Skip to main content

Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions for the year ..."

See other formats

'LI. IV.Sl 




From the lilDrary of 

Walter Colyer 

Albion, Illinois 

Purchased 1926 




Publication Number Twenty-one 





Illinois State Historical Society 


Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 
Illinois, May 13-14, 1915 

Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 

Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co., State Printers. 

19 16 





OflBcers of the Society 5 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 



Annual Meeting '. 15 

Business Meeting • 17 


John W. Cook. Life of Adlai E. Stevenson 23 

Miss Lotte E. Jones. Group of Stories of American Indians 42 

James W. Gordon. Reminiscences of Old Yellow Banks 54 

Miss Jessie J. Kile. Duden and his Critics 63 

Miss Frances Morehouse. Jesse W. Fell 71 

B. F. Harris. The Story of the Banker-Farmer Movement 77 

Frank R. Grover. Indian Treaties Affecting Land§ in the present State 

■ of Illinois 84 


Francis O'Shaughnessy. General James Shields of Illinois 113 

General James Shields as a Poet 123 

Harriet N. Warren Dodson. The Warrens of Warrenville 124 

Polly Sumner Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, Quincy, 

Illinois Historical Papers for 1912 138 

Blanche Peters. Class Poem, Alton, Illinois High School, 1912 182 

Index 187 

List of Publications 211 



Honorary President. 
Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

^ Third Vice President. 

Eichaed Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 


Edmund J. James^ President, University of Illinois . Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President, Illinois College .... Jacksonville 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State JSTormal University 


William A. Meese Moline 

Eichard Y. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, JSTorthern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Po'lo 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History^' may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds 
of material: 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely -to be 
achieved through the co-operation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such co-operation and mutual undertaking 
that this society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this 
publication the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 




Section 1. The name of this society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and stimu- 
late a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage historical 
research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect and 
preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of Illinois 
and its peoples. 


Section 1. The management of the affairs of this society shall be 
vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which bo^rd the president of the 
society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a president and as manv vice-presidents, not 
less than three, as the society may determine at the annual meetings. 
The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, shall 
elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and shall have 
power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and committees 
as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently to 
promote the objects for which this society has been formed and to this 
end they shall have power: 

• (1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 

(3) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions 
as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of' historic interest as 
may bear upon the histor\^ of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, inanuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 25, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the society. They mav adopt by-laws 
not inconsistent with this constitution for the management of the affairs 
of the society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedinsfs, and make report to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in office 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The president shall preside at all meetings of the society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the vice-presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither president nor vice-president 
shall be in attendance, the society may choose a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving upon 
such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescril)ed by 
the society or the board of directors. The treasurer shall keep a strict 
account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from the 
treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit an 
annual report of the finances of the society and such other matters as 
may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within such 
time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and after auditing 
the same the said board shall submit said report to the society at its 

annual meeting. 


Section 1. The membership of this society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit : Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary, 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archseological research or in the preservation of 
the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of the 
board of directors, be admitted as affiliated members of this societv upon 
the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues as 
active and life members. Every societv so admitted shall be entitled to 


one duly credited representative at each meeting of the society, who shall, 
during the period of his appointment, be entitled as such representative 
to all the privileges of an active member except that of being elected to 
oflSce; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative becoming an 
active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this society, ma}^, upon recommendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary' and corresponding members shall have the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the society, 


Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers, and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the society may be called by the board 
of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the president or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 


Section 1. The constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the secretary to 
all the members of the society. 





(Members please read this circular letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co-operative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to the great rebellion, and 
the wars with the Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps 
and charts; engravings; photographs; autographs; coins; antiquities; 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical works. Especially do we 


^ .1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; materials for Illinois history ; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and public 
men of every county, either living jor deceased, together with their por- 
traits and autographs; a sketch of the settlements of every township, 
village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first settlers. 
We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade ; maps of cities and plats 
of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; rail- 
road reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 
ents, and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and papers 
of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 


6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State legislatures; earlier Governor's messages and reports of 
State officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date ; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery; paintings; -portraits, etc., connected Avith Illinois 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins; medals; paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc. ; sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements ; also, stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the library and societ)^, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 


Record of Official Proceedings 



SOCIETY, MAY 13-14, 1915. 

The annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society was held 
in the Supreme Court Chamber in the Illinois State Supreme Court 
Building at Springfield, on Thursday and Friday, May 13-14, 1915. 

The president of the society, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, presided at all 

The annual business meeting of the society was held on Friday 
morning when reports of officers and committees were presented and 
the annual election of officers was held. There were no changes in the 
officers. The program as published was carried out. The annual ad- 
dress was delivered by Eabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Chicago. The subject 
of Dr. Hirsch's address was '^Historical Thinking.'' President John W. 
Cook of the Northern Illinois State Normal School at DeKalb delivered 
an address on the life of the late Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson. 

The program as presented is as follows : 

Okdee of Exercises. 

Thursday Morning, May 13, 1915, 10 o'Clock. 

Address — A Group of Stories of American Indians — The Silver Covenant 
Chain; The Story the Medals Tell; Shabbona's Ride — Miss Lotte E. Jones, 
Danville, 111. 

Address — Illinois in the Civil War — Dr. Charles B. Johnson, Cham- 
paign, 111. 

Address — The Relation of Illinois Railroads to the Passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska Act — Professor Frank E. Hodder, University of Kansas, 
LawTence, Kans. 

Thursday Afternoon, 2:30 o'Clock. 

Address — Lake Michigan's Illinois Coast — Mr. J. Seymour Currey, Presi- 
dent Evanston Historical Society, Evanston, 111. 

Address — The Old Confederate Prison at Rock Island, 111. — Mr. Sherman 
W. Searle, Editor Rock Island Union, Rock Island, 111. 

Address — Old Yellow Banks — Mr. James Gordon, Oquawka, 111. 

Address — Duden and His Critics — Miss Jessie J. Kile, University of 
Illinois. , 

Thursday Evening, 8 o'Clock. 
Annual Address — Historical Thinking — Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch, Chicagt). 

Friday Morning, 9 o'Clock. 
Directors' Meeting in the office of the Secretary of the Society. 
10 o'clock — Business Meeting of the Society in the Supreme Court Room. 

Reports of Officers. 

Reports of Committees. 

Miscellaneous Business. 

Election of Officers. 


Frioay Afternoon. 2:30 o'Clock. 

Address — Jesse W. Fell — Miss Frances Morehouse, Normal, 111. 

Address — The Banker-Farmer Movement for a Better Agriculture and 
Rural Life — Mr. B. F. Harris. Champaign, 111. 

Address — Indian Treaties Affecting Lands in the Present State of Illi- 
nois — Mr. Frank R. Grover, Evanston, 111. 

Frid.w Evening, 8 o"Clock. 

Address — The Life and Services of Adlai E. Stevenson — President John 
W. Cook. Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 111. 

Address — The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln — Mr. Henry R. Rath- 
bone, Chicago. 



MAY, 14, 1915. 

The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was held in the Supreme Court Building, Friday morning, May 1-i, 1915, 
Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, presiding. 

The secretary read her report. Approved. Placed on file. 

Captain Burnham asked that report be made of a motion which has 
been passed by the directors in relation to a meeting of this committee 
before the Appropriation Committee of the State Legislature on Wed- 
nesday next. 

I)r. Schmidt suggested that a vote of thanks be given to Judge Cart- 
wright and his associates in permitting the society to use the Supreme 
Court room for the annual meeting. This suggestion was adopted. 

Dr. Johnson moved that a vote of thanks be given to the ladies who 
designed the basket of flowers used for the decoration of the room. Dr. 
Schmidt proposed that it be photographed. Seconded. Carried. 

Captain Burnham submitted the report of the society's Gr. A. E. 
Committee. Approved. Placed on file. 

Dr. Greene spoke of the work of the library in the past 3^ear in 
publishing historical material, dwelling especially on the work in the 
archives of the 102 counties of the State. 

Mrs. Weber submitted the report of the Treasurer, and explained 
that as the fiscal year was confusing to some of the members of the 
societ}^, it was decided some time ago to change back to the calendar 
year, and that the report submitted covered the period up to January 1, 
1915. Report: 

Balance on hand $105 00 

Annual dues 523 00 

Total $628 00 

Expenses — 

Postage on Journal $205 00 

Expenses of Trustees 73 85 

Expenses of annual meeting, reception, speakers, etc... 208 75 

Total expenses. . • 487 60 

Balance on hand $140 40 

Dr. Schmidt moved that the report of the Treasurer be received and 
placed on file. Motion carried. 

Miss Georgia L. Osborne read the report of the Genealogical €om-. 
mittee. Approved. Placed on file. 

]\Irs. Weber spoke for the Program Committee and of tlie hcl|> re- 
ceived from members who heretofore, had not shown nuu;-li interest in tbe 

— 2 H S 


Dr. Schmidt suggested that Eabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Chicago, be 
made au honorary member of the society. Tliis was done. 

Mr. Eussel moved that the constitution of the society be consid- 
ered anew and that a committee consisting of Dr. Schmidt, Captain 
Burnham, Prof. Page and Dr. Eammelkamp be appointed to examine 
same and report at next annual meeting. 

Prof. iPage spoke on Mr. Eussel's motion and said the committee 
should look into the constitution and method of procedure of the society 
and if there was any change that should be made, to note it, and report 
to the next meeting of the society. 

Dr. Schmidt asked that some one make the motion that Mr. Eussel 
be made a member of the committee also. Motion made. Seconded. 

Capt. Burnham made some remarks relating to the past and 
future of the society and spoke of writing a paper on same for the next 
meeting of the society. . 

Mrs. Weber spoke of the gift to the society of a valuable letter from 
Benjamin Godfrey to Theron Baldwin, dated Yandalia, 1837. Pre- 
sented to the Illinois State Historical Society May 14, 1915, by Mrs. 
Martha Gilson Herdmann and asked Prof. Eammelkamp to give a short 
history of Mr. Godfrey. 

Prof. Eammelkamp gave a short talk on Benjamin Godfrey and 
Theron Baldwin, telling of their work in founding Monticello Semin- 
ary, etc. 

Dr. Schmidt asked that a vote of thanks be given to the donor of 
the letter. Motion offered. Carried. 

Mr. Perrin spoke of the invitation of the Chicago Commercial Asso- 
ciation to the Illinois State Historical Society to hold the next annual 
meeting in Chicago and asked that it might be taken up by the Board 
of Directors. 

Dr. Schmidt spoke of the invitation and said it might be decided 
to hold the next meeting of the society in some town of historic interest, 
not Chicago. 

Capt. Burnham gave a short talk on Fort Gage or Fort.Kaskaskia. 

Mr. Hauberg moved that officers be elected. 

Gov. Yates asked if any further action had been taken by the com- 
mittee with the legislature in reference to the appropriation for the new 
historical building. 

Dr. Schmidt asked if the question might be delayed until the elec- 
tion of officers, and while the Nominating Committee was out. 

Gov. Yates preferred to speak at once. He spoke of the danger the 
bill for the appropriation for the building was in and urged every one 
of the members to do everything they could to help. 

Dr. Schm.idt told of a conference with noted architects and of their 
plans for the new building. He urged the influential members_ to get 
together and appear before the legislature and make as strong an impres- 
sion as possible. 

Mr. Hauberg moved that the officers of the society for the coming 

year be nominated. 

Mr. Perrin moved that the officers for the past year be declared re- 
elected, that the secretary cast the ballot. Seconded. Carried. 


This the secretary did and the officers were declared duly elected. 

Dr. Schmidt thanked the members of the society for his reelection 
and spoke of the work for tlie society. He also spoke of the work of the 
Centennial Commission and of the preparation of the six volumes of 
Illinois history to be finished by the time of the Centennial celebration. 

Mrs. MiJler inquired after the liealth of the honorary president 
Hon. Clark E. Carr. 

Dr. Schmidt spoke of the poor health of the honorary president 
which prevented him from attending the meeting and tendered Mr. 
Carr's good wishes for the success of the meeting. 

Mrs. Miller moved that the society send Mr. Carr greetings and tell 
him that he was missed at the meeting, these greetings to be sent by 
letter. Motion seconded. Carried. 

Meeting adjourned until afternoon. 


Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 


E umm 




(By John W. Cook, President, Northern Illinois State Normal School.) 
Within a little more than three years Illinois will have rounded out 
a full century of history as a State in the American Union. This is a 
short period, however, in the long perspective of civilization. At its 
beginning there was a square mile of breathing room for every inhabi- 
tant; at its close there was less than a hundredth as much; then, Illinois 
was the twenty-fourth of twenty-seven states in population ; now, it is the 
third of forty-eight. There are two-thirds as many people in Illinois 
in the year of grace 1915, as there were in the United States in 1818. 
However remarkable the material development of these hurrying 
years may have been, and it has far surpassed the wildest dreams of the 
founders of the commonwealth, it can be regarded as of value only to the 
degree that it has contributed to the evolution of a superior race of men 
and women. Favorable physical conditions are essential to the pro- 
duction of the best type of citizenship, but the latter does not follow of 
necessity from the former. A high-minded people is the product of spir- 
itual energies that have been permitted to have their way in the deter- 
mination of the character of what we call the civilization of the time. 
These energies manifest themselves under the form of certain social, 
political and religious ideas that organize the activities of men and 
women into the visible, concrete methods of everyday thought and every- 
day life. What these ideas shall be and how they shall work out the 
destinies of states is determined in the largest part by the social, polit- 
ical and religious leaders that by a natural selection have attained the 
"seats of the mighty.^' It is the leaders who have attracted the atten- 
tion of the people, who have their ears, and are therefore able to strike 
keynotes. They rally the masses around definite standards, for in the 
differing opinions of men there would be slight coherency and unity of 
purpose if certain central conceptions were not accented and lifted into 
battle cries. They largely furnish the arguments for this or that view 
and these contentions are heard or read and are dwelt upon in personal 
reflection and social interchange of opinion. They build signal fires 
on high summits as danger beacons so that the minds of men shall not 
become dull and heavy and inert. They become individual embodiments 
of common convictions, the voices by means of which these convictions 
become articulate and forceful, the instruments through which the social 
order utilizes to the large advantage of the many the insight and far 
vision of the few. These men and women appear in the storm and stress 
and need of society. They render their inestimable service and in the 
fullness of time they lie down to richly won rest. We who have gath- 
ered harvests of their sowing, who have felt the clasp of their warm 
hands, who gratefully follow with dim eyes the receding sails that sink 
below the distant horizon, try in our poor way to record the story of 


otf thenu '' ''' '"'"' *'''"' '"'^ '•'^''''' ^" ^''^*^''- ^'^''^''' ^^'^ '^'^^ ''^ 

in u-l^'r -f'T^l*' J' ^'"''^'1' ','"•■ ''" ^"'^^ '""'^ clet.nnined l.v the regard 
m \^hidi it holds those who liave served it well and laithfuirv. A .^euer- 
ous race will dwell upon their virtues and will honor then/in song and 
stoiy. It will employ their acliievements to inspire the voung with hidi 
CIVIC pride and exalted conceptions of citizenship. History i. one of the 
noblest of the teachers of mankind and its office is best performed 
through the two great forms of biography. Autobiography in a most 
2-evealing way exhibits those interactions of men and events out of which 
ciiaracter logically emerges; the more common form displays the impres- 
sion made upon those who endeavor to find a fair rating of tho4 of 
whom they write. Happily we have both sources from which to draw 
m dealing with the subject of this sketch. Personalities are so concrete 
so tangib e they so reflect the spirit of their time, as it works itself out 
by Its embodiment in the actions of men, that every historic peoj^le care- 
fully treasures for its children in large and grateful measure the stories 
ot its leaders and gives them a permanent place in its annals. 

I trust that I may be pardoned a further word by way of introduc- 
tion. In centering our thought upon a single character and endeavorino- 
to render him that recognition to which he is justly entitled, it is wisS 
to disc-over the especial field of service which gave him his opportunity 
and which furnishes the standards for the judgments of his fellow men 
it he has won only local distinction one set of estimates will be em- 
ployed. If the field is coterminous with that of the State another 
standard must be employed. If he has risen to national prominence it 
IS evident that he must be viewed from a wider anale, as he will be called 
upon to balance larger counterweights in the scales that are held by the 
blindfolded goddess. Moreover, as men succeed men in places of ■<Teat 
honor and corresponding responsibilities, there are inevitable compari- 
sons and consequent judgments. Let us trust that the volumes that issue 
from this admirable society shall be far more than mere tributes of 
affection, manifestations of local pride, or exliibitions of indiscriminate 
hero worship. They should have all of the reliability possible under 
conditions of nearness, intimate association, and warm" personal regard. 
The suljject of this brief sketch was distinguished locally; he attained 
such prominence in the State of his adoption as to be the candidate of 
his party for the most conspicuous office within its gift ; he twice repre- 
sented his district in the Xational Congress; his supreme achievement 
was his promotion to a position in which only a single life intervened 
between him and the noblest political dignity within the gift of men. 
It thus appears that he is to be estimated not from a single point of view 
but from many and it is in these successive stages of final development 
that we are to see the explanation of the ultimate character that con- 
ducted itself with such charming dignity and grace as to win the admir- 
ation of all who knew him. 


Adlai Ewing Stevenson was born in Christian County, Kentucky, 
on the 23d day of October, 1835. He helonged to the Scotch-Irish race 
and was thus handicapped at the beginning of his career with the respon- 
sibility of living up to the repute of that distinouished body of immi- 


focat on ^^7^J^re lowand Scotch by descent and Irish by territorial 
ocation \Uthm the three-quarters of a century between 1650 and 
17.0 theie M^as a hberal emigration of that vigorous stock from their 
ancien home o the County of Ulster, in IrelaSd. There was ne^^r . 
drop ot Irish blood m their veins. Indeed, the main relation wlic^rtles 
two peoples bore to each other was that of perpetual hostility Thev 
were at one m their admiration of the militant spirit and won the 

st^^lf t f if °'''J\f ^T'" ''''''^'^ ^*' '''''' ^^^^1- Thev were he 
steadta..t ollowers ot the retormation leaders, adored Calvin and Knox 

were Pi-esbyterians to a man, took their convictions of whatever charactev 

thoroughly to heart and actually lived upon their religious ideas. Pe5 st 

. cution by those about them led them to abandon their old home and take 

t leir k nfolk. Wherever they have gone in the new world thev have 
1 lustrated m a wonder ul way the value of adherence to great ic eas n 
all of the real issues of life. So remarkable has been the career of these 
men of Ulster that whenever there has appeared a oreat leader noui 
American life there has been a half suspicion that if v(^i w e to -4^-a^ch 
his skm you would find a Scotch-Irishman under it." It would buSen 
this page to mention a tithe of the illustrious names that grace our annal^ 
and whose bearers claim this distinguished descent 

In addition to this good fortune in the wav of forbears Mr Steven- 
son also had ancestors who shouldered flint-lock muskets in tho«e far- 
away days when the great republic was in the process of makino- and 
opposed their untrained valor to the disciplined soldierv of the old" land 
that step-mothered rather than mothered her colonies, ^o one could be 
indifferent to so proud a heritage and it had rich and significant mean- 
ing to a high-spirited youth to be the bearer of ancestral honors. 


In his early youth his parents removed from Kentucky to Illinois. 
Will some acute and discerning analyst explain the fondness with which 
the na ive-born people of that old commonwealth revert to birth and 
even a brief early residence within its borders? It is quite possible that 
the social cleavage gave to the superior class a sense of self-respect, a 
noblesse oblige quality, which clings to them wherever they go It does 
not render them difficult of approach nor exclusive in their l^ociations 
}et there is about it a suggestion of "qualitv-folk" that is genuinelv 
attractive, ^or is it aristocratic nor undemocratic, if the two words do 
not mean the same thing. It suggests the better aspect of the cavalier ; 
It has the flavor of the chivalric attitude toward women. It holds as 
legitimate and desirable a social idealism unregarded bv the Puritan 
and indeed associated by him with a system against which he violently 
reacted. It is an especially admirable trait of character for one who 
has much to do with a cosmopolitan society, for it protects him from 
undue familiarity on one hand and enables him to hold his balance 
with serenity under the most conventionalized conditions on the other 
His parents selected Bloomington, Illinois, as their home. They 
tound a little city m the heart of the opulent com belt.' They could not 
Jiave chosen more wisely. It is a region of unsurpassed fertilitv The 
climate is favorable to the most vigorous physical and intellectual activ- 


ity. Men of note were already there, men wlio were to win notal)le pages 
for themselves in the annals of the State and of the nation. The schools 
were not without merit and not long after their arrival an institution of 
higher learning opened is doors to kindle the ambition of youth. He 
availed himself of the opportunities at hand and to his great advantage. 
He subsequently returned to his native state and spent two years at 
Center College, at Danville. Each of these experiences left its mark 
upon his character and the latter especially affected his destiny in a 
remarkable way, for the charming woman who was to be his constant 
inspiration and inseparable companion in the varying experiences of his 
subsequent life was the daughter of the president of the institution. 

His early life in Kentucky, his family trainingr, his return to the 
home of his childhood and the associations of his college life at a highly 
impressionable age taught him certain of the social arts that are more 
notably accented and more highly prized in the South than in the less 
conventional North. He had now enjoyed for a time a taste of those 
liberating cultures of which so much was made in the last century in 
nearly or quite all of the institutions of higher training. It was prob- 
ably due to this happy circumstance that he developed that extreme fond- 
ness for the noblest literature which he so transparently displayed 
through the years of his intensest activity and Avhich he so freely indulged 
in the later years of his honorable retirement from public duties. 

Because of the death of his father he was unable to complete his 
college course. He was called to his home in Bloomington to Assume the 
responsible duties of aiding in the support of his widowed mother and 
her children, w^ho were inadequately supplied with material resources. 
He sacrificed his dreams of a more liberal culture through lonoer contact 
wdth those ample sources of learning that have so generously enriched the 
world, but the impulse that made him a college student never lost its 
energ}-. To the end of his long life he sought the companionship of 
books and thus enjoyed the ministry of those rare spirits whose luster 
brightens from age to age. It was a sobering task that awaited him, 
but it was undertaken courageously and accomplished successfully. Who 
shall say that in the light of his later life it was not as well as to have 
lingered longer in those academic associations that are so delightful in 
retrospect but not always so tempering in their effects. ]\Ieanwhile 
he was prosecuting his study of the law. He began his reading with Hon. 
Eobert E. Williams, of the firm of Williams, Cord and Dent, in June, 
1857, and continued it until June, 1858, and was shortly after admitted 
to the bar. 

He was fortunate in his tutor. Mr. Williams was a college graduate 
and a classmate of Hon. James G. Blaine. He was an admirable lawyer 
and continued in practice for many years, having opportunity on fre- 
quent occasions to test the excellence of his instruction by crossing 
swords with his former pupils. It was Mr. Stevenson's happy fortune, 
while serving his first term in Congress, to hand to j\Ir. Blaine, who sat 
just across the aisle from him, a letter of introduction from Mr. Wil- 
liams, which marked the beginning of a long friendship between the two 

As this young man stands at the beginning of his active professional 
career he possesses the promise and potency of what he was to l^ecome. 


At no time in his life was there any striking transformation of character. 
He exhibited a persistent growth in the qualities that marked him as a 
young man. To one who has spent his life in attempting to aid young 
people in the realization of their inherent possibilities a study of this 
sort is peculiarly engaging. Inheritance, early environment, the later 
play of social forces, the awakening of new ambitions, the coming to con- 
sciousness of already formed preferences of alignment — preferences un- 
consciously formed ordinarily — are full of meaning. Throughout my 
long acquaintance with him I was always impressed with the shaping 
influences of these experiences upon him. At twenty-three he was a 
striking figure physically. He had an erect carriage, a grace of move- 
ment that appeared in an alert and characteristic walk, a peculiarly at- 
tractive courtliness of manner, that accounted in large part for his 
remarkable personal popularity, and a certain dignity of character that 
suggested a sense of worth and self-respect. 

There are other considerations that belong to the shaping period of 
his life and that merit consideration in order that his successes may be 
more easily understood. The old method of preparing for the practice of 
law was radically different from the modern method of the law school. 
He followed the custom of enrolling with a lawyer of repute and pur- 
suing his studies with the occasional assistance of his tutor when it was 
most needed. Often certain clerical duties were performed by the 
student in return for the privilege of this procedure. There was thus 
afforded an opportunity for a somewhat close association with practicing 
attorneys and a practical cast was given to the period of study that could 
not be acquired in any other way. Furthermore, the office of a promi- 
nent lawyer was the rallying point of the most active minds of the com- 
munity, for in those days of intense political partisanship every lawyer 
was an ex officio politician. Thither went the men of state and national 
repute to confer with their lieutenants with regard to the management 
of campaigns and the capable student was often thrown into relations of 
a personal character with men whose acquaintance not infrequently 
proved to be of great subsequent value, for it is not to be forgotten that 
many of these splendid fellows were staunch followers of the political 
captains and the latter were glad enough to avail themselves of their 
loyal assistance. Nor was the student excluded altogether from the 
inevitable conferences of the members of the finn when some case of 
marked importance was approaching trial or was occupying the attention 
of the court. He was a highly convenient assistant to aid in the minor 
details of the preparation of a case. He was thus anticipating his own 
later experiences and supplementing in large fashion the meager require- 
ments of admission a half century ago. 

Another consideration that should not be overlooked is the character 
of the books that were prescribed by authority as an essential prepara- 
tion for practice. These were few in number but were acknowledged 
classics. Within the narrower limits of a professional scholarship they 
correspond to those noble masterpieces whose study was for centuries 
regarded as indispensable to the attainment of superior culture. The 
modern method of practice was impossible and fortunately so for the 
production of the highest type of legal scholarship. Precedent had not 
then become the determining principle of a law suit. Ample libraries 


furnishe.1 witli the decisions of the courts in the various states were ex- 
tremely rare No sooner does the modern lawyer reduce his ease to its 
elements and discover the exact location of the crucial conflict than he 
begms a search of the announcements of the courts in similar cases and 
equipped with these opinions, he submits his contentions and their a-^- 
sumed support to the trial judge. I need not discuss the probable effect 
of well chosen instances. But in those early years of the fifties and the 
sixties the practice of the law was rather the application of orcat le^al 
principles to particular instances. The masters of jurisprudence were 
the authors to whom the student turned to discover the fundamental con- 
ceptions by which justice is to be secured among men. Such writers 
were M'ell worth study even by those who had no thought of the conten- 
tions of the courts of law, but desired onlv that breadth of culture that 
comes Irom contact with noble minds. Thev added to their insight into 
the final principles that underlie stable societv the rich charm of an 
exquisite style. One wonders how it was that the limited curriculum of 
the Athenian school could in any way account for the marvelous civiliza- 
tion of the Periclean Age, but when he remembers that the Greek youth 
ted his mmd upon the supreme literary achievement of all time the 
mystery begms to dissolve. Similarly, the law student of three score 
years ago not only touched intellectual elbows with the greatest of le^al 
authorities but read and reread their masterpieces until thev were a part 
of his mental tissue. There is no better method for the production of 
largemmded men. It is reported of Mr. James S. Ewincr, one of the 
most capable lawyers that ever practiced at the Bloomington bar that he 
was asked respecting the law in a certain case. "I have not examined 
the statute," he replied, "but I know what it ought to be and that is 
probably what it is." 

Still another consideration should be recalled. There was at this 
time the intensest interest with regard to the greatest political question 
that ever divided the opinions of the American people. It is quite im- 
possible for the present generation to understand the warmth of feelino- 
with regard to the subject of slavery. There was no village that was too 
small for opposing partisans. There was a forum wherever men met 
and the air was filled with the voices of disputants engaged in hot debate. 
In the shop, the store, the street, on. railway trains, even at the doors of 
churches the stock arguments, pro and con, were reiterated. Never again 
in the history of this people can a political question so unite those hav- 
ing a common faith or so separate those of differing opinions. Churches 
were rent asunder by the only question that men cared to talk about. 
Old friends became enemies if they could not find a ground of agreement 
here. Old compromises through which opportunists hoped to patch up. 
a peace by pretending to accept what nobody really believed, were rent 
asunder and thrown to the four winds with supreme scorn. The critical 
epoch of American life had come and there was henceforward to be no 
possible harmony of sentiment short of the unqualified triumph of one 
contention and the complete surrender of the other. The greatest minds 
of the country were at variance with regard to a method of settlement. 
The nol)lest orators that ever gave distinction to law-making bodies 
poured forth their fiery eloquence with impassioned fervor. In all of the 
history of controversial discussion no literature was ever produced that 


surpassed it. The Philippics of Demosthenes have by the common judg- 
ment of mankind been regarded as supreme oratory but they merit no 
liigher rank than many of the passionate pleas that entranced a listening 
senate or thrilled the thousands of plain j)eople that crowded to the 
hustings. In that great game of politics no one sat on the side lines. It 
was a superb school in which the young lawyer could try his mettle and 
prepare himself for notable conflicts at the bar. 

It was in the midst of this social turinoil, this time of storm and 
stress, that this young man of twenty-three began the practice of the law. 
In the summer of 1858 he removed to Metamora, the county seat of an 
adjoining county, Avhere he was to remain for the succeeding ten years. 
His coming into the little community which he had chosen for his home 
was distinctly an event in its history. Although the county was sparsely 
settled and schools were few and means of transportation were practic- 
ally limited to tlie saddle-horse and the wagon, there was a good degree of 
intelligence, a native shrewdness, a discriminating judgment among the 
people. j\Iany a man who signed his name with a cross held not incon- 
siderable estates that he had won by his own sagacity and was regarded 
with warm respect by his neighbors. The newspaper and the book were 
yet to assume much of the dignity with which the later years have 
crowned them. The county seat was several miles from the nearest rail- 
road, but cases were not unknown to its tribunal that attracted to the 
little village the ablest lawyers of central and northern Illinois. The 
])residing judges were capable men and well versed in the law. Eobert (t. 
Ingersoll, already famous for the lirilliancy of his wit, the eloquence of 
his arguments and the breadth of his legal knowledge, was a familiar 
figure in the little court room. One Abraham Lincoln, who lived at the 
capital of the State and rode the Bloomington-Danville circuit, with 
David Davis, Leonard Swett and others of their peers, occasionally found 
himself at Metamora. It was a good place for the young man. He was 
not lacking in political partisanship and the lines were sharply drawn in 
the intensity of the political situation, yet he was so amply endowed with 
tactfuluess and kindliness of spirit that he was scarcely less popular 
with his political opponents than with his political friends. 

It would have been a most interesting experience to gather from 
those charming visits which it was my valued privilege to enjoy, a fuller 
and more deiailed story of his Metamora days. In his "Something of 
Men That I have Known," he describes the country lawyer of threescore 
years ago. Personally he belonged to a somewhat later period, yet he 
was intimately acquainted with many of the actors and thoroughly under- 
stood the spirit of the time. Books were few and were the constant 
companions on the circuit. The modern and familiar law library at 
the county seat may have been a dream of the future but it was not a 
reality of the time. Judges and lawyers were alike pilgi'ims and trav- 
eled together as in ancient Cantcrlniry days. Cases were argued on the 
basis of general i)rineiples rather than by an appeal to precedent as in 
the modern courts of law. The coming to the county seat of a group 
of eminent attorneys was an event to be looked forward to with warm 
interest. When court adjourned for the dav and the wits were fore- 
gathered for an evening of social enjoyment there was a rivalry quite as 
intense as that of the court room l)ut it was far more cordial. It is a 


well-known fact that the lawyer never carries the heat of the trial beyond 
the door. Mr. Stevenson's remarkable skill as a social entertainer must 
have been acquired in large part in the charming encounters of those 
historic evenings. 

The year of his location in Metamora the memorable contest be- 
tween Lincoln and Douglas held the stage in Illinois and was witnessed 
by a breathless audience. From his youth he had been an ardent admirer 
of "The Little Giant." The devotion to political leaders that was so 
characteristic a feature in the days of the quite inconii)arable Henry 
Clay had its parallel in 1858. The political pot was boiling as it had 
never done before. Douglas was seeking re-election as a mark of ap- 
proval by his party of the course that ho had taken in the Kansas- 
Nebraska fight. Every friend put on his armor and sought the tented 
field. With all of the ardor of his enthusiastic nature ]\Ir. Stevenson 
gave himself to the conflict. His candidate was no sooner again in the 
Senate than the contest of 1860 began to fill the horizon. For these two 
years his time was given to politics more than to the practice of his 

His first official position was that of master-in-chancery, to which 
he was appointed by the court early in his career. The duties were dis- 
charged with exceptional skill. In 1864 he was elected to the office of 
State's attorney for the twenty-third judicial district. Under the Con- 
stitution of 1848 the duties of this office covered the judicial district 
hence he was obliged to accompany the circuit judge in his journey to the 
several county seats. This position threw him into close relations with 
the most eminent lawyers in the State. As his later career is kept in 
mind, a career that brought him, as I have said, to within a single step 
of the highest office within the gift of any people, these early experiences 
are seen in a more revealing light. Let the aspiring youth read the les- 
son and treasure its teaching. Fine native gifts, a clear sense of their 
worth, the disciplines of education, the dignity of service, spotless in- 
tegrity, an untiring industry, a profound respect for certain fundamental 
convictions that the race has built into the substructure of a superior 
society — these are elemental qualities that underlie any true success. 
And these are qualities that were easily distinguishable traits in the 
possession of this man while he was yet on the nearside of the thirties, 
the time when men ordinarily have only begun to take on those perman- 
ent forms which are to mark them throughout their lives. 

In 1866 occurred the crowning event of his life. He was married 
to Letitia Green, the daughter of Lewis Warner Green, D. D. At the 
time of her birth her father was president of the Presbyterian Theologi- 
cal Seminary, at Allegheny, Pennsylvania. While she was but a child the 
family removed to Danville, Kentucky, where Dr. Green became the presi- 
dent of Center College. It was while Mr. Stevenson was a student_ at 
that institution that an acquaintance began which ripened into affection 
and lesulted in the marriage of these congenial spirits. It is not easy 
to speak of this gifted woman with the moderation that one should em- 
ploy to avoid seeming extravagance of characterization. She had been 
reared in a cultivated home. The doors of liberal culture had therefore 
been open to her. Her life from childhood to womanhood had been 
spent in the intellectual atmosphere of a college community. Her asso- 


ciatioiis had been mainly with those who were devoting their lives to the 
acquisition and enjoyment of tlie finest things tliat can occupy one's 
attention. She had interested herself in the serious and solid cultures 
rather than in the more superficial accomplishments usually sought by 
those who anticipate social careers. Her experiences had developed that 
sense of personal dignity and worth that are the crown of fine woman- 
hood. She was simple and sincere and able to appreciate worth wherever 
it might manifest itself, though clad in homespun and denied the cul- 
tural disciplines that are often the mark of gentle breeding. She was 
abundantly prepared for any position to which she might be called in 
the large range of our American life. She had followed the leadings of 
her affections and had linked her destinies with those of this young man 
who was making a notable place for himself in the practice of his pro- 
fession. Like him she was destined to distinguish honors. Like him 
she bore those honors with that modesty and charm that have given her 
a permanent and revered position in the traditions of the Daughters of 
the American Eevolution. 

But it was getting to be high time for a change to a more populous 
coninuuiity. Atcer ten years of life at Metamoiu, Mr. Steve :isou re- 
turned to his old home in Bloomington. This event happened upon the 
anniversary of his departure. He at once formed a partnership with his 
cousin, James S. Ewing, a partnership that was to continue for a full 
quarter of a century. Doubtless this was a gratifying change to Mrs. 
Stevenson as well as to him. Social conditions were vastly superior to 
those of the little village which they had left. Members of her own 
family were within easy reach. She now had about her a congenial com- 
pany of people with tastes similar to her own. Here her home was to be 
for the remainder of her life except for the periods when absence was 
necessitated by residence in the capital of the nation. 

Mr. Stevenson had now been in practice for ten years. Doubtless 
there were to be great gains in power and in all of the large resources of 
an accomplished practitioner. Yet enough had been done to give him 
genuine repute and to fit him for the distinguished success that awaited 
him. He was especially fortunate in being associated Avith a man of 
unusual capacity and of rare skill in his profession. It need not be said 
that this firm would be identified with the most prominent litigation that 
fought itself to a conclusion at the Bloomington bar. It was shortly 
after the resumption of his interrupted Bloomington life that I came to 
know him and that a friendship began that continued to the end. While 
not a lawyer, I belonged to a family of lawyers and that helped me to 
indulge my fondness for their companionship. I was a frequenter of the 
courts and a seemingly welcome guest at their offices. It was a most 
gratifying fact that I was also remembered upon those occasions when 
they celebrated their social inclinations by banquets and similar formal- 
ities. I was thus drawn into relations that were personally delightful 
and that gave me a vantage ground to estimate accurately the character 
of whom I am trying to write. I may properly add that I was never a 
member of the political party to which Mr. Stevenson belonged, although 
I cannot recall any .incident in which that was a matter of the slightest 
significance so far as our personal relations were concerned. These 


things are worth saying, perhaps, as the warmth of mv admiration might 
otherwise he explained in part by political considerations. 

As this is the period in liis life in which his thought and energy 
were most exclusively absorbed by the law there is no better place to 
record the estimate which his fellow practitioners placed upon his suc- 
cess. The following quotations are taken from the proceedings of the 
McLean County Bar Association at a meeting held after his death. The 
memorial was prepared by a committee of which Hon. Joseph W. Fifer, 
former governor of Illinois, was chairman. The other members of the 
committee were : Hon. James S. Ewing, former minister to Brussels ; 
Hon. T. C. Kerrick, former State senator; John T. Lillard and Chas. L. 
Capen, long members of the Bloomington Bar. Mr. Capen was for many 
years a law partner of Mr. Williams, with whom Mr. Stevenson prepared 
for admission to the bar. Their judgment must be regarded as a reliable 
measnre of the meed of praise to which he was entitled as a lawver. 


"He was not lono- in winning a iilace in the front ranks of a bar 
distinguished by the number of its able men. It was here (Metamora) 
that he met Judge Eichmond, Judge Barnes, Judge Eead and many 
others of equal ability. It was here, too, that he met Colonel Eobert G. 
Ingersoll, the greatest wit and orator of his time, and a friendship was 
formed between them that ended with the latter's death. 

"Mr. Stevenson's scholarly attainments, his thorough knowledge of 
the law, and, above all, his kindness of heart and his genial disposition, 
brought him l)oth business and friends. He was soon regarded as the 
most popular young man in that portion of the State. He was appointed 
master-in-chancery and later was elected State's attorney of his judicial 
district and the able and faithful manner in which he discharged the' 
duties of these important positions was the subject of private and public 
comment long after he left the county. 

"His increasing knowledge of the law, his growing business, and 
above all, his expanding intellect caused him to seek a wider field for the 
exercise of his genius. He returned to Bloomington and began a legal 
and political career unequaled by any other citizen of our county. 

"Deeplv versed in the best English literature, and a profound student 
of the law, he soon became recognized as one of the ablest lawyers in 
the State. As a lawyer he was profound rather than technical. He 
cared nothing for mere forms, but everything for substance. As an 
advocate he had few equals and no superiors at the bar and there are 
adversaries now living who can remember the dread and anxiety experi- 
enced by them as he rose to deliver the closing address in a hotly con- 
tested case. 

"Our friend was not only a successful lawyer, but he understood and 
appreciated the dignity of the profession of which he was so great an 
ornament, and he looked to the law as a means by which our free insti- 
tutions are to be perpetuated and the rights and liberties of the individ- 
ual citizen protected. 

"In a public ntterance, he said: 'It is all important, never more so 
than now, that the people should magnify the law. Outrages have been 
perpetrated in the name of justice appalling to all thoughtful men. It 


need hardly be said that all of this is a total disregard of individual rights 
and utterly subversive of lawful authority. In the solemn adjudication 
of courts and under the safeguards of law, the fact of guilt is to be 
established and the guilty punished. The sure rock of defense in the 
outstretched years as in the long past will be the intelligence, the patriot- 
ism, the virtue of a law-abiding, liberty loving peoy'Te. To a degi-ee that 
cannot be measured by words, the temple of justice will prove a city of 
refuge. The judiciary has no guards, no palaces, no treasuries, no arms 
but truth and wigdom, and no splendor but justice.' " 

But it was not as a lawyer that he was to win his greatest eminence. 
Indeed it is the good or ill fortune of the members of that noble profes- 
sion that they are generally denied the wide celebrity that their abilities 
merit. They assist in writing into the decisions of courts great deter- 
mining principles of equity, 3^et their names are not associated with the 
imperishable safeguards of the social order which they have done most 
to establish as a part of the law of the land. While he was fitted both 
by natural gifts and by specific training for high repute in the most dig- 
nified of professions, he was more highly fitted for the life to which the 
logic of events irresistibly drew him. 

It is not probable that Mr. Stevenson had an eye to political prefer- 
ment when he returned to Bloomington. The congressional district was 
overwhelmingly republican. It was a time of great unrest, however, and 
a consequent loosening of political ties. In 1874 he was solicited to 
become the candidate of his party for Congress. It seemed a forlorn 
hope, 3^et he obeyed the call. The campaign was an intense one and 
there were far too many exhibitions of the possibilities of the English 
language when employed as a vehicle of abuse. His self-control and 
masterful diplomacy were never more thoroughly illustrated. He 
seemed never to forget that those who w^ere now in the heat of conflict 
were neighbors who held and were to hold each other in high esteem 
and that when the tides of passion returned to the calm level of reason, 
the old relations were to be resumed. He was elected by a good major- 
ity and in December, 1875, he took his seat in the National House of 
Eeprescntatives. A memorable period in the history of the country was 
to follow hard upon his entrance into legislative halls. 

Mr. Stevenson found himself a member of a most notable group. 
The political penalties that had been inflicted npon the South were 
mainly removed. Instead of the carpet-baggers of the days of reconstruc- 
. tion, several of the most able of the native-born sons were in their old 
places in Congress. He was now in the full tide of his matured powers 
and- ready to make the most of the situation. It was a rare privilege 
that he was enjoying. He was not only to witness but to be a partici- 
pant in one of the dramatic contests that looked toward the restoration 
of the South to its old place in the Government. The general amnesty 
bill was on the stage. The great leaders on the Republican side were 
Blaine and Garfield and on the Democratic side were Hill of Georgia, 
and Lamar. His impressions of this battle of the giants may be under- 
stood bv his remark that "this great debate vividly recalled that of AVeb- 
ster and Hayne in the other wing of the capitol nearly a hnlf century 
before." He was also present at the impeachment trial of General Bel- 

— 3 H S 


knap and thus became acquainted with the distinguished lawyers for 
the defense as well as with the no less distinguished members of the 
House who conducted the case. 

But the second session of this Congress had a far more serious 
proposition on its hands. For the first time in the history of the 
country there were two claimants for the ofKce of president. Hayes 
and Tilden had been the candidates of the great parties. The time was 
approaching for the casting of the electoral vote and for its counting 
by the regularly constituted authority of the nation. In the states of 
Louisiana and Florida the electoral vote was claimed by both of the 
candidates. Unfortunately the parties were so nearly balanced that 
these votes were decisive elements in the electoral college. Only those 
who lived at that time are now capable of understanding the state of 
political opinion throughout the country. Each side boldly charged the 
other with a deliberate attempt to steal the presidency. It was evident 
that the founders of the Government had never anticipated such a con- 
tingency as had now appeared. The Eepublicans were in a majority 
in the Senate and the Democrats in the House. Each of the two parties 
held certificates from both of these states. Who would pass upon their 
validity in the final count and announcement ? In the former cases in 
which there had been a failure to elect by the popular vote no alarm 
•was felt as the constitution plainly provided for such a possibility and 
the House of Eepresentatives peacefully determined the matter. It 
therefore l^eeam'e necessary to provide a specific enactment for a new 
authority to settle the controverted question. In consequence the his- 
toric electoral commission came into being and the country drew the first 
long breath that it had been permitted to draw for several months. 

The commission was constituted, Mr. Stevenson being an earnest 
advocate of the measure. It heard the evidence in the case and at the 
last moment rendered its decision. It was inevitable that the defeated 
side would have in its membership hot-heads that would oppose the 
conclusions. Mr. Til den's friends were firmly of the opinion that he 
had been legally elected and were convinced that he was being deprived 
of Avhat was rightfully his, and they were disposed to resist to any ex- 
tremity acquiescence in so unjust a decision. Happily there were men 
enough and of sufficient influence in the Democratic membership of 
Congress to prevent the gravest of all possible calamities, a resort to 
force. One of these sane and patriotic leaders was Mr. Stevenson. Al- 
though feeling that Mr. Tilden was suffering injustice by the decision of 
the commission, he stood unqualifiedly by its action. He had advocated 
the method of determining the issue and he urged every patriot to frown 
upon any attempt to interfere with a plan that had been agi-eed upon by 
a clear majority of the members after free and full deliberation. He 
could not convince himself that the conclusion had been reached without 
political bias but, however he might deplore a surrender of principle to 
partisan policv, he, could not be guilty of a breach of agi'eement. His 
closing words were as follows: "Let this vote be now taken and let the 
curtain fall upon these scenes forever. To those wdio believe, as I do, 
that a grievous wrong has been suffered, let me entreat that this arbi- 
trament^ be abided in" good faith, that no hindrance or delay be inter- 
posed to the execution "of the law. but that by faithful adherence to its 


mandates, by honest efforts to revive the prostrate industries of the 
coimtrv, by obedience to the constituted authorities 'we will show our- 
selves patriots rather than partisans in the hour of our country's mis- 

Mr. Stevenson treasured to the close of his life the friendships that 
were formed during his membership of the Forty-fourth Congress. The\- 
were by no means confined to his own side of the House. Blaine and 
Garfield were the most conspicuous members on the Republican side and 
both won his warm admiration and high personal regard. There is no 
loom to recite the roll of distinguished members of the House and Sen- 
ate with whom he was thrown into the most cordial relationship and the 
qualities that had given him his marked popularity in his western life 
could not but produce a similar result in this brilliant company of 
selected men sent here because of their superior capacity and attractive 

At the expiration of this Congress, Mr. Stevenson retired from the 
office of Eepresentative and resumed the practice of law. He good- 
naturedly alludes to the fact as due to. circumstances over which he had 
no control. But he was soon to return. Two years later he defeated 
Hon. Thomas F. Tipton, who had been his successful competitor in 187(3. 
He found that many of his associates of two years before had disappeared 
and that in their places strange faces appeared. A few that had been 
elected to the Forty-fifth Congress had already risen to prominence. 
Mr. Carlisle of Kentucky, Mr. Kiefer of Ohio, and Mr. Reed of Maine, 
were three of them. It Avas at this time that he formed the acquaint- 
ance of Mr. McKinley and that the friendship began that was continued 
through the life of the latter. He was especially drawn to this inter- 
esting man and the admiration Avas mutual. One of the earliest acts of 
President McKinley was the appointment of Mr. Stevenson as a member 
of the bimetallic commission to Europe. 

Retiring from Coneiess on March 4, 1881, he was again at work 
on his briefs for the succeeding four years. The law is a jealous mis- 
tress and resents any variations of admiration and devotion. A certain 
habit of mind is essential to superior success and breaks in the con- 
tinuity of practice ordinarily make a return to it difficult, yet so in- 
grained were these essentials of thought and practice that in the inter- 
A^als of political life he dro])ped into, line and resumed with -ardor and 
success the old calling. The old sign was at the door and the old desk 
in the office. But his life as a private citizen was again interrupted. 
In 1885 the Democratic party returned to power after a quarter of 
century of waiting. The election of 1884 had resulted in the elevation 
of Grover Cleveland to the presidency. The pressure for office can bet- 
ter be imagined than described. The number of conspicuous positions 
can never be very in the essential nature of things. There is one 
group of places, however, that furnished many thousands of opportuni- 
ties for aspiring patriots to serve their country and with no especial 
hazard to life or limb. The emoluments vary from a small honorarium 
to a fair living compensation for a frugal citizen. The determination of 
the beneficiaries rested with the first assistant postmaster general, for 
he selected the fourth class postmasters. For every individual case 
there were many applicants. It was clear that one office for one man 


was a logical limitation. It is clear that if there were ten applications 
apiece there would be nine dissatisfied applicants in each instance. Where 
was the man who had the ability to satisfy the nine that a peculiar piece 
of good fortune had come to them in falling short of their ambition? 
President Cleveland has been credited with the peculiar gift of 
surpassing skill in fitting the man to the place. Here was by far the 
most difficult position in his administration. If in granting one, nine 
were to be estranged, then the power of appointing fourth-class post- 
masters was to be a fatal grant of sovereignty. He felt the need of all 
of the skill at his command in making the selection. Fortunately, he 
knew Mr. Stevenson. The remarkable tact of that distinguished citi- 
zen was to be a party asset. He undertook the task and called to his 
aid a young man whom he not only thoroughly knew, but who had 
profited by intimate association with himself. William Duff Haynie, a 
practicing attorney of Bloomington, became his chief clerk and aided 
him in the most delicate of tasks. 

How Mr, Stevenson succeeded in his service of political shock- 
absorption is a tradition to this day in the department. Anecdotes 
illustrative of his method are still current in political circles. ^Icn who 
left their homes to convince the appointing power of their peculiar fit- 
ness for the office of a fourth-class postmaster returned to their families 
with beaming countenances. Upon being congratulated by their friends 
and asked as to when they were to assume the responsibilities of the 
position they rapturously told of a special interview with the first assist- 
ant postmaster general, and the gratitude that they should never be 
able fully to express for their rescue from the evil consequences of their 
folly in indulging in political aspirations. Mr. Stevenson never under- 
stoo^d the service that he had rendered to an appreciative humanity until 
his name was mentioned as a candidate for the vice presidency. If Mr. 
Cleveland had been re-elected in 1888 Mr. Stevenson would have been 
his postmaster general. It was a spontaneous movement that in 1893 
resulted in the choice of this capable public servant as the running mate 
of his former chief, and it cannot be regarded as in any way a reflection 
upon the man who was twice selected as "the president of the United 
States that the candidate for the vice presidency very materially con- 
tributed to the triumph of his party. 

These were charming years for Mr. Stevenson, from 1892 to the 
close of the Cleveland administration. One dwells with fond delay 
upon the ideal harmony of the man and the place. His courtliness of 
manner, his affectionate nature, his genial wit, his incomparable tact, 
his ripened intellect, his matured judgment, his rich experience in 
puhlic life— these all contributed to the production of a presiding officer 
of unsurpassed fitness for a body of men selected for the supreme legis- 
lative dignity in our system of government. Nor can one forget that 
in his holrie was one who was equally fitted to bear her part in meeting 
the social demands of the wife of the Vice President of the United 
States. With an unaffected dig-nity that came from gentle birth and 
noble culture, and froui having" shared the struggles of her husband in 
his mem.orable ascent from his modest beginnings to the line of succes- 
sion in which ho took hi^ place among the illustrious men that preceded 


and followed him, she shed the pure lustre of her charming character 
upon his home and honored him by her ideals of womanly worth. 

It is interesting to read the chapter on the vice presidency in the 
chattv and entertaining book to which reference has been made. It 
cover? a bare half dozen pages, and one would not suspect its author 
of having been one of those of whom he wrote, except from the presence 
of the brief address witli which he closed his connection with the dis- 
tinguished body, over whose deliberations he had presided for a quad- 

'ilie memorable instance of seemingly endless debate that occurred 
while he was an incumbent of the office of the presiding genius of the 
Senate will be remembered. One of his old Bloomington friends, who 
was rather more familiar than discreet, boldly asked him one day whether 
he was not going to put a stop to so flagrant an abuse of privilege. Mr. 
Stevenson's kindness of heart was too great to allow him to injure the 
feelings of the questioner and his ready tact saved his friend from 
chagrin. Deftly parrying the inquiry he manifested a warm interest in 
a recent investment which the friend had made and exhibited real 
anxiety as to the possible consequences of the delayed spring to the 
agricultural interests of his home county. 

One of the highly prized testimonials to Mr. Stevenson is the action 
of the Senate upon his retirement from office. It should find a place 
in these pages where one is called upon to make choice with such skill 
as he may command, from a wealth of material. It runs as follows: 

Washington, D. C, February 27, 1897. 

Sie: The discharge of the important duties incident to your great 

office as President of the United States Senate has for the last four 

years brought us into an association with you, very close and constant. 

During this long period we have observed the signal ability, fidelity, 

and impartiality, as well as the uniform courtesy and kindness toward 

every member of this body, which has characterized your official action. 

Your prompt decisions, dignified bearing, just interpretation and 

enforcement of the rules, of the chamber have very much aided us in 

our deliberations, and have won from us an acknowledgment of that 

high respect and warm personal esteem always due to the conscientious 

performance of a public duty. 

Desiring to give some expression to these sentiments, and to testify 
our appreciation of your valuable services to the Senate and the country, 
we take pleasure in tendering you the accompanying set of silver as a 
memento of our continued friendship and regard. 

(Signed by all of the members of the Senate.) 
At the expiration of his term as vice president he again returned to 
his Bloomington home. He was now in the high prime of intellectual 
vigor as he had turned only the third score of years a short time before. 
There were no signs of failing health nor marks of advancing age. 
About the best work that the world has seen in the fields of state craft 
has been accomplished by men materially his senior. He was good for 
additional years of service and he was not permitted to seek retirement. 
President McKinley was no sooner installed in office than he selected 
Mr. Stevenson a? n member of tlic ]\Touetary Commission. In this capa- 
city he visited Europe, conferring with the various governments within 


the coiiipass of tlie sclienie proposed in the formation of the commission. 
This was his first visit to the hind over the sea and was a most enjoyable 
experience. He was accompanied by Mrs. Stevenson and received the 
high consideration and attention to be anticipated by such an official 
body, to which was added the regard due to one who had occupied im- 
portant official position in his own country. 

In 1900 he was again nominated for the vice presidency on the 
ticket with Mr. Bryan. He made a notable campaign but shared with 
the head of the ticket the disaster that has been the constant fate of that 
distinguished gentleman in his several attempts to realize his political 

In 1908 the Democrats of Illinois regarded the election of a popu- . 
lar candidate as a possibility. While it was true that in the guberna- 
torial struggle of 1904 the Eepublican candidate had received a majority 
of nearly three hundred thousand over his Democratic opponent, so 
much confidence was felt in Mr. Stevenson's running qualities that he 
was solicited to accept the nomination. His many friends among the 
Eepublicans urged his refusal because of their belief that the attempt 
would prove to be a failure, and they were solicitous with regard to his 
health. He was now beyond the three score and ten which is the period 
erroneously deemed the limit allotted to life. He regarded the call as 
devolving a duty upon him. however, and he accepted it in that spirit. 
He made an excellent campaign and c^me within twenty-two thousand 
votes of an election. He made the unprecedented run of seventy-five 
thousand more than the nominee of his party for the presidency. 

With this remarkable expression of the esteem in which he was held 
by his fellow citizens of Illinois his political career came to a close. The 
result indicated that he was not only supported by the unanimous vote 
of his own party luit that thousands of Eepublican voters demonstrated 
their confidence in his integrity and ability. 

Living in honorable retirement he was able to answer some of the 
many calls that were constantly made upon him for addresses upon 
meniorable occasions. Xineteen hundred and eight was the semi- 
centennial of the historic Dougla-^-Lincoln debates. As Mr. Stevenson 
had been a participant in that remarkable campaign he was most appro- 
priately selected by this society to give the address upon Stephen A. 
Douglas, at the January meeting in that year. This was a labor of love. 
Senator Douglas was his ideal "statesman. He had followed his career 
with all of the ardor of his enthusiastic nature. He had become per- 
sonally acquainted with "The Little Giant" as early as 1854, when the 
senator was visiting Bloomington on one of his periodical calls upon his 
constituents. Even as early'as 1852, when but seventeen, he had ren- 
dered such service as was possible to a youth of his age in the campaign 
that ended in the election of Judge Douglas to the Senate. He had also 
met Lincoln and in his interesting book records his first view of that 
remarkable character. He was to know more of him later and to hear 
him conduct cases in the old Metamora court house, where he himself 
was to be a practitioner. In consequence of these early experiences he 
was peculiarlv fitted for the pleasing duty assigned him. His address 
u]ion that occasion is a memorable addition to the records of this society. 
One will seek in vain for any suggestion of the bias commonly exhibited 


by the jjolitieal jjartisan. It is a calm and impartial aeeouut of tlie most 
interesting series of public political debates in the presence of the masses 
of the plain people of the State of which there is any record in American 
annals. The judicial tone apparent in the article is another of the exhi- 
bitions of fairness so constantly in evidence in the mature 3'ears of his 
active life. 

On the hundredth anniversary of Lincoln's birth, Mr. Stevenson 
was the orator of the celebration at Bloomington. This address is char- 
acterized by the qualities that have been referred to in the previous con- 
tribution to historical literature. 

Eepeated reference has here l^een made to "Something of Men I 
Have Known." This is Mr. Stevenson's most gracious gift to those wdio 
have known him and admired him and who hold him in affectionate 
remembrance. Its pleasing humor; its charming, gossipy style so free 
from the conventionalities of historical literature; its estimate of men 
whose names are household words, as determined by familiar personal 
contact; its record of the impressions made upon his mind as he met 
these men in the freedom of personal intercourse — these features are 
vivid Reminders of charming visits at his home, where, in the" seclusion 
of his library, his talk ran like a rippling brook that sparkles under the 
sunshine. There are also re-tellings of old traditions, Flemish pictures 
of quaint characters, realistic sketches of early experiences, revealing 
anecdotes, that, like flashlight snap-shots, caught perishing and passing 
incidents that give vivid interpretations of the old life that without them 
could not be adequately understood. In my treasure house I have old 
letters from old friends whose voices are silent ; pictures of faces that 
once looked into mine, memories of rare companionships with the rich- 
ness of incomparable gems about them. This volume is like old letters, 
cherished pictures, hallowed memories. 

Mr. Stevenson's life had been free from the harrassing illnesses 
that so many have been called upon to endure with such philosophy as 
they could command. His splendid physique had been the loyal servant 
of his needs. The time finally came, however, when disease began to 
weaken his stalwart frame. Eelief came and with it the hopes that the 
returning tides of life would bring the strength for other j^ears. This 
hope was not fully realized. To add to the anxieties inevitably arising 
under such conditions, Mrs. Stevenson's health began to decline. I well 
remember when I saw her last. She came hol^l)ling into the library on 
her crutches to spend a little time with us. It was not long before 
there came a day of anguish and that clear-visioned spirit took its flight. 
Her sick room had been filled with the exquisiteness of flowers that came 
from near and far, through all the Aveeks of suffering. It was on a 
Christmas dav that she lay among the beautiful gifts of loving friends, 
free at last from the pitiless scourgings of ])ain. a hallowed offering of a 
sorely smitten home to that other land toward which all trusting souls 
turn longing eyes when the burdens of this world are too heavy to be 

The Bloomington chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion bears her name. N"ot long after her death her virtues were beauti- 
fully couimomoratod by triliuto? froui all tlio wide ranges of the country 


which she had served. All echoed a commou note — the disinterestedness 
of her service and the rare beauty of her character and her life. 

Mr. Stevenson did not long survive her. The severing of the loving 
ties that had bound them in a rare and beautiful companionship hast- 
ened the inevitable end. On June 14, 1914, he passed away. 

The encomiums that were called forth by his death will of them- 
selves fill a volume. There is scant room for them here. They have 
one burden that weighs far more than all the rest. It is of supreme 
interest to observe that when the end has come far less is said of the 
honors that he won at the bar or of the political dignities with which he 
was crowned than of the things that forever abide. It is so charmingly 
expressed by Hon. Proctor Knott, of Kentucky, long an intimate asso- 
ciate, that it may well be quoted : 

"Mr. Stevenson comes as near filling my highest ideal of a model 
gentleman as anyone that I have ever known. I do not allude to his 
attainments as a lawyer, to his ability as a statesman nor to any of these 
varied talents which have given him such distinction among the prom- 
inent men of the times. These are known and conceded by intelligent 
people everywhere. .1 refer to the gentle virtues so constantly illustrated 
in all of the relations of his private life — the unaffected kindness of 
disposition, the purity of thought, the guileless candor, the fealty to 
truth, the harmless mirth, the forgetfulness of self, the tender regard 
for the rights and feelings of others and the genuine sympathy with all 
around him, which make him the prince of companions and the paragon 
•of friends, which clothe his presence with perpetual sunshine and fill 
his household with domestic affection and happiness. A professed be- 
liever in the sublime truths of the Christian relis^ion, he never bv word 
or deed affords grounds for even a suspicion of the sincerity of his 
faith." There is more to the same effect. This tribute to his friend 
was not written by Mr. Knott when his heart was wrung by separation 
but years before the shadows grew long toward the west. 

The voice of the press was musical with the same story. Those who 
stood by his bier to speak the last words of farewell dwelt finally upon 
the same theme. In his autobiography. Ambassador Andrew D. White 
made the statement that of all the public men he had ever known, Mr. 
Stevenson was the most delightful reconteur. The day following his 
death, the National House of Eepresentatives interrupted its session by 
unanimous consent to pay its tribute of respect to his memory, and 
again the master note was struck. On the same day the City Council 
of Chicago adopted resolutions that dwelt more upon the purity of his 
life than upon the honors that had been bestowed upon him by the suf- 
frages of men. The Board of Supervisors of his county, the memorial 
b}' the Bar Association of his home city, the addresses by the members 
of the Association, the tributes of the clergv on the occasion of his 
funeral — everywhere the one theme \\"as u])permost in the thoughts of 
those who had known him in his unaffected life of sterling worth. 

The surviving members of the family are Lewis Green Stevenson, 
Secretary of State for Illinois: Mrs. Martin D. Hardin of Chicago, 
and Miss Letitia Stevenson of Bloomington. 

And now that the book is ended and that the hooded angel with 
the sleepy poppies in her hand has clasped the "brazen covers" and that 


the passions of men have died away, and the rivalries are forgotten, and 
the ambitions are dropped like the neglected playthings of a child, the 
deep conviction of the supreme value of character compels the reverent 
attitude of silence. And so it is that this man with the kind heart and 
the genial face and the gentle grace of courtesy, with the honors that 
he won and with the affectionate approval of his fellow men, takes his 
place in the permanent annals of his time. 



The Silver Covenant Chain; The Story the Medals Tell; Shabona's 


(Miss Lotte E. Jones, Danville, 111.) 

Contradictory as it may seeni^ to learn that which is new, we often 
must put aside that which we already know; we must let lose of that 
which we have, to secure that which we desire. 

To give these stories I bring the proper setting, to surround them 
with the atmosphere they need to make them most real I ask you to, for 
the moment, as far as possible, forget the preseiit conditions of life in 

For these are not mvths and legends, but are tales of life and events 
in the Illinois Countrv hundreds of vears ago, when the owners of our 
homes and lands were red-men, not white men; Indians not descendants 
of civilized peoples. 

Perhaps I am telling these stories as an introduction to the paper 
on Indian Treaties to be given later in the session; it may be it is as a 
tribute to the race which, spite of prejudice, must be admitted to have 
been one of power and strength. 

Many hate the American Indian ; others wdio have studied the race 
and believe that "in all ages every human heart is human" find much to 
admire in the native of the Avestern world, before he fell under the influ- 
ence of the white man. 

Surely a brain which could conceive the plan of Pontiac, a heart 
which would prompt Shabona's ride; a generous impulse such as Eed 
Bird showed, indicate great possibilities for the race. We know the race 
has suffered much at the hands of the white man. 

We judge the American Indian by the red man who has been driven 
from his home and the graves of his fathers, and been made the victim 
of the white man's treacliery, cruelty and vices. 

What race could have met such a test and not have been degener- 
ated? It is fitting that we should tell and listen to the stories of his 
life in the long ago, that a clear vision of the American Indian may 
be had. 

To tell or hear such stories to the best purpose, we must forget 
present conditions of life. Present-day cities and villages, air-travel, 
trolley-lines, and railroads, telegraph and telephone service, churches, 
schools, dwellings, newspapers and books, much that we eat and nearly 
all that we wear must be to us as though it never existed. 

The modern farm with its machinery, ideals of working, stock rais- 
ing, dairying, methods of soil-feeding, must vanish, and in its place we 
see the vast prairies covered with waving grasses and bright flowers, the 
home of the buffalo, the plover, and the native fowl. 


The streams now small and insignificant, must have the former 
luxuriant growth restored to their banks, and the dense forests which 
sheltered the deer, the beaver and other fur-bearing animals that fur- 
nished both food and clothing. 

The air must not echo the sound of the "Honk, Honk/' of the 
automobile, the buzz of machinerv, the hum of traffic which is the life 
of today ; instead we hear the ripple of running water, the chirp of the 
insect, or the sharp crack of the twig as it is broken under the stealthy 
tread of the Indian creeping along to surprise or capture his prey. 

Smoke curls heavenward from the camp fires ; scattered tepees, or 
wigwams are here and there ; the occasional brave on his way to the 
chase or the baud on the war path; only these are here to distract the 
eye from the wealth of beauty, N^ature with a lavivsh hand has scattered 
on every hand. 

Under these conditions the American Indian lived his life in the 
land which was his by inheritance or conquest, and from which he was 
driven, cajoled into giving up, or at best forced to exchange for that 
which was of much less value, by the white man. And it is to just these 
conditions I ask you to hear the stories of the redman's life in this 
time long ago. 

I shall tell as my first story a tale of fidelity, of loyal adherence to 
promised allegiance made by his forefathers generations before. 

I will follow this with a story of love for his family as shown when 
men risked all dangers and put aside every caution in going into a place 
where all other inducements were refused, when the prospect of re- 
united home ties were offered. 

If I have time I will follow this with a story of love for his natural 
enemy which proves the strength of the Indians' friendship wlien freely 


It was many years ago when the white man's America was very 
young that a boat from Holland touched the shores of the newly dis- 
covered Western Continent at the mouth of a great river. 

The name of this boat was the Half Moon. 

The old world was looking for a mighty interior waterway which 
would make direct connection with the Orient. 

The commander of the Half Moon, thinking he might have made 
the discovery of the longed for passage, turned his boat up the stream. 

It was in this Avay that Holland was brought to America. 

Although tlie much desired waterway to the Orient was not dis- 
covered by Henrich Hudson, the commander of the Half Moon, the 
river which has ever since borne his name opened a goodly countr}', and 
the people who came to make their home therein had much to do, indi- 
rectly, in determining the fate of the new world. 

It was a treaty made by these people Avith the American Indians 
which settled the long contested question of whether France or Great 
Britain should rule the new world. 

The great number of fur-bearing animals along the Hudson Eiver 
established a valuable trade and before another 3'ear Dutch traders were 
found as far up stream as what is now known as the city of Albany. 


The tide came in from the ocean and with it came the honest- 
hearted Hollanders to their new land. 

The Dutch found a new race in possession of this land they had 
taken in America, and the red hrothers of the forest aroused sentiments 
of fear and distrust in their minds. 

They sought protection for themselves. 

In less than four years Christiaenson built a rude fort to serve as 
this protection. It was built about four miles below wdiat is now the 
city of Albany. 

This was called Fort Nassau and Jacob Eelkens was put in charge 
of it. 

Commander Eelkens was a kind hearted, peace loving Dutchman 
who deplored the constant fighting between the Iroquois nation of 
American Indians in whose midst he 'found himself, and all other nations 
and tribes. 

He determined to make them the friends of the white man. 

He watched these Indians and studied their natures and disposi- 
tions, and gained their confidence. 

In due time he called them together in a conference, wherein he 
established a compact, which was the most far reaching in results of 
any agreement ever made between the white man and the red man. 

Jacob Eelkens appreciated the poet nature of the American Indian 
and made a happy choice for this place of meeting. 

A small stream enters the Hudson River near where Fort Nassau 
was located; it is now called Norman's Kill. 

A natural amphitheatre was formed here and another, just above 
in the circling hills. 

The eminence formed by the northern bank was known as Tawass- 
g-unshee. The valley took its name from this eminence, a name which 
has been immortalized by Longfellow and other poets — 


'^t was the Vale of Tawasentha, 
In the green and silent valley, 
By the pleasant water-courses, 
Where dwelt the singer, Nawadaha. 
Eound about the Indian village 
Spread the meadows and the cornfields. 
And beyond them stood the forest. 
Stood the gi'oves of singing pine trees. 
Green in Summer, white in Winter, 
Ever singing, ever sighing. 
And the pleasant water-courses. 
You could trace them through the valley, 
By the rushing in the Spring-time, 
By the Alders in the Summer. 
By the white fos in the Autumn, 
By the black line in the Winter; 
In the Vale of Tawasentha, 
In the oreen and silent valley." 


It was into this Vale of Tawasentha that Jacob Eelkens called his 
swarthy brothers; an ideal place in which to forge the Silver Covenant 

The grave and much loved Eelkens told the Indians of his interest 
in them, and his desire to dwell with them in peace. They listened in 
silence, to his words of wisdom. The only sound to be heard was the 
singing and sighing of the pine trees, the ripple of the water. 

After a little the old chief spoke: 

"Brothers: We have heard your words. We, too, want peace. We 
will make us a silver chain that will bind us together. The links shall 
be our promise for ourselves and our children, and our children's chil- 
dren and their children through all time to keep peace with you and 
your children and your children's children and their children. 

"We bind the chain about the pine tree. The pine tree will perish. 
We bind it about the hill. The hill will not be removed. We hold this 
end in our hand. You hold the other end in vour hand. We will not let 
the links rust at our end. You must keep them bright at your end. I 
have spoken." 

Thus the Silver Covenant Chain was forged. 

Years passed and the people from England governed the land of 
the Hollander in American, but the red man ignored the change. They 
always called the Governor of the New York colony, "Father Colaer" be- 
cause Gov. Van Curler was their first friend ; and the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs was "Brother Quider," the name they had given Peter 
Schuyler, whom they trusted implicitly. 

Generations passed, but the British in America always counted the 
Iroquois their allies. 

Even the French priests with their devotion to the race, could not 
wean the Iroquois from their allegiance to the English. Passing time 
did not tarnish the links of the Silver Covenant Chain. Wound about 
the great hill at Onondaga this chain was immovably fixed. 

When Gen. Braddock went forth to battle — defeat it proved to be — 
he called out that "The French are trying to rust the chain which hith- 
erto has remained bright and clear; help must come to the British or 
disaster will come to all. His answer was the rallying of the forces of 
the Iroquois Nation. 

The British instigated frequent raids into the Illinois country by 
the Iroquois, that the envied fur trade might be directed to England 
rather than to France, and great efforts were made to bind these western 
Indian with the "Silver Covenant Chain." 

But all efforts failed until the coming of Sir William Johnson to 
take charge of Indian affairs in America for Great Britain. At this 
time the colonies of France and Great Britain were engaged in a war 
to determine the right to the Mississippi Valley. Great Britain's claim 
was based on chartered rights while France made equal reasonable claim 
based upon exploration of the great river which drained the valley. 

The war had raged for a half dozen years when the fall of Oswego 
drove Sir William to despair and determined him to make another 
effort to arouse the indifference of the Iroquois to their old allegiance. 
ITp to this time they hnrl refused to fight at all in this war. 


Sir William called the Senecas, the Cayugas and the Onondagas to- 
gether and held a conncil at Fort Johnson. Several Oneidas and Abra- 
ham, chief Sachem of the lower Mohawk castle, were present at this 
council. Here Sir William made an appeal for the Silver Covenant 
Chain. He told these representatives of the Iroqnois nation how, for 
one hundred forty years their fathers had kept faith with the English 
speaking white man ; how this chain had lield the two races together so 
closely it seemed to be absolute; how their fathers had kept their end 
bright and strong, but that they were letting it rust and there was dan- 
ger of its being eaten through ; he exhorted tlioiu to take care, to look 
well after it. 

The Indians listened in silence as was their custom, then addressed 
Sir William in eloquent terms of thanks for his admonitions and regrets 
that their indifference should have earned them this rebuke, adding: 

"The fartherest castle of the Senecas have the extreme end fast in 
their hands and the rest of the Six Nations have also hold of it, and we 
will assure you we will not quit it." 

This pledge was exactly Avhat Sir William wanted them to make. 
Immediately after the conference, Sir William Johnson wrote the Lords 
Commissioners of Trades and Plantations in London urging that the 
plan of iDroceclure of the campaign be changed to take in the capture of 
Fort Niagara believing that if such a change could be made the Iroquois 
would join them, and that, further, they could induce many of the tribes 
of western Indians to join them and be "bound by the Silver Covenant 
Chain" to the interests of the British. 

This advice from the Commissioners of Indian Affairs of the British 
had due weight and the desired change was made. Another council was 
called at Fort Johnson and the promised recruits from the western 
Indians were on hand. "Ten and more nations were added" the organ- 
izeci number and bound to the interests of the British in the "Silver 
Covenant Chain." 

This conference was held in the Springtime; events quickly followed 
each other and culminated in the complete overthrow of the French in 
America and the supremacy of the Saxon on the Western Continent. 

One of the most important of the forts of New France in America 
was Chartres on the Mississippi Eiver. The garrison of this fort, under 
the command of McCarty, comprised the flower of French soldiery. 
They had been called many times, through these half dozen years across 
the country to carry supplies to the French fort at the juncture of the 
Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, (which form the Ohio Eiver) known 
as Fort iDuQuesne. 

This trip was always made by boat down the Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Ohio, thence up that stream to its source. But the time 
came when the report reached Fort Chartres that Fort DuQuesne had 
been captured by the British and renamed Fort Pitt. 

This report did not arouse grave apprehension; it only awakened 
regret that in going to the aid of this garrison they must change their 
route to a less direct one since it would not be safe to go so far on the 
Ohio Eiver so long as its head waters were possessed by the enemy. 

Mons du Aubrey had charge of the expedition to Fort DuQuesne at 
this time and he took the precaution to get together as large an army of 


volunteers among the Indians surrounding Fort Cliartres as was possible. 
When all was in readiness he took them, went down the Mississippi 
Eiver in bateaux and canoes, to the mouth of the Ohio thence up stream 
to the mouth of the Wabash. Coiitinuing their water-route u|) this river 
to the Miami village near the present site of Fort Wayne, they here made 
the portage to the Maumee, thence passed on down to Lake Erie. Being 
constantly re-inforced by bands of different tribes of Indians and Cana- 
dian ^lilitia, they completed their journey thus far a great army of fully 
sixteen hundred. 

At Presque Isle, Aubrey learned that the British had gone against 
Fort Niagara. The plan to retake Fort DuQuesne was deferred and this 
valiant French army, with colors flying and gay hearts, marched on to 
the relief of Fort Niagara. 

Mons. Aubrey had heard nothing of the action of Sir William 
Johnson in binding the western Indians with the Silver Covenant Chain. 
The French troops were as ignorant of this decisive act as were their 
commander; if the Indians of the army who outnumbered the white men 
nearly three to one knew aught of it, they kept the knowledge their own 
secret. Knowing the many ways the redman employed to carry news 
among themselves, it seems hardly possible that they were really ignorant 
of so important an act. 

Sir William Johnson learned of the advance of the French army 
and prepared to meet the troops under command of Mons. Aubrey on 
the road between Niagara Falls and the fort. This army in their march 
must have been a sight well worth the seeing. 

Its progress was stopped by the Indians of the British army advanc- 
ing to confer with the Indians of the French armv. A short conference 
sufficed to have the Indians of the latter desert the French, giving as a 
reason that they were at that time at peace with the Iroquois, and dared 
not advance against them. 

With their chief force gone, the French troops had no chance, and 
in spite of a brave fight exhibiting great courage, the battle turned into 
a massacre in which all the French officers were either killed, wounded 
or taken prisoner. 

The "Silver Covenant Chain" had served its purpose; the Iroquois 
hand had strengthened its links and polished them to a dazzling lustre. 

This defeat at Niagara was followed soon after by another defeat 
on the Plains of Abraham where New France in America was forever 

What of the Silver Covenant Chain later, do you ask? Less than 
a score of years and it Avas completely destroyed. When Great Britain 
drove her colonies in America to seek their independence and they gained 
it. the Silver Covenant Chain fell apart, link by link. The power which 
coiild resist the change of government from Holland to Great Britain, 
could hold together through years and passing generations was sundered 
by the stroke of the "Long Knives." A length of the Chain was held 
together even after its power was gone, in the restlessness of the years 
immediately following the Eevolutionary War. Even up to the efforts of 
Tccumsch this length was kept together but it was weak, rusty and ready 
to fall into pieces. Black Hawk gathered together a handful of links and 
tried to brighten them and rivet them together into a means of connec- 


tion with tho British which would help him in his war against all the 
white men of America, but the rust was deep ; he could secure no polish 
of sufficient strength to make a chain that looked to be other than baser 
metal, and spite of all his effort no two links would stay together. 

The spirit of independence and patriotism drove the British across 
the water; the spirit of greed drove the Indian beyond the mountains; 
the Silver Covenant Chain has long ago been forgotten save to use as an 
illustration of fidelity and loyalty and power of a people who in their 
weakness dominated the decision of the greatest question ever brought 
to the western world. Shall Saxon or Gaul rule in the Xew World? 


The halycon days of the redman in the Old I^orthwest passed with 
the passing of New France in America. His friends were shorn of their 
power. Their successors had little liking for the Indian race, and held 
the policy of extermination of the natives. Under such treatment all 
the savage in the Indian's nature was fostered. The two races hated and 
feared each other. They were arraigned each against the other in a 
continual death struggle. Without the influence of an avowed common 
religion they grew ever and ever further apart; more and more bitter in 
feeling each to the other. The Indian would creep upon isolated cabins 
and put the entire family to death, then burn the house. The white 
man hunted the red man as he would the wild animal shooting him on 
sight. In open warfare Gen. St. Clair with his troops was ignominously 
defeated; Generals Wilkinson, Harmar and Hardin, swept the country, 
drove the Indians before them and took hundreds of the women and 
children into captivity. 

Gen. Putnam was agent for the Ohio Company, and located at 
Marietta. He felt the urgency for some treaty or compact to be made 
particularly with tribes and nations such as the Miamis, the Delawares, 
the Chippeways, the Ottawas and the Kickapoos, Indians whose lands 
were in western Indiana and eastern Illinois. 

This it was apparently a difficult thing to do: it seemed impossible 
to get these wary savages into a conference. G-en. Putnam went out 
among them, himself, at the risk of his life and tried to induce them to 
meet him at Fort Washington. But this was to no purpose; the Indians 
had been drawn into too many traps by white men, they would not con- 
sent to any conference. Discouraged thoush he was, G-en. Putnam saw 
more and more reason for the council, as the situation was growing more 
and more grave. At this point John Heckwelder, the Moravian Mis- 
sionarv. conferred with Putnam and suggested a way to induce the 
Indians to meet them in conference. 

"Do you not remember," said Heckwelder, "the hundreds of women 
and children taken prisoners, in the raids of Harmar and Hardin on the 
Pottawatomies, the Shawnees and the Delawares, last year? Gather 
these prisoners together in one place and send word to the braves of 
these nations that their women and children are awaiting them at this 
place; then we will go there and I have no doubt will find our audience 
for our plea for a treaty of peace. 



""The Indian loves his family. The separation during these last 
months has driven the braves to madness. The'v will take any risk to 
be reunited with their families." Vincennes on the Wabash was chosen 
as the meeting place. Messages were sent to all the tribes that their 
friends would be at Vincennes at a certain date; that each and all would 
be peimitted to return with the heads' of the families who would go after 
them. Orders were sent to have all women and children prisoners sent 
to Fort Washington (Cincinnati) thence to be sent to A^incennes. The 
plan worked well. The squaws who were gathered at Fort Washington 
were so happy hearted at the thought of returning to their people that 
their bright eyes betrayed their joy, in spite of their Indian reserve and 
effort to suppress any emotion. One hundred forty of these Indian 
women, with numerous children were gathered at Fort Washington. 
They were sent down the Ohio Eiver in boats to the mouth of the 
Wabash Eiver, thence up that stream to Vincennes. As they neared 
their destination, their excitement and anxiety overcame their reserve, 
and their eves were fixed on the shore. Long before the white man 
could tell whether the objects they were approaching were trees or peo- 
ple, the Indian women recognized their own loved ones. Their vision, 
much stronger than that of the white man, left them no doubt that their 
own were waiting. Those who claim the squaw was little better than a 
slave to her brave should liave witnessed this meeting, after the foreeil 

Gren. Putnam made a happy though brief talk to them, but left 
them to the delight of reunited lives for a day or two before he called 
them into a council meeting. There he talked to them as being a part 
of the United States and told them that their father at Washington 
wanted peace. He told them further that they need not hurry in their 
answer, for they should have an abundance of time in which to consider 
it. He would not ask them to answer him that day. 

They again met in council' on the following day, and one after an- 
other 'the chiefs among the Indians spoke. They said they did not 
want to live among the white people ; that there were bad people among 
both. They said they wanted to trade with the Avhite people but that 
the white man should live on the east and south of the Ohio Eiver while 
they lived on the west and north of the same river. They said too, that 
they wanted the French to keep the lands which the Indians had given 

After this exchange of ideas on the part of the white man and the 
Indian, a mutual agreement was made to establish peace between the 
United States and the tribes represented at this conference. No ex- 
change of land was proposed and no definite terms or limits of posses- 
sion of territory was suggested. After this agreement was duly signed, 
Gen. Putnam presented two large white wampum belts of peace. A 
silver medal was suspended to each of these belts. This is one of the 
medals ; the other was exactly like it. 

In presenting these medals Gen. Putnam said: "Brothers, listen 
to what I say: We have l)cen for some days i^ast engaged in estab- 
lishing a peace and we have succeeded through the influence of the 

— 4 H S 


Great Spirit. Brolliers, we have wiped otf the blood, we have buried the 
hatchet, on both sides all that is past shall be forgotten." 

Taking up the belts he continued : "This is the belt of peace which 
I now ])resent to you in the name of the United States. This belt shall 
l)e tlie evidence of and the pledge for the performance of the articles of 
ti e tieatv of paace which we have conelnded between the United States 
and your tribes this day. 

"Brothers;, whenever you look at this remember that there is a per- 
petual peace and friendship between you and us. and tliat you are now 
under the protection of the United States. Brothers, we will hold this 
belt in our hands — here at this end the United States holds it, and you 
hold it at* the other end. The road you see is l)road, clear and level. We 
may now pass to one and another easy and without ditficulty. Brothers, 
the faster we hold this belt the happier we shall be. Our women and 
children will have no occasion to l)e afraid any more. Our young men 
will observe that their wise men performed a good work. Brothers, be 
all strong in that which is good. Abide all in the path, young and old, 
and you will enjoy the sweetness of peace." 

After explaining the engraving on the medal the re-united families 
Avere permitted to depart in peace. The side of the medal upon which 
is engraved the Coat of Arms of the United States was explained in these 
words of Gen. Putnam : 

"Brothers, the engravings on this medal distinguish the United 
States from all other nations ; it is called their arms and no other nation 
has their like. The principal figure is a broad eagle. This l)ird is a 
native of this country, and is to be found in no other part of the world ; 
and both you and the Americans born in this land, having grown up to- 
gether with the eagle, they have placed him in their arms and have 
engraved him on this medal, by which the great chief. Gen. Washington, 
and all the people of the United States, hold this belt fast. 

"The wings of the eagle are extended to give protection to our 
friends, and to assure you of our protection so long as you hold fast this 
belt. In his ria^ht foot the easfle holds the branch of a tree, which with us 
is an emblem of peace, and it means that we love peace, and wish to live 
in peace with all our neighbors, and to assure you that while you hold 
this belt fast, you shall always be in peace and security, whether 3'ou are 
pursuing the chase or reposing yourselves under the sluide of the bough. 
In the left foot of this liird is placed a bundle of arrows. This is 
meant that the United States have the means of war and that Avhen 
peace cannot be obtained, or maintained with their neighbors, on just 
terms, and that if, notwithstanding all their endeavors for peace, war is 
made uiwn them, they are ])repared for it." 

You may wonder how this medal, the ]5ledge of peace and friend- 
ship between the ITnited States and the Indians of those nations, came 
to be here in my hands today. A few added words will make the expla- 
nation and it is an interesting stoiy: Kesis, the noted Pottawotomi 
chief, was one of those at the Vincennes conference. Bv his mark he 
signed the compact of peace. In due time old age overtook Kesis and 
he passed to the "happy hunting grounds" of the blest. He was buried 
in the Kickapoo burial grounds, which were situated on the high bluff 
forming a part of the banks of the ]\Iiddle Fork of the Vermilion Piver, 




near its month, five miles west of Danville, Illinois. As was the Indian 
custom, his valuables were buried with him. One day, some sixty years 
after this conference at A'incennes, two boys living in the neighborhood 
of the Indian burial grounds appeared with these two medals, which 
they claimed they had found. The supposition was that they had been 
washed from the grave by a recent freshet. Whether such was the case 
or that the l)oys had deliberately robbed the grave of the old chief, was 
never fully proven. They sold the medals to the farmer who owned 
the land for a trifle. John Heckwelder, the Moravian Missionary in his 
report of the conference, described this medal so clearly, minutely and 
fully there could be no doubt this was the identical one given as a pledge 
of peace and friendship between the United States and the tribes of 
Indians at Vincennes. Josephus CoUett, the well known Indiana man of 
science, appreciated its worth and paid the price set for it, and also 
bought the other medal found at the same time and place. Mr. CoUett 
and his brother had a very valuahle collection which was kept at the 
hitter's home. Some years ago both Mr. Collett and his brother died. 
The house which contained the great collection was burned to the ground 
and nothing was saved. Those who knew anything ahout these medals 
supposed they, too, were destroyed in the fire. A short time ago these 
medals were taken to a loan exhibit in Danville by Mrs. Lynne Beck- 
with, the widow of the son of Mr. Hiram Beckwith. They were exhi- 
bited as "Indian medak;" were, fortunately recognized and identified. 
By being in the possession of Mr. Beckwith they had escaped destruc- 
tion in the Collett fire ; by being exhibited they had been restored to 
their value, this one as the medal Gen. Putnam gave Kesis at the 
Yincennes conference. 

This other medal found at the same time and place is seen to have 
less intrinsic value, it being made of a baser metal. It is doubtless one 
of those with which the old Northwest was flooded after the Eevolu- 
tionary War as bribes to harass the early settlers. How it came into 
the possession of Kesis is not known. 


Shabona was a chief of the Ottawa nation. He was the grandnephew 
of Pontiac. There need be no account given of his early life nor of 
his later years before the event which proved his love for the white man. 

At the time of the incident of his ride, Shabona had grown far 
beyond the hasty impulses of youth, past the time when the love of 
adventure spurs one on to great tasks ; when physical effort must be a 
matter of will rather than instinct. 

Black Hawk with his British band had opened a war upon the 
white settlers of northern Illinois; the merits of this war need not be 
discussed at this time; suffice it to say that Black Hawdc hoped to have 
the aid of Shabona, but did not. 

In due time Shabona learned that the white settlements along the 
Fox River were to be raided by Black Hawk and his Ijand. This news 
gave Shabona deep concern. He called his son Pypegee and his nephew 
Pyps to him and told them that they must, if possible, avert this 
calamity. He instructed the young men how the three of them must 


go through these scattered settlements and spread the alarm. He spoke 
Avith authority and impressed the yoimg men with the necessity that all 
who lived alons: the wav should know the danger which threatened them. 
The young men listened in silence, then threw their blankets on their 
ponies, mounted and started off. 

This ride was full of the element of adventure, for not only must 
the dim trail between the settlem.ents be followed, but the destination of 
the riders must be kept absolutely a secret. Should any intimation of 
the purpose of this ride reach Black Hawk not only would the white 
men they sought to protect suffer, but they, themselves, would have to 
pay the penalty with their lives. With every precaution known to a 
stealthy people these three men started. Beside secrecy, haste was de- 
manded; ever so little delay might prove fatal. Fairly on their way 
they pressed down the valley to Holderman's settlement where the white 
men were told their impending danger. Here, to make the task less* 
dangerous the three men separated. It was more safe for young Pypegee 
to go on, since his going in that direction would not arouse suspicion, as 
it was well known that his heart was in the keeping of a dusky maiden 
whose home lay in the way beyond. There would be no question if any 
of his race should see Pypegee riding toward Bureau Creek. 

Sbabona turned his horse back toward home. He had been at home 
some time, when, the next evening, Pypegee came hastening to his father's 
wigwam. He had a tale of distress to tell. Coming through the Davis 
settlement. Pypegee told his father, he saw what looked very -much like 
a band of Indians approaching. While too far away to be distinct, the 
young man's trained eye saw by the way they marched, and the manner 
of their dress, that they were with little doubt, "on the warpath." 
Pypegee added that he avoided meeting them and hastened as fast as Tie 
could ride to his father to tell him what he had seen. Shabona said not 
a word. He was yet very weary from the ride of the previous day. This 
had lasted far into the forenoon of this one. He had taken no rest, 
but was just preparing to retire for the night. Silently he turned and 
went out from his wigwam. Throwing a blanket on a fresh pony he 
mounted it. and unattended, went out into the night. He was again 
taking up the trail to once more warn his paleface friends of their 
danger. They did not believe him yesterday, they may not have be- 
lieved the young men; maybe if he went tonight he might induce 
them to seek safety. He would at any rate make another effort. None 
but himself could undertake this dangerous ride; he and he alone must 
try to save his friends. 

Shabona knew the danger he was courting ; he knew he took his life 
in his hand in going on this perilous ride. But he never wavered ; he 
had no fear of the consequences: Shabona was the friend of the white 
man. His life was freely to be the price of his effort to save his friend. 
'■'Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his 

Had there l)een need of secrecv the day before, much more was it 
necessary this.night when the war party was on its way to do that which 
he was trvins: to thwart. Secrecy and haste could alone save the lives 
of not only them but himself as well. Frging on his pony, he covered 
mile after milo. Danirer increased with every mile but he pressed on. 


Every mile the risk became greater, yet Shaboiia had no thought of 
turning back; gave no consideration to quitting his self-imposed task. 
Over the lonely and dangerous trail; through the sleepy settlements, 
which he must rouse with as little delay and noise as possible, for "the 
Indians were upon them" : swimming streams, never faltering, not yield- 
ing to the fatigue of this hard ride, Shabona went on and on. 

Fearful that he might be too late he at last reached the Davis settle- 
ment on Indian Creek. To his relief he saw that he had come before 
the British band of Black Hawk had reached this settlement. Mr. Davis 
would not listen to him the day before ; it was not yet too late ; could he 
persuade him tonight to take his family the twelve miles to Ottawa 
where they would be safe? 

Pausing to tell his story to every settler, Shabona rode further on 
and on until every one had the alarm. Eeturning he passed through 
every settlement with his message of warning, not missing any, even to 
the struggling one on the Lake where, twenty years before this the 
tragedy of the massacre at Fort Dearborn had been enacted. 

Shabona did not dare be seen coming from the direction of the 
white settlements ; although very tired from the already long ride he went 
out of his way in returning to his wigwam. The eastern horizon was 
streaked with the colors of the coming day, when the rider and beast 
sank exhausted at the entrance of home. Every white settlement had 
been visited, and the warning spread; horse and rider had done their 
utmost to save the lives of those whom Shabona loved. 

Not for his race; not for his countrymen; neither for those who 
had put him or his under obligations; but for the value of the act, in 
the interests of humanity, because of his friendship, Shabona took 
every risk, faced all danger, and carried the message of warning to the 
representatives of the race which was driving his people from their pos- 
sessions, taking their homes from them. 

Fidelity, loyalty, love of home and family, devotion to and service 
rendered those who were the proven- enmy to his race — is it not, after 
all a deserved tribute to the American Indian to study the incidents in 
his history which bring out virtues suoh as these? 

Who dares not recognize Shabona a hero, fit for immortalization in 
song and story? 



(By James W. Gordon, Oquawka, 111.) 
Emerson wrote. 

"Lo. I uncover the land 

Which I hid of old time in the West; 

As the sculptor uncovers his statue 

When he has wrought his best."' 
Into this great middle west came the pioneer, ax in hand, to blaze 
out a path to new conc-eptions of freedom, new ideas of justice, new 
standards of morality, new vistas of civilization. It is true that this was 
not his prime motive, but it is what he accomplished. 

He was necessarily possessed of certain characteristics. He pos- 
sessed courage, else he would not have come. Industry was required of 
him, else he would have starved. Endurance was essential, for upon 
this did his strccess depend. Hardships filled his life but he met them 
like a man. for he expected them. Deeds, rather than words, character- 
ized him. for he lived in a day of great deeds, replete with danger and 
luminous with heroism. He came into the trackless forest and instead 
of the war-whoop of the savage and the howl of the wolf and the cry * 
of the panther were heard the ring of the ax, the lowing of oxen, the 
hum of the spinning wheel, the prattle of the child. He invaded prim- 
itive nature and established civilization and we of this century profit 
by his work. 

In western Illinois, its western bofder bathed by the waters oi the 
Mississippi, lies Henderson Countv", about half way between Eock Island 
and Quincy. In size it is small: its population is about 10.000: farm- 
ing is its principal industry; it contains no populous city, but in per 
capita wealth it ranks third in the >>tate of Illinois. 

If you were to take a trip down the Mississippi River on the packet 
that plies the waters of the river between Rock Island. Illinois, and 
Burlington. Iowa, your last stop before reaching the latter place, would 
be Oquawka. the county .*eat of Henderson County. If curiositv- or 
business caused you to leave the boat at this point you would doubtless 
walk up the main street leading east from the river. On either side of 
the street you would observe the usual stores and offices you would ex- 
pect to find in a village of a thousand people including a somewhat im- 
posing brick opera house building, erected in modern times, in which are 
located a bank and the post office. Should you turn north at the third 
street, you would sr>on reach the court house, a relic of ante bellum days 
and chiefly composed of four large pillars, an immense belfrv and many 
hallowed recollections. As you walked about, however, you would see 
little, in appearance, to differentiate this village from hundreds of other 
villages in the State of Illinois, yet it or-eupies the scene of many historic 

House of Eober: 

S. S- Fbei^s. 



events. Two of the nation's greatest men, the two whose names are most 
often linked together, have, graeed it hy their presence, and its history 
is a part of the history of this great middle west. 

in your approach to the village, had you been out on the deck of the 
steaml)oat vou would have noticed, extending northward some miles from 
the town, a high blutf of yellow sand. This blutt' gave to this settlement 
its first name, that of "Yellow Banks," and the Indian word, meaning 
"Yellow Banks" furnished, later, the name for the village that was here 
established, the Indian word being "Oquawkiek." This particular spot 
seems to have been a rendezvous for the Indians who frequented this 
section and the locality was named by them long before the advent of 
the white man. When the town was finally organized and platted and 
an official name became necessary the promoters of the enterprise took 
the Indian name, dropped the last syllable and substituted therefor 
the letter "a" and Oquawka it became, and has since remained, but for 
many years its only known designation among the white men was "Yel- 
low Banks." 

The first white settler in Henderson County was Captain Redman, 
a veteran of the war of 1812, who settled in the southern part of the 
county in 1<S25 or 1826. The second was Dr. Isaac Galland who came 
to Yellow Banks in 1827 and erected the first house built there. In 
1828 he sold his place to S. S. Phelps who, with his brother William, 
located there and entered upon the business of trading with the Indians, 
in which business they achieved a marked success. The business was 
carried on, mostly, with the Sac and Fox Indians. By these, S. S. 
Phelps was nariied "Ilawkeye." because, they said, his eye flashed like 
that of an angry hawk when he was angry or in danger. His friendship 
with these Indians stoo^ him in good stead during the Black Hawk war. 
Following the Phelps brothers, came other settlers in the course of 
time and, eventually, quite a settlement grew up and settlers began to 
take up land out through the country and Yellow Banks grew to be 
ouite a shipping and commercial center. It may be interesting to note 
the fact that at one time a stage line ran from Springfield to Yellow 
Banks. An advertisement published in the Sangamo Journal in 1834, 
read as follows: 

"To the traveling public — Four horse coach — From Springfield to 
the Yellow Banks via Sangamontown, New Salem, Petersburg, Huron, 
Havana, Lewistown, Canton. Knoxville, Monmouth to the Yellow Banks. 
Leave Springfield every Wednesday morning at six o'clock. Arrive at 
Monmouth on Friday evenings at six o'clock and at the Yellow Banks 
on the Mississippi the next day at 13 M. Eeturn on the same da3^s 
to Monmouth and arrive at Springfield on Tuesday evenings at six 
o'clock. Fare through to the Yellow Banks, nine dollars; way passen- 
gers six and one-fourth cents per mile. Baggage at risk of owaiers. The 
proprietors have procured good carriages and horses and careful drivers 
and every attention will be paid to the comfort and conveniences of 
passengers. The country through which this coach passes is well worthy 
the attention of emigrants. The patronage of 'the public is solicited for 
this new enterprise. 

Tracv & Penv." 



In these days of rapid and comfortable and mLxpensive transit this 
advertisement seems amusing, but not so in the former days. Later, a 
stage line was operated from Chicago to Yellow Banks. 

From the viewpoint of historical interest Yellow Banks seems to 
have occupied no important or prominent place until the time of the 
Black Hawk war. We find mention of it, however, in connection with 
that event, in various places. The chiefs Tama and Keokuk were warm 
friends of S. S. Phelps and were frequent visitors at Yellow Banks, as 
was, also. Black Hawk himself. A history of Black Hawk, personally 
endorsed by him was, shortly after the Black Hawk war, written and 
published by Col. J. B. Patterson, a resident of Y^'ellow Banks. 

On April 6, 183:3, Black Hawk, with his warriors, made a call at 
Y'ellow Banks, enroute to the Eock Eiver country. ]Mr. Phelps tried to 
persuade the Indians to recross the river and return to their own 
country, assuring them that the Government would not permit them to 
come into Illinois in violation of their treaty, but they would not heed 
his advice, and, after camping over night, took up their march north- 
ward. The subsequent events of the war, generally speaking, are mat- 
ters of recorded history. 

One incident of the times, however, which occurred at Yellow 
Banks, and which may not be generally known, is worthy of preserva- 
tion. It had within it the possibilities of a general Indian war, which 
was averted by the manly and courageous action of Mr. Phelps. Tama 
was a prominent Pox chief. He had formerly lived in what is now 
Henderson Countv, but at this time had his town about three miles below 
Yellow Banks and on the Iowa side of the river. In earlier days he had " 
rendered valuable service as a scout and at one time Governor Edwards 
of Illinois Territory had given him a certificate testifying to his friend- 
ship for the white man. He had been a friend of Mr. Phelps for several 
years. At the time of the Black Hawk war, he was quite aged. One 
night, during the hostilities, he, with his wife and son, arrived at the 
trading house of Mr. Phelps at Yellow Banks to inquire if his white 
brother had heard any news from the seat of war. He was kindly wel- 
comed. The evening was spent in talking and it was arranged that the 
Indians should spend the night at the home of Mr. Phelps. At early 
dawn, the household was awakened by the sound of many approaching 
horses. All sprang up with visions of an Indian massacre, but oaths 
and demands for admittance in unmistakable English dispelled that 
fear. Going out of doors Mr. Phelps found the house surronnded by 
more than fifty drunken soldiers. Their captain angrily addressed Mr. 
Phelps and said, "Yon are accused of harboring Indians, our natural 
enemies and I demand that you surrender them to us." Mr. Phelps 
replied, "Tama, his wife and son, are the only Indians here. Tama 
yon know as well as I do and that he has always been the friend of the 
white man, and has rendered valuable assistance as a scout in onr army. 
Now he is aged, and in the last stages of consumption. If I should 
give him up, the blood of every white settler for miles around would pay 
the forfeit. I will not give him up.''" 

The captain of the invaders then said he would give him time to 
reconsider his decision and he and his soldiers proceeded to prepare and 
cook their breakfast. An hour later the demand was a^ain made for the 


surrend(3r of the Indians. Mr. Plielps had stationed his few men with 
guns with instructions to defend the Indians to the last, and had armed 
Tama's son lilvewise, and Tama announced himself ready to reload guns, 
all that he was able to do. The captain demanded that Mr. Phelps 
accompany him to the store biukling. Xot wishing to appear afraid, he 
did so. Peaching the store, Mr. Phelps, gun in hand, jumped over the 
counter and prepared to sell his life dearly. Again the captain de- 
manded the surrender of the Indians, saying, "Are you ready to give up 
the Indians? If in three minutes you do not promise to surrender 
them to us, we will shoot you, throw your body into the river, burn your 
house, and kill your men." Regardless of consequences, Mr. Phelps 
cried out, "Shoot and be damned; I will never yield the Indians to you." 
Tlie captain commenced to count one, two — and Mr. Phelps was almost 
in the act of pulling the trigger and getting in the first shot himself, 
when help arrived. One of his men had slipped out at the beginning of 
the dimculty and raised a relief party among the outlying settlers, who 
surrounded and captured the soldiers and later made them leave for 
Eock Piver, and the Indians were saved. The sagacity and heroism of 
Mr. Phelps undoubtedly averted an awful Indian war. Had he yielded 
and given Tama and his family over to the drunken soldiers, they would 
have been killed and the result would probably have been an Indian 
uprising all along the border. After the war was over. General Scott 
made a trip to Yellow Banks to see Mr. Phelps and on meeting the 
latter, said, "I want to shake your hand, I only wish there were more 
men of your nerve and courage on the frontier. If you had allowed 
those men to massacre those friendly Indians, it would have precipitated 
an Indian war of which no man could tell the result." 

This period furnishes the first record of the presence of Abraham 
Lincoln in this particular section. 

It would be beyond the province of this ])aper to relate in detail the 
connection of Mr. Lincoln with the Black Hawk war in general, but 
some reference is necessary, in connection with the subject under dis- 

Ida M. Tarbell in her life of Lincoln says of the volunteers that 
assembled at Beardstown, of one company of which Mr. Lincoln was 
elected captain, "It was on the 27th of April that the force of sixteen 
hundred men organized at Beardstown started out. * * * The 
army marched first to Yellow Banks on the Mississippi." 

From other sources we learn that this force reached Yellow Banks 
late in the afternoon on May 3. This body of soldiers remained in 
camp at Yellow Banks until the morning ''of May 7 awaiting a boat 
bringing supplies up the river and was joined, while waiting, by two 
companies from Shelby County. On the' morning of May 7, the army 
moved on to the Rock River country. It appears, then, that Mr. Lin- 
coln's first visit to what is now Henderson County was in the capacity 
of a soldier. 

It is likely that Mr. Phelps and Mr. Lincoln l)ecame acquainted 
on this occasion. They became familiar friends, to the extent that Mr. 
Lincoln in later days addressed Mr. Phelps as "Sumner" and the latter 
addressed the former as "Abe." Physically they resembled each other 
in a striking manner. The first time the writer saw a picture of Mr. 


Pliel])s. ho was sun^ it was a picture of Abraham Lincoln until advised 

At the tiiuc of tlic Black Hawk war, Henderson County was a 
part of Warren County. Oquawka enjoys tlu- distinction of liaving 
been the county seat of two counties. It was the Hrst comity seat of 
Warren County and has been the county seat of Henderson County 
since its organization in 1841. 

Coincident with tlic organization ol' Henderson County, the name 
of another of the nation's great men becomes linked with the history 
of the cou7ity and its county seat. Stephen A. Douglas presided over 
the first term of the Circuit Court liehl in the new county, in a store 
room in Oquawka. on May 28, 1841. The writer has seen his hand- 
writing on the dockets of that period. Judge Douglas continued to 
hold court from time to time at ()(|uawka until the November term, 
1843, when he was succeeded by Judge Jesse B. Thomas, who, in turn 
was succeeded by Judge Eichard M. Young, and he by Judge Norman 
H. Purple, afterwards a Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court. There 
is a ];)ersistent tradition in Oquawka, that Mr. Lincoln also attended 
court here while riding the ciicuit, but the writer has been unable to 
verify it by anyone wdio actually saw him in court. 

From the time of the Black Hawk war on, for many years, nothing 
of particular interest occurred at Yellow Banks. In 1836. after the 
name "Oquawka" had been decided upon, the town was surveyed and 
platted, the name "Yellow Banks" passed into history and by it« pres- 
ent name it has ever since been known. It was thouglit, at this time, 
that a great ciy was in prospect. Governor Duncan Iwught a fourth 
interest in the town, as platted, for .$.")0,(H)(), and speculators from 
New York invested heavily, and for a time, the history of the town 
reads like a story of Kansas in the late eighties, lot sales running into 
the thousands. It did not become a city, but in the pre-railroad days, 
it did a wonderful business and was the center of river trattic for a 
large territory. Freight coming in by river was hauled to ^loumouth. 
Galesburg, Lewistown and even to Peoria. Large amounts of stock 
and produce were shipped out by river. For instance, in 1847-8 there 
were shipped from Oquawka by river 5,200 hogs, 130,148 bushels of 
wdieat, 43,316 bushels of corn, 7,084 barrels of flour, 1,034 barrels of 
lard, 359,776 pounds of l)ulk pork, 12,555 pounds of butter, 21,580 
pounds of hides, besides a large number of other things. In 1852 the 
total exports clearing through Oquawka, were $441,746.00, and the 
total imports $412,880.00. But after the advent of the railroads, about 
1855, the thriving mart degenerated into an ordinary river village and 
became an Ichabod among cities, for its glory had departed. 

Nothing of any particular interest seems to have occurivd until 
1858. The great political battle of that year, for which Illinois fur- 
nished the arena, reached Henderson County, in its course, and the two 
giants of that contest included that county in their itinerary. On the 
^londay preceding the joint debate at Galesburg, ^Ir. Douglas spoke at 
Oquawka. The weather was disagreeable, cold and rainy, but notwith- 
standing this, an audience of eight hundred to a thousand people gath- 
ered in front of the court house where a stand had been erected and Sen- 
ator Douglas spoke to them for two hours and a half. 


Bedroom in House of Robert Hodson, Oquawka. Abraham Lincoln once slept here. 

59 - 

More reminiscences are preserved regarding the visit of Mr. Lin- 
coln five davs later on the Satiirdav following the Galeshurg debate. 
The weather was more auspicious; about 1,500 people came out to hear 
him. He was met at the railroad, then some five miles distant, by a del- 
egation, headed by the local "Brass Band," and was escorted to Oquawka 
by a procession three-quarters of a mile long. Two amusing incidents 
are presented in local history. As Mr. Lincoln, S. S. Phelps and 
Judge Stewart, Avho was to introduce him, were riding in an open car- 
riage down the main street, to the speaker's stand, down by the river, a 
man standing along the street was heard to remark: "Well, if you can 
get three uglier men together again at one time, I would like to see 
them." The other incident occurred at the home of S. S. Phelps, where 
Mr. Lincoln was entertained. You have doubtless all heard the story. 
Paul Selby, who is proljably as well informed as anyone in the State 
on the subject, told the writer that, while the story was an old one, he 
had never heard it localized. The writer had the story from a son-in- 
law of S. S. Phelps, who Avas pre^tent. After dinner, Mr. Lincoln took 
from his pocket, for some purpose, a very dilapidated pocket knife. Mr. 
Phelps said to him, "Abe, it seems to me that that is rather a poor 
pocket knife you have." ]\Ir. Lincoln replied, "Sumner, it is ; that knife 
was given to me and there was a rather peculiar condition attached to 
the gift." ^L\ Phelps asked what it was and Mr. Lincoln said, "That 
knife was given to me on condition that if I ever met a homelier man 
than myself, I was to give him the knife; fulfilling that condition, I now 
present the same to you." It apnears, however, that Mr. Phelps did not 
accept the gift. 

After making his speech and returning to tlie Phelps home, Mr. 
Lincoln signified a desire to lie down and rest. He was accordingly 
shown upstairs and into a room where was an old-fashioned "four- 
poster" bed with a canopy top, where he took a nap. The Phelps home 
is now owned by Robert Hodson, a son-in-law of Mr. Phelps. This old- 
fashioned bed has always been kept standing in the room where Mr. 
Lincoln used it and is always shown to friends and visitors on their first 
visit to the home. Photographs of the room and bed are now in the 
possession of the State Historical Society. 

The respective visits of Judge Douglas and Mr. Lincoln naturally 
aroused a great deal of interest in the political issues of the day, and 
every eflfort was put forth by their respective partisans to make the 
meetings a success. On the occasion of tlie Douglas meeting, the dem- 
ocrats, among other things, had a "liickory pole raising," thus demon- 
strating their loyalty to "Old Hickory." and on the occasion of the Lin- 
coln speech a very elaborate parade was had, in which were many floats, 
among them l^eing a representation of Mr. Lincoln's old log cabin. 

The speeches were along the same lines as the published speeches of 
the two candidates in that campaign. So far as the writer can discover, 
these occasions comprised the last visits of these two great men to 
Oquawka. The large affairs of the Nation thenceforth required their 
attention and their services. 

The history of Henderson County and Oquawka during the Civil 
War was in no wise different from that of the other communities in the 
State, as regards patriotism, and the proportion of men sent to the 


front. The sentiment of Oquawka was intensely loyal. One local inci- 
dent siMves to illustrate this, in this section of the State, during that 
period, were a number of members of the Knights of the Golden Circle. 
A number of soldiers who were at home on furlough learned the identity 
of some of the members of this organization and caught them and com- 
pelled them to take the oath of allegiance to the Government. This 
gieatly enraged the meml)ers of the organization in this part of the State, 
and. finally, one Sunday, a large number of the "Knights" met at Mon- 
mouth, heavily armed and proceeded to Oquawka, on horseback, arriving 
there in the forenoon. They left their arms, however, at a farm house 
northeast of town and entered the town unarmed. A meeting was 
called at the court house and quite a concourse of people assembled. 
The leader of the invading army made a speech in which he informed 
the assembled people that interference with the Knights of the Golden 
Circle would not be tolerated, and that they proposed to compel the 
soldiers to cease making their members take the oath of allegiance even 
if they had to use force to do so. 

The citizens of Oquawka, including the soldiers who were at home, 
became greatly excited over this occurrence and gave such voluble ex- 
pression to their hostility to the "Knights" and gave such strong evi- 
dence of being willing, if necessary, to meet them in mortal combat, that 
the members of the invading army, with their leader, concluded that dis- 
cretion was the better part of valor, mounted their horses, rode out to 
the farm house where they had left their weapons, secured them and 
silentlv rode awav through the rain and so ended the "'Battle of Yellow 

The passing years, since the Civil War, have seen few, if, any, events 
of historical interest at Oquawka. Of course, locall}^, the little village 
has had its notable incidents. One incident is worthy of preservation, 
not that it has any particular interest as regards the State at large, but 
as a record of one of the greatest practical jokes ever perpetrated on an 
unsuspecting community. In the spring of 1870, there resided at 
Oquawka Jonathan Simpson, a lawyer, and the leader of the local bar, 
Eufus Scott, a merchant, and James Peterson, and Samuel Edwards who 
were men of means and had no particular occupation except that of 
loaning mone3^ These four were great cronies, and, among them, the 
scheme was hatched. They purloined a skeleton from the oftice of the 
local doctors and buried it in an old deserted ice house down by the 
river. They then procured a man by tlie name of Wooders. who for- 
merly had lived' at Oquawka, but had removed to Dakota, to write a 
letter to Scott in which he stated that a short time previous he had had 
occasion to take a short journey and had roomed with a man at the 
tavern who stated to him that about two years before, he had run a raft 
doAvn the Mississippi to St. Louis ; that while on the way one of his men 
had received a fatal injury, but that before he died he had confessed 
that he and another man, about the beginning of the Civil "War had been 
left by a raft at Oquawka. and that while spending the evening in a 
saloon there, they had noticed a man who displayed a large amount of 
money: that they got him drunk and then started out to show him a 
hotel; that they took him down by the river, robbed and murdered him, 
and Concealed the bodv in an old ice house. Wooders wrote that from 


the description he supposed it was a certain old ice house^ (naming the 
one where the conspirators had buried the skeleton), Scott, of course, 
made the letter public, and the community became much excited. Peter- 
son then proposed that the matter be investigated and headed a pro- 
cession of citizens, armed with picks and shovels which marched down to 
the ice house in question. After a few minutes of diligent work, a skel- 
eton of a man was revealed and dug up. Then the town went wild. 
The coroner of the county summoned a jury and held an inquest but 
the jury could not obtain any real evidence and returned an open ver- 
dict. The local newspapers came out with big head lines and speculated 
on the identity of the unknown man. There was no doubt in the mind 
of any but the conspirators that a foul murder had been committed and 
that the alleged confession was true. People began to remember things. 
One man recalled that, during the summer of 1862 he had spent the 
evening in the saloon at Oquawka and he remembered a stranger who 
displayed some money and remembered, also, two other strangers who 
had the appearance of rivermen, and he even described their apparel. 
Others remembered things to corroborate the murder theory. The truth 
did not become public for several years. The mind of the lawyer can be 
seen in the story. It was framed up so that it could not possibly cast 
suspicion on any member of the community. 

As has been stated, Oquawka has been the covmty seat of Henderson 
Countv ever since its organization. It has not retained this honor, 
however, without contest. Seven attempts have been made to remove 
the county seat to other points. In 1859, 1865, 1869, 1872 and 1882 
elections were held on the question of removal, but each time Oquawka 
was triumphant. No further effort was made until 1903 when a 
petition was filed for removal of the county seat to Stronghurst, a 
thriving village that had grown up on the line of the Santa Fe Eailway. 
Through some defects, in the proceedings, the petition was dismissed, 
but in 1904 a new petition was filed and an election held. Stronghurst 
had a majority of votes for removal, but, owing to the decision of the 
court to the effect that Oquawka was nearer the center of the county than 
Stronghurst. a three-fifths majority was required for removal, and the 
majority falling short of that proportion, the movement for removal 
failed. Of all the connty seat contests this last one was the most 
acrimonious and bitter, and its effects are yet discernible. In 1914 two 
petitions were filed, one praying for removal to Biggsville and one pray- 
ing for removal to Stronghurst. Both petitions were dismissed by the 
court for the reason that the day fixed by law for an election on the 
question would, in November, 1914,. be five days short of ten years since 
the preceding election, the period within which the Constitution forbids 
another election on the question. 

Eighty-seven years have passed since the white man invaded the 
precincts of Yellow Banks for the purpose of settlement ; years that 
have witnessed the most wonderful progress, years fraught with historic 
importance to the State, the Nation and the world. Through all the 
years, the Yellow Banks above the town have stood guard over the 
mighty river. The rod man no longer threads the forests or paddles 
his canoe upon the Father of Waters. The pioneers have gone and a 
generation has arisen that knows them not; a generation that would be 


incapable of doing what they did. Mrs. Eobert Hodson. a daughter of 
S. S. Phelps, and who was one of the first white children born in Hen- 
derson County, and who resided there all her life, passed away a few 
months ago, and by her death, removed the last link that bound the 
modern to the ancient days. 

Oquawka, the "Yellow Banks" of other years, its former glory de- 
parted, its wealth of memory its chief attraction, is nothing now but a 
river village of small repute, but it is proud of its lineage, its patriotism 
and its history. 



(By Miss Jessie J. Kile, University of Illinois.) 

The German element is one of the large factors today in our popu- 
lation, but it does not figure extensively merely on the census books, for 
it has been a potent influence in making the American people and 
American civilization of today what it is. Perhaps some of our Anglo- 
Saxon fi lends would willingly deny this influence, hut nevertheless it 
remains a fact which cannot be hid. 

Especially at this time is it prominent, for a large share of the 
German sympathy in this country can be traced to it. Nor do we find 
the German element ashamed of the part they have played. Men who 
a short time ago were Americans and were proud of the fact, have be- 
come hyphenated and are now German-Americans and are, if anything 
even more proud of that. Let us hope that they may never have to 
decide which is the stronger, the German or the American, in .case of 
trouble between these two countries, for although it is true that England 
has always been known as the Mother country of America, Germany has 
been the Fatherland to a large per cent of our population since 1830. 

It was at that time that the emigration began to attract attention 
on account of its great volume, and from that time on during the middle 
of the century the movement was so strong as to excite general interest. 
Then it was that hundreds of descriptions of America were published. 
The great output of volumes dealing with journeys to this country 
between 1830 and 1800 could almost be compared to those now appear- 
ing on the European war. The reasons for these accounts were various ; 
some were probably written for speculation, others from a desire to let 
their countrymen know of conditions here, and some simply to be writ- 
ing something. Duden was actuated by the second motive when he- 
wrote his "Eeport on a JourncA^ to the Western States of America and 
Sojourn in Missouri from 182-i' to 1827." 

The author was a German physician whose scientific turn of mind 
did not confine itself to the study of bodily ailments alone. Noting 
the overpopulation and consequent poverty and want in many parts of 
Germany, he set out to find some remedy for this social evil, and it was 
for this purpose that he came to America and settled in Missouri for a 
time. He had decided that that state was best suited for his country- 
men, and his sojourn there was in the nature of an experiment to prove 
this hypothesis. 

When he returned to Germany he published his conclusions and 
this book is one of the most important sources in a study of German 
emigration to Illinois, as it probably had moie influence than any other 
single cause in directing the movement to this section of the country. 
It is true that many were forced to leave their fatherland as political 
exiles on account of their participation in the uprisings of the "thirties" 


and that of "forty-eight/' but more would probably have done as some 
did, seek a temporary asylum in Switzerland or England until they 
could return to aid in a new revolt, if it had not been for Duden's Gar- 
den of Eden which he described so graphically. 

These, however, are only a small proportion of the German emi- 
grants to America, for although statistics are unavailable, when we read 
of the overpopulation, failure of crops and poverty in Germany, logic 
forces us to the conclusion that the greater number of those seeking new 
opportunities came for economic reasons. Indeed, definite efforts were 
made to interest the poorer classes in homes across the seas, and for this 
purpose Duden's book was used. 

Gustav Korner in his review of this work says: "Duden's Eeport 
on a Journey to the Western States of North America has had more 
influence, especially on the better educated' classes, than any of the 
other writings Avhich have appeared in Germany concerning emigra- 
tion from Europe and settlement in the Republic of North America. 
He who is interested in the important question of emigration seeks in- 
struction or confirmation for his opinions in this book. It was road <laily 
by many families before they carried out their intention to emigrate and 
became to them an irrefutable authority. Friends of emigration and 
those in favor of the movement have provided many thousand copies of 
this" report in order to make it accessible to those of little means. 

"Certainly this book has many qualities superior to most of the 
reports, correspondence and diaries which have been written on the 
same subject, and nearly all of which owe their origin either to specu- 
lation or to a bitter mood caused by a vanished hope. But it is also 
certain that this book owes its remarkable reputation to the favorable 
time at which it appeared; it is certain that the growing interest in emi- 
gration had an influence on its gracious reception, and that at no time 
had the ground been so favorable to receive the impression Duden pro- 
duced and to develop it." 

Korner's knowledge of the Germans was such that we are bound to 
give credence to his statements. A German political refugee himself, 
from his arrival in this country in 1833 throughout his whole life, he 
was interested in the question of German emigration and the life of his 
countrymen in this land, and this interest was not of the idle kind which 
leads to no results, but it was of such a vital nature that it made him a 
close observer of conditions and facts and finally led to tlio publication 
of his work on the German element in the United States. 

The fact of the influence of this book is the important consideration 
in a treatise of the causes of German emigration, but in a study of the 
life of the Germans in America the question of the realization or dis- 
appointment of the hopes which Duden raised comes into prominence. 
Had the people found conditions as good or better than they expected, 
they would have l)een satisfied and would have begun immediatelv try- 
ing to take their places in the community. On the other hand, being 
disappointed, they were prone not to make the best of conditions as 
thev were. Korner puts the matter even stronger and asserts that 
"many appear to die as victims of a climate to which they are unac- 
customed who really could not withstand mental depression." 


That some oi' the Germans were disappointed is evidenced by some 
of the numerous criticisms of Duden's description. A book that was 
so widely read and of such great influence was sure to have plenty of 
critics, aiid it is the work of these which shows how his countrymen 
interpreted the author's account, and the question for us is not how 
well his statements fit conditions, but how well the impression made on 
the minds of his readers correspond Avith the actualities. 

His account of the climate and the criticisms of it show that some 
disappointment may have been due to the reader himself. Quite -natur- 
ally the subject of climate was discussed at great length, as it is one of 
the chief considerations of interest to a person Avho is intending to 
seek a new part of the world as a home. The interest of the Germans,^ 
however, did not extend to all that the author said on the subject but 
only to those statements which stood out so prominently that they alone 
entered into the emigrant's concer>tion of the climate. One of these is 
that the heat in summer is from 61° to 90° Fahrenheit during the day 
and that the nights are always cool. The author seeks to qualify this 
statement by saying that in the summer of 1825 the thermometer stood 
at 104° in the shade but according to the inhabitants this was unusual. 
In another place he says that Volney's records show that at one time 
the temperature at Kaskaskia was 110°. 

The statements in regard to the winter which his countrymen re- 
membered were his description of that of 1824-'25 during which, accord- 
ing to him, the woods never lost their green dress, snow did not fall, and 
the frost was so inconsiderable that one needed a fire only of mornings 
and evenings. But he again states that he has been told such weather 
was out of the ordiuary and that usually the month of January was 
bad though the winter seldom began earlier than that time, and by the 
middle of February the rivers Avere free from ice. But from all this 
description of the climate the only impressions which, seemingly many 
of the Germans received were that the summer was cool and that the 
winter was mild. 

But how far do the critics agree with Duden? Korner is the only 
one who takes up the subject to any extent, and he thinks with the 
author that the Avinters are milder than in Germany, but that the sum- 
mers are warmer and that 104° is very oppressive to the Germans. Fur- 
thermore Korner scoffs at the idea that the people can cease Avorking in 
the middle of the day and seek the thick Avoods in order to avoid the 
effects of the heat as Duden advises. He says that AAdiile these methods 
of keeping well and comfortal)le may be all right for a fcAV, most people 
having to Avork for a living, are unable to avail themselves of them. 
His chief complaint, however, is that Duden generalizes from the one 
mild winter of 1824-'25 while refraining from doing so in regard to the 
one hot summer. HowcA^er, it seems that his readers did the general- 
izing rather than that the author did it. 

While the climate is a grave consideration to those seeking a ncAV 
home, it is not so important as the general health in a region although 
the latter is dependent on the first in large measure. But no matter 
hoAV pleasant the climate, if health, God's l)est gift to man, is denied 
that region is not to be considered as a future home. 

— 5 H S 


What then, doos Duclen have to say of the healthfulness of the 
West, and how far (h) his critics agree with him? The twenty-first let- 
ter is devoted to this suhject, hut although the author mentions the 
different diseases most common to tlie country, lie gives little or no idea 
as to how prevalent they are except that in Missouri one never has 
yellow fever although that disease has appeared on the Ohio Eiver; that 
catarrhal fever and diseases of the lungs are not so common in the 
West as in the East, hut that bilious and intermittent fevers are more 
common. But one tiuishes a cursory reading with the idea that there 
is nothing unusual about the conditions of health in this section of 
the country. 

Nevertheless if one reads carefully this idea is somewhat dispelled, 
for in several places the writer speaks of the luxuriant vegetation and 
the strong exhalation from the damp soil as being very unhealthful, 
and he states that he cannot work in his garden during the middle of 
the day without being sick in spite of the formidable amount of medi- 
cines of various kinds which he took beforehand. These details, how- 
ever, seem to have been lost on many, for even as careful a reader as 
Korner assumes that Duden does not give an accurate description of 

The critic assures us that he will not use the summer of 1833 as an 
example, for that year the cholera raged even in Europe, and here 
every disease assumed such a virulent form that the number of new 
emigrants was more than decimated. But he declares that no American 
would accept Duden"s impressions, for they know that under-cultivated 
land, or new country is unliealthful, a host of fever diseases raging there. 
He says that in all the homes'he has been in, American as well as Ger- 
man, he did not meet more than ten men who did not complain of the 
poor health in the region and that when he was in IMissouri he found 
most of the Germans suffering from the fever, althoua^h it was then the 
beginning of winter. 

The conditions in St. Louis were especially bad, and as practically 
all of the Germans came there before deciding on the exact place in 
which to settle, they might easily become discouraged when they saw 
the conditions prevailing there, and indeed man}^ of them did. One 
year one out of every thirty inhabitants of St. Louis died, and this did 
not include the Germans who were merely stopping there temporarily 
and among whom the mortality was excessive, particularly among those 
who came by way of Xew Orleans. They were unused to tlie climate 
and so were very susceptible to yellow fever and cholera which they 
were apt to contract on the voyage up the river. Very few companies 
of emigrants passed through the city without leaving one or more of 
their number buried there, and an almost constant tolling of the bells 
■was kept up during the entire summer. 

Duden advises the emigrants to shun the river valleys and low 
places as unliealthful and to seek the hills at a distance from the 
streams. Korner, however, points out that while this is good advice 
from one point of view, from another it is decidedly difficult for most 
of the emigrants to follow it. A man who has barely been able to sup- 
port his family, to say nothing of living in decency and comfort, M-ishes 


when he emigrates to settle in that place in which he can most improve 
his condition, and this place is in the valleys and not on the hills. 

This brings us to a consideration of the opinions of Duden and his 
critics on the fertility of the soil. Duden describes three grades of soil, 
that extraordinarily fertile which will need no care for a hundred years, 
the moderately fertile, and the poor soil. But again his readers over- 
look the disadvantages. The Tscharner brothers from Chur declare 
"the land was not so especially fertile as Duden says." The author 
replies to this by asking just how fertile he said it was. He calls atten- 
tion to the apparently neglected fact that he had said that there was 
soil of differing degrees of fertility. Kopfli,. who settled at Highland, 
Illinois, declares that in St. Louis he met many Swiss and Germans from 
Missouri who said that the soil was not so good in that state as Duden 
had led them to believe and that it was too much work and too expensive 
to root out the woods. On the other hand Korner assures us that what 
Duden said about the fertility of this section was not exaggerated. 

This conflict of statements can be at least partially accounted for 
by two sets of facts. The first relates to the place where the critic 
settled and by the fertility of which he was apt to judge that of the 
entire M^est. Korner settled near Belleville and so was intimately ac- 
quainted with the rich American Bottom. The other two critics were 
speaking of parts of Missouri and probably not that along the Missouri 
Eiver either, for by the time that Dr. Kopfli and Tscharner came to 
this country the land along the river was well taken up until the western 
counties were reached. 

The second determining factor is the critics' interpretation of 
Duden's statements and his expectations based upon them. This mat- 
ter cannot be as definitely decided as that of the place of settlement, but 
from a careful study of Korner's review and from some knowledge of 
his methods of work, it would seem that he had read the book closely, 
while probably the others had not been so thorough and had allowed the 
impression made by the description of the best land (which occupies the 
most space in Duden's report) to overshadow that made by his mention 
of the poor land. 

Another contradiction of statements is found in criticisms in re- 
gard to a subject closely related to the fertility of the soil, that of root- 
ing out the woods. Tscharner, Kopfli and Korner all maintain that the 
cultivation of wood-land was a much more difficult undertaking than 
Duden's statements would lead one to expect. The first two both de- 
clared that the reason they settled on Illinois prairie land was because 
of this difficulty in Missouri. But on the other hand, one member of 
the Emigration Society of Giessen called Duden "a lying hound" and 
other similar names because he had found no woods worthy of the name 
in the ^lissouri Eiver Valley in that section in which he wished to 
settle. The explanation of this discrepancy is even easier than that of 
the other. This disappointed man had not come to America until sev- 
eral years had elapsed after Duden's report appeared, and by that time 
the woods in the section to which he came had been cleared. 

Whether Duden's statement that the cattle, horses and pigs can 
seek their food in the woods and need no shelter had any influence on 
this man, we do not know. If it did it would have been nullified if 


he had read Korner's statement that "it is ahnost never the case that 
domestic animals can be wintered without expense and if it were done it 
would be followed by the bad condition or even death of the animals. 
Likewise there is no offering of fodder, as Duden thinks, to attach them 
more closely to the place, but simply to keep them from starving." 

It is easy to understand how these poinfs were vital questions to 
the German emigrant and that a wrong impression of them would cause 
serious disappointment. It is hard, however, for an x\merican today to 
attach such importance to the subject to which Korner devotes more 
criticism than to any other single point, i. e., the beauty of the country. 
Indeed the critic himself says that "the usual emigrant who seeks to 
escape the hard pressure of circumstances through his undertaking and 
who changes his location in order not to see himself and his familv in 
need is indifferent to whether he lights upon a charming valley, steep 
rocky crags and mountains piercing the heavens or not. On the con- 
trary he will prefer a land not cut up by hills as the best for agriculture. 
In the end, therefore, the lack of great natural beauty need frighten 
away no class of emigrants, for it really is not a cause which drives men 
from the place of their youth and of their dearest memories, from the 
circle of their friends and from the bounds of their fatherland — still I 
know that many lay no little weight for their emigration on the beauty 
of nature." 

As Korner was well acquainted with many Germans who had emi- 
grated to this section in that period Ave conclude that this motive must 
have had some influence. But if the personal interpretation enters into 
a discussion of the fertility of the soil, how much more must it be taken 
into account in one on the subject of beauty. 

Furthermore the critic has here, more than in any other place, read 
his own ideas into the words of the author. For instance Duden says 
that some of the hills along the rivers of Ohio and Missouri are so large 
that in Germany they would be called mountains. Korner evidently ex- 
pected to find mountains in the real sense of the word, although Duden 
savs that here thev are called hills. At least the critic discnurses at 
great length upon the fact that these elevations are not mountains and 
that any German would know that they were not; although he admits 
that in common speech in the fatherland they would probably be so- 
called, which was allthat Duden said. 

But are there no dark features in Duden's picture? Did he find 
no inconveniences or discomforts in the western states of America ? He 
mentions, indeed, two drawbacks in this Garden of Eden. The first 
was the presence of swarms of mosquitoes. But even here, according to 
the critics, he does not make it dark enough. Korner say that from 
Duden one would think they were an infrequent visitation, but that on 
the contrary they are a continuous summer and winter plague which 
will decrease only when the land is cleared and drained and will never 
entirely disappear in the river bottoms. He says the people of the 
Ehenish districts had been hardened against this insect at home but 
here they were so bad as to be almost unbearable even to them. The 
second drawback was the difficulty in obtaining help. This was a 
greater one than many realize, for the impression is apt to prevail that 
the German emigrants were a thrifty, liard-working people and especially 


that the German women were capable housewives. This was true of 
many, but among tlie majority of political refugees the women knew 
little more of housework than the men did of farming which was prac- 
tically none at all. The unanimous testimony of this class is that this 
lack of help was the chief difficulty which they met. Even those who 
brouglit servants with them were usually left to shift for themselves 
unless the servants were attached to the family by bonds of affection. 
Korner says that he knew many families who would have returned to 
their early home if it had been at all possible on this account alone. 

But why did this difficulty appear so much gi-eater to others than 
to Dudeu? He was not a man accustomed to performing hard manual 
labor and so it was not because he did not need help that it was less for 
him. But he availed himself of a way out of this trouble which those in 
this State could not use even if their conscience would have permitted. 
He had at least one domestic slave. Most of the Germans in the south- 
ern part of Illinois came to America intending to settle in Missouri, but 
seeing what the institution of slavery was like, they were compelled by 
their political ideals of "Liberty, Fraternity and Equality" to come to a 
free state. Duden, however, had no such qualms and not only owned a 
slave but sought to justify slavery to his countrymen. 

This explains why this difficulty did not appear so insurmountable 
to Duden as to the other Germans, but what explanation can we give of 
the fact that the rest of the picture he drew was so much more beauti- 
ful than the reality? Did he exaggerate with the deliberate intention 
of deceiving or did he simply look at the world through rose-colored 
spectacles? If the former, what was his motive; and if the latter, what 
were the causes of his optimism, was it a cheerful disposition which 
enabled him to overlook discomforts and hardships that seriously dis- 
turbed others or was it a favorable position which the common emigrant 
did not enjoy? 

So far as I have been able to find out no one has ever accused Duden 
of wilful and malicious exaggeration for an interested motive. He was 
not interested in land speculation nor many of the emigration and col- 
onization schemes of the time. He came to America for his health and 
to satisfy his curiosity, likewise to find out what part of the country 
was most advantageous for German emigrants, for he had become inter- 
ested in the problem of relieving the congested conditions in Germany 
but his motive was philanthropic entirely and not the charitable kind 
mixed with desire for gain which at least to outward appearances was 
back of some of the colonization societies. We can only conclude there- 
fore that he was honest in his description and then search for the rea- 
sons for his mistaken ideas, and these are not hard to find, for he gives 
them to us. 

He was highly educated, but so were many other German emigrants 
who found conditions far from ideal, in fact it is' among this class that 
we find the greatest complaints. But unlike the majority of them 
Duden did not try to support himself by farming, a business of which 
most of them knew nothing. Duden was a physician, furthermore he 
was without a family and had inherited sufficient property to enable him 
to live without working if lie so desired. Then his sojourn in this coun- 
try, as stated before, was in the nature of a scientific experiment which 


was to demonstrate whether his countrymen would benefit themselves by 
leaving their fatherland, whereas most of the other emigrants were 
without the hope of returning even if they did not like their new home. 
However, the majority of them agreed that they had bettered them- 
selves though not so much as Duden's report had led them to expect. 

Their sentiments are expressed by one man who said : "I am happy 
and well satisfied now ; the first two years were very difficult for me but 
now that I am accustomed to the land, its customs and speech I have 
long forgotten my old home." 

And so it was with most of the emigrants. Though disappointed 
at first they made the best of conditions as they found them and event- 
ually became accustomed to the land, many of them developing into 
influential citizens and leaders of the commimitics in which they lived. 


pn Tiic 



(By Miss Frances Morehouse, Normal, Illinois.) 
Of all the men who led in Illinois affairs during the middle of the 
century, Jesse W. Fell has perhaps the distinction of being the most 
nearly forgotten, save in the places where he left the living monument of 
trees to speak of him to generations other than his own. Earely indeed 
are qualities of leadership such as he possessed, united with a modesty 
so extreme. It seems to have been his distinct wish to avoid the rewards 
that men give to those whom they delight to honor; and as a conse- 
quence his name has not found its way into many of those records which 
tell the deeds of his contemporaries. His work was of 'a nature too per- 
manent, however, and of an importance too entirely beyond denial, 
always to escape recognition and appraisal. I am hoping, in the brief 
account I shall give of it here, to show by what means a pioneer of the 
finest type labored to build up the civic wealth of his State. 

He was of Quaker blood and training, an elder son of a large fam- 
ily living in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Born in 1808, he grew to 
manhood at the time of the great migration which began with the second 
quarter-century. He had been educated in the subscription schools 
of the Friends and in a private school taught by an enthusiastic botanist, 
Joshua Hoopes, who interested him in agriculture as a science and in 
the lore of trees. He wanted to go to the West, but lacked money and 
set about, at the age of twenty, to earn his way by means which helped 
many men of his day toward the realizing of their ambitions ; he taught 
school, sold books, clerked in a store. Finally, being then on the way to 
the West, he studied law for two years with a firm at Steubenville, Ohio. 
Having passed his bar examinations, and well armed with letters and 
credentials, he set out on the final stage of his journey early in October 
of 1832, bound for the Illinois country, then in the Far West. 

John T. Stuart of Springfield was the leading lawyer of that time 
in Illinois. Having secured a bar certificate at Jacksonville, Fell went 
, to 'Stuart for advice as to the best place for a young lawyer who was 
anxious to establish a practice quickly. He was advised to go to Bloom- 
ington, a prairie town scarce two years old. When a visit of inspection 
had shown him the possibilities of the place, which boasted no lawyer 
as yet, he sent back to Ohio for the law library which his former teacher 
had promised him. and in the spring of 1833 opened an office. 

The five years following, years of unexampled recklessness in land 
investment, banking and internal improvement, were years also of a 
marvelous growth in permanent settlements and in the instruments of 
civilization in the Middle West. In the light of the catastrophe of 1837. 
it is easy to underestimate the value of the blind progress of the "Wil.l- 
cat" period in the building np of the nation. ^Iv. Fell, always a land 
man. began his operations by locating tracts for eastern investors and 


handling tlie rapidly-changing claims of the settlers. Before many years 
he came to be a land-holder himself — an example of tlit- pheuoiiR'ually 
rapid acquiring of riches possible only under the unique condition of 
that time — a condition of practically free land awaiting the taking. 
He was never a man who craved wealth; and although at dilferent periods 
of his life he was possessed of considerable fortunes, he rarely held these 
over a period of iDusiness reverses. He was one of those adventurous 
souls who hold wealth lightly, use it freely in any enterprise which may 
liappen to engage their interest, lose gamely, and regain successfully. 

Between 1834 and 1837 Fell was possessed of large tracts of land in 
"Wisconsin and Illinois, including parts of the sites of the present cites 
of Chicago and Milwaukee. He was commissioner of school lands for 
McLean County in 1834 and 1835, and in the latter year became the 
agent of the newly-established State Bank of Illinois, which operated 
until the crash of 183T put an end to the mortgage-making which it had 
■carried on for two or three years. During the 40's and 50's he held 
a great deal of farm land as well as much town property. The law prac- 
tice was turned over to David Davis in 1836, and although later he was 
forced to return to it when there was no market for real estate, Fell seems 
always to have regarded the law as a last expedient, and preferred to 
spend his time in other ways. 

He is best remembered, probably, aside from his memorable friend- 
ship for Lincoln, for his real estate operations in Illinois and Iowa. 
His first considerable venture seems to have been the founding, with 
James Allen, of the town of Clinton, in DeWitt County, Illinois, in 1835. 
The partners acquired a tract of land, divided it into town lots, laid 
out streets, and then planted those streets to trees. Tree-planting was 
always an essential part of town-planning with Jesse Fell. In 1841, 
being on a visit to friends in the East, he studied the streets of West 
Philadelphia, and came back filled with a resolve to make the streets of 
whatever towns he might help to found in his adopted State, similar to 
those of that tree-girt city. A small nursery was always a part of his 
own premises; from this and from others he took the young trees with 
which he planted streets and building-lots, personally supervising the 
planting with a care so minute that very few of the trees he set out ever 
died. In this way many thousands of trees sprang up in the prairie, 
■wherever Jesse Fell owned land or could influence men to follow his 
•example; and in a generation the aspect of the bare pioneer towns had 
changed to one of beauty and comfort. 

During the decade following 1850 there was a revival of activity in 
real estate markets that rivalled that of the 30's. Pontiac, Lexington, 
Towanda, Clinton, LeEoy and ElPaso were towns in which Fell was 
actively interested. He made additions to Bloomington and Decatur, 
and dealt extensively in town lots in Joliet and Dwight. In 1854 North 
Bloomington, later called Normal, was planned. With ilie founding of 
these places, the question of means of transportation became important. 
First in the making of wagon-roads, then in securing post-routes and 
railroads, Jesse Fell was indefatigable He procured, for instance, the 
surveving of a wagon-road from Bloominsfton to Towanda, although he 
did not succeed in having it extended to Lexington. During his resi- 
•dence at Fruit Hill, near Pavson. in Adam? Countv. he secured a 

i o 

straight road of twelve miles to Quincy. In these and similar activi- 
ties, his knowledge of surveying stood him in hand, as he was himself 
able to lay out routes and decide questions which might otherwise have 
waited indefinite settlement. 

When the era of railroad making began, Jesse Fell led in the pop- 
ular support which so largely secured this means of transportation in an 
earlier day. As early as 1835, when William L. D. Ewing sent a request 
to a group of citizens of Bloomington for cooperation in building the 
proposed Illinois Central Eailroad, his name appears among those inter- 
ested in the project. Nothing came of this for several years, however. 
Fell's name appears a little later among the incorporators of the Pekin, 
Bloomington and Wabash Eailroad ; and this effort also waited a number 
of years for its accomplishment. As the chief factor in the elaborate 
internal improvement scheme of 1837, the Illinois Central figured prom- 
inently in politics from 1843, when it was taken up by the Great West- 
ern Railway Company, until 1851, when construction was begun. Pow- 
erful influences were brought to bear upon the promoters to change the 
original route proposed by General Ewing, which passed from "Ottawa, 
or some other suitable point on the Illinois Eiver, through Bloomington, 
Decatur, Shelbyville, A'andalia and thence to the mouth (or near it) of 
the Ohio Eiver on the most practicable and convenient route," to one 
passing further eastward and southward, and particularly through Peo- 
ria and Springfield. Fell persuaded Gridley to become a candidate for 
the State senatorship that he might work for the interests of the towns 
on the original route; and Gridley finally succeeded in inserting a 
clause in the act of incorporation which provided for such a route. 

At the time when the Illinois Central was being built through 
Bloomington, an extension from Springfield to Bloomington of the 
Alton and Sangamon, now the Chicago and Alton Eailroad, was being 
surveyed. With the completion of this road and the Illinois Central, 
railroad connection between Chicago and St. Louis was established. In 
1853 the Chicago and Mississippi, of which the Alton and Sangamon 
was a branch, secured right of way from Bloomington to Joliet, and the 
work of construction began promptly. In all these enterprises Fell took 
a leading part, and from the building of these roads he reaped a rich 
harvest financially, for the roads ran through towns in which he had 
large holdings, towns which with the advent of railroads grew rapidly 
in size. Moreover, he furnished ties for these new roads from his 
timber lands in Southern Illinois. He helped to secure the location of 
the sho^xs of the Chicago and Mississippi at Bloomington, and had the 
station placed at a point which would later on stimulate the growth of 
the educational suburb which he early planned for his own city. 

The need of an east-and-west railroad was keenly felt, and in 1853 
Fell and others organized a company to build a "Wabash and Warsaw" 
railroad, a project foreshadowed in the "Pekin, Bloomington and 
Wabash" of 1836. The story of the accomplishment of this dream is 
too long to be told here. It is enough. to say, that in the efforts made 
to interest the people along the proposed route, Fell was the chief 
worker. All his efforts failed quite to realize the necessary support, the 
project being on a scale which looked formidable indeed to men of a 
foresight less sweeping than his own. After the financial depression of 


1857 the idea was dropped for about a decade, but taken up again in 
1866. A number of roads were advocated; citizens of Danville were 
working for oue from their city to Bloomington through LeKoy and 
Urbana, while others wanted a road directly from Bloomington to 
Lafayette through Chaney's Grove. In June, 1867, after a winter and 
spring of valiant campaigning, support was secured for both roads; and 
they were completed in 1870 and 1872 respectively. Although the east- 
aud-west communication thus finally secured was not so direct as its 
projectors had at first hoped to make it, there was much satisfaction in 
the realization of a plan so long fostered; and the roads have proved 
practical and useful. Later, in the rebuilding of the Chicago and x\lton 
shops and in securing a street railway between Bloomington and Normal, 
Mr. Fell gave good service. 

In all these enterprises he showed, in an era which is usually sup- 
posed to antedate the time of "big business," a peculiar facility in dove- 
tailing the elements of industrial growth. All things, under the impetus' 
of his clear vision and his power of winning men to his ideas, worked to- 
gether for progress and prosperity. He had chosen, early in his career, 
the material development of his part of the country for his peculiar 
work ; and he produced, in one way or another, surprising results in the 
process of changing stretches of prairie into farms, villages and towns 
bound together by the means of communication and exchange. 

But unlike many men who render notable service to the material 
development of their communities, Mr. Fell was also intensely and 
actively interested in education. As has been noted, he planned from 
an early day to found a school town north of Bloomington. His orig- 
inal idea seems to have been to erect a "seminary" there. But when the 
movement to found a State normal school was begun in 1853, he Joined 
himself to the forces of those who seemed to have a chance quickly to 
realize their aims, and began to work for the establishment of a State 
school for training teachers. With Jonathan B. Turner, he himself was 
most interested in the founding of a State industrial college wherein 
technical training of all kinds might be had, as well as the usual cul- 
tural studies ; but being no impractical visionary, and knowing that such 
a school could as yet secure little popular support, he bent his energies 
toward what was possible of accomplishment. After a lively campaign, 
the location of the projected school was fixed at Bloomington, where in 
after years Mr. Fell was instrumental in locating also the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home. When the delayed issue of a State industrial school 
was brought up after the Civil war, he was equally active in an effort 
to locate it in his own town, but failed. Being a good loser, he after- 
ward gave to Gregory, then struggling with the problem of establish- 
ing classes in subjects for which no teachers were to be found, and in 
working out from the mass of ill-digested ideas and prejudices presented 
to him for adoption, a practical policy for a new kind of school, his 
heartv and efficient support. 

An examination of his papers and his printed articles and speeches 
upon educational topics, shows that Mr. Fell held to a remarkable extent 
those ideas and theories which have later come to be commonly accepted 
educational policy. He believed that, for purposes of economical admin- 
istration, State institutions of similar nature should be located in one 


place. His ideal of a State university, for instance, was far more com- 
prehensive than that of most educators of his time, although in recent 
years many such institutions have been built. He advocated industrial 
training for the children at the State orphanage, saying that the State 
committed a crime in sending its wards from under its care without any 
means of earning a living. Since his day the obligation of the State 
to furnish vocational training, not only for orphans but for "all the 
children of all the people," has come to be widely recognized. 

Mr. FelFs participation in politics was entirely that of a beneficent 
political boss, for at no time would he accept office for himself. During 
the years from his coming to the State, to the close of the Liberal Eeptib- 
lican campaign of 1872, however, he exercised great influence in one 
way and another, upon the course of events. This came about through 
his personal friendship for leaders and for voters, because of a love for 
management which found in this way an expression both worthy its 
exercise and fascinatingly uncertain in result, and because of an un- 
faltering faith in men which invested democratic governments, for him, 
with dignity and responsibility. Possessed of an integrity which no 
man ever successfully challenged and few ever even pretended to doubt, 
he entered into the game of politics with zest, and although he lost not 
infrequently, he brought to his activities in this field an idealism which 
made them always worth while to him. 

Trained in the school of Clay, he remained true to the Whig party 
until the organization, in 1856, of the Eepubliean party in Illinois. 
The campaign of 1840 marks his active entrance into politics, his efforts 
before this time being mainly in the way of securing various favors for 
regions in which he was interested. With the Hard Cider campaign 
began his long friendship for O-rindley, Avho entered the State legislature 
shortly afterward, and through many years was helpful to Fell in secur- 
ing the legislative acts which were necessary to the carrying out of his 
plans. Although Fell's own activities never included office-seeking or 
office-holding, he served politically in many capacities — as secretary and 
committee-member, as speaker and presiding officer at countless meetings, 
as writer of editorials and resolutions and broadsides, as general manager 
behind the scenes of the political drama. Upon occasion he expressed 
himself vigorously and effectively, as in the repudiation controversy of 
1843-45, when he published an open letter to the Legislature which was 
widely copied and seems to have had considerable influence in saving 
the honor of the State. He was an indefatigable correspondent, and the 
men of his day who lield offices in the State considered his opinions 
worth serious consideration. The Fell manuscripts include letters from 
many men who consulted the quiet Quaker in Bloomington before acting 
in matters of importance. 

It is in connection with the stirring events of the 60's, which cul- 
minated in the election of Lincoln, that Fell is of most interest to peo- 
ple of this generation ; and that because of his strong and close friendship 
with the Emancipator himself. He and Lincoln had been fast friends 
since the days of the first meeting at Vandalia in 1834, when Stuart 
made them acquainted and the three men lived at the same hotel. They 
had met upon the circuit, had been affiliated in political affairs, and Lin- 
coln was a frequent visitor at the Fell homestead in Bloomington. It 


was Jesse Fell who first suggested the Lincoln-Douglas debates, iu ISo-i; 
and it was he, who in the autumn of 1858, having sounded men of all 
kinds in a journey through the eastern, northern and central states, 
urged him to consider the presidency. He continued, with many other 
Illinois friends of Lincoln, to work for him through 1859, his position 
of secretary of the State Central Committee giving him peculiar facil- 
ities for learning the attitude of his own State toward Lincoln. With 
Joseph J. Lewis of Pennsylvania, he spread in that important state, 
early in 1860, the gospel of Lincoln's candidacy; and the importance of 
this pre-convention work through newspapers and meetings, was evident 
in May at Chicago. 

The details of Fell's political influence belong to the history of the 
causes of events rather than to any history of those events as they 
finally took place, and are therefore interesting only to those who care for 
that rather intricate sort of annals. We are concerned merely that he 
be recognized as one of the potent forces in bringing about the results 
which were dear to his heart — the results which he conceived as the 
expression of those principles with which his thrifty abolitionist Quaker 
training had endowed him, and the results the achievement of which 
furnished him a game in which his soul delighted. 

There remains to mention his work as one of the early newspaper 
men in Illinois. It was one of his first cares, upon taking up his resi- 
dence in Bloomington, to establish a newspaper for McLean County. 
He interested James Allin, merchant and leading citizen, in the venture, 
and a printing press was purchased for them in Philadelphia in 1836. 
This press, with other equipment, came by water through New Orleans 
to St. Louis, and later up the Illinois Eiver to Canton, whence it was 
carted overland to Bloomington. It was months in making this trip, 
and the first number of The Observer and McLean County Advocate did 
not appear until January 14, 1837. William Hill, who had been per- 
suaded to come from St. Louis to be its editor, became discouraged after 
a time and left, whereupon Fell himself undertook the editing of the 
little paper, and continued it until the hard times of 1839 forced him to 
give it up. Bloomington had no newspaper then until 1845, when the 
McLean County Register was published for a few months, to be suc- 
ceeded by the Western Whig, in which Mr. Fell was associated with 
Charles P. Merriman and others in the early 50's. For many years after 
this he was not actively engaged in newspaper work, although he used the 
columns of the Pantagraph and other publications to further his projects 
of all kinds. For a short time in 1868 he again edited the Pantagraph ; 
but soon retired in favor of his son-in-law, W. 0. Davis. 

It is hoped that this brief account may give some clear idea of a 
man who contributed much, and in typical ways although to an unusual 
degree, to the development of his State. Many of his activities have 
been barely touched upon, or omitted entirely. Xo account of his 
activities could indicate the scope of his influence, which through a long 
life made always for tolerance and breadth of judgment, for soundness 
in civic life, for faith in the future, and for energy and courage in facing 
problems and working them out. 




(By B. F. Harris, former President, 1911-12.) 

It is not unusual that the country banker, and that means 1,600 of 
the 1,900 banlvers in Illinois, who is brought so closely into touch with 
the inefficiencies and short comings of farming and farm life would 
appreciate their needs more than most men, but it is most unusual that 
a great state organization should give so largely of its time and means 
and effort in behalf of another set of men. 

Such unselfish effort even today is not customary, though in the 
future it must and will be more general, but five years ago it was un- 
heard of. 

It is cause for just pride and official historical record that the Illi- 
nois Bankers' Association first inaugurated and maintained such a ser- 
vice and with such zeal and effectiveness that it has spread into every 
state in the Union and is known everv where as the "banker-farmer" 

The Illinois Bankers' Association was not alone the first to take 
up a comprehensive agricultural welfare program, but the Illinois Asso- 
ciation led the bankers, as the only class of business men who, in their 
great State and national organization, have stepped beyond the bor- 
ders of their personal or selfish purpose and undertaken such a work. 

Some of the members of the Illinois Bankers' Association had in 
1908-9 begun to talk of the advantage and necessity for such action but 
the conservative element believed such work to be beyond the province 
or function of a bankers association. 

October 26, 1910, at the annual convention in Cairo, the chairman 
of the Executive Council (B. F. Harris) breakina; through the reo-ular 
program and his prerogative, delivered an address from Avhich the fol- 
lowing paragraphs are taken : 

"It occurs to me that this association not alone can but should be 
a power in the business and commercial life of the State. 

"It has done, it seems to me — aside from the personal things for 
itself — all too little in the general uplift. Aside from the things sup- 
posedly for its purely personal welfare, it has been content Avith this 
annual social meeting and the listening to a few good addresses, usually 
on pertinent personal subjects. 

"If this association is to justify its organization and continuance it 
should, as I see it, strive to be an active, energetic, helpful, progressive 
force, having for its purpose the accomplishment of real and tangible 
needs, not for itself alone, but for the whole State. 


"If we are to do i-omctliing more than we have done it should be the 
function of some of your executive officers to make the suggestion, and 
foi' vdu to deteriiiine as to the merit of the suggestion. 

■'As of necessity the banker occupies a more or less comiuanding 
position in his eommunitr, therefore his voice should always be on the 
side which is not alone for the upbuilding of his community from the 
money-making side, but for progress along all lines of public welfare. 
"The banker who has the proper vision of his calling is working in 
these directions. 

"He should have an active, aggressive desire to promote better agri- 
cultural methods and conditions, and to protect and promote the public 
credit and confidence with the soundest and safest hanking methods 

"I do not believe that anyone can be a good business man who is 
not at the same time a good citizen in all that the term implies. 

"We are always to remember that principles are infinitely greater 
than dollars and will be while the world lives. 

"What we need in this country is not a large standing army of sol- 
diers, but a standing army of righteous, militant citizens, in constant 
warfare against the unscrupulous men and measures that menace us, 
and the bankers should be in the front ranks of this army. 

"The man who devotes all his time to the accumulation of property, 
straddling or evading vital business and governmental questions; oblivi- 
ous of the debt he owes society; absorbing everything he touches, giving 
nothing in return, is the type of citizen that is little better than the 
one who goes wrong, for his selfishness makes the other possible." 

If any two men go hand in hand and play the larger part in the 
matter of good times, it is the farmer and the banker. Big crops at 
good prices are the basis of it all and then a liberal, progressive, sound 
banking system helps keep going all that the farmer's work and product 
has set in motion. 

Nearly every banker in this State is directly, constantly and inti- 
mately associated with farmers — is selfishly and ought to be genuinely 
interested in their success in general and in a successful, permanent 
agriculture in particular — yet what little effort has been made to help 
in the work, outside the experiment stations. 

"Our association is the oldest and largest of all State associations 
and we should strive to make it also the best and most progressive." 

One result of these remarks was a resolution, nnanimously passed, 
providing that a committee be appointed from the membership to be 
known as the committee on "Agriculture and Education." 

This committee consisted of B. F. Harris, Chairman, Champaign; 
W. G. Edens, Secretary, Chicago; George Pasfield, Jr., Springfield; 
Harry Schirding, Petersburg; William George, Aurora. 

Though changes were made in the personnel of this committee each 
vear Messrs. Edens and Harris served in their positions for four years. 
The committee immediately took up an aggressive campaign among 
the association members and because it was novel and unique for bank- 
ers to undertake such work, as well as because their purpose was clearly 
helpful and constructive, the public press gave much space and great 
aid to the cause. 


The work and scope oi' the comuiittee widened rapidly and broadly 
until it touched the public welfare on many sides and far afield from 

One of the very first and most vital and successful of all this com- 
mittee's undertakings was the original and pioneer movement in the 
north for farm demonstration — the having an experienced and trained 
agricultural advisor or county agent in each county. 

This plan was outlined in a circular distributed early in 1911, and 
in the summer, with a pamphlet entitled "What the Illinois Bankers" 
Association is trying to do for Illinois and the Union," — referring to 
*Tederal Agricultural Demonstration and State Agricultural Educa- 
tion." This pamphlet carried a copy of the bill which our committee 
had prepared and which had been introduced in Congress and received 
wide endorsement. Furthermore we had taken a nation wide committee 
of bankers to Washington to urge its passage. 

Our bill was afterwards merged into the Lever, then the Smith- 
Lever bill, now written into the Federal statutes. 

In the meantime, our bankers — not waiting for Federal or local 
appropriations — started the first northern county demonstrator move- 
ment in DeKalb County. 

Later we prepared and passed a bill through the State Legislature 
authorizing county boards to apnropriate annually up to $5,000 to main- 
tain a county agent. Seventeen counties now have such agents and 
other counties are rapidly falling into line. 

Our circulars read, ''Why should not Illinois, in the mighty cause 
of agriculture; of maximum crops; of all improvements that follow 
these, have one hundred field agents, one in each county, the good 
results of whose work is beyond computation, multiplying greater than 
any seed or dollar that could be sown." 

In the meantime the Breeders' Gazette of Chicago (March 29, 
1911) had stated, in an extended editorial that "The president of the 
Illinois Bankers' Association (B. F. Harris), is probably the first man 
of his profession in this country to insist that the time has come when 
banking in agricultural regions should include some type of definite 
action to promote sound systems of agriculture. According to him, a 
banker should make his commanding position in a community yield 
jDublic as well as personal benefits. Financial leadership or prominence 
imposes obligations to town, county. State and nation which he says 
ought to be paid in full. Bankers can strengthen the foundations of 
their own business by taking an active interest in community-building." 

On January 15, 1912, The Prairie Farmer referred editorially to 
the president of the Illinois Bankers' Association as "the father of the 
demonstration farm movement in Illinois" while the Bi-eeders' Gazette 
on January 31, 1912, referring to the bill in Congress remarked : "If 
any idea can .be said to have an individual citizen as a father, the 
paternal ancestor of this one is the president of the Illinois Bankers' 

Our work passed on through many phases, encouraged and ex- 
plained in many thousands of pamphlets widely scattered. 

In the meantime the chairman had become president of the Illinois 
Bankers' Association (1911-12), which l)ut added strength and prestige 


to the movement, and many State associations, appreciating and desir- 
ing to take lip the work asked to have the story told them. 

In the spring of 1911 we had asked the oflficers of every state bank- 
ers association to send as delegates to an agricultural conference to be 
held in N'ovember in New Orleans, at the annual convention of the 
American Bankers' Association, bankers who were similarly interested. 

As a result we drew a resolution, adopted by the American Bankers' 
Association recognizing the great importance of the movement and ap- 
pointing a committee, which two years ago was enlarged into a very 
active "Agricultural Commission." This commission prints (here in 
Illinois), a widely circulated, non-commercial monthly in support of 
the work. 

Meanwhile our Illinois committee had been actively at work in 
educational matters in the State. 

Our 1911 circulars stated that "The welfare of rural life demands 
a new kind of rural school. The desire for better schools draws many 
country people to the city. There are more than 10,000 practically 
one-room country schools in Illinois, with over 300,000 boys and girls in 
attendance, 85 per cent of whom have no other advantages. This 85 
per cent (250,000) should have the best there is to be had." 

We advocated vocational work, compulsory agricultural education 
and consolidated schools. 

In 1912 we called a conference of all the varied interests of the 
State, who were or should be interested in better schools. The various 
clubs and federations of women's and commercial clubs; of labor, manu- 
facturers, teachers, farmers, etc.. and of every university and normal 
school in the State, all were represented at the four meetings and eight 
committee meetings. 

The president of the Illinois Bankers' Association had called and 
was required to serve as chairman of this conference, which issued its 
report in January, 1913, known as the "Conference Vocational Educa- 
tional Bill." It was opposed to the so-called "Cooley" bill and was 
probably the means of defeating the latter before the 1913 Legislature. 

Shortly after this our committee made an extended investigation 
into the dairy situation, especially in the Chicago district and issued a 
lengthy report, which has been widely referred to, and was instrumental 
in securing better results for the milk producers. 

In the fall of 1913 we undertook a State wide survey among bank- 
ers and farmers and also through the county officers of Farmers' Insti- 
tutes, to gather data on rural credits, "to determine as to the ability 
with which and the conditions under Avhich farmers were securing per- 
sonal and mortgage credit and the relation between the bank and the 

]\ruch interesting data was secured and compiled, with much work 
and care for the committee. Among other facts it was developed that 
62 per cent of all the stockholders in the banks outside of Cook County 
were farmers and that the farmers controlled more than half the banks 
of the State and were treated as well or better than any other class of 
bank customers. 

During all this time, the matter of roads had not escaped the atten- 
tion of the association. 


One of the first nets of the association president in 1911-12 was 
tlie appointment of a committee on "Good Eoads" with S. E. Bradt of 
Delvalh as chairman. 

Circnhir letters were at once sent out over the State asking some 
twenty questions calculated to develop the fact that we badly needed a 
first class State road law. that no progress could be made under existing 
law and that the people and tax payers wanted first class roads and 
State aid. 

This committee developed the first and most representative census 
taken in this line and was largely instrumental in securing State action, 
the Governor appointing Mr. Bradt one of the three State Highway 
commissioners under the I'ice Eoad Act. 

Meanwhile the Illinois Bankers' Association had been divided, geo- 
graphically in ten groups, each of which was organized Avith chairman, 
etc., and practically every county in each group was similarly organized 
to work for "the banker-farmer" program, and the slogan for all was 
"Create a soil as well as a bank reserve." 

One or more meetings of each of these organizations is held annu- 
ally, all open to farmers and the public, the progi-am being very largely 
given over to public welfare work. 

Speaking of the annual convention of the Illinois Bankers' Asso- 
ciation in Peoria, September 25-36, 1912, the Peoria Herald said : 

"This program is unique in the fact that it is the first convention 
program of an association or class of business men ever given over 
entirely to matters of public welfare. Every subject on the program 
is of vital interest to every citizen. 

"The fact that a bankers' association is doing this is significant. 

"The fact that the Illinois Bankers' Association inaugurated such a 
public welfare policy should l)e a matter of State pride, which increases 
when we see that many other Bankers' State organizations, as well as the 
American Bankers' Association is falling into line. This is one of the 
finest signs of the times." 

At the annual convention held at Springfield, October 10-12, 1911, 
the agricultural committee took charge of an entire afternoon session 
with a strictly agricultural progi-am, the first of this character ever held. 
Prominent speakers addressed an audience exceeding 2,000 people in- 
cluding the Governor and the Supreme Court which adjourned to attend 
the meeting in a body. 

The Saturday Evening Post, writing of the work stated that 
"Bankers' associations in other states than Illinois have followed the 
lead of the Illinois Bankers' Association in working for better methods 
of farming, conservation of the soil, boys' corn clubs, agricultural in- 
struction in the country schools, better public roads and like ob- 
jects. * * * 

''Until quite recently the railroads were almost alone among business 
concerns in undertaking l)road-gauge development of this sort. Why 
shouldn't the bankers everywhere take it up?" 

The United States Investor wrote, "The Illinois Bankers' Associa- 
tion appears to possess a fairly good title to the reputation of being 
al)out as energetic a body of its kind as we have in this country. Not 

— G H S 


content witli bending its resources to the single task of improving con- 
ditions within the profession for the baiikers of its State, it has em- 
barked upon several enterprises for the general internal improvement 
of Illinois. 

"Interest in good roads it has shown, ami lias just printed some data 
on the subject. Its interest in agricultural education has given the 
topic a new importance, and bankers' associations all over the country 
are beginning to have discussions about it. The president of the asso- 
ciation has been the prime mover on this end of the work, and as a 
result, has been asked to address the annual meetings of almost if not 
quite a dozen state bankers' associations. 

"There is something really inspiring aljout the new annreciation of 
agricultural conditions which the bankers of the country are showing." 

The opening paragraphs of the address and report of the retiring 
president of the association at Peoria, September 25, 1912, ran as fol- 
lows : 

"* * * No man liveth unto himself alone" * * * "nor by 
bread alone," are the words inspired by the "Giver of all things good." 

They are truer today, at least better appreciated and more necessity 
is found for their consideration and application, than when they were 
given as "gospel." 

Curious as it may seem, the further we pass from the days of the 
decalogue and the prophets, through their seasoning by the centuries, 
the closer we come to their eternal truths. 

This age of efficiency and service, in order to produce these results, 
has had, not unwillingly to accept them as the guide of business, the 
rule of reason, as well as the rule of faith, and the banker shall not be 
the last to be led by them. 

Man has two great concerns in life, one the conquest of his environ- 
ment, the other to express and interpret what life means to him. 

It is possible for bankers, who are generally well advanced in such 
conquest, to demonstrate that a fuller life means a completer conquest 
of the forces that retard public welfare. 

The banker is among the most important men in his community, 
whether he knows it or not. 

He should be the bravest man in town and the least afraid of crit- 

We need more men of all classes who appreciate their obligations to 
the community, who stand for something besides themselves. 

So long as we understand that the prosperity and perpetuity of the 
nation depends upon the welfare and success of the average man and 
the average woman, so long will we put the public welfare in the first 

We have reached the days of realignment and readjustment and 
realize that we must be progressive in order to be conservative. 

]\Ien of observation, constructive, progressive citizens, have long 
ceased to need argument to convince them of the crying necessity for 
better agricultural methods ; for citizen making systems of education ; 
for better roads; for all the things that will advance the mighty cause 
of agriculture and serve to solve or ease the problems of rural life, and 
promote the general welfare. 


These are the problems that indirectly affect the whole nation, even 
more, if possible, than they directly relate to the rural population. 

So, while the jjressiiiy inipuitance of these problems had long since 
passed the stage of argument — and effort was crystallizing on all sides 
for their adoption and execution — there was much debate, ethically and 
otherwise — whether a Bankers' Association, or even a banker, should 
actively take interest in these and other matters of general welfare. 

There was that ancient idea and failure to act through fear of being 

You will hear no challenge now, when we state that there is no 
further argument against the practical and public value of — in fact 
there is crying necessity for — such a policy. 

It has been the great privilege of the Illinois Bankers' Association 
to pioneer the work among bankers' state organizations — of undertaking 
and demonstrating the success of a wide campaign in the field of good 
citizenship and public welfare. 

We have started a demonstration and will continue to demonstmte, 
in growing measure, as other great organizations of business men should 
be doing, our living interest in public affairs, and that the people, more 
men without part}', more business men and fewer politicians, must run 
their government and formulate its policies. 

In the natural order of things, no matter how nure their purpose, 
we cannot leave agricultural development chiefly to the colleges — educa- 
tional methods entirely to the teachers ; lianking bodily to the hankers ; 
big business problems solely to the corporations ; nor even religion to the 
clergy; certainly not government to piratical politicians. 

Good government like any other serviceable and practical institu- 
tion, is a matter of good business and business methods and business 
men, with a vision broadened and heart warmed by the public interest 
must shape and direct and dominate, if we approach a true democracy. 

Almost without exception every member in our ranks has felt the 
uplift of our present policy and helped in it. 

The story of our work has spread throughout the land, till scarcely 
a publication in the country from the great metropolitan daily to the 
obscure country weekly, down through a wide range of national publica- 
tions and all the farm press, has told the story of the Illinois Bankers' 
Association "living not to itself alone" — endorsed the movement and 
bidden it Godspeed. 

The more points at which we touch human nature and human inter- 
ests the more alive we are and the longer we will remain so. 

We are giving the people a practical demonstration that the interest 
of banker and customer is identical and that the general interest is a 
part of our interest. 

Without entering into more detail, much of which is fully covered 
in many pamphlets, it is not too much to say that much has been accom- 
plished in this movement — for which the bankers of Illinois cannot be 
given too much credit. 

These words may have many personal and not too modest references 
but it did not seem possible to say less and record for your archives a 
fair statement of this movement the credit for which belongs to and 
is a matter of great pride with the Illinois Bankers' x\ssociation. 




(By Frank R. Grover.) 

The romance and interest that ever surrounds "Indian Days" in 
America seems never to wane. As the years go by the younger genera- 
tion of Americans turn from the Indian tales of their ancestors — the 
relations of the actors themselves, in the days of the pioneer, to the 
countless books and writings that are ever painting vivid word pictures 
of the Xorth American Indian in the days of his glory — before he 
became the victim of a white man's civilization. His traditions, myths 
and legends, his character, his eloquence, his manners and customs, the 
wrongs he has done and those he has suffered, have all in their turn 
supplied endless themes for the historian, the poet, the ethnologist and 
the writer of fiction. Longfellow's Hiawatha as well as Schoolcraft's 
Tales and Legends gathered — 

"From the forest and the prairies 
From the Great Lakes of the Xorthland 
From the land of the OJibways" 
have not only permanently fastened their charm upon their first readers, 
but will forever interest their descendants yet unborn. 

A subject that has heretofore been given frequent but only inci- 
dental attention is the Indian treaties, which have generally been con- 
sidered only as the title papers, by which the white man acquired a white 
man's title to the Indian's land. It is my purpose to tell you regarding 
some of the Indian treaties affecting lands now constituting the State 
of Illinois. 

To follow and describe all of these treaties in detail and their 
historical importance would not only extend this paper and discussion 
beyond reasonable limits Imt would require in effect the writing of the 
history of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys during those eventful years 
in American history that have intervened since the beginning of the 
American Eevolution. It will therefore be my plan and purpose to 
consider these treaties more in their general aspect and significance 
than to follow all of them in the detail that would require unprofitable 
repetition respecting transactions and negotiations much alike in plan, 
purpose and results. 

A very instructive summary of the plan and purpose of these 
Indian treaties is set forth by Mr. J. Seymour Currey in his recent 
History of Chicago (Vol. 1, page 202) in the following concise words: 

"From the time of the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, 
there was a series of Indian treaties extending over thirty-eight years, 
particularly affecting the region of Illinois. Some of these treaties were 
merely declarations of friendship, others provided for territorial ces- 


sions, while some renewed the conditions of former treaties and included 
as participants additional trihes. The provisions of these treaties were 
often not clear to the ignorant chiefs who, after the agreement was 
made and ratified, would raise objections and demand another council. 
The Government would then frame up a new treaty including the 
former provisions as well as added ones and again the chiefs were 
gathered to sign away, usually unwittingly, still more of what remained 
to them. The odds"^ were all against them, with their unstable con- 
ditions of land tenure, their ignorance and barbarity on the one side, 
and the keen, often unscrupulous wits of the Government agents on 
the other side. Finally came the great Treaty of Chicago in 1833 which 
provided for their removal to the west. It was long before the signifi- 
cance of this agreement came home to them, and they realized but 
slowly the seriousness of the Great Father's intention to send them 
away from their dwellings to new lands." 

It is undoubtedly true that so long as there are historians to write, 
there will be most divergent views expressed regarding the rights of 
the Eed Man, and how those rights have been violated and infringed, 
both in the methods of negotiating treaties, their fraudulent provisions, 
and inadequate compensation for lands, and in the matter of subsequent 
performance. It is very easy to espouse the cause of the Indian as the 
jnoprietor of the soil, the child of the forest and of the plains cheated 
by dishonest and unscrupulous government agents with the use of 
whiskey and the gaudy and attractive wares and merchandise that 
resulted in the United States securing title to an Empire for a few 
cents an acre. 

And, on the other hand, to remember the Indian as the vices of 
the white man's civilization had made him, and to then conclude, that, 
after all, the requirements of civilization and progress — the survival of 
the fittest, made it a foregone conclusion that he must pass away. 

To espouse either view is not within the scope or purpose of this 
paper. The facts speak for themselves. Probably neither view is the 
correct one. That in concluding many treaties, and in the performance 
of them, both the Indians and the Government agents were fair is 
undoubtedly true. That later in concluding some of the treaties here 
under consideration, the land-lust of the white man and the necessities 
of progress and the pioneer on the one hand, and the great reluctance 
of the Indian tribes on the other, to be ever crowded out of their native 
lands and pushed farther and farther to the west, led to methods on 
the part of government agents that were both questionable and an 
indelible disgrace to both the responsible agents themselves and a 
government that would countenance such action by later ratification, 
seera's only too true. 

One writer says : "Xo government ever entertained more enlight- 
ened and benevolent intentions toward a weaker people than did that 
of the United States towards the Indian, but never in history, probably, 
has a more striking divergence between intention and performance been 

An Indian's view is also quoted by the same author in the fol- 
lowing words, "\yhen the United States want a particular piece of 
land, all our natives are assembled ; a large sum of money is offered ; 


the land is occupied probably by one nation only; nine-tenths have no 
actual interest in the laud wanted; if the particular nation interested 
refuses to sell, they are generally threatened by the others who want 
the money or goods offered, to buy whiskey. Fathers, that is the way 
in which this small spot, which we so much value, has been so often 
torn from us." (Quaife in Chicago and the Old Xorth West, p. 179.) 

Over and over again have the Indian orators presented similar 
complaints, both in councils among themselves and in conference with 
Government agents when treaties were under consideration. And here 
it will not be out of place to briefly consider what the Indians on such 
occasions have had to say for themselves, of their relations to the white 
man and their rights as original proprietors of the soil. 

Historians of reputation and standing have often treated the Indian 
Councils with Government Commissioners when treaties were under 
consideration, very lightly, and with scant regard for the feelings of the 
Eed Man who quite generally was then and there not only requested 
but required to leave his home and native land and to depart to some 
remote country that he knew not of. One of these writers says: "An 
Indian Council, on solemn occasions, was always opened with prelim- 
inary forms, sufficiently wearisome and tedious. ""•' * * An Indian 
orator was provided with a stock of metaphors which he always made 
use of. * * * fi^i^g orator seldom spoke without careful premedita- 
tion and his nicnioiy was refreshed by belts of wampum which he 
delivered after every clause in his harangue." 

It is no doubt true that on some of these occasions the ceremonies 
were tedious and prolonged and that some of the Chiefs delivered 
harangues burdened with useless and oft repeated metaphor. But it is 
no less true that we are indebted to the Indian treaties for the careful 
preservation of Indian oratory hardly equalled or excelled by the white 
man with all his books, his culture, and his learning. We are told by 
good authority that many of these great speeches, however carefully 
translated, necessarily lose the charm of the Indian tongue that by 
intuition deals with nature in all its poetic beauty. 

That it is not useless flattery to so designate the words of the 
Indian orator on such occasions, is plain and apparent when it is con- 
sidered what he had at stake, that nature in the first instance made him 
an orator, which oft accounted for his being the spokesman of his clan 
or tribe, that perhaps for months he and his tribesmen had given close 
heed and thought to the coming council and the importance of its 
decision ; and at last, when called upon to speak and when he arose in 
the presence of the great men of the Indian Nations, the assembled 
Indian multitude and the attentive Government agents, the orator — if 
orator he really was — met the climax of his career as the representative 
of his people and poured out his heart and soul with his best and final 
words as an earnest advocate of their righteous cause. 

Indian metaphor so frequently used on such occasions had not only 
the poetic tinge but added force as well as ornament to the speech, 
whether it be designated as oration or harangue. Its merit may be 
best judged by the fact that the sayings of these "Indian children" in 
addressing the council have not only been carefully preserved as part 
of our literature, but borrowed repeatedly and used over and over again. 


by the white orators of our o\mi clay, until they have permanently become 
figures of speech of our language. (See illustrations of such metaphor- 
ical sayings and expressions. Haines American Indian, Chap. XL, III.) 

Caleb iVtvvater in writing a history of the Treaty of Prairie du 
Chien, that will receive later mention, thus speaks of the Indian orator 
at treaty making councils : "Before him sit the United States Com- 
missioners, attended by a great number of military officers in full dress, 
the Indian agents, interpreters, and an army of soldiers under arms; 
the cannons with lighted matches, and indeed all the proud array of 
military life so fascinating to men in. all ages of the world, are pre- 
sented to his view." 

"On each side of him sit all the chiefs and warriors of his nation, 
while behind him sit, in the full hearing of his voice, all the women 
and children of his people. His subject is one then of the highest con- 
ceivable importance to himself and his whole nation. In breathless 
silence do they listen to every word he utters and with watchful eye 
mark every gesture he makes." 

"Placed in such a situation the character of his eloquence is easily 
conceived. It abounds with figures drawn from every object which 
nature presents to his eye. He thanks the Great Spirit that He has 
granted them a day for holding their council with or without clouds 
as the case may be. * * * He recalls to the minds of his audience 
the situation and circumstances of his ancestors when they inhabited the 
whole continent; when they and they only climbed every hill and moun- 
tain, cultivated in peace the most fertile spots of earth, angled in every 
stream, and hunted over every plain in quest of game, skimming the 
surface of every lake and stream in their birch bark canoes, with lodges 
in coolest shades in summer beside pure fountains and where abundance 
of food was always at hand and easily obtained, and that all the labor 
they had to perform was only what the white man calls sport and pas- 
time; that in winter they dwelt in the thickest forests where they were 
protected from every piercing wind. * * * The white man came 
across the great water. * * * Indian pity was excited by the simple 
tale of the white man's wants and his request was granted. * * * 
Step by step he drove the Bed Man before him from river to river, 
from mountain to mountain, until the Red Man seated himself on a 
small territory as a final resting place, and now the white man wants 
even that small spot." * * * "Thus is his whole soul in ever}^ 
word, in every look, in every gesture, as he presents the rights of his 
people and the wrongs they have .endured." 

We are not only indebted to the negotiations and councils incident 
to the Indian Treaties for the preservation of the best efforts of the 
Indian orators, but the writers who were present and have described 
what occurred on such occasions have given us an interesting account 
and view of Indian pomp and ceremony at its best and most interesting 
stage; afld also reliable information respecting the condition of the 
various tribes at the time the Treaties were concluded, and again inter- 
esting accounts and descriptions of individual chiefs whose names will 
not only ever live in American history, but which are stamped indelibly 
upon the maps of all our states. 


The accounts of one or two eye witnesses of the tiansactious inci- 
dent to the later Treaties held at Chicago and Prairie du Chien. that 
w ill here receive consideration, are of interest and iHii)ortauce in all of 
these particulars. It is to he regretted that much of the romance that 
so generally attaches to the history of the primeval Eed Man, is greatly 
dimmed and marred, when he is seen as he actually appeared on these 
later occasions at the Treaty making councils of Chicago and Prairie 
du Chien, a victim of the white man's whiskey, and a sorry representa- 
tive of his former greatness. 

While each and all of the very many Treaties with the Indians 
directly and indirectly affecting lands now constituting the State of 
Illinois are of interest, extended consideration need only be given a very 
few of them, not exceeding seven in number. These seven treaties were 
not only the most important ones in the development and settlement of 
the State, and iii shaping events that make the history of Illinois, but 
they present three distinct t3'pes of the Treaties in respect to the end 
sought by the Government agents. First, to end Indian wars against 
the settlers, and to secure peace with the Indians; second, to secure 
peace between hostile and warring tribes, and to establish boundaries 
between them; and third, to secure cessions of hiiid for the use of the 
settlers. The seven Treaties that will be so considered were concluded 
respectively in the years 1795, 1804, 1816, 1821, 1825, 1829 and 1833. 


There is probably no Indian treaty, with the exception of the 
memorable and historic treaty negotiated by William Penn, that is more 
frequently referred to by historians than the Treaty of Greenville con- 
cluded August 3, 1795. While this treatv ceded verv little land within 
the present boundaries of Illinois, it was of far reaching importance 
in the histor}^ and development of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and 
in shaping the destiny of the coming empire. 

To write a complete history of this treaty in all the essential 

• details that accuracy would require, would be to reproduce the history 

of the nation during the days of the Revolution and the years of trial, 

concern and uncertainty that succeeded the Treaty of Peace with Great 

Britain of September 3, 1783. 

Great Britain retained possession of the principal Lake posts con- 
trary to the express provisions of the Treaty of Paris. It seems also 
to have been the plan of the Mother Country to keep possession of the 
territory north of the Ohio and west of the Alleghanies as . long as 
possible, indulging the hope, if not the belief, that the experiment of 
the American Confederacy might prove such a failure that possession 
would never be required or enforced. 

The surrender of possession carried with it also relinquishing the 
benefit there derived from the fur trade, to say nothing of the vast 
territory held and controlled by these forts and trading posts. 

If the action of Great Britain had been confined alone to holding 
these forts and the territory thereby controlled, and to the flimsy excuses 
for so doing, the ground for complaint would not have been so great. 
But year after year, through British and Canadian agents, the Indians 


were, by continued intrigues and encourag'ement, led to war upon the 
settlers of the Ohio Yalley and against the military forces of the 
United States. 

It is not within the scope of this paper to deal in detail with all 
those bloody times and years that have been so graphically described 
by some of the' participants and their later historians. The Indian Con- 
federacy led by Little Turtle, the great Chief of the ]\Iiamis ; the hewing 
of military, roads through the forests to reach and burn the Indian 
villages; the building of all the Forts in the wilderness; the bravery of 
General Arthur Saint Clair, Governor of the North West Territory, who 
could not stay the utter rout of his army that fled before the mighty 
onslaught of the red men, are all matters of history. But at last under 
the direction of the Great Washington came "the man of the hour" — 
"Mad Anthony Wayne," a General whom Washington had watched 
through many battles of the Eevolution; the man that lead his soldiers 
in a bayonet charge to victory over the walls of the British Fort at 
Stony Point, and who, with all his rashness, had as cool a head as his 
heart was stout — the new Governor of the Xortli West Territory, Then 
came the bloody Indian "Battle of the Fallen Timbers" under his leader- 
ship and at last after forty years of Indian warfare, the Great Indian 
Treaty of Greenville that one historian at least has designated "The 
Peace of Mad Anthony." 

This treaty does not derive its importance from either the value or 
extent of the land ceded to the United States by the Indians. The first 
words of the preamble, unlike similar recitals in many other treaties, 
were significant not only in statement but in later observance, viz : "To 
put an end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies and to restore 
harmony and a friendly intercourse between the United States and the 
Indian Tribes." 

The pledge of peace and security thus given by the powerful tribes 
who were parties to this treaty, the Wyandots (Hurons), Delawares, 
Shawanoes, Ottawas, ,Chippewas (Ojibways), Pottowattomies, Miamis, 
Eel Eiver Weeas, Kickapoos, Piankashaws and Kaskaskians, meant much 
for the cause of settlement and progress in the Ohio Valley, as the 
Indian Boundary fixed by this treaty gave about 25,000 square miles 
of land constituting most of the present State of Ohio, and a small part 
of Indiana, to the white men. Almost immediately over the Allegheny 
^Mountains and down the Ohio River and into all the fertile valleys of 
this domain, swarmed the hardy pioneers, that formed the ever rising 
and resistless tide that during the succeeding years swept westward 
through the forests and across the broad prairies, ever driving the 
Indians before it in the many successive stages of their westward 

William Henry Harrison, then a young man, was aide de camp to 
General Wayne, and his signature as such officer, with others, was 
appended to the treaty. 

There are many interesting stipulations in this treaty that will be 
briefly quoted and referred to. * * * "Henceforth all hostilities 
shall cease, peace is hereby established and shall be perpetual." * * * 
"All jirisoners shall on both sides be restored." * * * "Ten chiefs 


of said tribes shall remain at Greenville as hostages until the delivery 
of the prisoners shall be effected." * * * 

Some sixteen tracts of land comprising all the principal trading 
posts and portages in the territory now comprising the states of Ohio, 
Indiana, ^lichigan and Illinois were ceded to the Government, including 
Mackinac Island and "one piece of land six miles square at the mouth 
of Chikago Eiver emptying into the South West end of Lake ]\Iichigan 
where a fort formerly stood." While these cessions were Hot large in 
area, still including as they did all the western forts and trading posts 
of importance, with small parcels of land adjoining, with the further 
provisions of the treaty, that '•'the said Indian Tribes will allow * * * 
a free passage by land and water as one and the other shall be found 
convenient through their country along the chain of posts hereinbefore 
mentioned * * * ^-^^^ ^}ig f-^ee use of the harbours and rivers along 
the lakes" practically gave the Government control of the country for 
trade which the treaty further provided for, and opened the way for 
speedy settlement. 

Of the details of the Council and the extended negotiations respect- 
ing this Treaty which proceeded daily from July 15 until August 3, 
1795, little will here be said. After the calumet had been passed from 
chief to chief, General Waj'ne opened the Council with a speech. Then 
followed day after day the negotiations, other speeches and the usual 
Indian oratory, including the great speech of Little Turtle showing that 
he was in fact a great leader and orator and a foeman worthy of the 
steel of even so great a man as Mad Anthony Wayne. 

Thus ended not onlv this Indian war, but from one view point the 
American Eevolution itself. It has been said that no Indian Chief or 
warrior who oave General Wavne the hand at Greenville ever after lifted 
the hatchet against the LTnited States. Whether that be true or other- 
wise, this treaty marks one of the great epochs in American History and 
was remembered and referred to bv manv an Indian orator at later 
similar councils, when other Treaties were under consideration and dur- 
ing the next succeeding fifty years. 

(Eesfardino- Treatv of Greenville see Wilson's Peace of ^lad An- 
thonv; Eoosevelt's Winnino- of the West, Vol. 5, Chap. 5; Western An- 
nals; Blanc-hard's Xorth West; Indian Treaties (1873 Ed., p. 184). 


After the Treaty of Greenville the settlers not only came rapidly 
and in great numbers, but the ending of the Indian occupation moved 
rapidly forward hence during the first third of the nineteenth century 
Indian treaties of importance were concluded with unusual frequency. 

In 1801 General William Henry Harrison was appointed Governor 
of the then new Indiana Territory. It immediately became his policy 
to secure as speedily as possible and whenever the occasion presented 
itself cessions of land by the Indians to the United States. In 1804 
he was at Saint Louis seeking satisfaction of the Sac Indians for the 
murder of three settlers and taking advantage of the situation, secured 
execution of a treaty by five of the chiefs of the Sacs, and Foxes ceding 
to the Government over fifty million acres of land in Missouri, Illinois 
and Wisconsin, including the land between the Illinois and Mississippi 


Elvers, for $3,234.50 in goods, and a promised annuity of $1,000.00. 
Black Hawk and his associates repudiated this treaty, claiming it was 
executed by the chiefs who signed it without authority or knowledge of 
their people. The subsequent disputes growing out of this treaty fur- 
nished the principal cause for the Black Plawk War. 

The general policy of Governor Harrison and the United States just 
noted, to progress treaty negotiations with the Indians, and the history 
of what \vas done in pursuance of that policy would not be complete 
without at least passing reference to the Great Shawanee Chief Tecum- 
seh, who with his brother The Prophet (Ellskwatawa) undertook the 
gigantic and impossible task of forming an Indian Confederacy to stay 
the tide of the advancing pioneers, and to prohibit further ces'sion and 
conveyance of lands by the Indians, except by the unanimous consent of 
all the tribes, contending that the land belonged to all the Indian tribes 
in common, but for the use of each. This policy he boldly and forcibly 
presented to Governor Harrison in person at Vincennes in August, 1810. 

Tecumseh's speeches on these and other occasions announcing his 
policy, and presenting the rights of his people not only show his great 
strength of character and purpose, but are quoted quite frequently as 
examples of the best Indian Oratory. His efforts to arouse all the tribes 
of the North West by personal visits and appeals; the battle of Tippe- 
canoe; his later appearance in the War of 1812 as a Brigadier General 
in the British army hoping thereby to further his plans and cause and 
his final fighting to the death, at the head of the British and his Indian 
warriors in the lost battle of the Thames, are all of interest in our his- 
tory, but not directly connected with the subject here considered. 

The various Indian Treaties bearing directly or indirectly upon the 
Black Hawk War, in all their aspects and from widely divergent view 
points, have been fully and ably considered by Armstrong,* Stevens, f 
and many other writers of Illinois history. Extended comment, or fur- 
ther consideration, that would again extend this paper beyond reason- 
able limits, will therefore be omitted. 


On that date, Xinian Edwards, William Clark and Auguste Chou- 
teau negotiated a Treaty at Saint Louis with the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
and Pottawatomies, by which they ceded a strip of land twenty miles 
wide on the Eastern boundary at Lake Michigan (being ten miles north 
and ten miles south of the Chicago Eiver in width) and extending gen- 
erally South West so as to include the Chicago Portage and a strip of 
land extending to the mouth of the Fox Eiver. This strip of land 
was secured for the purpose of facilitating the building of the proposed 
canal. The boundaries of this cession appear upon many maps and 
records as ^'Indian Boundary Line" causing confusion and irregularity 
in land descriptions as Government surveys were made at different times 
on each side of these diagonal boundary lines, hence, the section lines did 
not meet each other causing triangular fractional sections and confu- 
sion as to proper Eange and Township. 

The Northern boundary of this cession is, in Cook County, the 
center line of a highway known for over half a century as "Indian 

* The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, by Perry A. Armstrong. 
t Frank E. Stevens, Black Hawk War. 


BoLindary IJoad"" extending;' to Lakr .Miclii_ii'an, at the former boundary 
line between the City of Evanston and ('hioa,i>(). Later the Chicago City 
Council changed the name of this highway to "Kogers Avenue." Ee- 
peated efforts of l)oth the Chicago and Evanston Historical Societies to 
induce the Chicago City Council ''to change back to its original form the 
name of this highway, thus restoring to it, its former proper and historic 
name of 'Indian Boundary Road' " have, it is to be greatly regretted, 
proved unavailing (see resolution at joint meeting of these two Societies 
held Xovember 27, 1906). 

This treaty like many others, contained a reservation to the Indians 
of the right to luiut and fish within the tract of land ceded "so long as 
it may continue to be the property of the United States." 


While this treaty negotiated by Governor Lewis Cass of Michigan 
and Solomon Sibley, did not cede any Illinois lands, it was a part of the 
general plan and scheme of the Government to extinguish the Indian 
Title and in this instance particularly to secure the Indian lands in 
Michigan South of Grand River and East of the Lake. On this occa- 
sion the Pottawattomie Chief Metea, made his eloquent and historic 
speech so often quoted by Indian historians. 

Mr. Schoolcraft in his book Travels in the Central Part of the 
]\Iississippi Valley (p. 335, 337) gives an extended account of what he 
saw and heard on this occasion, l)oth as he approached Chicago by the 
Portage and after his arrival, he says : 

"On crossing the Des Plaines we found the opposite shore thronged 
Avith Indians" * * * "From this point we were scarcely ever out 
of sight of straggling parties, all proceeding to the same place. Most 
commonly they were mounted on horses and apparelled in their best 
manner and decorated with medals, silver bands and feathers. The 
gaudy and showy dresses of these troops of Indians with jingling caused 
by the striking of their ornaments, and their spirited manner of riding 
created a scene as novel as it was interesting. Proceeding from all 
parts of a very extensive circle of country, like rays converging to a 
focus, the nearer we approached the more compact and concentrated the 
the body became" * * * "the dust, confusion and noise increased 
at every bypath that intersected our way" * * * "we found on 
reaching the post that between two and three thousand Indians were 
assembled — chiefly Pottawattomies, Ottawas and Chippewas. Many ar- 
rived on the following days" * * *. 

"To accommodate tlie large assemblage * * * an open bower 
provided with seats for the principals, chiefs and headmen had been put 
up on the green, extending along the north bank of Chicago Creek" 
* * * "directly under the guns of the fort, ensured l)oth safety and 
order for the occasion." The formalities which custom has prescT-ibed 
in neootiations of this kind occupied the first two or three daA's after 
our arrival, during which time the number of Indians was constantly 
augmpnted. It Avas not until the 17th that they were formally met in 
council when Governor Cass addressed them." 

Schoolcraft then gives the Governor's speech in full substantially to 
the effect that "Your Father" has oliserved that the Indians possess an 

extensive countr}- with little game, and which they do not cultivate nor 
appear to want, and that the commissioners have come to purchase it at 
a liberal price to be agreed upon and that the goods had been brought to 
Chicago ready for the purchase; that the Indians should counsel among 
themselves, refrain from whiskey, and make answer "by the day after 

"Each sentence being distinctly translated was received with the 
usual response of 'Hoah !' a term that on these public occasions is merely 
indicative of attention. A short pause ensued during which some cus- 
tomary presents were issued, when Metea, the Pottowattomie Chief from 
the Wabash, made the following laconic reply : 

"My father — We have listened to what you have said. We shall 
now retire to our camps and consult upon it. You will hear nothing 
from us at present." 

Mr. Schoolcraft gives an extended, detailed and interesting ac- 
count of much that subsequently occurred including many of the 
speeches both by the Indians and by Governor Cass, also one by John 
Kinzie Avhich Mr. Schoolcraft says was received by the Indians "with 
conclusive effect." 

This last statement considered in connection with the special 
"reservations" given to particular individuals, and a letter of January 
1, 1821, written by Wolcott the Chicago Indian agent to Governor Cass 
suggesting that "before the period of treating arrives" * * * "It 
will be necessary to bribe their chief men by very considerable presents 
and promises" * * * with which Cass expressed approval (see 
Indian Department, Cass correspondence, Wolcott to Cass, January 1, 
1821, also Quaife p. 346) would tend to indicate quite conclusively that 
Mr. Schoolcraft has omitted much of the inside history of this treaty. 

His observations respecting the purchase on this occasion of over 
five million acres of land for the paltry consideration stipulated in the 
treaty, and his resenting criticism of it, (see pp. 369-373) would further 
indicate that such omissions were more than probable. 

Whether Mr. Schoolcraft was, or -was not, a party to the intrigues 
that seem to have carried the treaty through, he has rendered a great 
service as an historian in describing much that occurred, of which he 
was an eye witness. 

To him we are indebted for an accurate description of the personal 
appearance of Metea the leading orator of his nation, who, as School- 
craft says, stood tall, erect and firm, wearing gracefully a red military 
plume, and Avith a ready command of language, a pleasant voice and 
forceful o-estures, bold, fearless and original in expression, and thus 
answered Governor Cass, in the speech which Schoolcraft wrote down 
at the time word for word, as given by the interpreters: 

"Mv Father — We meet yon here today, because we had promised 
it, to tell vou nnr minds, and what we have agreed upon among our- 
selves. You Avill listen to us with a good mind and believe what we say. 

"]\Iy Father — You know that w^e first came to this country, a long 
time ago, and when we sat ourselves down upon it, we met Avith a great 
manv handships and difficulties. Our country Avas then very large, but 
it has dAvindled aAvay to a small spot; and you Avish to purchase that! 
This has caused us to reflect much upon AA'hat you have told us, and 
we haA'e, therefore, brought along all the chiefs and Avarriors, and the 


young men and women and children of our tribe, that one part may not 
do what the others object to, and that all may be witnesses of what is 
going forward. ' 

"My Father — You know your children. Since you first came 
among them, they have listened to your words with an attentive ear; 
and have always hearkened to your counsels. Whenever you have had a 
proposal to make to us — whenever you have had a favour to ask of us, 
we have always lent a favourable ear, and our invariable answer has 
been 'Yes.' This you know ! 

"My Father — A long time has passed since we first came upon our 
lands; and our old people have all sunk into their graves. They had 
sense. We are all young and foolish, and do not wish to do any thing 
that they would not approve, were they living. We are fearful we shall 
offend their spirits if we sell our lands; and we are fearful we shall 
offend you, if we do not sell them. This has caused us great perplex- 
ity of thought, because we have counselled among ourselves, and do not 
know how Ave can part with the land. 

"My Father — Our country was given to us by the Great Spirit, who 
gave it to us to hunt upon, to make our corn-fields upon, to live upon, 
and to make down our beds upon, when we die. And he would never 
forgive us, should we now bargain it away. When you first spoke to us 
for lands at St. Mary's, we said we had a little, and agreed to sell you 
a piece of it; but we told you we could spare no more, Now, you ask 
us again. Y^'ou are never satisfied ! 

"My Father — We have sold you a great tract of land, already ; but 
it is not enough ! We sold it to you for the benefit of your children, to 
farm and to live upon. We have now but little left. We shall want it 
all for ourselves. We know not how long we may live, and we wish to 
leave some lands for our children to hunt upon. You are gradually 
taking away our hunting grounds. Y'our children are driving us before 
them. We are growing uneasy. What lands you have, you may retain 
for ever; but we shall sell no more. 

"My Father — You think, perhaps, that I speak in passion; but my 
heart is good towards you. I speak like one of your own children. I 
am an Indian, a red-skin, and live by hunting and fishing, but my 
country is already too small ; and I do not know how to bring up my 
children, if I give it all away. We sold you a fine tract of land at 
St. ]\Iary's. We said to you then, it was enough to satisfy your children, 
and the last we should sell ; and w^e thought it would be the last you 
would ask for. 

"My Father — We have now told you what we had to say. It is 
what was determined on, in a council among ourselves ; and what I have 
spoken is the voice of my nation. On this account, all our people have 
come here to listen to me ; but do not think we have a bad opinion of 
you. Where should we get a bad opinion of you ? AYe speak to you 
with a good heart, and the feelings of a friend. 

"My Father — You are acquainted with this piece of land — the 
country we live in. Shall we give it up ? Take notice, it is a small piece 
of land, and if we give it away, what will become of us? The Great 
Spirit,, who has provided it for our use. allows us to keep it, to bring up 
our young men and support our families. We should incur his anger, 
if we bartered it away. If we had more land, you should get more, but 


our land has been wasting away ever since the white people became 
our neigli))ours, and we have now hardly enough left to cover the bones 
of our tribe. 

"My Father — You are in the midst of your red children. What is 
due to us, in money, we wish, and will receive at this place ; and we want 
nothing more. 

"My Father — We all shake hands with you. Behold our warriors, 
our women, and children. Take pity on us, and on our words." 

The dignity and, friendship of this speech and the firm determina- 
tion not to part with the land, is not only apparent, but indicates that 
pressure, and methods to some extent undisclosed, must have, been later 
applied in the extended negotiations which followed day after day and 
that ultimately moved the Indians to do what Metea and the other chiefs 
in the first instance firmly declined, and for which final action they 
were later both criticised and persecuted by their own people. 


The purpose' of this treaty was not the usual one to secure cessions 
of land from the Indians but is thus stated in the preamble to the 
Treaty: "The United States of America have seen with much regret 
that wars have for many years been carried on between the Sioux and 
the Chippewas, and more recently between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
Sioux; which if not terminated may extend to the other tribes and in- 
volve the Indians upon the Missouri, the Mississippi and the Lakes in 
general hostilities. In order therefore to promote peace among these 
tribes, and to establish boundaries among them, and the other tribes 
who live in their vicinity and thereby to remove all causes of future 
difficulty have invited * * * f\^Q tribes * * * ^o assemble to- 
gether and in a spirit of mutual conciliation to accomplish these objects; 
and to aid therein, have appointed William Clark and Lewis Cass, com- 
missioners." The fifteen articles of the -treaty deal exclusively with 
the subject matter of the preamble in fixing boundaries and respective 
rights of hunting, providing for future and enduring peace between the 
tribes and acknowledging "the general controlling power of the United 
States" to take such measures as "they may deem proper," in case "diffi- 
culty hereafter should unhappily arise." 

Mr. Schoolcraft who was Indian Agent at that time at the Sault, 
came all the way to Prairie du Chien in a canoe to assist in the negotia- 
tions. He wrote an account of this treaty that is interesting in many 
particulars, espetially so as the Indians of the many tribes and clans, 
then at Prairie du Chien came from far and near, from the great 
forests of the North, and from the far away western plains, hence repre- 
senting interesting types living remote from white men and resembling 
more the primeval Ped Man of former days, than his later descendants, 
so' much in evidence at that period in the Council house at the invitation 
of Treaty framing Commissioners. Mr. Schoolcraft, (Thirty years 
with the Indian tribes, Chap. XXIII) thus describes his journey; the 
Indians he saw and \vhat occurred at Prairie du Chien. 


"We finally Irlt .Mackinack lor our drst iiiation on the Mississippi, 
on the 1st of July. The conv(uatinn to whie-li we were now proceeding 
was for the jnirpose of settling internal disputis l)etween the tribes, by 
fixing the boundaries to their respective territories, and thus hiying the 
foundation of a lasting peace on the frontiers. And it marks an era 
in the policy of our negotiations with the Indians which is memorable. 
Xo such gathering of the tril)es had ever before occurred, and its results 
have taken away the necessity of any in future, so far as relates to the 
lines on the Mississippi. 

"We encountered head winds, and met -with some delay in passing 
through the straits into Lake Michigan, and after escaping an imminent 
hazard of being blown off into the open lake, in a fog. reached Green 
Bay on the 4th. The journey np the Fox Kivcr, and its numerous 
portages, was resumed on the 14th, and after having ascended the river 
to its head, we crossed over the Fox and Wisconsin portage, and descend- 
ing the latter with safety, reached Prairie du Chien on the 21st, making 
the whole journey from ^Mackinack in twenty-one days. 

"We found a ^ery large number of the various tribes, assembled. 
jSTot only the village, iDnt the entire banks of the river for miles above 
and below the town, and the island in the river, was covered with their 
tents. The Dakotahs, with their high pointed buffalo .skin tents, above 
the town, and their decorations and implements of flags, feathers, skins 
and personal "braveries," presented the scene of a Bedouin encamp- 
ment. Some of the chiefs had the skins of skunks tied to their heels, to 
symbolize that they never ran, as that animal is noted for its slow and 
self-possessed movements. 

"Wanita, the Yankton chief, had a most magnificent robe of the 
buffalo, curiously worked with dyed porcupine's quills and sweet grass. 
A kind of war flag, made of eagles' and vultures' large feathers, pre- 
sented quite a martial air. War clubs and lances presented almost every 
imaginable device of paint ; but by far the most elaborate, thing w^as their 
pipes of red stone, curiously carved, and having flat wooden handles of 
some four feet in length, ornamented with the scalps of the red-headed 
woodpecker and male duck, and tail feathers of birds artificially attached 
by strings and quill Avork, so as to hang in the figure of a quadrant. 
But the most elaborately wa'ought part of the devices consisted of dyed 
porcupines' quills, arranged as a kind of aboriginal mosaic. 

"The Winnebagoe?, who speak a cognate dialect of the Dacotah, 
were encamped near : and resembled them in their style of lodges, arts, 
and general decorations. 

"The Chippewas presented the more usually known traits, manners 
and customs of the great Algonquin family — of whom they are, indeed, 
the best representative. The tall and warlike bands from the sources 
of the :\[ississippi— from La Point, in Lake Superior— from the valleys 
of the Chippewa and St. Croix Pivers. and the Pice Lake region of Lac 
du Flambeau, and of Sault Ste. IMarie, were well represented. 

"The cognate tribe of the Menomonies. and of the Potawattomies 
and Ottowas from Lake :\Iichigan. assimilated and mingled with the 
Chippewas. Some of the Iroquois of Green Bay were present. 

"But no tribes attracted as intense a degree of interest as the lowas, 
and the Sacs and Foxes— tribes of radically diverse languages, yet united 


ill a league against the Sioux. These trihes were encamped on the 
island, or opjiosite coast. They came to the treaty ground, armed and 
dressed as a war party. They were all armed with spears, clubs, guns 
and knives. Many of the warriors had a long tuft of red horsehair 
tied at their elbows, and wore a necklace of grizzly bears' claws. Their 
headdress consisted of red dyed horsehair, tied in such manner to the 
scalp lock as to present the shape of the decoration of a Roman helmet. 
The rest of the head was completely shaved and painted. A long iron 
shod lance was carried in the hand. A species of baldric supported part 
of their arms. The azian, moccasin and leggins constituted a part of 
their dress. They M'ere, indeed, nearly nude, and painted. Often the 
print of a hand, in white clay, marked the back or shoulders. They 
bore flags of feathers. They beat drums. They uttered yells, at definite 
points. They landed in compact ranks. They looked the very spirit of 
defiance. Their leader stood as a prince, majestic and frowning. The 
wild, native pride of man, in the savage state, flushed by success in war, 
and confident in the strength of his arm, was never so fully depicted to 
my eyes. And the forest tribes of the continent may be challenged to 
have ever presented a spectacle of bold daring, and martial prowess, 
equal to their landing. 

•'Their martial bearing, their high tone, and whole behavior during 
their stay, in and out of council, was impressive, and demonstrated, in 
an eminent degree, to what a high pitch of physical and moral courage, 
bravery and success in war may lead a savage people. Keokuk, who led 
them, stood with his war lance, high crest of feathers, and daring eye, 
like another Coriolanus, and when he spoke in council, and at the same 
time shook his lance at his enemies, the Sioux, it was evident that he 
wanted but an opportunity to make their blood flow like water. Wapelo, 
and other chiefs backed him, and the whole array, with their shaved 
heads and high crests of red horsehair, told the spectator plainly, that 
each of these men held his life in his hand, and was ready to spring to 
the work .of slaughter at the cry of their chief. 

"General William Clark, from St. Louis, was associated with General 
Cass in this negotiation. The great object was to lay the foundation of 
a permanent peace by establishing boundaries. Day after day was 
assigned to this, the agents laboring with the chiefs, and making them- 
selves familiar with Indian bark maps and drawings. The thing pleased 
the Indians. They clearly saw that it was a benevolent effort for their 
good, and showed a hearty mind to work in the attainment of the object. 
The United States asked for no cession. Many glowing harangues were 
made by the chiefs, which gave scope to their peculiar oratory, which is 
well worth the preserving. Mongazid, of Fond du Lac, Lake Superior, 
said : 'When I heard the voice of my Great Father, coming up the 
Mississippi Valley calling me to this treaty, it seemed as a murmuring 
wind ; I got up from my mat where I sat musing, and hastened to obey 
it. ily pathway has been clear and bright. Truly it is a pleasant sky 
above our heads this day. Tliere is not a cloud to darken it. I hear 
nothing but pleasant words. The raven is not waiting for his prey, I 
hear no eagle cry : "Come, let us go. The feast is ready — the Indian 
has killed his brother." ' 

— 7 H S 


'■'Wlien nearly a whole month had heen consumed in these negotia- 
tions, a treat}' of limits was signed, which will long be remembered in 
the Indian reminiscences. This was on the 19th of August, 1825, 
(vide Indian Treaties, p. 371.) It was a pleasing sight to see the explorer 
of the Columbia in 1806, and the writer of the proclamation of the army 
that invaded Canada in 1812, uniting in a task boding so mucli good to 
the tribes whose passions and trespasses on each others lands keep 
them perpetually at war. 

"At the close of the treaty, an experiment was made on the moral 
sense of the Indian, with regard to intoxicating liquors, which was 
evidently of too refined a character for their just appreciation. It had 
been said by the tribes that the true reason for the Commissioners of 
the United States Government speaking against the use of ardent spirits 
by the Indians, and refusing to give them, was not a sense of its bad 
effects, so much, as the fear of the expense. To show them that the 
Government was above such a petty principle, the commissioners had a 
long row of tin camp kettles, holding several gallons each, placed on 
the grass, from one end of the council house to the other, and then, 
after some suitable remarks, each kettle was spilled out in their presence. 
The tiling was evidently ill relished by the Indians. They loved the 
whiskey better than the joke." 


By this treaty these three tribes ceded a large territory in Illinois 
and Wisconsin, lying between Eock Eiver and the Mississippi and a 
further large tract of land between Eock Eiver and Lake Michigan to 
the west and north of the cession of 1816. On Lake Michigan it in- 
cluded in width the land now constituting the city of Evanston, and 
most of the adjoining village of Wilmette. 

The description of the northern boundary of this latter tract is: 
"Beginning on the Western. shore of Lake Michigan at the North East 
corner of the field of Antoine Ouilmette who lives at Gross Pointe about 
twelve miles North of Chicago thence running due west to the Eock 

Antoine Ouilmette, a Frenchman thus referred to, is much in evi- 
dence not only in the early history of Chicago, Evanston and Wilmette, 
but in the negotiations respectinor this treaty as well as the later Chicago 
Treaty of 1833. He came to Chicago in 1790, married a Pottawattamie 
wife (Archange) ; located at Gross Pointe (now Evanston and Wil- 
mette) prior to 1828, was an employee of the American Fur Company 
and of John Kinzie. The name of Wilmette Village originates from 
the phonetic spelling of his French name 0-u-i-l-m-e-t-t-e. He was a 
man of wide acquaintance both among the whites and the Indians in this 
region for half a century. Elijah M. Haines (The American Indian, p. 
550-560) claims that through the connivance of Dr. Wolcott, Chicago 
Indian Agent, and Ouilmette two chiefs, Alexander Eobinson and Billy 
Caldwell, were elected to that oflfice in the Pottawattamie trilie at 
Prairie du Chien for the express purpose of signing this treaty. Haines 
bases his statement upon a personal interview he had with Eobinson to 
that effect from which the following is quoted : 


"Mr. Eobinson, when and how did you become a chief?" 

"Me made chief at the treaty of Prairie dii Chien." 

"How did you happen to be made chief ?" 

"Old Wilmette, he come to me one day and he say, Dr. Wolcott 
want me and Billy Caldwell to be chief. He ask me if I will. Me say 
yes, if Dr. Wolcott want me to be." 

"After the Indians had met together at Prairie du Chien for the 
Treaty, what was the first thing done?" 

"The first thing they do they make me and Billy Caldwell chiefs; 
then we be chiefs * * * j-j^g^ ^^^ ^^1 ^,q and make the treaty." 

Consistent with the custom that seems at that period to have been 
gaining in popularity, in order to ''put through" an Indian treaty, over 
fifteen thousand acres of land were parceled out to sixteen favored indi- 
viduals, some of them Frenchman, some of them Indian wives of white 
men and many of them actual signers of the treaty as Indian chiefs and 
head mon. Among such "special reservations" were two sections of 
land to Archange Ouilmette and her children, later known as The 
Ouilmette Reservation and constituting most of the present village of 
Wilmette and a part of Evanston. Mr. Haines claims that this was a 
bribe for Ouilmette's influence in securing the execution of the Treaty, 
with which, however, there is good ground for disagreement, considering 
Ouilmette's prior friendship for the whites in the war of 1812 and the 
later Black Hawk War and considering also his prior occupancy of the 
land. Chiefs Eobinson and Caldwell were handsomely taken care of, 
both in this treaty and subsequent ones, in the way of annuities, cash 
and lands, as were also their friends. And "Shab-eh-nay" (Shabbona) 
received a well deserved reservation for his own use. 

(For detailed History of Ouilmette and his family see Evanston 
Hist. So., Colls, and Grover's Ouilmette). 

Mr. Haines account of this treaty is of interest in many particu- 
lars, — while he says that the Indians were imposed upon by the con- 
spiracy of Dr. Wolcott to put it through as a part of the Government 
policy to extinguish the Indian title. He gives Wolcott not only credit 
for his fidelity to Government interests, but says that he was the "master 
spirit" in planning and executing the general Indian policy of the time 
so frequently credited to Governor Cass. While some of Mr. Haines' 
statements are subject to question, his observations on this subject and 
regarding this treaty are entitled to consideration. 

Concurrent with the negotiation of this treaty at Prairie du Chien, 
several other treaties were also there concluded with other tribes. One 
of the Government Commissioners was Caleb Atwater, a politician from 
Ohio who later in a book of travels (Western Antiquities and Eemarks 
on a Tour to Prairie du Chien in 1S29) gives a very entertaining and 
instructive account of the proceedings and of what was said and done 
to impress the Indians and to secure their signatures to the treaty. 
WHien one considers all the settings that made the occasion as Atwater 
says, a "spectacle grand and morally sublime in the highest degree to 
the nations of Eed Men who were present;" that for the comparatively 
insignificant compensation stipulated in the treaties the Indians parted 
with their title to eight million acres of land, and that after the con- 
cluding of the Treaties forty-two of the chiefs and head men, sat for 
two hours on raised lienches, admiring the s^^idv wares and merchandise 


for which they had suld their birthright, wearing in the month of 
August, fur hats "with three beautiful ostrich plumes in each hat," 
gowned in ruftled calico shirts and adorned with cheap jewelry and the 
Government medals, given them by the commissioners, as supposed 
tokens of merit and of esteem — when the picture thus painted hy Mr. 
Atwater is considered from any view point — there must be but one 
conclusion — that the Indian after all was not only in this aspect a mere 
child, but that the spectator could truly say with. Pope: 
"Behold the child, by Nature's kindly law, 
Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw." 
While Mr. Atwater's account and description of these transactions 
will interest the reader, there will ever be scant sympathy with his appar- 
ent pride in the bargain he assisted in driving. And there will also 
ever be sympathy for the poor Indian, who, with tears of joy in his 
eyes, and' with thankful kindness toward the man that helped drive 
such a bargain, shook his hand, and departed from the fort at Prairie 
du Chien, at the sound of the sigTial gun, fired for the express purpose 
of accelerating his departure. Mr. Atwater says : 

"The officers at the fort erected a council shade near the fort and 
in about three days we were ready to hold a public council. * * * 
"'When everything was in readiness for the opening of the council, 
the Indians of all the tribes and nations, on the treaty ground, attended 
and requested to have translated to them severally, what we said to each 
tribe; which being assented to on our part, the Winnebagoes, the Chip- 
pewas, Ottawas, Pottawattamies, Sioux, Sauks, Foxes and Menominees, 
half-breeds, the officers of the fort, the Indian Agents, sub-agents, inter- 
preters, and a great concourse of strangers from every city of the Union, 
and even from^Liverpool, London, and Paris were in attendance. 

"The commissioners sat on a raised bench ; on each side of them 
stood the officers of the Army in full dress, while the soldiers, in their 
best attire, appeared in bright array, on the sides of the council shade. 
The ladies belonging to the officers' families and the best families in the 
Prairie, were seated directly behind the commissioners, where they 
could see all that passed, and"^hear all that was said. Behind the princi- 
pal Indian Chiefs sat the common people — first the men, then the women 
and children, to the number of thousands, who listened in breathless and 
deathlike silence to every word that was uttered. The spectacle was 
grand and morally sublime in the highest degree, to the nations of red 
men who were present : and Avhen our proposition to sell all their country 
to their Great Father had been delivered to them, they requested an 
exact copv of it in writing. The request was instantlv complied with, 
and the council broke up. Next day we addressed the Winnebagoes, as 
we had the Chippewas, etc., the day before, and at their request gave 
them a copy of our speech. 

"After counseling among themselves, the Chippewas, etc., answered 
favorably as to a sale", though they would do nothing yet until they had 
fixed on their terms. 

"The Winnebagoes appeared in council and delivered many speeches 
to us. They demanded the twenty thousand dollars worth of goods. 
'Wipe out your debt' was their reply, 'before you run in debt again 
to us.' 


"Our goods, owing to the low stage of water, had not arrived yet, 
and the Indians feared we did not intend to fulfil Governor Cass' agree- 
ment of the year before. When our goods did arrive and they saw 
them, they then changed their tone a little ; but in the meantime, great 
uneasiness existed. * * * "We were told by the Winnebagoes that they 
Vould use a little switch upon us.' In plain English, they would assas- 
sinate the whole of us out of the Fort. Two hundred warriors under 
Keokuk and Morgan of Sauks and Foxes arrived and began their war 
dance for the United States and they brought word that thirty steam- 
boats with cannon and United States troops, and four hundred warriors 
of their own were near at hand. The Winnebagoes were silenced by this 
intelligeuce, and by demonstrations not misunderstood by them. 

"It was a season of great joy with me, who placed more reliance on 
Keokuk and !iis I'l'iendly warriors, than all our other forces. Good as 
our orticers were, our soldiers of the Army were too dissipated and worth- 
less to be relied on one moment. 

"Taking Keokuk aside, and alone, I told him in plain English all 
I wanted of him, and what I would do for him, and what I expected 
from him and his good offices. He replied in good English 'I under- 
stand you, sir, perfectly, and it shall all l)e done.' It was all done 
faithfully, and he turned the tide in our favor. 

"On the 29th day of July, 1829, we concluded our treaties with the 
Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies. 

"On the first of August a treaty was concluded Avith the Winne- 

"So the treaties were executed at last, and about eight million acres 
of land added to our domain, purchased from the Indians. Taking the 
three tracts ceded, and forming one whole, it extends from the upper 
end of Rock Island to the mouth of the Wisconsin. * * * South 
of the Wisconsin^the Indians now own only reservations where they live, 
which, as soon as the white people settle on all the ceded lands will be 
sold to us, and the Indians will retire above the Wisconsin and across 
the Mississippi, where the bear, the beaver, the deer and the bison now 
invite them. The United States now own all the country on the east 
side of the Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth of the 
Wisconsin." * « * 

The conclusion of the treatv and tlic departure of the Indians from 
Prairie du Chien is further told in the following words: "Seated upon 
rising ground, on benches ; clad in blankets, either green or red, covered 
with handsome fur hats. Avith three beautiful ostrich plumes in each hat, 
dressed in ruffled calico shirts, leggings and moccasins — all new, and 
faces painted to suit the fancy of each individual, who held in ]iis hand 
a new rifle — adorned too with silver broaches, silver clasps on each arm, 
and a large medal suspended on each breast — the Winnebago chiefs, 
principal warriors and headmen, to the number of forty-two, sat during 
two hours after all the goods had been delivered to the nation. 

"Every individual of both sexes in the nation had lying directly 
before his person, on the ground, the share of goods belonging to the 
individual. Great pains had l)een taken to give each, such and just so 
many clothes as would be suitable to wear during the year to come. The 
pile of clothes for each person was nearly two feet in thickness, the 
sight of which entirely overcame Avith joy, our red friends, as they sat 


during two liours, in the most proiound silence, not taking off their eyes 
one moment from the goods now their own. Their minds were entirely 
overcome' with joy. The Indians were then told to depart at the sound 
of the signal gun — tlic great cannon at the fort to be fired in their 

Of their departure Atwater further says: "With one accord they 
all arose and shaking me heartily by the hand, many of them shedding 
tears, they one and ail invited me to visit them at their respective places 
of abode. * * * In a few minutes they were off, covering a con- 
siderable surface with their canoes, each one of which carried a flag 
floating in the gentle breeze which ruffled the surface of the Mississippi. 

"I'lio Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies had received their 
goods in the same manner as the Winnebagoes, had been treated precisely 
in the same way, and three guns, one for each nation, had given them 
a signal to depart, and they had parted with me in the same kind and 
affectionate manner." * * * 

26, 1833. 

This final cession extinguished the Indian title in Illinois, ceded a 
vast territory "supposed to contain" the treaty says, "about five million 
acres" and provided for and resulted in the final removal of the Indians 
west of the Mississippi. 

Whatever may be the view of the writer or the reader of Illinois 
history respecting the status and rights of the Indian, whether the 
land he has occupied be considered as the inevitable and just spoil of 
advancing civilization, or otherwise, w^hat was seen and heard on this 
occasion at Chicago must ever arouse the sympathy of all thinking men. 
The Pottawattamies. that former proud and powerful nation, there 
exhibited in all their degradation and decline, were compelled by cir- 
cumstance to which they had made no contribution, to forever desert 
the land of their fathers and terminate a residence of more than a 
century and a half at the demand of their more powerful masters. 

Chicago in 1833, was but an insignificant frontier village, but it 
was then the scene of a great historic drama both picturesque and 
pathetic. Latrohe's account so often quoted by the writers cannot be 
improved upon either for accuracy nor entertaining description, and 
much of it will here be set out in his own words. Before doing so how- 
ever, let us see the viewpoint from which he wrote. 

Charles J. Latrobe was an Englishman of learning, a traveler of 
note both in America and elsewhere, on some of his journeys with Wash- 
ington Irving as his traveling companion. He was also a writer of 
marked ability, served his country as Governor of New South Wales and 
another English colony and above all was a close observer of men 
and events. His favorable views of America and Americans are in 
striking contrast with many other English writers of his time, so that 
he cannot be charged with prejudice, and as he made a long and hard 
journey to Chicago for the express purpose of witnessing the tribes and 
incidents having to do with this treaty, his account under such circum- 


stances is of more than ordinary interest. He says ("The Eambler in 
jSTorth America," dedicated to Washington Irving, A^ol. 2, Chap. XI) : 

"Hearing therefore that a treaty with the Indian tribes of the Pot- 
tawattamies was expected to take place at Chicago, towards the lower 
extremity of Lake Michigan, and that means might be found to cross 
tlie State of Illinois to the valley of the Mississippi, we resolved npon 
proceeding to Chicago. 

"A public vehicle conveyed ns across the peninsula of Michigan, 
over a tract of country, which five or six years ago, had been traversed 
by nothing but Indian trails, but which now was rapidly filling with a 
settled population from the eastward, and all the concomitants of ploughed 
land, girdled trees, log-huts — towns, villages, and farms. * * * 

"\\'hen within five miles of Chicago, we came to the first Indian 
encampment. Five thousand Indians were said to be collected round 
this little upstart village, for the prosecution of the treaty by which 
they were to cede their lands in Michigan and Illinois. * * * 

"1 have been in many odd assemblages of my species, but in few, if 
any, of an equally singular character as with that in the midst of which 
we spent a week at Chicago. 

"This little mushroom town is situated upon the verge of a perfectly 
level tract of country, for the greater part consisting of open prairie 
lands, at a point where a small river whose sources interlock in the wet 
season with those of the Illinois, enters Lake Michigan. * * * 

"We found the village on our arrival crowded to excess, and we pro- 
cured with great difficulty a small apartment ; comfortless, and noisy 
from its close proximity to others, but quite as good as we could have 
hoped for. 

"The Pottawattamies were encamped on all sides — on the wide level 
prairie beyond the scattered village, beneath the shelter of the low 
Avoods which chequered them, on the side of the small river, or to the 
leeward of the sand hills near the beach of the lake. They consisted 
of three principal tribes with certain adjuncts from smaller tribes. The 
main divisions are, the Pottawattamies of the Prairie and those of the 
Forest, and these are subdivided into distinct villages under their several 

"The General Government of the United States, in pursuance of the 
scheme of removing the whole Indian population westward of the Mis- 
sissippi, had empowered certain gentlemen to frame a treaty with these 
tribes, to settle the terms upon which the cession of their reservations 
in these states should be made. 

"A preliminary council had been held with the chiefs some days 
before our arrival. The principal commissioner had opened it, as we 
learnt, by stating that, '^as their Great Father in Washington had heard 
that they wished to sell their land, he had sent commissioners to treat 
with them.' The Indians promptly answ^ered by their organ, 'that their 
Great Father in Washington must have seen a bad bird which had told 
him a lie, for that far from wishing to sell their land, they wished to 
keep it.' The commissioners, nothing daunted, replied : "^that neverthe- 
less, as they had come together for a council, they must take the matter 
into consideration.' He then explained to them promptly the wishes and 
intentions of their Great Father, and asked their opinion thereon. Thus 
pressed, they looked at the sky, saw a few wandering clouds, and straight- 


way adjourned sine die, as the weather i> not clear cnounli for so sok'inii 
a counciL 

"However, as the treaty had heen opened, provision was supplied 
to them by regular rations; and the same night they had great rejoicings 
— danced tlie wardance. and kept the eyes and ears of all ()])en by run- 
ning, howling about the village. 

"Such was the state of affairs on our arrival. Companies of old 
warriors might be seen sitting smoking nnder every bush ; arguing, 
palavering, or 'powwowing,' with great earnestness; ])ut there seemed no 
possibility of bringing them to anotlier council in a hurry. 

"Meanwhile the village and its occuj)ants presented a most motley 
scene. * * * 

"Xext in rank to the officers and commissioners, -may be noticed 
certain storekeepers and merclumts residing here; looking either to the 
influx of new settlers establishing themselves in the neighborhood, or 
those passing yet farther to the westward, for custom and profit; not 
to forget the chance of extraordinary occasions like the present. Add 
to these a doctor or two, two or three lawyers, a land agent, and five or 
six hotel-keepers. These may be considered as stationary, and proprie- 
tors of the half a hundred clapboard houses around you. 

"Then for the birds of passage, exclusive of the Pottawattamies, of 
whom more anon — and emigrants and land speculators as numerous as 
the sand. You will find horse-dealers, and horse-stealers — romies of 
every description, white, black, brown, and red — half-breeds, quarter- 
breeds, and men of no breed at all — dealers in pigs, poultry, and pota- 
toes — men pursuing Indian claims, some for tracts of land, others, like 
our friend Snipe, for pigs which the wolves had eaten — creditors of the 
tribes, or of particular Indians, who know that they have no chance 
of getting their money, if they do not get it from the Grovernment agents 
— sluirpers of every degree; pedlars, grog-sellers; Indian agents and 
Indian traders of every description, and contractors to supply the Potta- 
wattamies with food. The little village was in an uproar from morning 
to night, and from night to morning : for. during the hours of darkness. 
Avhen the housed portion of the population of Chicago strove to obtain 
repose in the crowded plank edifices of the village, the Indians howled, 
sang, wept, yelled, and whooped in their various encampments. With 
all this, the whites seemed to me to be more pagan tlian the red men. 

"You will have understood, that the large body of Indians, collected 
in the vicinity, consisted not merely of chiefs and warriors, but that in 
fact the greater part of the whole tribe were present. For where the 
warrior was invited to feast at the expense of Government, the squaw 
took care to accompany him — and where the squaw went, the children 
or pappooses, the ponies, and the innumerable dogs followed — and here 
they all were living merrily at the cost of the GrOvernment. * * * 

"Of their dress, made up as it is of a thousand varieties of apparel, 
but little general idea can be given. There is nothing among them that 
can he called a national costume. That has apparently long been done 
away with, or at least so far cloaked under their European ornaments, 
blankets, and finery, as to be scarcelv distinguishable. Each seemed to 
clothe him or herself as best suited their individual m^ans or taste. 
Those who possessed the means, were generally attir^-. in the most 
fantastic manner, and the most gaudy colors. A blanket and breech- 


cloth was possessed with a very few exceptions by the poorest among 
the males. Most added legginos, more or less ornamented, made of l)lue, 
scarlet, green, or brown boardeloth : and surcoats of every color, and 
every material; together with rich sashes^ and gaudy shawl or hand- 
kerchief-tnrbans. - 

"All these diverse articles of clothing, with the embroidered petti- 
coats and shawls of the richer squaws and the complicated headdress, 
were covered with innumerable trinkets of all descriptions, thin plates 
of silver, beads, mirrors, and embroidery. On their faces, the l)lack and 
vermilion ])aint was di^^posed a thousand ways, more or less fanciful 
and horrible. Comparatively speaking, the women were seldom seen 
gaily drest, and dandyism seemed to be more particularly the preroga- 
tive of the males, many of whom spent hours at the morning toilet. I 
rememl)er seeing one old fool, who, lacking other means of adornment 
and distinction, had chalked the whole of his face and bare limbs white. 

"All, with very few exceptions, seemed sunk into the lowest state 
of degradation, though some missionary efforts have been made among 
them also, by the American Societies. The Pottawattamie language is 
emphatic; but we had no means of becoming acquainted with its dis- 
tinctive character, or learning to what class of Indian tongues it 

"All was bustle and tumult, especially at the hour set apart for 
the distribution of the rations. 

"Many were the scenes which here presented themselves, portray- 
ing the habits of both red men and the demi-civilized beings around 
them. The interior of the village was one chaos of mud, rubbish, and 
confusion. Frame and clapboard houses were springing up daily under 
the active axes and hammers of the speculators, and piles of lumber 
announced the preparation for yet other edifices of an equally light 
cliaracter. Eaces occurred frenuentlv on a piece of level sward without 
the village, on which temporary booths afforded the motley multitude 
the means of 'stimulating' ; and betting and gambling were the order 
of the day. Within the vile two-storied barrack, which dignified as 
usual by the title of Hotel, afforded us quarters, all was in a state of 
most appalling confusion, filth, and racket. The public table was such 
a scene of confusion, that we avoided it from necessity. The French 
landlord was a sporting character, and everything was loft to chance, 
who, in the shape of a fat housekeeper, fumed and toiled round the 
premises from morning to night. 

"Within, there was neither peace nor comfort, and we spent much 
of our time in the open air. A visit to the gentlemen at the fort, a 
morning's grouse-shooting, or a gallop on the broad surface of the 
prairie, filled up the intervals in our perturbed attempts at reading or 
writing in doors, while awaiting the progress of the Treaty. 

"I loved to stroll out towards sunset across the river, and gaze upon 
the level horizon, stretching to the northwest over the surface of the 
prairie, dotted with innumerable objects far and near. ISFot far from 
the river lay many groups of tents constructed of coarse canvas, blankets, 
and mats, and surmounted by poles, supporting meat, moccasins, and 
rags. Tfeir vicinity was always enlivened bv various painted Indian 
figures, dr "'^ed in the most gaudy attire. The interior of the hovels 
generally displayed a confined area, perhaps covered with a few half- 


rotten mats or shavings, upon which men, women, children, and baggage, 
were heaped pell-mell. 

"Far and wide the grassy prairie teemed with figures; warriors 
mounted or on foot, squaws, and horses. Here a race between three or 
four Indian ponies, each carrying a double rider, whooping and 5'elling 
like fiends. There a solitary horseman with a long spear, turbaned like 
an Arab, scouring along at full speed; groups of hobbled horses; Indian 
dogs and children; or a grave conclave of grey chiefs seated on the 
grass in consultation. 

"It was amusing to wind silently from group to group — here noting 
the raised knife, the sudden drunken brawl, quashed by the good-natured 
and even playful interference of the neighbors; there a party breaking 
up their encampment, and falling with their little train of loaded ponies 
and wolfish dogs, into the deep black narrow trail running to the north. 
You peep into a wig^vam, and see a domestic feud ; the chief sitting in 
dogged silence on the mat, wdiile the women, of which there were com- 
monly two or three in every dwelling, and who appeared every evening 
even more elevated with the fumes of whiskey than the males, read him 
a lecture. From another tent a constant voice of wrangling and weeping 
would proceed, when suddenly an offended fair one would draw- the mat 
aside, and taking a youth standing without by the hand, lead him apart, 
and sitting down on the gTass, set up the most indescribable whine as 
she told her grief. Then forward comes an Indian, staggering with his 
chum from a debauch; he is met by his squaw, with her child dangling 
in a fold of her blanket behind, and the sobbing and weeping which 
accompanies her whining appeal to him, as she hangs to his hand, would 
melt your heart, if you did not see that she was quite as tipsy as himself. 

"Here sitting apart and solitary, an Indian expends the exuberance 
of his intoxicated spirits in the most ludicrous singing and gesticula- 
tion; and there squat a circle of unruly topers indulging themselves in 
the most unphilosophic and excessive peals of laughter. 

"It is a grievous thing that Government is not strong-handed enough 
to put a stop to the shameful and scandalous sale of whiskey to these 
poor miserable wretches. But here lie casks of it for sale under the 
very eye of the commissioners, met together for purposes, which demand 
that sobriety should be maintained, were it only that no one should be 
able to lay at their door an accusation of unfair dealing, and of having 
taken advantage of the helpless Indian in a bargain, whereby the people 
of the United States were to be so greatly the gainers. And such was 
the state of things day by day. However anxious I and others might 
be to exculpate the United States Government from the charge of cold 
and selfish policy toward the remnant of the Indian tribes, and from 
that of resorting to unworthy and diabolical means in attaining posses- 
sion of their lands — as long as it can be said with truth, that drunken- 
ness was not guarded against, and that the means were furnished at the 
very time of the treaty, and under the very nose of the commissioners-- 
how can it be expected but a stigma will attend every transaction of this 
kind. The sin may lie at the door of the individuals more im^nediately 
in contract with them : but for the character of the people as a nation, 
it should be guarded against, beyond a possibility of transgression. Who 
will believe that any act, however formally executed by the chiefs, is 


valid, as long as it is known that whiskey was one of the parties to the 
treaty ? 

" 'But how sped the treaty?' yon will ask. 

"Day after day passed. It was in vain that the signal-gun from the 
fort gave notice of an assemblage of chiefs at the council fire. Reasons 
were always found for its delay. One day an influential chief was not 
in the way; another, the sky looked cloudy, and the Indian never per- 
forms any important business except the sky be clear. At length, on 
the 21st of September, the Pottawattamies, resolved to meet the com- 
missioners. We were politely invited to be present. 

''The council fire was lighted under a spacious open shed on the 
green meadow, on the opposite side of the river from that on which the 
fort stood. From the difficulty of getting all together, it was late in 
the afternoon when they assembled. There might be twenty or thirty 
chiefs present, seated at the lower end of the enclosure; while the com- 
missioners, interpreters, etc., were at the upper. The palaver was 
opened by the principal commissioner. He requested to know why he 
and his colleagues were called to the council. An old warrior arose, 
and in short sentences, generally of five syllables, delivered with a 
monotonous intonation, and rapid utterance, gave answer. His gesticu- 
lation was appropriate, but rather violent. Rice, the half-breed inter- 
preter, explained the signification from time to time to the audience ; 
and it was seen that the old chief, who had got his lesson, answered one 
question by proposing another, the sum and substance of his oration 
being — 'that the assembled chiefs wished to know what was the object 
of their Great Father at Washington in calling his Red Children together 
at Chicago !' 

"This was amusing enough after the full explanation given a week 
before at the opening session; and, particularly when it was recollected 
that they had feasted sumptuously during the interval at the expense 
of their Great Father, was not making very encouraging progress. A 
young chief rose and spoke vehemently to the same purpose. Hereupon 
the commissioner made them a forcible Jacksonian discourse, wherein 
a good deal which was akin to threat, was mingled with exhortations not 
to play with their Great Father, but to come to an early determination, 
whether they would or would not sell and exchange their territory; and 
this done, the council was dissolved. One or two tipsy old chiefs raised 
an occasional disturbance, else matters were conducted with due gravity. 

"The relative positions of the commissioner and the whites before 
the council fire, and that of the Red Children of the Forest and Prairie, 
were to me strikingly impressive. The glorious light of the setting sun 
streaming in under the low roof of the Council House, fell full on the 
countenances of the former as they faced the West — while the pale light 
of the East, hardly lighted up the dark and painted lineaments of the 
poor Indians, whose souls evidently clave to their birthright in that 
quarter. Even though convinced of the necessitv of their removal, my 
heart bled for them in their desolation and decline. Ignorant and 
degraded as they may have been in their original state, their degradation 
is now tenfold, after years of intercourse with the whites; and their 
speedy disappearance from the earth appears as certain as though it 
were already sealed and accomplished. 


"Your own reflection will lead you to form the conclusion, and it 
will be a just one — that even if he had the will, the power would be 
wantinsr, for the Jndian to keep hist territorv; and that the business of 
arrang-ing the terms of an Indian treaty, whatever it might have been 
two hundred years ago, while the Indian tribes had not, as now, thrown 
aside the rude but vigorous intellectual character Avhich distinguished 
many among them, now lies chiefly between the various traders, agents, 
creditors, and half-breeds of the tribes, on whom custom and necessity 
have made the degraded chiefs dependant, and the Government agents. 
When the former have seen matters so far arranged that their self- 
interest, and various schemes and claims are likely to be fulfilled and 
allowed to their hearts' content — the silent acquiescence of the Indian 
follows of course; and till this is the case, the treaty can never be 
amicably effected. In fine, before we quitted Chicago on the 2.ith, three 
or four days later, the treaty w^ith the Pottawattamies was concluded — 
the commissioners putting their hands, and the assembled chiefs their 
paws to the same." 

Thus, as so ably described by the English writer, was consummated 
the transfer by which Illinois ceased to be the land of the Indian. The 
Indians received as compensation for this vast grant $100,000.00 "to 
satisfy sundry individuals in behalf of whom reservations were asked, 
which the commissioners refused to grant"; $175,000.00 to "satisfy the 
claims made against"' the Indians ; $100,000.00 to be paid in goods and 
provisions; $280,000.00 to be paid in an annuity of $14,000.00 each year 
for twenty years; $150,000.00 "to be applied to the erection of mills, 
farm houses, Indian houses, blacksmith shops, agricultural improve- 
ments," etc., and $70,000.00 "for purposes of education and the en- 
couragement of the domestic arts." 

That in the negotiation of this treaty there was more intrigue, and 
more attention to selfish interests of half-breeds, traders and others 
seeking personal gain, than in the negotiation of any other Indian 
treaty seems quite evident. The reading of the schedules of beneficiaries 
attached to the treaty 'would tend to indicate that the rights of the 
Indians themselves were quite a secondary matter. 

One remarkable feature of this treaty is the fact that by its pro- 
visions some five hundred to one thousand persons, most of them with 
no Indian blood in their veins, derived personal gain from the transac- 
tion ; the allowance and payment of individual claims, ranging in amount 
from a few dollars to many thousands, and. as already noted, about one- 
third of the cash consideration was thus disbursed. Among the indi- 
vidual beneficiaries also appear the following: Alexander Eobinson 
$10,000.00 cash and $300.00 annuitv, "in addition to annuities alreadv 
granted": Billy Caldwell $10,000.00 cash and $400.00 annuity, "in 
addition to annuities already granted" : John Kinzie Clark $400.00 : 
allowances to Antoine Ouilmette and his family; "John K. Clark's 
Indian children $400.00," and various allowances to the Kinzie family. 

The mere reading of the treaty demonstrates that the "birds of 
passage," "land speculators," "men pursuing Indian claims," "creditors 
of the tribe," "sharpers of every degree." and "Indian traders of every 
description." so graphically described by Mr. Latrobe constituted no 
small minority of the assemhlv at Chicago on this occasion, or of those 
who had to do with framing the treatv. 


Mr. Qiiaife is entitled to credit for writing the truth about these 
transactions in detail in his recent book Chicago and the Old North- 
west, (p. 348-366) under the title "The Vanishing of the Red Man/' 

Three years after the signing of this last treaty and in the years 
1835 and 1836 the Pottawattamies, or at least the most of them, then 
some 5,000 in number, were removed west of the Mississippi, into Mis- 
souri, near Fort Leavenworth. They remained there but a year or two 
on account of the hostility of the frontier settlers, and were again 
removed to Council Bluffs, and in a few years again to a reservation in 
Kansas, others to the Indian Territory. Their history since leaving 
Illinois has been in the main that of all the Indian tribes — a steady 

The final ehaptev of the Indian history of our State must, of neces- 
sity, ever be found in the sad and pathetic story of the treaty of 1833. 
Its readers will ever follow the Pottawattamies — these children of the 
Prairie and of the Forest, as they took their farewell look at old Lake 
Michigan, and crossed for the last time in their westward Journey, the 
plains, and woods, and streams of the land of the Illinois, with sympathy 
for their unhappy destiny, and with regret for the causes which made 
it possible. And will ever turn for a better and brighter picture, to the 
iVmerican days of long ago, when the Indian ancestors sat in treaty 
making councils and by tlie council fire, with all the pride of his 
native manhood; when his eloquent words bespoke the man and when 
the calumet, as it passed from hand to hand, from Chief to Chief, 
whether White or Red, meant peace, and friendship and honor and all 
good will to men. 


Contributions to State History 


M imm 


J Sit. 

1 1 5 ! p_f n. » .;, 


1 1;; 


(By Francis O'Shaughnessy.)* 

The Governor of Illinois, Honorable Edwanl F. Dnnne. has com- 
missioned me to speak for him and the State which he so eminently 
governs, and bids me say that Illinois and its people are proud of the 
honor that this occasion brings to the memory of a citizen whose 
career of great achievements in civil and military annals of our coun- 
try had its inception in Illinois. 

This beautiful monument to the memory of General James Shields 
is a recognition not alone to the man Imt it is a tribute to the spirit of 
the Xation which he served, and it will be for generations of the chil- 
dren of Missouri an inspiration to turn their hearts with affection upon 
their country's deserving men, to deepen their faith in the sanctity of 
American institutions, and to claim their unselfish devotion in the hour 
of national peril. 

This monument, the image of Shields, is a glory to the spirit of 
the Fathers of the Eepublic who, with vision of prophets, laid down a 
plan of government that withstood the shock of war, both foreign and 
domestic, that absorbed and assimilated the mixed races of Europe and 
made a people with a national spirit, a national ideal and a national 

When Jeiferson wrote into the Declaration of Independence what 
he declared to be a self-evident truth "that all men are created ecjual and 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, and that among 
these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," he stated a prin- 
ciple for government that was yet to be provect, if it could be tried, and 
the Fathers, out of sacrifices of blood and treasure, through the achieve- 
ments of the Revolution, were enabled to build a structure of government 
that became, was and has been the full embodiment of freedom. The 
notion of liberty quickly runs through the fabric of society and the 
Eevolutionary Fathers in America, by their example, set in motion the 
impulse for liberty in all countries then suffering oppression. 

In no country was liberty more ardently sought than in Ireland, 
where real oppression had been cruelly exercised, where the people were 
disfranchisecl, as well as despoiled of property and land, and where the 
great lawmaking genius of Englishmen had been taxed to its \;tmost 
bounds to find ways and means to destroy a people without actually 
poisoning all the wells. The peo]ile of Ireland read the Declaration of 
Independence, and Grattan ])nt into execution a movement that l)y the 
menace of revolution England gave Ireland a Parliament, only to snatch 
it away Avhen an opportune time arrived to do so. The revolution of '98 

* Address delivered at dedicaUon of monument to General Shields at CarroUton, Mo., Nov. 12, 1914. 
— 8 H S 


and Emmet's ill-fated rising broke the spears and stayed the hand, but 
did liot subdue the spirit of liberty in the heart of the Irish patriot. 

That spirit was the heritage of the youth of Ireland. It was the 
heritage of James Shields, the son of Charles Shields and Catherine, 
his wife, born on May 9, 180Q, in the village of Altmore, County Tyrone. 
The honor of James Shields and his renown among the people of Amer- 
ica, give testimony that he was true to the heritage. 

Shields' father died when the lad was six years of age. His 
mother, a woman of refinement and education, made sacrifices to give her 
sons as good education as was available. Sometimes before Shields' day, 
a school teacher and a wolf had in Ireland the same social and political 
status under English laws^ The same reward was offered for the head 
of each. In suppressing education the English had destroyed or confis- 
cated all the schools. So Shields, like the other lads, attended the hedge 
school, where the teacher assembled his classes on the roadside for in- 

But a series of fortunate events aided Shields in acquiring an edu- 
cation. When he was 10 or 13 years of age, his Uncle James returned 
to Ireland from America. The uncle had in his youth attended a semin- 
ary, but his inclination for travel was greater than his vocation for the 
priesthood and he went to America, where he fought as a soldier in the 
Eevolution, taught Greek and Latin in a school at Charleston, S. C, 
enlisted under Jackson in the War of 1812, and Avas shot in the leg while 
fighting the battle of New Orleans. The uncle became the instructor of 
Shields in both the liberal arts and the arts of war, and his soldier 
exploits became the passion of his young nephew. The uncle was in- 
tense in his devotion to America and this love for the new land Shields 
also absorbed as the uncle unfolded to him the reality of a free country, 
which held out hope and promises to every deserving man. The uncle 
promised the lad that if he would come to America he would make him 
his heir. However, when Shields did land. tl\e uncle had died. 

There were at that time in Ireland many veterans of the Conti- 
nental wars. They had stories to tell of battles, of maneuvers, of stnit- 
eg}-, of daring. Shields was of an age and of a disposition in mind and 
character to become imbued with all that fostered the soldier spirit, and 
he was among the most willing and interested listeners to the veterans' 

When Shields was 15 years of age, he repulsed an attack made upon 
liim by one of these veterans, and the controversy ended in a duel, which 
failed because the pistols were not in proper condition for firing. The 
outcome of the duel was that the soldier who had been the aggressor in 
the quarrel became the warm friend of Shields. He trained Shields in 
fencing until he became a skilled swordsman. He taught Shields French 
and tliis accomplishment opened the door of opportunity to him. When 
he landed at Kaskaskia. Illinois, his knowledge of the French language in 
this community of French people enabled him. to secure his first position 
as school teacher, which was the beginning of his great career in Illinois. 
The veteran presented Shields with books on military science, and in- 
structed him to the extent of his own knowledge in that science. This 
instruction added to what Shields had learned from his uncle, the vet- 
eran of American wars, and what he otherwise acquired, qualified him to 


assume at the outset of his military career the rank of Brigadier General, 
which he adorned with true military glory. 

The education of Shields was concluded by a relative of his mother, 
a priest from Maynooth College. The priest's contribution to the career 
of Shields was the setting before the young man's vision, the moral worth 
of a man who is faithful to the tenets of his religion. That Shields was 
faithful is attested by many evidences in his life, but one that impressed 
me is related by the saintly old Bishop John Hogan of Kansas City, of 
happy memory, who was the pioneer Catholic priest of North Missouri, 
and who more than fifty years ago made the journey on horseback from 
Chillicothe to Hickory Branch, in the center of Chariton County, to per- 
form the marriage ceremony of my father and mother. 

Bishop Hogan relates that one day in October, 1866, a gentleman 
called at his house in Chillicothe to have his infant baptized. He and 
his wife, with the infant of a few months of age, and another lady, had 
driven from Carroll County, forty miles, for the baptism. The cere- 
monial of the Catholic church requires sponsors or God-parents for an 
infant, and when Father Hogan inquired for the God-father, the man 
modestly explained that he had but recently located in Missouri and 
knew no one to ask, and begged of Father Hogan that he act. He 
gave his name as James Shields and that of his wife as Mary Carr, but 
it was not until some weeks later that Father Hogan learned that the 
man was the distinguished soldier and statesman, General Shields. 

Shields, at the age of 16, sailed for America; the ship, however, 
was wrecked near the coast of Scotland and the captain, one seaman 
and Shields were the only ones saved. While the ship was undergoing 
repairs he became a tutor in the family of a Presbyterian minister. He 
sailed with the ship and afterward made several voyages with the cap- 
tain, until he was blown from a topmast and fell, breaking both legs. 
After three months in the hospital he recovered and gave up the sea- 
man's life, but the experience he gained equipped him for leadership even 
on the sea. Forty years afterward he and his wife were passengers on 
board a ship bound for Mexico, when the captain and mate were at a 
loss how to handle the craft, and Shields assumed command and piloted 
the ship into the harbor at Mazatlan. 

His public career began at Kaskaskia, Illinois, where he arrived with 
a well diversified experience and education, fine courage, good manners 
and address, ready wit, but without money. He had just turned his 
majority. He could speak French but was not French — an arrangement 
that fitted exactly for the needs of the school in this little metropolis, 
and he was duly installed as a teacher. To know the times, it is neces- 
sary to know something of Kaskaskia; it was the second settlement on 
the upper Mississippi; Cahokia, opposite St. Louis, was the first, but 
Kaskaskia was the more promising and it grew in importance as a trad- 
ing post, a military position and as the Capital of Illinois. In 1766, the 
French had built a fort costing a million crowns, for the protection of 
Kaskaskia and vicinity. George Rogers Clark, in 1778, captured the 
place from the English and saved the Mississippi Valley for the Col- 
onies. Pontiac, the great Indian Chief, was murdered near Cahokia. In 
1779 it became the Capital of the Territory of Illinois. Large stores 
existed, and the wholesale dealers supplied the village of St. Louis and 


Cape Girardeau. Chicago then was uiikiicwii, except as a place described 
by Father Marquette, in liis Journals, where he camped in the Aviuter of 
1673. Aaron Burr was at Ivaskaskia in furtherance of his plan or con- 
spiracy to conquer Mexico and make his daughter Theodosia the Em- 
press. It was tiie most westerly point visited Ijy General LaFayette in 
his memorable visit to the United States in 1825 as the guest of the 

The entertainment of General LaFayette by Illinois was prodigal in 
its lavishness. The Legislature of the State appropriated for the occa- 
sion nearly one-third of all the taxes levied by the State for that year. 
Governor Coles of Illinois addressed LaFayette in these words: 

''Sir, when the waters of the Mississippi, generations hence, are 
traversed by carriers of commerce from all parts of the world, when 
there shall live west of the Father of Waters, a people greater in num- 
bers than the present population of the United States, when. Sir. the 
power of England, always malevolent, shall have waned to nothing, and 
the eagles and stars of our national arms are recognized and honored in 
all parts of the globe, when the old men and children of today shall 
have been gathered to their fathers and their graves have been oblit- 
erated from the face of the earth, Kaskaskia will still remember and 
honor your name. Sir, as the Commercial (^ueen of the West, she wel- 
comes you to a place within her portals. So long as Kaskaskia exists, 
your name and praises shall be sung by her." Old Kaskaskia, its vision 
of gi-eatness has long since passed. Its buildings and its streets were 
washed aAvay by the strong current of the Mississippi and little now re- 
mains of the city of promise, the Commercial Queen of the West. 

Shields, in Kaskaskia, began to exert an influence upon the com- 
munity. He was admitted to the bar in 1832. In 1836 he was elected 
to the Legislature, then sitting at Vandalia, the new Capital of the State, 
and he took his seat in the midst of a group of lawmakers, the equal of 
which perhaps never since existed in one assemblage in Illinois. There 
were Orville H. Browning, Eobert K. McLaughlin, Cyrus Gatewood, 
John Hogan, Edward D. Baker, ]\Iilton Carpenter, Stephen A. Douglas, 
Xinian W. Edwards, William p]wing, Augustus C. French, John J. 
Hardin, Abraham Lincoln, Dr. John Logan, John A. McClernand. and a 
group of others. Out of that assemblage there was one who became Presi- 
dent ; another, a candidate for the Presidency; another, a candidate for 
the Vice Presidency; seven who became Senators of the United States; 
one attained the rank of Major General; one, a Brevet Major General ; a 
dozen Colonels; eight became Congressmen; three. Lieutenant Gover- 
nors; two, Attorneys Genei-al; two, State Treasurers; three, State 
Auditors; two. Ministers Plenipotentiary, and many became Judges of 
the Supreme and Superior Courts. 

These men left their impress not only upon Illinois Imt upon the 
nation. When Shields joined this wonderful group of men they were 
all voung and all full of zeal and ambition, as their careers so truly 
prove. The man who could rise to prominence in the midst of such 
men and in sueli times nnist of necessity possess both ability and per- 
sonality. In his" second term as a Legislator, he was appointed Auditor 
of the State by Governor Ford. It was a position not only of honor l)ut 
one of grave responsibility. 

Illinois, in 1831), had launched a program of large internal improve- 
ment; it was caught in the panic of 1837 and 1838, with a big debt; its 
honor was at stake. Shields, as Auditor, shouldered the responsibilities 
and brought the State through with its credit unimpaired. 

In 18-13, Stephen A. I/'ouglas resigned from the Bench of the 
Supreme Court. Shields was appointed by the Governor to fill his 
unexpired term, and the following year was elected to a full term by 
the Legislature. In this position he proved himself a diligent and 
able jurist. His decisions are found in the early reports of the State 
and are among the old landmarks of the law of our State. They are 
sound in principle, clear in diction, and free from prolixity. 

Shields' fame might have been locked up in the sheepskins of law 
libraries had not President Polk called him from the Supreme Bench 
to the office of Commissioner General of the Land Office of the United 
States. He had Just set to work in a broad, intelligent way to administer 
the affairs of this big office when the annexation of Texas, followed by a 
chain of rapid events, culminated in a war with Mexico. 

Shields, who as a young man had seen some military service in the 
Seminole war as a private, and possessed of military knowledge learned 
from his uncle and the veteran I have mentioned, tendered his resig- 
nation as Land t*ommissioner and received from President Polke a com- 
mission as Brigadier General of Volunteers. His brigade was made up 
of Illinois regiments. They arrived at the Eio Grande in August, 
1846. Shields for a time was under Gen. Zachary Taylor. His brigade 
was then sent to Vera Cruz to join the army under General Winfield Scott. 
The army set out to capture the City of Mexico. The crucial battle of 
the campaign was the Battle of Cerro Gordo, fought in a pass of the 
mountains. In a critical time during the battle, Shields' brigade was 
sent to intercept the main army of Santa Anna. The command was 
brilliantly executed and the work accomplished, but Shields was struck 
in the breast by a grape shot measuring one and one-half inches in 
diameter, which penetrated his lung and passed out near the spine. He 
was carried from the field and his death was officially reported by Gen- 
eral Scott, who commended in highest terms the gallantry of General 

An Irish physician, McMillan, who had been a surgeon in the 
Prench army and Mexican army, and who was at that time a prisoner 
of war, asked leave to treat Shields when the American surgeons had 
pronounced his wound mortal. McMillan took a silk handkerchief, 
wrapped it around a ramrod, gently pressed the rod and handkerchief 
through the track of the wound, passing it entirely through the body, and 
in less than six weeks Shields was back in the saddle in command of his 

• At Chapultepec he swept the field and with the Palmetto Eegiment 
of South Carolina he burst through the Belin Gate of the City of Mexico. 
A bullet had shattered his arm, but he did not retire from the field until 
he saw his men, the first to enter the city, hoisting the flag within the 

Shields had won his stars as a soldier, and the country rang with 
the praise of his gallantry. South Carolina voted the sum of five 
thousand dollars to purchase a jewel hilted sword to present to Shields, 


and llliuois appropriated the sum of three thousand dollars for a like 
purpose. These two swords, after the death of Shields, were purchased 
by the United States Government from his widow for the sum of ten 
thousand dollars. 

In the halls of the Capitol at Washington is a great painting de- 
picting the field at Chapultepec, showing Shields in his shirt sleeves, un- 
horsed, in the midst of his men, directing the charge. It is an actual 
copy of a daguerreotype made on the battlefield by Daguerre, the father 
of photography. 

At the close of the war. President Polk gave Shields the appoint- 
ment of Governor of the Territory of Oregon. He had accepted the 
place, but the people of Illinois claimed him as their son and bestowed 
upon him a greater honor. They gave him a seat in the Senate of the 
United States in place of Senator Sidney Breese. Breese had been an 
able Senator but he had to yield to the hero of Cerro Gordo. Breese 
had previously served as a Justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois, and 
shortly after his defeat for re-election, as Senator, returned to the Su- 
preme Bench of the State, where for twenty years he served as one of 
the great jurists of the country. 

When Shields took his seat in the Senate, a question arose as to his 
right to sit as a Senator of the United States. The Constitution re- 
quired a period of nine years citizenship as a prerequisite. Shields had 
come to the United States before he attained legal age, but upon his 
appointment by the Governor to the place of State Auditor in 1838, it 
was deemed advisable that he apply for naturalization to remove any 
doubt as to his eligibility. The term of years between the date of taking 
out of his papers and his election to the Senate of the United States was 
less than nine years. Eather than cloud the title to his seat in the 
Senate he nroraptly resigned. The Governor of Illinois convened the 
Legislature in extraordinary session in December, 1847; a -full period 
of nine years had now elapsed. Ex-Senator Breese and General John A. 
McClernand were again contestants for the seat, as they had been when 
Shields was ' first elected, but the Legislature again elected Shields, 
adding to his already unique history the further distinction of being 
t-wiee elected to the Senate in one year. 

Shields, in the Senate of the United States, was in the midst of_ a 
group who were second only in greatness to the Fathers of the Eepublic. 
There were Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Cass, Douglas. Jefferson Davis and 
Benton. In this group of men there were such clashes of intellect as 
shook the nation. " These were the lightning flashes from out the gray, 
black clouds which forecasted the storm that burst in the awful cataclysm 
of the Civil War. In this assemblage of great men Shields measured up 
to all save a few. He was by no means dwarfed by the giants who tow- 
ered so majestically in the forum. He was a democrat and was com- 
mitted to the policy of that party as expressed by Douglas in his 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, which provided for the admission of those two 
states, with the question of slflve or free to be determined by the free- 
holders of the new states in the adoption of their state constitutions. 
Shields was opposed to the extension of slavery; he voted for the bill 
excluding it from the District of Columbia ; he voted against its exten- 
sion to California, and in support of his vote he delivered a masterly 


speech which showed not only his vision as a soldier but as a Senator, 
and he pointed to the abyss to which the contending forces were rushing 
headlong. He said : 

"A fearful controversy has raged here and throughout the country 
this whole session. A controversy that excites the strongest and deepest 
feeling of our nature ; a controversy between sentiment and interest, be- 
tween liberty and slavery, and yet no man now, either in this body or in 
the other hall, seriously contemplates any other result than an amicable 
adjustment by an honorable and national compromise. Sir, my notion 
is that this controversy could not have raged one month in any other 
country on earth without a national convulsion. Why is this, sir ? Be- 
cause the people of this country are trained and educated to settle all 
their difficulties, public and private, by just and honorable compromise, 
while the people of other countries, in great national difficulties, are 
accustomed to have immediate recourse to force. Sir, there are only two 
principles employed in the government of the political world, force and 
compromise. Some nations are governed by both principles, others by 
force alone, but this is the onlv nation that has alwavs been governed 
by compromise since the foundation of the government, and it must con- 
tinue to be so governed so long as it continues to be a republic. Sir, 
when compromise ends, force begins, and the tocsin of Civil war is the 
death knell of Eepublicanism." 

It could not be said of Shields that his spirit of compromise was 
due to fear or timidity, because he had shown on the Mexican fields that 
he was brave to the point of rashness, but he kneAv what it meant to 
bring warfare into the heart of a country ; he had been born and was 
educated in a land where force was the dominating influence; where 
compromise was an unheard of term, and his soul that had been seared 
by the cruel force of England, abhorred the thought that such an iron 
was to pierce the soul of free people, of this glorious land. Happily, the 
dire prophecy that civil war would ring the death knell of Eepublicanism 
was not fulfilled, but so near was it a prophecy that we should ever pray 
for peace and honorable compromise when we count up Avar's horrible 

The politics of Illinois were torn apart on the issues of slavery. 
Lincoln began to assume the leadership of the forces opposing Douglas, 
and at the end of Shields' term the situation was acute. Lincoln, before 
the Legislature, was the caucus nominee of the Whigs; Shields, the 
caucus nominee of the Democrats. There was a group of Anti-Nebraska 
Democrats who refused to be bound by the Democratic caucus, five of 
them, and they supported Lyman Trumbull. On the first ballot Lincoln 
had 45; Shields, 41; Trumbull, 5, and ten scattered. On each succeed- 
ing ballot Lincoln became weaker; Shields' vote remained the same. 
After eight ballots were taken Shields' name Avas Avithdrawn. On the 
ninth ballot Lincoln's name was withdraAvn, and the Whigs and Anti- 
Nebraska Democrats joined and elected Lyman Trumbull. Shields' re- 
tirement was not due to any cause other than the issue of no compro- 
mise. Any discussion of that question has no place here other than 
to point out the cause that led to Shields' retirement as a Senator from 
Illinois. Thus ended the public life of Shields in Illinois. 


Ht' moved to Minnesota and settled n-ar the city oi' Fairbault. ILe 
was not lonti' in this new eomniuiiity wln-n Minnesota was organized into 
a state. He was one oi the two Senators first chosen to represent tliat 
state in the Senate of the United States. In casting lots with his col- 
league he drew tlie short term of two years. When he finished his ser- 
vice as Senator from Minnesota his party was in the minority in that 

Shortly afterward he took up his residence in California. He be- 
came interested with some California gentlemen in a mining enterprise 
in Mexico. He went to Mexico for the purpose of superintending the 
property, and it was while he was in ^Mexico that Fort Sumter was fired 
upon. When he learned of the Civil war lie immediately tendered his 
services to his old friend, President Lincoln. His services were at once 
accepted and he was given the commission of Brigadier General. 

The most conspicuous service he rendered in the Civil AA'ar was in 
the battle of AYinchester. when he lured the great Stonewall Jackson into 
a battle and routed him. It was during the progress of this battle that 
he again sustained a severe injury. With his shoulder fractured, his 
arm and body lacerated and bruised, and while lying prostrate, he 
directed the movements of the battle which ended in such signal success 
for the Union forces. His achievements at once awakened the interest 
of President Lincoln in his military skill, and ho gave him an appoint- 
ment as Major General, but the appointment failed of confirmation in 
the Senate on account of the hostility of Secretary Stanton to the promo- 
tion. A short time after this he resigned his commission in the army 
and retired to a farm in ]\Iissouri, where he resided until his death. 

I will not dwell at length iipon his i)uidic career in the state of 
Missouri. He was not long a resident within the hospitable bounds of 
Carroll County until the people of tliis congressional district urged upon 
him the nomination for congress. He received a majority of the votes 
of the electors, but the poll of one or two counties was rejected and his 
adversary was given the certificate of election. However, Congress voted 
him a year's salary. He then became a re])rescntative in the General 
Assembly; was appointed railroad commissioner, and upon the death 
of Senator Bogy, was again elected by his colleagues in the General 
Assembly to fill the unexpired term in the United States Senate. While 
this term was of 1)ut a few months' duration, it was a testimonial to the 
character of the man who. in the counsels of men, always stood amongst 
the foremost. There is no honor which a state can bestow upon a 
citizen greater than its mantle of senatorship, and this priceless honor 
was three times l)estowed upon this most extraordinary man by three 
different states. 

Without retracing my steps over his life, it is proper to observe that 
the men with wliom Shields associated himself were, as a rule, able, 
aggressive and eminent men. His early partners in the practice of law 
were Adam Snyder and Gustave Koerner, of the firm of Snvder. Shields 
«S: Koerner, practicing at Belleville. Illinois. Snyder became a member 
of Congress and died on the eve of an election whicli would have made 
him Governor of Illinois. Gustave Koerner, a German patriot who 
found it necessary to make a precipitious flight from his native land, and 
the junior member of the law firm, lieoame one of Illinois' most distin- 


guished Jaw vers. Later, he Ijecame a Justice of the Supreme Court, and 
during President Lincoln's term, was Minister Plenipotentiary at the 
Court of Spain. 

Shields, in his triumphs, was modest and unassuming; in his de- 
feats he bore a courtly kindness toward his political adversaries. This 
was the testimonial of Senator^John M. Palmer, who as a voung man 
in the Legislature w^as one of the group of five who breached the party 
caucus and suj^ported I'rumbull against Shields, the party nominee. 
Senator Palmer, upon the occasion of the unveiling of the statue in 
Statuary Hall, said : 

"it was my misfortune to differ with him on a great public ques- 
tion. * * * J ^y.^g compelled by my convictions of political public 
duty to vote for another man for a seat in this honorable body. I did 
so, and my nomination and vote gave to the l)ody another of the great 
men of whom Illinois is proud. This, I am proud to say, had no influ- 
ence upon the personal relations between General Shields and myself, we 
continued to be friends. His conduct toward me was always that of gen- 
erous friendship." 

A number of evidences of his magnanimity and true greatness might 
be related. One was an incident which occurred in the battle of Contre- 
ras in Mexico, when his brigade was sent to join the brigade of General 
Persifer F. Smith. Smith had planned the liattle, but Shields being the 
ranking officer was entitled to take command. Smith, however, w^as un- 
aware of this and gave directions to Shields as to what position he 
should take in the battle. Shields, recognizing Smith's mistake, and 
being unw^illing to deprive him of the credit which would come from the 
plans he had matured, assumed the subordinate position assigned to him 
and threw" his entire energy into the battle. In'inging the reward of vic- 
tory to his junior ofhcer. 

Semmes, in his work on the Campaign of General Scott, says of 
this, that it w^as "a victory over the egotism of our nature Avhich his 
friends should cherish more than a thousand victories on the battlefield." 

The great Missourian, Bland, in his address in Congress upon the 
presentation of Shields' monument, said : 

"To show the magnanimity of the character of this great soldier it 
is related of him that on one occasion one of his admirers in introducing 
him to the people introduced him as the only man who ever conquered 
Stonewall Jackson. In reply. General Shields modestly stated that al- 
though he had come nearer jierhaps than any other soldier to whipping 
Stonewall Jackson, yet the truth of history impelled him to say that 
Stonewall Jackson was never conquered." 

After the close of the Civil "War, when a great body of citizens of 
Missouri w^ere disfranchised. Shields took up their cause and worked 
with all of his splendid energv^ to restore to these disfranchised citizens 
their constitutional rights. It was wdiile he was engaged in this work 
that my father met him on the occasion of Shields' visit to Keytesvillo, 
where my father was living. 

The acquaintance 1)etween my father and General Shields grew to 
intimacy and it was a real, abiding affection. One of my earliest recol- 
lections was my father's announcing in our home that General Shields 
had died. A few days later, when his remains were brought back from 
Ottumwa. Iowa, which was the place of his death, to Carrollfon, it be- 


came necessary to transfer them irum the Aurth Missuiui liailioad to 
the Wabasli Eailroad at Moberly, where my father then lived. He wa& 
chairman of the delegation which, through tlie kindness of the gentle- 
men from Carrollton who had arrived in Moberly to escort the remains 
to the home of his bereaved widow, was allowed to act with them as a 
guard of honor. Behind the casket bearing the remains of this great 
jurist, statesman and soldier, my father walked along the dusty roads to 
the place of burial, and it is one of the recollections which is green in 
his memory. 

Illinois had given to General Shields in his lifetime the highest 
honor and distinction it had to bestow, and it was only fitting that the 
man who had borne these honors with such dignity should be remem- 
bered after death. In the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington there 
is assigned to each of the Sovereign States of the Union a place for 
the setting of two monuments. 

The states, with jealous pride, have chosen for this honor only such 
men as they deemed entitled to enduring fame. The selection for Illi- 
nois devolved upon the General Assembly and the Governor of the State. 
In choosing whom to honor, the past of Illinois was viewed and the 
graves were called upon to give up their illustrious dead, that they 
might pass in review, clothed again in mortal form, showing the scars 
and laurels fairly won in the IS^ation's cause. In solemn file they 
marched, the long dead Governors, Senators, Generals, Justices of the 
United States Supreme Court, Secretaries of Presidents' Cabinets, and 
all the men of Illinois who had helped to make and form and unite the 
Xation — Shields among them. He showed his record as a lawmaker and 
judge, as a State and National administrator of important office, he 
saluted with the jeweled Palmetto sword and bared his breast, marked 
with the crimson scar of the bullet wound of Cerro Gordo, his arm bore 
the scar of Chapultepec and the wound of Winchester, his Senatorial toga 
from Illinois was unsullied. He had accounted well for his years after 
serving Illinois, Minnesota and Missouri had given him its greatest 
honors. He had gone to the grave with a matchless record. Upon him 
the honor fell, and in one of the niches assigned to Illinois in Statuary 
Hall at Washington, stands the monument in bronze of General James 

Missouri's soil has been the resting place of General Shields and 
Missouri has dealt kindly with his ashes. Posterity will venerate his 
memory. The service he rendered to this, his adopted country, has been 
repaid in the kindness this country has given him and the exiles from 
his motherland, who have found within its hospitable shores peace and 
plenty, homes where happiness abides, and the blessings of good-will and 
brotherhood with men of everv race. 



(From Gov. Koerner's Memoirs, pp. 571-572; written in 1851 when Shields 

was U. S. Senator.) 

General Shields very much surjirised me about this time by a letter 
from Washington which I will give as a trait of his character. 

"As I have turned poet, I wish you to criticize the enclosed with 
the utmost severity. As I take no pride in the vocation, you need not 
fear to offend me. I promised a very intelligent young lady to try my 
hand on an Irish song, as we differed in opinion about the style and 
spirit of it. The enclosed is a copy. What think you of it?" 

"To Henrietta Mitchell — Washington City. 

Yes ! Dear Henrietta, I think of thee still. 
And see thee in spirit in fountain and rill. 
I hear thee in whispers, in prairie and gi'ove. 
That speak to my heart like a spirit of love. 

I dream while awake of thy sweet sunny smile, 
A beam from the soil of my own native isle. 
I dream, while I sleep, of the isle o'er the sea 
Where love Avould be transport and rapture with thee. 

The eye and the smile and the heart touching tone, 
Though far from me now are in spirit my own. 
Thus fancy brings visions of love and delight 
To cheer me and bless me by day and by night." 

This, however, was not the first piece of poetry written by Shields. 
In 1837, when Canada was in rebellion against England, Shields, then 
my partner, felt very much inclined to join the insurgents. But Mr. 
Snyder and myself dissuaded him from making the attempt. Shields 
had, however, already written a very stirring Canadian war song, which 
indeed did great credit to his poetical talent. 



(By Harriet N. Warren Dodson, 1888, Geneva, 111.) 
We were a family of ten persons, father, mother, one brother and 
seven sisters. The heads of this family were Daniel Warren and Xancy 
Morton. Our parents were born in Massachusetts. Our father's ances- 
tors were English, his mother's maiden name Avas Adams. Our mother's 
origin from all I can learn was Scotch, her mother's maiden name was 
Goddard. They were married in 1803 at Madison, Xew York, my 
father being twenty-three years of age and my mother eighteen. They 
remained in Madison until after the birth of two children, the eldest 
Philinda, and the second Louise. My father then came to Fredonia, 
Xew York. His first work there was the clearing of a large tract of 
land for Judge Gushing. Fredonia became their home permanently at 
that time where they lived until 1823, and where the six younger chil- 
dren were born. Their names were Julius, Sally, Harriet, Mary and 
Maria (twins) and Jane. In 1823 (if I remember rightly) we re- 
moved to the village of Westfield, some fifteen miles farther west and 
remained there until 1833. In April of that year my father started to 
come to the "Far West," as Illinois was then called, to seek a new home. 
He had many reverses in business and determined to try his fortune in 
a new country. Many thought him wild to venture with a family of 
daughters mainly, only one son, to a new untried country, at his age 
too, he was then fifty-three years old. My mother's health also was very 
poor, and some even predicted that she would never live to accomplish 
the long and fatiguing journey. One of my mother's brothers came 
quite a distance to try and dissuade her from coming. He said he 
thought it folly in the extreme for her to think of following her hus- 
band so far from all the comforts of civilization; and wondered she 
could think it her duty to come. 

My father came in April, a brother-in-law came in May (Mr. Fred- 
rick Bird who had married the next oldest daughter, Louisa), the fol- 
lowing July my brother came with ^[rs. Bird, her three children and 
another sister. My father in the meantime had bought a claim and 
began building a house; he, my sister and family living in (or staying 
in) a small log hut until the new house was enclosed. My brother re- 
turned East again and began making preparations for the remainder 
of the family to come. In October not far from the 7th of the month 
my mother and the four younger daughters with an old neighbor to care 
for the team and drive them left our pleasant home and started on 
the perilous journey. It was a sorrowful and sad parting for my 
mother as well as myself. The younger sisters did not seem to realize it, 
the novelty was much to them, and they did not seem to understand our 
mother's health was one of gTeat anxiety and fear on the part of the 
older members of the family, especially to the older sister and brother 


remaining in the old home, to dispose of that and other property, and 
follow in another spring. After our brother eanie on with his sister 
and family in July he returned at once in order to get us off as soon as 
the new home was prepared for us. We were three weeks and three days 
making the journe}^, and many incidents of interest occurred on the 
route, one in which my sisters were particularly amused. It was the 
meeting of our mother and an old friend of her girlhood days. To hear 
them call each other familiarly by their maiden names was laughable 
indeed to them. It was a strange coincidence that two persons so far 
separated from each other since they were young should meet and recog- 
nize each other in a "Wayside Inn." We stayed all night in the village 
of Springfield, Pa., with friends by the name of Gibson whom we had 
seen and become acquainted with in Wariield. Our mother also found 
old friends in Munroe, Michigan, named Hale, who gave us a hearty 
welcome. We fell in comj^any with a A'ermont family named Hayse 
at Sandusky, Ohio, with whom we travelled the remainder of the jour- 
ney. They came with us to our new wild prairie house and rested for 
a day or two, then went to their destination, somewhere in Sangamon 
County. We have never met them and only once heard from them 
since we parted so many long years ago. They were a nice family : 
father, mother and six small children. Had a nice pair of Vermont 
gray horses, and seemed much pleased to have fallen in company with 
us. The "Maumee Swamp" was a great terror to us, a narrow turnpike 
road with tall timber on each side and we were told still infested Avith 
wild animals, terrible roads. It would become suddenly dark about 
5:00 p. m., our horses giving out, and all (only our mother and the 
most courageous sister as driver) obliged to walk trying to keep up with 
the man who must keep near the team all the time in fear of wild 
beasts. Surely this was no enviable situation. We were compelled to 
stay over night in travelling through this swamp, and such a place, it 
seemed fit place for crime of "deepest dye;" and weary as we all were, 
we could not sleep for fear; and we could only say, ''Oh! that we were 
once again in our old home." 

In Laporte, Indiana, we found one of our Westfield neighbors, 
whose name was Stout, who seemed pleased to see us and with whose 
family we remained overnight. From Laporte to Michigan City the 
route was not Avell defined. We camped over one night between these 
two places. It was our first experience in "Camping." Some emi- 
grants were before us however and we saw where they built fires and 
cooked their meals. At the foot of a large tree near by a beautiful 
spring seemed to boil up. We prepared our supper, after which our 
mother and two sisters with the family of Mr. Hayse encamped in a 
small enclosure made of limbs of trees, and one sister and myself made 
the best sleeping place we could and remained in the wagon, the man 
slept under the wagon and the horses were tied at the back of each 
wagon, and from a trough had their allowance of oats. The next night 
we stayed in Michigan City, but why called a city we were puzzled to 
know, about half a dozen rude houses or huts more properly called com- 
prised the town. The log houses we camped in were little better than 
our wagon for shelter. There were quite a number of travelers there 
before us, and the room we stayed in was the low roofed chamber over 
the only other room in the house. The floor of this room was covered 


with quite a number of '"Prairie Beds" so they were called, made of 
coarsest prairie grass. Our mother was fortunate to have a bed with 
her for such emergencies, although she would lie awake the greater part 
of the night in all such places. The following night we encamped on 
the lake shore between Michigan City and the Calumet. Here we built 
large fires as near the lake as possible. The daughters fatigued fell into 
sound sleep, but our mother informed us in the morning she had not 
slept at all. She sat and watched over us all night holding an umbrella 
over us most of the time, there being a drizzling rain some of the time. 
Such wakefulness was a source of great anxiety on our part. We knew 
she must have sleep or rest if she succeeded in getting through the 
journey. That is we thought we knew. But she seemed to have so 
much resolution and courage that she endured all these privations better 
even than the daughters so young and strong. The following day we 
walked nearly the whole distance. The heavy sand through which we 
had to travel was terrible for our little Canadian ponies; the "Vermont 
Greys" seemed quite as weary. Only our mother was in the wagon dur- 
ing the day. When we were within a few miles of the Calumet it com- 
menced raining, the walking was very heavy in the deep sand, the horses 
were driven as near the lake as possible on account of the depth of the 
sand any distance from the shore, and we began to fear we must stay 
another night on the dismal shore, when there came up behind us a man 
with a cart and a pair of oxen attached to it, who seeing us came to the 
wagon and asked if some of us would accept a place' in his rough vehicle, 
at the same time saying we were but a mile or two from the Calumet, 
where he himself was to remain over night. Mother hesitated a mo- 
ment before accepting the kind offer. In the meantime my twin sisters 
had entered the cart and were quickly gone from sight. It was be- 
ginning to rain quite heavily and with our anxiety about the two sisters 
it seemed the next hour was the longest one we ever experienced. We 
at last reached the shagg}^ settlement at the mouth of the Calumet Eiver. 
Just before we drove up in front of the only house to be seen in the 
dusk of the evening, a man drove past us with a pair of horses having 
as we afterwards learned just come from Michigan City, and seemed to 
be very angry because some one had disturbed his hay just on the road 
back of us. Said he would like to know who had pulled his hay down.. 
The little man, driver of the cart in which the sisters had been riding 
stepped up to him and told him he had taken a handful or two of hay 
on the roadside to make a more comfortable place for two young ladies 
to ride in the cart he was driving. We found out the large angry man 
was the owner and proprietor of the place. His name was Mann, but 
he seemed in his anger to be a savage. My mother hearing the loud 
talk went at once to the big man and said whatever there w^as to pay for 
the hay she was the one to settle for it as it was taken for her daughters' 
benefit. He seemed to be ashamed of himself at once, and said no more, 
but the little man with the cart was very indignant at his conduct and 
would not cross the "ferry" the next morning. Said he would risk 
drowning himself and oxen rather than pay such a mean man to bring 
him across. We watched him safely across the next morning before 
we went on the "ferry" ourselves, because we were told the quick sand 
made it dangerous crossinsr, and this is the last we saw of the little 
man with the little cart and small yoke of oxen almost as speedy as 


horses and well matched and well broken. We wished to have come 
across him again to thank him for his kindness once more, but from this 
simple experience we learned a rough exterior often covers a gentle 
heart, and that "appearances are deceitful sometimes." Mr. Mann had 
an Indian wife. The Mann house seemed full of people. We were 
marched to a small house of one room with one bed resting upon what 
was called a prairie bedstead, made fast to the house by two posts with 
cross pieces for slats. Our mother's bed was brought from the wagon, 
the excuse for a bed being taken from the rude bedstead, placed on the 
floor and three of the sisters with our traveling wraps on, camped on it 
and slept quite sweetly; mother and the younger sister occupying the 
bedstead whereon her bed had been placed. I think mother slept some 
towards morning, after the excitement of that wearisome day. 

The following day we arrived in Chicago. One can scarcely believe 
when viewing that city today it could possibly be the same spot as that 
we found over fifty years ago. The "Mansion house" built by the elder 
Mr. Graves, the father of Mrs. E. H. Haddock, was nearly enclosed. To 
this we drove but found it impossible for us to find shelter there. We 
next came in sight of the old Sauganash, but seeing quite a number of 
Indian.« loitering on the steps, we gave it a wide berth. We then crossed 
the river and it seems strange but I cannot remember whether upon a 
bridge or ferry. I well remember that we crossed in the same place on 
a ferry in 1837, so concluded there was no bridge as early as in 1833. 
We found a house on Lake Street on the West Side named the "Green 
Tree Hotel," and asked to stay over night there, and were met with 
the answer "AVe never keep movers, we have over seventy Ijoarders." 
Upon this my mother said, "Is it possible we must camp out in this far- 
famed city of Chicago?" The landlord upon hearing this remark came 
to the side of our wagon and looked in and commenced making excuses, 
but after taking a survey of the occupants he said, "You may get out 
madam, I can see you have some young ladies here and it is a long time 
since we have seen one." My mother from the goodness of her heart 
said, "Well now that Ave have permission to stay we will give up our 
place to the family travelling with us as a mother with five .young chil- 
dren so much more needs the rest." He at once said, "You may get out 
we will try and find a place for you all." His name was Clock. While 
we well remember being so thankful for the permission to stay within 
the Avails of a comfortable house after so many nights of anxiety and 
broken rest, it was nearly dark then, but we no sooner stepped out upon 
the platform than a gentleman came to my mother and said, "Is this not 
Mrs. Daniel Warren of Fredonia, N". Y. ?" She then looked at the 
questioner and said "yes," and at once recognized Dr. Isaac Harmon, 
an old time acquaintance. He insisted at once she should accompany 
him home with our younger sister. Said he kncAV ]\Ir. Clock Avould find 
good places for the three sisters remaining. IMy tAvin sisters attracted 
a great deal of attention among that household of boarders. They were 
so exactly alike that even our father could not readily tell them apart. 
Many eyes were turned upon them as we entered the hotel. I particu- 
larly remember Mr. Elston, who had recently come from England with 
his wife, placing himself upon the stairs and watching all our move- 
ments until we Avent to our room for the night. IMr. S. B. Cobb says 
he folloAved our Avagon over to our stopping place and then and ther& 


said, "He shoiikl have one of those girls for a wife if ho lived and eoidd 
get lier" (and he finally did get one). The following morning was Sun- 
day and we needed so niueh a day of rest, l)ut were too anxious to reach 
our destination to think of taking it. We were up as soon as light and 
our mother was all ready, over from Dr. Harmon's when we came down, 
and our wagon and driver at the door. We had a great dread of the 
nine miles covered with water through which we must pass. ^Mother 
fainted away near three times before starting and the landlord was 
very kind, tried his l»est to cheer her. Said he could blindfold his 
boy ten years of age and send him across that prairie without danger. 
He only urged us to keep outside the main road. Only once over the 
route did our horses so down, and then we had ventured into the main 
road ton far, the old beaten road was like a river all the way, running 
with a heavy current all across the nine miles. Another source of trou- 
ble to us, we saw quite a number of Indians going the same way, but 
with their ponies they kept some distance out on the prairie away from 
the main travel, knowing from experience probaI)ly that they were less 
liable to mire down. We were told they had Ijeen to Chicago to an 
Indian payment. They had nice blankets on their ponies. Some were 
lost on the prairie which our man was quite inclined to pick up, but 
mother said no decidedly. The man said for argument we might as 
well have them as others, as there were ever so many emigrant wagons 
not far behind us. We saw one Indian fall from his pony and his 
squaw watched by his side until he became sober, I suppose, as she was 
still watching over him until we were out of sight. Two others had 
what seemed a small tin pail of whiskey and wel-e quarreling over it. 
We were in great fear until they were far behind us. We came as far 
as Brush Hill that nioht. Although it became so dark for a mile or 
more before we arrived the man had to walk and occasionally stoop down 
to see that we kept the road, the track was so dim. We were glad in- 
deed when we saw a faint light in the distance, and the people occupy- 
ing the same log house gave us a cordial welcome. They were Dr. Grant 
and his wife with one little child. They earnestly wished my mother 
to occupv their bed (one of those made to the side of all those primitive 
houses) but she declined and we camped down the same as we did at 
Michigan City on beds made from the coarsest material filled with prairie 
hay. It must have been late in the evening when our frugal supper was 
over. Besides our two families there were eight men from Sangamon 
County with teams, on their way to Chicago to get their goods which 
were coming by water ; and as we were nearlv ready to retire to one of 
those hay beds on the floor in came four Indians for supper, and they 
too found a resting place in front of the fire on the broad hearth. Xo 
sleep for poor mother dear that night, although so greatly needed. She 
told us next morning when she knew we were sleeping and thought from 
their breathing the Indians were also sleeping, she sat up and thought 
over her whole life and wondered what next would befall her. The next 
day we found ourselves on better ground, no sloughs to speak of and we 
travelled faster, although we had to ford the East DnPage, which was 
quite deep and the banks very muddv. When we were within three 
miles of our father's new home it wns nearly dark, but Mr. Sweet, a 
brother-in-law of Capt. Xaper, pointed out our route so plainly that we 
found no trouble, and aliout seven o'clock in the evening about ihe 


eleventh of November, I think it was, we reached the desired haven of 
rest. We found our father, sisters and all well and oh ! so glad to Bee 
us all. The house was not large but a tolerably good sized stor}' and a 
half house, a good roof, windows in, only the outside doors yet hung. 
One room enclosed and one small bedroom partly enclosed and only 
planked up on the outside with openings between the planks wide enough 
to thrust your finger through, and this was the house to which we had 
come in the beginning of winter ; and we at once exclaimed, "Father you 
expect to get your house in a different condition before winter fairly 
sets in, do you not?'^ and the sisters who had lived all summer in the 
log cabin at once exclaimed, ''If you do not like this house you can go 
out and live awhile where we have been living;'' said they thought they 
were in paradise now when compared to the old cabin. 

Mr. Hayse and family accompanied us to this unfinished house and 
remained a day or two, long enough to get rested and replenish their pro- 
vision chest. Our mother never seemed so happy as when contributing 
to others comfort and happiness, and I have often wondered when look- 
ing back at her unselfishness, after the long and tedious joiirney, nearly 
worn out with sleepless nights and anxious days, yet so thoughtful of 
those travelling companions. She could not rest until they were re- 
cruited and well provided with everything she could furnish for their un- 
finished journey. Perhaps while upon this subject of hospitality on the 
part of both our father and mother I will mention one case in particu- 
lar which seemed to astonish all the neighbors. Judge Caton. then only 
a young man in Chicago, had been quite ill in tbe citv witb ty]ilioi(l 
fever if I remember rightly. AYhen the physician thought him well or 
nearly so he thought he would venture out in the country. He first came 
to the East DuPage Eiver, but after a day or two of rest he started on 
horseback for Naperville with his gun. He was caught in a heavy rain 
and a relapse came. He was considered dangerously ill. My brother 
watched with him, also my husl)and who was then a young man living at 
C'lybournville on Fox Eiver, (they were well ac(|uainted with Captain 
Naper, a grand man, one who attracted all others to him). Emigrants 
were constantly arriving and departing- from bis unpretentious home 
designated "hotel," and in this place filled with tired travelers, crying 
children and all the discomfort incident to such a place, the sick man 
came. When returning one morning after watchino- ^vith him my 
brother gave such an account of his uncomfortable situation, told bow 
he begged of him to try and have him removed to some quiet place where 
there were no children, he finally told him that he knew of no place but 
our new rude home where he could find the quiet he so desired and he 
could not possibly see how we could make him comfortabl;' in such 
cramped quarters, but mother said "Inconvenient as it is and must be, 
I should say any woman that would refuse to take you in, a stranger in a 
strange land, under the circumstances should at least never claim the 
name of Christian :"' and he was l)rought and was an inmate of our 
house for more than two long months. Our only living room was occu- 
pied by him. Our mother's self denial doubtless saved his life, a worthy 
life and one already known as honorable and successful, financiallv. and 
he still remains a staunch and true friend to all our fainilv. 

—9 H S 

Tliere was nothing vcrv remarkable about our new home, but to 
everyone in the family it became very pleasant, and now as we look back 
upon our life passed under that humble roof we seem to remember only 
the great content we experienced. The location even now as I recall it 
must have been lovely, situated on rolling undulating prairie, three miles 
in front of us, on the east side, not a tree or shrub in sight and in the 
early June covered with flowers of every hue. We frequently saw deer 
going or coming the whole distance. Once I remember well two came 
from the grove just west of us, skirting the DuPage Eiver and stood and 
gazed into the windows until they saw us move, then quickly moved away 
and we could trace them until they reached the timber three miles away 
east. Just north of the house stood one large oak all alone in its 
grandeur. On the west or back of the house there was a grove of several 
acres of wild crab apples and plum trees mingled with forest trees quite 
uniform in size, which we hoped in the near future to have trimmed up, 
the undergrowth removed and sown with clover, as a sort of picture 
ground. Naperville was some two miles south of us. A little southeast 
a few rods from the house was a fine spring of living water from which 
flowed a little rivulet and emptied itself after coursing through low 
meadow ground into the DuPage Eiver. We had to cross this marsh to 
visit our nearest neighbor on the southwest of us. Their name was 
Murray. The family consisted of the father, mother, two daughters and 
one son. That son is now Judge ]\Iurray of Naperville, and he is the 
one of the family living. The mother of this family was a sister of 
Captain ISTaper, and they were hospitable pleasant neighbors. We "had 
many pleasant visits with them. They always seemed to appreciate our 
coming. The greater part of the year we were obliged to cross the 
marsh to reach them and sometimes we would miss our footing in 
stepping from bog to bog and then our feet were wet and our stay could 
not be prolonged. 

Our nearest neighbors on the north were the Fowler brothers, Hiram 
and Harry, an aged. mother and maiden sister Amelia. They were 
genial pleasant people, but oh ! so peculiar. Dickens alone could por- 
tray such men and women, they were something of the Peggoty order, 
large hearts, noble qualifications but little refinement and culture, but we 
sisters were fond of going there. They always gave us a hearty welcome. 
Their land joined ours. One of our social affairs in a public place was 
attending a wedding at the house of Captain Xaper with the Fowler 
brothers. Mrs. Paper's sister, I think it was, was to be married to a 
]\[r. King, and our invitation came by Capt. ^''aper to the Fowlers, say- 
ing: "We would like to have you bring Mr. Warren's daughters." We 
accepted of course anything for a novelty in our quiet life. The wedding 
was on Sunday and our conveyance a cart drawn by oxen. We had never 
been out anywhere at that time. I think it was in the early part of 
Avinter after our arrival in N'ovember. I know one of the brothers kept 
saying, "You must not think we are nearing the city (when coming in 
sight of a cluster of log houses) this is only the suburbs," but we were 
actually then driving up to the tavern door, the residence of the hos- 
pitable Capt. Joseph jSTaper, and such a wedding. The bride was act- 
ually scrubbing the floor of the only room in the house where she was 
to stand when the ceremony was to be performed. It seemed we were 
the first guests to arrive, luit soon all was in order. The bride made her 


appearance in a dress of the common veiling material, a kind of cinna- 
mon brown. She was a sensible looking woman about thirty or thirty- 
five years of age. Her intended also looked about that age or a little 
older, an affair of little romance surely, but sensible I should judge 
as I look back upon it now. From introductions to various persons on 
that day however came a little romance if it could be called such, and 
to me. I hope it will not seem egotistical or vain for me to describe 
it or try to. There was far too much of the ludicrous to seem to have 
much of romance in it. I think it was in June or July following the 
wedding (I know my oldest sister was here and she came in the spring) 
two gentlemen called at our house, the older one a Mr. Sweet, a brother- 
in-law of Capt. Naper, on pretense of business. The younger one a Mr. 
King, a young brother of the Mr. King, bridegroom of the previous 
winter. It seems from all we could leam Mr. Sweet had persuaded this 
young man to call. We had met him at the wedding but had entirely 
forgotten him ; and he it seems on business intent remained after Mr. 
Sweet left. We four sisters were in the room all busy sewing or reading 
when they came. Mr. King arose directly and walked over to where I 
sat and said something like this (I may not remember the precise words) 
"Can I see you alone for a few minutes Miss Warren?" I was too sur- 
prised to answer him as I should have done of course. As nearly as I 
can remember my answer was this, "I am not prepared to answer you 
such a question." I should have said no at once, but it seemed the 
ansAver I gave him had the same effect, for he rushed for his hat at once 
and out the door he went, so very suddenly that we seemed to have lost 
our civility altogether; for our mother seeing him go, and knowing 
nothing of what had occurred, stepped at once to the door and asked 
him if he would not stop and take dinner with us. He declined de- 
cidedly. The sisters were too convulsed with laughter to conceal their 
merriment, which the young man evidently saw, and he felt he had been 
a little hasty probably. The affair would not have seemed quite so 
ridiculous if we had only had some place where a private conversation 
could have been possible, but we were sitting in the only enclosed room 
in the house, excepting our father's and mother's room and the sisters' 
sleeping apartment above. I really did not hear the last of this for a 
long time, and was really annoyed for the teasing. 

In the early spring of 1834, our brother-in-law, Mr. Bird, had been 
over to Fox River in the neighborhood of Geneva (or where Geneva now 
is). He was delighted with the appearance and he was anxious to get 
into a home of his own in time to put in a crop. I think it must have 
been as early as the last of March that my sister. Bird, with another of 
the Fowler brothers who had recently come on from the East, accom- 
panied by Mr. Sidney Abel (who was afterwards Chicago's first post- 
master) and myself started in a lumber wagon for a first visit to the 
Fox River region. There were no laid out roads. We followed the 
Indian trail to the river, where Aurora now stands. I think our wagon 
must have been the first ever going through the big woods timber, at 
that time a dense forest, 9 miles long and 3 miles wide, skirting the east 
bank of the river from near where Aurora now is to Batavia. The men 
were obliged to remove logs frequently on the way that our wagon might 
keep on this trail. Of course the Indians traveled on ponies and in 
single file, which left a deep black path, and this we followed until we 


reached tlio Ijank of the river, which we sisters o;rcatly feared to cross, 
but' Mr. Bird insisted we could go even with our higli hiinl)er Magon 
where an Indian pony could. As we came to the east bank which was 
bordered with tall trees on either side and looked dark and deep we were 
greatly alarmed to find we were going into the river at once. We sup- 
posed we were to stand on the bank and see ]\Ir. Bird drive over first 
before venturing to take us ; but he gave us no time to urge the matter 
but plunged in at once ; said he could see the trail on the other side and 
that there was no danger; but our hearts were in our throats until we 
were safely across. The first object to meet our view was the large wig- 
wam of the Indian Chief "Wabaunse" surrounded by smaller ones. This 
lodge of the old Chief was remarkable for its neatness. There were no 
Indians anywhere to be seen, and we sisters did not regret it. The old 
fear had not altogether vanished from our mind. Mr. Bird said they 
Avere prol)al)Iy all in the Avoods making sugar as all their cooking imple- 
ments had also disappeared. Not as much as a white man Avas anywhere 
to be found so far. We came up as far as Avhere Geneva now stands 
on the west bank of the river and. were charmed with the lovely landscape 
all the way. We were obliged to hurry back as we were to return by 
another route. AVe re-crossed the river a little north of where Batavia 
is now, but this time Ave insisted Ave Avould not go until the team had gone 
over once, and it Avas quite frightful enough then as Ave sisters stood 
up on the high spring seat, Mr. FoAvler and Abel holding us by the hand 
sufficiently to keep us from falling, and then the Avater Avas so dee]) as 
to come over the seat where we stood and dampen the soles of our boots. 
On the east side near where the depot now is, of Burlington & Quincy 
road, Ave found the first house and then had a dinner — bacon, cornbread 
and coffee Avithout cream or sugar, but aa-c AA'cre hungry enough to relish 
it and were made quite Avelcome. They were Indian ])eople and their 
name Paine. Mr. Bird Avith my sister and family settled that same year 
about a half mile north of the village of Geneva on a small farm, but in 
the course of two or three years moA'ed again still farther Avest to Eock 
Eiver. In fact this sister was the great pioneer of all the family, passing 
through more hardships in the various homes she helped to build than 
anyone I knoAv of in this country. Tlie year they Avent out to Eock Eiver 
they had to go to OttaAva for flour, the only mill Avithin one hundred or 
more miles. In fact her life was a remarkable one in many respects. 
Married Avhen only eighteen years old. The mother of seven children, 
all now living. A widoAv at 36 or Avhen married 18 years. She re- 
mained a AvidoAv 18 years, then married again to a man named Warren, 
taking again her maiden name. MoA'ed back to her natiA'e state. Was 
left again a Avidow in less than 18 years. Eeturned again to Illinois 
AAdnere she made her home Avith her daughter, Mrs. Talbot, until her death 
Avhich occurred May 10, 1883, in Chicago. 

My oldest sister had a heart history AAdiich of course I cannot give, 
I was too young to fully realize it. She was engaged to be married to a 
Mr. Sage, Avho died in the South Avhere he had gone Avith a young friend 
to bettcT their fortunes. Staying too late in the spring before starting 
north they both took the fever and died. It Avas a serious blow to my 
sister, but after being in the West a number of years she married ]Mr. 
Alva FoAvler, a grand and good man. and her declining years are peace- 
ful and quiet and comparatively happy. She Av'as like another mother 


to the younger daughters, phuiuing and making most of our dresses, 
teaching us how to sew, as well as doing many other kinds of work. I 
have spoken of m^ second sister first, but will try and tell of the other 
members of the family as they come by their respective ages. 

Sister Philinda Fowler is the oldest, sister Louisa Bird Warren the 
next,_ my brother Julius comes next, he has ever been a good son and 
brother/ kind in all the relations of life, unselfish in a large degree. He 
should have lieen a married man with a good wife to be a solace to him 
in his declining years, but he has remained a bachelor. He used often 
to say he must see all his sisters well married and settled in life before 
he could take so important a step for himself ; and after they were gone 
from the old home he said, "I looked about years ago to see who I would 
have and now the time has come when I have to look around to see 
who will have me, so I think I had on the whole better remain as I am.'' 
He no doubt felt more keenly than any other member of the family the 
breaking off of the old associations in our Eastern home. He was of the 
age when the social element in any one of his genial temperament was at 
its height, and he was popular with all his young acquaintances ; but he 
soon with us all felt the West was his home and enjoyed it more and 
more until our mother died, since which he seems lost and lonely enough. 

My sister Sally married Mr. A. C. Carpenter in June, 1836. She 
came West before the other members of the family came in November. 
She came with our married sister and children. Her vocation was teach- 
ing. She was assistant teacher in one of the first schools inaugurated 
in Chicago. In fact I may say the first well organized school. I think 
it must have been the very first fall we came she was solicited to go to 
the city. She was one of the three first teachers I remember. She was 
engaged to be married to a Dr. Vandervogart, the principal of the school 
in 1834. I think he was quite sick in the city with typhoid fever and 
when well enough came out to my father's, was taken Avorse and died at 
our house, either in '34 or '35. She, too, has had many sorrows to bear. 
Their oldest son, Ashley, died while in the army. He was a very promis- 
ing young man, and his mother's idol. The family have never fully 
recovered from this great loss. This sister is now a widow and resides 
in Aurora, Illinois. She has three children living, Mrs. Shel Walker 
with whom she now makes her home, an only son, Will, now living on his 
farm a few miles east of Batavia, and Mrs. William Hollister also living 
on a farm in the same vicinity. 

I am the fourth and next sister according to age. Mr. Dodson and 
myself were married on the 2d day of February, 1837 (47 years ago 
today, the 2d day of February, 1884) in the sitting room of this old 
first home we occupied when coming to this State over fifty years ago. 
Sister Carpenter and myself were the only daughters married in this 
old home. Mr. Dodson was then a contractor on the Illinois and Mich- 
igan Canal. We went to his place a few miles from Lockport to live 
after a few weeks in Chicago at the old Saginaw Hotel, kept by our 
old friends J\lr. and Mrs. John Murphy. My first experience in house- 
keeping was in a newly built log house upon the canal. I was nineteen 
years of ase the July previous, and thought myself quite a competent 
housekeeper,, but when I came to depend wholly upon myself without 
mother to ask questions of, T found myself deficient in many things when 
depending upon my own judgment. In the following year (June) Mr. 


Dodson sold his contract and we moved to Chicago where we com- 
menced h'ving in a new house on Lake Street on the West Side. We 
remained there until the winter of '38 when our first children (twin 
sons) Charles and Julius were born. The great financial crisis was 
the cause of our leaving the city. If Mr. Dodson had not endorsed 
other men's papers we undoubtedly would be living in the city today, but 
the property at that time sold at ruinous prices, and what he then let go 
to satisfy the bank when he had signed a note for an old friend for less 
than thirty thousand dollars, would now be worth millions. It is only 
the history of hundreds of others. At the time men supposed to be 
millionaires one day were bankrupt the next, many now remaining in 
Chicago similarly situated, put their property out of their hands for a 
certain number of years, and are now immensely rich. My husband was 
advised to do the same and after all the papers were drawn up and his 
lawyer, Mr. Morris, assured him it was a legal transaction he gave it 
all up and turned over everything to pay for that which he never had, 
but which the law made imperative. Since that time our home has 
either been principally in Geneva or on our farm a mile below. The 
farm life was new to me and in many ways distasteful to me, owing 
doubtless to inexperience principally, although quite deficient in all mod- 
ern improvements which seem to make the farmers of the present day 
much more comfortable and happy. We had seven children, five of 
whom are still living. One of our twin boys was scalded to death only 
a week before the birth of our oldest daughter, in ten days he would 
have been three years old. It was a fearful trial to pass through and 
made me feel at the time that any mother ought and could be reconciled 
to the death of a child when dying from natural causes ; but when our 
second boy died from measles it was just the same terrible loss, even if the 
going was less fearful. Mr. Dodson has since our marriage had the con- 
tract for removing the Indians twice to their reservations beyond the 
Mississippi Eiver; twice has he been to California to recruit his for- 
tunes. He made money as contractor when young. He had two or three 
contracts on the Northwestern Eailroad. He built the piers and abiit- 
ments across the river here (in Geneva) upon which the railroad bridge 
is and which is now being made into a double track; also those upon 
which the bridge near Sterling, Illinois, now is. He also had the first 
harbor contract in Chicago, and one or two stage contracts, so that he 
has been an active business man the greater part of his life; and now 
we are quietly living alone in our plain simple way in Geneva, our chil- 
dren all away, and I sometimes wonder if on life's record our names 
shall be placed, where — under success or failure? 

Our twin sisters were both married on the 27th of October; sister 
Maria to S. B. Cobb in 1840, and sister Mary to Jerome Beecher in 
1842. The history of one has been that of both so far as a very pros- 
perous life in financial affairs is concerned. In their declining years 
they seem to be very happv. Sister Cobb has had six children, three 
living and three gone. Their eldest son, Walter, was taken when he 
seemed to be just entering upon the responsibilities of manhood ; he 
seemed to be so necessary to the mother although loved just as tenderly 
by his father. No one may know until they know by experience what 
that father and mother felt in giving up their only son. Their little 
daufjhter too was to me one of the most beautiful children I have ever 


known, the other little one died when quite young, but to the parents' 
heart the loss is terrible in every case. They have three daughters liv- 
ing, all have beautiful homes, are very wealthy and seemingly happy; 
few, very few- such palatial homes are possessed by parents and children 
too. Sister Beecher never had children of her own, but she is entitled 
to be called a mother in Israel. Her life seems to be filled with the 
sweetest charities. They have two adopted daughters whom she loves 
and cares for more tenderly than many care for their own. I am sure 
not only they but numberless others rise up to bless her. Not often do 
we see such large means accompanied by such large and numerous char- 
ities as she and Mr. Beecher bestow upon the worthy everywhere. 

Our youngest sister, Jane, was married to Mr. W. B. Curtis, April 
8, 1850, upon our father's seventieth birthday (his oldest granddaughter 
was also married on the same day to Dr. Woodworth). Their home was 
in Peoria in this State. Mr. Curtis was an excellent man; he was also 
a fine business man ; was for many years president of the First National 
Bank of that city. He was a kind husband and father and always re- 
spected as a good citizen and for his splendid business qualifications. 
He died several years ago from the effects of brain fever, brought on by 
the great financial struggle in New York about the time of the "Black 
Friday." He was quite a speculator on Wall Street. Sometimes made 
large sums in a day and again lost. 

My sisters and myself were very congenial in all our tastes. When 
all together in the old home two sisters did house work one week and 
washing and ironing the next, and sister Jane and I were always to- 
gether in our allotted tasks, alternating with the twin sisters. After 
Mr. Curtis' death she returned to Warrenville where she died August 
26th, at the home of her son-in-law, W. J. Manning. Although the 
youngest of the seven sisters, she was the first to go. She is buried by 
the side of her husband and children in Peoria. She had four children, 
two of whom are now living, Mrs. Manning and Nancy, named for her 
grandmother Warren. She also adopted a daughter named for herself 
(now living also). At her funeral services the elergyman said, "Her 
character and life as they exist in your memory are the most eloquent 
tribute she can have." This was true, and a fitting eulogy for one who 
was beloved by all w^ho knew her. 

I think it must have been early in 1838 that the first home was dis- 
posed of, and the family remaining removed to the little village of . 
Warrenville, where my brother had previously built a saw mill and a 
public house. 

I must mention here another family of Warrens who came West a 
few years after we came, an uncle (brother of my father) with his fam- 
ilv. Uncle and aunt are both dead. Their bodies lie in the little ceme- 
tery at Warrenville. Other and older members of the family are in 
Oregon, on or near the Pacific Ocean. The daughter, Mrs. Holmes, was 
for many years teacher of the Ladies' Seminary in Warrenville. Nearly 
every sister in our family has had children in her school so long as 
she remained principal of the school. She was a thorough teacher espe- 
cially in the rudiments, never allowed one to take up new studies until 
the old were thoroughly understood. Slie was married to ^Fr. Holmes 
while still engaged in teaching, and all felt sad to see her go from the 
place where she had been so long the leading spirit; but sadder still 


M-as luT I'c'tuiii. a \vi(l»i\v in less than two juDiitlis after her marriage. 
Her luisband died of cholera, and she came and once more resumed her 
place in the old home. Was a.yain at tlie head of the school; but now 
for many years has been in iiockford, Illinois. She still keeps to her 
old vocation, teaching, only private school, having a few young ladies 
under her care. 

I have not spoken of some incidents occurring in our first home, 
which should have been noticed earlier. Our brother-in-law, Mr. Car- 
penter, sold goods in Warrenville from a little store built by himself 
soon after or about the time of his marriage to my sister. As I think it 
over I think it must have been previous to his marriage. He sold the 
first dry goods in the place. The little incident of which I was going 
to speak occurred while he was a young man as my sister was still 
teaching in the city, and one of my twin sisters and myself were invited 
to a wetlding by him because he loaned a saddle to the young man who 
was to be married. The invitation was "Come over and see us married 
and bring your girls along if you like ; you are so kind to let me have 
the saddle, it would have been hard to ride all the way to Chicago bare- 
back, I have to go in to get the license." Poor man he could not get 
the license the first time, had to go in the second time because the girl 
was not of age and he had to take the written consent of the parents. 
We arrived even before the poor fellow had returned from his second 
trip. The guests were all assembled and the groom had to go to a 
log stable to dress himself. The ceremony and supper had to wait quite 
a while for him to complete his toilet. The bride was overhead making 
hers when he came, and soon made her appearance, coming down a lad- 
der. She was quite a_ pretty young Hoosier girl. It was cold and the 
young man seemed nearly perished when he finally came in. It took 
him several minutes to pull on his gloves, and then Squire Allen of 
Naperville tied the knot. We had a palatable supper, with something 
passed around called "black strap" for drink, which we were told was 
made of whiskey and molasses; but which we declined taking. Mr. 
John Yan Xortwick, Sr., had two sisters there, who had their invitations 
much the same way we had ours, the young man bringing them having 
in some way obliged the bridegroom. This wedding was in a log house 
with only one room, two beds in the room, supper cooked upon the hearth 
of the broad fireplace. A long table composed of two wide boards about 
ten or twelve feet long resting on something like saw horses at each end 
only higher. The place was at the head of the big woods timber, is still 
fresh in mv memorv, although I cannot remember the names of the 
people married. 

One other little experience and then I will hring to a close this 
rambling sketch. The first summer here we asked one day for the 
ponies and wagon of our father to go and call upon a girl whom we liad 
heard had recently come from the East to keep house for her two 
bachelor brothers. Our father was a little reluctant to let us have the 
horses, knowing how little experience we had about driving. We had 
already invited Eutli ]\rurray and Amelia Fowler to go with us in case 
we could secure the team. My twin sisters and myself with these two 
neighboring girls started on a visit to Miss Lucinda Gerry (now Mrs. 
Wheaton) for whose husband the place now called Wheaton, about eight 
miles east was named. It was onlv about three miles north of us but 


we were late getting off. Father said we had better leave the harness on 
the horses as he feared we could not get it on right again, but we were 
not quite obedient to his orders. We found Miss Gerry in the field 
helping her brothers put in their corn, but nothing would do but we 
must unharness those horses, as she said, "I guess a girl going through 
the Indian war can unharness a pair of horses," so we of course allowed 
her to do as she pleased. Such a time though as we did have when we 
attempted again to replace that harness made us wish we had regarded 
more faithfully our father's wishes. I think nearly every buckle must 
have been undone. We were so long getting the harness on, if I remem- 
ber rightly, the brothers had to be called to our assistance, although 
they were evidently not intending to come in from the field while we 
remained. I presume they did not care to be seen in their coarse gar- 
ments, bare feet and smutty faces. The first move by our hostess after 
the harness was removed was to wash the floor while we were loitering 
around the outside admiring the scenery, the next move to put on her 
shoes and stockings, comb her hair, dress herself neatly, all the time 
talking and visiting except the short time she was dressing. A brisk 
fire was made, the tin oven brought on and such a marvelous supper 
was set before us. It was all so good, such a nice variety, it seemed like 
magic. Splendid biscuits, a nice custard pie, cake, some kind of stewed 
fruit, probal)ly brought dried from her eastern home, honey, etc., and 
all done by her own hands, most of the time chatting and visiting. She 
would not allow us to help her, and now as I look back and think of her 
and all she accomplished on that short afternoon fifty years ago, it seems 
like a dream. I think she is still living in Wheaton, but this was the 
only visit to her while I remained at home. She must have been an 
energetic woman. 

And now I must close. Perhaps few instances can be found where 
seven sisters from one family have been as pleasantly situated, all so far 
as the outside world judges, marrying respectably, all having comfort- 
able homes and surroundings, some luxurious homes, but the "inner life" 
may not be written. It is well that it may not perhaps. For myself, 
I am far from realizing the hopes and aspirations of my youth. 

Through memory's half forgotten realm 

O'er the half Century's track. 
Wishing some worthiness to find 

T venture to look back; 
But I find only — the commonplace — 

The uneventful life — 
The sad regrets, the toil, the strife — 

Incident to all life in every sphere. 
Yet I will not complain — my life, no doubt. 

Has l)een the best for me 
As somewhere in a "higher life" 

I'll clearly see. 

The vase where the roses of life were distilled, 

For me — is now broken in twain. 
The fragments I have, they are precious to me — 

While the scent of the roses — remain. 



(Quincy Historical Papers of 1912. Early Quincy 1822-1830.) 
Marquette's journal tells us that in thirty days, July 17, 1673, he 
having reached the mouth of the Arkansas;, and beyond, began liis return 
journey and again entered the Mississij^pi. While no mention is made in 
his journal to this locality as it does to Alton and Eock Island, yet on his 
chart there is drawn high land, at just the place on the river where our 
bluffs appear. In 1821 our now beautiful gem city was inhabited by In- 
dians, the mink, muskrat, otter, raccoon, wolf, fox and beaver were run- 
ning wild through our present streets. Daniel Wood, son of Governor 
Wood who is with us now, remembers his mother telling him one day 
when she was alone in the log cabin, she saw faces of Indians looking in 
at the window. The chief entered and said "want honey;'' she told him 
there was none. He said, "If white squaw does not give me honey I will 
take her scalp." While he was preparing, she xan out. When the Indians 
left they left us as memorials of their existence the mounds upon our 
bluffs and many Indian relics have been found. Along the bank that is 
now known as Broadway to Delaware there were trees, this was the land- 
ing for boats and the trees were convenient to tie to. The city at that 
time was equally divided between prairie and timber. East of 18th Street 
all was prairie except a short thicket which ran eastward a few blocks 
from the Alstyne quarter near Chestnut and a small grove of trees at what 
is now known as Highland park. Between 12th and 18th, John ]\Ioore's 
addition, a small northwest corner was prairie. On the south side of 
Gov. Wood's large field about 18th and Jefferson was about twenty acres 
of heav)' timber, part of which still stands. Droulard's between 8th and 
12th was cut up by ravines. Eobert Tillson's lot was part brush and 
prairie (corner 5th and Jersey). On Third Street was a thick timber 
and a pretty little pond. A noted resort for wild ducks, its western 
limit reaching nearly to the bluffs, covering three acres. Daniel Wood 
remembers well that pond. In 1840 signs of this little lake existed. 
Long before this the timber had disappeared and the pond was drained 
in cutting York Street through the bluff. The square, Maine and Fourth 
Avas prairie, just north of Hampshire, Vermont and Fifth along the 
southern edge of Jefferson Square, one-third was prairie and tbat por- 
tion which was afterwards a burying ground. The highest ])eak of the 
bluffs above low water mark was 126 feet and the highest peak was known 
as Mount Pisgali. It stood in the south side of Maine near Second. It 
is said that the lads and lassies pledged their troths in the gloaming on 
top of Mt. Pisgah at sunset and by meonlight. This reminds me of a 
romance where one la^A^er fell in love with his wife at the bottom of 
Mt. Pisgah instead of the top. The lawyer was passing Mt. Pisgah 
when from the heights he saw something rolling down the Mount and 


the piece of humanity stopped at his feet. He picked the almost un- 
conscious child up, carried her to his home. Her family were Mormons 
and lived on the top of the Mount. They were very poor and had a _ 
large family. Of course the little girl was a beauty. He educated her, 
sent her to Vassar, where she finished her education. They married, he 
lived a few years, then she taught music. She was the second wife 
of Judge Skinner. 

Gov. Wood was the first settler in Quincy; in 1819 he met Williard 
Keyes from Vermont, who, like himself, was young, adventurous, look- 
ing out for a place to settle down for life. They first established them- 
selves in all the royal independence of a log cabin in the bottom, 30 
miles south of where Qiiincy is. Lived there three years. They saw a 
map while there showing a bluff bank, east side of the river, the only 
point north of the Illinois for a town that would always be above over- 
flow. They borrowed horses, stopping where now is Camp Point, the 
spot where their park now is. In 1821, John Wood secured a section 
of land adjoining his residence (12th and State), told Keyes what he 
had done. Keyes borrowed a horse and came and purchased 160 acres for 
sixty dollars. Had $20 and borrowed the rest. On the 8th of December, 
1822, Wood was at home. His house stood in the southeast corner 
of Front and Delaware Streets. In March, 1823, Jeremiah Eose, wife 
and daughter came to Wood's cabin and kept house, the proprietor board- 
ing with them. At this time Keyes purchased half section north of 
Broadway, west of 12th. In the Spring of 1828, Williard Keyes came 
to Quiney. He built a cabin larger than Wood's, located corner 1st and 
Vermont. They were all squatters in those days. The only newspaper 
in the country was ■ published in Edwardsville. John Wood led the 
movement, which after a few years resulted in the formation of Adams 
County. The Keyes' cabin became the temple of Justice, where the 
first court was held and was used for religious meetings and hotel. In 
1824 there were only three cabins, Wood, Keys, D'roulard's. Droulard 
was a Frenchman, a shoemaker and served in the army. He took 160 acres 
in the center of the city on which Keyes had settled, bounded by 12th 
and Broadway, north and east. West from Maine to Hampshire between 
Kentucky and York Streets he erected a cabin northwest corner of Jer- 
sey and 8th, west of the gas works. These three cabins were the only 
buildings in the place in 1824. This season Asa Tyrer (who had vis- 
ited the place before) came and built a cabin, blacksmith shop a mile 
southwest, called Watson Springs, named after his son-in-law Ben Wat- 
son. Dr. Thomas Baker was the first doctor in the country. He came 
in the summer, lived two miles south, only remaining a few months ; at 
this time the pioneers of Quiney were Wood, Keyes, Droulard, Rose. 
The census in 1825 gave the population of Adams and Hancock country 
192. They were all living on land that had 'no obtained title, mail 
coming once a month, the only news they had from the outside world 
was from an occasional traveler. They were pumped of all their news. 
The time soon came for this community to ])lay a very important part in 
shaping the destiny of Illinois. During this year (1824) there came 
up and was settled the most exciting and vital political and moral 
struggle that ever affected the social and political interest in the State of 
Illinois. Six years before Illinois had been admitted to the Union; with 
a free Constitution. The early settlers were from the South. They had 


brought liere and owued slaves. There was but four voters in Quincy and 
what is now Adams County and they were in earnest. Tlie county 
which was then Pike was canvassed, voters turned enmasse on Sunday 
morning (day before election) nearly fifty gathered here at the Bluffs 
(as Quincy was then called), rode to Atlas, 4U miles south, swimming 
the creeks and plumped their votes the next day. One hundred votes. 
Last ninety-seven were for no convention (or a free State), three for 
the convention. The "no convention'' ticket swept the State, 1,800 ma- 
jority and Illinois was a free State. Eiditecn hundred twenty-five was 
a notable year in the history of Quincy. It was the natal year of the 
city and county. Three commissioners laid out. the town and fixed the 
county seat. They wanted it as near geographical center as possible. Luck, 
strategy and the kind treatment received at the bluffs changed their 
minds. Wood was in St. Louis, Keyes offered to guide them, for some 
reason he was left at home. After flounderino- through briars, bogs, 
swamps and quicksands of Mile Creek they retraced their steps. When 
dusk came on they found shelter in the cabin of John Wood and Jere- 
miah Eose. Had fine supper, comfort and sleep, hearty breakfast. They 
with all the people of the place passed over broken bluffs, grassy woods to 
the narrow prairie ridge that is now Washington Square. They halted 
about the spot where is now the bronze statue of John Wood, here driving 
a stake in the ground they officially announced that the northwest quarter 
of section two, township two, range nine west, was from that hour the 
county seat of Adams County. Then reverently placing their hands upon 
the top of the stake they christened the place Quincy. John Quincy 
Adams had been inaugurated President that 4th of March. 1835, first 
election. They had many a hard fought battle to preserve Washington 
Park from desecration. First butcher in (^)uincy spiked a wooden bar to a 
tree, hung his meat there. Fifth and Maine running half way to Fourth, 
bought for $30.00. The comer where now stands the Newcomb hotel 
brought the highest. Eufus Brown, first hotel keeper paid $27.00, 
the highest price paid for property around the square. In 1827 when 
Quincy was two years old there was a court house, hotel, store, shoemaker 
on the edge of town, doctor a mile away, a school was opened late in the 
year in the court house, teacher was Eev. Jabez Porter, Presbyterian 
from Massachusetts, graduated in England, preached regularly in the court 
house. The court house was on 5th between Maine and Hampshire in 
the middle of the block. In 1835 the court house was burned. Back of 
the court house was a grove of hazel and small trees. The square was a 
rough hazel patch. Where the cathedral stands was a corn field in 
which was a blacksmith shop ; only house on that side of the street was 
Droulard's second house. Double cabin (where the Bushnell house now 
stands) corner 4th and .Maine a two story frame, known as the old post 
office building, the frame structure of the town built in 1829. In 
its chimney the first bricks (4th and Maine) burned, all preserved in 
the wall of the five story brick building (Newcomb). In 1830 where the 
public library stands was organized a church in the log house of Peter Felt. 
First called Presbyterian church. October 10, 1833, name was changed 
to First Congregational Church. After holding services in houses, a 
room tAventy feet square over the residence of Levi Wells, corner Maine 
and 5th. a chai)i'l was built on Fourth Street between Maine and Jersey. 


This building was known as the Lord's barn. Seats and pulpit, plank 
boards. Bell, paid for by the women, was suspended in the rear of 
the chajiel on poles. Eope entering the chapel through a hole in the 
wall and the single stove on the preachers platform. From time to 
time the}^ lengthened the building. (It resembled a rope walk more than 
a place of worship.) Father Turner was the preacher over 7 years. In 
1834 H. Snow selected tunes for the services, used a large bass viol, sat 
in front of the platform. In 1828 there was little to attract settling in 
Quincy. Contained only two hundred people, a dozen log cabins along 
the river shore with the exception of the Ke^'es' cabin, foot of Vermont, 
in the fall he added a frame addition, a ten or twelve feet square room. 
The second frame structure in the place was Wood's cabin, foot of 
Delaware. It was the first cabin built. Had some log extensions. On 
the hill around the public square were cabins. As yet there had been 
no frame or brick house built. Place was little more than a steam- 
boat landing for the boats that passed occasionally from Galena and 
St. Louis. Often passed without stopping, having no freight or pas- 
sengers. There M-ere two stores, Anderson and Tillson & Holmes sold 
everything needed. Took as pay anything in trade. There were half 
dozen groceries which dealt with one single article. (Staple did a bet- 
ter business than the general stores.) 

This year, 1829, came the second doctor, S. ^Y. Eogers and the 
first lawyer, Archibald Williams. A saddler. L. B. Allen, shop on 
south Maine, same side Michael Mart's (tailor) and Justice Ensign's 
hatter shop. Front street near York, tannery of Ira Preece and Jeptha 
Lambkin's pottery. Droulard's cabin and shoemaker's shop near where 
the gas Avorks are now. These are the names of those who came to 
Quincy before the year 1829 : Eeuben Doty, W. P. Harrison, Geo. Chap- 
man, Dr. S. W. Eogers, S. Meachen, Archiliald Williams,' Thaddeus 
Pond, J. H. Anderson, Thos. Crank, Wm. Kirkpatrich, W. H. Wade, 
Peter Ore, James Thomas. In 1829 among the public notices was this 
"the manumission of some sla\es by John S. Stern and Jas. Anderson." 
(Had been brought here from Kentucky by their masters) and under the 
existing laws of the State it was requisite their masters must give bonds 
for their conduct, and that they should not become dependent upon the 
jniblic for support and must make official announcement of this, which 
was done by posters and hand bills, there being no papers published. At 
this time the village depended upon itself for its enlivenment and the 
quaint characters who strayed in from the country were always loafing 
aljout the stores and groceries. One night the inhabitants were awakened 
at midnight by a racket in the streets. There were two men, leading 
officials (county), parading about the square with a candle box in which 
were .lighted candles, shouting, "Rouse ye neighbors, behold us, we are the 
light of the world." Another oddity used to ])arade on his big horse 
Boleway and announce in his set speech "I'm Mike Dodd in a minute. 
I'm built from the ground up like a muskrat house and I don't beg 
potatoes of a negro." At the writing of this paper we have with us 
Daniel Wood, first white child born in Quincy, 1829, son of Gov. Wood. 
He remembers well the log cabin and tells many stories about the In- 
dians. There are descendants of Willard Keyes with us and descendants 
of Eobert Tillson, 1829. The writer of this paper knew Gov. Wood 


well. Jler father, Jas. Jiiett Langdon owned the Whig aud Eepublican 
during the war and many years after. 

Kate Louisa Langdon, 

1601 Hampshire St. 


Let us turn time backward this al'ternoon about 80 years and spend 
the day in Quincy, Illinois, that little settlement far oif in the wilderness 
to which some adventurous spirits were then turning. Some have come 
from their bleak little homes in New England, others from regions far- 
ther south and west, impelled by that pioneer spirit which is always 
reaching out for larger fields and better opportunities. 

I will invite you first to make a call at the S. W. corner of 4th and 
Maine Sts. at the log cabin of my grandfather, Col. Peter Felt. Family 
tradition has it that Grandfather Felt built the first frame house in 
Quincy on this site, but on this date, Saturday, December 4, 1830, they 
were still occupying their log cabin It is to be supposed that this cabin 
was built like others in Quiney and vicinity, of logs, with puncheon floor 
(that is logs split and laid flat side up) chimney and fire place made of 
rough stones chinked with mud or of sticks and mud. There was gen- 
erally a long wooden latch on the inside of the door and reaching across 
it, to which a string was attached and passed out through a hole above. 
With this string the catch could easily be raised from the outside, while 
to securely lock the door from the inside, it was only necessary after 
latching it to pull in the string. There was sometimes a loft or attic 
above but often the one room served for parlor, library, dining room and 
kitchen and bedroom, privacy sometimes being secured by partitions of 
cotton cloth. Some one I once knew hated portieres to the end of her 
life as they reminded her of the times when cabins were partitioned off 
with quilts. Brick and mortar, lath, shingles and plaster and paint be- 
gan to be known in 1828 but log cabins were still fashionable in 1830. 
The settlers by this time began to bring their possessions with them and 
in the cabin to which I invite you there were colonial mirrors and silver, 
furniture and pewter brought down the Erie Canal to the Ohio Eiver, 
thence up the Mississippi to Quincy. The pretty 17-year-old girl with 
the very blue eyes who opens the door is my mother and she hospitably 
seats us around the roaring fire in the fireplace. This is to be the 
winter of tlie deep snow, three feet on a level but as yet it has not fallen, 
thoush the creat blazing back log on the shinincr andirons feels verv ac- 
ceptable after the wintry air outside. Perhaps this morning as some- 
times happened, thoiigh the fire was carefully banked in the fireplace and 
covered with ashes the night before, it was found to be out in the morn- 
ing. It was some years after this, wav off in Vienna and the South 
German States that matches were invented and became a commercial 
article. What then is to be done? Sometimes two pieces of flint were 
struck together till they made a spark and sometimes a gun was fired into 
tinder. Sometime afterwards my mother was nearly a victim when 
my father had attempted to make a fire in this way. The easiest way 
when neighbors were near was to run over and borrow a shovel full of 
coals. We listen to an account of their long journey by water in com- 
pany with the family of John P. Eobbins which took several weeks; 


long enough for acquaintances she made on board to become something 
dearer had mother so willed. Then finding that in the afternoon there 
is to be a gathering there to organize a church under the leadership of 
the Eev. Asa Turner, we take our leave. We learn afterwards that the 
following persons met and formed the first church in Quincy: Amos 
Bancroft, Adelia Ames Bancroft (these were the first people to be married 
in Quincy), Rufus Brown, ISTancy Brown, Peter Felt, Mary Felt, Henry H. 
Snow, Lucy K, Snow, Rose Martha Turner, Daniel Henderson, Hans 
Patten. Of these it was said four were Presbyterians, three Congrega- 
tionalists, three Baptists and five from the world, which is thought to 
have meant of miscellaneous beliefs. I am disappointed not to show 
you the very pewter cups which were used as communion cups that day 
and also afterwards at the formation of the Baptist church here and two 
churches at Columbus. One of the resolutions made by the church on 
this day was that total abstinence was an indispensable term of admis- 
sion to the church and 18 months later it was said, "The great majority 
of our citizens can now come to Quincy and do business without whiskey." 
The beautiful young woman with the pink cheeks and brown eyes and 
curls who signed her name as Martha Turner was the bride of the Rev. 
Asa Turner who had Just been sent out from the east by a Home Mis- 
sionary Society. In those days it meant quite as much of a sacrifice 
to go to Quincy as in these days to go to India. It was going out into 
the great unknown, communication with those left behind almost cut off. 
There were eastern mails twice a week by stage which did not always 
arrive. Letters sent over 400 miles cost 25c paid by the receiver. If 
on two, three or more pieces of paper the postage was doubled or trebled 
accordingly. Letters from the seaboard cities and from Washington 
were o-enerallv about two weeks in transit. Postaoje being so high and 
required to be paid in silver it was not unusual for letters to lie in the 
post office for a long time before the needed money could be secured with 
which to obtain their deliverance. 

So when the beautiful Miss Martha Bull (cousin of the Quincy 
family of that name) cast in her lot with the poor young home mission- 
ary leaving her teaching in Boston, she entered upon a life of hardship 
and self denial which however probably brought its own reward. Shall 
we let her tell us of some of her house keeping experiences in extracts 
from a letter she wrote to her sister in Hartford, Dec. 9. 1830. The 
house in which thev lived is still standing on 4th near York. 

"My dear Sister: A letter from you about two weeks since is all I 
have had since I left Hartford. I recollect that it takes four weeks for 
a letter from here and about five for an answer. I find matter enough 
to fill one of the large sheets weekly. Two weeks we have been keeping 
house and I find little time for anvthing else. I clamber up two flights 
of stairs from the kitchen to my room in the second story. I am power- 
fully Aveak after having toted pots, kettles, etc. Dec. 22 ; Our goods arrived 
here on the 10th of this month. We had almost given them up as 
lost as we heard that a steamboat latelv sank in the Mississippi. We 
have but one room for sitting room, bedroom, study, kitchen and dairy. 
We have in it our best bureau, 2 tables, 3 trunks, fi chairs, 2 medicine 
chests, 2 writing desks, cupboard in one corner and several other pieces 
of furniture besides our bedstead. We have to have a study by spring. 
The thermometer stood yesterday at 9 l)elow zero. We can keep nothing 


from freezing. I have thought some of our good Lehigh stoves today. 
We have plenty of wood which costs nothing but the drawing of it from 
the woods as Mr. Turner cuts it himself, but still it is not the comfortable 
heat of Lehigh. 1 have a cow which gives a fine quality of rich milk 
and should be very happy just to put down a few pounds of butter for 
you. You smile at the idea of my making butter, but such is the fact. 
It is considerable trouble to take care of milk particularly when frozen 
and I cannot prevent this now. Perhaps you would like to know how I 
get along in housekeeping. Why pretty much as you would expect in one 
so little acquainted with domestic concerns. We live mostly on wheat 
batter cakes and corn dodgers. Xow and then I bake a pone or loaf of 
bread. But this I do not much like. You and mother will decide that 
it requires some skill to make good bread of bad flour. • Xow^ and then 
I make milk toast and we have very good coffee and tea. I wish you 
could see how comfortably we are situated. It would do you good. So 
different from what we expected. Our log cabin has proved to be a 
frame house nicely (that is comparatively) fitted up for us. But still 
very different from the houses in which we have been used to live." Her 
husl)and adds, "She makes very good batter cakes, tea, coffee and butter 
and that is all we live on except now and then a slice of bread. She has 
made SVs pounds of butter, a good heap of pumpkin pies and some power- 
ful good cake. On the whole she is a very good wife worth all her 
transportation and I consider her a right smart woman. Our honey- 
moon still lasts and I see no probability of failure for we have great 
chance of bees here." She makes suggestions about Hartford young 
ladies coming to Quincy to do good in various occupations and assures 
them they will make no sacrifice as to society. We have as good as that 
to which they have been accustomed. Sometime in the spring of 1831 
probablv a cousin of Eev. Asa Turner, Ebenezer Turner, having attained 
his majority, left his father's little stony farm in Maine and struck out 
for something better. On reaching Quincy he found employment with 
Eev. Asa Turner at first for $11 a month. Being sent on a business 
errand one day to Deacon Peter Felt's, the door w^as opened by his 
daughter. From this first meeting affairs w^ent on till the spring of 
1833 when my parents were married by Judge Snow and there was a 
hanging of the crane in their own little cabin north of Quincy. We will 
continue our ramble by paying our first visit to the pioneer store keeper 
of Quincy, Asher Anderson, corner of Third and Maine. He opened 
his little" store in 1820 and carried a miscellaneous stock of goods, 
xlishes, shoes, calico and household articles of all kinds. A story is told 
of his buying a $3,000 stock which sank on the steamboat npon which 
they were shipped, some distance below Quincy. After being under 
w^ater som.e time, the boat was raised but to his dismay, the goods which 
consisted largely of colored prints, muslins, shawls, handkerchiefs, rib- 
bons, etc., had all their hues run together, making a most brilliant 
blending of undecipherable designs. With a wild hope of saving some- 
thing from his wrecked fortune he offered the goods at public auction. 
So strongly did these hotchpotch colored goods catch the fancy of the 
settlers that he realized a profit from his sale which enabled him to lay 
in a -larger stock than before. Which goes to show that a bargain 
counter even then a])pealed to the peoi:)le of Quincy. Blue jeans or but- 
ternut colored jeaiis and linsey-woolsey ansAvered for outer clothing. 


Those who could afford them indulged in calico- and shoes, those who 
could not did without. Sometimes the men dressed in buckskin which 
when carefully dressed, dyed and fitted, made a handsome, indeed often 
an elegant, suit with wonderful durability of wear. Women generally 
wore homespun, the linsey woolsey with the printed muslin or calico to be 
donned on Sunday. And on the head the huge horn comb covered by the 
universal sunbonnet worn at all times indoors and out. Shoes were a 
dress article used by all who could afford them and carefully hoarded up 
for winter needs by all. It was not uncommon for women walking to 
meeting or a gathering of any kind to take their shoes in hand and 
put them on just before they reached the place of assemblage, taking 
them off again while on their return. It is said that Gov. Wood in 
1826, the day before he was married walked down to opposite the mouth 
of the Fabius, canoed over the river, thence footed it to Palmyra, to pur- 
chase a pair of shoes for his bride to wear at the ceremony the following 
day, returning the same way he went. One of the country's early set- 
tlers can remember seeing Gov. Carlin's wife milking cows and she was 
barefoot at that time. And one of Quincy's most elegant and haughty 
ladies, still living used to be seen coming into town riding in her father's 
farm wagon with her shoes tied with white strings. Stockings which 
were utterly unknown in ancient times were almost equally unknown in 
the early days of the west. Those that were worn were of wool home 
knit, generally white or gi-ay except when taste of coquetry gave them 
a walnut or grape or some other modest dark vegetable dye. The busy 
housewife had not only to spin the yarn and knit these stockings, she 
had also to make her husband's clothes. It is said Gov. Wood's first 
wife's people did this for pay and it is narrated that after Mrs. Joseph 
Turner's advent in 1834 a great improvement was noted in the appear- 
ance of the men in the neighborhood M'hen they went to church as she 
was such an expert tailoress. A brief description of a handsome, con- 
scious rustic belle of Adams County, as she appeared when dashing up 
to the meeting house door on horseback some 50 odd years ago is thus 
told by a lady observer. Dark grey woolen stockings, cowhide brogans, 
with leather shoestrings, a very short skyblue silk skirt somewhat faded, 
a black silk waist or sleeveless jacket, also much worn and furnishing its 
own fringe in the fray of its edges, a square muslin cape with a l)road 
unstarched ruffle, a huge white leghorn sugar scoop bonnet, with a long 
black feather and parti-colored ribbon promiscuously bestowed thereon. 
This represents, however, a state of things about to pass away. Every 
year brought in new settlers and before the close of the thirties a decided 
change was seen in the construction of houses and general comfort and 
style of living. But people enjoyed themselves then, everybody was 
young, there were no class distinctions, they helped each other and in 
all this wide world there is no hospitality so generous and cordial and 
sincere as was that of the pioneers of Illinois. We have stayed a long 
time at Asher Anderson's watching him exchange his goods for honev and 
coonskins and beeswax. The latter a favorite object of barter. ^Money 
was scarce, especially small silver. This led to the use of "cut money." 
A Mexican or Spanish dollar would be cut in eight pieces. Each of 
these little silver wedges representing 1214c and their circulation was 
general. It was shrewdly suspected, liowever. flint if all the pieces of 
—10 H S 


any one dollar eoiikl conic together there would be discovered nine. 
The coiner thus paying himself for the labor of manufacture. 

We will now walk up if you please to the corner of 4th and Maine 
where the Xewcomb now stands and investigate Rufus Brown's hotel. 
We find the following tavern rates. Single meal of victuals 25c, lodg- 
ing I'iy^c, pint whiskey I2V2C, I/2 pint rum 18%c, 14 pint French 
brandy o^i^c, i/o pint wine 37i/^c, bottle of wine $1.00, horse feed for 
night, fodder and grain 2r)C, horse feed single I2I/2C. This does not 
please us, so we will wend our way through the deep roadway which 
outs the square from S. W. to N. E. taking note as we go of the sumac 
and hazelbrush and few scattering trees upon it with just one large white 
oak. This brings us out to the corner of 5th and Hampshire or Pucker 
Street as it was called in the town slang of those days. A short distance 
west the Widow Sallie Wheat had a private boarding house and just as 
we are turning she comes out with a horn nearly as long as herself and 
blows a Avelcome blast to call her boarders to her famous meals. She 
afterward moved down to the river near the foot of Broadway where her 
boarders followed, climbing up and down the bluff for their meals rather 
than change to the hotels. This lady whose good cooking goes down in 
history must have cooked in a fireplace as cook stoves were then un- 
known. I have been unable to find when cook stoves were invented but 
the first one east in Quincy was in 1849 and was called the Prairie State. 
As to the possibilities of a fireplace let us quote Clark Carr who in his 
mini says, ''Who can forget the savory fragrance that came from the 
pots and kettles that hung upon the crane, and from the Dutch oven and 
the frying pans and the spits and the griddles and all the accessories of 
the great fireplace. I have never been able to find in a London grill 
room or in a Paris or Vienna or Copenhagen cafe viands that began 
to equal those prepared by good Illinois pioneer women at those fire- 
places, seasoned as they were by good cheer and good apnetite. Think 
of the corn bread and johnny cake baked in the Dutch oven, the hoe 
cakes and pan cakes baked on the griddle, the hasty pudding, the hulled 
corn and the hominy boiled in the pot, with all the savory meats cooked 
in a dozen different ways. Who that has tasted such fare would not 
wish to go back again and live in a pioneer's cabin?" I have been as- 
sured 1)y one who had tasted it that never was bread so sweet as the salt 
rising bread my mother used to bake in her Dutch oven. This was a 
large circular, rather 'shallow, iron pot on legs with a cover upon which 
was heaped hot coals and ashes. And a roast surrounded by potatoes 
and baked in this was delicious, says Mr. Lyford. On extra occasions. 
Christmas, etc., a goose perhaps would be suspended from the ceiling 
in front of the fire with a pan underneath to catch the drippings. This 
was slowly revolved until done brown. 

Then as now Adams County was kind to her children. Food came 
almost spontaneously. The forests were full of game, wild turkeys, 
prairie chickens, quail, even deer. The ponds and rivers were full of 
fish, cattle had unlimited pasture. The rich soil returned a generous 
yield of domestic vegetables, grain and fruit. A story is told of Dr. 
Bartlett. one of the keenest of the old time sportsmen who came into 
Quincy late one night. Xext morning when he went down stairs he 
found the landlord buying a saddle of venison for 50c and just then 
Capt. Phillins came in with his gun and dog and a back load of quails 


which he had shot in Keyes' cornfield. He went upstairs and told his 
wife he had found the place to stay. There were wild plums, grapes, 
blackberries, crab apples and gooseberries to be had for the picking, but 
canning was unknown and the housewife perforce must preserve them 
to keep them. Gov. Wood raised his first apple orchard (between 12th 
and 14th, State and Kentucky) from seed. The first lot of seed he 
walked nearly to Alton to secure, paying a dollar for a pint, only 3 seeds 
of which grew. The second lot of seed he washed from pomace of a 
cider mill and was afterwards given some seed by a sick family in grat- 
itude for a present of maple sugar. Perhaps in some garden you might 
be shown bushes with small red fruit and told they were love apples. 
They were never eaten. These were the ancestors of our tomatoes so 
much a part of our daily menu. It was quite a step onward when the 
housekeeper owned and used a tin oven. It was set down in front of 
the fire and sometimes had a rod through it on which to suspend pieces 
of meat. There was also a reflector where the bright tin reflected the 
heat of the fire. 

When Deacon Ebenezer Turner (husband of our patron Saint, 
Polly Sumner) came to Quincy he brought dandelion seeds with him 
being very fond of dandelion greens. When we laboriously seek to ex- 
terminate them from our lawns by back breaking methods must we 
blame the old Deacon for their introduction? I am sure I never saw a 
dandelion growing wild but always near the habitation of man. The 
early settlers procured wild honey and later had their own bees. Honey 
was often used for sjtveetening. I have heard my mother say they used 
to drink sage tea sweetened with honey but how she detested it. I can 
assure you however, that crabannles or ground cherries cooked in honey 
are delicious. Bountiful as the supply of food was however, it was 
sometimes hard for the Quincy hotels to keep their tables steadily sup- 
plied since there were no markets, no gardeners, no milkmen. A good 
cow could be bought for $8 or $10 and could be pastured free, yet there 
were many times when there was no milk for the coffee of guests of the 
hotel. A story is told of a boarder at Brown's Hotel who put his head 
in the door just as the others were finishing breakfast and called to the 
landlord, "I've got her, bring me a bucket." When they went out on 
the front porch they found he had brought a cow, fastened her with a 
trace chain to one of the posts of the porch and was getting the milk 
he wanted for his coffee. Things went better after that. In those 
early times there was a wedding at Carthage, where the family wishing 
to do something out of the ordinary, sent to St. Louis for lemons 
and served the wedding guests with lemonade. The .guests took the 
rinds home for souvenirs. Everyone rode horseback or in wagons. Mv 
father and mother took their wedding journey on horseback (of ten or 
twelve miles). Polly Sumner's chaise and the two seated carriage which 
came you know in 1834, must have been quite a distinction if anything 
was left of them after the 60 days trip from Maine. 

T have been told by a man 90 years old that when he came to Quincy 
in 1843 there was but one buggy owned in the town and he had it en- 
gaged every other Sunday to go see his girl. A poor lady died (near 
Payson I think) and was hauled to the graveyard on a sled, though it 
was summer time, for there was nothing else to take the body to the 
place of interment. 


The cost of living about 1835 was in .sonie respects light and others 
heav}^ Home products were easil}' and cheaply obtained at low prices. 
Imported stuff's were exceptionally dear. The following shows some 
of the prices current in 1835: Hams 8c and lOc, beef 4c, best but- 
ter IGc, coffee 30c, brown sugar 13c, loaf sugar 20c, whiskey 30c, 50c 
per gallon, cheese 10c, coal 20o per bushel, flour averaging about $4 per 
barrel, beeswax, which had been a cash staple, IGc. Of grass seed which 
appears to have been very scarce, clover $8, timothy $3, blue grass $2, 
hides 9c, green hides, 4^/2^, cut nails 10c, wrought nails 20c, salt $1.00 
to $1.50. Wheat sold for about 50c, potatoes ranged from 2oc to $1.00. 
About this time importations of staples, such as flour and bacon ceased. 
The home productions being sufficient. From this time Quiney lived 
mostly on the products of home industries. 

We must hasten our walk as time is flying. We will call on Mr. 
Keyes who has built a house near the foot of Spring Street, as we Avish 
to see the large spring over which the house is built and Avhich bubbles 
up through the cellar or lower story of the house and runs freely over 
the surface to the bay. This spring gives the name to the street. It 
now is said to run underground and has been almost forgotten unless 
the one on the Monroe Dye Works domain is the same. We hurry 
through the old cemetery where the courthouse now stands. The 
graves are fenced in with rails like -little pens. We make another call 
at a little cabin where the inmates say they have to stand close to the 
fire place to eat their meals it is so cold and the snow sifts in several 
inches deep. We hear about a piano which a neighbor over at Carthage 
has had brought as far as possible by water and then hauled miles and 
miles by land. All the settlers from miles around go to hear it played. 

It is after dark when we return to the square. The children are 
hushed to sleep and laid in their downy nests. The housewife ]n-ides 
herself on the number and quality of her feather beds. There are no 
springs but a rope laced across and across forms the foundation for the 
beds. The thrifty housekeeper no doubt has her breakfast planned as 
she sets her spinning wheel back out of the way or swings her quilt up 
to the ceiling, but it does not include baking powder biscuit or the 1001 
breakfast foods which were then unheard of. With a spill lighted at the 
fireplace she lights the candles she has dipped or moulded in candle 
moulds. They will need an occasional snuffing but soon they twinkle 
around the square and even a little way out Maine and Pucker Streets, 
quite as merrily as the electroliers of 1913. "How far those little 
candles throw their beams." (Helen C. Turner, read Oct. 12, 1912, at 
Mrs. Thresher's.) 

Extract from letter of Mrs. Catherine Sewall to her cousin written 
March 3, 1891. "You asked some questions about our tri]) from 
Maine to Illinois. You know T was eleven the winter we arrived here. 
We started from the East side of the Androscoggin. Hundreds of peo- 
ple collected on the banks to bid us goodbye. Father stood on the 
pole of his wagon to make his speech and sav farewell. I think Ave Avere 
about two weeks on the road to Dedham, Mass., Avhere we stayed tAvo 
weeks. Our train consisted of fathei-'s tAvo horse carriage; grand- 
mother, mother and Rufus Avere the occupants. Next came the one 
horse -shay. Aunt Ann driving wnth Charles and myself tormenting 
her, putting our feet through the wheels, etc. Next came Uncle John 


with a baggage wagon. Next Uncle Leverett, Aunt Leverett, William, 
James and Eben, a sick boy. So was Eufus sick all the way. Then 
Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell with their two boys. All with horses, no cattle. 
We were about 60 days on the road. As to dates, I have none, only know 
we came to our cabin in jSToveniber and a homesick crew we all were, but 
when Spring came we were all happy. Father would come in so de- 
lighted, no stones to knock the plow out." 

Extract from John Turner's letter to his niece written March 6, 
1891. "We did not drive any open from Maine. Your father drove 
two, I drove two. Your Aunt Bradbury one the rackcr in the chaise 
(east with a top) all of the horse race. 

The first day, yes before we got ten miles we had an accident. You 
see we had a dog. We did not want to lose him, so they tied him to 
the axle of my wagon. Well the dog was not well broke to lead and I 
suppose got very suddenly badly choked and as suddenly there was the 
most outlandish yow yow yowing that is often heard. Anyhow Old 
Becky my lead nag thought so no doubt for quick as a flash she started 
on a gee pull and in spite of me, got herself past your fathei-'s wagon and 
hooked my near wheel to his off hind wheel and as old Becky proposed to 
go faster than your father, the one consequence was, the tongue of my 
wagon was broken and so a halt had to be sounded. The above occurred 
on Aug. 25, 1834 as I remember it and I believe that is or was the date 
of our leaving our old neighborhood. We crossed the old Androscoggin 
Eiver from the east side to the west and as we approached the landing 
there were at least 100 people assembled to see us off. The song, "When 
shall we meet again" was sung and many a "God bless you" was said. 
Many salty tears were wiped and we drove on the boat and after we 
were all across the cavalcade started down stream and only a few miles 
were made until the dog tragedy occurred. I remember that we made 
our first bivouac at what is now the city of Lewistown or Lewiston, the 
city of cotton mills. Now I cannot remember any other place that we 
stayed over night in Maine, but I don't think we were more than four 
or five days getting to Dedham, Mass., or to mother's old home. The 
date that we pulled out S. W. from mother's people I have no idea, but 
I think we Avere there not over ten or twelve days. We traveled about 
S. W. through Connecticut. Crossed the Hudson at Sing Sing I know, 
passed N. Y. about ten miles north of what was then New York. Across 
N. Y. to Easton, Penn. Harrisburg, Chambersburg on the McAdam 
road, from Baltimore to Wheeling where we crossed the Ohio Eiver. 
Columbus capital of Ohio, Indianapolis, capital of Indiana, then to 
Springfield, 111. Now all of these towns were small or the most of 
them. All the way along there were towns but it was day by day 
business to make headway west and it got to be an awful old story to 
me and it is only now and then that I remember anything particular that 
transpired on the way. In the east part of the State we struck the 
prairies and one afternoon were entirely out of sight of timber which 
was wonderful to me then, not a house or tree in sight." The above are 
extracts from family letters giving an account of the journey from 


(1830 to 1845.) 

We can hardly realize the hardships of the pioneers who first set- 
tled here; either of their lives or of their long journey in coming. 
Many of the first who came walked, some rode on horseback, some rode 
in wagons drawn by horses, more by ox-teams. Some floated down the 
Ohio River on flat boats and came up the Mississippi as best they could. 

In 1819 Asa Tryer, the man who settled by the beautiful spring in 
South Park walked with a knapsack on his back, carrying flint, steel 
and punk, to make a fire on the way. He came to locate a quarter sec- 
tion of land he had bought from a soldier of 1812. He came through 
the tangle of brush to "The Bluffs" and easily found his land, as the 
marks made by the Government surveyors were still fresh. He rode 
back to St. Louis on a government steamboat that had been sent out to 
try the feasibility of navigating the Mississippi. He was on the river 
bank, as the boat passed down and it stopped and took him on. Thus, 
he was the first man to ride on the first steamboat that ever stopped 
at Quincy and it was many a year before another came. 

Four years later he returned and built a cabin on his land, and 
the next year brought his family up the river on skiffs, the two being 
lashed together with a platform placed on them, upon which the family 
rode slowly and safely. He set up a blacksmith shop and also im- 
provised sort of a machine to pound up corn for hominy, which was 
propelled by water from the spring. 

The same year that Asa Tryer first came to Quincy the Whipple 
family came to Illinois. While they were floating down the Ohio Eiver 
on a flat boat a son (Daniel) was born. It was late in the season when 
they reached the vicinity of Alton and as there was no house and not 
time to build one, they passed the first winter in a cave. One day they 
all got into a skiff and went up the river to visit some people they knew. 
(These isolated pioneers needed to visit each other to break the terrible 
monotony and loneliness). Upon the return of the family to their cave 
home they found feathers scattered around its mouth, which frightened 
them dreadfully. They were much afraid to go in, thinking that 
Indians might be there. Finally mustering courage they entered and 
found some white hunters occupying the place and they felt so re- 
lieved and so glad to see people that they kept the hunters as guests for 
several days. 

That winter they had to go 40 miles to get corn meal for bread. 
When they came from the East they had brought enough potatoes for 
planting, but before spring came they were so hungry they dug out the 
eyes of the potatoes and saved them for plantiner. eating the remainder 
of the potatoes. But, from the little dried up eyes, which they saved, 
they raised a fine crop in the rich virgin soil the next year. The Whip- 
pies came on up the river and settled at Quincy before 1830. Mr. 
Whipple also had an improvised corn mill of the pestle and mortar 
type, run by water power. The meal for breakfast being pounded dur- 
ing the night. One night a hungry coon while trying to help himself 
to the corn in the mortar met his fate by means of the pestle and in the 
morning there was a mingling of com and coon. (This story of the 
Wliipples was sent to me by Edwin Streeter, Oregon, whose mother was 
a Whipple and it has never been published.) 


When John Wood bought his first piece of land from Flynn in 1821 
or 1822, he walked to Alton, 120 miles to make the bargain and when 
there was danger that Illinois would be a slave State (as told by ^liss 
Langdon) he walked all over Hancock and Adams Counties rallying 
voters. He took these and other long walks because he was to« poor to buy 
a horse. It seemed to be the age of walking. There is a family tradition 
that Ebenezer Turner (husband of our Polly Sumner) came here ahead 
of his family to prepare a home for them and when he thought they 
ought to be nearly here he grew so anxious and so heartsick for the 
sight of them that he, a man of 63 years, took his cane and walked to 
meet them. He walked to Springfield, and when they met, no one was 
able to speak a word for everyone was crying. In this company which 
he met, all the wagons were drawn by horses. "Polly" with two other 
women rode in a carriage and ray mother (Nancy Ann Turner) drove a 
"one horse shay." In one spring wagon a large rocking chair with arms 
was firmly fastened. In this chair rode Polly's oldest married daughter 
(Mary Leverett) holding in her arms all that long weary journey of 60 
days from Livermore, Maine, a sick child two years old, as carefully as 
possible so that the jar of the rough roads would not tire him too much. 

Extract from a letter written by Ebenezer Turner, July, 1835 to 
relatives in Massachusetts. He with his wife, Polly Sumner, and family 
had moved to Adams County the previous year, when he was 63 and his 
wife 59 years old. This letter is unique, on account of the prophecy it 
contains concerning the developments in the then far West and also about 
transportation facilities. 

"We all live in small log cabins and put what we can under the bed, 
and the remainder on top of it. About one-third of the land in this 
country is covered with wood and two-thirds prairie. Where there are 
few or no settlements the prairie is burned over, generally in the Fall, 
but where settlements are thick the fires have been arrested and the Avood- 
. land will increase. Twenty years will settle this State as thickly as 
Massachusetts was thirty years ago, and then there will be a million in- 
habitants in it. My friends, in a few years, perhaps fifteen, those who 
may then live in Illinois may travel to Boston in four days." (It had 
taken his family 60 days to come with horges from Maine.) "If facil- 
ities for travelling keep pace with the times as they have for 20 years 
past, railroads will perhaps be made and run with locomotive engines, 
from Maine to the Mississippi; and some time after that is done, from 
the Jiississippi to the Pacific Ocean. There is a company of 100 fam- 
ilies who have engaged to emigrate from the State of Missouri (next 
west of us) to Unner California, on the Pacific Ocean. This I had, 
from a newspaper. Emigration is pushing westward, but the great 
Pacific Ocean will bring them all up. The people in this State begin 
.to shove over the great Mississippi to find land, that they take i^p, with- 
out money or price, and multitudes from Middle and .Northern states 
are arriving to take their places, and settle on the fine i^rairies. From 
your good friends, Ebenezer Turner and Polly Turner." 

When Eev. and Mrs. Asa Turner came to Quincy in 1830, they 
forded every stream between Cincinnati and Quincy. The flay previous 
to the night they reached the end of their long ride from Massachusetts 
they passed over a large prairie which was on fire on each side of the 
road and nearer, passed through a strip of timber, which was also on 


fire, inajdng it dangerous to pass, as burning trees were falling on each 
side. They did not know how near they were to their journey's end and 
Avhen they reached Brown's at 4th and ]\Iaine (of which Mrs. Turner 
has told) it seemed indeed a haven of refuge to the weary travelers. 

We call hardly imagine the terrors timid women had to face, who 
came to make new homes, with their husbands and little children. Tho' 
the women were brave, and made the best of their hardships, it did not 
take away their keen fear, or make them less nervous. There is a 
story of a women who lived one whole summer with three little children 
in a pen made of poles and she was all the time in deathly fear of the 
rattlesnakes, which were so numerous then. There is another storv of 
an English family, just from a great city, to which the wilderness was 
a horror of fear. The mother of the family suffered with terror of being 
scalped by the Indians during the Black Hawk War, not knowing when 
they were prowling about. Wolves they often saw, in daytime and could 
hear sniffing around at night and setting up blood curdling howls. The 
father had Ijrought from England a massive chest, and by the combined 
strength of the family it was dragged before the door each night, when 
they felt comparative safety from the Indians. 

In those early days hotels were few and far between and accommoda- 
tions meager, but "Heart-room, House-room" was the prevailing motto 
with most of those noble pioneer men and women. They never said 
"No" to a weary traveler, seeking food or shelter. It is said of a family 
near Clayton (Campbell) that they lodged eleven of the aristocracy of 
Quincy at one time, in their cabin but 16 ft. square. 

Father Turner as a home missionary traveled nearly all one night. 
He at last found a cabin. There were 16 people in it, but a log cabin 
those days was never full, so he was welcomed to what the people had. 
Another time he was travelling in company with a friend, and sought 
a night's shelter after the family had retired. The cabin was about 12 
ft. square. The woman had three in her bed and two on a bed sup- 
ported by sticks driven into the logs. She got up and took one child off 
the floor and put into her bed, and another off the floor and put into the 
"patent" bed, thus making room for Mr. Turner and his friend to sleep 
on the floor. Wasn't that true hospitality? The people of those days 
were obliged to be resourceful. I know of one young girl who found 
the cabin roof on fire. No water in the bucket and the spring one- 
fourth mile away. Her mother ran screaming to call the men from the 
field, but the girl climbed on the roof, with a pan of buttermilk and -with 
a cloth, "dablded" away at the fire, putting it out before the men came. 
(My husband's mother, Harriet Bittleston Long). All the women of 
those times knew how to make remedies for the family ills, from the 
herbs and barks and roots that grew at hand and how to minister to one 
another in all the extremities from birth to death. It was a time when 
strong and lasting friendships were formed and the word neighbor had 
its true scriptural meaning. These were the kind of brave men and 
women who gathered here and made a little settlement, the beginning of 
a city. Quincy has had three different phases in her life. First a vil- 
lage under State laws for nine years, second a town incorporated for six 
years and a city with a charter ever since. 

In 1830 though five years had passed since the commissioners named 
our city and decided where the county seat was to be (naming both city 


and county for the new president, John Quincy Adams) it only contained 
a popnhition of about 200 people, though this was really a rapid growth. 
The village was just a ragged little hamlet. The forlorn looking bluffs, 
seamed with gullies and nearly barren of timber. A few cabins lay along 
Front Street, mostly north of Hampshire. Among these was Keyes' 
cabin and a little south was the double cabin, called the Steamboat 
Hotel. There were but two routes by which wagons could ascend the 
hill; one following the creek where Delaware Street now is, the other 
by a very steep and winding track, from the foot of Vermont Street fin- 
ally reaching level ground on Hampshire Street between 3d and 4th. 

Being a county seat, it was necessary to have a courthouse. The 
next year after the stake was driven in the Park (1826) there was a 
sale of lots to raise funds and a two-story log courthouse was built, the 
upper story being for the county offices. It was on the east side of the 
square, ^ot long after the log jail was built. It was a peculiar struct- 
ure, for there were no doors, only grated windows. The prisoners were 
dropped down through a trap door in the top, but the building was so 
open that they could joke with the passers-by^ Just back of this jail 
was land owned by Ebenezer Turner and his son Edward lived there. 
One day Polly's grandson Eben Leverett tried to give a drink of water 
to a negro who was imprisoned, but the little boy failed to reach as high 
as the negro could reach down, so the poor fellow had to remain thirsty. 
Edward Turner built a little machine shop on the back of the lot where 
Doerr's now is and here later on Eobt. Gardner learned the machinist's 

By 1830 the village had a store, two taverns and quite a number of 
residences. There was a two-story frame house at the N. W. corner 
of Maine and 4th built in '29 by Eobt. Tillson, where, for years, the post 
office was kept, after it was moved from the pine box in John Wood's 
cabin at the foot of Delaware Street. Beside the Tillson house, Eufus 
Brown on the S. E. corner of 4th and Maine had built a frame addition 
to his log hotel ; and Willard Keyes to his cabin on Front Street. The 
lumber for these very fine improvements had been brought on a raft from 
mill in N. E. Missouri. The previous year a man named Holt had made 
some bricks and in the thirties Asher Anderson built a small brick addi- 
tion to his store on the N. side of Maine, E. of 3d st. and there were a 
few chimneys laid np. Around the square were scattered about half a 
dozen cabins on each side, a few more were south of Maine and east of 
5th on Hampshire. This was Quincy in 1830. 

It had been necessary to go 40 miles to Atlas (South) for meal and 
flour. In '29 Wood and Keyes deeded to Mr. Whipple a quarter section 
of land to build a mill upon. This mill was about at the foot of Cedar 
Street. It ground very slowly as the mill-stones were only 12 in. in diam- 
eter, but it was a great improvement upon the 40 mile ride every time 
the mealsack was empty. With the easy and rapid means of transporta- 
tion we now have, we cannot realize how dependent tlie settlers were 
upon the river, as a means of bringing the necessaries of life. There were 
a few steamboats but their arrival was verv uncertain. They left St. 
Louis only when they had a full cargo and then came slowly. Polly 
Sumner's husband once grew weary of waiting for the boat to start froin 
St. Louis and walked, beating the boat to Quincy by two hours. Much 
of the traffic, however, was carried on by keel l)oats. These were pro- 


pelled by poling, putting long poles in the muddy banks and prying the 
boat forward, crawling along the bank, up stream. Other boats"^ pro- 
gressed by "cordelling" which was by passing a long rope around a tree, 
ahead and then drawing the boat up by pulling the rope. Either way 
was dreadfully hard, slow work and 8 miles a day was a good average 
progress. (Mrs. Sibley told of her grandfather, the merchant of 
Cahokia, making a trip each year in these boats, way up the river to 
trade with the Indians and how sometimes his family accompanied him 
on these journeys. She told how her mother, a little girl, in reaching 
over the side of the boat to get a drink ot' water dropped the cup and 
lost it, one of a set of a dozen little silver cups.) 

Congress had devoted 3l^ million acres of land, in that part of 
Illinois lying between the Illinois and Mississippi Elvers and extending 
North from their junction 198 miles to the payment of the soldiers of 
the War of 1812, each one to receive IGO acres. This comprehended 
3/5 of the entire tract, and it was provided that no land should be sold 
by the government, therein, until all the soldiers were paid. It was thus 
that this portion of the State became knoM'n as the "Bounty Lands" or 
"Military District." In 1830 the Government land office, for the sale 
of this land, was located in Quincy. This with private land offices rep- 
resented all the unsold land in the tract, 1,400,000 acres. This opening 
of land for sale was an event of great importance. Soon the counties 
began to fill up with newcomers, who paid the imiform price of $1.2o 
per acre. The land office here in 1830, as everywhere, was very impor- 
tant. The Eegistrar had to record all applications for public lands. 
The Eeceiver had to take and receipt for all money deposited by the ap- 
plicant, to secure him a patent and future ownership of the land he had 
selected. Dishonest men could have padded their pockets, and defrauded 
the applicants, knowing as they did know from surveys in their posses- 
sion, the character and value of all the unentered land. 

For 15 years this district was the most important one in the State, 
and the transferred records show a clearer face, and have had less to 
come up for reexamination than from any other of the old land dis- 
tricts. The honest and able men, entirely trustworthy, who filled this 
office, were Thomas Carlin (who became Governor), Alexander, Leech, 
Flood, Sullivan, Asbury, Eogers, Holmes, Marsh and Hauser. These 
were successively in charge until the office was transferred to Springfield 
in 1859 or '60. " 

During the winter of '30-'31 the deepest snow ever known in Illi- 
nois fell. For three months it lay on the ground, making it almost im- 
possible to travel. Many animals were killed off because they could find 
nothing to eat. The settlers were shut up in their homes, often far 
from any one else. The snow began to fall December 27, 1830, and in the 
morning was two feet deep outside and as a man who remembered and 
told it in later years said, "it was six inches deep inside the cabin." This 
was Mr. Sterne of Ellington Township. He made a path to his spring, 
by extreme exertion and from there carried water and saturated the snow 
on the roof of his cabin making it windproof and snowproof for the rest 
of the winter. 

In 1831 several frame buildings were erected and several log ones. 
Also a steam flour mill was built. This, with the establishment by 
Capt. Nat'l Pease of a pork packing establishment, two years later, were 


great benefits to the community for they created a market for the grain 
and hogs raised in all the surrounding country, making possible the com- 
ing of prosperity. 

The establishment of the land office brought money, cash which was 
so badly needed for circulation. Previous to this, most dealings had of 
necessity, been by barter or swapping. The land office brought so many 
travelers, that another hotel was needed. This was built at the N. W. 
corner of 5th and Hampshire (Stern's) and was called the "Land Office 
Hotel" and later on was nicknamed the "Bed-bug Hotel" on account of 
liveliness of its beds. 

As late as 1832 when the Black Hawk ^Yar broke out Indians were 
numerous around Quincy. These were of the Sac and Fox tribes. Fre- 
quently the shores of the river were covered with their wig-waras. They 
traded with the white people in the village and in the country. Gen- 
erally they were peaceable when sober. Sometimes they had squaw 
dances and sent the hat around for money. Quincy and the country 
around sent two large companies of volunteers to fight the Indians in 
the Black Hawk AVar. There was great excitement, especially the morn- 
ing the volunteers marched away. Of those brave men, few if any, lost 
their lives, and it was well for nearly every able bodied man had gone 
to the war. 

In 1833 that fatal disease, cholera, made its first appearance here. 
It was the 4th of July. Many of the people were going to a barbecue 
at Ursa. Two or three of these were taken sick and died before sun- 
down of that day. The utmost consternation prevailed. Many left in 
great haste. Within the next five days 33 deaths from cholera occurred. 
Two days after the epidemic appeared, a meeting was called at the court- 
house to consult upon means to prevent the further spread of the dis.- 
ease, and to adopt measures of relief for the sick. Wm. Flood was 
chairman and 0. H. Browning secretary of this meeting. The town was 
divided into three districts, and committees of vigilance appointed. 
These committees were to meet at 8 o'clock every morning to make all 
necessary arrangements for the care and nourishment of the sick and 
also for the burial of the dead. These men themselves had often, not 
only to wait upon the sick, but to bury the dead, digging the graves 
themselves. Mr. Browning told of taking a corpse to the cemetery by 
himself, where he dug the grave and buried it alone. (The question 
came up as to where coffins were obtained in this emergency, and all 
concluded that rough boxes were nailed up.) 

Fortunately the disease soon ran its course, and not all who had 
the disease died of it. Many recovered, but it needed most prompt 
attention to save a life. This record is interesting because it shows 
how the self reliant pioneers met the crisis. They were strong men of 
true mettle and they did their duty. 

From 1885 to 1834 the village had no laws or ordinances, living 
under the general laws of the State. In June of '34 the. "Town of 
Quincy" was incorporated. Archibald Williams, Samuel W. Eogers, 
Levi Wells, Michael Mast and Joseph T. Holmes were elected its first 
trustees. These trustees met and organized ; wrote and passed a code 
of ordinances and by-laws for the new town. The 1st article defined 
the limits of the town, the 2d prohibited shontinfr inside the limits witli 
a fine of $1.00 for each offense; the 3d concerned the disposal of the 


bodies of dead aninicals ; the 4th forbade the obstructing of water courses 
(these last two to protect the health of the people) ; the 5th forbade 
obstructions in the streets longer than positively necessary for the load- 
ing and unloading of building materials; the Gth concerned ])eace dis- 
turbance; the 7tli was a strict rule against gambling houses. Three of 
the men who lived here about this time became Governors of the State; 
Ford, Carlin and Wood. Three became U. S. Senators; Young, Brown- 
ing and Eichardson. One, Morgan, a Major General during the 

Mr. Keyes brought the first steam ferryboat in 1835. Previous to 
this time travelers were ferried over the river on flatboats w4th great 
labor and much hard rowing. It was an old steamboat, almost worn 
out, but so fast in contrast with the hand propelled craft, that its com- 
ing was hailed as a great event and it was even used for an excursion, 
one which was the forerunner of many similar experiences of frolic and 
disaster. Another event of great importance to our rapidly growing 
town was the establishment of a real newspaper in 1835 when Quincy 
was only a ten-year-old town. This was the early newspaper in the 
State. It was named the "Illinois Bounty-Land Eegister." The paper 
"proposed to make known to the world, the values of this fair region," 
and it was mostly given to the description of the Military district and 
its history, also there were all kinds of advertisements and notices con- 
cerning the land business. There was some Eastern news, and a few 
local items. Its circulation became quite large, and it played an im- 
portant part in the early growth of the surrounding country. Later on, 
with the advent of more papers in the other counties, the character of 
the "Eegister" changed and became more local. Its name also had 
several changes, and about 1840 it became the "Herald." The "Whig" 
was established in 1838. These two papers have traveled down the 
years, side by side, recording all the events of importance, representing 
the two great political beliefs. 

From the first copy of the first paper published, we found this ex- 
tract from the pen of Joseph T. Holmes : "From July, 1831, to July, 
1832 there was imported into Quincy, produce, consisting principally of 
flour and bacon to the value of $5,000. From July, 1834, to July, 1835 
with an increased population there will be no importation of these arti- 
cles but on the contrary it is safely stated that produce of these articles 
will be exported to the value of $40,000." This boom, this gain, this 
changed condition was possible, because the country was filling up, being 
cultivated and stock raising began, coupled with the fact of the steam 
flour mill and the pork packing business being established in town to use 
what the farmers produced. 

By 1835 the mail came in, or was expected to, twice a week by stage 
lines from the East. When the roads permitted the mail was brought 
in an old fashioned "Troy Coach" stage, but during part of the time the 
conveyance was a "mud-wagon" or '^one-breaker" either name being 
appropriate This was simply a huge square box, fastened on two 
wheels, into which the passengers and the mail were piled promiscuously 
and it is said that the prayer of the insensate mail and of the passengers 
was "Good Lord Deliver Us." 

The log courthouse built ten years before where, as a wag used to 
say "Justice is dispensed with," was burned during the winter of 1835- 


3G and like its successor, there was rejoicing at it birth and its death. 
There were no regrets heard, as the flames shot upward. Indeed some 
of the logs were even pushed in, to be sure it should all be consumed. 
Following this, there was another sale of town lots to raise money to 
replace the burned building and work upon it was at once begun. 

The importance of Quincy as a land center, bringing so many vis- 
itors on land business, made it necessary that there should be one good 
large hotel. In 1836 the Quincy House, on the corner of 4th and 
Maine (The site of Brown's Hotel) was commenced. This was a really 
handsome building, and it looked odd, with only log cabins and small 
frame buildings near by. Mr. Munroe was the first landlord. He, his 
wife and three charming daughters were soon very popular and under 
their management the Quincy House became the social center of the 
town, while, as a hotel it was equal if not superior to any in Illinois or 
in St. Louis at that time. 

Our State, thus far, had only been opened up, and settled along the 
water courses. These were fringed with settlements, but the l^ack 
country, was all a vast grassy wilderness. Only by the coming of the 
railroad, could these fertile acres be developed. The first organized 
movement in Quincy was in 1836 when a meeting was held, requesting 
the Legislature to incorporate a company to build a railroad from 
Quincy to the Illinois Eiver. A section of this road was built, from 
Springfield to the Illinois River (the present Wabash line) and finally 
work here in Quincy was begun. Patriotism was vigorous, excitement 
ran high, and all thought the "N'orthern Cross Eailroad" would soon be 
in operation. The route was graded nearly to Camp Point when the 
money gave out. Part of this track was used by the C. B. & Q. later on. 
Some of the grading which was done still remains out East Broadway. 
It was intended to have the cars run to 12th & Broadway, and from 
there to the river was to be an inclined plane, operating with stationary 
engines. This project was finally changed to the approach north of 
town which follows the natural grade of the water courses and was 
adopted by the C. B. & Q. many years after. 

The state of Missouri was slave holding. Slaves could cross the 
river, and were helped here by people who believed slavery to be wrong, 
to escape to Canada. This led to a very strained feeling between the 
people of these two neighboring sections. In 1836, Dr. Nelson, a bril- 
liant preacher who had a school in Palmyra and who was a strong 
Abolitionist, made an injudicious remark at a camp meeting in Missouri 
and had to flee for his life such intense excitement followed. He ran 
through high grass and brush to the river, was nearly caught, but 
finally reached Quincy, wet and nearly exhausted. Following this, 
some most unkind messages were sent back and forth, and Dr. Xelson 
moved his "Institute" of learning out east of Quincy about five miles, 
where he educated young men for the ministry and they were enabled 
to pay part of the expenses by working on the land, while living in little 
cabins built around the one large house. (This is tlie "Sprigg" farm 
when the narcissuses come in Spring.) 

There was another Institute in East Quincy about 25th or 26th 
Street and between Maine and Hampshire. The object of this school 
was princinally to educate men and women for missionary service. The 
teachers of this school also, were strong Abolitionists and several years 


later some incensed slave owners from Missouri, whose slaves had. been 
helped away, came and burned the institute buildings. 

Those were troubulous times, indeed, fore-runners of the terrible 
conflict coming. I'lie next year, there was another excitement when 
feeling, ran high and when Abolitionists stored all kinds of firearms 
and weapons of defense under the pulpit in the baptistry in "God's Barn." 
It was caused by the efl'ort to vindicate the freedom of speech, at all 
hazards, by the Abolitionists, when those who favored slavery tried to 
break up their meetings. 

There began in 1838 an immigration of the Mormons, Avhieh, later 
on began to flow away to their new purchase at ISTauvoo. Joseph Smith 
lived in Quincy, temporarily, when driven from Missouri. The condi- 
tions of these people was pitiable, at times, and the people of Quincy 
were kind and expressed great sympathy for them. They were crowded 
into barns and sheds, many in huts and tents, all through the town, 
but in spite of all hardships they kept up all their religious services, and 
for a time were more numerous than any other religious organization in 

In 1838 a "Hook and Ladder" company was formed, to protect the 
community from the ravages of fire. They had four ladders of 15, 20 
and 25 and 30 feet in length, also six fire hooks, and 12 buckets. These 
purchases were the beginning of our present capable fire department and 
the men who formed this company were the prominent young men of 
the town. The next year (1839) a fire engine was purchased — a hand 
engine — the citizens stood on each side and pumped. 

That year (1839) also saw the first public improvement. It was 
decided to spend $200 improving DelaAvare Street whenever $300 should 
be furnished by donation and that $1,000 be appropriated was offered 
to Maine Street. The Maine Street people declined, as the land owners 
were required to give bonds for whatever the expense should exceed the 
$1,000. Then the Hampshire Street people accepted and it was graded 
and gravelled from 3d to Front. i\.s by this time there was much 
shipping on the steamboats, this improvement was of very great benefit. 
Mr. Eedmond whose name was prominent in the forties had the contract. 
When four years later, Maine Street w^as opened through the high bluff 
called Mt. "Pisgah to the river, there were found in its high mound 
many human skeletons, presumably those of the earliest inhabitants of 
our fair county. 

Eighteen hundred fortv was an ambitious one for Quincy. It was 
now 15"years old, and had a population of from 1,850 to 2,000. Please 
remember that only ten years before it had just about 200. The pre- 
vious year, by special charter allowed from the State Legislature, a new 
board of trustees were chosen at the April election, Conyers, Holmes, 
Tillson, Leech and Woodruff. These men prepared new ordinances, so 
comprehensive that they were adopted, almost without change, when in 
1840 the town emerged into a real city. When the business of the town 
corporation was closed up there was a lialance of $365.00 "for pin 
monev" with which the newly born city began its career. 

The future city was divided into three wards, all north of Hamp- 
shire Street being Ist ward ; all between Hampshire and Maine to 5th 
and thence south to York eastward as a dividing line was 2d ward; 
and all south of this was 3d ward. The election for the first city offi- 


eers was very earnest, but good natured. Everybody knew everybody 
and most of the voters were young men, jolly and full of life and jokes. 
The Whigs nominated Ebcnezer Moore and the Democrats Samuel 
Leech for Mayor. Mr. Moore was elected. He was reelected the next 
year and was followed by Enoch Conyers for two vears and next by 
John Wood who served four years. 

In the early forties the first public schools were established, after 
much agitation and many objections. It was ordered that a school- 
house be built in the old cemetery lot (where cur courthouse now 
stands). This was the first "Jefferson School." A lot was also pur- 
chased on South 5th Street where the Eranklin School was built later. 
A building Avhich was burned several years ago. From these plantings 
in the forties our splendid school system has grown. 

This same year ten gentlemen formed themselves into an Historical 
club, for the preservation of early historical events in this section, 
realizing that even that soon, many of the earliest happenings were 
growing to be forgotten, and the men who came as young men were 
reaching middle age. Of these men Peter Lott, E. J. Phillips and 
Henry Asbury were chosen to collect materials and prepare such his- 
tory for publication. The committee went to work holding interviews 
with the earliest settlers and noted down many interesting items. An 
introductory chapter was written by Judge Lott, but, as all were busy 
men the matter was finally dropped. Many years after that Mr. Asbury 
wrote his valued history from the material gathered at that time. 

In 1841 the square was fenced; Before this it was a neglected 
spot. Farmers used it as a convenient place to feed their teams and 
exhibit stock, a place to make trades and exchanges. This year the city 
decided to enclose ■ and to beautify it. This aroused much onnosition, 
the country people claiming it was county property and that they had 
a right to occupy and use it. There is a story connected with this about 
the first Seal of Quincy. John Wood had at his own expense with the 
consent of the new city council transplanted a handsome elm tree to 
the center of the park. One night some person girdled the tree and of 
course, it died. In the next issue of the "Herald" appeared a rough 
sketch of ]\Ir. Wood resting upon his cane and gazing mournfully at the 
dead tree. At the next meeting of the council, it was voted that this 
picture be made into a device for a seal for the city, which was done 
and the seal was used for many years. 

In '-41 the first steps were taken toward forming a Public Library. 
A number of gentlemen met, in one of the offices of the old brick court 
house. It was during the hard times and m.oney was dreadfully scarce, 
but they began by contributing $5 worth of stock each and all the books 
each one could collect, which aggregated 700 volumes by the end of the 
year. For some time the only revenue was from lectures by the citizens. 
In 1844 a lecture was given on magnetism and telegraphy by the Eev. 
Geo. Giddings, Eector of the Episcopal church. At the close of this 
lecture Lorenzo Bull and Andrew Johnson (partner of Judge Williams) 
gave a practical demonstration of the telegraph. This was the begin- 
ning of telegraphy in Quincy. 

Previous to 1840, the Presidential elections had been conducted in 
a quiet and decorous manner, bv the Whigs and Democrats. Quite differ- 
ent, was the campaign, the spontaneous outburst for "Tippecanoe" and 


"Tyler too." Quiucv had its tirst parade There were over a hundred 
delegates going to a county convention at Columbus. These rode on 
horses, two abreast, then a large yellow wagon with the l)and of the 
'"'Quincy Grays/' a local military organization surmounted by an im- 
mense flag having pictures of Harrison and Tyler. Xext the cannon, 
upon its gun-carriage, surmounted by the U. S. Flag, next a canoe, on 
wheels, and amid-ship a barrel of hard eider, very hard, and hanging 
upon the barrel a gourd. In the back end of the boat sat a man mak- 
ing motions as if "paddling his own canoe." In some processions there 
were log-houses, with coon skins nailed upon them built on wagons, and 
these small houses always had a barrel of hard cider inside. 

In 1844 was tlie great race for the presidency between Henry Clay 
and James K. Polk. The hard cider and coon skin element which 
had their origin in ''40 still lingered. Henry Clay was called "Harry 
of the West." The coon skin and Democracv represented by a tin 
rooster away up on a hickory pole, the higher the better, have had their 
counterpart in the many campaigns since. 

Before 1830 there had been a few visits to the little hamlet by 
travelling preacher? who held religious services in cabin?. In 1830 
there came to Quincy a home missionary from Massachusetts. Asa Tur- 
ner. He was 31 years old and full of vigor. With him came his 
beautiful bride, only 21 years old. These two godly people, had much 
to do with shaping the sentiments of the new settlement. He preached 
his first sermon in the log courthouse and soon organized a congrega- 
tion of fifteen members of various beliefs. He had a small salary from 
the East, but it was insufficient and the people here were too poor to 
pay him much. He sold the extra clothe? he had brought with him for 
money to live upon, and when the horse that had brought them safely 
here from Massachusetts to Illinois died, it seemed a real calamity. He 
Avrote to his friends back East of these times, "If I could only find time 
to work on a farm, I could earn provisions, but with no other minister 
short of 80 miles and calls to preach from every quarter, I cannot even 
find time to hoe my garden." 

It was quite natural that newcomers should seek out the pastor and 
he often had to keep them until they could find homes. This was a 
heavy drawback upon his resources, but always gladly done. As soon 
as possible, a place of worship was built, the only structure for years, 
devoted to religious purposes. It was on 4th Street just south of where 
the Library now is. It was a long low frame building, an ugly clap- 
boarded shed, but a place of glowing memories and sacred associations. 
This was "God's Barn." It cost great labor, but very little money was 
used in its erection, for there was but little. In the rear of it perched 
upon two poles wns a bell, the rope of which came into the church 
through a hole behind the pulpit. This hell was paid for Iv the needle- 
work of the women. In an address years after by Lorenzo Bull, he said 
"that sanctuary Avas the cradle out of which came most of the Protestant 
churches of Quincy. It was made memorable by the fervor of Father 
Turner, bv the learnina- of !N"elson and the originalitv of Parson Foote." 

Bv 184.5 nearlv all of the Protestant churches had church buildings 
of their own though not all on the present site of their church edifices. 
The St. Boniface is the oldest Catholic Church in Quincv. It was 
founded in 1837 and was first called "The Church of the Ascension of 


our Lord." In 1839 the name was changed to St. Boniface and the 
ground at 7th and Maine where it now stands was purchased. The 
St. Boniface has alwaj-s held German services. The building of the 
Northern Cross Eailroad had brought many Irish Catholics and these, 
united with about 50 other English speaking Catholics in the town 
were able to have a church home and a pastor of their own in 1839, 
these founding St. Peter's. It is said of the St. Boniface Church and 
of the Lutheran St. John's Church which was founded the same year 
('37) that they acted as a strong magnet in drawing German immigra- 
tion to Quincy. Old German settlers say that when they reached New 
Orleans and upon landing learned of these German churches, they were 
induced to come here to found their new homes. 

And now a word about the character of our population. The first 
settlers came mostly from the New England states and from Kentucky 
and Virginia. By 1833 a few Germans began to come in. From '36 to 
'40 a large settlement of Irish came in, induced by the State public 
improvements and railroad labor required here, at that time. About 
1840 and for 10 or 15 years after a steady stream of German immigra- 
tion flowed in. One steamboat landed 100 immigrants who shipped 
direct from Germany to Quincy. It was a common sight to find the 
entire landing covered by these families with their household goods of 
every description and perhaps among the scores of newcomers, not a 
single persoji able to understand our language. 

There is not time to tell of the fine class of people who had been 
filling up the surrounding country. Many from Eastern states had 
descended from Eevolutionary heroes and quite a number had ancestors 
who came in, or soon after, the Mayflower. ]\Iany also, were from 
Kentucky, Maryland and Virginia. Strong, sturdy brave men and 
women. These people beside building new homes, working hard in the 
fields and timber all day took time to organize and build churches and 
schools, that their children might have proper influences around them. 
In some parts of the countn^ these were built earlier than those in 
Quincy. They founded their homes with high aspirations; with a high 
regard for religion and education, for law and for order. 

Jexxt Bradbuey Loxg. 

Eead at Mrs. Eeynolds, Nov. 9, 1912. 

BEFOEE THE WAE, 1845-1860. 

I notice that Mr. Asbury in speaking of the killing of Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon prophet, on July 27, 1844, says that "While few in 
the community felt sympathy for the people, still the news of his 
death in jail created deep feeling and that perhaps no citv in the Union 
has been so often the victim of adverse outside disturbances as Quincy. 
First because of our border location, the slavery question ; then the Mor- 
mon question and then the war of the rebellion. But now that it is 
over, a retrospect of our history shows that we have been a forbearing, 
generous and loving people, giving shelter to all who came to us in time 
of trouble." 

The census taken in 1845 showed an almost. uniform doubling of 
the population during each five years since 1825. At that time some 
—11 H S 


twenty persons in the place and neighborhood, 350 in 1830, T53 in 1835, 
l,850'in 1810, 4,000 in 1845, 7,000 in 1850, 10,000 in 1855 and its sub- 
sequent gi-owth was 14,000 in 1800, 35,000 in 18T0, only 2T,000 in 
1880, 31,000 in 1890, 36,000 in 1900 and then the less said concerning 
an increase the better. In 1845 the city council voted a salary to alder- 
men of $2.00 for each regular and 50c for each special meeting; before 
this time they had been paid nothing. Urgent requests were made to 
the "city fathers" to organize a "night watch" but they decided that the 
city did not need it and could not afford the expense. During the pre- 
ceding winter the city obtained from tlie Legislature the relinquish- 
ment of I\ailroad Street (now Broadway) and also secured from the 
United States the title to what is known as "Tow Head," containing 
then 207 acres, but much more now. About this time the citv voted for 
additional taxes for public schools and issued seven $100.00 bonds for 
the same purpose. The school trustees appropriated $300.00 towards 
the erection of a public school building. Finding that the necessary 
cost of the building would be $1,200.00 the council increased its appro- 
priation by $200.00 more. This was the first public school building in 
the city and was erected on the ground where afterwards stood the 
Franklin school. So the free school has been with us for seventy-five 
years. As early as 1841 they had here what was called the Underground 
Eailway and it was a common thing for runawav slaves to come here 
for refuge. Indeed, it was understood that they would find here a 
haven. A man named Nelson from ^lissouri with considerable talent 
was untiring in his efforts to promote the cause of Christianity as he 
understood it, and also the cause of Christian education. He went East 
and with his great ability and energy, both as a speaker and conversa- 
tionalist, he soon interested a number of people and raised some money 
with Avhich to carrv on his educational nlans. The main idea Avas to 
educate young men for missionaries. Several branches of the original 
school called Institutions were established in the country, but the cen- 
tral school was established just outside of the then city limits, east of 
and near 24th st. The main building was a plain brick of not large 
dimensions, but it was surrounded by a number of small one story 
structures, called students lodges. For a time the Eev. Moses Hunter 
presided over the Institute; he was said to possess great knowledge and 
education, was a good Greek and Hebrew scholar and withal quite a 
superior man, and dressed himself in a sort of seamless rolie in imita- 
tion of Christ. It soon became known that nearly all connected with 
the Institute were intense Abolitionists. Two young men from the 
school crossed the river in a skiff and were soon surrounded and cap- 
tured by a large party of Missourian? and were immediately committed 
to jail in Palmyra. Their accusation was "Xi<To-er Thieves." They 
were accused and convicted and sent to the penitentiary for twelve 
years. By this time the people of !Marion Connty had become well ac- 
quainted with the location and anti-slavery character of the Institute, 
and one night in the winter a crowd came over on the ice and burned 
the Institute to the ground. It was about this time that the public 
square was enclosed : before it had remained an open and neglected spot. 
Its enclosure created some comment and couiplaint among the people of 
the country. The farmer had considered it a good place upon which to 
feed his team, show off fine horses and as a sort of exchange. Early in 


the 40's jDrompted by members of the Library Association, a club of ten 
gentlemen formed themselves into a Quincy Historical Club for the 
preservation of early historical events of the place. Some time after 
the city council passed a resolution that the subject of a history of 
Quincy should be recommended to the club, and it designated Peter Lott, 
E. J. Phillips and Henry Asbury to collect materials and prepare such 
history. This committee went to work and through interviews with old 
settlers as John Wood, Williard Keyes and others, collected and wrote 
down many items. They began with great interest as is usually the case. 
An introductory cha]:)ter was partly written by Judo-e Lott and then 
stopped. Capt. Phillips went away and later Lott the same. And after 
the death of both, Mr. Asbury wrote his valuable book that means so 
much to all of us now. In 1846 Woodland cemetery was laid off with 
less than 40 acres ; and eleven years afterwards something more than 
four acres were added to it, making about forty-three in all. An exten- 
sive sale of lots at once took place and by May (that was a month after) 
there had been three burials. During the succeeding fall and winter 
a great number of bodies were removed from 24th and Maine and 
Jefferson Square. In 1848 besides the daily stage mails from the East 
and semi-weekly mails to and from the adjoining counties, there was 
the twice a week mail from St. Louis by steamer. In this year the 
city limits were extended for the first time from Vine, Jefferson and 
12th then called Wood Street, one hundred and twenty acres called 
Nevins addition Iving between 12th, Broadway, 18th and Jersey. No 
addition was made again for ten years, when the north boundary was 
moved to Locust street, Harrison and 24th. One can scarcely realize 
that as late as 1847 there were but nine buildings between i2th and 
24th. The first steamboat hull ever constructed here was built this 
year. It was set up at the foot of Delaware and launched on March 
18. Telegraphic communication with the outside world was also 
established in the summer of this year. And the first city directory 
made its appearance ; showing seven hotels, three breweries, five beer 
shops, five bakeries, six saddlers, three drug stores, thirteen tailors, seven 
confectioners, nine blacksmiths, thirteen churches, five private schools 
and fifteen lawyers. About this time Brazilli Clark, the first justice of 
the peace, tried a case and in his decision gave offense to one of the par- 
ties. A few days after while he was plowing in his field, the offended 
party came to him and gave him a dreadful cursing. For this he fined 
him for contempt of court. The case finally went to the Supreme Court 
and the fine was sustained. The chief attractions of the winters of this 
period were the library lectures. They constituted almost the sole 
source of revenue to the public library and were of weekly occurrence. 
They were 'Tiome made," that is they were prepared and delivered by our 
own citizens with an occasional, but verv rare addition by some neigh- 
boring clerg\^man or Illinois college professor. They were given gratis 
and upon such subject as the writer chose. They were of much merit 
and well attended. They were given in the courthouse, so hall rent 
was free and only lights and fire had to l)e provided : and the winter 
course usually netted about two or throe hundred dollars. Among the 
list of lecturers chosen for the year 1848-9 we find the names of John 
C. Cox, 0. H. Browning, John Tillson. Jr., Eev. Foote, Judge Lott and 
others whose names are not so familiar. With such subjects as Progress 


of Civilization, Since the Christian Era, The Future Exemplified by the 
Past, Early Settlement of the Mississippi Valley, The Saracen in Spain, 
Our Duties and Obligations in Eeference to American Slavery. The 
prices for tickets were: Gentlemen, $1.00; gentleman and lady, $1.50; 
family of four, $3.00 ; of six, $3.00. And thus the library struggled on 
for forty-five years until the beginning of the 20tb century when by the 
provision of a tax levy devoted to its support, its position was assured. 
In 1849 the Asiatic cholera broke out and one of the first deaths 
was the mayor; probably four hundred cases in all. As late as 1851 it still 
prevailed and that year there were two hundred victims. The first rail- 
road meeting was held at the courthouse in January, 1849. Some fine 
speeches were made and much interest manifested and work was begun 
on the C, B. & Q. in 1851. In 1850, C. M. Woods started the first 
daily newspaper. About this time real estate began looking up and 
sales were better and more numerous than for the past fifteen years. 
The two large lots at 12th and Maine where now stands the High 
and Webster schools and which had been offered the year before for 
$500.00 were bought this year for school purposes " for $3,000.00. 
And some handsome private residences were also constructed, which 
feature had been sadly neglected in Quincy before. Up to this time 
there had been only the Wood, Keyes, Young and Browning mansions, 
the last erected in 1845 at a cost of $30,000.00 and two or three others. 
The Leavitt house, afterward bought by Gen. Singleton and finally 
occupied by Judge Lawrence on Vermont and Eighth streets, and is now 
a portion of the convent, was considered the most pretentious in the city. 
At this time there were more people owning their own homes here than 
in any other town or city of the same grade in the West. And it is be- 
lieved that this state of things has continued and still does exist at 
the present time. In this year the first private banking business was 
begun. And the temperance sentiment which at this time was all per- 
vading throughout the country took possession of Quincy with a force 
unknown before or since. During 1851 the organization of a night 
police was made under the supervision of the mayor. -And among the 
needed and imposing improvements was Kendall's Hall at the corner of 
6th and Maine at a cost of $20,000.00. This was the first public hall. 
Before this time the courthouse or the churches when they could be 
obtained, were the only conveniences for lectures, fairs and all exhibi- 
tions of this character. Quincy was much exercised now for the want 
of a "Nom de plume." All of the other cities in the land had their 
fancy names and she had none. The titles which seemed most appro- 
priate for her as "Mound City" or 'T51uffs City" had already been taken 
by St. Lonis and Hannibal. It was proposed to call it Hill City, but 
that would have dwarfed it beside Hannibal. There were sixteen 
churches here at this time, a very large number in proportion to the 
population and it was seriously urged to have the place christened "The 
City of Churches," but this was a name that in all likelihood would not 
endure and had already been adopted elsewhere, so it ran on for some 
years until the name "Gem City" was assumed; why, how or for what 
reason it is difficult to say, though of course there are some appropriate 
points to warrant the title. A charter for the bridge company was pro- 
cured at the legislative assembly of 1858-3. The renuirements were, 
that the bridge should be commenced within three and finished within 


six years, but it was not constructed for twelve years afterward. But 
the most notable occasion of the year and as Mr. Collins in his history 
puts it "the most shining event" was the completion of the gas works 
and the first lighting of the city on December first; and was celebrated 
by a general turning an of the gas in all the street lamps and private 
houses; and a general turning out of all the peoDle into the streets to 
see how the city and themselves looked; and also by a banquet at the 
Quincy House. There was a capital stock of seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars and a local contract made with the city for twenty-five years. The 
greater portion of the stock was owned by a man from St. Louis who 
for a long time controlled the affairs of the company. There were sixty- 
five street lamps, one hundred and fifty meters, and three and one half 
miles of street mains and by 1857, three years later, there were seven 
miles of mains, two hundred and forty street lamps and two hundred and 
eighty meters. 

As early as 1854 some forty steamboats ran regularly from St. 
Louis to Quincy passing here in the up river trade. During the navi- 
gation season of ten months, there were registered 1,350 steamboat 
landings averaging about five arrivals each day. Quincy was celebrated 
at that time for the excellence of its hotels. They were then acknowl- 
edged to be decidedly superior to those of any other city on the river 
north of St. Louis in every particular. In 1855 the city limits were 
extended to Harrison street on the south, Locust on the north and 
tw^enty-fourth, or as it was called Orange, on the east. Two years later, 
in '57 the boundaries were put at their present limit. In 1855 a char- 
ter for water works was obtained but nothing resulted from it. Ten 
years later another for the same purpose passed the Legislature, but did 
not receive the executive approval and it was not until ten years further 
on that this enterprise was permanently established. A charter was ob- 
tained for the Woodland Orphans' Home. This was begun in 1853 when 
fifteen citizens pledged one hundred dollars apiece toward the purchase 
of the ground. The land was bought of Gov. Wood for $1,500.00 being 
the block owned by the Home on south 5th street and from that time 
on the institution has flourished and done untold good. Probably the 
most destructive fire that had yet attacked the city was on the 20th of 
October, 1854, when Thayer's large distillery with many of its sur- 
roundings were destroyed. The damage was estimated at $50,000.00 with 
little insurance. The second annual meeting of the Adams County 
Fair Association was held in the fall of this year. It was a great ad- 
vance on the previous year, being a success to which the city and county 
contributed ; and it attracted attention from all the surrounding section, 
both on this and the other side of the river. It soon ranked among the 
best of the Illinois county fairs. By this time there were five military 
companies in Quincy, all in a flourishing condition, so that when the 
war broke out a few years later the place was very fairly equipped to 
organize a regular militia. Much building was done in the city this 
year; to give an idea of it, I quote from one of the papers published at 
that time. "As one of the evidences of the progress and ])rosperity of 
Quincy, there are contracts made for laying nearly two million of brick 
in buildings to be erected in the city this season. The supply of brick 
is entirelv inadequate to meet the demand. Good brick commanrl a 
high price, say five to six dollars a thousand and all now made or in the 


kiin are engaged."' In 1856 the third big hotel was commenced. There 
had been the Quincy House in 18136 and the City Hotel afterward, the 
Virginia and now came the Catlier House named for its owner and pro- 
prietor and located on the site of the old Judge Younsr residence, which 
afterward, much enlarged became the Tremont., During this year one 
hundred and ten thousand barrels of flour were made here, 550,000 
bushels of wheat used. The average price of flour was $6.50, of wheat 
$1.UU per bushel. How does this compare with our prices of today, more 
than half a century later? 

Several disastrous fires occurred in the early part of '56 some of 
them in business and central sections of the city, one at the northeast 
corner of the square; the loss was severe to some of the occupants, but 
the gain to the city was great. The same enterprising impulse which 
many years before, Avhen tlie old log courthouse caught fire, induced the 
happy spectators to throw on more kindling, was gratified to see the 
"old rookeries'' go, with the prospect of their l)eing replaced by better 
structures. Another result of these fortunate misfortunes was to in- 
crease precautions against fire. The enumeration of houses was in 1857 
for the first time ordered by the council and it was an amusing absurd- 
ity. It prescribed that each twenty-five feet of lineal curbstone should 
constitute a number, that First Street should be the base for its running 
east and west. The figures alternated across the street every twenty-five 
feet. This part has continued, but some dozen years later, the conven- 
ient, so called Philadelphia, system was adopted, which makes the initial, 
figure of each house number to correspond with the initial figures of the 
street bounding the block; and the streets running north and south to 
begin at Broadway and State. This proved so perfectly absurd and 
confusing that it was finally abandoned and Maine street was made the 
base from which to number, north and south. In other words as they 
simplify it in teaching in the schools, the even numbers are on the right 
hand side of the street going from the river and from Maine, at the 
rate of one hundred to a block. On the title page of the Quincy Di- 
rectory for 1857-8 is the residence, the new one of Gov. Wood and on 
through the pages appear other illustrations such as "English and Ger- 
man Male and Female Seminary," now Jefferson schoolhouse. A fancy 
clock with "J. AV. Brown, Fashionable Jewelry." Two large buildings 
on the east side of the square with signs on them reading "Jansen and 
Smith, Furniture" and "Comstock and Co., Stoves and Tinware." A 
goddess of liberty with "Hedges & Duff, Forwarding IMerchants. 50 
Front St." Another "Forwarding Merchant" has a steamboat in full 
sail as his ad. A queer looking old time carryall and chaise with 
"Weaver & Miller." A man resembling Atlas onlv instead of the world 
on his shoulders, a mammoth stove and "H. Eidder & Co., Tin, Cop- 
per, Sheet iron, China, Glass and Queensware, 127 Maine St." "Whig 
Office, 38, 4th St. Terms, Daily, $5.00; Tri-weekly, $3.00." Then "The 
Albion, Mumby proprietor, East Quincy a pleasant resort for ladies and 
gentlemen, a distance of two miles from the city Buffet." Then a weird 
picture of a tomb with weeping women standing around, draped in 
mourning and underneath this notice, "All kinds of produce taken at 
market prices for Avork." In 1858 the place was somewhat scourged 
and still more terribly scared by smallpox, during the summer and 
again in the fall. But the episode of the year was a rattling earthquake 


shock in July which pervaded the Mississippi Valley aud was pronounced 
as the most severe of any that had shaken up the country since the 
famous one of 1811. Probably one of the most important events that 
ever took place in the city occurred during this fall. That was the cele- 
brated Lincoln and Douglas debate, but because of its recent celebration 
here a few years ago it will not be necessary to go into any details con- 
cerning it. 

A marked increase appeared about this time in foreign immigration, 
which had fallen off of late years. This was almost entirely German. 
They had first made their appearance here in 1833-4 aud from 183G to 
'39 a large settlement of Irish came in. These mostly remained and a 
large percentage of the Irish families of the city now, count back their 
coming to that date. Later on about 1840 and for ten or fifteen years a 
steady stream of Germans flowed in, then it gradually decreased, but now 
for some reason it had revived again. One steamer landed one hundred 
immigrants who had shipped direct from Germany to Quincy, It had 
become a common sight to find in the early morning the entire public 
landing covered by these families with their household goods of every 
description. Some articles so cumbrous that the cost of transportation 
infinitely exceeded their value. And not a single person able to speak 
or understand a word of our language. It was in 1859 that two private 
schools or colleges were established here. Gov. Wood gave the ground 
at 12th and State and Mr. Keyes at 8th and Vine. They were very 
excellent schools and continued for several years. Amnsements kept 
pace with other advances. And a theatre with regular performances six 
evenings in a week was a leading contribution in that line. The city by 
this time had taken long steps toward a metropolitan appearance and 
had for that period quite a city air. There were ten visitors this year 
when there had been one before. It was not longer than five years be- 
fore, whenever a stranger made his appearance the whole community, 
village like would note his coming, inquire and soon find out who he 
was, what he was after and so on. Not so now. This year marked a 
social change in that res])ect that was permanent. People came and 
went with as little notice as they did in larger places or as they do here 
today. Quincy now, thirty-two years from its foundation and seventeen 
from its incorporation as a city, fully exhibited the characteristics of such 
and felt itself to be one. 

Julia Sibley. 


Quincy next to Cairo was the most important military point in the 
State. The line of military effort between the loyal and the slave states 
reached from the Potomac Piver westward across West Virginia and 
Kentucky to Cairo, thence bent northward to the Iowa line and thence 
westward to Nebraska and Kansas. After Cairo was occupied the next 
movement of the army was to secure the control of ]\rissouri. Quincy 
situated on the extreme western edge of Illinois longitudinally projecting 
into the State of Missouri thus became of great strategetic importance. 

Public opinion however, was not entirelv in favor of the war at this 
time in Quincy. For a large part of the citizens had come from south 
of the Ohio Piver bringing with them their idea that slavery was the nor- 


mal condition of the negro, therefore there was much non-union senti- 
ment. The Quincy Herald of April 10, 18G1 had these words: "The 
slave states have gone out of the Union or those that have not already 
done so will most likely do so soon; when that takes place the Kepuhlicans 
will not be able to rallv the thousands of deluded men who have followed 
them with the cry of no more slave states or down with slavery," The 
Herald had a very poor idea of the temper of the northeastern states at 
that time. Instead of rallying by the thousand they rallied by the mil- 
lion. And out of a population of about -41,000 Quincy sent to the war 
2,300 men. 

Quincy was the point where the national army made its rendezvous, 
effected its organization and from here they crossed the river to take pos- 
session of the northern part of Missouri, while forces organized in St. 
Louis should take possession of the southern part. Quincy thus became 
a center of great military activity. Companies gathered here from vari- 
ous parts of the State to be organized into regiments. Steamers passed 
down the river loaded with soldiers from Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
Orators made patriotic speeches and ministers preached patriotic ser- 
mons. Mechanics were busy making munitions of war. Women were 
organizing to make provision for the sick and wounded. The effect of 
the shot fired at Ft. Sumpter is indescribable. That shot united the 
■entire North. Immediately after the proclamation was issued calling for 
troops, a meeting of the citizens of Quincy and vicinity was called at 
the courthouse which was packed to its utmost capacit}^ Recruiting 
was begun by the "Guards' and in less than twenty-four hours over a 
hundred men were enrolled. These left immediately for Cairo under 
command of Capt. Prentiss. Capt. Morgan accompanied them on 
crutches; 10,000 people accompanied them to the train on which they 
were to leave. The crowd sang the Star Spangled Banner and with 
much cheering they left on their flag-decorated train. To be followed 
later by the "remaining number of the 2,300 men that went from 

Special efforts were made to raise an Adams County regiment and 
on Sept. 16 one was mustered into service, with M. M. Bane as Colonel 
and Wm. Swarthout as Lieutenant Colonel. This regiment was the 
pet of Adams County. It was nicknamed "The Blind Half Hundred." 
Its record showed that it was anything but blind. It began its services 
in Missouri then went to Cairo, thence to Forts Henry and Donelson. 
It was in the battle at Shiloh at Corinth and at Allatoona and then 
marched with Sherman to the sea. It participated in the grand review 
at Washington. Ordered to Louisville to be mustered out, it won the 
prize banner in a competitive drill with the 63d Illinois and the 7th 
Iowa Infantry. 

In the same month of September, Edward Prince proposed to 
raise a Cavalry Company and he was made Colonel of the 7th Illinois 
Cavalrv. Col. W. A. Eichardson was tendered command of a "Ken- 
tucky Brigade." The three months volunteer-s returning in August were 
tendered a most enthusiastic reception and they immediately reenlisted 

for three years. 

During the next spring and early summer Quincy besran to see 
the results of active campaigns, in sickness, wounds and death. In the 
autumn of 1862 the horrors of war had chilled much of the enthusiasm 


of this vicinity. About this time there were about 800 soldiers in the 
hospitals in the city. At this time efforts were made to induce the 
negroes to enlist. Many went from Quincy, some with Col. Gross and 
some joined a Massachusetts regiment. There were 903 in Colonel 
Gross' regiment which made a glorious record. 

In the spring of 1864 Ohio, Indiana, Iowa and Illinois believing 
the war near its close tendered the Government a force of 85,000 men to 
relieve the veteran force of guard duty. In response the 137th In- 
fantry was mustered in here at Camp Wood, Gov. John Wood being 
made Colonel. For the last call for soldiers it was necessary to make a 
draft. There being so much "Copperhead" sentiment in Adams County, 
we can understand how this announcement was received. But with the 
fall of Richmond there was again much enthusiasm and many of the 
Copperheads were converted. 

I can only mention a few incidents of this exciting period. There 
was much military activity across the river, as Palmyra was a hot-bed 
of secession. Green and Porter were industriously organizing companies 
for Confederate service. Union men were being put out of the way, many 
were being driven from their homes. It was feared that a raid might 
at any time be made upon Quincy so companies of Home Guards were 
organized in each ward, over 100 in a company. They at once began 
target practice. Gen. McNeil was placed in charge of the Union forces 
in Palmyra. There was much political disorder and lawlessness in Pal- 
myra at that time. Union men had been severely treated by Southern 
sympathizers but Gen. McNeil brought order out of disorder with an 
iron hand. He caused fourteen secessionists to be arrested and held as 
hostages for the return of some prominent Union men. Unless these 
Union men were returned these fourteen were to be shot. As these 
Union men could not be returned, having been put out of the way pre- 
viously his order was executed. 

This summary proceeding restored order and taught the citizens that 
in the future Union men were not to be molested. Many considered his 
order too severe and socially Gen. McNeil was ostracized even after the 
war when he returned to his home in St. Louis. And yet the people had 
to be taught that military order? must be obeyed. 

On the 12th of July, Col. IT. S. Grant arrived here and went into 
camp with his men at West Quincy. It is interesting to note this is the 
place where the man who was finally to bring the war to a successsful 
termiuation, first stepped upon hostile territory. While he was sta- 
tioned here the "Needle Pickets" sent a pillowcase full of lint and 
bandages for the use of his regiment. Mrs. C. H. Morton carried it to 
the boat and delivered it in person to Col. Grant. He thanked the ladies 
through her and putting the bundle under his arm carried it on to the 
boat himself. 

The soldiers were encamped at three different points in the city 
while the army was being organized. Camp Wood was first located at 
.5th and Locust which place was then covered with small oaks and hazel- 
brush. This point becoming too small Camn Wood was then moved to 
"the prairie" at a point where now Oak St. extends beyond 14th St. An- 
other camp was located east of Woodland Cemetery. 

Temporary hospitals were established here for the sick and 
wounded. The chair factory at 5th and Ohio was used for one and 


at one time Jefferson School was used. There were I'our others. At 
one time there were about 800 soldiers in these hospitals. There were 
two organizations of women^ the "Xeedlc Pickets" and the "Good 
Samaritans" wlio were very active in providing comforts for those in 
the hospitals here and also in forwarding things to the front. They 
raised money by the thousands. 


What we now consider as wonderful is that business was so pros- 
perous during the war. Local contractors were busy in making accou- 
trement for infantrv, cavalrv and artillerv. The Government Cloth- 
ing Hall used 3GU,U00 yards of blue kersey, made 250,000 pair of pants 
and made shirts and drawers in like proportion. The Greenleaf Foun- 
dry made cannon, another firm made knapsacks. Then as now Quincy 
was noted for its manufactures. ^Ir. Kobt. (Jardner had already 
patented his celebrated Automaton Steam governor, which is in demand 
everywhere. In the manufacture of stoves and hollow-ware, Quincy was 
second to no city west of Pittsburg. At this time there were five tobacca 
factories here but these have since been merged into the trust. There 
were also ten flour mills, now there are only four. There was one hoop 
skirt manufactory. There must have been a veritable boom here fol- 
lowing the war as I note that 500 ])uildings were erected in one 
year. The population in 1860 was about 14,000 and in the next tea 
years it was nearly doubled. 


In the year 1801, I. 0. Woodruff was Mayor. On his resignation 
that year Thomas Eedmond filled the vacancy and continued to he re- 
elected until 1864. Geo. F. Waldhaus was elected in 1865. A board 
of Fire Engineers was established in 1865 and E. M. Miller was placed 
at the head. There was no Chief of Police until 1867. From that time 
until 1904 the members Avere appointed by the Council, one from each 
ward. Thomas Jasper was the first president. Then I. O. Woodruff 
held the office for the next four vears. Hope L. Davis was Superin- 
tendent of Schools from 1860 to 1864. A. W. Blakesley filled the office 
in 1865. 


Irving School was built in 1864 at a cost of $5,400. Jackson was 
built in 1866 at a cost of $12,000. This building destroyed by a tornado 
in 1875 was immediately rebuilt at a cost of $6,000. (Xow being torn 
down (1913) to be replaced by one which is to cost about $40,000.) 
The High School was first established in 1864. It was held in the 
Centre School which then occupied the old Unitarian Church at 6th and 
Jersey. In 1866 it was transferred to the Jackson School, later it was 
transferred to the Franklin School where it remained until removed to 
the present building at 12th and Maine St. A. W. Starkey was its first 


Of the Protestant Churches in existence at this period the First 
Congregational is the oldest. It was organized in 1828. During the 
war period they were occupying two churches, one at 4th and Jersey and 
the other at 5th and Jersey. Ground was bought for the present struct- 


ure at 12tli and Maine in 1869. This society first occupied a building 
on 4th St. between Maine and Jersey 23 feet by 26. It was commonly 
known as "'The Lord's Barn" and was the scene of a prominent episode 
in the early history of Quincy. Rev. Samuel Hopkins PLmery was its 
pastor in war times. At the time of the death of Lincoln he was resid- 
ing at the southeast corner of 8th and Spring St. The large white 
maple tree in the front yard was planted by him on the day of Lincoln's 

The Methodist Society was organized in 1833. Their first church 
was located on Vermont St. opposite the present courthouse. It was 
known as the "Old Fort." This being too small it was sold and in 1865 
they occupied the old Kendall Hall at 6th and Maine until it was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1867. The society bought the ground for their present 
church in 1865. 

Xext oldest is St. John's Parish organized in 1837. The present 
edifice was erected in 1853 and enlarged in 1868. The Presbyterian So- 
ciety was organized in 1839. Their first building was on the south side 
of Maine St. between 6th and 7th. They were holding services here in 
the time of the war as their present church was not built until 1879. 
The Unitarian Church was organized in 1840. The building where they 
are now holding services was built in 1858. It is one of the few churches 
now standing that was built before the war. (Since the above was writ- 
ten this church is being torn down, the ground to be occupied by business 

The First Baptist Church was organized in 1835. They occupied a 
small frame building on 4th St. between Hampshire and Vermont. 
They bought their present building of the Congregationalists in 1869, 
for $26,500. This is one of the oldest, if not the oldest church building 
now standing. 

In 1856, 38 members withdrew 'from the above society and formed 
the Vermont St. Baptist. Their present church was built just previous 
to 1860. 

The Christian Church was organized in 1850, but had no church 
building during this period. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. John is the oldest of the 
German church societies- in the city dating as far back as 1837. Their 
church is located at 325 South 7th St. 

The German M. E. Church was founded in 1844. Their first 
church home was at 514 Jersey, on which site a new church was built 
in 1854. This building has recently been used as a natatorium. The 
present church is at 8th and Kentucky. 

Salem Evangelical began to hold services in rented rooms in 1848. 
In that same year Gov. Wood gave them the lot on which their present 
church stands. The first building was 48 feet long and 36 feet wide. 
Au addition to the church was built in 1863. The present church was 
built in 1876 and 1877. Over 4,000 souls are ministered to from this 

St. Jacobi Lutheran was organized in 1851. Its first building is 
still standing at the corner of 7th and Jersey. Its present church at 
8th and Washington was erected in 1866. It has had only two pastors 
until very recently. 


The German Baptist was organized in ISoo but I see no record of 
their having a church until 1873. Their ])rt'SL'nt church building is at 
10th and Washington. 

At this time there were only three Catholic Churches in Quincy, 
St. Boniface as it now stands and a small church on Vine street belong- 
ing to the St. Francis congregation and St. Peter's at 8th and Main. 

There was one church occupied by colored people during the war. 
It was on the site of their present Methodist church and was built in 
1863. This was burned in 186G, but soon after they built the present 

The 8th and Elm St. Baptist Society was organized in 1865, but 
they had no church building then. In 1866 they bought one at 8th 
and Jersey. In the early sixties there were but 13 churches in Quincy, 
by 1869 there were 25. There are now 38. 


Temporary hospitals were established here during the war. St. 
Mary's Hospital had been incorporated but the main building was not 
erected until 1867. It was then said to be the most imposing building 
in the city. Woodland Home Association and St. Aloysius Orphan 
Association had both been incorporated but neither one had homes nntil 
1867. Woodland Home then bought at 5th and Washington and St. 
Aloysius had erected their present building. This and the Lindsay 
Home were the only ones occupying their own homes. The city now 
has 14 charitable organizations owning their own homes. 


The Quincy Savings Bank of 1857 was in 1864 merged into the 
First National Bank with C. M. Pomeroy as President. In 1864 the 
Merchants' and Farmers' National Bank was organized with Lorenzo 
Bull as president. In one of the newspapers of this time is the follow- 
ing: "Perhaps one of the safest and most successful private banking 
houses in Illinois is that of H. F. J. Eicker of this city, established in 
1860." Another newspaper item is this : "The Union Bank of Quincy 
occupies one of the handsomest structures in the city and has every 
modern convenience for security and speed in the transaction of its 

Hotels were much more numerous in those days than at the present 
time for I find that Quincy then had 28 ; at present there are but one- 
half that number. There were four restaurants then, now 30. 

One event took place in 1864-5 that was of especial interest to this 
city. At that session of the Legislature, Thomas Eedmond, a repre- 
sentative from Adams County succeeded in procuring the reenactment 
of the act of incorporation for the building of a bridge here across the 
Mississippi River. John Wood succeeded in obtaining the sanction of 
the National Government. The incorporators were John Wood, Sam- 
uel Thomas, James M. Pitman and Nehemiah Bushnell. The last 
named was made president of the bridge company. The bridge was 
completed in 1868. 

The business interests of Quincy had always been very intimately 
associated with the Hannibal and St. Joseph R. E. Largelv by Quincy 
capital this branch of the road running from Quincy to Palmyra had 


been built before the war, but through some legal technicality it could 
not be connected to the main line. Not a car could be moved from one 
track to the other. During the war (1862) Gen. McNeil ordered the 
two roads to be connected, as a military necessity to the convenience of 
succeeding generations. 

The old depot which stood upon Front St. between Hampshire and 
Vermont was built in 1864. At that time it was said to be the finest, 
with one exception, west of Cincinnati. 

An event of nation-wide importance at this time was the establish- 
ment of the Eailway Mail Service on the Hannibal and St. Joseph E. 
E. Mr. Wm. L. Davis was the originator of the idea. The first postal 
cars were built in Hannibal. Mr. John Patton a life-long resident of 
Quincy with Mr. Davis and Fred Harvey sorted mail on the first train 
that ever carried a postal car. 

This was the beginning of the immense business now performed 
by the Post-Office Department upon the railroads. 

Emily M. Bradford. 

Eead at Mrs. Henry's March 8, 1913. 


We have a complete history of Quincy from the founding or making 
to the present time, the close of the war. As Mr. Asbury says in his 
book, this is the most difficult chapter to write. I find this is true as 
I am not a native of either Quincy or Adams County, and know very little 
except from what I have been able to copv. Quincy was not materially 
injured by the war. We find she made rapid progress in business. 
Taking first the situation, there is no city that has a more beautiful site 
to be founded upon. From 1866 "Quincy is a city with city ways." 
(Asbury.) She has made progress not only in the increase of popula- 
tion. The true worth of a city is measured, Quincy presents facts justi- 
fying prices. Overlooking the grand old Mississippi it presents a view 
unsurpassed by many other cities. 

"A city of homes" the large number of tasteful and elegant resi- 
dences are very much in evidence and steadily increasing. 

1865. A man named Eose was shot and killed (or hanged) I 
should say, by §ome soldiers in the hospital, aided by some of the inhab- 
itants. He was a "Bushwhacker" and accused of having shot a man 
named Wimble, a citizen of Marcelline. The only thing that was of 
any importance to tell will be first, 

1866. The city that had always had a "fire brigade" used by hand 
for many years thought best to improve it and secured a steam fire 

1867. The railroad bridge was commenced to span the Mississippi 
Eiver at a cost of. $1,800,000. There were 1,898 steamboats passed 
through that season. This bridge was a grand piece of workmanship of 
modern construction. The river has always been to the inhabitants 
along its margin and especially to Quincy, an object of interest. Before 
the railroads were built it was the only means of transportation or 
carrier of freight. 

1867. The first street railroad operated by "horsepower" was 
opened. It commenced at the old post office on Maine street, to the 


northern limits of the city, by way of Fifth street. It was called the 
Quincy Street Eaihvay and Carrying Company. 

18GT. Fire destroyed the old City Mali on curiier ul Maine and 
6th St. This same year, May 6, another fire at the corner of -ith and 
Maine destroyed the Jerald Building with other leading interests. This 
fire was disastrous, involying a loss of $'300,000. 

18GS-9. State Fair was held here^ The Fair grounds were what 
is now Baldwin Park. 

1872. Water works were commenced, much discussion was caused 
among the people who knew ycry little about the actual cost and ex- 
pense of running this system. They felt they were being charged too 
much and a great deal of discontent prevailed. Haying gotten along 
to the place where we can boast of a good fire department we are com- 
pelled to haye water, then beside this, it is a necessity, for use in private 

1874. Fire on Maine St. between 6th and 7th occurred — a loss 
of $28,000.00. This was the year of the great bank robbery. The 
vault of the First National Bank was broken open and a large amount 
of money and a number of bonds were taken ; there was never a trace of 
the guilty party. 

1879. The fire at corner of 8th and Broadway destroyed the Pres- 
byterian Church. It was in January, tlie temperature was 19° below 
zero. This loss was $38,000.00. 

The same year the "Quincy Academy of Music" was burned. This 
loss was $68,000. A man by the name "of Lanky was killed by falling 
from a telephone pole. 

The business interests of Quincy are very extensive, there being 
now about 1,500 business houses, shops and places of dealing beside 
every kind of trade. The dry goods business is very extensive, both 
wholesale and retail. 

The enterprise and merits of the magnificent industries have made 
markets in all parts of the world, which are enlarging with profit and 
fame. Taking into consideration the manufacturing advantage of a 
citv there are two things to he looked at ; the degree of cheapness with 
which things are produced and the facilities with which they are dis- 
tributed through the country. 

Quincy has the best advantage of intercourse with j)ther countries 
and points; through the railroads and the river we may go or send to 
any point with dispatch or receive all we need or use of products of 
the United States or Europe. From our depot we may start and reach 
without unreasonable change any point in our broad land, Northern 
Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean or Pacific and far lands in the 
East or West, having eight railroads and the grand river as a means 
of transportation. 

In 1880 the population is said to be 30.000, but the time has come 
and passed for recording names and countries from which men came. 
To be a citizen of Quincy is now the first importance. The general pub- 
lic has little concern as to where a man comes from or was born, to be 
a good and honest man is of more importance. Quincy in her munic- 
ipal government, like other cities, has not always elected her hest men 
to office. They are seldom willing to accept men of business who have 
their own private affairs to look after, and these elections have been 


allowed to fall into the hands of those least interested in the prosperity 
of the city, the salary being the first considered. Next in civilized com- 
munity came education and learning. One of the best features of the 
times is the attempt to extend the advantages of education to all classes 
of people. This is the purpose of the common or public school system, 
which are within the reach of all. Quincy is well fixed in this respect, 
but is not without other institutions of learning. The City of Churches 
— but these have been written of so will not touch them again. 

The records of individual attainments is no less pleasing. "Quincy 
has not lacked in need of ability" once remarked a venerable Premier 
and the evidence of that ability has not been limited to local affairs. 
It has been in the State Bar, Legislature, in the Halls of Congress, 
United States Senate, in medicine and in other learned professions. In 
pulpit, drama, authorship, music, hard fought battlefields and in all the 
honorable walks of life is found evidence of ability of notable men and 
women of Quincy. 

Addie M. Noll. 

I\ead at Mrs. Giswindener's, April, 1912. 

QUINCY, 1880-1913. 

With the opening of 1880 we find a thriving city of 27,000 inhabi- 
tants all of them thriving and industrious. In 1883 the State Legisla- 
ture passed a law allowing a special tax of three mills each for light- 
ing, water and sewers. This had a notably good effect on Quincy, whose 
revenue previously had been so inadequate as to lead to serious results. 
These included a debt repudiation movement which was stopped by the 
courts with the result that the city had to pay the costs as well as the 

In 1887 the city began a year of local improvement, of great im- 
portance to the city in the way of sewer work and street paving. The 
first brick street paving was laid on the east side of Washington Park 
in the spring of 1887. An average of 2 miles a year was laid for four 
years at a cost of $65,000 a year though not all of it was brick. This 
takes us up to 1891 when the State Legislature at the instance of a 
bunch of private citizens passed a law which put a stop to extensive im- 

This law required the consent of owners representing half the prop- 
erty frontage before sewer or paving could be done by special taxation. 
There was an amendment made to obviate this but it was proved to be 
unconstitutional. The unfortunate effect of this law of 1891 was the 
stoppage of much sewer building by the city to Avhieh the city had 
planned to contribute $10,000 a year out of the general taxes. There 
had been in the four year improvement era very little sewer work done, 
not nearly so much as was called for by the public and private needs. 

In 1888 the Quincy Boulevard and Park Association M^as incor- 
porated. The revenue for this work was derived first from membership 
fees of $5.00 per year and private subscriptions and later by the associa- 
tion framing laws which were later passed to levy a special tax of from 
one to three mills for park and boulevard purj'toses. Quincy is noted for 
her lieautiful parks laid in a chain al)out the city the value of which 
officially estimated must be nearly $300,000. 



The history of Qiiincy's bonded indebtedness is said to be very inter- 
esting altliougli far from creditable and a^^ it was beyond my understand- 
ing I'll not enter into its details, but 1 advise all women inclined to 
suffrage to investigate the matter before casting their ballot. 

The plan by which the city was to own the water works is another 
complicated matter, which would take too much time to work out in 
this short paper; suffice it to know that since the city conceived a 
plan by which they could own the water works system, the citizens are 
paying the same price for water and drinking filth with the outcome still 
unsettled. One of the things which works to our advancement is the 
Upper Mississippi Eiver Improvement Association. This was organized in 
1902 by a committee of Quincy citizens who waited upon Mayor Town- 
send tiien in charge of the Government work on the river north of 
St. Louis. Its work is wholly in the interest of commerce of the five 
states, contiguous to the upper river. It recognizes no local scheme, the 
permanent improvement of the upper river is its theme and it has met 
• with excellent results and its influence bids fair to secure from the 
National Government needed appropriations which will establish a depth 
of 6 feet at low water in the channel. The fact that the plan for this 
commission originated in Quincy makes its citizens proud of her ad- 
vancement, for with the river improvement so that there can be steady 
operation of the boats it will not be long till the middle West will float 
cargoes to the gulf and outward through the Panama Canal to the mar- 
kets of the world. 

June 18, 1900 the Quincy Chamber of Commerce was evolved from 
the Young Men's Business Association, the latter having been organized 
in 1887. It has been a sort of open parliament for the discussion of 
matters pertaining to the commercial and general Welfare of tlie city. 

The Quincy freight bureau was organized in 1897. "While much of 
its work is not seen by the general public, the Q. F. B. is known all over 
the country and has the respect of the railroads as well as the various 
kindred organizations of the country. 

The Civic Improvement Association was organized in 1909, and in- 
corporated under the laws of Illinois; all citizens public spirited are 
eligible for a small fee. The work of the Civic League has been 
noticeable for the many good changes brought about. The remov- 
ing of the old time awning of "Ye ancient Quincy" is not the least of 
its efforts, but the association expect to accomplish greater things this 
year. Through their efforts the back yards have been exposed and a 
systematic cleaning demanded, next we want clean streets and front 
door yards and we are going after it this year in dead earnest, together 
with the garbage can. Something different must be arranged for the gar- 
bage if we want to be a clean, healthy city and we look to the Civic 
League to carry out our wishes in the matter. 

The Quincy Horse Eailway and Carrying Company was created by 
an act of the State Legislature and approved February 11, 1865. The 
change from horse power to electricity was made January, 1891. The 
present owners known as the McKinley Syndicate secured control in the 
fall of 1898 and have transformed and extended its system until we 
can todav travel over 20 miles for the small amount of ,5c or 4c if we 
buy a book of six, twelve or twentv-four tickets for $.25, $.50, or $1.00. 


The Quincy Gas Light and Coke Company was organized in 1853. 
The Thompson Houston Electric Light and Power Company was organ- 
ized in 1882 and was consolidated with the other plants by the McKinley 
interest in 1898. 

The Empire Light and Power Company was instituted in 1895, 
which continued till 1898 when it with the others was merged into the 
presents Quincy Gas and Electric Company and purchased by the J. T. 
Lynn and associates of Detroit, Michigan in 1903. When the first 
company was formed gas was furnished for $4.00 per thousand; it has 
gradually been reduced till today we pay but $1.00 per thousand feet 
and everybody uses it for cooking at .that figure, while for lighting our 
homes, electricity is used largely, the gas being too poor for anything 
but fuel. 

In keeping with its general progress Quincy's educational progress 
has kept pace. It is claimed that our schools will compare favorably 
with those of the best class of cities of Quincy's size. While our col- 
leges have won widespread and deserved recognition. We have 12 grade 
and one high school. Lincoln is for the colored children and is one of 
the 12 grade schools and located in their district and many of the grades 
are crowded, even with the number of schools provided. The public 
school system of the United States is claimed the finest and best in the 

The corner stone of our present Public Library was laid the after- 
noon of May 31, 1888. The building was opened as a free Public 
Library and reading room June 24, 1889. 

Quincy hotels have come to the front during this time. The New- 
comb was built on the site of the old Quincy House, 4th and Maine, the 
latter being burned on the night of January 19, 1883. It was built 
by a company of stockholders and has proved a good investment, always 
having been under good tenants. At present it is run on the European 

The new "Quincy" built on the old "Tremont" site on Hampshire 
between Fifth and Sixth is a later building, built out of concrete and 
claimed to be entirely fireproof : it too is on the European plan and very 
much up-to-date in all particulars. ^§|| 

The "Hasse Hotel" another of modern type is located at 3d and 

.Oak and it, like the others, is run on the European order. These are the 

most prominent, yet there are others as well as a great many boarding 

houses all of which do a thriving business during the present high cost 

of living. 

Our churches are many, most all denominations being represented. 
The congregation of St. John's Catholic Church was established in 
the year 1880 and the corner stone of the present structure was laid 
in 1895 and dedicated February 14, 1899. It is a beautiful stone build- 
ing, built in pure roman style. 

The first society of Christian Scientists was organized June 30, 1889, 
and the church duly organized September 28, 1891, and incorporated 
vmder the State law of Illinois; they apparently had little of the strug- 
gle attendant in such organizations but were flourishing from the start 
and at present occupy a fine building at 18th and Vermont streets. 

—12 H S 


The Luther Memorial Church was organized July 19, 1891, in the 
old police station at 8th and Maine.' The society was forined to supply 
what many felt to be a much needed addition to the religious force of 
the city of Quincy, namely a Lutheran Church using the English lan- 
guage. Two years later the congregation bought the lot at the corner 
of 12th and Jersey and a large stone church was built costing with the 
lot about $28,000.00. 

The "St. Kose of Lima" congregation was taken out of St. Peters 
the latter being divided and the northern portion formed the St. Eose 
of Lima Church. The building was of brick, the first floor being used 
as a school and the second as a church. Now this building is used 
entirely as a scliool and a new church has been built out of buff brick 
on the corner of Eighth and Chestnut with the same priest. Father 
Brennan, as when it was organized 21 years ago. 

The first "United Brethren" church was completed and dedicated 
in 1895. It is a frame structure on the corner of Gth and Cedar and is 
valued at $4,700. It is in a flourishing condition and manages to keep 
in good running order. 

The Unitarian Society whose church has been on IMaine between 
6th and 7th disposed of their property last year and bought ground 
to build a new church at 16th and Hampshire. The building is to be 
of stone and concrete after the old English style of architecture and 
will make a fine addition to the corner and that part of the city. It is 
now under way of construction and they hope to dedicate it when church 
opens in the fall. 

The churches above mentioned only refer to the more modern, either 
in organization or building, but Baptists, Methodists, both Grcrman and 
English, Congregational and Christian have long had homes in Quincy. 

The Quincy National Bank was founded in 1887.- The State Street 
Bank in 1890 and in the last few years the Mercantile Trust and Sav- 
ings Bank, The Illinois and The Broadway Bank have been given 
a local position of prominence and further shows that there is business 
for all in this silurian spot of Quincy founded nearly 90 years ago 
(1825). The strength of our banks was well illustrated during the 
general panic of 1883 when banks all over the country were badly 
shaken, the safety of Quinc}^anks remained unquestioned. 

Blessing Hospital incorporated in 1873 and opened in ^lay, 1875, 
was enlarged in 1895 at an expense of $14,500; in 1903 further enlarge-' 
ment became necessary and a home for the nurses became imperative. 
This was all done at an expense of $30,000, making Blessing Hospital 
one of the most modern and best arranged hospitals outside of Chicago. 

The training school for nurses was established in 1891 and is moi^t 
successful. Blessing Hospital has a small endowment which was begun 
by Mrs. Denman's bequest of $4,000 in INIarch, 1883. 

St. Mary's Hospital under the care of the Sisters of the Poor of St. 
Francis has met with a like experience and had several additions from 
time to time. In 1900 an addition was erected at a cost of $40,000 mak- 
ing it now one of the best hospitals in the West. The value of its 
building and grounds is more than $100,000. St. Mary's has no en- 
dowment but depends solely on the benevolence of those who have come 
to appreciate its good work ; but both hospitals have what they call 
"Tag day" when the community is called upon by the ladies of the board 


and their helpers to buy a tag for the good cause for which you can 
pay any sum you feel inclined from 10c up and in this way several 
thousands will be donated which goes a long way toward expenses of the 

Woodland Home, one of our noted charities, was organized by a few 
ladies in January, 1853, for the purpose of assisting the worthy poor 
and ultimately building a home for destitute widows and orphans. This 
institution has grown and expanded until today it has commodious quar- 
ters at 27th and Maine St. The funds to pay for the land and also 
the present building was mostly solicited from the citizens of Quincy. 
The same costing $17,000. The institution has received gifts and be- 
quests until now the income from the fund is about one-third (1/3) of 
the current expenses the balance being made np of donations. 

The Old Peoples' Home (German) at 418 Washington Street was 
founded May 15, 1890, the original building was donated by Charles 
Pfeiffer but three extensions have been added to the building and the 
present valuation is $25,000. It is supported by the German M. E. 

St. Vincent's Home at 1340 N. 10th Street was founded in 1884 
by the Sisters Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ of Ft. Wayne, Indiana. 
Four blocks of ground were bought in Cox addition for $7,000. The 
first building addition to the old Cox home was dedicated September 8, 
1885, and cost $10,000. The home was opened before this, April 4, 
1885, with three inmates. It now has 130 besides IG sisters. The 
present building cost $45,000 and was dedicated November 14, 1897. 

Mrs. Anna E. Brown, widow of Charles Brown died in Quincy, 
October 22, 1893. In her will she provided for the establishment of a 
home for the aged to which she devised her home at 5th and Maple streets 
and endowed it with interest bearing securities worth $55,000, thus was 
founded the Anna Brown Home for the Aged. About $18,000 was spent 
for new buildings and other improvements in 1897, and the house was 
opened in January, 1898. Acceptable applicants are admitted only and 
an entrance fee of $300 at that time has been raised to $500. The 
house has a membership of 21 and under the care of Miss Lida Henry 
is a home of happiness and contentment that isn't often found. The 
grounds are spacious with a plot in the rear for gardening and some of 
the inmates look after it and enjoy the labor as well as the fresh fruit 
and garden products in their time. 

The Cheerful Home was founded in 1887 by Miss Cornelia Collins 
a young woman of noble character and unselfishness. Its object was to 
furnish a pleasant evening resort for a class of boys who might other- 
wise be on the streets; while this object has not been lost sight of, the 
scope of its work has been extended with great value to both girls and 
boys to whom regular class instructions in domestic science, sewing, 
manual training and kindergarten are given daily. The first meeting 
place was 215 North 4th St. but in the spring Mr. Lorenzo Bull bought 
the Wells home place on 5th and Jersey for $5,000 and donated it to 
the Home, later he added a gymnasium equipped at a cost of $6,000 and 
this now benefits hundreds of boys and girls and plans are being made 
to still further enlarge the good work. 

The Quincy Humane Society was incorporated under the name of 
Quincy Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, July 20, 1880. 


When Anna E. Brown died she left a will beqiieathinor the society an 
amount between $14,000 and $15,000. Tlie income from this has en- 
abled the society to greatly enlarge its work. 

The Young Men's Christian Association at 9th and State was 
organized in 1893 and their building cost $32,000. It was recently 
sold to the Labor Unions and after being remodeled serves as a place of 
meeting for the different union organizations of the city. 

In 1911, Quincy became active in a new scheme for a Y. M. C. A. 
and prominent citizens solicited a $100,000 fund with which to build 
and equip a new structure. The location was selected on 4th and Jer- 
sey, S. W. corner, and a beautiful building meets the eye of the traveler 
as he rides over the city. 

The Y. W. C. A. is meeting the needs of the time in smaller way 
in rented rooms on the west side of the Square. This was organized 
in February, 1905, and is supported by donations and subscriptions 
from the people as it is not yet in a position to entirely support itself. 
It is doing a good work and hopes in time to also own its own building. 
It is controlled by a board of managers, all ladies, of wide capabilities 
and active and zealous in their work. 

Quincy Historical Society was organized in 1896. Its object was 
to gather up all that relates to the historv of Quincy and vicinity and to 
provide a safe place to keep and deposit all books and pictures, docu- 
ments and relics of every sort pertaining hereto. Some years later the 
Society bought the home of Governor Wood on South 12th street which is 
now known as the Historical Building to which were removed all the 
relics, etc., belonging to the Society. The place is furnished with old 
mahogany and rare pieces of furniture of the style of Governor Wood's 
time and earlier and a caretaker lives there and looks after it. It is well 
worth one's while to visit this place for it tends to convince one that 
America too is making history with her years. It was the Historical 
Society that located the boulder in Washington Park on the spot where 
the debate between Douglas and Lincoln took place in the memorable 
times before the war. So much for our public and semipublic build- 
ings and philanthropic and kindred institutions, but it would hardly 
be fair to pass over the work of some of the fraternal orders. Most 
prominent of all is the Masonic Temple situated on the S. W. corner 
of 5th and Jersey, one block East of the Y. M. C. A. In July, 1910, 
the corner stone of the beautiful Masonic Temple was laid and the men 
responsible for that building watched the laying of each stone and brick 
as it grew to the perfection of their hearts desire some there were 
among the brethren who not only refused to give toward the enterprise, 
but were knockers as well and kept many from contributing who would 
otherwise have done so, but the big hearted ones won out and today 
Quincy has, so visiting Masons claim, one of the finest temples in the 
State, a joy to the eye and beauty to the city. Others claim and with 
truth that it was the Temple building that put Quincy on the map, 
so to speak, and the Y. M. C. A. and the Armory soon followed. 

One of the sight-seeing places of Quincy is the Soldiers' Home. 
After quite a contest as to location, a number of cities seeking it, the 
committee decided the matter in favor of Quincy, December, 1885, and 
bought a tract of land (140 acres) lying just north of the city. Since 
that time additions have been bought of about 80 acres, contracts were 


let for the various buildings under the first amount of money appro- 
priated for tlie time in May, 188G, and it was opened for the reception 
of members in March, 1887. In 1903, the north Fifth Street car line 
was extended into the Home grounds following the main drive to the 
headquarters building and a small but well built station was provided. 
This has been a great convenience to the lame and feeble members who 
otherwise could not have left the grounds, as it saves a walk of half a 
mile or more. It has also been a good thing for the company in the 
returns from increased traffic. 

Quincy has had its ups and downs like all cities during this period. 
Epidemics and storms and deplorable accidents, all came to us, as they 
are bound to come to all cities, but the city pulled itself together and 
struck 'out again to grow and become larger and greater than ever and 
so we will leave it with great prospects and a hope that it may all 
come true. 

MPiS. Annie M. Porter Eldred. 

Bead at Mrs. A. W. Turner's, May, 1913. 



(By Blanche Peters.) 
Slowly the sun to the westward 

Had sunk in a golden blaze, 
Eadiant the sky in the distance 

Glowing a crimson maze. 

Over the sky gleamed golden bars. 
Soft and mellow and tinted. 

Over the land, a fairy veil 

Of haze, from the river glinted. 

There, on the eastern shore, tall crags 
With their faces stony and gray 

Now turned toward the vanishing sun. 
Bidding farewell to the day. 

From time worn rifts along their sides 
Were hanging ivy and mosses 

Crowned w^ere they by evergreen trees. 
And long, thick waving grasses. 

They seemed as faces of ancient gods 

Of sublime, majestic mold. 
Or as Grecian sculptors carved 

Their laurel crowned heroes of old. 

Silent, the river flowed beneath 

To its mighty ocean home 
Bringing the leaves and the driftwood 

Lightly tossing the foam. 

A riotous beautiful golden flow 

When kissed by the sun's last beam 

Or, lighted by Nocturne's stately lamp 
Eefulgent with silver sleam. 


The mighty and grand Mississippi 
Onward and onward through time. 

The "Father of Waters," indeed. 
Sullen, relentless, sublime. 

Twilight was stealthily creeping on. 
Softly the night wind was sighing, 

While out on the river's bosom 
All traces of day lay dying. 


Beautiful nature was silent all, 
Save sounds of water lapping, 

The insects^ monotonous hum, 

Or wing of the night bird flapping. 

Out on the edge of a stony crag, 

Stood blithely a maiden fair. 
Over the river her wand'ring eyes 

Were searching for lover there. 

Then out of the purple shadows 
That crept over hill and stream 

Came flashing the glint of an oar, 
Came brightly the ripple's gleam. 

Steadily on came the boatman, ^ 
While tiny waves rose and sank. 

Grated the bark on the pebbles. 
Lightly he leaped to the bank. 

Scarce, had he drawn up his birch bark 
From out of the plashing tide. 

Scarce, had he answered her light halloo 
Till glowing he reached her side. 

There were sweet words and soft laughter 
But conscious were each of each 

Nor knew they of danger lurking 
Nor of dusky forms on the beach. 

Till a wild halloo reached their ears 
Followed by swift hissing dart. 

But, swifter than arrow, the maiden 
Sprang, shielding her lover^s heart. 

And into her own soft bosom 
Sank deeply her father^s shaft; 

Then, catching the swaying maiden 
The lover defied his craft. 

One instant, in calm defiance 

They poised on the crag's stone edge, 
Another, and into the space beyond 

Together leaped over the ledge. 

Slowly a crescent, the queenly moon 

Creeps over the willows high 
And silvery white the early stars 

Are gleaming in river and sky. 

And far out there in the moonlight. 

With its vigil just begun, 
A monument stately guards the spot* 

Where love and bravery won. 

* Lover's Leap at Alton. 


Thus, are our yesterday's stories told 

Of bravery, faith and love; 
To-day, the Infinite Spirit of Peace 

Views changeless the scene from above. 

The same bright sunset and golden haze 
The same gray crags, cold and sheer 

The same broad river and sandy beach. 
Though another race is here. 

Another race and a hero 

As brave as the ones of old 
Has left his life's written story 

In shining letters of gold. 

Who contrasted slavery's crushing blight, 

With freedom's most sacred way. 
Striving for broader knowledge 

To light up a future day. 

"For greater love hath no man 

Than to give his life for his brother" 

And greater hero is not found 
Than he who would lift another. 

And pointing its mission skyward 

With its vigal just begun, 
A monument, stately, guards the spot,f 

Where Lovejoy's bravery won. 

Then, point to these youths and maidens 

Of the class of Nineteen-twelve 
These very deeds are our birthright. 

With pride let the bosom swell. 

To-day as our feet reluctant 

Stand ready for destiny's call. 
We should feel we can meet the future 

With a spirit to conquer all. 

To-day in pride let us point 

And through all the future years 
To the days of our dear old High School 

With its mixture of joys and cares. 

To the hearts and the hands that have led us 
That have stored our memory's shelves 

That have, taught us higher and nobler things 
That have lifted us out of ourselves. 

To the days when fun would creep inside 

And we sat a giggling set 
When we scattered lessons far and M'ide, 

While youth and joy and frolic met. 

t Lovejoy Monument at Alton. 


To the days when we won the victory 

By firmness, patience and love, 
To tlie days wiien we trust an Angel 

Eeeorded our efforts above. 

May tlie treasures we've gleaned in High School 

Lead on to the highest call 
To sacrifice self for another 

To lives of service to all. 

God aid us in vears that are comino- 

And guard the places we'll fill, 
Clothe us with love, hope and courage 

To faithfully do Thy will. 

And then as our days are closing. 

As we count the victories won, 
Mav a beautiful shaft of gleaming white 

Be built of the deeds we've done. 




Abel, Sidnej', first postmaster of Chicago 131 

Abolitionists 157 , 158 , 162 

Abraham— Chief Sachem of the lower Mohawk 

Castle 46 

Adams, , mother of Daniel Warren 124 

Adams County, 111 

Adams County, 111., Baker, (Dr.) Thomas, first 

doctor in Adams County 139 

Adams County, 111., census of 1825, gives popu- 
lation of Adams and Hancock County as 192. . 139 
Adams County, 111., "Copperhead" sentiment. 

War of the Rebellion 169 

Adams County, 111., Courthouse, burned in 

1835 140 

Adams County, I]l.gcut off from Pike County. . 140 

Adams County, Ill.n^llington Township 154 

Adams County, 111., Fair Association 165 

Adams Coimty, 111., first court held in Keyes 

Cabin in Quincy, 111 139 

Adams County, 111., named for John Quincy 

Adams 140, 153 

Adams, John Quincy, inaugurated President 

of the United States March 4, 1825 140 

Adams, John Quincy, Quincy, 111., Adams 

County, named for 140,153 

Agriculture and Education Committee — Illi- 
nois Bankers' Association 78,79,80 

Albany, N. Y 43,44 

Albion, 111 6 

Albion (The), resort in an early day near East 

Quincy 166 

Alexander, Samuel, agent in the United States 

land office Quincy, 111 : 154 

Algonquin, tribe of Indians .■ 96 

Allatoona, battle of, War of the Rebellion 168 

Allegheny Mountains 88,89 

Allegheny, Pa., Presbyterian Theological Sem- 
inary located in 30 

Allegheny River 46 

Allen, James, one of the founders of the town 

of Clinton, Dewitt County, 111 72 

Allen, L. B., early .saddler in Quincy, 111 141 

Allen, (Squire) Nathan, of Naperville, 111 136 

Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland 114 

Alton, 111 6,138,147,150,151,182,183 

Alton, 111. High School, class poem, 1912, 

Blanche Peters 182-185 

Alton, 111., Lovejoy, Elijah Parish Monument 

at Alton, 111 184 

footnote 184 

Alton, 111., Lover's Leap at 183 

footnote 183 

Alton, 111., Peters, Blanche, class poem, Alton 

111., High School, 1912 182-185 

America 42,43 ,44,45 ,46, 

47, 48, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 84, 95, 102, 113, 114, 115, 180 
America— England known as the mother 

country of America 63 

America — French in America, overthrow of 46 

America — German emigration to America 
brought about by economic reasons in Ger- 
many 64 

America— Germany, the Fatherland to a large 

per cent of our population since 1830 63 

America — Revolutionary fathers in America.. 113 
America — Writing on journeys to America 

between the years 1830 and 1860 63 

American Bankers' Association 80,81 

American Bankers' Association Agiicultural 
Commission 80 


American Bottom in St. Clair County, 111 67 

American Confederacy 88 

American Fur Company, Antoine Ouilmette 

employed by 98 

American History 84,87 

American Indians 42,43,44,53 

American Missionary Societies 105 

American Revolution 84,90 

American Slavery, Our Duties and Obligations 
in Reference to American Slavery, lecture 

on, reference to 164 

American Wars 114 

A mericans 50 ,63 , 102 

Anderson, Asher, early settler of Quincy, 111. . 


Anderson, James, manumission of slaves by, 

public notice of in 1829 141 

Anderson, J. H., early settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Androscoggin River, Maine 148,149 

Anti-Nebraska Democrats 119 

Arkansas River 138 

Armory— Illinois State, at Quincy, 111 180 

Armstrong, Perry A., The Sauks and Black 

Hawk War 91 

footnote 91 

Asbury, Henry 154, l.';9, 161 , 163, 173 

Asbury, Henry, agent for the united States 

land office at Quincy, 111 154 

Asbiu-y, Henry, early settler of Quincy, 111 

154,159.161,163 173 

Asbury, Henry, History of Quincy, 111., refer- 
ence to 159,161 ,163,173 

Asiatic Cholera in Quincy in 1849 164 

Athenian School 28 

Atlantic Ocean 174 

Atlas (Adams County), 111 140,153 

Atwater, Caleb, politician from Ohio 99 

Atwater, Caleb, quoted on the Indian orator at 

treaty making councils 87 

Atwater, Caleb,quoted on thetreaty at Prairie 

du Chien, July 29, 1829 87,99-102 

Atwater, Caleb, United States- Government 
Commissioner, at the Indian treaty at Prairie 

du Chien 99 

Atwater, Caleb, Western Antiquities and Re- 
marks on a Tour to Prairie du Chien in 1829, 

quoted 99-102 

Aubrey, Mons du. Sec Aubry 46,47 

Aubry, Charles Phillipe, an officer in the French 

service in Louisiana and Illinois 46,47 

Aubry, Charles Phillipe, led the sortie at Fort 

Du Quesne, September 4, 1758 46,47 

Aurora, (Kane County), 111 78,131,133 

Automaton Steam Governor, patented by 
Robert Gardner of Quincy, 111 170 

Baker, Edward Dickinson 116 

Baker, (Dr.) Thomas, first doctor in Adams 

County, 111 139 

Baldwin Park, Quincy, 111 174 

Baldwin, Theron, letter of Benjamin Godfrey 

to, dated Vandalia, 1837, reference to 18 

Baltimore, Md 149 

Bancroft, Adelia Ames, early settler of Quincy, 

111 143 

Bancroft, Amos, early settler of Quincy, 111.. 143 
Bane, (Col.) M. M., Fiftieth Illinois Volunteer 

Infantry called "The Blind Half Hundred," 

Quincy, 111 168 


INDEX — Continued. 


P anker Farmer Movement OriRinating with 
the Illinois Bankers' Association, Story of— 
Address at annual meeting Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1915, bv B. F. Harris.. 

: 16,77-S3 

Bankers' Association, Illinois 77-83 

Banks of Qiiincy, HI 172 

Baptist Church". 143, 171 , 172,178 

Baptist Church, Quincv, 111 171 ,172,178 

Baptist Church, Elm Street, Quincy, 111 172 

Baptist Church, (First), Quincy, 111. — Vermont 

Street Baptist Church 171 

Baptist Church, German Baptist Church, 

Quincv, 111 172 

Barnes, (Judge) R. M 32 

Bartlett, (Dr.) , early settler of Quincy, 

111 146 

Batavia, 111 131 , 132, 133 

Bateau.x (Boat) 47 

Battle of Allatoona, War of the Rebellion 168 

Battle of Cerro Gordo, War with Mexico 


Battle of Contreras, War with Mexico 121 

Battle of Corinth, War of the Rebellion 168 

Battle of Fallen Timbers, War of 1S12 89 

Battle of Shiloh, War of the Rebellion 168 

Battle of the Thames, War of 1812 91 

Battle of Tippecanoe, War of 1812 91 

Battle of Winchester, War of the Rebellion. . 


Beardstown, 111., Volunteers in the Black 

Hawk War, assemble at 57 

Beckwith, (Hon.) Hiram, of Danville, 111 51 

Beckwith, (Mrs.) Lyime, Indian medals given 
at the Vincennes Conference, in possession 

of 51 

Bedouin Encampment, reference to 96 

Beecher, Jerome, 134,135 

Belin Gate, in the city of Mexico 117 

Belknap, (Gen.) William Worth, impeachment 

trial of, refereuc to 33,34 

Belleville, 111 67,12() 

Belleville, 111., Koerner, Gustav, locates near.. 67 
Belloville, 111., Snyder, Shields & Koerner, 

law firm of, Belleville 120 

Benton, Thomas H., United States Senator 

from Missouri 118 

Biggsville, (Henderson County), 111., attempt 

to remove county seat to 61 

Bird, Frederick 124 , 131 , 132 

Bird, Louisa Warren 124,132,133 

Bird, Louisa Warren, the great pioneer of the 

Warren family 132 

"Black Friday" in New York, reference to. . . 135 
Black Hawk, chief of the Fox and Sac Indians 

47,51,52,53 ,56,91 

Black Hawk— Patterson, (Col.) C. B., Life of 

Black Hawk, reference to 56 

Black Hawk War 55,56,57,58,91,99,152,155 

footnote 91 

Black Hawk War— Armstrong, Perry A., The 

Sauks and the Black Hawk War 91 

footnote 91 

Black Hawk War— Beardstown, 111., volun- 
teers for Black Hawk War assemble at 57 

Black Hawk War— Stevens, Frank E., History 

of the Black Hawk War 91 

footnote 91 

Blaine, James G 26,33,35 

Blakesley, A. W., superintendent of schools, 

Quincy, 111 170 

Blanchard, Rufus, Discovery and Conquests of 
the Northwest and History of Chicago, refer- 
ence to 90 

Bland, Richard Parks, extract from address 
in Congress upon the presentation of Shields 

statute 121 

Blessing Hospital, Quincy, 111., incorporated 

in 1873 178 

"Blind Half Hundred, (The)"— 50th Illinois 

Volunteer Infantry so called 168 

Bloomington, 111 



Bloomington, 111., Bar Association, tribute to 

Adlai E. Steven.son, reference to 40 

Bloomington, 111., Bloomington-Danville Cir- 
cuit 29 

Bloomington, 111., Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Letitia Green Stevenson Chap- 
ter, reference to 39,40 

Bogy, Lewis V., United States Senator, from 

M issouri 120 

Boston, Mass 143,151 

Braddock, (Gen.) Edward 45 

Bradford, Emily M., Quincy During the War 


Bradt, R. E., member of the State Highway 

Commission under the Tice Road Act 81 

Breeders' Gazette, Chicago, January 31, 1912, 

q noted " 79 

Breeders' Gazette, (Chicago) March 29, 1911, 
quoted on P esident B. F. Harris of Lllinois 

Bankers Association 79 

Breese, Sidney, Justice of the Supreme Court 

of Illinois 118 

Breese, Sidney, United States Senator from 

Illinois ". 118 

Brennan, (Father) John P., Priest in charge of 
St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, Quincy, 

111 178 

British agent's influence \vith the Indians.. 88, 89 

British Army ». 47 

British Fort at Stony Point 89 

British Race 45,46,47,48,51 

Bross, (Col.) John A., (by mistake printed 

G ross) 169 

"Brother Quider," name given by the Indians 

to Peter Schuyler 45 

Brown, Anna E., Anna Brown Home for the 

Aged, Quincy, 111 179 

Brown, Amia E., bequest to the Quincy Hu- 
mane Society 180 

Brown, Charles of Quincy, 111 179 

Browni, J. W., early jeweler of Quincy, 111 166 

Brown, Nancy, early settler of Quincy, 111 143 

BrowTi, Rufus, early hotel keeper in Quincv, 111. 

140, 143 , 146 , 153 , 157 

Brown, Rufus, Brown's Hotel, Quincy, 111 


Browning, Orville H 116,155,156,163,164 

Browning, Orville H., earlv settler of Quincy, 

111 116 , 155, 163 , 164 

Browning, Orville H., residence, Quincy, 111 ..164 
Browning, Orville H., United States Senator 

from Illinois 156 

"Brush Hill," north of Hinsdale, Dupage 

County, 111 128 

Brussels, Belgium, James S. Ewlng, minister 

to 32 

Bryan, William Jennings 38 

Bull, Lorenzo, early citizen of Quincy, 111 


Bull, Lorenzo, President of the ilerchant's 
and Farmers' National Bank of Quincy, 

111 172 

Bull, (Miss) Martha, wife of Rev. Asa Turner . . 143 

Burlington & Quincy Railroad 132 

Burlington, la 54 

Burnham, (Capt. J. H.) 6,17,18 

Burr, Aaron, at Kaskaskia 116 

Burr, Theodosia, daughter of Aaron Burr 116 

Bushnell Home, Quincy, 111 140 

Bushnell Neherniah, president of the Bridge 
Company, Quincy, 111 172 

Cahokia, 111 115, 154 

Cairo, 111 77,167,168 

Caldw 11, Billv, beneficiary of the Indian 

Treaty of 1833 at Chicago 108 

Caldwell, Billy, made Indian Chief of the Pot- 

tawattomies at Treaty of Prairie du Chien .98-99 

Calhoim, John C, United States Senator 118 

California State 118, 120, 134,151 

Calumet, Indian Pipe of Peace 90 


INDEX — Continued. 


Calumet River 126 

Calvin, John, great Protestant reformer 25 

Campbell Family 152 

Camp Point, 111 139, 157 

Camp Wood, Qnincy, 111., location of 169 

Canada 98,123 

Canadian agent's influence with the Indians . 88,89 

Canadian Militia 47 

Canadian War Song, by General James Shield, 

reference to 123 

Canterbury Days 29 

Canton, 111 55 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 116 

Capen, Charles L., member of the Bloomington 

bar 32 

Carbondale, 111 6 

Carlin, Thomas, agent United States land office 

Quincy, 111 154 

Carlin, Thomas, Governor of Illinois 145,156 

Carlisle, JohnG., of Kentucky, member of the 

Forty-fifth Congress 35 

Carpenter, A. C 133 , 136 

Carpenter, Ashley 133 

Carpenter, Milton 116 

Carpenter, Richard V 6 

Carpenter, Sally Warren 133 

Carpenter, William 133 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., Honorary President Il- 
linois State Historical Society 6,19 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., "Illini," by Clark E. 
Carr, quoted on the cooking of pioneer days . . 146 

Carroll County, Mo 120 

Carrollton, Mo 113,121,122 

footnote 113 

Carrollton, Mo., Monument to General James 

Shields, dedication of 113 

footnote 113 

Carthage, 111 147, 148 

Cartwright, (Judge) James H., Judge Supreme 

Court of Illinois 17 

Cass, Lewis, Governor of Michigan 

, 92,93 ,99, 101 ,118 

Cass, Governor Lewis— Clark, (Gen.) William, 
associated with General Cass in negotiations 

with the Indians 97 

Cass, Governor Lewis, extract from speech of, 
at Indian Council at Chicago, August 29, 

1821 92-93 

Cass, Governor Lewis, Indian Treaty of August 

29, 1821, at Chicago, negotiated by 92 

Cass, Governor Lewis, United States Commis- 
sioner to treat with the Indians 95 

Cass, Governor Lewis, Wolcott, Alexander, 

letter of January 1, 1821, reference to 93 

Gather House, Quincy, 111 166 

Catholic Church, Church of the Ascension of 
Our Lord, name changed to St. Boniface, 

Quincy, 111 160, 161 

Catholic Church, St. Boniface Catholic Church, 

Quincy, 111 160,161,172 

Catholic Church, St. Francis, Quincy, 111 172 

Catholic Church, St. John's Catholic Church, 

Quincy, 111 171,177 

Catholic Church, St. John's Parish, Quincy, 

111., organized in 1837 171 

Catholic Church, St. Peter's Catholic Church, 

Quincy, 111 172, 178 

Catholic Church, St. Rose of Lima, Catholic 

Church, Quincy, 111 178 

Caton, John Dean 129 

Cattle 67,149 

Cayuga Indians 46 

Center College, Danville, Ky 26,30 

Centre School, Quincy, 111 170 

Cerro Gordo, Battle of, War with Mexico 


Chambersburg, Pa., on the McAdam Road.. 149 

Champaign, 111 6, 15, 16,78 

Chapman, George, early settler of Quincy, 111. . 141 

Chapultepec, Mexico 117 , 1 18 , 122 

Chapultepec, Mexico, Field at Chapultepec, 
great painting of, in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington 118 

Chariton County, Mo 115 


Charleston, S. C 114 

Cheerful Home, Quincy, 111., foimded by Miss 

Cornelia Collins 179 

Chester County, Pa 71 

Chicago Creek 92 

Chicago, 111 6,15,16,18,40,56,72,78,79, 


Chicago, 111., Abel Sidney, first postmaster of 

Chicago 131 

Chicago, 111., Blanchard, Rufus, Discovery and 

Conquests of the Northwest and History of 

Chicago, reference to 90 

Chicago, 111., Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

R. R 157,164 

Chicago, 111., city council of, change name of 

Indian Boundary Road to Rogers Avenue ... 92 
Chicago, 111., city council of, tribute to AdlaiE. 

Stevenson 40 

Chicago, 111., Commercial Association is 

Chicago, 111., Currey, J. Seymour, History of 

Chicago, Vol. I, quoted 84 

Chicago, 111., first postmaster, Sidney Abel 131 

Chicago, 111., frontier village in 1833 102 

Chicago, 111., "Green Tree Hotel," in early 

Chicago 127 

Chicago, 111 , Historical Society 92 

Chicago, 111., Indian Treaty of August 29, 1821 

at Chicago, 111 92-95 

Chicago, 111., Indian Treaty of 1833 at Chicago, 

111 85,88,98,102-109 

Chicago, 111., Indian Treaty September 26, 1833 


Chicago, 111., Latrobe, Charles J., Account of 

the Indian Treaty at Chicago, 1833 103-108 

Chicago, 111., Mansion House in 127 

Chicago, 111., Northwestern R. R 134 

Chicago, 111., Quaife, Milo Milton, Chicago and 

the Old Northwest, quoted 86,109 

Chicago, 111., Sauganash Hotel 127 

Chicago, 111., stage line from Chicago to Yellow 

Banks, reference to 56 

Chicago, 111., Wolcott, Alexander, Indian 

agent at 93 ,98 ,99 

Chicago Portage 91 ,92 

Chicago \ „ . 

Cliikago J River 90,91,127 

Chillicothe, Mo 115 

Chippewa Indians 


Chippewa River 96 

Cholera, Asiatic Cholera in Quincy, in 1849 164 

Cholera, German emigrants to the United 

States susceptible to yellow fever and cholera 66 

Cholera, in Europe in 1833 66 

Cholera in Quincy, 111., in 1833, 1849 155,164 

Chouteau Auguste, treaty with the Indians at 

St. Louis, August 24, 1816 91-92 

Christian Church, Quincy, 111., organized in 

1850 171 , 178 

Christian County, Ky 24 

Christiansen, builds fort about four miles below 

what is now the city of Albany 44 

Chur, Switzerland, Tscharner Brothers from 

Chur 67 

Churches, Baptist Church, Quincy, 111 

.■ 143,171,172,178 

Churches, Baptist Church (Elm Street), 

Quincy, 111., organized in 1865 172 

Churches, Catholic Church, Chillicothe, Mo. .115 
Churches, Catholic Church, Church of the 

"Ascension of Our Lord," name changed to 

St. Boniface, Quincy, 111 160-161 

Churches, Catholic Church, St. Boniface, old- 
est Catholic Church in Quincy, 111. . .160,161,172 
Churches, Catholic Church, St. Francis, 

Quincy, 111 172 

Churches, Catholic Church, St. John's Parish, 

Quincy, III., organized in 1837 171,177 

Churches, Catholic Church, St. Peter's Quincy, 

111 172,178 

Churches, Catholic Church, St. Rose of Lima, 

Quincy, 111 178 

Churches, Christian Church, Quincy, 111 ... 171 , 178 


INDEX — Continued. 


Churches, Christian Scientist Cliurch, Quincy, 

111 177 

Churches, Congregational Church, Quincy, 

111 UO, 141 ,143 ,170, 178 

Churches, Episcopal Church, Quincy 111 1.59 

Chiu-ches, German Baptist Church, Quincy, 111 .172 
Churches, German M. E. Church, Quincv, Til. 


Churches, Lutheran Church, Evangelical 

Lutheran Church of St. John, Quincy, organ- 
ized in 1837 171 

Churches, Lutheran Memorial Church, Quincy, 

111 178 

Churches, Lutheran St. Jacobi, Quincy, 

111 171 

Churches, Lutheran St. John's Church. 

Quincy, 111 161 ,171 

Churches, Methodist Church, Quincy, 111. . 171 ,178 
Churches, Methodist Church or Society, organ- 
ized in Quincy, III., in 1833 171 

Churches Methodist (Colored) Quincy, 111 ...172 

Churches, Prcsbyt.'^rian Church 115 

Cnurches, Presbyterian Church Quincv, 111. 


Churches, Presbyterian Chiu-ch, Quincy, 111, 

organized in 1839 171 

Churches, Salem Evangelical Church, Quincy, 

111 171 

Churches, Unitarian Church, Quincy, III. 


Churches, United Brethern Church, Quincy, 

111 178 

Cincinnati, Ohio 151 , 173 

City of Me.xico 117 

City of Me.\ico, Belin Gate in 117 

Civil War. See War of the Rebellion 


Clark, Brazilli, first justice of the peace in 

Quincy, 111 163 

Clark, George Rogers, captures Kaskaskia in 

1778 115 

Clark, John Kinzie, and Indian children of, 

beneficiaries of the Indian Treaty at Chicago, 

1833 108 

Clark, William, associated with General Cass 

in negotiations with the Indians 97 

Clark, William, explorer of the Columbia River 98 
Clark, William, treaty with the Indians at St. 

Louis, August 24, 1816 91-92 

Clark, William, United States Commissioner 

to treat with the Indians at Prairie du Chien 

August 19, 1825 95 

Clay, Henry 30 , 118, 160 

Clay, Henry, called "Harry of the West" 160 

Clay, Henry, candidate for the Presidency in 

1844 160 

Clayton, 111 152 

Clendenin, H. W 6 

Cleveland, Grover, President of the United 

States 35,36 

Clinton, (Dewitt County), 111 72 

Clinton, (Dewitt County), 111., founding of, by 

Jesse W. Fell and James Allen 72 

Clinton, J. W 6 

Clock, David, proprietor of the "Green Tree 

Hotel " in early Chicago 127 

Clybournville, 111., on the Fox River 129 

Coat of Arms of the United States on medal 

presented to the Indians at Indian Council. . 50 

Cobb, S. B 127 , 134 

Cobb, Walter 134 

Colaer, (Father). See Van Corlear 45 

See Van Curler. 
Coles, (Gov.) Edward, address of welcome to 

G eneral Lafayette, reference to 1 16 

Collett, Josephus, scientist of Indiana 51 

Collins, (Miss) Cornelia, founds "the Cheerful 

Home" Quincy, 111., in 1887 179 

Collins, William H., History of Adams County, 

quoted 165 

Columbia River, William Clark, e.xplorer of .. 98 

Columbus, (Adams County), 111 143 

Columbus, Ohio 149 

Colyer, Walter 6 


Commercial Queen of the West, Kaskaskia so 

called 116 

Committees— Good Roads Committee, Illinois 

Bankers' Association 81 

Committees — Illinois Bankers Association. ..80, 81 
Comstock and Company, stoves and tinware 

merchants in an early day in Quincv, 111 166 

Congregational Church 140,141,143,170,178 

Congregational Church, Quincy, 111 

140, 141 ,170, 171 ,178 

Congregational Church, Quincv, 111., known 

as the Lord's Barn ". 140,141,171 

Connecticut State 149 

Constitution of Illinois 1848, reference to 30 

Continental Wars 114 

Contreras, Battle of, War with Mexico 121 

Conventions, Illinois Bankers' Association, 

convention, 1911, 1912 81 

Conyers, Enoch, early mayor of Quincy, 111.. 159 
Conyers, Enoch, member new Board of Trus- 
tees, Quincy, 111 158 

Cook County, 111 80,91 

Cook County, Indian boundary road 91-92 

Cook, John W., Life and Labors of Hon. Adlai 
Ewing Stevenson, address before Illinois 

State Historical Societv, 1915 15,16,23-41 

Cooley, Bill, Educational Bill, 1913 80 

Copenhagen, Denmark 146 

Cord, William H., member of the law firm of 
Williams, Cord & Dent of Bloomington, 111. 26 

Corinth, Battle of, War of the Rebellion 168 

Coriolanus, Caius (or Cneius), hero of an early 

Roman legend, reference to 97 

Council Bluffs, la 109 

County Agents, bill in Illinois Legislature to 

maintain 79 

C ox Home, Quincy, 111 179 

Cox, JohnC, early settler of Quincy, 111 163 

Crank, Thomas, early settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Cunningham, J. O 6 

Currey, J. Seymour, History of Chicago, 

Volume I, quoted 84 

Currey, J. Seymour, Lake Michigan's Illinois 

Coast 15 

Currey, J. Seymour, President Evanston His- 
torical Society 15 

Curtis, Nancy Warren 135 

Curtis, W. B 135 

Gushing, (Judge) of Fredonia, N. Y ..124 

Cut Money, early use of, in Quincy, 111 . . .145, 146 

Dagu~rre, Louis Jacques Mande, "Father ot 

Photography," reference to 118 

Dairv — Report on dairy situation in Chicago. . 80 

Dakota State 60 

Dakotah Indians 96 

Danville, 111 29,42,51 

Danville, Ky., Center College located at 26,30 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Na- 
tional Society of 31,39,40,138 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Illinois, 
D.A. R., Letitia Green Stevenson Chapter, 

Bloomington, 111 39-40 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Polly 

Sumner Chapter, D. A. R., Quincy, 111 138 

Davis, David, lawyer of McLean County, 111 .29,72 
Davis, Hope L., Superintendent of Schools of 

Quincy, 111 170 

Davis, Jefferson 118 

Davis Settlement on Indian Creek 52,53 

Davis, Wm. L., early railway clerk 173 

Davis, Wm. L., originator of the railway mail 

service, Hannibal & St. Joseph R. R 173 

Decatur, III 72 

Declaration of Independence 113 

Dedham, Mass 148,149 

Deer 130, 146 

Dekalb Countv, 111 79 

Dekalb, 111 6,15,16,81 

Delaware Indians 48,89 

Democratic Party 34,35,38,118,119,159,160 

Demosthenes, Greek orator 29 


INDEX — Continued. 


Denman, (Mrs.) M. B., of Quincy, 111., bequest 
to Blessing Hospital 178 

Dent, Samuel H , member of the law firm of 
Williams, Cord & Dent, Bloomington, 111.. . 26 

Des Plaines River 92 

Detroit, Mich 177 

Dickens, Charles 130 

District of Columbia 37,118 

Dodd, Mike, eccentric character in Quincy, 
111., in an early day 141 

Dodson, C B., contractor on the Illinois- 
Michigan Canal 133 

D odson, Charles 134 

Dodson, Harriet N., married on February 2, 
1S37 133 

Dodson, Harriet N., The Warrens of Warrens- 
Tille 124-137 

Dodsou, J ulius 134 

Donelson, Fort 168 

Doty, Reuben, early settler of Qiiincy, 111 141 

Douglas, Stephen "Arnold 


Dougla.s, Stephen A., "Little Giant" 30 

Douglas, Stephen A , Lincoln-Douglas Debates 
in Quincy in 1858, reference 167 , 180 

Douglas, Stephen A., Lincoln-Douglas Debate, 
Quincy, 111., boulder marks site of 180 

Douglas, Stephen A., Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates, semi-centennial celebration 38 

Douglas, Stephen A., presides over the first 
term of the Circuit Court in Henderson 
County 58 

Douglas, Stephen A., resigns from the Bench 
of the Supreme Court of Illinois, Shields ap- 
pointed to fill term 117 

Douglas, Stephen A., speech at Oquawka, 111. 
in 1858, reference 58 

Droulard, John, cabin and shoemaker shop in 
an early day in Quincy, 111 141 

Droulard, John, early settler of Quincy, 111.. 
138 , 139 ,140 

Duden, Gottfried— Duden and his Critics by 
Jessie J. Kile 15,63-70 

Duden, Gottfried, account of the climate in the 
United States 65 ,66 

Duden, Gottfried, advice to emigrants where to 
locate, etc 66-67 

Duden, Gottfried, Emigration Society of Gies- 
sen, criticizes Duden 67 

Duden, Gottfried, German physician 63 

Duden, Gottfried, Report on a Journey to the 
Western States of America and Sojourn in 
Missouri, 1824 and 1827, Gustave Koerner 
quoted on 64 

Duden, Gottfried, justifies slavery to his 
countrymen 69 

Duden, "Gottfried— Kile, (Miss) Jessie J.— 
Duden and his Critics 15,63-70 

Duden, Gottfried, not interested in land specu- 
lation nor colonization schemes 69 

Duden, Gottfried, Opinions on the Fertility of 
the Soil in Missouri 67 

Duden, Gottfried, quoted on the healthfulness 
of the west 66 

Duden, Gottfried, quoted on the Mosquitoes in 
the United States 68 

Duden, Gottfried, Report on a Journey to the 
Western States of America and Sojourn in 
Missouri from 1824 to 1827, reference to 63 ,64 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph, purchases lots in 
Oquawka 58 

Dutme, (Governor) Edward F., Governor of 
the State of Illinois 113 

Dupage River 130 

Dwight, 111 72 

Earthquake in Illinois in 1811, reference 167 

Earthquake iirQuincy, 111., in 1858 166 

Earthquake in the Mississippi Valley in 1811 

and 1858, reference 167 

East Dupage, 111 128 

East Dupage River 129 


Easton, Pa 149 

Edwards, (Governor) Ninian, Territorial 

Governor of Illinois 56 

Edwards, Ninian, treatv with the Indians at 

St. Louis, August 24, 1816 91-92 

Edwards, Ninian Wirt 116 

Edwards, Samuel, connected with the story of 

the murder hoax in Oquawka, 111 ". .60-61 

Edwardsville, 111., early newspaper published 

in, reference 139 

Edens, W. G 78 

Eel River Indians 89 

Education— Agriculture and Education Com- 
mittee Illinois Bankers' Association person- 
nel 78 

Education— Alton, (111.) High School 182,185 

Education— Center College, Danville, Ky..26,30 
Education— English and German, Male" and 

Female Seminary, Quincy, 111 166 

Education— Friends (Quaker) Subscription 

School, Pennsylvania 71 

Education— Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111.. 6 
Education — Illinois Southern Illinois State 

Normal University 6 

Education— Illinois State Normal School, 

Normal, 111 6,15, 23 

Education— Illinois— University of Illinois. 6, 15, 63 
Education — Institute, near Quincy, 111., Dr. 

David Nelson, head of 157 , 158 

Education— Institute, Quincy, 111., to educate 

men and women for missionary service. .157-158 
Education — Kansas — University of Kansas, 

Lawrence, Kan 15 

Education— Ladies' Seminary of Warrenville, 

111 135 

Education — Maynooth College, twelve miles 

from Dublin 115 

Education — Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, 111. 18 
Education — Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, 111 6 

Education — Presbyterian Theological Semi- 
nary, Allegheny, Pa 30 

Education— Quincy, 111., public schools 


Education— University of Illinois 6,15,63 

Education— Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y 139 

Education — Vocational Education Bill, Illinois 

Bankers' Association 80 

Eelkens, Jacob 44,45 

Eelkens, Jacob, in command at Fort Nassau.. 44 
Eldred, (Mrs.) Aimie M. Porter, Quincy, 1880- 

1913 175, 181 

Ellington Township, Adams County, 111 154 

Ellskwatawa (The Prophet), brother of Tecum- 

seh, the Shawnee Chief 91 

El Paso, 111 72 

Elston, , from England, early arrival at 

Chicago 127 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, quotation from .54 

Emery, (Rev.) Samuel Hopkins, pastor of the 
First Congregational Church, Quincy, 111., 

during the war " 171 

Emigration — Illinois, German emigration to 

69 , 161 , 167 

EmigrationSociety of Giessen, criticize Duden. 67 
Emmet, Robert — Irish Patriot, born in Cork, 

1780, died September, 1803 114 

EmpireLight&PowerCo. of Quincy, 111 177 

England 45,63,64,113,116,119,123,127,140,152 

England, the Mother Country 63,88 

English Laws 114 

English Race 124 

Ensign, Justice, early hatter of Quincy, 111 141 

Episcopal Church, Quincy, 111 '....159 

Erie Canal 142 

Europe : . . . .35,37,63,64,66, 104, 113 , 174 

Europe, Cholera in, in 1833 66 

European War 63 

Evanston, 111 92,98,99 

Evanston, 111., Historical Society 15,92,99 

Evanston, 111., Historical Society Collections.. 99 
Evanston, 111., Historical Society, J. Seymour 
Currey, President 15 


INDEX — Continued. 


Ewing, James S., law partner of Adlai E. 
Stevenson 31 

Ewing, James S., Minister to Brussels, refer- 
ence to 32 

EwinR, James S., prominent lawyer of Bloom- 
ington, 111 28,31 ,32 

Ewing, William 116 


Fabius River, Missouri 145 

Fallen Timbers— Indian Battle of Fallen 

Timbers 89 

Faribault, Minn 120 

Farmers' Institute 80 

"Father of Waters" (Mississippi River)... 

61 ,116, 182 

Federal Agricultural Demonstration and State 
Agricultural Education, reference to bill, 

Illinois Bankers' Association 79 

Fell, Jesse W., address before the Illinois His- 
torical Society, 1915, by Miss Frances More- 
house 16,71-76 

Fell, Jesse W., agent for the State Bank of Illi- 
nois 72 

Fell, Jesse W., biographical sketch 71 

Fell, Jesse W., Commissioner of School Lands 

in McLean County, 1834-35 7 

Fell, Jesse W., friendship between Jesse W. 

Fell and Abraham Lincoln 72 

Fell, Jesse W., Morehouse, (Miss) Frances, Jesse 
W. Fell, address before Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society, 1915 71-76 

Fell, Jesse W., one of the founders of the towTi 

of Clinton, Dewitt County, 111 72 

Fell, Jesse W., owner of large tracts of land in 

Wisconsin and Illinois 72 

Fell, Jesse W., secures his certificate to practice 

law 71 

Fell, Jesse W., tree planting, essential part of 

town planning with Jesse W Fell 72 

Fell, Jesse W., towns in Illinois in which he was 

actively interested 72 

Felt, Mary, early settler of Quincy, 111 143 

Felt, (Col.) Peter, early settler of Quincy, 111. . 

140, 143 , 144 

First National Bank of Quincy, 111 172 

Flambeau Lac du, Rice Lake, region of 96 

Flood, William G., agent United States land 

office in Quincy, 111 154 

Flood, William G., early settler of Quincy, 111 - 

154 , 155 

Florida State 34 

Flynn, Peter, early settler of Quincy, 111 151 

Fonddu Lac 97 

Foote, (Rev.) Horatio, early Congregational 

Minister of Quincy, 111 160, 163 

Ford, Thomas, Governor of Illinois 116,156 

Fort Chartres 46,47 

Fort Chartres, Garrison of, under McCarty, 

comprised the flower of French soldiery 46 

Fort Dearborn Indian Massacre at, reference . . 53 

Fort D onelson 168 

Fort DuQuesne at the juncture of the Allf gheny 

and Monongahela Rivers 46 

Fort DuQuesne, captured and renamed Fort 

Pitt by the British 46 

Fort Gage (or Fort Kaskaskia) 18 

Fort Henry 168 

Fort Johnson, Indian council at, reference 46 

Fort Kaskaskia 18 

Fort Leavenworth, Mo 109 

Fort Nassau— Jacob Eelkens, in charge of Fort 

Nassau 44 

Fort Niagara 46,47 

Fort Pitt— Fort DuQuesne captured by the 
British and renamed Fort Pitt 46 

Fort^iSri 120,168 

Fort Washington 48,49 

Fort Wavne, Ind 47 , 179 

Fowler, Alva 132 

Fowler, Amelia, early settler of Illinois. 130, 131 , 136 
Fowler Brothers, early settlers of Illinois. . 130,131 


Fowler, Harry, early settler of Illinois 1.30 

Fowler, Hiram, early settler of Illinois 130 

Fowler, Philinda 132, 133 

Fox Indians 55,90 91,95,96,100,155 

Fox River 51 ,91 ,96 , 129 , 131 

Fox River, portages of, reference 96 

France 43 ,45 

France, colonies of .' 45 

Fredonia, N. Y 124,127 

French Army 47 

French, Augustus C 116 

French Fort, at the juncture of the Allegheny 
and Monongahela Rivers (Fort DuQuesne). . 46 

French in America, overthrow of 46 

French Priests', influence with the Indians... 45 

French Race 45,49 

Friends (Quakers) Subscription School, Penn- 
sylvania 71 

Fruit Hill, near Payson, Adams County, 111 72 

Galena, 111 141 

Galesburg, 111 6 ,58,59 

Galesburg, 111., Lincoln-Douglas Debate, at, 

reference to 58,59 

Galland, (Dr.) Isaac, early settler of "Yellow 

Banks" 55 

Gardner, Robert, early settler of Quincy, 111. 


Gardner, Robert, of Quincy, 111., patents his 

Automaton Steam G overnor 170 

Garfield, James A 33, 35 

G atewood , Cyrus 116 

Geneva, 111 124,131,134 

George, William 78 

German-Americans 63 

German Baptist Church, Quincy, 111 172 

German .Element, one of the large factors in 

our population ■. ... 63 

German Emigrants to the United States, 
Duden interested only in w^hat parts of, 

would be advantageous to the Germans 69 

German Emigrants to the United States, find 
lack of help in farming and domestic matters, 

one of the drawbacks 69 

German Emigrants to the United States, many 

were highly educated 69 

German Emigrants to the United States, suc- 

ceptible to yellow fever and cholera 66 

German Emigration to America, brought about 

by conomic reasons in Germany 64 

German Emigration to Illinois, Duden's Re- 
port of a Journey to the Western States of 
America and Sojourn in Missouri from 1824 
to 1827, influence of, on emigration to Illi- 
nois 63 ,64 

German Emigration to Illinois, effect of Du- 
den's Report of a Journey to the M'estern 

States of America, etc.. on 63 ,64 

German Immigration to Quincy, 111 161,167 

German M. E. Church, Quincy^ 111 179 

German Race 63-70,161,167,179 

Germans, Duden and his Critics, by Jessie J. 

Kile 63-70 

Germans, emigrants suffer from fever in Mis- 
souri 66 

Germans— Koemer, Gustave, German Ele- 
ment in the United States, quoted 64-65 

Germans, opposed to slavery 69 

Germany 63,64,65,69,161 

Germany the Fatherland to a large per cent of 

Americas' population since 1830 63 

Gerry, (Miss) Lucinda, (Mrs. Wheaton)..136,137 

Gibson family 125 

Giddings, (Rev.) George, Rector of the Episco- 
pal Church, Quincy, 111 159 

Giessen, Germany, Emigration Society of, 

criticizes Duden 67 

Giswindener, (Mrs.) 175 

Goddard, , grandmother of Nancy 

Morton 134 

Godfrey, Benjamin, letter of, to Theron Bald- 
win, dated Vandalia, 1837, reference to 18 


INDEX — Continued. 


'God's Barn, " place of worsMp in an early day 

hiQuincv, 111 160 

'Good Samaritans," organization of women, 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion 170 

Gordon, James W., Reminiscences of Yellow 

Banks 15,54-62 

Grand River, Mich 92 

Grant, (Dr.) , early settler of Illinois. .128 

Grant, (Col.) U. S., arrives at Quincy, 111., 

July 12, 1864 169 

Grattan, Thomas Colley, popular Irish novelist 
born in Dublin in 1796, died in 1864, British 

Consul at Boston from 1839 to 1853 113 

Graves, Dexter, builder of "The Mansion 

House" in early Chicago 127 

Great Britain 43 ,45 ,47 ,88 

Great Britain, Treaty of Peace with Great 

Britain, September 3, 1783, reference to 88 

Great Spirit 87 ,94 

Grecian Sculptors 182 

Green, , organizes companies for Con- 
federate service, War of the Rebellion 169 

Green Bay 96 

Green, (Miss) Letitia, wife of Adlai E. Steven- 
son 30 

Green. Lewis Warner, D. D., President of the 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Alle- 
gheny, Pa 30 

Greene, (Dr.)EvartsB 6,17 

Greenleaf Foundry, Quincy, 111 170 

"Green Tree Hotel" in early Chicago, David 

Clock, proprietor 127 

Greenville, Ohio, Indian Treaty of August 3, 

1795 88-90 

Gross, (Col.) error should be (Col.) John A. 

Bross 169 

Gross Pointe, twelve miles north of Chicago... 98 
Grover, Frank R., Antoine Ouilmette, the 

first settler of Evanston and Wilmette 99 

Grover, Frank R., Indian Treaties Aflecting 

Lands in the Present State of Illinois. . 16 ,84-109 
Gulf of Mexico. 101,174 


Haddock, (Mrs.) E. H 127 

Haines, Elijah M., The American Indian, 

published, Chicago, 1888, quoted 87,98-99 

Hale family, of Munroe, Mich 125 

"Half Moon," boat from Holland 43 

Hancock County, 111 139 , 151 

Hancock County, III., census of 1825, gives 
population of Adams and Hancock Comities 

as 192 139 

Hannibal, Mo 164, 172,173 

Hannibal & St. Joseph R. R 172,173 

Hannibal <k St. Joseph R. R., railway mail ser- 
vice established on .' 173 

Hardin, (Gen.) John, in Frontier Indian War.. 48 
Hardin, (Gen.) John J., member of the Legis- 
lature, Vandalia, 1836 116 

Hardin, (Mrs.) Martin D., daughter of Adlai E. 

Stevenson 40 

Harmar, (Gen.) Joseph, in Frontier Indian 

War 48 

Harmon, (Dr.) Isaac 127 , 128 

Harris, B. F., Story of the Banker-Farmer 
Movement. Originating with the Illinois 
Bankers' Association, address to Illinois State 
Historical Society, annual meeting, 1915. 16,77-83 

Harrisburg, Pa 149 

Harrison, William Henry, aid-de-camp to 

General Anthony Wayne 89 

Harrison, William Henry, appointed Governor 

of Indiana Territory in 1801 90,91 

Harrison, William Henrv, President of the 

United States " 160 

Harrison, W. P., early settler of Quincy, 111.. .141 

"Harry of the West," Henry Clay so called 160 

Hartford, Conn 143,144 

Harvey, Fred, early railway mail clerk 173 

Hasse Hotel, Quincy, 111 177 

Hauberg, John H 18 

—13 H S 


Hauser, Damon, agent United States land 

office, Quincy, 111 154 

Havana, 111 55 

•• Hawkeye," name given by the Indians to S. 

S. Phelps 55 

Hayes, Rutherford B., Hayes-Tilden Contest 

for the President of the United States 34 

Hayes-Tilden Contest for the Presidency of the 

United States 34-35 

Hayne, Robert Young, Webster and Hayne 

Debate 33 

Haynie, William Duff, lawyer of Bloomington, 

111 36 

Hayse family of Vermont 125,129 

Heckwe'der, John, Moravian Missionary. . . .48,51 
Hedges & Duff, earlv merchants of Quincy, 

111 166 

Henderson County, 111 54,57,58,61 

Henderson County, 111., Abraham Lincoln's 

first visit to in the capacity of a soldier 57 

Henderson County, 111., Knights of the Golden 

Circle in , reference to 60 

Henderson County, 111., Oquawka county seat 

of, attempt to remove 61 

Henderson County, 111., Mrs. Robert Hodson, 
daughter of S. S. Phelps, one of the firstwhite 

children born in Henderson County 62 

Henderson County, 111., part of Warren 

County 58 

Henderson Coimty, 111., Stephen A. Douglas 
presides over the first term of the Circuit 

Court in 58 

Henderson, Daniel, early settler of Quincy, 111. .143 

Henry, Fort 168 

Henrv, (Miss) Lida, in charge of the Anna E. 

Brown Home for the Aged, Quincy, 111 179 

Henry, Mrs. , of Quincy, 111 173 

"Hiawatha," Longfellow poem, reference to.. 84 

Hickory Branch, Mo 115 

Highland, 111 67 

Hill, Benjamin H., ofGeorgiain United States 

Congress 33 

Hirsch, (Rabbi) Emil G., Historical Thinking, 
address before the Illinois State Historical 

Society, 1915 15 

Hirsch, "(Rabbi) Emil G., honorary member 

Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Hodder, (Prof.) Frank E., The Relation of Illi- 
nois Railroads to the Passage of the Kansas- 
Nebraska Act 15 

Hodson, Robert, Phelps home in which Lin-- 
coln occupied room when in Oquawka in 

1858, owned by Robert Hodson 59 

Hodson, (Mrs.) Robert, daughter of S. S. 
Phelps, one of the first white children born 

in Henderson County, 111 ; 62 

Hogan, John, early legislator in Illinois 116 

Hogan, (Bishop) John, acts as godfather for 

child of General James Shields 115 

Hogan, (Bishop) John, pioneer Catholic Priest 

of North Missouri 115 

Holderman's settlement on the Fox River 52 

Holland, country of 43, 44, 45^47 

Hollander in America, reference to. 45 

Hollanders 44 ,45 

HoUister, (Mrs.) William 133 

Holmes, Charles, agent United States land 

office, Quincy, 111 154 

Holmes, Joseph T.. one of the trustees of the 

town of Quincy, 111 155 

Holmes, Joseph T., quoted on imports into 

Quincy in 1831-32 .■ 156 

Holmes, Joseph T., trustee for Quincy, 111., 

new board 158 

Holmes, (Mrs.) S W., teacher in the Ladies 

Seminary of Warrenville, 111 135,136 

Holt, , early settler of Quincy, 111 153 

Home Missionary Society, Rev. Asa Turner 

sent out West by 143 

Hoopes, Joshua, botanist of Pennsylvania 71 

Hotels— Brown's Hotel, early hotel in Quincy, 
111 147 , 152, 153, 157 


INDEX — Continued. 


Hotels— Cather House, Quinqy, 111 166 

Hotels— Green Tree Hotel, early hotel in 

Chicago 127 

Hotels — Hasse Hotel, Quincv, 111 177 

Hotels— Land Office Hotel, Quincv, 111 155 

Hotels— Mansion House, Chicago 127 

Hotels— Neweomb Hotel, Quincv, 111 140,177 

H otels— Quincy House, Quincv, 111 


Hotels — Sauganash, Chicago 127 

Hotels— Steamboat Hotel, Quincy. Ill 15.3 

Hotels— Tremont Hotel, Quincv, 111 166 

Hotels— Virginia Hotel, Quincy, 111 166 

Hudson, Hcnrich, Commander of the "Half- 
Moon" from Holland •. . 43 

Hudson, Ilenrich, Hudson River, named for 

Henrich Hudson 43 

Hudson River 43,44,149 

Hudson River, named for Henrich Hudson ... 43 
Hunter, (Rev.) Moses, presides over the Insti- 
tute of Learning, Quincy, 111 162 

Huron, 111 55 

Huron Indians 89 


mini, (The), by Clark E. Carr, quoted on the 
Cooking of Pioneer Days 146 

Illinois and Broadway Bank, Quincy, 111 17S 

Illinois and Michigan Canal ." 133 

Illinois College, Jackson^ille, 111 6 

Illinois Countrv 42,45 ,7 1 

Illinois River . ". 90, 139,154,157 

Illinois State 6,7,8.9,17,18,19,23,24,25, 

26, 29, 30, 32, 38, 39, 40, 42, 48, 51, 54, .56, 58, 60, 
61, 63, 67, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 
81, 82, 83, 84, 88. 90, 91. 92, 98, 102, 103, 108, 109, 
146, 148, 149, 1.50. 151, 152, 1.>1, 1.55, 156, 157,158. 
160.163,16.5,166,167,169,172,175,176.177. 178.182 

Illinois State, Arcliives of, work on the 102 
counties in Illinois, refer nee to 17 

Illinois State Armory, at Quincy, 111 180 

Illinois State Bank, Jesse W. Fell, agent for. . . 72 

Illinois State Bankers' Association 77-83 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Agricul- 
tural Commission, monthly publication is- 
sued by ." 80 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, "Agricul- 
ture and Education" Committee 78,80,81 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, .\griculture 
and Education Committee introduces trained 
agricultural advisor in each county 79 

Illinois State Bankers' Association — Banker- 
Farmer Movement Originating with Illinois 
State Bankers' Association, address before 
Illinois State Historical Society, May, 1915, 
by B. F. Harris 16,77-83 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, circular 
quoted 79 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, committee 
advocates vocational work, compulsory 
agricultural education and consolidated 
schools 80 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, committee 
circular quoted 79,80 

Illinois State Bank-»rs' Association, Executive 
Council 0910) 77 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Good 
Roads Committee. , 81 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, groups 
organized for "banker-farmer" movement.. 81 

Illinois State Ban ers' Association, Harris, B. 
F., Story of Banker-Farmer Movement. .77-83 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Peoria 
Herald, 1912, quoted on 81 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Presi- 
dent's Report of 1912. quoted 82 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Survev of 
1913 80 

Illinois State Bankers' Association, Vocational 
Educational Bill 80 


Illinois State Bar Association 175 

Illinois State Bounty Land Register, news- 
paper, published at Quincy, 111 156 

Illinois State Centennial Celebration, plans 
for .....19 

Illinois State Centeimial Commission, work 
of, etc 19 

Illinois StateConstitution of 1848, reference to. . 30 

Illinois State, early settlers from the New Eng- 
land States and the South, settle in Quincv, 
111 "..161 

Illinois State, earlv settlers of from the South. . 
139 , 161 

Illinois State, earthquake in, in 1811, reference. 167 

Illinois State Fair held in Quincy, III., 1S6.S-69. . 174 

Illinois State, General Assembly. Sie Legisla- 

Illinois State, German Emigration to Quincv, 
111 161,167 

Illinois State, German Emigration to Illinois, 
Duden one of the important sources to con- 
sult 63 

Illinois State, Germans in the Southern part of 
Illinois intended to settle in .Missouri 69 

Illinois State, growth and development of. . .23,24 

Illinois State Highway Commissioners, under 
the Tice Road .\ct, reference to 81 

Illinois State Historical Building, appropria- 
tion for, discussed 18 

Illinois State Historical Library 7,9,11,12 

Illinois State Historical Librarv, Act to estab- 
lish ". 9 

Illinois State Historical Library, Publications 
of. See list at end of this volume 211 

Illinois State Historical Societv 


Illinois State Historical Society, An Appeal to 
the Historical Society and the General Public, 
circular letter ". 11,12 

Illinois State Historical Society, Board of 
Directors 6 

Illinois State Historical Society, business meet- 
ing 17-19 

Illinois State Historical Society, constitution 
of .8-12,18 

Illinois State. Historical Society, constitution, 
of discussed 18 

Illinois State Historical Societv, contributions 
to State History 113-185 

Illinois State Historical Society, Genealogical 
Committee report 17 

Illinois State Historical Society, Grand Army 
of the Republic, committee report of ". 17 

Illinois State Historic.d Society, Hirsch, 
(Rabbi) Emil G., made an honorary member 
of 18 

Illinois State Historical Society, journal of 7 

Illinois State Historical Society, officers of 6 

Illinois State Historical Society, papers read 
at the amiual meeting 21-109 

Illinois State Historical Society, Program Com- 
mittee, report of 17 

Illinois State Historical Society, publications. 
See list end of this volume 211 

Illinois State Historical Society, record of offi- 
cial proceedings 13-19 

Illinois State Historical Society, Treasurer's 
Report 17 

Illinois State Historical Society, work of, on 
the archives of the 102 counties in the State, 
reference to 17 

Illinois State, Hodder, (Prof.) Frank E., The 

, Relation of Illinois Railroads to the Passage 
V of the Kansas-Nebraska Act 15 

Illinois State — Indian Treaties Affecting Lands 
in the Present State of Illinois, bv Frank R. 
Grover 84-109 

Illinois State Internal Improvement Scheme, 
1836-37 117 

Illinois State, Kaskaskia, capital of Illinois 115 

Illinois State Legisl ature 9 , 17 , 

79, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 157, 162, 165, 172,175,176 

Illinois State Legislatiu-e, appropriates money 
for the entertainment of General Lafayette. . 116 


INDEX Continued. 


Illinois State Military Tract, bounty lands, 
given to soldiers for services in the War of 

1812 154 

Illinois State Normal Schools, Dekalb, 111 6,15 

Illinois State Normal School, Normal, 111 23 

Illinois State, prairies of 67,72,89,100, 

Illinois State, proposed Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1824, reference 140 

Illinois State, Shields, (General) James, Audi- 
tor of the State of Illinois, 1838 117 ,118 

Illinois State, Shields, (Gen.) James, presented 

with a sword by the State of Illinois 118 

Illinois State— Slavery, Illinois politics torn 

apart on the issues of slavery 119 

Illinois State, Soldier's Home at Quincy, 111.. 


Illinois State, Southern Illinois State Normal 

University 6 

Illinois State Supreme Court 


Illinois State Supreme Court Building 15,17 

Illinois State, University of Illinois 6,15,63 

Illinois State, War of 1812. bounty lands given 

to soldiers in the War ot 1812 154 

Illinois State— War of the Rebellion, Seventh 

Illinois Cavalry 168 

Illinois State — War of the Rebellion, 50th Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry ("Blind Half 

Hundred") '. 168 

Illinois State— War of the Rebellion, 63d Illinois 

Volunteer Infantry ; 168 

Illinois State— War of the Rebellion, 137th Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry 169 

Illinois State— Winter of the Deep Snow, refer- 
ence tOi 142,154 

Illinois Territory 56,115 

Illinois Territory, Kaskaskia, capital of 115 

India 143 

Indiana State 48,51,89,90,125,149,169,179 

Indiana State, Fort Wayne, Ind 179 

Indiana State, Indianapolis, Ind 149 

Indiana StgJ;e, LaPorte, Ind 125 

Indiana Territory— Harrison, (Gen.) William 
Henry, appointed Governor of Indiana 

Territory, 1801 90 

Indianapolis, Ind 149 

Indian Boundary, fixed by the Treaty of Green- 
ville, gives land comprising most of the pres- 
ent State of Ohio and a small part of Indiana 

to the white men 89 

Indian Boundary Line, boundaries of the 

treaty of August 24, 1816, at St. Louis 91 

"Indian Boundary Road," name changed 
by Chicago City Council to Rogers Avenue 


Indian Confederacy, Tecumseh undertakes to 

form Indian Confederacy 91 

Indian Councils, historians of reputation have 
often treated the Indian councils with Govern- 
ment commissioners very lightly 86 

Indian Councils, Putnam, (Gen.) Rufus, speech 
at Indian council, presents white wampum 

belts of peace and medal 49-50 

Indian Creek, D avis settlement on 53 

Indian Massacre, S. S. Phelps averts Indian 
massacre, incident related of Tama (Fox 

Chief J and family 56-57 

Indian Medals, The Story the Medals Tell.. 48-51 
Indian Medals, United States Government 

medals given to the Indians 48,50,51,101 

Indian Orators 86,87,91,93 

Indian Orators, Caleb Atwater quoted on 87 

Indian Orators in Treaty Councils, sayings of, 

carefully preserved as apart of our literature. 86 
Indian Orators, Metea, Pottowattomie Cliief, 
leading orator of his nation, speech at Treaty 

of August, 1821, at Chicago 93-95 

Indian Orators, Nature in the first place made 

him an orator 86 

Indian Orators, Teeumseh's speeches, exam- 
ples of the best Indian orator j* 91 

Indian Ponies 106 

Indian Reminiscences 98 


Indian Territory 109 

Indian Trail : 131 

Indian Treaties 84-109 

Indian Treaties Affecting Lands in the Present 

State of Illinois, by Frank R. Grover 84-109 

Indian Treaties, Treaty of Greenville, August 

3, 1795 84,88-90 

Indian Treaties 1804, with the Sacs and Foxes 


Indian Treaties, 1804, with the Sacs and Foxes, 

land ceded to the Government by 90,91 

Indian Treaties, St. Louis, Mo., Indian Treaty 

of August 24, 1816 91-92 

Indian Treaties, St. Louis, Treaty of August 

24, 1816, land ceded bvthelndians 91 

Indian Treaties, Chicago, August 29, 1821 92-95 

Indian Treaties, Prairie du Chien, Treaty of, 

concluded August 19, 1825 95-98 

Indian Treaties, Prairie du Chien, July 29, 1829 


Indian Treaties, Prairie du Chien, Caleb At- 
water quoted on 87 

Indian Treaties, Chicago, Indian Treaty of 1833 

85 ,88 , 98 , 102-109 

Indian Treaties, Chicago, September 26, 1833 


Indian Treaties, Chicago, 1833, Charles J. 

Latrobe, accountof 102-108 

Indian Treaties, Cliicago, 1833, compensation 

received by the Indians for land 108 

Indian Treaties, whiskey, its use in the Indian 

Treaties 98,106,107 

Indian Treaties, William Perm, Indian Treaty 

negotiated with, reference to 88 

Indians 11,12,15,42-53,55,56,57, 

84-109, 12.8, 131, 132, 134, 138, 141, 150, 152 154, 155 
Indians — Abraham, Chief Sachem of the lower 

Mohawk Castle 46 

Indians, Algonquin family 96 

Indians — American Indians 42,43 ,44 

Indians — Armstrong, Perry A., The Sauks and 

Black Hawk War 91 

footnote 91 

Indians— Black Hawk, Chief of the Fox and 

Sac Indians 47,51 ,52,53,56,91 

Indians — Black Hawk War 


Indians — British Agents' influence with the 

Indians 88 , 89 

Indians— Canadian Agents' influence with the 

Indians 88,89 

Indians — Cayuga Indians 46 

Indians— Chicago, Indian Treaty at 1833 


Indians— Chippeway Indians 


Indians, council at Fort Johnson, reference to . . 46 

Indians — Dakota Indians 96 

Indians— Delaware Indians 48,89 

Indians— Eel River Weas Indians 89 

Indians— Ellskwatawa (The Prophet) brother 

of Tecumseh, the Shawnee Chief 91 

Indians— Fox Indians 55 , 90 ,9 1 ,95-98 , 100 , 155 

Indians— Fox Indians, Treaty Sac and Fox 

Indians, 1804 90,91 

Indians, French Priests' influence with 45 

Indians— G reenviUe Treaty , 1 795 84 , 88-90 

Indians— Grover, Franic R., Indian Treaties 

Affecting Lands in the Present State of 

Illinois 16,84-109 

Indians— Haines, Elijah M., The American 

Indian, quoted 87 ,98-99 

Indians— Huron Indians 89 

Indians— Iowa Indians 95 ,96 

Indians — Iroquois Indians 44^45,47,96 

Indians — Jones, Lotte E., group of stories of 

the American Indians: The Silver Covenant 

Chain; The Story the Medals Tell; Shabona's 

Ride 15,42-53 

Indians — Kaskaskia Indians 89 

Indians, Keokuk, Sac and Fox Indian chief. . 


Indians, Kesis, Pottowattomie Chief 50,51 

Indians— Kickapoo Indians 48, .50, 89 


INDEX — Continued. 


Indians— Land ceded by the Indians in the 

Treaty at Chicago, 1833 102, lOS 

Indians— Land ceded by the Indians in the 

Treaty of Greenville, 1795 88 

Indians — Land ceded bv the Indians in the. 

Treaty at Prairie du Chien, July 29, 1S29. . 99, 101 
Indians— Land ceded by the Indians in the 

Treaty at St. Louis, August 24, ISIG 91 

Indians, Little Turtle Chief of the Miamis 89 ,90 

Indians— Maps and drawings of the Indians 

used in the Indian Treaties 97 

Indians— Medals, The Story the Medals Tell 


Indians — Medals, United States Government 

medals given to the Indians 48-51,100 

Indians— Menominee Indians 95-98 ,100 

Indians— Metca, Pottawattomie Chief, speech 

of^ at Indian Treaty at Chicago, 1821 .92,93 ,94 ,95 

Indians— Miami Indians 47 ,89 

Indians — Miami Indian village near the present 

site of Ft. Wayne, Ind 47 

Indians— Mongazid, speech of, at Indian Treaty 

of Prairie du Chien 97 

Indians, Morgan of the Saiiks and Foxes 101 

Indians— Nawadaha, singer in the poem, "The 

Vale of Tawasentha" 44 

Indians— Ojibway Indians 84,89 

Indians— Oneida Indians 46 

Indians— O nondaga Indians 46 

Indians — "Oquawkiek" Indian name "Yellow 

Banks, " rendezvous for the Indians 55 

Indians— Ottawa Indians 


Indians— Piankashaw Indians 88-90 

Indians— Pontiac, Ottawa Chief 42,51,115 

Indians— Pontiac, Ottawa Chief, miu-dered 

near Cahokia 115 

Indians — Pottawattomie Indians 

48 ,88-90,91 ,92,93,94 ,95, 

Indians — PottawattQmie Indians— Metea, Chief , 

speech of, at Treaty at Chicago, 1821 92-95 

Indians— Prairie du Chien Treaty 87,98-102 

I Sac I Indians 

Indians— \ Saux ; 55,90, 

! 91,95,96,97,98,100,101,155 

Indians, Sac and Fox, treaty with, 1804 90,91 

Indians— Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Thirty 

Years with the Indian Tribes, quoted 95 

Indians— Schoolcraft, Heniy Rowe, Travels in 

the Central Part of the Mississippi Valley, 

quoted 92,93 

Indians— Schuyler, Peter, Commissioner of 

Indian Affairs 45 

Indians, Seminole War, reference to 117 

I Sliabbona i 

Indians ^ ^^rfend""''^' *^^ "^^^^ ""^'^ ', 51-53,99 
I Shabona I 

I^^^-Miha^anoe^ "^8,89.91 

Indians, Silver Covenant Chain 43-48 

Indians - Sioux Indians 95 ,96 ,97 ,98 , 100 

Indians— Tama Fox Indian Chief, massacre of 
Tama and his family averted by S. S.Phelps. 56 

Indians— Tawasentha, Vale of, poem 44-45 

Indians — Tecumseh, Shawnee War Chief, at- 
tempts to form Indian Confederacy 91 

Indians — Treaties with the Indians 

42,88-90,90-98 ,99-109 

Indians- Treaty at Greenville, Augusts, 1795 


Indians— Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, 1804 


Indians— Treaty of August 24, 1816, at St. Louis 

Indians— Treaty atciiicago, August 29, i82i. 92-95 

Indians— Treaty of Prairie du Chien, con- 
cluded August 19, 1825 '. 95-98 

Indians— Treaty of Prairie du Chien July 29, 
1829 98-102 

Indians— Treaty at Chicago, September 26, 1833 


Indians— Treaty at Chicago in 1833, compensa- 
tion received by the Indians for their land 


Indians— Wampimi belts of peace given to the 

Indians by General Putnam 49 

Indians— Wanita, Yankton Chief 96 

Indians— Wapelo, Sac and Fox Indian Chief.. 97 
Indians— Waubunsee, Pottawattomie Indian 

Chief 132 

Indians— Weas, (Eel River) Indians 89 

Indians— Winnebagoe Indians 


Indians— Wyandot (Huron) Indians 89 

Ingersoll, Robert G., prominent Illinois orator 

and lawver 29,32 

Iowa Indians 95 ,96 ,97 ,98 

Iowa State 54,121,167,168,169 

Iowa State, Burlington, la 54 

Iowa State, Ottumwa, la 121 

Iowa State, War of the Rebellion, 7th Iowa 

Infantry 168 

Ireland 24 ,25 ,113 , 114 

Ireland, Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland 114 

Ireland, Parliament 113 

Ireland, Tyrone County 114 

Ireland, Ulster, County, Ireland 25 

Irish immigrationtoQuincy,Ill 161,167 

Irish Race 161 ,167 

Irish Song, to Henrietta Mitchell, Washington 

City, composed by Gen. James Shields 123 

Iroquois Indians 44^45 ,47 ,96 

Irving, Washington, traveling compamon of 
Charles J. Latrobe 102, 103 

Jackson, Andrew 114 

Jackson School, Quincy. Ill 170 

Jackson, Stonewall, Confederate General, War 

of the Rebellion 120,121 

Jackson, Stonewall, (Gen.) James Shields, 

quoted on 121 

Jacksonville, 111 6,71 

James, Edmund J .♦ 6 

James, James Alton 6 

Jansen & Smith, early furniture dealers of 

Quincy, 111 166 

Jasper, Thomas, of Quincy, 111 170 

Jefferson School, Quincy, 111 159,106,170 

Jefferson, Thomas 113 

Jerald Building, Quincy, 111., destroyed by fire, 

1867 174 

Jesse W. Fell, Morehouse, (Miss Frances) Jesse 
W. Fell, address before Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1915 71-76 

Johnson, Andrew, early citizen of Quincy, 111. . 159 

Johnson, (Dr.) Charles B 15,17 

Johnson, (Dr.) Charles B., Illinois in the Civil 

War 15 

Johnson, (Sir) William 45,46 ,47 

Johnson, (Sir) William, in charge of Indian 

affairs in America for Great Britain 45,48 

Joliet,Ill 72 

Jones, Lotte E., a group of stories of the Ameri- 
can Indians: The Silver Covenant Chain; 
The Story the Medals Tell; Shabona's Ride 


Kansas City, Mo 115 

Kansas State 15,58 ,109,167 

Kansas State, Kansas-Nebraska Bill 15,30,118 

Kansas State, University of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kan 15 

Kaskaskia, Aaron Burr at Kaskaskia in further- 
ance of Ms plan or conspiracy 116 

Kaskaskia, 111., capital of Illinois 115 

Kaskaskia, 111., capital of the Territory of Illi- 
nois 115 

Kaskaskia, 111., commercial queen of the West. 116 
Kaskaskia, 111., French build a fort at in 1766. . 115 
Kaskaskia, 111., George Rogers Clark captures 
Kaskaskia in 1778 115 


INDEX — Continued, 


Kaskaskia, III., Lafayette's visit to in 1825 116 

Kaskaskia, 111., Shields, (Gen.) James, teaches 

school in Kaskaskia, 111 114,115 

Kaskaskia, Volney C. F., quoted on Kaskaskia 

in the Summer 65 

Kaskaskia, Indians 89 

Kendall's Hall, first public hall built in Quincy, 

111 164 

Kentucky State 

24,25,26,30,35,40,141,101,107 168,171 

Kentucky State Brigade, War of the Rebellion, 

Col. W. A. Richardson tendered command 

of a Kentucky Brigade 168 

Kentucky State. Christian County, Ky 24 

Kentucky State, Danville, Ky., Center College 

located in 26 

Keokuk, Sac and Fox Indian Chief 56,97,101 

Kerrick, (Hon.) T. C 32 

Kesis, noted Pottawatomie Indian Chief, 

buried in the Kickapoo Burial Grounds in 

Vermilion County 50,51 

Keyes, Willard 


Keyes, Willard, brought the first steam ferry 

boat to Quincy in 1835 156 

Keyes, Willard, early settler of Quincy, 111 


Keyes, Willard, residence, Quincy, 111 164 

Keytesville, Mo 121 

Kickapoo Indians 48 ,50,89 

Kickapoo Indians Burial Ground, Vermilion 

County, 111 50 

Kiefer, J. Warren, of Ohio 35 

Kile, Miss Jessie J., Duden and His Critics 

15 ,63-70 

King, , early settler of Illinois 130,131 

Kinzie Family, beneficiaries of the Indian 

Treaty at Chicago, 1833 108 

Kinzie, John 93,98 

Kinzie, John, speech of, at Indian Treaty at 

Chicago, August 29, 1821, reference to 93 

Kirkpatrick, William, early settler of Quincy, 

ID 141 

Knights of the Golden Circle in Henderson 

Countj', 111., reference 60 

Knott, (Hon.) Proctor, tribute to Adlai E." 

Stevenson 40 

Knox, John, Scottish reformer 25 

Knoxville, 111 55 

Koerner 1 „ 

Korner j Gustave....64,65,66,67,68,120,121,123 

Koerner, Gustave, advice to emigrants, where 
to locate, etc 66,67 ,68 

Koerner, Gustave, agrees with Duden in some 
of Ills accounts of the climate in the United 
States 65 

Koerner, Gustave, German Element in the 
United States, quoted 64-65 

Koerner, Gustave, German Patriot 120 

Koerner, Gustave, German political refugee to 
America 64 

Koerner, Gustave, Justice of the Supreme 
Court, State of Illinois 121 

Koerner, Gustave, member of the law firm of 
Snyder, Shields & Koerner, Belleville, 111.. 120 

Koerner, Gustave, Memoirs of, quoted 123 

Koerner, Gustave, Minister Plenipotentiary at 
theCoui-t of Spain 121 

Koerner, Gustave, quoted on the fertility of 
the soil in Missouri and other parts of the 
United States 67 ,68 

Koerner, Gustave, quoted on the mosquitoes 
in the United States 68 

Koerner, Gustave, Review of Duden's report 
on a Journey to the Western States of Amer- 
ica, quoted 64 

Kopfii, (Dr.) Kaspar, German settler at High- 
land, 111 67 

Lac du Flambeau, Rice Lake region of 96 

Lafayette, (Gen.) Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves 
k^ Gilbert Motier 116 


Lafayette, (Gen.) Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves 
Gilbert Motier, Kaskaskia the most westerly 
point visited by Lafayette in his visit to the 
United States in 1825 no 

Lake Michigan 15,53,90,91,92,96,103,109,126 

Lake Superior 96,97 

Lamar, Lucius Quintius Cincirmatus, member 
of United States Congress, from Georgia 33 

Lambkin, Jeptha, owner of a pottery in 
Quincy, 111., in an early day 141 

Land ceded by the Indians at the Treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, 1829 101 

Land ceded by the Indians at the Treaty at Chi- 
cago, 1833 102 

Land Office Hotel, Quincy, 111 165 

Land Office, United States established in 
Quincy, 111 154 , 155 

Land Office, United States, Quincy, 111., list 
of agents of 154 

Langdon, James Juett, owner of the Whig and 
Republican, newspaper at Quincy, 111 142 

Langdon, Kate Lomse 142,151 

Langdon, Kate Louise, Early Quincy, 1822- 
1830 138,142 

Lanky, , killed in Quincy, 111., by fall 

from telephone pole 174 

La Point in Lake Superior 96 

Laporte, Indiana 125 

Latrobe, Charles J., Account of the Indian 
Treaty at Chicago, 1833 103,108 

Latrobe, Charles J. , English traveler and 
writer 102 

Latrobe, Charles J., Governor of New South 
Wales 102 

Latrobe, Charles J., Washington Irving, trav- 
eling companion of 102,103 

Latrobe, Charles J., The Rambler in North 
America, Vol. 2, quoted 103-108 

Lawrence, (Judge) Charles B., Residence, 
Quincy, III 164 

Lawrence, George A 6 

Lawrence, Kan., University of Kansas 15 

Leech, Samuel, Agent United States Land 
Office, Quincy, 111 154 

Leech, Samuel, early citizen of Quincy, 111. 

Leech, Samuel, member of New Board of 
Trustees, Quincy, 111 158 

Legislation, IllinoisBankers' Association secure 
passage of bill for agricultural advisor or 
county agents in each county 79 

Legislation, Smith-Lever Bill 79 

Lehigh Stoves , 144 

LeRoy, (McLean County), 111 72 

Letters— Godfrey, Benjamin, to Theron Bald- 
win, dated Vaudalia, 1837, reference to 18 

Letters — Sewall, (Mrs.) Catherine, extract from 
a letter of, with an account of their journey 
from Maine to Illinois 148-149 

Letters— Stevenson, Adlai E., letter of the 
members of the United States Senate to 
on his retirement from office as President 
of the Senate 37 

Letters— Turner, (Mrs.) Asa, to her sister in 
Hartford, Coim., dated, Quincy, 111., Dec. 9, 

1830 143-144 

Letters — Turner, Ebenezer, extract from a let- 
ter from Quincy, 111., in 1835 to relatives in 

Massachusetts 151 

Letters — Turner, John, extract from a letter of 

describing a trip from Maine to Illinois 149 

Letters— Wolcott, Alexander, letter of, to 
Governor Lewis Cass, dated January 1, 1821, 

reference 93 

Lever Bill, Illinois State Bankers' Association 
bill for Federal Agricultural Demonstration 
and State Agricultural Education, merged 

into the Lever Bill 79 

Leverett, Eben, grandson of Ebenezer Turner. 153 

Leverett Family 149 

Leverett, Mary, early settler of Quincy, 111 151 

Leiwistown, 111 55 ,58 

L ewiston J Maine, the city of cotton mills. . . 149 


INDEX — Continued. 


Lexington, 111 72 

Lillard, John T., member of the Bloomington 

Bar 32 

Lincoln, Abraham 

Lincoln, Abraliam, anecdote concerning the 
gift of a pocket knife to S. S. Phelps of 

Oquawka 59 

Lincoln, Abraham, appears at Yellow Banks 

with his company for the Black Hawk War . 57 
Lincoln. Abraham, appoints Gen. James 
Shields Major General, Civil War, fails of 

confirmation in the Senate 120 

Lincoln, Abraham, assassination of, reference . . 171 
Lincoln, Abraham, defeated for the United 

States Senate 119 

Lincoln. Abraham, Henderson County, III., 
Lincoln's first appearance in, in the capacity 

of a soldier 57 

Lincoln, Abraham, Jesse W. Fell's friendship 

for 72 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Douglas Debate in 

Quincy, 1858 167,180 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, 

Quincy, 111., boulder marks site of 180 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Douglas Debate 

semicentennial 38 

Lincoln, Abraham, personal friend of S. S. 

Phelps of Henderson County, 111 57-58 

Lincoln, Abraham, Rathbone, Henry R., 
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, address 
before the Illinois State Historical Society, 

1915 16 

Lincoln, Abraham, Shields, (Gen.) James, ten- 
ders his services to President Lincoln at the 

outbreak of the Civil War 120 

Lincoln, Abraham, speech at Oquawka in 1858, 

reference 59 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates 30,38,167,180 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate in Quincy in 1858, 

reference 167 ,180 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Quincy, 111., boulder 

marks site of 180 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, semicentennial cel- 
ebration of 38 

Lincoln School, Quincy, 111 177 

"LittleGiant,"StephenA.Douglasso called .. 30 

" Little Turtle, " Chief of the Miamis 89,90 

Livermore, Maine 151 

Liverpool, England 100 

Lockport, 111 133 

Logan, (Dr.) John, member of the General 

Assembly, 1836-1838, Vandalia, 111 116 

Log Cabin, description of an early one in 

Quincy, 111., built by Col. Peter Felt 142 

Log Cabin of Lincoln, representation of used 

in floats in Oquawka in 1858 -"jg 

London, England 46 , 100 , 146 

London, England, Lords Comrmssioners of. 

Trades and Plantations 46 

Longfellow, Henry W., "Hiawatha" quoted. 84 
Long, Harriet BitUeston, early pioneer of Illi- 
nois 152 

Long, Jenny Bradbury, Quincy, The Making of 

the City, 1830-1845 150-161 

"Long Knives," Virginians so called 47 

Lott, Peter, assists in work of writing history 

of Quincy, 111 163 

Lott, Peter, early settler of Quincy, 111 159,163 

Louisiana State 34 

Louisville, Ky 168 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parish, monument at Alton, 

111 184 

footnote 184 

Lover's Leap at Alton, 111 183 

footnote 183 

Lutheran Church — Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, Quincy, 111., organized in 1837 171 

Lutheran Memorial Church, Quincy, 111.. 161, 178 
Lyford, (Mr.) Quoted on Cooking in the 

Pioneer Days in Illinois 146 

Lynn, J. T., of Detroit, Mich 177 



McAdam Road — Chambersburg, Pa., on the 

Mc.Vdam Road 149 

McCarty, Chevalier de, in command at Fort 

Chartres 46 

McClernand, (Gen.) John A 116,118 

McClernand, (Gen.) John A., contestant for the 
United States Senate from the State of Illi- 
nois 118 

Mackinac Island 90 

Mackinack, Mich 96 

McKinley, William, President of the United 

States 35 

McKinley, William B., head of the Syndicate, 
Electric Light and Railways Company.. 176, 177 

McLaughlin, Robert K 116 

McLean Countv, 111., Bar Association, tribute 

to Adiai E. Stevenson 32-33 

McLean County, 111., Board of Supervisors, 

tribute to Adlai E. Stevenson, refeience 40 

McLean County, 111., Jesse W. Fell, Commis- 
sioner of School Lands in McLean County, 

111., 1834-35 , 72 

McMillan, , Irish surgeon ta the French 

Army and the Mexican .\rmy 117 

McNeil, (Gen.) John, placed in charge of the 

Union forces at Palmyra, Mo 169 ,173 

"Mad Anthony Wayne," (General Anthony 

Wayne) 89,90 

"Mad Anthonv" (General Anthony Wayne) 

" The Peace of Mad Anthony ". 89 

Madison, N. Y 124 

Mail brought into Quincy, 111., in 1835, by the 

old fasliioned "Troy Coach Stage" 156 

Maine State 35,144 ,148,149,151 

Maine State, Livermore, Me 151 

Mann, , early settler of the Calumet 

District 127 

Manning, W J 135 

Manning, (Mrs.) W.J 135 

Maps, Indian bark maps and drawings used 

in Indian treaties 97 

Marcelline, Adams County, 111 173 

Marietta, Ohio 48 

Marion County, 111 162 

Marquette, (Father) Jacques, Journals of, 

reference 116 , 138 

Marsh, A. C, agent United States land oflice, 

Quincy, 111 154 

Mart, Michael, early tailor in Quincy, 111 141 

Maryland State 149 , 161 

Maryland State, Baltimore, Md 149 

Masonic Temple, Quincv, 111 180 

Massachusetts State... 124, 140, 148, 149, 151, 160, 169 

Massachusetts State, Dedham, Mass 148,149 

Mast, Michael, one of the trustees of the town of 

Quincy 155 

Matches, first invented in Vienna and the 

south German states 142 

Maumee River 47 

Maumee Swamp 125 

"Mayflower, The," ship of the Pilgrim Fathers.161 
Maynooth College, The National College of 
St. Patrick at Maynooth in County of Kildare 
about twelve miles from Dublin founded in 

the year 1795 115 

Mazatlan, Mexico 115 

Meachen, S., early settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Medals, coat of arms of the United States, 
engraved on medals given to the Indians 

at Indian council 50 

Medals, United States Government medals 

given to the Indians 48-51,100 

Medals— Indian Medals, The Story the Medals 

Tell 48-51 

Meese, William A 6 

Menominee Indians 95 ,96 , 100 

Mercantile Trust & Savings Bank, Quincy, 

111 178 

Merchants' and Farmers' National Bank of 

Quincy, 111 172 

Metamora, 111 29,30,31,32,38 


INDEX — Continued. 


Metamora, 111., courthouse 38 

Metea, Potfcawattomie Chief 92,93 ,94 ,95 

Metea, Pottawattomie Indian Chief, speech of, 

at Treaty of Chicago, August 29, 1S21 93-95 

Methodist Church, Quincv, 111 171,172,178,179 

Methodist Church (Colored), Quinc}% 111 172 

Methodist Church, German, Methodist Church, 

Quincy, 111 171 ,179 

Methodist Church or Society, organized in 

Quincy, 111. in 1833 171 

Mexican War 117 ,122 

Mexican War, Battle of Cerro Gordo... 117 ,118, 122 

Mexican War, Battle of Contreras 121 

Mexico..: 115,116,120 

Mexico, (Gen.) James Shields, interested in 

mining ventures in 120 

Miami Indians 47,48,89 

Miami Indian Village, near the present site of 

Fort Wayne, Ind ^ 

Michigan City 125 ,126 ,128 

Michigan State 90.92,103,125 

Michigan State, Munroe, Mich 125 

Mile Creek, Adams County, 111 140 

Military Roads— hewing of the military roads 

through the forest 89 

Military Tract— State of Illinois, bounty lands 

given to soldiers who served in the War of 

1812 154 

Miller, E. M., placed at head of Board of Fire 

Engineers, Quincy, 111., 1865 170 

Miller, Mrs. I. G 19 

Minnesota State 120,122,168 

Minnesota State, (Gen.) James Shields elected 

to the United States Senate from 120 

Mississippi River 46 ,47 ,54 , 

Mississippi River, bridge across river at Quincy, 

111., completed in 1868 172 

Mississippi River, "Father of Waters". 61, 116, 182 
Mississippi River— Upper Mississippi River 

Improvement Association 176 

Mississippi Valley. .45,84,88,92,97,103,115,164,167 
Mississippi Valley— Early Settlement of the 

Mississippi Valley, lecture on, reference 164 

Mississippi Valley, earthquakes in, in 1811 and 

1858, reference 167 

Mississippi Valley— Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 

Travels in the Central Part of the Mississippi 

Valley, quoted 92-93 

Missouri River Valley 67 

Missouri State 66,67,68, 


footnote 113 

Missouri State, Carroll County, Mo. : 120 

Missouri State, Chariton County, Mo 115 

Missouri State, Chillicothe, Mo 115 

Missouri State, Duden, Gottfried, quoted on 

the fertility of the soil in 67 

Missouri State, Fort Leavenworth, Mo 109 

Missouri State, German emigrants sutler from 

fever in 66 

Missouri State, Hickory Branch, Mo 115 

Missouri State Legislature 120 

Missouri State, Mormons driven from 158 

Missouri State, slave state 157 

Mitchell Family 149 

Mitchell, Henrietta, (Gen.) James Shield's 

poem dedicated to 123 

Moberly, Mo 122 

Moline, 111 6 

Money, cut money early use of, in Quincy, 

111- 145,146 

Mongazid, of Fond du Lac, speech of, at Indian 

treaty 97 

Monmouth, III 55 ,58 

Monongahela River 46 

Monroe Dye Works, Quincy, 111 148 

Monroe, William proprietor of the Quincy 

Hotel in 1836 157 

Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, 111 18 

Moore, Ebenezer, early mayor of Quincy, 111.. 159 

Moore, John, early resident of Quincy, 111 138 

Moravian Missionary— John Heckwelder 48,51 


Morehouse, (Miss) Frances — Jesse W. Fell, 

paper read before the Illinois State Historical 

Society, May, 1915 16 ,71-76 

Morgan , of the Sac and Fox Indians.. 101 

Morgan, (Maj. Gen.) James D., War of the 

Rebe lion 156,168 

Mormon Prophet — Joseph Smith, Mormon 

Prophet, death of, July 27, 1844 161 

Mormons 139,161 

Morris, Buekner S., early lawyer of Chicago. .134 
Morton, (Mrs.) C. H., presents gift from the 

"Needle Pickets," Quincv, 111., to Cot. 

Ulysses S. G rant 169 

Morton, (Miss) Nancy, wife of Daniel Warren. . 124 
Mosquitoes— Duden, Gottfried, quoted on the 

mosquitoes in the United States 68 

Mosquitoes— Koerner, Gustave, quoted on the 

mosquitoes in the United States 68 

Mount Pisgah Blufif, near Quincy. 111. . 138,139,158 
Mumby, , proprietor of ''The Albion" 

a resort in an early day near Quincy, 111 166 

Munroe, Mich 125 

Munroe, William See Monroe 157 

Murphy, John, proprietor of the Saginaw 

Hotel, Chicago, III 133 

Murphy, (Mrs.) John 133 

Murray Family, early settlers of Illinois 130 

Murray, (Judge) R. N., of Naperville, 111 130 

Murray, Ruth 136 


Naper, (Capt.) Joseph, early settler of Illinois 


Naperville, 111 129 , 130 

Nauvoo, 111., Mormons in 158 

Nawadaha, Indian singer, in the poem, "The 

Vale of Tawasentha' 44 

Nebraska State 118 , 167 

Nebraska State — Kansas-Nebraska Bill 15,118 

Needle Pickets, organization of women, 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion 169-170 

Needle Pickets, Quincy, 111., gift of to Col. 

U. S. Grant 169 

Nelson, (Dr.) David, early instructor in 

Quincy, 111 160 

Nelson, (Dr.) David, institute of learning near 

Quincy, 111 157 , 160 , 162 

Nelson, (Dr.) David, preacher and teacher in 

Palmyra, Mo., strong abolitionist 157 

Newcomb Hotel, Quincy, 111 140 , 177 

New England 142, 161 

New France in America 46,47,48 

New France in America, lost forever 47 

New Orleans, La 66 ,80,114 , 161 

New Salem, (Sangamon County), HI 55 

New South Wales, Latrobe, Charles J., Gov- 
ernor of New South Wales 102. 

Newspapers, Breeders' Gazette, Chicago, 111.. 79 
Newspaper, Edwardsville, 111., early news- 
paper published in / 139 

Newspapers, Illinois Bounty, Land Register 

published at Quincy, 111 1.56 

Newspapers, Peoria Herald, Peoria, 111 81 

Newspapers, Prairie Farmer, January 15, 1912, 

quoted 79 

Newspapers, Quincy, 111., Herald 156,159,168 

Newspapers, Quincy Herald, April 10, 1861, 

quoted 168 

Newspapers, Quincy Whig, Quincy, 111 156 

Newspapers, Rock Island Union, Rock Island, 

111 15 

Newspapers, Sangamo Journal, 1834 55 

Newspapers, Saturday Evening Post 81 

Newspapers, Whig and Republican, Quincy, 

111 142 

New York City .58 , 135 , 149 

New York City, "Black Friday" in, reference 

to 135 

New York State 124,127 

New York State, Fredonia, N. Y 124,127 

New York State, Madison, N. Y 124 

New York State, Westfielcl, N. Y 124,125 

Niagara, Fort, defeat of the French at 47 


INDEX — Continued. 


Noll, Addie M., Quiucy After the War, 1865- 

1880 173-175 

Normal, 111 16 ,71 72,74 

Normal 111., North Bloomington later called 

Normal, p armed ia 1854 7 2 

Norman's Kill, a small stream entering the 

Hudson River 44 

North America 64 

North American Indian 84 

Northern Cross R. R 157, 161 

Northern Lakes 174 

Northwestern University, I vanston. Ill 6 

Northwest— Quaife, Milo Miltcn Chicago and 

the Old Northwest, quotoi 86,109 

Northwest Territory, St. Clii r ,'1ea.) Arthur, 

Governor of 89 

Norton, W. T 6 

Nortwick, John Van, Sr 136 

Ohio Company, Ger va' Putnam agont for 48 

Ohio River 4f ,47.4'. :,r,tj, 88,89, l'!2, 149, 150, 167 

Ohio State : ... .35 ,71 ,8$ ,9 1, 125 , 149 , 169 

Ohio State, Colum. ii-; Ohio 149 

OhioState, Sandnslcy, Ohio 125 

Ohio State, Steubei'ville, Ohio 71 

Ohio State. W ".ing, Ohio 149 

OhicVa' 84,88,89 

OjiV ■ 1., iniLS 84,89 

''Oin flio ;jiv, '• Andrew Jackson so called 59 

Old N orthwest 48,51 ,86 

Old Nortl.w9~t— Q;:"ifo. Milo Milton, Chicago 

and the *.) i Nortnw ...:., refereac ' 86 

Old Peop'e s Home (German), Quiucy, III 179 

Old Yellow Banks, addres? before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1C15, bj Jr'nes 

W.Gordop 15,54-62 

Oneiia Indiuns 46 

Ono'.' laga Indians 46 

Onondaga, N. Y 45 

Oquawka, 111 1.3,54. .55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 

Oquawka, III., county "eat of Henderson 

County, attempts to remove 65 

Oquawka, 111., county seat of two counties 5i 

Oquawka, 111., Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 

speech at, in 185S, reference 5S 

Oquawka, 111., Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph, pur- 
chases interest in th e town 5S 

Oquawka, 111., early shipments of grain, flour, 

lard, bulk pork, butter, hides, etc., from 58 

Oquawka, 111., exports clearing tlirough in 1852 58 
Oquawka, 111., imports, total imports in 1852.. 58 
Oquawka, 111.— Lincoln, Abraham, speech at 

Oquawka in 1S.")S, reference 59 

Oquawka, HI., Murder Hoax, Story of, in 

Oquawka 60-61 

Oquawka, 111., town of, named anl platted in 

1836 58 

"Oquawkiek," Indian name for Yellow 

Banks 55 

Ore, Peter, earlv settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Oregon State 135,150 

Oregon Territory, (Gen.) James Shields, ap- 
pointed Governor of, by President Polk 118 

Osborne, Georgia L., Report, Genealogical 

Committee, Illinois State Historical Society. 17 
O'Shaughnessy, Francis, General James 
Shields, of "Illinois, contribution to State 

History 113-122 

Oswego, N. Y 45 

Ottawa, 111 53 ,132 

Ottawa Indians 


O ttumwa, la 121 

Ouilmette, Antoine 98,99, lOS 

Ouilmette, Antoine and Family, beneficiaries 

of the Indian Treaty at Chicago, 1833.... 99, 108 
Ouilmette, Antoine, employed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company 98 

Ouilmette, Antoine, Frenchman connected 

with the early liistory of Chicago 98 

Ouilmette, Antoine— Grover, Frank R., An- 
toine Ouilmette, The First Settler of Evans- 
ton and Wilmette 99 


Ouilmette, Antoine, AVilmette Village origi- 
nates from the spelling of his name 98 

Ouilmette, Archange and cliildren, land given 
by the Treatv of Prairie du Chien, July 29, 
1829 ." 99 

Ouilmette, Archange, wife of Ouilmette 98,99 

Ouilmette Reservation, land given to Archange 
Ouilmette and her children by the Treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, July 29, 1829 99 


Pacific Ocean 135,151 ,174 

Page, (Professor) EdwaxdC ....6,18 

Paine Family, early setflers of Illinois 132 

Palmer, John M., quoted on General James 

Shields 121 

Palmetto Regiment, South Carolina Regiment 

in the War with Mexico 117,122 

Palmetto Sword, sword given by South Car- 
olina to General James Shields, reference to. 122 

Palmyra, Mo 145,162,169,172 

Palmyra, Mo., (Gen.) John McNeil, placed in 

charge of the Union forces at Palmyra, Mo. . 169 
Palmyra, Mo., War of the Rebellion, hot bed of 

secession 169 

Panama Canal 176 

Paris, France 100,146 

Pasfield, George, Jr 78 

Patten. Hans, early settler of Quincy 111 143 

Patterson, (Col.) J. B., Life of Black Hawk, 

reference to 56 

Pat' in John, early railway mail clerk of 

Quincy, 111 173 

Pavson, Adams County, 111 72,147 

Peace of "Mad Anthony," by Frazer E. 

Wilson, reference 90 

Pease, (Capt.) Nathaniel, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 154 

Penn, William, Indian Treaty negotiated with, 

reference 88 

Pennsylvania State 30,71 ,125, 149 

Pennsylvania State, Chambersburg, Pa 149 

Pennsylvania State, Chester County, Pa 71 

Pennsylvania State, Easton, Pa 149 

Pennsylvania State, Harrisburg, Pa 149 

Pennsylvania State, Philadelphia, Pa 72,166 

Pennsylvania State, Pittsburg, Pa 170 

Pennsvl vania State, Springfield, Pa 125 

Peoria", III 58,81,82,135 

Peoria, 111., Peoria Herald, newspaper, quoted. 81 

Periclean Age 28 

Perrin, J. Nick 18 

Peters, Blanche, Class Poem, Alton, 111., High 

School, 1912 182-185 

Petersburg, 111 55 , 78 

Pfeitier, Charles, donates building for German 

Old People's Home, Quincy, 111 179 

Phelps, Sumner S., earlv settler of Henderson 

County, 111 ." 55 ,56 ,57 ,59 ,62 

Phelps, Sumner S., Lincoln anecdote concern- 
ing the gift of a pocket knife to S. S. Phelps. . 59 
Phelps, Sumner S., named by the Indians 

Hawkeye. 55 

Phelps, Sumner S., personal friend of Abraham 

Lincoln 57,58 

Phelps, Sumner S., Saved the life of Tama (Fox 

Chief) and his family 56-57 

Phelps, Sumner S., (Gen.) Winfleld Scott com- 
mends S. S, Phelps for his courage and 

bravery in protecting Tama and his family 


Phelps, William, early settler of Henderson 

County, 111 55 

Philadelphia, Pa 72,166 

Phillips, E. J., assists in work of writing early 

liistory of Quincy, 111 163 

Phillips, E. J., earlv settler of Quincy, 111 

' 146,159,163 

Piankashaw Indians 89 

Pike County, 111 140 

Pitman, James M., one of the incorporators of 

the Bridge Companv, Quincy, 111 172 

Pittsburg, Pa 170 


INDEX — Continued. 


Plains of Abraham, defeat of the French at 47 

Polk, (President) James K., appoints Gen. 
James Shields as Commissioner General of 

the Land Office of the United States 117 

Polk, (President) James K., appoints General 
James Shields, Governor of Oregon Terri- 
tory 118 

Polk, James K., President of the United States 


Polo, 111 6 

Pomerov, C. M., President of the First National 

Bank "of Qiiincy, 111 172 

Pond, Thaddeus, early settler of Quincy, 111.. 141 

Pontiac, 111 72 

Pontiac, Ottawa Chief 42,51 ,115 

Pontiac, Ottawa Chief, murdered near Caho- 

kia 115 

Pope, Alexander, extract from poem of 100 

Porter, Joseph C., organizes company for Con- 
federate service. War of the Rebellion 169 

Porter, (Rev.) Jabez, early Presbyterian 

preacher and teacher, Quincy, 111 140 

Potomac River 167 

„ ^^ . . ! Indians 

Pottawatomie ,. 48,49,50,89,90,91,92. 

Pottawattamie | 93,94 95,96,97,98,99,100-109 
Pottawatomie Indians— Caldwell, Billy, made 
Chief of the Pottawatomies at Treaty of 

Prairie du Chien 99 

Pottawatomie Indians, history of, since leaving 

Illinois , 109 

Pottawatomie Indians, language of, emphatic .105 
Pottawatomie Indians— Metea, Pottawatomie 

Chief 92-95 

Pottawatomie Indians — Metea, Pottawatomie 

Chief, speech of, at Treaty at Chicago 93-95 

Pottawatomie Indians— Robinson, Alexander, 
made Chief of the Pottawatomies at the 

Treaty of Prairie du Chien 98-99 

Prairie du Cliien, Indian Treaty at 88.95-102 

Prairie du Cliien — Atwater, Caleb, Western 
Antiquities and Remarks on a Tour to^ 

Prairie dU Chien in 1829, quoted 99-102 

Prairie du Chien— Indian Treaty of Prairie du 

Chien concluded, August 19, 1825 95-98 

Prairie du Chien — Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe , 
Description of Treaty at Prairie du Chien, 

August 19, 1825 95-97 

Prairie du Chien, treaty with the Indians July 

29, 1829 98-102 

Prairie du Chien, treaty at July 29, 1829, 

Atwater, Caleb, quoted 99-102 

Prairie du Chien, Treaty of, July 29, 1829, lands 

ceded by the Indians 98,99 

Prairie Farmer, editorial reference to B. ,F. 
Harris, President Illinois Bankers' Associa- 
tion 79 

Prairies of Illinois 67,72,89,100, 

Preece, Ira. owner of a tannery in Quincy, 111., 

in an early day 141 

Prentiss, (Capt.) Benj. W., War of the Rebellion. 168 

Presbyterian Church 115 , 140, 143 , 174 

Presbyterian Church, Quincy, 111 140,171.174 

Presbyterian Church, Quincy, 111., organized 

in 1839 171 

Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Alle- 
gheny, Pa • 30 

Presquelsle 47 

Prince, (Col.) Edw;ard, Colonel of the Seventh 

Illinois Cavalry, War of the Rebellion 168 

Progress of Civilization Since the Christian 

Era, lectm-e on, reference to 163,164 

Purple, (Judge) Norman H 58 

Putnam, (Gen.) Rufus, agent for the Ohio Com- 
pany 48 

Putnam, (Gen.) Rufus, medals given at the 
Indian Council by, explanation to the Indi- 
ans as to the engravings on, etc 50-51 

Putnam, (Gen.) Rufus, speech at the Indian 
Council, presents white wampum belt of 

peace 49-50 

Pypegee, son of Black Hawk 51 ,52 

Pyps, nephew of Black Hawk 51 


Q. F.B., Quincy Freight Bureau 176 

Quaife, Milo M. , Chicago and the Old North- 
west, quoted 86,109 

Quider, "Brother Quider," name given by the 

Indians to Peter Schuyler 45 

Quincy, 111 54 ,138-169 

Quincv, 111-, Academy of Music, burned, 1879 . . 174 
Quincy, 111., After the War, 1865-1880, by Addie 

M. Noll 173-175 

Quincy, 111., "Albion, (The)" a resort in an 

early day near East Quincy 166 

Quincv, 111-, Allen, L. B., early saddler in 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., amusements in, in an early day. .167 
Quincy, 111., Anderson, Asher, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 144 , 145 , 153 

Quincy, 111^ Anderson, Asher, early store- 
keeper in Quincy, 111 144 , 145 

Quincy, 111., Anderson, J. H., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Anna E. Brown, Home for the 

Aged 179 

Quincy, 111., armory, Illinois State, at Quincy, 

111 180 

Quincy, 111., Asbury, Henry, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 159 , 161 , 163 

Quincy, 111., Asbury, Henry, History of 

Quincy, 111 159 , 161 ,163 

Quincy, 111., Asiatic Cholera in, in 1849 164 

Quincy, 111., Baldwin Park in 174 

Quincy, 111., Bancroft, Adeha Ames, early 

settler of 143 

Quincy, 111., Bancroft, Amos, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111-, bank robbery in 1874 174 

Quincy, 111-, banks 172,178 

Quincy, 111., Baptist Church 171,172,178 

Quincy, 111-, Baptist Church (First) organized 

in 1835 171 

Quincy, 111., Baptist Church, German Baptist, 

organized in 1853 172 

Quincy, 111., Baptist Church (Elm Street), 

organized in 1865 172 

Quincy, 111., beginning of telegraphy in 159 

Quincy, 111., Blakesley, A. W., Superintendent 

of Schools 170 

Quincy, 111., Bluffs, (The), Quincy called 

"The Bluffs" in an early day 140 

Quincy, 111 , Blessing Hospital, incorporated 

in 1873 178 

Quincy, 111., Boulevard and Park Association. 175 
Quincy, 111., Bradford, Emily M., Quincy 

During the War 167-173 

Quincy, 111., bridge across the Mississippi 

River completed in 1S6H 172 

Quincy, 111., Brown, Anna E., Anna E. Brown 

Home for the Aged, Quincy, 111 179 

Qiuncy, 111., Brown, Anna E., bequest to the 

Quincy Hi;mane Society 179 

Quincy, 111., Brown, J. W., early jeweler of 166 

Quincy, 111., Brown, Nancy, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111., Brown, Rufus, early hotel keeper 

of Quincy, 111 140,146,153,157 

Quincy, 111., Browm, Rufus, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 140,143 ,Mii , 1 J7 ,153,157 

Quincy, 111., Brown's Hotel, early hotel in 

140 146,147,153,157 

Quincy, 111., Browning, Orville H., early law- 
yer of Quincy, 111 155 

Quincy, 111., Browning, Orville H., early settler 

of Quincy, 111 155 ,163 

Quincy, 111., Bull, Lorenzo, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 159,160 

Quincy, 111., busmess interest of, industries, 

g{^Q ___ ., 174 

Quincy, ilT."called''TheBVulis" in an early 
day 140 

Quincy, 111-, Camp Wood, War of the Rebel- 
lion, location of 169 

Quincy, 111., Gather House, Quincy, 111 166 

Quincy, 111., Catholic Churches in 



INDEX — Continued. 


Quincy, 111., Catliolic Church, "The Church of 
the Ascension of our Lord," name chanjted 

to S t . Boni face 160 , 16 1 

Quincv, III., Catholic Church, St. Boniface.. 

160, 161,172 

Quincy, 111., Catholic Church, St. Francis 172 

Quincv, 111., Catholic Church, St. John's 177 

Quincy, 111., Catholic Church, St. Peter's. . .172,178 
Quincv, Ill.,CatholicChurch, St. Rose of Lima. 178 
Quincv, 111., census of 1825, 1830, 1835, 18-10, 
1S45, 1850, 1855, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1S90, 1900.. 


Quincy, 111., Centre School 170 

Quincy, 111., Chamber of Commerce 176 

Quincv, 111., Chapman, George, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., charitable institutions in 178-179 

Quincy, 111., Cheerful Home, Quincy, 111., 

founded hv >liss Cornelia Collins in 1887 179 

Quincv, 111.; cholera in, in 1S33 155 

Quincy HI., cholera in, in 1849 164 

Quincy, 111., Christian Church 171,178 

Quincv, 111., Christian Church organized in 

1850". 171 

Quincv, 111., Christian Scientist Church, or- 
ganized in 1891 177 

Quincv, 111-, Churches 


Quincy, 111., city hall destroyed by fire in 1867.174 
Quincy, III., City Hotel (afterwards the Vir- 
ginia) 166 

Quincy, 111., Civic Improvement Association . . 176 
Quincy, Ills., Clark Brazilli, first justice of the 

peace in Quincy, 111 163 

Quincy, 111., Commissioners laid out the town 

and fixed county seat 140 

Quincy, 111., Comstock & Co., merchants in 

earlj' day in Quincy, 111 166 

Quincy, III., Congregational Church (First), 

1833 .140,141 ,160,170, 171 , 178 

Quincy, 111., Congregational (First) Church, 

knowTi as the Lord's Barn 141,160,170,171 

Quincy, 111., Conyers, Enoch, early mayor of 

Quincy, 111 .... .' 159 

Quincy, 111., cost of living in, in 1835 148 

Quincy, HI., costumes worn by the early set- 
tlers of 145 

Quincy, 111., courthouse, log one burned during 

the winter of 1835-36 140,156, 157 ,166 

Quincy, 111., Cox Home 179 

Quincy, 111., Cox, John C, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 163 

Quincv, 111., Crank, Thomas, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincv, 111.. ''Cut Monev," early use of, in 

Quincy, HI '- -' 145 , 146 

Quincv, 111., Davis, HopeL., Superintendent of 

Schools from 1860 to 1864 170 

Quincy, 111., Davis, Wm. L., early railway 
mail clerk, originator of the railway mail 

service 173 

Quincy, 111., directory of 1857-S 166 

Quincy, III., Dodd, Mike, eccentric character 

in an early day in Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Dotv, Reuben, early settler of 

Quincy, 111....: .'....141 

Quincy, 111., Droulard, John, cabin and shoe- 
maker shop in Quincy, 111., in an early day. . 141 
Quincv, 111., Droulard", John, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 138, 1-39, 140, 141 

Quincy, 111., Duff, (Hedges & Duff), early mer- 
chants in 166 

Quincy, 111., early alderman of, salaries of 162 

Quincy, 111., early business firms of, list 166 

Quincy, 111., early hotels in 


Quincy, 111., early names suggested for 164 

Quincy, III., Early Quincy, 1822-1830, by Kate 

Louisa Langdon 138-142 

Quincy, 111., early settlers in, mostly from New 
England States, Kentucky, Maryland and 

Virginia 161 

Quincy, ID., earthquake in, in 1858 166 


Quincy, 111., education, English and German 

Male and Female Seminary 166 

Quincy, 111., education, first public school 

building in 162 

Quincy, 111., educational progress 162,177 

Quincy, 111., Eldred, (Miss) Amiie M. Porter, 

Quincy, 18S0-1913 175 , 181 

QuincVj 111., Emery, Rev. Samuel, Pastor of 
the First Congregational Church, Quincy, 111. 

during the war 171 

Quincv, 111., Empire Light & Power Co., in- 
stituted in 1S95 177 

Quincy, 111., English and German Male and 

Female Seminary 166 

Quincv, 111., Ensign, Justice, early hatter of 

Quincy 111 141 

Quincv, 111., numeration of houses in, begun 

in 18".i7 166 

Quincy, 111., Felt, Marv, earlv settler of Quincy, 

HI ". ." 143 

Quincy, 111., Felt, (Col.) Peter, earlv settler of 


Quincy, 111., Fiftieth Illinois Volunteer Infan- 
try, (nicknamed The Blind Half Hundred), 

organized September 12, 1861 168 

Quincy, 111., Fire Engineers, Board of, estab- 
lished in 1865 170 

Quincv, 111., fire of 1854 165 

Quincy, 111., fire of 1856 166 

Quincv, 111., fire of 1867, destrovs city hall 174 

Quincy, 111., fire of 1874, 1879. 174 

Quincy, 111., first church founded in, list of 

members 143 

Quincy, III., first city directory in 163 

Quincv, 111., first cook stove invented in, 

calle'd the ■' Prairie State" 146 

Quincv, 111., first courthouse burned, 1835-36 

....; 140,156,157,166 

Quincv, 111., first hotel keeper in, Rufus Brown 

140 , 146 , 1.53 , 157 

Quincy, HI., first justice of the peace in, Bra- 
zilli (Jlark 163 

Quincy, 111., first marriage in, Amos Bancroft 

andAdelia Ames 113 

Quincy, 111., first National Bank 172 

Quincy, 111., first public improvements in 158 

Quincy, 111., first public school building in.. 162 
Quincy, 111., first public schools established in. 159 
Quincy, 111., first railroad meeting held in, in 

January, 1849 164 

Quincy, ill., first seal of, reference to 159 

Quincy, 111., first steamboat hull constructed 

in 1847 163 

Quincv, 111., first steam ferryboat, bought by 

Millard Keyes in 1S3.5 156 

Quincy, 111., first steam fire engine in, 1866.. 173 
Quincy, 111., first street railroad operated by _ 

horsepower in 1S67 173 

Quincy, 111., Flood, William, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 155 

Quincy, 111., Foote, (Rev.) Horatio, early Con- 
gregational minister in Quincy, 111 160,163 

Quincy, 111., Franklin School 159,162,170 

Quincy, 111., freight bureau, organized in 1897. . 176 
Quincv, 111., Gardner, Robert, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 153 

Quincy, 111., Gas and Electric Company 177 

Quincv, 111., Gas, Light & Coke Co., organized 

in 1853 177 

Quincy, 111., Gem City 164 

Quincy, 111., Germaii Baptist Church organ- 
ized in 1853 172 

Quincy, 111., German M. E. Church 171 ,179 

Quincy, 111., German M. E. Church founded in 

1844 171 

Quincy, 111., German immigrants land direct 

from Germany to Quincy 161 , 167 

Quincy, 111., German immigration to 161,167 

Quincy, 111., Giddings, (Rev.) George, rector 

of I he Episcopal Church, Quincy, 111 159 

Quincy, 111., God's Barn, (The Lord's Barn) 
the Congregational Church called in an early 
day 141,160,170,171 


INDEX — Continued. 


Quincy, 111., "Good Samaritans," organization 

of women. War of the Rebellion 170 

Quincv, 111., Government Clothing Hall, War 

of the Rebellion 170 

Quincv, 111., Gravs, local military organization. 160 

Quincv, 111., Greenleaf Foundry 170 

Quincv, 111.. Harrison, W. P., early settler of 

Quincv, 111 141 

Quincv,"lll., Hasse Hotel 177 

Quincy, III., Hedges & Duff, early merchants 

in. . " 166 

Quincy, 111., H-nderson, Daniel, early settler 

of Quincv, 111 143 

Quincv, 111"., Herald (newspaper).. 156.159,168 

Quincy, Herald, Quincy, 111., issue April 10, 

1861, quoted 168 

Quincy, 111., High School. Quincy, 111 164 

Quincy, 111., Historical Club or Society formed 

in, in an earl v day 159. , 163 

Quincv, 111., Historical Papers of 1912, Polly 

Sumner Chapter, D.A.R 138-181 

Quincy, 111., Historical Society organized 1896 .180 
Quincy, 111., Historical Society, purchases the 

G overnor Wood home 180 

Quincv, 111., Holt, , early brick maker 

in..". 153 

Quincy, 111., Horse Railway & Carrying Com- 
pany, created by Act of the Legislature, 

February 11, 1865 176 

Quincy, 111., hospitals and homes established 

in 172 

Quincy, 111., hotels, early 140,146,153,157 

Quincv, 111., Housekeeping in Quincy in the 

Thirties, by Helen C. Turner 142-149 

Quincy, 111., Humane Society 179,180 

Quincy, 111., Humane Society, Anna E. 

Brown's bequest to 180 

Quincy, 111., Hunter, (Rev.) Moses, presides 

over the Institute of Learning in Quincy 162 

Quincy, 111., Illinois and Broadway Bank 178 

Quincy, 111., Illinois Bounty Land Register, 

newspaper 156 

Quincy, 111., important military point. War of 

the Rebellion 167 

Quincy, 111., imports into, from July 1831 to 

July, 1832 156 

Quincy, 111., institute of learning to educate 

men and women for missionary service.. 157-158 

Quincy, 111., Irish immigration 1836 to 1839 167 

Quincy, 111., Irving School 170 

Quincy, 111., Jackson School 170 

Quincy, 111., Jansen & Smith, early furniture 

dealers in 166 

Quincy, 111., Jefferson School 159,166,170 

Quincy, 111., Jerald Building destroyed by fire, 

1867 174 

Quincy ,111., Johnson, Andrew, early citizen of 

Quincy, 111 159 

Quincy, 111., Kendall's Hall, first public hall 

built in Quincy, 111 164 

Quincy, 111., Keyes, Willard, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 139, 141^147, 148, 163, 164, 167 

Quincy, 111., Kirkpatrich, WiUiam, early set- 
tler of Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., labor unions 180 

Quincy, 111., Lambkin, Jeptha, owner of a 

pottery in an early day in Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., land office, estab ished in 1830, 


Quincy, 111., Land Office Hotel 155 

Quincy, 111., Langdon, Kate Louisa, Early 

Quincy, 1822-30 138-142 

Quincy, 111., Leech, Samuel, early citizen of 

Quincy, HI 159 

Quincy, 111., Leverett, Mary, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 151 

Quincy, 111., Library Association 163 

Quincy, 111., Lincoln-Douglas Debate, boulder 

marks site of 180 

Quincv, 111., Lincoln-Douglas debates in, in 

1858, reference 167 

Quincy, 111., Lincoln School 177 

Quincy, 111., local improvement in, beginning 

with 1887 175 


Quincy, 111., log cabin, description of an early 

one built by Col. Peter Felt 142 

Quincv, 111., Long, Jennie Bradbury, Quincy, 

the Making of the City 1830-1845 150-161 

Quincy, 111., Lott, Peter, assists in writing 

early history of Quincy, 111 163 

Quincy, 111., Lott, Peter, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 159 , 163 

Quincy, 111., Lutheran Churches in 

161 ,171-172,178 

Quincy, 111., Lutheran Memorial Church, 

Quincy, 111 178 

Quincy, 111., Lutheran St. John Church, 

Quincy, 111 161 

Quincy, 111., mail in an early day in 156,163 

Quincy, 111., mail in an early day brought, 
1835, by the old fashioned "Troy Coach" 

stage 156 

Quincy, 111., Making of a City 1830-1845, by 

Jennie Bradbiu^y Long 150-161 

Quincv, 111-, Mart, Michael, early tailor in 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Masonic Temple 180 

Quincy, 111., Meachen, S., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Mercantile Trust & Sa\ings 

Bank 178 

Quincv, 111., Merchants' and Farmers' National 

Bank 172 

Quincy, 111., Methodist Church 171 ,172,178 

Quincy, 111., Methodist Church (colored) 172 

Quincy, 111., military companies in, in 1854... 165 
Quincy, 111., Miller, E. M-, placed at head of 

Board of Fire Engineers, 1865 170 

Quincy, 111., Miliar, (Weaver & Miller) early 

business firm in 166 

Quincy, 111., Monroe Dye Works 148 

Quincy, 111 , Moore, Ebenezer, early mayor of 

Quincy, 111 159 

Quincy, 111., Mormons in 158 

Quincy, 111., Mount Pisgah, high bluff near ... 

138, 139, 158 

Quincy, 111., named for John Quincy Adams 


Quincy, 111., National Bank founded in 1887.. 178 
Quincy, 111., "Needle Pickets," organization 

of women in War of the Rebellion 169-170 

Quincy, 111., Nelson, (Dr.) David, early in- 
structor in Quincy, 111 160 

Quincy, 111., Nelson, (Dr.) David, establishes 

Institute of Learning in 162 

Quincy, 111., Newcomb Hotel 140,177 

Quincy, 111., Noll., Addie M., Quincy After the 

War, 186.5-1880 173-175 

Quincy, III., Non-Union sentiment in, during 

the Civil War 168 

Quincy, 111., Old People's Home (German).. .179 
Quincy, 111., Ore, Peter, early settler of Quincy, 

111 141 

Quincy, IlL. Patten, Hans, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111., Patton, John, early railway mail ■ 

clerk 173 

Quincy, 111., Pease, (Capt.) Nathaniel, early 

settler of Quincy, 111 154 

Quincy, 111., Phillips, E. J., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 159 

Quincy, 111., Police, no chief of police in Quincy 

until 1867 170 

Quincy, 111., Polly Sumner Chapter, D. A. R..138 
Quincy, 111., Polly Sumner Chapter D. A. R-, 

Historical Papers, 1912 138-181 

Quincy, 111.. Pond, Thaddeus, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., population of in 1825, 1830, 1835, 
1840, 1850, 1855, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900.. 


Quincy, 111., Porter, (Rev.) Jabez, early teacher 

and preacher in Quincy, 111 140 

Quincy, 111., Preece, Ira. owner of a tannery in 

Quincy, 111., in an early day 141 

Quincy, 111., Presbyterian Church 140,171,174 

Quincy, 111., prices of, home products and im- 
ported goods in 1835 148 


INDEX— Continued. 


Quiney, 111., public schools 159,170 

Quincy, 111., public schools established in 159 

Quiney, 111., Public Library 159 , 177 

Quincy, 111., Public Library early formation of. 159 
Quincy, 111., Quincv House (on site of Brown's 

Hotel) built in 1836 157,165 160,177 

Quincy, 111., railroad bridge commenced to 

span the Mississippi Kiver, 1867 173 

Qumcy, 111., Redmond, Thomas, mayor of 170 

Quincy, 111., rendezvous of National Army, 

War of the Rebellion 168 

Quincy, 111^ Ricker, H. F. J., establishes private 

bank in Quincy in 1860 172 

Quincy, 111., Ridder, H. & Co., early business 

firm in 166 

Quincy, 111., Rogers, (Dr.) S. W., early settler 

of Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Rogers, (Dr.) S. W., second doctor 

in Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Rose, Jeremiah, early settler of 

139 , 140 

Quincy, HI., Rose (Mrs.) Jeremiah, early set- 
tler of 139 

Quincy, 111.. St. Aloysius Orphans' Home 

Association 172 

Quincy, 111., St. Boniface Catholic Church.. 

160, 161 ,172 

Quincy, 111., St. Boniface, oldest Catnolic 

Church in Quincy, 111 160,161 

Quincy, 111., St. Francis Catholic Church 172 

Quincy, 111., St. Jacobi Lutheran Church.. 171 

Quincy, 111., St. John's Catholic Church 177 

Quincy, 111., St. Mary's Hospital 172,178 

Quincy, 111., St. Peter's Catholic Church 172 

Quincy, 111., St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, 

Quincy, 111 178 

Quincy, 111., St. Vincent's Home 179 

Quincy, 111., Salem, Evangelical Church 171 

Quincy, 111., Savings Bank of 1857, merged into 

the First National Bank 172 

Quincy, 111., seal, first seal of, reference 159 

Quincy, 111., Sibley, Julia, Quincy Before the 

Civil War 161-167 

Quincy, 111 , Singleton, (Gen ), James, resident 

of Quincy, 111 164 

Quincy, 111., smallpox scare in, in 1858 166 

Quincy, 111., Smith, Joseph, Mormon leader . 

lived in for a short time 158 

Quincy, 111., Snow, Henry H., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111., Snow, Lucy K., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111., Soldiers' Home in 180,181 

Quincy, 111., State Fair held in, in 1868-9 174 

Quincy, 111.. Steamboat Hotel in, early hotel.. 153 
Quincy, 111., steamboats passing tlirough 

Quincy in 1867 173 

Quincy, 111., steamboats plying regularly be- 
tween St. Louis and Quincy in 1854 165 

Quincy, 111., Street Railway & Carrying Com- 
pany 174 

Quincy, 111., Thayer's distillery destroyed by 

fire October 20, 1854 165 

Quincy, 111., Thomas, James, early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Thompson, Houston, Electric 

Light & Power Co 177 

Quincy, 111., tliree commissioners laid out the 

town and fixed the county seat 140 

Quincy, 111.. Tillson, John, Jr., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 163 

Quincy, 111., Tillson, Robert, early settler of 

Quincy, ill 138 , 141 , 153 

Quincy, 111., town incorporated, list of first 

trustees of 155 

Quincy, 111., town laid out and county seat 

selected, 1825 140 

Quincy, 111., training school for nurses 178 

Quincy, 111., Tremont Hotel, Quincy, 111.-166,177 
Quincy, 111., Tryer, Asa, early settler of Quincy 


Quincy, 111., Turner, (Rev.) Asa, early minister 

in Quincv, 111 141,143,144,151,152,154,160 

Quincy, 111., Turner, (Mrs.) Asa 143,151 


Quincy, 111., Turner, (Mrs.) Asa, letter of, dated 
Quincy, 111., December 9, 1830, to sister in 
Hartford, Conn 143-144 

Quincy, 111., Turner, Ebenezer, early settler of 
Quincy, 111 144 ,147 ,151 , 153 

Quincy, 111., Turner, Edward, son of Ebenezer 
Turner 153 

Quincy, 111., Turner, Helen C, Housekeeping 
in Quincy in the Thirties 142-148 

Quincy, 111., Turner, (Mrs.) Joseph, early settler 
of 145 

Quincy, 111., Turner, Nancy Ann, early settler 
of Quincy, 111 151 

Quincy, 111.. Turner, Polly Sumner, early set- 
tler of Quincy, III 147 ,153 

Quincy, 111., Turner, Rose Martha, early set- 
tler of Quincy, 111 143 

Quincy, 111., Union Bank of 172 

Quincy, 111., Unitarian Church 170 171 

Quincy, 111., Unitarian Church in, organized 
in 1840 171 

Quincy, 111., United Brethen Church 178 

Quincy, 111., United States land ofKce, estab- 
lished in 154 ,155 

Quincy, 111., Virginia Hotel 166 

Quincy, 111., Wade, W. H., early settler of 
Quincy, 111 141 

Quincy, 111., Waldhaus, George F., mayor of ..170 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, by Emily 
M. Bradford 167-173 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, business in 
Quincy prosperous during War of the Rebel- 
lion 170 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, Blind Half 
Hundred Regiment, 50th Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, nicknamed 168 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, 50th Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry 168 

Quincv, 111., War of the Rebellion, negro enlist- 
ment 169 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, 137th Illi nois 
Volunteer Infantry mustered in 169 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, Quincy an 
important recruiting point 168 

Quincy, 111., War of the Rebellion, 2,300 soldiers 
furnished by 168 

Quincy, 111., Washington Park 175,180 

Quincy, 111., Weaver & Miller, early business 
firm in 166 

Quincy, 111., Webster School 164 

Quincy, 111., Wells Home 179 

Quincy, 111., Wheat, Sallie, early settler of 
Quincy, 111 146 

Quincy, 111., Whig and Republican, newspaper 
in 142 

Quincy, 111., Whipple, Daniel, early settler of 

Quincy, 111., Whipple Family early settlers of.l50 

Quincy, 111., AVhipple's Mill, early mill at 
Quincy, 111 :.:." . 150,153 

Quincy, 111., Williams^ CJ"W£?e) Archibald, 
early citizen of Quincy, 111 :, 141 ,159 

Quincy, 111., Williams, Archibald, first lawyer 
in Quincy, HI 141 

Quincy, 111., Wood, Camp Wood location of ..169 

Quincy, 111., Wood, Daniel, son of Governor 
Wood 138, 141 

Quincy, 111., Wood, (Gov.) John, early settler 

of Quincy, 111 138,139,140,141,145,147, 


Quincy, 111., Wood, (Gov.) John, Colonel, 137tn 
Illinois Volunteers 169 

Quincy, 111., Wood, (Gov.) John, home of, now 
the property of the Quincy Historical Society .180 

Quincy, 111., Wood, (Gov.) John, mayor of 
Quincy, 111 159 

Quincy, III., Woodland Cemetery ...163,169 

Quincy, 111., Woodland Cemetery, laid off in 
1846 163 

Quincy, 111., Woodland Orphan's Home, char- 
itable institution 165 , 172, 179 

Quincy, 111., Woodruff, I. O., mayor of, 1861.. 170 

Quincy, 111., Woods, C. M. publishes the first 
daily newspaper in Quincy, 111. . . ^ 164 


INDEX— Continued. 


Quincy, 111., Young, Richard M., residence in 
164, 166 

Quincy, 111., Young Men's Business Associa- 
tion. .' 176 

Quincy, 111., Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion 180 

Quincy, 111., Young Woman's Christian Associ- 
ation 180 


Railroads— Burlington & Quincy R. R 132 

Railroads— Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

R. R 157,164 

Railroads— Chicago, Northwestern R. R 134 

Railroads— Haimibal & St. Joseph R. R . .172,173 
Railroads— Mail clerks, early ones on the Han- 
nibal & St. Joseph R. R 173 

Railroads— Northern Cross R. R 157,161 

Railroads— North Missouri R. R 122 

Railroads— Santa Fe R. R 61 

Railroads— Wabash R. R 122,157 

Railway Mail Service, establishment of, on the 

Haimibal & St. Joseph R. R 173 

Rammelkamp, (Dr.) Charles H 6,18 

Rathbone, Henry R., Assassination of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, address before Illinois State 

Historical Society, 1915 16 

Read, (Judge) 32 

Redman, (Capt.) Henry (?), an officer in the 
War of 1812, first white settler in Henderson 

County 55 

Redmond, Thomas, early contractor in Quincy, 

111 158 

Redmond, Thomas, mayor of Quincy, 111 170 

Redmond, Thomas, representative from 
Adams County, procures reenactment of the 
Act of incorporation for building bridge 

across the Mississippi River 172 

Reed, Thomas B., of Maine 35 

Reminiscences of Yellow Banks, by James W. 

G ordon 15 , 54-62 

Report of a Journey to the Western States of 
America and Sojourn in Missouri from 1824 

to 1827, by Gottfried Duden 63 

Republican Party 34,35,38,168 

Revolutionary War 47 ,51 

Reynolds, (Mrs.) 161 

Rice Lake Region of Lac du Flambeau 96 

Richardson, (Col . ) William A 156 , 168 

Richardson, (Col.) William A., United States 

Senator from Illinois 156 

Richmond, (Judge) E ijah Dewey 32 

Richmond, Va., War of the Rebellion, fall of 

Richmond 169 

Rickor, H. F. J., establishes private bank in 

Quincy in 1860 172 

Ridder, H. & Co. , early business firm in 

Quincy, 111 166 

Rio Grande River 117 

Roads— "Indian ^oundarj Road," Chicago 
City Council jhange name to "Rogers Av- 
enue" 91-92 

Roads — Military Roads, hewing of tlu-ough the 

forests 89 

Robbins Family 142 

Robbins, John P 142 

Robinson, Alexander, beneficiary of the Indian 

Treaty at Chicago, 1833 108 

Robinson, Alexander, made Indian Chief of the 
Pottawattomies at Treaty of Prairie du 

Cliien 98-99 

Rockford, 111 136 

Rock Island, HI 54, 101 , 138 

Rock Island, 111., Old Confederate Prison at 
Rock Island, HI., address before Illinois 
State Historical Society, 1915, by Sherman 

W. Searle 15 

Rock River 56,57,98,132 

Rock River Country 56,57 

"Rogers Avenue," Chicago, formerly called 

"Indian Boundary Road" 92 

Rogers, Hiram, agent United States land office, 
Quincy, III 154 


Rogers, (Dr.) Samuel AV., early settler of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Rogers, (Dr.) Samuel W., one of the trustees 

of the town of Quincy 155 

Rogers, (Dr.) Samuel W., second doctor in 

Quincy, 111 141 

Roman Helmet, reference to : 97 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Winning of the West, 

Vol. 5, reference 90 

Rose, , muider of, in Quincy in 1865. . . 173 

Rose, Jeremiah, early settler of Quincy, 111.139,140 
Rose, (Mrs.) Jeremiah, early settler of Quincy, 

111 139 

Russel, Andrew ..6,18 

Sauk /Indians 55,90,91,95,96,100,101 

Sac Indians, Indian Treaty of 1804 with the 

Sacs and Foxes 90-91 

Sage, , early sweetheart of Philinda 

Warren 132 

Saginaw Hotel (Sauganash?), Chicago 133 

St. Aloysius Orphan Home Association, 

Quincy, 111 172 

St. Boniface, oldest Catholic Church in Quincy, 

111 160 , 161 , 172 

St. Clair, (Gen.) Arthur, Governor of theNorth- 

west Territory 48 , 89 

St. Croix River ■ 96 

St. Francis— Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, 

in charge of St. Mary's Hospital, Quincy, 

111 178 

St. Francis Catholic Church, Quincy, 111 172 

St. Jacobi Lutheran Church, Quincy, 111 171 

St. John's Parish, Catholic Church, Quincy, 

111., organized in 1837 171 

St. Louis, Mo 66,67,90,91,97, 

St. Louis, Mo., German emigrants came to St. 

Louis before deciding where to settle 66 

St. Louis, Mo., Indian Treaty of August 24, 

1816 91-92 

St. Louis, Mo., Indian Treaty of August 24, 

1816, land ceded by the Indians 91 

St. Mary's, Indians sell land to the United 

States Government at 94 

St. Mary's Hospital, Quincy, II 172,178 

St. Peters Catholic Church, Quincy, 111 172 

St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, Quincy, 

111 178 

St. Vincent's Home, Quincj^ 111 179 

Salem Evangelical Church, Quincy, 111 171 

Sandusky, Ohio 125 

Sangamo Joiunal, 1834, advertisement in, of a 

Stage line from Springfield to Yellow Banks. 55 

Sangamon County, 111 125 , 128 

Sangamontown, Sangamon County, 111 55 

Santa Anna, (Gen.) Antonio Lopez de, Mexican 

general, War with Mexico 117 

Saracen in Spain, (The), lecture on, reference. . 164 

Saturday Evening Post, quoted 81 

Sauganash Hotel, Chicago 127 

Sauks and the Black Hawk War, by Perry A. 

Armstrong 91 

footnote 91 

Sault Ste. Marie 95 ,96 

Sault Ste. Marie, Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 

Indian agent at 95 

Schirding, Harry 78 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L., President Illinois State 

Historical Society 6 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe— Account of the In- 
dian Treaty at Prairie du Chien, August 19, 

1825 95-97 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Indian agent at the 

Sault 95 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Tales and Legends, 

reference 84 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Thirty Years with 

the Indian Tribes, quoted 95 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Travels in the Cen- 
tral Partof the Mississippi Valley quoted.. 92-93 


INDEX — Continued. 


Schuyler, Peter, called "Brother Qiiider" by 
the Indians 45 

Schuyler, .Peter, Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs 4.'i 

Scotch-Irish Race 24,25 

Scotland 115 

Scott, Rufus,' connected with the story of the 
murder hoax at Oqiiawka, 111 60-fil 

Scott. (Gen.) Winfleld, contjratnlates S. S. 
Pholps on his bravery in .>;avinR Tama and 
family and averting an Indian massacre. .. 57 

Scott, (Gen.) Winfleld, la the War with Mex- 
ico 117 

Scott, (Gen.) Winfleld. Semmes, Campaign of 
General Scott in the War with Mexico, 
quoted 121 

Searle, Sherman W., The Old Confederate 
Prison at Rock Island, 111 15 

Selby, Paul 59 

Seminole War 117 

Semmes, Raphael, Campaign of General Scott 
in the War with Mexico, published, 1S52, 
quoted 121 

Seneca Indians 46 

Sewall, (.Mrs.) Catherine, extract from a letter 
of, on her trip from Maine to Illinois 148-149 


Shab-eh-nay '■ Chief of the Ottawas, the white 

Shabona I man's friend 15,51,53,99 

Shabbona \ 

Shab-eh-nay !• Shabona's Ride 51-53 

Shabona J 

Shawaneel ^ ,. .„ „. ., 

Shawanoe / Indians 48,89,91 

Shelby County, 111 57 

Sherman, Lawrence Y i 6 

Shields, Catherine, mother of Gen. James 

Shields 114 

Shields, Charles, father of Gen. James Shields. 114 
Shields, James, (First), uncle of Gen. James 

Shields 114 

Shields, James, born May 9, 1806, in the village 

of Altmore County, Tyrone, Ireland, died 

at Ottumwa, la., Jime 1, 1879 113-122 

Shields, (Gen.) James, appointed by President 

Lincoln, Major General in the Civil War, 

but appointment failed of confirmation in the 

United States Senate 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, appointed by President 

Polk as Commissioner General of the Land 

Office of the United States 117 

Shields, (Gen.) James, appointed Governor of 

Oregon Territory by President Polk 118 

Shields, (Gen.) James, appointed to fill out 

term of Stephen A. Douglas on the bench of 

the Supreme Court, State of Illinois 117 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Auditor of the State of 

Illinois, 1838 117 ,118 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Brigadier General of 

Volunteers in the War with Mexico 117 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Brigadier General in the 

Civil War 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Canadian War Song by, 

reference 123 

Shields, (Gen.) James, candidate for the United 

States Senate, Lyman Trumbull elected 119 

Shields, (Gen.) James, elected to the United 

States Senate from Minnesota 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, extract from speech on 

slavery 119 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Illinois presents sword 

to 118 

Shields, (Gen.) James, interested in mining 

k venture in Mexico 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Irish Song, written by. . 123 
Shields, (Gen.) James, magnanimity of. Battle 

of Contreras, War with Mexico cited 121 

Shields, (Gen.) James, member of the law firm 

of Snyder, Shields & Koerner, Belleville, 

111 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, monument to, at Car- 

rollton, Mo., dedication of 113 

footnote 113 


Shields, (Gen.) James— O'Shaughnessy. Fran- 
cis, General James Shields of Illinois, con- 
tribution to State History 113-122 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Palmer, Jvhn M., 

quoted on 121 

Shields, (Gen.) James, poet— Poem, "To Hen- 
rietta Mitchell, " Washington City 123 

Shields, (Gaii.) James, quoted on Stonewall 

Jackson 121 

Shields, (Gen.) James, seriously wounded at 

the Battle of Cerro Gordo, War with Mexico. 117 
Shields, (Gen.) James, shipwrecked on his way 

to America 115 

Shields, (Gen.) James, South Carolina presents 

General Shields with a jewel hilted sword.. 117 
Shields,(Gen.) James, statue of, in the rotunda 

of the Capitol at Washington 121 , 122 

Shields, (Gen.) James, swords given to Gen. 
Shields by South Carolina and Illinois... 


Shields, (Gen.) James, United States Senator 

from Illinois 118 

Shields, (Gen.) James, United States Senator 

from Mimiesota 120 

Shields, (Gen.) James, United States Senator 

from Missouri 120 

Shiloh^ Battle of, War of the Rebellion 168 

Skinner, (Judge) Onias C 139 

Skinner, (Mrs.) Onias C, of Quincy, 111 139 

Sibley, Julia, Quincy Before the War, 1845- 

1860 : 161-167 

Sibley, (Mrs.) -, grandfather of, early 

merchant in Cahokia 154 

Sibley, Solomon, of Michigan, Indian Treaty 

of August 29, 1821, negotiated by 92 

Silver Covenant Chain 43-48 

Simpson, Jonathan, lawyer, connected with the 

murder hoax at Oquawka, 111 60 

Sing Sing, (N. Y.) 149 

Singleton, (Gen.) James W., resident of Quincy, 

111 164 

Sioux Indians 95,97 

Sisters — Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ, 

found St. Vincent's Home, Quincy, 111 179 

Slavery 28,69,118,119,141,157,158,161,162,164 

Slavery — American Slavery, Our Duties and 

Obligations in Reference to, lecture on 164 

Slavery— Anderson, James, manumission of 

slaves by 141 

Slavery — Duden justifies slavery to his coun- 
trymen 69 

Slavery, Germans opposed to 69 

Slavery — Illinois politics torn apart on the 

issues of slavery H9 

Slavery, Shields, (Gen.) James, extract from 

a speech on 119 

Slavery — Stern, John S., manumission of slaves 

l,y... 141 

Slavery — Underground railroad 162 

Smith, George W 6 

Smith, Joseph, Mormon Prophet 158,161 

Smith, Joseph, Mormon Prophet, death of, 

July 27, 1844, reference 161 

Smith-Lever Bill 79 

Smith, (Gen.) Persifer F., at the Battle of 

Contreras, War with Mexico 121 

Snow, Henry H., early settler of Quincy, HI. 


Snow, Lucy K., early settler of Quincy, 111... 143 

Snyder, Adam W 120, 123 

Snyder, Adam W., died on the eve of an elec- 
tion which would have made him Governor 

of Illinois 120 

Snyder, Adam W., member of the law firm of 
Snyder, Shields & Koerner, of Belleville, 

Hi:.... 120 

Snyder, Shields & Koerner, law firm of Belle- 
ville, 111 120 

Soldiers' Home in Quincy, 111 180, 181 

Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Bloomington, 111.. 74 
"Something of Men I have Known," by Adlai 

E. Stevenson, reference 29 ,39 

South Carolina, Charleston, S. C 114 


INDEX — Continued. 


South Carolina, Palmetto Regiment of, in the 
War with Mexico 117 

South Carolina, Shields, (Gen.) James, pre- 
sented a jeweled sword by 117 

South German states 142 

Spain, court of, Gustave Koerner, minister to 
the Court of Spain 121 

Spain— The Saracen in Spain, lecture on, 
reference 164 

Sprigg Farm, near Quincv, 111 157 

Springfield, III 6,1;-), 55, 71, 78, SI, 149, 151 154 

Springfield, 111., stage line from Springfield 
to Yellow Banks, advertisement of, in San- 
gamo Journal, 1S34 55 

Springfield, 111., Stuart, John T., leading lawyer 
of Springfield, 111 71 ,75 

Springfield, 111., United States land office in. . 154 

Springfield, Pa 125 

Stage line from Chicago to Yellow Banks, refer- 
ence 56 

Stage line from Springfield to Yellow Banks, 
advertisement of, in Sangamo Journal, 1834. . 55 

Stanton, Edwin M., Secretary of War under 
President Lincoln 120 

Starkey, A. W., first principal of the Quincy 
High School 170 

Star Spangled Banner, (song) 168 

Steamboat Hotel, early hotel in Quincy, 111.. 153 

Steamboats passing ihrough Quincy in 1867 . . 173 

Sterling, 111 134 

Sterne, John M., early settler of Adams County, 
III 154 

Stern, John S., manumission of slaves by 141 

Steubenville, Ohio 71 

Stevens, Frank E., Black Hawk War 91 

footnote 91 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing— Cook, John W., Life 
and Labors of Hon. Adlai Ewing Stevenson 
16 .23-41 

Stevenson, Adlai E., appointed on the Bimetal- 
lic Commission to Europe by President 
McKinley 35,37 

Stevenson, Adlai E., attitude of, in the Hayes- 
Tilden contest for President of the United 

States 34-35 

'Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, biographical sketch 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, Bloomington Bar 
Association, tribute to, reference to 40 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, Chicago City Council 
Tribute to Adlai E . Stevenson 40 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, death of, June 14, 1914 40 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, Knott, (Hon.) Proc- 
tor, Tribute to Adlai E . Stevenson 40 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, legal career of 30-32 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, letter from members 
of the United States Senate on his retiring 
from office as President of the Senate 37 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, life in Metamora, 111. 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, member of Congress 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, McLean County Bar 
Association, tribute to 32-33 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, McLean County 
Board of Supervisors, tribute to, reference to 40 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, member United 
States House of Representatives 33 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, nominated for the 
Vice Presidency on the ticket with William 
J. Bryan 38 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, orator at Blooming- 
ton on the one hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of Lincoln 39 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, orator at the celebra- 
tion of the historic Lincoln and Douglas 
Debates, semicentennial celebration 38 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, Postmaster General 
under Grover Cleveland 35,36 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, "Something of Men 
I have Known, " 29 ,39 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, United States House 
of Representatives, tribute to 40 


Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, Vice President of the 

United States, Cleveland administration.. 36, 37 
Stevenson, Adlai Ewing, White, An<lrew D., 

quoted on 40 

Stevenson, (Mrs.) Adlai Ewing 30,31,38,39,40 

Stevenson, (Mrs.) Adlai Ewing, Bloomington 
Chapter, D. A. R., Letitia Green Chapter 

named for Mrs. Stevenson 39-40 

Stevenson, (Mrs.) Adlai Ewing, death of, in 

Bloomington^ 111., December 25, 1913 39 

Stevenson, (Miss) Letitia, daughter of Adlai 

E. Stevenson 40 

Stevenson, Letitia Green. See Stevenson, 

Mrs. Adlai E. 
Stevenson, Lewis Green— son of Adlai E. 

Stevenson 40 

Stewart, (Judge) J. H., of Oquawka, 111 59 

Stony Point, British fort at 89 

Story of the Banker-Farmer Movement Orig- 
inating with the Illinois Bankers' Associa- 
tion, address by B. F. Harris, meeting Illinois 

State Historical Societv, 1915 77-83 

Stout Family ." 125 

Streeter, Edwin 150 

Stronghurst, Henderson County, 111., attempt 
to remove county seat of Henderson County 

to 61 

Stuart, John T., leading lawyer of Springfield, 

111 71,75 

Sullivan, H. V., United States agent, land 

office, Quincy, 111 154 

Sumner, Polly — Polly Sumner Chapter, D. A. 

R., Quincy, 111 138,147 

Sumner, Polly, wife of Ebenezer Turner 


Supreme Court, State of Illinois 163 

Swarthout, (Lieut. Col.) William 168 

Sweet, , brother-in-law of Capt. Joseph 

Naper 128,131 

Swett, Leonard 29 

Switzerland 64 

Swords given to General James Shields by 
South Carolina and Illinois 117,118,122 

Talbot, (Mrs.) , daughter of Louise 

Bird Warren 132 

Tama, Sac and Fox Chief 56,57 

Tama, Sac and Fox Chief, incident in connec- 
tion with saving the life of Tama and his 

family by Sumner S. Phelps 56-57 

Tarbell, Ida M., Life of Lincoln, extract from, 

on the Black Hawk War 57 

Taylor, (Gen.) Zachary, in War with Mexico. 117 
Tawasentha, Vale of, meeting place of the 

Indians 44,45 

Tawasentha, Vale of, extract from poem 44 

Tawassgunshee, eminence on the bank of a 

small stream entering into the Hudson 

River 44 

Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief.... 47,91 

Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief, speeches of, best 

examples of Indian oratory 91 

Texas State, annexation of, reference to 117 

Thames, Battle of. War of 1812 91 

Thayer's Distillery, Quincy, 111., destroyed by 

fire, October 20, 1854 165 

Thomas, James, early settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Thomas, (Judge) Jesse B., one of the early 

judges, State of Illinois 58 

Thomas, Samuel, one of the incorporators of the 

Bridge Company at Quincy, 111 172 

Thompson, Houston, Electric Light & Power 

Co., Quincv, 111 177 

Thresher, Mrs., of Quincy, 111 148 

Tice, Homer J., Tice Road Act, reference to . . 81 
Tilden, Samuel J., defeat of for President of 

the United States 34 

Tillson & Holmes, early mercantile firm of 

Quincy, 111 141 

Tillson, John, early settler of Quincy, 111 163 

Tillson, Robert, early settler of Quincy, 111.. 



INDEX— Continued. 


Tippecanoe, Battle of, ^Var of 1812 91 

•'Tippecanoe and Tvler Too," Presidential 
campaign, 1840 159 , 160 

Tipton, Thomas F., defeated for Congress by 
Adlai E. Stevenson 35 

Towanda, 111 72 

Townsend, (Mayor), error, should be Major 
Townsend 176 

Townsend, (Major) Curtis McDonald, in 
charge of the Government work. Upper 
Mississippi River Improvement Association. 176 

Tracy ct Reny, proprietors of a stage line be- 
tween Springfield and Yellow Banks, 111., 
advertisement in Sangamo Journal, 1834. . . 55 

Travels in the Central Part of the Mississippi 
Valley, by Henry R. Schoolcraft, quoted.. 92, 93 

Treaty of Peace with Great Britain September 
3, 1783, reference to 88 

Treaty of Greenville, 1795 88-90 

Treaty of Greenville, first words of the pream- 
ble, unlike similar recitals 89 

Treaty of Greenville, 1795, Indian boundary 
fixed by 89 

Treaty of Greenville, negotiations proceeded 
daily from July 15, to August 3, 1795 90 

Treaty of Greenville, one historian has called, 
"The Peace of Mad Anthony " 89 

Treaty of 1S04 with the Sacs and Foxes.90-91 

Treaty of August 24, 1816, at St. Louis 91-92 

Treaty of .Vugust 29, 1821, at Chicago 92-95 

Treaty of Prairie du Chien, concluded August 
19, 1S25, preamble of '. 95 

Treaty of Prairie du Chien, July 29, 1S29. . .98-102 

Treaty of Prairie du Chien, July 29, 1.S29, lands 
ceded by the Indians 99 

Treaty at Chicago with the Pottawatomies, 
Chippewas and Ottawas, concluded Septem- 
ber 26, 1S33 102-109 

Tree planting essential part of town planning 
with Jesse W. Fell 72 

Tremont Hotel, Qnincy, 111 166,177 

' ' Troy Coach Stage ' ' mail brought into Quincy, 
111., in 1S35 in 156 

Trumbull, Lyman 119 , 121 

Trumbull, Lvman, elected to the United 
States Sena'te 119 

Tscharner Brothers from Chur, Switzerland, 
quoted on the fertility of the soil in the United 
States 67 

Turner, (Rev.) Asa, earlv minister of Quincy, 
111 141,143,144,151,152,154,160 

Turner (Rev.) Asa, home missionary from 
Massachusetts arrives in Quincy, 111 143,160 

Turner, (Mrs.) Asa 143,144,151 

Turner, (Mrs.) -\sa, letter of, to her sister dated 
Quincy, 111., December 9, 1830 143-144 

Turner, (Mrs.) A. W., of Quincy, 111 181 

Turner, Ebenezer, early settler of Quincy, 111. 
144,147 151,153 

Turner, Ebenezer, extract of a letter of, written 
from Quincy, 111., 1S35 to relatives in Massa- 
chusetts 151 

Turner, Edward, son of Ebenezer Turner, 
earlv settler of Quincv, 111 153 

Turner, (Mrs.) Helen C." 142,148,152 

Turner, Helen C, Housekeeping in Quincy in 
the Tliirties 142-148 

Turner, John, extract of a letter describing 
journey from Maine to Illinois 149 

Turner^ (Mrs.) Joseph, early settler of Quincy, 
111 145 

Turner, Martha, wife of Rev. Asa Turner, early 
settler of Quincy, 111 143 , 151 

Turner, Nancy Ann, early settler of Quincy, 
111 151 

Turner, Polly Sumner, (wife of Ebenezer 
Turner) early settler of Quincy, 111. . 147,151, 153 

Tyler, John, President of the United States. . .160 

Tyrer, Asa, earlv settler of Quincv, 111 139,150 

Tyrone County, Ireland 114 


Ulster County, Ireland 25 


Underground Railroad, Quincy, 111., connected 

with the freeing of slaves 162 

Union Bank of Quincy 172 

Unitarian Church, Quincy. Ill 170,171,178 

Unitarian Church, Quincy, 111., organization 

in 1840 171 

United Brethen Church, Quincv, 111 178 

United States 36, 49, 50, 51, 85, 89 "90, 91, 92,95 ,97, 

101 103,106,116,117,118,120,122,162,174,175,177 
United States, coat of arms of the United States 
on medal presented to Indians at Indian 

Council 50 

United States Commissioners, at treaties with 
the Indians.. 85, 86, 87, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107, 108 

United States Congress 


United States Congress donates land to soldiers 

for services in the War of 1812. . .' 154 

United States buys swords of General Shields. .118 

United States Flag 160 

United States, German Element in the United 

States by Gustave Koemer, quoted 64,65 

United States Investor, quoted on the Illinois 

Bankers' Association 81-82 

United States, Lafayette, Marquis de, visit to 

the United States in 1825 116 

United States land office established in Quincy, 

111., in 1830 154 , 155 

United States, medals given to the Indians 


United States, Shields, (Gen.) James, ap- 
pointed by President Polk Commissioner 
General of the Land Office of the United 

States 117 

United States, Supreme Court 122 

University of Illinois 6, 15,63 

Urbana, 111 6 

Ursa, Adams County, 111 155 

Van Curler or \ „ , ,^ , • „ i 

Van Corlear f Governor Arendt, born in Hol- 
land about 1600, drowned in 
Lake Champlain, October, 

1667 45 

Van Curler, Governor Arendt, called by the 

Indians "Father Colaer" 45 

Vandalia, 111 18 , 116 

Vandaiia, Capital of Illinois 116 

Van der Bogart, (Dr.; Henry, early school 

teacher of Chicago ". 133 

Vandervogart, error, should be Van der Bogart. 

Van Nortwick, John, Sr 136 

Vassar Collegp, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 139 

Vera Cruz, Me.xico 117 

Vermilion River 50 

Vermont Greys, Canadian Ponies 125,126 

Vermont State 125, 139 

Vienna, Austria 142,146 

Vincennes, Ind 49,50,51,91 

Vincennes, Ind., Indian conference at 49,50,51 

Virginia Hotel, Quincy, 111 166 

Virginia State 161 

Volney, C. F., quoted on the temperature at 

Kaskaskia in the summer 65 


Wabash R. R 122.157 

Wabash River 47,49 ,93 

Wade, W. H., early settler of Quincy, 111 141 

Waldhaus, George F., mayor of Quincy, 111-, 

elected in 1865 170 

Walker, (Mrs.) Shell, daughter of Mrs. A. C. 

Carpenter 133 

Wampum belts of peace, given to the Indians 

by General Putnam 49 

Wanita, Yankton Indian Chief 96 

Wapelo ) 

Wapello f Sac and Fox Indian Chief 97 

Waupellow ; 

War of the Revolution. .31, 47,51, 84, 89, 90, 113, 114 

War of 1812 55 ,91 ,99 , 114 , 154 

War of 1812, bounty lands for services in, 

reference to 154 


INDEX — Continued. 


War with Mexico 117 , 118,121 

War with Mexico, Battle of Cerro Gordo 


War with Mexico, Battle of Contreras 121 

War with Mexico, Palmetto Regiment of South 
Carolina, in the War with Mexico 117 

War with Mexico, Scott, (G n.) Winfleld, in 
War with Mexico 117 

War with Mexico, Shields, (Gen.) James, Brig- 
adier General of volunteers in 117 

War with Mexico, Taylor, (Gen.) Zachary, in 
War with Mexico 117 

War of the Rebellion 


War of the Rebellion, Adams County, 111., 
"Copper Head" sentiment in 169 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Winchester. 120 , 122 

War of the Rebellion, Camp Wood, Quincy, 
111 169 

War of the Rebellion, -'Good Samaritans" 
organization of women, Quincy, 111., War of 
the Rebellion 170 

War of the Rebellion, Henderson County, 
loyalty of in War of the Rebellion 59,60 

War of the Rebellion, Johnson, (Dr.) Charles B. 
Illinois in the Civil War, address before the 
Illinois State Historical Society, 1915 15 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois, Seventh Illi- 
nois Cavalry 168 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois, 50th Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, organized at Quincy, 
111., September 12, 1861 168 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois, 63d Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry 168 

War of the Rebellion— Illinois, 137th Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry , ... 169 

War of the Rebellion — Iowa, Seventh Iowa In- 
fantry 168 

War of the Rebellion, Kentucky Brigade, Col. 
W. A. Richardson, tendered command of.. .168 

War of the R bellion, "Needle Pickets," or- 
ganization of women at Quincy, 111 169,170 

War of the Rebellion, Palmyra, (Mo.,) hotbed 
of secession 169 

War of the Rebellion, Richmond, (Va.), fall 
of Richmond 169 

War of the Rebellion, Quincy, Hh, furnished 
2,300 soldiers during 168 

War of the Rebellion, Quincy, 111., important 
military point in the State 167 

War of the Rebellion, Quincy, 111., important 
recruiting point 168 

War of the Rebellion, Quincy, 111., National 
Army made its rendezvous in 168 

War of the Rebellion, Quincy, 111., negro enlist- 
ment in 169 

Warfield, Pa.( ?) 125 

Warren County, 111., Henderson County part 
of 58 
















Mrs. Daniel ^ 127 

Harriet 124 

Harriet N 131,133,135 

Jane 124 , 135 

Jane, wife of W. B. Curtis 135 

Julius 124,133 

Louise 124,132,133 

Louise Bird 132, 133 

Maria 124,134 

Maria, wife of S. B. Cobb 134 

Mary 124,134,135 

Mary, wife of Jerome Beeper 134,135 

Philinda 124 

Sally 124 , 133 

Sally, early school teacher of Chicago, 


Warren, Sally, wife of A. C. Carpenter 133 

Warren, Silas, second husband of Louisa Bird . 132 
Warrens of Warrenville, Dodson, Harriet N., 

The Warrens of Warrenville 124-137 

Warrenville, 111 135, 136 

Warrenville, 111., description of an early mar- 
riage in 136 


Warrenville, 111., Ladies seminary in 135 

Washington, D. C 

37, 49, 79, 103, 107, 122, 123, 143, 168 

Washington, (Gen.) George 50,89 

Washington Park, Quincy, 111 175,180 

Watson Spring, near Quincy, 111 139 

Wabaunsee, Pottawatomie Indian Chief 132 

Wayne, (Gen.) xVnthony, Harrison, William 

Henry, aid-de-camp to General Wayne 89 

Wayne, (Gen.) Anthony, "Mad Anthony 

Wayne'* 89,90 

Wayne, (Gen.) Anthony, Wilson, Frazer E., 

Peace of Mad Anthony, reference to 90 

Weaver & Miller, early business firm of Quincy, 

111 166 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary Illinois State 

Historical Society 6,12,17,18 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, Treasurer, Illinois State 

Historical Society, report 17 

Webster, Daniel 33 , 118 

Webster, Daniel, gr at debate with Hayne, 

reference to 33 

Webster Schooh Quincy, 111 164 

Weas Indians, Eel River Weas 89 

Wells Home, Quincy, 111 140 , 179 

Wells, Levi, early resident of Quincy, 111... 


Wells, Levi, one of the trustees of the town of 

Quincy, 111 155 

West, Duden's account of the healthfulness 

of the West 66 ,67 

West Virginia State 167 

Western Annals, reference 90 

Western Antiquities and Remarks on a Tour 
to Prairie du Chien in 1829, by Caleb At- 

water, quoted 99-102 

Western Continent 43,46 

Western Continent, supremacy of the Saxon in. 46 

Westfield, N. Y 124 , 125 

"What the Illinois Bankers' Association is 
Trying to do for Illinois and the Union" 

(1911) pamphlet 79 

Wheat, Sallie, early settler of Quincy, 111 146 

Wheaton, 111 136,137 

Wheaton, 111., named for Warren L. Wheaton . 136 
AVheaton, (Mrs.) Warren L., formerly Miss 

Lucinda Gerry 1.36,137 

Wheeling, Ohio 149 

Whig and Republican, (newspaper), Quincy, 

111 142 

Whig Party 119, 159 

Whipple, Daniel, early settler of Quincy, 111. 

1.50 , 153 

W'hipple Family, early settlers of Illinois 150 

Whipple's Mill, early mill at Quincy, 111 153 

Whiskey, its use in the Indian treaties. . 98 , 106 , 107 
White, Andrew W'., quoted on Adlai E. Stev- 
enson 40 

Wilkinson, (Gen.) James, in Indian border 

warfare 48 

Williams, (Judge) Archibald, early citizen 

of Quincy, 111 141 , 1.55, 159 

Williams, Archibald, first lawyer in Qmncv, 

111 141 

Williams, Archibald, one of the trustees of the 

town of Quincy, 111 155 

Williams, Cord i Dent, liw firm of Blooming- 
ton, 111 26 

Williams, Robert E., member of the law firm 
of Williams, Cord & Dent, Bloomington, 

111 26 

Williams, Robert E., prominent lawyer of 

Bloomington, 111 26 ,32 

Wilmette, 111 98 

Wilmette, 111., named for Antoine Ouilmette. . 98 
Wilson, Frazer E., Peace of Mad Anthony; 

reference to 90 

Wimble, (probably Trimble) , early 

citizen of Marcelline, Adams County, III 173 

Winchester, Battle of. War of the Rebellion. . 

120, 122 

Winnebagoe Indians 95 ,96,97,98, 100, 101 , 102 

—14 H S 


INDEX— Concluded. 


Winninp of Ihe West, by Theodore Roosevelt, 

roteronce 90 

Wisconsin IU\er 96 , 101 

AVisconsiii River Portage 96 

AVisconsin State 72,90,9S , 16s 

■\Volcott, (Dr.) Alexander, Haines, I^lijah M., 
gives credit to Wolcott for his fidelity to the 
United States Government interests in the 

Indian treaties 99 

Wolcott, (Dr.) Alexander, Indian agent at 

Chicago 93 ,98,99 

Wolcott, (Dr.) Alexander, letter to Governor 

Cass. .January 1, 1821, reference to 93 

Women, (iood Samaritans, organization of 

women, Qiiiiicy, 111., War of the Kebellion.. 170 
Women, "Needle Pickets," organization of 
women at Quincv, 111., W'ar of the Rebel- 
lion ." 169-170 

Wood, Camp, Quincv, 111., location, of 169 

Wood, Danlel,son of Governor John Wood. 138,141 
Wood, (Gov.) John, earlv settler of Quincy, 

111 138, 139 ,'140,141, 14.-), 147, 151 


Wood, (Gov.) John, Governor of Illinois 156 

Wood, (Gov.) John, influence in securing bridge 

across the Mississippi River at Quincy, 111. .172 
Wood, (Gov.) John, made Colonel, 137th Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry 169 

Wood, (Gov.) John, mayor of Quincy, 111 159 

"Wood, (Gov.) John, residence of, Quincy, 111. 

164 , 180 

Wood, (Gov.) John, residence of, property of 

the Quincy Historical Society ISO 

Wooders, , former resident of Oquawka, 

connected with the storv of the murder 

hoax ." 60,61 

Woodland Cemetery, Quincy, 111 163,169 

Woodland Cemeterv, Quincv, 111., laid off in 
1846 ". " 163 


Woodland Orphan's Home, Quincy, III... 


Woodruff, I. () , mayor of Quincy, 1861 170 

W'oodruil, I.e., member new board of trustees, 

Quincy, 111 158 

Woods, C. M., publishes first daily newspaper 

in Quincv, III 164 

Woodworth, ( Dr.) , of Peoria, III 135 

Wyandot Indians 89 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard, the younger 6,18 

Yellow Banks, Lincoln, Abraham, appears 
with his company for the Black Hawk W'ar 
in Yellow Banks 57 

Yellow Banks, "Oquawkiek" Indian name 
for Yellow Banks 55 

Yellow Banks, (Oquawka,) III., Reminiscen- 
ces of Yellow Banks, bv James W. Gordon 
15 , 54-62 

Yellow Banks, rendezvous for the Indians 5.5 

Yellows Banks, stage line from Chicago to 
Yellow Banks, reference to 55 ,56 

Yellow Banks, stage line from Springfield to 
Yellow Banks, advertisement of, in San- 
gamo Journal, 1834 55 

Yellow Fever, German emigrants to the United 
States susceptible to yellow fever and cholera 66 

Young, (Judge) Richard M., residence, Quincy, 
111 164,166 

Young, (Judge) Richard M., United States 
Senator from Illinois 58,156 

Young Jfen's Christian Association, Quincy, 
111 .'. 180 

Young Women's Christian Association, Quincy, 
111..' :...180 



No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers publislierl in Illinois prior to 1860. Prepared by Edmund 
J. James, Ph.D., and Milo .1. Loveless. 94 p. Svo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809 to 1812. Prepared 
by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. l."j p. svo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 170 p. Svo. 
Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. Edited bv E. B. 
Greene, Ph.D. .5.5p. Svo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. .5. *Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios of the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled bv Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 p. Svo. 
Springfield, 1900. 

No. 6 to 21. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 1901 to 1915. (Nos. 
6 to 12 and IS out of print.) 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I, edited by H. W. Beckwith, President of the Board of Trustees 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1903. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II, Mrginia Series, Vol. I, edited by Clarence W. Alvord, CLVI 
and 663 p. Svo. Springfield, 1907. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. Ill, Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 18.58. Lincoln Series. Vol. 
I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D., 627 p. S vo. Springfield, 1908. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Governors' Letter-Books 
1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 p. Svo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia Records, 1778-1790. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 p. Svo. Springfield, 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I Newspapers and Periodicals 
of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 
610 p. Svo. Springfield, 1910. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series. Vol. II, Governors' Letter-Books, 
1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 p. 
Svo. Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George Rogers Clark Papers, 
1771-1781. Edited with Introduction and notes by James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 p. Svo. 
Springfield 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel and Description, 
1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck, 514 p. Svo. Springfield, 1914. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series Vol. I. The Critical Period, 1763-1765. Edited 
with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter, L\'II and 597 
p. Svo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New- Regim, 176.5-1767. Ed- 
ited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and C arence Edwin Carter. XXVIII 
and 700 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII, Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The County Archives 
of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 7.30 p. Svo. Springfield, 1915. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I No. I, September, 1905. Illinois in the 
Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 38 p. Svo. Springfield, 1905. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2, June 1, 1906. Laws of the Territory 
of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 34 p. Svo. Springfield, 1906. 

♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I No. 1, November, 1905. An Outline for the Study 
of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 p. Svo. Spring- 
field. 1905. 

♦Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical Libriirv. Georgia 
L. Osborne, Compiler, Svo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1, April, 1908 to Vol. 8, No. 4, January, 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV. 

♦ Out of print.