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3 1833 00868 1568 


Publication Number Thirty 





Illinois State Historical Society 


Twenty-fourth annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 
Illinois May, 22-23, 1923 

Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 

3955— 3M 




Officers of the Society 5 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 

MEETING, 1923. 

Directors' Meeting 15 

Business Meeting , 17 

Secretary's Report 23 

Report Genealogical Committee 37 


Wallace Rice. Dedicatory Ode. "Illinois and Time" 43 

Simeon D. Fess. "The European Situation and Our Relation to It." 

Annual Address 47 

Milo M. Quaife. "The Northwestern Career of Jefferson Davis" 58 

Mrs. Mary Vose Harris. "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 

Harris." Edited with Introduction and Notes 72 

C. A. Harper. "The Railroad and the Prairie" 102 

Luther E. Robinson. "Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, First Martyr of the 

Civil War" Ill 

Edward Bryant Landis M. A. Ph. D. "The Influence of Tennesseeans 

in the Formation of Illinois" 133 

A. H. Kohlmier. "Commerce and Union, Sentiment in the Old Northwest 

in 1860" 154 

Mrs. A. S. Caldwell. "Life and Public Services of Mrs. John A. Logan". . .162 


Dedication of Statues of the War Governor Richard Yates and of Governor 
John M. Palmer. October 16, 1923. Exercises presided over by the 
Governor of Illinois, Hon. Len Small 167 

Address dedicating the Statue of Governor Yates by his son, Richard 
Yates, Congressman-at-Large, Illinois 171 

Address dedicating the Statue of Governor Palmer by Norman L. Jones, 
Judge Seventh Judicial District of Illinois 206 

Sketches of the History of Stephenson County and Incidents connected 
with the Early Settlement of the Northwest, written for the editor of 
the Freeport Bulletin by William J. Johnston. Freeport, Illinois, 1854. 
Reprint 217 

Index , 321 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society. 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents. 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore, Jacksonville 

Charles L. Capen Bloomington 


Edmund J. James University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

E, B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, Illinois College Jacksonville 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal University 


Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

John .H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Stuart Brown Springfield 

Rev. Ira W. Allen LaGrange 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 


Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
yearS' this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may, in larger- measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds of 
material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois Historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers 
should be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the au- 
thorities upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original 
material and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of 
the main factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society supplement' rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly official 
publications of the State Historical Library. In historical research, as 
in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be achieved through 
the cooperation of private initiative with public authority. It was to 
promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking that this Society 
was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools or colleges, are 
especially urged to do their part in bringing to this publication the best 
results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 




Section 1. The name of this Society shall be the Illinois 
State Historical Society. 

.Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed is to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage 
historical research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to 
collect and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the 
history of Illinois and its peoples. 


Section 1. The management of the affairs of this Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which Board the President 
of the Society shall be ex-officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice Presidents, 
not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The Board of Directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and 
shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents 
and committees as the_\' may deem advisable, and to remove the same 
at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The Directors shall be elected at the annual meetings 
and the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a 
majority of members present and en,titled to vote, some other method 
may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Board of Directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and 
to this end they shall have power: 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use 
of the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of 
the State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods 
and the history of the aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies 
of distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of 
the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own trans- 
actions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects 
as it mav secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
propert}-, real or personal in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
of all property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid 
in accordance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, 
entitled "An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled. 'An Act 
to establish the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for 
its care and maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " ap- 
proved May 25, 1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and 
approve all contracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, 
and in general see to the carrying out of the Orders of the Society. 
They may adopt by-laws not inconsistent with this Constitution, for 
the management of the affairs of the Societ}^ ; they shall fix the time 
and places for their meetings ; keep a record of their proceedings, 
and make report to the Society at its annual meeting. 

Sec. S. Vacancies in the Board of Directors may be filled by 
election by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue 
in office until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presi- 
dents shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice 
President shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President 
pro tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the .Society or the Board of Directors. The Treasurer 
shall keep a strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out 
money from the treasury only as directed by the Board of Directors ; 
he shall submit an annual report of the finances of the Society and 
such other matters as may be committed to his custody to the Board 
of Directors within such time prior to the annual meeting as they 
shall direct, and after auditing the same the said Board shall submit 
said report to the .Society at its annual meeting. 


Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes to-wit : Active, Life, Affiliated. Corresponding and Honorary. 

■Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this 
Society upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, 
as shall from time to time be prescribed by the Board of Directors. 

.Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may upon 
payment of twenty-five dollars be admitted as a life member with all 
the privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt 
from annual dues. 

vSec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archeological research or in the preservation 


of the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation 
of the Board of Directors, be admitted as affiliated members of this 
Society upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and 
annual dues as active and life members. Every society so admitted 
shall be entitled to one duly accredited representative at each meeting 
of the Society who shall during the period of his appointment be en- 
titled as such representative to all the privileges of an active member 
except that of being elected to office ; but nothing herein shall prevent 
such representative becoming an active or life member upon like con- 
ditions as other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing 
to lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the 
objects of this Society, may, upon recommendation of the. Board of 
Directors, be admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting 
of the Society upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors 
upon persons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services 
or contributions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the 
privilege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 


Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the Board of 
Directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said Board to 
prepare and publish a suitable program, and procure the services of 
persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read essays 
upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

.Sec. 2. .Special meetings of the Society mav be called by the 
Board of Directors. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may 
be called by the President or any two members of the Board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten 
members entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 


Section 1. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meet- 
ing; Provided that the proposed amendment shall have first been 
submitted to the Board of Directors, and at least thirty days prior 
to such annual meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent 
by the Secretary to all the members of the Society. 




(Members please read this circular letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West ; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology ; reports of societies and 
institutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co- 
operative, fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable ; scientific publi- 
cations of states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to all wars 
in which Illinois has taken part, especially the collection of material 
relating to the late great world war, and the wars with the Indians ; 
privately printed works ; newspapers ; maps and charts ; engravings ; 
photographs ; autographs ; coins ; antiquities ; encyclopedias, diction- 
aries, and bibliographical works. Especially do we desire — 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citi- 
zen, whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; materials for Illinois 
history; old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts ; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois ; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adven- 
tures and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or 
the great rebellion, or other wars; biographies of the pioneers; promi- 
nent citizens and public men of every county, either living or de- 
ceased, together with their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the 
settlements of every township, village and neighborhood in the State, 
with the names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every sub- 
ject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council ; reports of 
committees of council ; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city; reports of boards of trade and commercial 
associations ; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies ; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; 
railroad reports ; all such, whether in manuscript or published in 
pamphlet or newspaper. 


5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning ; annual or other reports of school boards, school superin- 
tendents and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures ; earlier Governors' messages and re- 
ports of State Officers; reports of State charitable and other State 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earn- 
estly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which 
will be carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date ; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or 
photographs of scenery, paintings, portraits, etc., connected with Illi- 
nois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, pp' .tings; portraits, 
engravings ; statuary ; war relics ; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and 
warriors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, 
ornaments, curiosities and implements ; also stone axes, spears, arrow 
heads, pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the 
Historical Library as the property of the State, for the use and benefit 
of the people of all time. 

Members of the Society are urged to help in the preservation 
of all historical material relating to the part taken by Illinois in the 
World War. Now is the time for this work. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 

Record of Official Proceedings 




The Board of Directors of the IlUnois State Historical Society 
met in the office of the Secretary of the Society Wednesday, May 23, 
1923, at 9:30 a. m. There were present, the President of the Society, 
Dr. O. L. Schmidt, who presided, and Messrs. Colyer, James, G. W. 
Smith, Clendenin, Hauberg, Allen, Russel, Greene, and Mrs. Weber, 
the Secretary. 

The minutes of the last previous meeting of the Directors were 
read by the Secretary and were approved. 

The annual report of the Secretary was read and approved. 

Professor J. A. James expressed appreciation of the report and 
suggested that its recommendations be followed. He spoke of the 
excellent work of the Historical Society and said it should have a 
much greater membership in the State. 

The question of a state wide membership campaign was dis- 
.cussed. Professor James said that comparatively few people in Illi- 
nois understand the work of the State Historical Society, that hun- 
dreds of citizens would be glad to join the Society if the work and 
objects of it were explained to them. Dr. Schmidt said that the 
Society has never carried on a campaign for members as the publi- 
cations are so expensive and the Society is largely supported by the 
State and that large membership lists, which means sending the ex- 
pensive publications to the members, might become a very heavy 
drain on the resources of the Society and require larger appropri- 
ations than could be easily secured from the General Assembly. 

He explained that the present method is to confer membership 
upon all applicants who are recommended by persons already mem- 
bers of the Society. That no citizen is refused when he seeks 
mem.bership, but he must be recommended by a present member. 
Professor James said he believed that nearly all school teachers and 
college and university professors in the State would be glad to be- 
come members if their attention was called to the matter. 

Professor J. A. James spoke of the excellent work of the Society 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution in regard to the great 
Cahokia Mound and other historical sites in the State, especially do 
the D. A. R. deserve commendation for their efforts before the Gen- 
eral Assembly in attempting to secure an appropriation for the purchase 
of the Cahokia group of mounds. He suggested that a letter of 
thanks be sent to the State D. A. R. and that the Historical Society 
urge their cooperation and continuance in this good work. Dr. 
Schmidt said that beyond doubt some of the mounds would eventually 
become the property of the State. 


Mr. Clendenin moved that a survey or list of Indian sites in the 
State be prepared. There were about fifty Pottowatomie villages 
and that the sites of most of them can be located. Mr. Clendenin 
also suggested that in this survey other historical sites be located. He 
moved that a committee for this purpose be appointed and that Mr. 
John H. Hauberg, a director of the Society, be the chairman of the 
committee. If the committee is not able at once to make the survey 
that it prepare a plan and make recommendations as to how the work 
be accomplished. Professor George W. Smith seconded this 
motion and on being put to a vote it was carried. 

Professor J. A. James moved that committees be appointed ac- 
cording to the recommendation of the Secretary's report. Mr. 
Hauberg seconded this motion and it was carried. 

Professor George W. Smith suggested that an outline or plan 
of the work and objects of the State Historical Society be prepared 
and sent out, especially to the newspapers of the State. Mr. Hauberg 
seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Dr. Schmidt then called the attention of the Directors to the 
fact that Professor E. B. Greene, one of the founders of the Society, 
a director of it since it was organized and its first secretary, is about 
to leave the State of Illinois and the State University to take up 
historical work in Columbia University. He suggested that some 
memorial of Professor Greene's services be prepared. Professor J. A. 
James moved that the Secretary of the Society be instructed to pre- 
pare these resolutions. Mr. Clendenin seconded this motion, which 
was carried. 

Dr. Schmidt called the attention of the Directors to the fact 
that the hour set for the business meeting of the Society had arrived 
and suggested that if there was no further business especially for the 
Directors that general business may be taken up in the business meet- 
ing of the Society. He therefore asked for a motion to adjourn. 
Rev. Ira W. Allen spoke of the excellent report made by the Secre- 
tary and suggested that it be read at the business meeting. Dr. 
Schmidt explained that it is the rule that the Secretary's report be 
read first to the Directors and then in the business meeting. 

Mr. Allen then moved that the Board of Directors be adjourned. 
Mr. Colyer seconded the motion, which was carried, and the meeting 
of the Directors adjourned. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was called to order in the auditorium of the new Centennial Building 
at 11 o'clock on Wednesday, May 23, 1923, by the chairman, Doctor 
Otto L. Schmidt. 

The minutes of last year's meeting were read by the Secretary and 
on motion were accepted and approved. 

The chairman then called for the reading of the Secretary's report 
which was given by the Secretary, Mrs. Weber. 

At the conclusion of the reading of the report Dr. Ira W. Allen of 
LaGrange said : 'T move that the report be adopted and its recommen- 
dations followed. This, of course- will include some specific actions 
still to be taken, such as the appointment of committees by yourself, 
Mr. Chairman ; but this report should not be adopted without some 
appropriate recognition from the Society of its masterly character 
and of the very admirable services of our Secretary'. It seems to me 
that the proper place for such recognition is here in the full meeting 
of the Society, though in the directors' meeting I was strongly moved 
to speak as I am speaking now. I feel that I am expressing the sense 
of all the directors when I say that I have a strong admiration for the 
character and usefulness of this report. Further, we realize how much 
the Society owes to the ability and tact of the gracious lady who serves 
us as secretary — the distinguished daughter of a distinguished soldier 
— and we know that her knowledge of the social, literary and political 
life of Springfield, of which she is a part, has been of the very greatest 
advantage to the growth and usefulness of the Society. Her success- 
ful guidance of the Society's Journal is only one of her faithful labors 
in our behalf. A grateful expression of the value of her services is 
due this lady." 

Let me say further — and now I address my remarks to Mr. 
Ensley Moore, Vice President of this Society — that we ought also to 
recognize the value of the services of our admirable President. The 
fact that he stands high in his home city and in his profession would 
not make him a necessarily good president of a historical society. He 
might be a very able physician and have no interest in history, but 
he is an influential member and officer of the Chicago Historical 
Society, giving not only of his time but of his private means to for- 
ward historical research. He is thoughtful and able and has a wide 
acquaintance with historians and those who, though not writers, have 
history as their chief interest. We are very fortunate that we have 
a man of his character, ability and standing as our President. I move 
that in adopting this report the Society also commend the services of 


the Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, and of the President, Doctor 
Otto L. Schmidt. 

Mr. T. C. MacMillan : It is with great pleasure that I here arise to 
second the motion made by Doctor Allen. Doctor Allen has well said 
that each of us is under obligations to the Secretary for the work ac- 
complished and the manner in which it has been accomplished has been 
so finely laid before us that we are able to see at a glance all that has 
been done. It is with great pleasure that I second the motion of Doctor 
Allen with reference to Mrs. Weber's report and also with reference 
to the distinguished service of our President. I do this also with extra 
pleasure because I do not happen to be an officer of the Society in any 
way, and therefore, do not feel called upon to pass the boquets. I 
look upon this year as perhaps in some sense I would not look upon it 
were I perhaps to live twenty-five years later. Our President re- 
minded us yesterday that, counting from the arrival of the first French 
explorers in 1673, we may celebrate 250 years of the history of our 
State. We are also for the first time holding our annual meeting in 
this beautiful building, our new home. 

Mr. Ensley Moore : It is moved and seconded that this motion be 
adopted. All in favor signify by arising. 

Mr. Hauberg: I would like to propose in this meeting that it 
would be a fine thing to have published in book form material relative 
to the various forts — Fort Edwards, Fort Armstrong, and others. 
There is a wealth of this interesting material in Washington such as 
rosters showing among other things quite a number of men who have 
become prominent stationed about these forts. Material of this nature 
can be found in the Department of the Interior, Indian Agents reports 
giving to Indian traders licenses, etc. I think a volume of this sort 
would be well worth while and an addition to the volumes that the 
Society has already pubHshed. This is merely a suggestion that as 
soon as we are able to do so that such a volume be compiled. 

A motion was suggested by Mr. MacMillan: Will you pardon 
me if I suggest that the motion which Mr. Moore just made be pre- 
pared by Doctor Allen so as to relieve our secretary of any embarrass- 
ment and so that Doctor Allen may embody in the resolutions all that 
he so well stated and that he be requested to make it so that it may be 
embodied in the minutes. 

Doctor Schmidt: Will Doctor Allen accept? 

Doctor Allen signified his willingness to act, and made suggestion 
that an arrangement be made to have the report of the Secretary at 
future annual meetings read at the annual Evening Session or at some 
time when it could be heard by a larger number of persons. 

Dr. Schmidt: In regard to Mr. Hauberg's suggestion. A note 
will be made, of course, in the proceedings of the meeting and then the 
request will be passed onto the Library Board. They will then take 
up the matter. 

Mrs. Weber's report is then accepted? 

Now comes under discussion a number of points. One is the ap- 
pointment of a committee to investigate and take measures towards 
the project of the Cahokia Mound provided they are not purchased at 
this session of the General Assembly. You know the Cahokia Mounds 


lie deep in the hearts of all who take an interest in the history of Illi- 
nois. There is a bill up this year for their purchase. It may be passed. 
We hope so but we hear objections as was pointed out in Mrs. 
Weber's report that we may prepare the ground for the coming session 
— the session of the 54th General Assembly — in case the bill is not 
passed at this session. 

Then some recognition should be taken of the daughters of Judge 
Humphrey on account of their gift of briefs in which Lincoln and 
Palmer were opposed to one another in a law suit. Such a manuscript 
is unusually valuable. 

Then some action should be taken in regard to the death of Mrs. 
John A. Logan. It may be well if we show our respect for Mrs. 
Logan by rising and silently standing in reverence to her memory and 
that a note of this be sent to her daughter who is very much interested 
in the Society and in the marks of reverence shown to both her father 
and her mother. 

You have heard that Professor Greene is going to leave us. He 
has been actively associated with the work of this society. He was one 
of its founders and is now called to a position which affords him 
greater possibilities for future work. His thoughts and interest of 
course will always be with this Society and with the Library Board of 
which he was President. His successor is Professor Laurence M. 
Larson, the head professor of history now at the Univeristy of Illinois. 

Then too we should cooperate with the Lincoln Centennial Asso- 
ciation. You know this year's meeting was the first Lincoln Centen- 
nial Association held since the death of its originator, Judge J Otis 
Humphrey. Mrs. Weber called Dr. Schmidt's attention to the fact 
that observances of Lincoln's birthday have been held since the death of 
Judge Humphrey but they were not thoroughly satisfactory, in some 
instances to the Lincoln Centennial Association nor in accord with 
Judge Humphrey's plans for the birthday observances. 

Shall anything be done in regard to the Cahokia Mounds ? Please 
make a motion. 

Doctor Ira W. Allen : I move that the chair appoint that com- 

Motion seconded by Mrs. I. G. Miller. 

Mr. Ensley Moore: I move that we rise in silent remembrance 
of Mrs. Arthur Huntington. 

Doctor Schmidt Those in favor say aye. Carried. 

You may rise in silent remembrance of Mrs. Huntington. The 
Society then rose and stood in silence for a brief space of time in 
memory of Mrs. Huntington. Thank you. 

Doctor Allen's motion is in order that a committee be appointed 
by the chair on the Cahokia Mound. 

Doctor Rammelkamp : I move that the secretary of the Society 
express the appreciation of the Historical Society to the Misses 
Humphrey for the gift of the interesting documents to which the sec- 
retary referred. Motion seconded by Mrs. Baxter. Carried. 

Doctor Schmidt : I would like to urge that this Society cooperate 
with the Lincoln Centennial Association. A motion put in form of 
active cooperation of the Illinois State Historical Society with the 


Lincoln Memorial Association of Springfield is in order. Moved by- 
Mr. Hauberg that the Society cooperate with the Lincoln Centennial 
Association. Seconded by Mr. Smith. Carried. 

In regard to Mrs. John A. Logan. Motion was made by Rev. 
Ira W. Allen that the Society arise in reverence to Mrs, Logan. 
Seconded and carried. 

Doctor Schmidt then asked the members to arise in honor of 
Mary Cunningham Logan, a distinguished citizen of this State. The 
Society rose and stood a brief space in reverence to the memory of 
Mrs. Logan. 

The Chair then said the next order of business was the election 
of officers for the coming year. Will some one make a motion for 
the appointment of a nominating committee? 

Mr. Clendenin moved that a nominating committee be appointed 
Motion seconded by Mr. Hauberg. Carried. 

The nominating committee was appointed composed of Mrs. I. G. 
Miller, Mrs. Isabel Jamison, Mrs. E. A. Baxter, Mr. H. E. Barker 
and Dr. C. A. Earle, which withdrew to consider nominations for the 
coming year. 

The Chairman then said : During the withdrawal of the nomin- 
ating committee we will request Miss Georgia L. Osborne to read the 
report of the committee on Genealogy of which she is chairman. Miss 
Osborne then read her report. 

Doctor Schmidt : You have the report read, what shall be done 
with it? 

Doctor Rammelkamp moved and the motion was seconded that 
the report be placed on file. Carried. 

Doctor Schmidt : The nominating committee has returned. Mrs. 
Miller will you please report as chairman? 

Mrs. Miller: Ladies and gentlemen: I beg leave to submit the 
report of the nominating committee. I further beg to have this 
adopted as read. 

Doctor Schmidt : You have heard the report and motion that it 
be adopted as read? Is there a second? The motion was seconded 
by Mr. Clendenin. Are there any other nominations? 

Mrs. Miller: I will make a motion that those in favor vote aye. 
Make it a rising vote. Thank you for accepting it. 

The persons nominated by the committee on nominations are as 
follows : 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Third Vice President. 
Richard Yates Springfield 


Fourth Vice President. 
Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Fifth Vice President. 
Charles L. Capen Bloomingtoii 


Edmund J. James, University of Illinois Urbana 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Spring-field 

Charles H. Ramelkamp, President lUinois College Jacksonville 

George W. Smith, Soutbern Illinois State Normal Scbool . Carbondale 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern IlHnois State Normal School. .. .DeKalb 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Stuart Brown : Springfield ^ 

Rev. Ira W. Allen LaGrange 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Georgia L. O :borne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 

Doctor Schmidt : I thank you for the honor. The further pro- 
ceedings will be reports from historical societies. Is there any special 
report from local societies to be made, Mr. Hauberg can usually add 
something of interest. 

Mr. Hauberg: I just want to say that the President of our 
Society Matthew J. McEniry, passed away. He was not on the 
State rolls. We have been active in a way we have a curator, and he 
is from time to time receiving gifts of various kinds. We have put 
some cabinets in our court house. We have historic cabinets in the 
main lobby and we find the elevator man there reeceives right along 
worth while relics because of the suggestion which comes from seeing 
these other donations. People see what we have and they are reminded 
they have something at home. We receive all sorts of things — books, 
Indian relics of one kind and another. W,e print these things in the 
local paper once in a while. I just want to say we expect to be of 
assistance to the State Society. 

Dr. Schmidt : Are there any other reports. If not I will talk 
about my home town of Chicago. He then told of a recent publication 
issued by the Chicago Historical Society call,ed the History of Lake 
Geneva, which was written by Rev. Paul B. Jenkins, a Presbyterian 
Minister. He then told of the many interesting papers presented be- 


fore the Chicago Historical Society. One on the Browning Diary by 
Professor Theodore C. Pease another by Professor Cole of the Uni- 
versity of Ohio. One by Doctor Zoik who collaborated with a civil 
engineer, who did the greater part of the work in locating Portage 

Ensley Moore: I want to say I am pleased with the suggestion 
of Mr. Hauberg regarding the Forts. There are so many things 
worthy of notice and preservation that ought to be looked into. He 
then spoke of an uncle of his named Goudy who when he was ten 
years old made probably the first picture of any railroad bridge in 
Illinois. It is a childish work and Mr. Moore is going to present it 
to the Historical Society. • 

Mrs. Weber, .the Secretary of the Society urged all members to 
be present at the afternoon session, and to be on time, as the address 
cf Prof. M. M. Quaife the first paper on the program will be a sig- 
nificant one. Professor Quaife will speak on the Military Career of 
Jefferson Davis in the Northwest, when he was serving the United 
States Government as a young army officer. The address is interest- 
ing and valuable historically, and it has the further distinction of being 
the first formal address delivered in the new Centennial Memorial 
Building. This in itself is an historical event. 

Doctor Schmidt: A motion to adjourn is in order. The Society 
stands adjourned until its afternoon session. 



Gentlemen : T beg to submit to 3^011 my report as Secretary of 
the Society, for the year ending May 22, 1923. 

In the first place allow me to congratulate the Society upon at 
last holding a meeting in the Centennial Memorial building. This 
building is so beautiful that it seems out of keeping and out of place 
to criticize it today when we are rejoicing upon occupying it, but as 
a working building or workshop it leaves much to be desired. These 
drawbacks will no doubt be in part corrected so I will not at this time 
call special attention to them. 

We had hoped to be settled in our new quarters before this meet- 
ing, but the big task of moving is still ahead of us. By the time our 
Illinois Day meeting, December 3d of this year is celebrated we will 
probably be comfortably settled and we will be in a position to exhibit 
some of the treasures of the Library with which members of the Society 
are all too unfamiliar. 

The Historical Society can report another year of steady progress 
and growth in importance and influence. Each year in my reports as 
Secretary and in my biennial reports as Librarian it seems to me that 
I go over the same ground, say the same things and yet our work is 
not monotonous, though our purposes and objects in the main do not 
change because they are of the Eternal Verities. Our path though 
direct is broad. We search for historical material, we file and preserve 
it, we publish such as seems suitable, and we search out of records, 
books and newspapers information for the people, we copy extracts 
from the said books, records and newspaper files for our patrons, we 
write hundreds of letters, we attempt to answer thousands of questions, 
we help with club programs, furnish reference lists for courses of 
study, and in all ways try to be of practical service not only to people 
who come to the Library for information but to persons who write to 
us seeking help and we try to be helpful to other departments of the 
state's great working machinery. 

The members of the Historical Society include men and women 
in all walks of life. It is a large society in point of numbers. We 
have active, annual members, we have life members who are or should 
be active members, and we have honorary members. Our total mem- 
bership list of residents of the State of Illinois is 1,136 members; 
members residing out of Illinois, 129 ; these include 20 life members 
and 16 honorary members. We send publications to 244 Newspapers ; 
Libraries and Historical Societies in the State to which we send our 


publications, 432 ; Libraries and Historical Societies outside the State 
of Illinois to which we send our publications, 229. These last are 
State Libraries, State Historical Societies, University and College 
Libraries, and the libraries of the larger cities. Our publications go to 
some Libraries in Canada, England and France. We send our publi- 
cations, also to the County Superintendents of Schools, of which there 
are 102 in the State. This makes a total regular mailing list of 2,272, 
and we have constant requests for special numbers of our publications, 
so our editions of three thousand are very soon exhausted and the 
publication is listed out of print. 

Vlsits of Lincoln Writers. 

T have often mentioned to you the fact that nearly all Lincoln 
students come to the Historical Library. Very few Lincoln books, 
other than mere eulogies, have been written in the United States in 
recent years, whose authors have not visited our collection. A few 
months ago Miss Ida AT. Tarbell spent ten days in Springfield, much 
of the time in this Library. I was much gratified to hear her say 
that this is the greatest Lincoln collection in the United States. Some 
collections are richer in original manuscripts than ours, but taking 
our books, pictures and other illustrative material and our original 
manuscripts we have a great collection. We have some unique and 
priceless manuscripts, but we want more. We will buy any that are 
within our means, we solicit gifts and we will be glad to obtain fac- 
simile reproductions where the original is absolutely unavailable. We 
want the interest of the members in securing every possible letter, legal 
paper, picture or other material relating to Abraham Lincoln. This is 
true also of material relating to Douglas, Grant, Yates, Logan, Trum- 
bull, and many others, and it is true also of pioneer settlers of the 
State, letters, dairies or books in regard to the founding and growth 
of Illinois and the West are eagerly sought. I wish it was possible 
to impress upon the members of the Society and other citizens, par- 
ticularly the descendants of the first settlers, how much in earnest 
the Historical Society is in its desire to secure this material and pre- 
serve it from destruction, and make it available to the student and 

The Rev. Wni. E. Barton of Oak Park, who has addressed this 
Society, the author of a number of recent Lincoln books, is a fre- 
quent visitor and a constant correspondent. Recently former United 
States .Senator Albert J. Reveridge of Indiana, the author of the 
great historical work, the life of Chief Justice John Marshall, paid 
the Library a visit. Senator Beveridge hopes to write a life of 
Lincoln after the plan of his history of John Marshall. His idea is 
really to write of the development of the United States after the 
Marshall period and this will bring Lincoln in as the central figure, 
though Douglas, Seward and many others will receive critical atten- 
tion. No detail is too small to escape Senator Beveridge's interest. 
He writes to me almost daily seeking information or explanation. I 
am but one of the persons to whom he appeals for help. He is a "won- 
derful worker, very agreeable in his manner and is a pleasant and 


genial gentleman. He is most appreciative of the assistance which 
he so freely asks. One cannot help but be enthusiastic in the presence 
of such an enthusiastic and indefatigable worker and student. Sen- 
ator Beveridge spent seven years working on his John Marshall. He 
savs the Lincoln is a greater task, but he can obtain much more as- 
sistance. This is natural, as the Lincoln period is not so remote and 
the Lincoln literature and manuscripts vastly greater in extent. 

1 have so often told you of our Lincoln collection, the manu- 
scripts, the books, in foreign languages, the sermons, the poetical 
tributes, the caricatures and other pictures, the medals and the music, 
all of priceless value and great interest. I believe the time will come 
when there will be a co-ordination of the State's Lincoln Collections. 
There is much of value at the Lincoln monument and at the Lincoln 
Home. The collection at the Home is the private property of ?^Irs. 
Mary Edwards Brown, the custodian. At the last session of the 
General Assembly an appropriation Avas made for the purchase and 
removal of the frame dwelling just north of the Lincoln Home. The 
bill for this purchase was introduced in the House of Represent- 
atives bv the Lion. Adelbert Roberts, a colored member from Chi- 
cago, who introduced it in response to the plea for the protection of 
the Lincoln Home from fire, made by the Historical Society at its 
session of 192L There has been some delay in the matter as the 
owners of the property and the state officials in charge could not 
agree as to price. This matter has at last been arranged satisfactorily 
with the help and friendly offices of the Springfield Chamber of Com- 
merce, and other citizens. Three thousand dollars has been raised 
by private subscription and this sum has been added to the fund ap- 
propriated by the State. This meets the price asked by the owners, 
and the house in question will soon be demolished and removed and 
the seventy feet of ground will be improved and made a part of the 
grounds of the Lincoln Home. A bill has just been introduced in 
the General Assembl}' the object of which is to create a Commission 
who.?e duty it will be to plan for the protection of the Lincoln Home 
by building over it a brick or stone fireproof building something after 
the manner in which the Lincoln Log Cabin, the birthplace of Mr. 
Lincoln near Hodgenville, Kentucky, is housed within the walls of 
a marble temple. I do not know what prospect this bill has of be- 
coming a law, but too much care cannot be given to the preservation 
of the Home, though it is simple and beautiful as it stands. The 
plan proposed would require more land than the State now owns to 
give it a fitting setting. 

The Lincoln Centennial Association. 

At the time of the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of Mr. Lincoln, February 12, 1909, an association was 
formed in Springfield, though the members were by no means all 
residents of this city, with the plan of conducting suitable observances 
of Mr. Lincoln's birthday each year and encouraging the study of his 
work and the meaning of his life and his services to mankind. The 
Centennial celebration was most brilliant and worthy. The leading 


spirits of this association were Federal Judge J Otis Humphrey, a 
member of the State Historical Society, and Mr. John W. Bunn of 
this city. After the death of these two men, it became difficult to 
arrange worthy birthday observances, as mere mass meetings and 
eulogies while a necessary part of the plan were not vital parts of it. 
An attempt is being made to raise a sum of money as an endowment; 
to enlarge the scope of the work of the Association and to explain it 
to the people. The plan of work is comprehensive, but too long to 
be presented in full at this time. With your permission I will incor- 
porate the plan in this report and it will be printed as a part of it in 
the Transactions of the Society. 

On February 12 of this year a dinner was given by the Lincoln 
Centennial Association at which former Governor Frank O. Lowden 
presided. I was much gratified, as were other members of the Society, 
to hear Governor Lowden say that the meeting which made the 
deepest impression on him during his four years' residence in 
Springfield was a meeting of the State Historical Society. The dinner 
last Lincoln's birthday was in the nature of a meeting to present 
these plans to members of the Association. Its prospects are excellent. 
The Lincoln Centennial Association asks the cooperation of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society as an organization and of its members 
as individuals. Perhaps the adoption of a resolution commending the 
work of the Lincoln Centennial Association will commend itself to 
the Historical Society. 

Report of Committee on Recommendations of the Lincoln 
Centennial Association. 

The committee calls your attention to the fact that the recom- 
mendations which it makes are tentative, and are presented for the 
consideration of the Association as suggestive of some projects or 
lines of work which it may desire to undertake. It is difficult to keep 
sustained interest in an organization which has practically but one 
day's work in the year. 

It is suggested that the Association continue under its present 
name, The Lincoln Centennial Association, but that there may be some 
additional or modified words in the title, giving the reason for the 
founding of the Association in addition to the obvious one expressed 
in its name. These words with the names of the founders should 
appear on the stationery and announcements of the Association, if no 
other use is made of them. 

Of the fifteen men who in 1909 incorporated this Association eight 
have passed away. The seven living incorporators are : Hon. Albert J. 
Hopkins, Aurora ; Hon. Joseph G. Cannon, Danville ; Hon. Richard 
Yates, Springfield; Mr. Melville E. Stone, New York City; Hon. 
Charles S. Deneen, Chicago ; Hon. John P. Hand, now an invalid 
living at Long Beacli, California : the Hon. Ben F. Caldwell, Chatham.* 
Of the first board of five directors, Charles S. Deneen, alone survives. 
Of the first officers, there remains, the Secretary, Mr. Philip Barton 
Warren, and the Treasurer, Mr. J. H. Holbrook. The President and 

*Since this report was written Senator A. J. Hopkins and Judge John P. Hand have died. 


Vice President, Judge J Otis Humphrey and Mr. John W. Bunn, have 
passed away. 

Of the large executive committee of twenty-six members, eighteen 
are still living. They are: Messrs. Charles S. Deneen, E. A. Hall, 
Logan Hay, William B. Jess, Edward D. Keys, George Pasfield, Jr., 
Edward W. Payne, Thomas Rees, George Reisch, Nicholas Roberts, 
Lewis C. Taylor, James R. B. VanCleve, Philip B. Warren, Howard 
K. Weber, Bluford Wilson, W. F. Workman and Loren E. Wheeler. 
We realize that this is historical rather than suggestive, but the com- 
mittee hopes that these names may be suggestive of workers for the 
organization in the future. 

As one of the branches of its work it is suggested that the Asso- 
ciation might offer a prize in cash, a sum sufficient to attract able 
writers; for the best monograph on Lincoln. It has been suggested 
that a poem on Lincoln might at times be indicated, or at least be made 
a part of the plan. This prize should be offered at stated periods, say 
every three, five, seven or ten years. Prizes should be announced early 
enough to give ample time for study and original research. The time 
between the issuance of the prizes should be ample for the purposes 
just mentioned, but not so far apart that they are not considered or 
may be lost sight of by literary and historical periodicals and by stu- 
dents. The American Historical Association will be interested in 
such a plan and will be glad to advise and assist. 

A committee of the highest possible reputation should be judges 
and award prizes. The committee might consist of the President of 
the State University, and the heads of the departments of history and 
English of that institution. Like officials of the University of Chicago 
might be added or some members from each institution. These may 
be changed from time to time. Different persons or different colleges 
and universities may be invited on different years if it seems advisable. 

The Pulitzer Prize offered by the New York World is too elab- 
orate and too expensive a plan to be considered as a model by this 
Association at this time. We briefly mention some phases of the Pu- 
litzer plan. The prizes are offered first, for the most disinterested and 
meritorious public service rendered by any American newspaper dur- 
ing the year. This prize was awarded in May, 1921, to the Boston 
Post, for its exposure of "Get Rich Quick Ponzi's" scheme. The prize 
was a $500 gold medal. 

Second. For the best example of a reporter's work during the 
year, $1,000 was awarded to Louis Sebold of the New York World, 
for his interview with President Wilson, published June 18, 1920. 

Third. The best American novel published during the year, which 
shall best present the wholesome atmosphere of American life and the 
highest standard of American manners and manhood. A prize of 
$1,000 was awarded to Edith Wharton, author of The Age of Inno- 

Fourth. For the best book of the year on the history of the 
United States, $2,000 was awarded to Rear Admiral William Snowden 
Sims for "The Victory at Sea," which he wrote in collaboration with 
Burton J- Hendrick. 


Filth. For the best American biography teaching patriotic and 
unselfish service to the people. The names of George Washington and 
Abraham Lincoln are excluded as too obvious. A prize of $1,000 was 
awarded to "The Americanization of Edward Bok," an autobiography. 

Three' traveling scholarships, of the value of $1,500 each, are 
given to the graduates of the school of journalism having the highest 
honors and other qualifications. Scholarships in music and to students 
selected by the Academy of Design, and other prizes and scholarships, 
including prizes to honor graduates of the New York City high schools 
who on examination are given scholarships in Columbia University 
and an annual stipend of $250. Last year over fifty students won this 

The American Historical Association offers several prizes from 
endowment funds, among them the George L. Beer prizes, for which 
there is an endowment of $5,000; the Robert M. Johnson prize, $250; 
the American Military History prizes, $250; the Justin Winsor prize 
on the best published or unpublished essay on the History of Western 
Hemisphere, $200; the Henry Baxter Adams prize on the History of 
Eastern Hemisphere, $250; the Winsor prize is ofifered on the even 
years, and the Adams prize on the odd years. 

The prizes are for the best monographs, etc., on American or other 
historical topics, respectively. These are more nearly the kind of 
prizes that this Association can afford to offer. At the same time it 
must be confessed that the offering of considerable cash prizes by 
metropolitan newspapers and other agencies to children in the schools, 
for work which, from the age and school grades of the contestants, 
make it impossible that the essays should possess high literar}^ merit 
lessens the interest of the historical worker of more advanced age and 
education in competitive prizes. The success of such a competition will 
depend upon its scientific requirements and the character of the com- 
mittee of awards. These competitions have in no wise lessened the 
interest in the prizes of the American Historical Association. 

In connection with the subject of prizes that of scholarships is 
suggested. Prizes of scholarships in our smaller Illinois colleges or 
even universities may be offered to students in the high schools of the 
State. These might bear the names of the founders of the Association 
or may be gifts bearing the names of donors. We might offer the 
J Otis Humphrey Scholarship for Shurtlefif College, for instance, as 
Judge Humphrey was a graduate of that institution and was much 
interested in it. He was, we believe, a member of the governing 
board of the college. 

We have a number of these excellent colleges. Illinois College, 
JMcKendree College, Knox College and many others, all would, we 
are sure, be glad to have this Association offer a scholarship in their 
respective institutions. The scholarships might in time be extended 
to include the great universities of the country, or even other countries. 

The Association has published in years past beginning with the 
Centennial of Mr. Lincoln's birth, 1909, some creditable Lincoln 
literature. We are somewhat proud to say that the first of these publi- 
cations was the third volume of the Illinois Historical Collections. The 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858, edited by Professor Edwin Erie 


Sparks, then a director of the State Historical Society, and pubUshed 
by the Illinois State Historical Library in 1908. This the Association 
had handsomely bound, and with information about the Lincoln Cen- 
tennial Association added. The addresses delivered were published, 
several other valuable works were added from year to year, during the 
lifetime of Judge Humphrey, but none have been issued since his death, 
we believe. 

The speakers for the Lincoln birthday observances should be 
chosen with the idea that their addresses be worthy of publication by 
the Association, and that the Association build up a Lincoln series 
which will be a real addition to the Lincoln literature of the world. 
One of the principal objects of the Lincoln Centennial Association 
and its permanent work should be the building up of the world's 
greatest collection of Lincolniana. This to be the property of the 
State of Illinois. This to have in view the acquisition of every book, 
pamphlet, sermon, essay or poem that has been written about Abraham 
Lincoln — to include a collection of lives or biographies or other writ- 
ings in foreign languages of which there are many in existence at this 
time, and their number is increasing every day, as interest in Mr, 
Lincoln's life and services grows throughout the world. The State 
Historical Library has Lincoln biographies in French, German, Italian, 
Spanish, Portugese, Russian, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Yiddish, Japanese, 
Chinese and other languages. 

An important part of this collection to be original manuscripts, 
letters and documents in Mr. Lincoln's handwriting, every effort to 
be made to obtain these papers. Those belonging to private collectors 
usually come again on the market. A vigilant search to be made for 
such writings. The Library of Congress has a large collection. These 
of course can never be secured but they are safe from destruction. 
Letters of Mr. Lincoln's personal and political associates should be 
collected. The great life of Lincoln has not been written. Illinois 
should own the source material from which such a life may be com- 
piled. It will encourage donations and gifts if people realize that a 
worthy place of deposit is in existence. Other institutions may be 
induced to part with valuable material, in order to make this collection 
complete. This Association may at times purchase items, wdien the 
appropriation of the State for the purpose is exhausted. The Legis- 
lature would probably reimburse it. For instance, an auction or other 
sale of rare Lincoln items takes place, and there is no money im- 
mediately available. It is a purchase that would be approved by the 
Legislature, but the money must be available without delay. This 
Association could purchase it and sell it to the State at cost. 

Searching for original manuscripts should be the most important 
part of this collection as it is quite within the bounds of probability 
that if a book has been printed, copies may from time to time come on 
the market. There is usually but one original copy of a letter or 
other manuscript document. They are easily lost or destroyed. Then, 
too, the original owners of such letters and documents are dead and 
their children and grandchildren are often obliged to sell them. These 
letters are fast becoming rare and expensive. The collection should 
include all pictures of Mr. Lincoln, his family and the prominent 


actors in the events of that period. Photographs, engravings, paintings, 
cartoons, and the rare old daguerreotypes, medals and campaign 
badges are desirable. Files of contemporary newspapers and period- 
icals should be included. 

This collection, of w^hich the State has a splendid beginning, v^ill 
be housed in the new Centennial Memorial Building. 

Another important project which should be considered is the care 
and preservation of the old State House, now the Sangamon County 
Court House, and its ultimate use as a memorial to Mr. Lincoln and 
other pioneers of Illinois in which memorials and relics will be housed. 

Exhibitions of such material should be made and such an exhibit 
should always be a part of the Lincoln birthday celebration. There is 
to be in the Centennial building a special Lincoln room, not a library 
room, but one in which are to be placed only really valuable articles, 
not books. The board of public works will welcome suggestions as to 
the fittings and furnishing of this room. The Lincoln exhibits may be 
held in it. 

The Lincoln Centennial Association should encourage a Lincoln 
pageant or play to be presented at New Salem by the people of Peters- 
burg and Menard county. It should be given perhaps every five years. 
It should be on such a high plane of historic accuracy and literary 
merit as to attract visitors from all parts of the country. It should 
probably be produced three times a week for three weeks in the month 
of August. A prize might be offered for the lines of this pageant. 
It might be offered by this Association as its part in the work. 

At Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1920 the Tercentenary Cele- 
bration of the landing of the Pilgrims the pageant was produced, the 
three nights of the full moon, during July, August and September. 

A paved road or boulevard between Springfield and New Salem 
would be of great advantage to Springfield and all of the New Salem 
movements, and of course to tourists. It should be wider, if possible, 
than the present type of State-aid hard roads, but this is hardly within 
the province of this Association, except in-so-far as the Association will 
lend its aid and encouragement to all worthy and dignified work for 
Lincoln memorials. A feature of this road should be its trees. There 
might be splendid memorial trees to Lincoln's associates. Some of 
these might be transplanted trees of large size in order that they might 
from the first stand out as larger, stronger and more impressive than 
the rows of trees of the usual size of planting. 

It is suggested that all persons who personally knew Mr. Lincoln 
be induced to write their recollections. The best results are obtained 
through interviews, at which time questions are asked and the replies 
taken down by a stenographer. It is especially desired that Mr. 
Robert T. Lincoln give the Association his recollections in permanent 
form, either written by himself or in the form of an interview, but a 
consecutive statement written by Mr. Robert T. Lincoln himself is of 
course much to be desired. 

It has been suggested that for the actual celebration of the birth- 
day there should be given a small or comparatively small luncheon or 
dinner for the sustaining members of the Association at which time 
there should be a speaker who would be able to discuss the Lincoln 


influence along certain lines, in different parts of America or the 
world. This, of course, would naturally vary on different occasions. 
It is further suggested that there should be as a rule an evening mass 
meeting which should in a sense be a community meeting and at which 
the principal speaker should be a person of reputation and distinction 
and a popular speaker. 

It is suggested that the information about Mr. Lincoln's life in 
Sangamon county and central Illinois and the sites connected with 
his residence here be collected and written or edited by some com- 
petent writer or writers and published in some brief, but attractive 
and readable style for distribution to visitors or interested persons. 
The booklet might be sold for a nominal sum. Railroad companies 
may be glad to buy them in quantities for advertising purposes. We 
have been told by Mr. Davenport of the Commercial Association that 
the three principal railroads entering Springfield have agreed to allow 
stop-over privileges for the purpose of permitting travelers to visit 
historic spots in the city. Such persons would find a little guide book 
a great assistance and an interesting souvenir. 

There may be two or more classes of members of the Association. 
Life, annual, sustaining, contributing or honorary members, each class 
paying a different amount of dues. A life membership in the Asso- 
ciation would be a splendid gift. These matters have been referred 
to during the discussion of the matter of finance. 

These are a few suggestions. We must move slowly and every- 
thing connected with the Association must be worthy of the respect 
and admiration of all classes of Americans, especially must we strive 
to deserve the co-operation of earnest, studious and scientific historians. 

(Signed) Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Mary E. Humphrey, 
George W. Bunn, Jr., 


Co-Operation With Other Historical Associations. 

The Illinois State Historical Society attempts to cooperate with, and 
to aid in every way, associations working toward the preservation of 
history or historical projects. Foremost among these splendid or- 
ganizations is that great body of American women associated for 
patriotic and historical work, the Daughters of the American 

The State Historical Society has cooperated with the D. A. R. 
and other citizens in the work of marking the old Eighth Judicial Cir- 
cuit of Illinois, the route traveled by Mr. Lincoln and other lawyers 
and judges in attending court in the various counties of the Circuit. 
I have repeatedly told you of the work of the Lincoln Circuit Mark- 
ing Association, in placing markers at the county seats of the various 
counties of the Circuit, and on county lines between the several coun- 
ties. This work is now happily about completed, but it needs one 
more long, strong, pull this summer. I suggest that the Historical 
Society take some further and official steps to help complete this 
work, which is of more than state-wide significance. 


Prize Essay Contest in Schools of the State. 

Another important piece of work with which the State Historical 
Society has been associated with the D. A. R. is the offer of a First 
or State prize, a gold medal for the best essay on an assigned topic of 
State History to the pupils of the schools of the State, public and 
private, from the eighth to the twelfth grades inclusive. The prizes 
are offered on the county plan. A gold medal to the best essay sub- 
mitted in the entire State, and a silver medal for the best essay sub- 
mitted in each county, except in the county which wins the first prize 
or gold medal. 

Last year the topic considered was Pioneer Women of Illinois. 
The first prize was won by Miss Julia Ann Buck of Monmouth, War- 
ren County. The prize was presented to Miss Buck at the Illinois 
Day, December Third meeting of the Historical Society. State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction Francis G. Blair presented the 
medal to the winner, with an eloquent and inspiring address. This 
year the topic under consideration is Early Travel and Methods of 
Transportation in Illinois. There seems to be an increased interest 
in the competition. If the members of the Historical Society are 
interested in this plan it will be helpful if they as individuals will 
give the matter some consideration and support looking into it in 
their own localities. The Secretary of the Society will be glad to 
explain the details of the plan. 

The Great Cahokia Group of Mounds. 

Members of the Historical. Society are familiar with the fact that 
within the boundaries of the State of Illinois, particularly in Madison 
and St. Clair Counties, are situated Indian Mounds of rare, perhaps 
unique, historical and scientific value. Eminent scientists of the 
United States and Europe have visited the Great Monks Mound and 
have pronounced it one of the great Indian remains of the world. 
Early French writers spoke of the mounds, and American travelers 
for a hundred years have marveled at them. 

Many attempts have been made to induce the State, through the 
General Assembly, to purchase these mounds, or at least the more 
important ones, to use them as State parks and above all to preserve 
them for posterity. Professor Warren K. Moorhead, a noted and 
reliable archaeologist, has spent much time in surveying the mounds. 
The University of Illinois, the State Historical Society, other asso- 
ciations and many private individuals have contributed funds for a 
preliminary survey. This year, during the present General Assembly, 
as has been done many times before, a bill was introduced carrying 
an appropriation for the purchase of the Mounds. The D. A. R. of 
the State have given active aid to the project. Citizens of St. Clair 
and Madison Counties, scientific men and representatives of the D. 
A. R. have appeared before legislative committees. The fate of the 
bill is not yet decided. Probably all has been done that can be done 
this year, as it is now so late in the session. I suggest that the His- 
torical Society create a committee on the Cahokia Mounds, whose 


duty it will be to study the matter in all its phases and to prepare a 
report and make recommendations in the matter.* 

Fort Creve Coeur. 

The General Assembly appropriated a small sum of money to 
mark the site, in Tazewell County, Illinois, of LaSalle's early French 
Fort Creve Coeur. The Historical Society has had almost since its 
organization a committee to consider the disputed question of the 
site of the old fort. The early presidents of the Society, and our 
present President has followed the good example set him by his 
predecessors, appointed this committee from the strongest men in the 
Society. Captain J. H. Burnham, William A. Meese, Judge William 
R. Curran, all enthusiastic, devoted and unselfish students of Illinois 
history, were long associated with this committee. All these devoted 
workers are now dead. 

The present committee has made a painstaking survey of the sit- 
uation. They consulted all available authorities in French and Eng- 
lish sources, and while the exact site may never be exactly deter- 
mined this committee has made a report, settling for all time, it is 
hoped, the approximate location of the site of LaSalle's ill-fated fort. 
The members of the committee are Jacob C. Thompson, Professor 

C. W. Alvord and Professor J. A. James. The committee has made 
a report, the conclusions of which have been accepted as final, and 
a beautiful though simple marker has been made and will be placed 
to mark the site in Fond-du-Lac Township, Tazewell County. A 
small park, fifteen acres in area, has been donated to the State by 
Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Wagner, owners of the land. The Peoria Chapter 

D. A. R. will be glad to have an oversight to the little Park and see 
that it is kept in order and in good repair. 

Resignation of Professor E. B. Greene from the Historical 

Library Board. 

Members have learned with regret that Professor E. B. Greene, 
one of the founders of the Historical Society, its first Secretary and 
a director since its organization, has resigned from the faculty of 
the L'niversity of Illinois after twenty-eight years of service. Pro- 
fessor Greene goes to Columbia LTniversity. His leaving our State 
University is a great loss to the University and to the State. The 
State Historical Library, of whose governing board he has been presi- 
dent for thirteen years, will greatly miss him. The Historical Society 
will not, of course, lose his interest and counsel, upon which it will 
continue to rely. It is likely that the Society will desire to express 
its appreciation of Professor Greene's twenty-four years of service to 
it by the adoption of some form of resolutions. 

Statues of Eminent Illinoisans. 

The statues of the War Governor Richard Yates and Governor John 
M. Palmer, for which appropriation was made by the two previous 
sessions of the General Assembly, are completed and will soon be 
placed on the State Capitol Grounds. It was hoped they would be 

*The General Assembly, 1923, appropriated fifty thousand dollars for the purchase of the 


in place before the close of the present session of the General Assem- 
bly, but it is now probably too late for this to be arranged. The 
sculptor of the Yates statue is Albin Polasek of Chicago, and Leonard 
Crunelle, also of Chicago, is the sculptor of the Palmer statue. 

The last session of the General Assembly appropriated money 
for the construction of a statue of Nathaniel Pope, to be placed in a 
Chicago park. No work has been done on the Pope statue, and a 
request has been made that the money be reappropriated, as it will 
lapse into the State Treasury if this is not done. It is likely that 
this will be reappropriated. Illinois owes a great debt to Nathaniel 
Pope and a statue of this great and foresighted man should be erected 
that our citizens may remember and revere him. 

The publications of the Society are still delayed, but we are 
catching up and I hope that before another year passes the Journal 
will be up to date chronologicalh^ We have received many kind 
letters in regard to the Journal. Our last two numbers have been 
especiall}' popular. 

Mr. T. E. Musselman's splendid article on the Birds of Illinois 
has been most popular. The Librarian of the Chicago Public Library 
asked for seventy-two copies that one might be placed in each branch 
library and be made a part of the reading course. 

I am sure you have all enjoyed Mrs. Josephine Craven Chand- 
ler's Spoon River Country, which is not only a valuable historical 
paper but has genuine literary merit. It made quite a little sensation 
among the readers of central Illinois and I have had the pleasure of 
sending to Mrs. Chandler many letters expressing appreciation of and 
admiration for her work. 

The paper of IMr. J. M. Glenn in our last published Transactions, 
1921, on the "Industrial Development of Illinois," has also received 
wide spread attention. We have received many requests for copies 
of the address and for permission to copy it, or parts of it. Mr. 
Glenn has also received many letters commending his paper and ask- 
ing for copies of it. 

The History of the Thirty-Third Division, American Expedi- 
tionary Forces in France, by Lieut. Colonel Frederick L. Huidekoper 
and published by the State Historical Library, is the most elaborate 
and thorough history of its soldiers of the late Great War attempted 
by any state, and Illinois may well be proud of it. It was put through 
the press under the able editorship of Professor T. C. Pease, who 
devoted an immense amount of labor to it. 

Last year I reported to you that through the Historical Society 
appropriation the Diary of Orville H. Browning, an eminent Illinois 
statesman of the Lincoln period and a little later, had been purchased. 
The Library Board will publish this important historical document 
under the editorship of Professor Pease and Professor Randall. It 
is a remarkable diary and it will be a great addition to the historical 
literature of the period. 

The Library Board continues its work on the series entitled 
Illinois Historical Collections, in charge of Professor Pease. The 
high standard of historical accuracy and scientific historical treat- 
ment is maintained. Perhaps Professor Pease will tell us something 
of his plans. 

35 1405720 

Gifts to the Library and Historical Society. 

Gifts to the Society and Library are acknowledged in the Journal, 
but I beg to mention a few gifts which are out of the ordinary. 

The daughters of Judge J Otis Humphrey have presented to the 
Historical Society an interesting and valuable historical manuscript. 
In 1857, a young man, a student of Shurtleff College, was suspended. 
He thought unjustly. He brought suit against the Trustees of the 
College for reinstatement. His attorney was Abraham Lincoln. The 
attorney for the college was John M. Palmer. A statement of the 
case, a brief I suppose it is, was filed in the January, 1858, term of 
the Court ; this is entirely in A1!r. Lincoln's handwriting. The brief 
or reply for the college is entirely in the handwriting of John M. 
Palmer. The two papers are in a large envelope, upon which Judge 
Humphrey wrote "Lincoln and Palmer." 

The ATisses Humphrey have been offered a considerable sum of 
money for these papers, which they declined, and they have presented 
them to the Historical Society. I suggest that the Society thank 
these ladies for their generous gift. Miss Mary Humphrey, the eldest 
daughter of Judge Humphrey, presented the papers to the Society 
on Lincoln's birthday, 1923. 

Mr. Thomas Condell, great-grandson of Governor Ninian Ed- 
wards, presented to the Society three day books of Governor Edwards. 
The books contain a record of transactions from 1811 to 1831. Gov- 
ernor Edwards died in 1833. These books are most valuable and 

Mr. Charles J. Scofield of Carthage, Illinois, has presented the 
Society with a history of Hancock County, Illinois, of which he is 
the editor. 

An oil painting of James T. B. Stapp, a prominent early citizen 
of Illinois, painted by James W. Berry of Vandalia who painted so 
mar-y portraits in his day, has been presented to the Society by Mr. 
William S. Ennis, of 39 Schiller Street, Chicago. 

Miss Maud Lemen of Pinckneyville, Illinois, has presented the 
Society with a copy of the Ulster County Gazette of January 4, 1800, 
containing a notice of the death of General George Washington. 


We publish brief biographical notices of deceased members in 
the Journal. Let me again ask the members to inform the Secretary 
when the}^ know of the death of a member of the Society. 

We have lost a distinguished honorary member of this Society, 
Mrs. John A. Logan. A close personal friend will tell us of Mrs. 
Logan's life and public services, but I would like to call your atten- 
tion to the fact that Mrs. Logan mentioned the Illinois State Historical 
Society in her will, by directing that her library become the property 
of the Society on the death of her daughter and grandson. This is 
the first time, I believe, that any bequest has been made to this Society. 

In the death of Mrs. Matthew T. Scott of Bloomington, this So- 
ciety has lost a valued member and a powerful friend. Julia Green 
Scott was a great woman. She was one of the outstanding figures 


in the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 
To her more than to any other individual is due the credit for the 
purchase of Fort Massac Park by the State of Illinois. This was the 
first of the historical projects, the entering wedge which has been 
followed by the purchase of Starved Rock Park ; the site of Fort de 
Chartres, and other important historical sites. Mrs. Scott presented 
an able paper on the History of Fort Massac, at a meeting of the 
Historical Society in 1903. A more adequate tribute to this noble 
woman and gracious lady will be published later. 


May, 1922— May, 1923. 

Brown, George, Sycamore February 6, 1923 

Enos, Miss Louisa I., Springfield September 3, 1922 

Hamlin, Frank, Chicago May 3, 1922 

Hicklin, Mrs. Martha, Springfield October 15, 1922 

Kumler, Rev. John A., Hamilton, Ohio .April 6, 1923 

Lansden, Hon. John M., Cairo January 17, 1923 

Laning, C. B., Kansas City, Missouri August 17, 1922 

Latham, Miss May, Lincoln Februarv 4, 1923 

McKown, Rev. Charles F., Athens April, 1922 

Mertz, William K., Chandlerville April 26, 1922 

Prickett, Major Wm. R.. Edwardsville December 23, 1922 

Quayle, Robert, Oak Park September 3, 1922 

Scott, Mrs. Julia Green, Bloomington April 29, 1923 

Stahl, Mrs. Katherine, Alton June 8, 1922 

Visser, Raymond, Chicago February, 1923 

Watson, David, Springfield April, 1922 

Huntington, Mrs. Arthur, Springfield May 21, 1923 

Local Historical Societies are doing excellent work in some 
localities, but they need aid. I suggest a committee to consider how 
best they can be encouraged. 

On Saturday, May 19, 1923, the Madison County Historical 
Society held its annual meeting at the country home of Mr. Gaius 
Paddock. It was Mr. Paddock's eighty-seventh birthday. I was sorry 
not to be able to attend the meeting, but I have been having a severe 
cold and so was obliged to forego the pleasure. 

The Madison County Society has recently been assigned a room 
in the County Court House and the county has made an appropriation 
of $500.00 to buy furniture for the room. 

This report is growing too long in view of the business before 
the Society, but in closing I wish to urge the members to be more 
active in the work of the Society, help collect historical material in 
your locality, write for the Journal, or suggest topics or writers to 
the Secretary. The Society will mean more to you if you give more 
of yourself to the Society. Help the officers to improve the publi- 
cations and to extend the influence and activities of the Society. 

Your officers urge you to help the Historical Society to be what 
the State of Illinois deserves, the best, the most virile, the most force- 
ful Historical Society in the United States. 




If we were to report the inquiries that come in our daily mail 
to this department of the Library it would be a revelation to you, 
we are now expected to be able to prove the dates of marriages and 
births, or in fact be a competitor of the vital statistics of the State 
Board of Health. 

We have not yet reached the point a genealogical investi- 
gator irom California brought forth ; for many years he had been 
in correspondence with a woman in the South relative to an ancestor, 
who said that she knew nothing more than had already been given 
but she would keep it in mind and if anything turned up she would 
let him know. One day the postman brought a rather heavy package 
addressed to our California genealogical investigator, which upon 
opening, was found to contain the name plate from the coffin of the 
ancestor buried two generations ago, upon which appeared his 
full name, date and place of birth and death. In fact, it gave all the 
details sought for and which existed nowhere else but in the person's 

Another inquiry we had was, could we give any information 
relative to some children in a runaway balloon. Could we find the 
date of the time of the State Fair held in Centralia? As this occur- 
rence was at that time, what became of the children and have they 
any descendants living in Illinois? I looked up the date of the State 
Fair in Centralia, which was held September 14-17, 1858, and in the 
Transactions of the Department of Agriculture for that year was the 
account of the runaway balloon and the children were the Harvey 
children. You will be interested in reading this account when you 
receive your next Journal. We have inserted in the Journal an in- 
quiry to try and locate some of their descendants. The early marriage 
records of the State are hard to find, owing to the carelessness on 
the part of county officials as to their care and preservation. We 
have among our members interested workers along this line trying 
to search out these records. I wish to commend the work of the 
Historian of the Peoria Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, Mrs. George Spangler, who has compiled from records the 
early marriages in Tazewell County, 1827-1835 ; Putnam County, 
1831-1834, also Woodford County, 1841-1846, besides looking up 
early wills and Revolutionary soldiers. These records we are pub- 
lishing in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society and 


Mrs. Flo Jamison Miller of Monticello, Illinois, another one of 
our best workers, has within the past few weeks, deposited with us the 
records of the first three hundred marriage licenses in Piatt County, 
covering the years 1841-1852. 

Mrs. Charles E. Knapp of Springfield, former Historian of the 
Springfield Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution, has de- 
posited in the Library the results of her research work on the early 
records of Sangamon County, which covers the work of two years 
and is invaluable. 

Mr. Milo Custer Secretary of the Central Illinois Historical So- 
ciety Bloomington, 111., has compiled seven numbers of Family Records 
of McLean County, and a publication of Pioneer Portraits of Central 
Illinois, which he has given to the Library. Mr. Ensley Moore of 
Jacksonville continues his contributions on Morgan County history. 
We trust that this good work will be carried on by our members in 
other counties in the state and deposited with us. 

We have been called upon to furnish a good working list for librar- 
ies who are interested in a genealogical collection, as well as for Chap- 
ters of the D. A. R. contemplating building up libraries, and in such 
cases have supplied these requests. We are adding from time to time 
the best material for our collection that we can secure, the eastern 
records we have no trouble with as the town histories are being pub- 
lished and the Historical Societies with whom we exchange our publi- 
cations are full of valuable information. It is in the southern states 
where we need help and have, it seems to me the most calls for, but 
Kentucky and Virginia through their historical societies and publica- 
tions are doing a great deal of work along this line and it has been of 
great assistance to our students. 

Another Revolutionary soldier buried in Illinois is to be added 
to our published list, namely, George Humphreys, buried in a country 
cemetery in Edwards County. 

Gifts of family histories to the Library we acknowledge in the 
Journal of the Society. If you know of any histories being compiled 
please notify us and we will get in touch with the compiler and secure 
the history for the department. 

We appreciate the help and interest you have given us in this 
department of the library and trust that it will continue, so that we 
may be of still greater service to our students and workers. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman Genealogical Committee, 

Illinois State Historical Society. 



Tuesday and Wednesday, May 22-23, 1923. 
Auditorium Centennial Memorial Building 


Tuesday Afternoon, May 22, 1923, 2 : 30 o'Cuock 

Doctor O. L. Schmidt, President of the Society, Presiding 

Address "Jefferson Davis in Wisconsin" 

Mr. M. M. Quaife, Madison, Wisconsin 

Address "Benjamin F. Harris, an Illinois Pioneer" 

Mrs. Mary Vose Harris, Champaign 

Songs Miss Ruth Beckett North, Springfield 

Address "The Prairie and the Railroad" 

Mr. C. a. Harper, University of Illinois, Urbana 

dinner in honor of PROFFESSOR E. B. GREENE AT 6 O'CLOCK SHARP 

Members are requested to make reservations for the dinner through the 

Secretary of the Society before noon Monday. 

Price Two Dollars. 

Tuesday Evening Session, 8:15 o'Clock 

Invocation Rev. William P. Rothenburger, Springfield 

Songs "Star Spangled Banner", "Illinois" 

Mixed Quartet: Madam Klare Marie See, Soprano; Ruby WxVLker Anderson, 
Contralto; M. H. Willing, Bass; Harry Blair Davidson, Tenor 

"Illinois and Time", Dedicatory Poem Wallace Rice, Chicago 

Mixed Quartet The Centennial Hymn (Rice-Moore) 

Madam Klare Marie See, Ruby Walker Anderson, M. H. Willing, 

Harry Blair Davidson 

Presentation of Honorable Len Small, Governor of Illinois. Dr. 0. L. Schmidt 

Introduction of United States Senator Fess, the Speaker of the Evening 

Governor Small 

Annual Address "The European Situation and Our Relation to It" 

Honorable Simeon D. Fess, United States Senator from Ohio 
Songs Mrs. S. B. Harry, Taylorville 

Wednesday Morning, May 23, 1923 

9 : 30 o'clock Directors Meeting in Secretary's Office 

10:00 o'clock Business Meeting of the Society 

Address "Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, First Martyr of the Civil War" 

Mr. L. E. Robinson, Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111. 

Wednesday Afternoon, 2:45 o'Clock 

Address "The Influence of Tennesseeans in the Formation of Illinois" 

Rev. E. B. Landis, D. D., Homewood 

Songs Miss Diamond Vadakin, Springfield 


"Influence of Commerce on Union Sentiment in the Old Northwest in 1860" 
Mr. a. L. Kohlmeier, Indiana State University, Bloomington, Indiana 

Address "Life and Public Services of Mrs. John A. Logan" 

Mrs. a. S. Caldwell, Regent Logan Chapter Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Carbondale 


Papers Read at the Annual Meeting, 

May 22-23, 1923 



A Dedicatory Ode. 
Wallace Rice. 
How various a pageant hath old Time, 

The ages' most astute stage-manager, 
Brought on the boards of this, our IlHnois ; 
Betimes with music every heart to stir, 
Now with a dirge, again with pride and joy 

Within its soulful rime ! 
And we, participants gathered here today 
Better to celebrate ancestral worth, 
Envisioned gaze upon this coign of earth 
Wherein still passeth our endearing play. 

And what a stage and what a setting here ! 

Long blossoming with multitudinous flowers, 
Tall grasses to bespeak the fruitful soil. 

Warm fragrant nights and golden sunlit hours, 
A thousandfold returning to our toil 

Beneath horizons clear. 
Great rivers rolling in their majesty. 

Forests and Nature's orchards with their sweet 

And ever these vast, spreading plains to greet 
The vaster azure of our clement sky. 

Then entereth Man. Whether from east or west, 
Old Egypt's pyramids were planted here 

By som.e mysterious people long ago. 

With sacrificial songs we shall not hear 

And ceremonials we shall never know, 

Nor whom they cursed or blessed. 

The Red Men followed with long savagery, 

Plumed with the eagle, brave with many a spear 
And flint-tipped arrow, cruel and severe ; 

But men, courageous, fierce, the Illini. 

Faded their annals, faint their memories. 

Nor one remaining now to tell their tale 

Or foot their measures to the bounteous maize, 
Their triumphs loud recount or, baffled, wail 

Their warriors dead. The sun hath shed his rays 
Upon the last of these. 


Thereunto come in fateful puissance 
A quartered millenray now agone 
With thunderous gun and Hlied gonfalon, 

Bold escort to the Cross, engloried France. 

Warrior and priest, how they together stand! 

Joliet, who many a distant truth forespoke, 
And at his side that sainted soul, Marquette ; 

La Salle, misfortunate, in his crimson cloak, 
Martyred Ribourde beside ; and living yet 

Tonty the Iron Hand, 
Paragon of friends. Then the merry page 

Writ by woodrunners the gay summers long — 

Sad rascals they, with women, wine, and song ; 
And Dartaguiette, who names our Golden Age. 

Mirroring here in little Europe's stings 

France ruled the stage till pompous Britain came 
To bring distress dull and inglorious, 

Before Virginia sent that heart of flame, 
George Rogers Clark, who stoutly made for us 

A fitting end of kings. 
Still echo in our ears his Long Knives' cheers 

When night-clad, swearing Rocheblave met his fate 

As modest Clark reproved his shrewish mate — 
Still sounds the laughter of the pioneers. 

Over the mountains hear the resonant tread 

And creaking wheels of the adventurous host, 

Stout-hearted comrades, women braver still. 

And little folk, to seek what's wanted most: 

Wide freedom, as our prairies slowly fill 
With spirits comforted. 

Through years of struggle with the savages, 

British intrigue, forests to fell, and worse — 
The racking ague and the fever's curse, 

Theirs is the skill to win the wilderness. 

Minds no less skilful theirs. Their clear foresight 

Our country of the Illinois sets free 
From vexing neighbors. Making it one whole 

They bring within its bounds the smiling sea 
Blue in the north ; and lend it such a soul 

As kept our Union bright. 
Nor lack they courage to make open war 

Against the poisonous wiles of slavery 

And speculative greed ; and free were we 
When in the Flag we proudly placed our Star. 

Step by slow step the Indians were expelled, 

And after Black Hawk there were none to fear. 


Against polygamy the fight was gained ; 

Curbed was extravagance, and its parting smear, 

Repudiation, vanquished, till unstained 
And bright our honor held. 
From wise beginnings, college and the school 
Were nurtured, and implanted everywhere 
The seeds of knowledge, while we brought to bear 

Religion's spreading branches and mild rule. 

In Mexico our volunteers with bay 

Encrowned their warfare, and in troublous days 
That followed nowhere was the battle fought 

Stronger for right. See Douglas as the blaze 
Of Civil strife flares up ! Then here were wrought 

Lightnings that clove the way : 
From Cairo Grant his thunderbolts first flashed, 

Kentucky and Missouri held in check 

While Donelson paled, and with Vicksburg's wreck 
Down to despair the foeman's fair hope crashed. 

This tiny fragment of the greater world. 

Itself grown great, speeds blue-clad myriads 

On bannered marches shaking earth as east 

And south our fighting men and scarce grown lads, 

Singing our songs, battle, and conquer peace 
As down Disunion's hurled. 

Long years out of these legions combatant 

Our State is ruled — men of heroic frames, 
Logan, Yates, Palmer, Oglesby their names 

O'er topped by that of our great soldier. Grant. 

But what of soldiers when a humble man, 

Most human of this earth's heroic men, 
This Illinois of ours hath given mankind? 

Abraham Lincoln, fellow-citizen 
Of yours, of mine, of every man, to bind 

Us in a single span. 
Duty, mercy, mistake and victory. 

Our smiles and tears and laughter one with him — 

Our hopes, our prayers. Well may our eyes go dim: 
Lincoln is all his countrymen would be. 
Past now the hatreds of fraternal war 
And one at heart the Nation Lincoln saved 
And one at heart with him. Now roll the years 

More smoothly, and the loveliness we craved 
The times have granted as the spirit hears 

And fairer grows our life. 
Prosperity, and not of purse alone. 

Is ours and with the vigorous flourishing 
Of trade and industry our poets sing. 

The arts and music strive toward their own. 


Betimes we share in setting Cuba free, 

Peace follows, and to millions are we grown, 

When on a sudden Europe waxeth mad. 

Reaping dread harvest from the seed long sown 

For cataclysm. Hideous the days and sad 
While death demands his fee, 

In those portentous months, or small or great 
Nothing was asked that Illinois denied 
Of wealth and labor and her youth clear-eyed; 

And now — pray God to save our souls from hate. 

For wealth and victory are not happiness 

Alone. Deeper our spiritual need, 
'Deeper our want for broad intelligence 

Mellowed by wisdom, stripped of every greed 
That starves the soul and brings sure punishments: 

Love, love alone, can bless 
Mere tolerance to bigotry is akin : 

For open-minded understanding seek. 

And let the past unto the future speak 
A new contrition lest we newly sin. 

We have about us here the means and proof; 

Here, now, our mighty past a future greets 
Mightier and more beautiful. Today 

For consecration this assembly meets. 
With piety at heart to keep alway 

'Neath this aspiring roof 
Sacred the memories of those now gone, 

The roots they water in this prairie loam 

With fathers' blood, with mothers' tears, a home 
Where babes unborn shall shine as these have shown. 

Wherefore in thankfulness we dedicate 

To the Almighty Power, manifest 
Thro' five times fifty years, this pleasant place 

So rich in relics of the past, so blest 
With conquests over Time, the more to grace 

The future of our State. 
Time hath been tender with us, and our joy 

And hope he shareth, that here be displayed 

Within these walls the soul of all that made. 
That makes, and shall make great, our Illinois. 



Annual Address. 

Simeon D. Fess. 

I wish at the onset to express my gratitude to any state that un- 
dertakes the work that is being done by this great organization. I 
sometimes think we have been derelict in attempting to maintain the 
tablets in a permanent form that will preserve the records of the 
growth of a state. Our nation is so young that we have not yet learned 
to appreciate the meaning of that movement. The great State of Illi- 
nois has many things worth commemorating. Some of those things 
never will be forgotten, even though no effort is made to make them 
permanent. Any state that has the honor of having in it the operations 
of a great soul such as has made this city, the state and nation so dis- 
dinguished is a state so widely honored that I am sure no citizen can 
overlook its significance. Measured by what Mr. Lincoln said often, 
or measured by what he did, take either measure, each of which is of 
sufficient standard for any man, there is no doubt that he has no sec- 
ond in all American history. 

I am often invited to different places to respond to some address, 
but no invitation can carry more significance than one extended by an 
organization like the Historical Association of any state, because I 
believe that the assurance of a nation is the respect that we show to the 
angle of history which that nation has taken, and therefore, when the 
invitation came to speak on this occasion it was more significant than 
the usual invitation. 

There are many problems which today very much concern the atti- 
tude of our present civilization, and some of those problems are in an 
acute stage. I think the separation between Britain and France, which 
is at least a temporary break in the Entente, is one of the most signifi- 
cant incidents of our time. Here are the two great leading countries 
of Europe. They must be friends. It would be the fatality of the age 
for them to be enemies. The most significant separation of Bonar Law 
and Poincare, after the adjournment of the premier's council in Jan- 
uary last, was when Bonar Law said to the head of the French govern- 
ment, "I wish you well but I fear results." It was a separation of two 
great nations on a question of dispute expressed in the most friendly 
way and significant because it was not a difference of religion, not a 
difference of race, or a difference of politics. Were it a difference in 
any of these items I should not be concerned, but it was a difference 
of economic law in its operation on two great nations. 


All nations rise or fall as they recognize the force of economic 
law, and no nation is going to intentionally disrupt or ignore the force 
of economic law, and when you run over the evolution of Britian and 
contrast it with the evolution of France you will know why one natiori 
is running in one direction economically and the other is running in an 
opposite direction. 

The rise of the British Empire to the position on the sea that she 
occupies is one of the dramatic periods of not only her history but of 
any period in the history of the world. I have often thought about how 
one nation succeeds the other on the sea. When this new world was 
discovered Portugal ruled the sea. She lost it to Spain. Spain for a 
time lost it to Holland. Later France took it, and then came the duel 
between France and Britain, starting with 1688 and ending in 1815, 
a period of 127 years, during which seven great wars were fought in de- 
termining who should be supreme on the sea. When France lost 
through the declination and defeat of Napoleon, Britain came to rule 
the sea. She, for a hundred years has had the most interesting evolu- 
tion of any nation of whose history I have any acquaintance. 

A sea power must have a great merchant marine. Britain's mer- 
chant marine is double that of any other country. She must have coal- 
ing stations. Britain's coaling stations are so located that a great 
steamer could not be found at any point of the civiHzed sea with 
bunkers filled with coal, that that vessel would not be at a British coal- 
ing station before the coal was exhausted. She must have cables, facil- 
ities of communication. Britain has them. She must have open ports. 
There is no open port of civilization where her flag of commerce is not 

She must have a language. Whatever you might say of the 
growth of other languages, the language we speak, which when Bobby 
Bums wrote was spoken by not over ten million, now is spoken 
by over a hundred and sixty million, the most wonderful growth, so far 
as I know of any language in history. Not only that, but this must be 
backed by a naval organization. The policy of Britain, was, whatever 
be the size of the navy of the next largest country ours must be double. 
This is the make-up of a great power on the sea, developed in a hundred 
years, today the greatest overseas commercial country of all ages. 
Eighty per cent of all her activities is commerce overseas, and if you 
break Britain it will be because you interrupt that commerce. 

Many years since the war closed, and today, Britain, the most 
substantial country of Europe, faces one and a half million people still 
out of employment, her most serious problem, with no promise of that 
unemployment being relieved except through government doles, the 
most dangerous policy any government can enter upon. Britain sees it 
and therefore she sees the markets now broken must be revived or her 
oversea's power is declining and her home problem of unemployment is 
not relieved. 

Does Britain sympathize with any particular government in Russia, 
evidence of which people are offering because she wants an economic 
conference in which Russia is represented on the basis that no stability 
endures or economic recovery is possible unless Russia is included? 
Nobody ought to make the mistake of thinking that Britain is sympa- 


thizing with the Soviet government or wishes to apoligize for what has 
been done. On the other hand, she condemns it, but she reahzes that 
with this marvelous, potential power in this empire of the North, once 
that could measure with any nation of the world, 150 to 200 million 
people, with one-sixth of the inhabitable globe under her domination, 
that unless you include her in your scheme economic recovery in 
Europe is impossible. That explains Britain's desire to include Russia 
in any discussion of economic recovery. 

Does Britain want to excuse Germany, or relieve that govern- 
ment from any obligation due to France or Belgium or Italy? Cer- 
tainly not, but Britain says, if you push Germany to the point of col- 
lapse, where she is unable to pa}^ then nobody can stand, and while 
we insist upon Germany being made to pay all she is able to pay, 
you must stop short of pushing her to the point where there is no 
recovery. Why does Britain take this view? Because the oversea's 
trade that makes up eighty per cent of Great Britain's activities is 
now disturbed and not yet returned, and she sees no relief of the 
problem until that solution is realized. This is why Lloyd George 
urged the conference at Cannes. That is why the conference there 
adjourned to meet at Genoa. This is the reason that the Genoa con- 
ference adjourned to meet at the Hague. 

France sees the other side of this picture. France ended the 
war with a debt of fifty-one per cent of her wealth. France has 
gone ahead under good faith that Germany would be made to pay, 
and she has increased her debt, and instead of it being fifty-one per 
cent of her wealth it is now over eighty- five per cent of her wealth. 
Now, our citizens do not realize this. America seems to be stagger- 
ing under a debt because it had gone from less than a billion to 
twenty-six billion, and yet. ladies and gentlemen, our debt, if we 
subtract from it the foreign loans, which I assume we have the 
right to do because I assume they will be paid, then our debt is only 
seven per cent of our wealth, while France's debt is over eighty-five 
per cent of her wealth. 

France says that if for any reason there is an excusing of Ger- 
many's obligation to pay the reparations, not the indemnity, but the 
reparation found by the Committee on Reparations, then France is 
bankrupt and worse by a thousand times France goes into a revolu- 
tion, not a revolution of the ministry, but a revolution that would 
overturn the government. Now, we understand the attitude of 
France. Eighty, per cent of her activity is agricultural, with only a 
fair one-fifth overseas activity. The trade of the world broken does 
not affect France so much, but the trade of the world interrupted 
makes the problem of Britain. I have the deepest sympathy with 
what Great Britain wishes to do. Of course we recognize the attitude 
of France, and when the United States saw the danger point we 
officially suggested to France that, if it would be agreeable to her, 
since it is a matter of dispute of facts as to what Germany can pay, 
we would be glad to lead in the formation of an international com- 
mission to survey the ability of Germany and to publish it to the 
world, in the hope that when that is done that there might be some 


international arrangement in finance where the German obUgations 
can be accepted in payment by those to receive the reparations, and 
possibly financed in America. But France was afraid to do this. She 
did not see her way clear to accept our offer because the treaty of 
Versailles, not being able to fix the reparations, did the only thing 
open and that was to appoint a commission upon reparations and let 
them study and fix it, then France was given the power under the 
treaty to use her army to collect it in case Germany defaulted. 

P'rance was afraid that if she would accept our suggestion that 
that would be abandoning her right under the treaty and she would, 
therefore, forfeit all the advantage that she now has as the victor 
in war. Therefore the door was closed to us for further effort, and 
the French Army went into the Ruhr Valley. It is now on a test 
and the world is waiting to see what will be the outcome. I believe 
there is no doubt about France having the right to do it, but there is 
grave doubt as to the economic wisdom of having done it. Britain 
thought it very unwise and therefore withdrew, but withdrew as a 
friend of her former ally, France. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, this is a serious situation in Europe and 
I have introduced what I have to say here tonight with that instance 
to demonstrate this one statement : Wars are not over. Causes of 
war persist. We would live in rather a fools' paradise if we would 
think that under conditions as the human race still suffers that we 
have either outlawed war or we have made it impossible to have it 
again take place. The United States has stood in the forefront of an 
effort to avoid war internationally. She has tried the remedy of 
mediation, also the remedy of arbitration. I hope that she will try 
the experiment of an international court, and that is what I am going 
to talk to you on tonight. 

The causes of wars are not less than three. Wars grow out 
of disputes over what we call "rights." The term right admits of 
different interpretations by different nations largely because of 
different training and probably because of the different angle with 
which these rights are viewed. As two individuals view a right 
differently, and therefore come into conflict, two nations differ upon 
what are rights. And that, my friends, will persist for years, if not 
for generations. So long as that does persist you have a present 
cause for w^ar, not alone on this subject, but various nations have 
different policies. Britain would have a policy economically today 
on reparations. France has a policy that is not the same as Britain's. 
Neither is subject to criticism on the basis that they are unconcerned, 
but it is viewed from the angle of interest measured by the national 
existence of each. 

We have a policA' called the Monroe Doctrine. That is not a 
question of right. Nobody has ever claimed that the Monroe Doctrine 
is international law. That is an announcement made by one nation 
as a policy which is in the interest of peace in the Western Hemis- 
phere, and that policy here is very strongly supported, and naturally 
so because of its origin. Our people have always been sympathetic 
with the movement of democracy the largest exercise of individuals 
in government. Our people never have looked with favor upon the 


government of the few, but always with favor upon the government 
of the people, for and by the people. Therefore, when the Holy Alli- 
ance decreed that Mexico, having broken away from Spain, and fol- 
lowed by the other South American republics, should go back under 
the control of Spain, and we here in America saw that movement, 
our country, largely stimulated by leaders in Great Britain, pro- 
nounced the famous doctrine now known throughout the world, which 
doctrine was in simple language to the effect, that any attempt on the 
part of any European government to interfere with the government of 
any country in the New World will be regarded as an unfriendly 
act toward the United States, and followed by this statement, that we 
wanted the friendship of all countries but an entangling alliance with 
none. That is the famous announcement of James Monroe, because 
of which his name is as well known in Europe as any other name 
in American history. 

It Avas announced in 1823. In 1826, in the Panama mission we re- 
affirmed it. In 1846, in the New Granada treaty, we again reaffirmed it. 
In 1850, in the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, we again announced it. In 
1863, under the leadership of Lincoln, the greatest president our 
country ever produced, and he came from Illinois, Phil Sheridan 
at the head of fifty-thousand of the best trained and seasoned soldiers 
then living, went to the borders of Mexico and ordered the French 
government to withdraw its armies when they attempted to establish 
a French empire in Mexico by placing Maximilian at the head of the 
empire. That was in the name of the Monroe Doctrine. While it did 
not produce war it was because the French Army withdrew, all ex- 
cept Maximilian, and he is still here, as you understand. 

The same thing might be said about our dispute with Venezuela 
in 1887 under the leadership of Grover Cleveland, and that was re- 
peated by President Roosevelt when he ordered the German warships 
to leave the Venezuela waters within forty-eight hours because Ger- 
many declined to submit the question to arbitration on the basis that 
it was not a justiciable question, that it was all one-sided, and Roose- 
velt final!}' gave them forty-eight hours to withdraw. Twenty- four 
hours afterward the German representative in Washington came to 
the White House and said it was impossible to withdraw in forty- 
eight hours, when there w^as flashed back the reply, "You haven't 
forty-eight hours left, it is only twenty-four," and the subject was 
then submitted to arbitration. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, that is policy, the policy of America 
on the Monroe Doctrine; the policy of France on her disputes, and 
the policy of Britain on this and that. These are situations that produce 
war, differences in policy, and they will again produce war unless 
the policy is either withdrawn or there is a better medium of mutual 
understanding w^here the level of intelligence internationally can be 
increased. On the other hand, we have the causes of war such as threw 
the entire world into conflict in 1914, an episode where in some 
province some officer of official or member of the royal family meets 
with assassination. Although Earl Grey did what he could to get 
the disputants to submit the difference to arbitration it was not done. 


The countries flamed, and the war, the greatest convulsion that ever 
shook the centuries, was the result. 

We are now witnessing a terrible situation in China, and only 
today a great newspaper published in the great metropolis of your 
State quoted a striking statement from a striking president, "Peri- 
cardis alive or Raissuli dead," which came from the lips of President 
Roosevelt, and he meant every word of it. That meant, unless repar- 
ation comes at once, military power is used. There is any number 
of people who would do that immediately over in the Orient today. 
Here was another source which might be classified as a cause that 
will produce war; so, ladies and gentlemen, any one who thinks that 
we are exempt from war should disabuse his mind of that hope. 

Wars are present because the causes are present. The United 
States has been one of the leading nations of history trying to find 
a way to avoid war and still maintain the honor of a great sover-> 
eign country. Recognizing the continuance or persistance of these 
points of difference we tried mediation. That has done a great deal 
of good, but, of course, it is not permanent, and cannot go very far. 
We have tried arbitration, and I would like to have you know now — 
and I am not telling you anything you are not familiar with, that I 
want to refresh your memory with something that you may have 
forgotten — the first official and formal recognition of the principle 
of arbitration, not as a temporary incident or agency, but as a perma- 
nent agency, was the Hague Conference of 1899. Twenty-six na- 
tions were represented. Our country was prominent; we were repre- 
sented by the ex-president of Cornell University, the then Ambas- 
sador to Germany, Andrew D. White. That conference endorsed 
three conventions ; two of which were not developed, and one of 
which they undertook to mature, and that was the effort to secure a 
permanent agency for pacific settlement of international disputes. 

That is American because it was proposed by Andrew D. White, 
our delegate. It is American, second, because when they were about 
to adjourn without having come to a decision, White made a powerful 
plea that the convention take specific and definite action upon the 
recommendation before adjournment. They did it and they estab- 
lished what we call the Court of Arbitral Justice. It is American, 
third, because the first dispute ever submitted to it was our dispute 
with A'lexico. It is American, fourth, because the greatest dispute, 
involving the most, was the dispute between Germany and Venezuela, 
and Germany refused to submit first, but under the stress of the head 
of the American Government that dispute was submitted to this 
Court of Arbitral Justice. It is America, fifth, because in 1904 the 
President then of the United States was deeply concerned about the 
possibilities of the first conference and recommended the calling of 
a second conference. All of the nations agreed except Russia and 
Japan, who were then in war, and as quickly as our president was 
informed by Russia that in case conference Vv^as held she could not 
attend, then in deference to that government our president withdrew 
the objection and renewed it after the war closed, and a second con- 
ference was called in 1917. Forty-six nations were there. We were 


so much concerned about the movement for the pacific settlement of 
international disputes that in this second conference we wanted to take 
an advanced step. Our country was not satisfied with what had been 
done in the first conference, and you can see why, that was a court 
of arbitration, and that is not as a rule satisfactory. Arbitration does 
good, but it is not sufficient. It is inherently faulty. First, arbitrators 
are always negotiators, always biased, always advocates. Each 
country appoints its arbitrator ; our country appoints ours. Our 
representative is the representative of the United States in this dis- 
pute; the other representative is the representative of the other na- 
tion in this dispute ; the two appoint a third and the third is the um- 
pire who decides the dispute. 

Our country as well as others is not happy in turning over the 
destinies of a dispute to some one who always certainly will be alien 
to us, and neither is any other country willing to do so. That is why 
Germany refused to submit her dispute with Venezuela, for, they said, 
the third man is an umpire and he does not view the question in the 
interest of the dispute, and therefore it is always an alien decision. 

Now, there is a good deal of basis for that complaint. Ladies and 
gentlement, arbitration accomplishes something but it is not sufficient. 
It is faulty, faulty for the reason that I have mentioned. What we need 
is, instead of an advocate for our side, some unprejudiced, impartial 
person who views the problem not as an advocate but as an exponent 
or expositor of the rights in the subject. For that reason the Court 
of Arbitral Justice of 1899 was not satisfactory. 

President Roosevelt in 1907 authorized Elihu Root, our secretary 
of state — and if I do not offend anyone here, I would like to say the 
greatest international mind living today, in my judgment — to instruct 
the American delegation in the second Hague Conference to recom- 
mend and stand for, not a court of arbitral justice, but a permanent 
court of international character in which the judges do not represent 
any particular country but sit upon the issues in dispute from the stand- 
point of peace in the world. Consequently the instruction of Elihu Root 
in 1907 to Joseph Choate was the most far-reaching recommendation on 
the establishment of an international court of arbitral justice that we 
ever had in history. Mr. Choate made the recommendation. Weeks 
were spent in the discussion. It was finally adopted, together with 
twelve other conventions, and it provided for the appointment of fifteen 
judges but left it to the individual nations as to the method of selection. 
Unfortunately the nations never acted on the selection of the judges 
and this far-reaching recommendation toward the pacific settlement of 
international disputes failed by inaction of the individual states. 

Unfortunately within a year after that the Balkan War broke and 
then in two years after the first Balkan War we had the second, and 
then seven years after this Conference adjourned the World War came. 
When it was over the one yearning desire of the world, which has 
never before been so deeply felt, was whether there was some way that 
we could lessen the chances of war, or prevent it possibly. Of course, 
the latter is impossible, but we can lessen the chances of war. The result 
of that was the announcement by the Versailles Treaty of the famous 
covenant of the League of Nations. There was considerable dispute on 


that, and, of course, it is out of place for me here to discuss it, but in 
order that you may know that I am discussing the matter from an open 
mind I am under impulsion to say that I agree with the famous state- 
ment of Elihu Root, seven years before the announcement of the cove- 
nant, when, in speaking to the association or society of international 
lawyers, in the interest of the institute of international law, he said, 
'"There is a hope that we will some day have a parliament of man and a 
government of a super-form in which the independence of the indi- 
vidual states will have in a degree to be submerged in the interest of the 
larger group." "But," he said, "that is a council of perfection, and the 
nations are not ready for that and it will be a long time before we are 
ready for it, and any attempt to produce that in the interest of prevent- 
ing war will defeat its purpose because it will be a breeder of war." 

I think that Mr. Root was correct in that statement, seven years 
before the covenant was announced. I am saying this not to offend 
any one who thinks differently from me. An audience like this, called 
upon an occasion like this, of course is sufficiently open-minded to al- 
low any one to express his judgment when he gives everybody else 
the same privilege of expressing theirs. I mention this because I 
want to say something later. 

Article 14 of the League covenant provided that the World Court 
should be revived, and whatever dispute there was on the covenant as 
a covenant for a new plan in that League of Nations, there was no dis- 
pute on the proposed court. Article 14, provided that there should 
be an advisory committee appointed to draft a statute and to propose a 
plan. That advisory committee was composed of ten people. It is 
wrong to say that that was represented by ten nations ; that is not true at 
all ; it was ten people. America was asked to permit Elihu Root, who 
had been so advanced in the years preceding on this subject, to be a 
member of the advisory committee. Here is where people make the 
mistake. They say, Elihu Root on the advisory committee represented 
America. Not at all ; he was not appointed by America. He could not 
have been removed by America. He was appointed in Europe, upon 
the consent of America, to represent, not America, but the world, as 
the others who sat with him did not represent any particular state, but 
represented the movement in the world. 

There were fifty-four states who signed the League of Nations. 
Here is a proposed court under the League, and when these ten men 
were appointed, they represented not the ten nations from whence they 
were appointed, but they represented the nations that were ultimately to 
be benefited by the movement. So our nation gladly permitted Root to 
sit with the commission. Mr. Root was asked to draft the statute, 
which he did, and it was thoroughly discussed. It went to the council 
of the League. The council after minor changes, sent it to the_ individual 
nations for rejection or ratification, and here is where there is so much 
confusion. It was not sent to the League of Nations to be ratified, 
it was not sent to the nations who were members of the League of 
Nations to be ratified, it was sent to the nations to act individually for 
or against, including those in the League and those out of the League, 
ourselves included. The nations acted upon it, fifty-four of them. 
Thirtv-five ratified and eleven others signed it. 


This is not a court of arbitration ; the members are not negotiators ; 
their work is not diplomatic. These are judges ; their process is judicial. 
They sit not as advocates of the nation from which they come, because 
there are only fifteen of them, and there are nearly sixty nations repre- 
sented ; so that the fifteen that constitute the court are the representa- 
tion of the world for any nation that is willing to submit its disputes to 
the court. People have become so confused that this is the product of the 
League of Nations, therefore to adhere to it places the nation in the 
League of Nations. Of course, that is absurd. There is nothing 
at all to that statement. 

Now, question was, having seen that court created, having per- 
mitted Mr. Root to sit as one of the draftsmen, having permitted the ap- 
pointment of John Bassett Moore of Columbia University, formerly 
one of our counsellors connected with the secretary of state's depart- 
ment, easily the best and I think the greatest international law writer 
that we have within America, Europe asked whether John Bassett 
Moore could not be permitted to be one of the fifteen, and we of course 
agreed. What should be our attitude toward it? Does that 
mean that on the court John Bassett Moore represents the United 
States? Why, certainly not. W^ith two years gone, the question 
came to us, what should be our attitude toward this world 
court, created and now in existence? Shall we adhere to it? In other 
words, shall we offer financial support in our proportion of obligation, 
or shall we say that we will have nothing to do with it? 

Is it American in origin. It started in 1899. It was advanced in 
1907. It was perfected in 1919. It was, of course, suggested by Amer- 
ican representatives in 1899; suggested again by American represent- 
atives in 1907. I do not know who recommended it in 1919, but I do 
know that it is Article 14 of the League of Nations. Is that sufficient 
grounds for America to say, we will have nothing to do with it, simply 
because it has been recommended by the League, out of which we are. 
That is for the people to decide if the opportunity ever comes to make 
the decision. 

President Harding thought we ought to adhere to it. It is no tale 
out of school to say that in conference with him I strongly urged him 
to take that step. I did it because of the attitude of the United States. 
Of course, if I were speaking consistently with the party that the Presi- 
dent belongs to, I w^ould have to remind the people that in 1904 that 
party in its national platform openly pronounced for arbitration. It 
repeated it in 1908; it repeated it in 1912, and in 1916 it specifically in 
words pronounced for the world court ; and in 1920, when the League 
of Nations became an issue, that party pronounced against the League 
and pronounced in favor of the court. That was the position of the 
candidate who is now President of the United States. So it struck 
me that w-hile it would not be a political asset, it would not win any 
votes from the opposite party and it would lose votes from the party to 
which the President belonged, yet in my judgment it is right, and on a 
great issue like that men ought not to stand on political expediency, 
even though it may be temporarily unfortunate. Consequently the 
President made the suggestion that we adhere. 


Ladies and gentlemen, simply because the United States did not 
enter the League of Nations it does not mean that the United States is 
going to with hold its support of the good that the League of Nations 
will accomplish. The truth about the matter is that the League of 
Nations created a commission to start an organization to prevent if pos- 
sible epidemics. We were asked whether we would assist in it, and our 
government appointed Doctor Blue, connected with the government 
public health, as an unofficial government representative to aid in this 
movement. The truth is, the League of Nations inaugurated a com- 
mission to stop traffic in women and children. Our country was ap- 
pealed to, and our country assigned Miss Abbott, probably as able a 
woman as we have in Washington, to assist in consultation and advice 
wherever she could. 

You recall that there has been an effort to suppress the opium traf- 
fic and poisonous drugs. That started with the League of Nations. 
The United States is giving her influence by the appointment also of a 
consulting representative upon that commission. It does not mean 
that because we did not enter the League of Nations, and probably, and 
I think certainly, will not enter it, we will have nothing to do with what 
is going on for the benefit of the world. That being true, the question 
comes to us, whether we are free on this movement toward the world 
court to give our adherence . Mediation and arbitration have been 
tried. They are good but not good enough. The court that is to 
be a judicial body is on trial. My conscience says that we ought 
to support it financially. The President has put it this way : 
He recommended to the Senate that we adhere to the court, 
and that it must be done upon certain reservations ; first, 
that it does not involve coming in or under the League of Nations in 
any way; second the judges must be appointed in consultation with the 
LTnited States; third, no change of the rules of the court without the 
consent of the United States ; fourth, and this was the thing that moved 
us, we will financially bear our share of the burden to support such a 
movement that will be in continuous existence so that if any dispute 
comes up and we see our way clear we will submit the dispute to a 
judicial process rather than war. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, make this very sharp distinction. It is 
not compulsory, and while a friend of mine, whose name is seen in 
print almost every day, fighting the movement, says that it has no teeth 
in it, therefore he is opposed to it because there is nothing to enforce 
it, I recall that same person opposed the League of Nations because it 
did have some element of force in it. The difficulty with some of us 
is, we can never agree with ourselves. I wanted to make this statement 
so nobody can misapply it. If the court was obligatory the United 
States would not adhere to it and I should certainly oppose it, because 
we have not reached the place where the LTnited States can be forced 
to submit any question that might come up to some court. The provis- 
ion is that only disputes are submitted that are agreeably submitted by 
both parties. If one of them says "No," then of course it is not sub- 
mitted. You say then, why have it? Why have it? For the simple 
reason that if there is a place to submit a dispute that gives a cooling ofif 
time, and Mr. Bryan said that nine-tenths of these troubles could be 


avoided if you could just keep the fellows from fighting long enough to 
cool off. I think there is a great deal of truth in that statement. When- 
ever you prevent war that is not a negative value. That is a positive 
achievement. If you go into war, destruction is a positive evil, and if 
we get any good out of it, usually there will be some good out of war, 
it is always of a negative character. When you prevent war, that is a 
positive value, a positive accomplishment, because every war prevented 
is a discipline of practice of mental decision in favor of peace, and you 
ultimately will cultivate that spirit of peace that becomes the habit 
of mind and that will become the ruling element of a community, and if 
we could some way create agencies by which we could prevent wars, 
the very prevention of them ultimately would produce svich a concensus 
of organized opinion, such a body of conviction that war would be won- 
derfully lessened. W^hile I have not any hope that we will reach the 
place where no war will be visited upon the world, yet I do know that 
by using reason we can prevent wars in many cases, and in that degree 
you have lifted the level of intelligence and ultimately we may be 
able to entirely prevent war by substituting a judicial process for set- 
tlement instead of the arbitration of the sword. Consequently, as a 
Senator of the United States, called upon to act officially upon ques- 
tions of this kind, I am very free to say that while having resisted 
the original covenant, and would today, I am free to say that I shall 
give every ounce of the influence that I have to induce the United 
States to substitute judicial process to settlement of disputes instead 
of going to the brutal methods of war. 



By Milo M. Quaife. 

To the career of Jefferson Davis, leader of the Confederacy in the 
greatest Civil War the world has yet witnessed, much study has been 
given, and it might reasonably be supposed that little information con- 
cerning his life remains to be disclosed. Yet his numerous biographers 
have all passed lightly over one important period, covering half a dozen 
years of his early manhood, and the little they have set down is of 
questionable validity. To this lost chapter in his career my paper is 

The reason for the lost chapter's existence is simple enough. 
Davis was born in Kentucky, his mature life was passed as a citizen 
of Mississippi, and he is commonly remembered as the leader of his 
section in the war for the destruction of the Union. In short, his 
career seems wholly identified with the south, and all of his biographers 
have been southern men. That he spent five years following his grad- 
uation from West Point in the northwest, chiefly at the army posts 
of Fort Crawford and Fort Winnebago, is, of course, well known to 
them. But written records pertaining" to this period of his life are few 
and scattered ; while the biographers, far removed from the scene, have 
been ignorant alike of the local geography and the local lore which has 
been handed down. Thus handicapped, they have passed lightly over 
this period of Davis' life, contenting themselves for the most part with 
a more or less accurate repetition of the narrative recorded by Mrs. 
Davis in her two volume Memoir of her husband. 

My own study promises no novel or startling revelations. From 
the vantage point of familiarity with the local geography and access to 
the local sources of information, however, I have endeavored to as- 
semble and correlate critically what is yet to be known of Davis' life in 
the Northwest — with what success, must be left to the judgment of my 

Over the life of Davis prior to his advent in the Northwest we 
may pass with but few words. He was born in Christian, now Todd 
County, Kentucky, in June, 1808 ; three years later his family removed 
to southwestern Mississippi, and until he was sixteen years of age young 
Davis lived alternately in these two states. Several of these years 
were spent in school in his native state, the last two or three as a 
student of Transylvania University at Lexington. In the summer of 
1824, which may be taken as marking the close of his boyhood, Davis, 
was appointed to a cadetship at West Point. Thereupon he left unfin- 
ished his course at Transylvania and went to the military academy, 
.where he graduated in the spring of 1828. After a vacation of several 

Jeffkrsox Davis 
Supposed Picture of Jefferson Davis in Early Manhood. 


months, spent in Mississippi, the young soldier repaired to Jefferson 
Barracks, near St. Louis, then the western headquarters of the United 
States army, and from here he was shortly ordered to Fort Crawford, 
Michigan Territory, whose site is better known to the present genera- 
tion as Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 

The principal reliance of Davis' biographers for the period of his 
northwestern career which was thus initiated has been the material 
set forth by Mrs. Davis in the first 160 pages of her Memoir. Since 
I shall have much to say about this work, it will be well to take some ac- 
count of it here. For that portion of her husband's life on which she 
wrote from personal knowledge, the author was fitted, presumably, to 
speak with authority. She first became acquainted with Davis in 
December, 1843,^ over ten years after the termination of his northwes- 
tern career, at the beginning of which in 1828 she had been but an in- 
fant. For the period of his life before her marriage,- therefore, Mrs. 
Davis drew upon various writings left by her husband, on the recollec- 
tions of certain of his old-time friends, and on her own remembrance 
of things she had heard him relate during their years together. The 
numerous gaps in the story which still remained she endeavored to fill 
in as best she might by resort to various printed sources of information. 

The work produced by these methods is of uneven value and 
highly inaccurate and confusing." The portions of it which reproduce 
the writings of Davis himself are, of course, of prime importance, but 
even these have been handled in such fashion that the reader is fre- 
quently at a loss to know what to make of them. As for the author's 
contribution, she had little knowledge of the geography involved and 
less, if possible, of the sequence of events. Events of 1832 are jumbled 
indifferently with those which actually occurred in 1827, and the 
author's pen wanders from the forests of Wisconsin to the parched 
prairies of the Southwest and back again without even knowing, often- 
times, that such a seven-league journey has been taken. Airs. Davis 
was, indeed, aware to some extent of the shortcomings of this portion 
of her work, and on one occasion she conscientiously apologizes for it, 
characterizing it as "very mixed and at times nearly unintelligible" ; 
pleading in extenuation that with the meager sources of information at 
her command she could do no better.* To subject such a narrative to 
critical analysis is as needless as it would be ungracious f but unfortun- 
ately those who have since assumed to write of Davis' career have been 
less mindful of the defects of the Memoir than was Mrs. Davis herself. 
In the general absence of other sources it has been made the quarry 
even of trained historians, and hence has become a fruitful source of 
error about the early years of the man whose career it was written to 

We will have occasion to return to Mrs. Davis' narrative, but 
having gained some conception of its character we may endeavor to 
consider in due order the events of Davis' northwestern career. The 
Prairie du Chien to which he came near the close of 1828 was a strag- 
gling village, already of considerable antiquity, with a nondescript pop- 
ulation in which were represented all degrees of social development 
from sheer savagery to a highly cultured civilization. Fort Crawford, 
built in 1816 and abandoned for a period of several months during 1826 


and 1827, but regarrisoned following the Winnebago War of the latter 
year, was a decaying structure of logs commanded by Colonel Wil- 
loughby Morgan of the First U. S. Infantry. From time immemorial 
Prairie du Chien had been a natural center of trade and intercourse 
among the red men, and betw-een them and the whites. It was, there- 
fore, a place of considerable commercial and governmental importance. 
In the summer of 1829 it was the scene of a notable Indian treaty, to 
conclude which hundreds of white and red skins assembled, for the 
second gathering of its kind within the space of four years. These 
things aside, it was a veritable frontier of civilization, the life at which 
for the cultivated West Point officers must have been dull to the point 
of distraction. 

Caleb Atwater, who visited Prairie du Chien in 1829 as one of the 
commissioners to negotiate the treaty of that year, protests feelingly 
against the practice of the War Department of keeping officers 
continuously on the frontier. All, he thought, who had been there ten 
years or longer ought to be instantly relieved. For them and their 
wives who reared families and maintained the processes of civilization 
in these isolated posts under every conceivable discouragement, Atwater 
has only words of warmest praise and admiration. The testimony of 
Latrobe, the English traveler, and Charles Fenno Hoffman, the New 
York author and editor, both of whom visited Fort Crawford about 
the close of Davis' stay there, is of similar purport to that of Atwater. 
That Davis did his part during his first sojourn at Fort Crawford in 
upholding this reputation of the officers' circle for social cheer and 
charm may safely be taken for granted; that he performed creditably 
the duties which fell to him as a junior officer of the garrison may also 
be presumed. But his stay at Fort Crawford was soon interrupted, 
and saving certain stories of a reminiscent character which were 
handed down as family tradition and found their way into print at 
various times subsequent to the Civil War, we have practically nothing 
concerning him that certainly pertains to this period. 

The Winnebago outbreak of 1827 had opened the eyes of the au- 
thorities at Washington to the fact that the existing garrisons in the 
Northwest (Fort Armstrong, on Rock Island, Fort Snelling, near mod- 
ern St. Paul, and Fort Howard at Green Bay) were inadequate to con- 
trol the vast extent of country west of Lake Michigan and north of St. 
Louis. The forts at Chicago and Prairie du Chien were regarrisoned, 
therefore, and it was determined in addition to build a new fort at the 
Fox-Wisconsin portage in the heart of the Winnebago country. Ac- 
cordingly, in, 1828, Major David E. Twiggs led three com- 
panies of troops from Green Bay to the Portage, and began the erection 
of temporary quarters.*' We learn from a letter written by this officer 
on December 29, following, that nothing had as yet been done toward 
erecting the permanent quarters, although considerable lumber and 
other material had been gotten out. Presumably the work of con- 
struction was prosecuted the following season, for Major Twiggs, 
in the letter alluded to, expressed confidence in his ability to complete 
the work in November, 1829, and Mrs. Kinzie, who came to the fort 
to reside in the autumn of 1830, seems to have found the structure 


To Fort Winnebago late in 1829, according to Mrs. Davis and 
Professor Dodd,^ came Jefferson Davis for a stay which extended until 
some time in the year 1831. In several of the biographies Davis is 
represented as the builder of the fort, and this is cited as an evidence 
of his ability, and of its early recognition by his commanding officer. 
The fact is clear, however, that whatever credit attaches to the building 
of Fort Winnebago belongs to Major Twdggs, who was in command of 
the post from the beginning. Equally clear is the part taken by 
Davis in the enterprise. A subordinate officer of the garrison (he was 
a brevet 2nd lieutenant at the time), he had the immediate oversight 
of a party of soldiers which was sent out to procure logs for the work. 
Davis himself, in 1872, in response to an inquiry from his old-time 
friend. Senator George W. Jones of Dubuque, wrote a clear and inter- 
esting account of his share in the work, in a letter which seems to have 
eluded the search of all his biographers.^ "In 1829," it states, "I went 
to Fort Winnebago and was put in charge of the working parties to 
obtain material for the construction of blockhouses, barracks and 
stores. Gen. (then Capt.) W. S. Harney was sent with his company to 
the pine forest high up the Wisconsin river, another party was sent to 
the maple, ash, and oak forest on the Baraboo river. Both parties used 
the whip saw, and being among wild Indians were, doubtless, objects 
of wonder. Wlien the timber procured on the Wisconsin was brought 
down to the portage of the Wisconsin and Fox, the former river was 
so full that its waters overflowed its banks, and ran in a broad sheet 
into the Fox river. Taking advantage of the fact, we made rafts 
suited to the depth of the water and floated the lumber across to the 
site of the fort, on the east bank of the Fox river." 

Of the life at Fort Winnebago during the years Davis was stationed 
there many records have been preserved. The garrison circle numbered 
during the next two years a surprisingly large proportion of men who, 
like Davis, won distinction in after years. Buried in this obscure wilder- 
ness post they little foresaw as they raised their voices in the chorus of 
Benny Havens, the old West Point melody, 

In the army there's sobriety, 
Promotion's very slow, 
the opportunities for promotion and fame that the Mexican and Civil 
Wars would open to them. 

Perhaps the most interesting description of life at Fort Winnebago 
in this period is the one contained in Mrs. Kinzie's book, Wau Bun. 
The author, a talented New England woman, came as a bride to the 
place in 1830 and the contents of her book, which was published a 
quarter of a century later, chiefly pertain to her three year's residence 
here. But little is said by Mrs. Kinzie which directly concerns Davis ; 
one interesting item, however, describes the furniture which had been 
fashioned under his direction for the rooms of the officers' quarters. 
In the sleeping room was a huge bedstead, "of proportions amply suf- 
ficient to have accomodated Og, the king of Bashan, with Mrs. Og and 
the children into the bargain." More interesting still was a three-com- 
partment structure of marvelous architecture which had been designed 
to supply the absence of clothespress, china closet, and storeroom. In 

- 62 

honor of its projector this was christened by those who used it a 

A question of some interest, in view of the character of certain 
stories set afloat in Wisconsin thirty years later, pertains to Davis' per- 
sonal habits and conduct. "There was some drinking and much 
gambling at Fort Winnebago," writes Mrs. Davis, "but Mr. Davis 
never did either." If Davis actually told his young wife this, the 
recording angel, let us hope, has long since forgiven him. More to the 
point is the statement of Turner, the historian of the fort.^° "I have 
heard it remarked by those who knew him here that he had no liking 
for the amusements to which officers, as well as private soldiers, resort 
to relieve the tedium of camp life ; but that he was ever engaged, when 
not in active service, in some commendable occupation." 

More interesting still is a suggestion contained in the diary of Rev. 
Cutting Marsh," the missionary to the Stockbridge Indians : "Wrote to 
Lieut. Davis, Fort Winnebago. Contents t(he) letter: First t(he) bill of 
the Bibs &c. Second, urged t(he) importance of his inquiring whether 
he could not do something for t(he) moral renovation of t(he) soldiers 
at t(lie) Ft. Love & gratitude to t(he) Sav(ior) sh(oul)d induce it 
immediately. Although alone, he sh(oul)d not feel a sufficient excuse 
for declining to make an effort. David went alone against his foe, & 
t(he) defier of the army of Israel, but in t(he) name of t(he) Ld. 
of hosts, & he conquered. God has something without doubt for you 
to do in thus bringing you, as you hope, to t(he) knowledge & to t(he) 
acknowledgement of t(he) truth as it is in Jesus. It was but a few 
vears ago when Christians began to make t(he) inquiry respecting 
seamen as a ver}- few do now respecting our military posts, and behold 
t(he) results!" 

The reply of Davis to this Macedonian call is not a matter of 
record, but Mrs. Kinzie makes it clear that of religious interest or ob- 
servance at Fort Winnebago there was very little. Recently from the 
East and an enthusiastic church woman, she vainly endeavored to per- 
suade the inmates of the garrison to assemble on Sunday for religious 
service. "I approached the subject cautiously," she writes, "with an 
inquiry to this effect : 

"Are there none among the officers who are religiously disposed?" 

"Oh, yes," replied the one whom I addressed, "there is S . 

When he is half tipsy he takes his Bible and Newton's Works, and goes 
to bed and cries over them ; he thinks in this way he is excessively 
pious.' " 

From Fort Winnebago Davis made numerous journeys to sur- 
rounding points. One of the first of these was the logging assignment 
up the Wisconsin, in connection with which a local tradition still per- 
sists that he rode one of the first rafts of logs ever piloted through the 
surging waters of the famous dells of the Wisconsin. One Wisconsin 
pioneer recalled in old age that Davis made many journeys to Dodgeville 
to attend social gatherings and asserted that for nearly half a century 
he was well remembered by the older residents of the place. ^- An ex- 
cursion that is better authenticated led him to Chicago in the autumn 
of 1829. In after years Davis looked upon himself as the discoverer 
of the Four-Lakes countrv, and believed that his was the first overland 


journey to be made by white men between the Fox — Wisconsin Portage 
and Chicago. ^^ A member of the Fort Dearborn garrison at this time 
was Lieutenant David Hunter. Looking out from the fort one 
morning in 1829, where now swirls the greatest tide of humanity borne 
by any bridge in the world, Hunter perceived on the north side of the 
river a white man. Wondering who the stranger could be, he entered 
a small canoe, intended for but a single person, and paddled across to 
interview him. It proved to be Davis, and inviting him to lie down in 
the bottom of the canoe Hunter ferried him across to the post. The 
passage of time was to work a strange transformation in the relations 
between the occupants of that little boat in this voyage across the placid 
Chicago. In May, 1862, Hunter, now a Major-General in command of 
the Department of the South, issued an order emancipating the slaves 
in the states of Florida, Georgia and South Carolina, and he followed 
this up by organizing the first negro regiment for service in the Civil 
War. Davis, as president of the Confederacy, responded with a procla- 
mation of outlawry against Hunter, threatening in the event of his 
capture by the Confederate forces to put him to death as a felon. Again 
the hand of time moved on, and the spring of 1865 witnessed the 
spectacle of Davis manacled in a dungeon, charged with instigating the 
assassination of President Lincoln, while Hunter served as president 
of the military commission which sat in judgement on the Lincoln 

Precisely when Davis" stay at Fort Winnebago terminated and 
his second sojourn at Fort Crawford began, seems impossible cer- 
tainly to determine. The clearest evidence I have found on this point 
is supplied by Davis himself in the letter of 1872 to his friend, George 
W. Jones of Dubuque, which has already been alluded to. In this 
he states that at the outbreak of Indian hostilities in 1831 he joined 
the command of General Gaines at Rock Island, and after the treaty 
of that year was ordered to Prairie du Chien. The campaign referred 
to occurred in June, 1831, when General Gaines with ten companies 
of regulars compelled Black Hawk's band to abandon their village 
at the mouth of the Rock River and agree to withdraw permanently to 
the west side of the Mississippi. The campaign ended with the sign- 
ing of the treaty on the last day of June, yet the diary of Cutting 
Marsh, from which we have quoted above, places Davis at Fort 
Winnebago on July 25 of this year. A possible explanation of the 
conflicting evidence would be that after the close of Gaines' brief cam- 
paign Davis returned to Fort Winnebago for a short time before being 
transferred to Fort Crawford.^* 

Subsequent to the campaign with Gaines, apparently in the sum- 
mer or autumn of 1831,^° Davis was dispatched by Colonel Taylor 
to the lead mines at Dubuque to take charge of a difficult situation. 
A large number of miners had crossed to the west side of the river 
and in defiance of the prohibition of the government had staked out 
many claims while the land still belonged to the Indians. Another 
officer, Lieut. George Wilson, had been sent down with a squad of 
soldiers to evict the trespassers but the latter were numerous and 
determined and the officer was compelled to retire without accom- 
plishing anything. In this posture of affairs Davis was dispatched 


with a larger body of soldiers to eject the miners from the country. 
Although Davis had the requisite force at his command, he chose to 
employ persuasion. In the first public address of his life, according 
to Mrs. Davis, he informed the miners that the command must be 
obeyed. He explained, however, that their eviction was but tem- 
porary, and as soon as the requisite arrangements could be made for 
the extinction of the Indian title they would be free to return. Mean- 
while, he volunteered to secure to each man the lead, or claim, he had 
staked out, by exerting his influence to this end with Captain Legate, 
the United States superintendent of the lead mines. This sensible 
program met the approval of the squatters, who withdrew peaceably 
to the east side of the river.^''' Davis remained at Dubuque for some 
time, watching over the miners and the Indians. In a conversation 
with Charles Aldrich of the Iowa Historical Society, almost at the 
close of life, he recalled by name many of the early settlers of Dubuque, 
and related various interesting incidents connected with his service 

With the spring of 1832 Davis secured a furlough from his regi- 
ment for the purpose of paying a somewhat extended visit to his 
former home and relatives in Mississippi. Before he had time to de- 
part, however, the invasion of Illinois by Black Hawk began ; the 
garrison at Fort Crawford was called into the field, of course, and 
Davis was with it throughout the campaign, serving in the capacity of 
adjutant to Colonel Taylor. Pushing up Rock River, the regulars 
reached Dixon about the middle of May, whence Davis was dis- 
patched to Galena to assist in bringing order out of the confusion which 
had been precipitated there in connection with the efforts of militia 
officers to organize the miners for military service. Returning to 
Dixon from this service. Davis remained there with his command 
until June 27, when the northward advance of the army was resumed. 
The followers of Black Hawk, outnumbered and famishing, were 
now only seeking to escape their pursuers ; the retreat led over the 
present site of Madison, across the beautiful University grounds, and 
on to the Wisconsin river on the western boundary of Dane County. 
Here the warriors were overtaken and Black Hawk fought a rear- 
guard engagement, known as the battle of Wisconsin Heights. Al- 
though buta small affair, it was the first engagement Davis ever 
witnessed, and the generalship displayed by the red leader made a 
great impression upon him. Over half a century later, with his 
mind stored with experiences of the Mexican and Civil wars, he de- 
scribed it as "the most brilliant exhibition of military tactics that I 
ever witnessed — a feat of most consummate management and bravery, 
in the face of an enemy of greatly superior numbers." "Had it been 
performed by white men," he continued, "it would have been immor- 
talized as one of the most splendid achievements in military history."^'^ 
This characterization more than confirms the modest claim of Black 
Hawk, made in writing his biography, that "whatever the sentiments 
of the white people in relation to this battle, my nation, though fallen, 
will award to me the reputation of a great brave in conducting it." 


The pursuers again caught up with their quarry on the bank of 
the Mississippi. This time an armed steamboat lay in the river to 
prevent the Indians from crossing and in the battle of Bad Axe, fought 
on August 2, Black Hawk's band was practically annihilated. This 
action ended the war, and the next day the regulars descended the 
river to Prairie du Chien. Here Black Hawk was shortly delivered 
to Colonel Taylor by some Winnebago Indians, in whose country 
he had sought refuge after the overthrow at Bad Axe. The task of 
conveying the prisoner to Jefferson Barracks was committed by 
Colonel Taylor to Davis. At Galena a crowd of sightseers boarded the 
boat, intent on gloating over the fallen foe. But Davis interposed to 
protect him from this humiliation, winning thereby a dignified tribute 
of gratitude from Black Hawk when he composed his autobiography 
a year or two later. 

At Jefferson Barracks Black Hawk was committed to prison for 
a brief time, and then taken on an extended tour of the East, in the 
course of which he seems to have become something of a social lion. 
Davis returned to Fort Crawford, whence, at some time during the- 
autumn, apparently, he was sent to Yellow River, a few miles away, to 
assume control of a detachment of soldiers engaged in getting out 
lumber for use at Fort Crawford. This assignment and the one of 
1829 at Fort Winnebago comprise the sum of Davis' lumbering ex- 
periences in the Northwest, concerning which many inaccurate and 
extravagant statements have been made. Their general tenor is con- 
veniently summarized in the statements made on the subject by Mrs. 
Davis in the Memoir. Of the first experience, she says that in the 
spring of 1829 her husband was sent from P^ort Crawford to the 
vicinity of modern Menominee on the Red Cedar River,^^ to cut logs 
for repairing the fort. Amid many perils the work was prosecuted 
throughout the winter. At one time the men took to headlong flight 
when an Indian war party swept into view. One canoe landed, and 
a warrior came within 12 feet of the spot where Davis lay concealed. 
Thus in constant peril, with the threat of death hurtling forth from 
behind every tree or bush,^'' the work was carried on. When the raft 
was made, the oxen and outfit were placed upon it for the descent 
to Prairie du Chien ; but the swift current sucked the raft into a 
side current of the Chippewa, where it was broken up and several of 
the oxen were drowned. Hence the place gained the name of "Beef 
Slough," famous in the logging annals of Wisconsin at a later day. 
For a portion of the narrative Mrs. Davis cites a newspaper clipping 
by "a western Historian whose name was not revealed."'" 

The second lumbering exploit is attributed to the Yellow River, 
whither Davis was sent in 1831 to superintend the building of a saw- 
mill to be used in getting out timber for the further work of con- 
struction at Fort Crawford. He built a "rough little fort," and con- 
ciliated the neighboring red men to such an extent that he was adopted 
into their tribe and given the name of Little Chief. The winter was 
extremely cold, and Davis was often wet to the skin for hours. The 
exposure brought on pneumonia, and for months he lay at this 
isolated place, directing the work as best he might, while emaciated 


by disease to such an extent that Pemberton, his negro slave, would 
carry him like a child from the bed to the window. 

Such, briefly summarized, is Mrs. Davis' account of her husband's 
career as a lumberman in the Northwest. It has been accepted without 
question by Dodd, who in certain respects has ventured to elaborate 
upon it."^ Despite these respectable authorities, however, it may be 
confidently stated that Davis' actual lumbering" career bore but slight 
resemblance to the one described by them. It is to be observed that 
Mrs. Davis describes two distinct experiences, one on the Red Cedar 
River in 1829, and the other on Yellow River in 1831. Davis, himself, 
in his letter to George W. Jones in 1872, has likewise described two 
lumbering experiences. The first of these — on the Wisconsin River in 
1829, getting out logs for Fort Winnebago — we have already noted. 
Of the second experience he says, "After the treaty of that year (1831), 
(I) was ordered to Prairie du Chien and subsequently up the Yellow 
river, where we (the government) had a sawanill to cut lumber at 
(for) Fort Crawford. Pine logs were obtained on the Chippewa 
and rafted to the mill on Yellow river ; oak logs were cut around 
the mill and the lumber of both kinds rafted and boated to the landing 
at Prairie du Chien. To this extent was I a 'lumberman' in Wiscon- 
sin, being then in the U. S. army, and stationed so far beyond the 
populous regions ; the soldiers were the operators, and as an officer 
my duties were to direct their labor and exercise the other functions 
belonging to our relation to each other." 

This recital is sufficiently clear-cut except for one somewhat 
puzzling detail. The designation Yellow, as applied by the pioneers 
to a river, is not very distinctive. Wisconsin boasts no less than 
three streams of this name, while a fourth enters the Mississippi from 
the west a few miles above Prairie du Chien. On what Yellow River 
did Davis pursue the lumberman's calling? Of the three Wisconsin 
streams, one flows into the Wisconsin about fifty miles above Portage ; 
one into the Chippewa a considerable distance above the Red Cedar ; 
and one into the St. Croix, far to the Northwest. With the last of 
these Davis has never been associated by any one, and it may there- 
fore be eliminated from our problem. Mrs. Davis' ignorance of the 
geography of the region spared her the trouble of identifying the 
stream her husband made famous, and she merely speaks of it as 
"Yellow River ;" while Dodd, drawing from her narrative a fairly ob- 
vious inference, identifies it as the tributary of the Chippewa. A. J. 
Turner, the historian of Fort Winnebago, on the other hand, identi- 
fies it as the tributary of the Wisconsin. More recently than afiy of 
these, Mr. C. E. Freeman, a careful local historian of Menominee, 
comes forward with the assertion that it was neither Chippewa nor 
Wisconsin tributary, but the Iowa stream near Prairie du Chien. -- 

The implications from Freeman's conclusion (which to me seems 
convincing) are fairly obvious. Davis was never on the Chippewa, 
nor its tributary, the Red Cedar. Mythical therefore become the 
many statements concerning the arduousness and dangers of his log- 
ging exploits in this region. The adoption into the tribe, the danger 
of massacre, the pulmonary attack and the nursing of faithful Pem- 
berton, if not equally mythical, must all alike be ascribed to some other 

A^Iap showing location of three 
streams called "Yellow River." 


time and place than the Yellow River, for Davis was here but a scant 
half dozen miles away from the sheltering walls of Fort Crawford. 
If these things were ever in fact related by Davis to his wife, she 
has failed to state correctly the place and occasion of their occurence. 

The lumbering detail on the Yellow River in the autumn and win- 
ter of 1832-33 was, so far as our present knowledge goes, Davis' last 
assignment at Fort Crawford. On March 2, 1833, Congress passed 
a bill which provided for the organization of a dragoon regiment for 
service on the western frontier ; two days later Davis was commis- 
sioned a captain in the new regiment and he shortly set out for Ken- 
tucky to recruit a company. On the completion of this mission he re- 
paired to Jefferson Barracks, the appointed rendezvous of the regi- 
ment, whose headquarters were presently established at Fort Gibson in 
modern Muskogee County, Oklahoma. The colonel of the regiment, 
it is of interest to note, was Henry Dodge of Wisconsin, one of the 
popular heroes of the Black Hawk War. By him Davis was ap- 
pointed to the responsible post of adjutant of the regiment. After a 
year and a half of service, nominally at Fort Gibson but much of the 
time in the field, -^ Davis resigned his comimission to marry and take 
up the life of a planter in Mississippi. His intended bride was Sarah, 
the second daughter of Colonel Taylor, whose heart he had won while 
stationed at Fort Crawford. 

Over this courtship and marriage the tongue of gossip has hardly 
yet ceased to wag. Although Davis would seem from every point of 
view to have been an eligible suitor for Miss Taylor's hand, her 
father, for some reason, now unknown, sternly opposed their union.^* 
The lovers persisted in their intentions, however, and when in June, 
1835, Davis left the service he journeyed to Louisville, where Miss 
Taylor was visiting, and there at the home of her aunt, Colonel Tay- 
lor's sister, the two lovers were married. 

The sequel of the union proved tragic enough. The young couple 
journeyed to Mississippi, where on land adjoining his older brother's 
estate Davis had planned to make his home. Both were soon seized 
with fever, however, and on September 15. while the husband lay 
desperately ill, the bride passed away, singing in her last delirium 
snatches of a favorite song which she had learned in happier days. 
Her body rests in a neglected tomb a few miles from Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana. In the outskirts of Louisville, not far from the scene of her 
marriage, in a rude tomb in an unkept, lonely cemetery, rest the 
bones of her distinguished father; while far removed from both the 
bride he loved and the father he estranged, the body of Davis reposes 
at beautiful Hollywood in Richmond, in the capital of the Confederacy 
he labored so enthusiastically to establish. 

The circumstances of Davis' marriage, taken in conjunction with 
his later career as head of the southern Confederacy, were such as to 
give rise in the Northwest to an infinity of rumor and tradition con- 
cerning the union. Practically all of this body of tradition reflects 
severely upon Davis' honor, the charges and inuendoes ranging 
from tales of mere elopement to cowardly libertinism and home- 
wrecking.^^ That all of these stories originated after the events of 
1861 is a fairly safe generalization. That they may one and 


all be relegated to the realm of myth is a generalization equally- 
safe. Miss Taylor married Davis with the knowledge, though 
without the approval of her father, at the home of his sister 
and in the presence of his brother and other close relatives. In a letter 
to her mother, written on the morning of her wedding day, the bride 
thanks her father ''for the liberal supply of money sent me," and 
acknowledges his "kind and affectionate" letter. Two months later, 
in the last letter ever written to her mother, the "best respects" of Mr. 
Davis are proffered. The bride was a woman of legal age, and how- 
ever painful may have been the situation created by her father's atti- 
tude toward Davis there was nothing in it of dishonor to the latter. 
Mythical, therefore, are all the stories of homew^ecking and elopement, 
told even yet in Wisconsin f*^ even as the stories from the same period 
of southern soldiers sending Yankee fingers and toes home to their 
sweethearts as souvenirs, or those of more recent vintage of German 
soldiers cutting off the hands of Belgian children are mythical. 

In this connection the moment seems opportune to deny once for 
all the entire crop of stories and legends concerning the supposed in- 
famous conduct of Davis during his years as an army officer in the 
Northwest. The scandalous tales that are even yet occasionally retailed, 
particularly in Wisconsin,^" about him are all alike of the stuff of which 
dreams are composed. How then, it may be asked, are we to explain 
their origin ? The answer is not far to seek. They are all a consequence 
of the passions and distorted judgments bred in four years of bitter 
warfare, in which Davis was the leader of the section against which 
the Northwest found itself aligned. In the recent World War govern- 
ments engaged systematically in the business of propagating misinfor- 
mation, and to this branch of the service is assigned by some enthusi- 
asts the major credit for the outcome of the conflict. The American 
Civil War witnessed no such systematic organization of propaganda; 
but since the dawn of history war has ever been the prolific parent of 
untruth, and to this unhappy condition our Civil War afforded no 
exception.^^ Whatever may be our judgment with respect to the po- 
litical views and public acts of Davis, there is no room for doubt in 
the matter of private character and personal conduct he was a high- 
minded and chivalrous gentleman.^^ 

It remains to note one final act in the tragedy of Davis' life wherein 
the Northwest played a leading role. The Civil War came on in 1861, 
due as much to his influence as that of any other living man, and the 
pioneer region whose first civilized beginnings he had witnessed three 
decades before poured a host of blue-clad soldiers into the Southland 
to render abortive his dream of a new nation which should spring from 
the disruption of the United States. In the spring of 1865 the desper- 
ate struggle drew to its dreary close, and the president of the Confed- 
eracy fled southward, a fugitive in the land of his birth. The pursuit 
of the fleeing ruler was led by a detachment of the First Wisconsin 
cavalry, whose colonel came from Madison, Wisconsin, whose site 
Davis believed himself to have discovered in 1829. A detachment of 
Michigan men shared in the final capture, all alike hailing from that 
region whch had been known during the years of his residence in it as 
Michigan Territory, and all obeying the orders of the silent man from 


Galena, to whom, next to President Lincoln, was due tlte preservation 
of the Union. This closing scene in the drama of the Confederacy 
possesses a broad historical significance. Davis' presidential career 
was terminated by soldiery from a section of the new Northwest which 
thirty years earlier he had known as an empty wilderness ; so, too, it 
was the exuberant vigor and determination of this new Northwest, 
the creation almost wholly of Davis* mature lifetime, which, thrown 
into the military scale of the Civil War, doomed the Confederacy and 
rendered the hopes and schemes of its founders an evanescent dream. 


By M. M. QuAiFE. 

^ The author, who was the second wife of Davis, was seventeen years of age at the time of 

this first meeting. 

= They were married in February, 1845, when Davis was ahnost thirty-seven years of age, 
and the bride eighteen. 

3 My remarks are applied only to the early portion of the Memoir covering the years prior 
to Mrs. Davis' personal acquaintance with her husband. Even the more scholarly of his 
biographers (of whom Professor Dodd is the chief example) have failed to take account of the 
scholarly tenuosity of this portion of the Memoir, and of the difference in authority with 
which Mrs. Davis writes of these early years as compared with the later ones. In making these 
observations I purposely waive the question, which I think might fairly be raised, of the extent 
to which the Memoir is actually the product of Mrs. Davis' pen, rather than that of some 
unnamed collaborator. 

* Memoir, I, 143-44. 

^ For the evidence in support of my general characterization of it, I refer the reader to the 
first 160 pages of the Memoir itself. 

" A convenient summary of the history of Fort Winnebago is given by Andrew J. Turner in 
Wis. Hist. Colls., XIV, 65-102. 

^Mrs. John H. Kinzie Wau Bun, "The Early Day in the Northwest," (New York, 1856). 

■* Other evidence points to a somewhat earlier date for Davis' transfer to Fort Winnebago. 
General David Hunter in 1881 told John Wentworth that he first saw Davis at Chicago in 
October, 1829, the latter having come from Fort Winnebago in search of deserters. Fergus 
Historical Series, No. 16, 28. Davis himself says, in a letter to James D. Butler in 1885, pre- 
served in the Wisconsin Historical Library: "Fort Winnebago had been occupied but a short 
time before my arrival there, and I think nothing was known to the garrison about the Four 
Lakes before I saw them." In the same letter he fixes this date as "the summer of 1829." Both 
Hunter and Davis, speaking after the lapse of half a century, may easily have been mistaken 
in such a matter as a date ; but in line with their recollection is the clear testimony (to be 
noted later) that Davis aided in getting out logs for the construction of the fort, and this 
VTOrk seems to have been carried out in the season of 1829. 

* This letter, written January 5, 1872, I have found printed in the Milwaukee Sentinel of 
February 3, 1891, and there credited to the Le Mar.<t (Iowa) Sentinel. The editorial introduction 
states that about twenty years before, an article had appeared in the Dubuque Timet, entitled' 
"Jeff Davis the first lumberman in Wisconsin.-" Jones evidently sent a copy of this to Davis 
with the request that he comment on its accuracy, and the letter before us is his response to 
this request. The remainder of its contents will be noted farther on in this article. 

'"' Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIV, 75. 

" This diary is preserved in the Wisconsin Historical Library at Madison. 

^' John Wentworth, in Fergus Historical Series, No. 7, 26. 

^^ Letter to James D. Butler, cited above. 

" Another explanation is possible — that Marsh, who was not himself at Fort Winnebago, 
wrote to Davis in ignorance of the fact that he had been called into active service and was, 
therefore, no longer at the fort. 

^^ It is possible that the episode I am about to describe should be assigned to the autumn 
of 1832, rather than 1831. I have found nothing which conclusively fixes the date. 

^^ For this account I have drawn on Davis' own statements as presented in Mrs. Davis' 
Memoir, and on those made by George W. Jones in the Davis Memorial Volume (Richmond, 
1890). 48-49. 

" In this account I have followed the statements of Davis himself, made in an Interview 
with Charles Aldrich, and recorded in Midland Monthly, V. 408-9. The battle of Wisconsin 
Heights was fought lay the volunteer detachments of Dodge and Henry, while Davis was, of 
course, a regular officer, attached to Colonel Taylor's command. In view of these facts, his 
presence at the battle has been questioned. It is, of course, conceivable that his memory 
played him false.but it is entirely possible that he may have been present with the militia on 
detached service (as he was at Galena earlier in the summer) and in view of his detailed 
account of the affair this alternative seems to the writer the more probable one. 

^'^ The Red Cedar is a tributary of the Chippewa. Menominee is upwards of 300 miles 
above Prairie du Chien. 

^' The extreme peril of living on the northwestern frontier is a pronounced obsession with 
Mrs. Davis. Wandering Indians, even in times of peace, would occasionally commit acts of 
violence against whites ; but the chief danger to travelers proceeded not from the Indians, but 
from the physical obstacles encountered. The visitor to the Chicago loop is probably in at least 
as great danger at the hands of gunmen as was the traveler in the Northwest a century ago 
from the Indians. 

2" Mrs. Davis' account agrees fairly closely with several preserved in Wisconsin local 
histories, and appears, indeed, to be based upon these. 

"^ Others have not hesitated to claim far more. In an address before the National Wholesale' 
Lumber Dealers' Association in Chicago in 1902, R. L. McCormick, a lumberman, and President 
of the AVisconsin Historical Society, described Davis as "the first lumberman on the Mississippi." 


2= See his careful study, "Two Local Questions," in the Menominee Dunn County News 
October 14, lyOy. 

-^ The history of the Dragoon Regiment is told by Louis Pelzer, Marches of the Dragoom 
in the Mississippi Valley (Iowa City, 1917). 

-* Various explanations of this attitude have been advanced, none of them adequate. A more 
plausible surmise, as it seems to me, is that some now-forgotten garrison intrigue was responsible 
lor it. Such discords between the officers of the frontier posts were painfullv common. Davis, 
himself, though honored by Dodge with the appointment to the post of adjutant of the Dragoon 
Regiment, was soon on such terms with his colonel that the latter was eager to fight a duel 
with him. Letter to George W. Jones quoted by Pelzer, Marches of the Dragoons, 28. 

-' As illustrati\e of this type of accusation may be noted the story of Judge .Joseph T. Mills 
in the Milwaukee Sentinel, November 10, 188;j. Mills came to Fort "Crawford to serve as tutor 
in Colonel Taylor's family about the year 1834. "More unfortunate than Lord Ullen.^' he says 
of Colonel Taylor, "when he saw the wild water run over his child, and he was left lamenting, 
the heartbroken father knew Lieutenant Davis as a professional libertine, unprincipled and 
incapable of sincere affection for Knox unless he counted the mone.v to which she was an heir 
presumptive." Mills weaves a narrative, wholly fanciful, of the elopement from Prairie du Chien 
under the gTiise of Miss Taylor's going on an innocent fishing excursion to Cassville. Of Mrs. 
Taylor, he adds: "I do not know that she ever saw her daughter again, in whom her happiness 
and life was wrapped up. She mourned as Mother Ceres did for Prosperpine, and Jefferson Davis 
in her view was just as villainous and malignant as the 'gloomy Dis.' " 

-" Within a year or so I have listened to an old resident of Prairie du Chien relate how 
the window at Fort Crawford through which Miss Taylor climbed on the night of her elopement 
with Davis had often been pointed out to him in boyhood by his parents and others of the 
generation preceding his own. 

^' I allude to such stories as the one recorded in N. Matson's "Reminiscences of Bureau 
County (111.) (Princeton, 1872), 110-15. Similar recitals are found in the Milwaukee Sentinel, 
November 10, 1895, and November 8, 1869, as well as here and there in various Wisconsin local 

-^ Even toda3' the character of President Lincoln is depicted to southern school children as 
little short of infamous. See, for example, the sketch of his life prepared expressly for their 
use by Mildred L. Rutherford, Historian General of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, 
entitled "Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States, and Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States," 1861-1865 (n. p. 1916). 

-" While preparing this paper my attention was called to the following contribution to the 
point in question among the Morgan L. Martin papers in the Wisconsin Historical Library. 
L^ndated and unsigned, the manuscript is in Mr. Martin's hand, and it seems apparent from the 
contents, was written about the year 1880. The writer was for a generation one of the leading 
citizens of Green Bay and Wisconsin : 

"It has become so common to read newspaper articles abusive of the private character of 
Jefferson Davis, that one who has known him well for h period covering his brief service in 
the United States Army and his subsequent career as a civilian, desires to correct some of the 
mis-statements which seem to have gained credence. The more semblance of authenticity is 
given to some of these articles, because for a time in his earh' manhood Davis was a resident 
of Wisconsin, where at that time he was*well known — a brief statement of fact may help to 
dispel that illusion. 

Jefferson Davis graduated at West Point and joined the First Regiment of U. S. Infantrj', a 
portion of which was stationed at Fort Winnebago, in 1828. The notorious Twiggs was in 
command, and many of the officers were Southern men, who, with him, embraced the heretics of 
the Calhoun school of politicians. Davis had just then attained his majority and remained at that 
post, where his private character was unexceptionable, until transferred to the new Regiment of 
Dragoons under Colonel Dodge. Zachary Taylor was at the time in command at Prairie du Chien, 
and there the marriage of Davis and Miss Jefferson (Sarah) Taylor took place against the 
remonstrance and without the previous consent of the lady's father. Many years afterward, 
when the veteran Taylor and his son-in-law were thrown together on the battlefield of Mexico, 
each displaying distinguished gallantry in sustaining the honor of our National flag, they became 
reconciled and were thenceforth warm friends. 

"Jefferson Davis was never stationed at Green Bay and was never here, except on a brief 
visit to his West Point friends and associates of the Fifth U. S. Infantry, during the winter of 
1829. He was always regarded a? a generous, hia'htoned, brave, and chivalrous gentleman. A 
brilliant political career, as member of both branches of Congress, and as Secretary of War, after 
acquiring distinction as a soldier during the Mexican War, should at least relieve him from 
the base charge of being considered a common thief. 

"The writer of this article, though condemning unqualifiedly the heresies of Southern 
politicians, which claimed the soveveignt.v of the States, denied the unitj" of our nation and 
culminated in rebellion against its authority, cannot refuse to admit the unblemished private 
character of the rebel chief, whom he has known and admired as soldier and citizen for the 
past fifty years, until the estrangements resulting from the late Civil War." 



Edited With Introduction and Notes. 

By Mrs. Mary Vose Harris. 

Benjamin Franklin Harris of Cliampaign, Illinois, who died 1905, 
at the age of 94, was recognized as an eminent stock feeder and banker. 
He came to Illinois in 1835 when he was 24, and engaged in the busi- 
ness of buying cattle, which he drove to the Eastern markets. After 
seven years in this business he purchased a farm in Illinois, 18 miles 
from Champaign, and began the stock feeding business, which he con- 
tinued until his death, when he was referred to as the "oldest and most 
successful cattle feeder in the world — "^ June 21, 1916, his contri- 
butions to agriculture were recognized by the addition of his name to 
"The Illinois Farmers Hall of Fame," at the University of Illinois. 

Benjamin F. Harris was an ardent advocate of nationally con- 
trolled banks, and soon after the establishment of the national banking 
system, January 30, 1865, he helped organize the First National Bank 
of Champaign, and the following year was elected its President. This 
bank weathered the panic of 1873. During his life time its founder 
saw its deposits grow from $7,359.65 in 1865 to $831,399.54 in 1905. 
B. F. Harris remained President of the bank until the end of his life. 

B. F. Harris, like most grandfathers, took great pleasure in telling 
his grandsons the thrilling experiences of the pioneer days. When he 
was 88 years old,'at the urgent request of his namesake, B. F. Harris, 
II, he wrote his autobiography, which consists of one hundred and fifty 
hand written folio pages. 

As far as it has been possible to determine, he did not keep a writ- 
ten record covering the early portion of his life, but he had in his pos- 
session detailed account books, covering the period from 1853 until his 
death. The lack of written materials for his narrative he supplemented 
by a strong memory. This trait is illustrated by the following quotation 
from his personal friend. Judge J. O. Cunningham. 

"Benjamin F. Harris' mental characteristics were in many respects 
to me the most astonishing, especially his memory of facts and events. 
While with him not two years before his death, when his age was 92, 
in a professional capacity, it became desirable to know the legal descrip- 
tion of many tracts of land owned by him in Champaign and Piatt 
Counties. To my astonishment, unaided by a single suggestion from 
any one or from some memoranda in his possession, he gave the exact 

^ Appendix, page 23. 

Benjamin Franklin Karris 


and correct numbers and part of sections of each and every one of these 
tracts of land."- 

Some minor events described in the autobiography, the author 
placed in the wrong years, and the approximate size of various towns 
in 1835, when he first came to Illinois, are undoubtedly low, but in each 
instance where it was possible to check names of individuals, prices of 
commodities, and events, he was correct. In regard to the methods 
of business, description of life, facts and events, I think the autobiog- 
raphy can be accepted as authentic. 

From this autobiography and some contemporary written material 
it is possible to give the following history of his life: 

B. F. Harris' grandfather was one of three brothers, who emi- 
grated from England to America in 1726 and settled on a farm on the 
eastern shore of Maryland. The family were of Scotch-English ex- 
traction and quakers, in this country becoming fighting quakers, then 
Methodists. His grandfather, whose name was Benjamin Harris, was 
an officer with the rank of colonel in the Revolutionary War." 

In 1784, he married Miss Rebecca Hickman, a daughter of 
William Hickman. "^To them were born ten children : — A¥illiam H. 
Harris, January 24, 1786 ; Rebecca, Benjamin, Sutton, Johack, Thomas, 
Franklin, Jane and John Billingsley and Lucretia. About the year 
1800, his grandfather left Maryland and moved to a farm four miles 
north of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. 

On April 4, 1809, William Hickman Harris married Elizabeth 
Payne, daughter of Henry and Elizabeth Payne. She was a cousin of 
Dolly Payne, who became Dolly ]\Iadison, wife of James Madison, 
fourth president of the United States. B. F. Harris' mother was present 
at Dolly Payne's marriage to James Madison.^ 

To Elizabeth Payne Harris and William H. Harris were born ten 
children : 

Henry Payne, born June 13, 1810, married Salley Foley of Spring- 
field, Ohio, January 12, 1837. 

Benjamin Franklin, born December 15, 1811, married Elizabeth 
Sage, June 18, 1841. 

John William, born Februarv 13, 1814, married Caroline Hedges 
Miller, February 15, 1842. 

Charles Weslev, born Februar\' 1, 1816, married Nancy Jones, 
August 27, 1840. 

Wesley, born August 21, 1821. 

Elizabeth Lucretia, born February 27, 1818, married Reverend 
Grandville Moody, January 19, 1836. 

George Wharton, born November 14, 1823, married Lydia Ranaga, 
September 15, 1852. George became a minister. 

Rachel Jane Rebecca, born January 3, 1826, married Reverend 
William Smith, November 6, 1851. 

Mary Catherine, born November 19, 1828, died age fifteen. 

James Phelps, born April 2, 1835, died in infancy." 

* Letter, Judge J. 0. Cunningham to B. F. Harris, 11. No date. 

■* Appendix, pages 1-3. 

*Ibid., 4-7. 

^ Autobiography, B. F. Harris, 1-3. 

^ Familj' Bible." 


Young B. F. Harris grew to manhood on his father's farm four 
miles north of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. He attended 
the country schools a few months in the winter, helping on the farm the 
rest of the year. In 1816 his father purchased 250 acres for $64.00 
per acre. The terms were $2,000 down, the balance in twelve years, 
$1,000_ a year with 6% interest. By 1827, because of the depressed 
financial condition of the country, his father found it practically im- 
possible to meet his obligations, as he still owed $7,000 on the farm. He 
managed to raise two six-horse teams to haul goods from Baltimore to 
various points over the mountains, for there were no railroads in ex- 
istence, and the only means of communication between the great cities 
of the East and the interior towns, was by wagon trains. B. F. Harris, 
a boy of sixteen, began his business training by taking charge of one of 
the six-horse teams. '^ 

Teaming or wagoning in the pioneer days was a very strenuous 
business. The mud on the mountain roads was often hub deep, and as 
there were few bridges the young man had some exciting experiences 
swimming his team of six horses through swollen streams. However, 
with all these difficulties, he managed to average 14 to 18 miles a day. 
The horses, summer or winter were never put in a stable at night, but 
were tied to the tongue of the wagon. 

One trip B. F. Harris made from Baltimore, Maryland, to Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, alone, but usually he travelled with his brother Henry, with 
his team. After each trip the boys returned to their home near Win- 
chester, Virginia, and gave the profits of the trip to their father. Once 
while crossing the mountains to Dandridge, Tennessee, they met 
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, who was returning 
from a visit to Tennessee. The President stopped and visited with the 
waggoners a few minutes, complimenting young B. F. Harris on his 
fine horses. 

The boys made contracts with merchants in Baltimore to haul 
goods to various places in the West for a certain price per hundred 
weight, with the average load 4,100 pounds. The usual price of haul- 
ing from Baltimore to Zanesville, Ohio, Knoxville, Huntsville and 
Dandridge, Tennessee, vvas $5.00 per hundred weight. Their contracts 
often required that the goods be delivered on a certain day, under pen- 
alty of $5.00 dockage for each day they were late. They contracted in 
the West for return loads of ginseng, tobacco, cotton or rags, at the 
average price of $3.00 per hundred w^eight.® 

In March 1832, his father made a contract with the government 
to haul guns manufactured at the arsenal at Harpers Ferry to Wheel- 
ing, where they were to be shipped south and west on the Ohio River. 
It was possible to make the round trip in about twenty-five days and 
they cleared $2,000 from the year's contract. 

By March 1, 1833, B. F. Harris' father obtained the money to meet 
his financial obligations. He sold his farm for $28.00 per acre and the 
same month, in a one-horse gig and a two-horse carry-all, the Harris 
family set out for Ohio. They arrived at Springfield April 8, and near- 
by his father purchased a farm at $10.00 per acre. The young man 

^ Autobiography, 6-9. 
^ Autobio^aphy, 9-14. 


assisted in improving the farm and building a new house, and after 
one year on the Ohio farm he decided to begin business for himself. 
His father proposed "to give him a start" as he had already done for 
tv^o of his other children, but B. F. Harris, as he was then twenty-three 
years old, thought he could succeed without this help." 

In August 1834, B. F. Harris started on the second phase of his 
business experience. He was engaged by Mr. James Foley to help 
drive a drove of three hundred cattle from Clark County, Ohio, to Lan- 
caster County, Pennsylvania. They swam the cattle across the Ohio 
River, crossed the Alleghany Mountains, passed through Cumberland 
and Gettysburg, and forded the Susquahanna River. Near Harrisburg, 
the drove was sold to Mr. Fordice and his partner, Steven Woolery, 
for $26.00 per head. These gentlemen hired B. F. Harris to help drive 
the cattle to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and to assist his sales- 
men retail the drove to farmers and feeders, to fatten for the spring 
market.^" Then they returned to Harrisburg, made report of sales and 
took charge retailing another drove. In three months, B. F. Harris 
helped retail 800 cattle, and then he concluded to try the cattle business 
for himself. 

He returned to Ohio, purchased one hundred cattle from Mr. 
Foley, and started for Pennsylvania the 15th of November. Concern- 
ing this trip he wrote, "crossing the mountains it snowed, covered up 
the grass, I had to buy hay and stalk to feed the cattle for one third of 
the way when I got to Gettysburg — the ground froze up and I had to 
lay up for two or three days it was rather discouraging for a new be- 
ginner. I stuck to cattle and the third day moved out for Lancaster 
on the road I met a railroad contractor — this man wished to buy 35 
head for beef to feed his men." B. F. Harris, in the next few days, 
disposed of all the .cattle and on this first business venture cleared 

June 1, 1835, he left Springfield, Ohio, for Illinois, for the purpose 
of buying cattle. Lie had three thousand dollars borrowed money, and 
one thousand of his own. He passed through Dayton, Ohio, and then 
west to Danville, Illinois. Danville, he says at this time was a place 
of about twenty little shanties, "Frasier kept Entertainment." He came 
west to the place where Sidney is now located and spent the night there 
with a man whose name was George Duck George. Provisions were 
scarce in this household, and at sunrise the young man started off for 
Sadorus Grove, about 16 or 18 miles distant, to get breakfast. At this 
time there were no roads or paths and travellers were instructed to 
travel from one point of timber to another.^" B. F. Harris missed the 
point to which he was directed and came to the Big Grove as it was 
called, which is the present site of Urbana. There was one cabin in 
the grove at which he inquired if he could get breakfast. The man of 
the house replied that they had nothing in the house but boiled corn 
until he could make a trip to Danville to get a sack of corn ground, 
but he accompanied B. F. Harris a short distance, and directed him to 

^ Appendix, 8-15. 

Autobiography, 15-16, 126-127. 
1° Autobiography, 18-19. 
" Ibid., 19-20. 
12 Autobiography, 22. 


Sadorus Grove. About two o'clock in the afternoon, he reached the 
Sadorus cabins, and when they heard that he had not eaten that day, 
Mr. Sadorus' two daughters "prepared one of the best meals I thought 
I ever had the pleasure to eat — "^^ he wrote. 

It is difficult to picture this section of the state as B. F. Harris 
found it, and to realize that all this marvelous development came dur- 
ing his life. Eastern Illinois consisted originall}' of great stretches of 
prairie, which were covered with a dense growth of prairie grass. An 
English visitor at Urbana wrote, "From an eminence as far as the eye 
could comprehend the scene, it traversed the richest undulating fields of 
grass, almost unbroken by fence, plough or house. We walked some 
distance up to the knees in the luxuriant herbage."^* This section forms 
part of the great maize belt of the continent and its soil is almost un- 
surpassed in its fertility ; it is the result of decay for ages of rank and 
coarse grasses. 

Very little of the prairie land was settled by the early pioneers, 
who thought it impossible to raise anything on prairie soil. They pre- 
ferred to cut the trees in the timber, and plant their corn between the 
stumps. The difficulty of transporting wood to the prairie for building 
material and fuel, was a real one. As late as 1850 few farms had been 
opened one mile from the timber. Pessimists among the settlers often 
prophesized that these prairies would never be settled. The largest 
bodies of timber were found along the Salt Fork, including the Big 
Grove, which originally contained 13,000 acres. In point of time the 
Sangamon River territory was the last to be settled in this section. 
When B. F. Harris came, there were only eleven families from its 
source to the eastern boundary of the present Piatt County. ^^ 

B. F. Harris travelled west from the Sadorus cabins to a point of 
timber where Monticello is now located, and there spent three days with 
Mr. James H. Piatt. He wrote, "Mister Piatt told me there was an 
Eighty Acre lot of fine timber near his place and advised me to buy it. 
We went out and saw the timber and also got the No. of the eighty 
acres, and I afterwards entered the land." Next he journeyed to the 
Sangamon River where he crossed at the trading house, a place "where 
the Indians traded their furs," he wrote. There a flat boat ferried 
travellers across the river. He travelled from there to Decatur and 
thence to Springfield, which he declares, "was a small village about one 
hundred people and twentv or thirtv shanties, a Hotel, a hard looking 

June 15, 1835, he reached Jacksonville, which he considered was a 
beautiful place of about fifteen hundred people with "nice" buildings. 
He purchased 30 head of fine cattle at $14.00 per head from Ex-Gov- 
ernor Duncan, who lived four miles from Jacksonville. The next few 
days he purchased 50 or 60 head, and next went to Jacob Strawn's, four 
miles southwest of Jacksonville, who, he asserts, "was the cattle King 
of the west," who advised him where more cattle were for sale. In a 
few days, "B. F." Harris finished buying his herd, drove them to Mr. 
Piatt's where he grazed them a few weeks, then started for Pennsyl- 

'^^ Ibid., 23. 

^* AVilliam Feva'nson, A'nifnra hij Hirer avl Rail, 37f). 

^^ J. 0. Cunningham, History of Champaign County, 684. 

'^^ Autobiography, 24. These figures are undoubtedly low for Springfield. 


vania, where the cattle were retailed to feeders. He considered he 
made a fair profit on the year's work. 

He returned to Illinois the fall of the same year and purchased 125 
cattle which he wintered near Mt. Vernon, Jefferson County, Illinois. 
The next April he purchased 150 more and in July drove them to Penn- 
sylvania. In six years he marketed in Pennsylvania, five droves of 
Illinois cattle.^" 

About December 1st, "Frank Harris," as men called him, usually 
purchased from 100 to 200 cattle, which he fed during the winter, on 
shock corn, purchased for ten cents a bushel. The last of April the 
cattle were turned out on the prairies to graze where "they had a range 
of 10,000 acres." Two men were kept with them during the day, and 
they were allowed to range out on the prairie for three or four miles ; 
at night they were gathered in a stalk field or pound. During the win- 
ter he usually purchased other cattle in small lots from farmers, to be 
delivered April first. 

By the middle of July or the first of August, assisted by five men, 
he usuaUy set out to drive the cattle to Pennsylvania. One member of 
the party was sent ahead to secure pasture for the night, and in the 
■ winter feed for the cattle. "Lead cattle," as they were called, appar- 
ently were used to control the movements of the drove. They travelled 
an average of 12 miles a day, and the trip usually required ninety days. 
At night the cattle were lotted in a pound or stalk field with one man 
to watch them. 

The usual route East was the following: — They swam the cattle 
through the Kaskaskia River at Vandalia, swam the Wabash at Attica, 
drove through Muncie, Indiana, Springfield and Columbus, Ohio, swam 
the Sciota River at Gainesville, drove to Wheeling, swam the Ohio, and 
crossed the mountains to Cumberland, Hagerstown, Gettysburg, Har- 
risburg, to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.^^ 

In December, 1840, Miss Elizabeth Sage, daughter of Colonel and 
Amanda Sage, came from Circleville, Ohio, where she had graduated 
from college, to visit her sister, Mrs. Susan L. Williams, whose home 
was about two miles from B. F. Harris' boarding place, near Mahomet, 
Illinois. Miss Sage and "Frank Harris" became acquainted and were 
married June 17, 1841. B. F. was then 30 years old and his bride 18. 
B. F. remarks that here he was, "in this country with four hundred and 
thirty cattle and a wife. I thought I could arrange and take care of my 
wife and cattle too, thus I kept the cattle on the range and wife at her 
sisters until the first day of July."^'' 

July 1st, 1841, B. F. Harris started for Pennsylvania with a drove 
of cattle for the seventh and last time. There were four hundred and 
thirty cattle in the drove, which was the largest number he had ever 
driven East at one time. He left his wife with her father in Circleville, 
Ohio and drove the cattle on toward Pennsylvania.^" 

That year there had been a severe drouth in the East which had 
caused the grass to dry up, and therefore the farmers did not wish to 
buy cattle. B. F. Harris met many drovers rjeturning from Lancaster 

"/Sid., 24-25. 
IS Autobiography, 18-36. 
" Autobiographv, .36-37. 
20 76?d., 36-37. 


and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, who advised him to turn back. 
Many of them had lost all the profits of three or four years, because, 
since there was little demand for cattle they were forced to sell at a 
loss. They advised him to turn back. He wrote, "that I could not do 
if I drove back I had no place to keep them nor money to buy feed for 
that many cattle all winter this was a hard lick on me as I thought to 
lose all I had made in five years as they said they had done." 

He decided to go on to Lancaster and hold the cattle until cold 
weather ; then he thought he could sell them to feeders. He remarks, 
"I concluded to go back to Circleville and bring my wife East — think- 
ing if wife was with me I could hold out longer — we overtook the 
cattle before they crossed the Susquehanna River I bought a carriage 
I had two good horses and could keep along go a head and get 
pasture — " 

At Lancaster he divided the cattle into small lots, and kept them 
for thirty days. It rained in the meantime causing the grass to grow, 
which created a demand for cattle. Eventually, he sold all at a good 
price, but since expenses were very heavy, he only cleared a thousand 

He took his wife to Philadelphia for a few days' visit, and the 
tenth of December, returned to Circleville, Ohio. They then went to 
his parents' home near Springfield, Ohio, for Christmas, and they urged 
him to buy a farm near them in Ohio, but he writes, 'T concluded — 
we would go to Illinois and grow up with the country." 

They returned to Illinois in February, 1842, to purchase a farm. 
Their brother-in-law, Mr. Williams, proposed to sell them his farm of 
400 acres, his home, household goods and stock. This offer was satis- 
factory, and this land in Section 31, town 20, North Range, range 7, 
east of 3d P. M., became the nucleus of the vast land holdings B. F. 
Harris later accumulated. He now commenced his third business ven- 
ture, the business of farming and stock feeding, in which he later be- 
came nationally recognized, as a leader. 

When he purchased the farm from his brother-in-law, there were 
three double cabins, on the farm, which were built of logs. The 
floors were made of puncheons split from trees, one side of which was 
hewed to a plane surface for the upper side of the floor, while the 
under side was notched to the log sleepers upon which the floor rested. 
In this way a very solid and durable floor could be made. The roof 
was made of clap-boards, which were similar to large shingles, but 
were thicker at the lower edge than the upper, and as they were hewn 
with an axe were rarely quite true.^^ It formed a very satisfactory roof 
in summer but in the winter after a snow, it was necessary to shovel 
out the snow in the loft, before it melted and descended as rain on the 
family below. The cabins were white-washed inside, and had glass 
panes in the windows. 

Soon after "Frank Harris" moved on the farm, he sent a man to 
Springfield, Ohio, to buy some supplies. Among these were a cooking 
stove, and fifty yards of carpet for the puncheon floors. In these three 
cabins usually eight to ten laboring men lived, besides a large family 

-^ Autobiography, 37-39. 

-2 Cunningham, History of Champaign County , 689 ; Autobiography, 39. 


and numerous visitors. In later years "Uncle Frank" wrote, "I often 
look back to those four or live years we lived in our cabbeon home that 
it was among my happiest years of my life indeed I never knew what 
happiness was until we were married and situated in our new home."-^ 

in 1843 he drove some cattle to St. Louis, and brought back a load 
of groceries of all kinds, enough to last for the year. He wrote, "there 
no place nearer than St. Lewis to get anything in the grocery line or 
any other line but we always had plenty to eat and ware, and plenty 
work to do and we did it — " "I had been from home about twenty-five 
days the roads was good and I had two good horses and. I was rather 
anxious to see the one I had left behind me. I drove home in four days 
about one hundred and sixty-five miles this is the weigh I used to do- 
business when I was young."^* 

In August, 1844, they ran short of provisions, especially sugar and 
coffee. B. F. Harris sent two men with two wagons, drawn by four 
yoke of oxen each, to Chicago. One wagon was loaded with 50 bushels 
of wheat, the other with SO bushels of corn. "There was no road," the 
autobiography continues, "to lead them to Chicago nor no settlers to 
stop over night. They struck a be line north until night then camp out 
in the wide prairie and watch the oxen while grasing and then tyed 
thim to the wagon until early morning then grase the oxen while they 
prepaired breakfast they took with them some wood to make a little 
fire to fry their meat and make coffee they had two large jugs to carrey 
watter to drink and make coffee they men said they had a nice time in 
this trip, they arrived in Chicago a town of about two thousand at that 
time sold the wheet — I gave them mone}' to load the teams back with 
salt, coffee and especially sugar and rice and all other things we had 
to have — "-° "In nineteen days the teams arrived with the groceries 
the neighbors were all out of cofifee and sugar and some other things 
the day the teams arrive there was as many as twenty men there to get 
coffee and .sugar we divide it all out among the neighbors. Kept what 
we wanted and parted with all the rest — "-^ "We were well satisfied 
with our home and lived very happily together, the outlook was very 
promicen to us. After we had been living together about three years 
our son Henry Hickman on the twenty- seventh of April 1844 came to 
live with this added to our happiness."^' 

When B. F. Harris first settled on the Sangamon there were no 
peach or apple trees, only the wild plum, and the natural fruits of the 
country. During his second year on the farm, a man came with a load 
of three year old apple trees, offering to sell him a hundred trees. He 
wrote, "I told the man I did not have the money by me to buy trees he 
then propose to trade trees for a cow, I only had one cow and he offered 
me one hundred trees for the cow. I conculted my wife, and we con- 
cluded to let the cow go for the sake of the trees and we might not have 
a chance again to start an orchard the trade was made he tied the only 
cow we had behind his wagon and put out — in three years those apple 

-' Autobiography, 40. 

" Ibid., 40, 41. 

^ Autobiography, 46. 

^ Ibid., 47. 

2^ Ibid., 50. 


trees bore a few apples — this was one of the best trades I ever made in a 
small way."^^ 

One time on the farm when they happened to be out of sugar, a 
neighbor discovered a bee tree in B. F. Harris' timber, which they cut 
down, taking a barrel of honey from the tree. The bees were hived in 
a nail keg, and that summer they swarmed four times. As there were 
flowers of all kinds for the bees to feed on, the family enjoyed all the 
honey it could use.^'' 

There was good fishing in the Sangamon River, which was a quar- 
ter of a mile from the Harris home. There were pike and redhorse 
fish in abundance. He had a gig and a canoe, and often gigged fish.^** 
There were also many deer in the timber, and he had two large gray 
hounds, which he used in hunting deer. He wrote, "My wife's Father 
Col. Henry Sage came to Illinois — the Col. was very fond of hunting 
deare and fishing. I cawled in a neighbor Wesley Davis who was a 
great Dear hunter we all started out horse back wife went a long to 
see the fun we took the dogs they soon started a two prong Buck — ;the 
Dear came along near Davis in full speed. Davis let fly at the dear — 
well we took up the rope and tried the Dear to the Horses tale and mad 
for the cabbins — "^^ As late as 1855, according to the Urbana Union 
of February 15, a party of six or eight men went deer hunting, and 
returned with five large deer. In 1857, August '27, this same news- 
paper declares several people near Urbana saw a bear. 

Rattlesnakes were very numerous on the farm, as an English 
visitor relates, "As we were walking about among them, (the cattle), 
one of our party called out, 'there's a snake,' and sure enough there lay 
a rattle-snake, three or four feet long, coiled up, and with elevated 
head, hissing and shaking his rattling tail. Our herd boy friend soon 
made an end of him, planting one heel upon him, he stamped him to 
death with the other. The rattle, which was carried off in triumph, 
had eight rings, betokening a serpent of ten years. The boy said he 
had killed probably fifty of them. They sometimes bite the cattle, then 
whiskey and tobacco is applied, and this allays the inflammation. It 
is affirmed, there is no authenticated instance of any one in Illinois hav- 
ing ever died from the bite of one of these prairie rattle-snakes. "^^ 

The early settlers often celebrated the. Fourth of July in the grove 
near the Harris home. He wrote, "We made extensive prepositions 
to have a big time we dug a pit about eight feet long and four feet 
wide filled it with small logs burned them to red hot coles. I gave a 
beef, the beef was slaughtered the day before and quartered and the 
quarters were hung over this bed of coals in eavening and attended to 
through the night and by noon on the fourth we had the finest feast of 
roast beef all said they had ever eaten we had plenty of bread, cofifee 
and other things the table we had arranged was about a hundred feet 
long all had plenty som came as far as twenty-five miles we had 
speeches and songs and the Declaration of Independence red."^^ 

^ Autobiography, 44. 


30 Ibid., 50. 

" Ibid., 48-49. 

^* William Ferguson, American by River and Rail, 377. 

2' Autobiography, 61. 


In "Frank Harris" business of buying cattle on a cash basis, it 
was necessary for him to carry large sums of money on his person, 
which in those days was very dangerous. On his first trip to Illinois 
in 1835 he carried $4,000 in cash in a belt, with pockets the entire 
length, a button on each pocket and the belt buckled around his body. 
He stopped in Dayton at a tavern, and wxnt to bed with belt around 
him. At twelve o'clock a man entered the room, came to the bed feel- 
ing around. Our author said, "What do you want he sais your in my 
bed he says I always sleep in this bed and he just crawled in. I under- 
stood the whole plan at once — when this fellow would move or change 
his position I would speak to him to be quiet and let me sleep. I did 
not sleep any that night — just at day break this fellow got out of bed 
and went out of the room — I have thought of that narrow risk I ran — 
by telling him I had money to buy a drove of cattle I was smartly green 
and very slowly recovered but got away from Swaneys all safe and 
struck out for Illinois."^* 

In April, 1839, B. F. Harris was riding from Mt. Vernon to Fair- 
field to buy cattle, and a man he had met at the last inn accompanied 
him. While they were crossing the Skillet Fork of the Wabash his 
companion crossed first. The autobiography relates, "I saw a handle 
of a long knife sticking up from his coat collar — I said him what you 
carry knife he said yes and he pulled the knife from the scabbard the 
concealed down his back under his coat a knife with blade about eight 
inches long — I alwase go armed havent you arms on your person — 
told him yes pulled out my pistol and told him I could shoot a man 
fifty yar distant and told him I was on the watch all the time — "^^ That 
evening returning from Fairfield he saw his travelling companion of 
the day in the distance, travelling a road which entered some timber. 
The road he himself was travelling entered the same piece of timber, 
but he wrote, "Knowing I had a good horse — he could not reach the 
road in time to head me off — I gave my horse all the speed that was in 
him until I reached the first house. "^^ 

Another time, some men came to Kirby's Tavern in Mt. Vernon, 
where he was staying, who told him that there was a man, who must 
have a certain amount of money that evening, in order to make good a 
preemption claim which expired the next day and get the deed for his 
land, and who was willing to sell fifteen young oxen at the buyer's 
price. "Frank Harris" started for the man's home some eight miles 
north on a narrow road with "Jack Timber" on either side, when sud- 
denly he realized that this probably was a trap to rob him. He jumped 
his horse over a rail fence, and rode through the fields to a cabin in the 
distance. The men had made an elaborate plan to trap him but for- 
tunately he escaped.^^ 

In 1850 he met a man in Monticello who paid him $3,000 for a 
drove of cattle. He left Monticello, about 12 miles from his home, 
late in the evening. He wrote, "riding through the timber my horse 
suddenly threw up his head in fright there was a moon light nite I look 
as the horse had notifyed me and saw a man with a gun standing beside 

^* Ibid., 20-21. 

^ Autobiography, 26-27. 

8*^(1., 28-29. 

" Autobiography, 30-32. 


a large tree — about fifty yards a head of me I whealed my horse Uke 
Hghtning and road back about a half mile took east and went round 
through the field home came in the back way — I beleave and always 
have through the providence of God I always have made my escape 
for which have always felt greatful to my Heavenly Father for the 
preservation of my life." "I have had many narrow risks in doing the 
traveling and business I was engaged in."^** 

With the many dangers and hardships in the early pioneer days, 
there was also much sickness. In the winter in 1840, the year of his 
last trip east with cattle he was living with a Mr. Marquist on Goose- 
creek when he became very ill. They sent to Decatur, 25 miles away, 
for Dr. King, who took him in his buggy to Decatur to the Widow 
Nesbit's Hotel, where he lay sick with typhoid fever for six weeks.^^ 
"At that early day," the autobiography records, "there was much 
BiUious Fever Meumonia, Chills and fever and malaria to contend 
with. I spent two or three years here before settling down in life, and 
thus had a good opportunity of looking into these various diseases — •"**' 
"While at my father's home in Ohio I went with Dr. Rogers of Spring- 
field, Ohio, to a drug store. The doctor selected such medicines as he 
thought proper to use in the diseases of this new country. The medi- 
cine was put in bottles which we had painted black and then carefully 
labeled them. I then bought Mclntoish's medical book and after foot- 
ing up bill for medicine and book found it to be forty dollars, when I 
settled in my home here I was as you see well equipped to care for my 
family and neighbors which I did for five of six years before a regular 
physician came into the county and quack doctor as I was, I have the 
pleasure of remembering in those years I never lost a patient."*^ 

"Frank Harris" while busy settling his farm in this new country, 
did not neglect the church or educational needs. He is quoted as say- 
ing, "The church business was looked after as well as any other busi- 
ness. I never lost anything by looking after the church and school."'*^ 
In 1843, a pioneer preacher and his wife stopped at his cabin, and asked 
if they could spend the night there. "I told him they could stay with us. 
We had been living there one year and that was the first time the Gos- 
pel had passed our way and we was glad to see a minister in our home." 
The minister consented to remain a few days and conduct a two-day 
meeting for the neighborhood. An empty cabin on the farm was fur- 
nished with seats constructed from slabs, in which legs were stuck, and 
twenty or more persons came eight or ten miles to this log house, which 
was the first religious service that was ever held in the western part of 
the county.**' This minister was the distinguished Peter Cartwright. 

Soon after this. Reverend Mr. Moser, who lived in Bloomington, 
came once a month to the Harris cabins to conduct religious services. 
The cabin became too small to accommodate the congregation, and sev- 
eral neighbors assisted in building a small house. In 1850 "Frank 
Harris" helped organize one of the first Sunday Schools in Champaign 

^^ Ibid., 56-57. 

'» Autobiography, 34-35. Appendix, 15. 

^ Ibid., as. 

" Ibid., 69. 

**J. R. Stewart, A Standard History of Champaign County. Vol. II, p. 249. 

" Autobiography, 41-42. 


County, sending to Chicago for Sunday School books and papers.** In 
1857 this building became too small ; a new church was built, the old 
church being converted into a school house.^^ The new church, called 
Bethel Chapel, was forty- four by thirty-two feet and about fourteen 
feet high. There were four windows on each side, and two in the end. 
The pulpit and altar were carpeted.*^ It required about three months 
to complete the building, the costs of which our author paid. When 
it was complete Reverend Grandville Moody of Ohio, his brother-in- 
law, dedicated it, at which time some thirty persons united with the 
church. "Frank Harris" was superintendent of the Sunday School and 
class leader until he moved to Champaign.*' Among the early pastors 
of this church, which was in Mahomet Circuit, were Reverend A. S. 
Goddard, Reverend J. A. Brittingham, Reverend L. C. Pitner, Rev- 
erend J. C. Rucker, Reverend A. R. Garner, Reverend C. F. Hecox and 
Reverend A. Bradshaw.*^ 

In 1852 the Urbana Male and Female Seminary was organized, 
nominally under the patronage and control of the Methodist Church.*^ 
B. F, Harris contributed liberally to this seminary, and his children 
attended this school, when they finished school on the farm.^" 

In 1843 when "Frank Harris" had his first wheat and hay harvest, 
the men hired to help wished whiskey which it was customary to give 
laborers. He refused this, but agreed to give each man I2V2 cents a 
day extra in place of the whiskey. He writes, "I never had whiskey 
in my field or house on any occasion except only as a medicine and have 
stuck to it during my whole life."^' 

When his son, Henry, was about a year and a half old, his 
mother took him to Circleville, Ohio, to visit her family, a journey of 
some 400 miles. They travelled with B. F. Harris' brother John and 
his wife, in a two-seated carriage, one of the first in the country. The 
day after they departed, B. F. Harris was taken ill with fever, and when 
his wife heard of his illness, she started for home with Henry, traveling 
day and night in the stage. When she reached home her husband was 
recovering, but she was so exhausted from the trip home, she became 
ill and died the first of October, 1845. Very touching is the commen- 
tary, "After the death of my wife Elizabeth I was left alone with Henry 
and Hannah, a girl I had taken to raise, she was then about twelve 
years of age and a colored boy Jim, about fifteen years of age. I had a 
rather lonely and hard time."^- 

The pioneer encountered many difficulties in the business of farm- 
ing. Only forty of the 400 acres, which B. F. Harris purchased from 
his brother-in-law were improved, but during his first year on the farm 
he broke up and fenced a hundred acres. It was very difficult to break 
up the prairies, which were covered with a thick dense tangle of the 
many years' growth of the prairie grass. Oxen were used to pull the 

« Ibid., 43. 

^^ Cost of School-house, Appendix, 17. Day Book, I. 
« Cost of Bethel Chapel, Appendbc. 21. Day Book, I, 231. 

" Autobiographv, 73. Copy of the original subscriptions to Bethel Chapel, taken on the 
30th day of October, 1858. G. M. Huckstep, Secretary, Day Book, I, 212. 
^ Cunningham, History of Champaign County, 742. 
«/6id., 773. 
'" Appendix, 17-20. 
°i Autobiography, 43. 
"^ Autobiography, 51. 

• 84 

plow through this dense sod. It was also difficult to obtain fencing 
material. A day book of 1853 records payments of $1.15 to $1.25 per 
day, for men to break up the prairie and of $1.00 to $1.12 per hundred 
for split rails for rail fence. ^^ The same year B. F. Harris purchased 
a circular saw, primarily to saw the lumber for his new house, but also 
used it to saw lumber to build barns, cribs, and for thousands of fencing 
plank, to make board fences.^'* 

The second year on the farm he raised a hundred acres of corn 
and ten acres of wheat. In the early years there was little market for 
farm products, as there was practically no demand in the neighborhood 
for wheat and corn, because every one was farming, and there were 
no railroads to ship the grain to places of exchange. In August of 1843 
"Frank Harris" flailed out 50 bushels of wheat, which with 50 bushels 
of corn he sent to Chicago. ^^ The wheat was sold for 30 cents a bushel 
and the corn for 20 cents. 

Since there was so little market for farm produce, and corn often 
sold for 8 cents to 10 cents a bushel, he concluded the wisest thing, was 
to market his grain by means of cattle. The corn was fed the cattle 
and hogs, partly fattened upon the wide ranges of free pasture, and the 
cattle driven on foot to the Eastern markets. For many years he not 
only fed all the produce of his own farm to cattle, but purchased many 
hundred bushels of grain from his neighbors."*"' 

The corn crop was planted by covering the hand dropped seeds, 
with a plow, which was also later used to cultivate the corn. In 1854, 
men were paid $1.10 per day for dropping corn, and $1.00 per day for 
plowing corn.^^ In 1855, B. F. Harris harvested 20 bushels of wheat^^ 
and 65 bushels of corn per acre, the average crop at this time being 35 
bushels per acre.^^ The wheat and oats were harrowed in upon plowed 
ground, and harvested and threshed, or flailed by hand. 

In reply to a questionnaire sent out by the Honorable John 
Reynolds, B. F. Harris gave the products of his farm, for the year 
1855, as follows : 

700 acres of corn at 65 bushels per acre 45,500 bushels''*' 

70 acres of oats at 30 bushels per acre 2,100 bushels 

20 acres of wheat at 20 bushels per acre 400 bushels 

2 acres of potatoes at 75 bushels per acre. . . . 150 bushels 

120 tons of Hav at $6.00 per ton $ 600.00 

10 bushels of Beans at $1.10 per bushel 10.00 

100 head of Cattle worth 1,000.00 

150 head of Cattle worth 1,500.00 

90 head of Cattle worth 2,700.00 

20 head of Cattle worth 200.00 

21 head of Horses, at $80 per head 1,680.00 

^3 Day Book, I, 59. 

^* Autobiography, 54. 

=5 Ibid., 46. 

^^ Ibid., 51-52. 

" Day Book, I, 57, 77. 

^^ Prairie Farmer, July, 1855. 

5»A. C. Cole, The Era of the Civil War, 78. 

^° William Fergnson, America by River and Rail, .S78. A nei?hbor of B. F. Harris at this 
time who owned a farm of 900 acres was willing; to sell his farm at $15.00 per acre and said he 
could make a profit by selling Indian Corn at 15 cents per bushel. 


200 head of Hogs, at $5 per head 1,000.00 

12 head of Sheep, at $1.50 per head 18.00'^^ 

In reply to the same questionnaire, James M. Brown, a prominent 
farmer of Island Grove, Sangamon County, Illinois, gives the follow- 
ing account of his farm : 
2,250 Acres. 
250 Acres of Timberland. 
600 Acres under plow. 

480 Acres Corn, which averages 60 to 6S bushels per acre. 
Remainder in wheat, oats and grass. 
50 Cows. 
500 Steers. 

400 Stall Fed Beeves. 
200 to 400 Hogs. 
40 head Horses and Mules.*'^ 
As B. F. Harris' farm grew larger, it became more difficult to 
manage. x\ccordingly he leased a certain number of acres to neigh- 
boring farmers, who furnished the equipment and labor, in return for 
half the amount of the grain produced on the land.*^'^ 

While "Frank Harris" failed to keep accurate accounts of his 
stock feeding operations, as are deemed desirable now by feeders, he 
did keep very detailed account books, which he called Day Books. In 
these books were recorded the work of each man, the amount of mer- 
chandise charged by these men at the stores in the neighboring towns 
to the Harris account, the cash settlement at irregular intervals with 
the men, the amount of corn and grain produced on the farm, the cost 
of stock purchased, the amount of grain they consumed, the cost of 
their care, the selling price, and profit made on the cattle. Also in these 
books are listed loans made to ciumerous individuals, and memoranda 
of deposits made in various banks, and securities purchased. The Day 
Books, so far located, begin with the year 1853 and cover B. F. Harris' 
farming business until his death. 

The autobiography relates that usually there were from eight to 
ten laboring men on the farm, and according to the Day Book No. 1, 
which covers the years from 1854 to 1860, sixty different men did farm 
work for him. Some worked all of the time, others merely for a few 
weeks during corn cutting. The average wage paid by the month, was 
from $14.00 to $18.00,*^* but most men seemed to have worked by the 

^^Ibid., 377. In June, 1856, B. P. Harris' farm contained 4,200 acres: 
700 acres of Indian corn. 
100 acres of oats. 
100 acres of wheat. 
200 acres meadow. 
700 acres wood. 
2,500 acres pasturage. 

Autobiography, 70-71. It is interesting to contrast the produce of 1856 with the inventory 
of 1899: 

5000 acres. 
42000 bushels corn. 
40no bushels oats. 
250 tons hay. 

450 head cattle. 

150 hogs. 

100 horses. 
^' Urbana Union, December 3, 1855. 
*^ Autobiography, 71. Appendix, 22. 
«*Day Book, I. 


day, and the kind of work they did is recorded ; page 59, Day Book 
No. 1, is a typical entry of such work: 
December 1856. 

To 6 hundred Rails $ 6.68 

To Fencing, 3 days 3.75 

To Fencing, 2^/^ days 2.50 

To Thrashing wheat, 4 days 4.00 

To making 1,200 rail stakes 10.00 

Cutting Corn, 133 shocks 9.90 

52 days breaking prairie 65.00 

49 days breaking prairie ■ 59.00 

August 4, 1857. 

7 days hauling rails $ 7.00 

15 days plowing 15.00 

52 days breaking prairie 59.80 

7 days harvesting 10.75 

On one of his trips to New York B. F. Harris saw a boy of four- 
teen helping drive some cattle into pens at the stock yards. He was 
attracted to the boy, and asked him if he would like to go west, to do 
chores, and learn to be a cattle man. The boy ran to ask his mother, 
and returned presently with his clothes in a bundle, ready to start West. 
He remained on the Harris farm until he was twenty-one, when with 
Harris' consent, and $2,000 he secured a job with the Chicago Stock 
Yards. This boy was Simon O'Donnel who later became manager of 
the Pittsburg Central Stock Yards.*^^ 

There was a great scarcity of common laborers and mechanics of 
all kinds in this section, which seriously hindered the farmers.^'' but 
"Frank Harris," however, seemed to be able to keep his workmen, as 
some of the men he had trained to drive cattle East remained for many 
years on the farm with him.*^^ In 1857 there seems to have been a 
boarding house on the farm, at which the men were charged 11 cents 
a meal or $2.00 a week. The boarding account during corn cutting 
shows that there were from 17 to 23 men there, three meals a day for 
three weeks."® 

Very little farm equipment is referred to in the Autobiography. 
When he started farming B. F. Harris purchased a wagon and three 
horses,^^ but mentions using oxen for all heavy work.'''' In the Day 
Book No. 1, are entries of the following articles of farm equipment: 

August 8, 1854 Cash Wagon $ 68.00 

Freight Wagon 1 .05 

December 11, 1856 One Ox- Wagon 40.00 

April 3, 1857 Harness 24.75 

May 1, 1857 Plow 12.00 

October 20, 1858 Scales 50.00 

April 29, 1860 Shovel 1.00 

July 30, 1860 Saddle 14.00 

Horses $85 to 135.00 

*5 Autobiography, 94. Appendix, 23. 
08 Urbana Union, October 13, 1853. 
" Autobiography, 75. 
^ Day Book, I, 259. 
^^ Autobiography, 40. 
™ /bid., 46. 


The following list shows the value of provisions and clothes from 
1854 to 1856: 

Molasses, 55 to 65c gallon 
Sugar, 6 3/4 to 8c pound 
Coffee, 12^/4 to 16 2/3 pound 
Vinegar, 25c gallon 
Potatoes. 20 to 30c bushel 
V2 barrel fish, $5.50 
Salt, 2c pound 

14 pounds mutton, 7c pound $ .98 

9^/^ pounds lard. 10c pound 95 

1 bushel corn meal 40 

Peaches 1.00 

100 pounds buck wheat 2.50 

V-i bushel beans 50 

% bushel sweet potatoes 65 

1 ^2. bushel corn meal 75 

Tallow, 9 pounds 1 .72 

Hominv, 100 pounds at 2 l/4c 2.25 

Yestcoat 2.00 . 

Coat 5.50 

6 vards Hickorv for shirts 75 

15 vards Pant Cloth, 37 l/2c 5.62V2 

Boots 4.00 

Sock, 50 to 60c pair 

Blue Gingham 75 

Gloves, $1.00 to $1.25 pair 

One bolt muslin, 33^-^ yards 3.55 

Shoes 2.00 

1 pair buck mits 1.00 

Chairs, each 1.87 

Stove 10.00 

Watch 10.00 

Ouinine 50 

^2 bottle Smith's Tonic 50^^ 

May 7, 1846, B. F. Harris married Mary Jane Heath, the daughter 
of David Heath, formerly of Ross County, Ohio, who moved to Piatt 
Countv, Illinois, about 1845. To them were born eight children : David 
Franklin, born March 3, 1847. died May 5, 1847; Elizabeth, born 
February 19, 1848, died April 9, 1862; George Payne, born December 
10, 1850, died September 24, 1864; Rachael Jane Rebecca, born De- 
cember 1. 1853, married David Andrew Phillippee ; Mary Ida. born 
December 7, 1859; Benjamin Franklin, born November 28, 1867, died 
December 10, 1868."- 

In 1853 "Frank Harris" decided that he should have a better home ; 
until this time he had lived in log cabins. It was very difficult to get 
lumber, because there were few saw mills, so he took four or five teams 
with him to Peoria, and purchased and hauled home, a circular saw- 
mill. He employed a carpenter, named Masgrove. who with the help 

" Dav Book, I. 
'•- Family Bible. 

of four men was six months in building the new house. The timber 
used in the house was walnut, cut on the farm. The limestone quar- 
ried in the neighborhood, was burned in a lime-kiln, and used in the 
foundation and for the plaster. As originally built this was a one story 
house which contained seven large rooms, with open fire places ; later 
a second floor was added to the house, and it now is standing on the 
farm in excellent condition, '^^ 

As has been said it was in the business of stock feeding that B. F. 
Harris achieved his greatest success. In the summer of 1842, he pur- 
chased 50 cattle, and stall fed them corn during the winter; by the 
20th of February they were fat, and he drove them to St. Louis, sell- 
ing the drove to a butcher at $40.00 per head. He continued buying 
cattle year after year, in Missouri, Kansas and Illinois. He never pur- 
chased cattle through a commission house, but made his own selections, 
until he retired from active farm management. He believed he knew 
better than anyone else what he wanted, and could get it at just as good 
prices. His preference was strongly for short-horns, because 'he be- 
lieved his experience proved them to be better beef animals at the ages 
at which he usualh' sold than cattle of any other breed. Although the 
first lot of cattle he bought consisted of calves, he seldom took shorter 
ages than yearlings, the bulk of his purchases being two year olds. In 
August and September he bought as many cattle as he thought the 
farm could support. 

In 1853-54, he purchased 950 head of cattle, which was the 
largest number he ever handled in one year, from Sangamon and 
Mason County farmers, and bought that year 63,000 bushels of corn, 
which in addition to his own crop of 25.000 bushels, was used to stall 
feed the cattle during that winter. In the spring, 800 were sold to 
drovers, but 100 of the heaviest and best, which averaged 1,800 
pounds in weight, he sent with a hired man to Boston, where they 
were sold to a butcher for $66.00 per head. In 1854-55, he purchased 
and stall fed about 400 head of fine cattle, 

Xone of B. F. Harris' cattle were ever housed, but were penned 
up at night and driven out to the prairie in the early morning. The 
cattle were divided into lots of about 100, with a hired man to feed 
each lot. Each of these men had an ox-team with three yoke. The 
cattle were fed six to twelve months, on ear or shelled corn, corn 
stover, hay, clover, timothy and blue grass pasture,'^* It was his pur- 
pose to increase each animal 460 to 600 pounds in weight, and make a 
profit of $20 to $25 per head. The following is a description by an 
English visitor at the farm, June 5, 1856: 

"We went to see a herd of fine cattle belonging to Mr. Frank 
Harris. They were out on an extensive prairie, and we discovered 
them by means of a glass. We went straight as we could, through the 
prairie some mile or two, to where they were, losing sight of them 
most of the while, from the rolling of the ground. At last we got 
near them, and the sight was indeed worth going a long way to see. 
There were one hundred and twenty-six of them ; one weighed as 
much as 2,600 lbs.; many of the others weighed from 1,900 to 2,100 

" Autobiography, 54-55. 
'* Autobiography, 51-53. 


pounds. They were standing and lying about among the deep grass, 
in attitudes and groups, such as would have delighted Cooper to 
paint. A finer lot of fat cattle, I suppose, is not to be seen anywhere. 
They were tended by a little lad, mounted on a fine high-bred pony, a 
most intelligent little fellow he was, and right glad to see us to break 
the monotony of his occupation. He keeps the cattle penned all night, 
he told us ; brings them out to the prairie about seven in the morning, 
and as I understood, tends them there for the most part of the day. 
He pointed out his favorites with great delight. We called for Mr. 
Harris at his house about two miles from where the cattle were, but 
did not find him."'^ 

The following advertisement appeared in the Urbana Union, May 
3, 10, 17, 1855: 

Cattle Dealer, Be On Your Guard — Thieves Abroad. 

"There have been several head of cattle missing during the past 
winter and no clew obtained as to their whereabouts, something rather 
mysterious appearing in this. I, together with my neighbors, have 
"kept an eye open," watching for foul play. On the evening of the 
29th day of March last, at or about the hour of 10 o'clock p. m., a 
man in my employ discovered an animal, in the shape of a man, among 
my cattle, picking out a few of the best ones, no doubt with the inten- 
tion of appropriating them for his own use. He selected three, drove 
them out of the field, which was not 300 yards from my house, and 
was proceeding on his way rejoicing, when he was alarmed by the 
man on watch. Information was immediately given, and all hands 
were out, but the thief made his escape. Himself and horse were 
pretty well identified, so much that we have a pretty sure idea of the 
man, I hereby, for myself and in behalf of my neighbors, offer $100 
for the arrest and conviction of any thief detected stealing cattle or 
horses in mv neighborhood." 


Before the railroads were built, the drovers from the East came 
out the first, of April, and purchased cattle by the head, usually 100 
in a lot, which they drove East, in June or July. If "Frank Harris" 
failed to sell cattle to drovers, he sent them East with some of his own 
men, whom he had taught to manage and drive cattle, when he was 
in the cattle driving business. After the Illinois Central Railroad was 
completed, most of his cattle and hogs were shipped to Chicago. Many 
lots were sold to the Boston Exporting Company, whose represent- 
ative personally selected the cattle on the Harris farm, as he made a 
speciality of the breed of cattle demanded by the export trade.'*' 

In the spring of 1854, Frank Harris shipped on the Illinois Cen- 
tral, 100 fat cattle, whose average weight was 1,965^ pounds, gross. 
This shipment produced a sensation among stock feeders ; they were 
said to be the heaviest hundred ever sold in this country up to that 
time. They took the State Fair Premium, and were sent to the World's 

" Ferguson, 376, 377. 
^' Autobiographj', 51-52. 


Fair in New York, where they were pronounced the heaviest and best 
lot, for so large a number.'" Many persons were present to see tbese 
cattle weighed, among others Messrs. CaUf and Jacoby, neighbors of 
B. F. Harris, and dealers in heavy cattle. They joined forces and de- 
termined in the generous spirit of competition, to improve on these 
weights. They shipped in the spring of 1855, 100 fat cattle, the average 
weight of which was 2,090 pounds, thus beating the Harris shipment 
by 125 pounds to the bullock. Calif and Jacoby proposed to have 100 
head of cattle the next year which would best anything B. F. Harris 
could raise. He accepted the challenge. The Urbana Union of May 
3, 1855, writes in regard to the heavy cattle shipment of Calif and 
Jacoby : 

"We understand our friend, B. F. Harris, of Sangamon tim- 
ber cooly says that in another spring he will beat the above figures. 
We can assure the world that if they do not steal his cattle from 
him, which will be a sore job, that he is bound to beat."^^ 
On the tenth of March, Messrs. Calif and Jacoby weighed their 
famous drove, giving an average weight of 2113 pounds. On the 17th 
of March, B. F. Harris' 100 famous cattle were weighed, in the pres- 
ence of 200 or more cattle men. The scales used were Fairbank's 
patent, previously adjusted, and the weighmaster, legally qualified, was 
Dr. Johns of Decatur, who was an extensive and successful stock 
farmer. "Frank Harris' " cattle averaged 2,377 pounds, beating 
Messrs. Calif and Jacoby 262 pounds on the head. The gentlemen 
contesting acknowledged they were badly beaten. Our author wrote, 
"After the contest was over I gave the crowd a good substantial din- 
ner." Three days were required to drive these bullocks 14 miles to the 
railway station.'-* The following is a copy of the circular printed bv B. 
F. Harris at this time, containing the weights and history of these 
heavy cattle : 

Record of the Best Hundred Head of Cattle ever 
Fattened in One Lot in the United States. 

Who Can Beat This Record ? 

Weight of 100 head of Cattle fattened by B. F. Harris of Cham- 
paign County, Illinois : 

No. Cattle' Weight NO. Cattle Weight No. Cattle Weight 
2 4718 2 4694 2 4650 

2 4782 2 4610 2 4806 

^^ Ibid., 52. 

Urbana Union, April 2.5, 1854. 
Cole, The Era of the Civil War, 86. 
New York Tribune. March 5. 1854. 
Democratic Press. April 15, 1854. 
Fred Gerhard, Illinois As It Is, 365. 
'* Urbana Union, May 3, 1855. 
" Autobio_^aphy, 52-53. 
Democratic Pre<:s. March 25, 1856. 
Cole, The Era of the Civil War, 86. 
Appendix, 23-43. 


No. Cattle 



1. Cattle 


, No. 




































4458 ■ 




























































price sale, 

7 cents. 

These cattle were weigln 

ed by Dr. 


President of the 




Twelve of the large cattle out of 100 head weighed May 23rd, 

1856, which was during the time of fattening. 

Black 2424 Ch. Roan 2522 

Red 2340 B. Red 2574 

Pied 2640 S. Roan 2330 

M. Red 2264 C. Red 2340 

Same Cattle weighed July 18, 1856: 

Black 2526 Ch. Roan 2654 

Red 2480 B. Red 2646 

Pied 2730 S. Roan 2470 

M. Red 2424 C. Red 2490 

S. White 2360 

P. Red 2486 

Long White ....2496 
M. Red 2540 

S. White 2430 

P. Red 2630 

L. White 2600 

M. Red 2564 

S. White 2605 

P. Red 2840 

L. White 2810 

M. Red 2880 

Same Cattle weighed February 12th, 1857: 

Black 2720 Ch. Roan 2810 

Red 2780 B. Red "..2910 

Pied 2990 S. Roan 2680 

M. Red 2640 C. Red 2770 

Average, 27861^ lbs. 

Average age, 4 years. 

Weighed by B. F. Harris; sold for 8 cents per lb. 

Largest steer in Illinois, weighed 3524, 7 years old, raised by 
John Rising, fed by H. H. Harris. 

Average weight of the 100 head, 2377 lbs. 

The foregoing is a correct statement of a famous cattle sale 
which occurred in the city of Chicago, month of March, 1856. 

The herd comprised 100 head of the finest and heaviest cattle 
ever raised and fattened in one lot by one man in the State of 
Illinois, or in the United States of America, or elsewhere, so far 
as the records go to show. These cattle were raised from 1 and 2 
year old steers on my farm in Champaign County, Illinois, and 


fattened for the market in the years of 1855 and '56, their aver- 
age age, at that time, being 4 years. They were weighed on my 
farm by Dr. Johns, of Decatur, Illinois, President State Agricul- 
tural Society. Said weights were witnessed by a large number of 
representative men from Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Illinois, to 
the number of five hundred, among whom were many professional 
cattle raisers and dealers, all of whom bore willing testimony to 
the average weight of 2,7861/4 lbs., and were sold to Messrs. Cli- 
born & Alby, of Chicago, at 8 cents per lb. The weigh master kept 
a record of each draft as the cattle were weighed — one and two in 
a draft. A copy of said weights is herewith attached for the in- 
spection of the general public ; also copy of average gain at differ- 
ent periods. 

On the 22d of February, 1857, the 12 steers sold to Cliborn & Alby, 
appropriately decorated with tri-colored ribbon, preceded by a band of 
music, were led through the principal streets of Chicago, followed by 
100 butchers, mounted and uniformed. After this unique procession, 
the cattle were slaughtered by said Cliborn & Alby, for the city markets, 
some of the beef selling as high as 50 cents per pound. Small packages 
of it were sent to customers in various parts of the United States, and 
even Europe, and sold, in some cases, as high as $1 per pound. These 
orders were given by these parties simply that they might say they had 
eaten of the famous premium beef. 


The following concerning these cattle, appeared in the Chicago 
Democratic Press, March 25, 1856: 

"We liave heard it intimated that Chicago Butchers were 
negotiating for 10 of the best cattle for city consumption. We 
hope such is the case, for the income, means and taste of our citi- 
zens are such to enable them to pay for and appreciate the best of 
everything. Certainly they are as able to buy good beef as the New 
Yorkers and can afford to eat what the English and French Gov- 
ernments are trying to obtain for their soldiers. Let us have 10 
of Harris' cattle, by all means." 
The same paper also states : 

"There is still opportunity for improvement but no question 
whether these weights will be increased for some time to come, 
since it does not prove the most profitable to make the heaviest 
animals, and profit is apt to govern in cattle growing, as in all 
other pursuits. However, if either our cattle kings. Funk or 
Strawn should undertake to do better than this, Harris might have 
an opportunity to try again." 

John Sherman, for many years General Manager of the Chicago 
Union Stock Yards, was clerk at the sale of these heavy cattle, and 
recorded their weights. The scale beam (from the first scale ever 
built by the Fairbanks people) from which the weights were taken was 
exhibited by Mr. Sherman at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. He 
also had published for distribution among World's Fair visitors thou- 
sands of circulars setting forth the record of the big- steers. After the 


fair he presented the scale beam enclosed in a handsome mahogany 
case to B. F. Harris, who placed it on the wall of the First National 
Bank at Champaign. ^"^ 

B. F. Harris continued in the cattle business until the end of his 
life. The following is a quotation from the Chicago Examiner, June 
16, 1904, the year before he passed away : 

"While the shippers discovered several weak spots in cattle 
values yesterday, a drove of eighty-four head of corn-fed sold up 
to $6.70, the high point of the season, and there was an urgent 
demand for such cattle. The deal embraced a drove of eighty-four 
head of fancy short-horn steers from the feed lot of B. F. Harris 
in Champaign County, Illinois, noted in the market circles for the 
excellency of its output. The cattle average 1616 pounds, and 
went to fill an order for the Boston trade, which is exacting. The 
price per head was $108.27." 

Hogs raised on the farm followed every lot of cattle. In 1855, as 
previously stated, the Harris farm had 200. In 1853 Mr. Samuel 
Allerton, who had just started in the business of buying hogs to ship 
to Chicago, came to the Harris farm. The author wrote, "I had some 
200 hogs for sale, but he told me he did not have the money to pay for 
my drove. I sold him my hogs and told him to pay me when he sold 
the hogs in Chicago this enabled him to buy 3 or 400 head. Mr. Aller- 
ton got his hogs gathered up and drove them to Champaign. About 
the first stock shipped from Champaign, the price of hogs advanced 
and he sold them at a fine margin — This encouraged him to continue in 
that line of business — Mr. Allerton has often told me that start I gave 
him wdien he had no money to speak of, to sell him my hogs and pay 
me when he sold them in Chicago."*^ 

There was considerable interest throughout the country in agri- 
culture in the fifties, and many county agricultural societies were 
formed. In 1852 the Agricultural and Mechanical Association was 
formed in Urbana. On October 22, the annual fair for the exhibition 
of stock was held in the public square of Urbana. The Urbana Union 
of October 20, 1853, remarks : "The County Fair comes ofif Saturday, 
a great day that will be for fine stock, as Champaign can beat the 
world." The Society had an extensive membership at this time 
An editorial of the same month urges the farmers and mechanics 
to come together every year to compare their work, and to set 
committees to investigate into the science of Agriculture, and report 
upon the best methods of conducting farms. At the Champaign County 
Agricultural and Mechanical Association Fair, in Urbana, October 25, 
B. F. Harris won the following premiums. Class A, Cattle : best ten 
fat steers, yoke work oxen, bull calf — 1st premium, specific; steer, 1 
year and over, sweepstakes ; best six calves ; Class B, horses and mules, 
saddle horse, Mary Hopkins. The same month at the State Agricultural 
Fair at Chicago he took premiums on fine cattle, and a saddle horse. 

■fhe autobiography contains an interesting comment on the differ- 
ent steps, by which "Frank Harris' " fortune grew. When he was a 

"> The Breeders Gazette, May 24, 1905. 
•^ Autobiography 94-95. 


small boy going to school, he gathered together a dozen or two hens-, 
and started in the chicken business, selling eggs, and raising chickens. 
In a year or two he had cleared sufficient money to buy a colt, and 
later some calves. When he was sixteen years old and stopped school, 
through business manipulations he owned two horses, and later while 
teaming for his father, through several successful horse trades, man- 
aged to acquire $183 and a colt.^- In August, 1834, when he was 23 
years old, he started in business for himself. In November, 1834, he 
attempted his first trip East with cattle from Ohio to Pennsylvania, 
and cleared $980 on this business venture. The next spring, with 
this capital and $3,000, borrowed money, he started to Illinois to buy 
cattle, and made a fair profit on the year's business. On his second 
trip East, he cleared $1,500; the third trip, $1,600; the fourth trip 
$1,100. By December, 1842, when he was 31 and just married, his 
assets amounted to $7,000. ''''^ That year he commenced farming, im- 
proving land and stock feeding. On his return from marketing cattle, 
he stopped at Danville, Illinois, where a government land office was 
maintained, and invested one-half the proceeds from the sale of cattle 
in land ; and a small amount of cash in those days would buy a large 
tract of land. He considered this the best business investment he 
could make. He purchased land warrants of the war of 1812, and 
Mexican Land Script, and entered and located lands, all at a cost of 
from $1.25 to $3 per acre. The old land warrants are the only deeds 
to some of his land today. 

When he first came to Illinois "Frank Harris" thought when he 
had made $30,000 he would sell his farm in Illinois and return to Ohio. 
However, when in 1853 Billie Marton of Decatur offered to purchase 
his farm for $30,000 he decided he preferred to remain in Illinois, and 
refused Marton's ofifer.^* In the fall of 1863 he moved to Champaign, 
then known as West Urbana, and his older brother, Payne Harris, man- 
aged the farm for four years. B. F. Harris furnished the farm and 
capital, and his brother the labor and all the equipment ; they divided 
the income equally. In the four years his brother received as his 
share between $25,000 and $30,000. In 1867 B. F. Harris' son, Henry 
Hickman Harris, went on the farm for four years, on the same terms 
that Payne Harris had done. At this time the farm consisted of 5,000 

In politics "Uncle Frank," as he was known in later years, was 
originally a Whig, and later until his death a Republican. He was 
never a politician, but was a radical supporter of the doctrines of his 
party, and knew personally many of the early Republican workers in 
the state. At the polls in Champaign in 1904, just after he cast his 
ballot for Theodore Roosevelt, he stated to the gentlemen around the 
polling place that he had just cast his nineteenth vote for a president 
of the United States, his first being given for Henry Clay in 1832.^® 
In 1844 he was elected Justice of the Peace of Champaign County by 

*' Autobiography, 5-26. 

8= Ibid., 33-39. 

*^ Autobiography, 53-54. 

«' Ibid., 69-71. 

" Champaign Daily Gazette, May 8, 1905. 


a large majority,^' concerning which, while he was Justice of the 
Peace, he wrote, "I was cawled on to marry a cople I concented to 
perform the cerimony was somewhat Scared but went through all 
right as the Spectators all said. . . ."^^ 

In 1846 "Frank Harris" was elected one of the three County Com- 
missioners*^ who until 1846 transacted county business. Later, after 
township government under a board of supervisors had been adopted, 
he was elected Supervisor of Mahomet Township, in 1862 and in 1863.^° 
On April 13, 1854, he was appointed Road Supervisor of District No. 
23."^ Many times from 1854 to 1856 he was grand or petit juror, at 
the circuit court in Urbana, when Abraham Lincoln practiced as a law- 
yer before the court.^- The author writes of President Lincoln. . . . 

"The President was a personal friend of mine and shared our 

hospitality frequently in going from Decatur and Springfield to Urbana 
to attend court. I had often visited his home.""^ 

In 1861 when President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers, 
"Frank Harris" helped raise a company of 100 young men (Middle- 
town) Mahomet Township. He went with the boys to Joilet to see 
them "sworn in the service," and he wrote, "I gave them $100 as a 
token of my good will.'"'''* His eldest son, Henry Hickman Harris, was 
at this time only 17 years old, but as he was most anxious to enter 
the service, he enlisted under Captain Armstrong in General Butler's 
division, in New Orleans, where he served three years. ''^ 

In May, 1861, B. F. Harris went to Washington, D. C, to see 
President Lincoln. The President heard of his arrival in Washington 
and immediately sent a note requesting him to come to his home. B. 
F. Harris was immediately taken to the family room where he saw 
Mrs. Lincoln and the children. The author writes, "The President 
talked about everything in reference to the war and was anxious to 
hear what the feeling throughout the county, especially the feeling of 
his home people and Illinois in general. . . .the President straightened 
up and said I know you and your visit has given me more encourage- 
ment than I have had from any one. I will want you to call in the 
morning at nine o'clock and go with me to the cabinet meeting. I want 
to introduce you to each member. I called at nine o'clock, went to the 
meeting, was made acquainted with one of the greatest boddy of men 
that ever assembled together to transact business Montgomiry Blair 
envited me to go home and tak dinner with him he was Post Master 
generaP*^ I took dinner with the familey I was treated in great Stile 
for havin bene and old acquaintance and a close friend to the President 
In cabinet meeting the President gave a history of our acquaintance 
this gave me many friends with the heads of Departments. . . .the next 

" Appendix, 44-45. 
'* Autobiography, 44-45. 
88 Stewart, 164. ' 
^ Autobiography, 45. 
" Urbana Union, April 13, 1854. 

"2 /bid., May IS, 1854, May 10, September 13, 1855, May 8, 1856. 
^' Autobiography, 64. 
^ Ibid., 64. 

^^ Appendix, 49. Autobiography, 63. 

"^ Daily National Intellifjencer, May 23, 1861. Postmaster General Blair was present at the 
raising of the Union flag on the south front of the General Post Office Building. 


day after I arived in Washington, Colonel Elsworth was Kiled. . . ."^'^ 
B. F. Harris remained some ten days in Washington before he returned 
to his home on the Sangamon. His recollections of wartime Washing- 
ton are quite accurate. In point after point they are borne out by con- 
temporary writers. 

When "Frank Harris" returned from the East, he decided to leave 
his farm under his brother's management and move to West Urbana, 
soon destined to begin its remarkable growth under the new name of 
Champaign. July, 1845, the population of West Urbana consisted of 
five farm houses, half a mile or more apart, two or three shanties, 
which housed railroad workers, and the cottage of Mark Carley. The 
coming of the Illinois Central Railroad, which ran its first train through 
West Urbana, on the 24th day of July, 1854, marked a great change 
in the development of Champaign County. ^^ Telegraph communica- 
tion and daily mails soon took the place of the semi-weekly stage 
coach, which made its trips from Danville to Bloomington with the 
scanty mails. A census taken in August, 1855, showed a population 
of 416, for West Urbana, and 1135 for Urbana proper; a census in 
January, 1857, showed the remarkable growth of West Urbana, to a 
population of 1,202. At the time of this census as printed in the 
Urbana Union, January 8, 1857, the following statistics were given 
for West Urbana : Number of houses, 234 ; dry goods stores, 8 ; clothing 
stores, 1 ; drug stores, 3 ; hardware and stoves, 5 ; furniture, 2 ; shoe 
stores, 2; clergymen, 4; millinery stores, 3; jewelers, 2; lumber 
yards, 6 ; saddle shops, 2 ; blackmith shops, 3 ; bakeries, 2 ; warehouses, 
4 ; flour mills, 1 ; livery stables, 1 ; schools, 3 ; physicians, 3 ; dentists, 
1. However, with all this show of a municipality, Urbana and Cham- 
paign were still villages. The Urbana Union of September 27, 1855, 
states : 

''The last census confirms our suspicions that there are more hogs 
in Urbana than people. They are not only numerous but of all possible 
sizes. If the name of our town should be changed it should be Hog- 
town, or Swineville." 

May, 1858, the same paper states that a law was proposed to 
keep the hogs out of the streets. 

Henry H. Harris, B. F. Harris' oldest son, attended school at 
Illinois Wesleyan, in Bloomington, Illinois, and later Delaware College 
at Delaware, Ohio."^ In the spring of 1861 he enlisted in the army and 
served three years. "° On April 27, 1866, he was married to Miss 

^^ New York Daily Tribune, Saturday, May 25, 1861. 

"Colonel Ellsworth was killed at Alexandria as he was removing a Secession Flag from a 
public house." 

Harpers New Monthly Mariazine, Vol. 23, June to November, 1861, p. 2.57. 

"Shortly after midnight the New York Fireman's Zouaves, under the command of Colonel 
Ellsworth, embarked on steamers from the Navy Yard at Washinsrton for Alexandria. * * * The 
Zouaves landed without opposition shortly after dawn and proceeded to remove the rail from the 
road leading to the interior. Colonel Ellsworth with two or three men passing- the Public House 
from the roof of which floated a Secession Flag, entered for the purpose of removing it. Coming 
down with the flag in his possession he was met in a passage way by the proprietor of the house, 
.James F. Jackson, and was shot through the heart. At almost the same instant .Jackson was 
killed by Francis E. Brownell of the Zouaves." 

Autobiography, 64-65. 

Appendix, 48. 

«8 Urbana Union, July 27, 1854, p. 2. 

Appendix, 48. 

«= Appendix, 48. 

10" Ibid., 49-.50. 


Mary Melissa Megrue of Pickaway, Ohio, who was a graduate in the 
class of 1865 of Oxford College of Oxford, Ohio. Henry Harris 
brought his bride to the Harris farm in Champaign County. The 
following entry was made in the Day Book, soon after they moved to 
the farm : 

Day Book No. 2, page 195, March 7, 1867. 
March 7, 1867, H. H. Harris. 

April 20, 1867, by cash to go to Chicago $335.00 

Carpet, brussel 77.13 

Carpet, 50 yards 90.00 

Parlor Furniture 165.00 

Stove 90.00 

March 9, cash for buggy 135.00 

June 10, cash for sewing machine 73.00 

B. F. Harris' second wife, Mary Jane Heath Harris, died the 
23rd of March, 1883. The author wrote, 'T wish to and will make 
mention in this historical family record the part my former w'lie Mary 
Jane is entitled. . . .in helping me in all my efforts to succeed. . . . 
She was always ready and willing to do her part in the interest of the 
home — there was many things to contend with that many wives would 
have raised Kane when eight or ten labouring men to board in and 
sleep in our three cabbins. . . .beside this many comers to be enter- 
tained a continuous line all the year round. And the preachers were 

readey visitors My Deceased wife Mary Jane is entitle to a 

ready Share of our Grand Success in our business enterprises 

She was a member and faithful worker in the church until her 
death. "^°^ November 7, 1887, B. F. Harris married Mrs. Saysak J. 
Conwell of Exenia, Ohio. Concerning this event the author wrote, 
"We came to our home in this city where we had a very harty welcome 
from my children relatives and friends which made it very peasant. . . . 
we lived verry pleasantley and happy together for nearley ten years 
her death was verry sudden and died from a stroke of applexa. . . ." 
She died on the 15th of January, 1898."^ 

One obstacle to the economic development of the community was 
the absence of adequate banking facilities. The need of capital was a 
fundamental factor in the plans for expansion of merchant, or farmer 
alike. Little specie appeared in circulation, and most bills were paid 
in produce. The following advertisement appeared in the Urbana 
Union, October 20, 1853 : 

"All kinds of produce taken in exchange for the Union. 
Come along then, one and all and subscribe for the Union, 
bring us a load of wood, some chickens, potatoes, cabbage, 
turnips, pumpkins or anything that man or horse can eat." 
B. F. Harris required a considerable amount of cash to run his 
farm and carry on his other businesses, and felt the urgent necessity 
of having a safe place to keep the money, where it would be loaned at 
a reasonable amount of interest. The legal rate of interest was ad- 
vanced to ten per cent in 1849, but little money could be had even at 

^"1 Autobiography, 74-75. 
10= Ibid.. 75-76. 


that price, as money handlers were able to violate the law and demand 
fifteen, twenty, and even twenty-five per cent. The older people of 
Champaign say that B. F. Harris disliked the accepted custom of exact- 
ing as large an interest fee as could be secured from the needy bor- 
rower, and loaned his own money accepting only the legal rate of in- 
terest. The entries on Day Book No. 1, page 63, from April 22, 1856 
to July show the extent of these loans : 

April 12, 1856, cash lent Orr, three months at Vd% . .$1,000.00 

April 23, cash lent Bailey Parks & Co. at 10% 700.00 

April 8, lent Benson . . . .' 200.00 

May 10th, cash lent Bailey Parks & Co 500.00 

May 29, cash lent John Badley, at 107^ 400.00 

May 29th, cash lent Thomas Malery, at 10% 100.00 

May 1st, loaned to Charles Sidner 23.20 

May 1st, cash to C. C. Hause 327.00 

May 23, cash loaned to Armstrong 225.00 

June 6, 1856, deposited with the Grand Prairie Bank 

& Co 2,600.00 

June 6, Special Deposit 400.00 

June 10, Chicago, cash lent Joel Ellis & Co. to be 

paid in twenty days 3,621.65 

June 11, cash lent to Samuel Dean for 3 months. . . . 200.00 • 
June 18, cash lent to Alter & Cambell for 4 months. . 1,000.00 
June 18, 1856, cash lent Gifford Ladd, did not take 

any note 200.00 

July 11, cash lent George Clowser 100.00 

July 23, cash lent Rev. Bradshaw 200.00 

July 23, cash lent Reverend Bradshaw to be applied 

to the Methodist church in Crbana 200.00 

The uncertain paper money of foreign banks — banks organized in 
other states, was the money in most common circulation. It was 
difficult to know when and how much this paper money was below par. 
Large sums "Frank Harris" apparently preferred to invest in drafts 
or certificates of deposits of New York banks. In Day Book, No. 1, 
page 474 is a memorandum of Bills of Exchange, and on page 248 a list 
of certificates of deposit made with Atwood & Company of New York. 
Deposited by W. H. Harris, May 8, 1856, for B. F. Harris, at 
Atwood & Co., New York, No. 8 Wall Street, Bankers. 
$1,000, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 685. 
1,000, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 686. 
1,000, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 687. 
1,000, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 688. 
500, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 689, (Sold to Fulling). 
500, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 690, (Sent to Wiscott). 
1,134, New York, May 8, 1856, No. 691, (Sold to Tucker Ex- 
change Bank Chicago ).^''^ 

The first bank of the county was opened March 1, 1856, under 
the Illinois General Banking Law, and was known as the Grand Prairie 

1°' Appendix, 51. 


Bank. It was of course, a bank of issue, and located at Urbana, Illi- 
nois. In June, 1857, a branch of that concern was opened at the 
northeast corner of Main and Oak streets, West Urbana, Until the 
bank building was completed at University avenue and First street, 
the cash of the bank was carried daily to the main bank at Urbana. 
At the completion of the new building', the business at West Urbana 
was continued as the Cattle Bank,. In this connection the following was 
printed in the Urbana Union, January 8, 1857 : 

"The Cattle Bank — The officers of this new bank, to be 
opened in West Urbana in the spring are as follows : — Ed- 
ward Ater, president; Chalmers M. Sherfy, cashier. Since 
Champaign County leads the world in the line of big cattle, 
the name is a very appropriate one. We would suggest that 
■a well executed steel engraving of B. F. Harris, the Cattle 
King would be an appropriate embellishment for the new 

The Harris Day books show deposits in the Grand Prairie Bank; 
January 6, 1857, $2,600; August 21, 1859, $300,000. 

In 1861 the Grand Prairie Bank in Urbana and the Cattle Bank 
in Champaign closed. They went down in a general collapse of the 
state stock security banks in Illinois. Another bank was opened in 
Champaign in 1862, but it was operated in the same manner and some 
years later suffered the fate of its predecessors ; people were afraid of 
banks. The growing town and county were severely hampered by the 
lack of a responsible conservative institution. Banking in 1865 was 
a precarious business for banker and depositor alike. Those were the 
days of "Wildcat" currency, issued at the will of the banker ; banking 
was a speculative industry. William H. Harris, B. F.'s father, be- 
lieved there were great advantages for the country in a strong national 
bank, and his ideas on this subject, greatly impressed his son, who was 
a strong advocate of supervised national banking. 

In 1863 the national banking system was established ; any five per- 
sons who could perform certain requirements could receive a national 
banking charter, do a banking business under supervision of the United 
States, and issue notes secured by United States bonds. The oppor- 
tunity to secure a National Bank Charter appealed to B. F. Harris. 
He consulted with some of his friends and they decided to organize a 
bank. A charter was secured from the United States on January 30, 
1865 ; it was number 913, and was signed by Abraham Lincoln. 

The following editorial appeared in the Gazette, March 5, 1865 : 

"First National Bank of Champaign — The business com- 
munity will be interested to know that the above bank is now 
open for the purpose of buying and selling exchange, and 
has been designated as one of the government depositories. 
It has not yet received its circulation from the government. 
The institution opens under the most favorable auspices. 
The stockholders comprise some of the most sound and 
worthy citizens of the county, v/ith such officers as J. H. 
Thomas, Esquire, president ; and James S. White, Esquire, 

iM Day Book, 1, 63, 149. 


cashier ; it needs no recommendation to the confidence of the 

The first advertisement of the First National Bank appeared in 
the Gazette, May 12, 1865. 


Champaign, IlHnois. 

J. H. Thomas, President J. S. Wright, Cashier 

Designated Depository & Financial Agent of U. S. 

The First National Bank of Champaign, Illinois 

Will Buy and Sell Exchange on New York and Chicago 

Make Collections and do General Banking Business. 

Chicago Correspondent — Union National Bank 

Champaign, May 12, 1865. 

At the end of the first year at the stockholders meeting, B. F. 
Harris was elected president and J. S. Wright, cashier. "Frank Har- 
ris" remained the nominal president, presiding always at the meeting 
of the directors, until his death in 1905. Some of the stockholders 
chafed under the restrictions of the National Banking Act, as they 
thought private banks were making more profit, and the First National 
was held to the legal rate of interest of 10 per cent, while the private 
banks secured 12 to 16 per cent, besides a heavy commission. Some 
of these stockholders helped organize competing private banks and 
within three years there were three such banks competing with the 
First National: D. Gardner & Co., W. Burnham, Gondii & Co., and 
Sanford Richard & Co. You read in J. O. Cunningham's History of 
Champaign County, that the First National came to the front as the 
financial institution of the county. Some of the stockholders of the 
First National wished to invest their money in the banks which they 
thought would bring larger returns. The author writes, 'T was 
satisfyed with the dividends and commence buying out the share holders 
as fast as they were offered for sale. . . .four or five years until I 
had bought three-fourths of all the stock. . . .The First National 
kept along slowly and Shurely always met her obligations occasionally 

met some small lossels Occasionally a small panice would strike 

the country and the First National worked through, , . ."^"^ 

In September, 1873, the great banking house of Jay Cooke and 
Company of Philadelphia failed, and a panic followed. Three of the 
large banks of Chicago closed their doors, the news reaching Cham- 
paign about 3 o'clock p. m. of September . That night and the 
next morning the four bankers of Champaign had a meeting. B. F. 
Harris wrote, "as Bankers we had quite a warm session that evening 
and did not all agree there was three for closing. . . .and the First 
National would not agree to close its doores."^°'' The next morning 
the bank was surrounded by a large crowd and withdrawal of deposits 
began. "Uncle Frank" instructed the teller to pay all certificates of 
deposits to those who wished their money. He wrote, "one man that 
had a time certificate for Eight Hundred Dollars that was not due for 

^"^ Autobiography, 78-79. 
^"^ Autobiography, 79. 


six months the teller told him the certificate was not due and refused 
to pay the ticket until due. I told the teller to pay it, we had plenty of 
money to pay all that wished their money . . . this man then drew his 
Eight Hundred Dollars and counted the money over carefully. I 
asked him if he wished to use the money. He said no, he was afraid he 
would loose it I told him if he did not want to use the money to put it 
back in the bank and when he wanted to use the money he should have 
it. . . you say I can have it at any time yes you can depend on that. So 
he handed in his eight hundred and got a recpt and and went out. that 
occurence stop the run on the First National and the same evening 
there was some Eight Thousand Dollars deposited in the bank and 
the next day there was twenty thousand. . . ."^°^ 

In 1871 B. F. Harris' son, Henry H. Harris, was elected cashier; 
at that time George Turrell was assistant cashier, and Mr. H. S. 
Capron, later, cashier, was teller. 

The following letter is found in the vaults of the bank : 

Secretary's Office. University of Illinois. 

Urbana, Illinois, June 14, 1897. 
First National Bank, 
Champaign, Illinois. 

Gextleaien — The Board of Trustees of the University of Illi- 
nois, feeling very grateful to you for the assistance rendered the 
University during the recent financial trouble, hereby tenders its sin- 
cere thanks for your kindness in this regard. 

Very respectfuUv yours, 


At this time the Globe Bank, of Treasurer Spaulding of the Uni- 
versity failed, and the University funds were tied up in it. The Uni- 
versity had no ready money and State officials would not advance any 
to them. The First National cashed thousands of dollars worth of 
University warrants, without discount. The following list of deposits, 
taken every ten years from the date the bank was established until 
the death of its founder, show the growth of the bank : 

January 30, 1865 $ 7,359.65 

January 2, 1875 114,022.62 

Tanuarv 2, 1885 248,437.37 

January 2, 1895 460.875.23 

January 2, 1905 831,399.54 

"Uncle Frank" was married twice more, and remained actively 
engaged in business until his death. May 7, 1905, at the age of 93 
years. 4 months and 22 days. 

The last sentence of his autobiography expresses I think the key 
note of the document: 

"you cannot tell what you can do untill you try see what 

Samuel Alison has done see what Simon ODonnel and many others 
have done, and you reader may do the same thus be incourage start 
in to win keep at it and success will come bevon vour expectations 
luck to all." 

1" Ibid., 80. 



C. A. Harper. 

To the dweller in a small town, the arrival of the train is a 
matter of never-flagging interest. The village routine, economic and 
social, is to a great extent regulated by the train schedule. Whether 
or not "number one" is late today, is a topic of serious concern to 
the village banker, the village belle and the farmer. This interest is 
the subject of much merriment from the more sophisticated city 
•dweller, at the expense of his small-town cousin. Yet, this concern 
in the coming of the train, is but indicative of the tremendous influ- 
ence of the railroad in the economic and social life of the nation. 

Nowhere perhaps in our country, can we find such a direct and 
immediate revolution in the life of a large section of territory, due 
to a single influence, as in the case of the prairies of central eastern 
Illinois. Within the decade 1850 to 1860, the coming of the railroad 
changed this portion of the state* from the lair of the wolf, and the 
feeding ground of the deer, to the most prosperous and best cultivated 
agricultural region of the United States. Never have frontier con- 
ditions of life, and frontier attitudes and ideals been so quickly 
trampled under foot. Never has the commerce of a large section of 
country so quickly turned its back on long established trade routes. 
Never has the birth of energy, the sudden dawn of a new era been 
such a tangible thing as in central eastern Illinois between 1850 and 

The prairies of Illinois have been the wonder of all who saw 
them. Every traveller was impressed with their majesty, their wild 
beauty. They inspired the same sense of awe as the sea or the great 
mountains. Travellers mentioned the prairies of Illinois as one of 
the great natural wonders of America, second only to Niagara Falls, 
and a sight which no tourist could afiford to miss. Yet, like the 
desert, or the ocean, they were held to be too vast, too terrible to be 
conquered by the puny efforts of man.^ 

This was the impression of the prairies that first dominated 
Jolliet and his companions and made them hesitate to speak aloud 
when viewing them. But no proposition was too vast to appall the 
mind of the French Jesuit or imperialist. Hence, upon closer investi- 
gation, Jolliet reported that Illinois was most adaptable for settlement. 
"A settler would not there spend ten years in cutting down and burn- 
ing the trees ; on the very day of his arrival, he could put his plow 
in the ground. Thus he would easily find in the country his food 
and clothing."^ This illustrates, not an actual, immediate possibility, 

^Flagg, Edmund, The Far West (1S38), 214. 
*Thwaites, R. G., Jesuit Relations, 59: 311. 


but merely another of the mighty dreams of the visionaries of New 
France. Over a century later, a more practical man reported "a great 

part of the territory is miserably poor consisting of extensive 

plains which have not had, and from appearances will not have a 
single bush on them for ages. The districts therefore, within which 
these fall, will perhaps never contain a sufficient number of inhabi- 
tants to entitle them to membership in the confederacy."^ Again, as 
late as 1850, an Englishman gives his impression ; "a flat, wet, un- 
healthy country, which must be the graveyard of at least four gener- 
ations, and four industrious generations too, who have spent their 
lives in draining marshes, burning up the half-decomposed vegetable 
matter, cultivating fields, opening canals, building good roads, and 
thus purifying the air, and accumidating comforts before it would be 
fit habitation for a gentleman and a christian."-* This was the idea of 
most people, and it was very rare indeed to find a man with any expe- 
rience in pioneer life, who thought that the prairies would ever be 
more than a feeding ground of cattle, and a game reserve for deer 
and prairie chickens.^ 

The obstacles to prairie settlement were more real than imagin- 
arv. True, many thought as did Monroe that land that was too poor , 
to grow timber, was too poor to grow corn, yet, to many who realized 
the richness of the prairie soil, there were obstacles to settlement which 
far outweighed any advantages. In the first place, the pioneer's love 
for timber was not a sentimental one. It was necessary to his very 
life. It supplied him with shelter and fuel till his home was erected ; 
it furnished the material for that home and its equipment. It gave 
him his fences and his barns. The woods furnished pasturage for 
his hogs which fattened on masts, acorns and roots. Where there was 
timber there was running water, fish and all kinds of game. More- 
over, although it required labor to fell the forest giants, the ground 
beneath was easily turned over with his crude plow. On the contrary, 
on the prairie, he could not live. No windbreak protected him from 
the icy blasts ; no lumber was there for fuel, building or fences ; no 
water save green pools of slimy surface water supplied his needs. The 
prairie sod could not be turned with his crude plow and a single horse 
or ox. 

These difficulties confronted the dwellers on the prairies down 
to the coming of the railroads, and operated as a very efifective check 
on the population. The settler was usually forced to hire his ground 
broken the first time at a standard price of $2.50 per acre, this being 
twice as much as the land was worth. '^ Fencing involved an addi- 
tional problem and expense. Perhaps the settler could "borrow" 
timber from some government land, and haul it to his farm, but if 
he bought rails or fencing, the cost was almost prohibitive. Rails 

2 Hamilton, (ed), The Writings of James Monroe, Monroe to .Tefferson, Jan. 1, 19, 1786. 

* Peyton, J. Lewis, Over the Allefihanies and Across the Prairies (1859), 310. 

'Palmer, Jno. M., Personal Recollections of Jno. M. Palmer; the story of an earnest life. 12. 

Poolev, Willinm V.. S^ttlemrvt nf Illinois. 18?0-"l=!r0. "'0. 

'Pease, Theodore C, The Frontier State (Centennial History of Illinois, volume 2) 173. 

- 104 

sold at $1.25-$2.00 per hundred, and to fence with wire was more 
expensive." The digging- and stoning of a well cost from $20-$30.^ 

With these obstacles in mind, what was the character, extent and 
distribution of the population in central eastern Illinois prior to the 
coming of the railroads ? The development of steam navigation on 
the lakes, directed the stream of immigration, which general condi- 
tions and the spirit of immigration had jarred loose in the east by 
1830, to the northern part of Illinois. From 1830 to 1850 there vi^as 
a phenomenal immigration to northern Illinois. By 1850, the popula- 
tion of Illinois was 850,000, three-fourths living north of Vandalia.'^ 
Peoria was laid out in 1826, town plots of Macomb and Monmouth 
■dated from 1831.^° The land sales in the boom of 1835-37 were most 
evident in western and central Illinois offices. Yet the chief cities of 
Quincy, Peoria, Rushville, Peru, Ottawa, Joliet and Rockford were 
on or very near rivers.^ ^ The method of settlement had been to face 
the rivers. The first lands taken up were the timbered lands along 
the water courses. The prairies between two streams, if the streams 
were not too far apart, gradually were filled, as the fringe of settle- 
ment spread from the river. The process did not take place as regu- 
larly or as systematically as the following quotation would indicate, 
yet it is suggestive, "The first improvements are usually made on that 
part of the timber which adjoins the prairie, and thus we may see a 
range of farms circumscribe the entire prairie. The burning of the 
prairie is then stopped, thru the whole circuit in the neighborhood of 
these farms. This is done by plowing furrows all around the settle- 
ment. In a short time, the timber springs up spontaneously on all 
parts not burned, and the groves commence a gradual encroachment 
on the prairie. Bye and bye, another tier of farms springs upon the 
outside of the first, and further out in the prairies, and thus farm 
succeeds farm until the entire prairie is covered. "^- 

Thus the conquest of the new lands came about by the gradual 
process of the frontier settlement. "The frontier line was never fixed 
and never regular, but constantly advancing. Its foremost point was 
always on the rivers and the small prairies between were later over 
run. This was the process of development which the border prairie 
counties Coles, Cumberland, Clark and Edgar were undergoing when 
the railroad revolutionized this method.^" 

While just enough people lived on the prairies of central eastern 
Illinois to make the question of transportation an acute one, the popu- 
lation as yet, was merely centered in the oasis of groves and streams, 
and had hardly begun to penetrate the great desert of prairie. Cham- 
paign County in 1850 had only 2,649 inhabitants, and Livingston 

^ Two Millions, Five Hundred Thousand acres of Land in Illinois, Belonging to the Illinois 
Central Railroad Company, (1854) 22-24. 

* The Illinois Central Railroad Company Offers for Sale over 1,500,000 Acres Selected Farm- 
ing and Woodlands (1858) 72. 

" Brownson, H. G.. The History of the Illinois Central Railroad to 1870 (University of Illi- 
nois Studies in the Social Sciences, volume 4) 12. 

'"Peoria Register, April 1, 1837, Mav 5, 18.38. 

Pooley, Wm. V., Settlement of Illinois, ISSO-lSoO. 380-381. 

" Ibid., 572-.573. 

'^Hancock, Win., An Emigrant's Five Years in the Free States of America (London 1860) 

"Lee, Judson F., "Transportation, A Factor in the Development of Northern Illinois pre- 
vious to 1860," Illinois Historical Society, Journal, Vol. X, .53. 


county only 1,552/^ "Southeast from Chicago, the engineers of the 
IlHnois Central found an almost unbroken wild extending over 130 
miles/^ Mr, Ackerman, writing on the condition of tiie Chicago 
branch of the Illinois Central, writes, "in 1853 we rode for over 
twenty miles on this division without seemg a tree, a house or any 
living thing, save an occasional prairie dog."^*^ 

Let us summarize the actual conditions of life on the prairie prior 
to tlie coming of the railroads. In the hrst place, there was a marked 
contrast among the farmers of the prairie. On the one hand, there 
were the great cattle kings and large scale farmers, such as Funk, 
Harris, Strawn and Holderman; on the other, the poor pioneer farmer 
wdth his board shanty, his single yoke of oxen and half a dozen hogs. 
On the whole, the prairies, up to 1850, were still in the range stage. 
Great herds of cattle were pastured on the high prairie grass, then 
rounded up and driven in to Ohio to receive further fattening, prior to 
the stall feeding of Pennsylvania. This is the same combination of 
ranch, pasture and feeders that existed on the eastern slopes of the 
Alleghanies prior to the Revolution.^' Men who engaged in the industry 
virere men of seme capital who had left the east with the proceeds of 
some old homestead or business establishment. In Illinois, they lived 
the life of the ranch owner on the great western plains in the '90s. 
They had the same problems. to face, and developed the same technique 
in the ranging and marketing of cattle. Each of these cattle kings had 
recorded in a book, kept by the county clerk, certain ear marks and 
brands adopted by him for marketing his stock.^^ There was also the 
typical rancher's trouble with estrays, and to suppress the rustlers, 
societies and vigilant committees were organized. From the size of the 
enterprise, these great stock dealers were able to finance the proposition 
of getting their stock to market b}' means of long drives. They were 
also able to secure a good business by buying up the surplus stock of 
their small neighbors and selling it in eastern markets. The small 
farmer on the prairie presents a different picture. Fie was not so 
enterprising; in fact, there was no incentive for w'ork. The only product 
he could get to market with profit was whiskey.^^ Only slight cultiva- 
tion was needed to produce enough grain for the immediate use of his 
family and hogs. The amount of physical work involved made it 
impossible for the farmer to plant or gather more than a moderate 
yield. Shiftless methods of farming resulted. ^° A western settler 
would live many years on his farm without having a barn or other 
outbuildings, ecept a corn crib, and sometimes a stable, the dimensions 
of which corresponded to those of a poultry house. -^ "His family is 
compelled to live on 'hog and hominy,' and often pays the penalty in 
fever and ague, bilious fever, scrofula and the like. Where the straw- 

" Seventh Census, 718. 

"Lee, .Judson F., "Transportation. A Factor in the Development of Northern Illinois pre- 
vious to 1860," Illinois Historiral Sooietv. Jovrnal. Vol. X. 42. 

"Ackerman, Wm. K., Historical Sketch of the IlHnois Central Railroad, together with a 
brief biographical record of its incorporators, and some of its early officers, 48. 
^■'Simmons, A. M., Social Forces in American History. 197>. 

'^'^ History of Fulton County. (1897") 2-t9. 

" Illinois State Register. .Tan. 17. 18.50. 

*> Brownson, H. C. "Earlv 111. Railroads, the place of the Illinois Central railroad in Illi- 
nois history prior to the Civil War." In Transactions of Illinois State Historical Society 
(1908') 17f. 

^ Faniham. EMza W.. Life in Prairie Lands ('184C) 284. 


berry bed should be, you will perhaps find a tobacco patch, and the hog 
pen has usurped the place of the currant bush."-^ The home of the 
settler was apt to have no floors, no windows, and only a platform 
covered with husks for a bed.-'^ This is not typical, perhaps; in fact, 
the frontier was a varied affair. No one man or family was typical, 
yet the significant thing is, that this mode of living was not, at that 
time, the subject of remarks or particular notice in central eastern 

The amusements of the decade before the coming of the railroads 
were those of the frontier, and society exhibited much of the crudeness 
of the frontier wherever it was found. The males were indolent. 
Respect for the vSabbath and for religious observances were not gen- 
erally very widespread,-"* yet the circuit rider was a common figure, and 
he was accepted for his society, as well as for religious consolation. An 
early resident of Paxton, Illinois, writes: "In 1853, Saturday was a 
holiday with the settlers. The men only, gathered at some agreed place 
and had a good time, which consisted of wrestling, foot racing and 
horse racing, consuming ample supplies of what was known as 'sore 
eye,' and with usually, at least, one satisfactory fight."-^ 

The main problem in 1850 was one of transportation. The prairie 
land of Illinois seems to have developed to about as high an economic 
and social stage as was possible without more adequate means of trans- 
portation. "The condition of early country roads was wretched, almost 
to an extent beyond description. There were a few old corduroy roads 
and three or four government turnpikes, but they were short and ill 
kept. Fortunate, indeed, was the traveler who was not compelled to 
help pry the coach out of the deep mud, or wait till morning for a 
yoke of oxen to pull him out of some slough."^" The rivers were the 
only source of trade and communication to the outside world, and the 
expense of moving products to the river towns from the interior was 
practically prohibitive, ten to twentv miles being as far as grain or 
other bulkv goods could be hauled with any degree of profit. ^'^ "Every 
town would contain one or two merchants who would buy corn, wheat 
and dressed hogs in the fall, store them in warehouses on the river at 
some of the landings, and when the river opened in the spring would 
ship his winter's accumulation to St. Louis. Cincinnati or New Orleans 
for sale, and with the proceeds visit New York, and lav in a six months' 
supply of goods. So far as the farmer was concerned in all these 
transactions, money was an unknown factor. Goods were always 
sold on twelve months' time, and payment made with the proceeds of 
the farmer's crops. When the crops were sold and the merchant 
satisfied, the surplus was paid out in orders on the store."-® 

The railroads then were built through the orairies, partiallv for a 
need already felt by the inhabitants, and partially as an experiment in 

" JlUnni^ State ReriMer. March l.S, IS.'^O. 

^ Farnham, Eliza W., Lije in Prairie Lands ClS4f)) fi4-6f!. 

=* Ihiit., 3.34-fi. 

^' Taft. Oren R.. "Fnrlv History of Paxton, Illinois" .Tournnl of the Illinois State Historical 
Sociptv. Anril, 1919. 33. " 

^•^ B'-own«on, H. O.. "Fnrlv Tllinnis Railroads, the place of the Illinois Central railrnafl in 
Illinois history prior to the Civil War," in Tran,mctions of Illinois State Historical Society. 
(190S> 171. 

^ Ri-ownson H. n., Pixtnrv nf tfip Tllwoix Central Railroad to 1870. 11. 

"^ ni'^tory of Fvlton Co. nR79') 219-220. 


opening up a vast wilderness of prairie. The Illinois Central was not 
built to pay by traffic earnings, but to open up land to settlement ; while 
the Chicago & Alton, and the Toledo, Wabash & Great Western were 
built more with the idea of meeting commercial demands.-''^ 

The most noticeable result of the building of the railroads was 
the increase in population of the prairie counties. The increase from 
the year 1850 to 1860 in these counties being 157 per cent. This per- 
centage does not tell the story of the prairies, for the border counties 
tributary to rivers were already fairly well settled in 1850. It is more 
marked if we consider the interior counties. Champaign County 
increased over 600 per cent, and is merely typical. 

The Illinois Central offered a very wise land sales policy. Induce- 
ments were offered to actual settlement, and speculation was discour- 
aged as much as possible. ^° The company offered much aid to immi- 
gration, gave a helping hand to settlers, and encouraged improvement 
of agricultural methods. With a general tilling up of the government 
and railroad lands, there was the phenomenon of the growth of towns. 
New towns sprang up literally over night and old ones threw off the 
lethargy of years, secured a charter, and began to be cities. The growth 
of West Urbana (Champaign) and Mattoon are typical. West Urbana 
increased over 200 per cent in sixteen months ; that is, from 416 in 
1855 to 1,202 in 1857.^^ In the case of Mattoon, there was not a sign 
of human life in April of 1855, yet by August "there was a hotel, with 
another being erected, a post office, a dry goods store and two groceries 
erected, with a population of around four hundred.^^ The increase in 
the number of acres under cultivation is, of course, more striking. In 
the entire ' group of prairie counties the increase was from 744,000 
acres in 1850 to 2,902,000 in 1860. Champaign County showed a 200 
per cent gain, Livingston County nearly 300 per cent and Iroquois 
County over 100 per cent. All of this meant a decided increase in farm 
values. Even in the older counties as Sangamon, where the acreage 
under cultivation increased but little, the values of farms increased 
nearly 100 per cent. In LaSalle County farm values increased from 
one to seven millions, and it was one of the most highly developed of 
these counties in 1850. 

Agriculture became revolutionized. Farming became a business, 
and a business in which the prairie dweller of IlHnois had the advan- 
tage of the world. Hard times, low prices, panics, etc., had less effect 
on him than on farmers in any other section of the country. The editor 
of the Central Illinois Gazette, August 4, 1858, writes: "Hard times 
did not strike Champaign County. In West Urbana, no less than thirty 
buildings have gone up since the cessation of the spring rains, and the 
farmers, despite their inclination to grumble, are prospering. Trans- 
portation has solved the problem. The two great impediments to the 
settlement of our beautiful prairies — the want of fencing and fuel — are 
being solved by the railroads. "^^ Grain and stock filled the cars going 

'^ N. Y. Herald, June 29, 1860, clipped in Chicago Press and Tribune, July 3, 1860. 

^^ Chicago Daily Democratic Press, Nov. 21, 1S54. See also the various bulletins issued bv 
the I. C. Co., under the title, Lnnds for Sale, 1853-'54-'55-'56. 

=' Urbana Union, Jan. 8, 1857. 

^2 Cole, Arthur Chas., The Era of the Civil War, 51 and Chicago Weekly Democrat, Sept. 1, 

2' Canton Weekli/ Register, May 28, 1853. 


north and east, while lumber, merchandise and farm machinery sup- 
plied the return load. The inexhaustible stores of minerals were 
rendered accessible, and coal was not only applied to the operation of 
the engines on the railroad, but was also supplied to the farmer to be 
used as fuel.^* 

The farmer became more alert as new markets opened up and as 
prices increased and became more stabilized. Farm machinery was 
introduced. The broad, flat prairie was adapted to the use of machinery 
and the great demand of the east and Europe for grain could not be 
supplied in the west, where labor was scarce, unless mechanical inven- 
tions were brought to the aid of the grain grower. The opening of the 
prairies of Illinois served as an impetus to the invention and manufac- 
turing of farm implements and machinery. "The decade, 1850 to 
1860, witnessed the beginning of the practical use of horse-driven 
machinery for cutting and threshing grain. In Illinois, it was possible 
to use tools which could not be employed upon the stony, stumpy farms 
of New England and the Ohio valley. Factory methods in the produc- 
tion of agricultural machinery were impossible before the railroad 
system was sufficiently developed, to place a large number of farms 
within reach of a single, central point. ""^ But even these new inventions 
did not satisfy the progressive farmer. He had visions of the steam 
plow turning over his level fields. Several trials were made at various 
places in central Illinois for the purpose of finding one which would 
do the work.^'' In a letter to The Prairie Farmer, a wealthy farmer 
proposes to be one of a hundred subscribers to a $50,000 fund, to be 
awarded as a premium for a perfected steam plow "suited to farm 
use, and capable of performing the labor at an expense, in money, not 
greater than the average cost of performing the same work under the 
present system."^' 

The distinctly modern attitude of the prairie farmer, after the 
coming of the railroad, is shown in the various meetings, associations 
and societies which they formed in the decade 1850-60. They organ- 
ized to import blooded stock, "^ to protest against railroad rates,^'' to 
form cooperative wholesale purchasing and selling agencies in the 
great centers of commerce, ^° to improve the knowledge of agriculture, 
to raise the level of culture and education in the country. 

Wheat, corn and stock were not the only crops which interested 
our new-made farmer. Diversified agriculture illustrates the desire of 
the wide awake, to experiment. Hemp,*^ "northern sugar cane," and 
all sorts of fruit and vegetables were tried, some with success. "Hog 
and hominy" was no longer the diet of large portions of the popula- 
tion. There was less and less difference between the poor small 
farmer and the large scale farmer in methods of farming, size of cul- 
tivated fields,'*- and in standards of livinp-. 

3* Coles, A. C, The Era of the Civil War, 49. 
^ Census of 1900 — Bulletin 200 on "Agriculture Implements." 
=>* Chicago Press and Tribune, July 25, 18.39, March 24, 1858. 
" Ottawa Free Trader, May 16, 1857. 

^ Dailt/ Democratic Press', Jan. 29, 1857, Feb. 10, 1857, Ritshville Tunes, Jan. 30, 1857, 
Springfield State lieoister. Mav 5, 1853, Aug. 4, 1857. 
^3 Our Constitution, June 26, 1858. 
*" Rockjord Reoister. Oct. 16, 1858. 
*i Cole, A. C, The Era of the Civil War. S2. 
^^Pooley, W. v.. Settlement of Illinois. 1S:W-1850, 17. 


New problems, new attitudes, new customs took the place of the 
frontier scheme of things. It was obvious to all progressive citizens, 
that more education was necessary, not only to improve agricultural 
methods in order to take advantage of expanding markets, but also 
to keep abreast of the rapidly expanding intellectual horizon ever wid- 
ening with the telegraph, the daily newspaper, the traveller, and 
lecturer, which the railroad made possible.'*''^ It is significant that the 
most influential school journal, until the appearance of the Illinois 
Teacher in 1854, was the Prairie Fanner.*-^ The title page stated 
rather emphatically that it was a journal dedicated to the cause of the 
common schools in Illinois. The passage of the free school law in 
1855, was possible only because the farmers of the prairies of Illinois 
were energized and awakened by the coming of the railroad. 

The entire intellectual life of central eastern Illinois was stimu- 
lated. The list of lecturers coming to Bloomington from 1853-56 rep- 
resents names of national importance, and the solidity, and serious 
quality of their discourses illustrate the zeal of the people for educa- 
tion.''^ Indeed, by 1859, the editor of the Rockford Republican begs 
for relief from lecturers. He maintained there had been an average 
of six a week for six weeks, and the people were being lectured to 
death.*" Such a condition was prevalent throughout Illinois, and it 
was a poor village indeed which could not support its "Lyceum 

The arrival of the many railroad laborers, the foreign immigra- 
tion, and the establishment of a large class of employees in towns, 
incident to the railroad development, gave rise to fundamental changes 
in frontier democracy. Mrs. Johns, of Decatur, writes in her Per- 
sonal Recollections, "the hordes of foreign laborers that railroad 
building brought to town, has disrupted society. The classes and 
masses began to segregate. The lawyer and merchant no longer 
danced with the mechanic and laborer. We began to speak of society. 
We had theaters, concerts, lectures and festivals. Literary societies, 
and musical unions superceded spelling contests and singnig schools." 

With the growth of towns new problems confronted the citizens ; 
problems of sanitation, civic improvements such as lights and sewage, 
amusements, and new types of crime. It was during the five years 
of 1855-60 that most villages, towns, and cities in central eastern 
Illinois began to attack the problem of the "pig nuisance. "'''^ This 
forward attitude is well illustrated in the complaint of the Spring- 
field Journal. "Our streets and alleys should be cleaned every^vhere, 
especially in and around the neighborhood of the square. The brick- 
bats, trash, old hats, old boots, and shoes, rags, bones, manure and 
many other things which grace our streets, should be hauled ofif, and 
hog-holes filled up. The crossings of most of our streets are in such 
bad conditions that a carriage cannot be driven over them at a trot, 
without endangering the springs. "'^^ 

" Cole, A. C, The Era of the Civil War. 58. 

"Belting, Paul E.. "The Development oj the Free Public High School in Illinois to 1S60." 
Illinois State Historical Society, Journal, (Jan. 1919) Vol. 11, No. 4, 488. 

*^ Hoover, Mary, "Extracts from Diary of Isaac Kenyon, with Reminiscences by Mary 
Hoover," The McLean Countv Historical Society, Transactions, 1903, Vol. II, p. 414. 

" Rockford Republic, March .31, 18.59. 

^'Cole, A. C, The Era of the Civil War, 4. 

*^ Springfield Journal, Sept. 13, 1853. 


Perhaps the clearest indication that the older order was passing, 
was the concern shown in regard to the increase of crime, and the 
new types of crime and criminals."*" The railroads were charged with 
setting the fast pace. As a result, the Urbana Clarion, on October 29, 
1859, proclaims that "young men and women are raised to extrava- 
gance. They are never taught the principles of economy. With af- 
fluence surrounding them on every side, brought up in indolence, 
with their minds vitiated by the constant perusal of the lascivious liter- 
ature of the day, how can it be reasonably expected that they would 
be as pure in mind and intellect as those who have been reared to re- 
gard virtue as the palladium of everything enobling?" 

I conclude that Professor Cole is entirely correct in his state- 
ment that "the coming of the railroads revolutionized life in the 
prairies of Illinois. The advent of the 'iron horse', his rapid multipli- 
cation, and his firey plunges thru the unsettled wilderness that sep- 
arated the river valleys, trampled under foot the trappings of the 
frontier state, and furnished the power which produced industrial 
Illinois of today."^° 

*'■' Belleville Democrat, .Jan. 23, 1858. Chicaao Daily Democrat and Press, Aug. 13, 1859, 
Julv 28, 1857. Springfield Journal, Jan. S. 1852' 
'^ Cole, A. C, Era of the Civil War, 27. 

E. Elmer Ellsworth 




Luther E. Robinson. 

The tragic death of Colonel Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, who was 
shot at Alexandria, Va., May 24, 1861, for hauling down a Confederate 
flag flying from the roof of a boarding house in the town, has some 
historical significance because it was symtomatic of the sectional bitter- 
ness that had been gathering with steady stubbornness since its historic 
outcropping in 1830 in the Webster-Hay ne debate. The mutual disdain 
of the two sections, discernible in the protagonists of that event, deep- 
ened with the passing of the years until it infected the hearts of 
ordinary men, in whom party rancor and sectional prejudice exhibit 
their most irrational behavior.. Not only was Ellsworth's cruel taking 
off significant of the smouldering ill temper with which the two sections 
were immediately approaching their desperate military contest ; it 
hastened, also, the unity and resolution of public opinion at the North 
and created alertness and enthusiasm for enlistment in her incipient 

Ellsworth was born at Malta, a hamlet in Saratoga County, New 
York, April 11, 1837. His parents, Ephraim D. Ellsworth, a tailor, 
and Phoebe Denton Ellsworth, had been in comfortable circumstances 
until the financial confusion of that year left them almost penniless. 
The father was of English ancestry. His grandfather, while a boy of 
15, attached himself to the American army which opposed Burgoyne. 
The mother, Phoebe Denton, came of English and Scotch stock and is 
described as a "Scotch Presbyterian." Young Elmer attended the 
district school at Malta, where he showed unusual taste for reading 
books and became a leader in the school games and sports. His impe- 
cunious father was never able to give the boy the educational oppor- 
tunities he coveted. His mother looked carefully after his religious 
instruction, to which he was responsive. As a school boy he became 
an ardent partisan of temperance. His mother, in a forty-three page 
manuscript sketch of his life, written after his death and now in the 
State Library at Albany, N. Y., has recorded a good many "philosophi- 
cal and original sayings" of her son.^ 

As he grew he developed a marked talent for sketching. A number 
of his drawings, at present held as loans by the Chicago Historical 
Society, are the property of Mrs. Charles Godfrey,^ of Rockford, 

^ C. A. Ingraham, "Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth: First Hero of the Civil War," in Wisconsin 
Magazine of History, 1.4:1. 

^ Miss CarohTi Godfrey, of Rockford, 111., in a letter to the writer, mentions Ellsworth's 
drawings, the property of her mother, Mrs. Charles Godfrey, as revealing Ellsworth's talent. Dr. 
Ingraham, op. cit., p. 3.58, reproduces a drawing by Ellsworth from an original in the Wisconsin 
Historical Library. 


Illinois, surviving sister of Carrie M. Spafford, who at Rockford 
became, in 1859, the fiancee of young Ellsworth. While his parents 
lived at Malta, the boy held a clerkship in a store for about a year. He 
aspired to an appointment to West Point, but failed for want of 
adequate preparation. Shortly afterward his father made his home at 
Mechanicville, N. Y., where Elmer displa}ed a talent and a passion for 
military drill by organizing and directing the Black Plumed Riflemen 
at Stillwater, three miles north of Mechanicville. In 1852, at the age 
of 15, he clerked in a store at Troy. Already he had assumed respon- 
sibility for his own fortunes and was shifting for himself. Between 
1853 and 1858 the details of his life are obscure. Dr. Charles A. 
Ingraham, of Cambridge, N. Y., his most authentic biographer, repro- 
duces a letter published in the Telegraph-Courier, of Kenosha, Wis., by 
one Charles H. Goffe, under date of August 2, 1917, in which the 
author says he remembered tliat Elmer Ellsworth, in 1853, boarded 
with him at a Mrs. Bell's in Kenosha. He describes Ellsworth as a 
young man of "handsome features and fastidious ways, accentuated 
by a repelling hauteur and exclusiveness." He states that Ellsworth 
had few associates ; that he attended a high school in Kenosha for a 
time and then suddenly dropped out of sight ; that two years later, 1855, 
he discovered that Ellsworth had been adopted into a tribe of Ottawa 
Indians near Muskegon and had become its chief. 

Dr. Ingraham discounts some of the more romantic details of 
Goffe's account of Ellsworth's association with the Indians, but credits 
the general fact of such a temporary connection. In 1855 we find the 
young man back in New York, now in the service of a compan}' of 
engineers who were working upon the channel at Hellgate. This 
employment appears to have given him a chance to improve his military 
tactics by drilling with the Seventh Regiment in New York City. But 
the lure of bettering his fortune kept him on the wing. In company 
with several engineers, he returned to Chicago this same year, 1855. He 
found employment as clerk in the office of a patent solicitor, Arthur 
F. Devereux, from Salem, Mass. Later on, as a partner in this office, 
he lost all his savings through the defalcation of one whom he had 
trusted. Of this misfortune he wrote : "In an evil hour I placed con- 
fidence in an infernal scoundrel, was robbed of everything in a moment, 
saw the reward of three years' toil fade from my eyes when about to 
grasp it." 

In 1858, at the age of 21, Ellsworth entered the law ofifice of 
J. E. Cone, of Chicago, where he copied papers for his meagre living 
and began the study of law. He joined a gymnasium in charge of 
Dr. Charles A. DeVilliers, a skillful technician in military matters, who 
revived Ellsworth's interest in fencing and taught him the French 
Zouave system of tactics and uniform. His master had derived this 
system from his connection with a French regiment in the Crimean 
war. The French name Zouave was acquired from the Arabic Zwawa, 
the designation of a mountain tribe in Algeria whom the French were 
fighting in 1830. This warlike tribe wore an oriental costume of wide 
trousers, fez, loose jacket, suited to rapid movement and fierce daring. 
These features gave distinction to the drill maneuvers of the Chicago 


Zouaves when later they excited the admiration of the nation for their 
superiority over all competing military companies. 

During the summer of 1858 Ellsworth went to Rockford to direct 
the drill of the Rockford Grays, organized two years before. He rapidly 
transformed the tactics and efficiency of the Rockford company. 
Church's History of Rockford states that the Rockford Zouaves con- 
tinued their organization until the outbreak of the Civil War, when 
many members of the company volunteered in the federal service and 
were sent to Cairo and Bird's Point for garrison duty. At Rockford 
Ellsworth enforced severe military discipline. This feature of his 
training is still remembered at Rockford. Mrs. Aurelia Towne has 
written me of an incident she witnessed during a public drill he staged 
in one of the halls of Rockford, at which a large crowd of spectators 
v/ere present. Her future husband, a lad of 17, during the drill, was 
"casting- smiles and side glances at the girls, when Ellsworth struck 
him across the knuckle with the flat of his sword" and shouted, "Towne, 
attention!" She speaks of the young Zouave's humiHation and lesson, 
and continues : "He received his military training from Ellsworth and 
afterward served three years and three months in the Civil War." 

Ellsworth by this time was coming into demand as a drillmaster 
for miUtary companies low in vitality and technique. He was invited, 
October, 1858, to Madison, Wisconsin, to drill the Governor's Guard, 
organized in February. The Illinois State Historical Society has a 
letter of Ellsworth's, dated from the "Capitol House," Madison, 
December 7, 1858, addressed to General S. B. Buckner, Chicago, 
stating that he would leave Madison "about the first of January," and 
asking that mail be sent him at Rockford. The following April he was 
elected commandant of the National Guard Cadets of Chicago, a 
company instituted three years earlier, but at a low ebb of activity. 
Abandoning their old name, they became the Chicago Zouaves, with 
headquarters in the Garret block, where the Central Music Hall now 
stands. To make the company morally and physically fit, "to place the 
company in a position," he said, "second to none in the United States," 
he enforced the most abstemious discipline, setting an example in his 
own conduct. He forbade the use of intoxicants by his men or their 
visit to pool halls or any place of questionable morality. He dismissed 
twelve of his best men at one time for breach of the rules, and although 
his company dwindled for a time, there was no mutiny. After two 
months' drilling under the new commandant the Zouaves gave a public 
drill in front of the Tremont House and won the admiration of critics, 
some of whom felt that Ellsworth's company could not be matched 
outside of West Point. He now felt that his discipline had justified 
itself against the spirit of unfriendly criticism locally expressed, includ- 
ing that of the Chicago Tribune, and he entered in his journal that 
night the heartfelt words, "Victory, and thank God."' 

From this point his career turned in \he direction of lasting fame. 
His struggle with poverty, made harder to bear by his native ambition 
and pride, had at last triumphed by dint of his strong character, his 
will to lead a clean life in the face of the temptations that easily beset 
youth and poverty. 

^ Personal Reminiscences of Col. E. E. Ellsworth," John Hay. McClure's Magazine, VI. 357. 


The best revelation we have of Ellsworth's character is in his 
diary, begun on his twenty-second birthday, April 11, 1859, and con- 
tinued for a brief period. In this document, which has lately come 
into the possession of the Minnesota Historical Society, he sets down 
his purpose in words that indicate unusual clearness and elevation of 
mind in a youth of his years. "I do this," he wrote, "because it seems' 
pleasant to be able to look back upon our past lives and note the 
gradual change in our sentiments and views of life; and because my 
life has been, and bids fair to be, such a strange jumble of incidents 
that, should I become anybody or anything, this will be useful as a 
means of showing how much suffering and temptation a man may 
undergo and still keep clear of despair and vice." 

The second day of his diary, April 12, 1859, contains a touching 
entry, which reveals concretely the problems of poverty which con- 
fronted his efforts to fit himself for professional self-subsistence. At 
this time he was a clerk and student in Mr. Cone's law office. Here 
are his words : 

"Had an opportunity to buy a desk today, worth forty-five dollars, 
for fourteen dollars. It was just such a one as I needed, and I could 
sell it at any time for more than was asked for it. I bought it at auction. 
I can now indulge my ideas of order in the arrangement of my papers 
to the fullest extent. Paid five dollars of my own money and borrowed 
ten dollars of James Clayburne ; promised to return it next Tuesday. 
By the way, this was an instance in a small way of the importance of 
little things. Some two years since, when I was so poor, I went one 
day into an eating house on an errand. While there Clayburne and 
several friends came in. 

"As I started to go out they stopped me and insisted upon my 
having an oyster stew. I refused, for I always made it a practice 
never to accept even an apple from anyone, because I could not return 
like courtesies. While they were clamoring about the matter and I 
trying to get from them, the waiter brought on the oysters for the 
whole party, having taken it for granted that I was going to stay. So 
to escape making myself any more conspicuous by further refusal, I 
sat down. How gloriously everything tasted — the first food I had 
touched for three days and three nights. When I came to Chicago 
with a pocket full of money, I sought James out and told him I owed 
him half a dollar. He said 'no,' but I insisted my memory was better 
than his, and made him take it. Well, when I wanted ten dollars, I 
went to him and he gave it to me freely, and would take no security. 
Have written four hours this evening ; two pounds of crackers ; sleep 
on office floor tonight." 

John Hay, who knew him intimately, tells us that Ellsworth was 
neat, "almost foppish in his attire; not strictly fashionable, for he 
liked bright colors, flowing cravats, and hats that suggested the hunter 
or ranger, rather than the law clerk ;" that his "poverty was extreme," 
and that he "often lived for months together upon dry biscuits and 
water ;" that he took a boyish pride in refusing offers of assistance, in 
resisting temptation to innocent indulgence, in passing most of his 


hours in study, earning" only enough by his copying to keep body and 
soul together.* 

Several entries in the diary illustrate Mr. Hay's comments. Under 
date of April 13th he wrote: "Read one hundred and fifty pages of 
Blackstone ; slept on floor." Again he writes : "I tried to read, but could 
not. I am afraid my strength will not hold out. I have contracted a 
cold by sleeping on the floor, which has settled in my head, and nearly 
sets me crazy with catarrh. There is that gnawing, unsatisfied sensa- 
tion, which I begin to feel again, which prevents any long continued 

Ellsworth was so attractive in personality that he could have had 
all sorts of favors in his extremity.^ Church's History of Rockford 
speaks of him as a "splendid specimen of young manhood," and further 
that "he was received as a social lion by the young people of the city." 
He must have produced a similar impression in Chicago, where he 
appears to have held aloof from experiences that might impair his 
Spartan-like self-denial. Under date of April 14th he wrote : "Accord- 
ing to promise, I went for Mrs. and took her to Mrs. ■ — at 

the Tremont house. The good woman insisted on paying my fare in 
the omnibus ; she meant right, so I could not take offense at it. I simply 
insisted upon her dropping the matter, and I paid it myself (charged 
it to my dinner). Very pressing invitation, nay, command, to take 

dinner at Tremont with her and Mrs. ■ ■ — ; refused. Gentlemen, 

who, like me, live on crackers and water seldom dine at hotels. One 
pound of crackers ; am living like a king ; sleep on floor tonight." May 

28th he wrote : "As I came back I stopped at Mrs. , told her it 

was not right for me to see her, and would not call there again, as was 
convinced it would work us both harm; told her I loved a young lady 
and was engaged to be married to her. She said that could make no 
difference in her feelings toward me. She was most persevering in 
her love. She has found out nearly the extent of my resources, and 
inisted upon my accepting money. To do her justice, she was as deli- 
cate about it as possible. I bade her good-by and came home in a per- 
fect shower of rain. I dare not stay longer. Heavens ! what a shame 
that such a magnificent woman should be bound to a man who appre- 
ciates her no more than he would a handsome horse or dog." 

During this same month of May he wrote : "I am getting so weak 
that I do not seem to realize any benefit from sleep. I am almost get- 
ting to loathe the sight of crackers. If I had something else to eat, 
and enough of it, or if I could have regular meals, I could learn twice 
as fast and easily. It is no light task to confine your mind to your 
reading when your stomach is absolutely craving for food. If I get 
enough ahead by copying I will try some dried meat of some kind, and 
see if that will not produce a change." 

Throughout his severe privation the young man maintained his 
connection as the most skillful member of the military company at the 
gymnasium or the armory. On his love for the military life Hav's 
testimony is this : "From his earliest boyhood he had a passionate love 

* John Hay, op. cit. 

B New York Tribune, an editorial. May 25, 1861, p. 4, speaks of Ellsworth's ".soldierly bear- 
ing'," his "unusually fine physique — frank and attractive manners." 


of the army. He learned as a child the manual of arms ; he picked 
up instinctively a knowledge of the pistol and the rifle; he became, 
almost without instruction, a scientific fencer,"® Hay says that Ells- 
worth determined to become a lawyer because to all appearance he 
had no chance to enter the army. Corroborative of Hay's reference 
to his skill as a fencer, I give this excerpt from his diary entered under 
date of May 24th : 

"This evening the fencer, of whom I have heard so much, came 
up to the armory to fence with me. He said to his pupils and several 
that if I held to the low guard he would disarm me every time. I 
raised my foil. He was a great gymnast, and I fully expected to be 
beaten. The result was I disarmed him four times, hit him thirty 
times ; he disarmed me once and hit me five times. I touched him in 
two places at the same 'alaienze' and threw his foil from him sev- 
eral feet." 

Ellsworth's more than local reputation as a drill-master of mili- 
tary companies began with a public drill of his Chicago Zouaves in 
front of the Tremont House, July 4th, 1859. From that event mili- 
tary critics began to take serious notice of the young man. On Sep- 
tember 15th, at the Seventh Annual Fair of the National Agricultural 
Society, held in Chicago, the Zouaves won a $500.00 stand of colors 
in a competitive drill. The presence of only one competitor, however, 
created adverse comment among the older military companies of the 
country, who were inclined to deride the pretensions of the "prairie 
boys." Ellsworth promptly issued a challenge to any company in the 
United States or Canada to meet his company, and made plans 
to take his Zouaves on a competitive tour to meet military organiza- 
tions unable to go to Chicago. The money needed was in part given 
by Chicago citizens and in part was earned by exhibition drills given 
en route. The itinerary, covering about six weeks of the summer 
of 1860, included Chicago, Adrian, Mich.; Detroit, Cleveland, Niagara 
Falls, Rochester, Syracuse, Utica, Troy, Albany, New York City, 
Boston, Charleston and Salem, Mass. : West Point, Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, Washington, Mount Vernon, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
and Springfield, Illinois. The company returned to Chicago August 

Of this competitive tour, John Hay wrote: "He defeated the 
crack companies in all the principal eastern cities and went back to 
Chicago one of the most talked-of men in the country." John Gil- 
mary Shea, in an account published in New York, in 1861, says of 
the tour: "The novelty of the dress, and the exactness and celerity 
of their evolutions, soon made the Chicago Zouaves known far and 

wide Their exercises were visited by crowds, — officers anxious 

to see and study, fair ladies to wonder, young men to be inspired by 

^ John Haj', op. cit. 

'' The sole survivor of the Chicago Zouaves is Major J. O. Barclay, born in Logan County, 
Kentucky, July 19, 1S3S. He lives at Carlinville, Illinois. He has given the writer many inter- 
e.sting- reminiscences of Ellsworth, wliom he knew intimately in Chicago, and of the competitive 
tour of the Zouaves. He states that, after the Zouaves gave' their drill at West Point, Ellsworth, 
their commander, dropped to the rear and the company, without a word of command, went 
through the silent manual perfectl.v. Judges at West Point were : JeiTerson Davis, Winifield 
Scott, S. B. Buckner, A. E. Burnside, George B. McOlellan, and W. J. Hardee, author of 
"Hardee's Tactics." Davis, himself a West Point graduate, declared that he had seen the 
drills of the French Zouaves at Paris, of the Queen^s Guards in England and of the best com- 
panies in America, but had never seen the equal of Ellsworth's Zouaves. 


military zeal. In New York City, the Academy of Music was the 
scene of an exhibition which filled a house as densely as the most 
popular singer ever did." Dr. Charles A. Ingraham, of Cambridge, 
N. Y., who knows more about the life and character of Ellsworth 
than any other living man, says : "Though the tour was made for 
the purpose of inviting competition, not a company ventured to face 
them, all cheerfully according the palm of superiority." 

Upon their return to Chicago, the Zouaves were given an ovation 
at the Wigwam where Lincoln had been nominated for the presidency 
the previous May 18th. Ten thousand people gathered to do honor 
to the military company conceded to be unmatched in America, prob-* 
ably unmatched in the world. Mayor Wentworth made the congrat- 
ulatory speech, and the company was escorted to the Briggs house 
and banqueted at midnight. 

Ellsworth, after severe struggles and self-discipline, had at last 
found his genius and was at the sun-rise of a brilliant career. But he 
was still immature in years. He was still moved by a consciousness 
of power which, although it promised somewhat of Napoleonic dis- 
tinction, was unseasoned by the experience that directs rather than 
leads in heroic action. He had demonstrated his unquestioned orig- 
inality and courage, and his ability to impart his personal spirit and 
confidence to a body of men under his control. He had shown his 
complete mastery of the problem of selecting and turning out capable 
troops, willing for any action, in the shortest time. 

He went back to Springfield, Illinois, made the further acquaint- 
ance of Abraham Lincoln, then engaged in his campaign for the presi- 
dency, entered Lincoln and Herndon's office ''ostensibly as a law 
student,"^ made several campaign speeches for Lincoln, in which he 
showed ability to hold and interest an audience, for he was an easy 
and entertaining speaker. He apparently won Lincoln's endorsement 
of a project he was elaborating at the time for the "establishment in 
the War Department of a Bureau of Militia, by which the entire 
militia system of the United States should be concentrated, system- 
atized, and made efficient." As Hay points out, this was an "enorm- 
ous undertaking for a boy of twenty-three ; but his plans were clear, 
definite, and comprehensive." 

Accompanying the presidential party to Washington, Ellsworth 
was charged with the responsibility of superintending the crowds that 
greeted the incoming executive at cities where stops were made. After 
the inauguration, Lincoln made Ellsworth a lieutenant of dragoons, 
apparently a temporary position. There has been published an un- 
signed letter written by the President to the Secretary of War, dated 
"Executive Mansion, March, 1861," which requested that Ellsworth 
be detailed for "special duty as adjutant and inspector-general of 
militia affairs, for the United States, and insofar as existing laws 
will admit, charge him with the transaction, under your direction, of 
all business pertaining to the militia, to be conducted as a separate 
bureau, of which Lieut. Ellsworth will be chief." This order, whose 
transmission was not executed, probably events suspended it, directed 

8 Hay, op. cit., p. 358. 


that separate rooms and office equipment and compensation be pro- 
vided for Ellsworth. 

In an article written for the Atlantic Monthly a few weeks after 
the death of Colonel Ellsworth, John Hay reproduced the scheme of 
duties of the proposed Bureau of Militia which Ellsworth drew up 
for the President's consideration. The paragraphs are as follows :® 

"First — The gradual concentration of all business pertaining to 
the militia now conducted by the several bureaus of this department. 

"Second — The collection and systematizing of accurate informa- 
tion of the number, arm, and condition of the militia of all classes 
of the several states, and the compilation of yearl}^ reports of the same 
information of this Department. 

"Third — The compilation of a report of the actual condition of 
the militia and the working of the present systems of the General 
Government and the various States. 

"Fourth — The publication and distribution of such information 
as is important to the militia, and the conduct of all correspondence 
relating to militia affairs. 

"Fifth — The compilation of a system of instruction for light 
troops for distribution to the several States, including everything per- 
taining to the instruction of the militia in the school of the soldier, — 
company and battalion, skirmishing, bayonet, and gymnastic drill, 
adapted for self-instruction. 

"Sixth — The arrangement of a system of organization, with a 
view to the establishment of a uniform system of drill, discipline, 
equipment, and dress, throughout the United States." 

Shortly after receiving the President's commission as lieutenant, 
Ellsworth fell ill of measles. During his convalescence, when the 
Confederate guns were being trained upon Fort Sumter, he said to 
John Hay, who sat by his bedside : "You know I have a great work 
to do, to which my life is pledged ; I am the only earthly stay of my 
parents ; there is a young woman whose happiness I regard as dearer 
than my own ; yet I could ask no better death than to fall next week 
before Sumter. I am not better than other men. You will find that 
patriotism is not dead, even if it sleeps.'"^" Circumstances were re- 
vealing the fact that Ellsworth preferred action in the field to the 
administration of a military office. He may have obeyed an impulse 
of his genius to inspire soldiers for the fight he believed unavoidable, 
or he may have followed a plain conviction that duty required the 
contribution of his personal effort to vanquish the rebellion of the 
seceding States. At any rate, when Sumter was summoned to sur- 
render April 11th, on his twenty- fourth birthday, he threw up his com- 
mission in the regulars, and borrowing money from his friend Hay, 
hastened to New York city, where within three weeks he raised a regi- 
ment of 1,100 among the firemen of the city. 

President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers on April 15th. 
Ellsworth went to New York on the 17th. On the 18th, the following 
notice appeared in several New York papers :^^ 

"John Hay, "Atlantic Monthly/' VIII: 123, 124. 
^° Hay, "McClure's Magazine," op. cit.. p. 359. 

^' Julius C. Burrows, dedicatorj' oration, reDroduced in "Ellsworth Monument Exercises," New 
York, 1874. 


"The New York Fireman Zouave Regiment." 

"Colonel Ellsworth, of Zouave fame, has commenced the or- 
ganization of a Zouave regiment in this cit}-, to be composed en- 
tirely of members of the Fire Department. None are to be 
received but those who have done service in the department and 
are able bodied men, and are willing to submit to the hardships 
that are encountered by volunteers. A meeting of the chief of 
the department and leading members will be held this morning, 
in order to make a final decision as to what course they will 

"In connection with the above the following poster has been 
distributed : 



"To the members of the New York Fire Department : 

"The Government appeals to the New York Fire Department 
for one regiment of Zouaves. The subscriber is detailed in New 
York for the purpose of drilling and equipping the regiment after 
being organized. The companies will be allowed to select their 
own officers. 

"CoL. Ellsworth, 
"Of Chicago Zouaves." 
I On April 19th, the New York Herald contained this notice : 


"One of the prominent features of the expedition to be sent 
from this city, for the defense of the federal government, will be 
the military corps organized from the brave firemen of New York. 
Colonel Ellsworth of the Chicago Zouaves has deeply interested 
himself in this movement and has in connection with the principal 
officers of the Fire Department of the city issued the following 
circular : 
"To the Firemen, Officers, Active and Exempt Members and 

Friends of the Fire Department : 

"Gentlemen : We are entering upon a struggle for the main- 
tenance of our government, our institutions and our national 
honor. The compliment has been paid you of applying for a full 
regiment of your own men. The firemen of New York must give 
an account of themselves in this contest. We appeal to you to 
turn out and give Ellsworth a regiment of firemen who can sus- 
tain the name of the New York Fire Department under any and 
all circumstances." 

On April 20th, Colonel Ellsworth issued his first order as follows : 
"First Regiment New York Zouaves : 


"The members of the above organization will assemble at 

their company headquarters this evening at 7 o'clock, proceed to 

Palace Garden for the purpose of final organization and election 

of officers. 

"By order of 

"E. E. Ellsworth, 
"Colonel Commanding." 

The meeting at the Palace Garden showed over 1,200 men had 
already enrolled in Ellsworth's regiment. He was unanimously elected 
colonel. On the 22nd it was found that the rolls were full for two 
companies of each letter of the regiment. Ellsworth placed the com- 
panies opposite each other and selected those he wished to go to the 
front. On the 25th, the men were uniformed. "^^ Since the State did 
not furnish them with arms, "Ellsworth appealed to the men whose 
generosity and patriotism had enabled him to raise the regiment. They 
nobly responded by subscribing some $60,000," with which to purchase 
Sharpe's rifles. On the 29th of April the regiment embarked on the 
steamer Baltic and arrived in Washington on May 2nd, where it was 
given "an ovation," says Lieutenant Brownell, "equalizing that which 
had attended their departure from New York."^^ 

The spirit with which Ellsworth and his New York Zouaves 
entered the service of the government cannot be better indicated than 
by the closing sentences of his response to the presentation to his regi- 
ment of a beautiful stand of colors by the president of the Fire De- 
partment : 

"And what I say for myself, I say for all of them, that so long 
as any of us live, so long as one single arm responds to the prompt- 
ings of the heart, this flag will not be disgraced by any act of the New 
York Zouaves. We shall carry that flag into battle. On behalf of 
the regiment I will say, that should we come back, we will bring back 
these colors as pure and unsullied as they are now. To this we pledge 
our lives." 

Nearly 20,000 troops had gathered in Washington by the first of 
May. The Washington Star of the seventh voiced the sentiment at 
the capital when it spoke editorially of the intentions of the Confed- 
erate Government : "The scheme of the oligarchy was to have attacked 
this city sometime between daybreak of the 18th and daybreak of the 
21st ultimo. They had been led to believe that the Virginia ordinance 
of secession would have been pushed through the convention a few 
days before that was accomplished and that the troops of that State 
would have been able to take Washington by surprise, between the 
dates we have named above." Virginia seceded April 17th, the day 
Ellsworth started for New York. To forestall possible attack on 
Washington, General Scott, head of the federal army, planned to take 
Alexandria, seven miles below the city, on the Virginia side of the 
Potomac. The expedition was to move secretly from Washington on 
the early morning of May 24th. On the evening before, Ellsworth 
prepared his men for the movement in these words : 

^^ Ellsn-orth Memorial Exercises, New York, 1874. 
". Ibid. 


"Boys, yesterday I understood that a movement was to be made 
against Alexandria. I went to see General Mansfield, and told him I 
v/ould consider it a personal affront, if he would not allow us to have 
the right of line, which is our due as the first volunteer regiment 
sworn in for the war. All I can say is, prepare yourself for a nice 
little sail, and at the end a skirmish. Go to your tents, lie down, and 
take your rest till 2 o'clock, when the boat will arrive, and we go for- 
ward to victory or death. When we reach the place of destination, act 
as men, as well as soldiers, and treat them with kindness until they 
force you to use violence. I want to kill them with kindness. Go to 
your tents and do as I tell you."" 

Going to his tent he wrote the two following letters, found on his 
person after his death. The first was to his parents, at Mechanicville, 
New York -y^ 

"My dear Father and Mother: The regiment is ordered to move 
across the river tonight. We have no means of knowing what recep- 
tion we are to meet with. I am inclined to the opinion that our entrance 
to the City of Alexandria will be hotly contested, as I am informed that 
a large force has arrived there today. Should this happen, my dear 
parents, it may be my lot to be injured in some manner. Whatever 
may happen, cherish the consolation that I was engaged in the per- 
formance of a sacred duty; and tonight, thinking over the probabili- 
ties of tomorrow, and the occurrences of the past, I am perfectly con- 
tent to accept whatever my fortune may be, confident that He who 
noteth even the fall of a sparrow will have some purpose even in the 
fate of one like me. 

"My darling and ever-loved parents, good-bye. God bless, protect 
and care for you. 


The second letter was to Miss Carrie M. Spafford, his fiancee, at 
Rockford, Illinois ^ 

"My own darling Kitty : My regiment is ordered to cross the river 
and move on Alexandria within six hours. We may meet with a warm 
reception and my darling among so many careless fellows one is some- 
what likely to be hit. If anything should happen — Darling just accept 
this assurance, the only thing I can leave you — the highest happiness 
I looked for on earth was a union with you — you have more than 
realized the hopes I formed regarding your advancement. And I be- 
lieve I love you with all the ardor I am capable of — you know my darl- 
ing any attempt of mine to convey an adequate expression of my fell- 
ings must be simply futile — God bless you as you deserve and grant 
you a happy and useful life and us a union hereafter. Truly your 
own, Elmer. 

"P. S. Give my love to mother and father (such they truly 
were to me), and thank them again for all their kindness to me — I 
regret I can make no better return for it. Again goodbye. God bless 
you my own darling. "Elmer." 

^* Ellsworth Memorial Exercises, op. cit. 

15 Ibid. 

1° C. A. Ingraham, op. cit. Dr. Ingraham has reproduced this letter for the first time. He 
has been the most untiring and faithful historian of Ellsworth. His biography of Ellsworth is 
in press and being published by the Chicago Historical Society. This biography is the first 
adequate recognition of Ellsworth thus far. 


At two o'clock Friday morning, May 24th, Ellsworth's regiment 
embarked upon three transports, the James Guy, the Mount Vernon, 
and the Baltimore, and at sunrise disembarked, unopposed, at the wharf 
at Alexandria. With a few men from Company A, he started "double 
quick" to seize the telegraph office and dispatches. As they entered 
the city on the run, Ellsworth noticed a Confederate flag floating from 
a staff on the roof of the Marshall house, a- flag, says John Hay, he had 
often seen from a window of the Executive Mansion. With a few 
soldiers and one or two civilians, Ellsworth rushed into the hotel, and 
up the stairway, to the roof. Hauling down the flag, they were 
descending the stairway when, suddenly, the proprietor, James W. 
Jackson, standing a little below, raised a double-barrel shot gun and 
discharged the contents of one barrel into the left lung of the colonel, 
who held the captured flag in his hand. The slugs of this shot drove 
a military insignia, a gold circle, against the victim's heart. It was 
inscribed with the legend, Non nobis, sed pro patria. 

E. H. House, a correspondent of the New York Tribune, who 
accompanied Ellsworth and his men up the stairway, wrote thus of 
the descent and the tragedy : 

"I think my arm was resting on Ellsworth's shoulder at the 
moment. He was on the second or third step from the landing, and 
he dropped forward with that heavy, horrible, headlong weight, which 
always comes of sudden death inflicted in this manner. His assailant 
had turned like a flash to give the contents of the other barrel to 
Francis E. Brownell, a private, but either he could not command his 
aim, or the Zouave was too quick for him, for the slugs went over his 
head, and passed through the panels and wainscot of the door. Simul- 
taneously with his second shot, and sounding like an echo of the first, 
Brownell's rifle was heard and the assassin staggered backward. He 
was hit exactly in the middle of the face, and the wound, as I after- 
ward saw it, was one of the most frightful I ever witnessed. Of 
course Brownell did not know how fatal his shot had been, and so, 
before the man dropped, he thrust his sabre bayonet through and 
through the body, the force of the blow sending the dead man violently 
down the upper section of the flight of stairs, at the foot of which he 
la}^ with his face on the floor." 

After the tragedy and its swift retribution, Ellsworth's body was 
taken to Washington on the steamer James Guy ; from the Navy Yard 
it was removed by order of President Lincoln to the East Room of the 
White House, where a funeral was held. The New York Tribune of 
May 26th, speaking editorially of the tragedy, said : "Zouave Brownell, 
who killed Jackson, was the object of much attention as he walked in 
line with his eyes red with weeping and bearing the secession banner 
bathed with Ellsworth's blood. President Lincoln approached Brownell 
and shook his hand."^'^ The body of the brave Zouave leader was 
taken to Mechanicville for interment. 

The North was grief-stricken at the ncAvs of Ellsworth's assassina- 
tion. The spirit of revenge stirred the hearts of many. The loyal 
newspapers everywhere deprecated the tragedy as indicative of the 

" New York Tribvne. May 27, 1861, p. 4. 

After the death of Ellsworth, President Lincoln appointed his father to a position at the 
Vergennes (Vt.) Arsenal, where he remained until he was retired on a pension. 


spirit of those behind the secession movement. The New York Tribune 
perhaps voiced the general feeling of federal sentiment in its reaction 
to the deed when it said : "Let the barbarians be taught that we are in 
earnest; that since they have invoked war they shall have war — rigor- 
ous, unrelenting, but honorable war, that shuns alike the secret poison 
and the assassin's arm, and will punish unsparingly the use of either. "^^ 

I have talked with a good many veterans of the Civil War to see 
how clearly they remembered the event of Ellsworth's death sixty-two 
years ago and to ascertain what they would say about it. Not only 
have they remembered the event, but they were at one in their testi- 
mony of the excitement and grief it brought to those in sympathy 
with the Union cause. One of the youngest of these veterans, who 
went into the war at sixteen, as a drummer boy, (John Dalton, Mon- 
mouth, 111.) told me two days ago that he recalled the death of Ells- 
worth as clearly as that of Lincoln, four years later; that his comnm- 
nity in Ohio m.ourned Ellsworth deeply and that all the people loved 
him. I have been surprised at the extent of his popularity in the North 
and at the unanimity with which his military genius is still remembered 
with affection. He impressed his personalty upon hs generation. A 
contemporary wrote that " A hundred Ellsworths had saved the land."^'* 

A monument to Ellsworth's memory was dedicated at Mechanic- 
ville, May 27th, 1874. Hon. Julius C. Burrows, member of Congress 
from Michigan, delivered the dedicatory oration. Many tributory 
verses and songs have been written in his memory. Perhaps nothing 
so heartfelt and memorable has found expression as the letter of Presi- 
dent Lincoln to Ellsworth's parents, written the day after the young 
hero's death. The President said :-^ 

"In the untimely loss of your noble son, our affliction here is 
scarcely less than your own. So much of promised usefulness to one's 
country, and of bright hopes for one's self and friends, have rarely 
been so suddenly darkened as in his fall. In size, in years, and in 
youthful appearance, a boy only, his power to command men, was 
surpassingly great. This power, combined with a fine intellect, and 
indomitable energy, and a taste altogether military, constituted in him, 
as it seemed to me, the best natural talent, in that department, I ever 
knew. And 3^et he was singularly modest and deferential in social 
intercourse. My acquaintance with him began less than two years 
ago; yet through the latter half of the intervening period, it was as 
intimate as the disparity of our ages, and my engrossing engagements, 
would permit. To me, he appeared to have no indulgences or pas- 
times ; and I never heard him utter a profane or intemperate word. 
What was conclusive of his good heart, he never forgot his parents. 
The honors he labored for so laudably, and, in the sad end, so gallantly 
gave his life, he meant for them, no less than for himself. 

"In the hope that it may be no intrusion upon the sacredness of 
your sorrow, I have ventured to address this tribute to the memory of 
my young friend, and your brave and fallen child. 

^^Ibid., May 28, 1861, p. 4. See also John G. Nicolav, The Outbreak of the Rebellion, p. 114. 

■■■Shpfi. Tlie Fall'-n Brnre. New York, isfil. 

^ Robinson, Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Letters, page .003f. 


"May God give you the consolation which is beyond all earthly 

"Sincerely your friend in common affliction. 

"A Lincoln." 

There were those who felt that Colonel Ellsworth acted rashly 
on the occasion which produced his death. -^ Mr. Burrows, in his 
memorial address, is authority for the statement that President Lin- 
coln, speaking to some visitors of the sad tragedy, while the dead body 
of his young friend was lying in the White House, exclaimed : "Poor 
fellow ! it was undoubtedly an act of rashness, but it only shows the 
heroic spirit that animates our soldiers, from high to low, in this 
righteous cause of ours." A study of Ellsworth's career, even now, 
moves one to speculate on what eminence he might have achieved in 
the military service of his country had fortune spared his life through- 
out the contest. I can easily understand the feeling of John Hay in 
the words with which he closes his essay on Ellsworth. ^^ "It is the 
belief of his friends that he had not his superior in natural capacity 
among the most eminent heroes of the war. But who will care to hear 
this said? If Napoleon Bonepart had been killed at the siege of 
Toulon, who would have listened to some grief-stricken comrade's 
assertion that this young Corsican was the greatest soldier since 
Caesar.^ I have written these lines merely to show how simple, kindly, 
and heroic a heart Colonel Ellsworth had — and not to claim for him 
what can never be proved. "-- 


The following letters written by Ellsworth have been selected for 
publication here from among a large number belonging to Mrs. Charles 
Godfrey, of Rockford, Illinois. Mrs. Godfrey inherited from her 
sister, formerly Miss Carrie Spafford, fiancee of Colonel Ellsworth, 
very many historic mementoes of the young hero who fell at Alex- 
andria. These letters are given as representative, and to exhibit to 
readers of our Civil War history the splendid character and elevation 
of mind of the first field officer of the Union forces to fall at the 
hands of the Confederates of 1861. It is appropriate that these per- 
sonal letters of Col. Ellsworth be made accessible to the public in a 
publication of the State Historical Society both as a tribute to his 
high character and personality and for their historic interest. I have 
taken only a minimum of editorial privilege in preparing the letters 
for this purpose. I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mrs. 
Charles Godfrey and her daughter Carolyn for their kindness in per- 
mitting me to reproduce in this form the originals in their possession. 

^^ Major Barclay, already referred to as the last survivor of the Ellsworth Zouaves, after 
the return of the famous company from its competitive tour, went back to his native' state, 
Kentuckj', and later entered the military service of the Confederacy as drill-master of infantry 
at Camp Washington, near Richmond, Va. He had several conversations with Jefferson Davis 
about Ellsworth and his military genius and quotes Davis as saying that he deeply regretted 
the manner in which Ellsworth was killed. Davis introduced Barclay to General Robert E. Lee, 
who expressed the opinion that Ellsworth, as a field officer, had acted rashly in hauling do^vn 
the- Confederate flag with his own hands instead of sending a detachment of soldiers for the 
purpose. General Lee tnld Barclay it was his belief that, had Ellsworth survived, he might 
have become the commanding general of the Union armies. Lee expressed the liighest admira- 
tion for the military talents of young Ellsworth. 

" McClure's Magazine, op. cit. 


Capitol House, December 13th, 1858. 
My Dear Carrie : 

Your note was duly received, and read with pleasure. Are you 
trying to cultivate that much to be admired virtue, brevity? If so, 
allow me to congratulate you upon success. If you only knew how 
valuable your letters become by the time they reach this dull settle- 
ment, you would write letters of almost fabulous length, out of pure 
compassion for your unworthy correspondent. To prove my gener- 
osity, I am quite zvilling to accept an eight page letter, as evidence of 
your penitence. 

I regret that I could not have been present at your birthday party, 
to offer you my congratulations in person. Although wishes are of 
little avail in this perverse world of ours, I may be permitted to add 
mine to those of your numerous friends. I will not wish you " a life 
of unclouded happiness" for that I fear can hardly be realized by any 
of us. But I will wish, dear Carrie, what may, and I trust will be 
realized — that your life may be that of a true hearted, noble woman; 
unmarred by a thought, or deed to which in after years you cannot 
refer with pleasure — an ornament not only, but a blessing to societv, 
and your friends. 

"Angels attend thee ! May their wings 
Fan every shadow from thy brow ; 
For only bright and lovely beings. 
Should wait on one so pure as thou." 

I appreciate your sympathy, dear Carrie, but I would not shift 
my trials, as you kindly term them, to any other shoulders than my 
own. Every one must experience some trouble and disappointment. 
To separate gold from its dross, it must be exposed to the action of 
fire — so with man, uninterrupted prosperity is not favorable to the 
development of his capabilities. The energies of a true man rise in 
proportion to the obstacles to be encountered. I would feel ashamed, 
if you were to think me desponding or unequal to exertion. I only 
ask health, strength and opportunity. 

Three weary weeks, and I am free from this place. I hope to 
arrange my affairs so as to visit Rockford the first week in January. 
After which I hope to visit my home and parents, perhaps for the 
last time in many years. I sometimes think I shall never again leave 
them, but I go that I may the sooner realize my wishes for them and 

You do not mention your friends with whom we passed an evening 
so pleasantly; I allude to your pastor and wife — I cannot recall the 
name. Are they well ? I am interrupted dear Carrie, and if I do not 
close this letter now, it is impossible to tell when I shall be able to do so. 
You must pardon me for urging you to write longer letters. In my 
momentary selfishness, I forgot how much your time must be occupied 
with your studies — I would be content with a line, rather than vou 
should neglect them for me. 

Sincerely and truly yours. 



P. S. Is Mr. Smith in town? I wrote to him last week but have 
leceived no answer. E. 

Ellsworth to his parents at Mechanicville, N. Y. From copy 
made by Carrie Spafford at Mechanicville, while visiting Ellsworth's 

Springfield, Dec., '60. 
My Dear Father and Mother : 

Both of your letters came duly to hand. Did you not receive a 
long letter from me speaking about the appointment I wanted, of chief 
clerk and about our going to Washington, in case I succeeded? 

I find no mention of it in your letters. If you did not get it let 
me know. I think it was written two weeks since. 

My dear Father, you do not realize how glad I am to hear that 
you are realizing a change of mind and heart. I do pray for you, and 
have done so every night since I left home. The last words uttered 
at night are prayers that you and mother may both experience that 
joy of faith in God, and that I may be enabled to make your old age 
happy, and free from care, and the pleasure is greater because I am 
convinced that nothing in the world will contribute so much to my 
happiness — I mean, light-hearted, ever present peace and contentment 
of spirit, as faith and love of God. It is no part of religion to be 
gloomy, cast down, and regretful. Our God is one to love not fear, 
and the nearer we come to feeling that everything that occurs is by 
His hand and for some good purpose, and that the true way to worship 
is with a light heart the better Christians are we. 

Our dispositions are very much alike in this respect, we are too 
apt to look on the dark side, and brood over our troubles, but while 
we have this disposition let us think, and reason a moment, and by 
comparison, see how much we have to be thankful for. 

If I fail in any attempt and am for a moment disposed to mur- 
mur, a moment's reflection shows me hundreds of people who would 
be made perfectly happy by the possession of what I value so little. 
If my food is plain and poor, I can remember when I had none. If 
my bed is hard I can recollect the time when I have walked the street 
all night for the want of a place to lie down, and so, it is no trouble 
for me to thank God with a full heart every day for what I knozv to be 
blessings far beyond my desert, and as I kneel down at night, the 
thought comes over my mind that I once had a brother who I would 
gladly have shared my happiness — a feeling of sorrow may fill my 
heart, and tears rush to my eyes as they do now — yet — a moment's 
thought tells me that I am not, cannot be weeping for him, — these are 
selfish tears. They are for ourselves, he is far happier than we. He 
is beyond care — knows no care or sorrow, and for -every joy we feel 
he enjoys a thousand fold. He can see us and know our thoughts.; 
However great may be the separation, it is only on ofie side, we separ- 
ated from him, and our mourning is for ourselves. These thoughts 
pass through my mind, and I am content to thank God for his mercy 
and go to sleep with a perfectly happy heart. 

It is only of late since Charley's death, that I have entertained 
these thoughts, but they have made me happier than I ever was before. 


Now dear mother, write when you can and speak of Charley as 
often as you desire — and do not mourn. God does not require it. It 
is almost a reflection upon him to say, in effect, that the departed are 
less happy and to be regretted. Look around and see how many have 
greater cause for sorrow. 

Let us thank God for the blessings we enjoy, and repay Him by 
being happy at all times, and in all places. 

Write soon — your affectionate son, 

Ellsworth to Carrie Spafford : 

Chicago, Feb. 14th, 1860 
2 o'clock Tuesday morning. 
My Own Darling Carrie: 

I experience a great pleasure in feeling, as I do this moment, 
that after the toil, uncertainty and vexation of the day, I can com- 
municate with one who will sympathize with and cheer me. When 
struggling for success in some project where the chances are so nicely 
balanced that you tremble alternately with uncertainty and hope, it 
is delightful to feel that, after all, the one for whom you care most 
will not be affected by the result, — that, in any event, you are sure of 
the love and good opinion of the one above all else dear to you. My 
darling, you have no conception of the magnitude and difficulty of 
the project I've undertaken, nor does any one of the company even, 
for it is policy on my part, to keep them in ignorance of the real dif- 
ficulties attending it; — the contemplation of a tithe of them would 
discourage them. You can imagine how urgent must be the necessity, 
when at a distance of nearly six months from the contest, I have found 
it impossible to get along without working (writing) for the last week 
until five or six o'clock in the morning. There is one certainty, if I 
do succeed, 1 will never afterwiard regard any difficulty, however great, 
impossible to overcome. 

Kitty, darling, I cannot write a long letter tonight, and I'm afraid 
if I keep it till tomorrow night to finish, I shall not be sure of a chance 
to write anything. I send two extracts from papers which will com- 
pensate for the length (or rather want of it) of my letter. There's 
one thing I can do, now I think of it, I can copy for you my contri- 
bution to the autograph book of the gentleman to whom we presented 
the medal — not that it will particularly interest you, but it will fill up 
space, and I'm fit for nothing else tonight (morning) but copying. 

It was written one night after drill, in a hurry, and being my 
first attempt in that vein, I trust you will make due allowances ; — criti- 
cise gently. Here it is: "Friend Alfred: In reality, you are but just 
entering upon life in earnest. Hitherto, it has been the aimless pleasure 
seeking boy, having no care for the future; hereafter, it must be the 
toil and struggle of the man with the stern realities of life. For you, 
the 'Tide,' which, 'taken at its flood leads on to fortune is now at hand. 
Launch your bark fearlessly, placing your trust in Him 'who holdeth 
the winds in his hand.' Let Resolution and Integrity stand at the helm ; 
for your chart, take honor, perseverance and generosity, and let con- 
science be your compass. God has set his own stamp upon it. Keep 


it always in sight. Guard it carefully, and consult it often. When, 
as you sail down the 'stream of life' you see on either hand apparently 
beautiful islands, which, seemingly, invite you to enjoy their fruits — 
unless unmistakably defined within the limits of your chart, depart not, 
however little, from the course your compass marks as true. Shun 
them, as you would perdition; about them lie hidden rocks, beyond 
them, a maelstrom of resistless power, into whose vortex you, like 
others, may be engulfed if once drawn within the fatal circle of its 
influence. And, when your voyage draws near the close, may you ride 
safely at anchor in the harbor of Happiness and content. When, 
at last, the time arrives to 'up anchor' and sail for the world beyond, 
may your 'clearance be regular/ and the experience of this life have 
been such, that you will set out with the joyous certainty of making 
port in the regions of eternal happiness." 

Quite whit e -neck- do thish, for me, isn't it? Now my darling 
Kitty, I must bid you goodbye; when you write, tell me what you are 
studying, and all about your school matters. Remember, your letters, 
are the only gleams of sunshine, at present, in my dark existence. 

Accept a thousand kisses from your own Elmer. 

P. S. What I told you of my working so late is strictly Private. 

DATE OF MAY 15TH, 1859: 

How is Mr. Smith progressing in his studies ? Give him and Mr. 
Edwards my regards. When you remove from Rockford you must 
certainly induce Mrs. Edwards, Mrs. Smith and Miss Saw, to accom- 
pany you. I hope I may some day be enabled to render them some 
slight return for their kindness to me. 

Has Mr. Spafford decided to leave. Rockford, or remain? I shall 
be delighted to have you reside here, provided you could secure a 
pleasant location. 

Some gentlemen of the city have collected a large number of works 
of art, owned by the citizens, and placed them on exhibition. Among 
them are some very valuable paintings by well known artists. I wish 
you were here to see them. I think you would enjoy it exceedingly. 
I pass the rooms when going to Gen. Swift's, and yesterday I stopped 
a few minutes. I saw Miss Holland and her brother, who has lately 
returned from college. I met Mr. Tinker, also, who had come from 
Rockford quite unexpectedly on business. 

You ask for my address, it is — room 5, Rice's Building, No. 79 
Dearborn St., nearly opposite the postoffice. 

How can I ever thank you for your generous expression of con- 
fidence? I am utterly unable to convey to you any adequate expres- 
sion of my appreciation of your affection. But one short year since 
I acknowledged no friend, and within myself held all at defiance, and, 
goaded on almost to madness by disappointment and misfortune, bid 
fate do its worst. This was not the result of trivial disappointment or 
trouble, but in consequence of suffering most terrible rendered more 


poignant by a pride which forced me to bear in silence and alone, 
what now seems utterly impossible. / was not had — I had no time to 
spend in folly — my mind was filled with one resolve and that forced 
me through trials and temptations, I trust, unscathed. Such experi- 
ence as this has one of two effects, I(t) breaks all principles of good, 
eradicates all the better feelings from the heart of man, and if he be 
possessed of strong passions, make him a very demon in human form, 
or, while it tortures, makes him self-reliant — the very extent of his 
suffering makes him the more readily sympathize with others, and the 
hollow hearted selfishness of the majority of the world in which he 
moves thus made apparent to him, without dispossessing him of his 
better impulses and feelings, makes him lock them in his heart, as the 
only tie which binds them to his God, and tho suspicous of proffers 
of friendship, yet when assured of its purity, he cherishes it as a 
Christian his hope of salvation; like the star of the shepards (herds), 
it guides him on through the ro(;ks and quicksands of life — arms him 
against temptation and misfortune by rendering every ill of life in- 
significant, when compared with the priceless treasure of pure affec- 
tion. When the clouds of misfortune gather darkly about him, he turns 
tc this, and feels in his heart this affection burning brightly, shedding 
a radiance over his pathway which no misfortune can obliterate, or 
machination of enemies rob him of, though instigated and framed with 
all the ingenuity of sathanas himself. 

This is strong language, but it comes from the heart — it is but 
the natural feeling aroused by the constantly recurring attempts of 
those who hiozv me so well, to blacken my reputation, and steal from 
me the happiness they fear I may enjoy. How they would hug them- 
selves with very satisfaction, could they but see me begin a course of 
dissipation, or commit any act which would confirm their assertion. 

I have never harmed these people, nor have I zvillingly given them 
offence. I do not wish to make any pretense to being immaculate. 
Notwithstanding your faltering opinion (and you give me much 
greater credit than I deserve) I have faidts — very many of them, that 
I am neither talented, nor educated, that I am doubtless haughty, pos- 
sibly overbearing — poor, with no position nor anything upon which to 
found any claim to one, all this I concede. But that I ever so far 
forgot myself, or the respect and obedience due a dear father and 
mother who(m) I love more than life, so far as to commit anv action 
unbecoming a man, or that there exists the possibility of my wronging 
the confidence of those who love and trust me, is false. My duty to 
that father and mother broken in health and spirits, fast tottering to 
the grave, to an only brother just approaching manhood, to whom T 
owe at least a good example, to my own honor — to you, and Carrie, 
who have given me your friendship and affection, with a generosity 
v/orthy of a return far — far greater than I can ever hope to render, 
forbids it. 

Truly and affectionately yours, 


P. S. Present my respects to Mr. Spafford. 


(Ellsworth to Carrie Spafford). 

Chicago, March 11, 1860. 
My Own Darling Kitty : 

Now for a good long letter. It's twelve o'clock. Everybody has 
gone from the armory. Chicago's abed. And having no fear of 
inter (ttption) except from some mid-night prowler or ghostly visitant, 
neither of which I expect, I give myself up to the pleasure of com- 
muning with my darling. Do you remember when I tried to write 
on the dining room table and you lent me your valuable assistance? 
What work I made of it. I can fancy you now sitting in this chair 
just by my side with your dear little arm just resting on my shoulder 
and "me arm around yer waist" — this scrap of poetry is from the sen- 
timental ballad of "The low backed car," which having been hummed, 
whistled and drummed in my presence for the last week has become 
quite familiar to me. Talking about ballads, I never heard "Annie 
Laurie" sung until this last week. We were ordered to hold ourselves 
in readiness to quell a riot which was expected to occur on election 
day. We had been under arms all night, and during the day, until 
about 5 o'clock in the afternoon ; and thinking the day would pass off 
without any serious disturbance, were singing and carrying on as gay 
as larks — when a prominent citizen in whom I had the greatest confi- 
dence came in and told us to be in instant readiness to go to the tenth 
ward, as there were over ten thousand Irishmen there, all under the 
influence of the greatest excitement— swearing that if the polls were 
closed at 6 o'clock they would destroy the ballot boxes — that the polls 
would be closed at 6 o'clock and that the danger was so imminent that 
even then there was half a dozen of the most influential men at the 
mayor's office insisting on his calling us out. The company formed 
at once, and I placed themselves in line at the door ready to spring 
into the omnibusses (we had 5 with 4 horses each), waiting at the 
lower entrance. I knew that there was imminent danger of a riot and 
that it was my duty to prepare for all emergencies. Accordingly I 
caused the men to load their pieces with ball cartridges; as those 
struck the bottom of the musket bore, the boys seemed for the first 
time to awake to the fearful responsibility of our positions if we went 
out- — that if called upon to quell the riot, it could be done but in one 
way, and that involved a necessity that no one ought to contemplate 
without solemnity of feeling. The hour of the expected disturbance 
was near at hand, and that no time might be lost, I brought the men 
to attention and commenced to' march them slowly about the room, 
when they started with one accord — they commenced "Annie Laurie," 
and, shaded in its expression by the sober feeling at that moment per- 
vading the company, I never heard anything sound so inexpressibly 

At 8 o'clock word came that everything had quieted down and 
so ended our "tour of duty" without giving any of us a chance to 
distinguish ourselves (or rather be distinguished for a week or so 
afterward by a black eye or bruised head) by extinguishing a "wow, 
a- wampus or a wiot." As Goodhue would say, "sich is life." 


John Cook has written me a letter in which he speaks of Mr. 
Lincoln, etc., as follows : 

"You ask me if I have seen our friend Lincoln. I answer, 
yes, repeatedly, and never without the conversation turning upon 
you and his expressing an earnest desire that you should make 
this place your home and his office your headquarters. He has 
taken in you a greater interest than I ever knew him to manifest 
in any one before. My conviction that this is the place for you 
to commence life as a public man is unchanged." 
Now, little one, what is your majesty's sage opinion? There is 
every prospect of a disturbance in Mexico. Still there is no method 
of forming any opinion as to the probable termination of it. 

Your father has commenced the commission business with Mr. 
Ellis & Stewart, both of Rockford. Their store is not very far from 
the North Western depot, where the Rockford trains come in. 

I called to see Josie last Friday, but she was sick from an attack 
of her disease and unable to see any one, poor girl. For heaven's sake, 
Carrie, preserve your health. Spring is now at hand and you stand 
in constant danger of contracting serious colds in two ways, first, by 
sitting at an open window when the air is damp, and by going out 
without sufficient protection for the feet. For my sake, darling, will 
you take good care of yourself. I am now suffering from a cold which 
I cannot rid myself of. Do you take exercise? and are you keeping 
your promise about the early hours? 

Frank Leslie has sent for our pictures to publish them in his 
illustrated paper. You may see them in next Tuesday's paper if they 
reached New York in time for use. Have you heard anything of 
Man Brown lately? 

My darling, how do you progress in your studies? Please tell 
me if you are satisfied that you are doing as well at Lebannon as you 
could elsewhere — in short, if the influences are good. I want a list 
of all your school mates and their residences. Are you acquiring a 
lasting understanding of your studies and laying the basis for a thor- 
ough education, or falling insensibly under the routine of boarding 
school existence? Ask yourself these questions, give them thought, and 
then, darling mine, answer them. 

Now, Kitty darling, I lay down my pen (being unable to write 
any more) with the sublime consciousness of having at least written 
a long letter, if not an entertaining one. 

Write soon darling, and accept a thousand kisses from 

Your Own Elmer. 

Extract from Ellsworth's letter to Carrie Spafford, telling of the 
challenge the Chicago Cadets issued to other military companies for 
competitive drill. The letter bears the date of October 9, 1859 : 

Next Wednesday, the Cadets go to Fon-du-lac, Wisconsin, to 
attend the celebration of the opening of the North Western R, R. The 
trip will occupy nearly three day. The company (of Cadets) have 
challenged any company in the U. S. or Canada to drill with them for 
the "Champion Colors," which they won at the U. S. Fair. It is a 
great task for me to remain in charge of them, but policy bids me do 

132 • 

so. My connection with them so far has benefited me beyond my most 
sanguine expectations. I expect my brother to arrive here next week; 
and I shall henceforth have the responsibility of his conduct added to 
my other cares. I assume it willingly, as I hope to be able to make a 
man of him, if a long residence and association in a country village 
has not spoiled him. I have the promise, for him, of a situation in a 
large hardware establishment here." 

The scrap below was probably written by Ellsworth to his fiancee, 
Miss Carrie Spafford, whom in his letters he sometimes addresses as 
"Kitty." It contains the spirit of optimism' seen in his letter to his 
parents written from Springfield (111.) December 7, 1860, and in his 
diary, which is now in the possession of the Minnesota Historical 

"Be happy. Do not brood over misfortune which you cannot 
remedy. Thank God for his goodness ; be grateful for what you do 
enjoy. Never despond. Remember Equitat qui tuetur. No obstacle 
so great but it can be surmounted. Forward." 




Edward Bryant Landis, M. A., Ph. D. 

Much of the progress of the early history of Illinois may be 
traced directly to the Influence of Tennesseeans. It has been estimated 
that in the migration period at least 30,000 came from Tennessee into 
Illinois. True these people shared with those coming from New Eng- 
land and the East, as well as from all the Southland, as far as Vir- 

There were three migrations from Tennessee into Illinois, extend- 
ing through the first half of the nineteenth century. 

The first was from about 1800 to 1825. This migration was ani- 
mated largely by the commercial idea of cheap land, a fertile country, 
an opportunity for a home. This is a most worthy incentive for much 
of the cleared land in the older sections was already taken by others. 
This movement was not because of the slavery question — except in a 
minor way, for slaves were held by some in Illinois from 1725 to 1824 
or 1825 — a period of one hundred years. It is to the credit of the 
people, however, that in 1824, when their first vote upon the subject 
was taken, the soil of this great state was to be known as Free-soil. 

Immediately a second migration from Tennessee began, which 
was animated by a desire to be out of the slave territory. A great 
many Tennesseeans were opposed to slavery and wanted their children 
brought up on Free-Soil territory, so they packed up their belongings 
and set across the long intervening territory without roads much of 
the way — hoping to reach the new country with its higher ideals. Great 
honor is due those sturdy pioneers who hewed out a path through the 
trackless forest and across broad prairies, crossing streams on crudely 
constructed rafts, undergoing all manners of privations and hardships 
for the sake of an ideal. 

The third migration was after the close of the Civil War. Times 
were hard in Tennessee at that time and families, for their own sake, 
and for the sake of the young people, moved to Illinois, and other 
western states. 

The influence of these Tennesseeans has been variously esti- 
mated. Many of these pioneers were known to be splendid marks- 
men with the rifle. The wild game was plentiful, it would be far 
greater sport to seek big game than to make a clearing in the timber. 
But a closer reading indicates that they were as ready for the weightier 
matters as any people. They were ready to bear their share of the 
hardships, perform their tasks in the community, and do whatever, 
they were called upon to do. The very fact of these pioneers severing 


home-ties in an established community for the new frontier gives evi- 
dence of powers of leadership, with great determination. Many of 
these people were of the Scotch-Irish blood and order. Your society 
records have already noted many of the deeds of valor of this great 
race. We must claim, however, that their tarrying for a time in 
Tennessee did not lessen their ardor nor quell their enthusiastic deter- 
minations to push on to success in this great, new country of Liberty 
and Freedom. 

In Fordham's classification of Pioneers from Tennessee he says 
that "enterprising men came from Kentucky, and in fact all the At- 
lantic States — included in this number are doctors, attorneys, store- 
keepers, farmers, mechanics, etc. They founded the towns, organized 
trade, speculated in land, inducing a continual improvement of farm 
lands. They actually formed the fabric of society." There were land 
offices in Shawneetown, Kaskaskia, Edwardsville, and other towns 
early, to aid the immigrants in settling. 

Shortly after the first great numbers arrived and settlements 
sprang up over different sections, new counties were formed and in 
the leadership of these counties many officers were chosen from the 
Tennesseeans. Records here are incomplete but in St. Clair, Randolph, 
Massac, Pope, Hardin, Gallatin, Monroe, Perry, Franklin, Washing- 
ton, Jefferson, Morgan, Schuyler, — later in Brown and Cass, Sanga- 
mon, Madison, Greene, Bond, Macoupin, Clinton, Marion, Knox, 
Menard, et al — Counties these facts seem to be borne out. 

In the first Constitutional Convention there were a number of 
these men so it early became evident that many of these men filled 
positions of honor and trust in offices throughout the State. 

The first bank was organized at Shawneetown, Ihe second followed 
closely afterwards at Edwardsville. Some of the County Historians 
made the suggestion that the first coal mined in Southern Illinois was 
by some of the Tennesseeans who had known of the mining industry 
back home. Suffice it to say that the men from Tennessee were among 
the leaders in establishing Commerce in their new country, whether 
it be farming, banking or fruit-growing. 

There is one other phase usually overlooked by historians which 
can be mentioned in this paper. The wives of some of these prominent 
men were women of distinguished families, bringing to their new homes 
a culture, poise and charm of an "elect lady." She may have had to 
undergo more privations in the new country but her influence was 
ever felt for good and upright conduct. Respect for law, early estab- 
lishment of church and schools all testify of a wholesome influence 
exerted by some. In this connection mention should be made of the 
wife of the first Governor, Shadrach Bond, who was Miss Achsah 
Bond of Nashville, Tennessee, where they were married on November 
27, 1810. 

The record gives special mention of his distinguished service 
during the War of 1812, and of his appointment as receiver of public 
money in the territory of Illinois in 1814, when he removed to Kas- 
kaskia to take charge of his office. 


Brief references are made of their home,, a center of social as 
well as political life for a number of years, as his death occurred in 

If a fair record could be found of this early pioneer life much 
more credit would be given to the influence of this superb womanhood 
in maintaining the standards of civilization. The social events were 
almost wholly enjoyed in the homes. Many of the churches were 
organized in the homes of these Lydias of modern times. 

Another example is in the case of John A. Logan. His father, 
Dr. John Logan, was born in Ireland, emigrated to this country in 
1823, and married Elizabeth Jenkins, a member of a prominent family 
which migrated to Illinois about 1820. The prominence of Mrs. 
Logan's family may be estimated when you recall that her son entered 
the law office of his uncle to study law; he also aided in the publica- 
tion of one of the early papers in Jackson County which was owned 
by her family — doing this in addition to his work in the Law Office. 

Another of this Jenkins family, early (1858) — Ezra Jenkins, 
became the Superintendent of Public Instruction. It is in keeping 
with the above suggestion that much of the leadership of John A. 
Logan can be traced to his mother and her family — all of whom came 
from Tennessee at that early date. The influence is still felt through- 
out Jackson County and that section of the State. 

The influence of the women is also seen in the urgent call for 
schools. While there were very few schools of any consequence, 
when a young man was able to go away from home, the choice was 
frequently made in favor of some Tennessee school. This fact aided 
them to make an early start for schools closer home. 


As intimated in the last paragraph there arose in the minds of 
many people who had found their home in this new country the most 
outstanding need for schools, and second to it the organization of 
churches. The churches were organized even first in point of time, 
but the educational call seemed uppermost, notwithstanding much 
sport is made of the likes of hunting and fishing. Be it ever to the 
credit of these early pioneers to have it said they laid the foundations 
even better than they knew at that time. Thus we turn to find there 
sprang up many schools some of which have continued to serve an 
eminent need to this present good day. Some, naturally, have given 
place to the cry of a larger need and the development of our public 
school system in putting so many high schools in our State. In these 
institutions we notice two distinct influences, that of many of the 
teachers coming from the Eastern States of New York, New Jersey, 
or New England, while most of the children came from the families 
of the South. This combination worked out a happy result. Many 
of these schools were no more than academies, and for the most part 
were connected with some religious organization, though they were 
made possible through the efforts of local people rallying to the op- 
portunities. Mention is made of a few of the schools only. 


Shurtleff — Organized 1827, chartered in 1835, under the Baptists. 
Upper Alton. 

McKendree — Organized 1828, chartered in 1835, under the 
Methodists. This school was named first Lebanon College; name 
changed in 1830 because of the large gift from Bishop McKendree. 

Illinois College, Jacksonville — Organized 1828, chartered in 1835, 
under the Presbyterians. This institution claims to have been the first 
organized, though dates do not all agree, 

Jacksonville Female Academy, Jacksonville — Organized in 1828 
by Mrs. J. M. Ellis, wife of Rev. J. M. Ellis, the first pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville. This was the first educa- 
tional institution chartered in the State, but the same year Illinois 
McKendree and Shurtleff received their charters, 1835. This academy 
had a splendid history and was incorporated into Illinois College in 

Monticello Seminary, Godfrey — Was organized 1836 by a Pres- 
byterian layman of Alton, Captain Benjamin Godfrey, who later 
moved to Godfrey. The founder put into this institution about 
.$53,000. He wanted it non-sectarian. 

Blackburn University, Carlinville, 1835, Presbyterian — The Rev. 
Dr. Gideon Blackburn was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 
East Tennessee, Maryville. After serving that church he moved to 
Hopkinsville, Kentucky, where he was pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church for about four years. When he came to Illinois he 
devised a far-reaching plan for the education of the youth by purchas- 
ing some 16,000 acres of land as the beginning of the endowment. 

Knox College — Galesburg, 1837, Presbyterian, Congregational, 

Rock River Seminarv — Mt. Morris, Ogle County, 1837. 

Illinois Woman's College — Jacksonville, 1847. Methodist. 

DuOuoin Female Seminary — DuOuoin, 1855. 

Monmouth College — Monmouth, 1858. United Presbyterians. 

Sparta Seminary — Randolph County. 

Vergennes — Perry County. 

Jonesboro^ — Union County. 

Salem — Marion County. 

Ewing — Franklin County. 

Southern Illinois Academy — Enfield, 1873. The school prospered 
for about twenty-five years. 

The most of these schools and academies located in Southern 
Illinois have been sold or transferred to high schools in their respective 
towns. This list of schools may not really have a place in this paper, 
only it should be said in justice to our pioneers that an honest effort 
was made throughout the entire State to meet the demands upon their 
ever-growing communities and their State. You see the majority of 
the schools were originally located in that section of the State where 
these Tennessee settlers made their homes. Many things contributed 
to the conditions which caused the abandonment of the original 


Friendsville, Wabash County, had an academy at a very early day, 
but the writer was unable to get definite data concerning this school. 


The expansion was not only in the matter of making new settle- 
ments, but along with this went a steady growth in all the life of a 
pioneer people. Churches were organized everywhere. Houses of 
worship were not always built where congregations were organized, but 
services were held more or less regularly. Shawneetown, one of the 
oldest towns on the east side of the State, was very early visited by 
missionaries and traveling preachers. Travelers from Kentucky or 
Tennessee crossed the Ohio, either at Golconda or Shawneetown, as 
the only ferries were at these two points. 

Many of the dates of the actual organization are lost sight of, but 
it is generally believed that the Baptists preceded all other of the 
evangelical churches by a few years, as some of their missionaries 
came as early as 1795 ; the date of their organization being something 
like ten years to fifteen later. The Methodists were a close second, 
organizing about 1810-1812. The Presbyterians left a more definite 
record as to their movements, coming as missionaries about 1797 and 
keeping up their missionary efforts until 1816-1818. The first organi- 
zation occurred in Sharon (Enfield), White County, September, 1816; 
Shoal Creek, March 10, 1819; Edwardsville, March 17, 1819; Gol- 
conda, October 24, 1819. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church, then in its infancy, having 
been formed in Tennessee in 1810, sent its missionaries into this 
territory along with the settlers. Their first preacher appeared in 
1815, their first church was organized about five miles from Enfield 
in June, 1819; their second church, near Greenville in 1819. 


The Baptists were quite active in Randolph, St. Clair, Perry and 
Monroe Counties. The first Baptist Church was organized in New 
Design, Monroe County, February 29, 1795, with twenty-eight mem- 
bers, scattered throughout Monroe and Randolph Counties. This was 
the first Protestant Church in Illinois. The divisions of the Baptist 
Church were emphasized, such as the primitive, regular, separate, and 
"hard-shells." To us, we will not attempt to make any distinction. In 
all of these churches these Tennessee people found their religious 

Perry County — Enoch Eaton, born in Tennessee, organized the 
"Nine Mile Prairie Church," which was known as the mother of the 
churches. John S. Haggard, Matthew Jones, Thomas Jones, Samuel 
P. Groves, all Tennesseeans, were among the charter members of this 
church. Rev. P. W. Jones and J. C. Harris were prominent workers. 
John, William C, Richard G. and William K. Murphy came from 
Smith County, Tennessee, and early connected themselves with this 


Among the prominent Baptists in Randolph County were John 
Montgomery, John Doyle, David _ Pagon, Joseph Anderson, John 
Dodge, Levi Teel, James Curry, Minard Asturgus. 


As early as 1817, Zadoc Casey emigrated from Sumner County, 
Tennessee, and settled on a farm near the present site of Mt. Vernon, 
Jefferson County. He founded the town of Mt. Vernon in 1818 or 
1819. He was a local preacher in that section for over forty years 
and a man of widespread influence. A little later (1836) James E. 
Ferguson came from the same county in Tennessee, settled at 
Mt. Vernon, became very prosperous, and was called the "father of 
the Methodist Church." In 1818 the Jesse Maxey family settled in 
Mt. Vernon. This family later became one of the most influential in 
the Southern Illinois Conference. Noah Bullock was connected with 
another illustrious family from Tennessee, that of Governor Casey. 

St. Clair County was also a center of activities of this church, and 
it was here that their first school was planned, the founding of Lebanon 
College occurring in 1828, which was changed to McKendree College 
in 1830 in honor of Bishop A4!cKendree, who had given the school the 
largest gift up to that time. 


Since the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was founded in 
Tennessee, and ever was a part of the Presbyterian group of churches, 
and reunited with the mother church in the year 1903-1904, it is in 
keeping with this paper to mention some of their early pioneer minis- 
ters, most of whom came from Tennessee. 

Rev. D. W. McLin — Organized many churches in White County ; 
McLeansboro, Shawneetown, LTnion, Fairfield, Thom's Prairie and 
Equality, in Gallatin County. 

Rev. J. M. Berry — Settled in Sangamon County ; preached also in 
Logan County. 

Rev. Abner Wayne Lansden — Came from Wilson County, Ten- 
nessee, to Sangamon County, Illinois, where he lived for thirty years. 
His wife was Mary M. Gallaher, sister of three ministers in the 
Presbyterian Church. His son, John M. Lansden, became a student 
in Illinois College, thence to Tennessee to study law, and settled in 
Cairo, Illinois, where he became one of the real leaders in every way 
of the city, writing one of the best histories of that city. He became 
a distinguished attorney, a capable jurist, taking rank as one of the 
leading men at the bar in Illinois. 

Rev. Samuel INIcAdoAv — One of the founders of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church in Dixon County, Tennessee, came to Illinois 
later and served in Vandalia Presbytery. He lived to the ripe old 
age of 88 and was buried at the Mt. Gilead Church in Bond County, 
near Greenville, Illinois. 


Rev. James Ashmore was born in Jefferson County, Tennessee. 
He was the organizer of many churches in Clark, Cumberland and 
Coles Counties, Illinois. His son. Rev. H. H. Ashmore, became an 
army chaplain and served with distinction in the Civil War. 

Rev. David Foster — Came from Sumner County, Tennessee, to 
Sangamon, thence to Macon County, Illinois. He organized Mt. Zion 
and Bethany congregations. He was very active in Central Illinois. 

Rev. Woods McCowan Hamilton was active in Southern Illinois. 

Rev. J. R. Lowrance — Born in Tennessee, in Murray County. He 
came to Illinois in 1835. Settled near Manchester. His ministry was 
from Petersburg to Jerseyville. 

Rev. Cyrus Haynes — Reared in Giles County, Tennessee; student 
in Cumberland College, 1830-1833 ; ordained by Elk Presbytery. Came 
to Morgan County, Illinois, 1836; served in Sangamon Presbytery, 
then in McDonough County ; organized a school in McLean County, 
Stout's Grove, 1847. 

Rev. James McDowell — Born in North Carolina ; removed to 
Robertson County, Tennessee. September, 1830, he came to Tazewell 
County, Illinois, where he labored constantly for the building of the 

The Presbyterian Church was growing side by side with the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The most of the ministry, how- 
ever, came from another section of the country. There are two notable 
exceptions. The Rev. Dr. Gideon Blackburn was licensed to preach 
in Maryville, Tenn., 1792. After a brief ministry he became the pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, He 
came into Illinois and at once began planning the organization of 
a school. He was one of the most far-sighted men of his day, and 
had the trustees for this new school followed his general outline, there 
seems to be little doubt but that Blackburn University would have 
been one of the richest endowed in the entire West. 

From East Tennessee came another young man, destined to be a 
leader in the church — Rev. Dr. R. W. Patterson — whose life will be 
mentioned more in detail later. We might say he was one of the most 
varied students of the West. 

The ministry of the Presbyterian Church in Illinois has ever 
numbered some outstanding leaders from Tennessee. One church sent 
men who became pastors in Hyde Park, and Highland Park, Chicago, 
Oak Park and Monroouth, all at one time. At the present time there 
are more than a score who were reared and trained in Tennessee 
schools, some of them in the real centers of influence. 


Rumors filtered back as settlements took form until a sufficient 
number in certain areas warranted the organization of another county. 
A few glimpses of how these covmties grew will be sufficient. 

St. Clair and Randolph. 
The past century had witnessed only minor changes. Immigration 
had reached the Illinois country from three sources — the north, the 


south, and the east. Each of the three quarters brought its own 
peculiar people. The fame of its rich soil, its noble rivers, its abun- 
dance of wild game, was spread abroad by every traveler who chanced 
to traverse its boundless prairies or to thread its silvery streams. The 
first county was St. Clair, which was divided in 1795 by a line running 
due east and west through New Design. The north half was called 
St. Clair County, with Cahokia for the county seat; while the south 
half was called Randolph County, with Kaskaskia as its county seat. 
For our purposes not much distinction was made of the county line. 
We find, for instance, that a respectable family by the name of Casey 
emigrated from Tennessee to Illinois and settled in several of the 
counties in the interior of the State. No dates being given, no specific 
places mentioned, makes a tabulation now very difficult. We surmise 
this particular family to be a part that later influenced the settlement 
in Jefferson County, but is given here by way of illustration of much 
indefiniteness pertaining to this early history. 

George E. Walker, a respectable and worthy pioneer, was born in 
Tennessee. His father and family in 1811 settled in Randolph County, 
east of the Kaskaskia River. He was one of the men who built a rail- 
road from the Mississippi Bluff to the river. This road was constructed 
in 1837 for the purpose of conveying coal to the St. Louis markets and 
was the first railroad in the State. 

James Milligan, born in Tennessee in 1801, came to Illinois in 
1812. Sons : Fergus, James, David, Hezekiah, William. Daughters : 
Elvira, Sarah, Mary, Martha. 

Fergus Milligan. Randolph and Perry Counties. Abner, John, 
Milton, Thomas, William, Joseph. 

David Milligan came with his family in 1812. 

W. E. Gladson, Louis Hammock, E. B. Rushing, J. W. Pyatt, 
Perry County. 

Daniel Ballinger and family, William Fisher, Bond and Garretson 
families, Captain James Moore, John Moore and family. 

John G. Fellers, W. B. Taylor, Robert Bratney, John Layne, 
Daniel Malone, P. P. Hamilton, a local M. E. preacher; Lawson 
Murphy, W. P. Murphy, J. M. Malone, Edward Campbell, J. P. 
Mathes, James G. Wylie, C. W. Edgar, Samuel T. Nisbit, I. J. San- 
ders, James F. Blair, Rev. M. H. Woods, Rev. Samuel Brown, Rev. 
Samuel Caruthers, Alexander Porter, John Reynolds, Samuel C. 
Baldridge. All of these were near Sparta from 1810 to 1850; also 
John Bell, who formed a new party in politics. 

Perry County. 

Rev. Alexander Rice, son of Abner Rice, from Robertson County, 
Tennessee. Three or four of these families came to Illinois in 1830 
and settled in Perry County. They were among the early leaders in 
the Baptist Church. 

Others : Matthew Jones, William Jones, John Hazzard, John Berry, 
John Bland, John M. Haggard, Johnson Harriss, Reuben Kelley, John 
and Isaac McCollum, Isaac and Abraham Lee, Edward, Robert and 
Minyard Gilliam, Henry and John Bridges, William Dial, George 
Stvirtevant, Samuel Etherton, Thomas Morris, Samuel Dixon, William 


Williams, Abner Keith, Joe Little, Richard Hull, Thomas Metcalf, 
John Stuart, A. A. Watkins, Samuel Ewing, Rev. James Walker and 
Rev. Mr. Barr, preachers. 

Jefferson Count'^'. 

Stinson H. Anderson, born in Sumner County, Tennessee, 1800, 
removed while young to Jefferson County, Illinois. Representative 
in the General Assembly, 1838 to 1842 ; was Speaker of the Senate 
of Illinois, 1841 ; warden of State Penitentiary ; United States Marshal 
for Illinois. 

Dr. John J. Fyke, son of J. A. Fyke, of Robertson County, Ten- 
nessee. The father helped build a railroad in Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
over which one of the first trains in the "Dnited States ran. He came 
to Illinois in 1839. As a carpenter he was very busy, settling on what 
was known as Tennessee Prairie. Dr. Fyke, the son, went to McKen- 
dree College, Chicago Medical School, St. Louis Eclectic College of 
Medicine. He established a very lucrative practice. His wife also 
was of a Tennessee family. 

Benjamin Smith, son of Anderson Smith, born in Hickman 
County, Tennessee, 1814. He came to Illinois, 1830; married, in 1832, 
Elizabeth C. Hopper, who was born in Tennessee in 1811. He became 
a successful fruit grower and leading agriculturist. He was the presi- 
dent of Jefferson County organization of the People's party, also a 
member of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Organization. 

Otis M. Waters, son of H. T. Waters. A successful druggist. 

William M. Casey, a farmer, well to do. 

Leander C. Johnson, son of Rev. John T. and Rachel Prather 

Robert F. Smith, son of Robert and Martha Smith. In 1861 he 
volunteered and joined Company G, Second East Tennessee Union 
Army. Mustered out in 1865. Cam.e to Illinois, 1868; married Mar- 
garet Allen of Tennessee. 

Tillman Davis Fry came to Illinois, 1851 ; Hamilton and Jefferson 

Christopher G. Vaughn, son of John D. and Celia Wood Vaughn. 
Came to Jefferson County, 1832. 

James Waters, born in 1815, came to Illinois, 1839; married, 1841. 

William P. Hudson, son of John and Mary (Duncan) Hudson, 
became a prosperous farmer in Jefferson County. 

Campbell W. Ragan came from Blount County, Tennessee, 1853. 
Married, 1856, Elizabeth Maxey, of Tennessee. He grew very wealthy. 

Jasper Braddy, son of Jesse and Lovissa (Parker) Braddy. 

William Davis, son of C. S. Davis, a local politician. 

Herbert S. Smith, son of Jesse H. and Eliza (Bliss) Smith. The 
father's family was of Tennessee, moving to Illinois in 1830. 

Washington County. 
In this county many Tennessee families settled. 
Stephen Canady came from Tennessee when very young; exact 
date not given. 


James T. Goodner, son of Elijah and Mary (Gore) Goodner. 
Married Margaret Ann Logan, of Tennessee family. 

Captain John A. Logan, son of James and Lorinda (Dyke) Logan. 
John was born in Tennessee, January 14, 1841 ; came to Illinois, 1850. 

John F. Stephens, son of David and Lorana (Duncan) Stephens. 
John was born in East Tennessee, 1823; came to Illinois, 1849. 

Sylvester C. Garrison, son of David A. Garrison, came from 
Tennessee with his parents when he was but four years of age. 

John B. Hester, son of Benjamin R. and Margaret (Henry) 
Hester, an old Tennessee family. The father of John founded the 
M. E. Church, South, in Ashley, Illinois, 1866. 

John Newman, born near Knoxville, Tennessee, May 13, 1827. 
Married Hester Ann House, of Tennessee, 1848; emigrated to Illinoi.s 
for a honeymoon trip. They were ardent supporters of the M. E. 
Church, South. 

Marion, Franklin and Hamilton Counties. 

William Finley, M. D., son of Rev. William and Elizabeth (Hutch- 
mgs) Finley. The parents came to Bond County in 1819, the father 
being a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He organ- 
ized the Salem Church, 1844; thence Bethel, Kinmundy, Omega and 
others. The subject of this sketch was born in 1829 and was ordained 
to preach at the age of 24, but soon turned his attention to medicine, 
studying in Cincinnati. He settled in Salem, always ready to boost 
that progressive little city. His practice grew, he became an influ- 
ential citizen, churchman, member of a number of fraternal orders, an 
advocate of good schools. It was partly through the efforts of this 
family that at an early day a special school or academy was organized 
at Salem, but later was turned into the public school system. 

Thomas R. Marshall, cashier of Salem National Bank, was the 
son of Benjamin Franklin Marshall, from Lincoln County, Tennessee, 
who came to Illinois in 1838, settling in Salem. This family was one 
of the progressive families in that section, always ready to boost the 
community, the schools, lodges, church or business. 

Captain James Creed came to Illinois from Rutherford County, 
Tennessee in 1844. Married, in 1848, Stacy R. Randolph. Served in 
Civil War as captain of Company K, Seventy-first Regiment, Illinois. 
In 1865 moved to Walnut Hill and became an extensive fruit grower. 
He was one of the founders in that section of the Farmers' Grange, 
also Fanners' Club, a co-operative society. 

John M. Rutherford, son of Houston L. and Mary (Milter- 
barger") ) Rutherford. He was born in Knox County, Tennessee, July, 
1850. When the lad was onlv a few weeks old the parents set out for 
Illinois, locating in Shiloh Township. He married, 1869, Elizabeth 
Rightowner. He was an ardent member of the Farmers' Mutual 
Benefit Association. 

Gabriel Pearler, a brick mason, reached Illinois from Tennessee 
in 1850. 

Rev. Jesse Porter Sprowls, D. D., moved to Salem from Nashville, 
Tennessee, where he had had a nervous breakdown. He soon became 


a leader in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and other rehgious 

Samuel F. PhiUips, son of Jonatlian and Sarah (Fowler) Phillips, 
came into Illinois from Tennessee, 1831, locating in Marion County. 

John Rust, born in Maury County, Tennessee, 1816, came to 
Illinois, 1829. This man helped establish the tradition that the South- 
erner did not work much, for he believed in hunting coons for a living. 
As a result he established a small business in trading in hides and furs. 

A number of other families came into that immediate section from 

In Madison, Macoupin and Greene Counties there was a large 
settlement of people from the South, but I have been unable to classify 
them as I should like to do. The same is true with Morgan County, 
where at an early date you find leaders in every good movement. 

The same thing might be said of McLean County, for it is known 
to all who have lived in that great count}- that many people from the 
South constitute parts of their families. As early as 1826 people began 
to take claims in that section. For the most part they settled in the 
west portion of the county. One of the pioneer preachers organized 
in 1827 the church that is now Danvers Presbyterian Church. Some of 
these families belong to that section still. 

In this same connection T should write some unclassified material 
from Coles and Cumberland Counties, as there are a few large families 
in that section that have their reunions and keep up a line of family 
history that is commendable. I speak of the Dryden family, from 
Bedford County, Tennessee. They married into the Morrison family. 
Mrs. Eliza Morrison lived to be nearly 100 years of age, and her great 
delight in her last years was to tell her experiences on that long trip, 
riding m.ost of the way horseback, taking her babe in her lap, her next 
older child up behind — just to lighten the load of the moving wagon. 
It is a matter of interest in that family to record that as soon as they 
got located on Long Point Prairie, now in Cumberland County, near 
Neoga, they invited the people to come to their log house and set 
about to organize the Presbyterian Church. In that same neighbor- 
hood was another family, that of Ewing, who shared with these other 
good people the building of a civilization worth while. In later years 
they took pride in pointing to their early beginnings, and at the same 
time furnished their children with some of the most progressive plans, 
such as a complete modern church and school building in splendid 

Schuyler, Brown and Cass Counties. 

The history of Schuyler County is like that of many others, as 
it was subdivided as the population seemed to demand it, or if the 
division could serve for some coveted political end in establishing 
separate units for such purposes. 

Henry Ventres, son of Asa Ventres, who came to St. Clair Countv 
and died in 1818. Record is not clear as to when the family moved 
to the other section of the State. 

Dr. D. W. Owens of Hersman married Nanna Means Bog^s. 
daughter of Joseph and Rachel Means Boggs. Both of these families 


were from Tennessee. Doctor Owens enjoyed the friendship of the 
Marshall family, and that of Abraham Lincoln. He was an exception 
in that section as he affiliated with the Republican party, while most 
of the settlers were Democrats. He was a minister as well as physician, 
and became one of the most serviceable men in that entire section of 
the country just after the war. 

Hon. W. C. Reno, son of Jonathan and Louisa Thorton. Reno, 
Kentucky-Tennessee respectively. 

King- Kerley, son of William Kerley, born in Sumner County, 
Tennessee, 1814. Mr. Kerley married Elizabeth Brown of Sumner 
County, 1837, soon afterwards moved to Illinois with their respective 
families, settling in what became Brown County. 

Jeptha Plaster, Chandlerville, Cass County, was born in Robert- 
son County, Tennessee, 1827. His father came to Illinois alone in 
1828 to locate land. This he did and returned to his family and 
parents. All of them came immediately thereafter. The grandfather 
settled in Morgan County, where others of the family afterwards 
came. Jeptha married Elizabeth Johnson October 14, 1858. She was 
the daughter of John and Rosanna (Adkins) Johnson, both families 
of Tennessee, which had settled in Morgan County. Jeptha was 
elected Associate Justice in the year of 1869, in which office he dis- 
charged his duties in a worthy and competent manner. 

John M. Daniels, of Ashland, son of J. W. Daniels of Jackson- 
ville. This is one of the Tennessee families which has improved the 
larger opportunity afforded for education and other cultural influences 
and the children of most of the parts of the family can now be found 
in positions of honor and merit through thrift and perseverance. 

Joseph F. Black was born in Maury County, Tennessee, Febru- 
ary 23, 1828. He married Miss Beard, of another prominent Tennes- 
see family. They came to Illinois almost the entire distance on the 
rivers, starting their long journey on the Cumberland at Nashville, 
thence on the Ohio, thence on the Mississippi, thence on the Illinois, 
landing just west of Winchester. There they located for a short time, 
then moved to Virginia. 

R. W. Mills, son of Chesley L. Mills, was born near Lebanon, Ten- 
nessee. Chesley married into a Vermont family that had moved to 
Kentucky, the family of Doctor Cadwell, which afterward located in 
Morgan County at I.ynnville. 

Charles J. Norbury was born in Philadelphia, May 22, 1812, but 
he married the daughter of Rev. Thomas Spence, Miss Elizabeth 
Spence, thus combining a splendid family from the East with one 
from the South, which was done so often in that section of Illinois, 
forming some of the very best families in that entire section of the 

Lewis H. Orr, Mt. Sterling, son of David W. of Sumner County, 

Payton Harding is of a Kentucky-Tennessee family settling in 
Brown County. 

The Perry family came to Brown County in 1830-1831, and from 
that time to the present not many times can be found when some 


representative was not filling some important county or state office 
by vote of the people. More will be said about them elsewhere. 

Hon. H. A. Perry was County Court Clerk for sixteen years and 
was followed by William Perry. Hon. Elmer A. Perry was County 
Attorney and a member of the State Legislature, and is one of the 
leading lawyers of Springfield. 

John Murphy came out of eastern Tennessee, settling at Camden 
at an early day. 

Tennesseeans in Wayne County. 

Rev. Benjamin Mabry came to Illinois from Tennessee in 1819 
and Simpson Organ came shortly afterwards. Rev. Mabry was also 
a millwright. He built a number of old style grist mills in this part 
of Illinois. He was active as a pioneer preacher in Wayne and ad- 
joining counties. Several of his descendants became prominent in 
Illinois. The Hon. John L. Cooper, now editor of the Wayne County 
Record, is his great-grandson. Mr. Cooper has held many important 
positions, viz : twice Representative in the Illinois Legislature ; Judge 
of the County Court of Wayne ; secretary for Judge C. C. Boggs of 
the Supreme Court of Illinois for nine years. Hon. Robert E. Mabry, 
a grandson of Benjamin Mabry, became Representative in the Illinois 
Legislature, State Insurance Examiner, and Chief Clerk of the South- 
ern Illinois Penitentiary. 

Hon. Ben S. Organ, a grandson of Benjamin Mabry, served as 
Representative in the Illinois Legislature, and as County Judge in two 
counties — White and Wabash, in Illinois, and as County Treasurer of 
Wayne County. 

Judge John L. Cooper and Hon. Ben. S. Organ were grandsons 
of both Benjamin Mabry and Austin Organ. 

Austin Organ, Jr., a son of the pioneer Austin Organ, became 
Sherifif of Wayne County and Captain of a Company in the Fifth 
Regiment of the U. S. Cavalry in the War of 1861-1865. 

Richard L. Organ, grandson of Austin Organ, Sr., became an 
attorney in Carmi and his son, Joseph Organ, is prominent in Carmi 
as a business man, and in the management of the White County 
Agricultural Society. 

Early Settlers From Tennesseic in White County. 

The Gowdys, Orrs, Millers, Fields, Johnsons, Trousdales and 
Andersons all settled near Enfield and came from Tennessee in 1818, 
and were prominent and influential people. 

Hosea Pearce, who was one of the early sherififs of White County, 
came to Wayne County in 1817. 

The Austins, Weeses, DeLaps, Emersons, and a great many of 
the early settlers of the west and southwest part of White County 
came from Tennessee. One large bend of the Little Wabash River 
in this vicinity is still called the Tennessee Bend because so many of 
the early settlers came from that State. 

(This information was furnished by the late Judge C. C. Boggs.) 


Bond County. 
Bond County was one of the earliest settlements, but records 
were not available for the present writer, so some material had to be 
left out which quite evidently should be included, all of which shows 
the impossibility of collecting all data for such a paper as this. But 
as early as 1817-1818 Hickory Grove was settled, which afterwards 
changed its name to Pocahontas. In this community were many fam- 
ilies from Tennessee, including the Plants, Hunters, Johnsons, Mills, 
V^olentine, McCords, McCleans. 

Morgan County. 

It is frequently said that Morgan County in an early day exerted 
some of the most potential influences upon the State of any section of 
the State. This may be accounted in that the people who settled the 
Town of Jacksonville, and the County of Morgan were composed of 
two general types of people, those from the South who w&nted to get 
out of Slave territory, and those from New England who wanted to 
get into the great west where land was cheaper and opportunities 
were abundant. These people brought with them many trained leaders, 
men and women who had received excellent school advantages. This 
very fact aided them in making large and generous plans for their 
own families. This helped to explain how they rapidly developed so 
many institutions of learning, colleges, academies, conservatories, and 
out of this enterprising town went a splendid influence. This influ- 
ence continues to this day as Jacksonville is one of the best educational 
centers in the entire West. 

Rev. Hugh Barr — Hugh Barr w^as born in North Carolina, the 
son of Patrick and Nancy Barr, and when a mere child came to 
Tennessee, where he received his education and training under Doc- 
tor Blackburn, Dr. John Allen, and possibly Doctor Doak. Rev. Hugh 
Barr was ordained by the Presbytery of Shiloh at Hopewell, Tennessee, 
1819. He was sent on a Missionary tour of Alabama, where he had 
slaves as his servants but became convinced that this was not right so 
he freed his slaves and came to Illinois in 1835. His first ministry 
may have been at Carrollton, but he soon became a minister in Morgan 
County, preaching for a long time at Pisgah, near Orleans, and at 
other places throughout that territory. He was associated with some 
of the earliest formations of Presbyteries and Synods in Illinois. His 
grandson, S. O. Barr, is in business at Jacksonville. 

Gallaher — This name introduces one of the most influential fam- 
ilies in the early days of Morgan County, and it might be said to con- 
tinue its place of leadership until the present. Thomas Gallaher settled 
in Washington County, Tennessee, where a large family of ten children 
were reared. Three of the sons became ministers, one of them be- 
coming a prominent pastor in the Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati, 
another one of the boys going to help the brother as co-pastor, married 
in that city and later came to join others of the family who had come 
to Illinois. The children married into the following prominent fam- 
ilies: Russel, Bradley, Riddle, Capps, Kirby, and Kautz, who have 
ever been active in the best things that have made Jacksonville prom- 
inent in the State. 


Pitner — Thomas J. Pitner, son of William and Catherine (Price) 
Pitner. William Pitner was a teacher in east Tennessee and came with 
the early immigrants to Illinois, settling in Cass County, while his 
brother settled in Morgan County. Thomas was a student in Illi- 
nois College, later studied medicine in several schools in the United 
States, then went to Vienna, Austria, as a private student for nearly 
two years. It is easy to see why Doctor Pitner immediately took rank 
among the leading men of his profession. Doctor Pitner was a very 
active man in all civic affairs, as well as in the Medical Fraternity. 
He was a Trustee of Illinois College and the President of the Trus- 
tees of Illinois Woman's College, filling both positions with honor and 

There are many other families that might be mentioned as hav- 
ing come into Morgan County from Tennessee, among them P. D. 
Keplinger coming in a covered wagon in 1828, bringing eight sons 
and four daughters. P. D. Jones and the Burrus family near Mere- 
dosia. Other will no doubt occur to the readers in that section of 
the country. 


Many of the early historians have devoted a great deal of atten- 
tion to the men who composed the legal fraternity. There is no ques- 
tion but that this group of men who had to aid in the making of the 
laws for this new country, then in turn were called upon to interpret 
the law in settling all manners of questions arising therefrom, really 
composed a most worthy body of men. One fact might be mentioned 
just here, that Tennessee offered a number of good law schools at 
that early date, so many took advantage of that for their legal train- 
ing. This was the case, for instance, with Judge Lansden of Cairo, 
who after he finished Illinois College went to Lebanon Law School, 
and later settled in Cairo. No attempt is made at present to pick out 
all this body of fine men, but we will mention a few in passing. 

William A. Woods of Chicago — He was born in Farmington, 
Tennessee, May 16, 1837. His father died while the boy was an in- 
fant. The mother re-married to Capt. J. J. Miller, who was bitterly 
opposed to slavery, and moved to Iowa to get away from that influ- 
ence. Young Woods went to the schools in Iowa, thence to Wabash 
College in Indiana, taught school in Indiana, Marion. In 1867 he 
was elected a member of the General Assembly of Indiana. In 1873 
he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court, in 1881 to the Supreme 
Court of Indiana. In 1883 he was appointed by President Arthur 
Judge of the United States District Court, later in 1892 he was ap- 
pointed to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals with Chicago 
as his home. Associate Chief Justice Brewer in 1898 paid high tribute 
to Judge Woods for the decision rendered in the labor troubles, say- 
ing that he was "the hero of that struggle for the domination of the 
law." He had a genius for interpreting the law. He was endowed 
with great courage, a firmness of character, strength of will, a tenacity 
of purpose, a capacity for work. He was a stanch Republican, strong 
in his social qualities, a leading Presbyterian layman in Chicago. 


Jacob McGacock Dickinson — Born in Columbus, Mississippi. He 
early went to Tennessee to school, finishing at the University of Nash- 
ville, and was admitted to the Bar in Nashville, where he practiced 
for about fifteen years. He married into a prominent Tennessee fam- 
ily, Martha Overton, April 20, 1876. He was Assistant Attorney 
General for United States, 1895-1897; General Counsel for the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, 1901-1909; Secretary of War under Taft, 1909- 
1911 ; President of American Bar Association, 1907-1908. At present 
is associated with the firm, Taylor, Miller, Dickinson & Smith. 

Alexander M. Jenkins, Murphysboro, was elected judge in 1859. 
Mention has already been made of Judge Jenkins as being the uncle 
of John A. Logan, in whose office Logan studied. 

David A. Smith, Jacksonville — Mr. Smith was born in Charlotte, 
Virginia, but his parents moved to Pulaski, Tennessee, when he was a 
child and his education was all received in that State. He was a 
student of the Rev. Mr. Wier, and Judge Bramlett. When a young 
man he came to Illinois, settling first at Carlinville, moving to Jack- 
sonville two years later. As he reached Illinois he freed his slaves, 
giving bond that none of them would ever become dependent upon 
the State. Mr. Smith was a very prosperous attorney, patriotic to 
the Union cause, public spirited for his town, liberal with his church 
and the college, as he was living next to the campus of Illinois Col- 
lege and treated it as one of his special objects of interest. He reared 
a large family, his children marrying into some of the other prominent 
families in that section of Illinois. One of his daughters became the 
wife of Hon. John M. Lansden of Cairo, mention of whom is made 
in this paper. 

Mills — Chesley L. Mills was reared and educated in Tennessee. 
He was the father of Richard Watson Mills, who was a prominent 
attorney at Virginia and Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Allen — William Allen, born in Wilson County, Tennessee, De- 
cember, 1806, was the son of John Allen, one of the seven heroic and 
immortal soldiers of General Jackson who gave his life in New Or- 
leans when the British were repulsed. William was married to Eliz- 
abeth Joiner, 1826. They came to Illifiois in 1830, locating at Marion. 
In 1842 he became a member of the State Legislature, followed that 
term by that of State's Attorney, was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847, when he was considered one of the most active 
men in that convention. In 1850 he was elected to Congress, which 
position he held until he retired in 1855. But in 1857 he was elected 
to the position of Judge, holding that position until his death in 1859. 
Judge Allen was ever held in high esteem by his fellowmen, and he 
rendered valuable service for his people. 

Freels — Jesse M. Freels, born in Anderson County, Tennessee, 
October 13, 1842. After attending the country schools he went to 
Tennessee College, then to Amherst to study law, later to Iowa Uni- 
versity of Law. He began the practice of law in East St. Louis, mar- 
rying Miss Alice Tunnell, daughter of John Tunnell, a member of 
another Tennessee family mentioned in this paper. 

Lansden — Mention has been made of the Rev. Abner Wayne 
Lansden in connection with the earlv missionaries from Tennessee 


into the Illinois Country, locating in Sangamon County, where he 
lived for thirty years ministering to the Rock Creek Presbyterian 
Church much of the time. But in connection with the Bar of Illinois 
few attained greater eminence than did John M. Lansden of Cairo. 
It is fitting to add an additional paragraph or two. In this young man 
is combined two illustrious families of leaders. His father and two 
brothers were pioneer ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, while his mother had three brothers who were ministers in 
the Presbyterian Church, who already have been mentioned — James, 
Allen and William G. Gallaher. The Gallaher family in Tennessee 
were friends of Andrew Jackson, and his grandmother's family, Green, 
also formed a part of a staunch Presbyterian community in Tennessee. 
John was first a student in Lebanon, Tennessee, but because of the 
disturbed conditions entered Illinois College in 1860, graduating in 
1861. He then went to Albany, N. Y., Law School, graduating in 
1865. He located in Cairo, Illinois, in 1866, where for sixty years he 
took prominent leadership in his profession. He served in many posi- 
tions of honor and trust, wrote a history of his city, continued active 
in his work almost up to the very last, having been called on 1922. 


There are many people who have a rightful place of worthy 
mention in this type of a paper, if only the writer were more familiar 
with the facts in the case. He is not a historian, and does not have 
access to the type of a library that one should have to collect such 
data. But he is interested in the history of both Tennessee, his native 
State, and in Illinois, his home State. The only call upon me that 
seems to warrant this attempt of collating this material is that in 
giving my services to my fellowmen it has fallen to my lot and duty to 
be in the different portions of the State, until in some measure it has 
become more familiar to me than to some others. In every section it 
has been my good fortune in the closer study of people to find some 
good and remember that. When I finally consented to undertake this 
task there was not time for a careful survey, such as should be made, 
and I mention only a few of the families that have come before me. 

William G. Greene, son of William Greene, born in Overton 
County, Tennessee, came to Illinois when he was but nine years of 
age, settling in Menard County, near Tallula. Lincoln came to New 
Salem when he was about 21 years of age ; Greene was about 18, and 
there rapidly sprang up a strong friendship. Greene became a student in 
Illinois College, 1833-1836, during the time that Richard Yates was a 
student. These two young men developed a very strong friendship, 
which lasted as long as they lived. In 1837 Greene returned to Ten- 
nessee for his wife, Louisa A. White, daughter of M. P. White, 
remaining in Tennessee till 1842. They went to Mississippi for a 
short time, then back into Illinois, settling in Mason County. In 1853 
he established the town sites along the C. & A. Railroad, where one 
of the towns w^as named for himself — Greenview. The County of 
Greene and the town of Greenfield keep alive his family name also. It 
has been said of him that he paved the way for Yates to become 


Governor of Illinois and for Lincoln to become President. Both of 
these men were in opposite party to him, but his strong friendship for 
them gave him the opportunity to aid them and at the same time render 
a service that was invaluable. 

Vance — Samuel Vance and wife, Sarah Colville, emigrated from 
Scotland to Ireland, and on account of religious persecution came to 
this country, landing at the port of Philadelphia in 1735. After a few 
months they joined Jonathan Hite, and with sixteen other families — 
mostly Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who were the earliest settlers west 
of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Shenandoah valley, settling 
on Opequon Run, three miles south of the present site of Win- 
chester. Here John Vance was born in 1736. Here he married Jane 
Blackburn, who was born February 4, 1741 ; a daughter of John 
Blackburn of Opequon Run. Here their fourth son was born, Samuel 
Vance, December 27, 1769. In 1773 John Vance and his relatives, 
Joseph Black, George Arthur and William Blackburn, moved 
southwest. In 1776 they erected Black's Fort, on the present site of 
Abingdon. Samuel Vance married Mary Blackburn, February 4, 
1793, daughter of William Blackburn, who lost his life at the battle 
of King's Mountain, North Carolina, October 7, 1780. After marriage 
Samuel Vance, with his mother's brother, Joseph Black, and others, 
migrated to Tennessee, into the territory now embraced in Blount and 
Knox Counties, selected a place for a county seat, and named it Mary- 
ville. Later, Samuel Vance returned to Abingdon, Va., where William 
Blackburn Vance was born, August 3, 1796. About 1810 Samuel 
Vance returned to Maryville, Tennessee, where he engaged in farming 
a? a business, later coming to Edgar County, Illinois, his son, William 
Blackburn Vance, being about 14 years of age. William Blackburn 
Vance became the father of Joseph W., who was later chosen Adjut- 
ant General of Illinois, serving for a period of eight years under Gov- 
ernors Hamilton, Oglesby and Fifer. His son. Dr. Boyle Vance, is a 
successful business man in Chicago. 

Worthington — Dr. Thomas Worthington and Luther Tunnell 
settled in Madison County, but the brother, Calvin Tunnell, pushed 
on to what is now Greene County, near Carrollton, in 1817, bringing 
their families from Anderson County, Tennessee. The Tunnell family 
has been an illustrious family and there are on record more than 
5,000 descendants. Calvin Tunnell was a member of the State Legis- 
lature when the capital was at Vandalia. 

Hon. Thomas Worthington was born in Spencer County, Tennes- 
see, 1850. They migrated to Illinois and lived near Pittsfield. After 
finishing the schools at Pittsfield he went to Cornell, graduating with 
high honors. Then he went to Chicago for his law training. He prac- 
ticed law in Pittsfield, Illinois, Baltimore, Maryland, and Jacksonville, 
Illinois. He was considered one of the ablest men in his profession 
by those of his colleagues, having won some big cases against some 
noted attornevs. There yet live in Jacksonville a number of the mem- 
bers of this illustrious family. 

Patterson^Robert W. Patterson, D. D., son of Alexander and 
Sarah (Stevenson) Patterson, was born 1814 in Maryville, Tennessee. 
In 1824 the father came to lUinois, settling in Bond County. He 


entered Illinois College, 1832, when Dr. Edward Beecher was president. 
Later, he went to Lane Seminary and there was associated with Drs. 
Lyman and Charles Beecher. He took A. B., 1837, and A. M., 1840, 
from Illinois College ; D. D. from Hamilton and LL.D. from Lake 
Forest. In 1859 he was moderator of the General Assembly, N. S. 
He was the first pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago. 
He helped the organization of Lake Forest College. He became 
professor of Christian Experience and Ethics in McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1874 ; afterwards, a similar chair in Lane Sem- 
inary. He was active in the reunion of the Old and New School 
Branches of the Presbyterian Church, actually writing the articles of 
agreement. It has been said of him : "As a pastor his career has 
been unsurpassed, if not peerless in the Presbyterian history of the 
Northwest." He died in Evanston, February 24, 1894. 

PERRY — Edmond Perry, son of Nathan and Rebecca (Yarberry) 
Perry, was born in North Carolina and married Rachel Bridges. They 
settled in Clairborne County, Tennessee, on Powell's River. Edmond 
served in the AVar of 1812. He and tw^o of his brothers came to Illinois 
in 1829-1830, the winter of the big snow storm. In June, 1830, Edmond 
returned to Tennessee for his family and brought, not only his family, 
but his parents and a number of others, making seven Perry families 
in all. From these families there sprang something like fifty heirs, and 
one of the descendants recently said he had more than 100 cousins ; so 
they w^ere a prosperous family. They journeyed with ox teams, under- 
going many hazards for four or five weeks to make the trip. One 
incident occurred in crossing one of the rivers upon a crudely con- 
structed raft, when the mother saw the raftsmen pitch over her linen 
chest, to lighten the load on the raft. Imagine the feeling of this 
housewife as she beheld her Irish linen put into the bottom of the 
river ! One of the outstanding luxuries of their overland trip was the 
finding of a vacant house in the village of Springfield, w^hich they 
appropriated as their own during their sojourn. Coming from the 
mountains of Tennessee, Sangamon County, with its low. flat prairie. 
vmdrained, did not appeal to them. They saw very few trees, and 
they did not know how to live without timber for fencing and fuel. 
The next stop was in Morgan County, a little north of Jacksonville, on 
the Mauvaisterre River. Here the prairie sod looked too difficult to 
break, the ground too level for them, they decided to push on to the 
hills and timber of Brown County, locating just north of Mt. Sterling, 
in Cooperstown Township. The next spring, as soon as corn was 
planted, the father took to the woods with his rifle and by fall had 
venison hams enough to sell and to make his first land payment. This 
Perry family was composed of big, husky men ; fine phvsical speci- 
mens, to whom any sort of unfair dealing was unthinkable. It was said 
of the Perry s in early days that a small bunch of them look'ed like 
they could w^hip a regiment, for all of them were over six feet tall. 
That is the kind of people that constituted Jackson's riflemen at New 
Orleans. They knew no such word as "fail." Every time a rifle cracked 
a Briton fell. Perhaps the strongest reason, however, for taking the 
Perrys into Brov/n County w^as the fact that a number of those counties 
between the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers were set apart for the 


1812 soldiers, and has always since been referred to as the "Military 
Tract." Edmond, a soldier, was looking for that section, as did many 
others of the soldiers' families. These men developed a community 
which was a model for making a new country, and their influence in 
the mass has been very great, not by precept, but by practice, and by 
unostentatiously setting an example of practically perfect behavior. 

REV. JOHN M'CUTCHEN BERRY— To Rev. John McCutchen 
Berry must be accorded special honor as the organizer of the Church 
at Rock Creek, Sangamon County. Born in Virginia, he moved to 
Tennessee in his boyhood. He professed religion among the Cumber- 
land Presbyterians and early felt the impression to preach. He married 
Miss Frances Williams, who was opposed to his being a preacher. 
In 1812 he joined the army. The expedition was against the Indians 
in Illinois. They found no Indians and returned home almost starved. 
Another expedition was inaugurated under General Jackson for New 
Orleans. Mr. Berry was in that terrible battle, and at that time 
promised God that if he would spare his life, he would do whatever 
was in his power to do. He often said that "January 8, 1815, made 
Andrew Jackson President and me a preacher." 

Mr. Berry was a close friend and adviser of Abraham Lincoln, 
who often was in his home. He lived over thirty years in the same 
community, preaching there and in near surrounding places. On 
October 5, 1921, the remains of Mr. Berry and his wife were brought 
from Clinton, Illinois, and reinterred in Rock Creek cemetery, on land 
v/hich he had at one time purchased from the government. A fitting 
tablet was placed in the churchyard to honor his memory. 

BONE — Elihu Bone was born in North Carolina, coming with 
his parents to Tennessee when very young. Here he grew to man- 
hood and married Nancy Brown Warnick in Wilson County, Ten- 
nessee, in 1815. In 1824 they came to Menard County, Illinois, being 
one of the first families in that section of the country. He took a 
claim on Rock Creek, built a two-story log house on it, later replaced 
it with a two-story frame house, which is still standing. From time 
to time he purchased more land, until he owned a thousand 
acres. Elihu Bone was a man of sound judgment and served 
his generation well in both civic and religious affairs. He was 
a justice of the peace for many years, a member of Menard County's 
first grand jury, which held its sessions under the shade of a big 
tree; he was a member of the Illinois Legislature, 1842-44, always 
standing for the interests of the common people. His wife was a 
noble woman. She and her husband were the mainstays of the church 
in their community. Their sons and daughters rise up and call them 
blessed, some of whom have been in the church and active in all the 
community affairs for this entire time. This family has had a won- 
derful influence for good, and with their companions have made one 
of the most progressive communities to be found in the State. 


Thus and from these few examples Ave can gather and estimate 
the force and strength of the early Tennessee pioneers who laid so 


well the foundation upon which "Illinois Country" hath been builded. 
We might go into many other sections of the State to find illustrious 
examples of these same people. It is the desire that a beginning hav- 
ing been undertaken the Historical Society may follow up until this 
entire group may have been collated. 

Note: It is frankly admitted that, in the foregoing paper, there 
has been made scarcely more than a preliminary study of the subject, 
so far as known the first in Illinois. 

Many State and local, as well as National authorities have been 

Particularly are thanks due, and hereby expressed to these friends 
for cordial and valuable assistance. 

Hon. Ensley Moore, Jacksonville. 

Mrs. Minna Worthington (Mrs. A. L.) Adams, Jacksonville. 

Judge C. C. Boggs, Fairfield. 

Rev. G. A. Wilson, D. D., Tallula. 


WEST IN 1860. 

A. L. KoHLMiER, Indiana State University. 

At least three things in 1860 tended to keep the region lying be- 
tween the Great Lakes and the Ohio River together. First, the region 
had had a sufficient community of interest in its dealings with the 
national government to constitute in some respects a distinct section of 
the country. The people of the Northwest had on more than one 
occasion shown evidences of a consciousness of the fact that in some 
respects their interests were one. The politicians of the Northeast 
and of the South had for years taken that fact into consideration when 
intertwining issues in presidential elections and combining interests in 
national legislation. Second, of the five political divisions of the Old 
Northwest three touched, with their northern boundaries, the Great 
Lakes and, and with their southern boundaries, rested upon the Ohio. 
Together they reached from the eastern limits of the region to the 
Mississippi. Third, the entire area was free soil and its people had 
no intention of changing that status. The region had first been made 
free by legislation by the central government, had been so maintained 
by state enactment, and had practically been put beyond the possibility 
of change by climatic conditions and by having been settled by people 
who did not want to hold slaves or were financially unable to do so. 
The few inhabitants who desired to introduce slavery have attracted 
attention out of all proportion to their importance. 

Three facts tended to cause the Old Northwest to pull apart some- 
where along the old national road. First, the northern part lay, in 
general, within the valley of the Great Lakes, while the southern part 
lay within the valley of the Ohio River. Hence most of the northern 
part was in the glaciated area, and was almost universally adapted to 
grain production on a fairly large scale. The southern part, on the 
other hand, had a far greater proportion of hill land, whose soil was 
more quickly exhausted, and not so well adapted to large scale agri- 
culture. Second, the northern part was settled extensively by people 
of New England ancestry, while the southern part had a large pro- 
portion of the southern upland stock. 

There were, of course, important exceptions to this generaliza- 
tion. But the people of the northern part looked with consideration 
upon northeastern culture, institutions, and leaders. They had 
not entirely outgrown some of the mental traits of their ancestors 
and took themselves fairly seriously. Looking upon themselves 
as their brothers' keepers, many felt called upon to do what 
they could to restrict the spread of slavery everywhere. In 


the southern part were many who were bound by ties of blood and 
sentiment to people in the South. As individualists, however, they 
did not look for inspiration to the Southerners or to anyone besides 
themselves. They were not anxious to settle the slavery question for 
people living outside the Old Northwest. They had as little use for 
the Yankees as the latter had for them. The rapid development and 
prosperity of the Lake region in comparison with the western end of 
the Ohio Valley during the twenty-five years preceding the Civil War 
had not lessened this mutual feeling. 

Third, the two parts had different commercial connections anc' 
interests. The northern part exported its surplus through the north- 
eastern gateway of the Old Northwest, while the southern part ex- 
ported through the eastern gateway and to the South. The statistics 
for the exports through the northeastern gateway, over the railways 
and the canals of upper New York state and of Canada, in 1860, indi- 
cate an increase over that of twenty-five years before that has seemed 
to some to require some kind of explanation.^ During the same period 
of time the receipts of the same kinds of commodities at New Orleans 
show^ed a steady but much smaller rate of increase up to about 1853. 
and then remained almost stationary.- The railroad maps of the Old 
Northwest for the fifties depict the gradual completion of rail routes 
connecting lake ports with ports on the Ohio and on the Mississippi.^ 
Taking these three facts together it has been easy to jump to the 
conclusion that the relatively large increase in the exports through the 
northeastern gateway was due to the fact that the railroads brought 
from the Ohio valley commodities that had formerly been transported 
southward. This conclusion is, however, not justified. The railroads 
had not weaned the Ohio valley away from its economic connection 
with the South. The railroads were useful in rerouting the commodi- 
ties of this valley after the South had been closed during the war, but 
the change had not yet come in 1860. The people of the Ohio valley 
did not decide to fight the people of the South so much because they 
had concluded that they could get along economically without the 
South as they did because they believed that they could not get along 
without it. One needs to study the annual reports of railroads and 
canals to discover the source, destination and quantity of shipments.* 
From these it appears that the increased export through the north- 
eastern gateway by 1860 was really due to the increased population 
of the Lake region and the region to the w^est of the Lakes. In 1835 
the exports northeastward, through or around the eastern end of Lake 
Erie, went from that part of the lake region that was producing a 

1 N. Y. Senate Doc. 1836 No. 70 Statement C. No. 1 and statement D. No. 1 ; N. .Y As- 
sembly Doc. 1861, Vol. V. No. 93, pp. 136-138 : Tables of the Trade and Navigation of the 
Province of Canada for thei year 1860, pp. 10-125, 242-244 ; Report of the President and Di- 
rectors of the N. Y. Central— for year ending Sept. 1860 ; First Annual Report of the Directors 
of the Erie Railwav coming for the vear ending Dec. 31, 1862 ; some of the data also printed 
in census of 1860 Agriculture OXLVIII, CLI ; Statistics of For. and Dom. Commerce 1864, pp. 
12G-127, 159-163 ; Monthly Summarv of Commerce and Finance, January 1900. p. 1S60. 

2 House Ex. Doc. 50th Cong. 1st Ses., Vol. 20 No. 6, part 2 pp. 200-218 ; DeBow's Re- 
view. Vol. 29, p. 521. 

* Curran Dinsmore's American Railway Guide, and Appleton's Guide, published monthly, 
gave maps and time tables for parts of roads in operation. 

* Most satisfactory are the reports of the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore and Ohio, the Cleve- 
land and Pittsburgh, the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, the Little Miami and the Col- 
umbus and Xenia, the Toledo and Wabash, and the Illinois Central. The annual reports of the 
state canals published under various names give full details. 


surplus and from a part of central Ohio that had already been annexed 
to tlie lake basin by the Ohio canal. In 1860 the exports northeastward 
went from the lake region, the region to the west, and from such other 
areas in northern Ohio, northern Indiana and northern Illinois as had 
been annexed by the opening of the Ohio Canal, of the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, and of the Michigan and Illinois canal. With trifling 
exceptions, no region in the Ohio Valley was exporting northeastward 
in 1860 which had once exported southward or eastward.^ The regions 
annexed by the canals to the basin of the lakes were annexed before 
those regions had begun to produce much of a surplus, and while the 
railroads facilitated commerce they made no considerable change in 
the direction of commerce except in one case. That was the deflecting 
of commerce from the northeastern gateway to the eastern gateway 
by the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne and Chicago road. In 1835 the Ohio 
valley, excepting the part annexed by the canals to the lakes, shipped 
southward, or eastward from the upper reaches of the Ohio. So it 
was in 1860. Excepting coffee, sugar, molasses and part of the salt, 
nearly .all imports into the Northwest in 1835 as in 1860 came by the 
northeastern and by the eastern gateway. 

Two changes had. however, taken place that were due to the 
opening of the railroads. Meats and live stock made up a far more 
important proportion of the exports through the northeastern gateway 
in 1860 than in 1835. It was the railroads of the Northwest and more 
especially those of upper New York state that had made this change 
possible. The canals were frozen up during the packing season and 
could not handle live stock efficiently at any time.^ Hence the lake 
region did not go into the live stock production extensively till after 
the opening of the railroads. The other change applied to the Ohio 
valley. A considerable proportion of the commodities shipped from 
the Ohio valley to New Orleans in 1835 was reshipped to places along 
the ]\Iississippi above new Orleans, to Charleston, to Baltimore, and 
to New England.'^ By 1860 more places along the lower Mississippi 
were supplied directly from the Northwest. Goods were also shipped 
directly to Memphis and thence by rail eastward to Chattanooga and 
into the interior of the South. Greater quantities than formerly were 
also shipped up the Cumberland and the Tennessee rivers and over 
the newly opened Louisville and Nasliville railroad.^ The two last 
named lines of communication established contact with the railroad 
running eastward from Memphis to Chattanooga. From the latter 
place pork and corn were forwarded by rail to Charleston, to Savannah 
and to other southeastern points. Pork that had formerly gone by 
New Orleans to Baltimore or live stock that had been driven eastward 
over the Cumberland road, in 1860 went for the most part over the 

° statement chiefly based upon a study of "Annual Statements, Reports, and Reviews" of 

the Trade and Commerce for 1860 of Chicag-o, of Toledo, of Detroit, of Milwaukee, of Cin- 
cinnati; of similar Statements, etc., of Cleveland for 1858 and 1865, of St. Louis for 1859 and 
1865 and of Evansville for 1857 and 1867 ; of the annual reports for 1860 of railroads and of 
canals radiating: from those cities ; and of documents cited tmder note 1. 

° The annual reports of the canal commissioners of the Erie Canal always indicated the 
length of time the canal was closed for the winter. In the statistics of commodities carried 
live stock is seldom mentioned. 

■^ DeBow's Review g-ives annual exports of New Orleans and their destination. 

' Annual Rtateriient of the Commeroe of Cincinnati for the vear ending AuJnist 31st. 1860, 
p. 8 ; Annual Review of the Commerce of St. Louis, etc., for the year 1859, (Missouri Repub- 
lican) p. 4 ; Historv of Ohio Falls Cities, Vol. I, p. 324. 


Baltimore and Ohio railroad to Baltimore. While New England after 
the completion of her railway connections with the Great Lakes drew 
her provision imports from that source rather than from the Ohio 
vahey by way of New Orleans. To the Northwest New Orleans was 
relatively a little less important than formerly, but the South as a 
whole was as important as ever. The Ohio valley was in 1860 as 
closely connected economically with the South as in 1835. South- 
Vi^estern Ohio had during the fifties become more industrial, so that 
Cincinnati's prosperity depended in part upon the fact that she was a 
distributing center for a country a hundred miles around and depended 
less than formerly upon her export to the lower Mississippi. Yet 
when the war came, Cincinnati for a time was in economic distress.'' 
Towns further down the valley felt even more keenly the effect of 
losing their trade with the South and through the South. Some man- 
aged to hurry their exports south before the trade was forbidden.^" 
But when this trade had been pretty effectually stopped, some of those 
towns found their economic life permanently impaired." So serious 
appeared the outlook for a time that Lincoln made special arrangement 
to relieve the Ohio valley by making purchases of government supplies 
there. ^^ The Illinois Central railroad laid down as much freight at 
Cairo during each of the first four months of 1861 as in all the eight 
remaining months of the year, an evidence of the extent of the regular 
export from the southern half of Illinois to and through the South. ^^ 
Prior to 1860 Chicago had scarcely shipped anything to the South but 
during the year preceding the war she was beginning to ship thence 
in large quantities and her merchants and packers were congratulating 
themselves on the acquisition of a new market.^* 

Some of the Southern leaders were in 1835 conscious of this 
economic connection between the Northwest and the South and were 
seeking to perfect the lines of communication and of transportation 
both for commercial and for political purposes. By 1860 they were 
in part closing their eyes to this connection and in part misinterpreting 
its significance in the event of attempted separation. The so-called 
southern commercial conventions that were held almost annually during 
the fifties became more and more political in character as time went 
on. Together they constituted the sessions of a kind of Congress of 
the South that envisaged the South as a future economic entity if not 
as a political entity. The delegates planned direct trade with England 
and South America. They discussed the building of east-and-west 
railways through the South with the aid of the Federal government 
or of an association of the southern states. They hoped to weaken 
the economic connection between the Northeast and the South, but 
considered the Northwest hardly at all. When they did, it was usually 
to point out that the South could produce her own pork and corn or 
that the Northwest would have to continue to be duly respectful be- 

® Annual Report of the Commerce of Cincinnati for the vear ending Au^st 31st. 1S61, pp. 
5 and 6 ; Ibid., 1861, p. 5. 

'" Ibid., 1861, pp. 6, 38. 

"Report of the Evansville Board of Trade by J. W. Foster for 1867, p. 73. 

^' Ibid., p. 25 ; Nicolay and Hay ; Complete Works of Lincoln, VI, p. 286. 

^' Illinois Central Railroad Companv, Report and Accounts for the year endinff December 
31st, 1861, p. 1. 

" Third Annual Statement of the Trade and Commerce of Chicago for the vear ending 
December Slst, 1860, p. 18. 


cause of its need for the southern market/'^ Southern gentlemen 
seem to have reasoned that the deference on the part of the people 
of the Ohio valley, which was really due to a desire to hold the South 
in the Union, would continue even after the South had left the Union, 
Lincoln, who had spent most of his life in the Ohio valley or on its 
fringes, saw more clearly. In 1861 he gave it as his opinion that, if 
the railway from Charleston to Cincinnati had been built in the years 
following 1835, secession could never have come, but that even without 
that road, the Mississippi might be a cross-tie of sufficient strength 
to hold the Union together ultimately.^^ 

The people of the Old Northwest in contemplating, in 1860, 
secession and the formation of a northern and southern confederacy 
as an accomplished fact could see only three conceivable positions that 
the Old Northwest might occupy. First, it might break somewhere 
along the old national road, the part lying in the Ohio valley joining 
the southern confederacy and the part lying in the valley of the Great 
Lakes joining a northern confederacy. This breaking into of three of 
the states would have involved a double revolt on the part of the Ohio 
valley — a revolt against the Federal government and against three 
state governments. It would automatically have arrayed against the 
revolutionists the machinery of their state governments, each moving 
with a certain momentum in the fulfillment of the ends for which it 
had been instituted, and using in the struggle for self-perpetuation the 
resources over which it legally had command. In breaking up a state 
the revolutionists could not even have pleaded the southern doctrine 
of secession. With Yates, tutored in his task by Lincoln, and with 
Morton, who needed no tutoring from any man, in control of the 
political machinery and of half the population of two of the states, 
the breaking up of these two states could not have been accomplished 
without such active aid from the southern confederacy as could neither 
have been given nor accepted. Then it would have meant that a small 
non-slaveholding region north of the Ohio would have been rather 
more closely joined to a large slaveholding region south of the river 
than either of those two sections would have relished. A considerable 
proportion of the people north of the Ohio had originally crossed the 
river from the south because they did not care to live in a state where 
they had to compete with slave labor. A large number hated the negro 
whether free or slave. While the southern states in appointing com- 
missioners to attend the secession conventions of neighboring states 
and to in every case urge secession, appointed delegates to every slave 
state but to no state north of the Ohio river.^" Apparently the southern 
leaders felt quite frankly that they had had enough experience in being 
yoked up with free states. Finally, it would have meant placing the 
people of the Ohio valley under the political and economic domination 
of the South and placing the people of the Lake region in a similar 
position with respect to the Northeast. They would in neither case 

1° Writer used the Official Journals or Proceedinsrs of the Mississippi Valley R. R. Con- 
vention held at St. Louis. 1852 ; Knoxville Convention 1836 ; the Charleston Convention of 1854 ; 
accounts of other conventions in DeBow's Review and other papers and pamphlets. 

'' H. 0. Carey, to the Friends of Union, etc (pamphlet) p. 2. 

'^ Statement based upon an examination of the different Journals of the Secession 


have had the numerical power nor the importance to have held their 
own; neither could they, as formerly, have obtained sectional conces- 
sions for themselves by threatening to join one side or the other in 
the contest between Northeast and South. The Ohio valley would 
have had the outlet at New Orleans and the southern market, but if 
the southern confederacy had decided not to spend the money to keep 
tlie sand bars and snags out of the Mississippi, they could not as 
formerl}' have used their possession of the balance of power to secure 
their desires through a rivers and harbors bill. Neither could they 
have threatened to use tlie northeastern route without first negotiating 
with a foreign power. The dividing of the Northwest was obviously 

A second conceivable position in 1860 would be for the Old 
Northwest to remain together and to thus become a part of either the 
northern or the southern confederacy. To have joined the southern 
confederacy would have meant for the lake region to have lost control 
over its northeastern outlet, part of its eastern market, and possibly 
access to the English market. The possibilities of getting the agri- 
cultural surplus out of the Old Northwest by the transport lines of the 
valleys of the St. Lawrence and of the Mississippi in case the North- 
west separated from the Northeast were given consideration both in 
England and in America at that time, but the plans seem not to have 
been promising. For the wheat-growing lake region the breaking 
away from the Northeast would have meant nothing less than economic 
ruin. That region had increased in population and production in the 
fifties until it could not be carried into the southern camp by the Ohio 
valley against its consent. Then it would have meant the union with 
the slave-holding confederacy of a people in the lake region, a majority 
of whom were opposed to the existence of slavery anywhere. Finally 
it w^ould have meant for the entire Old Northwest the same subjection 
to the political domination of the South that would have befallen the 
Ohio valley in case the valley had gone alone. On the other hand, in 
case the Northwest as a whole had joined the northern confederacy 
the Ohio valley would have lost its southern outlet and southern 
market. Governors. Congressmen and business men of the Northwest 
of that day almost unanimously expressed the opinion that they could 
never give up the southern outlet. Moreover the Northwest would in 
that case have been just as truly dominated politically and economicallv 
by the Northeast as they would have been in the other case by the 
South. While the people of the Ohio valley would not have had the 
qualms of conscience in entering an association with the Northeast 
that their northern neighbors would have had in joining a slave-holding 
confederacy, it Avould have been by no means a union of love. Ob- 
viously the Old Northwest could not as a whole join either Northeast 
or South and thev did not. 

Third, the Old Northwest conceivably might together stand aloof 
from both the northern and southern confederacy and establish a con- 
federacy of its own. It would, however, have been a landlocked 
country deprived of every access to the sea except at the pleasure of 
some foreign power. This would have meant economic strangulation 
or fighting a way out later on. The plan of an independent north- 


western confederacy was considered, but was manifestly the worst 
possible solution. It would have been better to have had even one line 
of communication with the outside world than none at all, but as 
Lincoln pointed out, all of the routes would be better than any one.^^ 

All these possibilities contemplating secession as an accomplished 
fact were considered but all led to insurmountable difficulties. The fact 
is today apparent as it was to the majority in 1861, that no part of 
the country was more desperately in need of the preservation of the 
Union than was the Old Northwest. Putting aside the disintegrating 
effect of once admitting the right of secession, both the Northeast and 
the South could have endured as separate entities. But for the Old 
Northwest, land-locked, economically and culturally divided, drawn 
to North and to South, existence would have been intolerable. Mani- 
festly it was to the interest of the Old Northwest to maintain the 
Union and the Constitution unimpaired. It could gain nothing by 
helping either North or South win the ascendancy in the Federal gov- 
ernment. To preserve the balance of power and to preserve it by using 
that very advantage which they wished to keep was the true interest 
of the people of the Northwest. To formulate principles of settle- 
ment upon which they could agree, get the Federal government to voice 
those principles as its own, and then support the Federal government 
in the settlement was the only rational poliey. In formulating these 
principles the bulk of the people of the Ohio valley could conscien- 
tiously have yielded more to the South in the matter of slavery exten- 
sion than could either the people of the lake region or the Republican 
head of the Federal government. This willingness to yield was not 
an evidence of disunion sentiment, but on the contrary an evidence, in 
part, of the extreme to which they were willing in their agony to go to 
save the Union. In part, it was only the outgrowth of their conception 
of democracy. 

While it is now fairly clear that much of the course and outcome 
of the Civil War turned upon the decision and activities of the North- 
west, it is of no particular credit or discredit to the people of that 
region that they pursued the line of action that they did. They simply 
could not do otherwise. There was no other way out and most of them 
had come to realize that fact before the middle of '61. To Buchanan 
and to Lincoln belong the credit for having delayed, for a sufficient 
length of time, to, on the one hand, unfortunately convince many in 
the South and in the Northeast that the erring sisters would be allowed 
to depart in peace, and on the other hand fortunately to enable the 
people of the Old Northwest to mentally explore every avenue of 
escape only to discover that each was a blind alley and that there was 
no salvation for them save in union. To Lincoln belongs the credit 
for having so managed the closing of the Mississippi and of the south- 
ern trade frontier that, without having brought upon himself and the 
administration any of the onus for having caused economic distress in 
the Ohio valley, he yet brought the people of the valley to a full realiza- 
tion of the certainty and extent of the danger to their commerce in 
case a foreign power controlled the mouth of the Mississippi. It is a 

^^Nicc-i.;" and Hay: Complete works of Lincoln, VIII, pp. 113-115. 


iong and intricate story. To Lincoln belongs the credit for having 
shoved into the background every question between the North and the 
South except that of preserving the Union and for having so managed 
the Sumter affair that it appeared to the people of the Northwest that 
the Southerners were the aggressors bent upon destroying the Union. 
Among others the people of eastern Virginia had for years talked 
states rights and the community of southern interests until belief in 
those things filled their subconsciousness more fully than they perhaps 
knew. The people of the Northwest had for years realized the im- 
portance to themselves of belonging to a great union with a dominion 
stretching in all directions to the open sea and with a federal govern- 
ment strong enough to improve rivers, and to help build railroads and 
to open up the West. In their thinking, the Nation, the Union and the 
Federal government loomed large. When Sumter was fired upon the 
psychological complex of the people of eastern Virginia was such that, 
in spite of the sincere desire of many to help save the Union, to many 
of them it appeared that the Southerners had defended their govern- 
ment or were doing what was best for the interests of the South. The 
psychological complex of the people of the Northwest was such that, 
in spite of a sincere desire of many to make concessions, to them it 
appeared that the Southerners had attacked their government and were 
breaking up the Union, without which the Old Northwest would be 



Mrs. a. S. Caldwell, Regent Logan Chapter Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Carbondale. 

Mrs. John A. Logan ! A Southern IlUnois woman, with what 
pride we claim her! She who achieved the distinction of being one, 
among the greatest American women. The keystone of her life was 
Service. Patriotism, loyalty to her husband, home and friends were 
her chief characteristics. Thinking not of self she gave her untiring 
energy to her country, to her illustrious husband and to humanitarian 
organizations, thereby building for herself a name immortal in history. 
Surely the bread cast upon the water has returned to her in many 


History recounts in detail her life as maid and wife in Southern 
Illinois. How she was married at the age of seventeen at Shawneetown, 
Illinois, to Lieut. John A. Logan, a young officer who had served in 
the then just closed Mexican War under her father. Captain Cunning- 
ham. Young Logan went to visit his Captain after the war and met 
and loved the Captain's daughter Mary. When he had wooed, won 
and married her, they journeyed overland from Shawneetown to Ben- 
ton, Illinois. There Lieutenant Logan was prosecuting attorney, and 
there Mrs. Logan made a home and friends. To this day the house 
where they lived is shown visitors as Benton's chief historic spot. Later 
they took up their residence in Marion, Illinois. At the beginning of the 
Civil War Lieutenant Logan resigned his seat in Congress, where he 
was then serving and organized a regiment, the 31st Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, of which he was made Colonel, and entered the Civil War of 
1861-65. This period of Mrs. Logan's life reads like a wonderful 
romance. Her time was divided between the camp of liej- husband 
where she comforted, cared for and nursed the sick and wounded 
soldiers, and in Southern Illinois where she superintended the making 
and sending of supplies to the front. She also greatly helped, advised 
and encouraged the families left behind. She truly entered into the 
joys and sorrows of every man, woman and child in that section of 

For the last three years the writer of this sketch has been a close 
associate of Mrs. Logan and has noted with surprise, after the lapse 
of several decades, her ready memory of every name in Illinois which 
she then knew and her keen interest in them, their children, their mar- 
riages and successes in life. 

Mrs. John A. Logan 



After the Civil War, history again records General Logan's public 
life. He later represented the twenty-fifth district in Congress and 
later served as United States Senator. During this time Mrs. Logan 
was her husband's private secretary and closest confident. She had a 
deep interest in politics and in the reconstructing of our government. 
Along with this she reared and highly educated her children and made 
a home in which were entertained the highest in the land. 


One of the most beautiful holidays of our year, Decoration Day 
or Memorial Day as it has come to be called, was inspired by that 
generous hearted woman Mrs. Logan. The following is as she herself 
told it : 

"The late Colonel Chas. L. Wilson, editor of the Chicago Journal 
of that day, invited a party consisting of his niece. Miss Anna Wilson 
(later Mrs. Horatio May), Miss Farrar, his fiancee (now all dead), 
General Logan, and myself, to visit the battlefields around Richmond 
in March, 1868. The importance of some measures then pending in 
Congress prevented General Logan, at the last moment, from going, 
but he insisted upon my going with these friends. We made a tour 
of every battlefield, fortification, temporary barricade and cemetery 
around the erstwhile Confederate capital, driving about in old tumble- 
down vehicles, drawn by lean, jaded horses, driven by thinly clad, 
poorly fed men, who had survived the long siege of Richmond. We 
saw the colored men, women and children digging out the lead and iron 
which had been shot into the fortifications, almost the only support of 
these wretched people. Visiting cemeteries and church yards, we were 
deeply touched by the withered wreaths and tiny flags that marked the 
graves of the Confederate dead. In the bleak March wind and light- 
falling snow, the desolation seemed most oppressive. 


"Returning together to the old Willard Hotel, where we then 
lived, sitting in our parlor after dinner, we recounted to General Logan 
the incidents of the trip and how deeply touched we were by the de- 
vastation and ravishes of war. In ohe church yard around an old his- 
toric church at Petersburg, every foot of the ground seemed occupied 
by the graves of the Confederate dead. Upon them lay wreaths once 
beautiful flowers now crumbling, which had been placed there by lov- 
ing hands. Little faded Confederate flags marked each grave, mute 
evidence of the devotion of the Southern people to their loved and lost. 
General Logan was much impressed by our description, saying, 'The 
Greeks and Romans in the day of their glory, were wont to honor their 
hero dead by chaplets of laurel and flowers, as well as in bronze and 
stone,' and that as commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the 
Republic and member of Congress from Illinois, which he then was, 
he would issue an order establishing Memorial Day, then called 'Deco- 


ration Day.' He declared at the same time that he beUeved that he 
could secure the adoption of a joint resolution making it a national 
holiday and a national ceremony. He then took up a pencil and piece 
of paper and wrote the matchless order No, 11, and remarked he 
would submit it to his staff of the Grand Army of the Republic. He 
read what he had written to Colonel Wilson, who expressed his ap- 
preciation of the order and predicted it would be received with great 
enthusiasm all over the country." 


And so the sunset of Mrs. Logan's life after such a remarkable 
career, was spent as she had desired it to be in beautiful "Calumet 
Place." The home is situated on a favored site overlooking the beau- 
tiful city of Washington. From its front windows may be seen the 
historic Potomac River, and beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains of 'Vir- 
ginia, with Arlington, the home of Lee, plainly visible. In the fore- 
ground you may see the dome of the Capitol, set on its Roman hill, 
with its terraces, flowers and trees, also within the city is the monu- 
ment, the enduring, slender shaft that was placed there in honor of 
the founder of his country. 

"Calumet Place" itself. is a shrine where patriots from every state 
in the Union visit and are heartily welcomed. The house is massive 
and is filled with the rarest of furnishings and decorations from every 
country in the world. It was a gorgeous setting for its illustrious 
mistress Mrs. Logan. Here she lived, so tenderly cared for by her 
beloved daughter, Mrs. Tucker. Here she held court, receiving 
statesmen, diplomats, ambassadors, and the most humble Americans. 
Her proudest boast was "I am an American !" 

Of her, as well as of the soldiers, might these words of Longfellow 
be said: 

"Rest, comrades, rest and sleep ! 
The thoughts of men shall be 
As sentinels to keep 

Your rest from danger free. 

Your silent tents of green 

We deck with fragrant flowers ; 
Yours has the suffering been. 

The memory shall be ours." 


Contributions to State History 

Statue of Richard Yates 



On Tuesday afternoon, October 16, 1923, at 2 :30 o'clock bronze 
statues of two of Illinois' most illustrious Governors were dedicated 
on the grounds of the State Capitol at Springfield. 

Plans had been made for out of door ceremonies for which a large 
platform seating sixty-five persons was erected between the two statues 
and like the statues facing East. Seats for nearly two thousand persons 
were placed directly in front of the platform. Governor Len Small 
presided over the exercises. Seated on the platform were three men 
besides the present Governor, who had presided over Illinois as its chief 
executive. They were Joseph W. Fifer, Charles S. Deneen and Richard 

Secretary of State L. L. Emmerson, State Auditor Andrew Russel, 
Speaker of the House David E. Shanahan, Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court William M. Farmer and other officials of the State were also 

•The family of Governor Richard Yates was represented by his 
son and only living child, Richard Yates, former Governor of the 
State, now Congressman at Large from Illinois and his wife. 

Three children of War Governor Yates grew to manhood and 
womanhood. Henry Yates of Jacksonville, who was formerly Insur- 
ance Commissioner of Illinois, died in 1903. A daughter, Katie, the 
wife of Thomas B. Woodman, died many years ago. The widow of 
the War Governor survived her husband many years and had the 
happiness of seeing her son Richard Yates inaugurated Governor of 

Two daughters of Congressman Yates were present : Mrs. John 
Lyle Pickering of Flint, Michigan, and Miss Dorothy Yates. Mrs. 
Pickering was accompanied by her three children, Richard Yates Pick- 
ering, Dorothy Ann Pickering anad Mary Catherine Pickering. Mrs. 
Henry Yates of Jacksonville, widow of the War Governor's elder son 
was present as were William H. Yates, nephew of the elder Yates, his 
wife and their small granddaughter Margaret Lamphier Yates. Many 
other relatives and friends of the Yates family were present. 

Of the family of Governor Palmer there were present his widow, 
Mrs. Hannah Lamb Palmer, his daughter, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 
his grandchildren. Doctor and Mrs. George Thomas Palmer, ]\Ir. and 
Mrs. Perry Jayne, Mr. and Mrs. George A. Fish, Miss Margaret 
Palmer Jayne, and two great grandchildren, William Louis Jayne and 
Margaret Ellen Jane. Mrs. Gideon R. Brainerd, the sister of Mrs. 
John M. Palmer accompanied Mrs. Palmer. 

There are three children still living of Governor Palmer's large 
family. Of these, the oldest child, Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Matthews, 


widow of Dr. J. P. Matthews, long a prominent physician of Carlinville, 
111., is in California and was unable to attend the dedicatory exercises. 
Another daughter, Mrs. Harriet Malinda Crabbe, wife of Edwin G. 
Crabbe of New York City, was unable to be present owing to the sick- 
ness of her husband. The youngest daughter, Mrs. Jessie Palmer 
Weber was present as has already been mentioned. The two sons of 
Governor Palmer who attained manhood, John Mayo Palmer and 
Louis J. Palmer, both brilliant lawyers, have been dead many years. 
A daughter, Margaret Ellen, wife of William S. Jayne, died some 
years ago. 

There were several nephews and nieces of John M. Palmer in 
attendance on the dedication of the statue. Among them were : Albert 
D. Palmer and family, Litchfield ; Mrs. J. D. Conley, Carlinville ; Paul 
D. Head, Mrs. Sarah Head Headenburg of Chicago ; Mrs. George J. 
Kable, Mrs. A. W. Jones, and Mrs. E. McAleney of Springfield, with 
many other relatives and friends. 

Dr. O. L. Schmidt, President of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, Miss Georgia L. Osborne, Assistant Secretary of the Historical 
Society and Mother Josephine of the Dominican Convent were guests 
of honor by invitation of Governor Small and of the family of General 
Palmer. All Grand Army Posts of the State were also specially invited 
by Governor Small. 

Arrangements for the dedicatory exercises were planned and car- 
ried out under the direction of Colonel C. R. Miller, State Director of 
Public Works and Buildings with the able assistance of Doctor C. M. 
Service of the same department. Beautiful invitations were sent, by 
Governor Small to the relatives and friends of his two distinguished 
predecessors. A special effort was made to find the addresses and send 
invitations to the survivors of the famous 101 members of the General 
Assembly who on March 11, 1891, after a long struggle, elected General 
Palmer to the Senate of the United States. 

The exercises were opened promptly by Governor Small, the pre- 
siding officer. The platform and all seats were crowded and many 
persons were standing. 

The invocation was offered by Rev. H. C. First of Rock Island, 
Department Chaplain of the Illinois G. A. R. 

Mrs. Gary Westenberger sang "Illinois" and then there came a 
down pour of rain. Governor Small requested, the assemblage to pro- 
ceed to the Auditorium of the new Centennial Building, v/hich it did, 
but as the room can seat less than seven hundred it was impossible to 
accommodate more than about one-third of the people assembled on 
the Capitol grounds. 

Adjutant General C. E. Black made way through the crowd for the 
Governor, the members of the two families, State officers and guests, 
and in a very short time the exercises were resumed and the program 
was carried on without further interruption. 

Governor Small introduced the speakers. 

A letter from Lorado Taft, member of the Board of State Art 
Advisers, giving some account of the creation and erection of the 
statues was read by Mr. Edgar S. Martin, State Architect. Mr. Martin 
introduced the sculptor of the Palmer statue, Leonard Crunelle of Chi- 

Statue of John M. Palmkr 


cago, who modestly acknowledged the introduction with only a bow to 
the assemblage. Albin Polasek, the sculptor of the Yates statue was 
prevented by illness from attending the services dedicating the statues. 
Hon. L. L. Emmerson, Secretary of State of Illinois, in a brief 
address accepted the care of the statues which is a part of his duty as 
custodian of the Capitol Building and Grounds. He told in a most in- 
teresting manner his plans for the development of the Capitol grounds. 

The address on the War Governor Richard Yates was delivered by 
his son, Congressman-at-large from Illinois, Richard Yates. 

Mr. Yates gave a resume of the life of his brilliant father, telling 
of his ancestry and his education, his professional and business train- 
hig, his domestic and political life. He quoted largely from the writings 
of the men of the Elder Yates' period, from the newspapers of the day 
and from official sources. He also paid loving tribute to Catherine 
Geers Yates, wife of the elder Richard Yates and mother of the Richard 
Yates of today. 

It is a hard thing for a son to write or speak adequately of his 
father but ]\Ir. Yates performed this difficult task successfully and paid 
a just and eloquent tribute to the memory and services of the gallant 
and brilliant man who was his revered and honored father. 

The address on John M. Palmer was delivered by Hon. Norman 
L. Jones, Judge of the Seventh Judicial District of Illinois. Judge 
Jones as a boy and very young man had known and admired John 
M. Palmer. He has been a student of the long and eventful career of 
the man who as a teacher, a lawyer, a soldier, a governor and a United 
States Senator for more than half a century, stood out before the people 
of Illinois and the nation, as a man who, followed his own conscience no 
matter at what cost. 

The address of Judge Jones was more than an ordinary one. It 
was delivered entirely without notes and at times it reached the heights 
of an oration. It does justice and honor to the memory of the man 
whom he sought to memorialize and reflects credit and honor upon 
himself for its careful preparation and historical accuracy. 

The addresses of Congressman Yates and Judge Jones are pub- 
lished in full in this volume. 

After the close of Judge Jones' address. Miss Dorothy Yates, 
granddaughter of Governor Yates, and Miss Margaret Palmer Jayne, 
granddaughter of Governor Palmer, were escorted by members of the 
National Guard in uniform to the statues and these young ladies each 
preceded by a soldier bearing a laurel wreath, pulled the ropes which 
held the American flag with which each statue was draped, and as tlie 
folds of the National banner fell away and were caught by the hands 
of young men in the iniiform of our country's defenders, there stood 
revealed in enduring bronze, the figures of these two men who had 
lived and labored each in his own way for the good of his country 
and of his fellowmen. 

The State of Illinois has in gratitude and reverence erected these 
statues that her citizens and her youth may realize that honesty, bravery, 
justice and self sacrifice are essential virtues for which Americans 
should aspire and which even in this swiftly changing world are 
changeless and unforgotten. 






RICHARD YATES 1861-1865 
JOHN M. PALMER 1869-1873 






Governor Len Small, Presiding 

Invocation Rev. H. C. First, Rock Island 

Department Chaplain Illinois G. A. R. 

Song, "Illinois" Mrs. Westenberger 

Remarks Governor Small 

The Statues Lorado Taft 

Member of Board of State Art Advisers 

Letter read by Mr. Edgar S. Martin, State Architect 

Accepting the Care of the Statues Louis L. Emmerson 

Secretary of State of Illinois 

War Music, 1861-1865 

Address, Richard Yates, War Governor of Illinois, by his son, Richard 
Yates, Congressman-At-Large, Illinois 


Address, John M. Palmer Norman L. Jones 

Judge of the Seventh Judicial District, Illinois 


The Statues unveiled by 

Miss Dorothy Yates, Granddaughter of Governor Yates and 

Miss Margaret Palmer Jayne, Granddaughter of Governor Palmer 

Music America 

Taps Bugler 

Statue of Governor Yafes is by Albin Polasek, Sculptor, Chicago 

Statue of Governor Palmer is by Leonard Crunelle, Sculptor, Chicago 

(_p,.^Ct!" «^^ _ flk^t*- <-^ 



Address Dfxivered I3Y his Son, Richard Yates, Congressman-at- 

Large, Illinois, Upon the Occasion of the Dedication of the 

Statue of Richard Yates, War Governor of Illinois, 

at Springfield, Illinois, October 16, 1923. 

Governor Small, Senators and Representatives, Soldiers and Citi:sens, 
my Fellow Countrymen and Country Women: 

Called by the partial voice of the generous Governor of my native 
State, I have come here today to say a few things upon this sweetly 
solemn occasion and in this imposing presence I respond to the call 
with pride, although I, of course, know full well, that many a man 
and woman among you, my audience, might with much more propriety 
and more satisfactory result, have been honored with the invitation. 

To you. Governor Small, and to the General Assembly, its presid- 
ing officers and members, thanks are due from every friend of my 
father. And I am sure that he, and all his dearly beloved ones, where- 
ever they are in the universe, are gratified at this hour — this hour for 
which his fame and friends have waited for fifty years — the fifty 
years which have elapsed since he died in 1873. 

And I would be recreant to a natural impulse if I did not say that 
I appreciate deeply this privilege which Governor Small has given me. 
I, too, have lived fifty years for this hour, in hope that this hour some 
memorial, this statue^ might come. 

If it be unusual for a son to talk about his father, please remember 
that it is unusual for sons to be in political life at all. The 48 states 
of the American Union have contained, all told, about two thousand 
Governors, and to no son but myself, so far as I can learn, has this 
honor come; but it should be said, also, few other Governors ever en- 
couraged sons to seek public position, whereas my father called me to 
him and said, "My son, I want you to' grow up and serve the Republic 
and the State." 

I feel that I must add that I believe that the Yates of the long ago, 
about whom I am to speak, is, at this hour, pleased and gratified that 
honor and decoration, distinction and embellishment are today bestowed 
upon John M. Palmer — Major General, Governor and Senator, Union 
Soldier, Republican Governor, Democratic Senator, independent nomi- 
nee for President, John M. Palmer. All about us today we feel the 
modesty and majesty of the presence of General Palmer, and we are 
inspired and fired by his great example and high endeavor. 

At the very outset please take notice that I will strive, continually, 
tc keep my remarks relevant and not irrelevant. 


On "Thursday evening, June 17, (1869)," the Daily Dispatch, St. 
Louis, "published daily, tri-weekly and weekly," by Foy & McHenry, 
313 North Third Street," appeared with an article at the head of its 
editorial column, reading as follows : 

A Funeral Oration. 

We publish today the address recently delivered by Honorable 
Richard Yates, U. S. Senator from Illinois, at Jacksonville, on the 
occasion of the decoration of the soldiers' graves last month. It is a 
genuine funeral elege — a rythmical and tender reverie. Unlike so 
many of the speeches made the same day, it is entirely free from 
partisan influences. The more humane and enlightened spirit which 
has arisen here and there, out of the thick darkness of radicalism, 
calls for recognition, and hence it is that we take pleasure in pointing 
out every indication of the returning calm and sunlight. 

This speech, it is not too much to say, has a merit that the oratory 
of our politicians can seldom or ever boast of — it is in strict keeping 
with the motive and character of the ceremonies which it illustrates. 
The memories of the brave who have sunk to rest, and the symbolism 
of the floral offerings heaped on their graves are, exclusively, its ideas. 
There is no irrelevance. The whole world and the rest of mankind 
are not reviewed and judged,- as the custom is with our famous orators. 
On the contrary, there is classical severity, and, as a consequence, the 
production is admirable in tone and in spirit, and well-nigh faultless 
in language." 

The foregoing editorial is quoted, and is quoted now, because it 
gives expression, better than any words (of mine) could do, to the 
plan and intention, yes, to the desire and hope, upon the part of the 
compiler of these pages, that this sketch may have the merit of being 
relevant and not irrelevant. These words will also be the defense upon 
the part of this compiler against any complaint or criticism, that an 
address, upon this occasion, should enter into reviews or analyses of 
not only the life but the times (and of all the different great crises 
developed therein) together with a history of the causes thereof. 

As I pen these words I look about upon chairs and tables bearing 
piles of manuscript, bound and unbound, pamphlets, bound and un- 
bound, scrap books, letters, clippings and histories and biographies, 
and I am quite sure that if I were to undertake the analysis and 
diagnosis and history of causes, this paper, here, today and now, could 
only be described by some such comprehensive title as that of the 
"Weems Washington," bought by Richard Yates in his youth, namely, 
"The Life of George Washington; with Curious Anecdotes, Equally 
Monorable to Himself, and Exemplary to his Young Countryman, 
Embellished with Six Engravings." 

The Soldiers' Friend. 
Fellow Citizens: The man Yates of whom I speak today was 
called "The Soldiers Friend." He was Representative in the Legis- 
lature of Illinois three times ; Governor of Illinois once ; Represent- 
ative in Congress two terms ; and United States Senator once. He 
was college student; and graduate; student and graduate at Law 


school ; State's Attorney pro tempore ; occasional orator, for example 
at the funeral of Illinois' foremost martyr in the Mexican War, John 
J. Hardin, and other memorial crises ; speaker l^efore the stale grand 
lodges of fraternal bodies ; lecturer in New England and other sec- 
tions; president and manager of a young struggling railroad, (the 
"Tonica and Petersburg") and some other things in addition. But of 
all the titles he ever Avore and won, none was so dear as the appel- 
lation constantly applied to him, from and after the firing of the first 
gun by an Illinois Soldier, in 1861, namely, "The Soldiers Friend." 
Through an error for which no one" is to blame, unless it is I, myself, 
the phrase "The Wounded Soldier's Friend" appears on his statue. 
He zvas the wounded soldiers friend ; but he was more than that. He 
was "the soldiers friend," in the sense that he ever stood ready to 
help (and aid and succor) any and every soldier (whether wounded 
or not) and in the sense that he was the friend and advocate (and 
protector and provider) of and for the widow (and the orphans) of 
every soldier, as well as of the soldier himself. I iterate and reit- 
erate this phrase, "THE SOLDIERS' FRIEND," because he glor- 
ied in it, and, as already stated, was more proud of it, than of any 
other name or fame that he won and wore. 

In the book entitled "The Patriotism of Illinois, by T. M. Eddy, 
D. D., Editor Northwestern Christian Advocate, he says : "As Gov- 
ernor he was the Soldiers Friend, on the field he went with them 
under fire, used every possible exertion to forward them sanitary 
supplies, to bring the wounded into hospitals and to their homes. The 
soldiers wife or widow could secure audience when officers were 
turned away." 

The Daily Gazette of Dayton, Ohio, in its issue of October 2, 
1863, said: "For two hours he held the vast audience in wrapt at- 
tention, not a person leaving the house. * * * Our citizens were 
happy to hear and see the man whom the Illinois soldiers loved so 
well and who was termed by the people as the soldiers friend." 

The Springfield correspondent of the "Missouri Democrat," 
writing on the 8th day of June, 1864, says: "Many instances might be 
related showing the position Governor Yates occupies in the heart of 
the people. While from beneath the roof of many an humble cottage 
goes up a fervent prayer for our government, the army speaks with 
united voice in favor of "THE SOLDIERS' FRIEND." 

In Jacksonville, Illinois, September 15, 1866, Honorable P. G. 
Gillett, in a speech of welcome, said : * * * "Because upon the 
battlefield, in the agonies of death, because always and everywhere, 
he is enshrined in the hearts of Illinois "Boys in Blue," whose colors 
were never struck, and whose backs were never turned on the foe — 
the soldiers' FRIEND — we welcome tonight." 

In a book entitled the boys in blue, by Mrs. Hoge of the U. S. 
Sanitary Commission, it is said : "The Governors of the North- 
western States threw themselves into the army work with an ardor 
that was as striking as any other feature of this remarkable war. 
They stumped their respective states, to stimulate enlistments, Richard 
Yates, Governor of Illinois, achieved miracles in this respect, and 
then followed the brave boys, TO THE FIELD, with sympathy, love 
and assistance and frequently visited them IN PERSON. 


In a book called "the Illini." the author Colonel Clark E. Carr 
NOT CEASE when that soldier was mustered in and had marched 
away. The Governor followed him to the battlefield, bound up his 
wounds, and brought him home to be nursed by loving relatives and 
friends or to die surrounded by them. He was always on the alert 
to see that Illinois soldiers in the field were promptly fed and 
clothed, and that so far as possible, they were provided with comforts. 
He richly earned the title by which he was everywhere known, "The 
Soldiers Friend." 

In the "Daily New Mexico," General G. A. Smith said: "With 
a zeal unprecedented, he watched over the sick and wounded, and 
had them taken to their homes, when he saw it would benefit them. 
He provided them with every necessity — yea even luxury." "IN HIS 

On that dark Sunday, in November, 1873 — Sunday November 
30th, — when we attended his burial, there was again a reference to him 
as the soldiers friend. This time it came from the then Governor of the 
State, Governor John L. Beveridge. He said : 

"We will leave him in the hands of a. kind and loving Savior who 
was, himself, tempted as we are. Bury him not near the busy haunts 
of men. Bury him not near the echoing street, where the feet of men 
go tramping up and down. Bury him in some calm, secluded spot, 
under the green grass and the waving branches of trees. And when 
in the Spring, we come to decorate the hero graves drop a fragrant 
laurel on the grave of Yates, The Soldiers best and dearest friend/' 

In January, 1863, there met at Springfield a State ConstitutionaJ 
Convention, and the first thing the convention did was to demand how 
it came to pass that Governor Yates had assumed to uniform and equip 
at State expense the volunteers from Illinois. He answered : 

"I deem it due to the convention, however, to say that these gal- 
lant sons of Illinois, (our neighbors and kindred, the flower of the State, 
the chivalry of the land) have left their business, their homes, their 
wives and their children, to peril all for the country (and the institutions 
we love) and whenever they shall be found in suffering (and desti- 
tution) so long as I am Governor (and can find the means) I shall 
take the responsibility of furnishing them with the supplies necessary 
to their comfort." 

This was followed by these words : 

"The only regrets which I (now) have are, not that too much 
money has been expended (with a view to promote their comfort) but 
far too little, for the men who have so nobly undertaken to do (and 
dare) for their country, I am free to confess (what seems to be implied, 
in a resolution before your honorable body) that the troops have not 
had their wants supplied as they deserve, and that motives of economy 
(and desire to keep within appropriations) have prevented such ex- 
penditures as were necessary, for their full and complete comfort." 

In 1873, in a conversation, which is well remembered, because in 
a week he was dead, I asked him if it was true, that night after night, 
he used to get up and walk the floor, all night long, with wringing 


hands, and streaming eyes, and evidently with breaking heart, or was it 
all a dream of mine. He replied, in substance and effect : 

"O no. indeed, that was no dream ; that actually occurred. Those 
were the telegram nights — the nights on which a telegram would come 
from the South, saying substantially, "Big Battle today; ten thousand 
killed, wounded and missing; over half the regiments engaged hail 
from Illinois." They were my boys, all. In order to make the draft 
unnecessary I had again and again canvassed the state after every call 
for troops issued by President Lincoln, and had appealed, in a meeting 
in nearly every county, to the young men to enlist, and they did, thous- 
and after thousand of them. Many of the meetings were at night, and 
there was no light, except the flaring torches on and about the speakers 
stand. And T can see their white faces yet, yes their white faces, I 
can see them yet, as I appealed to them, and promised them they would 
not be forgotten by their State, its governor or its people. Forever 
(after that promise and that response) I felt that I had fathered those 
boys ,and that each of them was my boy, (my own.) And that was 
why, I walked the floor, when the telegrams came." 

He continued : "You can imagine my anxiety, to get to the battle- 
fields, without delay. I can never forget my experience at the first 
battlefield. I arrived on my own Illinois Hospital Boat. Desiring to 
be the first man on shore, I started down the gang plank, the very 
moment it touched the land. But, before I could take more than one 
step, two soldier boys rushed up the plank, and said, "Here ; take this 
boy ; and they threw, into my arms, a boy, wounded and dying. He 
was all covered with blood, streaming from a horrible gash and gap 
in his breast. His breast was all torn and lacerated by a fragment o£ 
a shell, and his right arm hung shattered at his side, and he was just 
one mass of blood and gore. I received the precious burden in my arms, 
and turned and staggered up the plank, with it. And, just as I 
reached the deck of the steamboat, proper, that boy opened his eyes: 
and looked at me ! And there was, in that look, both agony and ecstacy ; 
the agony of the approaching dissolution, and the ecstacy, coming with 
the knowledge that he was going to Heaven, after having died for his 
country. He struggled and struggled, in the effort to speak, and finally, 
with much awful convulsive coughing, he managed to whisper. And 
with his fast failing breath he said, "O, who are you ?" And I said, "O, 
my boy, I am the governor of Illinois." And that boy said, two things ; 
"My Governor" and "Tell Mother" ; and then he died, right there in 
my arms." 

(He was the first of many to die in those loving arms, the arms of 
"The Soldiers Friend.") 

"And that was what I was doing for four long agonized years ; 
telling mothers." 

As long as I live I shall feel deeply indebted to Mr. L. U. Reavis 
of St. Louis for the comprehension which he manifested in this lecture 
on the character of my father. The most striking passage in his 
lecture is on page 23 as follows : 

"Governor Yates grew with the contest in all its gigantic pro- 
portions and its fierce conflicts, until he became the personal embodi- 
ment of the great state of Illinois. Emerson tells us that Plato is 


philosophy and philosophy is Plato. In the magnitude of his great 
and benificent personality and in the fullness of official power as 
YATES. He was earnest, decisive, courageous and persistent in his 
efforts to put down the rebellion, and with all, he was gifted and 
guided in his efforts by a super- abundance of practical wisdom. * * * 
The death of Douglas was compensated by the gift of Grant to the 
Nation. And in the providence of God, Governor Yates was made 
the Commissioner by whose hands this compensating law was admin- 
istered, and Grant, meek and humble, like Jeptha of old, was com- 
missioned to lead strong men to battle and soon he proved to be the 
boldest captain in Israel. * * * * Grant wrapped the glory of the 
republic around the globe and called the people of all lands to speak 
the praise of this great Republican Nation of the world ; and this 
man was the gift of Governor Yates to the nation." 

"In the prosecution of the war Governor Yates was in constant 
requisition and was unceasing in the discharge of his duties. Every- 
where that duty called him he hastened. He was impatient and 
urging by tongue or pen, not only his own people, but those of the 
whole country, to greater deeds of valor and there was no man who 
surpassed him in earnest calls to the people. So well he discharged 
his personal and official duties that his name and fame became so 
deeply rooted in the hearts of the people that his services were 
solicited in every section of the loyal North, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean. When the duties of the Executive office were dis- 
charged he repaired to the camp, and from the camp to the hospital 
and from the hospital to the political council and from the political 
council to the battlefield : And thus continued in one constant suc- 
cession of duties in which he enlisted his whole soul, mind and 
strength. His labors were made greater because his great warm 
heart was enlisted in the cause of his country and in the welfare of 
the soldiers whom he urged to peril their all." 

In his address on the 4th day of July, 1865, at Elgin, Kane 
County, Illinois, Governor Yates argued for the provision of homes 
for soldiers orphans as follows : 

"Oh ! if there be on this earthly sphere 

A boon, an offering Heaven holds dear. 

Sure 'tis the last libation liberty draws 

From the heart that suffers and bleeds in her cause. 

(Great sensation.) But the living are left with us — the wounded 
and the disabled, the widow and the orphan, the sorrowing and the 
stricken, the needy and the destitute — and will we not honor the dead 
by comforting the living ; and will we not, so far as in us lies, provide 
for the relief and support of every destitute widow, and for the sup- 
port and education of every indigent orphan of the deceased and dis- 
abled soldier? I have twice recommended to the Legislature to set 
apart a special fund for that purpose. And now I desire to say to 
the people of Kane County, and every county, that all the glory she 
has received in this war will be tarnished, if, with all her wealth and 
resources, anywhere in her boundary a single boy or girl of one of 
her deceased or disabled soldiers shall suffer for want of that sup- 


port which the manly arm of the father might have g-iven. (Cheers, 
and cries of that's so.) . He stood between you andyour enemies a 
living wall of fire; and now a» the crippled soldier hobbles along on 
his crutch, saying, "I lost this leg as we scaled the heights of Donel- 
son, this arm as we drove the enemy at the Hatchie, this eye as we 
climbed the heights of Mission Ridge" ; or tlie poor wounded soldier 
on the battlefield, having seen the sun for the last time, and thinks 
of the dear ones at home, the hurried question runs through his mind, 
Who shall protect my wife amid the cold charities of an unfriendly 
world? And sends to you and me the prayer, "Let no rude and un- 
hallowed hand be laid on that bright-eyed boy and girl of mine." 
(Sensation.) No, fellow-citizens, they are the children of the State 
and the country, and there are two things which I would do. I would 
make it the duty of the County Court to levy a tax — it would not be 
a large one, nor of many years continuance — to be legalized by the 
Legislature, and most sacredly to be applied to the support of every 
poor disabled soldier and soldier's widow, and for the support and 
education of every soldier's orphan. (Cheers.) Another thing, I 
would select in the cemetery of your county seat — a beautiful piece 
of ground, which I would ornament with gravel walks and shade trees, 
and erect in the centre a beautiful monument of marble or granite, on 
which I would record in plain letters the name, with the number of 
his company and regiment, and the place and date of his death of 
every ofiicer and private of Kane County who had died a glorious 
martyr to his country." (Cheers.) 

Log Cabin in Kentucky — School and College. 

All of you in this kindly and generous audience here today have 
of course noticed that I have deemed it best to insert (out of order 
chronologically) immediately after introductory remarks, the section 
of this paper entitled the "Soldiers Friend." This I have done because 
if only one thing could be mentioned, it would be his wish that this be 
the thing mentioned. But I have now arrived at the point where I can 
follow natural divisions. 

This particular life is naturally divided into the following periods : 

1. The Log Cabin in Kentucky, and the district school there; 
followed by the student days at Miami, University at Oxford, Ohio; 
the years at Illinois College at Jacksonville and the period of application 
at the law department of the Transylvania University at Lexington, 
Kentucky ; that is, the period from Log Cabin to admission to the Su- 
preme Court of Illinois. 

2. The Bar and the Stump, ending 1855. 

3. The service as Representative at Springfield, ending 1850. 

4. The service as Representative at Washington, ending 1855. 

5. The service as President of the Tonica and Petersburg Rail- 
road ending 1860. 

6. The service as Governor, ending 1865. 

7. The service as Senator ending 1871. 

8. The Home life with its happiness and its bereavements, ending 
1873, age 58. 


If I succeed (in the twenty-five minutes remaining) in talking to 
you five minutes, covering the experiences -as Representative ; five 
minutes as to his service as United States Senator ; and five minutes as 
to his service as Raih^oad president and advocate of good roads, it will 
leave me five minutes to describe his activities as Governor including 
the Cairo Expedition; the Proroguing of the Legislature; the Dis- 
covery of Grant and only five minutes to portray his devoted friendship 
with Lincoln and his other friendships, and his last two years, which 
were the happiest of his life, at his home. 

I address myself, then, to beginning this impossible task, soliciting 
your sympathy, for the reason that (while it would be hard for any one 
to be such a master of condensation as to be able to summarize these 
events (which were so momentous) in an address occupying minutes 
that are so few) it is an additional ordeal for the son of a man to do 
this thing. To me his life has always seemed so zijonderful that the 
principal features of it have always loomed big in my mind. They were 
indeed big, and worthy of notice ; and their bigness could doubtless be 
described by others. But I cherish the desire, (from the bottom of my 
heart) to have you look at it all, as / look at it, rather than to depend 
upon a summary, prepared by some one (much more competent pro- 
fessionally to do it) but without that sentiment and emotion ,which 
must be mine, as I realize that I am the only man now living who knew 
him as well as I did. 

If I can only succeed in bringing before you the walking and talk- 
ing, living and loving man, I will feel that it was well worth the risk 
of being misunderstood by you. I know well that these words do not 
give expression to the craving, which I have. That craving is to pre- 
sent certain features with modesty (and without eulogy except from 
the utterances of editors and orators and other leaders) and (at the 
same time) do justice ; and leave (in your minds) the conception, which 
he deserves. 

The green hills of Kentucky bound the horizon for twelve years 
from 1818 to 1830. Exactly at the point where the main street, coming 
up from the south bank of the Ohio River, enters the public square of 
a serene little town, stands the log cabin, in which this life was lived 
for twelve years from 1818 to 1830. 

It is different in appearance now but when I last saw it some of the 
original logs were there. It had a window on the west and a door on 
the south, looking toward the old court house of old Gallatan County. 
The name of the town is Warsaw but it was originally called Frederick, 
having been laid out in 1788 by Henry Yates, father of Richard. It 
was about the time that the great Frederick of Prussia and the immortal 
Washington of America were exchanging compliments and letters. 
Frederick was a popular name and so the town bore that name for 
years. Later came the change to Warsaw. 

Two miles to the south in a corn field, is a little cemetery, about 
forty feet square, in which is a slab of marble, bearing the inscription, 
"sacred to the memory of Millicent Yates, who died April 30, 1830, 
wife of Henry Yates, Justice of the Peace of Kentucky." One stand- 
ing by this little slab, must notice that the little grave yard is not in the 
middle of a great corn field ; but at the southern extremity ; and that, 


from it there is a slope to the east and south and west, running grad- 
ually down to a rivulet, describing a half circle ; while beyond the 
rivulet, filling all the east and south and west, is a magnificent amphi- 
theatre of hills clad in ever-living green. 

How natural that whenever the boy spoke of Kentucky, he would 
speak of the green hills of Kentuccky. How natural that when as 
late as 1860 he was warned that a thousand men in his audience had 
come over from Kentucky to break up his meeting — how natural that 
he should open his remarks with the sentence — "I look across the 
blue waters of the Ohio and upon the green hills of Kentucky and 
there I see my mother's grave." How natural that when 1904 rolled 
around and the great Greek temple of white marble at Vicksburg was 
approaching completion one of the inscriptions on that beautiful me- 
morial of the valor of Illinois reads to-day "God forbid that I should 
say ought against the South, for I look across the blue waters of 
the Ohio and upon the green hills of Kentucky and then I see my 
mother's grave." Long may it stand there between Lincoln's slogan 
With malice towards none and charity for all" and Grant's invocation 
"Let us have peace." 

There are no records of the boyhood life from 1818 to 1830 ex- 
cept the fact that he was a student at a college in Ohio in the city 
of Oxford, called Miami College, to which institution he was sent by 
his father, Henry Yates, the founder of Warsaw — "The Justice of 
the Peace of Kentucky." Be it said to the credit (and the memory) 
of this "Justice of the Peace of Kentucky" that he gave this boy edu- 
cation — just as much as he could. 

The year 1831 saw the whole family transferred to Sangamon 
County and there Henry Yates lived on until 1865, dying at the good 
old age of eighty, leaving ten sons and daughters and many broad 
acres near Berlin; and two spots below the Ohio dedicated forever 
to freedom (and America) by the warm crimson flood of the young 
red blood of two of Henry's sons. 

In 1832 the doors of the little old college at Jacksonville, called 
the Illinois College, received this student as a freshman and_ in 1833 
he was a sophomore and 1834 a junior and 1835 was the recipientof 
the first graduating diploma issued by that school, — from which 
school influences have radiated, which have done infinite good, during 
all the eighty-eight years since. 

In the year 1834 he delivered the Junior oration, of which I 
quote two paragraphs, as follows: 

"Shall not Illinois have her historians, who shall record the 
valor and achievement of her sons? Her poets, who shall sing the 
glory, grandeur and beauty of the West? Her orators whose magic 
voice would move and electrify the nation? We are led to inquire 
who knows but that there may be among them some Clay, before 
whose mighty genius the mists of delusion have fled with terrific 
haste, some Washington in whose breast the destinies of nations 
might be dormant, some Milton, "pregnant with celestial fire," some 
Curran, who when thrones were crumbling and dynasties forgotten, 
might, "stand the landmark of his country's genius, a mental pyramid 
in the solitude of time, round whose summit eternity must play." 


"We live in a State which must excite a spirit of restless unsat- 
isfied perseverance, engender the liveliest emotions, and enkindle the 
most glorious anticipations. 

We behold the dawn of that day when an almost countless popu- 
lation will overspread our prairies. Youth of Illinois, do you wish 
that your posterity shall look back upon the present era with ad- 
miration, as the founders of that glory destined to encircle our be- 
loved state? 

Do you wish to add another strong link to this grand confed- 
eration — to promote the cause of human liberty, and universal emanci- 
pation from the shackles of despotism. 

Do you wish to see (through your undying example) the standard 
of libert)^ planted upon every shore." 


These paragraphs were written and declaimed in 1834 only sixteen 
years after our state was admitted to the Union, and they were 
written by an Illinois boy of seventeen ! 

And that Illinois boy was my father ! 

On July 4, 1836, he delivered an oration at Jacksonville, which, 
like the senior oration and the junior oration, seems very mature. 
This address concluded with the following words : 

"But while we dwell on the proud recollections and glorious 
anticipations, which this day is so calculated to excite, shall we forget 
our own brave and patriotic fellow-citizens, who have left their homes 
and country, to risk their lives and fortunes in defense of a people 
fighting to be free?" 

Cold indeed must be the American heart that does not turn with 
anxiety to struggling Texas. Brave and gallant defenders of liberty! 
* * * \,Yg see and appreciate your sufferings. We catch with rapture 
the soul- thrilling news of your triumphs, and dwell with admiration 
upon your gallant conduct. * * * We hail with delight the day of 
your emancipation. * * * Anxious are we to extend to you our con- 
genial sympathies and to admit you into the great brotherhood of re- 
publics. Let the spirit of your fathers burn in your bosoms. * * * 
Let the blood of your fallen, martyred heroes, nerve your arms, with 
renovated power, and fire your hearts, with redoubled zeal. Let the 
germ of liberty planted deep in your native soil, rear its towering 
branches to the skies, and despots learn the unerring truth that "It is 
easier to hurl the rooted mountains from its base, than place the yoke 
of slavery on men, determined to be free." * * * 

His age at this time was eighteen years and six months. 

On the fourth day of July, 1837, the year after his graduation, 
he delivered another elaborate oration at Naples, Illinois, which in- 
cluded a declaration of the profound conviction which followed him 
through life that this American Republic is the heir of the ages and 
the child of the centuries and therefore the beacon light of liberty 
and the last hope of humanity. We cannot guess how he would feel 
today concerning immigration. In the day of his greatest activities 
he seemed to feel that it would be right for all the down-trodden and 


oppressed of the earth to come to this land and that our nation could 
assimilate them all. 

"We hail with delight the glorious day. Enjoying as we do, all 
the blessings of freedom, unworthy would we be of our noble birth- 
right, if we should attempt to secure them to ourselves alone, and 
prove unmindful of the wants and sufferings of other nations. Thank 
God. No such exhibition of sordid selfishness has ever yet darkened 
our country's historic page. * * * Never yet has freedom's cannon 
roared on any shore without a responsive echo from this "land of the 
free and this home of the brave." * * * 

"When her clarion voice was sounded by a Bolivar from the 
South ; when it rang along the orange bowers of Greece, and burst 
from the vine-clad hills and sun bright vales of France, it was 
answered by a sympathetic peal from Columbia's hills ; and when 
P'oland, ill-fated Poland, determined to be free, with what soul 
thrilling interest did we view the struggle." 

His age at this time was nineteen years and six months. 

On the 14th. day of October, 1838, age 20, he delivered an ad- 
dress at Jacksonville before the Jacksonville Mechanics Union, his 
age then being twenty years and nine months — still not a voter. In 
this address he closed with the following paragraph : 

"Then, Gentlemen of the Mechanics' Union, go on with the work 
you have begun, let not your high energies relax, but as patriots, as 
you love your country, go on in the pursuit of knowledge. Emblaz- 
oned on your flag is the motto "honor alit artes." Then prepare to 
advance the interests and welfare and liberty of your country. 

It is the country that smiles on industry, protects and fosters it. 
It is the land of Green, Morgan, Sherman, Franklin and Washington. 
Long may her eagle soar aloft in the majesty of freedom, and oh! if 
in the magazines of high heaven there is one single bolt of thunder 
more terrific, or a streak of lightning more fiery than the rest, let it 
light with uncommon fury on the wretch, who would erase a single 
stripe or blot a single star from the hallowed flag of our union." 

The Bar and the Stump. 

In 1837 he became a partner in the practice of the law with 
Josiah Lamborn ; in 1840 with Wilkinson; in 1842 with James 
Berdan ; and in 1844 with William Brown, who was his partner as 
late as 1850. A copy of the old Morgan Journal, 1847, a duplicate 
of which is not to be found in Illinois today, contains an advertise- 
ment of Brown and Yates, Attorneys at Law, in the same column 
with such professional men as Henrv E. Dummer and James Berdan 
and Henry McClure and William Thomas and Hardin and Smith. No 
date appears on the fragment, which I possess, but it is full of letters 
and items from the front in the very middle of the Mexican War. 

To this period belongs all his early progress at the bar. The law 
business began in 1837; was prosecuted diligently until 1855, when 
he became the president of the Tonica and Petersburg Railroad Com- 
pany — the forerunner of the Chicago and Alton — the railroad which 


brought Chicago and Alton to Morgan and Sangamon Counties. After 
accepting the presidency he tried no more law suits, so his legal effort 
was from 1837 to 1855. 

As evidence of the fact that during that time he applied himself, 
there are here inserted some phrases from an address delivered by him 
as Special State's Attorney before the Grand Jury of Scott Circuit 
Court, Winchester, October 16, 1837 — 86 years ago today. 

The Stump. 

His work on the stump must be mentioned. 

In the Jacksonville Journal occurs the following concerning a 
meeting at Waverly : 

"We have never seen an audience hang (more intensely) on the 
utterances of any man than in this instance. Each and every word 
seemed to be drunk in (by the deeply interested multitude). There is 
indeed a magnetism in the very person of Dick Yates, and he does 
not speak ten minutes, till the speaker and his audience (like man and 
wife) are one. No one leaves when he speaks; but all are still as 
death, until the silence is relieved hy tears as the speaker touches upon 
the sorrows of the suffering brave, or by laughter as he illustrates his 
idea by some well told anecdote. 

The face of every man lighted up as he was made to feel that 
he belonged to a party whose principles were derived from Christi- 
anity, and whose foundations were laid deep and strong in the good 
sense of the people, and whose triumphs were those of religion, 
justice, mercy, humanity and wisdom, liberty and national progress.** 

No reporter could do justice — it was the manner as well as 
matter of the speaker which touched, and stirred the hearts of the 
thousands of men and women present. 

Goodness and love beamed from the face of the orator, as, with 
masterly skill and grandest eloquence, he moved the hearts and minds 
of his hearers. * * * * 

***Every eye was bathed in tears, when he came to speak of the 
glorious dead, and of the martyred Lincoln. As he closed this part of 
his speech (with the invocation, "God forever bless our boys in blue, 
God Almighty bless the immortal memory of Abraham Lincoln") the 
stillness as of death reigned throughout the vast audience — and we 
almost trembled at the power of this man before the people. Such 
love we never sazv for a man before. * * * * 

Yates, at Waverly, was in his element among the friends and 
neighbors who had voted and worked for him for the Legislature 
many times, for Congress three times, and for Governor, and the 
Senate. They all called him "Dick" and it was plain to see that his 
heart was deeply aft'ected by their kindness and affection. Not the least 
consideration 'which seems to have given Senator Yates his hold upon 
the people is his constancy to his friends." * * * * 

On October 20, 1854, the "Illinois Journal" had a leading editorial 
saying : 

"The heat and passion of sectional strife are upon us. * * * and 
we need candor, argument, forbearance and manly eloquence. * * * 
calmness, coolness, caution and bravery are needed in Congress. 


* * * when the South is so bold, * * * to possess other qualities is but 
to touch the torch to the powder keg. He, Yates, was raised among 
us Illinoisans and with our Illinois boys and girls, by Kentucky 
parents among Kentucky kindred and is now 35, and every sentiment 
of his head and heart and soul moves with generosity, charity, cool- 
ness, bravery, prudence and caution and manliness. He is just and 
generous. There is a South Western bravery and eloquence about 
the young man which the South admire. He possesses the power to 
disarm the hatred of that section and so do more for the Union." * * * 

Col. Clark E. Carr of Galesburg, a Colonel on his staff wrote to 
the Press : 

"His thrilling eloquence, genial manners, handsome, erect and 
symmetrical person, winning address and magnetic power, won for 
him the admiration of all. 

His great ambition was to deserve the title of "The Soldiers 
Friend" and his clarion voice gave no uncertain sound when the cause 
of the soldier or of the soldier's family was being pleaded. 

His proclamations calling for volunteers were impassioned ap- 
peals brim full of patriotism and boiling over with resistless enthus- 

And his special messages to the Legislature of the State, pleading 
for material aid for the sick and wounded soldiers of Illinois' regi- 
ments, are simply matchless in their eloquence and manifest a depth 
of feeUng and noble sentiment unequalled by any state papers in the 
history of the nation. 

It seems to me that there never was such burning eloquence as 
his, when addressing the people of Illinois, in behalf of the soldier. 
You remember he was a very Apollo in form and feature. One could 
sav in all sincerity, "See what a grace is seated on his brow: Hyper- 
ion's curls, the front of Jove himself." 

In 1842 he engaged extensively in the Whig campaign and there 
made one of the early declarations, which he consistently followed all 
the days of his life in praise of Henry Clay. 

Speaking of Clay he said in December, 1842, at a mass meeting 
given to citizens of Sangamon County on the election of John J. 
Hardin of Morgan County to Congress "Shall the treachery of a 
Tyler dishearten free men, rather let it arouse the blood of patriotic 
m.en more for him who for years has been the persecuted, yet, unan- 
swerable and "the triumphant advocate of our principles — through 
whose veins no treachery ever coursed — Kentucky's noble son — our 
country's hope — the great ; the good — the illustrious Clay." 

The devotion to Clay continued, as I have said, through life ; and 
Vv'hen he died he left among his pictures framed, and guarded with 
jealous care, one — the likeness of Patrick Henry and the other, the 
likeness of Henry Clay. I have these two pictures yet, and I have not 
added to them, in my library. 

I venture to insert in this manuscript here to-day a reference as 
to his person. This is done advisedly and for a real purpose. If you 
were going to make the acquaintance of a man or to learn from others 
the real things in his life, one of the first things you would want to 


know would be. his personal appearance or the effect (or to use modern 
language the reaction) following the contact. 

The fact that the relations which I sustain prohibit me from in- 
dulging in words of eulogy or compliment compel me to resort to the 
words of others, in order to present some conception of the living man 
— the walking and talking — the living and loving man. 

His most intimate friend in all the world was probably William 
Pitt Kellogg, Judge and Colonel under Lincoln, twice Governor and 
twice Senator from Louisiana. Kellogg says "Yates was striking in 
appearance with bright auburn hair and bright blue eyes ;" John Moses, 
for years private Secretary, says his manners were attractive as those 
of a woman bent on conquest ;" Clark E. Carr, a Colonel on his staff, 
said in a speech at Jacksonville, "he was an apollo in form and figure" 
and in the same connection said that "no political evangelist or exhorter 
ever appeared in discussion more utterly absorbed and consecrated — 
that he was tempestuous and tumultuous in his actions. General John 
A. McClernand said that " he dwelt forever upon an elevation." 

I remember particularly his appearance during the period of rest 
and home from 1871 to 1873, although the only time I can remember 
was as he stood one night in 1868 on the south porch of his own home 
and addressed an audience composed of a solid acre of men, bearing 
torches- — the torches of the "Tanners" of that year. There was on 
that occasion nothing of the tempestuous or tumultuous, no ranting or 
raging — if I were compelled to describe it, I would say, for want of 
better words, that his appearance was oratorical — just oratorical, while 
his voice was sonorous. Thos. S. Ridgway (at Shawneetown) once 
said to me "God gave him his voice — it rang like a bugle call." 

In reference to his personal appearance the Washington Corres- 
pondent of the ]\Iorning Herald at St. Joseph, Missouri, said April 20, 
1866, "Just behind Mr. Sherman sits the war Governor of Illinois, 
Richard Yates, who has just entered the Senate. He is forty-eight 
years old, a good-sized, healthy, rotund man, with a full, smooth face 
and florid complexion. He is slightly stooping, has an easy, uncon- 
cerned air, is evidently fond of good living and agreeable society. Yet 
he had a great deal of latent force and nerve. As Governor he en- 
deared himself to every soldier from the west while he won a brilliant 
national reputation for ability and patriotism. He is a radical, and may 
always be counted among the steadfast enemies of treason and 

A daily State Journal of Milwaukee, Wisconsin ,in reporting a 
rally on the 4th day of July, 1863 said "Governor Yates of Illinois had 
arrived at this time and commenced in one of the most telling and en- 
tertaining speeches that we ever listened to. The Governor was thor- 
oughly eloquent and held his audience in spell-bound interest from the 
beginning to the end. which was over an hour in duration. The Gov- 
ernor has the appearance of being about 45 or 50 years of age. His 
hair is rather long, curling and waving considerable and his face, which 
is grave and massive expresses an iron will and unyielding energy. 


Representative at Springfield. 

We now come to the period of 1841 to 1850, which I think may- 
be called the period of State service per se. In the summer of 1841, he 
beg-an running for the Legislature and was elected in November, 1842. 
Four members were elected from Morgan County and he was the only 
Whig — the others were all Democrats and their names were Newton 
Cloud, David Epler, William Weatherford, while the State Senators 
were Edward D. Baker and Reuben Harrison. 

He enjoyed immensely this service. He was entirely satisfied with 
the accommodations of the day, which included a room, without a 
carpet, in a Springfield tavern. 

He was re-elected in 1844 his Morgan County colleagues being 
Francis Arenz, Samuel T. Matthews and Isaac D. Rawlings ; and again 
for the term beginning January 1. 1849 and ending January 1, 1851. 
His Morgan County colleague being George B. Waller. (As stated 
elsewhere he was nominated and elected representative in Congress 
from Illinois in 1850, so that his duties as member of the Legislature 
did not require much of his efforts after July 1, 1850.) And he began 
to think and act with reference to the nation. In the six years in which 
he served he met and came to know well not only Abraham Lincoln 
but many many leaders including Douglas and Baker and Palmer and 
Oglesby and McClernand and Weldon and Herndon and Stephen 
T. Logan and Milton Hay. 

Thirteenth General Assembly, 1842-1844, Convened at Springfield, 
December 5, 1842 ; adjourned March 3, 1843. Senator from Morgan, 
John Henry ; Senators from Sangamon, Edward D. Baker, Reuben 
Harrison. Representatives from Morgan, Newton Cloud, David Epler, 
William Weatherford, Richard Yates. 

Fourteenth General Assembly, 1844-1846. Convened at Spring- 
field, December 2, 1844; adjourned March 3, 1845. Senator from Mor- 
gan, John Henry ; Senator from Sangamon, Ninian W. Edwards. 
Representatives from Alorgan, Francis Arenz, Samuel T. Matthews, 
Isaac D. Rawlings, Richard Yates : Representatives from Sangamon, 
Job Fletcher, Stephen T. Logan, Joseph Smith. 

Fifteenth General Assembly: (Yates out of office; at home.) 

Sixteenth General Assembly, 1848-1850. Convened at Spring- 
field, January 1, 1849; adjourned February 12. Convened October 22, 
1849; adjourned November 7, 1849. Senator from Morgan, Newton 
Cloud; Senator from Sangamon, John T. Stuart. Representatives 
from Morgan, George B. Waller, Richard Yates. 

During the term beginning January 1, 1843, he delivered certain 
remarks in the House of Representatives, which he endorsed or labeled 
as in defense of Governor Duncan. The principal paragraph of this 
argument was as follows : 

"The gentleman from Hancock, had, a few days ago, spoken dis- 
respectfully of the lamented Governor Duncan, and he again threatened 
today, to use his own language," to dig up the ashes of another Joe." 
Sir, he should be wholly unworthy of the people, whom it was his 
pride, to represent, if he permitted such allusions to pass by in silence — 
the hand of death had severed the connection between Governor Dun- 
can and the members of the House, but he still lived in the affections 


and remembrance of all who knew him. Both poHtical parties, in the 
place where he resided had lately met around his grave, and there shed 
common tears over his remains. Sir, there was no party there, but it 
was the tribute of men, who above all such considerations, were ready 
to acknowledge his exalted worth. 

And, sir, what was Governor Duncan's crime? The only crime 
was in contending years ago that this charter should be repealed. He 
was the pioneer in opposition to this grant of exclusive and unheard 
of privileges to the Mormons. With the eye of a statesman he looked 
ahead, and predicted the consequences which would result from such 
a charter, and have not those predictions been realized ? 

Concerning pay of members of the Legislature he said one day: 

"He would not prolong his remarks so much, but for the reason 
that great and radical retrenchment was necessary and that here was 
the proper place to begin ; and he believed if it was omitted here, it 
would be omitted everywhere. 

For with what reason could we insist upon curtailing the expenses 
in other branches of the public service, while with the grasp of misers, 
we hang on to our own present pay? 

Sir, admit that in curtailing our salaries, we may not receive as 
much as we could wish. He held it to be the duty not only of every 
member of the legislature but of every citizen of the State, to be ready 
to sacrifice some little of his personal interests for the credit and 
character of the State. 

He was prepared to peril, if necessary, all that he had, to avert the 
disgrace which repudiation would fasten upon our State. It had gone 
out to the world that she was bankrupt, that she never could pay her 
honest debts. He did not believe it. She could do it. Illinoisans 
would never leave to their children an inheritance of dishonor." 

In 1845 he delivered an argument in the House of Representatives 
in support of an Act to pay a portion of the interest on the public debt. 
It is evident that he knew that he was advocating the unpopular side 
for he speaks of being denounced by friends and asks the question, 
"Who, sir, I ask for fear of temporary unpopularity will hesitate to 
stand by the honor and interest of his state?" This sentence occurs in 
a paragraph reading as follows : 

"And in proposing taxation I have done it deliberately — I have 
considered the condition of the people. I have considered, that the 
calamities which have befallen them were not so much the result of 
their own imprudence as that of their public servants ; that the State 
was carried away in that whirlpool of excitement, which laid prostrate 
the commerce of the world. 

I have considered the scarcity of money, the low prices of produce, 
and that disease and pestilence, flood and desolation have swept over 
the State ; and yet have deemed it my duty to propose this tax. 

I know that I may be denounced by friends, and receive unrelent- 
ing opposition from political opponents. I may be denounced by dema- 
gogue clamor, and be overpowered by it. But, sir, if in coming up to 
the honest mark, popular disapprobation shall frown me down, be it so ; 
it is only me ; not my adopted State around which all my affections 


cluster, and for which I covet a career of glory, a brightness of destiny, 
which the wave of time cannot wash away. 

Who, sir, I ask, for fear of temporary unpopularity will hesitate 
to stand by the honor and interest of his State? Who is not ready to 
peril some little of private gain or political ambition upon the altar of 
patriotism? The just course, is the most expedient, and though un- 
popular for the time, will ultimately triumph. This is as sure as that 
"truth is omnipotent and public justice certain." 


And listen to this : 

Washington, D. C, March 2, 1868. 
Dear Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge your kind invitation, to attend 
the inauguration ceremonies upon the opening of the Illinois Industrial 

With much regret I am compelled to forego the great pleasure 
which it would afford me, to be with you on an occasion of so much 

The extraordinary condition of public affairs, compels me to re- 
main here and the continued demands upon my time and strength, must 
be my excuse for not writing at greater length. 

My appreciation of the vast interests involved in a successful ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the University, demands a more particular 
statement of the origin, history, objects and prospects, than I can find 
time to write. 

My great hope is that this institution shall prove the crowning 
achievement of this age, among all the grand works in behalf of popular 
education, v/hich illustrate the splendid history of our state. 

And that, to the latest generation, our young men shall have cause 
to bless the wise forethought, of the men of this age, who have, amidst 
gigantic war, not only vindicated the free institutions and ideas of self 
government, but also founded this splendid nursery of free men and 
enlightened patriotism. 

An educated man may become unpatriotic ; a patriot may become 
perverted through ignorance ; but wisdom and patriotism, hand in 
hand, are invincible. 

Enlightened patriotism is the steadfast paUadiiiui of human 

May the institution over which you are called to preside, be en- 
abled to illustrate and enforce the vital truth, through all the years of 
glorious and prosperous peace, which await our State and Nation, is 
the sincere wish of 

Illinois' Grateful Son, Richard Yates. 

Honorable J. M. Gregory, 
Champaign, Illinois. 

On the 4th day of June, 1869, the Daily Journal of Jacksonville, 
Illinois, Chapin and Glover, proprietors, had an editorial mentioning 
representative Yates, reading as follows : 

"As the subject of re-building the blind asylum is just at the pres- 
ent time exciting much interest, we republish this morning a speech 


delivered by Senator Yates years ago, before the asylum was first built. 
Judge Thomas wrote the original bill and Mr, Yates put it through 
the legislature, thus securing to the state a noble charity which has 
repaid a thousand times the original investment. 

In all his service as representative at Springfield he was the de- 
voted friend and the ardent advocate of education — just as in after 
years when Governor, his "slogan" was : "An intelligent people 
zi'ill be free." 

The University at Urbana had no better friend ; as Professor J. 
B. Turner would surely testify if he were here. 

Representative at Washington. 

What of the experience in the Lower House of Congress? 

The most important speech was possibly the one delivered on the 
28th of February, 1855 — four days before the adjournment of Con- 
gress in that exciting year — in that exciting spring. The repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise was so strongly advocated by Douglas that it 
induced a number of conservative Whigs to think that the repeal ought 
to be permitted to go through without a Uglit. Yates, like Palmer, 
fought that repeal — fought it with all his might ; and when the election 
of November, 1854 came, he underwent the indescribable humiliation 
of being deserted by some of his foremost friends. It almost caused 
the iron to enter his soul when a number of his neighbors, associated 
with him at the bar, or in the church, or in the party, or in the college 
at Jacksonville voted ag'ainst him — voted for his opponent Major 
Harris, who was in favor of the repeal. You can imagine his feelings 
when on this night of the 28th of February, 1855, ( when nearing the 
close of his argument of nearly 15000 words) a Mr. Keith interrupted 
saying "I do not wish to be unkind, to the gentleman from Illinois, but 
was he not an anti-Nebraska candidate, at the last election, and de- 
feated?" In answer he said: 

I thank the gentleman for the question, and I reply, I was a candi- 
date, and zi'as defeated. But, sir, my district is largely against me in 
politics. It gave General Pierce nearly twelve hundred majority, while 
I only was defeated by the meager majority of two hundred votes ; 
and those conversant with the facts, I believe, would inform you, that 
but for local divisions in two of the counties in my district, I should 
have been returned here by a handsome majority." * * * 

"The earliest impressions of my boyhood were that the institution 
of slavery was a grievous wrong ; and with riper years that sentiment 
has become a conviction deep and abiding, and I should not be true to 
myself did I not oppose this institution, whenever I can do so, con- 
sistently, with the Constitution of my country. And here upon these^ 
declarations, nozv in these the last days of my congressional career, /i 
plant myself, and shall abide the issue. And, sir, I have no fears for 
the future — in the clouds of the present I see "the brightness of the 
future." This sentiment of opposition to slavery is a growing, a rising 
sentiment ; it is the sentiment of the Declaration of American Independ- 
ence, and it will stand bold, dominant, defiant, and rising and FLAM- 
ING higher and higher, as long as that proud charter of American lib- 
erty shall endure, or freedom find a home in the human heart." 


Mr. Chairman, I am no statesman. I arrogate no such claim ; 
but were I called upon to point out a public policy for my country, 
I should adopt, as great cardinal principles : 

1. No interference by Congress with slavery in the States. 

2. No further extension of the area of slavery. 

3. No more slave states. 

4. The abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and 
wherever else it can be constitutionally done. 

5. The rights of trial by jury and habeas corpus in all cases, and 
in the State where the arrest is made, as well as in the State from 
which the escape is made. 

6. A home on the public domain for every landless American 
citizen, American or foreign-born, upon condition of actual settlement 
and cultivation for a limited period. 

7. The improvement of the harbors of our lakes and the navi- 
gation of our rivers by appropriations from the Federal Treasury. 

8. A tariff for revenue, with incidental protection, and specific 
duties, discriminating in favor of articles the growth and manufacture 
of our own country. 

9. Liberal donations of the public lands for the construction of 
railroads, securing to the Government the full price for the same by 
reserving alternate sections and doubling the price therefor. 

10. A more just and humane policy towards the Indian tribes, 
surrounding them with the influences of Christianity and civilization. 

11. The encouragement by liberal appropriations from the 
Treasury, and donations of public lands for agriculture, the mechanic 
arts, and sciences. 

These, sir, are the leading features of a public policy, which 
would speedily crown our nation with prosperity and glory, far 
transcending every people of ancient and modern time. 

In a note book of the campaign for Congress against Major 
Harris, I find this in writing: 

"In my course in Congress I trust I have been as mindful of my 
Democratic as of my Whig friends. In that course, I have never 
looked to party but to the high interests of my District and the pros- 
perity of our common country — I have no boast to make of what 
I have done except, that I have done, as far as I knew how, my duty ; 
and that is all any man can do. And nozv, whether you shall again 
give me your high commission, to represent you in Congress, or not, 
I shall cheerfully abide your decision — zuhether my humble little flag 
shall float aloft in the sunshine of victory or shall be "dimly seen" 
amid the clouds of disaster and defeat, I shall not fail to carry with 
me to my last breath the zvarm recollection of your generous 
partiality and unfaltering friendship. If I am defeated, / have an 
humble little home in your midst; and I will share with you the 
blessings of peace and retirement — if again triumphant, I will go upon 
my mission, resolved to do my duty ; and not to forfeit the high con- 
fidence you have reposed in me." 

Good Roads. 
In 1854 — sixty years before Illinois really realized the full im- 
portance of good roads and thoroughfares, in 1854, according to the 


"Congressional Globe" — he fought for Illinois public improvement ap- 
propriations saying : 

"I repeat that we ought to have a million appropriated for the im- 
provement of these rivers — the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri and Illinois 
— the Arkansas, Tennessee, Red and Cumberland — I only propose by 
this amendment to appropriate half a million * * * / am in favor of 
the construction of internal improvements by the general government, 
when such improvements are proposed to be constructed upon a 
proper principle. * * * Vote it down, if you please^ — vote against our 
Western rivers and harbors — hut the time will come zvhen zve shall 
have the power to resist such oppression and partial legislation. There 
is a majority of this committee of the whole in favor of this very ap- 
propriation of half a million dollars but the voice of the committee is 
smothered, by the determination of gentlemen to vote against all 
amendments right or wrong. * * * j^ sir, should like to see their 
names on the record. 

Governor Small, in this man Yates you would have found a 
kindred spirit in your passion for "good roads and transportation." 

Railroad President. 
Probably the happiest period of his life (except the home period 
of two years preceding the end) was the experience he enjoyed as 
President of a railroad — the little old "Tonica and Petersburg" Rail- 
road. From his junior year in college (as all his writings show), he 
had an abiding belief that stage lines and canals and steamboat lines 
and railroads — in fact good roads of all kinds — would help the com- 
monwealth and make the state great. (In this man, from 1841 to 
1871, — thirty years — in other words from his first thought of public 
weal to his last year in the general welfare — you. Governor Small, 
would have found a kindred spirit) . He never thought of the knowl- 
edge of science (which from his college days he urged as vital) with- 
out thinking of roads — hard roads and steam roads; by 1851 this had 
become a consuming obsession or hobby — an overweening ambition. It 
became known among his friends that he would rather be connected 
with a railroad than with any other enterprise. Accordingly when he 
came home March 4, 1855 (after four years service as Congressman 
and after having lost his seat in the preceding election by the narrow 
plurality of 195) he was immediately asked to become the president 
of a new railroad — the Tonica and Petersburg, which ultimately got 
its charter from the State of Illinois, January 15, 1857. He told his 
wife that this was the happiest experience in his life. It was necessary 
to go to Pittsburg to buy the iron— not steel, but iron — ^^and the rails 
were shipped down the Ohio by steamboat and up the Mississippi and 
up the Illinois and landed at Naples, from which point they were 
hauled over land. He enjoyed it all. * * * The panic year of 1857 
paralyzed industry and strangled Industrial prosperity all over the land ; 
but he went ahead with his construction. I have the manuscripts of 
his reports to his stockholders. He was almost sweating blood in his 
anxiety; but his optimism never failed. His report shows that the 
little railroad had obligations of about $550,000 but that in spite of the 
panic year 1857 it had paid its interest and had paid off about $5,000 
out of its total obligations. The railroad was not in debt. He said, 


"While other projects of a similar character have built their roadbed 
principally on debt — by issuing first mortgage bonds and by making 
heavy discounts and sacrifices upon them; we are prepared to show a 
large portion of the same work done and paid for, and entire ability 
to construct the whole of our roadbed without the creation of a single 
debt or liability of any kind. With our roadbed complete and a surplus 
to advance upon our iron, the amount of debt to be contracted for 
iron and equipment in comparison with that of most similar enter- 
prises will be comparatively small, and the prompt payment of the 
interest on the same within the certain compass of the company's 
means and receipts." 

He found it necessary to go out and address the people to induce 
them to vote railroad improvement aid bonds. It was necessary ap- 
parently to prove that a railroad would be a good thing and would 
not destroy the horse market. To cut a long, long story short it was a 
grand success and bad sixteen locomotives ! 

He told me (in the one long conversation I had with him a month 
before his death) that his was "the only railroad that he knew of that 
paid two hundred cents to every widow and orphan who put one 
dollar ($1.00) into the railroad." It was the forerunner of the Chicago 
and Alton Railroad Company. 

Service as Governor. 

The Chicago Tribune said, in 1860, immediately after the Novem- 
ber election : 

"The Republican candidate for Governor, Hon. Richard Yates, is 
elected by a majority of which he may well be proud. But he has 
earned every vote. Commencing his canvass early, answering the 
calls of the party whenever made, speaking day after day for months 
together, he had a right to expect success. He has attained it.' And 
we have no reason to doubt that the same wisdom which dedicated his 
admirable speeches to the people of the State, will guide him in the 
discharge of the duties which he will soon assume. His career as a 
State Legislator and as a member of Congress (had he not made the 
brilliant and successful canvass) would have been a sufficient guar- 
anty, that his administration will be equally honorable to himself and 
profitable to the State." 

The Jacksonville Journal said: 

"The Tribune's complimentary notice of the Governor is well de- 
served. It is true that he may well be proud of his majority; the 
people of this county are both proud of the majority and of the man 
himself. Mr. Yates has worked with extraordinary energy, and 
brilliant success, throughout the whole campaign ; and, what is most 
gratifying to his friends who know him intimately, is, that the animat- 
ing motive with him has not been any vain personal ambition but a 
whole-hearted devotion to the cause. * * * It is true he was defeated 
in 1854 on this principle, and it is quite reasonable to suppose that he 
should have some personal ambition to redeem that defeat. But we 
know that his first thought, desire and aim in this canvas has not been 
personal, but for the triumph of the principle. We do not doubt that 
Mr. Yates, were he to consult his own individual preference, would 


turn from the cares and honors which will cluster around his official 
station, and seek the quiet enjoyments of a private station and his 
beautiful home, free from the importunities of office holders and other 
"friends," as well as the misrepresentations of political enemies." 

Of course, reference to the Governorship, in Illinois from 1861 
to 1865 would be incomplete without a reference to three things: 
namely, the "Proroguing of the Legislature" and- "Cairo Expedition" 
and the "Discovery of Ulysses S. Grant." 

The Cairo Expedition. 
The Cairo Expedition was simply the prompt moving to Cairo of 
a body of Illinois State Militia, between 600 and 700 strong (on paper 
905 strong), commanded by Brigadier General Swift, of Illinois, the 
whole enterprise being by the direct order of War Governor Yates. 
Had not Cairo been occupied at this early date, April 20, 1861, by Illi- 
nois troops, the soldiers of the South would have occupied that 
strategic point within a very few days ; and upon its being threatened 
from the North, Confederate troops (in full force) would have been 
rushed in ; and it would have taken thousands of Illinois lives, to dis- 
lodge them. Throughout the whole Civil War, there was no single 
spot more useful and used, by the Union, than Cairo. Had we been 
deprived of it, the damage and loss would have been incalculable. The 
Cairo Expedition therefore, is worthy of extensive mention, entirely 
too extensive to be included in this Manuscript. To this more ex- 
tensive mention we therefore leave it. 

The Prorogation of the Legislature. 

The Prorogation of the Legislature, June 9, 1863, was a matter 
unprecedented in American History; and unimitated except when 
War Governor Oliver P. Morton prorogued the Legislature of Indiana. 
It would require a separate volume (in the Illinois State Historical 
Library) to print all the things germane to this thing. Accordingly I 
refrain from inserting here the remarks of any Illinois paper (for or 
against the Governor) and content myself with reading an editorial 
from the New^ York Daily Tribune of Friday, June 12, 1863. 

"On the 8th inst. the Senate of Illinois, by a vote of 14 to 7, re- 
solved to adjourn without day at 6 that evening. The House over- 
ruled this by substituting for the 8th the 22d inst. The resolve, thus 
amended, was returned to the Senate, which disagreed to the amend- 
ment — 12 to 11. In this deadlock, they adjourned for the night. Now 
the State Constitution expressly provides : 

Sec. 13. In case of disagreement between the two Houses with 
respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to 
adjourn the General Assembly to such time as he may think proper, 
provided it be not to a period beyond the next Constitutional meeting 
of the same. 

"Governor Yates, hereupon, next morning, adjourned the Legis- 
lature without day." 

Here the "Tribune" copies a N. Y. "World" criticism : 

"It seems unaccountable "(replies the New York Tribune) that 
any person, who can write intelligible English, should not realize the 
absurdity and inevitable falsity of the foregoing. Louis Napoleon's 


coup d'etat was effected by a military insurrection, whereby the lazv 
was overpowered by sheer force. Gov. Yate's act derives all its 
efficacy from the C onstitutiofial provision above given. It is valid 
because it is legal and only to the extent of its legality." 

"Had it been what the World sillily imagines, the Legislature 
would have simply laughed at it, and proceeded with its deliberations." 

Altho the whole army seems to have talked about this prorogation, 
it seems that he talked about it very little himself. 

I find that in a speech made at Elgin on the 4th day of July, 
1865, he did laughingly mention it as follows; "Instead of four years 
of easy, dignified leisure, signing the commissions of Justices of the 
Peace and Notaries Public, as a Governor may be supposed to do ; 
my time for the last four years has been absorbed in conference with 
and correspondence with the government at Washington, and with the 
officers and soldiers, and in anxious thought for their success and in- 
terests, and for their welfare ; doing all I could in my feeble way to 
relieve the wants of the soldiers, and for a vigorous prosecution of 
the war, and, (though I have not been in the thickest of the fray, as 
you have been) while you have been driving the enemy in front, I 
have kept up a deadly and destructive fire upon the enemy in the rear." 

"Soldiers, peace hath her victories as well as war. You must 
remember that I was Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy of 
Illinois ! Well, in the month of June, 1863, I heard that a large de- 
tachment, of the enemy, had taken possession and fortified themselves 
in the State House at Springfield — (Of course, he meant the disloyal 
part of the majority of the Legislature) — and (after declaring that 
they were for peace — that the war was unrighteous, unholy, etc. — and 
the south could not be conquered) they resolved to usurp the powers 
of their commander-in-chief, and to run the government upon the style 
and manner of the rebel states. I sent out a party of reconnoisance ; 
called my staff. Lieutenant General Hoffman (really Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor) ; Adjutant General Fuller, Colonel "Uncle Jesse" (Dubois) 
really State Auditor, Adjutants O. M. Hatch and Wm. Butler and O. 
H. Miner, and quartermaster Colonel S. S. Mann, and military cor- 
respondent Colonel Joe Forrest ; and (after mature deliberation) re- 
solved to attack the enemy in his stronghold, and put them to rout or 
Hie in the last ditch ! I then went to work and prepared a deadly mis- 
sive, which Ike Cook called a "perouge" and as soon as it was finished 
I went and fired it into the ranks of the enemy, and such a grand 
"skedallel" you have not seen since the evacuation of Atlanta. Colonel 
Buckmaster, (the speaker) with great valor and stratagem, tried to 
rally the copperheads and restore order to his broken columns but 
finding all his efforts ineffectual, he flashed his speaker's hammer in 
fierce circles and cried out, "Boys, each of you take his hat and save 

The Discovery of Grant. 

The discovery of Grant was a romance, a melodrama, almost as 
breathless as any of Dumas' novels portraying or depicting the arrival 
of one of his dashing and invincible heroes. 

In the book entitled "Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant" written in 
1885, General Grant says : Vol. 1, Page 232 : 


"In time the Galena Company was mustered into the United 
States service, forming a part of the 11th IlUnois Volunteer Infantry. 
My duties, I thought, had ended at Springfield, and I was prepared to 
start home by the evening train, leaving at nine o'clock. Up to that 
time I do not think I had been introduced to Governor Yates, or had 
ever spoken to him. I knew him by sight, however, because he was 
living at the same hotel, and I often saw him at the table. The evening 
I was to quit the Capital I left the supper room before the Governor, 
and was standing at the front door when he came out. He spoke to 
me, calling me by my old army title "Captain," and said that he under- 
stood that I was about leaving the city. I answered that I was. He 
said he would be glad if I would remain over night and call at the 
executive office the next morning. I complied with his request, and 
was asked to go in to the Adjutant General's office and render such 
assistance as I could, the Goz'enior saying that my army experience 
would be of great service there. I accepted the proposition." 

I have some ideas about the above which I want to communicate. 
This great book by General Grant was written by him in 1885 in his 
very last days. He had put off writing it until he had to write it himself, 
a cancer of the tongue having come upon him (resulting in operations 
that removed part of the tongue and paralyzed the rest so that he could 
not dictate to any secretary) . Month after month, he sat on the vera-nda 
of a cottage, on the seashore, and, laboriously, used a pencil. I am 
absolutely satisfied that every word he wrote is the exact truth as he 
understood it. 

Let us read this again : 

"The evening I was to quit the Capital I left the supper room be- 
fore the Governor and was standing at the front door when he came 
out. He spoke 'to me, calling me by my old army title, "Captain" and 
said he understood that I was about leaving the city. I answered that 
I was. He said he would be glad if I would remain over night and 
call at the Executive office the next morning. I complied with his 
request, and was asked to go into the Adjutant General's office, and 
render such assistance as I could, the Governor saying that my army 
experience would be of great service there. I accepted the proposition." 

On page 234: "I had the charge of mustering these regiments 
into State service." P. 241. "I asked and obtained of the Governor 
leave of absence for a week to visit my parents in Covington, Ky. P. 
242: "The 21st. Illinois, mustered in by me at Mattoon, refused to go 
into the service with the Colonel of their selection, in any position. 
While I was still absent. Governor Yates appointed me Colonel of this 
latter regiment." 

I think I know why he put this all down there in those painful 
hours at Mount MacGregor, waiting for death, when he wrote his 
memoirs. That little hour at Springfield was a critical hour — a crisis 
in his life. 

Is it any wonder that then, there at Mount MacGregor, in late 
May, 1885. he recalled that quite night in early May, 1861 — that night 
at Springfield when the night train left without him — that happy and 
memorable nieht? 


Is it any wonder that all intervening events became forgotten, and 
he seemed to see his Governor and to hear him calling him again 
"Captain" — his Governor tendering help and at the same time seeking 
help — and asking that the two might work and build and strain and 
strive together for the Nation's salvation ? 

In reference to this matter of how General Grant got his start, I 
insert here a quotation from the Chicago Sunday Tribune, of December 
15th, 1918, and from installment Number 5 of the article, entitled 
•'Centennial History of Illinois," by Rollin Lynde Hartt, as follows: 

'''Illinois contributed superbly to the romantic thrills of war, and 
the siipreuicly romantic event of the entire war occurred in Illinois. 
That was the find of Grant. Permitted to drop out of the army, un- 
successful in business. Grant was already a middle-aged man when he 
offered his services 'in any position where he could be useful.' 

"In Governor Yates he discovered his discoverer, and here you 
have the story as told by Yates himself, 'The plain straightforward de- 
meanor of the man and the modestness (and the earnestness) which 
characterized his offer of assistance, at once awakened a lively interest 
in him. and impressed me with a desire to secure his counsel, for the 
benefit of the volunteer organization then forming for government 

"At first I assigned him to a desk in the executive office, and his 
familiarity with military organization and regulations made him an 
invaluable assistant in my own office and in the office of the Adjutant 
General. Soon his admirable qualities as a military commander be- 
came apparent and I assigned him to the command of the camps of 

"The Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois A'olunteers had become 
much demoralized under the thirty days experiment, and doubts arose 
in relation to their acceptance for a longer period. I was much per- 
plexed to find an experienced and efficient officer to take charge of the 
regiment and take it into three years' service. I decided to offer the 
command to Captain Grant, temporarily at Covington, Kentucky, ten- 
dering him the Colonelcy. He immediately reported, accepting the 
commission, taking rank as colonel of that regiment from June 15, 

Lincoln and Yates. 
Of course the relation of Lincoln, the war President, to Yates, 
the war Governor, was important in its day and is important yet; but 
like the Cairo expedition, and the proroguing of the Legislature, it is 
a story by itself, and has and will have its place as a chapter in any 
complete and comprehensive summary of the life and times of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. It is not necessary, and surely will not be considered 
appropriate to the short confines of this manuscript to go into details 
concerning the warm friendship of the man Lincoln for Yates — and 
this man Yates for Lincoln. Suffice it to say that it existed and it 
was real and deep and lasting. It began at Salem in 1835 and lasted 
until and during the last day of Lincoln's life — April 14, 1865 — thirty 
long great years. The first record i. e. the record of the first meeting is 
given in a key note speech by Yates at Springfield June 7, 1860 — a 


ratification rally in the hall of the House, in which he told of how he 
went to Salem in his youth and talked and supped with Lincoln there. 
He says: 

Lincoln's Character. 

And now fellow citizens, I am through. ["Go on," "go on."] 
Well, I will only say a few words in reference to the ticket. I know 
some folks are asking, who is Old Abe? I guess they will soon find out. 
[Laughter.] Old Abe is a plain sort of a man, about six feet four 
inches in his boots, and every inch of him MAN. [Laughter and loud 
cheers.] I recollect a little incident which occurred two years ago at 
a little party which amused me at the moment. A very tall man went 
up to Lincoln and said, "Mr. Lincoln, I think I am as tall as you are," 
and he stood up by him, displaying to the full his fine stature. Lincoln 
began to straighten himself up and up, until his competitor was some- 
what staggered. "Well, I thought I was," said he, now doubtful which 
was the taller. "But," says Lincoln, straightening himself up still 
higher, "there's a good deal of come-out in me," and he came out two 
inches the highest. ] Great applause and laughter. [ He was, as many 
of you know, a plain, poor boy when he came here, and is a farmer- 
like looking sort of man now. A hard-working man he has been, in 
his time. ["Yes, and he is yet."] 

I recollect the first time I ever saw Old Abe, and I have a great 
mind to tell you, though I don't know that I ought to. ["Yes, go on, 
go on."] It was more than a quarter of a century ago. [A voice, "He 
was 'Young Abe' then."] I was down at Salem with a friend, Wm. 
G. Green, 1835, who remarked to me, one day, "I'll go over and intro- 
duce you to a fine young fellow we have here — a smart, genial, active 
young fellow, and we'll be certain to have a good talk." I consented 
and he took me down to a collection of four or five houses, and look- 
ing over the way I saw a young man partly lying or resting on a 
cellar door, intently engaged in reading. My friend took me up and 
introduced me to young Lincoln, and I tell you as he rose up I wouldn't 
have shot at him then for a President. [Laughter.] Well, after some 
pleasant conversation, for Lincoln talked sensibly and generally then 
just as he does now, we all went up to dinner. I ought not to tell this 
on Lincoln. [Great laughter and cries of "go on," "go on!"] You 
know very well that we all lived in a very plain way in those times. The 
house was a rough log house, with a puncheon floor and clapboard 
roof, and might have been built like Solomon's temple, "without the 
sound of hammer or nail," for there was no iron in it. [Laughter.] 
The old lady whose house it was soon provided us with a dinner, the 
principal ingredient was a great bowl of milk which she handed to 
each. Somehow in serving Lincoln there was a mistake made, and 
his bowl tipped up and the bowl and milk rolled over the floor. The 
good old lady was in deep distress, and burst out "Oh, dear me ! that's 
all my fault." Lincoln picked up the bowl in the best natured way in 
the world, remarking to her "Aunt Lizzy we'll not discuss whose fault 
it was — only if it don't worry you, it don't worry me." [Roars of 
laughter and applause.] The old lady was comforted and gave him 
another bowl of milk. [Renewed laughter.] 


My friend Green who introduced me, told me the first time he 
ever saw Lincoln he was in the Sangamon river, with his pants rolled 
up some five feet more or less, [great merriment] trying to pilot a flat 
boat over a mill-dam. The boat had got so full of water that it was 
very difficult to manage and almost impossible to get it over the dam. 
Lincoln finally contrived to get her prow over so that it projected a 
few feet, and there it stood. But he then invented a new way of bailing 
a flat boat. He bored a hole through the bottom to let the water run 
out, and then corked her up and she launched right over. ( [Great 
laughter.] I think the captain who proved himself so fitted to navigate 
the broad horn over the dam is no doubt the man who is to stand upon 
the deck of the old ship "the Constitution," and guide her safely over 
the billows and breakers that surround her. ] Enthusiastic and pro- 
longed applause.] 

The Man of the People. 

I do not mention these hardships of Lincoln's early life as evincing 
any great merit in themselves. Many a man among you may say, "I 
am a rail splitter. I have done many a hard day's work, and if that 
entitles him to be President, it entitles me to be President, too." All 
I mean to say in regard to his having been a poor, hard working boy, 
is that "it don't set him back any." [That's it.] As the young man 
said who courted and married a very pretty girl when on the next morn- 
ing after the wedding she presented him with a thousand dollars. Lizzie, 
I like you very much, indeed, but this thousand don't set you back any." 
[Roars of laughter and cheers.] So if Lincoln has all the other quali- 
ties of a statesman, it don't set him back any with us who know and 
love him, to know that he was once a hard working boy. 

We know he does not look very handsome, and some of the papers 
say he is positively ugly. Well, if all the ugly men in the United States 
vote for him, he will surely be elected." [Laughter.] 

The record of the last meeting, revealing the continuance of the 
friendship, in unabated vigor, is to be found in the report, coming from 
William Pitt Kellogg, judge and colonel under Lincoln and twice 
governor and twice senator from Louisiana. Kellogg said to me : 

"On the morning of the day of the assassination a visit to the 
White House was paid by Yates, then a senator, and another Illinoisian, 
who had been a presidential elector, and later a federal judge, and 
later a colonel of the Seventh Illinois Cavalry. Yates said : "Mr. 
President, here is the man you want." The President said, "That's 
so, he'll do," and added, "I am going to send you, Kellogg, to New 
Orleans, to be United States collector of the port — you will have 2,000 
employees under you, all northerners, because substantially all southern- 
ers are disfranchised ; but I want you to make love to those people 
down there." It is of interest to record that at this interview the 
President, for some reason, said, "I want this commission issued now," 
and did not rest until the commission was delivered— sent over by the 
Secretary of the Treasury — and the two Illinoisians walked out with 
the last commission ever signed by Lincoln. That night they sojourned 
at the old National Hotel — room 12 — and Yates, who had been at the 
theatre, rushed in, very pale and shouted, "Oh, Kellogg, the President 


has been shot." And Kellogg said to me "So we walked the streets 
all night, a hundred thousand men — never went to bed at all — and in 
the morning I stood across the street and watched them carry out the 
body of Abraham Lincoln, with his last commission warm against my 

I have not been able to find anything in writing from Lincoln to 
Yates later than 1860. In a letter dated the 26th day of April, 1860, 
Lincoln wrote to Yates : 

"You have my entire confidence as an honorable man." 

x\fter that when any communication or conference was desired 
Yates always went to Washington. 

I am proud of (and stirred by) all his speeches mentioning Lincoln, 
but have always been especially stirred by the speech of June 8. 

Service as United States Senator. 

\Miat shall be said of the service in the Senate — 1865 to 1871? 

In the first place it is interesting to know that he was on the fol- 
lowing committees — Pacific Railroad : Territories : Pensions. 

Among his associates were the following: From Illinois, Lyman 
Trumbull : from Ohio,' Ben ^^^ade and John Sherman : from Michigan, 
Zack Chandler; from ^Visconsin, Alexander Ramsey, former war 
governor; from Indiana. Oliver P. ^Morton, former war governor; 
from ^Missouri, John B. Henderson ; from New York, E. D. Morgan, 
former war governor ; from Pennsylvania, Simon Cameron ; from Alas- 
sachusetts. Henry Wilson and Charles Sumner ; from Louisiana, Wm. 
P. Kellogg. His speeches were not numerous. Beside the argument in 
favor of the conviction of Andrew Johnson, at the impeachment trial, 
there were comparatively few important arguments or addresses. 

On the 10th day of February, 1866 he delivered a sixteen page ar- 
gument on the Civil Rights Bill, a Bill entitled "A Bill to protect citi- 
zens of the L'nited States in their civil and political rights." In this 
argument he said "Mr. President, as I said in a speech on the 4th day 
of July last — and I wish to repeat it here now, to show that these are 
no new formed opinions — I say again : 

"This is the genius of our government. I am willing to trust the 
people ; and I believe that our government founded upon the n'lll of 
all, protected by the poivcr of all, and maintaining the rights of all, will 
survive the storms of civil and external convulsion, and growing in 
grandeur and power, will become one of the mightiest nations on the 
face of the earth. Therefore I am opposed to slavery (and secession) 
for an undivided union, for universal freedom, and for unirersal suff- 

He also said : 

"Sir, what made Abraham Lincoln President of the L^nited States? 
I know he was good, veiy good ; he was great, very great, in all those 
qualities which constitute the statesman ; but it was his persistent ad- 
vocacy of the doctrines of the Declaration of American Independence, 
in his debates with Stephen A. Douglas, in his speeches at the Cooper 
Institute in New York, in Connecticut, and in Kansas ; it was his clear 
definition of the principles of human freedom; it was those God-in- 
spired words — 


"This Union cannot permanently endure half slave and half free — 
the Union will not be dissolved, but the House will cease to be divided" 
— it was this which riveted the attention of the nation, and made him 
President of the United States. And why, sir? Because, despite the 
prejudices of education, which we all have, despite centuries of wrong- 
and oppression, there is somewhere, away down in the depths of the 
human soul — and that soul is deeper than oceans ; it is like infinite 
space and has no boundaries — there is somewhere in the unfathomable 
depths of the human soul the love of liberty and the hatred of oppres- 
sion. That chord Lincoln struck, and thus made himself President and 
his name immortal. Why are you Senators here from every northern 
State? Is it because you are able men? But you are not the only able 
men in your States. There are men distinguished for great ability and 
illustrious service in your states. You are here, because you have been 
true to truth, to justice, to liberty, and to equal laics. 

In this speech he dififers from those colleagues to whom he was 
most deeply attached, namely : the ones called Radicals. They be- 
lieved that more laws and more amendments of the constitution were 
a necessity — he believed that under the constitution, as it stood, slavery 
could be ended and universal suffrage begun. Of this attitude Senator 
Charles Sumner of Massachusetts said : "The Senator from Illinois 
in a speech of rare ability and singular power has advanced a slightly 
different theory but all that he has said is unanswered and unan- 

The most noted thing occurring during this period was the Im- 
peachment trial of Andrew Johnson, the American President, involving, 
first, the adoption of "Articles of Impeachment" by the Plouse of Rep- 
resentatives and second, the prosecution of that Impeachment (or in- 
dictment) by the House (through its managers) before the United 
States Senate as a court. 

The President, as all know, escaped conviction of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors" by one vote, 3.S Senators voting "guilty" and 19 
Senators voting "not guilty." Had 36 Senators voted guilty, the Presi- 
dent would have been impeached. Each Senator was entitled to file 
an opinion inasmuch as each was sitting and voting just as if he were 
a Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Senator Yates prepared 
and read an exhaustive opinion. I quote a few sentences from that 
opinion : 

"It is difficult to estimate the importance of this trial. Not in re- 
spect merely to the exalted position of the accused, not alone in the 
fact that it is a trial before the highest tribunal known among us, the 
American Senate, upon charges preferred by the immediate represen- 
tatives of the sovereignty of the nation, against the President of the 
United States, alleging the commission by him of high crimes and 
misdemeanors ; it is not alone in these respects that the trial rises in 
dignity and importance, but because it presents great and momentous 
issues, involving the powers, limitations and duties of the various de- 
partments of the government, and the mightiest interests of the people, 
now and in the future. 

Here is his description of the President. 


"Although he has long since been indicted and found guilty in the 
judgment and conscience of the American people of a giant apostacy 
to his party — the party of American Nationality and progress — and of 
a long series of atrocious wrongs and most daring and flagrant of 
usurpations of power and for three years has thrown himself across 
the path to peace and a restored Union, and in all his efficient acts has 
stood forth zvithout disguise, a bold, bad man, the aider and abetter of 
treason and an enemy of his country ; though this is the unanimous 
verdict, of the loyal popular heart of the country, yet I shall strive to 
confine myself, in the main, to a consideration of the issues presented 
in the first three articles." 

He says, "It was not until the ghost of impeachment, the terrors 
of a broken oath, and removal from the high trust which he has abused, 
as a punishment for violated law, rose up to confront him, that he 
resorted to the technical subterfuges of his answer, that the law was 
unconstitutional, and the specious plea that his purpose (in resisting 
the law) was to test its validity before the Supreme Court. 

"In the whole history of these transactions, he has written as with 
a pen of steel in dark and imperishable lines his criminal intent to 
violate the law." I insert nothing else from this opinion except the 
closing paragraph as follows : "Appealing, for the correctness of my 
verdict, to the searcher of all hearts, and to the enlightened judgment 
of all who love justice and accord with this cloud of witnesses, I vote, 
guilty. Standing, here, in my place, in this mighty temple of the nation, 
and, as a Senator of the Great Republic, (with all history of men 
(and nations) behind me, and all progress (and human happiness) 
before me) I falter not, on this occasion, in duty to my country and to 
my state. In this tremendous hour of the republic, trembling for life 
and being, it is no time for me to shrink from duty, after having so 
long (earnestly) supported those principles of government and public 
policy , which, like divine ordinances, protect and guide the race of 
man, up the pathway of history and progress. As a juror, sitting on 
this great cause of my country, I wish to go into history, and I stamp 
upon the imperishable records of the Republic, that in the fear of 
God, but fearless of man T voted for the conviction of Andrew John- 
son, President of the United States, for the commission of high 
crimes and misdemeanors. 


It is natural to wonder what were the innermost thoughts of the 
last years of a fighter. 

There is a surrender to melancholia not uncommon to men who 
have lived long and constantly the strenuous life, until something new 
and exciting has become a necessity, so that return to private and 
peaceful pursuits seems too tame to be endured. But this man came 
through it all, with a good heart and hope for all that was and is to 
come, and with admonition to his posterity, to do good and be good 
in Christian faith,— with exortation to right thinking and living which 
no pessimist would or could put forth. 

He wrote down and left in a blank book a few lines reading as 
follows : 


To my son, 
To urge you to close attention to business, to economy and so- 
briety, to be good and do good in Christian faith, to work hard 
and always to keep up a good heart and hope for the work that 
is before you. 

The History of this Writing. 

One day, in 1903, I sat in the quiet office in the Mansion provided 
by the State of Illinois, for its Governor, when, all of a sudden, one 
of the secretaries came to me and said : 

"Do you happen to have in this room a blank book? We need 
one for some of our work, and need it now. Of course we can send 
to a store and buy one. But time is precious, perhaps you have one 

I replied, "In that corner, over there, you will find a pile of large 
blank books, left by my father. They are forty years old, but some 
of them have excellent paper." 

Presently, the secretary returned, and said; "May we have this 
one? It suits our purpose." 

I replied, "Yes, but let me be sure it is blank! I rapidly turned 
the pages, and lo, in the very center of the book, was a page with 
writing on it — the only page in the whole book which was not blank. 

Of course I read it, for it was the handwriting of my father, 
dead and gone for thirty years — his death having occurred in 1873, 
when I was only 13 years old. 

Here is what that writing said ; here it is, as he wrote it, framed 
by me, after I had cut it out. 

I know not whether this was written about 1863, when I was 
little and he was thinking much of me ; or whether it was written 
about 1853, when his second son was little, and he was thinking much 
of him; or whether it was written about 1843, when his first-begotten 
son was small ; the idol of his young manhood. 

But this one thing I do know ; it was addressed "to my son" ; 
and so I have the right to take it and appropriate it to myself. 

How like a message from beyond the grave ; aye, even from the 
realms of light, it seemed to me, that day! It still seems so. 

I love to believe and do believe, that no one saw these words until 
I did; that he was sitting alone, in that midnight hour, which brings 
that rare and radiant moment, when the wrought-up brain conveys 
high thought to shining pen ; and that he wrote these words, and then 
closed the book, and wrapt the curtains of his couch around him, and 
laid him down to pleasant dreams — and that the next eye to behold 
these lines was mine. 

So help me, it has always seemed like an Oath of peculiar sanc- 
tity, administered to me in a sacred way, and whenever I read it, I 
feel as if I stood on Holy Ground, and that I must, as I do, answer; 
"Father, my Father, I have read and I understand, and I promise and 
vow, to keep the Faith." 

Period of Peace, Home and Friends. 
The last factor in his life was the period from March 4, 1871, to 
his death November 27, 1873 — two years and eight months. During a 


part of this time he was somewhat ill but was bouyed up by a con- 
tinual optimism. 

He prepared some lectures, one on Abraham Lincoln, and pre- 
pared to begin his life over again as a lecturer. He was very success- 
ful. There was little doubt but that years of usefulness in this field 
w^as before him, when suddenly the summons to the other world came 
to him. Meanwhile, the family circle was exceedingly happy. The 
mother was fifty years old. The daughter was twenty-two. The older 
son was twenty-four and through all of his school and training 
anxieties and the younger was twelve and just leaving ordinary school 
to enter the Academy or preparatory department of Illinois College — 
with a promise that in four years he should go to the Academy at 
West Point, should he still desire it. So all were looking forward; 
all was before them, even to the father, who hoped to continue suc- 
cessful on the lecture platform, although that was the day of Wendell 
Phillips and Henry Ward Beecher, John B. Gough and Petroleum V. 
Nasby and Chaplain McCabe. 

And the pastor came and the pastor and the "old governor" read 
together "Christ and the Twelve" and "Room for the Leper" and 
talked of the Future and of the little dead boy of eleven in Heaven 
cind the little infant girl who had gone there and of the "four hundred 
thousand men on battlefield and prison men— the brave, the good, the 
true," who had hazarded all and sunk to rest by all their country's 
praises blest. 

I believe there is no spot in America more happy and more 
sweet. Is it any wonder that in his first and last Decoration Day — 
memorial oration — he was sweet and not bitter; gracious and not 
fierce; gentle although strong, as was said by the St. Louis editor 
quoted at the beginning of this Manuscript. Is it any wonder that he 
contented himself with delivering a genuine elege — a rythmical 
beautiful reverie — full of lovely eulogy of fallen valor? 

One of the things that had a great influence upon his life (an 
influence which cannot be computed) was the killing of his son. This 
boy was killed by lightning in 1851. His age was eleven years — having 
been born in the middle of the campaign in 1840. At an early age 
he had read such books as the Conquest of Mexico by Prescott and 
was probably the dearest of all the sons and daughters. His death 
brought the father closer to God than ever before and the memory 
kept him there through the ensuing twenty years. He left in writing 
this expression of his agony and of his hopes. 

"Oh. And is it so? Art thou gone my boy? In a moment's 
time thou art called from time -to eternity. Thou hope and pride of 
my life — idol of thy mother — Beloved of all — so good and pure 
hearted and innocent^snatched away without a moment's warning. 
Ah. Dark bolt of death, why select this frail frame for thy poisoned 
arrow? Could you not have warned him that he might once more 
have seen his father's eye or beheld his mother's smile ? Art thou gone 
and could I not once whisper my deathless love into thine ear and 
point thy sweet spirit to "The Lamb that taketh away the sin of the 
world." ' Oh, God. I would not murmur — all thou dost is right. But 
thou wilt permit, pity and pardon — the sacred grief of a father — oh, 


that young life — those tender years — that bright form of youth and 
beauty — that eye of softness and heart of love, they come over my 
spirit like sweet and holy memories. To thee, oh, God, we turn — 
thou art our only refuge. Oh, wilt thou support us — wilt thou shield 
us and our little ones from sudden death and at last bring us to em- 
brace our bright, dear boy in that spirit land where now we trust he 
beholds the tender grief, the sacred tears we shed over his memorv." 

"Illinois Historical and Statistical" by John Moses, published 
1892, by the Fergus Publishing Co., Chicago (page 718) says: 

No public man in the state ever had so large a personal following 
as the "War Governor." 

He had devoted friends all over the state, and singular as it may 
appear, some of the warmest of these, who never failed to stand by 
him, were found among- the Democrats. They followed his personal 
fortunes, with a devotion which never faltered, contributing, by de- 
sirable information, by sacrifices and by personal influence, to his 

A more entertaining and hospitable host never occupied the ex- 
ecutive mansion. All were made welcome without stifi^ness, formality 
or offensive discrimination. 

His manners were as winning as those of a charming woman, 
bent on conquests. In conversation, his language was chaste, and his 
st3'le captivating, conveying an impression of superior ability and 
native goodness of heart. 

It was in 1839 that his marriage occurred. It was July 11, 1839, 
because July 11th was the wedding day of his father. It occurred at 
Jacksonville and the bride was Catherine Geers, who was seventeen 
years old, having been born September 21, 1822, at Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, daughter of William Geers and Mary Watkins, his wife. Of 
this bride of 1839 who lived to become his widow for thirty-five years, 
1873 to 1908, many compliments and praises from both soldiers and 
civilians have poured in upon the family through the years. Dark 
eyed little beauty in her day she was faithful through all prosperity 
and adversity, brave and sweet. 

_ I venture to tell one — only one story of her. 


Ladies and gentlemen — my countrymen and country women — you 
will forgive me — indulge, forgive and pardon — for closing with a most 
personal and intimate memory. In 1868 my father, elected Senator 
January 1865 — was still Senator from Illinois. He wrote a letter, from 
Washington, to my mother, in Illinois, saying: 

Dear Kate: 

The impeachment trial of the President, Andrew Johnson, is com- 
ing on and the trial will last one hundred days in the awful heat of 
Washington. Now, you know my every weakness and so do my ene- 
mies and they will unhorse me and keep me out of my seat, if they can. 
But if you will come on and sit every day in the north Senate gallery, 
I know that I can endure." 


I wish you had all known my mother. She was just so fragile 
that she looked at the time like a little flower that would fold up and 
blow away ; but she never hesitated a moment, and as fast as steam 
and rail could take her, she struck for Washington. I have thought of 
it a million times; the great President of the United States did not 
know she was coming. The mighty Senate (and it was a mighty Sen- 
ate) did not know she was coming. Only one anxious soul — that 
awaited her arrival, as if she were the most valiant reenforcement that 
ever came to a battle field. I can see her yet, coming down the steps 
of the north Senate gallery, in her little black dress. 

I forgot to tell you that I saw it all. I forgot to tell you that there 
was a postscript to the letter and the postscript read "P. S. Bring the 
boy." I was the boy. I saw it all. The whole impeachment trial of 
Andrew Johnson in 1868, sitting at my mother's side in the North Sen- 
ate gallery. And you will pardon me, I know, for saying that a mighty 
Senator of the United States w^as held to his mighty duty by one little 
woman in black in the North Senate Gallery. 

I am not ashamed to tell you that, more than once, (in recent 
years) I have felt the irresistable impulse to go to the North Senate 
Gallery ; and, when that impulse comes, I leave my seat in the House 
of Representatives, (which you, the people of Illinois, have given to 
me) and I make my way down the center aisle of the House, and 
through the old Statuary Hall, and I walk across the floor of the United 
States Senate (where I have the right to walk, now), and I climb the 
steps to the North Senate Gallery ; and I sit down in the seat, where my 
mother sat, fifty-five years ago ; and, when I do so, I say to myself, 
"Holy ground — holy ground." for she made a sacrifice there ; she sac- 
rificed her health ; she lived on for forty years, and, for ten long years, 
was a helpless invalid — indeed never recovered her strength. 

I remember distinctly and therefore she must have said it a great 
many times — that she would say, "son, if you will lean forward a little 
I will show you a great man." 

Once it was John A. Logan, who was the chairman of the prosecut- 
ing committee or "Managers" appointed by the House ; once it was 
Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois ; once it was old Ben Wade of 
Ohio ; once it w^as Oliver P. Morton of Indiana ; once it was Charles 
Sumner of Massachusetts. I can see them yet. I can feel them yet. I 
could feel them then ; I feel them now. It seemed to me, as I stood up, 
to look over the rail, that they had great big bodies and great big heads 
and they moved ^with conscious power; (and sometimes I think that 
they do not make them any more). At any rate, in that great time, I 
obtained a conception of what an American Senator ought to be — what 
any American official ought to be — and that conception has never left 

And I owe it all to my mother. She is in another gallery this after- 
noon and I think she is leaning forward a little. They are all there. 
Palmer is there and Lincoln is there and Washington is there ; and the 
millions of men who have died in America that liberty might live are 
there ; and the hundred million women who have agonized that Ameri- 


can liberty might not die, are there ; the 77,000 boys, the crimson flood 
of whose precious blood has made 77,000 spots (in France) "Forever 
America," are there ; and I think of them, all, as leaning forward a 
little, to see what you and I are going to do, with the liberty which 
they all gave to us. I feel sure that you, in your hearts, will all unite 
with me in this simple vow — to You, who have given All, that Liberty 
may be ours, we promise that if you will help us, we too will be true. 



Address Dfxivered by Norman L. Jones, Upon the Occasion of 

THE Dedication of the Statue of John M. Palmer 

AT Springfield, Illinois, October 16, 1923. 

The deeds of an illustrious man can be best tested in the light 
of the time in which he lived. An event, otherwise common place, may 
herald the dawn of a new era. An inconspicuous beginning may pro- 
claim a glorious triumph. What were among the difficulties of yester- 
day may be among the things easily accomplished today. Many of the 
privileges we enjoy now are the results of sacrifice on the part of those 
who have gone before. Both men and events must be judged by the 
inexorable circumstances surrounding them. 

The locking of the doors of parliament is of itself an act of no 
importance, but when Oliver Cromwell stamped his foot and ordered 
the members to make way for better men ; when he locked the door to 
Westminster Hall and put the keys in his pocket, he became the sole 
and absolute ruler of England. 

The mere crossing of a small river like the Rubicon would ordi- 
narily find no place in history, but when Julius Caesar stood upon its 
banks and proclaimed to his army that "the die is cast," he had re- 
solved to make war on Rome, his native city. He crossed the river. 
He forced the great Pompey to flee, never more to see the "Eternal 
City" or the sunny slopes of Italy. Caesar became the ruler of Rome 
and the dictator over four-fifths of all the civilized world. 

The part that John M. Palmer played in molding the destinies of 
men can neither be understood nor appreciated without a thorough 
knowledge of all that occurred of historical value in this country during 
his long and eventful lifetime beginning in 1817 and ending in 1900. 

Born of parentage of splendid traits of character; free from the 
handicap of wealth and the baneful influences of extreme poverty, 
learning at the knee of his mother to 

"Henceforth the majesty of God revere; 
Fear Him, and you have nothing else to fear ;" 
spending his youth in the undeveloped states of Kentucky and Illinois ; 
witnessing first hand the chivalry of the south and the ruggedness of 
pioneer life in the north ; possessed with a longing for an education as 
good as his opportunities would afford; convinced that equal justice 
ought to be the common privilege of all ; endowed by nature with a 
vigorous constitution, an attractive personal appearance, a keen and 
discerning mind, he was splendidly equipped for the momentous con- 
flicts in which he was destined to engage. 

His first impressions were obtained in the sunny south. He was 
born in the state of Kentucky. He was old enough to remember the 

John M. Palmer 


first candidacy of Andrew Jackson for President. He was an ardent 
admirer of that gallant warrior and statesman. Jackson was defeated 
in that campaign and Palmer united with the other faithful followers 
of "Old Hickory" in the belief that the result of the election was not 
a fair expression of the will of the people, but was due to some bargain 
or intrigue to which Henry Clay was a party. Four years later Jack- 
son defeated his political enemies and was triumphantly elected to the 
exceeding joy of his youthful disciple. 

During these formative years there was hovering over our nation 
a dark cloud. Our country was young. It was in an experimental 
stage. It had fought for and won its independence after eight long 
years of heroic sacrifice and against tremendous odds. It attempted 
to establish a government upon a basis of individual freedom. Yet it 
was to be a freedom of the white race and not of the colored race. 
It must be admitted that it was worse than error for the founders of 
the republic to recognize human slavery. 

In saying this I in no way detract from the fame of our revolu- 
tionary fathers. For. although our nation may be destined to everlast- 
ing life, our revolutionary era must always remain our most interesting 
period and the great leaders of that revolution must always occupy the 
highest place in our temple of fame. But no matter how loud we may 
acclaim the virtue of those heroes and no matter how strong may be 
our praise for these soldier-statesmen, it cannot be asserted that they 
adopted a perfect plan of government. Up to 1865, there was a general 
conviction, at least in the old world, that the government established 
by our fathers w^as an experimental government and that the reasons 
against the success of that experiment were at least as strong as were 
the reasons for success. And it has only been by hard struggle, eternal 
vigilance and an untold cost of life and property that it has stood the 

But at this late day, when we view our nation's glory with pleas- 
ure and with pride, we should not criticize our statesmen for errors 
early made. Human slavery^, always bad, has been a fearful menace to 
our land — a problem statesmen tried to solve and failed — an institution 
only crushed by spilling soldier's blood. 

Two races which can never be assimilated, the one for a hundred 
years the other's slave, but freed at last by desolating war and clothed 
with equal civil rights, are left to live on common ground. And thus 
it is that our nation is required to carry the problem of these two races 
in peace and honor to the end. 

It was during the period when the question of slavery was sorely 
agitating the minds and hearts of the x\merican people that Palmer 
grew and developed into manhood. He was a small boy when the 
"Missouri Compromise" was passed. He had reached young manhood 
when the "Wilmot Proviso" was violently debated. He observed the 
reaction that followed the "Compromise of 1850." He assailed with 
all his mighty force the "Kansas-Nebraska Bill." His father, though 
not an abolitionist, despised the institution of slavery as it existed in 
the south ; and because of it he moved his family into the north where 
both he and his children would no longer witness the scenes attendant 
upon that hideous institution ; where they could give free expression 


to their views without fear of personal violence; where men wanted 
to be free and where men were free. 

In politics Palmer was essentially a Democrat. A devotee o£ 
General Jackson, the hero of New Orleans, a believer in the sover- 
eignty of the states, he became an adherent of the mighty Douglas for 
whom he cast his first vote for Congress. In his book entitled "The 
Story of an Earnest Life," he tells of meeting Douglas for the first 
time. Palmer and a boy by the name of Breed had been attending 
Shurtleff College at Alton and to earn money during the summer va- 
cation they went out to sell clocks. They stopped at a small hotel or 
boarding house and were given separate beds. After they had retired 
the landlord woke them and told them they must sleep in the same 
bed; and then introduced them to two men he had just brought in as 
Stephen A. Douglas and John T. Stuart, rival candidates for Congress. 
Douglas asked the boys what were their politics. Breed answered that 
he was a Whig and Palmer said he was a Democrat. Whereupon 
Douglas replied "I will sleep with the Democrat and Stuart you may 
sleep with the Whig." Palmer heard Douglas speak the next day. 
He was captivated by the matchless eloquence of the "Little Giant" 
and Douglas never had a more devoted adherent than Palmer until they 
separated in 1854 over the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. 

Palmer was elected to the State Senate in 1851, as a Democrat. 
Slavery was then the most absorbing question before the people. There 
was much bitterness among them because of their divergent views. 
John A. Logan, who was a Representative in the Legislature from 
Williamson County, introduced a bill entitled "An Act to prevent the 
immigration of negroes into this State." The Act provided that if any 
person shall bring a negro into the State, he shall be liable to indict- 
ment and that if any negro, bond or free, shall remain in the State for 
a period of ten days with an intention of residing here he shall, for the 
first oft'ense, be fined the sum of $50.00 and if not paid, then the negro 
should be advertised and sold at public auction and the purchaser shall 
have the right to compel the negro to work and serve out the time 
for which he was sold. Heavier penalties were provided for subse- 
quent offenses. This bill was passed and became a law. 

Palmer was opposed to the extension of slavery. He felt that 
it should be confined to the limits fixed by the Missouri Compromise ; 
and when, in 1854, Stephen A. Douglas, whom he loved and admired 
as he did no other living statesman, introduced in the Senate of the 
United States the so-called "Kansas-Nebraska Bill," which if enacted 
into law, as it finally was, would effect a repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise and open the way to the spread of slavery into every state and 
territory where it was desired by a majority of the people, Douglas 
and Palmer came to the parting of the ways. 

Palmer saw what Douglas did not: — that slavery would con- 
tinue to disturb the American people as long as that institution lasted 
— that no amount of compromise could quiet them ; that already our 
statesmen had wrestled with this great problem in the political arena 
for almost a half a century; that their efforts had been in vain; that 
their adjustments could, at best, be only temporary ; that the evils and 
incongruity of human slavery were gnawing at the very vitals of the 


American Republic and nothing- but its abolition could by any possible 
means work a permanent cure. 

So, when a resolution was introduced in the General Assembly 
of this state endorsing the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and commending 
Douglas as its author Palmer broke with his party and he and 
Douglas were political friends no more. But when the Civil War 
loomed and the nation was threatened, their great hearts again beat 
in unison for a common cause. Palmer went to Washington as a 
delegate to the Peace Convention, appointed by the illustrious war 
governor, Richard Yates. Douglas was the first man to call on 
Palmer at his hotel. They fondly greeted each other, clasped hands 
and pledged themselves to the cause of their country. Douglas came 
back to Illinois to solidify sentiment in favor of the Union. He made 
those incomparable speeches which steadied the Democratic party in 
the North, gave tremendous assurance to the Union people every- 
where, and saved the border states of Kentucky and Missouri from 
secession. Death deprived this wonderful man of the privilege of 
serving his country on the field of battle. He passed away at the 
age of 47, before the bloom of youth had faded from his cheeks. 
Yet he had accomplished more by oratory and had left his imprint on 
more constructive legislation than any other American in all the years. 
Palmer said of him, "He made two speeches in Illinois of great elo- 
quence and power, filled with fervid love of country and blazing with 
passionate attachment to our free constitutional system of govern- 
ment. These speeches were distributed over the Northwest and 
aroused the country, but hardly had his voice ceased to reverberate 
in the hall of the representatives of the state than it ceased forever. 
This first and noblest son of Illinois, this child of the people, closed 
his wonderful and brief career, crushed by that aristocracy for which 
he had so unhappily done so much. The people in the Northwest and 
especially in Illinois, hung upon his last words — forgave him all his 
errors and also wept tears of unaffected sorrow at his untimely death. 
For many years I was his political foe, but I have loved many friends 
less than him." 

With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, there came a re- 
volt against the party of Douglas, against the party which had 
moulded the course, shaped the destiny and controlled the government 
of the nation since the formation of political parties. So when the 
convention of Bloomington met in 1856, there were assembled, Demo- 
crats who had left the party of their devotion, like Palmer and Trum- 
bull — Whigs, like Lincoln and Yates — independents like Lovejoy and 
Browning — all united in the common purpose of protesting against the 
endeavor to extend human slavery and of resisting such extension 
without reference to the sacrifice which such resistance might cost. It 
was an essemblage of great men. John M. Palmer was elected perma- 
nent chairman of that historic convention. The convention adopted 
a platform declaring in no uncertain' language its opposition to 
slavery. It nominated a state ticket and selected a name for the new 
party. And thus the Republican party of the state and nation was 
born. The party that was to elevate the immortal Lincoln to the 


presidency and strike down to its death the iniquitous and accursed 
institution of slavery. 

This new party at its convention, selected delegates to a national 
convention to nominate a candidate for President and Vice-President. 
Palmer was among- those chosen to represent Illinois. John C. Fre- 
mont was nominated for President and to Palmer is due the distinction 
of placing in nomination Abraham Lincoln for Vice President. Lincoln 
was not successful. He was second in the contest. Destiny was 
saving him for a later time — saving him to lead the hosts opposed to 
slavery in 1860 — saving him for martyrdom — saving him to be an 
emancipator of men- — saving him for a place in our temple of fame 
— saving him to blot out the nation's greatest shame — saving him to 
be the most beloved of all men of all the ages. 

When rebellion broke loose, Palmer did what he was expected 
to do. He laid down his law practice in Carlinville, and went to war 
to save the Union. This great man had been an outspoken antagonist 
of slavery. He had inveighed against it on the stump. He had op- 
posed it in legislative halls. He had struck its hideous form at every 
chance. It was now his time to fight. It was the natural thing for 
him to do when his country called. He went, he fought and his 
courage is emblazoned in the skies. He was elected colonel of a 
regiment which was composed of one company from each of the ten 
counties in his congressional district. It is with great pride that I 
say that his county, Macoupin, your county, Sangamon, and my 
county, Greene, were among those which furnished him his soldiers, 
He was a soldier who fought. He fought in Missouri, at New Madrid 
and Island No. 10. He took part in the engagements around Corinth 
in Mississippi. He defended Nashville. He participated in the bat- 
tles at Stone River, Chickamauga and Lookout Mountain. He was 
in the siege of Chattanooga and at the capture of Atlanta. He went 
into the army an inexperienced colonel. He came out of it, a major- 
general. We need no additional proof of his gallantry and skill. He 
might have gone further but for a quarrel with General Sherman. The 
latter, for reasons, the soundness of which, I am not here to discuss 
or criticize did not favor the placing of large commands in the hands 
of men who had not been taught the art of war in the government 
military academy. In proof of this statement Sherman, in his 
"Memoirs" when speaking of the contemplated promotion of General 
John A. Logan to succeed General McPherson, said, "General Logan 
had taken command of the Army of the Tennessee by virtue of his 
seniority and had done well ; but I did not consider him equal to the 
command of three corps. He was a man of great courage and talent, 
but a politician by nature and experience, and it may be that for this 
reason he was mistrusted by regular officers like General Scofield, 
Thomas and myself." Sherman elevated Howard over Logan and 
Scofield over Palmer. Whether military jealousy deprived Logan and 
Palmer of military honors which might have been theirs, we will 
never know. 

Although a quarrel with General Sherman caused Palmer to re- 
sign his command over the 14th army corps, his military career was 
not entirely over. Lincoln was unwilling to lose the services of so 


capable a man. He had once refused to accept his resignation and 
when Kentucky was overrun by guerrillas and desperadoes, when law- 
lessness reigned and the people of that State were terror stricken, when 
all civil government had collapsed, the president declared martial law 
and placed the state under military protection. He needed a strong 
man to put in command of the Department of Kentucky. He naturally 
selected Palmer. He knew him in Illinois. He knew there was coupled 
in him great courage and great ability. In a short time after Palmer 
had assumed his command, many of the leading guerrillas were cap- 
tured, tried and hung. The rest fled from the state and peace and 
safety were restored. As an example of his initiative as well as of his 
courage, I cite the following historical incident. Kentucky was a slave 
state but she did not join the confederacy. A majority of her people 
believed in slavery but they wanted their state to remain a part of the 
American union. Lincoln as a matter of military expendiency issued 
his famous "Emancipation Proclamation." By this proclamation only 
the slaves in the states which had joined the confederacy were freed. 
The Proclamation had no application whatever to slaves owned in Ken- 
tucky. A great uprising among the negroes of that state took place. 
They came by thousands to Louisville where Palmer was stationed, be- 
lieving that he had the power to liberate them and pleaded with him 
to do so. He knew that he had no legal authority to do it, but he also 
knew that slavery 'in this country was doomed — that as a commander 
of a military department over a state under martial law, he had great 
powers and he decided to use them. He listened to the pleadings of 
the negroes and declared them to be free. For this act he was indicted 
under the laws of Kentucky. The sheriff came to arrest him. Palmer 
told the sheriff, "You may arrest me if you choose, but if you do, I 
have arranged with my staff to storm your jail and to arrest you and 
every grand juror who helped indict me and I will place all of you in 
the prison where you seek to confine me. I am not sure the President 
and Secretary of War will sustain me in declaring that the slaves of 
Kentucky are free but I am determined to drive the last nail in the 
coffin of slavery even if it costs me my command." It is needless to 
say that he was neither imprisoned nor shorn of his command. Soon 
the war closed ; the greatest civil conflict in all ages ended. The 13th 
amendment to the Federal Constitution was adopted. Slavery vras 
blotted out in America. The Union was preserved. 

The life of General Palmer is so full of events — great achieve- 
ments, noble deeds, big things, I can not touch upon any great number' 
of them during the course of an address confined to proper limits. Two 
years after he returned from war, he was triumphantly elected Governor 
of Illinois, as a republican. During the four years of his incumbency, 
his administration was marked not only with the striking ability of the 
man, but with fearless honesty — with an integrity of the highest order. 
It is needless to tell the story of the attempt made by the General 
Assembly to grant to a great railroad company a tract of land of 1050 
acres along the lake shore in Chicago. Palmer in a message violently 
assailed the attempt and vetoed the bill. He saved to the state and the 
City of Chicago a vast area of land now of priceless value. He protected 


the people against an unjust barter and made it possible for the present 
day development of the South Park system which is admittedly one of 
the most magnificent park systems in all the Avord. 

It was the great Chicago fire which tried his patience and tested 
his quality. A terrible holocaust swept with mighty fury, inflicting one 
of the greatest calamaties ever visited upon the inhabitants of a great 
city. Whole wards were left without a building or an inhabitant. In- 
numerable lives were lost. With his accustomed promptness and de- 
cision he issued a call, on the second day after the fire, for a special 
session of the legislature to convene three days later for the purpose of 
furnishing relief to the distressed people of Chicago. The legislature 
heroically answered the demands and soon distress had disappeared, 
and Chicago was on her way to that wonderful growth and development 
which has made her the marvel of all cities. 

It was during this great crisis that the famous conflict between 
Palmer and General Sheridan occurred. The latter was in command of 
the federal soldiers stationed near Chicago. With the consent of the 
mayor, but without the consent of the Governor, indeed, without his 
knowledge, the troops were placed in Chicago ostensibly for the pur- 
pose of supporting the police. Palmer saw no necessity for such action. 
The troops were not there to protect federal property or to aid the 
national government in the performance of a federal function. A study 
of the record of events makes it plain that Palmer was right and that 
he was justified in criticising the mayor and demanding that Sheridan 
withdraw his troops. 

The value of Palmer's services in this behalf can never be over- 
estimated. It is no defense to the conduct of the federal government 
in sending its troops into a state for the performance of a service which 
is wholly the duty of the state to perform, to say that in the particular 
case they aided in keeping the peace and killed only one innocent, and 
unoffending citizen. That is begging the question. The rights of a 
state are of vital importance. Chief Justice John Marshall the greatest 
legal luminary America has ever produced said "The state governments 
are a part of the American system of government ; they fill a well de- 
fined place, and their authority must be respected by the federal govern- 
ment if it expects that their laws will be obeyed." Oh ! for more 
Palmers to stay the hand of usurpation, and to thwart the efforts of 
those who would nationalize all governmental powers. 

Nationalism is deceptive and insidious. Its natural culmination 
"is autocracy and despotism. Under the guise of peace, pretending re- 
verence for law enforcement, nationalism silently creeps upon a people, 
like a thief in the night. It smothers individual rights and personal free- 
dom. It robs the people of their sacred privileges. It is the goal of 
the dictator. It is the ambition of the despot. It is the scheme by 
which the citizens are made more defenseless when pursued by author- 
ity of law. Palmer saw the danger of nationalism after the Civil War. 
His words were prophetic and his warning was wise. 

In 1888 Palmer was again nominated for Governor, but this time 
by the Democrats, and in this rock ribbed Republican State he carried 
on a campaign with tremendous energy and unusual brilliancy. He 
greatly reduced the Republican majority and it may be confidently 


assei'ted that he would have entirely wiped it out had his opponent 
been any other than that keen and forceful gentleman who honors this 
occasion by his presence, Illinois' grandest old man, the Honorable 
Joseph W. Fifer. 

Probably no contest for a seat in the United States Senate ever 
aroused as much interest among all the people of this country as did 
the one in 1891 between Palmer and that gallant soldier and idol of 
the people, former Governor Richard J. Oglesby. It was in the days 
when Senators were elected by the members of the General Assembly. 
One hundred and three votes were necessary for election. The Demo- 
crats supporting Palmer had 101. The Republicans supporting Oglesby 
had 100. The Populists had 3. The loyalty shown by the 101 fol- 
lowers of Palmer throughout the long stretch of days and weeks and' 
months of that contest has seldom been displayed by men on any field 
of action. The soldiers of Leonidas at the Pass of Thermopylae were 
no more steadfast and true than were that now famous "101" who 
finally elected Palmer with the help of two of the Populists. 

During his term in the Senate, he disagreed with the majority of 
his party on the money question. He did not believe in the free and 
unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1. This disagreement 
caused him to forsake the party of his early manhood and of his old 
age. He alligned himself with the so-called "Gold Democrats" and 
was nominated by them for President of the United States. Of course 
he was criticised, severely criticised. He was charged with forsaking 
the party which had struggled so hard to elevate him to a place of dis- 
tinction and power. And now without regard to whether Palmer's 
critics were right or wrong, no one should have been surprised at his 
conduct when they became aware of his views. 

He was not a party-man and yet whatever party he affiliated with 
he recognized its organization and rewarded its workers. But when 
there arose an irreconciliable difference between him and his party on a 
matter of great national consequence, he had always been known to 
follow his conscience even at the cost of violent criticism and the 
sacrifice of political prestige. To be bold and defiant was a part of 
Palmer's nature. They were characteristics too deeply imbedded in 
him to be dislodged. He broke with Douglas and left the Democratic 
party, not because his great faith and love for Douglas had waned, but 
because he could not espouse the cause of slavery. His very soul 
revolted against it. He broke with Sherman not because he chose to 
be insubordinate to his superior officer, but because he resented an in- 
justice. He broke with Sheridan not because of any personal difference 
with one who shared the fate of battle with him, but because he would 
not tolerate an invasion of the sovereign rights of the State over which 
he was the Governor. He broke with Grant and left the Republican 
party not because he was disgruntled in politics or his ambition 
thwarted, but because he believed that "precedents of despotism become 
public law and in the progress of time are turned against the author." 
He broke with his later day followers and again left the Democratic 
party not because he was unmindful of the honors he had received, 
but because he believed the free coinage of silver would destroy an 
honest currency and was otherwise unjust and indefensible. 


Whether we deem him wise or unwise in shifting his party affili- 
ations, everyone must concede that this great stalwart man followed 
his convictions whatever it cost. Bear this in mind. He was never a 
fawning, patronizing politician, with his ear to the ground, intent on 
learning the public mind and courting public favor. He never espoused 
a cause in search of popularity. He never left a political party which 
was in a minority. Everytime he left a party he left a majority to 
join a minority. He never shifted his sails to meet the varying po- 
litical breezes. Before entering battle he never reckoned the odds. 
He fought for justice and for right as God gave him the power to 
know them and he feared not the result. 

As a military man, he won high rank among the greatest men of 
*his day. In the political afifairs of this state and nation he reached 
an eminence rarely attained. In private life, his achievements were 
no less notable. He chose the law for his profession. According to 
an old adage, the law is a jealous mistress. It demands an uninter- 
rupted devotion. It exacts an unfaltering fidelity. Palmer gave to it 
the best years of his life. It furnished him with an opportunity for the 
display of his genius for logic and oratorv, for the manifestation of his 
love for right and justice. He succeeded in the practice of law as 
he succeeded in every other thing he undertook. His superior abilities 
were recognized in every county to which his considerable practice ex- 
tended. He was a leader at the bar where men of giant intellects 
practiced. He was held in the highest esteem by his fellow lawyers, and 
by the judges of the courts. He was a learned, profound and careful 
lawyer. Always faithful to his clients, he nevertheless observed the 
ethics of his profession. While ever courteous to his adversaries, he 
was zealous in his client's behalf. One of his contemporaries and a 
man who knew him well. General John I. Rinaker, once said, that 
any man who got into a conflict with Palmer in a law suit, could ex- 
pect to come out with at least a few scars. 

He was County Judge of Macoupin County. He was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1847. As a member of such con- 
vention he was the original advocate of a judicial system which is the 
basis of our present system. No one can fully appreciate the value 
or his proposal without an understanding of the exploitation of the 
courts by the politicians under the Constitution of 1818. 

Not only was he chiefly responsible for restoring the prestige and 
dignity of our courts, but he was largely instrumental in preserving 
the credit of the state and by his successful fight against further 
authorizing banks organized under the laws of this State to issue 
notes or bills to circulate as money, he put an end to "wild-cat cur- 
rency," which had been a plague upon the state. 

What a summing up can be made of the life of this man : — A 
pioneer, who helped to blaze the way for future civilization in Illinois ; 
a lawyer who added lustre to his profession ; a judge who presided 
over a court of record; a member of a convention which wrote a 
constitution for the state; a soldier, who aided in putting down a 
rebellion and in making an indissoluble union of the states ; a military 
commander, who proclaimed the freedom of slaves within his juris- 
diction ; a law-maker in the General Assembly of his State, and in 


the Senate of the United States; a governor of his state, a nominee 
for President, the highest office within the gift of the nation ; a citizen 
loved and respected by his neighbors ; a husband and father w^ho pro- 
tected and revered the sanctity of the home. 

The grandeur of this man was never more resplendent than in 
his home. Loving and lovable, he valued honor and virtue above all 
else. He bestowed upon his devoted widow, who graces this platform 
this afternoon and upon his children, the idol of his dreams, a proud 
name and a splendid example, which they have kept unsullied. 

While America last, and last she must, for she is at the same time 
the example and the hope of those devoted to self-government, Palmer's 
imprint upon her institutions will endure. Unlike Egypt's tapering 
pyramids, lofty monuments, mere towers of silence pointing to the 
skies but speaking of no great deeds done in man's behalf, his works 
for liberty and justice are so firmly engraved that they cannot be effaced 
while men live and die for freedom. 













Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by J. O. P. 
BURNSIDE, in the Clerk's Office, of the District Court for Illinois. 



This history of Stephenson County was pubUshed, at Freeport, 
in 1854. Few copies are to be found. In Illinois Historical Collec- 
tions Vol. 9 Travel and Description 1765-1865 by S. J. Buck, published 
1914, page 366, it is stated that copies of the original printed history 
are in the Newberry Library, Chicago, and in the Library of the Wis- 
consin Historical Society, and that a typewritten copy was made at 
Polo, Illinois, in 1911. The Illinois State Historical Library recently 
purchased from Miss Angeline Clinton of Polo, the manuscript from 
which this history of Stephenson County is now printed. As such a 
long period of time has elapsed since its first printing sixty-nine years 
ago, and copies of it are rare and hard to find, the Historical Society 
considers the material of sufficient interest to warrant its publication 
as a contribution to the history of Illinois and the Old Northwest. 




In preparing the following brief sketches for publication it has not 
been contemplated to dignify the collection with the name of a history. 
The writer is sensible that it is not every record of facts, however true, 
-v\'hich is entitled to such an appellation, and is fully satisfied that the 
most lenient criticism, could not overlook the presumption of giving to 
a few rambling sketches, such an ostentatious title. 

A good portion of the work may be regarded as a compilation 
rather than an original composition, and the rest may be said to belong 
to that class of annals which serve to furnish materials for history. 

The work, such as it is, purposes to give some account of the 
early settlement and history of Stephenson County, Illinois, preceded 
by such notice of the early discovery of the Mississippi Valley as may 
be considered sufficient for introduction; and accompanied by such 
remarks concerning some other portions of the Northwest as may be 
necessary to throw additional light on the facts narrated. Events 
relating to the aboriginal owners of the soil ; incidents of the Black 
Hawk War ; the difficulties encountered and the dangers undergone by 
the early Pioneers ; the rapid growth of the country in wealth, popula- 
tion, and importance ; the prosperity of the present, and brilliant pros- 
pects for the future; — are all subjects which will come under our 
'consideration. The materials, for that portion of the work which 
treats of the discovery and subsequent history of the Northwest, previ- 
ous to the time of the Black Hawk War, have been gleaned from vari- . 
ous sources. The part of the narration commencing with the Black 
Hawk War and giving the progress of events up to the organization of 
the County, was for the most part obtained from the lips of those who 
w^ere eye witnesses to many of the occurrences related. The County 
Records and files of newspapers, which were kindl}' placed within 
reach afforded additional source of information. Readers must there- 
fore judge for themselves how far it is entitled to their confidence as 
an accurate narrative. 

It has been remarked, that when Europeans first set foot upon 
our eastern shores, they are for the most part deeply struck with a 
certain aspect of freshness, vigor, and vitality, which the country 
presents. Nothing looks old and antiquated, but, as a writer remarks, 
"the cities and villages appear as if they were recently commenced, and 
being rapidly pushed toward completion, to appear well at some great 
cosmopolitan fete near at hand." If the traveler experiences emotions 


like these as he surveys tlie country on the sea-board, what must be 
his astonishment when he looks westward of the Alleghanies, and the 
thriving towns and villages in the Great Valley of the Mississippi meet 
his view? As he beholds countless vessels navigating rivers and lakes 
which a short time since were not ruffled but by the Indian's canoe or 
the plumage of the water fowl ; as he sees fertile fields where but yes- 
terday herds of buffalo and wild deer roamed unrestrained ; as he sees 
populous cities rising like the fabulous enchanted palaces almost in a 
single night, on the banks of the river, on the margin of the lake, in 
the depths of the forest or the bosom of the prairie; and all connected 
with those iron bands which shorten space and time; he will be ready 
to admit that it is not without some reason the western people are dis- 
posed to boast of their fair inheritance. Whether viewed in the light 
of its past history, its present prospects or its future destiily, the 
country bordering on the "Father of Waters" possesses great interest 
and importance. There is something so remarkable in the amazing 
rapidity with which so vast an amount of territory has been rescued 
from the wilderness and made a great and populous country, that it 
seems more like the realization of some romantic vision, than fixed 

The rapid extension of the Saxon race over this continent has 
often elicited the wonder of those who pay any regard to the progress 
of society. History tells us of the marvelous manner in which a hand- 
ful of Greeks under Alexander and successors, overran and held for 
a long period the whole of the east. So deeply was their influence felt 
that the manners and language of the East were in a measure changed. 
The Old Testament was translated into Greek on the banks of the Nile ; 
the New Testament was written in Greek, and this language was the 
channel which most of the great Philosophers and Scholars of that 
age made use of in communicating their thoughts to the world. But, 
although there are many choice writings extant in that tongue, although 
it is still studied by scholars and admired for the euphony of its 
words, and the clearness with which it presents ideas to the mind's 
eye, it is a dead language. It has ceased to be a means of direct com- 
munication over the civilized world, and the Macedonian Empire which 
served so greatly to increase its diffusion has long since passed awav. 

The establishment of the Roman Empire from the white cliffs 
of Britain unto the banks of the Euphrates, is another remarkable 
instance of the spread of a people and the universality of their tongue. 
But Rome, too, perished as it deserved and its language has ceased to 
be a spoken language. 

The wonderful rapidity with which these two Great Empires over- 
ran the world, and the power they established is, nevertheless, of trifling 
importance when compared with the swift and sure progress the 
Anglo Saxon race are making in the present century. Whatever serves 
therefore to keep up the memory of those wonderful events which 
have transpired in our past history, whatever serves to illustrate our 
present progress and call attention to our future destiny cannot be 
looked on by any enterprising member of community with indifference, 
and it is hoped the following sketches of Western Historv will help 


to create in the minds of its readers feelings of thankfulness to the 
Giver of all good who has cast their lot in such a country and in such 
an age. 

The written history of the Mississippi Valley commences with its 
discovery by Europeans, consequently there is no positive information 
respecting the history, manners and customs of those who inhabited 
the country long before the eye of the white man surveyed this region 
of country, and long before the adventurous Genoese navigator spread 
his sails to the breeze, a race of men occupied this country who were 
skilled in many of the ^ arts of peace and war, and who possessed a 
degree of intelligence far above the nomadic tribes who were found 
here in the sixteenth century. The sepulchral mounds so thickly 
scattered over the country in which, many curiosities are often dis- 
covered, such as bricks and metallic remains; the ancient fortifica- 
tions some of which contain many acres of land; vestiges of towns 
laid out in streets and squares with due regularity; all go far to con- 
vince us that if the history of this country in by-gone centuries, had 
been preserved, it would have contained events of no ordinary interest. 
And the customs and habits of those who left behind them these tower- 
ing mounds, and magnificent ruins of cities and temples, must have 
differed widely from the usages in existence among the dwellers of 
the wigwams who came in their footsteps. 

Those who would attempt the history of the Western Continent, 
have a field for conjecture as extensive as was ever presented to the 
imaginations of those who composed the famous epics of Greece and 
Rome. Tales as wonderful as any in Arabic Story, or classic 
Mythology might easily be narrated. But great as the temptation 
might seem for writers to shoot off into those regions of fancy, the 
fictitious scribblers of the present day seem more disposed to follow 
some more beaten track, and confine their researches to matters where 
the exercise of the imagination is less laborious. Whether this arises 
from their good sense, or lack of a precedent in such a quarter is hard 
to determine. At any rate their negligence is hardly to be deplored 
as we have already a host of imaginative writers whose lucubrations 
are confessedly of no great utility to mankind. 

Although that ancient people who lived in the Mississippi Valley 
at an early day were evidently far in advance of our Modern Indians, 
it is hardly to be supposed that they were much skilled in agricultural 
pursuits, or that they made farming the principal means of support. 
It is said there are no traces found of domestic animals, that were 
indigenous to this portion of the American Continent. The wild deer 
and buffalo could not be tamed and cows and sheep were unknown 
before they were imported by Europeans. "No grain was indigenous 
but Indian Corn." At the same time, there was abundance of game, 
owing to the scarcity of those savage and destructive animals which 
in some parts of the world prey on the weaker beasts which serve 
for the food of man — all tended to woo man from the labors of the 
field to the chase, where a living might be procured with little labor 
or care. From these circumstances it may be inferred that hunting. 


and not agriculture, was the means employed for gaining a subsistence 
by those who have preceded Europeans on this continent. 

Many fanciful theories have been invented to explain the manner 
in which this country came to be originally settled. There is some 
probabilit} , however, in the supposition, that tlie pristine inhabitants 
were of Asiatic origin. The copper-colored natives of America bear 
i) strong resemblance to the Asiatic Tartars, and many of the customs 
extant among the Indians are similar to those of many wild tribes of 
the ancient continent. It is said that the warlike Sc}theans were in 
the practice of scalping their foes, and putting to death their prisoners 
with the crudest tortures ; that they also disguised themselves in the 
skins of beasts when disposed to deceive their game or frighten their 
enemies : — all of which practices are common among the Indians of 
North America. The Chinese are also reported to have a map of this 
country on their ancient maps, which of course would prove that they 
were not ignorant of its position. 

The character of the people whom the early French travelers 
found on the banks of the Mississippi is too well known to require 
much comment. That they were a people as wild and free as the 
untamed steeds which traverse the prairies, and possessed of an in- 
vincible spirit is well known. Hospitality to strangers, steadfastness 
in friendship, are their characteristics not less than the dreadful anger 
and implacable revenge for which they are justly condemned. How 
long they held possession of this country it is difficult to determine, 
but the struggles which they made to retain it, their overthrow and 
expulsion forms a melancholy chapter in the history of the world, 
which will not soon pass from the remembrance of man. 

As we will have frequent occasion to allude to many of these 
tribes in the course of our narrative, we will reserve further comment 
respecting them, and proceed to take notice of some of the early 
European voyagers and the progress of events in the Northw^est previ- 
ous to the Black Hawk War. 



In the month of May, 1539, a Spanish fleet commanded by Ferdi- 
nand De Soto came to anchor in Tampa Bay on the coast of Florida. 
Others of his countrymen had previously visited this part of the 
country, and taken back wonderful accounts of its richness and beauty. 
These reports, together with other stories then in circulation concern- 
ing the inexhaustible treasures of the west created in the mind of De 
Soto a desire to tread in the footsteps of Cortez and Pizarro. He 
obtained leave of Charles V. to conquer Florida at his own cost, and, 
as the expedition seemed a brilliant and promising one, he had little 
difficulty in raising all the troops necessary for his purpose. Men of 
wealth and high standing in the country were eager to embark in the 
enterprise, expecting that the riches of the new Eldorado were not 
inferior to those of Peru. About six hundred men followed in his 
train, splendid military equipments were purchased, abundant stores 
of provisions were provided, nor did they neglect to take along chains 
for the captives which they anticipated to make in the course of their 

When he landed in Florida, De Soto, following the example of 
ether Generals who have sought to increase the ardor and bravery of 
their troops by making retreat impossible, caused his ships to be sent 
away before he took up his march into the interior, where he expected 
to find those mines of wealth of which preceding navigators had spoken. 
In June they started to explore the country and spent the rest of the 
summer in a fruitless search for gold. The Indians in Florida were 
not over solicitous for the society of the soldiers ; they told them there- 
fore, that the country to the northeast of them contained the treasures 
they sought, and their visitors eagerly followed their directions and 
set out on their march to Georgia. Here again they were baffled, and 
turned in a westward direction. After undergoing innumerable hard- 
ships, they discovered in May 1541, for the first time, the waters of 
the Mississippi. After exploring the country a short distance west of 
the river, De Soto returned again to its banks disheartened and broken 
down in spirit, and being attacked by a disease, in all probability 
brought on by his labor and anxiety, he died after an illness of seven 
days, and his body was sunk in the waters of the river which he had 
discovered. His followers succeeded in preparing vessels to take them 
to' sea. and finally out of the six hundred who had accompanied their 
leader from Spain, about three hundred departed from the scene of 
rheir disasters. 

Such was the first European expedition to the Mississippi Valley. 
z\nd although its object seems to have been merely to gratify vain 
ambition and cupidity, no one can regard its melancholy termination 


otherwise than with regret. Had the ranks of these warriors been 
thinned on the field of open battle, had they fell in the moment of 
victory, the world, while it had mourned, would have given that ap- 
plause w^hich is deemed the tribute due to heroism; but to perish 
ingloriously in the swamps and forests of the South, by the hand of 
the lurking savage — by hunger and disease; to die, having the last 
moments of life embittered by disappointment; to die, thinking that 
posterity would regard them as chimerical adventurers — this was a 
termination to the expedition little expected by those brave soldiers 
who a short time before landed with flying pennons and clad in glisten- 
ing armour, their hearts filled with hope and burning with enthusiasm. 
It' is one of the many instances on record where men acting from 
wrong motives have failed of success. Thus far they had not estab- 
lished a single fort, or laid the foundation for any colony, and the only 
thing gained by the expedition was a dear-bought conviction of the 
futility of such an enterprise. 

The next expedition to the Mississippi was widely different in its 
character and in its results. Cartier, a French navigator discovered 
and sailed up the St. Lawrence more than three hundred years ago, 
and claimed the whole country of the Indians as the property of his 
royal master. It was not, however, till 1634, that the Jesuits estab- 
lished a missionary station on Lake Huron, and planted the seeds of 
empire in the Northwest. In 1655, another mission was established at 
La Pointe on the western shore of Lake Superior, and here they heard 
marvelous stories of the "great river" in the west, which has its springs 
among the snow clad hills of the cold North, and its outlet in the beau- 
tiful groves of the South. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, a small party of seven embarked at 
Michilimackinac for the wxst in two bark canoes ; their whole store of 
provisions being a little Indian corn and jerked meat. Such humble 
preparations afford a strong contrast to the gorgeous equipment of the 
Spaniards of w^hom we have just spoken ; and the style of the outfit 
vv^as not the only thing in which the expeditions differed. The leader 
of the first was a haughty Castilian Cavalier, a man of war ; the fore- 
most in the second was a Missionary, a humble man and an avowed 
advocate of love and peace. The one seemed incident to adventure by 
the love of wealth and the promptings of ambition; the other desired 
the conversion of the natives. It is, however, to be questioned whether 
all the Frenchmen who accompanied or came- after Padre Marquette 
vs'ere actuated by such a motive. While some came with the intention 
of befriending the savages, multitudes, it is probable, were actuated 
by sordid avarice. 

Marquette and his companions sailed through Green Bay, entered 
the Fox River and crossing to the portage on the Wisconsin, floated 
down that stream tmtil they reached the Mississippi. 

On the 17th of June, 1673, they entered the "great river," and 
after floating down its current for three or four days they landed at a 
village of the "Illinois" tribe and were received with great hospitality. 
After a great deal of smoking and exchange of compliments the natives 
gave them a feast of hominy, fish, dog, and roast buffalo. After par- 


taking of as much of this entertainment as was agreeable to them, the 
Frenchmen proceeded down the stream as far as the present site of 
Alton. They then concluded that to descend the river much farther 
would be productive of danger, and began to return. They came back 
by the lUinois River, and were highly delighted with the country 
through which they passed. Marquette in his journal says "they dis- 
covered the most fertile country in the world, watered by fine rivers; 
woods filled with the choicest vines and apple trees ; extensive prairies 
covered with the buffalo, deer, wild fowls of various descriptions, and 
even parrots of a particular kind."' They reached Green Bay in Sep- 
tember, and reported their discovery, and not long after Marquette 
returned to the "Illinois" by their request and ministered unto them 
until 1675. In the month of May in this year as he was passing up 
Lake Michigan in his boat, he proposed to land at the mouth of a 
stream and perform mass. He went a little apart from his men to 
pray, who after waiting for a length of time, and becoming alarmed 
at his absence went to seek him and found him dead where he had been 
praying. The stream is called Marquette. 

Although the early French adventurers who sought the west dis- 
covered that the chances for obtaining gold were not favorable, they 
easily perceived that the fur trade might become a source of immense 
wealth. Trading posts were speedily established in the vicinity of the 
lakes, along the Illinois, the Red River and the Mississippi, and various 
other quarters, forming a chain to connect the Canadas and Louisianas, 
and thus secure a large possession in the basin of the Mississippi. It 
is thought that Cahokia and Kaskaskia in this State were settled by 
traders and missionaries as early as 1690. A permanent settlement 
was made at Detroit in 1701. In 1718 a fortification was estabUshed 
near Kaskaskia and called Fort Chartres, and in this and the following 
year these three French settlements, Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Fort 
Chartres were increased by immigrants from Canada and France via 
New Orleans, which city was also commenced in 1718. 

In 1720, Philip Francis Renault came into Illinois with 500 slaves 
whom he had purchased at St. Domingo, and a large number of 
mechanics. He came as the agent of "The Company of the West" 
intending to prosecute the mining business extensively. He established 
a village a few miles above Kaskaskia and called it St. Phillips. From 
this place he sent out his miners in various directions to make discov- 
eries in minerals of gold, silver and diamonds, which they imagined 
were to be found in this region, and although unsuccessful in pursuit 
of these treasures, they discovered some extensive mines of lead which 
proved of great value. The lead which they there obtained was carried 
on pack horses to the Mississippi, sent to New Orleans in boats and 
thence to France. 

Renault's operations were, however, soon checked. By an edict 
of the King of France made in May, 1719, the Company of the West 
were united to the East India and China Company, under the name of 
the Royal Company of the Indies, this company some time after failed 
and Renault was deprived of the means of carrying on his business. 
He was, however, so successful as to obtain some large tracts of coun- 


try for his services, and continued to remain in the country from the 
time of the failure of the company in 1731 until 1744, when he returned 
to his native country, after having disposed of his slaves to the French 
settlers. This was the first introduction of slavery into Illinois. 

The following description of the customs of the early French 
settlers is taken from the Annals of the West, a work to which we are 
indebted for a knowledge of many of the events above mentioned : 

"The style of agriculture in all the French settlements was simple. 
Both the Spanish and French governments, in forming settlements on 
the Mississippi, had special regard to convenience of social intercourse, 
and protection from the Indians. All their settlements were required 
to be in the form of villages or towns, and lots of convenient size for 
a door-yard, garden and stable-yard, were provided for each family. 
To each village were granted two tracts of land at convenient distances, 
for "commonfields" and commons. 

A commonfield is a tract of land of several hundred acres enclosed 
in common by the villagers, each person furnishing his proportion of 
labor and each family possessing individual interest in a portion of the 
field, marked off, and bounded from the rest. Ordinances were made 
to regulate the repairs of fences, the time of excluding cattle in the 
spring, and the time of gathering the crops, or opening the field for 
the range of cattle in the fall. Each plat of ground in the common- 
field was owned in fee simple by the person to whom granted, subject 
to sale and conveyance the same as any landed property. 

A Common is a tract of land granted to the town for wood and 
pasturage, in which each owner of a village lot has a common, but not 
an individual right. In some cases this tract embraces several thou- 
sand acres. 

By this arrangement something like a community system existed 
in their intercourse. If the head of a family was sick, met with any 
casuality, or was absent as an engagee his family sustained little in- 
convenience. His plat in the common field was cultivated by his neigh- 
bors and the crop gathered. 

A pleasant custom existed in these French villages not thirty years 
since and which had come down from the remotest period. 

The Husbandman on his return at evening from his daily toil, was 
always met by his affectionate femme with the friendly kiss, and very 
commonly with one, perhaps two of the youngest children to receive 
the same salutation from le pere. 

This daily interview was at the gate of the dooryard, and in view 
of all the villagers. The simple hearted people were a happy and con- 
tented race. A few traits of these ancient characteristics remain, but 
most of the descendants of the French are fully Americanized. 

But a more interesting and ambitious -class of men were soon 
to occupy this western country. The French war which lasted from 
1754 to 1763 was the means of bringing many hardy adventurers west 
of the Alleghanies. In the course of the war much of the country 
had been explored by the colonial armies, and when at its close France 
ceded to Britain, Canada and all other possessions east of the Miss- 
issippi, settlers began to crowd into the valley of the Ohio. As might 

. 228 

have been expected these met with considerable opposition from the 
Indian tribes, who were in all probability instigated to hostilities by 
the Canadians and French. A little before the close of the war Alex- 
ander Henry, an Englishman, went to Michilimackinac for the pur- 
pose of trading with the Indians, and found them very much disaffected 
with the British. One of the chiefs waited on him and made him the 
following speech : "Englishman ! although you have conquered the 
French, you have not conquered us ! We are not your slaves ! These 
lakes, these woods, these mountains, were left to us by our ancestors. 
They are our inheritance and we will part with them to none. Your 
nation suppose that we, like the white people, cannot live without 
bread, and pork, and beef. But you ought to know that He, the Great 
Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for us upon these broad 
lakes and in these mountains." 

Although peace had been declared between the two great European 
powers, a combination of the Indians was speedily formed to resist the 
aggressions of the English. At the head of this confederacy was the 
renowned Pontiac, a chief of the Ottawa tribe. He traveled among 
his countrymen in different parts of the west declaring that the Great 
Spirit said to them, "Why do you suffer these dogs in red clothing to 
enter your country, and take the land I have given you? Drive them 
from it ! When you are in distress I will help you." And with such 
skill did he form his plans, that the impending danger was kept secret 
from the English until all was in readiness to commence the attack. 
On the day appointed they attacked the settlements and forts on a line 
of some thousand miles, and out of twelve forts nine surrendered. At 
Detroit, Fort Pitt and Fort Niagara they were unsuccessful. The In- 
dians became disheartened because of this partial failure, divisions took 
place in their ranks, and some even formed treaties of peace with the 

Pontiac finding himself abandoned, sought the west and strove 
once more to form an alliance, but was unsuccessful. In 1769 being 
invited to an Indian feast near the village of Cahokia he was killed 
during the festival by one of the Kaskaskia Indians. 

In the month of February, 1764, a party of Frenchmen from New 
Orleans and other settlements near the river landed on the west bank 
of the Mississippi, erected a few cabins, laid off a village, and in honor 
of the King of France called it St. Louis. 

In 1778, with the exception of the old French settlements, and a 
few families, here and there along the Wabash and Illinois rivers, the 
whole of this State was the possession of the Indians. 

In this year General George Rogers Clark headed an expedition 
into the State, wrested the villages from the British, and after that 
time we begin to date the settlement of Americans in Illinois. 



In the early part of the Revolutionary War, the French villages 
in Illinois were in the hands of the British. Agents were sent to these 
posts in the Northwest, for the purpose of arousing the savages to 
commit depredations on the frontiers of the United States. Arms were 
given them, and rewards promised for whatever mischief they might 
be able to effect against the Americans. The French people too, al- 
though by no means friendly to British rule, were rendered hostile to 
the i\mericans from the accounts they had heard of the ferocity of 
"The Long Knives" who, it was said, carried on warfare with all the 
cruelty of savages. Fearing an invasion of these men, they also gave 
the Indians their countenance and assistance. 

Such was the state of things in 1777, when George Rogers Clark, 
cne of the chief spirits of Kentucky, began to meditate the capture of 
the British posts in Illinois. He was satisfied that if the British could 
only be expelled, the Indians brought from under their influence, mii^lit 
be awed or coaxed into something like neutrality; and as the inimical 
feelings of the French inhabitants were caused by the misrepresenta- 
tions of the English, he might naturally have supposed there would be 
little doubt that their sympathy and co-operation could be secured when 
they found out the true character of the Americans and their ground 
of quarrel. He accordingly started for Williamsburgh, the capital of 
Virginia, and in December 1777, laid the plan he had formed before 
Patrick Henry, who was then Governor of Virginia. In the spring of 
1778, he was authorized to enlist seven companies of men and proceed 
to "the West. As most of the troops east of the Alleghanies were 
needed on the Atlantic seaboard, he determined to engage men in the 
Ohio Valley, in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, Holston and other points, 
where there was a prospect of raising recruits. Having mustered three 
or four companies, he set out on his march for Kaskaskia, and after 
a long and difficult march, on the fourth of July they reached their 
destination. In an incredible short space of time, he gained possession 
of all the military posts in that quarter, and made firm friends of the 
French, who were attached to the Americans, not only on account of 
the moderation and generosity which they had shown in their conduct 
towards the citizens, but also from the fact that they were now the 
allies of the French nation. Many conferences were held with Indians 
who had formerly been hostile, and some of the most bitter enemies 
of the Americans, came forward, and disclaiming further connection 
with their British friends, declared themselves "Big Knives" for the 


In October the conquered country — if that can be called a conquest 
which was accomplished with means so pacific, and with the hearty 
concurrence of the inhabitants — was formed by the House of Burgesses 
of Virginia into a County called Illinois, and attached to that Common- 
wealth, John Todd, Esq. of Kentucky, was appointed Lieutenant Colo- 
nel and Civil Commandant. 

In November of the same year, the following complimentary reso- 
lutions to those engaged in the Illinois expedition, was passed by the 
Virginia Legislature. 

"Whereas, authentic information has been received that Lieu- 
tenant Colonel George Rogers Clark, with a body of Virginia militia, 
has reduced the British posts in the western part of this Common- 
wealth, on the river Mississippi and its branches, whereby great ad- 
vantage may accrue to the common cause of America, as well as this 
Commonwealth in particular : 

Resolved, that the thanks of this house are justly due to the said 
Colonel Clark and the brave officers and men under his command, for 
their extraordinary resolution and perseverance in so hazardous an 
enterprise, and for their important services thereby rendered their 

Clark's expedition was the means of making known to the people 
of the eastern states the fertile plains of the Great West, and numbers 
of those who explored the country at that time returned at the close 
of the war with their families. 

The first settlement formed by people from the United States 
was made near Bellefontaine, in Monroe County, in 1781, where a 
few families from western Virginia established themselves. Other 
immigrants soon followed, and the little settlements continued to 
prosper, although compelled to suffer much from the hostility of the 
Indian tribes around them. Two American settlements were started 
within the present boundaries of St. Clair County previous to the 
year 1800. 

In 1784 Virginia ceded to the United States all her claims to the 
country northwest of the Ohio, called the Northwestern Territory, and 
shortly after Congress made arrangements for a territorial govern- 
ment, and General Arthur St. Clair was appointed the first Governor. 
In 1800 the Territory of Indiana was formed, and of this Illinois 
formed a part for nine years. 

The various tribes of Indians scattered along the frontier had not 
in the meanwhile been idle. From the close of the Revolutionary War 
until the commencement of the last war with Great Britain there were 
few, if any, intervals in which all the inhabitants of the West enjoyed 
peace and security. The limited scope of the present work precludes 
the idea of giving a history of these transactions in lengthy detail, yet 
there are some events so closely connected with the history of this 
section of country in which we reside that their omission would 
scarcely be deemed justifiable. 

One of these — and one to which future reference will be made — I? 
the treaty of 1804, made between the United States and the united 
tribes of the Sacs and Foxes. This treaty was concluded in November, 


1804, and as it is the basis of those treaties which were subsequently 
made with these Indians, and one, moreover, whose validity was so 
strongly contested by the renowned Black Hawk, we give our readers 
a copy of it entire, as we find it recorded. 

"Articles of a treaty, made at St. Louis, in the District of Lou- 
isiana, between William Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory and of the District of Louisiana; Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs for the said territory and district and Commissioner Pleni- 
potentiary of the United States, for concluding any treaty or treaties 
\sdiich may be found necessary with any of the Northwestern tribes 
of Indians, of the one part, and head men of the united Sac and Fox 
tribes, of the other part. 

Article 1. The United States receive the united Sac and Fox 
tribes into their friendship and protection; and the said tribes agree 
to consider themselves under the protection of the United States, and 
of no other power whatsoever. 

Art. 2. The general boundary line between the lands of the 
United States and of the said Indian tribes shall be as follows, viz. : 
•Beginning at a point on the Missouri River, opposite to the mouth of 
the Gasconada River; thence, in a direct course, so as to strike the 
River Jefferson at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and 
down the said Jefferson to the Mississippi ; thence up the Mississippi 
to the mouth of the Ouisconsin River, and up the same to a point 
which shall be thirty-six miles, in a direct line from the mouth of said 
river; thence by a direct line to a point where the Fox River (a branch 
of the Illinois) leaves the small lake called the Sakaegan ; thence down 
the Fox River to the Illinois River, and down the same to the Miss- 
issippi. And the said tribes, for and in consideration of the friendship 
of the United States, which is now extended to them, of the goods 
(to the value of two thousand two hundred and thirty- four dollars 
and fifty cents), which are now delivered, and of the annuity herein- 
after stipulated to be paid, do hereby cede and relinquish forever, to 
the United States, all the lands included within the above described 

Art. 3. In consideration of the cession and relinquishment of 
land made in the preceding article, the LTnited States will deliver to 
the said tribes, at the town of St. Louis, or some other convenient 
place on the Mississippi, yearly and every year, goods suited to the 
circumstances of the Indians of the value of one thousand dollars (six 
hundred of which are intended for the Sacs, and four hundred for the 
Foxes), reckoning that value at the first cost of the goods in the city 
or place in the LTnited States, where they shall be procured. And if 
the said tribes shall hereafter, at an annual delivery of the goods 
aforesaid, desire that a part of their annuity should be furnished in 
domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other utensils, con- 
venient for them, the same shall at a subsequent annual delivery be 
furnished accordingly. 

Art. 4. The United States will never interrupt the said tribes in 
the possession of the land which they rightfully claim ; but will, on the 
contrary, protect them in the quiet enjoyment of the same, against 


their own citizens, and against all other white persons, who may 
intrude upon them. And the said tribes do hereby engage that they 
will never sell their land, or any part thereof, to any sovereign power 
but the United States; nor to the citizens or subjects of any other 
sovereign power, nor to the citizens of the United States. 

Art. 5. Lest the friendship which is now established between 
the United States and the said Indian tribes should be interrupted by 
the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed, that for injuries 
done by individuals, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place ; 
but, instead thereof, complaint shall be made by the party injured 
to the other ; by the said tribes, or either of them, to the Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, or one of his deputies ; and by the Superintendent or 
other person appointed by the President, to the chiefs of the said 
tribes. And it shall be the duty of the said chiefs, upon complaint 
being made, as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or persons against 
whom the complaint is made, to the end that he, or they, may be 
punished agreeably to the laws of the state or territory where the 
offense may have been committed. And, in like manner, if any 
robbery, violence or murder shall be committed on any Indian or- 
Indians, belonging to the said tribes or either of them, the person or 
persons so offending shall be tried, and if found guilty, punished, in 
like manner as if the injury had been done to a white man. And it is 
further agreed, that the chiefs of the said tribes shall, to the utmost 
of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other property 
which may be stolen from any citizen or citizens of the United States 
by any individual or individuals of their tribes. And the property so 
recovered shall be forthwith delivered to the Superintendent, or other 
person authorized to receive it, that it may be restored to the proper 

And in cases where the exertions of the chiefs shall be ineffectual 
in recovering the property stolen, as aforesaid, if sufficient proof can 
be obtained that such property was actually stolen by any Indian or 
Indians, belonging to the said tribes, or either of them, the United 
States may deduct from the annuity of the said tribes a sum equal 
to the value of the property which was stolen. And the United States 
hereby guaranty to any Indian or Indians of the said tribes a full 
indemnification for any horses, or other property, which may be stolen 
from them by any of their citizens : Provided, that the property so 
stolen cannot be recovered, and that sufficient proof is produced that 
it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States. 

Art. 6. If any citizen of the United States, or any other white 
person, should form a settlement upon the lands which are the 
property of the Sac and Fox tribes, upon complaint being made thereof 
to the Superintendent, or other person having charge of the affairs 
of the Indians, each intruder shall forthwith be removed. 

Art. 7. As long as the lands wdiich are now ceded to the United 
States remain their property, the Indians belonging to the said tribes 
shall enjoy the privilege of living and hunting upon them. 

Art. 8. As the laws of the United States regulating trade and 
intercourse with the Indian tribes are alreadv extended to the countrv 


inhabited by the Sacs and Foxes, and as it is provided by those laws, 
that no person shall reside, as a trader, in the Indian country, without 
a license under the hand and seal of the Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs, or other person appointed for the purpose by the President, 
the said tribes do promise and agree that they will not suffer any 
trader to reside among them, without such license, and that they will, 
from time to time, give notice to the Superintendent, or to the agent 
for their tribes, of all the traders that may be in their country. 

Art. 9. In order to put a stop to the abuses and impositions 
which are practiced upon the said tribes, by the private traders, the 
United States will, at a convenient time, establish a trading house or 
factory, where the individuals of the said tribes can be supplied with 
goods at a more reasonable rate than they have been accustomed to 
procure them. 

Art. 10. In order to evince the sincerity of their friendship and 
affection for the United States, and a respectful deference for their 
advice, by an act which will not only be acceptable to them, but to 
rhe common Father of all the nations of the earth, the said tribes do 
hereby promise and agree that they will put an end to the bloody war 
which has heretofore raged between their tribe and the Great and Little 
Osages. And for the purpose of burying the tomahawk, and renewing 
the friendly intercourse between themselves and the Osages, a meeting 
of their respective chiefs shall take place, at which, under the direction 
of the above named commissioner, or the Agent of Indian Affairs 
residing at St. Louis, an adjustment of all their differences shall be 
made, and peace established upon a firm and lasting basis. 

Art. 11. As it is probable that the government of the L'nited 
States will establish a military post at or near the mouth of the 
Ouisconsin River, and as the land on the lower side of the river may 
not be suitable for that purpose, the said tribe do hereby agree that a 
fort may be built, either upon the upper side of the Ouisconsin, or on 
the right bank of the Mississippi, as the one or the other may be found 
most convenient; and a tract of land not exceeding two square miles 
shall be given for that purpose ; and the said tribes do further agree 
that they will at all times allow to traders and other persons traveling 
through their country, under the authority of the LTnited States, a free 
and safe passage for themselves and their property of every descrip- 
tion ; and that for such passage, they shall at no ,time, and on no 
account whatever, be subject to any toll or exaction. 

Art. 12. This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the 
contracting parties, as soon as the same shall be ratified by the 
President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the 
LTnited States. 

In testimony whereof, the said William Henry Harrison, and the 
chiefs and head men of said Sacs and Fox tribes, have hereunto set 
their hands and affixed their seals. Done at St. Louis, in the district 
of Louisiana, on the third day of November, one thousand eight 
htmdred and four, and of the independence of the LTnited States the 

234 . 

Additional Article. 

It is agreed that nothing in this treaty contained shall afifect the 
claim of any individual or individuals, who may have obtained grants 
of land from the Spanish government, and which are not included 
within the general boundary line laid down in this treaty : Provided, 
that such grants have at any time been made known to the said tribes 
and recognized by them." 

Then follows the signatures of the different parties, the Vvttnesses 
and interpreters. 

From the period of this treaty until the commencement of the 
war with Great Britain, the inhabitants of Illinois were litlle molested. 
The termination of the Indian hostilities induced great numbers to 
emigrate westward ; everything seemed to indicate peace and pros- 
perity ; when the quiet routine of their border life was again broken 
by the discovery of a scheme, which if carried out successfullv', might 
have put a final check on the progress of the whites toward the west. 

The man who planned this mighty enterprise was Tecumseh, of 
whom a writer remarks that he was "as able and enterprising as 
Pontiac, as eloquent as Logan, as brave as Cornstalk, and as unfortu- 
nate as all the three." 



As early as 1805 Tecumseh and his brother began to influence the 
Indians, and although they evinced no signs of hostility until a much 
later period, it was judged expedient to keep a close watch over their 
proceedings. The plan of Pontiac, we have seen, was simply to conquer 
the outposts of the whites at one onset, without regard to future 
operations, or taking into thought any means of preserving unity in 
the heterogenous mass brought together for that purpose. But 
Tecumseh had a higher aim. He wished to make a union — a lasting 
union — among the tribes, not with reference to a sudden onslaught so 
much as for their own future preservation as a people. By uniting all 
the tribes into one grand confederacy, and then introducing among 
them the customs of civilized life, he considered that they would be 
able ^o resist the future encroachments of the whites. 

Tecumseh was by nature and education eminently fitted for 
carrying on such an undertaking. He was not without many of the 
acquirements of civilized life, could read and write, and seemed well 
acquainted with political science. In addition to this, he was eloquent 
and brave, and could easily command the respect of his countrymen. 

His brother, Elshwatawa, the prophet, as he was called, gave him 
much assistance. By working on the excessive superstition of the 
Indians, and making large pretensions to supernatural power, he grad- 
ually succeeded in establishing a .wondrous reputation over the whole 
western country. Pilgrims from the most distant tribes flocked to his 
village to see the wondrous sage, and they were instructed to lay aside 
their mutual animosities and rivalries, and unite together for the 
accomplishment of the scheme of the great warrior. 

The power of life and death was also placed in the hands of 
Elshwatawa, and he was made the agent for preserving the lands and 
property of the Indians. 

A settlement was established on the banks of the Tippecanoe 
River, and here were gathered together some of the Shawanese, Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Kickapoos and -Pottawatomies, all united in their 
affection for Tecumseh and by their friendly agreement den.onstrating 
the possibility of the measure proposed. 

In 1809 Tecumseh set out to visit the tribes along the Mississippi 
and in the South. He, however, disclaimed any intention of stirring 
them up to hostilities, although the warlike demonstrations made by 
some tribes against the settlers of Missouri and Illinois at that time 
might well have caused some suspicion of his honest}'. It is, however, 
hardly to be supposed that a man of his consummate cunning would 
have risked the final success of his great enterprise by urging on a few 


tribes to make aggressions, which would only serve to interrupt his 
plan of union and prematurely disclose his project. It is more probable 
that the discontent on the part of those unfriendly tribes in Northern 
Illinois was produced by British intrigue in anticipation of the war 
which soon followed. 

Tecumseh, however, strongly urged on all the importance of pre- 
serving unity in their dealings with the Government of the United 
States, and urged that thenceforth purchases should be made from a 
council representing all the Indian tribes united as one nation. 

In August. 1810, a council was held with Tecumseh and others 
near General Harrison's house at Vincennes, and the conduct and 
language of the Indians on that occasion gave ample assurance of 
their ultimate designs if their demands were not complied with. 

Tecumseh, however, did not apprehend immediate war, and after 
cautioning his brother against any outbreak in his absence, he departed 
for the South to see various tribes in that direction. In the meantime 
Harrison encamped with his army in the neighborhood of the Prophet's 
town, and on the morning of the 7th of November he was furiously 
attacked by the Indians. The result is well known. The settlement 
of Tecumseh was broken up, his village burnt, and the formation of a 
confederacy rendered impossible. 

The great chief was deeply mortified to find that his brother had 
been induced to fight, contrary to his positive commands, but it was 
too late for regrets. When the war with England broke out he and 
his friends fought in the ranks of the British, who, in consideration 
of his talents and services, gave him the rank of brigadier general. 
But after the defeat of his darling scheme it would seem that he was 
indifferent to the honors heaped on him. At the battle of the Thames, 
when the English were defeated, he deemed flight disgraceful, and met 
his death with such courage as to merit the appellation of "the bravest 
of the Indian braves." 

Among the white men who occupied a prominent place in the wars 
of the frontiers, Daniel Boone deserves more than a passing notice. 
A hunter from his youth up, he was eminently fitted for exploring 
and defending the western wilds. From 1769 to 1783 he had resided 
in Kentucky, and the descendants of those whom he assisted by the 
sagacity of his counsel or the force of his arm, still venerate the 
memory of the old hunter. But although skillful in the chase and 
courageous in fight, he seems to have had but little acquaintance with 
nice legal distinctions. He failed to secure a legal title to his land in 
Kentucky, and in 1798 he was dispossessed of his property. He then 
crossed the river into Missouri, at that time owned by Spain, and 
received from the Spaniards a grant of ten thousand acres of land. 
This land passed into the hands of the French in 1800, and when in 
1803 it was acquired by the United States, the claims of Boone were 
rejected by the commissioners because he did not actually reside on 
his grant. Thus, at the age of 80, this man, who had rendered services 
of the highest importance to his country, was still a wanderer. But by 
the. exertions of the delegates of the Legislature a confirmation of his 
grant was obtained from Congress, and he retained two thousand 


acres. He died in 1820 at the age of 90. To the last part of hisjife 
he is said to have retained a passion for hunting, and so long as his 
strength permitted, ranged the forest in pursuit of game. When his 
heakh was so infirm that he could not venture into the woods, he 
would sit by his door with his rifle on his arm, deploring his departed 
vigor, and meditating on the multifarious scenes in which he had 
taken a part. 

In the latter part of the }ear 1811 and the commencement of 1812 
occurred a series of earthquakes, which was felt more or less through- 
out the Mississippi valley. Many boats and their crews were lost on 
the river, by the peculiar movement of the water, the falling in of 
banks, and the upheaval of old trees, which were thrown from the 
bottom to the surface. The town of New Madrid, in Missouri, which 
stood about fifteen feet higher than the summer floods sunk so low, 
that the very next flood covered it to the depth of five feet. The bot- 
toms of some lakes were elevated so high as to become dry land, and 
it is said have since been planted w4th corn. In the vicinity of St. 
Louis the shake was so violent that the fowls feU from the trees as if 
dead, and many persons fled from their cabins through fear of being 
crushed to death. 

There were two grades of territorial government established in 
the west. The first grade was that of Governor and Judges. The 
second was a territorial legislature. The people electing a House of 
Representatives, and the President and Senate appointing the Council. 
Previous to 1812 the government of Illinois Territory was administered 
on the plan of the First Grade. On the 14th February of this year, 
the Governor, Ninian Edwards, issued a proclamation, ordering meet- 
ings to be held in the different counties that the people might decide 
whether they would have the Second Grade of Government. The vote 
decided for this measure and the next fall members of the Legislature 
were duly elected. On the 25th of November, 1812, the Legislature 
convened at Kaskaskia. There were six men in the house, and an 
equal number in the council, and all boarded together in one family 
during the session. Their session lasted ten or twelve days. 

During the war with Great Britain the settlers in this country, 
suffered much from the unfriendly Indians who under the name of 
Allies of Great Britain, perpetrated the most horrible atrocities. Forts 
were established on the line of the settlements, companies of soldiers 
were organized who kept a keen lookout, and various bloody recon- 
noiters took place, between them and their savage foes. The Massacre 
of Chicago which took place in 1812 affords a shocking instance of 
savage barbarity, and will long form one of the darkest chapters in 
the annals of border warfare. Our readers will find an account of 
this mournful event in Brown's History of Illinois. 

At the conclusion of the war with Great Britain, the Indians, no 
longer incited by their English Allies, began to be peaceably dispcs;d. 
and treaties were negotiated with many of their tribes. Confidence 
began to be restored to the inhabitants of the west, and emigration 
began to push forward into the prairies. Many of those who, during 
the war, had traversed the country in pursuit of the enemy, now 
returned with their families to cultivate the soil. 


In April, 1816, Indiana was admitted into the Union as a state, 
and on the 18th of April, 1818, Congress authorized the people of 
Illinois to form a State Constitution. The Northern boundary of 
Illinois as fixed by Congress was latitude 42 deg. 30 min. North. _ All 
the United States territory north of the state was attached to Michigan. 



As early as 1786, Julien Dubuque visited the country on the upper 
Mississippi, and, having explored the mineral regions to some extent, 
went back to Canada. Two years afterwards he returned, and at a 
council held Vvith the Indians, he succeeded in obtaining a grant of 
land, enclosing about 140,000 acres. By the condition of the treaty this 
property was to revert to the Indians after the death of Dubuque. He 
in the meantime married an Indian women, and amassed great wealth 
by mining and trading. He died in 1810 and was buried about a mile 
below the present city of Dubuque, where his grave is still to be seen. 

In the spring of 1819, about a year after Illinois became a State, 
a trading post was established a little above the mouth of Galena river, 
by Jesse W. ShuU, who at present resides in Green County, Wisconsin, 
a few miles from the village of Oneco. The writer is indebted to Mr. 
Shull for a knowledge of many of the incidents connected with the 
early times in the mineral region, and also for much valuable in- 
formation respecting the tribes of Indians who were at that time living 
in this section of the country. 

Shortly after Mr. Shull had estabished himself on an island above 
the mouth of the Mecapiasipo, the Indian name for Fever River — news 
reached him that the Indians had discovered the famous Buck lead 
near the present site of Galena, and by their request he moved his 
trading house down to the point, the place where the city now stands. 
At that time there was not another white man in the place. That 
summer A. P. Van Metre came out and sta^'ed with Mr. Shull, and in 
the fall they were joined by Dr. Samuel Mure, a gentleman of Scottish 
descent, who afterwards named the place Galena, from the Greek name 
of the mineral so abundant in its vicinity. 

In the summer season they exchanged goods for lead, and in the 
winter they traded for furs. During the summer the Indians would 
dig with a diligence truly surprising when we consider their charac- 
teristic indolence. They would sink shafts for many feet below the 
surface and pick the lead out of the crevices with deer's horns and 
other instruments of the rudest description. 

Their mode of blasting, or rather breaking through layers of rock 
was very ingenious. When they struck the rock, they would remove 
the dirt clean from its surface, and then kindle a strong fire on the 
bare rock, this they would keep burning until the stone was red hot, 
when they would suddenly pour in a quantity of cold water, whi'rh 
would crack it in pieces. 

Their furnaces were all of the simplest kind, consisting merely of 
a few large flat stones laid on the ground, and shelving slightly to one 


side. On this simple foundation they would lay their mineral, on top 
of which they built a fire, and as the melted lead ran off it was con- 
ducted into moulds. The most of the labor connected with the mining, 
was however done by the squaws, who usually are called on to perform 
whatever of drudgery the wants of savage life render necessary. 

In 1823, Col. James Johnson of Kentucky, obtained a lease from 
the United States government to carry on the business of mining and 
smelting in this region. He came on with a strong force and com- 
menced operations. By some the date of his arrival is given as 1821, 
we take it as given in the "Annals of the West". Although his efforts 
in pursuit of mineral were attended with good success, Johnson did not 
remain long in the country. Others, however, from various portions 
of the United States soon began to flock in, encouraged by the stories 
then circulated of the sudden forttmes which could so easily be 
acquired, and multitudes of these adventurers became immensely 
wealthy. Many of the people of Southern Illinois brought up supplies 
of provisions to the mines in the spring, prosecuted mining in the sum- 
mer, and returned home again in the fall. On this account they were 
facetiously called "Suckers", an appellation which is now generally 
applied to people of this State. 

In the fall of 1825, one of the Indians informed Mr. Shull that 
he had discovered traces of lead at some distance back in the country, 
and beyond the limits of the region which had been secured by the 
whites for mining purposes. He stated that for a consideration he 
would show his friend the trader, the spot where he believed this 
mineral could be found and also grant him the privilege of digging 
there. Mr. Shull entered into an agreement and accompanied him to 
this place, but as he was not particularly struck with the appearance 
of things, he went back to Galena and did not go back to examine the 
ground until the next spring. When he revisited the place, however, 
he discovered by the rank vegetation in a certain place that there was 
a large crevice underneath. He immediately set to work, and before 
he had proceeded far discovered an immense bed of mineral. It was 
not long, however, until he met with an interruption. Happening to 
raise his eyes from the work on which he was so intently engaged, he 
spied a troop of Winnebago Indians coming towards him at full speed. 
Among the number was Wabokiesheik the Prophet and other men of 
note in the tribe. On coming up they at once demanded why he had 
left the proper mining ground of the whites and trespassed on their 
territory, and ordered him to desist. They told him that no one of the 
tribe had any business to sell what of right belonged to their nation at 
large, but inasmuch as he was a friend they would permit him to dig 
along with them if he chose. On this they all set to work with great 
alacrity and soon rolled out a great many huge blocks of the shining 
mineral. Shull then made them a proposition to buy the land in that 
vicinity, and after some time spent in consultation they accepted the 
terms. This was the commencement of the "Shullsburgh diggings." 

In the same summer, George Ferguson and Robert Clayton dis- 
covered "New Diggings", and shortly after the East Fork diggings 
was found. 


At this time, although there were about four hundred miners in 
this section, there were very few families. In Galena there were five 
01 six families. 

In 1827 the number of mhiers was about sixteen hundred. During 
this year William Hamilton of New York, discovered the diggings at 
Wyota, where Fort Hamilton was subsequently built. 

In the summer of 1827 the Indians evinced some signs of hostilitv 
to the miners. Some of the whites had gone over their proper bounds 
and trespassed on the Indian's grounds, and in addition to that there 
was another cause of complaint. 

In the month of July a boat left Galena for Fort Snelling, and on 
their way up the river the crew stopped at an Indian encampment on 
the bank of the river. Some of the Indians came on board the boat, 
Avere forcibly detained by the people on board and were not permitted 
to land until they had gone about twelve miles further up the stream. 
The Indians highly resented the insult, and watched the return of the 
boat. As soon as the party were discovered descending the stream, 
the Indians attacked them from the bank, and severely wounded some 
of the people on board. They managed to escape and eventually 
reached Galena. Their boat was well nigh riddled with bullets. When 
they arrived they spread the alarm, and the people began to build small 
forts here and there, where it was most convenient, and speedily 
flocked into them for safety. 

General Dodge who had a short time previous come from Mis- 
souri, raised several companies of volunteers, and began to scour the 
country in various directions. 

In one of these excursions when the troops were in the vicinity of 
Mineral Point, they discovered a young Indian lad a short distance 
from them. Gen. Dodge ordered the guide and interpreter Jesse W. 
Shull, to go up to the young Indian and ascertain if possible to what 
tribe he belonged, and where his friends were encamped. As soon as 
the boy perceived Shull approaching he ran off at full speed, but at 
length by giving him assurances of safety if he halted, and threatening 
him if he persisted in flight, he was induced to stop and surrender him- 
self into their hands. When brought into the General's presence, the 
brave boy refused to give up his gun, and had to be disarmed by main 
force. He told them that he was the son of Winnesheek of the 
Winnesheek band of Winnebagoes, whose village stood on tbe Peka- 
tonica, that his father's people were hunting near by where he was 

When the soldiers approached the place where Winnesheek and 
his party were stationed, the}' fled in all directions fearing they were 
going to be attacked. Dodge told the boy to go into the neighborhood 
of some thickets where he knew some of them to be concealed and 
call them out as they wished to have a talk with them, but his repeated 
calls met no response from his suspicious kinsfolk. 

The white people kept charge of the boy and not long after, Dodge 
and his troops started down the country towards the Pekatonica in 
order to ascertain whether the bands of the Winnebagoes in that 
vicinity had gone to attend a council of hostile Indians at that time 


reported to be met on the Wisconsin river. On coming to the village 
of Winnesheek the}' found it entirely deserted. The chief and all his 
band had gone to attend the great comicil. 

This village was situated on a part CTf the present site of Freeport. 
The wigwams stood on the south side of the small brook which runs 
through our town near its confluence with the Pekatonica, and a very 
little to the west of the Railroad depot grounds. Many of our old 
citizens remember seeing the poles of the lodges standing long after 
those rude habitations were abandoned by their occupants. The burial 
ground was on the north side of the creek near the place where the 
Freight House of the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad now stands, 
and while excavating the earth in that vicinity about two years ago, a 
number of skeletons were dug up by the workmen. Their cornfield 
was on the other side of the Pekatonica river, a short distance from 
the bank of the stream. 

The writer was informed that at the time of Dodge's visit to 
Winnesheek, the band numbered upwards of two hundred. Winne- 
sheek himself was at that time about sixty years of age. Mr. ShuU 
describes him as a short fleshy man, very taciturn, very honest, and, 
more wonderful than all for an Indian, very temperate. He was much 
respected b}' his nation, and at the same time a firm friend to the 
Mdiite man. At the close of the Black Hawk war this band was re- 
moved with the rest of their tribe into the vicinity of Prairie du Chien. 

The Winnebago difficulty did not result in war. A treaty was 
made with them by which the whites were allowed to occupy part of 
the mineral region, and the Indians were paid twenty thousand dollars 
in goods for the damages they had sustained. About a year afterwards 
a large tract of the mineral country was purchased from the Indians. 
Two strips of land, the one extending along the Wisconsin and Fox 
rivers from east to west, giving a passage across the country from 
Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, and the other reaching from Rock 
Island to the Wisconsin were at the same time purchased. 

After the settlement of these Indian difficulties, little occurred to 
interrupt the miners in their business, until the time of the Black Hawk 
war. Vast quantities of mineral were found at Galena and various 
places in that vicinity. The ore was so abundant that it required no 
great outlay of capital to make a commencement. As in the gold mines 
of California, any young man who possessed the will and the strength 
to handle a pick axe or shovel, might proceed at once to business. 

It required in most instances but two men to sink a shaft, as the 
deep pits are termed, the one digging and the other drawing up the 
earth and mineral by means of a windlass. It was rare in those days 
to sink a shaft deeper than sixty feet, for when they reached water 
they had no apparatus for pumping, and had to abandon their work. 
When in sinking the}' reached a crevice where the mineral was de- 
posited, they would follow the course of the lead and make excavations 
in a lateral direction which they termed "drifts." If the crevice ex- 
tended very far after following it some distance they would sink 
another shaft, and soon, connecting shaft to shaft by means of the 
"drift" below, until the quantity of mineral was exhausted. 


Sinking these shafts, was, however, attended with no small degree 
of danger. Sometimes in the spring, or during wet weather, the sides 
of the pit would give way, and the unfortunate miner beneath be buried 
alive. At times the earth would commence sliding in at the bottom of 
the "shaft" and the workman by dint of very quick tramping so as to 
keep above the earth, would stand a chance of coming out in safety. 
To prevent accidents of this kind, many of the more cautious would 
construct a kind of curb of timber, which served to retain the loose 
earth at the sides. 

Although many of these miners were considered rather rough 
characters, the majority do not seem to have been indifferent to good 
order, and the preservation of such regulations as would secure to each 
individual undisturbed possession of his own property. When there 
were no magistrates among them, or courts of justice, they generally 
gave to crime, when discovered, a prompt punishment and speedily 
got rid of the offender. If a miner was caught stealing, he would be 
immediately arraigned for the offence, and after receiving a sound 
drubbing, be expelled from the mining district at once. 

Each man was allowed a space of land, embracing about two 
hundred square yards, on which he might dig, provided he worked 
five days out of seven, and left his tools constantly on the ground. If 
his tools were missing, or if he was found wilfully to have abandoned 
his diggings for five days together, the ground was considered aban- 
doned and open to the first claimant. 

Many of these miners have accumulated a large amount of prop- 
erty. Man}^ of our wealthy merchants in the v/estern country, can 
look back to the time when the fortunate discovery of a cleft filled 
with the "shining" ore, put them in possession of a fortune in a day. 
Otliers again, have been less fortunate, some have either never made 
any great discoveries, or squandered their money in the drinking sa- 
loon or at the gaming table. 

As the miners did not pretend to cultivate land and raise crops, 
tbey were, in those early times, entirely dependant on the supplies 
which reached them by way of the Mississippi, and if the navigation 
did not open until late in the spring, the people around Galena were 
liable to suffer much inconvenience. 

In the spring of 1829 there was so great a destitution that the 
inhabitants were under the necessity of paying exorbitant prices for 
provisions. Some of the miners paid as high as four thousand pounds 
of mineral for a barrel of flour. The lowest price paid for the mineral 
was five dollars a thousand and it sometimes sold for fifteen. 

In 1829 some of the miners went over the river and started to 
dig on Dubuque's old grounds. They w-ere, however, soon ordered off 
by some persons in St. Louis, who, it was supposed, had a claim of 
some kind against Dubuque's property. The people were thus thrust 
off for a time, but having subsequently ascertained that this land on 
Dubuque's death reverted to the Indians, and that the validity of any 
claim against it as his estate would not be sustained, they returned once 
more and went to digging, making such arrangements with the Indians 
as they deemed expedient. It was not, however, until after the Black 


Hawk war that these grounds on the west side of the river were bought 
from the Indians, thus giving the whites the undisputed privilege of 
carrying on their business. 

Still up to this time there were but a few families in Galena, and 
with the exception of a few rude huts belonging to the miners, there 
were no buildings near what is now the city of Dubuque. Mr. Ezra 
B. Gillett, who resides in Oneco in this County, was at that time in the 
mining region. He and his partner Cuyler Armstrong had a claim 
embracing the greater part of the site of the flourishing city of 
Dubuque. This claim they sold in the fall of 1833 for two barrels 
of flour. 



Since the year 1831 the name of Black Hawk has been familiar 
to the people of the United States, and, although the alarm which he 
excited in the western frontiers by his deeds, and the curiosity which he 
aroused in eastern cities by his visits, have ceased ; the life and adven- 
tures of this singular man who held a place so prominent in the political 
relations of the Indian tribes, and the people of the United States, still 
occupy a prominent place in the history of this country. 

Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was by birth a Sac. 
He was born at the principal village of his tribe on Rock river in 1767. 
Although not a chief by birth, he very early in life proved himself no 
common brave, and as early as the age of fifteen he was admitted into 
the number of the Warriors of his people. In various battles with the 
surrounding tribes he displayed such bravery and address that the 
young men reposed confidence in him as a leader and were ready to 
follow him in his expeditions. 

On the breaking out of the last war with Great Britain, Black 
Hawk followed the fortunes of the British and went to their assistance 
with a band of five hundred warriors. Before the war was over he 
returned home, when the following incident, which he himself related, 
served to incite him to fresh outrages against the Americans. It seems 
according to his own statement that some time before he went to Detroit 
he visited an old friend, whose son he adopted and instructed to hunt. 
His friend was well disposed towards the Americans and would not 
accompany him to Canada, but expressed his determination to go with 
his son and a small band, and winter at a white settlement near Salt 

When Black Hawk returned to his village he found his old friend 
lying at the point of death. With his last strength he aroused himself 
sufficiently to make the following statement in reply to Black Hawk's 
inquiries : 

"Soon after your departure to join the British, I descended the 
river with a small party, to winter at the place I told you the white 
men had requested me to come to. When we arrived I found a fort 
built, and the white family that had invited me to come and hunt near 
them had removed to it. I then paid a visit to the fort, to tell them that 
myself and little band was friendly, and that we wished to hunt in the 
vicinity of their fort. The war chief who commanded it, told me that 
we might hunt on the Illinois side of the Mississippi, and no person 
would trouble. That the horsemen only ranged on the Missouri 
side, and he had directed them not to cross the river. I was pleased 
with this assurance of safety, and immediately crossed over and made 


my winter's camp. Game was plenty. We lived happy and often talked 
of you. My boy regretted your absence and the hardships you would 
be called on to undergo. We had been here about two moons, when 
my boy went out as usual to hunt. Night came on and he did not 
return. I was alarmed for his safety, and passed a sleepless night. In 
the morning my old woman went to the other lodges and gave the 
alarm, and all turned out in pursuit. There being snow on the ground 
they soon came upon his track, and after pursuing it some distance 
found that he was on the trail of a deer which led to the river. They 
soon came to the place where he had stood and fired, and found a deer 
hanging upon the branch of a tree, which had been skinned. But here 
also were found the tracks of white men. They had taken my boy 
prisoner. Their tracks led across the river, and then down towards 
the fort. My friends followed them, and soon found my boy lying dead. 
He had been most cruelly murdered. His face was shot to pieces, his 
body stabbed in several places, and his head scalped. His arms were 
tied behind him." 

Scarcely had the old man concluded when he breathed his last, and 
the stern listener, shocked at the fate of the boy he loved, and touched 
by the death of his comrade was roused to take revenge on the Ameri- 
cans. During the time the war lasted he was their unrelenting foe, 
and even after peace was concluded he continued to work them mischief 
whenever it was in his power. 

In 1816, a treaty was made between the United States and the 
chiefs and warriors of the Sacs and Foxes by which the former agree- 
ments of 1804 was confirmed. 

In 1823, a large number of the Sacs and Foxes with the Chief 
Keokuk went on the west side of the Mississippi and established them- 
selves on the Iowa river, but Black Hawk and his band refused to 
remove. According to the seventh article of the treaty of 1804, as long 
as the land ceded by these tribes to the United States remained the 
property of the Government the Indians had the privilege of hunting 
and fishing upon them. The Government did not therefore attempt to 
remove them until some land had been sold at the mouth of Rock River, 
including the Sac Village. 

In the spring of 1830, when Black Hawk and his band returned 
from their hunting, they discovered that their land had been brought 
into market, and bought by the whites, so that their longer stay was out 
of the question. Black Hawk then affirmed that the lands had never 
been fairly sold, and after spending sometime in consultation, he avowed 
his purpose to keep possession of it. 

In the life of Black Hawk which he himself dictated we find the 
views which he professed to take of the treaty of 1804, he says : "Some 
moons after this young chiefs- (speaking of Lieutenant Pikej — 
descended the Mississippi, one of our people killed an American, and 
was confined in the prison at St. Louis for the offense. We held a 
council at our village to see what could be done for him, which de- 
termined that Quash-qua-me, Pa-she-pa-ho, Ou-cheiqua-ha, and 
Ha-she-quar-hi-qua, should go down to St. Louis, and see our Ameri- 
can father, and do all they could to have our friend released ; by paying 
for the person killed, thus covering the blood and satisfying the relations 


of the man murdered ! This being the only means with us of saving a 
person who had killed another, and we then thought it was the same 
way with the whites. 

"The party started with the good wishes of the whole nation, hop- 
ing they would accomplish the object of their mission. The relations 
of the prisoner blacked their faces and fasted, hoping the Great Spirit 
would take pity on them and return the husband and the father to his 
wife and children. 

"Quash-qua-me and party remained a long time absent. They at 
length returned and encamped a short distance below the village, but 
did not come up that day, nor did any person approach their camp. They 
appeared to be dressed in fine coats and had medals. From these cir- 
cumstances, we were in hopes they had brought us good news. Early 
the next morning, the council lodge was crowded — Quash-qua-me and 
party came up, and gave us the following account of their mission. On 
their arrival at St. Louis, they met their American father, and explained 
to him their business, and urged the release of their friend. The Ameri- 
can chief told them he wanted land, and they agreed to give him some 
on the west side of the Mississippi, and some on the Illinois side oppo- 
site the JeiTreon. When the business was all arranged they expected to 
have their friend released to come home with them. But about the time 
they were ready to start, their friend was led out of prison, who ran a 
short distance and was shot dead. This is all they could recollect of 
what was said and done. They had been drunk the greater part of the 
time they were in St. Louis. 

"This is all myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has 
been explained to me since. I find by that treaty, all our country east 
of the Mississippi, and south of the Jefifreon was ceded to the L^nited 
States for one thousand a year ! I will leave it to the people of the 
United States to say, whether our nation was properly represented in 
this treaty? or whether we received a fair compensation for the extent 
of country ceded by those four individuals. I could say much more 
about this treaty but I will not at this time. It has been the origin of 
all our difficulties." 

It will be perceived that Black Hawk's statement difiters consider- 
ably from the views taken of this treaty by the whites. He fixes the 
date of the treaty after the expedition of Lieutenant Pike in 1805, when 
from other authorities w'e learn that it was in 1804. He states also that 
the treaty was made with four Indians whereas it is recorded that there 
were five who gave their signatures to this treaty. As to the right of 
these men to make a treaty wath the whites, but little can be said. We 
believe that the Government agents as a general thing negotiated with 
those whom they regarded head men or chiefs, and it was generally 
expected that the tribes they represented would abide by their terms of 
agreement. It is probable that these Indians had full power to treat 
with the whites, for if they had not, why did the tribes acquiesce so 
far in their proceedings as to receive the pension stipulated in the treaty 
for so many years without raising objections? Black Hawk himself 
we are told also recognized the validity of this treaty at the council of 
Portage de Sioux in 1816, and never raised any objection until the 


Indians were called on to fulfill their part of the agreement. That 
he should manifest reluctance to leave the beautiful country on Rock 
river, and his native village, is no matter of surprise; and while we 
condemn the course he adopted to seek redress for his alleged griev- 
ances, and deplore the evils of that short but sanguinary struggle, we 
must in some degree pity his misfortune. 

Those who have seen the beautiful valley of the Rock river, with 
its wide rolling prairies embellished with groves and clumps of trees, 
presenting a mingled picture of beauty and grandeur ; can form some 
idea of the feelings of the brave warrior as he alludes to his difficulties 
with the whites. "Rock River," said he, "was a beautiful country — I 
liked my towns, my cornfields, and the home of my people; — I fought 
for it." 

In 1831, Black Hawk and his band again returned to their village 
in the spring, after their annual hunt, and the squaws proceeded to 
plant their corn as usual. Some of the white settlers were so much 
opposed to this that they went and ploughed up the ground which they 
had planted. The Indians in turn began to annoy them, and they car- 
ried their retaliation so far that the whites were under the necessity of 
sending in a petition for aid to the Executive of the State. His ex- 
cellency. Governor Reynolds, constructing the prolonged stay of these 
Indians, into an invasion of the State, called out a battalion of seven 
hundred militia to be in readiness to remove them. At the same time 
he wrote a letter to General Clark at St. Louis requesting him to use 
his influence in persuading the Indians to move peaceably. He also 
wrote to General Gaines, who ordered six companies of United States 
troops from Jefferson Barracks, and four companies from Prairie du 
Chien, to rendezvous at Rock Island, in order to give security to the 
inhabitants of the frontier, and repel successfully any attempt to invade 
the State. 

On the 7th of June General Gaines held a council at Rock Island, 
at which Black Hawk and many of the chiefs were in attendance. The 
General told them that their obstinacy in refusing to leave according to 
treaty was highly displeasing to their great father the President, and 
he insisted on their immediate removal. To this Black Hawk made 
reply that the Sacs had never sold their lands and were determined to 
hold on to their old possessions. As he concluded, General Gaines 
arose and asked, "Who is Black Hawk ? Is he a chief ? By what right 
does he appear in council?" The indignant Indian made no reply, but 
rising up, he departed from the council room with a stately step. The 
next day he came to the council and made the following remarks : 

"My father, you inquired yesterday 'who is Black Hawk? By 
what right does he sit among the chiefs ?' I will tell you who I am. ' I 
am a Sac, my father was a Sac. I am a warrior and so was my father. 
Ask these young men who have followed me to battle, and they will 
tell who Black Hawk is. Provoke our people to war, and you will learn 
who Black Hawk is." 

The General finding that the Indians could not be moved by per- 
suasion, resolved on taking some other means to effect their removal, 
and as he was anxious to avoid bloodshed, he wrote to Governor 


Reynolds for a large reinforcement of troops : under the impression 
that when the Indians saw a large army in their vicinity they would 
speedily decamp without offering resistance. The result was as he 

On the 25th of June, sixteen hundred mounted militia men reached 
Rock River, and the next day when General Gaines entered the Sac 
village, with his combined force, he found the place deserted, and the 
Indians encamped on the west side of the Mississippi. 

About the close of the month, a treaty was made with Black 
Hawk's band, by which they agreed to reside on the west side of the 
Mississippi, and submit to the chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes who resided 
on that side — and that they would not return to the east of the Miss- 
issippi, without permission from the United States. The United States 
agreeing to give them a large amount of corn and other necessaries if 
they would observe the treaty. 



But circumstances occurred which made the stay of Black Hawk 
on the west side of the river of short continuance. 

Before the band left their old village, one of the chiefs had been 
sent to Maiden to consult their British father in relation to their right 
to retain their lands. On his way back this chief called to see Wabo- 
kieskiek — "The white cloud," who was their prophet. This man was 
part Winnebago and part Sac, and exercised considerable influence 
over both tribes. He is represented as possessed of much shrew4ness 
and cunning, and was strongly prejudiced againt the whites. He as- 
sured the chief that if the Sacs determined to hold on to their lands 
they might expect assistance in the spring following from the Ottawas, 
Winnebagoes, and other tribes, and even from the British. 

When Black Hawk received this intelligence, he exerted himself 
to persuade as many of the United Tribes as he could to embark in this 
plausible enterprise. But many following the advice of the Chief 
Keokuk would not consent to a renewal of hostilities. At last trusting 
in the assurances of the Prophet he started with as many as would ac- 
company him, and in April 1832 once more reached the mouth of Rock 
River and at once began to ascend towards Prophetstown in the terri- 
tory of the Winnebagoes. 

The Indians had not proceeded a great distance up the river before 
they were overtaken by an express from General Atkinson, who was 
then at Fort Armstrong, ordering them to return at once and cross the 
river. They paid no attention to this order, however, but proceeded 
on their way with all the alacrity possible. Again the General sent 
them orders, telling them if they would not return peaceably he would 
compel them by force. All his orders were of no avail. Black Hawk 
pressed on with the determination, not to be thwarted but at the same 
time he is represented to have been extremely anxious to avoid making 
the first attack. 

When they reached the Prophetstown they found to their extreme 
mortification that however accommodating the Winnebagoes might be 
about permitting them to raise corn and beans with them, they were 
not disposed to assist them so far as to wage a war with the whites in 
their behalf. It is said that when Black Hawk saw the prospect of 
assistance thus cut off, he determined if pursued by the American 
General to fly back at once to the west of the Mississippi without com- 
mencing hostilities at all. Wliatever his thoughts about submission or 
peace may have been, they seem to have been quickly dispelled by a 
fight which took place on the 14th of May between a number of his 
braves, and a party of volunteers under Major Stillman. The place 


where this engagement took place was at StiUman's run, in the eastern 
part of Ogle County, about twenty-five miles above Dixon. Various 
accounts are given of the number of men on both sides. One places 
the number of the Indians at five or six hundred, and the force of the 
whites less than two hundred. In another account we find the number 
of Indians given as fifty, while it declares there were two hundred and 
seventy-five white soldiers. At any rate it is allowed that the Indians 
had the advantage in the skirmish, and routed the whites, with the loss 
of eleven men. The Indian loss was four or five. 

When the news of this action reached the white settlements, the 
greatest consternation prevailed. The number of the Indians were 
greatly magnified by many who had been engaged in the late skirmish, 
and the inhabitants of the frontier knew too well the character of such 
enemies, to expect much clemency at their hands should they fall under 
their power. The white settlers accordingly began to build forts and 
take steps for defending themselves. Some families, however, in the 
vicinity of the Indian camping ground were massacred before they 
could get into places of safety, or obtain assistance from their country- 

On the 21st of May a party of warriors about seventy in number 
attacked the Indian Creek settlement, and killed fifteen persons. Two 
young ladies, daughters of Mr. Hall, were taken prisoners. These were 
subsequently restored to the whites by some Winnebagoes who had 
been induced to undertake their liberation. They were conducted to 
the American fort near Blue Mounds about two months afterwards. 

About this time a party of three or four men were attacked by some 
Indians at Bufifalo Grove, while on the way from Galena to Dixon. 
Their road lay through the north point of the grove, and as they ap- 
proached the side of the wood they held a consultation on the propriety 
of keeping on through the timber. Some advised to ride around the 
skirt of the wood, a little further distance, but a route more likely to be 
safe. This was overruled, however, and the party proceeded straight 
on, when just as they entered the wood they were fired on by Indians, 
and one of the party fell from his horse. The rest suddenly wheeled 
and made good their escape over the prairie. 

Although the various surrounding tribes did not openly espouse 
Black Hawk's quarrel, there were many of their young braves who were 
eager for war and plunder, who gave him their aid. Many bands of 
Sacs and Foxes, and others roamed over the country, and brutally 
murdered all whom they could find defenceless. The settlers were com- 
pelled to keep close in their forts, or if they ventured out to cultivate 
their fields to proceed armed and equipped ready for a surprise. And 
sometimes they were surprised. 

On the 14th of June seven men were employed in a field belonging 
to Spafiford's farm near the bank of the Pekatonica, about four or five 
miles from Fort Hamilton. They had stacked their arms at one end 
of the field, and with unaccountable carelessness had neglected to station 
any one as a guard. Towards evening, as they were hoeing at one end 
of the field, and their arms lying at the other, their attention was in 
some way directed to their guns. When judge of their state of minds 
when they saw their weapons in the hands of a band of savages who 


were rapidly approaching. Five of the men were immediately killed. 
The other two effected their escape. One of the two, Bennet Million, 
came very near being taken. At the first onset of the savages, he 
jumped into a deep ditch or brook, which ran through the field, in the 
direction of the Pekatonica, and as this small stream had very steep 
banks, so thickly covered with grass and weeds, as to form a complete 
arch over his head, he was able to run along its bottom unperceived, 
and in this way he reached the river. The Indians who were prying 
around, thinking that he was hid in some corner, spied him as he was 
about crossing the river, and started in pursuit ; but Million had the 
start, and he ran so swiftly that discouraged, they gave up the race, 
and he reached Fort Hamilton in safety. 

Mr. Spencer, the other white man who escaped, ran into the woods, 
where he safely concealed himself, and managed to subsist for a number 
of days on crusts of bread which he happened to have about his person, 
and such other edible articles as he could procure in the forest. After 
rambling through the woods for a number of days he cautiously ap- 
proached the vicinity of Fort Hamilton, when happening to see some 
friendly Menominees around the Fort, he thought they were enemies 
and had possession of the post, and once more fled to the woods for 
safety. When at last he returned to the settlement it was ascertained 
that his reason was impaired, and it was some time before he so far 
recovered from the effects of his flight as to become sane. 

In the meantime active steps were taken to bring the war to a 
speedy termination. A large number of militia were ordered out from 
the southern counties to meet the regular troops under General Atkin- 
son at Rock River. And General Scott started from the east with a 
number of troops, to come to the seat of war. Scott, however, as will 
be seen in the sequel, did not reach here until the war was over, and 
while Atkinson was mustering his men, and proceeding in pursuit of 
Black Hawk up Rock river, some skirmishes took place between small 
parties of our people and the Indians which are worthy of notice. 

About the 18th of June, the Indians stole a number of horses from 
the Apple River fort, at Elizabeth, Jo Daviess county. Shortly after 
the animals were missed. Captain J. W. Stephenson, in memory of 
whom this county received its name, came from Galena to Apple River 
with a few of his men, and hearing of the depredation, at once set out 
in pursuit of the savages. As the grass was long at that season of the 
year, it was not difficult to keep on the Indians' trail, and they rode 
along at so brisk a pace that they overhauled them a little to the north- 
east of Waddam's Grove, in this county. The Indians immediately ran 
into a thicket close by, and concealing themselves behind the thick brush 
and fallen timber, waited for the whites to commence the attack. 
Stephenson, who only had about a dozen men altogether, ordered his 
party to dismount, and leaving the horses in charge of one or two men, 
led the rest to the charge, intending, no doubt, to drive the Indians from 
their place of concealment. These, however, reserved their fire until 
the white men approached quite close, they then jumped up and fired, 
and immediately squatted down out of sight and commenced to reload. 
Stephenson's men fired, but as the foe was unseen, their volley did no 


damage. After they had discharged their pieces they turned back again 
into the open prairie, reloaded, and once more, with full as much 
bravery as discretion, marched in, directly in the face of the enemy. 
The Indians fired this time, with more effect than before. Three of 
Stephenson's party were killed, and several, himself included, were 
wounded. Stephen Howard, George Eames and a man named Lovell 
were the men killed. Their companions were compelled to retreat and 
leave the bodies on the field. They were buried on the day following. 

About a week after the occurrence related above, Black Hawk 
selected about one hundred and fifty of his very choicest braves and 
started across country from Rock River, with the intention of taking 
the Apple River fort at Elizabeth. They reached the neighborhood of 
the fort undiscovered, and it was then determined to postpone the attack 
until the evening, at the time when the women usually came out to milk 
the cows ; for as the gates were then left open, an entrance could be 
effected without much difficulty. Providentially, however, the plan was 
frustrated ; and the indiscretion of one of their own number was the 
means of raising the alarm and preserving the lives of the people of the 

Two men who were carrying an express from Galena to Dixon, 
had taken dinner at the Elizabeth fort, and on resuming their journey, 
a few minutes ride brought them to the place where the Indians lay 
concealed. The Indian sentinel loth to see a white man pass so near 
him unscathed, fired and wounded one of the men whose name was 
Welsh. The man immediately fell from his horse, but Dixon, his com- 
panion, finding that he was only slightly wounded, assisted him to re- 
mount, and both turned back at full gallop to communicate the alarming 
intelligence. The Indians, well satisfied that further delay was im- 
politic, got on their horses as fast as they could and pursued them. But 
the two men had got into the fort and had caused the gates to be shut 
before they could be overtaken. The enemy then tried hard to storm 
the fort, but were repulsed with so much gallantry by the little garrison 
that they had to withdraw with a loss of thirteen men. The people of 
the fort lost one man, who was so indiscreet as to expose himself to the 
view of the savages and was shot. 

The Indians, having failed in this attempt, determined on their way 
back to secure a small guard of soldiers who had been left in charge 
of some military stores in Kellog's house, in Burr Oak Grove. The 
guard had been removed before the Indians reached the place, but 
Major John Dement, had shortly before come into the neighborhood 
with the Independent Spy Company, belonging to Posey's brigade, and 
he with his company were encamped for the night in the log house, 
when the Indians reached the place. Dement was not aware that the 
Indians were so close to his quarters until near morning, when the 
arrival of two men put him on his guard. The way in which they de- 
tected the presence of the Indians was a little singular. 

Some time after the Indians had crossed over to Elizabeth, their 
trail was discovered, and the news carried to the Upper Apple river fort 
near Scale's Mound where Captain Funk commanded. When Captain 
Funk was apprised of the fact that there were Indians in his neighbor- 
hood, he started off immediately, attended by a man named Duval, in 


the direction of Burr Oak Grove, expecting probably to find Major 
Dement in that vicinity. They went across the country in the night, 
and a short time before day entered the grove. The horse which the 
Captain rode had a pecuharity somewhat remarkable for an animal, a 
strong aversion to the company of an Indian. No matter how high the 
fences around the pasture might have been, if an Indian entered the 
enclosure, the horse was sure to be off swift as the wind. As the cap- 
tain and his companion passed a thicket on the north side of the grove, 
the horse began to manifest the accustomed signs of uneasiness when in 
the proximity of red men, and Funk concluded that there must be some 
lurking close by. As soon as he passed the sentinel and found Dement, 
he communicated his suspicions, and the Major sent out a small party 
to reconnoitre in that direction. These speedily returned and reported 
that they had seen a few Indians on horseback who had retired to an 
adjoining thicket when they perceived them advancing. When Dement's 
men got word that the Indians were in the grove they rushed out peh- 
mell without waiting for orders, saddled their horses one by one as the}' 
best could, and set ofif in the direction of the Indians, Some of them 
came near being taken before they could get their horses which were 
picketed at a considerable distance from the house, and those who ran 
on to the attack met with a sharp repulse, when they came to the 
thicket, and were driven back with considerable loss. 

As Captain Funk was standing at the edge of the grove in view of 
the combat, a man came past him on foot in a great hurry to get at the 
savages. The Captain endeavored to dissuade him from venturing so 
far out out foot, telling him that he would be surrounded by the Indian 
horsemen if he left the covert of timber. The man in a sneering tone 
remarked, "This express thinks he sees an Indian behind every tree 
and stump in the grove." "Aly friend," said Funk, "you will see as 
many Indians today as I will." The fellow went on, and hardly had 
he approached the thicket where the Indians lay, when he was sur- 
rounded and literally cut to pieces. 

When the whites returned to the log house for shelter, the Indians 
commenced firing on the house, and at the horses which were fastened 
outside. They shot quite a number of the horses, and narrowly missed 
killing the commanding officer himself. Dement and Duval were stand- 
ing in the door together, when two of the Indians came out in sight, 
and before Duval, who perceived them, could draw the attention of 
Dement to their movements, the Indians fired. One of the bullets 
whizzed past Duval's ear and lodged in the timbers of the house, the 
other cut Dement's commission which he carried in the crown of his hat. 

Shortly after, two of the men succeeded in mounting two of the 
fleetest horses, and galloped off to Buffalo Grove for reinforcement, 
and as soon as they were out of reach, the Indians, who doubtless 
guessed their object, formed into rank and started for Rock River. 
The whites lost five men in this short action, and the Indians left three 
of their number on the field. 

The log house in the grove is still standing, and its hospitable 
occupant and proprietor, James Timms, who is himself one of the 
early pioneers, communicated to the writer, most of the particulars of 
the last mentioned fight, together with other incidents of much interest. 


About this time General Dodge had a skirmish with a party of 
Indians not far from Fort Hamilton which we must not omit to 

A gentleman named Henry Apple rode out of the fort one day 
to visit his farm a short distance off, and was waylaid and shot by the 
Indians. His horse galloped back to the fort, and as soon as the 
animal was recognized the fate of his rider was conjectured. Gen. 
Dodge was then at the fort, and he immediately started with a small 
party in pursuit. The Indian trail ran along the Pekatonica, and when 
they came to the Horse Shoe Bend, a few miles from Wyota, they lost 
the track and concluded that the savages had crossed over to the point 
around which the river turns, a place admirably adapted for conceal- 
ment, on account of the thick brush-wood and heaps of drift-wood, — 
there was also a small pond of water in the middle of it surrounded 
with steep banks. When Dodge's party crossed over they carefully 
examined the neck of land connecting this little peninsula with the 
back country, but could see no marks which would lead them to sup- 
pose that the Indians had left. So ardent were the whole company to 
engage with the Indians that on the question being asked who would 
go into the thicket and who would remain with the horses, all volun- 
teered to go in. A few were however, left in charge of the horses, and 
the rest went in to the attack. The commander told them that they 
would have to take the first fire from the Indians, but that they should 
not give them time to reload and fire a second time. 

As they approached the bank at the edge of the pond, the Indians 
fired on them, but without wavering or hesitating they jumped over 
the breastwork and opened their fire on the enemy, who were now in 
a great measure defenceless. Some of the Indians leaped into the pond 
and tried to escape by swimming, but out of the eleven who composed 
the party, not one escaped. Three of the Avhites fell severely Avounded 
en the first fire of the Indians. 

Some time after the fight at Burr Oak Grove another incident 
occurred in the same vicinity, with which all the early settlers in this 
neighborhood are in some degree familiar. 

A party of six men were riding from Dixon to Galena along the 
old road south oi Yellow Creek. The party consisted of St. Vrain, a 
trader who had formerly lived at St. Louis ; Higginbottom and Floyd, 
miners from Galena, and Hale, Fowler and Holley from Wisconsin. 
A short distance from Burr Oak Grove, they halted in a ravine to pre- 
pare some refreshments. But before they got ready to partake of 
their meal, they discovered an Indian at a small distance from them, 
evidently looking for their trail. One of the company drew up his gun 
and was about to shoot him, but Higginbottom, who had seen con- 
siderable of back woods life constrained him, and advised them all to 
mount as quietly as possible and gallop for their lives. The party at 
once mounted, and having gained a rise of ground, found to their 
dismay that a strong party of Indians were scattered along the side of 
the ridge in advance of them and trying hard to get near enough to 
intercept them on the summit where their road passed, and thus drive 
them into the swamps, where their horses would mire. Again Higgin- 

• 256 

bottom urged them to gallop as fast as they could, and to keep the 
ridge even if brought into dangerous proximity to the savages, as that 
was their best chance of escape. They then started, but the enemy 
ahead had got so close to the road that some of the party thought they 
would try the lower ground to the left, and began to edge off. Higgin- 
bottom and Floyd, however, pushed on, and although the Indians fired 
at them from a short distance, they made their escape. 

The Indians then began to drive the others further and further 
into the marshes, St. Vrain trusting to his former influence over the 
Sacs and Foxes, in the mean time tried to conciliate them by calling to 
them that he was "their father," and that they must not shoot him. 
They, however, manifested so small a degree of filial affection, that they 
shot him dead on the spot. The rest of the party urged their horses 
to the top of their speed, for each knew well from what they had wit- 
nessed that their capture would be nothing less than the forfeiture of 
their lives. As we have stated Higginbottom and FJoyd, made the high 
ground and escaped. Fowler and Hale took to the left in the direction 
of Rush Creek, and their horses sinking in the mire they were soon 
surrounded by the Indians whose light ponies had no difficulty in get- 
ting firm footing. Holley was never more heard of. It was said he 
took a contrary direction and fled towards Yellow Creek, and in after 
years when skeletons were found in the retired ravines around the 
Creek, people imagined that his was among the number. It required 
about three days for Higginbottom and Floyd to complete their journey 
to Galena. So thickly was the way beset with the Savages that they 
had to travel at night, and by the most unfrequented routes tc avoid 



Black Hawk continued to move up Rock River, but being closely 
pursued by the United States troops, he left the headwaters of this 
stream, and crossed over to the Wisconsin river. On the 21st of July 
a detachment of troops who had been sent to Fort Winnebago to pro- 
cure supplies, discovered the Indians near the Wisconsin, not far from 
the Blue Mounds. They immediately made ready and attacked the 
savages, whom they routed with the loss of forty or fifty men. The 
Americans had one man killed and eight wounded. 

About this time the condition of the Indians was miserable in ihe 
extreme. Their provisions had given out, and they were reduced to 
the verge of starvation, and so closely did the Americans pursue them 
that they scarcely found time to eat such edibles as it was in their power 
to procure. One day the Indians had roasted one of their horses, in 
anticipation, no doubt, of an abundant repast, when the sudden approach 
of the American troops compelled them to leave their meal behind them 

After the fight on the Wisconsin, a number of the poor starving 
creatures attempted to sail down that river in canoes in order to make 
their escape across the Mississippi, but in their descent they were at- 
tacked by some troops on the bank of the river. Some of them were 
killed, some taken prisoners, and a few escaped into the woods. The 
rest of Black Hawk's party struck across the country in a northwest 
direction and reached the Mississippi about forty miles north of the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, near the Bad-Axe river. Here on the first of 
August they attempted to cross the Alississippi, but were prevented by 
the men on board the steamboat W'arrior which was lying in the river. 
It is said that the commander of this vessel commenced firing on the 
Indians although they had hoisted a white flag and made other con- 
ciliatory manifestations. Twenty-three of the savages were killed and 
a great many wounded. 

There are diflferent statements respecting the circumstances attend- 
ing the battle of Bad-Axe. According to an account, which also seems 
to coincide with General Atkinson's official report of the action, the 
American troops under Atkinson came up with the main body of Black 
Hawk's people at the place above mentioned on the second of August. 
In making arrangements for the battle which ensued, the commanding 
general precluded all chance of the Indians escaping. The brigades of 
Alexander and Posey were ordered to march to the river on the right, 
and General Henry took position on the left side of the Indians, also 
close to the river, while Dodge's men and the United States infantry 
occupied the ground between the enemy's camp and the interior. The 
Indians, being thus entirely surrounded, the Americans advanced to 
the attack. General Henry's men were the first to engage in the fight, 


but the engagement soon became general and lasted about three hours. 
When the Indians were driven to the edge of the Mississippi, numbers 
of them attempted to effect their escape by swimming across, but the 
number of those who escaped was trifling, and it is stated that the 
greater part of those who did succeed in gaining the west bank, were 
afterwards attacked by a hostile party of the Sioux and either killed or 
made prisoners. 

We make the following extract from the pen of Mr. Benjamin 
Drake who published a work containing a biography of Black Hawk, 
sketches of Keokuk, sketches of the Black Hawk war etc. To this work 
the writer is indebted for a knowledge of many of the circumstances 
connected with this war, which are given in the present narrative. 

"The destruction of life in the battle of Bad Axe was not con- 
fined to the Indian warriors. Little discrimination seems to have been 
made between the slaughter of those in arms and the rest of the tribe. 
After they had sought refuge in the waters of the Mississippi, and 
the women, with their children on their backs, were buffeting the 
waves, in an attempt to swim to the opposite shore, numbers of them 
were shot by our troops. Many painful pictures might be recorded 
of the adventures and horrors of that day. One or two cases may 
be cited. 

"A Sac woman named Na-ni-sa, the sister of a warrior of some 
note among the Indians, found herself in the hottest of the fight. She 
succeeded at length in reaching the river, and keeping her infant child, 
close in its blanket, by force of her teeth, plunged into the water, 
seized hold upon the tail of a horse, whose rider was swimming him 
to the opposite shore, and was carried safely across the Mississippi. 

"When our troops charged upon the Indians in their defiles near 
the river, men, women and children were so huddled together, that the 
slaughter fell alike upon all of them. A young squaw was standing 
in the grass, a short distance from the American line holding her child, 
a little girl of four years old, in her arms. In this position, a ball 
struck the right arm of the child, just above the elbow, and shattering 
the bone, passed into the breast of its young mother, and instantly 
killed her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground. 
When the battle was nearly over, and the Indians had been driven to 
this point, Lieutenant Anderson of the United States Army, hearing 
the cries of the child, went to the spot, and taking it from under the 
dead mother, carried it to the place for surgical aid. The arm was 
amputated, and during the operation, the half starved child did not 
cry, but sat quietly eating a hard biscuit. It was sent to Prairie de? 
Chiens, and entirely recovered from its wound." 

Black Hawk himself escaped unhurt. Indeed it is stated by some, 
that he was not present at the battle of Bad Axe at all, and that having 
abandoned his people a short time before they reached the Mississippi, 
he had gone further up the river accompanied by a few braves. 

We copy the official report of General Atkinson as we find it in 
the life of Black Hawk previously alluded to. 


Head Quarters, First Artillery Corps, North Western Army, 

Prairie des Chiens, August 25, 1832. 

Sir : — I have the honor to report to you that I crossed the Onis- 
consin on the 27th and 28th ultimo, with a select body of troops, con- 
sisting of the regulars under Col. Taylor, four hundred in number, 
part of Henry's, Posey's and Alexander's bridgades, amounting in all 
to 1,300 men, and immediately fell upon the trail of the enemy, and 
pursued it by a forced march, through a mountainous and difficult 
country, till the morning of the 2nd inst., when we came up with his 
main body on the left bank of the Mississippi, nearly opposite the 
mouth of the loway, which we attacked, defeated and dispersed, with 
a loss on his part of about a hundred and fifty men killed, thirty-nine 
women and children taken prisoners — the precise number could not 
be ascertained, as the greater portion was slain after being forced 
into the river. Our loss in killed and wounded, which is stated below, 
is very small in comparison with the enemy, which may be attributed 
to the enemy's being forced from his position by a rapid charge at 
the commencement, and throughout the engagement — the remnant of 
the enemy, cut up and disheartened, crossed to the opposite side of the 
river, and has fled into the interior, with a view, it is supposed, of 
joining Keokuk and Wapello's bands of Sacs and Foxes. 

The horses of the volunteer troops being exhausted by long 
marches, and the regular troops without shoes, it was not thought 
advisable to continue the pursuit ; indeed a stop to the further effusion 
of blood seemed to be called for, till it might be ascertained if the 
enemy would surrender. 

It is ascertained from, our prisoners, that the enemy lost in the 
battle of the Onisconsin, sixty-eight killed and a very large number 
wounded ; his whole loss does not fall short of three hundred ; after 
the battle of the Onisconsin, those of the enemy's women and children, 
and some who were dismounted, attempted to make their escape by 
descending that river, but judicious measures being taken by Captain 
Loomis and Lieut. Street, Indian agent, thirty-two women and chil- 
dren and four men have been captured, and some fifteen men killed 
by the detachment under Lieut. Ritner. 

The day after the battle on this river, I fell down with the 
regular troops to this place by water, and the mounted men will join 
us today. It is now my purpose to direct Keokuk, to demand a sur- 
render of the remaining principal men of the hostile party, which, 
from the large number of women and children we hold prisoners, I 
have every reason to believe will be complied with. Should it not, 
they should be pursued and subdued, a step Maj. Gen! Scott will 
take upon his arrival. 

I cannot speak too highly of the brave conduct of the regular 
and volunteer forces engaged in the last battle and the fatiguing 
march that preceded it. As soon as the reports of officers of the 
brigades and corps are handed in, they shall be submitted with further 

5 killed, 2 wounded, 6th inf't. 
2 do 5th inf't. 


1 captain, 5 privates Dodge's bat. mounted. 

1 Lieut. 6 privates Henry's. 

1 private wounded Alexander's. 

1 private Posey's. 

I have the honor to be with great respect, 

Y'r ob't. servant, H. Atkinson, 

Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. A. 

Major Gen. Macomb Com. in Chief, Washington. 

Not long after this battle Black Hawk was himself taken by two 
Winnebagoes, Decorie and Chaetar, and delivered by them to the 
ofificers at Prairie du Chien, on the 27th of August. When he was 
seized, the old warrior despaired of gaining much clemency from his 
enemies, and in view of his approaching end, made a touching speech. 
After recounting the w^rongs of his people and his own exploits, he 
went on to say : 

"My warriors fell around me, it began to look dismal. I saw 
my evil day at hand. The sun rose clear on us in the morning, and 
at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. This 
was the last sun that shown on Black Hawk. He is now prisoner 
to the white man ; but he can stand the torture ; he is not afraid of 
death ; he is no coward. Black Hawk is an Indian ; he has done noth- 
ing of which an Indian need be ashamed. He has fought the battles 
of his country against the white men, who came, year after year, to 
cheat them, and take away their lands. 

"You know the cause of our making war, it is known to all 
white men ; they ought to be ashamed of it. The white men despise 
the Indians and drive them from their homes ; but the Indians are 
not deceitful. The white men speak ill of the Indian, and look at 
him spitefully ; but the Indian does not tell lies ; Indians do not steal. 
Black Hawk is satisfied ; he will go to the world of spirits contented ; 
he has done his duty — his Father \n\\\ meet him, and reward him. 

"The white men do not scalp the head, but they do worse ; they 
poison the heart : it is not pure with them. His countrymen will not 
be scalped, but they will, in a few years, become like the white men, 
so that they cannot fight one another when they feel themselves 
wronged ; and there must be, as in the white settlements, nearly as 
many officers as men, to take care of them and put them in order. 
Farewell to my nation! Farewell to Black Hawk!" 

But the Americans did not put him to death, they made a different 
use of their victory. 

We mentioned before that General Scott had started from the 
east at the commencement of the war. In consequence of the break- 
ing out of the Asiatic cholera among his troops, he was unable to 
reach the scene of action until the battle of Bad-axe had been fought 
and the war virtually concluded. 

On the 21st of September, General Scott and Governor Reynolds 
concluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes and the Sacs and Foxes. 
By this treaty the Winnebagoes ceded to the United States all their 
land east of the Mississippi and south of the Wisconsin, amounting^ 
it is said, to upwards of four million acres of valuable territory. From 


the Sacs and Foxes, six million acres of land on the west side of the 
Mississippi were acquired. The village of Keokuk, and an extent of 
land ahout forty miles square were reserved, but this also has since 
been purchased. 

In return for these lands, the United States agreed to pay annu- 
ally the sum of twenty thousand dollars to pay ofif the debts of the 
tribes, and support smiths among them. For the faithful perform- 
ance of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it is stipulated that 
Black Hawk and his two sons, Wabokieshiek and Naopope, and five 
others of the hostile Indians, should remain for a time as hostages. 
These were detained during the winter at Jefferson Barracks, and in 
the spring they were taken to Washington, where they had an inter- 
view with General Jackson ; thence they were taken to Fortress Mon- 
roe and remained until the fourth of June, 1833, when an order came 
from the President for their liberation. Before leaving the Chesa- 
peake, they visited the Navy Yard at Norfolk, where the shipping 
filled them with great astonishment. They next visited Baltimore and 
there had another talk with the President, who made the following 
remarks : 

""V\''hen I first saw you in Washington, I told you that you had 
behaved very badly in raising the tomahawk against the white people, 
and killing men. women and children upon the frontier. Your con- 
duct last year, compelled me to send my warriors against you, and 
your people were defeated with great loss, and your men surrendered 
you, to be kept until T should be satisfied that you would not try to 
do any more injury. T told you I would inquire whether your people 
wished you to return, and whether, if you did return, there would be 
any danger to the frontier. 

General Clark and General Atkinson, whom you know, have in- 
formed me that Sheckak, your principal chief, and the rest of your 
people are anxious you should return, and Keokuk has asked me to 
send you back. Your chiefs have pledged themselves for your good 
conduct, and I have given directions that }ou should be taken to your 
own country. 

Major Garland, who is with you, will conduct you through some 
of our towns. You will see the strength of the white people. You 
will see that our young men are as numerous as the leaves in the 
woods. What can you do against us? You may kill a few women 
and children, but such a force would soon be sent against you, as 
would destroy your whole tribe. Let the red men hunt and take care 
of their families, but I hope they will not again raise their hands 
against their white brethern. We do not wish to injure you. We de- 
sire 3^our prosperity and improvement. But if you again plunge your 
knives into the breasts of our people, I shall send a force which 
will severely punish you for your cruelties. When you go back, listen 
to the councils of Keokuk, and other friendly chiefs. Bury the toma- 
hawk, and live in peace with the frontiers. And I pray the Great 
Spirit to give you a smooth path and a fair sky to return." 

To this speech both Black Hawk and Wabokieshiek made brief 
replies, expressing their desire to live on terms of friendship with 
the Vv'hites, and the conference broke up. 


It was naturally supposed, that by conducting Black Hawk 
through some of the largest of the eastern cities where he might 
have an opportunity of seeing the strength of the Americans, he would 
easily be convinced of the futility of any attempts which he could 
make, to overcome such a people. He was accordingly taken to 
Philadelphia, New York, Albany and other cities on the route towards 
the west. 

In every place which the party visited east of the lakes, there was 
the greatest enthusiasm manifested by the people, at their presence. 
Speeches were made to them, and presents given them, as though in- 
stead of foemen they had been our stanchest allies. But as the party 
came nearer their old home in the west into the scene of their former 
depredations, they found a much cooler reception. By many of the 
frontier inhabitants Black Hawk was considered less a patriotic hero, 
than a blood-thirsty savage, and they were too well gratified at his 
utter defeat, to give him their sympathy m his humiliation. 

When at length they came back to Fort Armstrong they were 
formally liberated, and after giving the whites many assurances of his 
lasting friendship, Black Hawk went home to his tribe. He remained 
steadfast to these promises the rest of his life. From that time forth 
his lodge was always open to entertain the white man, and to the 
day of his death he manifested toward them a kind disposition. He 
visited Washington again in 1837 and his presence caused about as 
great a sensation as on his first tour ; but he was this time entirely 
indififerent to the attention shown him ; and kept himself as retired 
as he could. In October the following year he died, being upwards 
of seventy years of age. 

It is said that the character of this remarkable man for honesty 
and good faith in his dealings stood high in the estimation of his 

In domestic life he was very affectionate, and his family w^re 
devotedly attached to him. He never had but one wife, and in this 
respect he was an exception to the great men of his tribe. Speaking 
of his wife he one time said : 

"This is the only wife I ever had, or ever will have. She is a 
good woman and teaches my boys to be brave." With regard to this 
determination we insert the following from Mr. Drake's narrative. 

It is said however, and upon pretty good authority, that on a 
certain occasion Black Hawk's vow of exclusive devotion to one wife, 
had well nigh been broken. While visiting a respectable frontier 
settler, many years since, he became pleased with the comely daugh- 
ter of his host ; and having seriously contemplated the matter, decided 
in favor of the expediency of adding the pale faced beauty to the do- 
mestic circle of his wigwam. He accordingly expressed his wishes 
to the father of the young lady, and proposed to give him a horse, but 
to his surprise the offer was declined. Some days afterwards he re- 
turned and tendered two fine horses, but still the father refused to 
make the arrangements. The old chief's love for the young lady, 
■growing stronger, in proportion to the dii^culty of gaining her fath- 
er's consent, he, subsequently, oft'ered five or six horses for her. But 


even this munificent price was rejected by the mercenary father. Black 
Hawk now gave np the negotiation, not a little surprised, at the very 
high value which the white men place upon their daughters." 

We must, however, admit, that the personal bravery and magna- 
nimity of Black Hawk afiford no excuse for the atrocities which he 
countenanced ; yet while we condemn the savage traits of his char- 
acter, and deplore the occasion which gave him an opportunity to dis- 
play them he claims no ordinary share of our consideration from the 
fact that he was the last of those great western chiefs who battled in 
behalf of the redmen, opposing to the encroachments of the whites 
a feeble and unavailing resistance. 



We have previousl}' stated that the Winnebagoes who sold out 
their claim to a part of this country after the Black Hawk War, 
were removed into the vicinity of Prairie du Chien. Since that time 
they have been removed to the Northwest to the territory of Minne- 
sota. By a treaty made with them in 1846, a portion of country near 
the head waters of the Mississippi was assigned to them, but so great 
was their dislike to that region that they could not be kept on it. 
Arrangements were made, therefore, during last summer, for pro- 
viding them a more satisfactory locality, and a region of country on 
the Crow Wing River was fixed on for their purpose. The follow- 
ing extract from a report written last September by J. E. Fletcher, 
the Agent of that tribe, may serve to throw some light on the present 
condition of this people. 

"On my arrival at this agency, on the 11th of May, some sixty 
acres of land had been ploughed by the farmers employed. The 
Indians and half breeds sowed forty acres with oats, and have sub- 
sequently sowed ten acres. They have also cultivated on the farms 
at this place one hundred and twelve acres in corn, fourteen acres 
in potatoes, two acres in rutabagas, and two acres in turnips. The 
farmers employed for the Indians commenced sowing oats on the 
19th of May, and put in eighty-nine acres, which have yielded a good 
crop. They have also cultivated on the farms here forty-nine acres 
in corn, nineteen acres in potatoes, and twenty-five acres in rutabagas 
and turnips. The corn was planted late, and yields but an indifferent 
crop. One field containing seventeen acres, was turned over to the 
Superintendent of the school, in compliance with the school contract. 
One hundred acres of the farm on Watab prairie was ploughed in the 
spring, and most of it planted in corn and potatoes, and sowed in 
rutabagas and turnips, but the Indians there did not cultivate the 
crop, and it will not amount to much — the usual result of farming 
operations at that place. 

Owing to the present condition of this tribe, I find it impossible 
to furnish accurately the statement required by the 13th paragraph 
of the Revised Regulations, No. 3, for carrying into effect the Act 
of June 30tli, 1834, organizing the Department of Indian Affairs. The 
probable number of Winnebagoes at the present time is 2,500, includ- 
ing half-breeds. Two years ago there were over 1,700 of the tribe 
living within their own country. The "suitable means" that subse- 
quently employed to bring the entire tribe within their own limits. 
have either not been employed or have failed to produce the desired 
result. On my arrival here, I found 176 of the tribe, including half- 


breeds, within the Hmits of their own country. A large proportion 
of those within the Hmits of the Territory have since been induced 
to return to their own land. At the present time there are about 300 
Winnebagoes at this place, a few at Watab Prairie and in that 
vicinity ; the balance are hunting' on Crow River, which, since the 
late treaty with them, they consider as their home. 

The discontent of these Indians originates more with whites, who 
are interested in the disbursement of their annuities, than with th.e 
Indians themselves. Still, the discontent and dissatisfaction mani- 
fested in regard to their present home north of the Watab, has in- 
creased until it has become general, and pervades a majority of the 

'T cannot endorse all that has been promulgated by the public 
press in regard to the government not having acted in good faith 
with the \A'innebagoes in providing them a home, as stipulated in 
the third article of the treaty of October 13, 1846. Their present 
home was selected by an Agent of their own selection, whose action 
they in council ratified and adopted as their own ; and if they have 
not found said home in all respects suited to their habits, wants and 
wishes, blame cannot justly be imputed to the government ; and cer- 
tainly the disposition recently manifested by the department to ac- 
commodate and satisfy those Indians, and the liberal offer made to 
extend their southern boundary to Sauk River, ought to satisfy even the 
Indians themselves that the government is not disposed to oppress or 
wrong them. Should the treaty recently made with the Winnebagoes 
be ratified, they cannot hereafter say that they have not a home of 
their own selection, or which they have not admitted to be adopted 
to their habits, wants, and wishes. 

"If assertions made by the public press are credited, it will be 
believed that the Winnebagoes are the most worthless, thieving, 
drunken, vagabond tribe of Indians under the protection of the gov- 
ernment. Now, a national honor, as well as individual reputation, 
should be held sacred even by those Indians, I deem it my duty, as 
their agent, to defend them, as far as truth will warrant, against 
these aspersions on their character. That the Winnebagoes are intel- 
ligent as any Indians in the northwest, it is presumed no one will 
deny ; that they are the most liberal and generous tribe in the west 
cannot be denied, although their generosity is frequently attributed to 
cowardice. It is well known to those acquainted with Indian char- 
acter that an Indian's propensity to fight depends much on habit. It 
is the policy of the agent of the Winnebagoes in view of their interest, 
to discourage any disposition or preparation for war, and to encour- 
age them to follow the peaceful pursuits of civilized life. That some 
few individuals among the Winnebagoes do not correctly appreciate 
the right of property is true, still, it is unjust that the exceptions 
should in this case be made the rule ; and it is believed that their 
ability to pay for stolen property is too often, in the absence of testi- 
mony, construed into evidence that they ought to pay for it. That 
the Winnebagoes, like most Indians, are fond of whiskey it is ad- 
mitted ; still thev do not own distilleries, and thev do not manufacture 


"fire water." If the miturtured Indian, prompted by appetite, yields 
to temptation which the white man, instigated by mercenary profit, 
lays in his path, let the white man remember that the sin will be 
laid at his own door, and cease to insult the depredation he has him- 
self produced. When the efforts of Indian agents are sustained by 
public sentiment on our frontiers, then there will be hope of the 
moral reformation, improvement, and elevation of the red man. 

The conductors of the press in this Territory, while publishing 
paragraphs calculated to make the Winnebagoes a by-word and re- 
proach among their white brothers throughout the country, would do 
well to remember that Minnesota, in her infancy, owed much of her 
prosperity to these same Winnebagoes ; that they were the pioneers ; 
that in their path the white man followed and settled the country ; 
that the time is not forgotten when the suspension or postponement 
of a Winnebago annuity payment was considered a public calamity ; 
and that even now, the removal of the Winnebagoes from Minnesota 
would be considered a serious drawback on her prosperity." 

Such is the present condition of that portion of the Indians who 
inhabited the region of country in which we now dwell, and who have 
scarce found rest for their feet in the land of their fathers. It is 
gratifying to notice that poor as their opportunities for improvement 
have been, they are making some progress in the arts of civilized 
life, and that those most familiar with their character do not despair 
of effecting their "moral reformation, improvement, and elevation" 
if the proper influences can be brought to bear on these rude sons of 
the forest. 

The whole past history of this country affords us evidence of a 
satisfactory character, that unless the Indians can be civilized and 
enlightened, there is but faint hopes of their continuance as a people. 
And if it can be demonstrated that this is possible, a wide field Is 
open for the benevolence of the American people to display itself. 

That there is much prejudice in the minds of many people con- 
cerning the Indians cannot be denied. It is natural to suppose that 
those who have wronged and defrauded them, should try to find some 
excuse for the baseness of their conduct, and a convenient apology 
could readily be found at all times in representing the Aborigines as 
a people so void of humanity that no ill treatment was awarded them 
undeserved ; hence perhaps much has been said against them on very 
slight proof, and many may have been satisfied to believe such state- 
ments Avithout calling their authenticity into question. "My earliest 
impressions of the Indian race," says Schoolcraft in his Personal In- 
cidents and Impressions, "were drawn from the fire-side rehearsals 
of incidents which happened during the perilous times of the Amer- 
ican Revolution ; in which my father was a zealous "actor, and were all 
inseparably connected with the fearful ideas of the Indian yell, tom- 
a-hawk, the scalping knife, and the fire brand. In these recitals, the 
Indian was depicted as the very impersonation of evil — a sort of wild 
demon, who delighted in nothing so much as blood and plunder. 
Whether he had any mind, was governed by any reason, or even had 
a soul, nobody inquired and nobody cared. It was always represented 


as a meritorious act in the old revolutionary reminiscences, to have 
killed one of them in the border wars, and thus aided in ridding the 
land of a cruel and unnatural race, in whom all feelings of pity, justice 
and mercy, were supposed to be obliterated. These early ideas were 
sustained by painted narratives of captivity and hairbreadth escapes 
of men and women from their clutches, which, from time to time, 
fell into my hands, so that long before I was ten years old, I had a 
most definite and terrific idea impressed on my imagination of what 
was sometimes called in my native precincts, "the bow and arrow 

Where individuals are brought up with such views as the above 
and retain them, it is hardly to be expected that they will estimate 
the character of the red man very highly or cherish a deep sympathy 
for his misfortunes. But while we make due allowance for the ef- 
fects of early training in leading them mto this way of thinking it 
is well enough by a calm survey of the course of policy pursued 
towards the Indians to endeavor to persuade such to harbor more 
charitable views. As a people, we must admit, that they have been 
singularly unfortunate. Since the time the Saxon first intruded on 
their hunting grounds or showed his face in their councils, they have 
continued to decay, till scarce a shadow of their former greatness 

The sound of the woodman's axe frightened the deer, and the 
poor Indian, uncivilized and unenlightened, was compelled to retire 
before the footsteps of civilization, and the little intercourse they did 
enjoy with the whites was often productive of evil consequences. 
While some good m.en labored to instruct and Christianize them 
many were to be found who equally eager sought their debasement. 

We are informed by historians that previous to the discovery of 
the northern part of our continent by whites, no stimulating drinks 
were known among the natives. And it is said that the first scene of 
intoxication took place among them, on the first interview which took 
place between the navigator Hudson and the Mohigan tribes. As 
soon as Hudson landed among them at Manhattan, he proceeded to 
hold a conference with some of the chiefs, and ordered a bottle of 
Ardent Spirits to be brought forward, of which he first took a 
draught himself and then passed the cup to the Indians. These con- 
tented themselves by simply smelling it ; and it had passed nearly 
round the whole circle of the chiefs untasted, when one of the chiefs, 
fearing that it would be disrespectful to their white friend to return 
his gift, swallowed the contents. He was soon stupified from the 
effects, and his companions began to think he was dead. He soon 
recovered, however, and immediately called for more, declaring the 
sensation produced was delightful, and the others followed his ex- 
ample. Thus we see that almost the first chapter of Indian history 
gives us a description of a scene of that brutalizing intemperance 
which has brought on their race so much of misery. Dissipation and 
drunkenness are closely interwoven with their history since. The 
French traders gave them brandy for their furs. The British in their 
intercourse with them bribed them shortly largely with Jamaica rum 
and many of our enterprising citizens have doubtless realized a splendid 


profit by vending the indigenous corn whiskey. We notice that in the 
reports of various Indian Agents and Missionaries much complaint is 
made of this traffic which operates powerfully in retarding the work 
of reform among them. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in his 
report of last November, used the following language in speaking of 
this matter : 

"The traffic in Ardent Spirits with the Indians, to whom it is 
so demoralizing and ruinous, still actively and extensively prevails ; 
less however within the confines of the Indian Country, it is believed, 
than along its borders, where there is no law, and no power on the 
part of the general government to restrain it. This traffic is here 
carried on with impunity by a set of lawless harpies, as reckless as 
they are merciless in the pursuit of the illgotten gains to be thereby 
acquired. Some years since a strong appeal was made by the head of 
this department to the authorities of several of the frontier states, 
for the purpose of endeavoring to procure such legislation on the 
part of those states as would tend to uproot this wide-spread evil, 
but without success. Hence it still flourishes in violation of all law, 
human and divine ; the fruitful source of crime and untold misery, 
and the frequent cause of serious brawls and disputes upon the fron- 
tiers as well as within the Indian country. It having been found that 
the Indians, on the faith of their annuities, frequently obtain liquor 
on credit from the class of people referred to, and that they collect 
their 'whiskey debts' at the annuity payments, to the prejudice of 
the licensed and legitimate traders among the Indians, it is intended 
hereafter, as far as possible, to keep such persons out of the Indian 
country entirely, and especially at the time of the payments." 

And while we have the concurring testimony of the past and 
the present to prove the wrongs of the red man, we have the testi- 
mony of some who have been intimately acquainted with them to 
prove that there is much that is noble and generous in their dispo- 
sition. General Houston, who has lived among them, in one of his 
speeches has the following: "During the period of my residence 
among the Indians in the Arkansas region, I had every facility of 
gaining a complete knowledge of the flagrant outrages practiced upon 
the poor red men by the agents of the government. I saw, every 
year, vast sums squandered and consumed without the Indians deriv- 
ing the least benefit, and the government in very many instances ut- 
terly ignorant of the wrongs that were perpetuated. Had one-third 
of the money advanced by the government been usefully, honorably, 
and wisely applied, all those tribes might have been now in possession 
of the arts and the enjoyments of civilized life. I tare not what 
dreamers, and politicians, and travelers, and writers say to the con- 
trary. I know the Indian character, and I confidently avow, that if 
one-third of the many millions of dollars our government had appro- 
priated within the last twenty-five years for the benefit of the Indian 
population, had been honestly and judiciously applied, there would 
not have been at this time a single tribe within the limits of our states 
and territories, -but what would have been in the complete enjoyment 
of all the arts and all the comforts of civilized life. But there is not 


a tribe but has been outraged and defrauded, and nearly all the wars 
we have prosecuted against the Indians, have grown out of bold 
frauds and the cruel injustice played off upon them by our Indian 
agents and their accomplices." 

And the same gentleman, in a late speech in the United States 
Senate, remarks : "Though the charge of perfidy has been made 
against them for ages back, I have lived for many years in connec- 
tion with them, and as a strict observer, can bear testimony, that I 
never knew an Indian nation violate a treaty which was made in 
good faith, and observed by the white man. I deny any charge to 
the contrary, and if you probe it to the bottom, and find where the 
truth lies, you will see that the Indians are misrepresented ; that there 
was circumvention in the treaty contrary to their understanding, and 
that it was the maintainence of their rights, and not a violation of 
good faith on their part, that led to any infraction. You will find 
that all treaties have been violated by double dealing of those who 
were sent to negotiate with them." 

This then is the testimony of a man who has hunted with the 
Indians in the depths of the forest and shared the hospitality of their 
wigwams, and has been, moreover, a "strict observer" of what trans- 
pired around him in these circumstances. 

We have incontrovertible evidence that the Indians are suscept- 
ible to civilization and enlightenment in the fact that the numbers 
of them are even now reclaimed from their savage mode of life, and 
evince clearly that in strength of intellect and goodness of heart they 
are not far, if any, behind their white neighbors. 

It is but a short time since our government, and societies of benev- 
olent individuals began in earnest to endeavor to civilize the tribes on 
the west side of the Mississippi, and we already see their efforts at- 
tended with signal success. Where, not long ago, the forest stood 
unbroken and untouched, large fields are now cultivated with com- 
mendable industry and skill. Streams, which lately ran in their chan- 
nels unobstructed through the wilderness, are now made to give the 
motive power to mills and factories, to meet the demands of a popu- 
lation every day becoming more intelligent in what relates to tlie 
arts of civilized life. Many of the tribes supply themselves to some 
extent with smiths, wheelwrights, carpenters, &c., &c. There are 
native merchants also among the southern tribes, who shop their own 
products and in return receive such goods as will meet the wants 
of their own people. School houses and academies are in successful 
operation in some parts of the country, and some of their young men 
receive their education at collegiate institutions in the different states. 
Ministers of the Gospel are also settled among them and many congre- 
gations have been organized. 

Among the Choctaws there are some flourishing Seminaries in 
which competent teachers are employed to teach the different branches 
usually taught in the higher schools in the States. This tribe has like- 
wise organized a regular form of government for themselves, with a 
written constitution. In imitation of the United States they have three 
departments — legislative, judicial and executive. The laws which are 
enacted are regularly printed and published. 


Rev. R. D. Potts in his report from Armstrong Academy last 
August, says : "When I look back to what this people were nineteen 
years ago and what they are at present, I can adopt the language of 
inspiration and say : 'What hath God wrought.' " And Rev. Ebenezer 
Hotchkin, the superintendent of Roonshue Female Seminary, remarks, 
speaking of temperance: "The Maine Law" as passed by that State 
some years ago, has immortalized that section of our country. I think 
that the Choctaws are deserving of some credit, for they passed the 
same law more than twenty years ago, and have sustained it ever since 
it was passed. This year another stricture has been added to this law, 
making it a finable offense of $3 to introduce any quantity of spirituous 
liquors into the nation, and on the second offense the fine is $5 ; and I 
am happy to say that these regulations are severly enforced in this 

The present chiefs in this part of the nation set an example worthy 
of all praise. In fact, it is disreputable to drink liquor in this vicinity. 
None do it except the lowest class, and these generally drink in Texas." 
Speaking of the church the same gentleman says : "If the question 
were ever put to me, what are the best means to use in civilizing and 
Christianizing a heathen people? I should say, without any hesitation, 
preach to them the Gospel of the Son of God. This is the lever that 
moves the whole machinery of improvement. Religion in the heart 
makes men temperate, and until this is gained there is but little done 
towards their permanent benefit." 

But although much has already been done, the work is far from 
being accomplished ; indeed, it is but fairly commenced. It is hoped, 
however, that the people of America will not falter in the prosecution 
of so glorious a design until their efforts in behalf of the Indian race 
are crowned with success. 



If it seems to any of our readers, that in the preceding chapters 
we have been digressing far from what should be the subject matter 
of our narrative, let them remember that in the introductory chapter 
this license was secured ; and that in rambling from one occurrence of 
interest to another in a loose and disjointed way, we are simply carrying 
out the plan originally proposed. And indeed much of what has been 
related relative to the early settlement of the Mississippi valley, is, in 
the estimation of the writer, of too much consequence in our history, to 
need any apology for its appearance in a work of this character. 

Having now prepared the way for relating some events more pe- 
culiarl}- connected with this county, we will proceed with this portion 
of our narrative as briefly as will be deemed advisable. 

The first settlement made in the county by white people was in 
Burr Oak Grove in the township of Erin. Oliver W. Kellogg, a native 
of New York State, came to that place in 1827, and commenced mak- 
ing improvements. The house which he built is still standing, and is 
the building in which Colonel Denient's party took shelter on the occas- 
ion of their skirmish with the Indians to which we have previously 
alluded. The old road from Rock river to Galena, commonly known 
as "the Sucker Trail", went through Burr Oak Grove, and Kellogg's 
house was along a well known stopping place on this route. Kellogg 
himself only remained a year or two, after he built, and when he left, 
a Frenchman named Lafayette came in and occupied the premises un- 
til the winter preceding the Black Hawk war. 

The next claim made in the county was by William Waddams, 
also a native of the State of New York, who came to the Grove which 
now bears his name in the fall of 1832 and built a small "claim house" 
on the land which he at present occupies. 

Mr. Waddams did not, however, move to the Grove with his fam- 
ily until the spring of 1834, and then another settlement had been 
started at Brewster's Ferry, on the Peckatonica, about a mile and a 
half south of the present village of Winslow. 

This, and Waddam's were at that time the only two settlements 
within the bounds of what is now Stephenson county, for Kellogg's 
place had been abandoned previous to the war, and it was not until the 
following year that James Timms the present proprietor came to the 
premises. All this tract of country from Apple river on the west to 
Rock river on the east was included in Jo Daviess county and called 
the Apple River Precinct. The nearest settlement to Waddams on 
the east was Rockford, and there a settlement had just been started 
the same year, and the Indians still continued to hunt and fish, and 


raise their patches of corn along the bottom lands of the Yellow Creek 
and Pekatonica. 

In the fall of 1834, George Payne settled in Waddams Grove on 
the farm at present occupied by Thomas French, and in the following 
summer Luman Montague, and his brother, Rodney, came into the 
same vicinity, where they continue to reside. As this portion of the 
county contained abundance of water and some excellent timber it 
was very soon settled or claimed. In 1835 and 1836 many settlers 
began to flock in from various directions. Among these were William 
Baker; William Kirkpatrick ; William Preston; John and Benjamin 
Goddard ; James Timms ; Jesse Willet ; Conrad Van Brocklin ; Mason 
Dimmick ; Levi Roby ; Robert Jones ; Levi Lucas and others ; some of 
whom we will subsequently mention. Many of these first settlers were 
miners, some were from the eastern states, and a large proportion 
were "Suckers" from the southern part of Illinois who had seen the 
beauty and richness of the county in their Indian campaigns, and sub- 
sequently came to make their homes in the fertile valley of the 

We will give some account of many of these early settlers under 
the head of the various townships where they have resided, and the 
names of many will, of course, figure conspicuously in different parts 
of the narrative. 

When we turn to contemplate the events of these early times ; the 
character of the pioneers, and the privations and hardships they were 
compelled to suffer, naturally claim a large share of our attention. 
And it is right that posterity should endeavor to keep fresh the memory 
of these times, that those who stood on the vanguard of civilization and 
endured much for them that should come after, may have that tribute 
of honor conferred on them which is tlieir just due. 

The life led by most of the early settlers previous to the organi- 
zation of the county, was far from being a luxurious one. No crops 
of consequence were raised, and even those settlers who had money 
plenty, often found it difficult to procure a necessary supply of pro- 
visions. The condition of indigent families at a time wdien a bushel 
of wheat cost four dollars, and a journey of forty or fifty miles to be 
performed before it could be ground, may be imagined. The nearest 
market was on the Mississippi, at Savanna and Galena, and in those 
days the arrival of a steamboat at either of these places was regarded 
as an event of so great importance as to be the talk of the neighbor- 
hood. Some of the people would hunt, but this was a very precarious 
method of gaining a subsistence, as game, with the exception of deer, 
was not then as plentiful as at present ; and often the hunter would go 
out in the morning to shoot something for his breakfast, but be com- 
pelled to pass the whole day without a mouthful to satisfy his hunger. 
One of these men who was compelled to endure some of the hard- 
ships of border life, told the writer that he and a companion, who oc- 
cupied a little shanty together, were often glad, in days when meal 
was scarce, to procure pork sufficient to grease a pancake griddle and 
that on one occasion his comrade and another young man, made a 
hearty meal on some rinds which had done service in this way, and 
had become green with mouldness. The same gentleman stated that 


he has worked hard, improvhig his land for weeks together, on no 
better fare than Indian corn meal mixed with water. These are only 
extreme examples, however, and it is by no means to be supposed that 
so great destitution was prevalent. Still the testimony of all consulted 
on this matter, proves conclusively that the scarcity was felt more or 
less by all the farmers. But a few years wrought a change in this 
respect. The ground, when cultivated, brought forth crops that fairly 
astonished people from less fertile portions of the United States, and 
farmers began to raise greater quantities of grain than the limited 
marketing facilities they then enjoyed would enable them to dispose of 

There was no grist mill built in the county^previous to 1837, and 
as it was very inconvenient to perform a journey of forty or fifty miles 
to get a bag of corn ground, some of the settlers adopted a plan for 
preparing their corn food as simple as it may seem novel. 

They would take a portion of the trunk of a tree, two or three feet 
in length, something like a horse block, and having kindled a fire on 
one end, would burn it out, as Robinson Crusoe did his canoe, into a 
very passable mortar. Into this they would pour their corn, and with 
a pestile, made by inserting an iron wedge in the end of a long stick, 
they would pound it until it became fine enough for use. 

Their houses were constructed of logs ; and at a time when there 
were no saw mills in the neighborhood, no door or sash factories, no 
cabinet ware rooms stowed with costly furniture, people had to forego 
the use of many of those articles of luxury, which, though giving evi- 
dence of wealth and an advanced state of refinement, are by no means 
necessary adjuncts to real enjoyment. They, however, found little 
difficulty in submitting to such privations as these, and managed to 
partake of many enjoyments spite of the inconveniences surround- 
ing them. If their neighbors lived at a great distance they were gen- 
erally kind and friendly when they met. If their provisions were 
coarse and their labor hard, they were not troubled quite so much with 
dyspepsia and ennui, as some of the most opulent classes in more mod- 
ern times. And when they assembled together at a quilting or wedding, 
who will say that these athletic lads and rosy lasses, did not as joy- 
ously "chase away hours with glowing feet" as many of our beaux 
and belles who now meet together in more magnificent halls, exchange 
hosts of unmeaning compliments, talk and dance with people with 
whom they are not acquainted, and whom, in many instances, they 
either can not, or will not recognize out of the ball room. How heart- 
less and devoid of real enjoyment are such assemblies compared to the 
happy party in the pioneer's hut, where all meet as friends, and where 
the character of the honest settler is a sufficient guaranty for the re- 
spectability of his guest. There were other inconveniences of a more 
serious character than poor houses and rough furniture. The popula- 
tion was so sparse that schools could not well be maintained, and it 
was seldom that many families had opportunities of hearing a sermon 
preached. No churches were built, and it was only when an itinerant 
clergyman or missionary came into the neighborhood that they had an 
opportunity of attending public worship. Among the first ministers in 


the county was a Methodist clergyman named McCain. Father Mc- 
Cain, as he was famiUarly called by the settlers. This good old man 
labored hard among the inhabitants of the frontiers, and his labors 
seemed to have been appreciated in some degree by the people, for on 
occasions when he preached they came far and near to wait on his 

But although the opportunities for instruction were somewhat un- 
favorable at that particular time, it must by no means be inferred that 
the majority of the people were indifferent to such matters, or that 
from ignorance and stupidity they could not appreciate them. These 
men who came into the wilderness with the axe and gun, to clear the 
forest and cultivate the prairie, were neither ignorant nor inactive. 
The simple fact of their coming here at such a time augurs much for 
their adventurous turn of minds, and from the difficulties they success- 
fully encountered, we have abundant proof of their energy and 

No one, who at the present day, visits the homes of some of these 
old pioneers, can avoid feeling a profound respect for many traits of 
their character. The simplicity of manners, boundless hospitality, and 
amount of general information which many of them display, elicit the 
admiration of the visitor; and if he be one who has been accustomed 
to place an estimate on men in proportion to their wealth and all that 
extraneous glitter so dazzling to little minds ; he will there learn the 
absurdity of making such things any criterion of a man's importance. 

But few of these early settlers have amassed a great deal of 
wealth. While most of them enjoy a competence, there are few if 
any who have been so deeply imbued with the money making spirit as 
to engage in speculations of questionable honesty to secure fortunes. 
All these men sought after was a home and independence, and it is to 
a class of people who came in at a later period, that we may attribute 
the propensity for the acquisition of gain that has long been a stand- 
ing reproach. Those last came to the west for the purpose of making 
fortunes in an exceedingly brief space of time, and according to all 
accounts, seem to have been rather unscrupulous about the means em- 
ployed to effect their end. To this class belonged merchants who would 
attend cheap sales of damaged goods in the east, and then sell them 
at a higher price than would yield a fair profit on a good article. 

The following laughable illustration of the manner in which some 
of the goods were adulterated was told us by a gentleman in Freeport : 

One of the early merchants had brought on a barrel of whiskey 
to supply his customers, and wishing to realize a fair profit, took the 
innocent precaution to dilute it with some good fresh water from the 
Pecatonica. But unfortunately in his mixing process, (as an old 
countryman would say) "he drowned the miller," or in other words 
he seemed to forget that he was destroying a quality for which whiskey 
is famous, that of resisting cold ; for one of his customers having taken 
a jug full home with him, one cold frosty night, in the morning the 
jub was found broken and the congealed mass demonstrated but too 
clearly that "the hearts blood of John Barleycorn" was a minor pro- 
portion of the mixture. 


One of these speculators got up the plot of a villag-e which he lo- 
cated a little south of Brewster's ferry and called it Ransomburgh. 
The village looked very pretty on paper, and a large painting of a 
steamboat on the Pecatonica gave evidence of the great commercial 
prospects of the flourishing young city. Many lots were disposed of 
to people in the east, but strange to say, the progress of this village 
has not kept pace with some other portions of the county ; and al- 
though a steamboat has been plying between Freeport and some places 
in the vicinity of Ransomburgh we hear no mention made of it even 
as a place for getting wood. 

Although it is to be hoped that the number of these sharpers is 
on the decrease at the present day, it is yet pretty evident that a love 
of dollars and cents is a prevailing characteristic among many western 
people. To show the view which some foreigners take of such devo- 
tion to business, we take the following extracts from Mrs. Pulzky's 
Diary : 

"Perhaps the respect of American society for the 'almighty dollar,' 
which makes the acquisition of wealth the aim of every exertion, may 
account in a great measure, for the thefts, larcenies, and forgeries, 
which sometimes are committed even by members of respectable fam- 
ilies, as the register before me shows. 

"The Anglo-Saxon race have forgotten to amuse themselves with 
trifles. You find the Merry Old England now only in poetry. Since 
the time of Cromwell and his Puritans the people have a gloomy cast, 
a:nd the business habits of our age have destroyed the anciently gay 
character of the race. A sprightly Englishman or American is an 
exception. The dance under the Maypole, social music, and the deep 
feeling for the beauty of nature, so profoundly rooted in the German 
mind, are unknown to the American farmer. Give to a Hungarian 
or a German a moderate income, just enough to maintain the family; 
a blue sky, a green meadow, a shady tree in summer, a comfortable 
stove, a song and chat in the winter, and he does not care for all the 
riches in the world. 

"The Americans, especially here in the west, have leisure to enjoy 
nature, no art to refine their feeling, their manners prescribe the 
amusements of Europe. The soul must grow weary of the tinkling 
of dollars of the purely material aim of their life. They long for ex- 
citement ; the ladies grow nervous and work themselves into trances 
and visions, and cheat themselves and others." 

Although foreign prejudice may have had its influence over the 
mind of the writer of the above extracts, we cannot deny that there 
is much of truth in the statements she makes, and it must be evident 
to any one that so long as this grasping avaricious spirit is fostered, 
it will only serve to retard our true progress. Besides the flagrant 
moral wrong of Mammon worship, it serves to hinder the progress of 
education. If young men grow up in the opinion that a capacity for 
discharging mercantile business is to be the Ultima Thule of their 
acquirements, and that they really have need of little or nothing more, 
they may make expert accountants, but what will be their capability 
for discharging many important duties incumbent on them as Ameri- 
can citizens? It is, of course, necessary for business men to receive the 


training- suitable for their vocation, but to regard a skilful manage- 
ment of financial concerns as the great aim of life is a shameful prosti- 
tution of human talents. 

There is little danger, however, that such views as the above will 
Decome prevailent among us. The sharpers and heartless speculators 
must give way before a class of citizens who are every day becoming 
more numerous, men of education are coming into our midst and are 
lending their influence to those who have all along battled for the right 
and we hope that our community at large will soon display mych of 
that honesty of purpose and noble generosity which distinguished so 
many of the early pioneers. 



For two years after the treaty made with the Indians, they re- 
ceived their annuities at Chicago before they were removed from the 
country, and although they never ventured on any open hostihties with 
the settlers, they would frequently steal provisions and commit sundry 
little acts of mischief to the annoyance of the white man. If detected 
in theft, however, they exhibited the strongest marks of fear. So great 
was their dread of the vengeance of the whites after the chastisement 
inflicted on Black Hawk and his band, that they would not dare to 
of^er the slightest resistance, even when it was in their power. 

When Mr. Waddams first came to the Grove he brought quite a 
large number of hogs along with him, but before he had lived there 
long they were all stolen from him and eaten by the Indians. On one 
occasion, when in search of some of his missing porkers, he visited a 
wigwam and actually found one of his pigs there in safe-keeping; but 
the cunning rogues declared that they had found the pig lying sick 
exposed to the cold and had carried it in the lodge to save its life. 

Robert Jones and Levi Lucas also suffered a little from the pecu- 
lations of these lawless children of the forest. These two gentlemen 
came on to the country about the same time, and were the first settlers 
in the present town- of Buck Eye. They built a cabin on the land at 
present owned by Lucas about two miles north of the village of Cedar- 
ville, and here they kept, together, what might be termed "a queer look- 
ing bachelor's hall. 

They settled here in January, 1836, and had just fairly established 
themselves in their new domicile when they were deprived of their 
store of provisions in the following manner : 

They had gone off on an excursion of some kind leaving in their 
hut a considerable quantity of vension, and partridge, wild honey, to- 
bacco and many other little valuables. Their journey occupied several 
days and as they were returning, and came in view of their house they 
were astonished to see smoke rising through the chimney, and on hur- 
rying up to see who had thus uncermoniously intruded, they perceived 
an Indian stealing out from the house and taking his course through 
the woods in the direction of Richland creek. When they entered, 
judge of their mortification and anger, on finding that their savage 
neighbors had made a clear sweep and taken away whatever they could 
conveniently carry. We can imagine the looks of these two hunters, 
standing in a frame of mind somewhat similar to Macduff when the 
destruction of his castle and the murder of his family were announced 
to him. A day or two previous they had a plentiful supply of provis- 
ions, and a good store of tobacco, in smoking which they might be- 


guile their time, and now their tobacco, honey, "all that could be found" 
had vanished, and even their razors were missing. Why they took 
the trouble to shave at that early day, when more attention was paid 
to the substantial and necessary, than to personal adornment, it is hard 
to tell ; it was probably, however, more from habit and an early ac- 
quired sense of decorum than from any desire to be in the fashion. 

Their suspicions at once rested on the gentleman who had taken 
his departure so suddenly on their arrival ; and though it was getting 
near evening they determined to follow his trail and do their best to 
overtake him. They had not gone a great distance when they came up 
with the Indian, just as he was about shooting a turkey which was 
perched on a tree close by him. Jones went up to him and snatched 
the rifle from his hands before he had time to offer any resistance. He 
then leveled it at his head and ordered him to tell forthwith, where he 
had taken the articles which were missing from the cabin. The old 
Pottawatomie was somewhat intimidated, and acknowledged that his 
people had taken some of the articles, and said they should be restored 
to the hunters if they would accompany him to his wigwam about a 
mile distant. The wigwam turned out to be more than two or three 
miles off and the surprise of the two men may be better imagined than 
described, when they were at last issued into an encarnpment contain- 
ing some thirty large fierce looking men together with a number of 
women and children, dogs, etc., which constitute the household of the 
Indian. They saw that their threats and violence towards the old 
Indian might now be easily retaliated, and the critical situation in 
which they were placed naturally gave rise to feelings of uneasiness ; 
but too cunning to exhibit any of the apprehension they felt, they 
bodily entered the wigwam and sat down, trying to look as much at 
their ease as possible. Presently, the old man brought them their to- 
bacco, telling them by signs that the other edibles were devoured, and 
that the razors were in the possession of some Indians on Yellow Creek 
who also had a hand in the pillage of the cabin. Jones, it is probable 
was well enough satisfied at the idea of securing this acceptable "re- 
liquam Danaum," and making a safe retreat, but the old savage put a 
barrier in the way of such a consummation by relating their very un- 
amicable interview in the forest by which means he had been deprived 
of his rifle and his friends of a delicious turkey. This statement was 
responded to by loud murmurs on all sides of the wigwam. The men 
began to talk in a large threatening tone, and the dogs and children, 
contributed in no small degree to increase the uproar. In this dilemma 
Jones suddenly bethought him of his tobacco, and pulling it out he cut 
it up into small pieces. He then distributed all he had among the dis- 
satisfied natives and soon had the pleasure of seeing the current of 
their feelings greatly changed. The men were mollified, and even be- 
gan to look friendly, the squaws began to smile, and Jones proceeded 
to make the reconciliation still more sure by starting a lively flirtation 
with some of these dusky daughters of the forest. When all were 
perfectly restored to good humor the white men took their leave, and 
going a little south of the Indian encampment which was on the ridge 
between Richland Creek and the Pecatonica, they crossed the Richland 
not far from the confluence of these two streams, and by the light of 


the stars managed to find their way to the residence of Benjamin God- 
dard who at that time lived a little south of where Cedarville now 
stands. Here they remained all night, and in the morning accompan- 
ied Mr. Goddard to Freeport to assist in raising a new log house for 
Wm. Baker who with his family were at that time the only residents 
in this place. While they were engaged at work here, some of the 
Yellow Creek band of whom they had heard the night previous came 
loitering about, and Jones signified to them that he was aware of the 
depredations they had been committing, and ordered them at once to 
restore the stolen articles. 

They pointed to the sky and assured him that as soon as the sun 
reached the middle of his course they would restore his property, and 
starting ofif at full speed toward their camp returned with the razors 
as they had promised . 

Although we cannot justify the thefts and other misdemeanors 
committed by the savages it is well to bear in mind that their situation 
at this time must have been extremely pitiful. And if starvation caused 
them at times to forget the distinction of property, and while we con- 
demn the ofifense we should, to say the least, exercise charity for the 
untutored ofiFenders. 

At the time of which we speak, the land in this vicinity had neither 
been surveyed into sections nor brought into market, the settlers there- 
fore had no other title to the lands they occupied than the "claim" 
which they made on discovering a piece of ground agreeable to their 
choice. To constitute a claim all that was necessary was to make sure 
that the property thus sought after had not been previously selected 
by some other person, and then if there existed no such obstacle, the 
settler might proceed at once to set up marks on the boundaries of the 
land he wished to possess, and make some improvements. As a general 
thing those who made these claims bought the land they had improved 
when it came into market, but it sometimes happened that another than 
the first settler would enter the land and take it from him with all its 
improvements. But such conduct was very unpopular and brought 
on the offender not only the dislike of his neighbors, but in many cases 
severe punishment was inflicted by a lynch mob on the man who was 
so unfeeling as to take away his neighbor's homestead. And when 
we consider the labors and trials the early pioneer had to undergo to 
improve his land, and erect his building, when we consider that the 
strength of his manhood's prime was devoted to fit up a place where 
he might rest in peace and independence in his old age, and where his 
children could continue to enjoy the same blessings after he left the 
scene ; can we' wonder that not only the voice of the party injured, but 
also that of the whole community should rise in condemnation of the 
unmanly, ungenerous act of depriving him of his lands and fruits 
of his labor without giving him any compensation ? 

It did not always happen, however, that those who "jumped claims" 
as it was called, were really guilty of depriving their neighbor of a home 
or the fruit of any toil, when they took lands which he laid claim to. 
And in many cases such conduct was clearly justifiable. When any 
man or set of men, abused the claim prerogative, and by grasping after 
more land than they themselves required or ever would be likely to 

280 • 

purchase, either excluded others from settling among them entirely or 
else made them pay a kind of black mail to get possession of a piece of 
ground ; the man who had the courage to go boldly and take what he 
knew they never could improve or purchase, in spite of their wide 
stretching land-marks or blackguard threats, is certainly more entitled 
to our praise than censure. 

Some of these greedy fellows, who claimed an extent of country 
for miles around them against all law and reason, acquired considerable 
property by selling claims as it was called. They would sell off, piece 
by piece of their territory, causing men to pay them handsomely for 
land to which they themselves had no better title than an impudent 

The abuse of these claim regulations on both sides caused a great 
deal of trouble to the well disposed part of the early settlers and meet- 
ings were frequently held in various parts of the country to adopt some 
means of obviating" these difficulties, and although the public vote was 
rather opposed to monopoly, it insured each settler the undisturbed 
possession of a pretty large farm if he wished. A meeting of this kind 
was held in Freeport in 1836, when a resolution was passed that the 
community would uphold no man in claiming more than two sections 
of land ! Such in their opinion should be the extent of one man's farm. 
At the present day, although some have pretty extensive farms, we 
question if many homesteads can be found in Stephenson county em- 
bracing two square miles. 



In the winter of 1836-7, at the session of the Tenth General As- 
sembly of IlHnois, an Act was passed for the organization of the coun- 
ties of Stephenson, Boone and DeKalb. We copy it from the following : 

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, rep- 
resented in the General Assembly, That all that tract of country within 
the following boundaries, to-wit : Commencing on the northern bound- 
ary of the State where the section line between sections three and four, 
in town twenty-nine north, range five east of the fourth principal 
meridian, strikes said line, thence east on the northern boundary of 
the State, to the range line between ranges nine and ten east, thence 
south on said range line to the northern boundary of Ogle county, 
thence west on the northern boundary of Ogle county to and passing 
the northeast corner of the county to the line between section thirty- 
three and thirty-four in township twenty-six north, range five east, 
thence north to the place of beginning, shall form a county to be called 
Stephenson, as a tribute of respect to the late Colonel Benjamin 

Sec. 2. An election shall be held at the house of Wm. Baker in 
said county, on the first Monday of May next, for one sherifif, one 
coroner, one recorder, one county surveyor, three county commissioners 
and one clerk of the county commissioner's court, who shall hold their 
offices until the next succeeding general elections, and until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified ; which said election shall be conducted 
in all respects agreeable to the provisions of the law regulating elec- 
tions. Providing that the qualified voters present may elect from their 
own number three qualified voters to act as judges of said election, 
who shall appoint two qualified voters to act as clerks." 

By the conditions of this Act, the counties of Stephenson and 
Boone continued to form a part of the county of Jo Daviess until their 
organization, and they were also afterwards to be attached to Jo Da- 
viess in all general elections until otherwise provided for by law. 

In accordance with this Act the first term of the county commis- 
sioner's court was held at the house of William Baker on the 8th of 
May, 1837. The following gentlemen were present and proceeded to 
qualify each other according to law for their respective offices. The 
commissioners were L. W. Streator. Isaac A. Forbes and Julius Smith. 
William Kirkpatrick was appointed sheriff and O. H. Wright commis- 
sioner's clerk. Mr Wright also gave in his bond for the office of Re- 
corder. The court then proceeded to lay off the county into Electorial 
Precincts, and made the following divisions for that purpose which we 
take as we find them recorded : 


"Commencing at the northeast corner of the county and running 
south six miles, thence west nine miles, thence north to the State line, 
thence on the line to the place of beginning. Known by the name of 
Rock Grove Precinct. 

Silver Creek Precinct commences at the southeast corner of Rock 
Grove Precinct, and runs south to the south line of the county thence 
west on the line seven miles, thence north striking the line of Rock 
Grove Precinct, thence east to the place of beginning. 

Brewster's Precinct commences at northwest corner of Rock Grove 
Precinct, runs south six miles, thence west eleven miles, thence north 
to the State line, thence east to the place of beginning. 

Central Precinct commences at the northwest corner of Silver Pre- 
cinct, running south five miles, thence west thirteen miles, thence north 
to the southwest corner of Brewster Precinct, thence east to the place 
of beginning. 

Waddams Precinct commences at the northwest corner of Brew- 
ster's Precinct, running south to the south line of the county, thence 
west on the county line to the west line, thence north on the line to 
the north line of the county, thence east to the place of beginning." 

Freeport Precinct, commencing at the southeast corner of Cen- 
tral Precinct, running south to the south line of the county, thence 
west to the east line of Waddams Precinct, thence north to the south 
line of Central Precinct, thence east to the place of beginning." 

Jonathan Cora, J. B, Blackamore and Eli Frankenberger were ap- 
pointed judges of election for Rock Grove Precinct. 

For Brewster, L. R. Hull, John M. Curtiss and N. C. Ransom. 

For Waddams, John Garner, Wm. Waddams and Othniel Preston. 

Central, Ira Jones, Levi Lucas and Alpheus Goddard. 

Freeport, Seth Scott, A. M. Preston and L. O. Crocker. 

Silver Creek, Horace Colborn, Nelson Salsburg and Philo 

At the same meeting the oath of office was administered to Fred- 
erick D. Bulkley as county surveyor, and also to Lorenzo Lee as cor- 
oner of the county. 

At this time there were but a few families in Freeport, and indeed 
the whole county could muster no more than eighty-four voters. 

In June, the commissioners appointed by the State to locate the 
county seat, made the following report : 

We, the Commissioners appointed by the Legislature of the State 
of Illinois, to locate the county seat of Stephenson county and State 
aforesaid, have located said seat of justice on the northwest quarter 
of section thirty-one in township twenty-seven north, range eight east 
of the 4th Principal Meridian, now occupied and claimed by Wm. Kirk- 
patrick & Co., William Baker and Smith Gilbraith. 

Whereunto we have set our hands and seals this twelfth day of 
June A. D. 1837.' 

(Signed) V. L. Davidson, 
Isaac Chambers. 

At a meeting of the commissioners court held in Freeport, Sep- 
tember 4th of the same year, Wm. H. Hallenback was appointed and 


duly qualified for the office of Clerk of the Court. Among the pro- 
ceedings of this court during the year, we notice the appointment of 
viewers of roads, from Freeport to Savanna, from Freeport to Rock 
Grove, etc. Licenses were also granted to several individuals to keep 
ferries across the Pecatonica. We find that on the 6th of December, 
T. J. Turner, who at that time worked at the carpenter business, made 
an agreement to build the county court house according to certain 
required specifications, and about the same time he also made a con- 
tract to build a log jail for the use of the county. 

In the spring of 1837, Dr. Thomas Van Valzah bought the claim 
of the present village of Cedarville from John Goddard, and in the 
course of the summer he erected a grist mill, the first in the, county. A 
few saw mills had by this time been in operation, and the building fa- 
cilities as a consequence was greatly increased. Indeed in many of 
the cabins first erected, it was impossible to find a board in the entire 
structure. In some the walls were of logs, light was admitted by a 
crevice or through oiled paper, the floor was hewn with the axe, and if 
the occupants managed to find among the boxes containing their goods, 
a sufficient amount of sawed lumber to make a door, they considered 
themselves peculiarly fortunate. 

The first circuit court was held in Freeport on the 26th of August, 
1839. Hon Dan. Stone the Judge of the sixth Judicial Circuit of Illi- 
nois, presided. Our highly esteemed citizen, John A. Clark, was the 
first clerk of the court, and continued to occupy that place in connection 
with the recorder's office until a very recent period. Hubbard Graves, 
Esq., was the sheriff, and John C. Roby and H. Wm. Hollenback, dep- 
uty sheriffs. The following gentlemen were grand jurors : John 
How^e, Luther Hall, Samuel F. Dodds, Levi Wilcoxin, Joseph Lobdell, 
Pells Manny, A. P. Watson, Alonzo Denio, Levi R. Hall, Robert Bar- 
ber, Newcomb Kinney, Jonathan Corey, Phillip Fowler, Thomas 
Craine, Loring Snow, Eldridge Farwell, Giles Pierce, D. W. C. Mal- 
lory, Job S. Watson, J. R. Blackamore, Thompson Wilcoxen, Edward 
Marsh, Alpheus Goddard. 

We find by the census of 1840 that this county then contained 2,- 
800 inhabitants, considerable less than the population of the town of 
Freeport at present. There were but ten schools where a little more 
than 170 children received instruction; and but five professional men. 
There were also at that time five grist mills and nine saw mills, within 
the limits of the county. 

Settlers continued to come in, but as the communication with the 
east was at that time rather limited, there was none of that enthusiasm 
manifested among eastern people, to settle and cultivate our rich prair- 
ies which is evinced at the present day. There was nothing to induce 
a hasty settlement. There was no lake or navigable stream around 
our borders, there was no mineral land of any consequence within our 
boundaries, and although Stephenson county offered the emigrant a 
healthy atmosphere, an abundance of pure water, and a soil unsur- 
passed for its richness, it was for many years regarded as in truth it 
was too remote from market to make farming an advantageous pur- 
suit. The consequence was that many people would prefer settling on 


the rough bluffs and unhealthy bottoms of the Mississippi, and other 
streams, and when in these localities, the impure water and still more 
pernicious air of the swamps, would give them ague and fever, and in 
many cases also destroy their cattle ; they would gather their efforts 
together, and on their return to the east, spread an evil report of the 
country which their own cadaverous expressions of countenance would 
only too well confirm. 

There was one advantage which this county enjoyed over the 
mining region west of us. If there was not much encouragement 
offered to men of adventurous turn of mind, there was the less induce- 
ment for that class of drones, or rather harpies, commonly known as 
gamblers or blacklegs, to take up their abode in this vicinity. Here 
there were "poor prospects of obtaining a living in any other way than 
by close industry. Yet, as is usually the case in new countries, many 
came here who were far from being strenuous advocates of law and 
order, and the peculiar condition of a country, where justice courts 
were not so numerous nor so w^ell conducted as at present, made it a 
matter of no difficulty for them to succeed in some of their villainous 

For a long time the inhabitants of the northern part of the State 
were troubled by a gang of horse thieves, who had accomplices on the 
west side of the Mississippi, and managed so well that it was very 
seldom they could be detected. And many of the people w^ere in a 
great measure indifferent, about delivering these rogues up to justice, 
for in case of a trial the accused generally managed in some way or 
other to procure their acquittal. When, therefore, any of these gentry 
were captured, their punishment was often awarded by lynch law, and 
it was without scruple carried out to the full extent of the sentence. 

Sometimes the settler would shoulder his rifle and start in pursuit, 
and if he encountered the spoiler of his goods, would proceed to a 
settlement of differences in a more summary way than the course 
pointed out by law. 

A man residing near Fox river, who owned a very valuable pair 
of horses, discovered one morning that one of them was missing — was 
evidently stolen. He immediately mounted the remaining horse, took 
his trusty rifle on his arm, and simply remarking that "if he found 
the thief he never would inform on him," he started in pursuit. He 
directed his course down the river in the direction he supposed the 
robber had taken ; and after going some distance he discovered a horse- 
man coming up the river side on the opposite bank. He at once recog- 
nized his own animal, and halted until the other would come opposite ; 
when, leveling his gun he brought the robber to the earth. The other 
horse, attracted by the neigh of his mate, immediately swam the river 
to his master, who, satisfied with regaining his property, made no post 
mortem examination, but quietly took his way homeward. 

Conrad Van Brocklin, of the town of Florence in this county, came 
near losing a fine pair of horses by some of these thieves. With an 
audacity that seems surprising, two rascals undertook to take them 
away in the day time from their pasture near Mr. Van Brocklin's resi- 
dence. He and his neighbor Mr. Dimmick, happened to see the thieves 


starting with the horses and gave chase. The vilhans, however, hau 
got a good start, and but for one circumstance would easily have 
secured their booty. One of Van Brocklin's horses had a peculiar 
dread of crossing" a stream of water, and a stranger could not make him 
attempt it, and as the strangers had no bridles on the horses it made 
the matter still more difficult. At the first stream, therefore, this horse 
came to a dead halt, and the thieves in their anxiety to secure both, 
continued coaxing him until their pursuers came within sight. They 
then abandoned both horses and took refuge in a swamp near by, and 
while Van Brocklin and Dimmick were parleying about the most feas- 
ible method of surrounding them, it began to grow late, and in the 
night they effected their escape. 

Samuel Smith of Lancaster township, lost two horses, which he 
concluded had been taken by the gang, and transported to the west side 
of the Mississippi. But Hugh Mack, who resided near the mouth of 
the Pecatonica, was too shrewd about following trails to allow a gang 
of horse thieves to outwit him. Some fellows stole his horses and 
started up the Pecatonica, into Wisconsin. Mr. Mack followed them 
and traced their course until he overtook them near Mineral Point, and 
recovered his property. So close was this gentleman's observation that 
he even recognized the hair of his own horses, where little tufts of it 
had adhered to the bushes and brambles through which they passed. 

Such scenes of robbery and violence are now of rare occurrence in 
our western country. Thanks to a kind Providence, we enjoy greater 
security, both of property and life ; and the man accused of crime has 
a right to a fair trial, in accordance with good order and justice. 

From 1840 until 1850 the different villages throughout the County 
of Stephenson continued to advance in growth, but not with so great 
rapidity as of later years. During this time many of our first farmers 
came into the county, men who are truly an acquisition to any district 
of country. The majority of these are from the State of Pennsylvania, 
and the emigration from the rock ribbed hills of that old State is con- 
stantly on the increase. Although not remarkable for enterprise, and 
what is generally called "public spirit," they are a steady, honest, in- 
dustrious class of people, and are, on this account, of great benefit to 
the community around them. If they do not start many new projects, 
or enter into heavy speculations, neither do they run a risk of failure 
with all its concomitant evils. If they do not canvass the county pre- 
vious to elections, and make themselves hoarse delivering stump 
speeches, neither will they spend their time fighting about the loaves and 
fishes of public offices. Such men will seldom venture beyond their 
means ior the sake of making a display ; and often, tlie traveler is 
astonished at beholding a plainness, which proceeds more from an utter 
indifference to anything like ornament, than from any pecuniary dis- 

The first newspaper was published in this county on the seventh 
of November, 1847. This was the Prairie Democrat. Our distin- 
guished citizen T. J. Turner, who was at that time member of Congress 
from this district, took an active part in starting the publication of this 
sheet. Indeed had it not been for his exertions it is not at all probable 
the paper would have seen the light until a much later day. — When 


the editor S. D. Carpenter required between four and five hundred dol- 
lars to enable him to commence operations, Mr. Turner advanced about 
four hundred dollars out of his own pocket, and used his influence to 
raise the remainder among the friends of the undertaking throughout 
the county .- 

About a year after, the Freeport Journal the organ of the Whigs, 
was started by Grattan and McFadden. Of both of these papers we 
will speak at farther length in our chapter on Freeport. 

In one of the numbers of the Prairie Democrat for January, 1848, 
we find the following extract from the pen of a correspondent of the 
Madison Express. It is a description of Freeport and some of the 
country at that time ; and to those who take pleasure in looking back 
to the several steps of the progress of this place it may not be uninter- 

"Freeport is the county seat of Stephenson County, and situated 
twenty-eight miles west of Rockford, on the Chicago and Galena road ; 
and also on the line of the contemplated Railroad. Although it cannot 
boast of its beautiful appearance (there having been but little taste dis- 
played in the improvement thus far) it can truly boast of the immense 
business done there. The traveller who merely passes through the 
town, has no adequate idea of the great business of the place. 

The first habitation built by a white man, was a log cabin in 1836, 
which yet stands ; now there are about a dozen dry goods stores, two 
drug stores, a large number of groceries, with numerous mechanics of 
almost every kind and description. 

The merchants seem to be doing a very heavy business, and many 
of the establishments have the appearance of doing a regular whole 
sale business. It is wonderful to witness the piles of goods which are 
brought here ; and yet, I am told, that the demands of the market are 
barely supplied, even with so mmierous and extensive stocks of goods. 
The Picatonica river runs near the village, and a permanent dam has 
been built across the river at this place. A saw mill is already in suc- 
cessful operation and a grist mill is now being constructed. — The walls 
of the building, which are of stone and brick, are up, and the roof is 
completed. It is of good size and will be set to running early in the 
summer ; and it is expected that another of much larger dimensions will 
be built next season. The water of this river is sufficient to propel any 
amount of machinery ; and I have no doubt but Freeport, will, at no 
distant day, rank high as one of the wealthiest and most business inland 
towns in the great west. 

The right principle seems to have prevailed here. There has been 
no attempt made to rush the village ahead beyond the actual wants of 
the country ; consequently the means of the inhabitants have not been 
exhausted in useless show, the result of which is always attended with 
revolutions ; but the business and improvements have been in accord- 
ance with the actual demands of the county which renders the business 
complexion of the town healthy and sound. 

Since I have been here, I have been about the county considerably, 
and I have become well convinced that it is well deserving of the high 
reputation it has already attained of being one of the very best counties 


in the State. From Rockford to this place the road passes through one 
continous prairie, with the exception of a small grove about one mile in 
length. The prairie is quite rolling in many places amounting to hills, 
with an uncommon rich and fertile soil. There is in this county less 
waste land, on account of sloughs or marshy places, than in most prairie 
countries with which I am acquainted ; yet the land is admirably well 
watered. I noticed nearly every mile a small clear creek, wending its 
way through the prairie towards the Picatonica. — These creeks I am 
told originate in springs back in the prairie: the water is always clear 
and pure, and the streams are never dry. The banks of the creeks are 
usually high, and the land is perfectly dry on either side to the water's 
edge. On the north side of the Pecatonica river is a heavy body of tim- 
ber ; the best growth I have ever found in the State. It is mainly oak, 
but in many places we find great varieties of excellent timber. I have 
noticed several beautiful sugar bushes on the banks of this river. The 
population of this county is now supposed to be about 10,000 and is 
rapidly increasing. The amount of wheat raised in this county the past 
year is estimated at 300,000 bushels. This talks well for a county which 
has been settled but a little over ten years." 

Should it be the fortune of the writer of the above, to visit our 
beautiful county at the present time, he would consider our progress 
for the last five years, far more astonishing than any time previous. 
Railroads which were then contemplated are now completed. The 
beautiful, well watered prairies which were then a wilderness wild, are 
now dotted over with thriving farms ; and the catalogue given of our 
mercantile men would look small in comparison with the business direc- 
tory of our thriving young city. 

In the fall of 1849, in accordance with a law passed the winter 
previous by the State Legislature, a County Judge and other officers 
were elected. George Purinton, who is one of the oldest members of 
the bar in the county, was elected Judge, G . W". Andrews and Lewis 
Gibler Associate Judges, William Preston, also oi;e of our old and 
highly esteemed citizens was the County Clerk, and the present Re- 
corder J. B. Smith held the office of School Commissioner. 

The year following the county was divided into townships, in ac- 
cordance with the law providing for that mode of organization. 

We must not however confound these fifteen townships for the 
purposes of town government, with the surveyors townships of six 
miles square into which this western country is subdivided. For many 
reasons it would have been more convenient if these had coincided as 
nearly as possible ; but it seemed otherwise to the commissioners ap- 
pointed for the purpose of arranging the matter, and to some towns 
they gave more than six miles square and to some less. West Point 
Township, for instance, was so small that there was not a sufficient 
number of inhabitants to transact the necessary town business, and it 
had consequently to be enlarged. 

The following is the list of townships and their several boundaries 
according to the report of Erastus Torry, R. Foster and Levi Robey 
the commissioners : 


Rock Grove. — The east half of Fractional Township No. 29 of 
Range No. 8 ; and Fractional Township No. 29 of Range No. 7 ; and 
Sections one to six, inclusive of Township No. 28 of Range No. 9. 

Oneco. — The west half of Fractional Township No. 29 of Range 
No. 8 ; and Fractional Township No, 29 of Range No. 7. 

Winslow.-^The Fractional Township No. 29 of Range No. 6 ; and 
the east half of Fractional Township No. 29 of Range No. 5. 

West Point. — The east half of Township No. 28 of Range No. 5. 

Waddams. — Township No. 28 of Range No. 6; and the west half 
of Township No. 28 of Range No. 7. 

Buck Eye. — Township No. 28 of Range No. 8 ; and the east half 
of Township No. 28 of Range No. 7. 

Rock Run. — That part of Township No. 28 of Range No. 9, south 
from Section No. 1 to No. 6 being sections No. 7 to sections No. 36 
inclusive and the north half of Township No. 27 or Range No. 9. 

Freeport.^That part of Sections No.'s 30, 31, 32 and 33 lying 
south of the north bank of the Picatonica river. 

Lancaster. — That part of Township No. 27 of Range No. 8 ; and 
that part of Township No. 27 of Range No. 7 lying north and east of 
the Picatonica river. 

Harlem. — That part of Township No. 27 of Range No. 7 lying 
south and west of the Picatonica River. 

Erin. — Township No. 27 of Range No. 6; and the east half of 
Township No. 27 of Range No. 5. 

Loran. — The east half of Township No. 26 of Range No. 5 ; and 
Township No. 26 of Range No. 6. 

Florence. — Township No. 26 of Range No. 7. 

Silver Creek. — Township No. 26 of Range No. 8 ; and that part 
of Sections No. 33, 34, 35 and 36 lying south of the Picatonica River. 

Ridott. — Township No. 26 of Range No. 9 ; and the south half of 
Township No. 27 of Range No. 9. 

In 1850, according to the census reports, there were 11,666 inhabi- 
tants in the county. There were fifty common schools and two private 
schools, furnishing instruction to about two thousand children. — there 
w^ere but four churches built at that time in the county ; there are now 
eight in Freeport alone. 

There were 76,343 acres of land improved leaving a balance un- 
improved of 122,319 acres. The cash value of farms was estimated at 
$1,889,550. The value of farming implements $107,620. The number 
of bushels of wheat raised was 228,267; of Rye, 1,507 bushels; Indian 
corn, 303,285 bushels; oats, 227,310 bushels; barley, 4,444 bushels. 

There were also 16,023 tons of hay and 443 bushels of clover seed. 

At a time when farmers were obliged to take their produce up- 
wards of a hundred miles over the worst roads imaginable to a market 
where they could dispose of it for what would seem now a pitiable price ; 
this part of the western country did not certainly offer the strongest 
inducements for men to engage in agricultural pursuits. To carry 
Avheat from Freeport to Chicago, was, during certain seasons, as much 
as it was worth. Between the wear and tear of wagon and harness, the 
extra labor of both man and team, and the amount paid for tavern bills 


and occasional "help" required to extricate him from the mud and mire, 
the teamster often found that in a pecuniary point of view, he was not 
much further along than if he had remained quietly at home. 

Merchants were also obliged to pay very high rates of carriage for 
their goods and as a matter of course when they took grain or other 
farm produce in exchange for what they sold they were unable to allow 
a very extravagant price. 

But after the charter for the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad 
had been obtained, and the work had fairly commenced the prospects 
of the northern counties of Illinois began to brighten. And as the 
road continued to advance toward the west, it seemed as if the opening 
of each new station gave a stronger impulse to the business of this 
country. The farming community and residents of the various villages 
well aware that they were advancing their own interests, contributed 
as much as their means would well allow to assist in carrying on this 
enterprise ; and the people of Stephenson County were not backward in 
proving the deep interest they took in the completion of the project. 

To give the reader some idea of the feeling manifested we give the 
following notice of a Railroad meeting held in Freeport on the 14th of 
June, 1850, as we find it in the Prairie Democrat. 

"On the 14th inst. a very large and enthusiastic Railroad meeting 
was held at the Court House. J. H. Adams Esq. of Cedar Creek mills, 
Chairman, and Charles Betts of Freeport, Sec'y. Spirited addresses 
were made by Messrs. Ogden and Turner of Chicago, setting forth 
in the most forcible light the business relations and financial affairs of 
the Road up to the present time ; also, its future prospects, and the 
necessity of the early completion of the second division and of the 
necessity of further subscriptions in stock &c. Stephenson county has 
only been counted on for about 20 or $25,000 at most, but we learn, that 
through the indomitable perseverance of those energetic men, Messrs. 
Holland and Robertson, of Rockford, and D. A. Knowlton of Freeport, 
the subscription of stock for the second division of the Road has al- 
ready reached to near $40,000 ! ! with a fair prospect of increasing it 
to $50,000 or more ! ! Hurra for Stephenson ! Let the cars come." 

But operations were so delayed on this Road that the cars did not 
arrive until about the 1st of September, 1853. 

It will convey to the reader some idea of the increase of business 
on this road as it progressed Westward, when we compare the earnings 
of the fiscal year ending April 30th. 1853, with the year which preceded 
it. During the last mentioned period the amount earned was reported 
to be $211,067.67. The next year, when the road had reached Rock- 
ford the amount was $473,057.61. Thus making an increase of $261,- 
989, while the increased length of track was only twenty-eight miles. 
For the one year the earning per mile of track was $3,408,23, and the 
amount for a mile the next year was $5,355.59. For the year ending 
April, 1853, the quantity of wheat shipped eastward on this road was 
512,344 bushels; Flour 39.661 barrels; Oats 640,604 bushels; Corn 
469,859 bushels; Barley 102,389 bushels; Potatoes 12, 304 bushels; 
Butter 932, 830 lbs.; Provisions 2,328,510 lbs.; Pork 9,795,600 lbs.; 
Grass seed 4,374 bushels ; Hides 447,460 lbs. ; Wool 247.370 lbs. ; Mill 


stuffs 1,217,020 lbs. ; 401 car loads of Animals ; Sundries 3,963,360 lbs. ; 
Whiskey 6,933 bbls. ; 308 cords of wood ; 19,598 reams of paper ; 1,176,- 
870 feet of lumber; Lead, 893,390 lbs.; Milk 3,898 gallons. 

When it is remembered that our northern counties contiguous to 
the road furnish the principal part of the east going freight, these 
figures speak largely for their growth and prosperity, and we should 
not be surprised to find a still greater increase in the next report of 
the officers of the road. Since the completion of the Third Division to 
Freeport the amount of business done on this thoroughfare has been 

In 1851 the Central Railroad company was incorporated by the Leg- 
islature and in the spring of that year the surveys were commenced 
on the road. Some years previous, and shortly after the Congress of 
the United States had appropriated a quantity of land to this state for 
the purpose of a Central Railroad, an attempt was made to construct it. 
But after the routes had been surveyed and even a portion of the road 
graded, the company were compelled to abandon the project. 

The present company, however, have every prospect of success. 
Their lands lying north along the line of the road are now far more 
than double the value of government land, and it is thought that this 
land, when brought into market, will about pay for the cost of construc- 
tion. Besides, when it is completed it cannot fail to be one of the best 
paying roads in the western country, forming a connecting link as it 
does between the country on the upper Mississippi, and the Southern 
States. The Company were required by their charter to construct a 
Railroad from the southern terminus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal 
at LaSalle, to Cairo in the Southern extremity of the state. They were 
also to have a branch of their road to the city of Chicago, and another 
via Galena to a point on the Mississippi river opposite Dubuque in Iowa. 

It was for some time thought that the latter branch would go by 
way of Savanna on the Mississippi on the route the former Central 
Railroad had been located, and the people of Freeport sent a delegation 
to Springfield for the purpose of having the road run this way if pos- 
sible. It was finally determined that they should run through this town, 
and go from here to Galena on the line which had been located by the 
Galena and Chicago Union Company. The latter Company instead of 
going the whole distance to Galena as was originally their design, by 
this arrangement made Freeport the terminus of their road. 

In January last the track was laid on about twenty-five miles 
of the Road west of Freeport, and the cars of the Galena and Chicago 
Union Company have been running over the road since that time. — A 
large portion of the road is graded between Warren, the present termi- 
nus, and Galena, and it is probable that by the coming fall, the cars 
will be running the whole distance from Cairo to Galena. — Trains have 
been running on other portions of this road for about a year past. In 
addition to these roads going through our county which are either fin- 
ished or in process of completion, there are others contemplated some 
of which will doubtless ere long be built. 

As early as 1849 the scheme for constructing a railroad from Sav- 
anna on the Mississippi to Freeport, was under discussion. After the 


feasibility of the scheme was duly considered, an act was passed by the 
Legislature in 1851 authorizing the construction of the road. 

By the conditions of this charter the Company were to run this 
road "from Savanna in Carroll county in an easterly and northeasterly 
direction, through a part of the counties of Carroll and Stephenson 
the route most practicable, and intersect the Galena and Chicago Union 
Railroad, or the Galena Branch of the Central Railroad at some point 
within fifteen miles from Freeport." 

A company were about this time formed, but no active steps were 
taken to dispose of stock, or commence any operations in relation to 
the construction of the road until the fall of 1852, when new arrange- 
ments were made, and the books opened for subscription. So popular 
was the scheme, that in one day, it was said, there was $40,000 sub- 
scribed. It was considered that the road could be built for about 
$500,000, and the President D. A. Knowlton of Freeport, stated in 
his first report that of this there were about $200,000 taken by people 
living in or near the line of the road. 

Last spring the line of the road was surveyed and located, but 
when the time arrived which was appointed for letting the work to 
contractors, it was deemed advisable to postpone operations for some 
time, and the work has not as yet been resumed. 

Preliminary lines have also been run on the route contemplated 
for a Railroad from Beloit in Wisconsin, to Freeport. There is now a 
road in process of construction between Racine on Lake Michigan and 
Beloit; and when the Savanna Branch is completed, this road from 
Beloit to Freeport would furnish a connecting link between these two 
and a shorter route than any yet established be obtained between Lake 
Michigan and the Mississippi. 



West Point Township, was, at the time the county was subdivided 
into townships, the smallest in the county. At that time it only con- 
tained half of the surveyor's township, but subsequently it was enlarged 
to double the size, thus taking a slice of territory from the neighboring 
town of Waddams. 

West Point is bounded on the north by Winslow township, on the 
west by Jo Daviess Co., on the south by Erin and on the east by 

The southern portion of the township is covered more or less with 
scattering timber, or openings, as it is commonly called. The north- 
west portion is a fine prairie as the eye need wish to behold, while in 
that part occupied by Waddam's Grove there is abundance of the finest 
of timber. 

There is quite a number of excellent stone quarries and lime kilns 
through the town, and no lack of excellent water. 

In the southern part of the town it is rather sparcely settled ; but 
contiguous to Waddam's Grove there are some of the best farms in 
Stephenson County. There is a vast quantity of fruit raised in this 
vicinity, and the nursery owned by Luman Montague is considered one 
of the best in this section of country. Farmers here have now a good 
steady market in their own town at the village of Lena where there is 
a depot established by the Illinois Central Railroad. 

As we have before intimated, William Waddams, the first settler 
in this town, came here in the year 1832 and made a claim where he now 
lives. The next who came in were George Payne, in the fall of 1834 
and Luman & Rodney Montague in the year following. 

We are unable to give with any degree of precision the present 
number of inhabitants. In 1850, before the town was enlarged there 
were 250 persons in all. At present there is probably more than ten 
times that number. 

In 1851 the value of real and personal property in this township 
was estimated at $80,817. In the year following it was valued at $92,- 
832, and for the year 1853 the same was valued at $124,024.— It must 
however be borne in mind that the assessed value is very far from the 
true value of the property. Still the above will convey an idea of 
the ratio of increase. 

Lena on the Central Railroad about twelve miles west of Freeport 
is the largest village in the town, and is destined we should think to 
become one of the finest towns in our county. Samuel F. Dodds, Esq., 
the proprietor of the village site, is one of the most respectable and en- 
terprising citizens of which our country can boast. He came here in 


1839, and, ever among the most enterprising, after the Central Rail- 
road was located through his premises he caused about one hundred 
acres of his farm lying on the line of the road to be laid out into a town ; 
and already its prospects are in the highest degree flattering. The site 
is as beautiful a location for a town as could well be selected. To the 
north, west and south, the wide rolling prairie affords an unbroken 
prospect for miles, and on the east, the suburbs of the town border on 
Waddam's Grove, where a plentiful supply of wood can very conven- 
iently be procured. Water can be obtained by digging about twenty- 
five feet. 

Mr. Dodds has taken such steps in disposing of his lots as must 
result in lasting benefit to the place. No Groceries or Saloons where 
intoxicating drink is to be sold, are to be allowed on the premises. 
When a lot is sold to any person and writings are drawn between the 
parties the following stipulation is made. 

"And it is also provided (and said deed to be given as aforesaid, 
shall be upon condition, which condition shall be therein contained) 
that if at any time forever, said premises, or any part thereof, or any 
building, or appurtenance thereunto belonging or appertaining ; shall be 
used or occupied, for the manufacture, sale or other disposition of 
spirituous liquors or intoxicating drinks, the said property shall be and 
become a part and parcel of the property of the School Fund of the 
people, for the benefit of Common Schools in the town or district in 
which it may be located, to be recovered by the proper officers of the 
school fund, and appropriated, or the avails of it, to the support of 
Common Schools, according to law ; and this agreement, said deed, and 
all deeds under it shall be deemed void, except for the purpose of es- 
tablishing the right of said School Fund, after due proof of such for- 
feiture and judgment thereon in a court of competent jurisdiction." 

The Central Railroad Company have a station here, and have 
erected a large Freight House, Passenger house, &c. The village al- 
though but recently laid out contains about a dozen families. Many 
others are buying lots, and it is calculated that about thirty new houses 
will be erected during the present season. 

They have a fine school here conducted for some time past by Miss 
Adelia Hyde, a teacher of high reputation. There are now three con- 
gregations who meet here for worship. At present they hold their 
meetings in the school house, but it is the intention to erect two new 
churches in the course of the summer. A large amount of money is 
already subscribed for the purpose of erecting a Methodist church, and 
the other edifice to be built by the Baptist Denomination. — The clergy- 
men are, Rev. R. Colston, Presbyterian, Rev. J. E. Ambrose Baptist, 
Rev. A. Wolf Methodist. There are several other congregations or- 
ganized in other parts of the township, where worship is for the most 
part held in school houses. In Lena the following men are at present 
engaged in business : 

Merchants, S. H. McEathron ; William Allen ; J. E. Ambrose. 

Lumber Yard, J. N. Clifford. 

Blacksmith, Wm. Young. 

Postmaster & Railroad Agent, S. F. Dodds. 


Several other Mechanic's shops are now in process of building, and 
a Hotel keeper is very much needed in the place. There are two physi- 
cians near Lena, Dr. Pickard and Dr. Voight. 

Louisa. This is a thriving young town on the line of the Railroad 
about two miles north of Lena. It is also pleasantly situated on the 
edge of the Grove. The following gentlemen transact business here: 

Merchants, E. F. Clark ; John P. Hoffman. 

Postmaster, John Royer. 

Physician, Dr. J. R. Chambers. 

Manufacturer of Corn Planting Machines, Milton Satterlee. 

Blacksmiths, Reuben Derr, and Franklin Satterlee. 

There is a fine school house in the village. 

In addition to the stores we have mentioned in the two villages 
above named, there are two others near the Grove, one kept by Jerry 
Patterson, the other by Geo. Buck. There is a Hotel kept by Geo. W. 
Simmons at the west point of the Grove. 

Winslow Township. The first claim made in the township was at 
Brewster's Ferry on the Picatonica, about a mile and a half south of the 
village of Winslow. This claim was made by Brewster some time be- 
fore Air. Waddams' family came to the Grove. In 1834 Geo. Payne 
stopped for some time near the ferry, and in November of the same 
year, William Roby and family came and settled in the same vicinity. 

In 1836 Thomas Lot built a saw mill on the present site of the 
village of Winslow, and not long after this the whole village site and 
a large quantity of land adjoining was bought by a Boston Company. 

This township is bounded on the north by Wisconsin, on the south 
by West Point, on the east by Oneco, and on the west by Jo Daviess 
county Ills. It contains about twenty-seven square miles — one of the 
smallest townships in the county. There is but little timber in the 
township, but the prairie is excellent, and there are many fine looking 
farms in the neighborhood of Winslow village. 

In 1850 the population of the township was given as 384. There 
is nearly as large a population now in the village of Winslow alone. — 
From the fact that there are no Railroads or other Public W^orks being 
constructed in, or very near this town, the increase in the value of 
property has not been so rapid as in some other sections of our county. 
For the year 1852 the assessed valuation of property here was $75,945. 
In 1853 the valuation was $85,109. Marketing facilities are now very 
favorable here. The Station at Warren Jo Daviess Co., is hard by the 
west side of the town, and the distance to Freeport is only 18 miles 
from the village of Winslow. 

The village contains about forty or fifty families, and bids fair 
to be a place of some importance. The locality on the west bank of 
the Picatonica is a beautiful one and the village presents rather a neat 
and tasty appearance. 

There are no churches built in the village, but they have a fine 
school house where meetings are held. There is a Presbyterian congre- 
gation here, Rev. J. N. Powell. Pastor ; and a Methodist congregation. 
Rev. A. Wolf, Pastor. 


^lerchants, Richard Patterson, Ezra Wickwire, P. & J. Sweeley. 

Grocer, Zeba White. 

Hotels, Eli Wickwire, Samuel Gunsal. 

Wagon Makers. Edward Hunt, Mills Berry and David Gould. 

Blacksmiths, Eli Wickwire, Thomas Macaule}'. 

Carpenter, Silas Sears. 

Chair Shop, George White. 

Cabinet Makers, James Turnbull, Bowman. 

Painter, John Stephens. 

Shoe Makers, Alexander and Thomas Taylor, David West. 

Post Master. R. Patterson. 

Tailor, Josiah Hilliard. 

Flouring Mill, Wickwire & Howard. 

Physicians, Carver & Cutler. 

There are no other villages in the township. 

Waddams Township. This township is bounded on the north by 
Oneco and Winslow. on the south by Harlem, Erin and Lancaster, 
on the east by Buck Eye. 

About one fourth of the land in the town is covered with heavy 
timber. The timber land lies principally along the banks of the Peca- 
tonica. The high land is chieflly prairie. On the northeast side of 
Waddam's Grove there is some light timber. The land is quite rolling 
all through the township and there is abundance of excellent water. 

The population of Waddams in 1850 was 1160, since then how- 
ever a portion of the town has been set off to West Point. Still the 
increase of population has probably been sufficiently rapid to make the 
number of inhabitants in its present limits far exceed what we have 
given. The assessed value of property for 1852 was $90,459. In 1853 
the value was placed at $116,559. 

As early as February, 18v^5. Levi Roby Esqr., a gentleman dis- 
tinguished for his public spirit, and who has often taken a prominent 
part in matters pertaining to public improvement, came into this town- 
ship and settled where he still continues to reside. The same year 
Charles Gaffin came into the neighborhood, and about the same time 
Robert McConriell the proprietor of the village of New Pennsylvania, 
and Hubbard Graves, also came to the township. 

The village of New Pennsylvania laid out by Robert McConnell, 
is situated on the east bank of the Picatonica. about fifteen miles north 
of Freeport. The location is not a very sightly one, and it certainly 
does not appear to be a place likely to grow into a very flourishing 
.town. The country around it is, however, excellent land, and a person 
on seeing the village cannot help agreeing with the Kentuckian, who 
declared "that it was better calculated for a cornfield." 

There are about twenty-five or thirty families here at present. 

Merchants, Josiah ]\lanny, Jacob Danihower. 

Post Master, William Nash. 

Harness Shop, Henry Bamford. 

Wagon Maker, Peter Brown. 

Blacksmiths, Solomon Rima, Burkhart. 


There is a fine school kept here by Chester Nash, who has been 
their teacher for a number of years in succession. 

There is a congregation of the Methodist Denomination who 
hold their meetings in the School House, Rev. A. Wolf, is the minister. 
— About two miles south of the village , near where Mr. Robey resides 
there are two other organized congregations, one Lutheran, the other 
Methodist. Besides these, there are other places through the town 
where worship is held. 

A short distance up the stream from the village of N. Penn- 
sylvania is McConnell's saw mill and a little further up is Samuel 
Fisher's mill. At the mouth of Waddams Creek on the Picatonica, 
there is a post ofhce, J. H. Manny Post Master. There is a saw mill 
here owned by Messrs. Sheckler and Soliday, and a manufactory for 
making Manny's Reapers and Mowers. 

Hubbard Graves Esq., is the present Justice of the Peace in the 
town of Waddams. 

Erin Township. — This township is bounded on the north by West 
Point, on the south by Loran, on the east by Harlem and on the west 
by Jo Daviess county. This township is admirably well supplied with 
wood and water. The Yellow Creek stream and numerous others of 
smaller size, together with great numbers of fine springs make it one 
of the best watered towns in the county. The surface of the ground is 
more rolling than in any of the other towns, and there is also a smaller 
proportion of prairie. The openings are, however, for the most part 
an excellent quality of land, and is peculiarly well adapted for the 
growth of wheat, large quantities of which was raised here during the 
past year. The wood, although covering the greater portion of the 
surface of the town, is not very heavy, and so sparce that the labor 
of clearing it off is very trifling. There are a great many stone-quar- 
ries in the different parts of the township, and there is a large amount 
of limestone quarried and burned for building purposes. 

There are several fine mill sites on Yellow Creek within the pre- 
cincts of this township, but as yet there has been no flouring mill es- 
tablished on any of them. There are two saw mills in the town ; one 
on Yellow Creek, owned by John Raber, and the other on a branch of 
the Creek owned by William Hill. 

The number of inhabitants in Erin in 1850 was 886. The value 
of the property assessed in the town for 1851 was $100,804. For 1852 
the assessed value was $124,794, and for the past year the property is 
returned at the value of $168,237. 

The first settlement was made in this township in 1827, — which 
was also the first in the county^by Oliver W. Kellogg. As we have 
previously mentioned, he made a claim where James Timms now re- 
sides, and then left that locality before the Black Hawk war broke out. 
After the Black Hawk war, James Timms was the first settler in the 
town. He came in 1835 and at that time his nearest neighbor was 
William Waddams, ten miles distant. The year following, Jesse Willet 
came into the town and it soon became quite thickly inhabited. — Quite 
a number of Irish families moved into the neighborhood prior to the 


subdivision of the county into towns, and when that regulation took 
effect, they gave it the ancient name of their own country. 

Eleroy, the principal village of the township, is situated on the 
Central Railroad about eight miles west of Freeport. There is also a 
station here. The location of Eleroy is a beautiful one. Built as it 
is in a grove, there are a great many shade trees, an ornament which 
is wanting to many prairie villages, — and there are several springs of 
excellent water in the very centre of the village. The surface of the 
ground, while it cannot be called rough or broken, is sufficiently roll- 
ing to give the place a very picturesque appearance. The farming 
country around the village is excellent, and the amount of busir^ess at 
present carried on here is quite considerable. 

H. S. Jones, the first settler in the village, and who has ever since 

taken a deep interest in its growth, is the proprietor of a fine store, 
and also of the "Eleroy House" the only Hotel in the place. The 
other merchants are Samuel R. Matthews and James F. Harwood. 

Grocer, William Woodbridge. 

Shoe Shop and Gunsmith, L. Wicker. 

Post Master, James F. Harwood. 

Carpenter and Joiner, Hugh Badger. 

Sash Factory, A. Bacon. 

Tailor, Simeon Stump. 

Physician, A. E. Sheppard. 

Pottery, D. F. Ashbaugh. 

There is at the present time a fine new school house in process 
of construction near the middle of the village. 

Kent is the name of a small village and Post Office, also within 
the limits of Erin. It is beautifully situated on a small prairie about 
midway between Yellow Creek and Burr Oak Grove. There is a store 
here, kept by A. F. & J. Raber. and the Post Office is kept by A. Raber. 
Here, as in most of the villages throughout the county, mechanics are 
very much needed. 

There is a Roman Catholic Chapel in this township in what is 
called the New Dublin settlement, in the south east portion of the town. 
There are no Meeting Houses belonging to any Protestant denomina- 
tions, but there is preaching in the school houses through the town by 
different clergymen. 

Rock Grove Tow-nship is bounded north by Green County, Wis- 
consin, east by Winnebago Co., 111., south by Rock Run Township, west 
by Oneco and a part of Buckeye township. 

There is plenty of excellent timber in this town. 

In Rock Grove and Walnut Grove there is a great amount of 
valuable timber suitable for building and other mechanical purposes.- — 
The greater part of the land in the township is prairie. Of this the 
prairie in the northern portion of the town is the best watered. 

On the farm of E. Frankeberger, about two miles from Rock 
Grove village, there are some excellent springs which form the head 
waters of Rock Run. a stream which runs through the township of 
Rock Run and empties into the Picatonica. In its course, this little 
stream furnishes motive power for a number of mills. 


On the south side of the Rock Grove there are some excellent 
farms, and the road from there to Oneco west, runs for seven or eight 
miles through an excellent farming country. 

Many of these farms look, at the present time, as if they had been 
under cultivation for a century. They are well fenced, fine houses 
and barns are erected, shade trees and orchards are planted, and such 
an appearance of home comfort is, on the whole, exhibited, as would 
convey to a stranger the idea that this tract of country was settled 
simultaneously with some of the homes of New England. 

We think, however, that the farms in the above section of country 
are better improved as we approach Oneco, than in Rock Grove town- 
ship. The majority of the inhabitants of this township are Pennsyl- 
vanians, and of German descent. They speak the German language 
for the most part in their families, but can also understand English. 

The value of the propertv assessed in the town for 1852 was 
$113,278, and in 1853 it had increased to $140,475. 

The population of the township in 1850 was 727. 

Eli Frankenberger came here in the summer of 1835, and in De- 
cember of the same year brought his family to the place where he now 

The same fall a man named Foote came into the neighborhood, 
and the spring following other settlers began to flock in. ]\Iany of 
these early settlers have now left the country, some are dead and 
others as they began to feel crowded, have removed further on to- 
wards the western frontiers. 

The village of Rock Grove is delightfully situated on the edge of 
the prairie at the south side of the grove. In 1838 Charles Cummings 
built a house there, which was the only one in the place until about 
three years ago. There are now about twenty families in the village. 

Merchants — Robert Holmes, Fisher & Smeltzer. 

Physician — J. A. Brenneman. 

Grocer — T. Snyder. 

Wagonmaker — Henry O. Frankenberger. 

Tailor- — L. Snyder. 

Blacksmiths — Harvey Kiester, Charles Hainich. 

Harnessmakers — H. and D. Bennehofif. 

Hotel Keeper — ]\Iather. 

Postmaster — Robert Holmes. 

Carpenters — John Kramer and Joel Frankeberger. 

There is neither a church nor a school house in the village, and 
both are much needed, especially the former. 

Two miles east of the Grove there is a church where the German 
Methodists hold their meetings. There is also preaching held in the 
school houses through the town by clergymen of various denomina- 
tions. Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, etc. At Walnut Grove there is 
a postoffice, Elijah Clark, P. M. 

Buck Eye Township — This township is bounded on the north by 
Oneco and R. Grove, on the east by Rock Grove and Rock Run, on 
the south by Lancaster, and on the west by Waddams. This town- 
ship is very amply supplied with wood and water. A portion of the 


town lies on the Picatonica River and the Richland Creek, one of the 
principal tributaries of the Picatonica, and numerous other smaller 
streams, afford a plentiful supply of \Yater both for mechanical and 
agricultural purposes. 

There is probably one-third of the land in the town covered with 
timber, and this is for the most part of a first rate quality. The heaviest 
timber land is situated on the point between the Richland Creek and 

On the prairie portion of the town are some of the finest farms 
in the northwest. The land enclosed is for the most part well fenced, 
and everywhere we see new and elegant farm houses taking the place 
of the rude log cabins of the early settlers. 

The inhabitants of this town are chiefly from Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania, and they are a people noted for their economy and industry. 

As we have already stated, the first settlers in this township were 
Robert Jones and Levi Lucas. They settled here in January, 1836, on 
the premises which they at present own. In July of the same year 
Richland Parritt came and settled with his family on the farm north 
of Mr. Jones, where John Folgate at present resides. In June, 1837, 
Dr. Thomas Van Valzah came to the place where Cedarville now 
stands, and in the course of the summer built a flouring mill, the first 
in the county. 

In 1850 the population of Buck Eye was 1271. 

In 1851 the value of propertv assessed was $192,356, in 1852, 
$205,543, and in 1853, 268.461. 

The price of land is at present rapidly rising. 

The village of Cedarville, is next to Freeport the largest village 
in the county. It is beautifully situated on Cedar Creek, a small stream 
which rises in the town of Rock Grove, and is so abundantly supplied 
with the springs along its course in the prairie, as to furnish sufficient 
water power for a large oil mill about a mile and a half east of Cedar- 
ville, and only some five or six miles from the spring where it takes 
its rise ; and at Cedarville there is now a large flouring mill and a saw 
mill on the same stream, and it is considered that at the same place 
there is sufficient water power for a large factory. Although the 
stream is not very large, the supply of water is so constant, that in the 
greatest drought no inconvenience is experienced. In 1840 there were 
a few houses built in Cedarville, but it was not until about 1846 that 
the village began to take a start. About this time John H. Addams 
built the large grist mill he at present owns. 

Ever since his arrival in that place in 1844, Mr. Addams has taken 
a lively interest in the progress of the place, and there is no doubt that 
much of the improvement now manifested is the result of his liberality 
and enterprise. 

The village now contains upwards of four hundred inhabitants, and 
is increasing very rapidly. The assessed value of the town lots for the 
last year was $17,177. Many excellent buildings are now in process of 
erection, and it probably will not be long until it has at least a thousand 


There are two elegant churches in the village. One is the property 
of the Episcopal Alethodists. The other is owned jointly by the Luther- 
ans and German reformed. 

There are six organized congregations. The names of the clergy- 
men are : 

Lutheran — Rev. G. J. Donmeyer. 

German Reformed — Rev. Daniel Kroh. 

Episcopal Methodist — Rev. A. Wolf. 

German Methodist — Rev. N. Strassberger. 

Presbyterian N. School — R. Colston. 

Presbyterian O. School — Rev. J. W. Carroll. 

We may as well state that here, and elsewhere, when we give 
the names of clergymen who preach to congregations, we do not al- 
ways mean that these are resident pastors whose labors are confined 
to one congregation. Most of the ministers above named have con- 
gregations in other parts of the county under their charge. Mr. Wolf 
and Mr. Colston we have mentioned before in connection with meet- 
ings in other towns. Mr. Carroll is the settled pastor of the Old 
School Church in Freeport, but devotes a portion of his time to preach- 
ing in other congregations who have not a minister of their own. 

They have an excellent school in Cedarville now under the charge 
of Mr. James Goddard, a gentleman who has had considerable ex- 
perience in teaching, and sustains a high reputation where he has 

Physician — S. R. Bucher. 

Merchants — L. W. Black, W. W. Robey, James Benson, Weigler 
and Shuler. 

Cabinetmakers — P. Woodring, Jesse Pepperman, Kostenbader and 

Carpenters — Peter Youder, M. Coleman, P. Musser. 

Wagonmakers — L. C. Gann, George Soliday. 

Shoemakers — L. Cross, W. Wore, Mark. 

Harnessmakers — J. Thomas, Reuben Peel. 

Chair Factory — John L. Lemmon. 

Hotel — David Seem, proprietor. 

Saw^mill and Grist Mill — John H. Addams. 

In 1846 a charter was obtained for a village library, and it now 
contains about 250 volumes, chiefly standard works. The oil mill about 
a mile and a half further up the stream is owned by John J. Addams, 
J. Montelius, Benjamin Hess and Andrew Wolf. This was started 
about a year ago for the purpose of manufacturing oil from flax seed. 
The proprietors are now making further arrangements for dressing 
flax also, and henceforth it is the design to carry on both branches of 
business. Additional encouragement is thus given to farmers in the 
vicinity for raising flax, as they can find a home market for the whole 

There is a saw mill about half a mile from Cedarville owned by 
George Elgin. 

A few miles northwest of Cedarville, in the same township, is the 
village of Buena Vista. This is situated on the Richland Creek, and 


contains some ten or a dozen families. They have a fine water power 
here, and a saw mill and flouring mill are in operation. The saw mill 
was commenced here by Ezra B. Gillett, of Oneco, in 1836. He sold 
his claim here to Philip Reitzell, some of whose family are the present 

There is a store here owned by Miller, Smith & Co. 

Postmaster — James Smith. 

Physician — G. C. Strohecker. 

Flouring Mill and Saw Mill — F. and H. Reitzell. 

Blacksmith — Daniel Grin. 

Cooper — Jacob Smith. 

Shoemaker — Jacob Weaver. 

About two and a half miles west from Cedarville is a mill owned 
by Jonathan Sill. 

Two miles north of Cedarville, on the road to Oneco, is a church, 
belonging to the German Methodists. 

Lancaster Township is bounded on the north by Buck Eye, on the 
south by Freeport and Silver Creek, on the east by Rock Run and 
Ridott, and on the west by Harlem. 

Here, as in Buck Eye, there is abundance of wood and water. The 
timber is not so heavy, however, as in the latter, but it is, if anything 
better supplied with water. 

On one section there are no less than eight excellent springs of 
water. The land is rather rolling and in almost every ravine you will 
find a small stream. 

The first settlers in this township were John and Benjamin God- 
dard who came with their families in the fall of 1835. In the spring 
following the family of Mrs. Brown came into the neighborhood, and 
Thomas Hathaway her son-in-law came about the same time. 

About the time the county was organized, Samuel Smith, who at 
present resides in this township near the line of the Galena and Chi- 
cago railroad, came into this town. At that time there were but a 
few families residing here. 

In 1850 the population of Lancaster was 835. In 1851, the amount 
of property in the town was assessed at $175,232. In 1852, $184,270, 
and in 1853, $209,851. 

Within the past year the increase in the value of real estate in 
this town has been astonishing, and in all probability the next assess- 
ment will show an increase in a far higher ratio than the two previous 

There are no villages in this township. 

The Scioto mill on Richland Creek owned by Sutherland & Co., is 
esteemed one of the best flouring mills in the county. 

Loran Township is bounded on the north by Erin, on the east by 
Florence, on the south by Carroll Co., and on the west by Jo Daviess. 

The Yellow Creek runs through the to'wn, and there is a great 
deal of fine timber on the north side of this stream. 

On the south side of the Yellow Creek the greater part of the 
township is open prairie, and is an excellent quality of land. 


The value of the propert}^ in this township as assessed was in 
1851, $66,763; in 1852, $75,352; and 1853, $116,542. The population 
in 1850, was 654. 

Wm. Kirkpatrick was the first white settler in this township. In 
1836 he built a saw mill on the Yellow Creek at the present village of 
JMill Grove. While he was building his mill in the summer he had no 
house erected for his own accommodation, and was accordingly under 
the necessity of using his wagon as a sleeping room for the season. 
The next summer he built an apology for a grist mill which was put 
in operation about the time that A'an Valzah completed his mill at 
Cedar Creek. 

Mill Grove on the Yellow Creek, is a village containing about 
twenty families. There is a fine water power here, and a considerable 
amount of business carried on. 

There is a distillery, saw mill, fulling mill and carding machine, 
all owned by Charles Waterman of Freeport. 

A grist mill is in successful operation, under the charge of James 

There is a carpenter's shop, by Orsmus Barnes. 

A postofifice was established here a- short time since and James 
Young appointed postmaster. 

It is contemplated to open a store here the coming season. There 
is a school house, where, in addition to the day school, a Sunday school 
is conducted, and where there is preaching occasionally by clergymen 
of various denominations. 

Andrews' Mills, some three or four miles farther up the creek is 
a flourishing little village, and bids fair to become a place of some 
importance. Anson Andrews who first settled here, erected a flouring 
mill in 1841 and that together with a saw mill are now in operation, 
owned by his sons. Grant B. and George W. Andrews. James M. 
Moore, the gentleman in charge of the flouring mill is one of the early 
pioneers of this country. He assisted Kirkpatrick in building his first 
mill, and also assisted in constructing the one in which he is at present 

George W. Andrews is postmaster. He has also a store here and 
appears to be doing an extensive business. 

Jesse Alexander has a blacksmith shop. 

There are some four or five school houses throughout Loran, and 
the inhabitants are making laudable exertions to erect more. There 
are no churches built as yet, but meetings are held in diflferent parts of 
the town. 

There are two physicians, Drs. White and Parker who reside 
about two miles west of Andrews' Mills. 

Florence Township, is bounded on the north by Harlem, on the 
east by Silver Creek, on the south by Carroll county, and on the west 
by Loran. It contains exactly the surveyor's township of six miles 
square. In the whole area of the township there are only about 1,300 
acres of good timber, the remaining part is prairie of the finest de- 
scription. The wood land lies principally on the north side of the 
Yellow Creek, and the thickest settlement is in the same vicinity. In 


the southeast portion of the town the population is yet so sparse that 
there are but three families in one district, embracing some nine miles. 
The large uncultivated prairie is rolling, and is well adapted for rais- 
ing all kinds of crops peculiar to this portion of the country. There 
are several places on the Yellow Creek, within the precincts of the 
town, where it is thought there is sufficient water power for mills ; but 
the idea is entertained by some, that by constructing dams, the stagna- 
tion of the water setting back, might be attended with prejudical efifects 
on the health of the neighborhood. 

The amount of property assessed in this town in 1851, was $69.- 
958 ; in 1852, $79,621, and in 1853, $91,504. The number of inhabitants 
in 1850 was 445. 

Conrad A'an Brocklin removed from western New York in the 
fall of 1835, and after taking some time to explore the country, settled 
here with his family, in the month of March the year following. The 
cabin he first built was but a little distance from his present residence. 

In August of. the same year, Mason Dimmick, a native of Ohio, 
came into the township, and the same fall Otis Love and family ar- 
rived. The next summer Lorenzo Lee came into the neighborhood, 
and it continued to increase slowly in population until in 1850, when 
the townships were organized, it contained about sixty families. 

The first school was established here in 1839, in a small building 
belonging to Mr. Dimmick, which had been built for a smokehouse. 

There is a small village on the Yellow Creek, where the stage 

road crosses to Savanna, consisting of seven or eight families. There 

' is a hotel kept by E. Ellis, and a postofifice. C. Van Brocklin is the 

postmaster. Its close proximity to Freeport, will, however, prevent 

it becoming a very extensive village. 

There are now in the township three or four flourishing schools, 
no church buildings are erected, but meetings are held in different 
parts of the town. The present justices are E. H. Shumway and Lor- 
renzo Lee. 

Silver Creek Township is bounded on the north by Freeport and 
Lancaster, on the east by Ridott, on the south by Ogle county, and on 
the west by Florence. The greater part of the land in this town is 
prairie. On the Picatonica river there is a little timber, but the great 
body of the wood is in Craine's Grove, in the south part of the town. 
There is an abundance of water here, and the agricultural advantages, 
generally, are about as good as in any other portion of the county. 

In 1850 the number of inhabitants here was 603. 

In 1851 the value of the property assessed was estimated at $103,- 
799, in 1852, $127,112. 

Thomas Craine, a gentleman well known in this section of coun- 
try, and who was one of those enterprising pioneers who first assisted 
to rescue the northern portion of Illinois from the wilderness, came 
into this township in August, 1836, and settled in Craine's Grove, 
where Adam Wilson resides at present. The same winter a gentle- 
man named Baner came into the township, and in May of the year fol- 
lowing, Seth Scott, a gentleman well known and highly esteemed 
throughout the county, came to the place he at present occupies on the 


north side of the Grove. There is a brewery within a short distance 
of the mouth of the Yellow Creek on the old State road, owned by M. 
Hettinger. There are one or two Methodist congregations in the 

The Bellofunt Pottery in this town, owned by Robert G. H. Mc- 
Afee & Co., is now in successful operation. 

Township of Ridott — Ridott is bounded on the north by Rock Run 
township, on the east by Winnebago county, on the south by Ogle 
county, and on the west by Silver Creek. 

The land in this township is chiefly prairie, the timber lies prin- 
cipally on the north side of the Picatonica, and this northern part of 
the town is very well supplied with water. 

In 1850 the population of Ridott was 652. 

In 1851, the value of property was estimated to be $120,749, in 
1852, $135,194, and in 1853, $166,837. 

The Freeport and Chicago railroad runs through the town, and 
there is a station established at Nevada, about six miles from Freeport. 

Nevada is already a thriving little place, and bids fair to become a 
flourishing village. The land around it is excellent, and abundance 
of wood and water can be conveniently procured. A postoffice was 
recently established here, Wm. Wright, postmaster. 

In 1836, T. J. Turner, then a young man, came into this township 
and built a saw mill at the mouth of Rock Run, at present owned by 
Ezekiel Brown. Mr. Turner, not many years after, abandoned the 
business of mechanic, studied law, and has since represented this dis- 
trict in Congress. His ability both as a lawyer and statesman, is too 
well known in our own neighborhood and elsewhere, to require much 

The same year that Mr. Turner came to Ridott, F. S. Payne, Asa 
Nicholls and Eldridge Farwell came into the same neighborhood. 
Daniel Wooton, Isaac Forbes and Ezekiel Brown were also among the 
first settlers in this place. 

There are many items of interest connected with this township 
which the writer has not been able to obtain, from the fact that he was 
unable to find those persons who could give definite information on 
the points required. 

Oneco — This township is bounded on the north by the State of 
Wisconsin, on the east by Rock Grove township, on the south by Wad- 
dams and Buck Eye, on the west by Winslow. There is abundance 
of water and excellent timber in this township, and if not the best, is 
at least among the best farming portions of the county. Along the 
Richland Creek there is some valuable wood, and on the road running 
east and west from Oneco village to Rock Grove there are some farms, 
that cannot easily be surpassed. Here, however, good improved farms, 
can be purchased for about twenty dollars 'per acre. 

The population of the township in 1850 was 882. 

In 1851 the value of property assessed was $76,270; in 1852, $87,- 
684, and in 1853, $105,568. Property is rising in value very rapidly. 

Among the first settlers in this township were Simon Davis, L. D. 
Van Metre, Joseph Norris, John M. Curtiss, etc. 


The ^v'illage of Oneco, was laid out in 1840 by John K. Brewster, 
a gentleman as much respected for excellent traits of private character, 
as he is distinguished for his enterprise and public spirit. Mr. Brews- 
ter may indeed be deservingly ranked among that select number of 
citizens of whom Freeport, and the community at large may well be 
proud. In 1838 he settled in Oneco, and after a residence of ten years 
in that village, removed to Freeport where he is still engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits. At present the village of Oneco contains about thirty 

Merchants — Joseph Herbert, J. Hoffman & Son, R. Hildebrand. 

Physician — D. D. Belkamp. 

Hotel — J. Snyder. 

Blacksmith — L. N. Harding. 

Cooper — Simon Bartlett. 

Cabinetmaker — Samuel Deal. 

Shoemaker — P. Bartlett. 

Wagonmakers — S. Falls, N. G. Luken, 

Tailor — David Ault. 

Carpenters — T. Elwood & Brothers. 

Tanner — Isaac Riester. 

Pottery — Daniel Sanders. 

There are three congregations who meet for worship in this 
place: Methodist, United Brethren and Baptist. The names of the 
respective clergymen we have not obtained. 

Postmaster — David Ault. 

Orangeville, or Bowers' Mills, as it was formerly called, is a thriv- 
ing little village on Richland Creek about four miles south of Oneco. 
The first improvements were made at this place by John M. Curtis, one 
of the early settlers, and a gentleman who sustained an excellent char- 
acter among those who knew him. 

Merchants — William Waggonhals, Levi Sheckler, C. Shaffer & 

Carpenter — Daniel Duck. 

Blacksmiths — Benjamin Hollman and John Lehman. 

Shoemaker — A. Fisher. 

Cooper — P. Billow. 

Wagonmaker — H. Frank. 

Machinist — D. Wann. 

Cabinetmaker — D. Rieme. 

Tailor — Wm. Frederick. 

Sawmill and Grist Mill — John Bowers. 

Physician — Dr. Ashby. 

There is a church edifice nearly finished. 

Mr. I. S. Job, who resides in the vicinity of Orangeville is an old 
pioneer. He fought with distinction in the Black Hawk war, and in 
this sanguinary struggle received some wounds which are still visible 
on his person. 

Mr. Joseph B. Norris in this township was likewise one of those 
who served through the Black Hawk war, and from his lips the writer 


received the confirmation of many of the facts narrated in relation to 
the war. 

Harlem Township — This township is bounded on the north by 
Waddams, on the east by Lancaster and Freeport, on the south by 
Florence, on the west by Erin. This township is plentifully supplied 
with wood and water. The Picatonica forms the eastern boundary 
between it and Lancaster, and there are numerous small streams and 
springs scattered throughout the township. 

In 1850 the population of Harlem was 444. 

Li 1851 the assessed value of property was $67,594; in 1852, %77,- 
871, and in 1853, $86,936. 

The first settler in this township was Miller Preston. He came 
and made a claim and built a small cabin on Preston's Branch near 
the present Galena stage road. 

The Lidians were then Preston's neighbors, and although pretty 
friendly, were much given to little acts of peculation which gave the 
solitary settler considerable annoyance. 

After W. Baker and a few others had settled in Freeport, when- 
ever Miller Preston came to visit them, it was said he almost invar- 
iably took home a fresh store of provisions, well knowing that his dusky 
friends, the Indians, would have appropriated whatever he had left 
behind him. 

Matthew Brightendall also came here in 1836 and settled where 
Mr. Buckley resides at present. The same year Philip Fowler came to 
the neighborhood and made a claim and settled in this town on the 
farm known as the Thomas farm a little west of the town of Freeport. 

Rock Run Township — This lies immediately south of Rock Grove 
township, and is bounded on the east by Winnebago county. 111., on the 
south by Ridott township, and on the west by Lancaster and Buck Eye. 

The Township of Rock Run is well supplied with wood and water, 
and is one of the best townships in the county for agricultural purposes. 
The Rock Rtm which we mentioned above is quite a considerable 
stream of v^ater, and in addition to this, there are a number of smaller 
streams or branches flowing from excellent springs. 

In the spring of 1836 Madison Carnifix came to the place where 
he now resides, about a mile from Davis' store. The same year the 
family of Swansons came and settled a little distance from Carnifix, 
and D. W. C. Mallory also came to the farm where he now resides 
during the same season. 

The year following quite a number of settlers came into the town- 
ship, some of whom still continue to reside there, but many of these 
pioneers have again moved farther towards the west and others are 
at the present time selling out to new settlers from the east, and taking 
their line of march towards western Iowa or the wilds of Nebraska. 

Among the early settlers of this township we can mention Col. 
Davis, whose sons now own a saw mill and a store on the Rock Run ; 
A. McKinney, Nelson Salisbury, J. R. Webb, Ithural and Alfred 
Fowler and a Mr. Lowe. 

There are a number of fine mills in the town, situated on the 
Rock Run, which is a beautiful stream. 


In 1850 the population of Rock Run was 1,037. 

The value of property in 1851 was $128,345; in 1852, $146,476, 
and in 1853, $171,242. 

Freeport Township — The township of Freeport is bounded on the 
north and east by Lancaster, on the south by Silver Creek, on the west 
by Harlem. It is the smallest township in the county, its area embrac- 
ing only about two sections of land. The thriving young city of Free- 
port even now covers the greater portion of this tract, and a portion 
of the adjoining township of Silver Creek has recently been laid out 
as an addition to the town. The Picatonica river forms the north 
and east boundary of the town. This, together with a number of ex- 
cellent springs and a beautiful brook which runs through the thickest 
.portion of the town, renders an abundant supply of pure healthy water. 
The surface of the ground is slightly uneven. The land rises from 
the bank of the river with a gentle slope towards the south and west, 
and this rolling eminence furnishes one of the most healthy and beau- 
tiful sites for a town that can be found in the northwest. 

In the fall of 1835 Wm. Baker erected the first house built by a 
white man within the confines of Freeport. This was a rude cabin of 
logs — and stood on the bank of the river on the present depot ground. 
Mr. Baker had visited this place in 1827 about the time of the Winne- 
bago difficulty which we have previously mentioned, and then he was 
so much struck with the beauty of the place and its remarkable adap- 
tion for the site of a village, that he at once claimed the greater share 
of the present township. His claim he visited every year until 1835, 
when he moved on to it and commenced to make improvements. At 
the time Mr. Baker came here, he had others associated with him in 
the possession of the claim. The firm were denominated Baker, Kirk- 
patrick, Gilbraith & Co. 

In the spring of 1836, Mr. Baker erected a house of hewn logs 
beside his first cabin. This latter was for some years the only public 
house in Freeport. 

In 1836 quite a number of new settlers came to Freeport, among 
the number were John Hinckle, Benjamin R. Wilmot, Philip Fowler, 
O. H. Wright, John Brown, etc. The first store was started in this 
year by the late O. H. Wright. The little building where Mr. Wright 
first commenced business in town stood near the mouth of the branch 
near where he subsequently lived. It was a frame building, but as 
there was then no saw mills in the country, the boards with which it 
was covered were split out and made smooth with a drawing knife. 

A village was laid out this year on the 32d section on the east part 
of the present township — but they were subsequently obliged to abandon 
it and then they laid out that portion of the town where the principal 
business is done at present. 

When the Indians disposed of their title to their lands in this por- 
tion of the country, the government reserved to the half-breeds cer- 
tain tracts of land which they might select in whatever part of the 
unoccupied territory they might choose, and frequently through their 
own shrewdness or that of their advisers, these people made selections 
which turned out to be of considerable value. 


As soon as it became known that Baker and his friends had laid 

out the plan for a town, one of these half-breeds, Mary ^ — 

through her agent Nicholas Baldwin, located her claim on the section 
of land above mentioned, and they were constrained to move their 
stakes unto the next section. When the time arrived for setting the 
stake for the county seat, Baldwin and his friends were not allowed a 
hearing when they sought to have the county seat established in the 
village first laid out. And shortly after a number of the settlers ac- 
companied them to the borders of the county, and after sundry ad- 
monitions to the effect that they must not again show their faces in 
Stephenson county, on pain of hard usage, they were dismissed. 

This beautiful portion of our township, since known as the Indian 
Float of Reserve, continued to lie wild and unimproved until quite 
recently. Within the past year John A. Clark and some other gentle- 
men have succeeded in obtaining a title to this land. A portion of it 
has been laid out into a town and called the Winnesheek Addition to 
Freeport ; and from the nature of its situation it must shortly become 
one of the most thriving portions of the town. 

In 1837 when it was determined that this would be the county 
town, the place began to fill up rapidly. Among those Avho came in 
this year, may be mentioned Hiram G. Fads, James Fowler, Michael 
Reel, Julius Smith, John A. Clark, William Hollenback, L. O. Crooker, 
Dr. Hunt, Samuel Davis, I. C. Stoneman, etc. 

Of the houses erected this year some few are yet standing. The 
house at present occupied by William Oyler as a grocery at the corner 
of Galena and Van Buren streets is one of these. . Another stands at 
the lower part of town near Wright's barn. One of the small build- 
ings on the south side of the public square, lately owned by Hon. S. B. 
Farwell, and which was pulled down recently to make room for a 
larger edifice, was built during this year. This little dwelling was used 
for some time as a court house. Here the first Commissioners Court 
was held, and here was held the first law suits before the newly elected 
Justices of the Freeport Precinct. 

Some of these early lawsuits were conducted in a manner that 
would appear to us at present strikingly novel, to say the least. We 
will mention one as a memorable instance of the way such matters were 
sometimes conducted. 

When the day of trial arrived, it was somewhat late before the 
jury could be gotten together, and things in readiness to proceed with 
the cause, and by the time the testimony was heard and the jury be- 
gan to consult in relation to their verdict, it began to grow dark. In 
the meantime the defendant had brought a quantity of whiskey into 
the proximity of the court house, and when the matter was whispered 
in the court, first one juryman and then another would steal out, and 
after taking a hearty pull, return to their deliberations. The result 
was, they did not come to a very speedy agreement, and by the middle 
of the night, the majority of them became, if not properly drunk, at 
least too far gone to balance testimony with cool heads, or attend to 
any nice legal distinctions — and thus the whole night was spent. The 
Justice and Constable were also unable to pass through the ordeal un- 


scathed, both fell completely under the power of Bacchus for the time, 
and it is said the jurymen were delighted by a spirited argument car- 
ried on between these functionaries as to which had the greatest amount 
of power, etc. When in the morning the case was decided, the poor 
justice was so excessively worried and fatigued with his night's labors 
that, in what at the present time would be regarded a most unaccount- 
able fit of abstraction — he paid some of the jurymen two or three times 

The stately decorum and regular proceedings which characterize 
our courts of justice, now afifords a strong contrast to such scenes of 
drunken lawlessness, and we may well be thankful that much of the 
wild recklessness among a certain class, is ruled down and kept in 
check by a healthy, moral and religious influence, which, it is hoped, 
is every day becoming stronger. 

In 1837 there were quite a number of houses erected, and al- 
though the greater part were of small dimensions, when we consider 
the enormous price paid for lumber it is almost a wonder that so much 
was done in this way. Some of them were under the neces- 
sity of paying at the rate of $32 per thousand for oak lumber of a 
medium quality. 

At that time it was not so difficult a matter to purchase town lots 
as at present. William Hollenback, who at present resides near Craine's 
Grove in the township of Silver Creek, and who was here at this early 
day, informed the writer that he sold ten acres of land in what is now 
Knowlton's addition, in the suburbs of Freeport lying south of the 
German Lutheran church, for a stove and ten dollars in money. Small 
building lots on the same premises are now probably worth two and 
three hundred dollars each. 

In 1838 H. Eads built the old hotel which stands at the corner of 
Stephenson and Liberty streets, opposite Hunt's large warehouse and 
known of late as the Temperance House. Here Mr. Eads opened a 
tavern and it was long a hotel of considerable importance. 

This same season John Montgomery and A. Wiley built a house 
on the opposite side of Stephenson street from the Temperance House 
and a few doors below the store of J. A. W. Donihoo, here they opened 
a grocery and provision store, one among the first established in the 
place. Elijah Barritt also opened a store of a similar description. 
When we consider that at that early period the cost of transportating 
goods was a very difficult matter from what it is at present it will 
not seem so very surprising to hear of the enormous prices exacted for 
goods. The merchants got many of their goods from Galena and it 
not un frequently was a hard day's work for a team to take a load from 
there to Freeport. We have already stated that O. H. Wright had the 
first regular store in Freeport, the next who opened a store where a 
general assortment of goods could be procured was L. W. Guiteau, a 
gentleman who is well known in Freeport and the surrounding country 
and highly respected. Mr. Guiteau opened his store in the fall of 1838 
in a house which still stands at the corner of Galena and Liberty 
streets close by the freight house of the Galena and Chicago Railroad 


Mr. A. B. Guiteau came here the same year and started a store 
at Brewster's Ferry. The goods brought out by Messrs. Guiteau were 
the first fresh stock of goods brought from New York to this place. 

A. B. Guiteau after staying a few months in the country went 
back to New York State where he continued to reside until recently, 
when he removed here and -commenced improvements on Guiteau's ad- 
dition to Freeport. This is one of the pleasantest portions of the whole 
town and will very soon be covered with buildings. 

In the spring of this year James Barr who has since removed from 
here to California, opened a tavern in the building now occupied by 
William Oyler as a grocery to which allusion has already been made. 

On the 4th of July Mr. Barr gave the first public dinner given in 
the town "and" said the gentleman who related it to the writer ''the 
best one." The people flocked in to this fete from all parts of the 
country, and after listening to an oration about three hundred sat 
down to dinner in a new barn which then stood at the corner of the 
public square where the "Pennsylvania House" stands at present. The 
barn is still in use as one of the outbuildings of the "Freeport House." 

In the winter of 1837-38 a school was kept in Freeport by Nelson 
Martin, brother of Dr. Chancellor Martin. This is the first school of 
which the writer has heard mention made. Dr. C. Martin was the first 
physician in town. He commenced his practice in the county in 1837 
but did not open his ofiice in Freeport until a year or two after. 

The first clergyman was Father McCain, a Methodist minister, 
to whose zeal in the doing of good and excellence of character we have 
before alluded in our narrative. After the court house was erected 
it served as a church for all denominations and was used by Metho- 
dists, Baptists and Presbyterians until they were in circumstances to 
erect meeting houses for themselves. 

In the winter of 1837-38, Thomas Craine, who then lived at 
Craine's Grove, carried the mail from his house, which was then a 
tavern on the old State road to Galena, to Freeport in his coat pocket. 
Such an arrangement as that contrasts rather forcibly with the present 
state of things about our Freeport postofifice, where several clerks are 
kept busy by the press of business and the labor constantly growing 
greater in a fast increasing ratio. 

In 1840 the population of the town was 491 and from that time 
until about 1850 the- growth of the town was slow — that is slow in 
comparison with the progress of the last three or four years. There 
was very little to induce a hasty emigration. It was an inland town, 
and those iron bands which conquer space and make a speedy transit 
from one part of the country to the other, a matter of little difficulty, 
had not yet extended in this direction. Good farming .country there 
was then, as now, around the town in every direction and the business 
men of the town shared the good success of the farmers. But the 
agricultural class were fewer and less able to patronize merchants 
and tradesmen than they have since become. Many of these, however, 
who came in at this period have secured large fortunes from the as- 


tonishin.s:' rise of property within a few years back, and thus have ob- 
tained some remuneration for the privation and hardships of pioneer 

Hon. S. B. Farwell, Hon. George Purinton and M. P. Sweet, Esq. 
were the first who commenced the practice of law in the town. T. J. 
Turner also began to practice at an early day. Among those who 
came into Freeport shortly after the organization of the county are 
D. A. Knowlton, O. W. Brewster, A. T. Green, C. Waterman, S. D. 
Knight and many others who now reside in the place. 

In 1847 the first newspaper was started in Freeport. This was 
the Prairie Democrat. This paper was started, as we have previously 
intimated, through the instrumentality of Hon. T. J. Turner who was 
then the Representative in Congress from this section of the country. 
Stephen D. Carpenter had formerly conducted a paper in Pennsyl- 
vania, The Girard Free Press. He came highly recommended to Mr. 
Turner, and that gentleman and many of his friends of the same po- 
litical party assisted in giving the paper an advantageous start. 

Mr. Carpenter when he first came here seems to have been im- 
pressed with the idea that this town was destined at some future day 
to be a place of considerable importance. In his first number speaking 
of the reasons why he saw fit to commence a paper in Freeport, he 
says : 

"We came to the western country for the purpose of securing a 
permanent location. Various were the means of information 1)oth by 
personal views and friendly communications, to learn the advantages 
that many towns north of the Illinois river presented. But none gave 
us the satisfaction desired save Freeport. We were attracted thither 
by the peculiar location and advantageous situation of Freeport, being 
a fair business distance from Galena and Chicago — with plenty of 
water power for all practical purposes — a soil and climate unsurpassed 
by the most fertile plains, and salubrious portions of Italy — teeming 
with an intelligent population, who, without boasting may safely chal- 
lenge the world for a greater degree of public spirit and enterprise — 
the beauty of the surrounding country — its undulated prairies and 
groves of valuable timber through which the Picatonica winds its ser- 
pentine course to join the 'Father of Waters' — the unequalled facilities 
for railroad communications, and many other considerations induced 
us to 'pitch our tent here,' and claim Freeport as our future home." 

Carpenter, judging from the style of his editorials, was rather a 
humorous sort of a fellow, and occasionally he tells a joke to pretty 
good advantage. 

Carpenter continued to publish the Democrat until in October, 
1850, when Mr. J. O. P. Burnside, the present editor and proprietor of 
the Freeport Bulletin, took charge of the paper. Mr. Burnside sold out 
in the spring of 1852 to Mr. George Ordway. Mr. Ordway published 
the paper about a year and then sold the concern back again into the 
hands of Mr. Burnside who sold out the old type of the office, discon- 
tinued the Democrat, and in July, 1853, started the "Bulletin" in its 
stead. The latter paper has now a very extensive circulation and its 
prospects for the future are bright. The Freeport Journal was started 


by Messrs. H. G. Grattan and A. McFadden. This was also a very- 
extensive circulation and a constantly increasing patronage. Mr. 
Grattan left Freeport some years since and is now the editor of the 
Mount Carroll Republican. After Grattan withdrew the paper was 
for some time conducted by Messrs. A. McFadden and H. M. Sheetz. 
McFadden and Sheetz in the spring of 1853 dissolved partnership and 
the Journal is now published and edited by Mr. Sheetz. Mr. McFad- 
den is at present .editor of the Whiteside Investigator. A German 
paper has been started in the town within the past year, by Rev. Wil- 
liam Wagner, called the Deutscher Anzieger. It is already rather ex- 
tensively circulated and the constant immigration of Germans into the 
surrounding country will contribute greatly to its success. 

In one of the numbers of the Prairie Democrat for June 27th, 
1849, we find a list of the merchants and grocers in the town, and as 
some may be curious to know how extensive our business directory 
then was we give the names as they come in order. 

In June, 1849, the merchants, etc., were: 

Dealers in dry goods, etc. — F. A. Strockey, C. Waterman, D. A. 
Knowlton, L. W. Guiteau, S. D. Knight & Co., O. H. Wright, E. H. 

Boots, shoes, hats and caps — Jacobs. 

Groceries, Medicines, etc. — Emmert & Bastress. 

Dry Goods, Medicines, etc — Mease & Co. 

Groceries and liquors — W, D. Oyler, J. Montgomery, P. Fowler. 

Family provisions, groceries, etc. — T. & J. Oyler, Capt. J. R. 

Such was the business directory of Freeport in 1849. 

The first church in the town was the First Presbyterian. This 
was completed early in the fall of 1849. Since that time seven others 
have been erected. 

In 1850 the population of the town was 1436, of this number 352 
were foreigners, mostly Germans. The German proportion of the 
population is now much larger. 

The advance of our town is strongly exhibited in the changes in 
the value of property within and around it. The value of town lots 
and land contiguous to the town has risen to be about double value in 
the last two years. And these rises seem well sustained, we hear of 
no failures among our business men. All seem to be doing a profitable 
business and sharing in the general prosperity of the country. Since 
the completion of the railroad from Chicago to this place business has 
received an impetus far stronger than was apprehended by the most 

Since the first reverberation of the whistle of the iron steed sounded 
through the town, on week days all is hurry and bustle. The streets 
are crowded with farmers selling ofif the crops of the last year which 
seem in a measure inexhaustible. The stores and groceries are 
thronged with customers, the hotels are crowded so full of travelers that 
it is sometimes difficult to find a place to lodge. Dwelling houses are 
going up with astonishing rapidity and still the supply is inadequate to 
the demand so great is the rush of emmigration into our county. 


We are not certain of the number of buildings that have been 
erected here during the past year, and cannot consequently show the 
full extent of our improvements. Many of the buildings erected dur- 
ing last summer are superior to any heretofore erected. A great deal 
of building has been going on around the depot grounds. Nine or ten 
warehouses have been built. The warehouse erected by the Messrs. 
Hunt is one of the finest buildings in Freeport. It is of brick with ap- 
propriate stone trimmings. The Exchange block on Stephenson street 
afi:"ords another striking evidence of the march of improvement within 
the last year. The buildings in this block are also of brick, three stories 
high. The rooms on the first floor are all occupied with stores. The 
apartments above are law offices, daguerrean rooms, concert 
rooms, etc. 

The "Promenade House", at the corner of Adams and Stephenson 
streets, a new hotel erected by C. Baumgarten, is also an edifice which 
is creditable to Freeport builders. 

The coming year promises to far outstrip the last in improvement. 
A fine new building for a bank will soon be erected by J. Mitchell & 
Co., on the corner of Stephenson and Chicago streets, immediately op- 
posite the "Stephenson House." And E. H. Hyde, of the firm of Hyde 
& Brewster, ever among the first in enterprise and public spirit, has 
commenced the erection of a splendid brick store on the site of his old 
store on the southeast corner of the public square. This building will 
be three stories high, and it is the design of the proprietor to make the 
third story about fifteen or sixteen feet high and fit it up for use as a 
Town Hall. Such a room is at present a desideratum in our town and 
doubtless all our citizens will be glad to see Mr. Hyde's plan carried 
out. Hon. S. B. Farwell. we understand, designs erecting a magnifi- 
sent set of buildings -on the south side of the public square. And our 
energetic citizen, E. W. Salsbury, is busily engaged in making improve- 
ments which will add to the good appearance of the west side of the 
square. Dr. C. Martin is also about building a fine house on Stephen- 
son street, immediately adjoining the store of S. D. Knight. C. Baum- 
garten is about erecting a new warehouse, 100 feet by 120, and four 
stories high. 

Among the projects of the coming year is a large and fashionable 
hotel. Dwelling houses are going up in and around the town with 
astonishing rapidity, and they were never in greater demand here than 
at present. Rents are high, and those who build houses to let make a 
very profitable investment. 

To give some idea of the business of the town we will give brieflv 
a few statistics, etc. 

There are now in Freeport about sixteen or seventeen dry goods 
stores which do an extensive business. There are five clothing stores, 
four hardware stores, five drug stores, about twenty groceries, two 
bakeries, three or four millinery and lace stores, one leather store, one 
book store, a magazine and news depot, six hotels, two exchange and 
banking houses, seven or eight tailor shops, three jeweler shops, four 
saddle and harness shops, eight or nine boot and shoe shops, som^e five 
or six lumber yards, four cabinet shops, nine blacksmith shops, four 


or five carriage and wagon shops, a gunsmith, a locksmith, a marble 
yard, a turning lathe, two iron foundries, one sash factory and planing 
mill, one plow factory, three meat markets, two flouring mills, two saw 
mills, two extensive nurseries. 

The legal profession has a pretty large representation in Freeport. 
There are at present sixteen attorneys residing here. There are about 
the same number of physicians, but we are happy to say that the whole 
corps are not kept very busily employed. 

The educational advantages are good and constantly becoming more 
favorable. There is a fine school building in which a union school is 
kept, capable of accommodating from three to four hundred pupils. 

There is also an academy which was started during the past year 
and which is now flourishing finely. Besides these there are a few 
select schools. 

We have mentioned that there were eight churches in the town, 
they are of the following denominations : Baptist, Methodist, Old 
School Presbyterian, New School Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Roman 
Catholic, Lutheran, German Methodist. 

The value of the property in Freeport as assessed was in 1851, 
$271,380; in 1852, $374,225, and in 1853, $561,464, and the next 
assessment will far exceed any previous valuation. 

The population of Freeport about a year ago, before the opening 
of the railroad west of Rockford was nearly three thousand. At the 
present time we have a population of from three to four thousand, and 
ere two years have elapsed it will probably be doubled. 

The following statement which is taken from the Freeport Weekly 
Bulletin, of March 2d. 1854, will convey to the reader some idea of 
the amount of the exports of produce from this place for the time 
herein mentioned. 


Shipments of Produce from Freeport by the G. & C. U. R. R. from 
September 2d, 1853^ to March 1st, 1854, and estimated amount on hand 
ready for shipping March 1st. 

We have prepared for this issue of the Bulletin a correct statement 
of all the produce shipped east from this place from the opening of 
the G. & C. U. R. R. up to the first day of this month, and it is with 
no small degree of pride that we are enabled to present so favorable 
a report for the consideration of the public. We say correct because we 
have taken great pains to get it correctly, copying carefully from the 
book of shipments kept in the Railroad office. 

Shipped ■ Shipped 

Pork 2,106,651 lbs. Green do 12,328 lbs. 

Lard, 36,026 lbs. Oil Cake 78,340 lbs. 

Wheat 209,101 bu. Grass Seed 40,700 lbs. 

Oats 89,695 bu. Flour in Sacks ... . 58,920 lbs. 

Barlev 37,769 bu. Buckwheat Flour . 5,250 lbs. 

Rye .' 12,304 bu. Corn 18,797 bu. 

Dry Hides 93,037 lbs. Flax Seed 831 bu. 


Shipped Shipped 

Beans 3,376 bu. Ginseng 1,550 lbs. 

Clover Seed 831 bu. Tallow^ 2.335 lbs. 

Onions 429 bu. Butter 69,487 lbs. 

Flour 1,850 bbls. Poultry and Game. 41,900 lbs. 

Beef 25 bbls. Live Hogs 1,635 head 

High Wines 440 bbls. Live Cattle 64 head 

Whiskey 280 bbls. Live Sheep 65 head 

Oil 88 bbls. Eggs 107 bbls. 

Lead 676,763 lbs. Venison 1,630 lbs. 

Wool 8,031 lbs. 

In addition to the above amounts shipped, there was on hand in 
warehouses ready for shipment on the 1st of March, 32,150 bushels of 
Wheat ; 53.575 bushels of Oats ; 3.300 bushels of Barley ; 2,360 bushels 
of Rye ; 12,400 bushels of Corn. 

We ask our eastern friends, who think we live almost in a wilder- 
ness as far as Stephenson county, to look at the above figures and take 
into consideration at the same time that in addition to our exports a 
large home consumption demand on our public works, and in our 
towns and villages has been supplied ; and also that not more than one- 
fourth of the tillable land in this region is under cultivation, and further 
that there are at least four or five depots on the Railroad in this county 
at which large amounts of produce have been shipped of which we 
have no account in the above table, and still further besides the amount 
shipped since the 2d day of September last and the amount now on 
hand in Freeport ready for shipping that the country is yet full of grain 
of all kinds, and will not be all shipped much before another harvest is 
ready to be reaped. Think of all these things (which are facts,) and 
then tell us what your opinion of Old Stephenson county and Northern 
Illinois in general is. Stephenson county is one of the richest spots in 
the Garden State — the products of the soil spring forth almost spon- 
taneously — we have a cash market right at our doors — our farmers 
are fat and wealthy, and have nothing to regret and nothing to trouble 
them except it is that some of their eastern friends are so foolish as to 
not emigrate immediately to Northern Illinois. 

In giving the foregoing sketches to the public, the object was, not 
only to preserve the memory of the deeds of those brave pioneers 
who came on in the vanguard of civilization and literally "caused the 
wilderness to blossom as the rose," but also to convey to the minds of 
strangers a correct notion of the growth of this section of country, and 
its numberless resources, many of which have yet to be developed. 

A false impression has been made on the minds of many in rela- 
tion to this country ; and a proper regard to justice should make every 
honest man, who sees things as they really are, anxious to scatter all 
those erroneous views which may exist in relation to it. 

And it was the opinion of the writer, that by giving a short state- 
ment of the growth and prosperity of an inland county, which borders 
on no lake or navigable stream ; and which, until the last year, had no 
Railroad within its limits ; more might be done to dispel existing preju- 


dices, than could be accomplished by describing the rapid rise and 
astonishing progress of such cities as Chicago and St. Louis. 

Travelers who desire to see the real condition of the nations they 
visit, do not confine themselves to taking notes in the streets', of 
crowded cities, or in the neighborhood of magnificent castles and pal- 
aces, but far away from the din of the metropolis in the more secluded 
hamlets and market towns they can form a better notion of the habits 
and condition of the common mass of the people. Paris and London are 
both widely celebrated for their wealth, population, trade, &c, and a 
description of all that is interesting and grand in either would occupy 
volumes, but let an honest farmer emigrate to either England or France 
on the strength of such a glowing description, and among the peasantry 
or Auvergne or Yorkshire he will find but little of that richness and 
dazzling splendor which constitutes the attraction of the Boulevards or 
St. James' Park. 

The majority of those who set their faces towards the West are 
farmers, men who seek for a country home for themselves and families, 
and these are generally more interested in what relates to rural life than 
the growth of cities. The nature of the soil and climate, the distance 
from a good market, the character of the people with whom they will be 
called on to associate, the opportunities for educating their children, 
and the facilities for holding religious worship, concerning these things 
they are for the most part anxious. 

In regard to the soil of the northern counties of this State we make 
the following short extract from an account of "Chicago and her Rail- 
roads" published by the Democratic Press, of that city, speaking of the 
Galena & Chicago Union Railroad the writer says : 

"As this article will be read by thousands who never saw the beauti- 
ful country through which it runs, it will not be superfluous to add 
that it passes through a rich and most beautiful portion of our State. 
We hazard nothing in saying that the soil for twenty miles on each 
side of the road throughout its whole length is on an average better 
than that of the gardens in any of our New England or Middle States. 
Certainly with proper Yankee cultivation it could be made to produce 
more abundantly. The same remark will apply with equal truth to 
all the remainder of the list, round to the great Illinois Central. — Need 
it be wondered that the Galena Road pays? — " 

And we think we hazard nothing in saying that for the distance 
of 121 miles which this road runs from Chicago to Freeport it nowhere 
runs through as good a farming country as in Stephenson County. — 
And it may as well be stated that the best of the land is not on the 
direct line of the road through any of the northern counties. 

As the traveller comes west from Chicago he will find but little in 
the general appearance of the country on the line of the road, that 
is inviting until he approaches Elgin on Fox River. When he reaches 
Marengo and is conveyed through the centre of Garden Prairie he 
begins to see some of the loveliest portions of the western country and 
as he passes by the flourishing town of Belvidere in Boone County 
and the City of Rockford on Rock river his admiration of "Prairie 
Land" will in no wise be diminished. The face of the country is a little 


more uneven and the soil is generally allowed to be richer between 
Rock River and the Mississippi than in the counties lying in the direc- 
tion of Lake Michigan. Throughout our county the land is sufficiently 
rolling to make the prospect diversified without being detrimental to 

The soil seems well adapted for almost every kind of grain or 
fruit which usually grow in these northern latitudes, and is so rich that 
few farmers have as yet begun to think of rotating crops to rest the 
land. The same piece is plowed year after year, and frequently the 
same kind of crop is raised for many years in succession and no diminu- 
tion perceptible in the quantity of the crop. 

The capacity of the soil for absorbing and retaining moisture is 
astonishing. After a rain so heavy as almost to threaten an inunda- 
tion it requires but a few hours of sunshine to make the surface of the 
ground so dry that the farmer can resume his labor. And then again 
in the summer drought when the vegetation on the slaty hill sides of 
some of the Eastern States becomes scorched and withered, the wide 
rolling prairies look green as emerald and the crops fresh and vigorous. 

Our farmers are now beginning to pay considerable attention to 
the raising of stock and as abundant facilities are afforded for this, 
it must ultimately become a very extensive business. At present the 
pasturage of a drove of cattle costs little more than the trouble of oc- 
casionally watching them, and a mowing Machine very speedily cuts 
down sufficient grass for their fodder in winter. 

Much has been said about the unhealthy climate of Illinois. And 
doubtless many an emigrant has been deterred from moving here by 
the doleful tidings of whole villages shaking with fever and ague, and 
whole families dying for want of attendants during their sickness. — - 
And it must be admitted that while the country was new, there was 
here as elsewhere considerable sickness. But of late years we are 
inclined to think that the average amount of deaths in Northern Illinois 
do not exceed the most healthy portions of the Union. It is true that 
people die here as elsewhere, sin and pain, sickness and death are all 
here, but still it is the firm belief of the writer that Northern Illinois, 
Southern Wisconsin, part of Iowa and Minnesota, are about as liealthy 
as any other part of the United States. 

Of the Southern portion of this State the writer knows nothing 
by actual observation, but the probability is, that the inhabitants are 
more liable to ague and fever than with us. Even here in some of the 
secluded ravines and marshy places there may be a liability to such 
distempers, but the writer has never yet seen but one or two cases of 
fever and ague in the west. 

As we have already shown in the course of our narrative, our 
marketing facilities are now good and every day becoming more flat- 
tering. So long as our principal outlet is towards the east, farmers on 
the Atlantic sea board have an advantage, which would be fatal to our 
western farmers were it not that their land produces extra crops suffi- 
cient to pay for transportation, but when commerce and manufactures 
shall receive the same attention at the South as at the East — as is the 
hope and expectations of all good citizens, then we have the advantage. 


Communications can be had with the east by the Lakes, Canals, and 
many different Railways ; to the Gulf of Mexico and thence to the 
West Indies and Central America channels of intercourse will be 
opened up by means of the great Mississippi, Southern Railroads &c., 
and last, but not least when the great Pacific Railway is completed a 
new market is opened on the Pacific coast and the fertile plains of the 
great west may supply bread to the inhabitants of China and Japan. 
In view then of the richness of the soil, of our central position, of our 
means of outlet either already in operation, or in prospect, what other 
than a bright future can farmers be led to anticipate? 

With regard to the views entertained by some about the degree 
of intelligence possessed by the early settlers of this State, and the 
correctness of such opinions we take the following from the History 
of the late Gov. Ford. 

"The towns contained a good deal of intelligence, polish and elo- 
quence. It must not be thought that the people of this new country had 
just sprung up out of the ground, with no advantages of education 
and society. They were nearly all of them emigrants from the old 
States, being often the most intelligent and enterprising population. 
As such,they were just a slice off the great loaf of the old States. But 
they were not apt to be so considered by the latest comers. These 
always imagined that they were come to a land of comparative ignor- 
ance, and that they must necessarily be superior to the people already 
here, until they were convinced to the contrary by finding out that their 
pretensions had made them ridiculous ; and if their pretensions were 
noticed at all it was only to be laughed at. It was no uncommon thing 
to find families of these last new comers scattered all over the country, 
forever complaining of the want of good society ; and of the many 
privations they endured in a new country. These complaints were 
uttered, not so much because they were true, as to let people know that 
those who made them, were somebodies where they came from." 

How the notion originated it is difficult to say, but it certainly 
seems to have obtained among many eastern people that the inhabitants 
of the west are a stupid set of folks. And nothing is more common 
among a certain class than to suppose that professional men of the 
lowest order of talent are good enough to send out here. And speak- 
ing on this subject Dr. Beecher remarks: "No opinion is more false 
and fatal than that mediocrity of talent and learning will suffice for the 
west. That if a minister is a good sort of a man, but somehow does 
not seem to be popular, and find employment, he had better go to the 
west. No, let him stay at home, and if among the urgent demands 
for ministerial labor here, he cannot find employment, let him conclude 
that he has mistaken his profession." 

Many of our young professional gentlemen find to their cost on 
coming here that the people at large have no lack of shrewdness and 
vigor of intellect. The people travel more on their vast thoroughfares, 
see more, and are ever ready to pass a common sense judgment on 
what they see. Such keenness contrasts strongly with that Rip Van 
Winkle like dulness which characterizes some people in old towns 


who for any practical acquaintance they may have with the different 
portions of their own country might consider "the visual line that girds 
them round the world's extreme." 

Here, as in most newly settled countries, the people were for a 
number of years destitute of good educational advantages. The gov- 
ernment had, it is true, donated the sixteenth section in each govern- 
ment township for this purpose, and other lands in addition to this, but 
the price of land being low and the public fund in consequence small, 
but little benefit was derived from this provision. Besides, the ma- 
jority of the inhabitants were in destitute circumstances and unable 
to pay sufficient wages to secure the services of competent teachers. 
The consequence of this state of things, was the hiring of some teachers 
whose services were frequently of more damage than benefit, and 
whose instructions their pupils were often under the necessity of un- 

Of late years, however, a radical change has taken place in the 
method of conducting our common schools. The old hum drum peda- 
gogues who kept school are fast giving way before a more efficient 
and intelligent class of instructors who pay some attention to the science 
of teaching, and as the county increases in wealth the people are en- 
abled to give such teachers a sufficient remuneration for their valuable 

From these circumstances and the very great interest which is 
now manifested in matters pertaining to education, we think that the 
common schools of Stephenson County will not long rank behind the 
Colleges of the people, which are the boast of many of the New Eng- 
land and Eastern States. 

The opportunities for attending Public Worship on the Sabbath, 
were not very favorable during some years subsequent to the first set- 
tlement of the county. But in this particular there has also been a 
great change. Instead of depending for preaching on the occasional 
supply of an itinerant Missionary, we now see congregations organized 
and churches built in different portions of the county, and church 
services are held in both the English and German languages. 

There are also some sixty or seventy sabbath schools where from 
three to four thousand children receive religious instruction on the 
Sabbath. For the last year or two much attention has been given to 
this system of Sunday School instruction, and the friends of the cause 
are making strong exertions to establish them all over the country. 
There is also a County Bible Society, an Auxiliary branch of the Amer- 
ican Bible Society in active operation. 

There are also within the limits of the county various societies 
established for benevolent objects, and mutual benefit— as Temperance 
societies. Odd Fellows, &c. 

Still with all the means of doing good we have, there is a wide 
field open for the services of good and talented men. Especially are 
teachers and ministers of the Gospel needed, and as the tide of emmi- 
gration continues to pour in the demand for their assistance is every 
day becoming more urgent. That our progress in science, moralitv 


and religion may keep pace with our almost unexampled progress in 
matters of a pecuniary nature should be the fervent wish of every mem- 
ber of the community, as it is the hope of the writer of the sketches. 

Polo, Ills., April 21, 1911. 

To Whom It May Concern: 

I hereby certify that the foregoing History of Stephenson County 
is a true and exact copy of William J. Johnston's History as it purports 
to be. I made it from an original copy of the History, and have care- 
fully compared it with same and find true to the original, even to 
paragraphing and spelling. 

Belle Wendle, Typewriter. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 21st day of April, A. D. 

Robert M. Brand, Notarv Public. 




Abbott. (Miss) Grace 56 

Abingdon. Va 150 

Abolitionist 207 

Academy of Music, New York City... 117 
Ackerman, William K. Historical 
Sketch of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, together with a brief biograph- 
ical record of its incorporators, and 

some of its early officers 10.') 

Footnote 105 

Adams, (Mrs.) A. L. (Minna Worth- 

ington) 153 

Adams, Henry Ba.xter, The Henry 
Baxter Prize on the History of 

Eastern Hemisphere 28 

Adams, J. H 289 

Addams. .Tohn H 299. 300 

Addams, John H., in 1846, built 
large grist mill in Cedarville, Ste- 
phenson Count.y 299 

Adrian, Mich 116 

"Age (The) of Innocence" by Edith 
Wharton. Prize Awarded to as the 

best American Novel 27 

Agricultural and Mechanical Ass'ici- 
ation Fair, Held in Urbana, 111., 

Oct. 25, 1853 93 

Agricultural Society,, National Agri- 
cultural Society Held in Chicago, 

Sept. 15. 1859 116 

Agriculture. Illinois in a Earlv Day, 

Methods Employed 108 

Alabama State 146 

Albany, N. Y.. Ill, 116, 149 

Albany, N. Y., Law School 149 

Albion, Illinois 5. 21 

Aldrich, Charles 64, 70 

Aldrich, Charles, Jefferson Davis inter- 
view with, recorded in the Midland 

Monthly 70 

Alexander, Jesse 302 

Alexander, Milton K 257 

Alexander the Great of Greece 221 

Alexandria, Va.96, 111, 120, 121, 122, 124 

Footnote 96 

Alexandria, Va., (Col.) Ephraim Elmer 
Ellsworth, hauls down Confederate 
flag in Alexandria, meets his death 

96. 122. 123 

Algeria, Zwawa Mountain Tribe in Al- 

eria 112 

Alison, Samuel 101 

Alleghany Mts 75, 105, 227, 229 

Footnote 103 

Allen, (Rev.) Ira W 

5, 15, 16, 17, 18. 19, 20, 21 

Allen, (Dr. ) John 146 

Allen, John, in the War of 1812 148 

Allen, Margaret 141 

Allen. William 293 

Allen, William, Short Sketch 148 

Allerton. Samuel 93 

Alter & Campbell. Debtors to Ben- 
jamin Franklin Harris 98 

Alton. Illinois 36, 136, 226 

Alvord, (Prof.) Clarence Walworth... 33 
Ambrose, (Rev.) J. E 293 


America ..31. 49. 50, 51. 54. 73, 91, 102, 
117, 159. 179, 204, 205, 215. 223, 270 

Footnotes 76, 80, 84, 116 

America by River and Rail, by William 

Ferguson, quoted, Footnotes. . 76, 80, 84 
America, Ferguson William, America 
bv River and Rail quoted, Footnotes 

.■ 76, 80. 84 

America. Policy of, on the Monroe 

Doctrine 51 

American Bar Association 148 

American Bible Society 319 

American Continent 222 

American Fl.-ig 169 

American Historical Association ... 27. 28 
American Historical Association, Prizes 
offered by. from endowment funds. . 28 

American Military History Prize 28 

American Republic 180 

Americans 228, 229, 2.")7, 27.5 

Amherst. Mass 148 

Anderson Co.. Tenn 148. 150 

Anderson Family 145 

.inderson. Joseph 138 

Andt-rson (I.ieut.) Robt.. Saves Indian 

(;irl alter Battle of Bad Axe 258 

Anderson, Ruby Walker 39 

Anderson. Stinsar H 141 

Andrews. Anson, Early Settler of Ste- 
phenson County, Illinois 302 

Andrews, George W 302 

Andrews, (Judge) G. W 287 

Andrews. Grant B 302 

Anglo-Saxon Race 221, 275 

Annals of the West 227, 240 

Apple, Henry, Killed by Indians not 

far from Fort Hamilton 255 

Apple River Fort, at Elizabeth, Jo Dav- 
iess County, Illinois 252, 253 

Apple River. Illinois 271 

Appleton's Guide, Footnote 1.55 

Arenz. Francis 185 

Arkansaw River 190 

Arkansas State 268 

Arlington, Va., the Home of Gen. 

Robert E. Lee 104 

Armstrong, Debtor to Benjamin Frank- 
lin Harris 98 

Armstrong Academy 270 

Armstrong (Capt.), War of the Re 

bellion 95 

Armstrong, Cuyler, Claim of at one 
time embraced the gi-eater part of 

Dubuque 244 

Articles of Treaty of 1804 between IT. 
S. and the Sacs and Foxes. ... 231-234 

Arthur ( Pres. ) . Chester 147 

.\rthur, George 1 50 

Ashbaugh, D. F., Eleroy, Illinois. .. .297 

Ashby, Doctor 305 

Ashland. Illinois 144 

Ashley, Illinois 142 

Ashmore (Rev.), H. H.. Son of Rev. 

James Ashmore 139 

Ashmore, (Rev.) James 139 

Asturgiis, Minard 138 

Ater, Edward 99 

Athens. Illinois 36 

Atkinson, (Gen.) Henry, Black Hawk 
War 250, 252, 258, 259, 260 


INDEX— Continued. 


Atkinson, (Gen.) Henry, Orders Black 
Hawk to return across the river but 

it was of no avail -^50 

Atkinson, (Gen.) Henry, Report tlatetl 
Prairie du Chien August 25, 18.32 

258, 259, 260 

AtiaiitaV Ga.", Evacuation of. War of 

the Rebellion, reference 19o, -10 

Atlantic Monthly Periodical 118 

Footnote H* 

Atlantic Ocean 17G, 229, 317 

Attica. Ind ' ' 

Atwater, Calel), Visits Prairie du 

Chien in 1829 • • • • ^^ 

Atwood and Co., Wall St. Bankers, New 

York Jf.2 

Ault, David •■•••,,•.• ^*^'^ 

Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 
Harris, edited with introduction and 

notes by Mary Vose Harris 72-101 

Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 

Harris, Footnotes AA ■ V^' 

72. 7.3. 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 
SO,' 81, 82, S3. 84, 85. 86. 87. 88, 89. 
90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 

Autobiography of Black Hawk «.> 

Aurora, Illinois --2 

Austin Family 14o 

Austria. Vienna Austria 147 

Aiivergne, Franco ^1" 


Bacon, A ; • V^ • • ; • ;,V " ~ 

Bad Axe, Battle of. Black '^^^^^2-7*^^258 

Bad' Axe River 257 

Badger, Hugh ••■:•••.• ^^ ' 

Badley, John, Debtor to Benjamin 

Franklin Harris .• • 98 

Bailey Parks & Co., Debtors to Benja- 

mm Franklin Harris 98 

Baker, Edward Dickinson ISo 

Baker, Kirkpatrick, Gilbraith & Co., 

Early Firm of Freeport, 111 307 

^aker, William, Early Settler in Ste- 
phenson Co.. Illinois 

....272, 279, 281, 282, 306, 307 

Baidridge, Samuel C. .......... • 140 

Baldwin, Nicholas, Indian Agent d08 

Ballinger, Daniel • • • • • • • • I'lO 

Balloon. Runaway Balloon with Har- 

vey Children in it, reference 37 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R lo7 

FootriotG ...•.• XOD 

Baltimore, Md.'.'. . . .74, 116, 150, 156 157 
"Baltimore" Transport. Ellsworths 
New York Fireman's Zouaves embark 

on the Baltimore 12- 

Bamford. Henry .••■^.\ >,• ■ •,■" 

Baner. Early Settler in Silver Creek 

Township, Stephenson Co., Illinois. .30.i 
Banking, Establishment of the National 

Banking System, January 30, 1865. 72 
Banks. Atwood & Co. N. Y.. . . . . . . 98 

Banks. Cattle Bank of Urbana, 111.. . 99 
Banks. Champaign, 111., early private 

banks in v;." • : W ' ;" " ■ ", 

Banks. Champaign, 111., First National 

g^jjjj 99, 100 

Banks. Chicago Bank BMlures in 1873, 

reference j i^-; \.' ' ' 

Banks. Grand Prairie Bank of Urbana, 

Illinois •••;•.•• -V 98' ^g 

Banks. Illinois General Banking Law. 98 
Banks. Jay Cooke & Co., Banking 

House of Philadelphia, fails 1873 ... 100 
Banks. Philadelphia, Jay Cooke & Co., 
Banking Company fails 1873 100 


Baptist Church 

..136, 137, 138, 140, 293, 298, 305, 314 

Baptist Church, Freeport, 111 314 

Baptist Church, Perry County, 111 140 

Baptist Church, Stephenson County.. 293 

Baraboo River 61 

Barber, Robert 283 

Barclay, (Major) J. C, Sole Survivor 
of the Chicago Zouaves, Footnotes 

116, 124 

Barker, H. E 20 

"Barleycorn, John" 274 

Barnes, Orsmus 302 

Barr, (Rev.) Hugh 146 

Barr, James 310 

Barr (Rev.) 141 

Barr, Nancy 146 

Barr, Patrick 146 

Barr, Samuel 146 

Barritt, Elijah 309 

Bartlett, P 305 

Bartlett, Simon 305 

Barton, (Rev.) William E., Author of a 

inunber of Lincoln Books 24 

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 67 

Baumgarten, C 313 

Baxter, (Mrs.) E. A 19, 20 

Keard, (Miss) Wife of Joseph F. Black 144 

Bedford County, Tennessee 143 

Beecher, (Dr.) Charles 151 

Beeoher, (Dr.) Edward, Early Presi- 
dent of Illinois College, Jacksonville, 

Illinois 151 

Beecher, (Dr.) Henry Ward 202, 318 

Beecher, (Dr.) Lyman 151 

"Beef Slough," Wisconsin 65 

Beer, George L., Endowment Fund for 
Prizes, American Historical Associ- 
ation 28 

Belgium 49 

Belkamp. D. D 305 

Bell, John 140 

Bell, (Mrs.) of Kenosha, Wisconsin. . 112 
Bellefontaine, (Monroe Co.) 111., Early 

Settlement in Illinois 230 

Belleville, 111., Democrat, Jan. 23, 1858 . . 

Footnote 110 

Bellofunt Pottery, Stephenson Co., 111.304 

Beloit, Wisconsin 291 

Belting, Paul E., The Development of 
the Free Public High School in Illi- 
nois to 1860, Footnote 109 

Belvidere, (Boone Co.) Ill 5, 21, 316 

Bennehoff, D. and H., Early Business 

Firm of Stephenson Co., Ill 298 

"Benny Havens," Old West Point 

Melody 61 

Benson, Debtor to Benjamin Franklin 

Harris 98 

Benson, James 300 

Benton, 111., Home of John A. Logan in, 

reference 162 

Berdan. James, Early Lawyer in Jack- 
sonville, Illinois 181 

Berlin, (Sangamon Co.) Ill 179 

Berry, James W., Early Portrait Paint- 
er of Vandalia, 111 35 

Berry, John 140 

Berry, (Rev.) John M'Cutchen. . 138, 152 
Berry, (Rev.) John M'Cutchen, Short 

Sketch 152 

Berry Mills 295 

Bethany, HI 139 

Bethel Chapel, Early Church in Cham- 
paign Co., Ill 83 

Footnote 83 

Betts, Charles 289 

Beveridge, Albert J., At Work on a Life 
of Lincoln 24, 25 


INDEX— Continued. 


Beveridge, Albert J., Author of the 
Life of Chief Justice John Marshall 

24, 25 

Beveridge, (Gov.) John L., Extract 
from Funeral Address of Gov. Rich- 
ard Yates, War Governor of 111 174 

Big Grove (Present Site of Urbana, 

111.) 75, 76 

Billow, P . 305 

Bird's Point, Mo 113 

Black, (Adj. -Gen.) Carlos E., Adjutant 

General, State of Illinois 168 

Black Hawk 44, 63, 

64, 65, 245, 252, 257, 258, 260, 263, 296 
Black Hawk, Biography of in work by 

Benjamin Drake 258 

Black Hawk. Joins the British and 

Fights Again America in 1812 245 

Black Hawk's Sons, Wabokieshiek and 

Naopope 261 

Black Hawk, Swears Revenge on all 
Americans because of the murder of 

his adopted son 245, 246 

Black Hawk War 65, 67, 220 

223, 242, 243, 244, 263, 264, 296, 305 
Black Hawk War, Bad Axe Battle of 

Black Hawk War 65, 257, 258 

Black Hawk War, Battle of Wisconsin 

Heights 64. 70 

Black Hawk War, First Engagement 
14th of May, 1832, at Stillmau's Run 
in Ogle County, Major Stillman in 

command • 250, 251 

Black Joseph 150 

Black, Joseph F 144 

Black, L. W 300 

"Black Plumed Riflemen" at Still- 
water, N. Y 112 

Black's Fort 150 

Blackamore, J. B 282 

Blackamore, J. R. 283 

Blackburn, (Rev.) Gideon .. 136, 139, i46 
Blackburn, (Miss) Jane, Wife of John 

Vance 150 

Blackburn, John 150 

Blackburn (Miss) Mary, Wife of Sam 

uel Vance 150 

Blackburn University, Carlinville, 111.. 136 

Blackburn, William 150 

Blackstone's Commentaries, reference. 115 
Blair, Francis G., Superintendent Pub- 
lic Instruction, State of Illinois.... 32 

Blair, James F 140 

Blair, Montgomery, Postmaster Gen- 
eral in Lincoln's Cabinet 95 

Footnote 95 

Bland, John 140 

Bloomington, 111 

5, 21, 35, 36, 96, 109, 209 

Bloomington, 111., Anti-Nebraska Con- 
vention, 1856. held in Bloomington. 209 
Bloomington, 111., Early Lecturer's in, 

on Education 1853-56, reference. ... 109 
Bloomington, 111., Illinois Wesleyan 

University, located in Bloomington. 96 
Bloomington, 111.. Stage Coaches in, an 

early day in Bloomington 96 

Bloomington, Ind., Indiana State Uni- 
versity, located in Bloomington, Ind. 

„ 39, 154 

Blount Co.. Tenn 141, 150 

Blue Mounds. Wisconsin 257 

Blue Ridge Mts 150 164 

Blue, (Dr.) Rupert, Connected With 
the United States Government of 

Public Health 56 

Boggs, (Judge) C. C 145, 153 

Boggs, Joseph 143 

" 3, Nanna Means 143 


Boggs, Rachael Means 143 

Bok, Edward, the Americanization of 
Edward Bok, an Autobiography, ref- 
erence 28 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 48, 124 

Bond, (Miss) Achsah, Wife of Governor 

Shadrach Bond 134 

Bond County, 111.. 134, 138, 142, 146, 150 
Bond Co, 111., Mt. Gilead Presbyterian 

CTiurch, Bond Co., Illinois 138 

Bond Co., 111., Tennesseeans in, hold 

early offices 134 

Bond Family 140 

Bone, Elihu. short sketch 152 

Bone Family 152^ 

Boone Co., Ill 281, 316 

Boone Co., 111., Organization of 281 

Boone. Daniel, Indian Fighter and 

Huntor 236 

Boston, Mass 27, 88, 89, 93, 116 

Boston, Mass., Exporting Company... 89 
Boston, Mass., Post (Newspaper) .... 27 

Bowers. John 305 

Bower's Mills, 111., Now Orangeville! !305 
Bowman. Cabinet maker, Winslow 

Township, Stephenson Co., Ill 295 

Boys in Blue, by Mrs. Jane C. Hoge. 
quoted on Richard Yates, War Gov- 
ernor of Illinois 173 

Braddy, Jasper 141 

Braddy, Jesse ,\ 141 

Braddy, Lovessa (Parker) 141 

Bradley Family 146 

Bradshaw, (Rev.) A ' 83' 98 

Bradshaw, (Rev.) A., Debtor to Ben- 
jamin Franklin Harris 98 

Brainerd, (Mrs.) Gideon R 167 

Bramlett, (Judge) 143 

Brand, Robert M., Notary Public .'320 

Bratney. Robert 140 

Breed, Sands N., Story of his meeting 

with Douglas and John T. Stuart.. 208 
Breeders Gazette, May 24, 1905, quoted 

Footnote 93 

Brenneman, (Dr.) J. A 298 

Brewer. (Assc. Chief Justice) David 

Josiah 147 

Brewster's Ferry, Stephenson Co..' ill! 

„ 271, 275, 294, 310 

Brewster, John K 305 

Brewster, O. W 311 

Brewster's Precinct, Stephenson Co.', 

Illinois 282 

Bridges. Henry ['.',[ 140 

Bridges, John ' 140 

Bridges. (Miss) Rachael, Wife of Ed"- 

mond Perry 151 

Briggs House, Chicago, 111 .'..' 117 

Brightendall, Matthew 306 

British Empire, Position on the Sea.. 48 

British Flag 45 

British Intrigue Produces discontent 
among the Northern Illinois Indians. 236 

British (The) in Illinois 229 

Brittingham. (Rev.) J. A 83 

Brown & Yates. Early Law Firm. 

Jacksonville, HI igi 

Brown Co., Ill 134, 143, 144,' 151 

Brown Co., 111., Cooperstown Town- 

„ ship 151 

Brown Co., 111., Tennesseeans in, hold 

early offices 134 

Brown, Elizabeth • • • • • ^^^ 

Brown, Ezekiel ',[',', 304 

Brown, George '.'.'.'. 36 

Brown, Henry, History of Illinois.' .'!! 237 
Brown. James M., Products of his 

Farm, In 1855 85 

Brown, John " ' ' 307 

Brown, (Mrs.), Early Settler of 'st'e'- 
phenson Co., Ill ,301 


INDEX— Continued. 


Brown Man • • • • 131 

Brown, (Mrs.) Mary Edwards, Cus- 
todian of the Lincoln Home, Spring- 

field. 111 .25 

Brown, Peter -9o 

Brown, (Rev.) Samuel 110 

Brown, Stuart 5, 21 

Brown. William, Prominent Lawyer in 

Jacksonville 181 

Brownell, Francis E., of the New York 
Firemen's Zouaves, kills James F. 

Jackson 122 

Footnote 96 

Browning Diary, Diary of Orville H. 
Browning, to be published by the 
Illinois State Historical Library... 

22. 34. 209 

Browning. Orville H 22, 34, 209 

Browning, Orville H., Diary of Orville 
H. Browning, to be published by the 
Illinois State Historical Library . .22, 34 
Brownson, H. G., Early Illinois Rail- 
roads, the place of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad in Illinois prior to the 

Civil War. Footnotes 105, 106 

Brownson. II. G.. The History of the 
Illinois Central Railroad to 1870, 

Footnotes 104, 105, 106 

Bryan, William Jennings 56 

Buchanan. (Pres.) James 160 

Bucher, S. R 300 

Buck Eye Township, Stephenson Co.. 


..277, 288. 295, 297, 298, 301. 304. 306 

Buck, George 294 

Buck, Julia Ann, Wins the Prize Es- 
say Contest, subject "Pioneer W^o- 

nien of Illinois" 32 

Buck. Solon J., Editor Ilinois Histor- 
ical Collections. Vol. 9 219 

Buckley. Early Resident of Stephenson 

Couiitv. Illinois 306 

Buckner. (Gen.) S. B 113 

Footnote 116 

Buckner. (Gen.) S. B., Letter of Col- 
onel Ellsworth to. dated from the 
"Capitol House," Madison, Wis., Dec. 

7, 1858. reference 113 

Buena Vista, 111., Stephenson Co 300 

Buffalo Grove, Jo Daviess Co., 111.251. 254 
Buffalo Grove. Men attacked by In- 
dians in Buffalo Grove on the way 

from Galena to Dixon 254 

Bulkley, Frederick D 282 

Bulletin. (The) Newspaper published 

at Freeport. Ill 311 

Bullock. Noah 138 

Bunn, George W., Jr 31 

Bunn, .Tohn "W., Active in the Work 
of the Lincoln Centennial Association 

26, 27 

Bureau Co., 111., Matson N., Reminis- 
cences of Bureau Co. quoted 71 

Burhart. Blacksmith. Waddams Town- 
ship, Stephenson Co., Illinois 295 

Biirnham. (C'apt.) J. H 33 

Burnham. W. Condit & Co., Bankers, 

Champaign, 111 100 

Burns. Robert 48 

Burnside, (Gen.) A. E., Footnote 116 

Burnside. J. O. P.. publisher, Freeport, 

111., 1854.. 218, 311 

Burr Oak Grove, Stephenson Co.. 111. 

253, 254, 255, 271, 297 

Burrows. .Tulius C. Dedicatory Oration 
Reproduced in the Ellsworth Monu- 
ment Exercises, N. Y., 1874, refer- 
ence, Footnote 118 


Burrows, Julius C, Delivers the Dedi- 
cation Oration at Ellsworth Monu- 
ment at ilechanicsville, N. Y. 
123, 124 

Burrus Family 147 

Butler, (Gen.) Benjamin F., Union 
General War of the Rebellion 95 

Butler, James D., Letter of Jefferson 
Davis to, dated 1885, reference.... 70 

Butler, William 193 

Cabins in an Eary Day in Illinois, 

described 78 

Caesar, Julius 206 

Cadwell, (Dr.) George 144 

Cahokia, lUinois 140, 226, 228 

Cahokia, Illinois, Settled in 1690 226 

Cahokia Mounds, D. A. R., Give Aid to 

The project of the Cahokia Mounds. 32 
Cahokia Mounds, Efforts of the D. A. 
R. to Secure Appropriation for the 
Purchase of the Cahokia Mounds... 15 
Cahokia Mounds, Illinois General As- 
sembly appropriates money for the 
))urchase of the Mounds, Footnote. . 33 
Cahokia Mounds, Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society interest in the preserva- 
tion and purchase of the Mounds. . 

18, 19. 32. 33 

Cairo, Illinois 3(5, 45, 

113, 138. 147. 149, 157, 192, 193, 290 
Cairo, 111., Expedition, War of the Re- 
bellion enterprise by the direct order 
of Gov. Richard Yates, War Gover- 
nor of Illinois 192, 193, 195 

Caldwell, (Mrs.) A. R., Life and Pub- 
lic Services of Mrs. John A. Logan 

4, 39, 44, 162-164 

Caldwell, (Mrs.) A. S., Regent Logan 
Chapter D. A. R., Carbondale, 111. ..162 

Caldwell, Ben F 26 

Calhoun School of Politicians 71 

Calif and Jacoby, Cattle Dealers. Ur- 

bana, 111 90 

California State 26, 37. 168, 242. 310 

California State Genealogical Investi- 
gator 37 

California State. Long Beach, Calif... 26 

California State Mines 242 

Calumet Place, Home of Mrs. John A. 

Logan in Washington. D. C 164 

Cambridge, N. Y 112. 117 

Camden, 111 145 

Cameron, Simon. Ignited States Sen- 
ator from Pennsylvania 198 

Camp W\ashington, near Richmond, Va. 

Footnote 124 

Campbell, Edward 140 

Canada 24, 226, 227, 245 

Footnote 155 

Canada Ceded by France to Britain.. 227 
Canada. Trade and Navigation of the 
Province of Canada for the year 

1860. Footnote 155 

Canadas (The) 226 

Canadians (The) 228 

Canady, Stephen 141 

Canal, Illinois-Michigan Canal 290 

Cannes, Prance 49 

f'annon, .Toseph G 26 

Canton, 111., Weekly Register, Mav 28. 

1853, Footnote 107 

Capen, Charles L 5, 21 

Capps Family 146 

Capron. H. S 101 

Carbondale, 111.. Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Logan Chapter 
39, 162 


INDEX^ — Continued. 

Carbonrtale. 111., Xormal University, 
Illinois Southern Xormal located in 

Carbondale 5. 21 

Carev. H. C, To the Friends of Union 

( Pam ) Footnote 155 

Carlev, Mark 90 

Carlinville. Ill 136, 14S, 16S, 210 

Footnote 116 

Carlinville, 111.. Blackburn University 

located in Carlinville VoG 

Carmi. Ill 1^5 

Carnitix. Madison, ._. 306 

Carpenter, Richard V 5, -1 

Carpenter, Stephen D 286, 311 

Carr. (Hon.) Clark E., Colonel on the 
Staff of Richard Yates, War Gov 
ernor of Illinois, Tribute to Gover- 
nor Yates 183, 184 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., "The Illini" 
Quoted on Richard Yates, War Gov- 
ernor of Illinois m 

Carroll County, Illinois 291, 301, 302 

Carroll, (Rev.) J. W., Presbyterian 
Old School Minister in Stephenson 

County . 300 

CarroUton, Illinois 146, 150 

Carter, Orrin N 5, 21 

Cartier Jacques, French Navigator .... 225 
Cartwright, Peter, Pioneer Preacher in 

Illinois 82 

Caruthers, (Rev.) Samuel 140 

Carver, (Dr.) Early Physician, Steph- 
enson County 295 

Casey Family 140 

Casey, William M 141 

Casev, Zadoc, Founded the Town of 

Mt. Vernon, 111., in 1818 138 

Cass County, Illinois. . 134, 143, 144, 147 
Cass County, Illinois, Tennesseeans in, 

hold early offices 134 

Castilian Cavalier DeSoto 225 

Catholic Church, Jesuits Establish 
First Missionary Station on Lake 

Huron 225 

Cattle Bank of Urbana, Illinois 99 

Cattle Bank of West Urbana, Illinois, 

Officers 99 

Cattle, Record of the best Hundred 
Head of Cattle ever fattened in one 

lot in the U. S 90-91 

Cattle Thieves in an early day in lU. . 89 
Cedar Creek, Stephenson County, 

Illinois 289, 299, 302 

Cedar Creek Mills 289 

Cedarville, 111., Stephenson County. . . 

277, 279. 283, 299, 300, 301 

Census of 1900, Bulletin 200 on "Agri- 

culturt Implements," Footnote 108 

Census, United States, Seventh Cen- 
sus, Footnote 105 

Census, United States Census, 1860, 

Footnote 155 

Central America 318 

Central Illinois, Gazette, August 4. 

1858. quoted 107 

Central Precinct, Stephenson Countv. 

Illinois 282 

Centralia. 111., State Fair Held in 

Sept. 14-17, 1858 37 

Chaeter, Winnebago Indian 260 

Chambers, Isaac 282 

Chambers, (Dr.) J. R 294 

Champaign County, Illinois 

82. 83, 91. 93, 94, 96, 97. 100, 104, 107 

Footnotes 76, 78, 82. S3, 100 

Champaign Co.. 111., Banks, Early Pri- 
vate Bank in Champaign County... 100 
Champaign Co., 111., Bethel Chapel, 
Early Church in Champaign Co. ... 83 


Champaign Co., 111., Cunningham, J. 
O., History of Champaign County, 

quoted 100 

Footnotes 76, 78, 83 

Champaign Co., 111., First Sunday 
School in, reference 82 

Champaign Co., 111., Increase in Acre- 
age Under Cultivation 1850 to 1860.107 

Champaign Co., III., Increase in Popu- 
lation with the coming of the Rail- 
road 107 

Champaign County, Illinois, Mahomet 
Township 95 

Champaign Co., 111., Population of, in 
1850 104 

Champaign Co., 111., Stewart, J. R., 
Standard History of Champaign Co., 
111., Footnote 82 

Champaign, 111.39, 72, 82, 93, 99, 100, 101 

Champaign, 111., Cattle Bank 99 

Champaign, 111., First National Bank. . 
93, 99, 100, 101 

Champaign, 111., First National Bank 
Chartered, 1865; Officers 99 

Champaign, 111., First National Bank, 
B. F. Harris, President T- 

Champaign, 111., First National Bank, 
letter of W. H. Pillsbury to, for as- 
sistance rendered the University of 
Illinois 101 

Champaign, 111., Gazette, March o, 
1865 99 

Champaign, 111., Gazette, May 12, 
1865, quoted 100 

Champaign, 111., Gazette, May 8, 1905, 
Footnote 94 

Chandler, (Mrs.) Josephine Craven, 
Spoon River Country, Article on, ref- 
erence 34 

Chandler, Zachariah, United States 
Senator from Michigan 198 

Chandlerville, Illinois 36, 144 

Chapin and Glover, Editors of the 
Daily Journal, Jacksonville. Ill 187 

Charles V of Spain 224 

Charleston, S. C 156, 158 

Footnote 158 

Charleston, S. C, Railroad Convention 
1854, Footnote 158 

Charlotte, Va 148 

Chattanooga, Tenn 156, 210 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Siege of. War of 

the Rebellion 210 

Chesapeake Bay 261 

Chester Co.. Pa 78 

Chicago and Alton R. R 

107, 149, 181, 182, 191 

Chicago, 111., Bank Failures in, 1873, 
reference 100 

Chicago, 111., Briggs House, Chicago, 
111 117 

Chicago, 111., Central Music Hall 113 

Chicago, 111., Chicago and Alton R. R. 
107, 149, 181, 182, 191 

Chicago, 111., Chicago and her Rail- 
roads, published bv the Democratic 
Press 316 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Daily Demo- 
cratic Press, Nov. 21, 1854. Foot- 
note 107 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Democratic 
Press, April 15, 1844, quoted. Foot- 
note 90 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Democratic 

Press, March 25, 1856, quoted 92 

Footnote 90 

CTiicago, 111., Chicago Democratic Press. 
.Tan. 29, 1857, Feb. 10, 1857, Foot- 
note 108 


INDEX— Continued. 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Daily Democrat 
and Press, July 28, 1S57, Aug. 13, 

1859, Footnote 110 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Journal 163 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Medical School . . 141 
Chicago, 111., Chicago Press and Tri- 
bune, March 24, 1S58 and July 25. 

1859, Footnote 108 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Press and Tri- 
bune July 3, 1860, Footnote 107 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Tribune 

113, 191, 195 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Tribune, 1860, 
quoted on Gov. Richard Yates, War 
Governor of Illinois his election as 
Governor 191 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Tribune, Dec. 
15, 1918 195 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Weekly Demo- 
crat, Sept. 1, 1855, Footnote 107 

Chicago, 111., Early Fort at Chicago . . 60 

Chicago, 111., Examiner June 16, 1904, 
quoted 93 

Chicago, 111., Fire (Gov.) John M. 
Palmer issues call for Special Ses- 
sion of the Legislature to relieve 
distress in Chicago 212 

Chicago, 111., Harris, Benjamin Franii- 
lin, sends men vs^ith ox-teams to pro- 
cure provisions in Chicago in 1844. 79 

Chicago, 111., Historical Society 

17, 21, 22, 111 

Footnote 121 

Chicago, 111., Historical Society, Ells- 
worth Collection Ill 

Chicago, 111., Loop District, reference. 70 

Chicago, 111., Massacre of 1812, Fort 
Dearborn 237 

Chicago. 111., National Guard Cadets 
of Chicago, became afterwards the 
Chicago Zouaves . 113 

Chicago, 111., Newberry Library 219 

Chicago, 111., Palmer (Gov.) John M., 
Saves to the State and the City of 
Chicago, land of priceless value. 211, 212 

Chicago, 111., Palmer (Gov.) John M., 
Special Session of the Legislature 
called by Governor Palmer to re- 
lieve distress caused by Chicago 
Are 212 

Chicago, 111., Presbyterian Church 
(Second) 151 

Chicago, 111., Shipments from Chicago 
to the South during the War 157 

Chicago, 111., State Agricultural Fair 
held in 93 

Chicago, 111.. Trade and Commerce for 

1860, Footnote 156 

Chicago, III., Tremont House, Chicago. 113 
Chicago, 111., Union Stock Yards... S6, 92 
Chicago, 111., University of Chicago.. 27 
Chicago, 111., Wigwam in Chicago 

where Lincoln was nominated for the 
Presidency, 1860 117 

Chicago. 111., Zouaves. .113, 116, 117, 119 
Footnote 116 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves, John Gilmary 
Shea, quoted on the tour of the 
Zouaves 116, 117 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves, John Hay 
quoted on their tour and their com- 
petition drill 116. 117 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves, Dr. Charles A. 
Ingraham, quoted on 117 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves. Sole Survivor 
Major J. C. Barclay, Footnotes . . 
116, 124 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves tour the country 
giving exhibition drills '.116 


Chicago, 111., Zouaves, Mayor John 
Wentworth makes the congratulatory 
speech to the Zouaves 117 

Chicago, 111., Zouaves, win in a com- 
petitive drill at the Seventh Annual 
Fair of the National Agricultural 
Society held in Chicago, 1859 116 

Chickamauga, Battle of. War of the 
Rebellion 210 

China 52, 318 

Chinese 29, 223 

Chinese Language, Life of Lincoln in 
Chinese 29 

Chippewa River, Wisconsin. .. .65, 66, 70 

Choate, Joseph 53 

Choctaw Indians 269, 270 

Christian, now Todd Co., Ky 58 

Church, Charles A., History of Rock- 
ford and Winnebago Co., 111., from 
the first settlement, 1834, to the 
Civil War 113, 115 

Churches, Baptist Church 136, 

137, 138, 140, 293, 298, 305, 310, 314 

Churches, Catholic, Roman Catholic. 
297, 314 

Churches, Catholic, Roman Catholic 
Chapel, Stephenson County, 111 297 

Churches, Congregational Church 136 

Churches, Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church 137, 138, 142, 143, 149, 152 

Churches, Episcopalian 314 

Cliurches, German Methodist. 298, 300, 301 

Churches, Lutheran Church. 298, 309, 314 

Churches, Mahomet Circuit Methodist 
Church 83 

Churches, Methodist Church 

83, 98, 136, 138 

140, 142, 293, 300, 304, 305, 310, 314 

Churches, Methodist Church, Ashley, 
111 142 

Churches, Methodist Church, Southern 
Illinois Conference 138 

Churches, Methodist Church, Urbana, 
111 98 

Churches, New Design Baptist Church 

organized Feb. 29, 1795 137 

Churches, "Nine Mile Prairie Church," 
Perry County, Illinois 137 

Churches, Presbyterian Church 

..136, 137, 138. 139, 142, 143, 146, 
149, 152, 293, 294, 300, 310, 312. 314 

Churches, Presbyterian (Second) Chi 
cago 151 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Dan- 
vers. 111 143 

Churches, Presbyterian Church (First) 
Freeport, Illinois 312 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Hop- 
kinsville. Ky 136. 139 

Churches, Presbyterian, First, Jackson- 
ville. Ill 136 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, New 
School, Stephenson Co., Ill 300 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Old 
School, Stephenson Co., Ill 300 

Churches, Presbyterian, Rock Creek, 
Sangamon County, Illinois. ... 149, 152 

Churches, Rock Creek Presbyterian 
Church 149. 152 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Scotch- 
Irish 150 

Churches. United Brethern 305 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

106, 116, 142, 146, 156, 157, 158 

Footnote I57 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Annual Report of the 
Commerce of Cincinnati for the vear 
ending August 31, 1861, Footnote. . 157 

Cincinnati, Ohio. During the war was 
in economic distress 157 


INDEX— Continued. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Trade and Com- 
merce for 1860, Footnote 156 

Circleville, Ohio 77. 78, S3 

Civil War, See War of the Rebellion 

Civil War 

..39, 58, 60, 61, 63, 64, 68, 69, 71, 
111, 132, 139, 142, 162, 163, 202, 212 


...84, 90, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109. 110 
Civil War, Coles, Arthur Charles, edi- 
tor "The Era of the Civil War Cen- 
tennial History of Illinois," Volume 

Three, Footnotes 

84, 90, 107, lOS, 109, 110 

Civil War, Ellsworth, Ephraim Elmer, 
First Martyr of the Civil War. by 

L. E. Robinson 39, 111-132 

(.""ivil War, First negro regiment for 
service in, organized by Maj. Gen. 

David Hunter 63 

Civil War, Robinson, Luther E., 
Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, First 
Martyr of the Civil War. .4, 39, 111-132 

Clairborne Co., Tenn 151 

Clark Co., Illinois 104, 189 

Clark Co., Ohio 75 

Clark, E. F 294 

Clark, Elijah, Postmaster at Walnut 

Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill 298 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. 44, 228-230 

Clark, John A 283, 308 

Clark, (Gen.) William 248, 261 

Clay, Henry 94, 179, 183, 207 

Clay, Henry, (Gov.) Richard Yates, 
War Governor of Illinois, devotion 

to Henry Clay 183 

Clayburne, James 114 

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850 51 

Clayton, Robert, and George Ferguson, 
discovered lead mines near Galena, 

1825 240 

Clendenin, H. W 5, 15, 16. 20, 21 

Cleveland and Pittsburgh R. R. Foot- 
note 155 

Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati 

R. R. Footnote 155 

Cleveland, (Pres.) Grover 51 

Cleveland, Ohio 116 

Footnote 156 

Cleveland, Ohio, Trade and Commerce 

for 1858 and 1865, Footnote 156 

Cliborn and Alby, Stock Firm, Chicago 92 

Clifford, J. N 293 

Clinton, (Miss) Angeline of Polo, 111.. 219 
Clinton Co., 111., Tennesseeaus in, hold 

early offices 134 

Clinton. Ill 152 

Cloud, Newton 185 

Clowser. George, Debtor to Benjamin 

Franklin Harris 98 

Colburn, Horace 282 

Cole, Arthur Charles 22, 110 


84, 90, 107, 108, 109, 110 

Cole, Arthur C, The Era of the Civil 
War, Centennial History of Illinois. 

Yolurae III. quoted. Footnotes 

84, 107, 108, 109, 110 

Coleman, M 300 

Coles County, Illinois 104, 143 

Colston, (Rev.) R., Minister of the 
Presbyterian Church, New School, 
Stephenson County, Illinois. .. .293, 300 
Columbia University, New York Citv, 

N. Y 16, 28. 33, 55 

Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. 92 

Columbus, Miss 148 

Columbus, Ohio 77 

Columbus Ohio and Xenia R. R.. Foot- 
note 155 

Colville. (Miss) Sarah, Wife of Samuel 

Vance 150 

Colyer, Walter 5, 15, 16, 21 

Commerce and llniou Sentiment in the 
Old Northwest in 1860, by A. H- ^^ 

Kohlniier 4, 39, 154-161 

Commerce, Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, 1864, Statistics, Footnote. ... 155 
Commerce, Kohlmier, A. L., Influeuce 
of Commerce and Union Sentiment 

in the Old Northwest in 1860 

39, 154-161 

Commerce, Monthly Summary of Com- 
merce and Finance, Jan., 1900, 

quoted. Footnote 155 

Common and Commonfield of Early 

French Settlers 227 

Company of the West 226 

Company of the West United to the 
East India and China Company. .. .226 

C'ondell, Thomas 35 

Cone, J. E., Law Office, Chicago, ref- 
erence 112, 114 

Confederate Flag Ill, 122, 123, 163 

Footnote 124 

Confederate Flag, Ellsworth, (Col.) E. 
E., hauls down the Confederate Flag 
from the Marshall House, Alex- 
andria, Va., meets his death.. 122, 123 

Congregational Church 136 

Congressional Globe, quoted 190 

Conley, (Mrs.) J. D 168 

Connecticut State 198 

Conquest of Mexico, by William H. 

Prescott, reference 202 

Constitution, Illinois State, People 
Authorized by Congress to Form 

State Constitution 238 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illinois. 214 
Constitution of the United Stdtes, 

Thirteenth Amendment 211 

Constitutional Convention, (First) 

State of Illinois 134 

Constitutional Convention of 1847, 

State of Illinois 148, 214 

Constitutional Convention, 1863, State 

of Illinois 174 

Conwell, (Mrs.) Saysak J., third wife 

of Benjamin Franklin Harris 97 

Cook, Ike 193 

Cook, John 131 

(Tooke, Jay, and Co., Banking House of 

Philadelphia, fails 1873 100 

Cooper, (Hon.) John L 145 

Cooperstown Township, Brown County. 

Illinois 151 

Cora, Jonathan 282 

Corey, Jonathan 283 

Corinth, Miss., War of the Rebellion . .210 
Corn, Indian Corn, price of in an early 

dav in Illinois. Footnote 84 

Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y. ..52, 150 
Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y., 

Andrew D. White, ex-president 52 

Cornstalk. Indian Chief 234 

Cortes or Cortez, Hernando or Her- 
man or Fernando 224 

Cortez, See Cortes 224 

Court of Arbitral Justice, 1899.... 52. 53 

Covington, Ky 194 

Crabbe, Edwin G 168 

Crabbe. (Mrs.) Harriet ]Malinda (Mrs. 
Edwin G. Crabbe) daughter of Gov. 

John M. Palmer 168 

Craine's Grove, Stephenson County, 

Illinois 303. 309, 310 

Craine, Thomas 283, 303, 310 

Creed, (Capt.) James 142 

Crocker, L. 282 

See Crooker 308 

Cromwell, Oliver 206, 275 


INDEX— Continued. 


Crooker, L. 282. aOS 

Cross, L g'J'j 

Crow River j^ 

Crow Wing River -"■* 

Crunelle, Leonard, Sculptor of the 
Palmer Statue on State Capitol 

Grounds 34, 168, 170 

Crusoe, Robinson - ' -J 

Cuba "^ 

Cumberland College, Tenn 13^ 

Cumberland Co., Ill 104. 139._ 14.^ 

Cumberland, Pa 75, 77 

Cumberland I'resbyterian Church 

137, 138, 142, 143, 149. lo2 

Cunil)erland Presbyterian Churc_h. 
formed in Tennessee in 1810 . . . 137, 138 

Cumberland River 144, 156, 1!M» 

Cumberland Road loo 

Cummings, Charles, Early Settler of 

Stephenson County 298 

Cunningham, (Capt.) .Tohn M., father 

of Mrs. .Tohn A. Logan 162 

Cunningham, (.Judge) .1. <).. History of 

Champaign Countv 111., quoted 100 

Footnotes 76, 78, 83 

Cunningham, (.ludge) J. O., letter to 
Benjamin P. Harris, the second. 

Footnote 73 

Cunningham, (.ludge) .1. O., quoted on 

Benjamin Franklin Harris 72, 73 

Cunningham. (Miss) Mary, Wife of 

John A. Logan 162 

Curran, John Philpot. noted Irish 

orator 179 

Curran, (Judge) William R 33 

Curry, James 138 

Curtiss, John M 282, 304, 305 

Custer, Milo,, Family Records of Mc- 
Lean County, Illinois, compiled by 

Milo Custer 38 

Custer. Milo. Pioneer Portraits of 

Central Illinois 38 

Customs of Early French Settlers. ... 227 
Cutler, Dr.. Early Physician. Win- 
slow Township. Stephenson Co.. 111. .295 


Dailv New Mexico. Newspaper 174 

Dalton. John, of Monmouth. Illinois, 
recalls the death of Colonel Ells- 
worth 123 

Dandridge, Tenn 74 

Dane Ct)untv. Wisconsin 64 

Daniels. John M 144 

Daniels, J. W 144 

Danihower. Jacol) 295 

Danville, 111 26. 75. 94. 96 

Danville, 111., Early Land OlBce, refer- 
ence 94 

Danville. 111., "Frasier kept entertain- 
ment in" 1835 75 

Danville. 111., in 1835. described l)y 

Benjamin F. Harris 75 

E>anville. 111.. Stage Coachfs in an early 

day in Danville 96 

D'Artaguette Pierre 44 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tiim, Carbondale. Illinois. Logan 

Chapter 39. 162 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, give aid to the project of the 

Cahokia Mounds 15, 32. 36 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Illinois chapters, reference. . . . 38 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Logan Chapter D. A. R.. Cir- 

bondale. Illinois 39. 162 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Peoria Chapter 33, 37 


Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Illinois Prize Essay Contest... 32 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Springfield Chapter D. A. R. . . 38 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion work in behalf of the preserva- 
tion of the Cahokia Mound and 
other historical spots in the State 
15, 32, 36 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, work in behalf of securing Fort 
Massac Park 36 

Davenport, Oliver F 31 

Davidson, Ilarrv Blair 39 

Davidson, V. L 282 

Davis (Col.), Early Settler of Rock 
Run Township, Stephenson County, 
Illinois 306 

Davis, C. S 141 

Davis, Jefferson 4, 22, 39, 58-71 

Footnotes 116, 124 

Davis, Jefferson, buried at Hollywood, 
Richmond, Va 67 

Davis, Jefferson, called "Little Chief" 
by the Indians 65 

Davis, Jefferson, Graduate of West 
Point Military Academy, N. Y 71 

Davis, Jefferson, Hunter. (Lieut.) 
David meeting with Jefferson Davis 
at Fort Dearborn 63 

Davis, Jefferson. Interview with 
Charles Aldrich, recorded in the 
'•Midland Monthly" 70 

Davis, Jefferson, "Jeff Davis" the first 
lumberman in Wisconsin, article on, 
reference 70 

Davis, Jefferson, Letter to George W. 
Jones of Dubuque, Iowa, reference. . 
63. 70 

Davis, Jefferson, Letter to George W. 
Jones, 1872, reference 66 

Davis, Jefferson, Letter to .lames D. 
Butler, dated 1885 70 

Davis. Jefferson, Memoir of Jefferson 
Davis by his wife, in two volumes, 
quoted 58, 59, 65, 70 

Davis, Jefferson. The Northwestern 
Career of Jefferson Davis, by Milo 
M. tjuaife 4, 58-69 

Davis. Jefferson, Notes on Jefferson 
Davis 70, 71 

Davis, .Tefferson, Placed in a dungeon 
charged with instigating the assas- 
sination of President Lincoln 63 

Davis. .lefferson. President of the 
Southern Confederacy 63, 68, 69 

Davis, Jefferson, Quaife, Milo M., 
Jefferson Davis in Wisconsin .. 39. 58-71 

Davis. Jefferson. Quaife, ^lilo M., 
Jefferson Davis Notes 70, 71 

Davis. Jefferson, Quaife. Milo M., The 
Military Career of Jefferson Davis in 
the Northwest 22 

Davis, Jefferson, Quaife, Milo M.. The 
Northwestern Career of Jefferson 
Davis 4. 58-71 

Davis. Jefferson. Quoted on the death 
of Colonel Ellsworth, Footnote .... 124 

Davis. Jefferson. Rutherford. Mildred 
L.. "Jefferson Davis, the President of 
the Confederate State and Abraham 
Lincoln, President of the United 
States, 1861-1865" 71 

Davis, Jefferson, -Stories and legends of 
.Jefferson Davis as an army officer 
in the Northwest, refuted 68 

Davis, Jefferson, United States Secre- 
tary of War 71 

Davis, (Mrs.) Jefferson 

58, 59, 62. 64. 65, 66, 67, 70 


INDEX— Continued. 

Davis, (Mrs.) Jefferson (Sarah Tay- 
lor), death of, September 15, 1835.. 67 
Davis. (Mrs.) Jefferson, Memoirs of 
Jefferson Davis by his wife in two 

volumes, quoted 58, 59, 05, 70 

Davis, (Mrs.) Jefferson, quoted on the 

life at Port Winnebago 62 

Davis, Samuel -^OS 

Davis, Simon 304 

Davis, Wesley, Great deer hunter in 

an earlv dav in Illinois So 

Davis, William 141 

Day Books of Benjamin Franklin Har- 
ris, quoted 84, 85, 86, 97, 9S, 99 

Footnotes 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 99 

Dayton, Ohio 75, 81, 173 

Dayton, Ohio Daily Gazette, quoted on 
Richard Yates, War Governor of 

Illinois 173 

Deal. Samuel 305 

Dean, Samuel, Debtor to Benjamin 

Franklin Harris 98 

DeBow's Review, Periodical Quoted, 

Footnotes 155, 156 

Dubuque, Julien, buried a mile below 
the present citv of Dubuque, la. . . . 239 

Decatur, Illinois 76. 82, 94, 109 

Decatur, Illinois, Johns, (Mrs.) Jane 
Martin, Personal Recollections of 
Early Decatur, Abraham I^incoln, 
Richard J. Oglesbv and the Civil 

War 109 

Decatur, Illinois, Nesbit's Hotel early 

one in Decatur 82 

Declaration of Independence SO, 198 

Decoration Day or Memorial Day, how 

we came to observe it 163, 164 

Deeorie, Winnebago, Indian 26r> 

DeKalb County, Illinois 2S1 

DeKalb County, 111., Organization of.. 281 

DeLaps Family 145 

Delaware C^oUege, Delaware, Ohio.... 96 

Delaware Indians 235 

Delaware, Ohio, Delaware College Lo- 
cated in Delaware. Ohio 96 

Dement, (Col.) John 25'-, 254, 271 

Dement, (Major) John, Independent 
Spy Company Posey's Brigade, 

Black Hawk War 253, 254 

Democratic Party 

..144, 185, 189, 203, 208. 209, 212, 213 

Democratic Press of Chicago 316 

Deneen, (Gov.) Charles S 26, 27, 167 

Deneen, (Gov.) Charles S.. Attends 
Dedication of Statues to War Gov- 
ernor Richard Yates and Governor 

John M. Palmer 167 

Denio. Alonzo 283 

Department of Indian Affairs 264 

Derr, Reuben ?94 

DeSoto, Ferdinand 224 

Detroit, Michigan 116, 226, 228, 245 

Footnote 156 

Detroit, Michigan. Permanent Settle 

ment made in 1701 226 

Detroit. Michigan, Trade and C im- 

merce for 1860, I'ootnote 156 

DeVereux, Arthur F., Patent Solicitor . 112 
De Villiers, (Dr.) Chas. A., Skillful 

Technician in Military Matters 112 

Dial, William .' 140 

Diary of Colonel Ephraim Elmer Ells- 
worth, quoted 114. 115 

Diary of Isaac Kenyon, reference. 

Footnote 109 

Diary of Rev. Cutting Marsh, Mis- 
sionary to the Stockbridge Indians, 

quoted 62. 63, 70 

Dickinson, Jacob McGacock. Short 
Sketch 143 


Dimmick, Mason 272, 284, 285, 303 

Diiisniore, Curran, American Railway 

(inide, quoted, Footnote 155 

District of Columbia 189 

District of Louisiana 231 

District of Louisiana, St. Louis a part 

of Louisiana 231 

District of Louisiana, William Henry 

Harrison, Governor 231 

Dixon County, Tennessee 1.38 

Dixon, Illinois 64. 251, 253, 255 

Dixon, Samuel 140 

Doak (Doctor) 146 

Dodd, (Prof.) William Edward. 61, 66, 70 

Dodds, Samuel P 283, 292. 293 

Dodge, (Col.) Henry, Black Hawk War 
....67, 70, 71, 241, 242, 255, 257, 260 

Dodge, John 138 

Dominican Convent, Springfield, Illi- 
nois, :\Iother Josephine, Mother 

Emeritus of the Convent 168 

Donihoo, J. A. W 309 

Donmeyer, (Rev.) G. J 300 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 24, 

28, 45. 176, 185, 188, 198. 20S, 209, 213 
Douglas, Stephen A., Called "The 

Little Giant" 208 

Douglas, Stephen A., Lincoln-Douglas 

Debates, 1858 28 

Doyle, John 138 

Dragoon Regiment, Marches of the 
Dragoons in the Mississippi Valley, 

by Louis Pelzer ! . 71 

Drake, Benjamin, Biography of Black 

Hawk, reference 258, 262 

Dryden Family 143 

Dubois, Jesse K., Auditor of Public 

Accounts. State of Illinois 193 

Dubuque, la.. 61, 63, 64, 70, 239, 244, 290 
Dubuque, Iowa. Lead Mines at Du- 
buque 63 

Dubuque, Iowa. Site of present city 
sold for two barrels of flour iii 

1833 244 

Dubuque, Iowa, Times, Newspaper, 

reference 70 

Dubuque, Julian, Buried about a mile 
below the present city of Dubuque. 

Iowa 239 

Dubuque. Julian. Lead Mines. .. .239, 243 

Duck, Daniel 305 

Dummer, Henry F., Early Lawyer, 

Jacksonville, 111. ! '. . . 181 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph 76. 185. 186 

Duncan. (Gov.) Josenh, Defense of. 
by Governor Yates, War Governor of 

Illinois 1S5, 1 86 

Dunn County, Wisconsin 71 

DuQuoin. Illinois. Female Seminary 

Located in DuQuoin .136 

Duval, Attacked by the Indians .. 253. 254 


Eads, Hiram J 3O8, 309 

Fames, George. Killed near Waddams 
Grove, Stephenson Countv, Illinois.. 253 

Earle, (Dr.) C. A 20 

Earthquakes ISll and 1812 in the 

Mississippi Valley 237 

East Fork Diggings', Lead Mines 240 

East India and China Companv 226 

Eastern States, U. S. A ". 319 

Eaton Enoch, organized the "Nine Mile 

Prairie Church," Perrv Co., 111.. 137 
Eddy, T. M., "The Patriotism of Illi- 
nois." quoted on Richard Y'ates. War 

Governor of Illinois 173 

Edgar County, Illinois 104 150 

Edgar, C. W . '. . 140 


INDEX— Continued. 

Education, Albany, N. Y., Law School. 149 

Education, Armstrong Academy 270 

Education, Belting, Paul E., The De- 
velopment of the Free Public High 
School in Illinois to 1860, Footnote. 109 

Education, Blackburn University, Car- 
linville, Illinois 136, 139 

Education, Chicago Medical School. .. .141 

Education, Chicago University of Chi- 
cago 27 

Education, Choctaw Indians, Educa- 
tional School 269 

Education, Columbia University, New 
York City, N. Y 16, 28, 33, 55 

Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y 52, 150 

Education, Cumberland College, Tenn.139 

Education, Delaware College, Delaware, 
Ohio 96 

Education, Dominican Convent, Spring- 
field, 111 168 

Education, DuQuoin Female Seminary, 
Located in DuQuoin, Illinois 136 

Education, Ewing College, Franklin 
County, Illinois 136 

Education, Friendsville, Wabash Co., 
111., had an Academy in an early 
day 137 

Education, Illinois. See Belting, Paul 
E., Footnote 109 

Education, Illinois College located in 

Jacksonville 5. 21, 28, 

136, 138, 147, 148, 151, 177, 179, 202 

Education, Illinois, Free School Law, 
passage of, in 1855 109 

Education, Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, Northern Illinois State 
Normal, DeKalb, Illinois 5, 21 

Education, Illinois State Normal IJni- 
versity, Southern Normal located in 
Carbondale, Illinois 5, 21 

Education, Illinois State Universitv of 
111.. 5, 21, 32, 33, 39, 72, 101, 187, 188 
Footnote 104 

Education, Illinois Teacher, a Journal 
dedicated to the cause of the Com- 
mon Schools in Illinois 109 

Education, Illinois Woman's College, 
Jacksonville, Illinois 136, 147 

Education, Indiana State University, 
Bloomington, Indiana 39, 154 

Education, Iowa State, University of 
Law 148 

Education, Jacksonville Illinois Female 
Academy 136 

Education, Jonesboro College, Jones- 
boro, Illinois 136 

Education, Knox College, Galesburg, 
Illinois 28, 136 

Education, Lake Forest University, 
Lake Forest, Illinois 151 

Education, Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, 
Ohio 151 

Education, Lebanon College, afterwards 
called McKendree College 136, 138 

Education, Lebanon Law School 147 

Education, McCormick Theological 
Seminary, Chicago 151 

Education, McKendree College, Leban- 
on, Illinois 28, 136, 138, 141 

Education, Miami University, Ohio... 
177, 179 

Education, Monmouth College, Mon- 
mouth, Illinois 39, 136 

Education, Monticello Seminary, God- 
frey, Illinois ! 136 

Education, Nashville, Tennessee Uni- 
versity 148 

Education, New York Citv, Columbia 


University 16, 28, 33, 55 

Education, New York Citv, High 

Schools 28 

Education, Northwestern University lo- 
cated in Evanston, Illinois 5, 21 

Education, Oxford College, Oxford, O. 

: 97, 177 

Education, Rock River Seminary, Mt, 

Morris, Illinois 136 

Education, Roonshue Female Seminary 


Education, St. Louis Eclectic College 

of Medicine 141 

Education, Salem, Marion Co., Ill 136 

Education, ShurtlefE College, Upper 

Alton, lU 28, 35, 136, 208 

Education, Southern Illinois Academy, 

Enfield, Illinois 136 

Education, Sparta Seminary, Randolph 

County, Illinois 136 

Education, Tennessee State College. .. 148 
Education, Transylvania University at 

Lexington, Ky 58, 177 

Education, Urbana, 111., Male and Fe- 
male Seminary, organized in 1852. . 88 
Education, Vergennes, Perrv County, 

Illinois 136 

Education, Wabash College, Indiana.. 147 
Education, West Point Military Acad- 
emy 58, 61, 112, 113, 116, 202 

Footnote 116 

Education, Wisconsin, University of, 

located in Madison 64 

Education, Yates, (Gov.) Richard, War 
Governor of Illinois, interest in Edu- 
cation 187, 188 

Edwards County, Illinois, Humphreys, 
George, Revolutionary Soldier buried 

in Edwards County, Illinois 38 

Edwards, (Mr.) — , referred to, in a 
letter of Colonel Ellsworth to Mrs. 

Charles H. Spafford 128 

Edwards, (Mrs.) — — , referred to, in a 
letter of Colonel Ellsworth to Mrs. 

Charles H. Spafford 128 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian 30. 35, 237 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian, Day Books, 

1811 to 1831 35 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian, death of, in 

1833, reference 35 

Edwards, Ninian Wfrt 185 

Edwardsville, Illinois 36, 134, 137 

Edwardsville, Illinois, Early Bank in 

Edwardsville 134 

Edwardsville, Illinois, Early Presby- 
terian Church in Edwardsville 137 

Edwardsville, Illinois, Land Ofiice in, 

early day 134 

Egypt 43, 215 

Egypt, Pyramids of Egypt 43 

Eleroy, (Stephenson Co.) Illinois 297 

Elgin, George 300 

Elgin, (Kane Co.) Ill 176, 177, 316 

Elgin, (Kane Co.) 111., Richard Yates, 
War Governor of Illinois, extracts 
from Fourth of July speech, 1865, in 

Elgin 176, 177, 193 

Elizabeth, (Jo Daviess Co.) 111... 252, 253 
Ellis & Stewart, Business Firm, Rock- 
ford, Illinois 131 

Ellis, E 308 

Ellis, (Rev.) J. M 136 

Ellis, (Mrs.) J. M 136 

Ellis, Joel & Co., Debtor to Benjamin 

Franklin Harris 98 

Ellsworth, Charles 126, 127 

Ellsworth, Ephraim D Ill 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. . . . 

4. 111-132 


..113, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 124 


INDEX— Continued. 


Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, ac- 
companies Lincoln's presidential 
party to Washington 117 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
adopted into a tribe of the Ottawa 
Indians 112 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, Bur- 
rows, Julius C., dedicatory oration 
at Ellsworth Monument Exercises, 

New York, 1874 123-124 

Footnote 118 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, clerk 
in the office of a patent solicitor. . . .112 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Commands the New York Fireman 
Zoua^'o Regiment 119-120 

Ellsworth. (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Davis, Jefferson, quoted on the death 
of Ellsworth, Footnote 124 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 

death of 96, 111, 122 

Footnote 96 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Diary of Ellsworth quoted. ... 114. 115 

Ellsworth, Ephraim Elmer, Drawings 
of, in the Chicago Historical Society 


Footnote Ill 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Drills the Governor's Guard of Wis- 
consin 113 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. En- 
ters the Law Office of J. E. Cone. 
Chicago 112 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, First 
Martvr of the Civil War, Address by > 
Luther E. Robinson 4, 111-132 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
GofEe, Charles H., describes Colonel 
Ellsworth 112 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Hauls Down the Confederate Flag 
from the Marshall House, Alexand- 
ria, Va., meets his death 122, 123 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Hay, John, quoted on the personal 
appearance of Ellsworth 114. 115 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Ha.v, John. Personal Reminiscences 
of Col. E. E. Ellsworth, Footnotes. . 
113. 115, 116, 117. 118 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Hay. John, quoted on Colonel Ells- 
worth 116, lis 

Footnotes 116, 117, 118 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
House E. H. Correspondent of the 
New York Tribune describes tragedy 
of Ellsworth death 122 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Ingraham, C. A., Col. E. E. Ells- 
worth, First Martyr of the Civil 
War, Footnotes Ill, 121 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim E., Lee, 
(Gen.) Robert E., quoted on Ells- 
worth. Footnote 124 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Lotter to Gen. S. B. Buckner, dated 
from the Capitol House. Madison, 
Wis., Dec. 7. 1858, reference 113 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Letter to Miss Carrie Spaflford. 
dated Capitol House, Dec. 13, 1S58. .125 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Letter to Miss Carrie Spafiford, dated 
Oct. 9. 1859 131, 132 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Letter to Miss Carrie Spafford, dated 
Chicago, March 11, 1860 130, 131 


Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Letter to Miss Carrie Spafford, dated 
Chicago, Feb. 14, 1860 127, 128 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim E., Letter 
to Miss Carrie M. Spafford, his 
fiancee, found on his person after his 
death. Footnote 121 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Letter to Mrs. Charles H. Spafford, 
dated May 15, 1859 128. 129 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Letter to his parents, dated Spring- 
field, 111., Dec. 7, 1860 126. 127 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Letter to his parents at Mechanic- 
ville, N. Y., found on his person after 
his death 121 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Letter of President Lincoln un- 
signed, dated Executive Mansion, 
March, 1S61, with regard to Ells- 
worth 117. 118 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Lincoln, Abraham, letter to the 
parents of Colonel Ellsworth. .. 123-124 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
made a Lieutenant of Dragoons by 
President Lincoln 117 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Manuscript Life of, l)y his Mother. 
Phoebe Denton Ellsworth Ill 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
Monument at Mechanicville, N. Y., 
Julius C. Burrows delivers dedica- 
tory oration 123, 124 . . 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer, 
New York Tribune, May 25. 1861, 
quoted on Colonel Ellsworth. Foot- 
note 115 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. Rob- 
inson, Luther E., Ephraim Elmer 
Ellsworth, First Martyr of the 
Civil War 39, 111-132 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Shea. .Tohn Gilmarv, The Fallen 
Brave. N. Y., 1861. Footnote 123 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
Student in Lincoln and Herndon's 
Law Office, Springfield, Illinois 117 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 
War Department, Bureau of Militia, 
project of Ellsworth 117, 118 

Ellsworth Monument Exercises, New 
York. 1874, reference. Footnotes.... 
lis. 120. 121 

Ellsworth. (Mrs.) Phoebe Denton. 

Manuscript Sketch of the Life of Her 
Son, Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, ref- 
erence Ill 

Ellsworth, (Mrs.) Phoebe Denton. 
Mother of Col. E. E. Ellsworth .... Ill 

Elshwatawa, the Prophet, Brother of 
Tecumseh 235 

Elwood, T 305 

"Emancipation Proclamation" of Presi- 
dent Lincoln 211 

Emerson Family 145 

Emigrant's (An) Five Years in the 
Free States of America, published 
London, 1860, by William Hancock, 
Footnote 104 

Emmerson, (Hon.) Louis L.. Secre- 
tary of State, Illinois 167, 169. 170 

Emmert and Ba stress. Early Business 
Firm, Freeport, Illinois 312 

Enfleld, (White Co.) Ill 136, 137. 145 

Enfield, (White Co.,) 111., Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church 137 

Enfield, (White Co.) 111., Southern 
Illinois Academy 136 


INDEX— Continued. 

England.. 24, 73, 157, 159. 206, 2.36, 316 

Footnote 116 

England, London, England 316 

England. Queen's Guards in England, 

reference. Footnote 116 

England, St. James Park in London.. 316 
England, Westminister Hall, England. 2(>6 

England, Yorkshire, England 316 

English Visitor at the Farm of B. F. 

Harris. 1856 88-89 

Ennis, William S.. Presents Oil Por- 
trait of James T. B. Stapp. a prom- 
inent early citizen of Illinois, to the 
Illinois State Historical Library ... 35 

Euos, (Miss) Louisa 1 36 

Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, First Mar- 
tyr of the Civil War. Address by 

Luther E. Robinson 4, 39, 111-132 

Episcopalian Church, Freeport, 111.... 314 

Epler. David 185 

Equality, ( Gallatin Co.) Ill 138 

Erie Canal 156 

Footnote 156 

Erie Railroad, First Annual Report of 
the Directors of the Erie R. R., 

Dec. 31. 1862. Footnote 155 

Erin Township, Stephenson Co., 111... 

271, 288, 292, 295, 296, 301, 306 

Etherton, Samuel 140 

Euphrates River 221 

Europe 46, 47-57. 92, 275 

Europe, Fess. Simeon D., The Euro- 
pean Situation and Our Relation to 

it 4, 39, 47-57 

European Situation and Our Relation 
to It. Annual address Illinois State 
istorical Society, bv Hon. Simeon D. 

Fess 4. 39. 47-57 

Europeans 222, 223 

Evanston, Illinois 5, 21, 151 

Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern Uni- 
versity Located at Evanston 5. 21 

Evansville. Ind., Report of the Board 
of Trade for 1867, by J. W. Foster, 

Footnotes 156, 157 

Evansville, Ind., Trade and Commerce 

for 1857 and 1867, Footnote 157 

Ewing College, Franklin Co.. Ill 136 

Ewing Family 143 

Ewing, Samuel 141 

Expedition, First European to Missis- 
sippi Valley, reference 224 

Expositions. Columbian Exposition, 

Chicago. 1893 92 

Expositions, World's Fair in New York 
89, 90 

Fairbank's Scales 90. 92 

Fairfield. Illinois 138, 153 

Fairfield, Ohio 81 

Falls, S 305 

Farmer. William M., Chief .Justice of 

the Supreme Court. State of Illinois. 167 

Farmers' Grange 142 

Farmer's Mutual Benefit Organization 

141. 142 

Farmington. Tennessee 147 

Farnham, Eliza W., Life in Prairie 

Lands, Footnotes 105. 106 

Farrar, (Miss) . fiancee of Col. 

Chas. L. Wilson 163 

Farwell, Eldridge 283. 304 

Farwell, (Hon.) S. B 308, 311. 313 

"Father of W^ater," Mississippi River 

so-called 221, 311 

Federal Constitution. Thirteenth 

Amendment, reference 211 

Fellers, John G 140 

Fergus Historical Series Nos. 16, 28, 

quoted 70 

Fergus Put)lishing Company. Chicago.. 203 
Ferguson, George, and Robert Clayton 

Discover Lead Mines, 1825 240 

Ferguson, James E 138 

Ferguson, WMlliam, America by River 

and Rail, quoted, Footnotes. .76, 84, 89 
Fess, Simeon D., The European Situ- 
ation and Our Relation to It, Annual 
address before the Illinois State 

Historical Society 4. 39, 47-57 

Fever River, or Mecapiasipo, the 

Indian Name 239 

Field Family 145 

Fifer, (Gov.) Joseph W 150, 167, 213 

Fifer, ((iov.) Joseph W., Attends Dedi- 
cation of Statues to War Governor 
Richard Yates and Governor John M. 

Palmer 167 

Finley, Elizabeth Hutchings 142 

Finlev, William M. D 142 

Finley, (Rev.) William 142 

First Election Held in Stephenson 

County at House of William Baker 281 
First European Expedition to the 

Mississippi Valley 224 

First, (Rev.) H. C, Department Chap- 
Iain of the Illinois Grand Army of 

the Republic 168. 170 

Fish, George A 167 

Fish, (Mrs.) George A 167 

Fisher, A 305 

Fisher and Sweltzer. Early merchants 

of Stephenson County. Illinois 298 

Fisher, Samuel 296 

Fisher, William 140 

Flagg. Edmund. The Far West 1838. 

Quoted. Foot-note 102 

Fletcher, J. E. Indian Agent 264 

Fletcher. Job 185 

Flint Michigan 167 

Florence (Stephenson Co.) Illinois ... .284 
Florence Township, (Stephenson Coun- 
ty) 111.... 284, 288, 301, 302, 303, 306 

Florida Indians 224 

Florida State 63, 224 

Florida State, Emancipation of Slaves 

in Florida 63 

Florida State. Tampa Bay 224 

Floyd Aquilla. A miner of Galena es- 
capes from the Indians 255, 256 

Foley. James 75 

Foley Salley. Wife of Henry Payne 

Harris 73 

Fond-du-Lac Township Tazewell Co. 

Illinois 33 

Foote . Early settler of Ste- 
phenson Count.v, Illinois 298 

Forbes, Isaac A 304 

Ford (Gov.) Thomas 318 

Fordham's Classification of pioneers 

from Tennessee to Illinois 134 

Fordice (Mr) of Pennsylvania.. 75 

Forrest (Col) Joe 193 

Fort Armstrong 18. 60. 250.262 

Fort Armstrong. General Atkinson 

stationed at Fort Armstrong 250 

Fort Chartres 226 

Fort Chartres. Established in 1718.. 226 

Fort Crawford. Army Post 

'58. 59, 60. 63, 64, 65, 66. 67. 71 

Fort Crawford, Army Post. Built in 

1816 59 

Fort Crawford, Army Post. Charles 
Fenno Hoffman. New York author 
and editor visits Fort Crawford. ... 60 
Fort Crawford, Indian Treaty at Fort 
Crawford in 1829 60 


INDEX— Continued. 

I'ort Crawford, Army Post. Latrobe, 
the pjnglish traveler visits Port 

Crawford 60 

Fort Crawford, Army Post. (Col.) 

Willoiighby Morgan of the First 

United States Infantry in eommand 60 

Fort C'reve Coeur, General Assembly 

of Illinois, appropriate money to 

mark site of Fort Creve Coeur 33 

Fort Creve Coeur. Illinois State His- 
torical Society has committee on 
making site of Fort Creve Coeur. ... 33 
Fort Dearborn Garrison. Lieut David 

Hunter member of the Garrison .... 63 
Ft. Donelson, War of the Rebellion . . . 

45, 177 

Fort Edwards IS 

Fort Gibson, in modern Muskogee Co., 

Oklahoma 67 

Fort Hamilton 241, 251, 255 

Fort Howard 60 

Fort Massac, History of, by Mrs. 
Matthew T. Scott, published by the 
Illinois State Historical Society in 

1903 36 

Fort Massac Park, Daughters of the 
American Revolution work in behalf 

of securing the park 36 

Fort Niagara, New York 228 

Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania 228 

Port Snelling 60, 241 

Fort Sumpter 118, 161 

Fort Sumpter, Surrender of, reference. 118 

Fort Winnebago, Army Post 

58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 70, 257 

Fort Winnebago, Davis, (Mrs.) Jeffer- 
son, quoted on the life, at Port 

Winnebago 62 

I'ort Winnebago, Description in "Wau 

Bun," by Mrs. Kinzie 61 

Fort Winnebago, Turner, Andrew .1., 

History of Fort Winnebago 66, 70 

Fort Winnebago, Twiggs, (Maj.) David 
E., in command at Fort Winnebago 

60, 61, 71 

Foster, (Rev.) David 139 

Foster, J. W., Report of the Evans- 
ville Board of Trade for the year 

1867, Footnote 157 

Foster, R 287 

Fowler, Alfred 306 

Fowler, Ithural 306 

Fowler, James 308 

Fowler, John. Killed by Indians in 

Black Hawk War 255, 256 

Fowler, Phillip 283, 306, 307, 312 

Fox Indians 230, 231, 232, 233, 249 

Fox River 61, 225, 231, 242, 284 

Fox-Wisconsin Portage, in the heart 

of the Winnebago Country 60, 63 

Foy and McHenry, Publishers of the 

St. Louis Dispatch, 1869 172 

France 24, 44, 

47, 48, 49, 50, 205, 225, 226, 227, 316 

France, Auvergne, France 316 

France Ceded to Britain, Canada and 
other possessions east of the Mis- 
sissippi, 1763 227 

France, Cartier, a French Navigator 

from France 225 

France, Paris. France 316 

France. Renault Philip .Francis, 
agent for The Company of the 

West 226 

Frank H 305 

Frankenberger Eli. Early resident of 

Stephenson County, Illinois 

282, 207, 298 

Frankenberger, Henry O. Early settler 
of Stephenson County, Illinois. .. .298 


Frankenberger, Joel. Early settler of 

Stephenson County, Illinois 298 

Franklin Benjamin 181 

P^ranklin County, Illinois 134, 142 

Fv;i,nklin County, Illinois. Tennesl- 

seeans in, hold early offices 134 

Fraternal Societies. Odd Fellows. ... 319 

Frederick County, Va 73, 74 

Frederick (Gallatan County) Ky. 
Now Warsaw, laid out in 1788.... 

By Henry Yates 178 

Frederick of Prussia 178 

Frederick, William 305 

Precis Jesse M. Short sketch 148 

Freeman C. E. Local historian of 
;Menominee, Wisconsin. Quoted on 

the I'ellow river 66 

Preeport. Illinois 218, 219, 242, 

274, 275, 279, 282, 283, 286, 288, 
289, 290. 291, 295, 297, 299, 301-316 
Freeport, Illinois. Bulletin News- 
paper 218, 314 

Freeport, Illinois. Built on site of old 

Indian Village 242 

Freeport. Illinois. Freeport and 

Chicago R. R 304 

I'reeport, Illinois. Freeport House. . . .310 
Freeport, Illinois. Freeport Journal. 
The Organ of the Whig party in 

Stephenson Cotinty 286 

Freeport, Illinois. Pennsylvania 

House ■ 310 

Freeport, Illinois. Prairie Democrat. 

first newspaper in Preeport 311 

Freeport, Illinois. Temperance House, 

Hotel owned l)v H. Eads 1838 309 

Fremont, John C 210 

French Army 50, 51 

French in Illinois 227, 229 

French Jesuits or Imperialist 102 

French Language, Life of Lincoln in 

the French Language 29 

French, Thomas 272 

Pr(>nch traders, give brandy to In- 
dians 267 

French War. 1754-1763 227 

French Zouave system of tactics, uni- 
form 112 

Friendsville (Wabash County) 111. 
Acadamy in, in an early day. Refer- 
ence 137 

Fuller (Adj-Gen.) Allen Curtis. Ad- 
jutant-General State of Illinois. .. .193 

Fulling . Referred to, in Day 

Book of Benjamin L. Harris 98 

Fulton County, Illinois. Historv of 

1897. Quoted. Foot-notes. ... i05, 106 
Funk (Capt.) Isaac, of McLean Co. 

Illinois 105, 253, 254 

Funk, Isaac. Cattle dealer and farmer 

McLean County, Illinois 105 

Fvhe, J. A. Sr 141 

Fyke (Dr.) John J 141 

Gaffin, Charles 295 

Gaines (Gen.) Edmund P 63. 248 

Gaines (Gen.) Edmund P. Black 

Hawk War 63, 248 

Gainesville, 77 

Galena, Illinois 64. 69, 

194, 2.'^9-244. 251. 252. 253. 255, 256, 

271, 272, 290, 291, 306, 309, 310, 311 
GTlena and Chicago, Union Railroad.. 

242, 309 

Galena, Illinois. Named? by Dr. Samuel 

Mure 239 

Galena River. Trading post established 

on by Jesse W. Shull 239 


INDEX— Continued. 


Galesburg, Illinois 5. 21. 1.S6, 193 

Oalesburg, Illinois, Knox College 

located in Galesburg 136 

Gallaher (Rev.) Allen 149 

Gallaher Family 146, 149 

Gallagher (Rev.) James 149 

Gallaher (Miss) Mary M. Wife of Rev. 

Abner Wayne Lansden 13S 

Gallaher, Thomas 146 

Gallaher (Rev.) William G 149 

Gallatau County, Kentucky 178 

Gallatin County, Illinois. Tenness- 

eans in, hold early offices 134 

Gallatin County, Illinois. Thom's 

Prairie 138 

Gann, L. C 300 

Garden Prairie, Illinois 316 

Gardner D. and Co. Bankers, Cham- 
paign, Illinois 100 

Garland (Major) John 261 

Garner (Rev.) A. R 83 

Garner John 282 

Garretson Family 140 

Garrison, David A 142 

Garrison, Sylvester C 142 

Gasconada River 231 

Geers (Miss) Catherine. Wife of 
Richard Yates, War Governor of 

Illinois 203, 204 

Geers William 203 

Genealogical Committee, Illinois State 
Historical Society, report of the 
Chairman. Georgia L. Osborne.. 37, 88 

Genoa, Italy 49 

Genoese Navigator 222 

George, George Duck 75 

George David Lloyd 49 

Georgia State 63, 224 

Georgia State, Emancipation of Slaves 

in Georgia 63 

Gerhard Fred, Illinois as it is. Quoted. 

Foot-note 90 

German Language, Life of Lincoln in 

German . 29 

German Reformed Church, C'edarville. 

Stephenson County, Illinois 300 

Germans 275, 298, 312 

(Germans in Stephenson County, Illi- 
nois 298, 300, 312 

Germany 49, 50, 52, 53 

"Get Rich Quick Ponzi's" Scheme. 

Reference 27 

Gettysburg. Pa 75, 77 

Gibler, Lewis 287 

Gilbraith, Smith 282 

Giles County, Tenn 139 

Gillett, Ezra B 244, 301 

Gillett, Ezra B., and Cuyler Armstrong 
sold land on what is now Dubuque 

for two barrels of flour 244 

Gillett (Hon.) P. G. Quoted on 
Richard Yates, War Governor of 

Illinois 173 

Gilliam, Edward 140 

Gilliam, Minyard 140 

Gilliam, Robert 140 

Gladson, W. E 140 

Glenn, J. M., Industrial Development of 

Illinois. Address on. Reference. ... 34 
Globe Bank of Treasurer Spaulding of 

the University of Illinois 101 

Goddard, Alpheus 282. 283 

Goddard (Rev.) A. S 83 

Goddard, Benjamin 272, 279, 301 

Goddard, James. Early school teacher 
in Cedarville, Stephenson County, 

Illinois 300 

Goddard, John 272, 283, 801 

Godfrey (Capt.) Benjamin. Gift to 
Monticello Seminary. Godfrey, Illi- 
nois 136 


Godfrey (Miss) Caroline 124 

Footnote Ill 

Godfrey (Mrs.) Charles Ill, 124 

Footnote Ill 

Godfrey (INIrs.) Charles, of Rockford, 
Illinois. Letters of Col. E. E. Ells- 
worth in possession of 124 

Godfrey. Illinois. Monticello Seminary 

located in Godfrey, Illinois 136 

Goffe, Charles H. Description of Col. 

E. E. Ellsworth 112 

Golconda, Illinois 187 

Goleonda, Illinois. Early Presbyterian 

Church in 137 

"Gold Democrats." Nominate Gov, 
John M. Palmer for the Presidency 

of the United States 213 

Goodner, Elijah 142 

Goodner, James T 142 

Goodner, Mary Gore 142 

Goose Creek, Illinois 82 

Goudy, Calvin 22 

Goudy Family 145 

Gough. John B 202 

Gould, David 295 

firand Army of the Republic 

163, 164, 168, 170 

Grand Army of the Republic, Gen. John 

A. Logan. Commander-in-Chief. .168, 164 
Grand Prairie Bank, Urbana, Illinois. 

98, 99 

Grant (Gen.) Ulysses S 

24, 45, 176, 192-195, 213 

Grant (Gen.) Ulysses S. Appointed 

Colonel of the Twenty-first Illinois 

"Vol. Inf. by Governor Richard 

Yates, War Governor of Illinois. ... 194 

Grant (Gen.) Ulysses S. Hartt Rollin 

Lynde. Quoted on General Grant.. 195 
Grant- ((j!en.) Ulysses S. Personal Me- 
moirs of Ulysses S. Grant. Quoted. .193 

Grant (Gen.) Ulysses S. Richard 
Yates, War Governor of Illinois, dis- 

coverv of Grant 192, 193-195 

Grattan, H. G 312 

Grattan H. G. and A. McFadden, 

started the Freeport Journal 312 

Graves, Hubbard 288, 295, 296 

Great Britain ..47, 48, 49, 50, 51. 227 
230, 234, 287, 245 
Great Britain. Black Hawk joins the 

British in War of 1812 245 

Great Britain Coaling Stations 48 

(Jreat Britain, France cedes to Great 
Britain Canada and all possessions 

east of the Mississippi 227 

Great Lakes 154, 157, 158 

Greece 222 

Greeks. Honor their dead by chaplets 

of laurel and flowers 163 

Greeks under Alexander 221 

Green, A. T 311 

Green Bav, Wisconsin. .60, 71, 225, 226 

Green County, Wisconsin 239, 297 

Green (Gen.) Nathanial 181 

Greene County, Illinois 

184, 143, 149, 150, 210 

Greene County. Illinois. Tennesseeans 

in, hold early offices 134 

Greene, Evarts Boutell 

5. 15, 16, 19, 21, 33, 89 

Greene, Evarts Boutell. Dinner in 
honor of, by the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 89 

Greene, Evarts Boutell. Leaves the 
University of Illinois for Columbia 

University, New York City 16, 19, 38 

Greene, Evarts Boutell. Resignation 
from the Illinois State Historical 
Library Board 83 


INDEX— Continued. 


Greene Family 149 

Greene. William G. Early friend of 

Abrabam Lincoln 149, 150, 196, 197 

Greene, William G. Short Sketch 


Greenfield. Illinois 149 

Greenview, Illinois 149 

Greenville, (Bond County), Illinois.. 

1.S7, 13S 

Greenville, Illinois. Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church 137 

Gregory (Hon.) J. M. Letter of 
Richard Yates, War Governor of 
Illinois to. Dated Washington. D. 

C, March 2, 1868 187 

Grey, Earl 51 

Grin, Daniel 301 

Groves. Samuel P 137 

Guiteau, A. B 309 

Guiteau. L. W 309, 312 

Gulf of Mexico 318 

Gunsal, Samuel 295 


Hagerstown, Md 77 

Haggard, .lohn M 140 

Haggard, .John S 137 

Hague Conference of 1899. Reference. 

49, 52, 53 

Hainich, Charles. Blacksmith, Ste- 
phenson County. Illinois 298 

Hale, Willfam, of Wisconsin, killed by 

the Indians 255-256 

Hall, E. A 27 

Hall, Levi 283 

Hall, Luther 283 

Hall, William. Indian Creek Settle- 
ment, two daughters of William Hall 
taken prisoners by Indians in Black 

Hawk War 251 

Hallenback, William H 282 

Hamilton College 151 

I[amilton County, Illinois 141, 142 

Hamilton (Gov.) John Marshall 150 

Hamilton, Ohio 36 

Hamilton, P. P 140 

Hamilton. S. M. The Writings of 

James Monroe. Quoted. Footnote. .103 
Hamilton. William, of New York State. 241 
Hamilton (Rev.) Woods McCowan. . . . 139 

Hamlin, Frank 36 

Hammock. Louis 140 

Hammond. Philo 282 

Hancock County, Illinois 35, 185 

Hancock County, Illinois. Scofleld. 
Charles J. Editor of the History of 
Hancock County, Illinois. Published 

Chicago, 1921 35 

Hancock, William. An emigrant's Five 
Years in the Free States of America, 

London, 1860. Footnote 104 

Hand, John P. Footnote 26 

Hardee, W. J. Author of "Hardee's 

Tactics." Footnote 116 

Hardin County, Illinois. Tennesseeans 

in, hold early offices 134 

Hardin (Col.), John J 181, 183 

Hardin (Col.), John J. Early lawyer 

in Jacksonville 181 

Hardin (Col.) John J. Richard Yates 
War Governor of Illinois, delivers 
the funeral oration of Col. John J. 

Hardin 173 

Harding, L. N 805 

Harding, Payton 144 

Harding (Pres.) Warren G. In favor 

of a World Court 55 

Harlem Township, Stephenson County, 
Illinois 288, 295, 301, 302, 306, 307 


Harney (Capt.) W. S 61 

Harper, C. A. The Prairie and the 
Railroad ....4, 39, 102-110 

Harper's Ifcrry, Va 74 

Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Vol. 
23, 1861. Quoted. Footnote 96 

Harris Benjamin, Colonel in the Revo- 
lutionary War 73 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Acts in 
the capacity of a family physician 
in an eiirly day in Illinois 82 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Aids in 
raising a company of men from 
Mahomet Township. Champaign 
County, Illinois, for service in the 
Civil War 95 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Aids in 
religious and educational movements 
in an early day in Champaign 
Countj', Illinois 82, 83 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Autobi- 
ography of Benjamin Franklin Har- 
ris, with introduction and notes. 
By Mary Vose Harris 4, 72-101 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Autobi- 
ography of. Quoted. Footnotes .... 
81-80. 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Business 
career in Ohio 75 

Plarris, Benjamin Franklin. Business 
methods, entries in Day Books 98 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Career as 
a cattle buyer 81, 88-94 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Cattle 
buyer, method of carrying his cash 
in an early day 81 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Cattle 
take premiums in State Fair 93 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Cunning- 
ham (Judge) J. O. Quoted on 
Benjamin F. Harris 72, 73 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Day 
Books. Quoted ..84, 85, 86, 97, 98, 99 
Footnotes 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 99 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Early 
business ventures 81, 88-94 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Justice 
of the Peace, Champaign Countv, 
Illinois, 1844 94, 95 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Leaves 
Ohio for Illinois in 1835 75 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Member 
of the County Commissioners of 
Champaign County, Illinois, 1846.. 95 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Name in 
the Illinois Farmers Hall of Fame 
University of Illinois 72 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. President 
First National Bank of Cham- 
paign 72, 100 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Products 
of his farm for the year 1855. . . .84, 85 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Products 
of his farm 1856. Footnote 85 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Record of 
the best hundred head of cattle ever 
fattened in one lot in the United 
States 90-91 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Sends 
men with ox-teams to procure pro- 
visions in Chicago in 1844 79 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Tribute 
to his wife Mary Jane Heath Har- 
ris 97 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin. Visit to 
Washington, D. C, with President 
Lincoln and Family 95 

Harris (Mrs.) Benjamin Franklin. 
First wife of B. F. Harris. Death 
of October, 1845 83 


INDEX— Continued. 

Harris (Mrs.) Benjamin Franklin. 
Second wife of B. F. Harris. Death 

of Marcli 22, 18S3 97 

Harris (Mrs.) Benjamin Franklin. 
Third wife of B. F. Harris. Death 

of .January 1.5, 1898 97 

Harris. Benjamin Franklin, 2d. Death 

of December 10, 1868 87 

Harris, Benjamin Franklin 2d. Letter 
of .Judge J. O. Cunningham. Foot- 
note 78 

Harris, Charles Wesley 73 

Harris, David Franklin 87 

Harris, Elizabeth 87 

Harris, Elizabeth Lucretia. Wife of 

Rev. Grandville Moody 73 

Harris Family Bible. Quoted. Foot- 
note 87 

Harris Family of Scotch-English ex- 
traction and Quakers 73 

Harris L^'amily set out for Ohio 74 

Harris Farm, Champaign County. Illi- 
nois. Acreage. Footnote 8.") 

Harris, Franklin 73 

Harris, George Payne 87 

Harris, George Wharton 73 

Harris, Henry Hickman. First child 

of Benjamin Franklin Harris 

79. 83, 94, 95, 96, 101 

Harris. Henry Payne 73, 74. 94 

Harris Home Illinois. Fourth of July 

Celebration held in Harris Grove. . . SO 
Harris Home in Illinois, near the 

Sangamon Kiver 80 

Harris, James Phelps 73 

Harri.s, Jane 73 

Harris, J. C 137 

Harris, Johack 73 

Harris John Billingsley 73 

Harris, John William 73, 83 

Harris, Lucretia 73 

Harris, Mary Catherine 73 

Harris (Mrs.) Mary Vose. Benjamin 

F. Harris, an Illinois Pioneer 39 

Harris, (Mrs.) Mary Vose, The Auto- 
biogiaphy of Benjamin Franklin 
Harris. With introduction and 

notes. Bv Mary Vose Harris 

4, .39. 72-101 

Harris, Rachael Jane Rebecca. Wife 

of David Andrew Phillippee 87 

Harris (Miss) Rachel Jane. Wife of 

Rev. William Smith 73 

Harris, Rebecca 73 

Harris. Sutton 73 

Harris, Thomas 73 

Harris (Maj.) Thomas L 188 

Harris, Wesley 73 

Harris, William H 73. 98, 99 

Harrisburg, Pa 75, 77 

Harrison. Reuben 185 

Harrison (Gen.) William Henry 

231, 233, 236 

Harrison (Gen.) William Henry. Gov- 
ernor of Indiana Territory, the Dis- 
trict of Louisiana. Superintendent 
of Indian affairs and Commissioner 
Plenipotentiary of the United 

States 231, 233 

Harriss, Johnson 140 

Harry (Mrs.) S. B 39 

Hartt Rollin Lynde. Quoted on Gen- 
eral Grant 195 

Harvey Children, in the runaway bal- 
loon 1858. Reference 37 

Harwood, James F. Early settler of 

Stephenson County, Illinois 297 

flarwood. James F., Postmaster, Eleroy, 
Stephenson County, Illinois 297 

Ifa-she-Cjuar-hi-qua. Sac and Fox In- 
dian sent to St. Louis to secure 

release of Indian prisoners 246 

Hatch, Ozias M. Secretary of State of 

Illinois 193 

Hatchie River, War of the Rebellion. . 177 

Hathaway, Thomas 301 

Hauberg, John H. .5, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22 
Hauberg, John H. Report of the Rock 

Island Historical Society 21 

Hause, C. C. Debtor to Benjamin 

EYanklin Harris 98 

Havens. Benny. "Benny Havens." the 

Old West Point Melody 61 

Hawaiian Language. Life of Lincoln 

in Hawaiian language 29 

Hay, John. Article in McClure's Maga- 
zine on Colonel Ellsworth. Foot- 
note lis 

Hay, John. Article on Colonel Ells- 
worth in Atlantic Monthly. Refer- 
ence. Footnote 118 

Hay, John. Personal Reminiscences of 
Col. E. E. Ellsworth. Quoted. Foot- 
notes 113, 115, 116, 117, 118 

Hay, John. Quoted on Colonel Ells- 
worth 114, 115, 117, 118 

Footnote ,118 

Hay, John. Quoted on Col. Ephraini 
Ellsworth and his project the Bu- 
reau of Militia 117, 118 

Footnote 117 

Hay, John. Quoted on the personal 

appearance of Colonel Ellsworth . 114-115 
Hay, John. Quoted on the tour of 
the Chicago Zouaves, and their com- 
petitive drill 116. 117 

Hav, Logan 27 

Hay, Milton 185 

Haynes (Rev.) Cyrus 139 

Hazzard. John 140 

Head, Paul I) 168 

Headenburg (Mrs.) Sarah Head 168 

Heath David 87 

Heath (Miss) Mary .Jane. Second 
wife of Benjamin Franklin Harris 

87, 97 

Hebrew Language, Life of Lincoln in 

Hebrew 29 

Hecox (Rev.) C. F 83 

Hellenger M 304 

Henderson, John B., United States 

Senator from Missouri 198 

Hendrick Burton J. Collaborates with 
Rear Admiral William Snowden 
Sims in . "The Victory at Sea." 
Prize work on United States His- 
tory 27 

Henry, Alexander 228 

Henry (Gen.) James D. Black Hawk 

War 70, 257, 259, 260 

Henry, John 185 

Henry, Patrick, Governor of Vir- 
ginia 229 

Herbert, Joseph 305 

Herndon, William H 117. 185 

Herndon, William H. Lincoln and 
Herndon's law office. Springfield, 

Illinois 117 

Hersman, Illinois 143 

Hess, Benjamin 300 

Hester, Benjamin P 142 

Hester, John B 142 

Hester, Margaret (Henry) 142 

Hicklin (Mrs.) Martha 36 

Hickman County, Tennessee 141 

Hickman (Miss) Rebecca. Wife of 

Benjamin Harris 73 

Hickman, William 73 

Hickory Grove. Bond County, Illinois. 146 


INDEX— Continued. 

Higginliottoin Alexander A. Mines of 
Galena, Illinois, escapes from the In- 
dians 255, 256 

Higrhland Park, Illinois 139 

Hildebrand R 305 

Hill. William 296 

Hilliard, .losiah 295 

Hinckle, John 307 

History of the United States by Rear 
Admiral William Snowden Sims. 
Prize awarded to, for the best his- 
tory of the United States 27 

Kite, Jonathan 150 

HodgenTille, Ky. Lincoln Memorial 

Temple near Hodgenville, Ky 25 

Hoffman, Charles Fenno, New York 
author and editor visits Fort Craw- 
ford 60 

Hoffman (Lieut. Gov.) Francis A. 

State of Illinois 193 

Hoffman, J., and Son 305 

Hoffman, John P 294 

Hoge (Mrs.) Jane C. "The Boys in 
Blue." Quoted on Richard Yates, 

War Governor of Illinois 173 

Hogs raised on Harris farm 1855.. 85, 93 

Holbrook. J. H 26 

Holderman. Cattle dealer and farmer, 

Illinois 105 

Holland 48 

Holland (Miss). Referred to, in a 
letter of Colonel Ellsworth to Mrs. 

Charles H. Spafford 128 

Holland Mr., of Rockford, Illinois 289 

HoUenback, H. William 283 

Hollenback. William 308, 309 

HoUey (Hawley) Aquilla. Killed by 

the Indians 255, 256 

Hollman, Benjamin 305 

Hollywood, in Richmond, Va. Jeffer- 
son Davis buried in Hollywood, Va. 67 
Holmes, Robert. Merchant of Stephen- 
son County, Illinois 298 

Holmes, Robert. Postmaster of Rock 
Grove, Stephenson County, Illinois. .298 

Holston, Va 229 

Holy Alliance 51 

Homewood. Illinois 39 

Hoover, Mary. "Extracts from Diary 
of Isaac ftlenyon with Reminiscences 

by Mary Hoover. Footnote 109 

Hopewell, Tennessee 146 

Hopkins. Albert J 26 

Footnote 26 

Hopkinsville ,Ky 136, 139 

Hopper, Elizabeth C 141 

Hotchkin (Rev.) Ebenezer. Superin- 
tendent of Roonshue Female Semin- 
ary 270 

House E. H. Correspondent New York 
Tribune, describes tragedy of Colonel 

Ellsworth's death 122 

House, Hester Ann 142 

House of Burgesses of Virginia 230 

Houston (Gen.) Sam. Quoted on the 

Indians 268 

Howard (Gen.) Oliver O. Union Gen- 
eral War of the Rebellion 210 

Howard, Stephen. Killed near Wad- 
dams Grove 253 

Hows, John 283 

Huckster. G. M. Footnote S3 

Hudson Hendrick 267 

Hudson, John 141 

Hudson, Mary Duncan 141 

Hudson, William P 141 

Huidekoper. Lieut.-Col. Frederick. His- 
tory of the Thirty-Third Division 
American Expeditionary Forces in 

Prance 34 

Hull, L. R 282 


Hull. Richard 141 

Humphrey, (Judge) J Otis. .19, 26, 27, 28 

29, 35 
Humphrey, J Otis, leading spirit of 

the Lincoln Centennial Association 26 
Humphrey (Miss) Mary. Presents to 
the library Lincoln legal document. . 31 

Humphreys, George. Revolutionary 
soldier buried in Edwards County, 

Illinois 38 

Hunt (Dr.) — 308 

Hunt, Edward 295 

Hunt, (Messrs) 313 

Hunter (Gen.) David 63,70 

Hunter (Lieut.) David. Of the Fort 
Dearborn Garrison. Meeting with 

Jefferson Davis 63 

Hunter (Maj. Gen.) David. Order 
emancipating the slaves in the States 
of Florida, Georgia, and South Caro- 
lina. Reference 63 

Hunter (Maj. -Gen.) David. Organizes 
the first negro regiment for service 

in the Civil War 63 

Hunter Family 146 

Huntington (Mrs.) Arthur 19, 36 

Huntsville, Tenn 74 

Hyde (Miss) Adelia 293 

Hyde and Brewster. Early business 

firm. Freeport, Illinois 313 

Hyde, E. H 312, 313 

Hyde Park, Illinois 139 


mini (The). By Clark E. Carr. 
Quoted on Governor Richard Yates, 
War Governor of Illinois 174 

mini Indians 43 

Illinois and Michigan Canal. .. .156, 290 

Illinois and the Old Northwest 219 

Illinois Central Railroad. . 89, 96, 105, 107 

148, 157, 290, 292, 293, 297, 316 

Footnotes 104, 105, 106, 155, 157 

Illinois Central Railroad. Ackerman, 
William K. Historical sketch of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, together 
with a brief biographical record of 
its incorporators, and some of its 
early officers. Footnote 105 

Illinois Central Railroad. Brownson 
H. C. Early Illinois Railroads, the 
place of the Illinois Central Railroad 
in Illinois history, prior to the Civil 
War. Footnotes 105, 106 

Illinois Central Railroad. Brownson, 
H. G. The History of the Illinois 
Centra] Railroad to 1870. Foot- 
notes 104, 106 

Illinois Central Railroad. Built to 
open up land to settlement 107 

Illinois Central Railroad. The Illinois 
Central Railroad C'ompanv, offers 
for sale over 1,500,000 acres selected 
farming and woodlands, Footnote. . .104 

Illinois Central Railroad. Incorporated 
in 1851 290 

Illinois Central Railroad. Land sales 
policy 107 

Illinois Central Railroad. Report and 
accounts for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31. 1861, Footnote 157 

Illinois Central Railroad. Two mil- 
lion five hundred thousand acres of 
land in Illinois belonging to the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad Company, 
Footnote 104 


INDEX— Continued. 


Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois 

5, 21, 28, 

136, 138, 147, 148, 151, 177, 179, 202 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois. 
Dr. Ecivv^ard Beeeher, President 151 

Illinois College. Jacksonville. Or- 
ganized 1828. Chartered 1835 136 

Illinois Country 149, 153, 230 

Illinois Country, John Todd, Esq., 
Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Com- 
mandant of the Illinois Country. . . .230 

Illinois Indians 43, 225, 226 

Illinois River 

144, 151, 190, 226, 228, 231, 311 

"Illinois" Song 168, 170 

Illinois State. Admitted to the Union 
April 18, 1818 238 

Illinois State Agricultural Society. 
Johns (Dr.) H. C, President 91, 92 

Illinois State. Agriculture in an 
early day in Illinois 108 

Illinois State, Alton, Illinois 226 

Illinois State. Amusements of the 
early settlers 106 

Illinois State. Ashland, Illinois 144 

Illinois State, Belting, Paul E. The 
Development of the Free Public 
High School in Illinois to 1860, 
Footnote 109 

Illinois State. Belvidere (Boone 
County ) Illinois 316 

Illinois State. Bench and Bar of Illi- 
nois, many members of Tennessee 
birth 147-149 

Illinois State. Benton, Illinois 162 

Illinois State. Berlin, Illinois 179 

Illinois State. Bethany, Illinois 139 

Illinois State. Birds of Illinois, article 
on, oy T. E. Musselman. Reference 34 

Illinois State. Board of Art Advisers 
Lorado Taft a member 168, 170 

Illinois State. Board of Health 37 

Illinois State. Bond County. Illinois 
134, 142, 150 

Illinois State. Boone County, Illinois. 316 

Illinois State. Brown County 

134, 142, 144 

Illinois State. Brown, Henry. History 
of Illinois 237 

Illinois State. Brownson, H. C. Early 
Illinois Railroads, the place of the 
Illinois Central Railroad in Illinois 
history prior to the Civil War, Foot- 
notes 105, 106 

Illinois State, Buck Eye Township, 

Stephenson County, Illinois 

297, 298, 299. 301, 304, 306 

Illinois State. Cabins in an early day 
in Illinois described 78 

Illinois State. Cahokia, Illinois. . 140, 228 

Illinois State. Cahokia, early settle- 
ment in Cahokia 226 

Illinois State. Cahokia county seat of 
St. Clair County 140 

Illinois State. Cahokia Mounds, 
preservation of, urged. .15, 18, 19, 32, 33 

Illinois State. Called "The Garden 
State" 315 

Illinois State. Camden, Illinois 145 

Illinois State. Carmi, Illinois 145 

Illinois State. Carlinville, Illinois. . . 
168, 210 

Illinois State. Carroll County. . . .301, 302 

Illinois State, Carrollton, Illinois.... 
146, 150 

Illinois State. Cass County 

134, 143, 144, 147 

Illinois State. Cedarville, Stephenson 
County, Illinois 299, 300, 301 

Illinois State. Centennial Hymn (Rice- 
Moore) 39 


Illinois State. Centennial Memorial 
Building 17, 22, 23, 30 

Illinois State. Chandlerville, Cass 
County, Illinois 144 

Illinois State. Clark County, Illinois. 139 

Illinois State. Clinton County, Illi- 
nois 134 

Illinois State, Clinton, Illinois 152 

Illinois State, Cole Arthur Charles E. 
The Era of the Civil War. Centen- 
nal History of Illinois. Volume 
three. Footnotes 107, 108, 109, 110 

Illinois State, Coles County 139, 143 

Illinois State, Constitution authorized 
by Con.gress 238 

Illinois State. Constitution of 1818, 
State of Illinois 214 

Illinois State. Constitutional Conven- 
tion (First) 1818 134 

Illinois State. Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1 847 148, 214 

Illinois State. Constitutional Conven- 
tion 1863 174 

Illinois State, Corn and Wheat, prices 
of, in an early day in Illinois 84 

Illinois State. Cumberland County, 
Illinois 139. 143 

Illinois State, Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 38 

Illinois State. Department of Agricul- 
ture .'^ 37 

Illinois State. Dubois Jesse K., Au- 
ditor of Public Accounts, State of 
Illinois 193 

Illinois State. Early Germans, in Illi- 
nois 298 

Illinois State. Early prices for imple- 
ments in Illinois 86 

Illinois State. Early prices for labor, 
etc., in Illinois 86 

Illinois State. Early prices for provis- 
ions and clothes in Illinois 1854- 
1856 87 

Illinois State. Early religious organ- 
izations in Illinois 137-139 

Illinois State, Early Settlers 

103, 104, 235 

Illinois State. Early settlers difficul- 
ties confronting them -. 103 

Illinois State. Early settlers in, take 
up the timbered land along the 
rivers 104 

Illinois State. Early travel and 
methods of transportation in Illinois. 
Subject of the prize essay contest. . 32 

Illinois State. Eddj' T. M. The Pa- 
triotism of Illinois "Quoted" 173 

Illinois State, Edgar County, Illinois. . 150 

Illinois State. Education, early 
lecturers on 1853-56 109 

Illinois State. Education. Free School 
Law. Passage of in 1855 109 

Illinois State. Education. University 

of Illinois 

..19, 27, 32, 33, 39, 72, 101, 187, 188 
Footnote 104 

Illinois State. Education. Illinois 
Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 
Illinois 96 

Illinois State. Eleroy, Stephenson 
Countv 297 

Illinois State. Elgin, Illinois 310 

Illinois State. Enfield, Illinois 145 

Illinois State. Erects statues of War 
Governor Richard Yates and Gover- 
nor John M. Palmer 167-170 

Illinois State. Erin township, Steph- 
enson County, Illinois 301, 306 

Illinois State. Equality, Illinois. ... 138 

Illinois State. Evanston, Illinois. .. .151 


INDEX— Continued. 


Illinois State. Fair held in Centralia 
September 14-17, 185S 37 

Illinois State. Fairfield, Illinois 138 

Illinois State. Farmers Hall of Fame, 
at the University of Illinois 72 

Illinois State. First settlement of 
Americans in 228 

Illinois State. Florence Township, 

Stephenson County, Illinois 

301, 303, 306 

Illinois State. Franklin County, 
Illinois 134 

Illinois State, Freeport, Illinois 

242, 297. 299, 302. 303, 304, 30.o, 306, 
307, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316 

Illinois State. Fuller (Adj. -Gen.) 
Allen Curtis. Adjutant-General 
State of Illinois 193 

Illinois State. Ford (Gov.) Thomas. 
History of Illinois. Quoted 318 

Illinois State, Galena, Illinois 

194, 239, 256, 306, 309, 310, 311 

Illinois State. Galena, Illinois. 
Named by Dr. Samuel Mure, a gen- 
tleman of Scottish descent 239 

Illinois State. Galena River. Jesse 
W. Hull establishes a trading post on 
the Galena river 239 

Illinois State. Galesburg, Illinois. ... 183 

Illinois State. Gallatin County, Illi- 
nois 134 

Illinois State. Gerhard Fred, Illinois 
as it is. Quoted. Footnote 90 

Illinois State. General Assemblv. . . . 

15, 19, 23, 33, 34, 

141, 145, 168,171, 185-187, 214, 291 
Footnote 33 

Illinois State. General Assembly 
1891. Survivors of the famous 101 
members who elected General Palmer 
to the United States Senate 168 

Illinois State. General Banlcing I^aw. 
Reference 98 

Illinois State. Golconda. Illinois. ... 137 

Illinois State. Greene County. Illinois 
134, 143, 149, 150, 210 

Illinois State, Greenfield, Illinois 149 

Illinois State. Greenview, Illinois. .. .149 

Illinois State. Hamilton County. .141, 142 

Illinois State. Hancocli County, Illi- 
nois 185 

Illinois State. Hardin County, Illinois. 134 

Illinois State. Harlem Township, 

Stephenson County, Illinois 

301, 302, 306. 307 

Illinois State. Harper C. A. The 
Railroad and the Prairie. .4. 39, 102-110 

Illinois State. Hatch Ozias M. Sec- 
retary of State, Illinois 193 

Illinois State. Highland Park 139 

Illinois State. Historical Collections. . 
28, 29, 34, 219 

Illinois State. Historical Collections. 
Vol. III. The Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates 1858. Edited by Prof. Edwin 
Erie Sparks 28. 29 

Illinois State. Historical Collections. 
Vol. 9. Travel and Description. 
Edited by Solon J. Buck 219 

Illinois State. Historical Library. . . . 
7, 11, 12, 29 

Illinois State Historical Library. An 
appeal for Historical material. .11, 12 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Gifts to the library and society. ... 35 

Illinois State Historical Library. Prof. 
Lawrence M. Larson elected member 
of the board of trustees to succeed 
Doctor Greene 19 


Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Lincoln biographies in the foreign 
languages in the library 29 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Lincoln collection. Ida M. Tarbell, 
Quoted on 24 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Lincoln writers visit the library. ... 24 

Illinois State Historical Library. Pub- 
lations. See list end of this 

Illinois State. Historical Society 

4, 5, 7, 8-10, 11, 12, 15, 

IS, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
.35, 36, 37, 38, .39, 124, 153, 168, 219 

Illinois State. Historical Society. An 
appeal for Historical Material. . 11, 12 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Cahokia Mounds the Illinois State 
Historical Society interested in the 
preservation and purchase of the 
mounds 15, 18, 19, 32, 33 

Illinois State. Historical Society, 
Constitution 8-10 

Illinois State. Historical Society Co- 
operates with the D. A. R., in the 
prize essay contest 32 

Illinois State. Historical Society to 
co-operate with the Lincoln Centen- 
nial Association 19 

Illinois State. Historical Society Co- 
operates with other historical asso- 
ciations • 31 

Illinois State. Historical Society. Co'- 
operate with other organization in 
the work of securing the Cahokia 
Mounds 15 

Illinois State. Historical Society. De- 
ceased members 35, 36 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Fort Cr5ve Coeur Illinois State His- 
torical Society has committee on 
marking site of the fort 33 

Illinois State Historical Society. Gen- 
ealogical Committee report of the