick and wounded north. Now I will have 


nothing to do but get everything ready for our Grand March and yet 
this is no small work, as we have large preparations to make. Here- 
tofore on our campaigns we had opportunities of replenishing our 
supplies by having communication with the north, but on this we will 
be entirely cut loose for some considerable length of time. How long 
will depend a good deal upon the weather and state of the road. Every- 
thing is being hurried through to get ready to leave Rome. We are 
destroying all property of a military character that we cannot send 
to the rear or carry with us. Today we burst some fine cannon that 
were captured here. On the day we leave we will burn the foundry 
in which they were cast, also machine shops, mills, etc. The people 
are much alarmed, as they have an impression that we will burn the 
town, but no private property will be destroyed. They will be miser- 
able enough without burning their house, for they will be in a starv- 
ing condition. I sent you my last letter by Lieut. Jackson, who re- 
turned home. Major Fisher started for home this week. He was 
recovering fast from his wound. He will probably call and see you. 
This will be some satisfaction, perhaps, to you, to see some one who 
has seen me and will do much to console you for my not being able 
to be at home. Puss, the chances for my coming home the last of this 
month grow less every day. How it will be possible for me to be at 
home I cannot see. It is hardly probable that we will get through in 
time for me to get home and after we start there will be no chance of 
getting home until we do get through. I want you to write regularly 
and let me know each week how you feel. I shall get the letters some 
time, and it will do me good to get several at once. I do not know 
yet the day we will start, but certainly in four days. If I have a chance 
i will write you again. Goodbye. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Headquarters Fourth Division, 15th Army Corps, 

Surgeon-in-Chief's Office, 
Little Ogeechee River, Ga., Dec. 15, 1864. 
Dear Wife : 

We have at last arrived at a point from which I am addressing 
you and I am happy to inform you that I am in the best of health and 
have been all through the expedition. We left Rome on th 11th of 
November, at which time I wrote you informing you of our probable 
destination and that I would not be able to get home to see you as 
I had anticipated. We arrived in Atlanta on the 15th. We there 
remained one day loading with supplies and destroying the city. All 
public buildings and many of the best private houses were burned. 
As we left it its appearance was a melancholy contrast with the day 
we first entered it, but such is war and such is the destiny of the whole 
south, unless they rapidly become loyal. Leaving Atlanta was like 
the jumping off place. We then started for an unknown country and 
an unknown destination, with apprehensions of having to meet with 
many difficulities. We, however, started off with a good deal of 
hilarity, excited by the novelty of the enterprise. We proceeded south 


from Atlanta, keeping close to the Atlanta and Macon R. R. We eat 
up and destroyed everything on the route that would tend to keep a 
man or beast alive. As we approached Macon, we marched slowly 
for the purpose of enducing the rebels to concentrate their forces at 
that point. When within ten miles of it we sent a large cavalry force 
towards the city, threatening an attack and covering our movements. 
The army then marched east along the Macon and Savannah Railroad 
in the direction of Milan, the junction of this road with the road to 
Augusta. These railroads were torn up and burned in such a manner 
that they cannot be repaired in less than a year, thus cutting off the 
main transportation for supplies to their army at Richmond. As our 
cavalry withdrew from Macon the enemy marched out and gave them 
battle at Griswold. The cavalry defeated them with heavy loss. We 
marched on eastward without any resistance until we reached the 
Oconee River. The rebels had collected a force at that point to pre- 
vent our crossing. We soon dispersed them and crossed on our pon- 
toons without much difficulty. Our cavalry in the meantime was sent 
around to Milledgeville, the capital of the state, capturing it and de- 
stroying a good deal of munitions of war. We enjoyed the march 
through the country well. We have not lived so well before while 
in the army. Sweet potatoes, corn, turnips, etc., with all kinds of meat, 
more than the army could use. We moved on leisurely until we 
reached the big Ogeechee River. Here the enemy again had a force 
to oppose us. We skirmished awhile with them and drove them away. 
By this time the enemy had collected together a considerable number 
of militia and some regular troops and skirmishing took place every 
day. Consequently we had some wounded to take care of, but com- 
paratively few. I believe the whole number of the wounded of our 
division does not exceed twenty-five and four killed. We arrived 
at our present position on the twelfth, a march of thirty-one days. 
We are now on the Little Ogeechee, which runs southeast from here 
and empties into the Big Ogeechee near its mouth. Our camp is nine 
miles from Savannah. The lines of our army extend from the Sa- 
vannah River to the Big Ogeechee. The nearest part of our lines 
is only three miles from the city. The enemy have strong works along 
our front, which would be difficult to take on account of swamps and 
rivers in their front. Sherman will give them their own time. He has 
them completely surrounded and as the population of Savannah has 
been doubled by refugees from our army, they will be ready to sur- 
render by the time our army gets its supplies from the fleet. The 
capture of Fort McAllister, at the mouth of the Ogeechee gives ships 
a chance to come up to our army at high tide. The fleet will be up 
today, when I expect to receive some letters from you and send this 
out. It would make me very happy to know that you were well today 
and that you had a fine boy and a nice recovery. I shall try and be- 
lieve that you are well. As to the boy, it may be doubtful. I have 
anxiously thought of you and regretted that I could not be with you, 
but now I hope it is all over and you are well. I am anticipating the 
pleasure of seeing you soon. I expect to leave for home the last of the 
month and will expect to see you in a few days thereafter, and will 
stay with you a whole month. It is possible that I will return and 


stay until spring. I shall be very glad to see the girls. Kiss them for 
me. I do wish I had this moment a letter from you to know that 
you were all well. Tomorrow I may get one. You have certainly 
written. Goodbye.. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Headquarters Fourth Division, 15th Army Corps, 

Surgeon-in-Chief's Office, 
Savannah, Ga., January 2nd, 1865. 
Dear Puss: 

I am a very happy man today. I received your letter yesterday 
with Rebecca's endorsement on the back of it, of December 10th, an- 
nouncing that you were allright, and with a bouncing boy lying by your 
side. Well I cannot say that I was disappointed, but although I ex- 
pected it, yet I can assure you that I was unusually happy to know that 
it was so. I would like enormously well to see you and the boy. How 
tickled you must feel over the event. It is decidedly a new thing in the 
house, and the novelty of the thing will be interesting if the boy is not 
so smart. I regret that Rebecca did not write more particulars of the 
occurence, how much you suffered, what the boy looks like how much 
he weighs, etc. etc. Does she suppose this is a common event ? I shall 
be very anxious until I hear from you again to know that you are hav- 
ing a good recovery. I hope the girls will take the best of care of you 
and be sure and care for yourself. See that your rooms are well aired 
and your bed kept dry. You must remember that your rooms are very 
small and therefore you are more liable to take cold. To avoid it venti- 
late your rooms well ; if the weather is not excessively cold, keep a win- 
dow open where the air will not blow directly upon you. Do not get up 
too soon, and when you begin to sit up, keep a firm bandage around you 
all the time. I hope you have secured plenty of good fire wood so that 
your girl will not get cross and you will have no smoke in the house. 

How do the little girls like to have a boy in the house ? I suppose 
they rather enjoy it. As to a name for the boy, that will be a matter 
for profound consideration, and will take some time to determine what 
it shall be. Be sure and write me often, as I shall be concerned about 
you for some time. I should be very glad to start home immediately to 
see you, but cannot leave at present. I shall settle up all my business so 
as to have everything ready to leave at any time. I could come home 
now, but the medical director presses me to stay awhile longer. It is 
expected that the whole army will soon move on Charleston and they 
are desirous to have me stay until it is taken. Some move will be made 
as soon as the fleet supplies the army with clothing and rations. As yet 
it comes very slow. We have just finished removing all the obstruc- 
tions from the harbor such as torpedoes and spiles so that supplies will 
probably come in rapidly. Since we arrived here we have been com- 
pelled to feed our horses exclusively on rice and it has also been the 
principal article of food for the army. The soldiers are, however, get- 
ting a good rest and enjoying themselves well. The people of Savan- 
nah are exceedingly kind to them and seem well pleased with their pres- 
ence. I have very comfortable rooms in a private house and can't say 


but what I am in every way comfortable, and then the weather is so 
delicious. It is really a luxury. Bright sunny days with a nice frost in 
the morning, just enough to keep up an appetite. It makes me shudder 
to think of the cold winds of Illinois. If I could know that this evening 
you and the boy are feeling well, I would be vrell content. I wish you 
you a happy new year and send you much love. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Savannah, Ga., Feb'y- 5th, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

This beautiful Sunday evening, so calm, so moonlight and pleas- 
ant, my thoughts instinctively revert to home and you. Today I had 
a delightful walk in the park. The weather was so bland, so perfectly 
agreeable, it was difficult to imagine that I was not enjoying a stroll in 
June. The parks are the prominent beauties of this city. There are 
numerous small parks throughout the city and adjoining my hospitals 
is the principal park of the city. It is a magnificent ground well laid 
out and beautifully ornamented. The trees are the natural pine forest 
trees of large growth and always of a rich green verdure. Here and 
there stands a beautiful live oak, the most magnificent shade tree in the 
world. Scattered among the forest trees are the magnolia and small 
shrubs. Here of afternoons the band disperses sweet music and the 
gay promenaders scattered over the ground make a scene of unusual 
splendor. You don't fancy that you see your humble servant walking 
with one of the fair sex amidst this pleasant scene ? Oh ! no. I just walk 
around the outside, musing to myself while the curling smoke of my 
cigar ascends lazily to the clouds. How nice it would be if I could 
have you by my side to talk to while Lottie would draw the boy in his 
carriage over the nicely graveled walks and Lula and Lizzie would be 
scampering around full of glee and merriment. It would be delightful. 

My casual observation leads to me to conclude that there are 
more beautiful women and children in this city than any city I was 
ever in. They have also, a large degree of intelligence and refinement. 
Were it not for the epidemics of yellow fever, which so frequently 
visit this place, and which are so fatal to northern natives, I should 
be strongly tempted to make arrangements for a permanent settlement 
here. But as the chances for shaking off this mortal coil are sufficiently 
great where only ordinary diseases prevail, I think I shall not increase 
them by migrating to these unhealthy climes. The people here, how- 
ever, contend that the city is a healthy one and indeed they have the 
appearance of living in a healthy climate, but the extensive rice fields 
in close proximity to the city indicate that disease in the summer and 
fall must prevail to a large extent. Last week I had my first sea voy- 
age. I took a trip to Port Royal, the headquarters of the department 
of the South about fifty miles up the coast. It was a very interesting 
little trip. The boat surged about and the waves rolled very much 
like out at sea. However, it was a short voyage and I had not the 
pleasure of being sea-sick. Port Royal is a beautiful harbor. It is 
at the mouth of Broad River which runs up to Beaufort, S. C. The 


harbor was well filled with ships that had brought supplies to the army. 
Since Sherman's army arrived on the coast this harbor has become 
an important point, as all the vessels stop here. Capt. Page went up 
with me to take the steamer for New York. He left in the Fulton on 
Wednesday last. He proposed going up into New York state to spend 
the balance of the winter and send for his family. Our division is still 
laying at Sister's Ferry, up the Savannah River, though I learn that 
it will move forv^^ard tomorrow. It has been occupied in building 
roads and bridges in its front. The whole army moves slowly on ac- 
count of numerous swamps and rivers in that part of South Carolina. 
They v/ill soon, however, get to that point where the rebels will have 
to fight or evacuate Charleston and Wilmington. I think you can look 
anxiously for news from them. I am kept pretty busy here ; to run a 
general hospital requires a good deal of labor, as everything must be 
very exact. I wrote you in my last to continue to address your letters to 
the division. I want you now to address me here, as I will get them. 
Write as soon as you get this so that I may get one as soon as possible. 
Address Surgeon J. R. Zearing, U. S. General Hospital, Savannah, Ga. 

Hilton Head, South Carolina, March 29, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of a letter from you of date 
Feb'y 26th, addressed to me at Savannah. I had left orders to have 
them forwarded to me at Blair's Landing as soon as I had determined 
to go to that place. It is possible that I may yet receive another of the 
letters you sent to Savannah before I leave for the army. You con- 
jecture in your letter that I might be growing gray. I do not think 
that I have any more gray hairs than when I was last at home, and 
when, as you say, I have no one to pick them out, it shows that they 
are not increasing. Probably this is owing to my long absence from 
domestic, but of course I would not attribute it to this. You speak 
of Lula having improved from sickness as if you had mentioned her 
sickness in a former letter. If so I have not received the letter. I hope 
she really has improved and by this time quite well again. You speak 
of the boy having a cold. This is quite common to persons of his sex. 
It sometimes makes them very cross and troublesome. He will, un- 
doubtedly, often try your patience, especially if you try to do your own 
housework. You must be careful and not let him worry you into the 
blues too often, as I expect to come home before long and I should 
like to find you in one of your most amiable moods. Lottie seems 
very anxious about her piano. I should hardly think she was advanced 
enough to have. one. Perhaps she has not given sufficient indication 
that she would use one if she had it, unless she has made up her mind 
fully to persevere in her studies she might tire of it as of a toy. How 
are the children progressing in their studies? You will have to watch 
them continually and encourage them. 

Since I last wrote you I have been on duty with troops at Blair's 
Landing, S. C, an encampment formed for the purpose of collecting 
scattering men and detachments from Sherman's army. It is about 
thirty miles from here up Broad River. We have now about eight 
thousand troops there that have been awaiting an opportunity to reach 


the army in the field. Communication is now open with Sherman up 
the Neuse River and as fast as transportation can be procured these 
troops will be sent forward and the camp broken up. A few days 
ago we sent forward one thousand. In four or five days more they 
will all be gone and me with them. I think the campaign will be very 
fatiguing, but I want to go that way to Richmond. When we get 
there I promise you I will come directly home. I think that will suit 
you very well, as it will be just in time to help you make garden, and 
you will then begin to have some tolerably decent weather. I should 
like to sit out on the porch with you on a plenty of sunshine days, or 
walk out and see the garden towards evening, when it is calm and delic- 
iously soft and pleasant, but your cold, stormy March days would chill 
out love itself. We might perhaps keep warm by the fireside, by sitting 
close together. If }0U v/ere down here now, you would be enjoying 
the brightest quality of sunshine and the most gentle breezes, birds 
and flowers in profusion. But they will come bye and bye with you up 
north. Perhaps you will enjoy them more exquisitely on account of 
the long dreary winter. The last letter I wrote you was from this 
place, as I have not much to do at Blair's Landing and we have a 
boat making daily trips between there and this point. I run down 
frequently just for the ride. In my last letter I sent you a check for 
$200.00, which I presume you will receive in due time. Today I put 
a box in the express office which I directed to you at Maiden. I had 
spent some time while here in picking up some shells so I put them 
in a box for you. The}' are not near so nice as I would like to have 
secured, but it requires considerable effort and a systematic plan 
We have to go considerably away up the coast from here where the 
main sea beats directly on the beach and then it is only at low +ide 
that they can be found, nor are they prepared as nice as they should be. 
Of the conch shells I would only select the best for the house. The 
others you can lay on the border of the walk or garden bed. Those 
that you wish for the house should be rubbed with swe't oi! and then 
polished. It adds much to their beauty. They may perhaps need 
washing again in hot water to remove the remaining smell of the 
animal. I also send you some paintings which you can lay away until 
I come home, and I will help you put them up. Also some cotton 
cloth which I presume you can find use for in the house 
Yours with a kiss, 


Wilmington, N. C, April 13, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I have to announce to you my safe arrival at this place. We left 
Hilton Head, S. C, three days ago and I arrived at this point last 
evening. We had three ships loaded with troops for Sherman's army. 
The voyage was very pleasant, the weather was unusually calm, con- 
sequently there was but little of the usual misery of a sea voyage, 
sea sickness. For myself I had not the least s>Tnptom of it. I was 
very much interested in the trip as it is my first experience to any 
considerable extent at sea. I fancied if you had been along providing 


you could have kept your stomach down. The most interesting part 
of the trip was our entrance into the mouth of Fear River, where 
we had a good view of Ft. Fisher and the numerous fortifications that 
the rebels built to defend the entrance into Wilmington harbor. The 
attack on these works by the navy must have been terrific judging 
from the effect of the shot upon the works. This you know was the 
most important harbor for blockade running. The coast near the 
entrance is strewn with wrecks of ships destroyed by our fleet as 
they tried to run the blockade. Wilmington is up the river about 30 
miles from the mouth. It has been during the war probably the most 
prosperous city in the south as its trade was extensively with all parts 
of the south on account of the facility of the entrance of foreign goods 
by blockade running. It is a city of about 6,000 population and very 
well situated, tolerably well built and the streets beautifully adorned 
with shade trees. The splendid flower gardens and shrubbery prevail 
here as in other southern cities. The inhabitants have generaly re- 
mained at home and seem pretty well pleased with the new order of 
rule. It is said that there existed a powerful Union sentiment in the 
city during the war. I judge from the appearance and action of the 
people that it was correct. It was our expectation upon arrival here 
to proceed immediately to Sherman's army at Goldsborough. In this 
we are sadly disappointed. The day before we arrived was the 
of communication with the army. It is not definitely known here what 
is the condition of afl^airs at the front. Yesterday the R. R. and tele- 
graph wires were cut between here and Goldsborough. It is supposed 
that Sherman has withdrawn his forces from the protection of the 
road, abandoned it and moved on. If this is the case there is no 
certainty of our reaching the army for a long time. If it is only a 
temporary interruption of communication by the enemy it will be re- 
paired in a few days and we will move forward. I hope we will suc- 
ceed in getting there. But I am afraid it will be a failure. I think 
Sherman has moved forward in a hurry to act in combination with 
Grant's army in the pursuit of Lee. I regret very much that I am not 
with them, for I am certain that the present movements of our armies 
will close out the rebellion. We received the news of the fall of Rich- 
mond while at Hilton Head on the seventh through rebel papers, They 
called it an evacuation. On the eighth we received news from the 
north that the place was captured by fighting with considerable loss. 
Salutes were fired by the forts and navy at Port Royal and a jubilant 
time prevailed generally. We have received later news that Grant's 
troops are pursuing Lee and inflicting heavy losses on his army. Be- 
sides losses by capture Lee's army will undoubtedly desert rapidly so 
we reasonably expect that his army cannot again make an effective 
stand. I am still receiving no letters from you nor do I expect any 
until I rejoin the division. So you may well suppose that I am in no 
very contented mood. I saw Martin Taylor. He is with these, troops. 
He informs me that he left home in Feb. and that everything was 
going on well as far as he knew. He has been sick in hospital here at 
Hilton Head. Seems very well now and is anxious to get to his regi- 
ment. I presume you are still expecting me home. I think I wrote 


you in a letter from Hilton Head that I would come home as soon 
as Richmond was taken. I presume )0U will be inclined to hold me to 
the bargain. Well, as soon as I can get to the division I will settle 
up affairs and perhaps come home immediately. I will be home in 
time to help you make garden. I can determine better when I get your 
letters. Perhaps you are getting so exquisitely fine that you can do 
just as well without me. Kiss all the babies for me and take one for 


J. R. Zearing. 

GoLDSBOROUGH, N. C, April 22nd, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I have the pleasure of addressing you from another strange place. 
I wrote you last from Wilmington. We left that place on the 17th 
and arrived here last evening, a march of five days. I enjoyed the 
march very well. Good weather and good roads, all of which go 
very far toward making the trip pleasant. The country between this 
and the sea over which we passed is flat and sandy, covered with 
dense pine forest and but thinly inhabited, a very poor country to 
forage in. We consequently could get no milk nor chickens so for our 
table we had to go back to first principles, hard tack and bacon. 1 
think I fell away on the diet some as I find by weighing today that I 
only weigh 132 pounds. I weighed in Savannah 140 pounds, the 
highest that I ever attained to. I was compensated, however, by seeing 
the great turpentine regions of the south. The immense forests of 
the pitch pine through which we passed are all scarred with the tap- 
pings of former years for the purpose of procuring the gum from the 
trees out of which the turpentine and resin is made. Goldsboro is a 
very pretty railroad town of about fifteen hundred inhabitants. It is 
the crossing of two important railroads connecting with all the roads 
in the south and was a great thoroughfare for supplies for the Rich- 
mond army. Its capture by Sherman was a cause for the evacuation 
of Richmond. On our march we received the glorious news of the 
capture of Lee's army. It was received with great cheers by our troops. 
We saw at once that it was the prelude to the capture of all the armies 
in the south. On arriving we received Sherman's order for the suspen- 
sion of hostilities, as he was negotiating with Johnson for the sur- 
render of his forces, which would lead to peace in a few days, and now 
we hear of the capture of Roddy's forces in Alabama and the capture 
of Mobile with its garrison, so that it does not leave a doubt but that 
peace must follow. Well, we are all glad of it. We feel now as if we 
were all marching home. We find by conversing with the people that 
they are all glad of the prospect of peace. So pleasant is it to them 
that they almost seem to enjoy the capture of the whole army. We 
met on the road a great many of Lee's soldiers returning home on their 
pay rolls. They were glad to get home. I presume our soldiers will 
be equally glad, but they will go home with lighter hearts, feeling the 
gratification of having succeeded in a good cause. I fancied upon 
looking at the returning soldiers army worn and tired of Lee's army, 
with the depressing feeling of defeat, that their hearts must be dreary 


beyond conception, realizing that many of their homes are in ashes, 
their property all destroyed and nothing but hard labor and a toilsome 
life for the future. Puss, tomorrow we march for Raleigh, where 
we will join our division. It will feel almost like getting home. They 
are in camp near Raleigh. The rumor here is that the army is to move 
immediately through Virginia to Fredericksburg and from there to 
their respective states to be disbanded. This will be a joyful time. The 
assassination of the President was a shocking affair. The army feels 
much enraged and it required some restraint to keep them from im- 
mediate retaliation on the people'. It is a great loss to the country. 
No man was better qualified to bring the country to a settled condition. 
I will write you from Raleigh. I hope to get home letters here. 


J. R. Zearing. 
Raleigh, N. C, April 28, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I have at last reached the Grand Army after an absence from 
it of about three months. I can assure you that it afforded me much 
pleasure to see my old army acquaintances. Some of the officers of 
the regiment have been mustered out and gone home. Colonel Hul- 
burt is home on leave of absence. I have met some of the soldiers 
from Dover, Taylor, Stoner, Streator, Charles Pool and others who 
are all in good health. I arrived here on the 26th after a three days 
march from Goldsboro, from which place I last wrote you. I was 
severely disappointed on my arrival here. I had expected, of course, 
to find a number of letters from you awaiting my arrival. You can 
conceive my regret when I was informed that two days before my 
arrival my letters were remailed to me at Savannah. I then at once 
concluded that I would have to trust to fancy and flatter myself that 
I could see you at home, enjoying yourself and contented and the little 
ones around you all lively and happy. But yesterday I was rejoiced 
to find that the mail brought me two letters from you of dates March 
29th and April 6th, so I am at once relieved of my despondency. I 
was glad to hear that matters are prospering so well. I will be glad 
to be at home this month to make arrangements with you for the 
summer. I think if I were there I would sell out to the new doctor,, 
but of this I am not certain that I would desire to do so, as circum- 
stances for remaining there may appear more attractive when I re- 
turn. I wiill be home so soon that we had better leave such mat- 
ters in abeyance until I arrive. I perceive by your letters that you 
have not named the boy yet. I presume you have your head full of 
names, but puzzled to select from among the number. I think you 
had better decide before you have another one or you will be more 
puzzled still. I will try and help you out of the difficulty when I come 
home. The first day we arrived here we expected to have received 
orders to march home immediately. As Sherman and Johnson were then 
negotiating for terms of surrender of the whole of Johnson's army. 
The terms had already been agreed upon between the military com- 
manders and had been sent to Washington for approval. On the 26th 
they were returned from Washington disapproved. The terms agreed 


upon were the pay roll of all the army with the privilege of marching 
to the capital of the several states to which the troops belonged and 
turning over the arms and military property to the state governments, 
and further that Jeff Davis and his cabinet should be permitted to 
leave the country. It is well that civil authorities at Washington would 
not consent to these terms, as Johnson's army could be captured with 
but little loss to us and then we could make our own terms. 

On the afternoon of the 26th it was announced that the armistice 
was suspended and the whole army was immediately ordered to pre- 
pare to march. Johnson's army lay thirty miles from here and we 
commenced moving in that direction. On the morning of the 27th 
Johnson sent in for another suspension of hostilities, which was 
granted and negotiations commenced immediately which resulted in 
the surrender of Johnson's army on the same condition as that of 
Lee's. This completes the downfall of the rebellion and we have 
reason to rejoice that it is ended so favorably. The only rebel force 
now existing is that of Kirby Smith's on the other side of the ]\Iiss- 
issippi. That will soon be disposed of. Today we are all getting 
ready to march to Richmond. We move tomorrow morning and then 
I expect soon to be at home. Good bye. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Richmond, Va., May 12th, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I am happy to announce to you that I have at last arrived in this 
memorable city for which large armies have been contending for the 
the last three years. I last wrote you from Raleigh, N. C. We 
marched from that place to Petersburgh, arriving there in eight days. 
We lay at Petersburgh two days and then started for this city, dis- 
tant twenty-two miles, arriving here yesterday. I was much interested 
in the march from Raleigh to Petersburgh. It lay in a country that 
had escaped the ravages of war so that we had an opportunity of 
seeing it in its natural condition, both in respect to its people and its 
improvements. Everything considered, that portion of North Caro- 
lina between Raleigh and the Virginia line is unsurpassed by any part 
of the south in which we have been. The soil is fertile and well culti- 
vated. The people are intelligent and enterprising. I was especially 
delighted with the great fruit crops that were maturing on the trees — 
fruit of every variety in profusion. This is said to he the best locality 
for the raising of fruit in the United States. The same is true of that 
portion of Virginia between North Carolina and Petersburgh until 
we arrive within ten miles of the city; for that distance out from the 
city the country is utterly desolated by the operations of Grant's army 
during the last year. Petersburgh was a quaint old city. Some por- 
tion of it is in the old European style. Houses built with the eaves 
toward the street. The old houses are built of brick imported from 
Europe before the Revolution. The inhabitants seem to be as ancient 
and unprogressive as the houses. They of the F. F. V.'s are generally 
wealthy and well educated. In all it is a city well w^orth a visit. 
Our stopping here two days gave me a fine opportunity of visiting 


the various localities in which battles have been fought and you remem- 
ber that during the last year the principal operations of the Potomac 
army have been against the rebel lines around Petersburgh and some 
heavy battles took place. The w^hole country for miles around is com- 
pletely dug up and formed into mines, rifle pits, forts, etc. I never 
before saw as extensive digging operations. The armies lay at some 
points within a hundred yards of each other, and every device of mili- 
tary engineering was used to so form their works as to protect them- 
selves and destroy the other. I visited the notable point of the Peters- 
burgh mine explosion in which one of the rebel forts was blown up 
and our forces made a charge and were repulsed. The ground is yet 
strewn with the debris of the battle. These lines of works extend 
from Petersburgh in a continuous line to Richmond, extending across 
the Appomatox and James Rivers, a distance of not less than thirty 
miles. We are now in Richmond and I have been busy visiting the 
various points in and around it. It is in a bad condition for showing 
well as a city. Before the rebels evacuated it they burned nearly all 
the best business portions. I have never seen so extensive result of 
fire. Dozens of blocks in succession of large structures were burned. 
Nothing left but partially broken down walls and chimney stacks. 
These buildings contained an immense amount of property, principally 
cotton and tobacco. The remaining portion of the city is very beauti- 
ful. The houses are uniformly well built and many of them very 
handsome. The city is delightfully situated on the north bank of the 
James. The river is navigable by ships of considerable size to this 
point. Here the river is dammed and furnishes as good water power 
as can be found anywhere. Richmond had already become an im- 
portant manufacturing place. There are extensive mills of flour, 
woolen and cotton. Now that slavery is aboHshed, new capital and 
new labor will so develop the resources of the state as wifl make a 
great city of Richmond. The people are taking the capture of their 
city with a good deal of composure, the only sign of disaffection is 
the scornful expression on the face of the ladies. They, however, 
will soon get over it. The most interesting object of curiosity in the 
city is an equestrian statue of Washington. It is a wonderful work of 
art. On pedestals surrounding the statue are other statues of Patrick 
Henry, Mason and Jefferson, all of life size in bronze. Puss, tomor- 
row we start for Washington. We will arrive there on Friday or 
Saturday. We cannot determine how soon we will be mustered out 
after arriving there, or if at all. It is presumed by some that the 
veteran regiments will be retained in service. We are to have a grand 
review at Washington of the whole army. I presume there will be 
a great many persons to witness it. I think you had better come down 
and see it, and if you desire, you can see me at the same time. Shall 
I look for you? You can expect to see me in a short time anyhow. 


J. R. Zearing. 


Washington, D. C, May 26, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I last wrote you from Alexandria promising then to write y -u 
again immediately after the review. Well, the grand review is past 
and it will be impossible for me to describe fully the brilliancy and 
success of the affair. As a military display I presume it has never 
been excelled in ancient or modern times. The two days of the review 
in point of weather was all that could be desired. The rain of the 
day previous had laid the dust and the days, though of brilliant sun- 
shine, were cool and pleasant. The street on which the review took 
place was Pennsylvania Avenue, a broad well paved street. We 
marched on this street for about three fourths of a mile, half way 
was situated the principal stand, on which were Generals Grant, Sher- 
man, Mead, Hancock, the President, members of the cabinet and for- 
eign ministers. On other stands were the governors of states and 
other prominent dignitaries. These stands were festooned with flowers, 
flags and mottoes of the most brilliant description. Across the street 
throughout the whole distance were flags of every variety of beautiful 
emblems. While on either side was a dense mass of anxious spec- 
tators, and from every window and housetop waved the little flags 
and white handkerchiefs of the ladies. I never before saw such en- 
thusiasm manifested. The color bearers of the regiments and the 
mounted officers were presented with numerous bouquets by the ladies 
as they marched along. The whole procession, indeed, seemed to be 
covered with roses. As we rode along slowly there was so much to 
be seen that it was vexatious that we could see so little. So many 
beautiful ladies to admire. We should have had eyes on both sides 
of our heads, so that we could see without turning our heads. Perhaps 
you will think that we saw enough of the ladies with the eyes we had. 
We can't help seeing all we can of the dear creatures. The army of 
the Potomac was reviewed the first day, the 23rd, Sherman's army on 
the 24th. The comparison between the two armies in point of march- 
ing is said to be much in our favor. However, all did well and every- 
thing passed off in perfect order. I only regret that you were not 
here to see it. I have always desired to visit Washington and now 
that I am here, I should be glad to have you see the curiosities of the 
capital, too. HI am compelled to stay here some time, I shall expect 
you to come down. Up to the present time I have not visited any of 
the public buildings for the want of time. Washington is a beautiful 
city and has a very fine class of inhabitants. We can here get vege- 
tables and other articles of diet in abundance and at remarkable prices, 
and as we have been so long without such luxuries I am indulging 
pretty freely. I have ventured on some strawberries and cream. Puss, 
I had hoped to be able by this time to inform you positively when I 
should be at home, but nothing can yet be ascertained. All we know 
is that all troops whose term of service expires before the first of 
October next are to be mustered out immediately. This, of course, 
does not include the veterans. It is rumored that the veterans will 
receive a furlough and be held in service for some time yet. 


Washington, D. C, June 2nd, 1865. 
Dear Wife : 

I wrote you day before yesterday and as we have received orders 
late this evening to move at five o'clock in the morning I thought best 
to write you a line to inform you that we should be soon on our way 
to Louisville. In my last letter I requested you if it would conform 
to your convenience, to proceed immediately to father's and I would 
meet you there. I presume that you would like to visit home at this 
time and I presume that Mary, Libby or Rebecca would keep house 
for you during your absence. We will probably arrive in Louisville 
next Wednesday and go into camp somewhere in that vicinity. How 
long we will remain there we cannot yet determine, probably three 
weeks. Write me as soon as you determine to start and the time you 
will probably reach father's. We expect to go by rail from here to 
Parkersburgh on the Ohio River and from thence by boat to Louis- 
ville. Today I visited Mt. Vernon. 'Twas an interesting visit. To 
walk over the same walks that Washington wallced over, and sit in 
the same chair, etc., was indeed of interest. The old house is yet in 
pretty good repair. It is romantically situated on the banks of the 
■Potomac, surrounded by beautiful forest. I could spend a week yet 
with much enjoyment in examining the places and objects of interest 
in this vicinity. Capt. Page is still here, settling Col. Hurlbut's affairs. 
He expects to leave in four days. Good bye. 


J. R. Zearing. 

Note — Mrs. Luelja Zearing Gross has deposited in the Illinois 
State Historical Library a large collection of material relating to the 
Zearing and allied families. The collection consists of land warrants, 
and patents, deeds, appointments, commissions, letters, newspaper clip- 
pings, pictures and other interesting material. It has been filed and will 
be carefully preserved. 



Ackworth, George 

Adams & Westlake Co 

Adams, Gulliver 

Adams, J. McGregor. :Meniber of firm of 
Crerar, Adams & Co ■ ■ ■ 

Adamsville, Term l-i2, 

Akron, Mass 

Alatoona, Ga 

Albany, N. Y. Foot-note 

Albany, N. Y., .Journal (Newspaper) 

Albion, 111 

Aledo, (Mercer Co.,) Ill 100, 

Aledo, 111. County seat of Mercer Co.... 

Alexandria, Tenn 

Alleghany Mts 19. 69, 130, 

Alleghany Mts. — Crossing the AUeghanies 
Zearing Family 130, 

Allen, Archibald," Indian trader 

Allen, (Rev.) Ira M IS, 21, 

Allen, William. Quoted on Indian Trail . . 

Alton, 111. Archaeological finds in the 
American bottom near Alton 

Alton, 111. Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Alton, 111. Manuf acturies 

Altona Mountains 

Alvord, (Prof.) Clarence Walworth 16, 

Alvord, (Prof.) Clarence Walworth. Mem- 
ber of Committee Illinois State Histori- 
cal Society to mark site of Fort Creve 
Coeur 16, 

Ament, John 

America 112. 

American Bottoms. Archaeological finds in 

American Meat Packers. T. E. AMlson, 

American State Papers. Indian Affairs. 

American State Papers. Miscellaneous. 
Quoted. Foot-note 

American State Papers. Public Lands. 

.\merican Steel and Wire Company 

Amherst College, Amherst, Mass 

Amherstburg, Ontario S8, 

Andersonville Prison 

Andover Colonv 

Andover. (Henry Co.) Ill 98, 

Andover Township, Henry Co., Ill 

Angell's Ferry 

Annawan, (Henry Co.,) Ill 

Appeal for historical material for the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library and So- 
ciety 11, 

Appomattox River 

Appomattox, Va 

Archaeology. Cahokia Mound, efforts to 

Archives — Bureau of Indexes and Archives. 
Domestic Letters. Foot-note 

Archives. Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

Ricker Files. Foot-note 

■ Archives. of Rolls and Library 
Papers and Records of the Territories. 
L. C. Quoted. Foot-notes. .76, 78, 79, 82, 

Argo, 111. Listed among the manufactur- 
ing towns in Illinois 

"Argj-le" (Steamer) 151 

Arlington Heights. Listed among the man- 
ufacturing towns in Illinois 62 

Arlington, 111. (Bureau Co.) 97 

Armour & Company. Packers, Chicago 

58, 65, 66 

Armour Philip Danforth. Founder of the 

Armour Packing Industry in Chicago. 65, 66 
Armstrong, Perrv A. The Sauks and the 

Black Hawk War 90. 91, 107 

Armv Ford on Edwards River. Black 

Hawk War 101, 106 

Army of the Ohio War of the Rebellion. . . ISo 
Armv of the Potomac. War of the Re- 
bellion 113. 200, 201 

Army of the Tennessee. War of the Rebel- 
lion 113, 142, 184, 185, ISS 

Armv Ridge Bluffs. Rock Island County 

Illinois 102 

Armv Trail Creek. Rock Island County 

Illinois 102 

Arnold, Isaac N. Life of Abraham Lincoln. 

Quoted 32, 33, 42, 43 

Foot-note 32 

Arnold, Isaac N. Quoted on Lincoln and 

his home in Illinois 32, 33 

Foot-note 32 

Art Extension Committee of the University 

of Illinois 54 

Asbury, (Bishop) Francis. Methodist 

Church 122 

Foot-note 122 

Asbury. (Bishop) Francis. Ezra Squire 
Tipple. Francis Asbury, The Prophet 

of The Long Road. Foot-note 122 

Atchison, David R. Credited with the au- 
thorship of the Repeal of the Missouri 

Compromise 47 

Athens, Ala 173. 174 

Athens, Greece 34 

Atkinson, (Gen.) Henrv. Black Hawk 

War 100, 106 

Atkinson, (Henry Co.) Ill 97 

Atlanta, Ga 

144, 177, 178, 179. 181. 

182, 183. 184, 185, 186, 187. 188. 190. 191 

Atlanta & Macon R. R 191 

Atlanta, Ga. Evacuation of 187-188 

Atlantic Ocean 33, 94, 114 

Attig, Chester J. Some Governmental 
Problems in the Northwest Territory. 

1787-1803 2.5, 75-86 

Atwood, J. M. Princeton, 111 137 

Augusta, Ga 191 

Augusta, Maine 24 

Aurora, 111. Census figiires on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Aurora, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Ausburg Confession 142 

Austin. H. S. Member of Union League of 

America 112 

Autobiography of Black Hawk. Reference 

89. 91, 94 

Autobiography of Peter Cartwright. 

Quoted 93 


116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123 


INDEX— Continued. 


Autobiography of Rev. James B. Finlej'. 

Quoted. Foot-note 123 

Avery, 0. M. Member of the Avery firm 

of Manufacturers, Peoria, Illinois 65 

Avery, Robert H. Founder of the Avery 

Agricultural Implements 64, 65 

Bach, Johann Sebastian, compo.-er of 
church music 

Bailey, John 

Bailey vs. Cromwell. Case in Supreme 

Baker's Ferry, (Ga.) 

Baldwin, (Col.) A. D. Union Colonel War 
of the Rebellion 143, 156, 168, 

Baldwin, Chas. Princeton, 111 

Baltimore, Md 135, 


Baltimore, Md. Defense of. War of the 
Rebellion 135, 

Bane, (Mrs.) Mentioned in Zearing letter. 

Bangs, (Hon.) Mark. Member of Union 
League of America 

Banner Special, Drainage and Levee Dis- 
tricts. In Peoria and Fulton Counties. . 

Barnstable, Mass 

Barr, (Mrs.) Mentioned in Zearing letter.. 

Barton, (Rev.) William E. Illinois, a 
rhjaned sermon on 

Barton, William E., D. D., LL. D. The 
Influence of Illinois in the Development 
of Abraham Lincoln 25, 35 

Bassett, Isaac Newton. Quoted on Indian 

Bates, Edward, of Missouri. Presiding oflS- 
cer River and Harbor Convention of 
1847, held in Chicago 

Bates, W. H. Report from Tazewell Co., 
Illinois, Historical Society 

Battery. New York City 

Beardstown, 111 

Beaufort, S. C .' 

Beauregard, (Pierre) Gustave Toutant. 
Confederate General, War of the Rebel- 
lion 157^ 

Bedford, Ind 149, 157,' 

Beecher, Henry Ward .' 

Beggs, Stephen R. Pages from the earlv 
History of the West and Northwest. 
Quoted. Foot-note 

Beggs, Stephen R. Pioneer Preacher Meth- 
odist Church 


Belleville, 111. Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Belleville, 111. Early records of St. Clair 
County in. Reference. Footnote 

Belleville, 111. Manufacturies 

Beloit, Wis 

Belvidere, 111 [\[ 

Benedict, A. J 

Benedict, Elijah 

Benton. Abridgment. Quoted. Foot-note 

Benton, Thomas Hart 44 

Berlin Township, Bureau Co., Ill ' 

Berry, William F. Lincoln & Berry store 
at New Salem 

Better Community Conference of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois 

Big Island at the mouth of Rock River. .. 

Big Ogeechee River 

Bismarck. Otto Edward Leopold Prince Von 

Black Hawk and his followers religious 
people Governor Reynolds, Quoted on, . . 

Black Hawk. Autobiographv of Black 

Hawk. Reference " 89, 91, 94 

Black Hawk. Fo.x & Sac Chief 87-109 

Black Hawk. Hauberg, John H. Indian 
Trails, Centering at Black Hawk's Village 

25, 87-109 

Black Hawk Township. Rock Island Co. 

Ill 92, 103, 104 

Black Hawk's Village 

93, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 106 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower 

20, 22, 87, 89, 90, 91 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower, Poem on, by 
Mrs. Mary Brackett Durham, Extract 

from 89 

Black Hawk War, 1832 

37, 50, 88, 90, 

91, 98, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107 
Black Hawk War. Armstrong, Perry A. 

The Sauks and the Black Hawk War. .90, 91 
Black Hawk War. Army Ford on Edwards 

River 101 

Black Hawk War. Atkinson, (Gen.) 

Henry, in the Black Hawk War 106 

Black Hawk War. Duncan, Joseph, Briga- 
dier-General, Black Hawk War 100 

Black Hawk War. Ford, (Gov.) Thomas, 

Illinois Volunteers Black Hawk War. 

Governor Ford quoted on 104 

Black Hawk War. Johnston, (Lieut.) 

Albert Sydney, in the Black Hawk War. . 106 
Black Hawk War. Lincoln, Abraham, 

Captain in the Black Hawk War 

88, 100, 104, 105 

Black Hawk War. Lincoln, Abraham, 

Captain in, Camp site, Reference. . .104, 105 

Black Hawk War. Prophet's Village 106 

Black Hawk War. Reynolds, (Gov.) John, 

Illinois Volunteers, Black Hawk War. 

Governor Revnolds quoted on 100 

Black Hawk War. Wakefield, John Allen. 

History of the Black Hawk War 106, 107 

Blair's Landing, South Carolina 194 

Blanchard, (Dr.) E. S., Princeton, 111 137 

Blatchford, Eliphalet Wickes. Founder of 

the E. W. Blatchford Co 69 

Blatchford, E. W. Co 69 

Blackstock Ira B 30 

Blackstone's Commentaries 36 

Blood, (Dr.) Henrv S., Assistant Surgeon 
Fiftv-seventh 111. - Vols., War of the 

Rebellion 157 

Bloomington, 111 23, 61, 73, 112, 118 

Bloomington, 111. Census figures on popu- 
lation and manufacturing interests 73 

Bloomington, 111 Illinois Conference 

district, M. E. Church 118 

Bloomington, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Bloomington, 111. Union League of 

America. Illinois First State Council 

held in Bloomington, Sept. 5, 1862.... 112 

Bloomington, Ind 149 

Blossomberg, 111 88 

Blyimville, Tenn 172 

Boggess, Arthur Clinton. Settlement of 

niinois, 1778-1830. Foot-note 76 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. Napoleon at Water- 
loo. Reference 113- 

Boone, Daniel 35 

Boston, Mass 17, 24, 31, 37, 65, 68, 70, 112 

Boston, Mass. Faneuil Hall 112 

Boston, Mass. Long Wharf, Boston 37 

Boston, Mass. Transcript (Newspaper) . . 24 

Bowling Green, Ky 153 

Bowling Township. Rock Island County, 

Illinois '. . 106 

Boyd, William 68 


INDEX— Continued. 

Boyes, W. F 19 

Bradley, H. C. Quoted on Indian Trail . . 97 

Bradlev, 111., Manufacturies 02 

Bradley, Thomas L. History of Bureau 

Countv, Illinois. Quoted 98 

Brandj-Aviiie, Battle of, War of the Revolu- 
tion 110 

Brashar, Edwin. Quoted on Indian Trail . . 90 

Brazoo, Texas 137 

Bremen, Germany 67 

Brighton, Mass 65 

Brisson, Pierre. Pierre Brisson Plaintiff 

vs. Charles Germain, case of. Reference.. 8.3 

Bristol Center, N. Y 68 

Broad River 193, 194 

Brown, (Dr.) 11th Indiana, War 

of the Rebellion 174 

Brown, George W., Corn planter, works of, 

Galesburg, 111 70 

Brown, John. Anti-slavery leader 40 

Brown, John C, Governor of Tennessee... 147 

Brown, Stuart 23, 25 

Brown, Stuart. Poets and Poetry of 

Illinois 25 

Bryant Family, Princeton, 111 131 

Bryant Home^ Princeton, 111 131 

Bryant, William CuUen 131 

Buckhorn Inn. Early days in Illinois.... 96 
Buckle, Henry Thomas. English writer . . 33 
Bucklin, James M. Chief engineer of the 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 98 

Buel, (Gen.) Don Carlos. Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 153, 154 158 

Buffalo, N. Y 44 

Foot-note 52 

Buffalo, N. Y. Harbor at, appropriation 

River and Harbor Bill, 1846 44 

Buffum, Almon A. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 102, 103 

Bufort County, Cork, Ireland 70 

Bull Run, Battle of. War of the Rebellion 110 
Bunn, Jacob. Watch Company, Spring- 
field, 111 70 

Bunn, John W., Watch Company, Spring- 
field, 111 70 

Bunyan's Pilgrims Progress 36 

Bureau, Camp, Princeton, 111 143 

Bureau Co., Ill 

97, 98, 129, 142, 143, 144, 170, 175 

Bureau Co., Bradley, Thomas L. History 

of Bureau County, Illinois. Quoted . . .". 98 
Bureau Co., 111. Matson N. Reminiscences 

of Bureau County 97 

Bureau Co., 111. Republican (Newspaper) 137 

Bureau Co., 111. Soldiers Association 142 

Bureau Co., 111. Soldiers in the Civil War 

170, 175 

Bureau Co., III. Zearings. Early settlers 

in 129, 143 

Bureau Creek, 111 147 

Burgess, Mary C. Wife of .Judge William 

Reid Curran 125 

Burlingame, Anson, at River and Harbor 

Convention, 1847 44 

Burnet, Jacob. Notes on the Early Settle- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory, 

1770-1853. Foot-note '. . 82 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H 30 

Burns, Robert (Bobbie Burns) 33. 142 

Burnside, (Gen.) Ambrose E. Union Gen- 
eral, War of the Rebellion 185 

Burnsville, Miss 169 

Burson Knitting Machine. William Worth 

Burson, inventor .66, 67 

Burson, William Worth. Inventor of the 

Burson Knitting Machine 6S 

Burson, William Worth. Patents granted 
to, on inventions 67 


Burton Collection. Foot-notes. 78, 79, 85, 86 
Burton Collection. Sibley Papers. Quoted. 

Foot-notes 78, 79 

Busey, (Mrs.) George 30 

Butterfield, Justin 42, 43 

Biographical sketch. Foot-note 43 

Butterworth, William 72 

Butts, Jacob, Bureau Co., Ill 166 

Cahokla 75^ 

Foot-note ' 

Cahokia Mound 20, 

Cahokia Mound. Efforts to preserve .' 

Cahokia Records, 1778-1790. Illinois State 
Historical Collections. Vol. 2. Foot-note 

Cairo, 111 57, 61, 73, 151, 168, 

Cairo, 111. Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Cairo, 111. Manufacturies 

Cairo, 111. Railroad from Galena to Cairo, 
referred to as the first Illinois Central 
R. R 

Calhoun, John C, of North Carolina 

California State 46, 64, 65, 66, 

California State, Enters the Union as a 
free state 

California State. Gold seekers of 1849.. 

Calumet River 

Cambridge, (Henry Co.) Ill 

Cambridge, Mass 17, 

Camden Mills, now Milan, 111 

Camp Bureau, War of the Rebellion, Prince- 
ton, 111 

Camp Creek, Mercer County, 111.. 101, 102, 

Camp Douglas, Chicago, 111 143, 150, 

Camp Meeting, Sugar Grove Camp Meet- 

Campbell, (Maj.) John 92, 

Campbell, (Maj.) John. Quoted on Indian 

Campbell's Island. War of 1812 ........ 

Canaan. First post ofl5ce in Rock Island 
County, Illinois 

Canada 24, 

Canada. New Hamborough, Upper Canada 

Canal Boats, Private 

Canton, 111. Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Canton, 111 Manufacturies 

Canton, 111. Parlin & Orendorff Plow Co . . 

Capron, Charles L. Vice President Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 

Carbondale, 111 " 

Carlyle, Thomas. Heroes and Hero Wor- 
ship. Quoted. Foot-note 

Carlyle, Thomas. Quoted on great men, 
theory of. Foot-note 

Carolinas, (The) 

Carpenter, Richard V 

Carroll Co., Ill 

Carter, (Hon.) Orrin N 

Cartwright, (Rev.) Peter. Autobiography. 

Quoted. Foot-notes 

93, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 

Cartwright, (Rev.) Peter. Defeated for 
Congress by Abraham Lincoln 120, 

Cartwright, Peter. Description of 

Cartwright, Peter. Fifty Years as Presid- 
ing Elder. Foot-notes 116, 121, 

Cartwright. Peter. Member of Illinois 
State Legislature 119, 

Cartwright, Peter. Ministerial work 

Cartwright, Peter. One of the founders of 

McKendree College, Lebanon, 111 



INDEX— Continued. 

Cartwright, Peter. Opposed to slavery 

116, 119 

Cartwright, Peter. Pioneer preacher Meth- 
odist church. Autobiography. Quoted. 

93, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123 

Cartwright, Peter. Sweet, William W. 
Peter Cartwright in Illinois History . . 

25, 116-123 

Cartwright, Peter. Theology of, simple. . 122 

Cass, Lewis 44, 45 

Centennial Memorial Building, State of 

Illinois 26, 31 

Centralia, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing interests. .. .73, 74 

Chalmers, Thomas 69 

Chamberlain, (Dr.) N 145 

Chamberlain, (Dr.) William 145 

Champaign, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing interests 74 

Champaign, 111. Manufacturies in 62 

Chandlerville, (Cass Co.) Ill 24 

Chapman, C. C. & Co., Pubs., History of 

Knox County, 111 99 

Charleston, S. C 192, 194 

Chase, Salmon P. Statutes of Ohio. Foot- 
notes -..76, 79. SO, 81 

Chatahoochie River 177, 180, 182, 183 

Chatsworth, 111 124 

Chattanooga, Tenn 144, 176, 179, 181 

Cheever, (Dr.) D. A. Member of the 

Union League of America, Tazewell Co.. Ill 
Cheever, (Dr.) D. A. Member of Union 
League, Tazewell Co., one of the secret 
body guard to protect Lincoln at second 

inaugural 115 

Cheney, George 156 

Chicago Heights, 111 62, 73, 74, 93 

Chicago Heights, 111. Census figures on 
population and manufacturing inter- 
ests 73, 74 

Chicago Heights, 111. Manufacturies in.. 62 
Chicago, 111. .28, 40, 41, 43, 44, 51, 56, 57, 
59, 68, 69, 71, 73, 93, 97, 113, 117, 129, 

136, 137, 142, 145, 150, 175, 180 

Foot-notes 43, 45, 52, 117 

Chicago, 111. Burlington and Quincy Rail- 
road 129, 145 

Chicago, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Chicago, 111. Chicago & Alton R. R 68 

Chicago, 111. Chicago and Joliet R. R 68 

Chicago, 111. Chicago Journal. (News- 
paper) 44 

Foot-note 43 

Chicago, ID. Chicago Journal, July 6, 

1847. Quoted. Foot-note 43 

Chicago, 111. Directory, first one printed 

in 1S43. By Robert Fergus 69 

Chicago, 111. Galena and Chicago Union 

Railroad 57 

Chicago, 111. Harbor 56 

Chicago, 111. Historical Society 28, 93 

Chicago, 111. Historical Society. Gunther 

collection purchased by 28 

Chicago, 111. Illinois Conference Metho- 
dist Church, 1832. Chicago added to.. 117 
Chicago, 111. Iron Company builds the first 

furnace in 1868 59 

Chicago, IlL Lincoln's visits to Chicago. 
Foot-note 45 

Chicago, 111. Manual Training School 

Chicago, 111. National Republican Con- 
vention, May, 1860, held in Chicago.. 

Chicago, 111. North Chicago Rolling Mill 

Chicago, 111. River and Harbor Convention 
of, 1847, held in 

Chicago, 111. Theological Seminary 

Chicago, 111. Thomas Grand Army Republic 


Chicago, 111. Times. (Newspaper) 

Chicago, 111. LTnion League Club formed in 


Chicago, 111. Union Stock Yards 

Chicago, 111. Wigwam located in where 

Republican National Convention of 1S60 

was held 

Cliicago, 111. Zearing Building in 

Chicago River 57, 59, 69, 

Chickamauga, Ga 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Chin Chuey. Dr. J. R. Zearing's cook. 141, 
Chubbuck, (Mrs.) H. Eugene. State Regent, 

Illinois D. A. R 22, 24, 27, 

Churches. Congregational Church 

Churches. German Reformed at Frieden's 


Churches, Presbyterian Church 96, 97, 

Churches, Princeton, 111. Martin Zearing 

builder of churches in 

Churches. Salem German Reformed. Har- 

risburg, Pa 

Cicero, 111. Manufacturing center 

Cincinnati, Ohio 64, 83, 

Civil War. See War of the Rebellion. .58, 
Civil War. Great demand for food and 

clothing in 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers 


Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. George 

Rogers Clark Papers 1771-1781. Illinois 

Historical Collections, Vol. VIII 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. Manuscripts, 

Draper Collection. Reference. Foot-note 

Clark, James A 

Clark, (Mrs.) Lucinda 

Clary Grove near New Salem, 111 

Clay, Henry 38, 

Clav, Henry. Lincoln a disciple of Henry 


Clendenin, H. W 15, 

Cleveland Ferry 

Cleveland, Ohio 


Cleveland, Ohio. Harbor at, appropriation 

River and Harbor Bill, 1846 

Clifton, Tenn 

Clover Township, Henry County, 111 

Clybourn, Archibald. Slaughter House on 

the Chicago River 

Clybourn, Jonas. Slaughter House on the 

Chicago River 

Coal Creek, Henry Co., Ill 

Coal. Illinois area, counties in which it 

is found 

Coal Valley Creek 94, 

Coal Valley, 111 94, 95, 96, 98, 

Coal Valley, 111., School 95, 

Coal Valley Township, Rock Island Co., 

Ill 94, 

Colby, (Miss) Lydia. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 96, 

Colder Family 


Cole, A. S. Flour manufacturer and dis- 
tiller of, Peoria, 111 

Colona Ferry, Henry Co., Ill 

Colona, Henry Co., Ill 

Colona Township, Henrj' Co 94, 96, 

Colton, (Mrs.) Buel P. (Charlotte Zearing) 

Colton, Charlotte Zearing 146, 

Colton Family, Bureau Co., Ill 

Colton, James Zearing 

Colton, (Lieut.) Kingsley Buel. U. S. 

Navy, World War 138, 140, 


INDEX— Continued. 

Columbus, Cliristopher 

Columbus, Mississippi 153, 162, 168, 

Columbus, Ohio. Foot-note 

Colyer, Walter 15, 21, 

Comptometer. Dorr E. Felt inventor of the 

Conants, (Dr.) (Bureau Co.) 

Cona:reg;ational Church 122, 

Congregational Church. Pekin, 111 

Conkey, William B. First president of the 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association .... 

Conkey, William B. Manufacturer. Org-an- 
ized the Illinois Manufacturers' Associa- 

Conkling', (Miss) Alice 

Coiikling-, Clinton L 17, 

Conkling, Clinton L Director of the Illinois 
State Historical Society. Deceased 

Conkling Family " 

Connecticut State 24, 44, 69, 

Connecticut State. River and Harbor Con- 
vention at Chicago, 1847. Seven dele- 
gates to, from Connecticut 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical 
Society 8, 

Constitution of the United States 

Continental Congress. Ordinance of 1784- 

Continental Congress. Papers of the Con- 
tinental Congress. Quoted Foot-note.. 

Cook, (Gen.) 

Cook Co., Ill 93, 

Cook Co., 111. Forest Reserve 

Cooke, (Col.) P. St. G. Scenes and Adven- 
tures in the Army, 1859. Quoted 

Cooper Settlement, Mercer County, 111. . . . 

Coosa River, Georgia 

Cordovia, 111 

Corinth, Mississippi. .144, 157, 158, 159, 
160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 107 
168, 170, 171, 172, 

Corinth, Mississippi, Battle of 144, 161 

Corinth, Mississippi, Evacuation of 

Cork, Ireland, Buford, Co 

Cornwall Township, Henry Co., 111.. 96, 97, 

Corse, (Gen.) John M. Union General War 
of the Rebellion 144, 

Corwin, Thomas 

Crabs, George. Quoted on Indian Trails.. 

Craig, Alex 88, 94, 107, 

Crampton, Wisconsin 

Crane Co., Chicago, 111 

Crane, Richard Teller. Founder of the 
Crane Company, Chicago 

Crawford, William F. Quoted on Indian 

Credit Island. Battle of 1814 

Crerar, John. Founder of the Crerar Li- 
brary, Chicago, 111 

Crerar Library, Chicagx,, 111 68, 

Crerar Library, Chicago, 111 Gift of John 

Crosby, (Dr) Mentioned in Zearing letters. . 

Crossley, (Mrs.) Mentioned in Zearing 
letters 166, 

Crusoe, Robinson 

Cudahy Brothers. Meat Packers of Chicago 

Cudahy Compan}^ Meat Packers, Chicago. 

Cudahy, John. Member of the packing 
firm of Cudahy Brothers, Chicago. . .20, 

Cudahy, Patrick. Member of the packing 
firm" of Cudahy Brothers 

Cullom, (Major) R. N. Member of the 
Union League of America 

Cumberland Co., Pa 

Cumberland Gap 


Cummings, (Col.) Alfred. Union Colonel 

War of the Rebellion 189 

Curran, Charles 124 

Curran, Margaret Reid 124 

Curran, Thomas Smith 124 

Curran, (Judge) William Reid 

17, 21, 23, 25, 124-127 

Curran, (Judge) William Reid. Address 

on Abraham Lincoln. Reference 126 

Curran, (Judge) William Reid. Director 

of the Illinois State Historical Society, 

Deceased 31 

Curran, (Judge) William Reid. Memorial 

address on, by Ralph Dempsey 

23, 25, 124-127 

Curran, (Judge) William Reid. President 

of the Lincoln Marking Association.... 30 
Currey, J. Seymour. Quoted on Lincoln's 

visits to Chicago. Foot-note 45 

Dahlberg, (Hon.) Gotthard. Speaker of 
the House of Representatives 

Dallas. Ga 

Dalton, Ga 175, 177, 179, 

Danville, 111. Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Danville, III. Manufacturies 

Danville, Pa 

Daughters of the American Revolution. 
Work in preserving historical spots, 
documents and relics 

Davenport, Bailev 89, 

Davenport, (Col.) George 88, 89, 91, 

Davenport, Iowa 62, 87, 88, 

Davenport, Iowa. Manufacturies in 

Davis, Jefferson 

Davis Power House, Rock Island Co., 111.. 

Decatur, Ala 173, 174, 

Decatur, 111 Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 

Decatur, 111. Grand Army of the Republic, 
organized in Decatur 

Decatur, 111. Lincoln's Illinois home near 

Decatur, 111. Manufacturies 

Decatur, 111. Republican Convention Mav 
9, 10, 1S60, held in Decatur, III 43, 

Deere and Mansur. Manufacturers of corn 
planters, etc 

Deere, Charles H 64, 

Deere, Charles H. Member of firm of Deeve 
and Mansur, manufacturers of corn 

Deere, John. Founder of the John Deere 
Plow Company, Moline, III 

Deere, John. Made his first two plows by 
hand in blacksmith shop in Grand De- 
tour, Ogle Co., Ill 

DeKalb, 111 23, 

DeKalb, 111. Listed among the manufactur- 
ing towns of Illinois 

Delavan, (Tazewell Co.) Ill 

Delaware State 24, 

Delaware State. Delaware Archives 

Democratic Party 

Dempsev, Ralph. William Reid Curran. 
In Memoriam 23, 25, 30, 124- 

Denton Farm. Henr>' County, Illinois.... 

Desplaines River 

Detroit, Mich 59, 70, 79, SO, 


Devon Carys 

Diary of Manasseh Minor. Stonington, Con- 
necticut, 1696-1720 


INDEX— Continued. 

Diary of William Sewall, Sept. 1, 1819, to 

1845 24 

Ditson, Oliver. Member of music firm, 

Ditson & Havnes, Boston 70 

Dixon Cemetery, Rock Island, 111 90, 91 

Dixon, 111. Reaper Trial in 1862 67 

Doctors. Pioneer Doctors in Illinois. .144, 145 
Dodge, (Gen.) Grenville M. Union Gen- 
eral War of the Rebellion 

137, 144, 147, 171, 176, 177, 180 

Dodge, (Mrs.). Mentioned in Zearlng 

letters 174 

Donelson, Fort 143, 156 

Doolittle, (Mrs.) 130 

Douglas, Camp. Chicago, III 143 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 

21, 39, 47, 48, 49, 50 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Dominant force 

in national politics 48 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Leader in the 

Repeal of the Missouri Compromise.... 47 
Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Lincoln-Douglas 

Debates, 1858 21, 48, 49, 107 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Speech at Chi- 
cago, July 9, 1858. Reference 49, 50 

Dover, 111 129, 131, 132, 133, 135, 141 

143, 144, 145, 149, 150, 156, 159, 165, 

167, 170, 179, 198 

Dover, 111. Academy 135 

Dover, 111. Soldiers in Civil War 198 

Downey Bridge 101 

Doyle, (Oapt.) 78 

Drake, Daniel. Draper Collection. Daniel 

Drake Papers. Quoted. Foot-note 84 

Draper, Lyman C. Collection. George 

Rogers Clark Mss. Foot-note 78 

Draper, Lyman C. Collection. Daniel 

Drake Papers. Foot-note 84 

Drinkwater, John 34 

Drury Farm, Henry County, Illinois 94 

Dubuque Mines 109 

Duncan, Joseph. Brigadier General, Black 

Hawk War 100 

Dunton. Nurse in hospital at Corinth, 

Mississippi 172 

Durham, (Col.) 0. W 89 

Durham, (Mrs.) Mary Brackett. Poem on 
"Black Hawk's Watch Tower," extract 
from 89 

East Chicago 62 

East La Grange, 111 96, 99 

East St. Louis, 111 60, 61, 62, 73 

East St. Louis, 111. Census figures on popu- 
lation and manufacturing interests 73 

East St. Louis, 111. Flour and grist mills, 
chemical works, etc., shows the greatest 

growth of any city in Illinois 60, 61 

Eckhart, B. A 72 

Eddy, T. M. Influence of Methodism upon 
civilization and education of the West, 

Foot-note 123 

Eddy, (Col.) J. M 148 

Edgington, 111 102 

Edgington, John 104 

Edgington Township, Rock Island County, 

Illinois 101, 103, 104, 105 

Education. Amherst College, Amherst, 

Mass 33 

Education. Chicago Manual Training 

School 69 

Education. Chicago Theological Seminary 69 

Education. Coal Valley School 95, 96 

Education. Garrett Biblical Institute, 
Evanston, 111 122 

Education. Dover, Illinois, Academy 135 

Education. Geneseo, Illinois, Collegiate 

Institute 101 

Education. Illinois College, Jacksonville, 

Illinois 37, 69 

Education. Illinois, early education in. 135, 136 
Education. Illinois. Northern Illinois 

State Normal School 23 

Education. Illinois. Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Evanston, 111 23, 30 

Education. Illinois. Princeton High 

School 136 

Education. Illinois. Southern Illinois 

State Normal School 23 

Education. Illinois. University of Illi- 
nois 23, 30, 54 

Education. Illinois. Wesleyan University, 

Bloomington, 111. Foot-note 122 

Education. McKendree College, Lebanon, 

Illinois 122 

Foot-note 122 

Education. Northwestern College, Naper- 

ville. 111 25 

Education. Prague University of, in Bo- 
hemia 17 

Education. Prairie Union School, Rock 

Island County, 111 105 

Education. University of Prague 31 

Education. Williams College, Williams- 
town, Mass. Foot-note 43 

Education. Wisconsin State University, 

Foot-note 45 

Edwards, (Judge) Benjamin S 17 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian 17 

Edwards, Ninian Wirt 39 

Edwards River 95, 98, 99, 101, 106 

Edwardsville, 111. Illinois Advocate. News- 
paper, 1832-33, published in 27 

Elgin, 111 56, 57, 61, 63 

Elgin, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Elgin, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Ellis, William. Early printer in Chicago. 69 

Elwood, I. L 59 

Emergency Fleet Corporation, World War. 72 
Emerson & Co. Contractor on twine 

binders 67 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 33 

Emery, Enoch. Member of the Union 

League of America 112 

"Empire" Steamer 45 

England. Deliberating whether she should 
openly recognize the Confederacy. War 

of the Rebellion 114 

English, William Hayden. St. Clair 

Papers. Quoted. Foot-notes 77, 78, 82 

Eustenow River 179 

Evanston, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Evanston, 111. Northwestern University 

located in 23, 30 

Evener, Charles 94, 95 

Everett, (Mrs.) James G 97 

Ewing Family 24 

Ewing, (Judge) Presley K 24 

Factory Emploj^es, United States Census 
figures for Illinois and Thirtv-two of its 

cities 73, 74 

Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass 112 

Farquier County, Va 24 

Farwell & Herron, Princeton, 111 137 

Fay, Herbert W., Custodian of the Lincoln 

Monument, Springfield, 111 27 

Fear River 196 


INDEX— Continued. 

Federal Steel Corporation 60 

Felt, Dorr E 66, 72 

Felt, Dorr E., Inventor of the Comptometer 66 
Fence Rails made by Abraham Lincoln 
carried into the Republican Convention, 

May, 1860, at Decatur, Illinois 51 

Fenner, N. Y 6S 

Fergus, Robert. First Chicago Directory 

1843, printed by 69 

Fergus, Robert. Head of the Fergus Pub- 
lishing Co., Chicago 69 

Ferguson, (Mrs.) Alice Edwards 17 

Ferries. Angell's Ferry 108 

Ferries. Baker's Ferry, Georgia 182 

Ferries. Cleveland Ferry 108 

Ferries. Colona Ferry 108 

Ferries, Sisters Ferry Georgia 194 

Ferris, (Capt.) Princeton, 111., War of the 

Rebellion 158 

Field, David Dudley 45 

Finley, (Rev.) James B. Autobiography 

of. Quoted. Foot-note 123 

Finley, (Rev.) James B. Life among the 

Indians. Quoted. Foot-note 85 

Finley, (Rev.) James B. Sketches of West- 
ern Methodism. Quoted. Foot-note. . . . 123 

Fire, Forest Fire 131 

Fisher, (Major) James M. Ninety-third 
111. Vol. Infantry, War of the Rebellion 

189, 190 

Fisk, Lute 182 

Florence, (Ala. ) 172 

Florida State, River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, 1847, one delegate to, 

from Florida 44 

Food Commission. World War 72 

Foote, (Commodore) Andrew Hull, Union 

Rear- Admiral, War of the Rebellion.... 110 
Ford, (Gov.) Thomas. History of Illinois 

Quoted 39, 40, 41, 100 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas, Illinois Volunteers 
Black Hawk War. Governor Ford. 

Quoted on 100 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas. Quoted on the 
"Long Nine" and their influence in 
removing the State Capital from Van- 

dalia to Springfield 39 

Forest Reserve, Cook Co., Ill 93 

Forrest, 111 124 

Forrest, (Gen.) Nathan B. Confederate 

General, War of the Rebellion 74 

Fort Armstrong. .88, 91, 98, 100, 101, 102, 104 

Fort Clark. Wabash Trail, marked 21 

Fort Crawford at Prairie du Chien, Wis- 
consin 100 

Fort Creve Coeur 16, 30, 110 

Fort Creve Coeur, Illinois State Historical 

Society appoints committee on, 16 

Fort Creve Coeur. Marking of site, appro- 
priation for, etc 30 

Fort Donelson, Tenn Ill, 143, 144, 156 

Fort Donelson. War of the Rebellion, fall 

of Ill, 144 

Fort Fisher, N. 196 

Fort Henry, Tenn., Fall of. War of the 

Rebellion Ill, 143 

Fort McAllister, Ga 191 

Fort Maiden 88, 94, 98 

Fort Pillow, Tenn 175 

Fort Shelby 92 

Fort Sumpter. Attack on April 12, 1861. 

Capitulation on the fourteenth 110 

Fort Worth, Texas 147 

Fosdick, Samuel T 124 

Foster, (Brig-Gen.) D. Jack. Sixty-sixth 

Inf. World War 138 

Foster, (Brig-Gen.) John. War of 1812. 
135, 143 


Fox Indians 87, 109 

Fox River 117 

Franklin Co., Ill 57 

Fraser, Andrew 69 

Fredericksburg, Va 198 

Freeport, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Freeport, 111., Manufacturies 62 

Freeport, 111. Stover Manufacturing Com- 
pany located in 64 

Freese, L. J 20, 21, 22 

Freese, L. J. President of the Woodford Co. 

Historical Society 20 

French's division. Confederate War of the 

Rebellion 189 

Friberg, Andre. Member of the firm of 

the Moline Plow Co 64 

Frieden's Kirch. German Reformed Church 131 
"Friends in Council" Club of Princeton, 

Illinois 149 

Frink & Walker Stage Line 94 

Fuel Commission. World War 72 

Fulton Co., Ill 66, 126 

"Fulton" (Steamer) 194 

Fyflfe, Colin C. H 72 

Gabuniere, to Congress , July 17, 1786. 

Foot-note 76 

Gaines, (Gen.) Edmond P. At Fort Arm- 
strong 98 

Galena, 111 57, 61, 91, 92, 118, 145 

Galena, 111. Galena and Chicago Union 

Railroad 57 

Galena, 111. Lead mines in 57, 61, 91 

Galena, 111. Lead mining industry, and 

iron works 61 

Galena, 111. Railroads 57, 145 

Galena, 111. Railroad from Galena to 
Cairo, 111., referred to as the Illinois 

Central R. R 57 

Galena, 111. Stage line. Rock Island to 

Galena 92 

Galesburg, 111 19, 23, 48, 61, 65, 70, 74 

Galesburg, 111. Brown, George W. Corn 

planter works of, in Galesburg 70 

Galesburg, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing interests 74 

Galesburg, 111. Lincoln-Douglas Debate 

held in 1858 48 

Galesburg, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Galesburg, 111., Republican-Register (News- 
paper) 19 

Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111 

Foot-note 122 

Garrett, L. F. Member of the Union Lea- 
gue of American ill 

Garrison Hill, Randolph Co., Ill 15, 22 

Garrison Hill Tract. An Act making an 
appropriation for the purpose of creating 
and establishing a State Park on what 
is called the "Garrison Hill Tract".... 22 

Garvin, John 189 

Gary, (Judge) Elbert H., Chairman of the 
board of directors of the United States 

Steel Company 60 

Gary, Elbert H. Head of the United Steel 

Corporation 71 

Garj', Indiana 62 

Gates, John W. Striking figure in the iron 

and steel Industry of Illinois 59 

Gates, Philetus Woodworth. Manufacturer 

and Inventor 68, 69 

Gates Rock Breaker 69 


INDEX— Continued. 

Genealogical Department Illinois State 

Historical Library 27 

Geneseo, 111 96, 97, 101 

Genesee, 111., Collegiate Institute 101 

Georgia State 49, 69 

Georgia State. River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, 1847, two delegates to, 

from Georgia 44 

Germain, Charle.-i. Pierre Brisson vs. Char- 
les Germain case of, Reference 85 

German Reformed Church at Frieden's 

Kirch 131 

Germany 65, 66, 67, 69, 70 

Germany. Black Forest of Germany 65 

Germany. Bremen, Germany 67 

Germany. Neidersletter, Germany 69 

Germany. Wurttemberg, Germany 69 

Gettysburg, Pa. Battle of Gettysburg. 

War of the Rebellion 113 

Glasgow, John W. Member of the Union 

League of America Ill 

Glenn, John M. The Industrial Develop- 
ment of Illinois 25, 55-74 

Goble, (Mrs.) Benjamin 92 

Godell, (Miss) Helen 24 

Goethe or Gothe, Johann Wolfgang. Ger- 
man Poet 143 

Gold. Value of, during Civil War. .174, 175 

Goldsborough, N. 196, 197, 198 

Gondoliers. Club of Harrisburg, Pa.... 134 
Goodell. Hospital Steward, War of the 

Rebellion 160 

Gorjn, J. R. Member of Union League of 

America 112 

Gould, A. Member of Union League of 

America .' 112 

Gould, Jay 147 

"Governor Clark" Gunboat. War of 1812. 92 

Graham, James M 23 

Graham, Mentor. Schoolmaster of Lincoln 

in New Salem 36 

Grand Army of the Republic 20, 142 

Grand Army of the Republic, organization 

of, 20 

Grand Detour, Ogle Co., 111. John Deere 
made his first two plows by hand in 

blacksmith shop in Grand Detour 63 

Grand Tower. Iron and Steel company near 59 
Granite City, 111. Census figures on popu- 
lation and manufacturing interests 74 

Granite City, 111. Manuf acturies in 62 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S. Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 

; 113, 151 

154, 155, 160, 166, 167, 172, 178, 196, 201 

Gratiot, (Col.) Henry 107 

Gray, Thomas. English Poet. Gray's 

Elegy 34, 142 

Great Men. Two theories on the origin of 

33, 34 

Great Sauk Trail 93 

Greeley, Horace 43, 44, 45 

Greeley, Horace. Attends River and Harbor 
Convention, Chicago, 1847, writes an 

account in New York Tribune 43, 44 

Green Bay, Wis 55 

Greencastie, Ind 149 

Greencastle, Pa 64 

Greene, (Dr.) Evarts Boutell. . . 16, 17, 23, 31 

Greenfield, (111.) Later named Princeton.. 145 

Green River, Ky .".T) 

Green River, Rock Island Co., Ill 89, lOS 

Grey, Capt 147 

Griffin, George Washington. Quoted on 

Indian Trail 105 

Griswold, Ga 191 

Gross, (Mrs.) J. Ellsworth. (Luelja Zear- 

ing) 139, 149 


Gross, Luelja Zearing. "A sketch of the 
life of Major James Roberts Zearing, 
M. D." 139-149 

Gross, Luelja Zearing. Zearings earliest 
settlers of the name in Illinois 129,-138 

Grow, (Dr.), Dover, 111 165 

Gunther, Charles F. Chicago Historical 
Society, purchases the Gunther Collection 28 


Hackelman, (Gen.) Pleasant A., Union 

General , War of the Rebellion 163 

Haggerty ,Lucinda, Burford 149 

Hall, Life and Letters. Samuel H. Parsons. 

Quoted. Foot-note 77 

Hamilton E. Bentley. The Union League 
•its Organization and Achievements dur- 
ing the Civil War 25, 110-115 

Hamlet, Ills 104 

Hamlin, John. Flour mill on Red Bud 

Creek near Peoria, 111 70 

Hammond, Ind 62 

Hampton Township, Moline, 111 88 

Hamtramck, Major John Francis 83 

Hannibal, Son of the Carthaginian com- 
mander, Hamilcar Barca. His march into 

Italy. Reference 113 

Hancock, (Gen.) Winfield S. Union Gen- 

al, War of the Rebellion 201 

Hanks, Dennis • • • • 38 

Hanks, John, at the Republican State Con- 
vention in Decatur, May 9, 10, 1860 51 

Hanks, John, cousin of Abraham Lincoln 

34, 38, 43, 51 

Hansel, Abel. Ninety-third 111. Vol. Inf. 

War of the Rebellion 189 

Hardee's corps. Confederate, War of the 

Rebellion 189 

Hardin Co., Ill 59 

Hardin Co., Ky 34, 35 

Hardin Co., Ohio 124 

Harlow, (Col.) George H 112, 113, 115 

Harlow, George H., member of the Union 

League of America Ill, 112 

Harlow, George H., member of Union Lea- 
gue, Tazewell Co., one of the secret body- 
guard at Lincoln's second inaugural .... 115 

Harmer's Trial, 1790. Reference 78 

Harris, Jacob. Quoted on Indian Trail... 105 

Harrisburg, Pa 113, 129, 132 

Foot-note 52 

Harrison, (Pres.) Benjamin 134 

Harrison Fairfax 24 

Harrison, (Pres.) William Henry 38, 43 

Harvey, 111. Listed among the manufactur- 
ing towns in Illinois 62 

Hastings, S. M 72 

Hatchie River 164 

Hathaway & Swift, cattle buyers 65 

Hauberg," John H 15, 18, 22, 23, 25, 87 

Hauberg, John H. Indian Trails center- 
ing at Black Hawk's Village 25, 87-109 

Hauberg, M. D. Quoted on Indian Trail. . 109 
Hay, John. Nicolay & Hay, Life of Lin- 
coln, Quoted 38, 43 

Foot-notes 117, 120 

Haynes, John C, Member of music firm 

of Ditson and Havnes, Boston 70 

Ha:\Tiie, William Duff 72 

Healy, Patrick Joseph, Founder of the 

Healy Music House, Chicago 70 

Hegeler, Edward C, Zinc manufacturer and 

publisher of scientific periodicals 67 

Helmer, Lucinda 143. 149 

Helmer, Melchert 149 

Helmer, Orlando 154 


INDEX— Continued. 

Henderson Co., Ills 99, 100 

Henderson County. History of Mercer and 
Henderson Counties, Pub. 1883 by Hill 

& Co., Quoted 100 

Hennepin, 111 130, 133 

Henry Co., Ills 94, 95-98, 99, 107, 108, 112 

Henry Co., Ill, Andover Township 99 

Henrv Co., 111., Clover Township 99 

Henrv Co., 111., Colona Township. .94, 96, 108 

Henry Co., 111., Cornwall Township 96-98 

Henry Co., 111., L\Tin Township 98 

Henry Co., 111., Osco Township 96, 98 

Henrv Co., 111., Pink Prairie 107 

Henrv Co., 111., Sunny Hill 95 

Henry Co., 111., Western Township 96, 98 

Henrv, Patrick, Statue in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia 200 

Herget, H. G 72 

Herman, John 134 

Herman, Margaretta, wife of John Zearing 134 
Herman, Sally, sister of Mrs. John Zearing 13.5 

Herman, Sarah Bright 134 

Herndon and Weik, Life of Lincoln, Quoted 

Foot-note 120 

Heroes and Hero Worship, by Carlyle. 

Quoted. Foot-note 33 

Hickory Point, Henry Co., Ill 97 

Hieronvmus, R. E. Art in Historic Com- 
munities 25, 54 

Hill & Co, Pubs, Historv of Mercer and 

Henderson Counties. Pub. 1883 100 

Hilton Head, S. C 194, 195, 196, 197 

Hodge, Sheldon 108 

Holden, W. F., Member of first board of 
directors, Illinois Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation 71 

Holly Springs, Miss 167 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 36 

Homan's Map of 1687 93 

Home Missionaiy Society 122 

Hooker, (Gen.) Joseph. Confederate Gen- 
eral, War of the Rebellion 176 

Houston, Texas 24 

Howe, Henry, Ohio Historical Collections, 

Quoted. Foot-notes 77, 78 85 

Hoxie, H. M 147 

Hoji;. Edson 98 

Hoyt, Wash. Quoted on Indian Trail. .98, 99 
Hubbard, A. M. Quoted on Indian Trail 98 
Huidekoper, (Col.) Frederic L. History 
of the Thirty-third Division, World War 16", 29 
Hunt, David W. Quoted on Indian Trail . . 94 
Huntoon, John N. Quoted on IndianTrail. 

95, 96, 98 

Huntoon, Jonathan 64 

Huntoon. Nathaniel 95 

Huntsville, Ala 175, 177, 178 

Hurlbut, (Col.) Frederick J., Fifty-seventh 

111. Vol. Inf.. War of the Rebellion. 198, 202 
Hurley, Edward N 72 


Illinois and Michigan Canal.... 56, 68, 92, 98 
Illinois and Michigan Canal. James M. 

Bucklin, chief engineer 98 

Illinois and Michigan Canal. Statistics on 56 

Illinois Central Railroad 57 

Illinois College. Jacksonville, 111.. 23, 37, 69 

Illinois Conference, Methodist Church 117 

Illinois Conference, Methodist Church, 1832, 
two new districts added, Chicago and 

Quincy 117, ng 

Illinois Country 99 

Illinois River.. 55, 56, 99, 118, 126, 130, 145 

Illinois State. Archaeological finds in.. 20, 21 

Illinois State. Archives of the State Di- 
vision of, to be organized 15, 28 

Illinois State. Art in Historic communi- 
ties, plea for 54 

Illinois State. Bar Association 125 

Illinois State. Barton, William E., D. D., 
LL.D. The Influence of Illinois in the 
Development of Abraham Lincoln.. 25, 32-53 

Illinois State. Barton, William E., D. D., 
LL.D. Rhymed Sermon on Illinois.... 53 

Illinois State. Boggess, Arthur Clinton. 
Settlement of Illinois, 1778-1830. Foot- 
note 70 

Illinois State. Brown, Stuart. Poets and 
Poetry of Illinois 25 

Illinois State Cahokia Mound, efforts to 
preserve 29 

Illinois State. Centennial Memorial Build- 
ing 16, 26, 31 

Illinois State. Coal in. Area, Counties in 

which it is found 57 

Illinois State. Coal, production in 1918.. 57 

Illinois State. Could have been called the 
Keystone State, from her geographical 
position, etc 42 

Illinois State. Council of Defense, records 
of, World War, turned over to the 
Illinois State Historical Library. .. .16, 28 

Illinois State. Department of Education 
and Registration 30 

Illinois State. Department of Public Works 
and Buildings 29 

Illinois State. Early settlers used the 
waterways 56 

Illinois State. Factories in 1850. Nuni- 
ber of employees, etc., etc 57 

Illinois State. "Factory Employees. United 
States Census for Thirty-two of its 
cities 73, 74 

Illinois State. Federal Industrial returns 
for 1870 58 

Illinois State. Ford, (Gov.) Thomas. 
History of Illinois. Quoted.. 39, 40, 41, 100 

Illinois State. Fourth State in the Union 
in population and wealth in 1860 110 

Illinois State. General Assembly, 1863 ... 169 

Illinois State. General Assembly proposal 
in to separate northern Illinois from 
southern Illinois. Reference. Foot-note 41 

Illinois State. Glenn, John M. The Indus- 
trial Development of Illinois 23, 55-74 

Illinois State. Hamilton E. Bentley. The 
Union League. Its Organization and 
Achievements during the Civil War .... 
25, 110-115 

Illinois State. Hauberg, John. Indian 
Trails centering at Black Hawk's Village 

Illinois State. Historical Collections 
See list, end of this volume. 

Illinois State. Historical Collections, Vol, 
II. Cahokia Records, 1778-1790. 
Quoted. Foot-note 85 

Illinois State. Historical Collections, Vol. 
VIII. George Rogers Clark Papers, 
1771-1781. Quoted 99 

Illinois State. Historical Collections. Kas- 
kaskia Records, 1778-1790. Quoted. 
Foot-notes 76, 77 

Illinois State. Historical Library 

6, 11, 12, 16, 27, 29 

Illinois State. Historical Library Appeal 
for historical material 11, 12 

Illinois State. Historical Library. Comi- 
cil of Defense, records of, turned over 
to the library' 16 

Illinois State. Historical Library. Genea- 
ological Department 27 


INDEX— Continued. 


.16, 30 






Illinois State. Historical Library, News- 
paper files 27 

Illinois State. Historical Library Publica- 
tions. See end of this volume. 
Illinois State. Historical Library. World 
War, Illinois in, history to be published 

by the Library 29 

Illinois State Historical Society 

5, 8, 9, 10, 15-31, 100, 126 

Foot-note 45 

Illinois State Historical Society Appeal for 

historical material 11, 12 

Illinois State Historical Society, appointed 
special committee to mark Lincoln's Army 
Trail Black Hawk War 100 

Illinois State Historical Society Constitu- 

Illinois State Historical Society. Fort 
Creve Coeur, Illinois State Historical 
Society appoints committee on, to mark 

Illinois State Historical Society. Genea- 
logical report 23, 

Illinois State Historical Society Journal. 

Quoted 6, 28, 93, 


Illinois State Historical Society Member- 

Illinois State Historical Society. Officers 
5, 22, 

Illinois State Historical Society Publica- 
tions 31 

See list end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Society. Record of 
Official Proceedings 15-31 

Illinois State Historical Society. Report of 
the Secretary, Jesse Palmer Weber. .. .26-31 

Illinois State Historical Society. Resolu- 
tions on the preservation of historic 
sites 21, 22 

Illinois State. Illinois and the Unification 
of the Nation 40 

Illinois State. Illinois Steel Company. .58, 59 

Illinois State. Indian Mounds in 20, 21 

Illinois State. Indians 

20, 21, 87, 109, 133, 134, 136 

Illinois State. Industrial Capital invested 
in 1850 57 

Illinois State. Internal Improvement craze 
of 1837 39 

Illinois State Interurban traction lines, 
telephone and other influences in the in- 
dustrial development of Illinois 58 

Illinois State. Iron and Steel industry.. 59 

Illinois State. Is Illinois capable of pro- 
ducing more Lincoln's ? 53 

Illinois State. Lake and River Transporta- 
tion 40 

Illinois State. Lead mines at Galena, 111. . 57 

Illinois State. Lead mines in northwestern 
Illinois §8 

Illinois State Library 15, 

Illinois State. Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois 
counts in the development of Lincoln. 41, 

Illinois State. Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois 
gave Lincoln most of his offices 50, 

Illinois State. Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois 
the Forum for Lincoln's greatest speeches 

Illinois State. Lincoln, Abraham. Lin- 
coln's farewell to Illinois 51, 

Illinois State. "Long Nine," their influence 
in the removal of the Capital from Van- 
dalia to Springfield 39 

Illinois State. Manufactured products 
value of 1914 60 

Illinois State. Manufactured products value 
of 1919. Foot-note 60 





Illinois State. Manufacturers' Association 
55, 71, 

Illinois State. Manufacturers' Association. 
First board of directors 

Illinois State. Manufacturers' Association. 
List of presidents 

Illinois State. Manufacturers' Association. 
Members of, prominent in World War 

Illinois State Manufacturing industry be- 

Illinois State. Manufacturing number of 
people employed in the State 

Illinois State. Meat Packing Industry, 
beginnings, data on present statistics.. 

Illinois State. Meat Packing Industry, 
leads the world 

Illinois State. Park Commission 15, 

Illinois State Park. Commission bill. 

Illinois State. Parks and Preserves. An 
Act in relation to, House Bill No. 310 . . 

Illinois State. Patents granted to Illi- 
noisans in 1881 

Illinois State. Pease, Theodore Calvin, 

Editor Vol. 2, Centennial History of Illi- 
nois. The Frontier State, 1818-1848. 
Quoted. Foot-notes 117, 

Illinois State. Pope, Nathaniel. His work 
in extending the northern boundary of 
the State 40, 

Illinois State. Prairies of Illinois 

32, 54, 56, 95, 99, 100, 102, 104, 

Illinois State. Rail mill, first one estab- 
lished in 1857 

Illinois State. Railroads. First one North- 
ern Cross R. R 


Illinois State. Railroads in 1848 

Illinois State. Railroads number of miles 

Illinois State. Resources and transporta- 
tion 56, 

Illinois State. Reynolds, (Gov.) John, 
"My Own Times." Quoted 

Illinois State. Reynolds, (Gov.) John, 
Pioneer History of Illinois. Quoted. 

Illinois State. Salt mining, early industry 

Illinois State. Slavery. Illinois and 
Slavery 46, 

Illinois State. Supreme Court case of 
Bailey vs. Cromwell 

Illinois State. Sweet, William W. Peter 
Cartwright in the History of Ilhnois . . 

Illinois ' State. Taft, Lorado. Illinois His- 
tory and Ideals of Beauty 

Illinois State. Transportation in 56, 

Illinois State. Union Car Works begun in 
1852 ; • • 

Illinois State. Union League of America, 
Illinois first State Council held in Blooni- 
ington, Sept. 5, 1862 

Illinois State. Union League membership 
in the State 

Illinois State. Union League Oath. Offi- 
cers, etc 

Illinois State. University of Illinois 

23, 30, 

Illinois State. University, Art extension 

Illinois State. University. Better com- 
munity conference 

Illinois State. Wesleyan University, Bloom- 
ington. 111. Foot-note 











INDEX— Continued. 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. Legis- 
lature of Illinois appropriates money.. 110 
Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. Sev- 
enth Reg. 111. Vols 162, 188 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 

Twelfth Reg. 111. Vols 166, 188 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. Fif- 
tieth Reg. 111. Vols 162 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 

Fifty-first Reg. 111. Vols 158 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 

Fifty-seventh Reg. 111. Vols 151, 162, 188 

Illinois State. War or the Rebellion. 

Ninetv-third Reg. 111. Vols 170, 175 

Illinois State. World War. History of the 
33rd Division. By Lieut. Col. Frederic 

L. Huidekoper 16 

Illinois State. Zearing family, early set- 
tlers in Illinois 129, 138 

Illinois Territory 50 

Illinois Territory, Pope, Nathaniel, delegate 

in Congress from 40 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia 112 

Indian Lovers' Spring 89 

Indian Mounds 88, 89 

Indian Relics 18. 20, 21 

Indian Trails 24, 25, 87-109 

Indian Trails Centering at Black Hawk's 

Village. By John H. Hauberg 25, 87-109 

Indian Harbor 62 

Indiana State 

32, 34, 35, 36, 44, 47, 55, 116, 117 

Indiana State. In the development of 

Lincoln 34 

Indiana State Legislature 150 

Indiana State. Spencer Co., Ind 35, 36 

Indianapolis, Ind. Foot-note 52 

Indians 11, 12, 20, 21, 55, 75, 76, 77, 

78, 79, 87-109, 117, 133, 134, 136 

Indians. Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks 
and the Black Hawk War. Reference. . . . 

90, 91, 107 

Indians. Black Hawk, Fox and Sac Chief 

87, 99, 106, 107, 109 

Indians. Black Hawk's Village 

93, 99, 100, 102, 104,106 

Indians. Black Hawk War, 1832 

88, 90, 98, 106, 107 

Indians. Black Hawk's Watch Tower.... 

20, 22, 87, 89, 90, 91 

Indians. Durham, (Mrs.) Mary Brackett. 
Poem on Black Hawk's Watch Tower. 

Extract from 89 

Indians. Finley, (Rev.) James B. Life 
Among the Indians. Quoted. Foot-note 85 

Indians. Fo.x Indians 87-109 

Indians. Fox Village 87, 88 

Indians. Great Sauk Trail 88, 93-109 

Indians. Handbook American Indians, 

Vol. I. Quoted 107 

Indians. Hauberg, John H. Indian 
Trails Centering at Black Hawk's 

Village 25, 87-109 

Indians. Illinois 

20, 21, 87-109, 117, 133, 134, 136 

Indians. Illinois State Indian Mounds in 

20, 21 

Indians. Keokuk Indian Chief 109 

Indians. Mesquaki Indians 87 

Indians. Pash-e-pa-ho 109 

Indians. Pottawatomie Indians 97, 117 

Indians. Saukenuk (The Sauk Village) . . 91 
Indians. Sauk and Fox Trail or Great 

Sauk Trail 88, 93-109 

Indians. Sauk Indians 87-109 

Indians. Sauk Village 87 

Indians. Steward, John F. Sac and Fox 
Trail. Reference 83 


Indians. Wa-bo-kie-shiek. Winnebago 

Prophet 107 

Indians. Winnebago Indians 88, 107 

Industrial Development of Illinois. B.v 

John M. Glenn 25, 55-74 

Iowa State 44, 99, 188 

Iowa State. River and Harbor Convention 
at Chicago, 1847, twelve delegates to, 

from Iowa 44 

Iowa State. War of the Rebellion. 

Thirty-ninth Reg. 111. Vols 188 

Iowa Territory 92 

Ireland, Kilkenny, Ireland 66 

Iron and Steel Industry in Illinois 59 

Irwin, Mr., Lamoille, 111 179 

Isaacs, (Dr.) M. A 153, 158, 159 

Island of Rock Island 89, 90, 91 

Island No. 10. War of the Rebellion 110 

J^aly 113 

luka, Mississippi 160, 161, 164 

Jackson, (Pres.) Andrew o8, 

Jackson, Lieut ;;; ' "Veo ' 'nVV 

Jackson, Miss l^^^^l^,' ]^t' 

Jacksonville, 111 18, 23, 74, 118, 

Jacksonville, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing interests 

Jacksonville, 111. Illinois Conference dis- 
trict-, M. E. Church • • ■ • 

Jacksonville, 111. Northern Cross Rail- 
road completed to Jan. 1, 1840. Foot- 

Jahns' Farm, Rock Island Co., Ill 

James, Edmund J J ' • A ' "^V 

James, (Prof.) James, Alton 16, 17, 23, 30, 

James, (Prof.) James, Alton. Invited to 
deliver a course of lectures at the Uni- 
versitv of Prague in Bohemia 17, 

James, '(Prof.) James, Alton. Member of 
committee Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety on marking site of Fort Creve 
Coeiir •••.16, 

James, (Prof) James, Alton. To deliver 
lectures at the University of Prague m 
Bohemia 17. 

James, (Mrs.) James, Alton 

James River, Virginia 

Jamison (Mrs.) Isabel 

Jefferson County, Deed Record A. Foot- 
note • 

Jefferson, Thomas, Statue of in Richmond, 

Jellif , Fred R ■ 

Jenison, (Miss) Marguerite. In charge of 
the War History section, Illinois State 
Historical Library 

Jessup, Morris K. and Co 

Jessup. AVilliam, Member of English firm 
of William Jessup & Sons : 

Johnnie Smoker, (Dr.) J. R. Zearing's 
horse 141, 

Johnson, (Pres.) Andrew 115, 

Johnson, (Major) E. S., Custodian of the 
Lincoln monument. Death of 

Johnson, George H. Quoted on Indian 
Trail 98, 

Johnston, (Gen.) Albert Sidney, Confeder- 
ate General, War of the Rebellion 

106, 172, 177, 178. 1S3. 

Johnston, (Lieut.) Albert Sidney. Life of 

Johnstown, Pa 140. 

Joliet, 111 Census figures on population 
and manufacturing interests 


INDEX— Continued. 


Joliet, 111. Chicago and Joliet R. R 68 

Joliet, 111. Iron and steel company 59 

Joliet, 111. Steel and rolling mills 60 

Joliet, Louis ob, 56 

Jones, J. A. Member of Union League, 
Tazewell Co., one of the secret body- 
guard to protect Lincoln at his second 

inaugural 115 

Jones, (Miss) Lotte E 22, 30 

Jones, Morgan 147 

Jonesboro, Ga 187 

Joy, (Mercer Co.) Ill 100 


Kankakee, 111 19, 61, 74 

Kankakee, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Kankakee Co., 111. Historical Society 19 

Kankakee, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Kansas State 46, 47, 48, 49, 64, 109 

Kansas State Historical Society Collections 

XII Quoted 109 

Kansas State. Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Par- 
ker, (Col.) John A. "The Secret History 

of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill" 47 

Kansas State. Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Prac- 
tically nationalized slavery 49 

Kansas State. Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Re- 
pealed the Missouri Compromise 46 

Kaskaskia 21, 76 

Foot-notes 76, 77 

Kaskaskia. Center of French influence in 

the upper Mississippi Valley 21 

Kaskaskia Records. Illinois Historical Col- 
lections, Vol. V. Quoted. Foot-note. 76, 77 

Kaufman, (Rep.) Harlan B 29 

Keene, N. H. . . Foot-note 43 

Keithsburg, Ills 101 

Kelly, (Miss) Mary Lydia. Quoted on In- 
dian Trail 92 

Kendall, (Dr.) 180 

Kennedy, Col., of Harrisburg. War of 

1812 135, 143 

Kennesaw Mts 180 

Kentucky State 

32, 34, 35, 42, 44, 99, 116, 119, 171 

Kentucky State. Influence of in the life of 

Lincoln 34 

Kentucky State Raiders 171 

Kentucky State. River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, 1847, two delegates 

from Kentucky 44 

Keokuk, Indian Chief 87, 109 

Kewanee, 111 74, 97 

Kewanee, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Kilkenny, Ireland 66 

Killing Estate 107 

Killing, William 95 

Kingston, Ga 177, 179 

Kinzie, (Mrs.) John K. (Juliette A.) Wau- 
bun. The Early Day in the Northwest. 

Quoted 93, 94 

Kirkham's Grammar. Studied by Lincoln 36 
Knapp, (Mrs.) Charles E. Historian, 

Springfield Chapter D. A. R 24 

Knights of the Golden Circle. Source of 

the origin of Ill 

Knights of the Golden Circle. War of the 

Rebellion Ill 

Knob Creek, Ky 35 

Foot-note 35 

Knott, Proctor 34 

Knox Co., Ill 19, 98, 99 

Knox Co., 111. Chapman, C. C. & Co. His- 
tory of Knox Co., Pub. 1878 99 

Knox Co., Ill Historical Society OflBcers. ... 19 
Knox, S. M., Princeton, 111 137 

Lacey, James H 19 

LaGrange, 111 21 

Lake Michigan 40, 41, 55, 56 

Lake Superior 58, 59 

Lamon, Ward. Life of Lincoln. Quoted. ... 38 
Lamont, 111. Listed among the manufac- 
turing towns in Illinois 62 

Lanark, (Carroll Co.) Ill 64 

LaRue Co., Ky 34 

LaSalle Co., Ill 57, 112,144 

LaSalle, 111 62, 67, 68, 74, 145 

LaSalle, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

LaSalle, 111. Manufacturies 62 

LaSalle, 111. Western Clock Company 

located in 68 

LaSalle, 111. Zinc works 67, 68 

LaSalle Rene Robert Sieur de 110 

LaSalle Rene Robert Sieur de. Fort Creve 
Coeur site of, to be marked by Illinois 

State Historical Society 30 

Laughlin, Daniel 101 

Lawrence, George A., Vice president Illinois 

State Historical Society 23 

Lays Ford, Ga 177, 17!> 

Lead Mines at Galena, 111 91 

Lead Mines in northwestern Illinois 88 

Lead Mines in AVisconsin 88 

LeCare, Iowa 92, 95 

Lee, Charles 83 

Lee County, 111 144 

Lee, (Lieut.) James W 175 

Lee, (Mrs.) Mary 30 

Lee, (Gen.) Robert E., Confederate General 

War of the Rebellion 178, 196, 197, 199 

Letters of Dr. James Roberts Zearing to his 

wife during the Civil War 150-202 

Letters. W. M. Zearing to Mrs. James 

Roberts Zearing 175, 176 

Lewis, (Mrs.) Member of Col. Davenport's 

household on the Island of Rock Island. . 89 
Library of Congress Archives, Bureau of 
Rolls and Library. Papers and Records 
of the Territorie's. Quoted. Foot-notes 

76, 78, 79, 82, 86 

Library of Congress. Papers of the Con- 
tinental Congress. Foot-note 76 

Lincoln, Abraham 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 

30, 32-53, 88, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 
107, 108, 110, 115, 120, 121, 126, 142, 143 

Foot-notes 32, 45, 52, 117, 120 

Lincoln, Abraham. Arnold, Isaac N., Life 

of Lincoln. Reference 32, 33, 42, 43 

Foot-note 32 

Lincoln, Abraham. Arnold, Isaac N. 
Quoted on Lincoln and his home in Illi- 
nois 32, 33. 

Foot-note 32 

Lincoln, Abraham, Assassinated April 14, 
1865. Funeral and journey of body from 
Washington to Springfield, Illinois. Foot- 
note 52 

Lincoln, Abraham. Attends the River and 
Harbor Convention of 1847 held in Chi- 
cago 43, 44 

Lincoln, Abraham. Barton, William E. 
D. D., LL. D. The Influence of Illinois 
in the Development of Abraham Lincoln 

25, 32-53 

Lincoln, Abraham. Black Hawk War. Lin- 
coln Captain in the War 

88, 100, 104, 105, 107 

Lincoln, Abraham. Black Hawk War, Cap- 
tain in, Camp site. Reference 104, 105 

Lincoln, Abraham. Black Hawk War. 
Camped at Pink Prairie, Henry County, 
Illinois 107 


INDEX— Continued. 


Lincoln, Abraham. Black Hawk War. Lin- 
coln's Army Trail 100 

Lincoln, Abraham. Books read by, in early 

days in Indiana 36 

Lincoln, Abraham, Candidate for the Legis- 
lature, defeat 50 

Lincoln, Abraham. Clay, Henry, Lincoln 

a disciple of Henry Clay 38 

Lincoln, Abraham, Cooper Institute speech. 

Reference 50 

Lincoln, Abraham. Curran, (Judge) Will- 
iam Reid, Address on Lincoln. Reference 126 
Lincoln, Abraham. Defeats Peter Cart- 
wright for Member of Congress 120, 121 

Lincoln, Abraham. Early Education. .36, 37 
Lincoln, Abraham. A factor in Illinois 

life during early transportation 40 

Lincoln, Abraham. Fence-rails made by 
Lincoln carried into the Republican Con- 
vention of 1S60 at Decatur, 111 51 

Lincoln, Abraham. Gives aid and sanction 

to the Union League 110 

Lincoln, Abraham. Herndon and Weik. 

Life of Lincoln. Quoted. Foot-note. . 120 
Lincoln, Abraham. House divided against 
itself. Speech June 17, 1858. Refer- 
ence 48, 50 

Lincoln, Abraham. House divided against 
itself. Speech June 17, 1858. Extract 

from 48 

Lincoln, Abraham, Illinois counts in the 

development of Lincoln 41, 42 

Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois favored Lin- 
coln's political ambition 37, 38 

Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois gave Lincoln 

most of his offices 50, 51 

Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois stimulated 

Lincoln's love of learning 36 

Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois the Forum for 

Lincoln's greatest speeches 50 

Lincoln. Abraham. Illinois the scene of the 

Convention that nominated Lincoln, 1860 51 
Lincoln, Abraham. Indiana State in the 

development of Lincoln 34 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lamon, Ward. Life of 

Lincoln. Quoted 38 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln & Berry store 

in New Salem 37 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln Circuit Marking 

Association 15. 21, 30. 120 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates, 1858 21, 48, 49, 107, 142 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln Tree in Black 
Hawk Township, Rock Island Co., 111. 

103. 105 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lost speech at Bloom- 

ington. 111., May 20, 1856. Reference.. 50 
Lincoln, Abraham. Lowden, (Hon.) Frank 
Orren, offers fund to mark Lincoln's 

Army Trail. Black Hawk War 100 

Lincoln, Abraham. Marking the sites con- 
nected with Mr. Lincoln's life in Spring- 
field, Illinois 30 

Lincoln, Abraham. Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois, 1837.... 46 
Lincoln, Abraham. Missouri Compromise 

recalled him to political activity 47 

Lincoln, Abraham, Morse, John T., Jr. 

Abraham Lincoln, Statesman. Quoted 38, 43 
Lincoln, Abraham. Nicolay & Hay. Life 

of Lincoln. Quoted 38, 43 

Foot-notes , 117, 120 

Lincoln, Abraham. Nominated by the State 
Republican Convention, June 17, 1858, 

for United States Senator 49 

Lincoln, Abraham. Nominated for the 
presidency at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, May, 1860 51 


Lincoln, Abraham. Offered the governor- 
ship of Oregon. Reference 42 

Lincoln, Abraham. Peoria speech of Oct. 

16, 1854. Reference 50 

Lincoln, Abraham. Post-master at New 

Salem 50 

Lincoln, Abraham. Proctor, Edna Dean. 

Poem on Lincoln, extract from 53 

Lincoln, Abraham. Second inauguration 

Reference 115 

Lincoln, Abraham. Slavery case, in the 

Supreme Court of Illinois 46, 47 

Lincoln, Abraham. Slavery opposition to 46-50 
Lincoln, Abraham. Springfield, Illinois. 
Marking of places connected with the life 

of Lincoln in Springfield 16 

Lincoln, Abraham. Tarbell, (Miss) Ida M. 

Life of Lincoln, Reference 43 

Lincoln, Abraham Visits Chicago. Foot-note 45 
Lincoln, Abraham. War of the Rebellion 

Call for Volunteers 110 

Lincoln, Abraham. Whitman, Walt, Poem 

on Lincoln 52 

Lincoln, Abraham. Colored servant of Dr. 

J. R. Zearing 142 

Lincoln Circuit Marking Association 

15, 21, 30, 126 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 

21, 48, 49, 107, 142 

Lincoln Family, notable influence of a short 

migration 35 

Lincoln Home, Springfield, 111. Efforts to 
preserve against fire, plans to purchase 

adjacent property 15, 29, 30 

Lincoln, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Lincoln Monument. Fay, Herbert W. Cus- 
todian of the Lincoln Mommient 27 

Lincoln, Robert T., Son of Abraham Lincoln 30 
Lincoln, Thomas, Father of Abraham Lin- 
coln 35, 36, 38 

Foot-note 35 

Lincoln, Thomas. Migration of, from 

Kentucky to Indiana 35 

Foot-note 35 

Lincoln Tree in Black Hawk Township, 

Rock Island County, Illinois 103, 105 

Lincoln's Army Trail, Black Hawk War. . . 100 
Linton, (Mr.) Mentioned in Zearing letters 170 
Linton, (Mrs.) Mentioned in Zearing letters 

166, 170, 174 

Little, (Dr.) C. F. Princeton, 111 137 

Little Ogeechee River, Ga 190, 191 

Little, R. E. Quoted on Indian Trail.... 106 
Little's Farm, Rock Island County, Illinois 105 

Livingston Co., Ill 124 

Lodge, William F 21, 22 

Logan, (Gen.) John A. Union General 

War of the Rebellion 144, 176 

Long Island, N. Y 24 

"Long Nine" Members of Illinois Legisla- 
ture their influence in the removal of the 
Capital from Vandalia to Springfield. ... 39 

Long Wharf, Boston 37 

Louisiana Purchase 46 

Louisiana State 148 

Louisville. Ky 144, 149, 173, 174, 202 

Lovejoy, Owen 136 

Lovel, (Gen.) Mansfield. Confederate Gen- 
eral War of the Rebellion 103, 164 

Lowden, (Hon.) Frank Orren offers fund to 
mark route of Lincoln's Annv Trail in 

Black Hawk War ." 100 

Lowell, Mass 64 

Luther, Martin 143 

Lvford, (Dr.) Jeremiah M. D 92 

Lvford. (Dr.) William H. Quoted on Indian 
"Trail 91. 92 


INDEX— Continued. 

Lyon. George W. Member of the firm of 

Lyon k Healy, Music House Cliicago .... 70 
Lyon, (Gen.) Nathaniel, Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 110 

Lusitania, Ship Torpedoed, World War.... 72 

Lyles, (Dr.) A. L 31 

LJ^m Township, Henry Co., Ill 98 


McAfee, Robert B. History of the late 
war m the western country, 1816. 

McAllister, Fort, Gil. ..... ...'..'. 

MacArthur, Petet M. Secretary "of" the 

Manlius-Rutland Historical Society 

McCIernand, (Gov.) .Tohn A. ' Union 
General. War of the Rebellion 

McCormick, Cvriis H 63 

McCormick, Cyrus H. Founder ' of' 'the 
Harvester organization 

McCoy, (Judge), of (Macon Co.)..!! 

McFarland, (Dr.) Andrew, Member o'f 
Union League of America 

McGovern, (Mrs.) Margaret 

Mcllvaine, (Miss) Caroline M. Librarian 
of the Chicago Historical Society. . 

McKendree College, Lebanon, 111 


McLean Co., Ill '.".■.■ ' '{{2 

McMaster, John Bach. History o'f' the 
People of the United States. Quoted. 

McNiff, Patrick !!!!!!!!" 

Macon Co., Ill . .20' 

Macon Co. Historical Society '.'.".'.'...' 

Macon, Ga 186,' 'm, 

Macon, Ga. R. R 186_ 

Macoupin Co., Ill 57' 

McPherson, (Gen.) James B. Union' 'Gen- 
eral War of the Rebellion 144, 176, 

Madden, Martin B 

Maguire, Terence. Partner with Ludwig 
Wolff in general plumbing and copper- 

Maine State. River and Harbor Conven- 
tion, Chicago, 1847, two delegates to, 
from Maine 

Maiden, (Bureau Co.) Ill 97, 145, 

Manlius-Rutland, 111., Historical Society.. 

Mansur, Alvah. Pioneer manufacturer of 
agricultural implements in Illinois.... 

Manzer, (Capt.) A. H. Co. B. Fifty- 
seventh 111. Vol. Inf. War of the Re- 
liellion 156, 1,58, 

Maps. Homan's map of 1687. Reference. 

Marietta, Ohio 

Marion Co., Ill 

Marquette, (Father) James !!! 

Marietta, Ga 180, 182, 184, 

Marseilles, 111 

Marsh, (Dr.) . (Surgeon-in-chief of 

division. ) War of the Rebellion 

Marshall, Austin 

Marshall Co., Ill 

Marshall, Te,xas 

Maryland State 

Mason and Dixon's Line 4, 

Mason, George, Statue of, in Richmond 

Masons, Fraternal organization 135, 

Massachusetts State 

24, 44, 45, 63, 64, 65, 

Massachusetts State. Akron, Mass 

Massachusetts State. Barnstable, Mass . . . 

Massachusetts State. Boston, Mass 

Massachusetts State. Brighton, Mass.... 


Massachusetts State. Lowell, Mass 64 

Massachusetts State. River and Harbor 
Convention at Chicago, 1847, twelve dele- 
gates to, from Massachusetts 44 

Masters. Princeton, 111., photographer... 145 

Matson, N. Quoted on Indian Trail 97 

Matson, N. Reminiscences of Bureau Co. 

Quoted 97 

Matthiessen, Frederick W 67, 68 

Mattoon, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

May William. Northwest Territory 82 

Mayer Levy 72 

Mayflower Celebrations. Ter-Centenary.23, 24 

Mayflower Descendant. Periodical 24 

Maywood, 111. Listed among the manu- 
facturing towns in Illinois 62 

Mead, (Gen.) George. Union General. 

War of the Rebellion 201 

Mechanicsville, Pa 129 

Medill, Joseph. Member of Union League 

of America 112 

Meese, William A 16, 30, 100 

Memphis, Tenn 151, 162, 168, 170, 171 

Menard Co., Ill 40 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Jakob Ludwig 

Felix 143 

Mercer and Henderson Counties, Illinois. 
History of, Hill & Co., Pubs., 1883. 

Quoted 100 

Mercer Co., Ill 87, 100, 101, 102, 104 

Mercer Co., 111. Camp Creek in 104 

Mercer Co., 111. Millersburg Township.. 101 

Mercer Co., 111. Perryton Township 

100, 101, 102 

Meredosia, 111 56, 145 

Foot-note 56 

Meredosia, 111. Northern Cross Railroad 

extended to 56 

Foot-note 56 

Merriam, Jonathan. Member of the Union 

League of America HI 

Mesquaki Indians 8 ' 

Methodist Church. Asbury, (Bishop) 

Francis, of the Methodist Church 122 

Methodist Church. Beggs, Stephen R. 
Pioneer Preacher 117 



Methodist Church. Finley, (Rev.) James 

B. Sketches of Western Methodism. 

Quoted. Foot-note 123 

Methodist Church. Illinois Conference... 117 
Methodist Church. Methodist Review. 

Quoted. Foot-note 123 

Methodist Church. Minutes of Annual 

Conferences, 1873. Quoted. ^ Foot- 

notes 117, 118, H^ 

Methodist Church. Sweet, William W. 

Peter Cartwright in Illinois History. .llb-lJ.6 
Methodist Church. Sweet, William W. 

Rise of Methodism in the West. Quoted. 


Methodist Church. Walker, Jesse. Pio- 


. 116 

Methodist Church. Wesley, John, founder 

of Methodism 122 

Methodist Church. Western Conferences. . 116 

Foot-note H^ 

Metropolis, 111. Manufacturies 62 

Mexico 44 

Mevercord, George R 72 

Michigan State 22, 44, 45, 57, 59, 93 

Foot-note 47 

Michigan State. Detroit, Mich 59 

Michigan State. Historical Commission. . 22 

Michigan State. Wyandotte, Mich 59 


INDEX— Continued. 





Milan, (Rock Island Co.) Ill 

92, 94, 103, 105, 107 

Milan, Ga 191 

Mill Creek 94 

Milledgeville, Ga 191 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 21, 22 

Miller, William H 102, 103, 105 

Miller, William H. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 102, 103 

Millersburg, (Mercer Co.) Ill 101, 106 

Millersburg To\vnship, Mercer Co., 111.... 101 

Mills, (Capt. ) John M 166 

Milton, Poet 142 

Milwaukee, Wis 59, 65, 66 

Miner, (Miss) Hannah 24 

Miner, (Mrs.) Lewis H 24 

Minor Family 24 

Minor, Manasseh. The Diary of Mauasseh 
Minor, Stonington, Conn., 1697-1720... 

Mississippi River 35, 40, 45, 

46, 55, 56, 61, 75, 76, 77, 87, 88, 90, 91, 
92, 97, 99, 100, 106, 118, 130, 158, 160, 

Mississippi State 

Mississippi Valley 

Missouri Compromise. Atchison, David R. 
Credited with the authorship of the Re- 
peal of the Missouri Compromise 

Missouri Compromise. Douglas, Stephen 
Arnold, leader in the repeal of the 

Missouri Compromise 47 

Missouri Compromise. Price, (Judge) 
William C. His part in the repeal of 

the Missouri Compromise 47 

Missouri Compromise. Ray, (Prof.) P. 
Orman. The Repeal of the Missouri 

Compromise 47 

Missouri Compromise. Repeal of the 

Missouri Compromise 46, 47, 48, 49 

Missouri River 99 

Missouri State 

35, 42, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 59, 99, 110, 153 

Foot-note 35 

Missouri State. Admitted to the Union 

as a slave state 46 

Missouri State. Iron Mountain district. . 59 
Missouri State. Missouri Compromise, 

Repeal of 46, 47, 48, 49 

Missouri State. River and Harbor Con- 
vention at Chicago, 1847, forty-five dele- 
gates to, from Missouri 44 

Missouri State. University, Medical 

Dept 143 

Missouri State. War of the Rebellion. 110, 153 

Mitchell, Joseph 135 

Mitchell, Phil. Quoted on Indian Trails. 

Rock Island 89, 90 

Mitchell, (Dr.) Weir 135 

Mitchell, (William) School, Harrisburg, 

Pa 135 

Mobile, Alabama 37, 178, 187 

Moline, III 61, 62, 63, 64, 73, 88, 94 

Moline, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Moline, 111. Indian Trails about Moline.. 88 
Moline, 111. John Deere Plow Company 

located in 63 

Moline, III. Manufacturies 61, 62 

Moline, 111. Plow Company 63, 64 

Moline, 111. Plow factory second largest 

in the world located in Moline 64 

Moline, 111. Sechler Carriage Company. . 64 

Montgomery & Alabama R. R 187 

Montgomery Co., Tenn 64 

Montgomery, Dan 101 

Montgomery, Hart. Member of the Union 

League of America Ill 

Montgomery, (Col.) John 99, 101, 102 

Montgomery, John. Quoted on Indian 
Trail 101, 102 


Moore, Enslev. Vice President, Illinois 

State Histo'rical Society 18, 21, 23 

Morgan Co., Ill 18, 112,117 

Morgan Co., 111. Historical Society 18 

Morgan Family 24 

Morgan, Francis. An early Virginia Bur- 
gess 24 

Mormons. Exodus to Salt Lake, Utah in 

1S55 . 66 

Morris Co. Chicago Meat Packers. .. .58, 65 
Morris, Nelson. Founder of the Morris 

Packing Co., Chicago 65 

Morse, John T., Jr. Abraham Lincoln. 

Quoted 38, 43 

Moscow, Russia 113 

Mt. Vernon 202 

Muldraugh's Hill, Ky 35 

Mumfordsville, Ky 161 

Murphy, Thomas J. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 94, 95, 107,108 

"Mv Own Times." By Gov. John Reynolds. 
Quoted 100, 107 


Nancy. Negro girl. Sale of, case carried 

to "the Supreme Court of Illinois 46 

Naperville, 111. Northwestern College 

located in 25 

National Council of Defense. World War 72 
National Republican Convention, May, 

1860. Lincoln nominated 51 

Needham, Mr., St. Louis, Mo 130 

Negroes. Nancy. Negro girl, case of, in 

Supreme Court of Illinois 46 

Negroes. Union League support of the 

black regiments. War of the Rebellion. 114 

Neiderstetten, Wurtemberg, Germany.... 69 
Nelson, John. Associated with William 
Worth Burson in manufacturing knitting 

machines ^6 

Nelson, (Gen.) William. Union General. 

War of the Rebellion lo-'' 

Newark, N. J 64 

Newberrv Library, Chicago 27 

New Boston, 111 101, 102 

New England *"^ 

New England. Union League clubs formed 

in, 1862 113 

New Hamborough, Upper Canada ^9 

New Hampshire State. River and Harbor 
Convention, Chicago, 1847, two dele- 
gates to, from New Hampshire 44 

New Jersey State. Newark, N. J 64 

New Jersey State. Passaic Falls 68 

New Jersey State. River and Harbor Con- 
vention, Chicago, 1847, eight delegates 

to, from New Hampshire -14 

New Madrid. War of the Rebellion 110 

New Orleans, La 34, 37, 40, 4.5 

New Orleans, La. Slave market 34 

New Salem, Sangamon County, 111 _ 

36, 37, 50, ol 

New ' Saiem. Lincoln & Berry store in. 

Reference ; ^^ 

New Salem. Lincoln postmaster in ou 

Newspapers. Albany, N. Y., Journal 45 

Newspapers. Boston Transcript -^4 

Newspapers. Bureau County Republican.. 137 

Newspapers. Chicago Journal 44 

Foot-note • 43 

Newspapers. Chicago Journal, July 6, 

1847. Foot-note 43 

Newspapers. Chicago Journal. Quoted 

on the River and Harbor Bill 44 

Newspapers. Galesburg Republican-Regis- 

tpr 19 


INDEX— Continued. 

Newspapers. Illinois Advocate. Edwards- 

ville, 1832-1833 27 

Newspapers. Illinois State Bibliography. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 
1814-1879. See end of this volume. 
Newspapers. Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary. Newspaper flies 27 

Newspapers. New York Tribune..- 44 

Newspapers. Northwest Centinel. Foot- 
-notes 7S, 86 

Newspapers. Quid Nunc, first one cent 

daily west of the Alleghanies 69 

Newspapers. Quincy Whig, 1838-18.50.. 27 
Newspapers. Western Spy. Quoted. Foot- 

T,^ i°t?s . 75, 83, 84 

New Windsor, (Mercer Co.) Ill 98 

New York City 15, 40, 5.5, 69 

Foot-note Uy 

New York City. New York Tribune'. '. '.'.'.'. 44 
New York City. Union League Club, 
1864, its patriotism and loyalty. War 

of the Rebellion 114 

New York City. Union League Club sup- 
port of the Black Regiments. War of 

the Rebellion 114 

New York City. Union League formed' in 


59, 68, 70, 


New York State 44, 45, 


New York State. Bristol Center, N.' Y.' ! ! 68 
New York State. Fenner, N. Y. . . 08 

New York State. New York Central R. R. 129 

New York State. Oswego 70 

New York State. Rochester, N. Y 59 

Nicolay and Hay. Life of Lincoln. Quote'd. 

■ ■• • • 38, 43 

h oot-notes II7 ioq 

Niles Register. Quoted '.'.'.' " ' '99 

Noble, (Col.) George I47 

Nolin Creek, Kv ' 3.-, 

Nolin River, Ky. Foot-note '.'.'.'.!"'.' 35 

Noonan, John lOi 

North Carolina State '.'.'. .49, 199 

North Chicago, 111. Manufacturies in....' 62 
North Chicago Rolling Mill Co. First 

Bessemer steel in this countrv said to 
have been rolled at the North Chicago 

Mill Co ^. 59 

North Chicago Rolling Mill Company'. 

Rolled the first steel ever made in 

America 59 

Northern Cross Railroad, Illinois. .. ...56', 14.5 

Foot-note 56 

Northwest Centinel. Quoted . 78 

Foot-notes 78, 86 

Northwest Territory. Attig, Chester J. 

Some Governmental Problems in the 

Northwest Territory 25, 75-86 

Northwest Territory. Character of the 

early settlers in 77, 78 

Northwest Territory. Courts, organization 

of the system of courts 81 

Northwest Territory. Criminal code 

adopted by the Governor and Judges. ... 80 

Northwest Territory. Extent of 77 

Northwest Territory. Five states carved 

out of. Reference. Foot-note 

Northwest Territory. Governor and Judges 

appointed by Congress 

Northwest Territory. Illinois a part of.. 
Northwest Territory. Law passed Nov. 6. 

1790, providing for appointment of 

overseers of the poor 

Northwest Territory. Laws adopted by 

the territorial legislature in 1799. 
Northwest Territory. Ordinance of 1787.. 

46, 76, 79 





Northwest Territory. St. Clair (Gov.) 
Arthur. Governor of the Northwest 
Territory 81, 82 

Northwest Territory. St. Clair Co. first 
county organized in 19 

Northwest Territorv. Slavery prohibited 
in by the Ordinance of 1787 46 

Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.. 30 

Noyes, LeVerne W 72 


Oak Park, HI 25, 7a 

Oak Park, 111., Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois. 

Burial place of Abraham Lincoln 52 

Foot-note 52 

Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago, 111 143 

Oconee River 191 

Offutt, Denton 37 

Ogeechee River 191 

Ogle Co., 111., Grand Detour, Ogle Co., 111. 6S 
Oglesby, Richard J. At the Republican 

State Convention, Decatur, 111., May 1860 51 
Oglesby, (Gen.) Richard J. Union General 

War of the Rebellion 164 

O'Haver, C. P. Quoted on Indian Trail. ... 106 
Ohio River. 34, 35, 40, 41, 45, 56, 82, 130, 202 

Foot-notes 35, 76 

Ohio State 

...20, 44, 45, 47, 55, 64, 110, 122, 124, 185 

Foot-notes 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85 

Ohio State. Archaeological Collection... 20- 
Ohio State. Army of the Ohio, War of the 

Rebellion 185 

Ohio State. Chase Statutes of Ohio. 

Quoted. Foot-notes 76, 79, 80, 81 

Ohio State, Cincinnati, Ohio 64 

Ohio State. Hardin Co., Ohio 124 

Ohio State. Howe, Henry. Ohio Histori- 
cal Collections. Quoted. Foot-notes 

77, 78, 85 

Old Northwest. Genealogical Quarterly. 

Quoted. Foot-note 78 

Olson, (Prof.) Julius E. Quoted on Lin- 
coln's visits to Chicago. Foot-note.... 45 
O'Neal, William. Quoted on Indian Trail 92 

Ontario, Canada 88, 94 

Oquawka (Henderson Co.) Ill 

88, 92, 93, 99, 101, 102, 104, 106 

Oquawka, 111., Rock Island Indian Trail. . . 106 
Oquawka, 111., Yellow Banks, Oquawka, 111. 

formerly called 93 

Ordinance of 1787 46, 76, 79 

Ordinance of 1787. Powers given the 
Governor and Judges under the Ordi- 
nance 79 

Ordinance of 1787. Prohibited slavery in 

the Northwest Territory 46 

Oregon, 111 42 

Orendorff, U. G 72 

Orendorft', William T. Member of the Arm 
of Parlin and Orendorff makers of agri- 
cultural and plow implements. Canton, 

Illinois 63 

Orion, 111 96 

Osborne, Georgia L. Assistant Secretary 

Illinois State Historical Society 18, 23 

Osborne, Georgia L. Chairman of the 
Genealogical Committee, Illinois State 

Historical Society 18 

0.sborne, Georgia L Report of the Genea- 
logical Committee, Illinois State Histori- 
cal Society 23, 24 

Osco Township, Henry Co, 111 96, 98 

Oswego, N. Y 70 

Ottawa, 111., Manufacturies 63 

Ottawa, 111., Starch Co 70 


INDEX — Continued. 


Pacific Ocean 75, 94 

Paddock (Dr.) Princeton, 111 143 

Paddock, (Mrs.) Princeton, 111 143 

Paducah, Ky lol 

Page, Edward C 23 

Page (Major) Nonnan B. Union oflBcer, 

War of the Rebellion 156, 194, 202 

Palmer, Mr. Associated with Am- 
brose Plamondon, manufacturer 70 

Palmer, Percival B. Member of Board of 
Directors, Illinois Manufacturers' asso- 
ciation 71 

Papers of the Continental Congress. Quoted 

Foot-note 76 

Paris, Ky 152 

Parker (Col.) John A. The Secret History 

of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill 47 

Parkersburg, W. Va 202 

Parks, John 104, 105 

Parks, John. Quoted on Indian Trails, . . 104 . 

Parks, William S 104, 105 

Parlin and Orendorff. Agricultural and 
plow implements establishment of at 

Canton, 111 63 

Parlin, William. Agricultural and plow 
implements, manufacturer of at Canton 

Illinois 63 

Parrot guns 162, 163 

Parsons, Samuel H. Life and Letters of, by 

Hall. Foot-note 77 

Pash-e-pa-ho, Sac Indian Chief 109 

Passaic Falls, N. J 68 

Peabody, Frank S 57 

Peachtree Creek, Ga 183 

Pea Ridge, Battle of. War of the Rebellion 111 
Pease, Theodore Calvin. Editor Vol. 2, 
Centennial History of Illinois. The 
Frontier State, 1818-1848. Quoted. Foot- 
notes 117, 120 

Pekin, Tazewell Co., Ill 

25, 62, 74, 111, 112, 125, 126, 127 

Pekin, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Pekin, 111. Congregational Church 126 

Pekin, 111. Council of the Union League of 

America, Organized in Ill 

Pekin, 111 Manufacturies in 62 

Pekin, 111 Union League, tablet marks 
site of spot where organization was 

formed 112 

Pekin, 111. Union mission 126, 127 

Pelouze, William Nelson 72 

Penn, William 140 

Pennsylvania State. 42, 44, 45, 64, 66, 70, 112 


Pennsylvania State Danville, 
Pennsylvania State. Greencastle, Pa ... . 
Pennsylvania State. The Kej'stone State.. 
Pennsylvania State. River and Harbor 
Convention, Chicago 1847. Twenty- 
seven delegates to from Pennsylvania . . 

Peoria Co., Ill 112, 126 

Peoria, 111 25, 56, 58, 70, 73, 98, 99, 103 

Peoria, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Peoria, 111. Industries 60 

Peoria, 111. Meat packing industry in. 

Reference 58 

Peoria, 111. Peoria and Rock Island R. R. 103 
Periodicals. (The) Mayflower Descendant. 24 
Periodicals. Methodist Review. Foot-note 123 

Periodicals. Niles Register. Quoted 92 

Periodicals. Old Northwest Genealogical 

Quarterly. Quoted. Foot-note 78 

Periodicals. Western Annals, 1850. Quoted 92 
Perrin, J. Nick. President of the St. Clair 
Co., 111., Historical Society 19 

Perrv, Eli. Quoted on Indian Trail 102 

PerrVton Township, Mercer Co., Ill 

100, 101, 102 

Peru, 111 62, 166 

Peru, 111. Manufacturies 62 

Petersburg, Va 199, 200 

Peterson, P. A 67, 72 

Peterson, P. A., One of the founders of the 
Union Furniture Co., Rockford, 111.... 67 

Philadelphia, Pa 40, 112, 113 

Foot-notes 52, 78 

Philadelphia, Pa. General Advertiser, Nov. 

26, 1792. Quoted. Foot-note 78 

Philadelphia, Pa. Independence Hall 112 

Philadelphia, Pa. Union League Club 

formed in 1862 113 

Piatt Co., 111. Historical Society 21 

Pierce, John H 72 

Piez, C. H 72 

Pillow Fort, Tenn 175 

Pineklev, Oregon. Quoted on Indian Trail 106 

Pink Prairie, Henry Co., Ill 107 

Pittsburg Landing, Battle of, War of the 

Rebellion 154-156 

Pittsburgh, Pa a9 

Pittsburg, Tenn 154, lo7 

Plamondon, Ambrose, Manufacturer, Chi- 
cago '^'^ 

Plamondon, Charles A. President of the 

Illinois Manufacturers' Association 72 

Plamondon, Charles A. Victim of the 

Lusitania, torpedoed World War 72 

Plamondon (Mrs.) Charles A. Victim of 

the Lusitania, torpedoed World War 72 

Plankington & Armour Packing company.. 66 
Plankington, John. Packing house at 

Milwaukee, Wis 66 

Piano, 111. Manufacturies 63 

Pleasant Plains, (Sangamon Co.) Ill, Illi- 
nois Conference district, M. E. Church.. 118 
Pleasant Plains, (Sangamon Co.) 111. Home 

of Peter Cartwright HO 

Plutarch's Lives 142 

Political Parties. Democratic Party 38 

Political Parties. Republican Party.. 43, 49 

Political Parties. Whig Party 38, 43 

Foot-note 43 

Polk, (Pres.) James K 44, 149 

Pool, Charlie, Dover, 111 181, 198 

Pope, (Gen.) John. Union Maj. -General, 

War of the Rebellion 110, 158 

Pope, (Judge) Nathaniel 40, 41 

Pope, (Judge) Nathaniel. His work in ex- 
tending tlie northern boundaries of the 

State 40, 41 

Port BjTon, 111 91, 92 

Port Royal, Va 193. 196 

Porter, . Early resident of Henry 

Co.. Illinois 107 

Potomac. Armv of the Potomac. War of 

the Rebellion 200 

Potomac River 53, 161, 177 

Pottawatomie Indians 97, 117 

Potter, Orrin W. Had much to do with the 
development of the State's iron and steel 

industry 59 

Prague, Bohemia. University of Prague 

in Bohemia 17, 31 

Prague, Bohemia. University of. James 
(Prof.) James, Alton, invited to deliver 
a course of lectures at the University of 

Prague 31 

Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 100 

Prairie Home Farm, Edgington Township, 

Rock Island Co., Ill 104 

Prairie Union School, Rock Island Co., 111. 105 

Prairies of Illinois 

32, 54, 56, 95, 99, 100, 102, 104. 109 


INDEX— Continued. 

Pratt, Henry, Member of the Union League 

of America Ill 

Presbyterian Church 96, 97, 122 

Presbyterian Church, Brown church, Henry 

Co., ni 96, 97 

Price, (Gen.) Sterling. Confederate Gen- 
eral, War of the Rebellion. 153, 160, 161, 163 
Price (Judge) William C. His part in the 

Repeal of the Missouri Compromise .... 47 

Princeton, 111 

97, 130, 136, 137, 144, 150, 166, 174 

Princeton, 111. Business and professional 

firms 137 

Princeton, 111. Civil War Monument.'.'.'.' 138 

Princeton, 111. High School 136 

Princeton, 111. Masons, Fraternal Society 142 
Princeton, 111. Zearing, Martin, early set- 

„ tier of 129, 130, 132 

Pnngle, Mr. • 23 

Proctor, Edna Dean. Poem on 'Lincoln. 

Extract from 53 

Prophet's Village. Black Hawk War....' 106 
Prophetstown, on east bank of Rock River 

„ 88, 107 

Prospect Park, Moline, 111 88 89 

Pullman, George M. Builder of the town of 

Pullman, 111 70 

Pullman, George M. Head of the 'Pull'man 

Car Company 70 

Pullman, 111. Built by George 'm. 'Puil'n'ian 70 
Pullman, 111. Listed among the manufact- 

uring towns in Illinois 62 

Pullman Palace Car Company... 68 70 

Purdy, McNairy Co., Tenn .' 150 

"Puss" (Luoinda Helmer Zearing) ... .150-202 

Putnam, Rufus. Northwest Territory 77 

Quebec, Canada 70 

Quid Nunc First one-cent daily w'est' of 

the Alleghenies gg 

Quincy, Illinois 27, 49, 61,"l'64,"n7' 118 

Qumcy, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Quincy, 111. Illinois Conference Methodist 

Church, 1832, Quincy added to 117 us 

Quincy, 111. Lincoln-Douglas Debate held 

^ m IS^'S 49 

Quincy, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Quincy, 111. Quincy Whig, 1838-1850. " '>1 


Railroads. Atlanta & Macon R. R 191 

Railroads. Chicago & Alton 68 

Railroads. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 

R. R 129 145 

Railroads. Chicago & Joliet R.' r".' .".'... .' 68 
Railroads. Galena & Cairo referred to as 

the Illinois Central R. R 57 

Railroads. Galena and Chicago Union 

R. R 57 

Railroads. Galena R. R. ....... ..'....5V, 145 

Railroads. Illinois Central Railroad . . . .' 57 

Railroads. Illinois Railroads in 1848 145 

Railroads. Macon, Ga 186, 187 

Railroads. Montgomery and Alabama 

„R- R 187 

Railroads. New York Central R. R 129 

Railroads. Northern Cross Railroad. .56, 145 

Foot-note .56 

Railroads. Peoria and Rock Island R. R.. 103 

Railroads. Rock Island and Peoria R. R.95, 96 
Railroads. Steel rails, manufacture of, in 

1867 58 

Railroads. Texas and Pacific R. R 

137, 144, 147 

Raleigh, N. C 198, 199 

Ramey Family. Owners of the Great Oa- 

hokia Mound 29 

Ramey, Thomas 29 

Rammelkamp, (Dr.) Charles H. . .15, 18, 23 

Randolph Co., Ill 15 

Ray, (Prof.) P. Orman. The Repeal of 

the Missouri Compromise 47 

Red Bud Creek near Peoria, Illinois 70 

Reminiscences of Bureau County. By N. 

Matson 97 

Republican Convention, Illinois, May 9, 

10, 1860, held in Decatur 43, 51 

Republican Party 43, 49, 51 

Republican Party. Illinois State Conven- 
tion of May 9, 10, 1860, held in Decatur, 

Illinois 43, 51 

Republican Party. National Convention, 

May, 1860, held in Chicago 51 

Resaca, Ga 175, 179 

Reynolds, 111 104 

Rej'nolds, (Gov.) John. Illinois Volun- 
teers Black Hawk War. Reynolds. 

Quoted on 100 

Revnolds, (Gov.) John. "My Own Times." 

Quoted 100, 107 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John. Pioneer Historj- 

of Illinois. Quoted. Foot-note 79 

Rhode Island State. Civil and Military 

Lists 24 

Rhode Island State. River and Harbor 
Convention, Chicago, 1847. Three dele- 
gates to, from Rhode Island "..... 44 

Richmond, Va 160, 

177, 178, 182, 191, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200 

Richmond, Va., Fall of 196 

Ridgely, Nicholas. Purchases the Northern 

Cross Railroad 56 

Ripley, Mississippi 164 

Rittenhouse 134 

River and Harbor Bill, U. S. Congress, 

1846 44 

River and Harbor Convention held in 

Chicago, 1847 43, 44 

River and Harbor Convention, 1847. Dele- 
gates to 44 

River and Harbor Convention, held in Chi- 
cago, 1847. Delegates to, by states.... 44 

Roberts, (Rep.) Adelbert H 15 

Robinson, James 104 

Robinson, Spencer 90 

Robinson, (Dr.) William 144, 158, 165, 175 

Rochester, N. Y 59 

Rockford, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 73 

Rockford, 111. Manufactured products, 

ranks fifth in the State 61 

Rockford, 111. Manufacturies 67, 73 

Rock Island Co., Ill 18, 87, 88, 91, 

92, 95, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107 
Rock Island Co., 111. Black Hawk Town- 
ship 92, 102, 103, 104 

Rock Island Co., 111. Bowling Township.. 106 
Rock Island Co., 111. Canaan first post office 

in the county 91 

Rock Island Co., 111. Coal Valley Town- 
ship 107 

Rock Island Co., 111. Edgington Township 

; . 101, 103, 104, 105 

Rock Island Co., 111. Historical Society. . 18 

Rock Island Co., ID. Rural Township 95 

Rock Island, III. .15, 23, 25, 62, 73. 87, 88, . . 
. .89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 104 
Rock Island, 111. Census figures on popu- 
lation and manufacturing interests. ... 73 


INDEX— Continued. 

Rock Island, 111. Historic sites in and 

about. Reference 15 

Rock Island, 111. Indian Trails about 

Rock Island 87-109 

Rock Island, 111. Rock Island and Peoria 

Railroad 95, 96 

Rock Island, 111. Stage line. Rock Island to 

Galena, Illinois 92 

Rock Island, 111. United States Govern- 
ment arsenal, located in 62 

Rock River... 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 

92, 93, 94, 99, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109, 145 
Roddey, (Gen.) Philip D. Confederate 

General. War of the Rebellion 197 

Rolling Fork, Ky. Foot-note 35 

Rome, Ga...l77, 178, 180, 181, 183, 1S8, 189 
Rosecrans, (Gen.) Wm. S. Union General. 

War of the Rebellion 160, 161, 163 

Rosette, John E. Member of Union 

League of America 112 

Ross, Gen. (War of 1812) 135, 143 

Roswell, Chattahoochee River, Ga 182, 183 

Rowe, Samuel L. Bridge builder, Chicago 137 
Rudd, Edward H. Early painter in Chi- 
cago 69 

Rush Medical College, Chicago, 111 

139, 143, 144,145 

Rush Medical College Alumni Association. 149 

Russel, Andrew 15, 23 

Rutledge, Ann. Lincoln's early sweetheart 37 

Rutledge's Dam, New Salem 37 

Rutledge's Mill at New Salem 37 

Rybolt, (Rev.) J. C. Member of the 

Union League of America 112 

Ryerson, Martin 68 

Sac and Fox Trail. By John F. Steward. 

Reference 93 

St. Clair (Gov.) Arthur. Governor of the 

Northwest Territory 79, 81, 82, 83 

St. Clair Co., Ill 19, 57 

Foot-note 81 

St. Clair Co., 111. First County organized. 

in the Northwest Territory 19 

St. Clair Co., 111. Historical Society 19 

St. Clair Co., 111. Records at Belleville, 

111. Foot-note 81 

St. Clair Flates. Harbor at. Appropria- 
tion River and Harbor Bill, 1846 44 

St. Clair Papers, Vol. II. Bv William H. 
English. Quoted. Foot-notes. . .77, 78, 82 

St. Louis, Mo 40, 59, 69, 70, 143, 148, 165 

St. Louis, Mo. Iron and Steel Company 

established near 59 

St. Louis, Mo. University of Missouri.... 143 
Salem German Reformed Church, Harris- 
burg, Pa 143 

Saline Co., Ill 57 

Salt Lake, Utah. Mormon exodus to in 

1855 66 

Salt Mining early industry in the State . . 57 

Salt River, Ky. Foot-note 35 

San Francisco, Cal 55 

Sangamon Co., Ill 

24, 40, 46, 53, 56, 57, 112, 116, 117 

Foot-note 117 

Sangamon Co., III. Described by Peter 

Cartwright lir 

Sangamon River 117, 120 

Sargent, Winthrop. Foot-notes 78, 79 

Sargent, Winthrop. Proclamation of Win- 
throp Sargent dated March 26, 1792. 

Foot-note 79 

Sauk and Fox Trail or "Great Sauk Trail" 
88, 93-109 

Sauk Indians 87-109 

Sauk Trail Preserve. Forest Reserve, Cook 

Co., Ill 93 

Saukenuk (Sauk Village) 91 

Savannah, Ga 24, 144, 

152, 153, 154, 191, 192, 193, 194, 197, 198 

Savannah River ; 194 

Schiller, Johann Christoph Frederich von. . 143 
Schmidt (Dr.) Otto L. President of the 

Illinois State Historical Society 

15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 30 

Schuttler, Peter. Founder of the Peter 

Schuttler Waa;on Co., Chicago 66 

Scotch Taylor Farm. Rock Island Co., 111. 105 
Scott, Dred. Dred Scott decision, practic- 
ally nationalized slavery 49 

Scott (Col.) James 147 

Scott, Owen 20 

Scott (Col.) Thomas, Philadelphia 147 

Scott, William Owen Nixon 24 

Scott (Gen.) Winfield 97 

Seaman, (Lieut.) Wright of Princeton, 111. 156 

Sears, David. (Juoted on Indian Trail.... 90 

Sears, D. B. Flour Mill, Moline, 111 64 

Sechler Carriage Company of Moline, 111 . . 64 
Sechler, Daniel M. Founder of the Sechler 

Carriage Co., Moline, 111 64 

Sedalia, Mo 148 

Selz, Morris. Shoe manufacturer, Chicago 69 

Seward, William H 43, 51 

Seward, William H. Candidate for the pres- 
idency of the United States, 1860 51 

Sewall Family 24 

Sewall, (Gen.) Henry. Officer in the Revo- 
lutionary Army and War of 1812 24 

Sewall, William. Dairy of. Sept. 1, 1819 

to 1845. Reference 24 

Shafer, Sarah. Wife of Martin Zearing. . 131 

Shaffer Creek, Henry Co., Ill 96 

Shakespeare, William 142 

Sharp, John. Flour Mill on Red Bud 

Creek, near Peoria, 111 70 

Shaw, James, of Aurora, 111. Foot-note.. 44 

Sheffield, Bureau Co., Ill 97 

Shelf, Halifax. Yorkshire, England 24 

Sheridan, (Gen.) Philip H. Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 144 

Sherman. Lawrence Y. Vice-president Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 23 

Sherman, (Gen.) Wm. Tecumseh, Union 

General War of the Rebellion 

144, 154, 177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184, 

186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 194, 195, 196, 201 

Shields, (Gen.) James 39 

Shiloh, Battle of. War of the Rebellion 

„, ; Ill, 144, 164 

Shirmenstown, Pa 131 

Sibley Papers. Burton Collection. ' Foot- 
notes 78^ 79 

Sims, Anna Noble 24 

Sims, (Mrs.) William Irwin .' 24 

Sister's Ferry, Ga 194 

Slavery 34, 38, 44, 46, 47, 49 

Slavery. "Black Code" of Illinois 46 

Slavery. Cartwright, Peter. Opposed to 

slavery ng. 119 

Slavery. Dred Scott decision, practicallv 

nationalized slavery '. 49 

Slavery. Illinois and slavery 46, 47 

Slavery. Issue, an issue for each state to 

determine in its own way 49 

Slavery. Kansas-Nebraska Bill, practically 

nationalized slavery \ 49 

Slavery. Lincoln, Abraham. Extract from 
"House divided against itself" speech, 

June 17, 1858 43 

Slavery. New Orleans slave market 34 


INDEX— Continued. 


Slavery Ordinance of 1787 prohibited 

slavery in the Northwest Territory 46 

Small, Alexander. Member of the Union 

League of America ......... Ill 

Small, (Gov.) Len. Governor of Illmois. . II 

Smith, Alby 1^6 

Smith, Bessie 1£? 

.Smith, C. H 72 

Smith, (Mrs.) Electa If^ 

Smith, Elijah, Princeton, 111 145 

Smith, George W 23 

Smith, Kirby 199 

Smith, (Maj.) Robert 39 

Smith, Samuel 8i> 

Snake Gap. Ga • • • 176 

Snyder, (Dr.) John F .17, 31 

Snvder, (Dr.) John F. One of the founders 
of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Deceased 31 

Socrates. The product of the life and spirit 

of Athens, Greece 34 

Some Governmental Problems in the North- 
west Territory, 1787-1803. By Chester 

J. Attig 25, 75-86 

South Carolina State 44, 194 

South Carolina State. River and Harbor 
Convention, Chicago, 1847. One dele- 
gate to from South Carolina 44 

Spencer Co., Indiana 35, 86 

Foot-note 35 

Spencer, (Judge) John W 90, 106 

Spoor, John A. A factor in the Chicago 

Union Stock Yards 71 

Springfield, 111., Art Association 25 

Springfield, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing interests 73 

Springfield, 111. Coal, first coal mined in 

1840. Output 57 

Springfield, 111. Illinois conference district, 

M. E. Church 118 

Springfield, 111. Lincoln, Abraham. Mark- 
ing of places connected with the life of 

Lincoln in Springfield, 111 16, 30 

Springfield, 111. Manufacturies 61 

Springfield, 111. Oak Ridge Cemetery, bur- 
ial place of Abraham Lincoln 52 

Foot-note 52 

Springfield, 111. Watch factory. Jacob and 

John W. Bunn, head of 70 

Springfield, 111 

16, 25, 30, 52, 57, 61, 70, 73, 118, 145 

Foot-note 52 

Springville 161 

"Squatter Sovereignty." Stephen A. Doug- 
las, advocate of 50 

Stage Line, Rock Island to Galena 92 

Standish, (Dr.) J. P 19 

Steamer "Empire" 45 

Steele (Capt.) Pierre, World War 138 

Steel Rails, Manufacture of, 1867 58 

Steger, III. Manufacturies in 62 

Steiiley. Of Harrisburg, Pa 132 

Stephens, George. Pioneer manufacturer 

of Molina, 111 64 

Stephenson (now Rock Island, 111.) 98 

Sterling, Fred. Lieutenant Governor of 

Illinois 22 

Sterling, 111. Manufacturies in 62 

Stevens, Wayne E., Secretary of the War 

History Department, Historical Library 28 
Steward, John F. Sac and Fox Trail. Ref- 
erence 93, 98 

Stipp & Gibbons, Princeton, 111 137 

Stone, Dan. Member of House of Represen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, 1837 46 

Stoneman, (Gen.) George. Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 182 

Stonington, Conn 24 

Stover, Daniel C. Head of the Stover Man- 
ufacturing Co., Freeport, 111 64 

Stover Manufacturing Company, Freeport, 

111 64 

Streator, 111. Census figures on population 

and manufacturing interests 74 

Streator, 111. Manufacturies in 62 

Streight, Col 178 

Studevant, Stephen 168 

Sugar Grove (5amp Meeting. Reference.. 104 

Sunny Hill, Henry Co., Ill 95 

Supreme Court, State of Illinois. Bailey 

vs. Cromwell, slavery case 46 

Supreme Court, U. S 124 

Swain, (Capt.) William T. Tiskilwa 158 

Swan, R. R., Member of the Moline Plow 

Company 64 

Swanzy, (Dr.) James 145 

Sweden 67 

Sweeney, (Gen.) Thomas. Union General, 

War of the Rebellion 156 

Sweet, (Miss) Ada 141 

Sweet, William W. Peter Cartwright in 

the History of Illinois 25, 116,-123 

Sweet, William W. Rise of Methodism in 

the West. Quoted. Foot-note 116 

Swift & Co., Chicago. Meat Packers 58 

Swift, Gustavus. Founder of the Swift 

Packing Co., (Chicago 65 

Sycamore, 111. Listed among the manu- 
facturing towns in Illinois 62 

Symnes, John Cleves 78 

Tablet placed on building in Pekin, Illi- 
nois to mark Union League organization 112 
Taft, Lorado. Illinois history and ideals 

of beautv 25 

Tarbell, (Miss) Ida M. Life of Lincoln. 

Reference 43 

Taylor, (Mrs.) Ella Hume 96 

Taylor, J. I., Princeton, 111 137, 175 

Taylor, Martin, Dover, 111 189, 196 

Taylor Ridge Village 106 

Taylor, Sam C. Quoted on Indian Trail.. 105 

Taylor, (Maj.) Zachary 91 

Taylor, (Pres.) Zachary 42 

Foot-note 43 

Tazewell Co., 111. .21, 110, 112, 115, 125, 126 

Tazewell Co., 111. Bar Association 125 

Tazewell Co., 111. Circuit Court 125 

Tazewell Co., 111. Historical Society 126 

Tazewell Co., 111. Memorial Association. . 126 
Tazewell Co., 111. Union League. .111, 112, 115 
Tazewell Co., 111. Union League, members 
of part of the secret body-guard to pro- 
tect Lincoln at second inaugural 115 

Teets , (Judge) 107 

Tennessee, Army of the 184, 185, 188 

Tennessee River 151, 167, 172, 173 

Tennessee State. 64, 111, 116, 153, 154, 157, 172 
Tennessee State. Knights of the Golden 
Circle. Source of the origin of in 

Tennessee Ill 

Tennessee State. Montgomery Co., Tenn.. 64 

Terry, Joseph 101 

Texas State 59, 137, 144, 147 

Te.xas State. Texas and Pacific R. R 

137, 144, 147 

Thomas, (Gen.) George H. Union General. 

War of the Rebellion 176, 177 

Thomas Grand Army Republic Post, Chi- 
cago, 111 142 

Thompson, Jacob 0. Member of commit- 
tee Illinois State Historical Society on 

marking site of Fort Creve Coeur....l6, 30 


INDEX— Continued. 

Thompson, J. V., Princeton, HI 137 

Thornton, Norbury W 101 

Thorntown. HI 165 

Tilt, Joseph E. Member of first board of 
directors, Illinois Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation 71 

Tipple, Ezra Squire. Francis Asbury, the 
Prophet of the Long Road. Foot-note.. 122 

Tiskilwa, Bureau Co., Ill 98 

Titteringion, Fred 104, 106 

Titterington, Fred. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 104 

Tonti, Henry 110 

Travel. Early modes of travel 

130, 132, 133, 136, 137 

Treaty of 1783, at the close of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 75 

Trenton, Tenn 167 

Tunnel Hill, Ga 176 

Turkey Hollow, Rock Island Co., 111.. 103, 105 
Turkey Hollow Creek, Rock Island Co., 

Ill 102 

Turkey Hollow Hill, Rock Island Co., 111. 

. .." 102, 105 

Turner, Charles. Member of the Union 

League of America Ill 

Turner, George. One of the judges, North- 
west Territory 83 

Twain, Mark (Samuel 1j. Clemens) 56 


Union Car Works, Chicago, begun in 

1852 58 

Union Furniture Company of Rockford, 

111 67 

Union League : Its Organization and 
Achievements during the Civil War. By 

E. Bentley Hamilton 25, 110-115 

Union League of America Clubs formed in 

the United States, 1862 113 

Union League of America, Council of. 

First organized in Pekin, 111 Ill 

Union League of America. First Council 

of. Reference 21 

Union League of America. Illinois State 

Council, first meeting Sept. 5, 1862 ... 112 
Union League of America. Lincoln, 
Abraham. Gives aid and sanction to the 

Union League 110 

Union League of America. Oath 112 

Union League of New York City, 1864. 
Its lovalty and patriotism. War of the 

Rebellion 114 

Union League of the United States. Sup- 
port of the Black Regiments. War of 

the Rebellion 114 

United States 46, 60, 68, 72 

Foot-notes 35, 76 

United States. Capital, removal of, to the 

District of Columbia 46 

United States. Constitution. Reference. 112 
United States. Geological Survey. Foot- 
note 35 

United States. Navy in the AVorld War.. 140 
United States. Shipping Board. World War 72 
United States. Statutes at Large. Quoted. 

Foot-note 76 

United States. Steel Corporation 60 

United States. Supreme Court 124 

United Steel Corporation. Elbert H. 

Gary, head of 71 

Upham, Fred W 72 

Uran, Benjamin F. President of the 
Kankakee Countv Historisal Society.... 19 

Urbana, 111 " 23, 62 

Urbana, 111. Manufacturles in 62 

Utoy Creek, Ga 183 


Van Buren ,(Pres.) James 134 

Vandruff Island. Named for Joshua Van- 

druflf 92 

Vandruff, Joshua ..'..'.'. .92, 105 

Vandruff, Joshua. Vandruff Island named 

for 92 

Van Law, John, of Arlington ...[......" 178 

Van Meter , (Mrs. ) William io-> 

Varnum, (Judge) James Mitchell. One 
of the Judges of the Northwest Terri- 
tory gr, 

Vermilion Co., Ill 57 

Vernon, (Rev.) J. W. M. Member 'of' the 

Union League of America m 

Vicksburg, Miss 113, 170 

Vicksburg, Miss. Siege of. War of the 

Rebellion 5^3 

Vieths, Claus 109 

Villepigue, (Gen.) J. B. Confederate' Gen- 
eral. War of the Rebellion 163 

Virginia State 46, 56, 99, 198, 199 


Wabash River 

Wa-bo-kie-shiek. Winnebago' Prophet 

Wakefield, John Allen. History of the 
Black Hawk War lOfi 

Waldo, (Mrs.) E. H '.'.■.. 

Walker, Jesse. Pioneer Preacher 'Metho- 
dist Church 

Walker, (Capt.) Thomas. War of"i8i2 

Wallace', ' '( c'e'n" ) ' Lew .' .' .' .' ." .' .' .' .■.■.■.'.'"''' ^ ' 
Wallace, (Gen.) AVilliam Henry Lamb. 151, 

Wapella, Chief of the Foxes 

War of the Revolution 24, 75, 

War of the Revolution. Treaty of 1783 . .' 

War of 1812 24 88, 92, 135, 140, 

War of 1812. Battle of Campbell's Island 

War of 1812. Defense of Baltimore. 135, 

War of 1812. McAfee, Robert B. History 

of the late War in the Western 

Country. Quoted 

War of the Rebellion 25, 58', 

64, 110-115, 138, 139-150, 151, 154, 155, 
156, 158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166, 170, 
175, 177, 178, 184, 185, 188, 189, 200, 
War of the Rebellion. Appomatto.x. Sur- 
render of General Lee 

War of the Rebellion. Army of the Ohio. 
AVar of the Rebellion. Army of the Po- 
tomac 113, 200, 

War of the Rebellion. Army of the 

Tennessee 113, 142, 184, 185, 

War of the Rebellion. Bull Run, Battle of 
War of the Rebellion. Bureau Co., Ill, in 

138, 170, 

War of the Rebellion. Corinth, Battle of 

144, 161- 

War of the Rebellion. Demand for food 

and clothing in 

War of the Rebellion. England deliberat- 
ing whether she should openly recognize 

the Confederacy 

War of the Rebellion. Fifteenth and 

Sixteenth Army Corps 

War of the Rebellion. Fluctuating value 

of gold 

War of the Rebellion. Fort Donelson, 

Battle of Ill, 

AVar of the Rebellion. Port Henry, fall of 
AVar of the Rebellion. Fort Sumpter, at- 
tack and capitulation, April, 1861... 
War of the Rebellion. French's division. . 


INDEX— Continued. 

War of the Rebellion. Gettysburg, Battle 

War of the Rebellion. Hamilton E. Bent- 
ley. The Union League. Its Organiza- 
tion and Achievements during the Civil 
War 25, 110 

War of the Rebellion. Hardee's Corps. . 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois. Seventh 
Reg. 111. Vol. Inf 162, 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois Twelfth 
Reg. 111. Vols 166, 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois Fiftieth 
Reg. 111. Vols 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois Fifty- 
seventh Reg. 111. Vols.. 151, 158, 162, 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois Ninety- 
third Reg. 111. Vols 170, 

War of the Rebellion. Iowa State. Thirty- 
ninth Iowa Reg 

War of the Rebellion. Island No. 10.... 

War of the Rebellion. luka. Battle of.. 

War of the Rebellion. Knights of the 
Golden Circle 

War of the Rebellion, Letters of Dr. 
Jas. Roberts Zearing, during the War 
of the Rebellion 150 

War of the Rebellion. Lincoln, Abraham, 
call for volunteers 

War of the Rebellion. Monument to Sol- 
diers and Sailors, Princeton, 111 

War of the Rebellion. New Madrid 

War of the Rebellion. Pea Ridge, Battle 

War of the Rebellion. Pittsburg Landing, 
Battle of 154- 

War of the Rebellion. Seventeenth Army 

War of the Rebellion. Shiloh, Battle of 
Ill, 144, 

War of the Rebellion. Vicksburg, siege 

War of the Rebellion. Wilson Creek, 
Battle of 

War of the Rebellion. Yates, (Gov.) 
Richard, War Governor, call for special 
session of the legislature, 1861 

War of the Rebellion. Zearing, (Maj.) 
James Roberts. Letters 150- 

War of the Rebellion. Zearing, (Maj.) 
James Roberts. Record 139- 

War with Mexico 39, 

AVar Trade Board. World War 

War, World War 

12, 28, 29, 58, 72, 138, 

See World War. 

Ward, (Capt.) Eber Brock 57, 

Ward, (Capt.) Eber Brock. Pioneer in 
the iron and steel industry of Illinois.. 

Ward, (Capt.) Eber Brock. Rolling mill 
established by 

Warner Co., Ill 

Warner, E. S 

Warner, J. K. Member of the Union 
League of America 

Washburn, Henry 

Washington, D. C. .28, 55, 147, 200, 201, 

Washington, D. C. Grand review of re- 
turned troops in Washington. War of 

the Rebellion 

Washington, (Gen.) George 

135, 140, 200, 

Washington, George. Statue of in Rich- 
mond, Va 200, 

Waterloo. Napoleon at Waterloo. Refer- 

Watertown, N. Y. Foot-note 

Waukegan, 111. Census figures on popula- 
tion and manufacturing intere.sts 

Waukegan, 111. Manufacturies in 62 

Wayne, (Mad) Anthony 78 

Webb, Oscar 189 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Librarian, Illinois 

State Historical Library 12 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Secretary, Illinois 

Historical Society 

15, 19, 22, 23. 26-31 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Secretary, Illinois 

State Historical Society. Report. .. .26-31 
Webster, (Mrs.) Charles Ashley. (Martha 

Farnham Webster) 19 

Webster, Daniel 44, 45 

Foot-note 43 

Webster, Martha Farnham. (Mrs. Charles 

Ashley Webster) 19 

Weed, Thurlow 44 

Weems, Mason Locke. Life of Washington 36 

Weik, Jesse W 98 

Weslej', John. Founder of Methodism.. 122 
West Chicago. Listed among the manu- 
facturing towns in Illinois 62 

West, (Mrs.) J. E. Quoted on Indian 

Trail 96, 97 

Western Annals, 1850. Quoted 92 

Western Clock Companv, LaSalle, 111 68 

Western Spy, Aug. 27, 1799. Quoted. 

Foot-note 83 

Western Spy, Sept. 30, 1799. Quoted. 

Foot-notes 75, 84 

Western Townsl ip, Henry County, 111.. 96, 98 
Weyerhaeuser, I'rederick. Known as the 

"Lumber Kin;;" 70, 71 

Whoaton, Illinois 60 

Whig Party 38, 43 

Foot-note 43 

Whiteside Co., Ill 92 

Whitman, Walt. Poem, "When Lilacs Last 

in the Door-yard Bloomed" 52 

Wigwam. Chi' 'ago. Where Lincoln was 

nominated for the presidencv, I860.... 142 

Wilder, John E 72 

Wilkins, (Prof.) D. Member of the Union 

League of America 112 

Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

Foot-note 43 

Williamson Co., Ill 57 

Wilmington, N. C 194, 195, 196, 197 

Wilson Creek. Battle of. War of the 

Rebellion 110 

AVilson, T. E. President of the Institute 

of American Meat Packers 71 

Wilson, W. C 88, 89, 94, 95, 96, 107, 108 

Wilson, W. C. Quoted on Indian Trail . . 

94 95, 96 

Wilson, W. C. Quoted on Indian Trails, 

Moline, Illinois 88, 89 

Winnebago Co., Ill 21, 67 

Winnebago Co., 111. Indian Mound in. . 21 

Winnebago Indians 88, 107 

Winrick, Lawyer, of Harrisburg, Pa 132 

Wisconsin State 40, 41, 44, 107, 117, 118 

Foot-notes 45, 47 

Wisconsin State. Archaeological Collection 20 

Wisconsin State. Beloit, Wisconsin 66 

Wisconsin State. Fight for the fourteen 
northern counties of Illinois including 

the port of Chicago 41 

Foot-note 41 

Wisconsin State. Historical Society. Foot- 
note 45 

Wisconsin State. Lead mines in 88 

Wisconsin State. Milwaukee, Wis 59, 65 

Wisconsin State University. Foot-note... 45 
Wolff, Charles F. Member of first board of 
directors, Illinois Manufacturers Associ- 
ation 71 


INDEX— Concluded. 


Wolff, Ludwig. Founder of the L. Woltf 

Manufacturing Company 66 

Wolff, Ludwig Manufacturing Co 60 

AVood, (Dr.) Casey A 24 

Wood, (Dr.) (U. S. Army) ISO 

Wood Family -* 

Wood, Harrison. Dover, 111 1^'6 

Wood, Timothy 64 

Woodford Co., 111. Historical Society.... 20 

Woodford Co., 111. Indian Mounds in.... 21 

Woodhull, (Henry Co.) Ill 99 

Woodstock, HI. Listed among the manufac- 
turing towns in Illinois 62 

World War. 12, 28, 29, 5S, 72, 138, 140, 143 

World War. Demand for food; etc., in. . . . 58 

World War. Emergency Fleet Corporation 72 

World War. Food Commission 72 

World War. Fuel Commission 72 

World War. Germans in 143 

World War. Huidekoper, (Col.) F. L. 
History of the Thirty-third Division, 

World War 29 

World War. Illinois State Council of 

Defense Records 28 

World War. Illinois Manufacturer's Asso- 
ciation. Members of, prominent in war 

work 72 

World War, Lusitania, Ship torpedoed 

World War 72 

World War. National Council' of Defense 72 

World War. United States Shipping Board 72 

World War. War Trade Boajd 72 

World War. Zearings in. . . . .' l.SS, 140 

World's Fair, Chicago 142, 150 

Wurttenberg, Germany 69 

Wyandotte, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit 59 

Wyanet, (Bureau County) 111 97 

Yankee Settlement Twenty-five miles 

southwest of Chicago GS 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard, War Governor of 

the State of Illinois 

15, 110, 114, 115, 143, 169 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard. War Governor of 

Illinois, ^all .for special session of the 

legislature, 1861 110 

Yates, ((Jov.) Richard. War Governor of 

Illinois. Copperheads threaten his life 

during War of the Rebellion 115 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard, The Younger. .15, 23 
Yates, (Gov.) Richard (The Younger) Vice 

President Illinois State Historical Society 23 
Yeiser, (Capt. ) (Junboat "Governor Clark" 

Battle of Campbell's Island 92 

Yellow Banks. Oquawka, Illinois formerlj' 

called 93, 106 

Zearing Building, Chicago 

Zearing Descendants in World War. .138, 

Zearing, Elizabeth 

Zearing, Family. Bv Luelja Zearing Gross 

.' : 129- 

Zearing, Henry, Great-grandfather of Dr. 
James R. Zearing 129, 140 

Zearing, Henrv, Grandfather of Dr. James 
R. Zearing' 140, 

Zearing, Illinois, named for Zearing Family 

Zearing, (Dr.) James Roberts 

129. 135, 137, 139- 

Zearing, (Dr.) James Roberts. Necrology 

Zearing, (Dr.) James Roberts. Civil War 
Letters 150 

Zearing, (Mrs.) James Roberts. . 149, 150, 

Zearing, James Helmer 

Zearing, Jona.s 

Zearing, Lucinda Helmer (Mrs. J. R. Zear- 
ing) Biography 149- 

Zearing, Ludwig 140, 

Zearing, Martin 129, 131, 

Zearing, Ohio 

Zearing, Rebecca 

Zearing, Sarah Bright Harmon 

Zearing, (Judge) William Mitchell 

135, 137, 

Zearing, (Judge) William Mitchell. Let- 
ters to Mrs. James Roberts Zearing 175, 

Zearing, Acres, South Chicago, 111 

Zearing, John 129, 132, 134, 135, 

Zearing, (2d Lieut.) Louis A 

Zorger, (Dr.) Anna 

Zouaves from New Orleans 


No.l. *A Bibliography of Newspapers pnljlisbed in Illinois prior to lS(iO. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. Sprinefleld, 

No. 2. * Information rolatins; to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 
1809 to 1S12. Prepared by Edmund J. James. Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. * The Territori.-il Itecords of Illinois. Edited bv Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 
170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1901. 

No. 4. * Trniisai tlims of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Orceiic. I'll. !>.. ."..-. pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. * Alphabetical of the Books, Manuscripts. Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois Stale llisloricn I Lilirary. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber. ^.^(>^■^ pp. s vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 2S. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 
1901-1921. (Nos. to 18 out of print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by II. W. Beckwith, Presid-nt of 
the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library.- 642 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 66.3 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 19()7. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Heliatcs of 1858, 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited bv Edwin Erie Sparks, I'h. D., 627 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Governor's 
Letter Books, ISlS-lS.'ll. Edind by Evarts I'.outoll Greene and Clarence Walworth 
Alvord. XNXll and .-117 pp. s vo. Spiiiigtiold. I'.uiu. 

* Illinois llistnrical Collrdions. Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records. 1778-1790. Edited bv Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 681 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield. 19(i9. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series. Vol. VI. News- 
iiapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
bv Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1910. 

* Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II. Governor's 
Letter Books, 1840-185:'.. Edited bv Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIll and 409 pp. 8 vo. Siir'ngfielii, 1911. 

■* Illinois HistoT-ical Collections, Vol. Vlll. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogei-s Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James Alton 
James, CLXVII and 715 pp, 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. Bv Solon Justus Buck. 514 \u. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

■* Illinois Hislorical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period 170:!-17(;5. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord 
and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

■► Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. I'.ritisli Series Vol. II. The New 
Reuinie 1765 1767. Edited with introduction and noiis bv Clarence Walworth Alvord 
and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. s vo. Springfield. 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol, XII. P.ibliogiapliicai Series, Vol. HI, The 
County Arcliives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 
fao pi) S vo. Siiringfleld, 1915, 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol, XIII, Constitutional Series, Vol, I, Illinois 
Constitutions Fdite<i bv Fniil Joseph Verlie, 2.S1 pp, 8 vo, Springfield, 1919, 

Illinois Ilistorii'al TolbM 1 ions. Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol, II. T!ie 
Cnisiitntional Debates of 1.S47. i:dile,l with introduction and notes by Arthur Cliarles 
Cole \V and lols \,p. s vo, Sprinulield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, \'ol. X\'. Bibliographical Series. Vol. I. Governor 
Edward ("oles I'.y VAWiu I!. Wasblnii-iie. i;e|iriiit with introduction and notes by 
c'l'irence Walworth' .Mvord. -t.".5 jip. ^ \'><. Spriiiglicbl, 1920, 

'>= Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Lilirary, Vol, I, No. 1 September. 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord 38 pp, 8 vo. Spring- 

^^^^'* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Lilirary, Vol. I, No. 2, June 1. 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord, 
;!4 pp S vo, Springfield, 1906, , . ^, . , , -, . - 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, ^ ol, I, No. 1, November, 19(».., 
\n Outline for the Study of Illinois State Ilistorv. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber 
and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfi Id. 190;> . _ 

* Publication No IS. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Compiled by Goor,gia L. Osborne. 8 vo, Springfield. lf>14. . 
"'" * ■p\,^,]-,..,tion No 25 List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Suiiplement to Publication No. IS. Compiled by Georgia L, Osborne, 8 vo. 

^''''''lm\n\^a/ol''^the Illinois Slate Historical Society, V(d, I, No, 1, April 1908. to 
'■"'• i^mrn^'out ':^"^"l '"is. L IF HI, IV, V, VI, VII VIII. No, 1 of Vcd. IX, No. 
2 of Vol, X. 

* ctul of print.