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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions for the year ..."

Publication Number Twenty-three 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1917 



Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, 

Illinois, May 10-11, 1917 



[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 



Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Jouenal Co., State Printers. 

19 17 



282S — 3M 



CONTENTS. 



PAGIC. 

Officers of the Society 5 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 

PART I.— RECORD OF OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS, ANNUAL 

MEETING, 1917. 

Annual Meeting 15 

Business Meeting 17 

In Memoriam. 

John Howard Burnham. By Jessie Palmer Weber 32 

James Haines. By W. R. Curran 37 

PART II.— PAPERS READ AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, 1917. 

Jenkin Lloyd Jones, Annual Address. Contemporary Vandalism 47 

Ernest L. Bogart. The Population of Illinois, 1870-1910 64 

Verna Cooley. Illinois and the Underground Railroad to Canada 76 

Stephen A. Day. A celebrated Illinois Case that made History 99 

George A. Rogers. Reading, Reverie of Fifty Years. By Clark E. Carr. .109 
P. C. Croll, D. D. Thomas Beard, the Pioneer and Founder of Beards- 
town, Illinois Ill 

Arthur C. Cole. Lincoln and the Presidential Election of 1864 130 

PART III.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATE HISTORY. 

John Reynolds. The Agricultural Resources of Southern Illinois. Re- 
printed from Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, 

Vol. II., 1856 141 

Index 161 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and Society.. 185 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Honorary President. 
Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President. 
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
EiCHARD Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President, Illinois College .... Jacksonville 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal University 

Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

Eichard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Il^orthern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A, James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

CoL. D. C. Smith Normal 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of the Local Historical Societies. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice o( the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some other matter contributed 
during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to State His- 
tory" nuiy, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their title, and 
form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transactions. The 
contributions are intended to include the following kinds of material: 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume .should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers sh(juld 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historial material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, iho distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Lihrary. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative Avith public 
authoritv. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking 
that this Society was organized.. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to this 
publication U\e best results of local research and historical scholarship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. 'Nrevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I— XAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section 1. The name of the Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage his- 
torical research and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect 
and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of 
Illinois and its peoples. 

ARTICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIR ELEC- 

TIOX AXD DUTIES. 

Section 1. The management of the affairs of the Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which board the President of 
the Society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec, 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice Presidents, 
not less than three, as the Society mav determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a Secretary and Treasurer, and 
shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and 
committees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at 
pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and to 
this end they shall have power : 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 
State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 



9 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it 
may secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like iise such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
propei't}^, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 25, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889 ; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt by-laws 
not inconsistent with this Constitution for the management of the affairs 
of the Society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the Society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in oflfice 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice Presi- 
dent shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President pro 
tempore. 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed 
by the Society or the board of directors. The Treasurer shall keep a 
strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from 
the treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit 
an annual report of the finances of the Society and such other matters 
as may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within 
such time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and after 
auditing the same the said board shall submit said report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

AETICLE III— MEMBEE SHIP. 

Sectiox 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this Society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all the 



10 

privileges of au active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. -i. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation of 
the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of the 
board of directors, be admitted as affiliated members of this Society upon 
the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues as 
active and life member. Every society so admitted shall be entitled to 
one duly credited representative at each meeting of the Society, who shall 
during the period of his appointment, be entitled as such representative 
to all the privileges of an active member except that of being elected to 
office; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative becoming an 
active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this Society, may. upon recommendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the Society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tions to the cause of history. 

Sec. T. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 

ARTICLE IT— ^klEETlXGS AXD QUORUM. 

Sectiox 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable program and j)rocure the 
services of persons Avell versed in hist or}' to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the board 
of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the President or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE Y— AMEXDMEXTS. 

Section 1. The constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the Secretary to 
all the members of the Societv. 



11 



AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE 

GENERAL PUBLIC. 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTION DESIEED BY THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTOEICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

(Memhers please read this circular letter.) 
Books and paiiiplilets on American histoiy, biograpliy, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West; works on Indian tribes, 
and American aiTlia?ology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, cooperative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to the great rebellion, and 
the wars with the Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps 
and charts; engravings; photographs; autographs; coins; antiquities; 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical works. Especially do wo 
desire 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
Mdiether published in Illinois or elsewhere; materials for Illinois history; 
oldj letters. Journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papei's on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and public 
men of every county, either living or deceased, together with their por- 
traits and autographs; a sketch of the settlements of every township, 
village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first set- 
tlers. We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council ; reports of 
committees of council ; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city; reports of boai'ds of trade and commercial asso- 
ciations: maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; anniial reports of societies ; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; rail- 
road reports; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 



12 

ents, and school committees; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures; earlier Governors' messages and reports of 
State Officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. riles of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illinois 
histor}-, 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished per- 
sons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and wai- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements; also stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
potter}^, or other relics. 

In brief, everj-thing that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 
Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



PART I 



Record of Official Proceedings 



1917 



15 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIEl Y MAY 10-11, 1917. 



The annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society was 
held in the Supreme Court Chamber in the Illinois State Supreme 
Court Building at Springfield on Thursday and Friday, May 10-11, 
191T. 

The President of the Society, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, presided at all 
sessions. 

The annual business meeting of the Society was held on Friday 
morning, when reports of officers and committee were presented, and the 
annual election of officers was held. 

Hon. George A. Lawrence, of Galesburg, was elected A'^ice President 
in the place of Mr. W. T. Xorton. resigned. Mr. Ensley Moore was 
elected Fourth Vice President, and Col. D. C. Smith, of Xormal, was 
elected Director to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Capt. J. H. 
Burnham. Mr. Clinton L. Conkling, of Springfield, was elected a 
Director to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge J. 0. Cunning- 
ham. A new office was created, that of assistant Secretary, to which 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne, of Springfield, was elected. 

A very interesting exhibit of advertising material, showing the im- 
proper use" of the United States Flag was made by Mr. E. R. Lewis, of 
Chicago, President of the American Flag Day Association of Illinois. 

The program as presented is as follows : 

Order of Exercises. 

Thursday Morxing, May 10, 10 o'Clock. 

Directors' Meeting in Office of Secretary. 

TiiURSD.VY Afterxoox. 2:30 o'Clock. ix Sui'ke:me Court Room. 

Mr. E. L. Bogart The Population of Illinois 1870-1910 

University of Illinois. 
Music. 

Miss Verna Cooley Illinois and the Underground Railroad to Canada 

University of Illinois. 

Mr. Stephen A. Day A Celebrated Illinois Case that Made History 

Chicago. 

Thursday Evexixg, 8 o'Clock, Supre.aie Court Rooji. 

Music Illinois 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt The Illinois Centennial Celebration 

Mr. George A. Rogers Reading. Reverie of Fifty Years Later, 

Galesburg, Illinois. by Col. Clark E. Carr. 

Music. 
Dr. Jenkin Lloyd Jones Annual Address. Contemporary Vandalism 

Chicago. 



16 

Order of Exercises. 

Friday Morning, May 11, Business Meeting, 10 o'clock. 
Supreme Court Room. 
Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
Election of Officers. 

In Memoriam Brief tributes to some deceased members of the Society 

Capt. J. H. Burnham. .By Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary of the Society 
James Haines By Mr. W. R. Curran, Pekin 

Friday Noon, 12:45 Sharp. 
Luncheon — St. Nicholas Hotel. 

Friday Afternoon, 2:30 o'Clock. 
Supreme Court Room. 

Rev. P. C. Croll. .Thomas Beard, the Pioneer and Founder of Beardstown, 111. 

Beardstown, Illinois. 

^iusic Mrs. Paul Starne 

Mr. Theodore C. Pease... The Public Land Policy and Early Illinois Politics 

University of Illinois. 
Mr. Arthur C. Cole "The Presidential Election of 1864" 

University of Illinois. 

Friday Afternoon, 5 to 6:30 o'Clock. 
Mrs. Lowden will receive the Historical Society at the Executive Mansion. 



17 



MEETING OF DIRECTORS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 10, 1917. 



The Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society met in the 
office of the Secretary: 

There were present: Messrs. Schmidt, Eammelkamp, Page, Colyer, 
Clendeniu and Mrs. Weber. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary then gave her report which was approved. 

Professor E. C. Page moved and it was seconded that the office of 
Assistant Secretary of the Illinois State Historical Society be created, 
such recommendation to be made to the Society at its business meeting 
and that suggestion be made that Miss Georgia L. Osborne be nominated 
for such position when it is created. 

It was moved and seconded that suggestion be made at the business 
meeting of the Society that Doctor Charles H. Rammelkamp and Pro- 
fessor E. C. Page be appointed to draw up resolutions deploring the 
death of two of our members, the former to write the resolutions on the 
death of Captain J. H. Burnham and the latter on Judge J. 0. Cun- 
ningham. 

A letter from Miss Augusta Wilderman was read to the Directors 
by the Secretary. Miss Wilderman has been a member of the Society 
for some years and requested permission to apply the membership dues 
she has already paid as a yearly member to the amount specified for life 
membership and send in a check for the balance due. Doctor Schmidt 
suggested that an amendment be made establishing an age limit. It 
was however, feared that a precedent might be established that later 
might prove inconvenient. Action was therefore deferred on this ques- 
tion till a later date. 

There being no further business adjournment was taken. 



— 2 H S 



]S 



THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 11, 1917. 



The business meeting of the Society Avas held May 11, 1917, at 10 
o'clock a. m. in the Supreme Court Building. 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, the President of the Society, called the meet- 
ing to order. 

The first order of business was the report of officers. Dr. Schmidt 
asked that the Secretary submit her report. At the conclusion of the 
reading of the Secretary's report the Chairman asked what should be 
done with it. It was moved and seconded that the report be placed on 
file. Motion carried. 

Dr. Schmidt then explained the significence of the Centennial Flag. 

In Mrs. Weber's report. the suggestion was made that Miss Georgia 
L. Osborne be made Assistant Secretary of the Society. Mr. Ensley 
Moore asked if that was a matter for the Society or Directors to act 
upon. Mrs. "Weber replied that the Directors suggested that it be acted 
upon by the Society. 

The report of the Treasurer was then submitted and Dr. Schmidt 
asked Avhat was the pleasure of the Society with regard to it. Mr. Clen- 
denin moved that it be placed on file. The motion was seconded and 
carried. 

The Chairman then asked for a report of the Genealogical Com- 
mittee, which was submitted by Miss Georgia L. Osborne. Dr. Schmidt, 
the Chairman, asked what should be done with this report. Mr. Silli- 
man moved its adoption. The motion was seconded and carried. 
. The Chairman asked if there were any other committee reports? 

Mrs. Weber made a report for the Program Committee and stated 
that Dean Greene was largely responsible for the excellent program 
this year. She said she believed she would allow the Society J:o accept 
as the report of the Program Committee the program for the 1917 meet- 
ing. 

Dr. Schmidt stated that there were no other reports and that they 
would then take up the miscellaneous business. He stated that the 
motion of Mr. Moore would be in order and asked that he make the 
motion that the office of Assistant Secretary of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society be created. 

Mr. Moore then moved that the office of Assistant Secretary be 
created and that Miss Georgia L. Osborne be elected to fill the position. 
The motion was seconded. 



19 

Mr. E. C. Page asked if it would not be well to amend the latter 
part of Mr. Moore's motion and suggested that the Nominating Com- 
mittee make the appointment, that it would be a little more regular 
procedure. 

Dr. Schmidt asked Mr. Moore if he would accept the amendment 
and he replied yes. Mr. Moore then made the amended motion which 
was seconded by Mr. Page, that the office of Assistant Secretary be 
created and that the name of Miss Georgia L. Osborne be recommended 
to the Nominating Committee. The motion was seconded and carried. 
Mr. Lewis K. Torbet, of Chicago, asked to introduce the following 
resolution and stated that this same resolution had been adopted by the 
Illinois Society Sons of the American Eevolutiou, the Hamilton Club 
of Chicago and the Union League : 

Whereas, There has been introduced into the General Assembly of the 
State of Illinois, a proposed act known as Senate Bill No. 126 and House 
Bill No. 183 and said bill is now before the Committee on Appropriations of 
the Senate and House, and 

Whereas. Said bill provides for a board of six trustees, to be known as 
"The Old Capitol Trustees," whose duty it will be to procure a conveyance 
from the county of Fayette, of the grounds and old Capitol building at 
Vandalia, Illinois, at a price not to exceed seventy thousand dollars; that 
said sum is to be appropriated by the State of Illinois for the purpose of 
said property, and 

Whereas, This place and building has an historical interest to our 
State and believing that the "Old Capitol" grounds and building should 
become the property of the State of Illinois, 

There-fore, Be it Resolved. That the Illinois State Historical Society in 
annual meeting assembled; places itself on record as favoring the purchase 
and maintenance by the State of Illinois, of the "Old Capitol" at Vandalia, 
Illinois. That a copy of this resolution be sent to the Governor of Illinois, 
the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House, of the General 
Assembly and to the chairman of the Committee on Appropriations of the 
Senate and House, at Springfield, Illinois. 

It was moved and seconded that this resolution be placed on file. 
Motion carried. Mr. Torbet stated that he thought that the people of 
the State ought to be more interested in their historic sites, that they 
are a matter of vital importance and that we should get our members 
of the Legislature interested. He named the several historic spots 
owned by the State and spoke of acquiring others. 

Dr. Schmidt asked if there were any further remarks or new busi- 
ness and if not the Society would proceed to the election of officers. He 
spoke of the fact that there had been lost by death two Directors of the 
Society, Captain Burnham and Judge Cunningham. Also that the 
first Vice President, Hon. W. T. Norton of Alton, had written that it 
would be impossible for him to assume the duties of this office another 
term and requested that he be not re-elected. Therefore the position 
of first Vice President and Assistant Secretary also have to be filled 
and said that a motion to appoint a Nominating Committee Avould be in 
order. 

The Chairman then named Judge Curran of Pckin, Mrs. T. G. 
Miller of Springfield, Mr. E. C. Silliman of Chcnoa, Mr. Geo. Williams 
of Petersburg and Mrs. E. C. Baxter of Pawnee as the Nominating Com- 



20 

mittee. The iSTominating Committee ^vas then asked to withdraw to 
make their selection of officers for the coming year. 

Dr. Schmidt, the Cliairman, stated he was glad to report that one 
other historic spot will be marked through the personal interest of the 
mayor of Chicago, who bears the same name (Thompson,) but is not at 
all related. James Thompson was a pioneer of great importance and 
value. He was a soldier, lawyer and judge of the Probate Court for many 
years. He was prominently connected with the building of the Illinois- 
Michigan Canal and in the city of Chicago in its earliest form. He was 
appointed by the Canal Commissioners in 1829 and in that way surveyed 
the first city of Chicago, whose boundaries at that time were from State 
to Desplaines on the West, Madison to Kinzie on the north, an area of 
about three-quarters of a square mile. Mayor Thompson brought the 
matter of a monument before the council but they deemed it quite an 
unnecessary act for them, so the mayor personally took charge of the 
matter and the monument will be dedicated to James Thompson on 
Memorial Day. 

Dr. Schmidt also stated that the matter of the house in which Lin- 
coln lived at jSTew Salem had been brought to his attention a number of 
times. He said that Mrs. Weber, Miss Osborne and himself had made 
a visit to jSTew Salem to see this house. Of course there are only a few 
of the original logs left and the house itself does not occupy its original 
position as it had been moved a short distance away. The remainder of 
the cabin has been offered by its present owner for the sum of $500. Dr. 
Schmidt stated that he would simply bring the matter before the Society 
for its attention. A committee might go there and see for what sum a 
number of these logs could be bought. The corner logs for instance. 
They would show how these logs are fastened together. 

Mrs. Jamison asked what had been done for the preservation of the 
house in which Lincoln was married? 

Mrs. Weber stated that nothing had been done and the fund for the 
purchase of the land was insufficient for the purchase of the house. She 
stated she understood the house itself was for sale and suggested that 
Mr. Payne might be able to tell something about it. 

Mr. Payne stated that he had not given the matter any thought, but 
he believed that the building was in the way of the new Memorial Build- 
ing and it would not be possible to save it. That it would have to go 
to make room for progress. Mr. E. C. Page stated that he had been 
informed that the actual room in which the wedding had taken place had 
been removed from the house, and much of the interior had been remade 
since Lincoln's time so that with the exception of the central part of the 
house and one or two rooms the house is not as it was at the time of the 
Lincoln wedding. 

Dr. Schmidt asked if there was any further new business. 

Mrs. Weber spoke of the fact that she had been asked to call to the 
attention of the Society the danger the Lincoln home was in from fire 
and that it had been suggested that the houses close to and surrounding 
the Lincoln home from which there was danger of fire be secured by the 
State. She said that she did not know that the Society could do any 
more than to express their interest and apprehension. 



21 

Dr. Schmidt stated it was a very good suggestion and one thr.t 
should be acted upon sometime, but that he was afraid at the present 
time the Society could do very little. 

Mrs. Weber asked if a motion would be in order? 

Col. Clark E. Carr was asked to offer the resolution, which he did. 

Dr. Schmidt, the Chairman, stated that they had heard the sense 
of Col. Carr's resolution, which was seconded by Governor Yates, that 
there was considerable apprehension in regard to the preservation of 
the Lincoln home in case of fire and that some necessary steps should 
be taken by the proper authorities to prevent such a calamity. The 
motion carried. 

Mr. E. C. Page said that he would like to offer a supplementary 
resolution if such was in order and that is that the President appoint a 
committee of three whose duty it would be to see if some measures 
could not be taken either privately or otherwis ' to have the Legislature 
give this matter attention. The motion was seconded and carried. Mr. 
Clendenin suggested that the President and Secretary be appointed. 

The motion was seconded and carried that a committee of three 
be appointed consisting of the President and Secretary of the Society 
and one other to look into the matter of the Lincoln house at New 
Salem. 

Dr. Schmidt asked if there was any other business. If not, that 
the chairman of the dominating Committee would report. 

Judge Curran, the chairman of the committee, then submitted his 
report as follows: 

Honorary President. 
Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President. 
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

. Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
Eichard Yates ^ Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Directors. 
Edmund J. James, President, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

Col. D. C. Smith Normal 

E. B. Greene,- University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President Illinois College Jacksonville 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 



9 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Xormal University 

Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

Eiehard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Xormal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies throughout the State of 

Illinois. 

The report of the Nominating Committee was adopted and placed 
on file, and the Secretary was directed to cast the ballot for the officers 
named in the report of the Nominating Committee, This she did, and 
the officers named were declared elected. 

Dr. Schmidt thanked the Society for his re-election. 

lie asked Mr. Page if he had a motion which he wished to make 
to the society. Mr. Page submitted his motion in regard to Judge Cun- 
ningham. It was moved and seconded that the adoption of the reso- 
lution on the death of Judge J. 0. Cunningham be spread upon the min- 
utes and communicated to the family of Judge Cunningham as follows : 

"Josepli O. Cunningham in his life spanned the daj's between the heroic 
age in Illinois and our own time. He rode the lawyers' circuit. He knew 
Lincoln and was one of his associates. He was prominent among the men 
with 'empires in their brains,' who helped to pitch commonwealths in the 
wilderness. In our day he was one of the founders of the Illinois State 
Historical Society and was ever active in helping to preserve the story of 
our past and to transmit it to posterity; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That this Society learns with great sorrow of the death of 
Mr. Cunningham and extends to his family its sincere sympathy. They 
and we and the State at large have lost a useful citizen and a good man." 

Submitted by Edward C. Page. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. Greene and carried. 

Dr. Schmidt stated that Dr. Charles H. Eammelkamp of Jackson- 
ville had been requested to prepare a resolution on Captain Burnham and 
that he had been unable to stay for the meeting to present it and asked 
to have Mrs. Weber read it, which was done. 

"We, the Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society, wish hereby 
to place on record our sense of deep loss in the death of our colleague and 
friend Captain John Howard Burnham of Bloomington, Illinois. With his 
city and the State we mourn the loss of a distinguished citizen and a leader 
who gave noble service to the nation in time of extreme need, but we shall 
especially miss the inspiring presence of Captain Burnham at the meetings 
of the directors and members of our State Historical Society. He was ever 



2:] 



zealous for the welfare of the Society and deeply interested in every move- 
ment for the promotion of patriotic loyalty and the encouragement of an 
intelligent interest in the history of our State, 

''Resolved, further, That the Secretary be instructed to send a copy of 
the above resolution to the family of Captain Burnham and to express to 
his family our deep sympathy." 

The resolution was adopted iiuaiiiiiiously by a rising vote. 

Dr. Schmidt then asked what should be done with the resolution. 

Mr. Clendenin stated that the Society itself should be included in 
expressing their regrets. 

Dr. Schmidt asked that action be taken on this amendment. ■ 

Mr. Ensley Moore thought the idea a happy one and said that in 
taking notice of Captain Burnham's death the circumstances were more 
than ordinary. He spoke of the services of Captain Burnham to the 
Society and of his unswerving devotion to it and seconded the motion 
of amendment of the resolution of Mr. Clendenin. 

Dr. Schmidt stated that the resolution of course would contain 
mention of the Society's action. The matter was then put to a motion, 
which was seconded and carried. 

Dr. Schmidt said tliat the next order of business was a memorial 
paper on Captain Burnham, prepared by Mrs. Weber on rather short 
notice. President James who had intended to give and read a paper on 
Captain Burnham was prevented from attending. 

Mrs. Weber then presented her memorial to Captain Burnham. 

Dr. Schmidt requested that all arise and stand a few seconds in rev- 
erential respect to the memory of Captain Burnham. 

The Memorial of Mr. Haines was then given by Judge Curran, 
of Pekin. 

Col. D. C. Smith gave a short talk on Captain Burnham and ex- 
pressed his appreciation of the tribute paid to Captain Burnham in Mrs. 
Weber's paper. He told of the many years he had known Captain 
Burnham and of his high respect and veneration of his character. 

Mr. Carlock spoke of the work of Captain Burnham in behalf of 
the McLean County Historical Society and stated it was mainly 
through his efforts that it had become such a large and important So- 
ciety. He also spoke of his great interest and devotion to the cause of 
State history and of the invaluable work he had done in its behalf. 

Dr. Schmidt then asked if there was any further business. 

There being none the meeting adjourned. 



24 



REPORT OF SECRETARY. 



To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Gentlemen : I beg to submit to you my report as Secretary of the 
Illinois State Historical Society for the year ending May 9, 1917. 

The past year has not been a year of remarkable happenings, but 
I have as usual to report continued progress and growth of interest. 
This interest is shown in many ways. First by the number of kind and 
appreciative letters which are received by the Secretary of the Society. 
Secondly, by the large number of letters and requests, and personal 
visits received by the Secretar}', from historical students, from book 
publishers and numerous other individuals and associations asking ad- 
vice and suggestions for historical projects, courses of study, publica- 
tion of books, etc., and by the constantly increasing uimiber of requests 
and invitations asking the Secretary of the Society or some member of 
it, to make historical addresses, and by the number of persons seeking 
membership in the Society, though memberships are no longer solicited, 
because the expense of large editions of our publications, and the cost 
of ]>ostage and expressage on them, the time and the labor involved in 
wrapping and labeling them under our present postoffice regulations 
make large editions a very heavy expense. Of course members are wel- 
comed but we are deferring carrying on a real membership campaign 
until we have more commodious quarters, including a work room, and 
the necessar}' equipment for handling this work. In spite of these facts 
this Society is the largest State Historical Society in the United States 
in point of numbers. We have 1,460 annual members and 37 honorary 
and life members, a total of 1,497 members. We send our publications 
to 304 newspapers throughout the State and 633 libraries and historical 
societies, 102 county superintendents of schools, thus making a mailing 
list of 2,536. As our editions are but 3,000 which is the usual edition 
of State publications they are practically exhausted as soon as dis- 
tributed. 

It is not alone in the regular work of an historical society that this 
Society wields influence, but by the fact also that it is recognized as the 
legitimate agent for historical and allied work throughout the State. 
It is a tribute to the value and standing of the Historical Society that its 
officers are called upon to act in an official capacity in such great his- 
torical work as the preparation for and the carrying on of the State Cen- 
tennial, a work so great as to interest the whole nation. This will, of 
course, be the absorbing work of this Societv for the coming vear and a 
half. 



/w 

I would be very glad indeed if a plan could be devised by means of 
which the members of this Society could become acquainted with each 
other. I wish our communities would do more work. I came vei\y near 
saying sotne work, instead of more work, but there are some honorable 
exceptions. I wish the members would make suggestions for the work 
of the Society and for articles and material for papers and addresses at 
meetings and for publication in the Journal. In other words, I wish 
this Society would wake up, would do more work in every branch. Surely 
the approach of our State Centennial the fact that next year is the Cen- 
tennial year will cause us all to feel our responsibilities as citizens, and as 
members of a Society, the avowed aim of which is to search out, and to 
record state history. If we are interested in the history of our state 
we cannot fail to feel the greatest pride and gratification in the oppor- 
tunity which the Centennial celebration affords us to prove our devotion 
to Illinois and its history. 

I beg you to consider what this Society will do as its part of the 
celebration. Our annual meeting next year must be adequate to the oc- 
casion. We must have a splendid observance. Can we invite delegates 
from other state societies to attend? There are many ways in which we 
can aid in the celebration, members of this Society ought to be leaders 
in local celebrations, in assisting or directing in the necessary study for 
the production of pageants. 

Please consider seriously, our program for next year. I hope a 
new Program Committee will be appointed. 

On December 7, 1916, selected because December 3, Illinois day, the 
real anniversary of the admission of the State fell on Sunday, the Society 
held a special meeting. An excellent address was delivered by Gov. E. 
W. Major of Missouri. The title of the address was "The Log Cabin 
Period in Middle Western History." Governor Major is a pleasing 
speaker, and talking on this subject was a labor of love to him. The 
address seemed as spontaneous as ordinary conversation. It was much 
enjoyed by a large audience. 

At this meeting Governor E. F. Dunne on being introduced by Dr. 
Schmidt, the President of this Society, presided over the meeting. Gov- 
ernor Major and the directors of the Society were entertained at dinner 
the same evening by the Governor and Mrs. Dunne at the Executive 
Mansion and they appreciated the courtesy of the invitation and the 
privilege of the visit with the Governor and his family. At the dinner 
table on this occasion were the Governor and Mrs. Dunne, three sons 
and four daughters and a daughter-in-law, and after dinner the Governor 
proudly showed the guests an infant grand-son. The directors of the 
Society appreciated, as I have said, the hospitality and the glimpse of 
this delightful family. 

The Secretary has made addresses at various places during the year 
on historical subjects, usually on the State Centennial. Among them 
being a visit to Cincinnati to the American Historical Association, Rock 
Island (two visits,) Danville, Ottawa, Streator, Vandalia and Lincoln, 
and while not making an address I attended the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Association, in Chicago. 



26 

At the special meeting of December 7, the Society had the pleasure 
of he,ariiig from Miss Lotte E. Jones of Danville in regard to the work 
and the plans of the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association. The work 
of this association is to properly mark the cross roads and historic spots 
in the old Eighth Illinois Judicial Circuit which was for many years 
traversed in going from county seat to county seat to attend the circuit 
courts by Abraham Lincoln and the other lawyers of that history mak- 
ing period. The members of this association are mostly members of the 
historical society, though the work is under the auspices of the Illinois 
Daughters of the American Eevolution. It is a noble and important 
work. We ought to aid it in every way possible. I hope Miss Jones 
will tell you more about it. This work completed should be a part of 
our Centennial Celebration. 

Local historical societies are doing good work, and I believe if proper 
attention is given to the matter many associations formed as Count}'' Cen- 
tennial Associations can be continued as local or county historical socie- 
ties. I hope members will consider this matter and not neglect this op- 
portunity. 

Grifts to the Library and Society are acknowledged in the Journal 
and for that reason I will not take your time by mentioning many of 
them, but I will briefly mention a few of the more interesting ones. The 
son and daughter of the late George IST. Black gave to this Society the 
books of their father. There are about 2,500 volumes in the collection. 
Miss Osborne and I personally superintended the moving of the books 
from Mr. Black's old home to the State House. The library is a general 
one and it seemed best to place the volumes where they will do the most 
good. From this collection Mr. John W. Black and Mrs. Stericker have 
presented to the Springfield Art Association a number of books useful to 
art students. We have taken out the books along our special line, Illi- 
nois State and Western history, except where the volumes are duplicates 
of books in our own collection. The general works are to be turned over 
to the State Library Extension Commission and will be given to small 
or newly founded libraries throughout the State, but in each volume, 
those we keep and those that go out, a book plate or label is pasted bear- 
ing these words in plain clear type : 

"Prom the library of George IST. Black, Springfield, Illinois. A 
gift to the Libraries of Illinois by the son and daughter of George N. 
Black." 

Mr. Black loved the libraries of Illinois. He loved books. He 
loved this Society. I am glad that in this way his name is linked to 
these objects which were so dear to him. 

The Society has received as a gift from James L. Cook and John 
C. Cook, the sons of General John Cook, and grandsons of Daniel P. 
Cook, some very interesting letters and documents from the correspond- 
ence of Daniel P. Cook. 

We have also received three interesting original letters the gift of 
Mr. DeWitt Smith of Springfield, one being of particular interest in 
that it is written to ISTathaniel Pope, August 17, 1818, and relates to the 



27 

admission of the State of Illinois into the Union. The writer was E. 
W. Eipley afterwards General Ripley. 

Mr. Clinton L. Conkling continues his generous gifts to the Society 
as does Miss Louise I. Euos and Mr. H. S. Dixon of Dixon. I have 
made many appeals for material of this nature. I now repeat it, and 
again call your attention to the circular letter asking for it. Last year 
at our annual meeting the Society received as a gift from Mrs. Geo. A. 
Lawrence of Galesburg the beautiful State banner, which is displayed 
to-day. Mrs. Lawrence had worked zealously to have this flag adopted 
and largely through her efforts a law was passed ])y the Forty-ninth 
General Assembly authorizing the people of the State to have this flag, 
recognizing it as a State flag and describing it. 

The Centennial Banner which is also before you must not be con- 
fused with the Illinois State Flag. The Centennial Banner is to ad- 
vertise the State Centennial, and can be used in many ways in which it 
would not be proper to use our State flag. 

The Centennial Banner was designed by Mr. Wallace Rice of Chi- 
cago and the design was by him presented to the Centennial Commis- 
sion. 

Please do not confuse these two in your minds, and please explain 
the difference where to your knowledge such confusion exists or arises. 

The reference work that is done in the historical library is very 
great and increases every day. We assist in making up club programs. 
We recommend reading lists, we hunt up material on every subject. We 
furnish "This day in Illinois history," which appears in the newspapers 
and which I hope you see and read. 

Our genealogical students and enquirers are constant and interest- 
ed. Our patrons tell us that Miss Osborne is the most accommodating 
and painstaking helper to be found in any genealogical library. I think 
those of yon who visit the Lil)rary Avill testify to this, even though you 
may not be making genealogical researches. I would like to give my 
personal testimony to the fact that slie is the most unselfish and untir- 
ing of assistants and friends, devoted at all times to the interest of this 
Society and the Library. If you think it proper, I would like to recom- 
mend that she be elected Assistant Secretary of the Society, if the con- 
stitution permits it and she is now that in all but name. I also wish to 
say that the Society is under great obligation to Miss Anne C. Flaherty, 
another assistant in the Library who cheerfully performs much gratuit- 
ous service for the Society. Without the devoted assistance of these two 
young ladies I would be unable to perform all of the tasks which are a 
part of each day's work. 

It is my sad duty to report to you the death of 28 members of this 
Society since my last report. We try to publish brief biographical 
notices of our deceased members in the Journal. We are not always in- 
formed of deaths. Those members who have passed away since my last 
report are: 

Burnham, Capt. J. H., Bloomington, Illinois, January 21, 1917; 
Bush, J. B., Hennepin, Illinois, February 17, 1916; Crowder, Mrs. 
Martha Tomlin, Springfield, Illinois, January 29, 1917; Campbell, Edw- 



28 

ard T., St. Louis, Missouri, October 18, 191G; Connelly, Major H. C, 
Pasadena, California, December 30, 1916; Cunningham, Judge J. 0. 
Urbana, Illinois, April 30, 1917; Dugan, Mrs. J. J. Springfield, Illinois, 
September 23, 1916; Edwards John H., West Union, Illinois, ISTovember 
16, 1913; Foss, Mrs. George E., Chicago, Illinois, January 27, 1917; 
Gordon, Daniel, Moline, Illinois ; Harvey, Dr. L. J., Griggsville, Illinois, 
January 17, 1916; Harris, K W., Lake Geneva. Wisconsin, 1916; Henry, 
Mackay, Mt. Carroll, Illinois, July 22, 1916; Haskell, Dr. W. A., Alton, 
Illinois, July, 1916; Kirby, Hon. E. P., Jacksonville, Illinois, February 
25, 1917; Leaverton, Mrs, C. A., Springfield, Illinois, April 6, 1917; 
McGrady, J. I., Jerseyville, Illinois, September, 1916; Nelson, William 
E., Decatur, Illinois, January 16, 1915; Pierson, A. V., Lexington, Illi- 
nois, January 24, 1916; Pogue, H. W., Jerseyville, Illinois, November 
21, 1916; Parker, C. M., Taylorville, Illinois, August 24, 1916; Eeed, 
Miss Harriet A. M., Hebron, Illinois; Sweet, M. P., Utica, Illinois; 
Selleck, Wm. E., Chicago, Illinois, February, 1917; Tyler, C. C, Foun- 
tain Green, April 22, 1917; Wells, E. S., Lake Forest, Illinois, June 
10, 1916; White, Horace, New York City, September 17, 1916; Woolley, 
Myron, Streator, Illinois, March, 1916. 

I will not touch on the work of the Centennial Commission. Dr. 
Schmidt wiU tell you of this. I would like to tell you of his work for 
the cause of State history in all its phases. He would not allow me to 
do so, but some of it, though by no means all, speaks for itself. 

I want to congratulate this Society upon the fact that it is grow- 
ing and flourishing. If members and committees are not active, that 
does not mean that they are not interested. In all associations a few per- 
sons do the work. This is not ideal, not desirable — but it is a condition 
and not a theory that confronts us. These conditions exist in all as- 
sociations which are not pressed by some living, vital force of the pres- 
ent. It does not mean a lack of interest. It means only that members 
have so many pressing, pushing duties that they are willing to leave his- 
torical matters in the hands of those few to whom it seems of most vital, 
and urgent interest, but let our Nation or State, their history, their 
heroes or their traditions be assailed and love and veneration, that which 
we call patriotism bursts forth and burns brightly. 

Historical societies have great and practical duties. One of them is 
to show to the present generation that Eepublics are not ungrateful. We 
can aid to-day, the cause of our countr}*, by showing to the young heroes 
of the present, that we honor the men and women who founded our na- 
tion and our commonwealth, that we preserve with love and veneration 
the names and memories of those heroes of other crises, other wars. That 
to keep undimmed and faithfully recorded their names and their deeds 
is our sacred duty, and if such fate shall be the portion of those brave 
souls who defend us to-day, their names will not be forgotten, the story 
of their sacrifices left to chance but the historical society will try to keep 
green and immortal the story of their valor. 

The Nation and the State will cover with laurel the great ones of 
the Nation, but to the State and local historical society, in the future as 
it has been in the past will be the duty and privilege of searching out 



29 

and recorcliug the short and simple annals of the humblest ones, as well 
as the greater heroes of our State and nation. This should be, it is, one 
incentive to patriotism. It has been one way by means of which patriot- 
ism has grown in the hearts and minds of American people, of all 
peoples, the knowledge of their glorious history. 

Historical societies do not record heroes and dramas of war alone. 
Peace has its victories as well as war. Our duty is to search out, to fer- 
ret out, historical facts of all kinds, to record them, to publish them, in 
some way to preserve them. 

The field is very large. 

It is our field. 

It is our duty. 

How are we performing it ? We have done fairly well, but we must 
do better. 

Let us make the Centennial year a rich and full year for the Illinois 
State Historical Society filled with labor and achievement. 
Eespectfully submitted, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary. 



30 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GENEALOGY. 



To the members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

In our last report to the Society we stated that we were making an 
effort to secure county histories of the various states comprising the 
Northwest Territory, as students working on the early pioneers of the 
State ask as a rule for material on Ohio and Indiana. We have to 
report in our genealogical collection the following county histories. 
From Indiana, having ninety-two counties, we have twenty-nine, 
namely: Allen, Boone, Carroll, Clay, Clinton, Dearborn, Henry, 
Howard, Johnson, LaPorte, Lawrence, Marion, Miami, Monroe, Ohio, 
Owen, Park, Eandolph, Saint Joseph, Tipton, Union, Vanderburgh, 
Vigo, Wayne. 

Ohio, out of 88 counties we have 29, namely : 

Athens, Auglaize, Columbiana, Coshocton, Erie, Franklin, Geauga, 
Guernsey, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Highland, Knox, Lake, Lick- 
ing, Lorain, Lucas, Marion, Mahoning, Medina, Montgomery, Portage, 
Richland, Seneca, Summit, Trumbull, Washington, Wood, Wayne. 

W'ith regard to Wisconsin and Minnesota, the other states of the 
Northwest Territory, we have not made as great an efEort to secure these 
histories as they were not called for as a rule. 

As we have often stated in our reports, we are continually on the 
lookout for histories and historical sketches of Virginia, Kentucky, 
North and South Carolina, and Tennessee, to help out workers whose 
ancestors came from these states. 

We again ask the cooperation of the members of the Society in 
securing for this department early historical sketches of localities in the 
State, church history, educational history, old letters containing bits of 
family history, which otherwise may be lost; we publish from time to 
time these letters in our Journal and they are read with great interest 
and have in many cases furnished information which could not have been 
secured any where else. 

Our workers are from many parts of the United States and they 
express themselves as surprised at our collection and the care with which 
it has been selected and its usefulness. 

We expect to publish in the Journal in a future issue an addition 
to our genealogical list published as No. 18, of the publications of 
the Library. We have received the following family histories as gifts to 
this department: 

Sherman Family. Gift of Mr. Bradford Sherman, Chicago. 



31 

Sanborn Ancestry — Supplement. Gift of Mr. V. C. Sanborn, 
Kenihvorth, Illinois. 

Frost Family. Gift of Charles S. Frost, Chicago. 
Newkirk, Hamilton & Bayless families. Gift of Thomas J. jSTew- 
kirk, Evanston, Illinois. 

I watch very carefully the periodicals, genealogical magazines and 
newspapers for compilations of family histories and in cases where they 
are by Illinoisans, we write and ask that a copy be deposited in the 
Library and have always had prompt replies followed by copies of the 
books if printed. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman of the Genealogical Committee, 
Illinois State Historical Society. 



32 



JOHN HOWARD BURNHAM. 



(By Jessie Palmer Weber.) 

It hardly seemed that the Illinois State Historical Society could 
hold a meeting without the presence of Captain John H. Burnham, for 
this is the first meeting in the history of the Association which has not 
been in a large measure pervaded by his keen, active, magnetic influ- 
ence. We expect to see his familiar figure, not tall but rugged and vigor- 
ous, to catch a glance from his bright, far-seeing eyes, which were un- 
dimmed by his eighty-two years 

John Howard Burnham was born at Essex, Massachusetts, October 
31, 1834. His father was John Burnliam and his mother Sarah Clioate 
Perkins. 

The town of Essex, Captain Burnham's birthplace was taken off of 
Ipswich in 1819, and is situated near the end of Cape Ann. The father, 
John Burnham, inherited the orginal home of the first American emi- 
grant of the family, also a John Burnham, who came from Xorwich, 
England, to Ipswich in 1634, and who was a soldier in the Pequot Indian 
War in 1637. For his service in this war John Burnham was given a 
grant of farm lands by the town of Ipswich. 

The grandmother of Captain Burnham, his mother's mother was a 
Choate, of the family of Eufus Choate and Joseph H. Choate. Sarah 
Perkins Burnham lived to the age of ninety-eight years. She died in 
1905, when her son John H. Burnham was past seventy years of age. 

Captain Burnham was much interested in the genealog}' of the dif- 
ferent branches of his family and in x^ew England history and his love 
for his Illinois home did not lessen his interest in these studies. 

In 1855, when twent}-one years of age, John H. Burnham joined 
an emigrant party and came west to Illinois. He often told of this 
journey and its wonders and delights as well as its hardships and in- 
conviences, and of the many changes he saw in methods of travel in the 
sixty years during which he made journeys, back to Xew England, quite 
frequent ones, for he returned to visit his mother as often as possible 
during her long lifetime. 

For a time after coming to Illinois he taught school at Barrington 
in Cook County, but as soon as he had earned the money he entered the 
State ]SI"ormal University at Xormal, and on July 3, 1861, he graduated 
from that institution in its second class. This was the year of the break- 
ing out of the Civil War. Young Burnham with his New England an- 
cestry and training felt strongly the wrong of slavery and oppression and 
was an ardent supporter of Abraham Lincoln and his policies, and he was 




CAPT. JOHN H. BURNHAM. 
One of Founders of the Illinois State Historical Society and a Director of the Society 

since its Organization in 1899. 



33 

not alone in that, for to the everlasting glory of the Xormal University 
it may be said that every student and teacher in the institution who could 
pass the physical examination enlisted. The president of the University, 
Charles E. Hovey, was appointed Colonel of the regiment raised chiefly 
at the University. It was the 33r(l Illinois Volunteer Infantry and 
was known as "The Schoolmaster's Regiment." The state of Ohio also 
had such a regiment of teachers and students, of which James A. Gar- 
field was Colonel. John H. Burnham was elected first lieutenant of 
Company A of this regiment and afterwards became the Caj^tain of the 
Company. He served a year taking part in several battles, among them 
the Battle of Frederickstown, Missouri, and Cache River, Arkansas. He 
also saw service in many skirmishes, but in the summer of 1862 he was 
stricken with typhoid fever and his illness continuing, he was compelled 
to resign from the army in April, 1863. This was a great grief to 
Captain Burnham, and he always sincerely deplored it. 

As soon as his health permitted him to do so, he resumed his work 
as a teacher. He served for a year as superintendent of the schools orf 
the city of Bloomington. He resigned this office however to become 
editor of the Bloomington Pantagraph. As the editor of an influential 
newspaper Captain Burnham found a congenial field for his talents. 
He was young, being about thirty years of age. His mind was clear 
and active. He was fearless and a strong partisan, but he had an innate 
sense of justice and clear vision. He often said that he learned more of 
human nature in his three years experience as editor of the Pantagraph 
than during any other period of his life. 

In 1867 he became contracting agent for the King Bridge Company 
of Cleveland, Ohio, and continued with this company for thirty-five 
years. During this long period of hard work he was very active. He 
placed iron bridges in half of the counties in Illinois, and it is claimed 
that he was in the bridge business for a longer, continuous time than 
any other man in the United States. In the pursuit of his business he 
of course traveled extensively over the State of Illinois and became very 
familiar with its topography, being a natural student of history and 
keenly interested in people, and their interests and life stories, he ac- 
quired a great fund of information about Illinois and its people. This 
interest grew, up to the day of his death, and the knowledge thus /secur- 
ed was of great value to him and to the cause of State history. He was 
verv thorouirh in his investigations. He was not satisfied to know vhings 
on the surface. He went to the bottom of things. He was naturally 
methodical and painstaking. He was never afraid or ashamed to ask 
a question or to admit that he did not know when he himself was asked 
to give information. 

At the expiration of thirty-fi\o years service with the King Uridge 
Company, Captain Burnham became the head of a bridge construction 
company under the firm name of Burnham and Ives. He also had an 
interest in the Decatur Bridge Company. He had a very large acquaint- 
ance throughout the State, his bridge contracts of course causing him to 
make the acquaintance of many county officials. 

— 3 H S 



34 

On January 22, 1866, John H. Burnham was married to Almira 
S. Ives, the daughter of Almon B. Ives . a pioneer law}-er of Illinois. 
These two lived together for fifty-one years. 

Mrs. Burnham is a talented, cultured woman, active in church and 
social work. She is a member of the Xational Society of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution and shared with her husband his interest in 
genealogv' and history. She early showed a talent for painting in oils 
and water colors and she has devoted years to her art. 

Captain Burnham was very proud of the work of his wife and they 
having no children were comrades and co-laborers in every sense of the 
word. 

On Januarv 22, 1916, thev celebrated their srolden weddinsr. Their 
home was beautifully decorated with yellow flowers and many golden 
gifts were showered upon them. A large assemblage of friends called to 
pay respects to this man and woman who had together walked through so 
manv changing years. At that time neither of them seemed old. Both 
were apparently free from traces of feebleness. Many old friends con- 
gratulated them. It was a joyous occasion. Former Governor and 
Mrs. Joseph W. Fifer were there. General James S. Ewing and his 
wife. Colonel and Mrs. D. C. Smith. Mrs. Sarah A. EaAinond Fitzwil- 
liam and many other well known residents of McLean County assembled 
at the Burnham home and talked of former days and former friends. 
The Boys' Baud from the Soldier's Orphans Home came to serenade 
their friend and patron. Captain Burnham was very happy to see all 
these friends under his own roof. Xo one who had the privilege of at- 
tending this Golden Wedding can forget it. The affection of Captain 
and Mrs. Burnham for each other so beautifully and simply expressed, 
their happiness, and their appreciation of the expressions of good will 
from their friends was a benediction, a si^ht to make one sure of the 
noble qualities of human nature, and to be remembered as the harvest 
time, the golden glow of two faithful lovers. 

Captain Burnham was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and 
of the Masonic Fraternity and of course was active in the work of the 
G. A. E.. but it is as a worker in, and recorder of, local history that he 
will be most honored, and longest remembered. He was from earliest 
^•outh, as has already been stated, an enthusiastic historical student, and 
his letters to his mother in Xew England after his coming to Illinois, and 
during his army service gave evidence of an ability to express his ideas 
clearly and well. His experience as editor of the Pautagraph gave him 
confidence and precision of style. 

As he grew older and had more leisure his interest grew and his 
writings increased. In IS 79 he published a history of Bloomington 
and Xormal. In 1881 in cooperation with the late Judge H. W. Beck- 
with of Danville, first President of the Illinois State Historical Society', 
who was a most patient and devoted student of Illinois history, he wrote 
the history of an ancient Indian Fort in McLean County. 

On March 10. 1892, the McLean County Historical Society was 
organized. Captain Burnham. Ezra M. Prince. John M. Scott, Wil- 
liam McCambridge, Henry S. Swayne and Peter Folsom, were the or- 
ganizers. From that time until his death Captain Burnham. was one 



35 

of the leading spirits in the organization and was active in writing, com- 
j)iliiig or editing its historical series, among which may be mentioned 
the War IJccords of McLean County, and the School Records of McLean 
County, tliese being volumes one and two of the McLean County His- 
torieaJ colJections. He was a contributor on historical subjects to various 
newspapers and periodicals among which may be mentioned a vol- 
uminous article, showing that the first outbreak against the tyranny of 
England in the American Colonies, was at Ipswich, Massachusetts, the 
first home of his family in America. This was published in the Journal 
of American History September, 1915. 

In 181)9 the Illinois State Historical Society was organized by a 
few interested students of Illinois history. They met at Urbana at the 
University of Illinois. Judge H. W. Beckwith was elected President, 
and Prof. E. B. Greene, Secretary. Captain Buruham attended this 
meeting and was elected one of the directors of the Society which office 
he filled until his death. 

His service to this Society can not be measured. He loved his 
adopted State and its history. His home was in Illinois for sixty-one 
of his eighty-two years. 

He was faithful to the interest of the Society at all times. He 
was an indefatigable worker. He had great physical endurance and 
mental poise. He was not easily influenced, nor to be turned aside nor 
changed from his purpose. He v/as a modest man, not a very ready talker. 
He had the habit of listening, paying close attention. He took an 
active part in all of the business and matters which concerned the His- 
torical Society. He gave its affairs earnest thought. He made many 
contributions to its transactions and publications. He was from the 
first number an associate editor of its Quarterly Journal. 

A list of his written contributions to the Society will be appended 
to this article. 

The last large task which he performed for the Society was his ex- 
haustive paper on the destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi 
Eiver. To this work he devoted months of patient labor, and made many 
visits to Eandolph County to verify statements and to obtain informa- 
tion. His familiarity with the neighborhood of Kaskaskia acquired in 
his bridge building days, as well as his habit of close observation and 
patient research made of him the one person who could do this work. 
That he did it — that he was able to complete the task is something for 
which the Historical Society has reason to be thankful. It is impos- 
sible for anyone not familiar with this article to appreciate the labor 
which Captain Burnham devoted to it. It is however but one instance 
of his devotion to Illinois State History. 

Captain Burnham's last visit to Springfield was on December 7, 
1916, on the occasion of a special meeting of the Historical Society in 
commemoration of the Ninety-eighth anniversary of the admission of 
the State of Illinois into the Federal Union. The actual anniversary 
(December 3) fell on Sunday, and the Uh. was selected for the com- 
memoration. An address was delivered by Governor E. W. Major of 
Missouri. Captain Burnham very much enjoyed the occasion. Gover- 
nor Major and the officers of the Historical Society were entertained at 



36 

dinner by the Governor and Mrs. Dunne. All who saw Captain Burn- 
ham spoke of his rugged appearance and good spirits. He died Janu- 
ary 20, 1917. 

The Illinois State Historical Society is now holding its eighteenth 
annual meeting. Of that little company who met at Urbana to form 
the Society, its first President, H. W. Beckwith has gone. Ezra M. 
Prince, George Perrin Davis, David McCulloch, George X. Black and 
J. 0. Cunningham have also passed on. All of these men gave true and 
unselfish service to the Society, but it is no disparagement to their work 
and their memory to say that Captain John H. Burnham gave more 
years of untiring toil, more hours of anxious thought to the Illinois 
State Historical Society and its interests than did any other of the 
fathers and founders of the Society. 

Captain Burnham was a man typical of Xew England. He was 
conscientious, faithful, industrious, just and true, a progressive citizen, 
yet conservative in all things. The kind of a man whose word is his 
bond, a patient builder of bridges of thought upon which his associates, 
their children and their children's children may cross to a better under- 
standing of the lives, the toils and sacrifices of those who made the 
State of Illinois. 

His name, his toil will, we hope, reap the reward of the pioneer 
who made it is said: 

"Both straight and true 
Every broken furrow run, 
The strength you sweat 
Shall blossom yet 
In golden glory to the sun." 

Writings of Capt. John H. Burnham in publications of the Illinois 
State Historical Library and Society. 

Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois. John McLean. In Pub. Xo. 8. 
1903. Illinois State Historical Library. 

Mysterious Indian Battle Grounds in McLean Count}^, Illinois. 
In Pub. No. 13. 1908. Illinois State Historical Library. 

History of the Thirtv-third Eegiment, Volunteer Infantry. In 
Pub. Xo. 17. 1912. Illinois State Historical Library. 

The Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi Eiver. In Pub. 
No. 20. 1914. Illinois State Historical Library. 

Report of the Dedication of Monument to Victims of Indian Creek 
Massacre, LaSalle County, Illinois. In Pub. No. 12. 1907. Illinois 
State Historical Library. 

A Curious Proposition in 1776. In Journal of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. Vol. 2, No. 3. October. 1909. 

Indian Battle Ground near Piano, Kendall County, Illinois. In 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. 7, No. 3. 
October. 1914. 




JAMES HAINES. 



37 



JAMES HAINES— IN MEMORIAM. 



(Report of a special committee of tlie Tazewell County Bar on the life and 
services of James Haines. Read by Mr. W. R. Curran.) 

Time proves that the things of the spirit only, survive; that the 
things of the phj-sieal senses perish with us. The oldest living thing 
known to man is the General Sherman tree, in Sequoia National Park. 
When the Pharoahs buildecl the pyramids in the Valley of the Nile, it 
was alive. When Abraham came out of Ur of the Chaldeans, its crest 
stood in defiance of the lightning. When Moses received the tables of 
the law at Mount Sinai, it was true to the law of life. When the Christ 
^vas born in Bethlehem of Judea, its leaves furnished shade, shelter and 
promised comfort. His star in the Cerean sky was fellow to the north 
star as it lit its plumed crest. 

The tree has withstood destruction for nearly twenty centuries 
since that day. It is when we consider these stupendous comparisons 
that we are able to reach out our hands and touch the hem of the gar- 
ment of meaning, when we read the words of ancient Eevelation : 

"For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday; when it 
is past and as a watch in the night." 

We can commence to think of this hoary old tree as getting old. 
The pride of its life is past. Its form is shrinking and its top is shorn 
and bald. It stands a prophecy of its coming fall; while the faith of 
Abraham has grown younger and more virile with the flight of time. 
The tables of the law of Moses have formed the genesis of the law of 
the civilized nations of the world. The things of the spirit revealed by 
the Galilean were true before time Avas. They have grown brighter and 
clearer in the hearts of man during all the centuries and the things of 
the spirit will remain radiant and true when time and sense of material 
things are no more. This fixed law of things spiritual, accounts for the 
growing light of the centuries. It states a reason why the thresh-hold 
of the twentieth century is brighter, freer and more inviting than any 
since time began. Spiritual truth spreads a halo of glory over things 
and makes even the material more blessed. 

It was the good fortune of him, whom we memoralize to live, his 
life over the greater part of the nineteenth century, the greatest century 
the world has seen. It was also his lot to live on the firing line of the 
westward march of civilization, at the spot where the savage and civi- 
lian met ; to be a part of the great change from the rude savage to civi- 
lization. 

Illinois, the third State of this nation, carved out of the North- 
west Territory, was four years old when he was born, its population was 



38 . 

less than fifty thousand. He came to his cabin home in what is now 
Cincinnati Township, within eighteen years after the massacre at Fort 
Dearborn. When the hearth stones were placed in the Haines fire- 
place, the trees growing in front of the Kinzie cabin at Fort Dear- 
born were saplings. His elder brother, William Haines, was one of the 
proprietors of "Town Site" before the Village of Chicago was platted. 
Within the span of his life on earth, he saw the population of his 
adopted state exceed six millions of the most virile people that have trod 
the earth; and overflow their own state lines and help to build Iowa, 
Kansas, Nebraska, the Dakotas, and Colorado and enrich the sand- 
dunes of the Valley of the Sacramento with their surplus wealth. He 
saw the ox team grow into the steam railroad, trolley car, automobile and 
flying machine; and the dug-out become a steamship. In his time, the 
pony express grew to telegraph lines, telephone and the wireless. He 
experienced the growth of the reaping hook into the grain cradle and 
the Haines' Header and did battle with the McCormick for supremacy 
and was in the light. He saw slavery grow to universal liberty and 
had the experience of witnessing the great contest between his fellow 
lawyers, the great Emancipator and the great Senator of Illinois on the 
very ground where we are now assembled. 

He lived to see the Rations of the earth, come to the very ground 
where fell the victims of savage warfare at Fort Dearborn, bring the 
products of their art, manufactories, science and literature to unite in 
the World's Fair; the great material triumph of Democracy — Truly 
his life was a great experience. His century the crown of them all. 

James Haines was born in Butler County, Ohio, near Oxford, Sep- 
tember 10, 1822. He died in the city of Pekin, September 11, 1909, 
aged eighty-seven years, and his body was buried at the Haines' Ceme- 
tery, within less than a mile of his playground when a boy. His father 
was Joseph Haines, who with his family, consisting of Sarah Haines 
and eleven children, emigrated to Tazewell County, Illinois, arriving at 
the Dillon Settlement in November, 1827; on that date the population 
within the present limits of the county was one hundred. From his 
fifth year, James Haines lived in Tazewell Coiinty. The family first 
occupied a cabin in the Dillon Settlement, until such time as Joseph 
Haines, the father entered his claim, three miles southeast of "Town 
Site," now the city of Pekin and built his home in February, 1828. He 
has written a graphic description of the journey and the home. 

"The trip from Ohio to Illinois occupied forty days. It was made 
by wagons, drawn by horses or oxen and sometimes both, a span of horses 
were used in the lead and a yoke of oxen being hitched next to the 
wagon and sometimes two or three yoke of oxen were required to draw 
a heavy wagon and its load. Traveled roads and bridges were unknown 
and of course for many years after, only wagon tracks, left in the spongy 
soil, guided the movers to unbridged fords, or the best crossing of 
streams, sloughs and swamps. Plentiful and continuous rains in the 
spring and fall, thawed out the frozen ground or when only slightly 
frozen, made conditions of travel quite impossible." 

The cabin home of the Haines family was rude in construction, as 
all buildings in the Illinois country necessarily had to be. There was not 



3y 

a nail, screw, bolt or scrap of iron used in any part of it. There was no 
tin or metal attaclicd to it; no glass in the windows; no transoms or sky- 
lights. It contained one room on the first floor, sixteen by eighteen feet, 
an upstairs loft or garret of smaller dimensions, as the sloping roof cur- 
tailed the area of height sufficient for erect occupation and use. "Within 
these two rooms, the father, mother and eight children, who were yet at 
home, found ample accommodations and home surroundings. Writing of 
it, Mr. Haines says : 

"Within these two rooms of circumscribed size and height, we fou ml 
all the pleasures and joys now distributed by modern civilizatiun, refine- 
ment and the best society over habitable house-territory, designated in 
part by hospitable fashion as: hall, reception room, sitting room, parlor, 
double parlor, music room, bed room, guest room, chambers, closet, kitch- 
en, laundry, lavatory, bath room and servants' room." 

In this log cabin, Mr. Haines resided with the members of his 
father's family, yet remaining at home, until his twenty-fourth year. 
Conditions at that time in Tazewell County were primitive indeed. From 
1827 to 1831, Indians roamed the country freely, some friendly, some 
hostile. The "injuns" as they were then called, infested and committed 
depredations all over the frontier country. They were composed of vari- 
ous tribes. 

"Town Site" afterwards organized as the city of Pekin was the last 
towm on the line of the Indians' progress south on their hunting trips, 
where they obtained ammunition, powder, lead and shot, gun flints and 
other equipment for their hunting campaign. Hence, they always 
stopped at "Town Site" on their way down the river. At that time there 
was about a hundred white residents of "Town Site" and about three 
hundred of the Indians. As they came down the river, their canoes and 
other craft were landed on the long sand bar on the west side of the chan- 
nel of the river, opposite "Town Site." On this sand bar, the canoes 
were landed and unloaded, the squaws, very old men, papooses and 
little Indians remained on the sand bar, while the warriors and hunters 
came across the river to "Town Site" to purchase and barter materials 
at the trading station. The papooses tumbled pell-mell into the shallow 
water, like turtles or little pigs. At that time the Indians camped in 
the winter in the timber south of Dillon Creek in Dillon Township. 
They continued in this county until after the Black TTawk War in f8;32. 

Of the charms of the new country, Mr. Haines has written : 

"There was a charm about the new home, a fascination in all our 
surroundings, that claimed our allegiance and love in spite of all tem- 
porary inconvenience, sickness, suffering, death Tind sorrow. The broad, 
limitless expanse of unclaimed, unused virgin nature appealed to us in 
all its smiling beauty to be used, occupied and enjoyed by man and 
woman for virtuous civilized homes of love and human production. It 
seemed a new Garden of Eden without a serpent. Knowledge was ours, 
our eyes were opened, and we feared no fall." 

Of the social conditions, he has used the following language: 

"Call to mind the many quilting, ('•ari)et-rag-?ewi]ig. a])])lc-paring, 
pumpkin peeling frolics, made by the girls and matrons, the corn shuck- 
ings, wood choppings, rail splittings, house and barn raisings by boys 
and men ; wild berrying, nutting and many other parties made and 



40 

joined in by male and female of all ages and sparking opportunities 
were plenty. 

'"And then and over and above all, and better than all other oppor- 
tunities for sparking, love making and falling in love with each other, 
came the annual Methodist camp meeting! Blessings on the memory 
of these rude, wild exciting camp meetings ! Organized by the religious 
element in good men and women of the illiterate period when nearly 
all the books known to us were summed up in the scant list of Bible, 
H}iiin Book, Pilgrim's Progress, Eobinson Crusoe, and '"The Indian 
Book^' for spiritual culture and comfort. All classes and conditions far 
and near attended and were made hospitably and socially welcome to 
tent and table, mourner's bench and family circle. Preachers, elders 
and heads of families gave devout, inspired attention and labor to the 
spiritual demands and needs of the miscellaneous congregation, and 
looked after the interests of the Methodist church organization. The 
younger persons present, of both sexes, gave more attention to worldly 
interests, and affairs of the heart were in the ascendant. Too young to 
join in these delectable enterprises myself, memory seems to say all times, 
all places afforded opportunity — na}^ inducement — to spark the pretty 
girls, fall in love with them, marry them, and live happy prosperous 
lives. Getting married meant something practical then. A log cabin 
soon followed on a claim made b}^ the husband. Corn bread, hominy, 
wild game, bacon, eggs and butter were the main articles of living all 
cooked and served by the new wife. No hired girls, no boarding house life 
then, as is so general now. Husband and wife both joined at once in 
bread winning, left no fear of the wolf of want. Health and happiness 
crowned the parentage and frequent use of the sugar trough cradle won 
the highest position ever attained by man and woman, makers of a vir- 
tuous, happy home; helpers to make a jDatriotic nation. The sugar 
trough was fashion's baby home then." 

Like Esau, the pioneers were men of the field, living in the open; 
they were strong rugged men, who wrung the sustenance of life from 
nature's rugged hand and Mr. Haines was no exception to the rule. 

Of hunting he has written : 

"The hunting passion, if I may dignify this appetite or desire with 
so strong a name, is greatly fanned and excited by environment and 
stimulating effects of weather, atmospheric forces and landscape sur- 
roundings, charms and fitness. The landscape and forest charms of our 
country have been greatly, and to me, disagreeably changed since the 
hunting days of which I write. Indeed, scarcely a neighborhood once 
clothed with forest trees, greatly enhancing its beauty and charm, that 
has not been much, if not entirely denuded of this leading feature of at- 
tractiveness and delight. The grand old native forest trees, the lordly 
ornaments and seeming guardians as well of hill and valley, ravine and 
bottom lands of all our rivers, creeks and streams, had the effect on eye 
and appreciation of early pioneers of very appropriate and royal drap- 
ery for our beautiful land." 

On another occasion he gives this vivid picture: 

"Boy of only five years old then. I well remember the first wild deer 
brought into camp for food! It was a fine fat buck of four prongs. 



41 

Camp had been made and jSTovember twilight was gathering fast, but 
rashers of venison from that buck's saddle soon smoked and sputtered 
on the coals, and joined their appetizing odors with the boiling coffee 
pot, and the feast that followed in that forest bivouac far out-ranked in 
joy and gladness, Belshazzar's royal banquet, and no fateful handwriting 
marred its progress or paralyzed all guests with fear at its conclusion." 
He was a poet as well as a hunter; we quote the following verses 
from a hunting song of his pen, in 1S54, when he was twenty-three years 
of age: 

"Let others join the giddy dance 

And pour the flashing wine. 
That lends to beauty's luring glance 

A lustre half divine; 
Then let them sing their sweetest song 

And wake the harpstrings too — 
I'll sing my song, not half so long, 

Give me my rifle true. 

Let others feast on smiles they win. 

From lips as roses sweet. 
While ev'ry thought that flows within 

"With vanity's replete; 
To them be given these conquests fair, 

For which they sigh and sue. 
My simpler care, I thus declare — 

Give me my rifle true." 

Mr. Haines' education was obtained before the advent of the free 
school system. He attended a "pay school" taught by Mrs. "William 
Gosforth, located in a log cabin on what was afterwards known as the 
Walker farm, situated about four miles south of Pekin. When older 
he taught a like school in the same neighborhood. Later he attended the 
law department of Transylvania University at Lexington, Kentucky. 
He was graduated from that institution with the degree of Bachelor of 
Civil Law, March 1, 1849, when in his twenty-seventh year. 

He did not always remain too young to take advantage of the spark- 
ing opportunities of the country that he has so graphically described. 
for the records show that he was married in Tazewell County, October 
24, 1850 to Anna E. Maus by S. V. E. Westfall, minister of the gospel. 

From his marriage until his death, he resided in the city of Pekin. 
His home throughout the active years of his life, was known far and 
wide for its lavish hospitality and the genial social qualities of its head. 

On February 2. 1849, the Legislature of Illinois passed an act pro- 
viding for an election to finally settle the county seat contest in Tazewell 
County. In the event that the electors voted to remove the seat of gov- 
ernment from Tremont to the town of Pekin, the act provided that 
Thompson I. S. Flint. David Mark, William Maus. Thomas ¥. Gill and 
James Harris (Haines) be appointed commissioners to provide the 
means to erect and to superintend the erection of the court house at Pekin. 



42 

The printed act as well as the original draft, states that the fifth com- 
missioner's name was James Harris. The commissioners were all resi- 
dents of the town of Pekin. The evidence is abundant that James 
Haines acted on that commission. No James Harris was a resident of 
the town of Pekin at that time. The conclusion is inevitable that the 
name "Harris" written in the original act was an error on the part of 
the scrivenor of the original act and the intent was to write James 
Haines; however, that may be, the public square in the town of Pekin 
was procured and the house completed in July, 1850, before the public 
printer of that primitive day, put the act in print and the error was not 
discovered until it was too late. 

Commissioner James Haines on behalf of the commission procured 
Judge David Davis to come to Pekin in July, 1850 and approve the new 
court house and accept it on behalf of Tazewell County, as provided by 
the act under which it had been built. 

Commissioner Haines has written of himself concerning this event: 

"I was probably the happiest man in the great northwest the day of 
its acceptance and occupation as the seat of Justice for Tazewell County, 
Illinois.'' 

This was the building that stood on the square for sixty-five years 
and was the seat of Justice for this people. The structure that meant 
so miich to us, who have spent the greater part of our lives, ministering 
in its courts, the temple that meant so much to our brethern, who have 
preceded us. From its portals have gone out great senators of the 
United States, a great chief justice of the greatest tribunal of the mod- 
ern world; a great president, who became a martyr to the supreme cause 
of liberty, orators and soldiers of national fame, and a host of men of 
lesser note, who have the profession which we love and to which we have 
devoted our lives. 

It is fitting then at the passing of the "old court house" and at the 
threshhold of the dedication of the new, we memoralize and do honor 
to the name and fame of this pioneer lawv'er. 

Among his professional associates of that early day were such men 
as Lincoln, Davis, Edwards. Stuart, Ficklin, Browning, Williams, Pur- 
ple, Manning, Merriman, Dickey, Douglas, Baker, Ford, Prettyman, and 
a long list, fast fading from memory and love of all who knew them; 
for the name and fame of the lawyer, who has not political prominence 
is written on the sands and the waves of a new generation soon erase 
them. 

In his professional work, Mr. Haines on occasion had the assistance 
• of Mr. Lincoln in the trial of cases and he took great pleasure in recount- 
ing the kindness and professional courtesies extended to him by the 
great leader of the early Illinois Bar. 

In the late fifties, he gave up the practice of his profession, and for 
a time was connected with the banking firm of G. H. Eupert & Co. 

In 1861, he was engaged in a general insurance business in this city 
and for many years conducted the most extensive line of insurance under- 
writing in this part of the State. Before the office of county school super- 
intendent of schools was created, he served a term as county commis- 



43 

sioner, succeeding Lemuel Allen. He was for a long period school treas- 
urer, was also member of the school board of the city of Pckin and a 
member of the building committee that had charge of the erection of 
the first high school in this city, which was since destroyed by fire; he 
also served as president of the Old Settlers' Association and was an in- 
fluential member of the State Historical Society and by his wide read- 
ing, literary ability and intimate personal acquaintance with the early 
growth of this section, has rendered his state and generation, a great 
service as historian. As a lawyer, citizen and business man, he occupied 
an unique place, he spanned two centuries and in life, memory and pub- 
lic service united them; his life represented the old and the new; the 
primitive and the complex; the past and the present; he was the last 
survivor of his kind, a representative of that race of hardy pioneers, who 
brought civilization to the Valley of the Illinois; and who lived to see 
its fruitage even to the full com in the ear. 

"Then let me sing of the pioneer. 

The hero hardy and strong, 
Who "blazed the way," for better days,- 

When the road was dark and long; 
I hear em' 'en now, the woodman's stroke, 

As it echoes along the years. 
And hear again the crashing oak, 

And the shout of the pioneers. 

They were heralds of a better time. 

These men who went before, 
For they wrought for coming ages, 

In the brave days of yore ; 
Though hands were hard and calloused. 

And cheeks were brown with tan. 
They knew each drop on the wrinkled brow. 

Was the, sweat of an honest man. 

And thus it is in every cause, 

Which lifts aloft the rights of man, 
Some one must travel on before 

Some one march in the van; 
And every sacred, God-born truth 

Which to this world hath come. 
Hath had its sturdy pioneers 

Who bore the torch of faith alone." 
*********** 

He came to his grave 

in a full age; 
Like as a shock of grain 

coming to its season. 
May it please the court on behalf of the Bar of Tazewell County, we 
move you that this memorial be spread at large upon the records of this 
court; that properly engrossed copies thereof be delivered to James 



44 

Haines, Jr., the only surviving member of the family of our fellow, The 
Tazewell County Historical Society, and the Historical Society of the 
State of Illinois. 

W. E. CURRAN 

William A. Potts 
Ealph Dempset 

Committee. 
Pekin, Illinois, June 20, 1916. 
Walter L. Ferris, D. D. 



PART II 



Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 



1917 



47 



CONTEMPORARY VANDALISM. 



(Address delivered by Jenkin Lloyd Jones at the Annual Meeting of 
the Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, Illinois, May 10, 1917.) 

Scientists have taxed their ingenuity to reconstruct jjrehistoric 
animals from a few broken bones and obscure footprints in the rocks. 
From meager skeletons found in far away quarries they have recon- 
structed three-toed and two-toed horses on their way to the present 
one-toed pet of the household. But their best efforts in the way of 
skeleton building are unattractive enough, because all the vital parts 
which gave life, and probably grace of motion and beauty of form, 
perished with the life of the animal. Could we discover a living pri- 
mordial horse he would perhaps be a sleek, short-haired, smooth little 
pet, or possibly a long haired, ungracious little creature about the size 
of a sheep, but there are none of them left to prove the surmise correct. 

Much that we call history is simply a collection of bones without 
flesh or the charm that belongs to life, because that which covered the 
bones with life was allowed to perish, largely through the ignorance 
and stolidity of their contemporaries, 

"Alas for the nation that forgets its annals !" 

There is a vandalism that wantonly devastates the sanctities of 
life by fire and sword through a violence born of hatred. This van- 
dalism destroys the records that would make beautiful the skeletons of 
history and alive the dead bones which alone survive the wreckage of 
time. 

But there is a vandalism, scarcely less destructive and quite as 
regrettable, perpetrated by ignoranc(\ The records are often allowed 
to perish through sheer stupidity and it is this vandalism that I shall 
inadequately discuss on this significant occasion and in this opportune 
presence. 

The ignorant soldier preserved the pretty box bitt threw away 
the jewel it was made to contain as being only a useless and uninterest- 
ing stone. So the vandalism of ignorance neglects and misuses the 
most precious experiences of life; it desecrates by neglect the holiest 
sanctities of the race. 

The intelligent American tourist in Europe arranges his itinerary 
so that it reaches from cathedral to cathedral, from deserted cloister 
to hoary minster. Europe's ruined abbeys and wrecked cathedrals 
offer the best keys with which to unlock the mysteries of the centuries, 
the best helps to realize the poverty and crudeness of our bumptious 
present. Such a traveler, having been moved by the sublime ruins of 



48. 

Glastonbury and grieved over the wreckage of its noble arches and 
broken traceries, walks or rides over a beautiful macadam road to 
Wells, ten or twelve miles distant, to study another achievement of the 
cathedral builders. But he is shocked to learn that the road over 
which he came has been paved with the crushed rock taken from the 
splendid cathedral that offers the matchless ruin of all England, 
whether it be judged by its architectural or by its literary interest. 

80 here in our Democratic America we pave the highways which 
lead from the farm to the nearest railroad station with life's forgot- 
ten traditions, abandoned sanctities and crushed lives. 

Buildings for the accomodation of the territorial legislators and 
Supreme Court officials for the territory of AVisconsin were framed in 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, complete in every detail, and shipped in a 
''knock-down" condition down the Ohio Eiver to Cairo, re-shipped up 
the Mississippi to Galena, then all across the country by ox teams some 
sixty miles to Belmont, the original territorial capital. When some 
years ago, a party of us visited the abandoned and practically forgot- 
ten shrine, we found that, in spite of Wisconsin's boasted university, 
historical society and State Xormal Schools in the near neigborhood, 
these most* interesting mementoes had been abandoned, and pitiably 
neglected, were practically forgotten relics of an ancient regime. The 
State House had been converted into a barn; it reeked with the filth 
of pigsties and. neglected cow stalls. The Supreme Court building 
had become from careless vandalism an unkempt farmer's home, though 
the stately folding doors that once separated the court room from the 
jury room still preserved the dignity of design and delicacy of execu- 
tion befitting the original purpose and witnessed to the skillful hand- 
work of some forgotten craftsman. In all of Wisconsin boastful, as it 
may M^ell be of its academic acquirements, its university graduates, its 
heroic traditions and its record for patriotism, there is not left rever- 
ence enough to preserve for future generations thig beautiful and im- 
pressive civic shrine, witnessing to so much frontier heroism, clothed 
with the tenderness, and pathos of pioneer life. 

Emerson and Carlyle once sat down in the shade of the mystic 
stonehenge, that marvelous relic which antedates all English history 
and is an awesome survival of an ancient faith unstudied and an an- 
cestry untold, and they marveled at "the whimsicality of English 
scholarship that uncovers Xinevehs but leaves its own Cor Gaur to the 
rabbits," and there they communed over the flight of ages and the suc- 
cession of races. 

Chicago has one clear martyr story in its traditions; that of the 
young and gallant Lieutenant Wells who sacrificed his life in trying 
to save the lives of women and children in the Fort Dearborn massacre. 
The early surveyors of the city of Chicago most fittingly dedicated one 
of the longest streets of that city to the memory of Lieutenant Wells. 
Later the greed and vice of a growing city took such possession of that 
street that the cupidity of real estate men, seeking to rescue their prop- 
erty from the reproach brought upon it by this degradation, succeeded 
in changing the name of the street, instead of applying themselves to 
the purging of it from its degradation. So now we have a "Fifth 



49 

Avenue" where once there was a Wells Street. The name witnesses to 
the vandalism of greedy ignorance, to a crass reverence for the eagle 
stamped in gold. The timely interference of the Chicago Historical 
Society has probably put a stop to the further vandalism that would 
extend the name of Fifth Avenue to the unspoiled section of the street. 
But history may have to wait for the movement of a more intelligent 
generation before the entire street adjoining Chicago's Eialto, is re- 
stored to the memory of the gallant young otHcer who so valiantly laid 
down his life that others might be saved. 

The ])lot of any city in Illinois, even the map of the State itself, 
reeks with such infidelities. Precious landmarks have been steam- 
rollered out of recognition. Let one illustration suffice. 

"Turners' Corners" was once a famous landmark, a haven of rest 
oil the main traveled road from Galena to Chicago, here the prairie 
schooners anchored over night for rest and refreshment. The lailroad 
came and made a "Turner Junction" out of Turners' Corners. Then 
the real estate man came, and lo; the name of the hospitable Turner is 
wiped off the map, and we now have a "'West Chicago," some thirty 
miles away, skipping across half a dozen other municipal or village or- 
ganizations. The cTiangc Avas made in the interest of a prosperity 
which let us be thankful to say, is not served in the long run by such 
superficial tricks. There is much in a name, but not much that is 
desirable in the vocabulary of illiterate greed. 

"Words," says Emerson, "are frozen pictures," and names arc liv- 
ing things charged Avith romance, philosophy and religion in the 
vocabulary of the historian. 

One more illustration. A few years ago in the neighborhood of 
my summer home there was left a solitary forty acres of primeval 
forest. Through the freakish whim of an old bachelor, this lone forty 
acres in all the county had never been disturbed by the woodsman's 
axe. On it great aiieestral v<iiite oaks spread their over-shadowing 
liml)s wbere once the red man ]utched his wigwam. Here the pioneer 
emigrant bivouacked, and where more recently the youths of that conn- 
try side picnicked, quite unconscious that a part of their exhilaration 
was traceable to the sublimity of that untampered forest. Some of us 
ti'icd to save that lone spot from the vandalism of "business." Hop- 
ing to consecrate it forever to thought, rest, recreation and fellowship. 
A few women bravely sallies forth to save the Eock Hill oaks, by deed- 
ing the forty acres to the town that it might he saved for a l^enignant 
perpetual ])icnie ground. The subscription halted oidy about Iwo 
hundred dollars short of success, when iwo sturdy Scandinavian youths, 
worthy successors of the Vikings, secured possession and by one winter's 
chopping Avith their sharpened axes, converted the splendid grove wliich 
it had taken nature centuries to produce into railroad ties and cord wood. 
And now there is left only a rough little field, one of the many in that 
coimty. yielding to the alternation of corn and pasture, its value meas- 
ni-cd l)y ilic pigs and milk checks produced thereon. 1 nni not indifferent 
to the Illinois procession of cows and pigs, more cows that there may be 
more pigs, and again more coavs and pigs. Imt tliis is the time and the 
— 4 H S 



50 

place to plead for the higher sanctities, to guard the intangible wealth, to 
cherish the traditions and preserve the accumulations of the spirit. 

The lesson I am groping for in this lecture is most impressively 
taught by the pathetic neglect, the tragic vandalism in regard to the 
human background, the historic foundations of Illinois' greatest asset, 
the sublime traditions and world enriching achievements of its Abra- 
ham Lincoln. 

Just where nature opened a gate discovered by Daniel Boone in 
the Appalachian range of mountains, the strategic point through which 
the pioneer life of Virginia and the Carolinas found its way into Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, the Daughters of the Eevolution have caused a 
foundation to be laid in solid stone and cement which the_v called the 
"Daniel Boone Monument." Some day, when prosperity justifies, 
these ^^■omen hope to place upon this masonry a fitting bronze ethgy of 
the doughty path-finder who led the way for the Lincolns and Ha'nkses, 
the Hardins and the rest of them. That monument stands at the point 
where the three great states, Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky meet 
and the foundations of a great Lincoln Memorial Universitj have been 
well hiid within sight of this suggestive landmark. 

Thus far the people of Illinois and of Indiana and Kentucky, 
states that share with Illinois the gkiry of being the early home of the 
Greatest American have reversed the method of the Eevolutionary 
dames of A'irginia. We have been busy shaping the Lincoln statue 
while we have been stupidly neglecting its historic base. The statue 
so far constructed lias found no adequate historical foundation upon 
which, to rest. It will be a growing scandal in American history if 
the constituency you represent here does not take prompt steps to do 
everything possible to ameliorate the contemporary vandalism which 
has allowed the tender traditions of Lincoln's immediate fore-elders 
and his oAvn early childhood to pass out of the reach of recorded his- 
tory. Had his contemporaries and his immediate successors eyes only 
for the coarser material? Were they blind to the humbler loyalties 
and the finer courtesies in the home and neighborhood in which the 
great soul was cradled? Had they ears only for the idle gossip and 
flippant scandal incident to the vulgarities of the political stump and 
partisan slanders? Could they not catch the prophecy, the hint of 
the man's aspirations, the prophetic insight displayed in his earlier 
utterances mid the crampecl conditions of his pioneer childhood? 

There is nothing more unkind and cruel in American history 
than the fli])pant way in which the forebears of the great President 
liave been dismissed as unimportant and uninteresting. The super- 
ficial insinuations of the American stum]), the uncritical acceptance 
of the popular gossip born out of ignorance, have left the names of 
Thomas, Nancy aiul Sarah Bush Lincoln the most neglected and un- 
derestimated names in American history. 

The poetic flight of Lowell has been accepted as literal history. 
Said he in the ('ommemoi-ation ode: 



51 

For him her Old-World moulds aside she threw, 

And choosing sweet clay from the breast 

Of the unexhausted West, 

With stuff unstained shaped a hero new, 

Wise, steadfast in the strength of God, and true. 

This happy phrase of the poet's fancy seems to have satisfied the 
unpoetic mind as historic accuracy, and the earlier biographers of Lin- 
coln reveled in the fancy that their hero was made all the more heroic 
by shrouding his antecedents in a mist of ignorance and uncertainty. 
Too long has Lincoln been taken as a sort of American Melchisedec, 
''Trince of righteousness and king of Salem, without father and mother, 
without descent, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, made 
like unto the Son of God, abiding a priest continually." 

Lincoln himself, Avith becoming modesty, accepted the obscurity 
that belongs to common people in lieu of a pedigree more or less fictiti- 
ous, an estimate rooted in graveyards. Lincoln died in the belief that 
all of his story was told in the one line of Grey's Elegy. 
The short and simple annals of the poor. 

"This is my life, it is all you or any one else can make of it," he 
said in the days of the early curiosity awakened by his first nomination. 
This evidences his humility and conscious loneliness, but we know now 
as he never could know, that his blood flowed down through noble lines 
fropi the best and noblest in New England, Pennsylvania and Virginia. 
We now know that if the great Emancipator was cast in a "new mould" 
as Lowell said, the material for the moulding was thoroughly fused in 
the seething caldron we call history. We now know that the blood of 
the Lincolns came down from those who gave its name to the proud 
shire of England. His name was found under the shadows of the fly- 
ing buttresses of Norwich Cathedral, among the names of those who 
(ncrflowed the jail and filled the Guild Hall because they would not ac- 
cept the ritual prepared for them by the bishop. It reaches back to 
the people who pelted the tax collectors with stones and who finally, in 
order to escape an odious government, sailed away, two ship loads of 
tbem. in the "Eose" and the "John and Dorothy" from Yarmouth Bay, 
to anchor in due time off the New England coast and established the 
colony of Hingham. This was in 1646, only twenty-six years after the 
Mayfiower had landed its load at Plymouth Eock. 

Contemporary records show that lots were set off in the new village 
of Hingham for Thomas Lincohi the miller, Thomas Lincoln the 
weaver, Thomas Lincoln the cooper. Later there came another Thomas 
Lincoln, the husbandman and one year later, the lad Samuel a brother 
of Thomas the weaver having completed his apprenticeship in weaving, 
joined his father and together they began in America the great industry 
of the loom. The fourth sou of this Samuel was Mordecai Ijincoln, 
blacksmith. He married the daughter of Abraham Jones in the neigh- 
boring settlement of Hull. This prosperous blacksmith reared the first 
furnace in the new country and smelted the ore picked up in the mar- 
shes of Scituate. Two of the six children of this iron master, Mordecai 
II and Abraham, carried the business into New Jersev. Mordecai 



52 

pushed further and opened a furnace in Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
The records of 1725 tell his selling "mynes, minerals and forges." Mor- 
decai II bequeathed his estate to the eldest son, John, "John Lincoln, 
Gentleman !"' runs the probate record. Later we find this same John in 
Eockingham, Virginia. His will mentions five sons, the eldest of whom 
was another Abraham who married Mary Shipley, and Shipley is a name 
to conjure by in the history of Xorth Carolina. They, with their three 
sons, Mordecia III, Joshua and Thomas, pushed over the mountains into 
Kentucky while it was still a part of Virginia. Like Abraham of old, 
this Abraham Lincoln moved westward as a man of wealth and power, 
with horses, cattle and household goods. He went with a land warrant 
for seventeen hundred acre for which he paid a hundred and sixty 
pounds current money. The surveys of at least two difEerent plots of 
four hundred acres each are recorded in his name in the field books of 
Daniel Boone or his immediate deputies. Subsequently this pioneer, 
notable even without the reflected glory of his great namesake was felled 
by a bullet form a treacherous Indian rival and his little ten-year-old boy 
Thomas, who witnessed the shooting absolutely disappears from our 
books and our traditions until he appears again as the bridegroom of 
the bright eyed, sweet tempered and pretty faced Xancy Hanks. Even 
the later lives of Lincoln too often reiterate the old groundless scandals 
of illegitimacy and uncertainties of births and marriages, which has 
been absolutelv denied liy the most conclusive flocumentary evidence. 
Perhaps through the apathy of ignorance and the contemporary van- 
dalism springing therefrom, this cloud of obscurity and distrust has 
hung most heavily over the name of Nancy Hanks, a name that is the 
most cruelly neglected name in American history. 

The recovery of the story of Xancy Hanks brings bright laurels to 
the brows of the two or three women who have broken through the ignor- 
ance and established the truth concerning the "little mother." 

Hanks, like Lincoln, is not a name to be ashamed of. I am glad 
that the greatest American Avasted no time in pedigree hunting. Ances- 
try is poor capital to do business on in a republic. Life is too short for 
most of us to waste on genealogies, but liistory loves justice , and an- 
cestry, like posterity, has its rights. The little mother, who at thirty- 
five vears of age laid her dying hand upon the head of little Abraham 
in the backwoods of Indiana, bore a name that has been traced across 
the seas, back to the time of Alfred the Great, when two brothers named 
Hanks received the "Commoner's Eights in Malmersbury." The name 
of Athelston, grandson of Alfred, is on the deed. Thomas Hanks, a 
descendant, of one of the brothers was a soldier under Cromwell, and his 
grandson, Benjamin Hanks sailed from London to Plymouth. Massa- 
chusetts, in 1699. only fifty-three years after the landing of the first 
Lincolns at Hingham. This Benjamin Hanks was the father of twelve 
children, the third of whom, was William, who moved to Pennsylvania. 
His son, John Hanks, married Sarah, a daughter of Cadwallader Evans 
and Sarah Morris "Welsh, quakers. The record runs, "John Hanks, 
veoman, Sarah Evans, a spinster." A grandchild of this union was a 
"Joseph Hanks, who was borne southward with the tide of emigration 
largelv headed by Daniel Boone, whose blood is intermingled with that 
of the Shipleys, "Lincolns and Hankses. Joseph Hanks joined the pro- 



53 

cession across the mountains. He had herds of cattle and horses. He 
bought a hundred and sixty acres of land near Elizabethtown in Ken- 
tucky. The youngest of his eight children was little Nancy, who was 
five years of age when she crossed the mountains. There were four 
years of home-making in the wilderness and there the father left the 
nine-year old little girl an orphan. His will is preserved and has been 
reproduced in the later Lincoln books. His simple, but for those days 
ample, estate was carefully divided among the children. The will pro- 
vided that a sorrel horse, "Major," should go to Joseph, the roan horse 
to Charles, one heifer to Elizabeth and "To my daughter Nancy, one 
heifer yearling, called "Peidy." This was her dowry. When next we 
meet her she is the bride of Thomas Lincoln at an imposing wedding 
with its "infair" at the home of her prosperous uncle and foster father, 
Richard Berry. 

This is not the time or the place to tell the story, of these beloved 
men and women in American history. But it is the time and the place 
to show that the dearth of knowledge about the forebears and kindred of 
Abraham Lincoln ought to arouse us to the belated task of doing what 
can be done towards completing the solid base that is to serve as an ade- 
quate foundation to the Lincoln Memorial. 

The Hanks have been famous bell manufat;turers. The first bell 
and the first tower clock constructed in America as well as the bell that 
replaced the old Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, and the Columbian Liberty 
bell made for the Columbian Exposition of 1893, were cast by members 
of the Hanks family. The first American silk mill was Ijuilt by a 
Hanks. The founder of the first American bank note company was a 
Hanks. "Hanksite" is the name of a mineral named after the discov- 
erer, the state mineralogist of California. 

What has become of the other Lincolns and the other Hankses? 
Abraham Lincoln the Great used to say playfully that "Uncle Mordecai 
got away with most of the brains of the family." Tradition says he 
was prominent among the state makers of Tennessee. What was his 
story, What has become of his descendants? What has become of 
Uncle Joseph Hanks and his kindred? There were brothers, sisters, 
cousins, and, ultimately, nephews and nieces to Nancy Hanks. What 
is their story? Illinois and Indiana have had a commission at work, 
trying to trace the probable route traveled by this American Odysseus 
from Gentry ville, Indiana, into Coles County. Illinois. A great high- 
way is being built which will soon invite flying pilgrims in horseless 
wagons over the route once traveled by the Lincoln party through the 
bridgeless country with a four-ox team and an iron wagon. The family 
group is said to have consisted of thirteen. Have the thirteen ever been 
identified, and has their story ever been traced? 

In the fall of 1908. the semi-centennial year of the Lincoln-Doug- 
las debate, it was my privilege to deliver the historical address at Char- 
leston, Illinois. We sought at that time in the unkempt corner of a 
neglected and ancient graveyard on the border of the town a grave well 
nigh forgotten and practically lost. We tore away the brambles and high 
tangled gra'ss until our hands were bleeding, and there half buried in leaf 
mould we discovered a little scroll marker, such as it put over babies' 



54 

graves, bearing the inscriiDtion, "Dennis Hanks, Tutor of the martyred 
President/' 

My guide to this place was a woman, then a recent arrival in the 
State of Illinois. Perhaps there were very few citizens in that city who 
could locate the grave, although a descendant of Dennis was, I believe 
at that time postmaster of Charleston. Where is the grave of John 
Hanks, the other cousin who joined with Abrahaia in the cabin building, 
rail splitting and flat-boat sailing? 

During the visit to Charleston already mentioned Doctor Lord, 
President of the State Normal School of Charleston, husband of the one 
who re-discovered for me the grave of Dennis Hanks, led a party to the 
grave of Thomas Lincoln the father, some fifteen miles from the county 
seat of Coles County. A few weeks ago I stood for the second time in 
the little Shiloh grave yard, beside the humble shaft already chipped by 
vandal hands, which marks the grave of Thomas Lincoln the father. 
Near by was a small boulder, the only mark for the resting place of 
Sarah Bush Lincoln, the blessed stepmother who triumphantly refuted 
the cruel slander so often current concerning this high office. The lit- 
tle stone was placed there by Mrs. Susan Eodger Baker, of Janesville, 
Illinois, the devoted neighbor, now feeble and aged, who is tireless in 
her efforts to remove from Illinois the scandal of this neglect. From her 
I secured the information, which I could find in none of the books, that 
Sarah Bush Lincoln was born December 13, 1788, and that she died on 
the old farm in her ninetieth year, that aside from the Springfield home- 
stead was the only land Lincoln ever owned, and this he secured for the 
use of his father and blessed foster mother. This venerable and patriotic 
sister, has written me at my request since my visit, saying : 

"The first time I saw her she was dressed in black and wore a small 
shoulder cape. It was at Charleston. Illinois, September 18, 1858. 
That day I saw her lean her head on Abe's breast and I heard her say, 
'I always knew that Abe would be president.' I suspect she was the 
first to make that assertion. She was called good and kind and was 
always loved and respected by all who knew her. The last bread she ever 
ate was baked by Elsa Price Anderson, the grandmother of Marvel L. 
Baker, who placed the flowers you will receive under separate cover, on 
Sarah Lincoln's grave Easter Sunday. 

Lincoln gave her a wool shawl and folded her in his arms as he 
placed it around her shoulders the last time he visited her on his way 
to the presidency. 

Thomas Lincoln was honest, kind, a great friend to children. He 
was loved and respected, could write a plain hand. Some of his hand- 
writing was in the care of our family for more than fifty years." 

This contemporary vandalism, this neglect of our most sacred an- 
nals, was again made vivid and painful to me this very day when, in 
your own beautiful cemetery, I sought the grave of one who for sixteen 
years shared the professional confidences of the great President, his law 
partner,' his first and most intimate biographer, albeit, too close, perhaps 
I might say too loyal and loving, to establish the proper perspective. 
To my great surprise I had great difficulty in locating the grave of 
William Herndon. The curator of the Lincoln monument was not only 



55 

ignorant of the location of the grave but was apparently uninformed 
concerning the man who was very much alive on the streets of Spring- 
field throughout a long lifetime. Three or four of the cemetery care- 
takers, whose business it is to keep the walks and graves in repair, knew 
of several Herndon graves but could not differentiate among them. I 
accosted several visitors on 'the ground, two or three of them residents of 
Springfield, and they had no knowledge of the location of the grave. The 
superintendent of the ground himself had to resort to his record, and suc- 
ceeded in finding the name by guessing at the 3'ear in which Herndon d 'd 
and running down the column. When at last the lot was located and ;i 1 
office assistant directed me to the grave we found a humble stone mark- 
ing the resting place of Mary Herndon his first wife. By its side were 
two unmarked graves and my guide was still unable to decide which of 
them contained the bones of him to whom the President Elect on the 
day before his sad departure from Springfield, said : 

"Billy, how long have we been together?" 

"Over sixteen years." 

"We've never had a cross word during all that time, have we?" 

"No, indeed we have not." 

"Let the old sign hang there undisturbed. I am sick of office- 
holding already. I shudder when I think of the tasks that are still 
ahead. Give our clients to understand that the election of a President 
makes no change in the firm of Lincoln and Herndon. If I live I'm 
coming back some time, and then we'll go right on practising law as if 
nothing had ever happened." 

The grave of this friend of Lincoln's is not only unmarked but un- 
liouored and almost unlocated in your own beautiful cemetery.* 

During my recent birthday visit to the Lincoln Memorial Univer- 
sity at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, I met a kinswoman of Nancy Hanks, 
one who has been trying to trace out the family traditions in Kentucky. 
She has located the Berrv House where the marriage of Nancv Hanks 
took place, a structure that still retains a degree of loghouse state- 
liness, albeit, now used as a hay loft. When seeking the records at the 
county scat the thrifty registrar informed her that he had not long be- 
fore given a "lot of old records, no longer worth anything," to a colored 
man with instructions to burn them. She sought and found the colored 
man and he remembered having noticed that there was a lot of "mighty 
good paper" in the junk and that instead of burning it, ho had used it 
to stop a washout under the fence. She sought the washout and actually 
unearthed from among the clay stained sheets a record showing that a 
certain Thomas Lincoln paid a poll, tax of $1.00 in a certain township, 
on a certain date. 

During my Coles County visit already referred to, I stopped a 
moment at the house which is the successor to the old Thomas Lincoln 
home situated on the original Abraham Lincoln land before mentioned. I 
found it occupied by a stalwart farm woman, still a representative of the 
family, who was full of pent up lore concerning the much beloved "Grand- 
ma Lincoln." But I had no time to mine the fertile brain and heart of 



* A modest stone was erected by the Herndon family and a monument to William H. Herndon 
has been erected in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, by nis friends, and will be unveiled March 18, 
1918. 



s 



oG 

this kinswoman. She said she had a box full of interesting '^photographs, 
pictures and things" pertaining to the Lincoln family, but they were 
nailed up under the bed and were not to be seen. Does not this box come 
within the assets of the Illinois Historical Society? 

The other day I received a letter from a lady in Chicago saying : 

I have in my possession a very rare treasure in the way of a picture, 
which I do not think can be duplicated. It is a fine picture of Lincoln's 
first home in Illinois, in front of which stand John and Dennis Hanks 
in their hunting suits. There is a little description under the picture 
relative to the view, making it still more interesting. * * * "^Ye 
have had the picture for more than forty years. I am not particularly 
anxious to jrArt with it, but we are breaking up our home and there is no 
one except myself to enjoy to. I would like to feel that it is giving 
pleasure in the future as it has in the past." 

I wonder if there is not something here for this societv to look into I 

I wonder if this learned society is acquainted with the story of the 
Thomas Lincoln Monument? I am told by Mrs. Baker of Janesville, 
Illinois that G. B. Balch, a rural poet of that country side, gave public 
readings from his own poetry in Charleston, and the proceeds started 
the fund with which to bu}' a marker for the grave of the father of the 
great President. The fund was financially reinforced, I believe, by a 
contribution from the grandson, Eobert Lincoln. The little shaft was 
erected at the cost of one hundred and twenty-five dollars, and the frugal 
Mrs. Baker remarked that it could now be bought to-day for fifty dollars. 

In 1908, Eugene W. Chafin, noted as a prohibition leader, lectur- 
ing in that neighborhood was touched by the neglect of Sarah Bush 
Lincoln's grave and tried to lift that reproach from the State of Illinois. 
He started a fund for the purchase of an adequate marker. A beginning 
was made and the result deposited in a Mattoon Bank under date of 
May 24, 1911. I have as yet been unable to locate either the bank or 
the fund. Mr. Chafin wrote to Mrs. Baker: 

"Your letter received. I expect to be in Illinois in June or July 
and if I can manage my trip so that I can, I will go to Mattoon and 
give my lecture on Lincoln. "We now have about $30 in the bank for the 
monument for Mrs. Thomas Lincoln. We ought to take in one-hundred 
at that lecture. Every cent taken in goes to this fund, I give the lecture 
and my expenses free. 

Will write you as soon as I get a day off for this lecture." 

Here the movement disappears so far as I am able to learn. 

In 1913 W. T. Hollenbeck of Marshall, Illinois, wrote to Mrs. 
Baker : 

"Eeplj'ing to your card just received inquiring about H. B. Xo. 278 
will say that same went along nicely and seemed that it would be enacted 
into law until the governor called on the chairman of the appropriation 
committee and told him that no monuments of any kind would be per- 
mitted this session and that if they were put up to him he would veto 
them, etc., and thus killed the bill which ought to have been put into 
law and a respectable monument erected at the firrave of Thomas Lin- 
coln." 

Indiana seems to have been more appreciative of its sanctities than 
Illinois. One of the Studebaker brothers of South Bend rediscovered 



O i 



the almost lost grave of Xaiicy Hanks and saved it for posterity Avith an 
adequate marker. Later the state reverently threw its paternal arms 
round her resting place and has made a state park of the beautiful ceme- 
tery near the railroad station known as ''Lincoln City." A m'onument 
to the mother of Abraham Lincoln was erected, 1902, at this place, by 
Gen. J. S. Culver, of Springfield, Illinois, the contractor who rebuilt the 
Lincoln Monument at Oak Eidge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois. The 
stone used in building the monument to Nancy Hanks Lincoln was taken 
from the monument erected to the memory of her illustrious son. Only 
last year Jesse W. Weik, of Greencastle, and Mr. Cravens, of Madison, 
Indiana, located the almost forgotten grave of Sarah Lincoln, the only 
sister of the President, and placed a fitting marker at its head. Her 
ashes rest not far from those of the little mother. 

I plead with this society to lead in the movement that will not be 
permitted to cease until the sacred spots connected with the history of 
out great Prophet of Humanity are suitably located, guarded and given 
an adequate place in the knowledge and love of the children of our land 
throughout the coming generations. 

I plead not for the dead ; they wrought well and they rest from 
their labors. History will not neglect them, and I cannot believe that 
America will permit these shrines to be lost in utter forgetfulness. but 
I plead for an enlargement of the record, the rescuing of the unwritten 
history before it fades from the memories of the survivors and descend- 
ants. This task, which should be promptly converted into a privilege, 
rests with peculiar weight upon the states of Kentucky, Indiana and Illi- 
nois. There must be here treasures available to the gleaners of heavenly 
gossip when properly encouraged and wisely directed by such societies 
as the one which I now have the honor of addressing. 

Abraham Lincoln was not a wondering star, a miracle, an unac- 
counting surprise, but he was such as might have been expected under 
the circumstances, properly understood. Far reaching forces culminated 
in this man. He was a representative of the times and life which he glor- 
ified, but he cannot be understood, much less duly appreciated, until the 
pioneer life, that splendid forerunner of civilization which changed the 
wilderness, into homes, is understood. 

Lincoln cannot be properly interpreted except in terms of the im- 
migrant. The adequate base for the Lincoln statue must be built out of 
the traditions of the Lincolns, Hankses, and others of like potencv by 
whom they were neighbored. The very democracy which Lincoln hon- 
ored, the common people in whom he gloried, must enter into the story 
of this foundation. There is no vandalism more destructive of noble 
endeavor and high ideals than the stupid neglect or stolid contempt for 
the far-reaching, in-reaching and down-reaching democracy of this west- 
ern world. The pioneer age is passing but the pioneer vitality woven of 
many strands, is still the hope of the country. I have no anxietv con- 
cerning the future appreciation and intelligence concerning the orator 
without peer, the advocate of high principles, the suffering President, 
the commander-in-chief of the noblest army ever marshalled. These are 
safe. Humanity will keep these records bright and will profit by these 
traditions. If this story has not already been adequately told, age by 
age will add to its interpretation and appreciation. But the Abraham 



58 

Lincoln of the backwoods, the Abraham Lincoln of the clearing, of the 
log house and the simple life connected therewith, is in danger of pass- 
ing hopelessly beyond the reach of coming generations because of the 
contemporary vandalism that is indifferent to the splendid fabric, the 
tapestry of common life, whose written history thus far is but the bony 
skeleton of what was once a living creature. The victims of affluence 
and of the indolence and indulgence that goes with it can never under- 
stand the life that penetrated these western states. The complacency of 
the sterile graduations in too many of our prosperous high schools and 
colleges can never understand the possibilities of the devout life, of the 
tender, truth-seeking, poetry loving intelligence that was fostered in log 
schoolhouses and ripened in forest clearings and on prairie lonesomeness. 
It is difl&cult, if not impossible, for the children of the complicated lux- 
ury of to-day to disassociate these simplicities of the clearing from the 
alleged coarseness and profanity of the frontier. 

Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin and the other 
Middle Western states were not peopled with reckless adventurers but 
with devout, earnest homeseekers, who pushed westward, in search not 
of fortune but of homes. They sought places in which to raise families, 
they brought their wives and children along with them. To them the 
groves were indeed God's temples and often the voice of praise and 
prayer was heard under the trees. The hymn book and the Bible were 
part of the pioneer's outfit. Democracy with all that the word implies, 
was their inspiration. Unconsciously they were nation builders ; coming 
presidents, senators, legislators, orators, editors, poets were their famil- 
iars. There came into this life whose history is still unwritten, the filt- 
ered blood of the Lincolns and the Hankses. the forbears of Lincoln, 
came and found neighbors worthy of them. They found congenial com- 
radeship in the cooperative work of rearing homes, making roads, build- 
ing bridges, constructing schoolhouses and organizing townships, coun- 
ties and states. 

Interpretations of this life can not be found in the encyclopedias 
or in books of history, but in the memories that happily are still carried 
by the living. 

I trust you will pardon the apparent egotism that seeks, in my own 
memory, for side lights to illuminate the story of the pioneers among 
whom Abraham Lincoln found his early home. My life reaches beyond 
the seas. It began in a straw-thatched cottage in Wales where two 
thrifty brothers, hatters in winter time, tillers of a little tilth of ten 
acres in summer time, watching the western horizon, felt the new awak- 
ening, the onward urge of life that disturbed all Europe. In that cot- 
tage were a father and mother, the bachelor uncle, who was also associate 
father, and seven children. There was a comfortable living, congenial 
societ}^ church and home to their liking and kindred reaching far and 
near. But to the expanding minds of the elders the happy life was a 
cramped one. "Establishments," "conventions," "crowns," "dukes," 
"bishops," and "creeds" were fetters to the mind, barriers to the af- 
fections. The "noble" and "peasant" c/o-sses were discounted by the songs 
and the prophecies, the preaching and the prayers that touched the soul 
housed in this little stone cottage. Beyond the seas were lands more 
ample, higher privileges and growing advantages for the children. The 



59 

social fabric was torn, the tendrils of the heart were rudely severed, the 
brave push was undertaken. Father, mother, and seven children faced 
the stormy Atlantic in a sailing vessel. The bachelor uncle had antici- 
pated the trip ; he had gone on a year ahead to spy out the land. After 
the ship had been at sea two weeks it was dismantled by a violent storm. 
With its mainmast gone it tacked back to Liverpool for repairs. The 
passage money had been paid, there was no refunding and duplication 
was impossible, so the family must live on shipboard for two weeks 
while in port for repairs. Then another start was made and when 
the brave little ship reached New York it was once more badly crippled 
and largely dismantled, and the voyage which would now be accomplished 
in six days had taken six weeks. The ultimate consolation that sustained 
this storm tossed group was the thought that they were all there, and 
that at the worst they would go down together and leave no grieving 
hearts behind. 

The untoward delay, the autumn voyage, made the plunge into the 
western wilderness impossible for the season. The Erie Canal was frozen 
up. The party must lay over at Utica, or in that neighborhood, until 
spring opened the water communication. During this interruption the 
fairest of the flock, the golden-haired little three-year-old, was smitten 
with scarlet fever, and the little form was laid in an immigrant grave. 
The family life was softened, chastened, strengthened through all the 
following tempestuous years by the memory of that blossom that drooped, 
withered and fell by the wayside. 

With the opening of the spring season the immigrant group re- 
sumed its journey by canal to Bu£Ealo, then by boat to Milwaukee, and 
then came the quest for "government land." The two brothers, again 
united, green foreigners with an imperfect knowledge of English, tra- 
versed the broad prairies of southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois, de- 
pressed beyond measure by the sight of the vast expanse of desert lands 
that could not grow a horse switch. The prairies to them spelled deso- 
lation. After two week's wandering one hundred and twenty acres were 
secured at $1.20 per acre in the thickest woods of the Eock Eiver bot- 
tom in Wisconsin, where great elms, oaks and basswoods towered and 
mingled their branches in such a way that it was necessary to fell a tree 
in order to catch a glimpse of the sky. These forests were creased with 
marshes, the fostering home of malaria, where lurked undiscovered 
miasma. When the land was paid for and a yoke of oxen and two cows 
purchased, there was left one solitary gold sovereign in the father's hand. 
There were six children to provide for, and no fields to plant, and it was 
too late in the season to plant if fields had been ready. The necessary 
logs for the house were felled, and a wide section must be compassed 
in order to find men enough for the raising. After the walls were up, 
an apprenticeship in American woodcraft must be served before they 
knew how to rive the shakes and make the shingles for the roof. For 
four months of the first summer the roof was of basswood bark, which 
kept out the sun but let in most of the rain. 

Six miles away was the pioneer village gathered around the prim- 
itive water power. There was a saw mill and the country store, and the 
prospect of a grist mill. The father, with the one pioneer who had pre- 
ceded him in that "settlement" who could act as an interpi-eter, sought 



60 

the proprietor of the saw mill and country store. The enterprising Yan- 
kee from "York State "^ after hearing the story of the brave venture, the 
large hopes, the gloomy outlook for the present, said : "Tell that Welsh- 
man to go back and go to chopping. Set the family to chopping. Let 
them chop and chop and chop, all summer and fall, make logs and more 
logs as I will direct and then when winter comes and the snow is deep 
enough they can haul logs on to the ice on Eock Eiver, and when it 
breaks up in the spring the logs will float down to my mill and I will 
settle for them. ]\Ieanwhile tell him I will furnish him with flour and 
salt adequate to his needs. It may be corn meal part of the time but 
I will guarantee him bread enough and salt." The father returned light 
heartedly. Fortune had smiled on them, crowning good luck was theirs. 
The battle began bravely but the marshes bred mosquitoes, monstrous in 
size, fearful in number. Of course no one dreamed of the connection 
between mosquitoes and malaria, but everybody had the ague. Quinine, 
Indian colagogue, Wahoo bitters, prickly ash syrup, boneset tea, and 
again quinine and still more quinine became essential articles in the 
household economy. 

The bachelor father-uncle found a job in another sawmill, deep in 
the forest. He was earnins: monev to meet the other family necessaries. 
He slept in the mill and was taking his training in Americanism, but 
word came that he was ill. The next day the father brought back the 
little bundle of clothing with the boots tied on the outside; typhoid 
fever had done its work. Under a great tree on the wooded hill the 
father dug his brother's grave, and the little group of pioneers in the 
settlement gathered round it. The father who was ever a priest in his 
own household, read the Bible verses, led in singing the old "Welsh 
hymns, and made the prayer that rang through the forest in such a way 
as to abide permanently in the memory of the little group present. 

The battle went on. The six children in due time became ten. A 
schoolhouse was built of logs in the middle of the road because it was 
built before the road was there. We got there ahead of the surveyor. 
The schoolhouse became an academy where high questions were debated, 
great speeches recited, dramatic arts cultivated. Friday was "speaking 
day" and, at the end of each term at least there was the school exhibition. 
Those were the days of spelling schools, singing schools, debating and 
speaking and of contests with adjoining districts. 

There came a time when the school board, heroically progressive, 
voted ten dollars for library purposes and the big brother who must 
needs go once a year to Milwaukee, forty miles away, with the ox team, 
a pig or two, and a few bushels of wheat, involving a trip of four or five 
days, brought back the few books for the "Public School Library." 
District Xo. 3." How well I remember that first short shelf of books — 
"The Story of the Great West," with red cover and gilt decorations, 
Paige's "Theory and Practice of Teaching," Goodrich's "History of 
Greece," and a book of Peter Parley's. These still remain in the mem- 
ory as my introduction to literature. I left that log schoolhouse at 
twelve years of age, but the debate on "Which is the mightier, the pen 
or the sword?" laid the foundation with me of the fundamental argu- 
ments which have staid with me and fastened upon me for good or ill, 
but for aye, the name of Pacifist. 



61 

My first service to the community was to go on Satnrday afternoon 
to fetch the weekly mail, two and a half miles distant. It was cow paths, 
log ways across the marshes, and dim wagon tracks the rest of the way. 
The postman generally travelled on horseback, the roads being too bad 
for wheels. It was a disappointment if I did not get there in time to 
welcome this donghty rider, a herald from the big world beyond us, and 
to note the throwing off of the mail bag on the porch of old Squire 
Smith's grocery. The contents were readily disposed of; a small bunch 
of letters, mostly from foreign parts, a few religious weeklies, a monthly 
or two, mostly in foreign tongues. One splendid solid roll fell with a 
thump on the floor, the last to be distributed. The old postmaster tore 
the wrapper with memorable dignity and distributed the contents. It 
was the New York 2Vibune — a club of twenty. The responsibility of 
distributing three or four copies along the way home was mine. This 
rn'bune was college, opera, theatre, library, political platform, civil re- 
former, and to many, church and gospel. It was well nigh all things to 
all men, and well it might be, for it was in the days of Horace Greeley, 
at his best, Margaret Fuller, Emerson, Alcott, Bryant, Parkman, Har- 
riet Beecher Stowe, Henry Thoreau, N. P. Willis and their great contem- 
poraries, who were contributors. Withoiit a doubt beyond the influences 
of the home fireside this Tribune became the greatest influence in formu- 
lating the life of that countryside in training the community in state- 
craft. 

Among my earliest memories is that of a bright Monday morning 
when we were startled beyond measure by what seemed to be an army 
of men mowing a wide swath through the forest on the hill above our 
home. They came unheralded and unexpected; they were the makers 
of a plank road from Milwaukee to Watertown, a stretch of forty-five 
miles. The logs chopped off the right of way were to be sawed into 
planks or turned into charcoal to make the roadbed whicli_ was to be 
maintained by a revenue collected at the toll gates. Thus was the great 
world coming still nearer. This plank road put us on the front street of 
civilization. Some years afterwards I was permitted to go with the big 
brother and the ox team six miles away to see and to hear with distress 
the locomotive engine the railroad was coming our way. It passed by 
our dooryard. Finally the log house as well as the log schoolhouse were 
left behind. The little family, storm tossed on the sailing ship, brought 
with it the fate which now is passing into the fourth generation, repre- 
senting a totality of eighty souls. Eight or more of them have won di- 
plomas and become "graduates" of colleges or their equivalents. They 
are scattered through eight or ten states. The}^ are farmers, teachers, 
editors, preachers. They are citizens of the United States in the full 
meaning of that term. 

Xow this brief study of a log house settlement would be far fetched 
and obtrusive were it not ty])ical. It is a story that can be duplicated 
all the way from Kentucky to Minnesota. It suggests the fertile home 
soil which was enriched by the Hankses and the Lincolns who came be- 
fore Nancy and Abraham. 

There is another connection too nincli neglected, almost forgotten. 
This AVelsh family, the forerunner of a Welsh settlement, was joined on 
three sides by German, Norwegian and Irish settlements, and all these 



62 

settlements centered in the ballot box. There were Catholics and Prot- 
estants. Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists. Unitarians, Universalists 
and -Infidels" who met in the log schoolhouse and not infrequently 
joined in common worship. Whigs, Democrats, Free-soilers, Abolition- 
ists and Prohibitionists spelled each other down, rivaled each other on 
"speaking days^' and entered into the warp and woof that formed the 
enduring fabric of the new state. Here was a complexity becoming 
homogeneous, coordinating and cooperating into a simple and enduring 
unity. The shrewd man from "York State," the school ma'am from 
"down east," alternating as the seasons came and went with the inevi- 
table school-master fresh from Ireland, the wood-chopper from Xorway, 
the peasant from Germany, all grew to be one people and Abraham 
Lincoln, escaping from slave bound Kentucky, through Indiana, into 
Illinois, rose through this diversity to become the "First American." 

This most stimulating of environments, making common cause 
with the splendid heredity, could not fail to produce great men. For 
Abraham Lincoln did not stand alone. There were giants in those days 
on every hand, as every student of Illinois history knows. Leonard 
Swett, Isaac X. Arnold, David Davis, Stephen A. Douglas, Xorman B. 
.Tudd. Elijah P. Lovejoy, John M. Palmer. IJichard Yates. Joshua Speed, 
Lyman Trumbull, the Eankins, the Bowling Green family and the Eut- 
ledges were neighbors of Lincoln, his comrades and supporters. All of 
these were splendid foothills reaching up to the mountain peak. In ev- 
ery great mountain range there is somewhere the highest peak and in 
this range the white-capped Lincoln peak has achieved the most heav- 
enly altitude. These pedigrees reach back through Xew England to 
the land beyond the seas but they reach forward to the '^"'unexhausted 
West" where nature 

With stuff untainted shaped a hero new, 

Wise, steadfast in the strength of God, and true. 

This is why I plead for more reverence for contemporary sanc- 
tities, for a higher regard for history in the present tense, more vigilance 
on your part and mine to cherish these annals, protect these traditions, 
guard these sanctities. 

The loom of history never ceases, its shuttle flies incessantly, the 
heroic in the historv of Illinois did not begin in '61, but it has contin- 
ued through the war and beyond. Its farmer boys, village lads and col- 
lege students had but a little way to go when they passed from inde- 
pendent voters to unflinching soldiers. The hopeful complexity of our 
state continues and my own memory refuses even to paragraph the story. 
The internationalism that centered in the log schoolhouse continued in the 
Sixth Wisconsin Battery with its Irish captain, its German lieutenant, 
its English orderly, its Polish sergeant, its complement of French, 
Scandinavian, Welsh and the beyond, with just enough American born 
to cement them into a harmonious and patriotic whole. In spite of 
this diversity, na}', on account of it, it was a homogeneous company 
whose every member was a glad and willing American, though a call of 
the roll of nations would have been proudly responded to and any im- 
plication of antagonism of interest or degrees of loyalty would have been 
promptly resented. 



63 

Friends, President Lincoln himself was no finality, he was a passen- 
ger in the ship of state, a member, albeit for a time a leader in the 
marcliing eoliuiins ot denioeracy. lie misye-s the benedietion who camps 
at the foot of Lincoln's tomb. They find him not who hang around his 
bronze effigy. Lincoln began a work which is yet to be completed; the 
reinforcements he early foresaw are sweeping into lino : in Illinois they 
form a splendid part of the advancing colnmn. 

One of the most inspiring and sadly neglected stories of the mak- 
ing of our nation is that of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, the great 
path-finders to beyond the Rockies. I fear the story is neglected be- 
cause it is a bloodless story, and under-estimated because it was a triumph 
of mind and not of brawn. During long stretches of that exploration a 
little Indian woman was the directing genius as the leaders have gen- 
erously testified. Her knowledge of the wierd mountain fastnesses, 
her acquaintance with the subtle and suspicious red man, her familiar- 
ity with his speech and acquaintance with his paths enabled her with her 
papoose on her back to steer the white man's expedition to the unknown 
beyond. The heroic band finally camped thirty miles from the great 
beaeli. The thing was accomplished. The band rested while the leaders 
completed their notes and the tired pilgrims repaired their shoes and 
renewed their clothing. Only a few of the party were asked to accom- 
pany their leaders to the shore washed by the Pacific waves. They re- 
turned with tales of the boundless water, and of a great fish that was 
cast on the beach, 

The men of the company were apparently satisfied to take up the 
long and formidable return march, but the little Avomnn Avas not sat- 
isfied. She carried her plaint to the leaders, "I too have made the big 
march. I with you have climbed the high mountains until my feet were 
sore; I too have slept in the deep canyons when my heart was weary. 
I would like to see the big water and the great fish before I go back." 
The l)enignant leaders of the Pacific Expedition justified their adven- 
turous spii-it by recognizing the legitimacy of her plaint and they said: 
"Yea, verily Sacajawea, little Bird' Woman, you should and may see 
the big water," and a special excursion was planned. This Bird A\'oman 
has found a monument in a bronze statue that decorates the state house 
square in Bismarck, North Dakota. Several years ago I faced a wintry 
blizzard in the interest of this memorial to celebrate the leadershi]i of 
the women of North Dakota, worthy forerunners of the women leaders 
throughout the nation. 

]\Iay this story of Sacajawea and her monument typify the new 
reverence that is to protect us from contemporary vandalism, that is 
to conserve the traditions of motherhood, make place in the annals 
at least of this great state of Illinois for the woman makers of our state, 
the home guardians of the primary sanctities of primitive religion, 
the fire-makers, the keepers of the hearthstone, the shepherds of little 
children, the mothers and foster-mothers of great thinkers, the valorous 
heroines of peace who are the representatives of the old but newly 
recognized patriotism that overlaps geographical lines and finds nat- 
x;ral pride and loyalty in its fullness only in international love and 
brotherhood. 



64 



THE MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION OF ILLINOIS, 

1870-1910. 



(By Ernest L. Bogart, University of Illinois.) 
In the followino- pages I shall confine myself to one aspect only 
of the population question, namely, that of its movement. In a rapidly 
growing State like Illinois great changes have necessarily occurred. Xot 
only have there been large additions through immigration, but the native 
born population within the State has been restless rfnd shifting. AVe may 
therefore consider the movement of the population from the two stand- 
points of the foreign born and the native born. 

I. MOVEMENT OF THE FOREIGN BORN POPULATION. 

1. Prop'Ortion of Native and Foreign Born. 

If the United States is the melting pot of the nationalities of the 
world, Illinois certainly does its share in the fusing process. 

Illinois has always been a favorite resort of immigrants. Since 
1870 it has ranked first in respect to the absolute number of foreign 
born in the north central division, though Minnesota, Wisconsin, and 
North Dakota have a larger proportion of foreign born. In the Uni- 
ted States as a whole Illinois has been exceeded since 1870 only by 
New York and Pennsylvania in the total number of foreign born within 
the State. That they have not constituted a larger percentage in the 
population of the State is due to the equally rapid increase of the na- 
tive population, which has kept the proportion very steady. 

The proportion of the foreign bom element in the population has 
remained fairly steady for the past forty years, at about 20 per( cent 
of the total. The colored element has (rrown somewhat in streng-th, but 
has always been very small. There are 17 other states Avhieli have a 
larger proportion of foreign born, and 26 which have a larger percent- 
age of negroes. But the problem of assimilating these alien elements 
is not measured merely by the number of the foreign born, for it usu- 
ally takes more than one generation to fuse them thoroughly into the 
body of American citizens. If therefore we compare the proportion of 
•those of foreign birth plus those persons, one or both of whose parents has 
been of foreign birth, and whose homes environment has therefore had 
a considerable foreign flavor, we shall have a truer index of the prob- 
lem! of assimilation laid upon the people of Illinois. Throughout all 
five decades the proportion of this alien element has l)een greater in 
Illinois than in the F^nion as a whole; and this Avould be true even if 



65 

to the foreign born and the native born with foreign or mixed paren- 
tage we add the colored. In 1870 the two groups of foreign born and 
native born with foreign or mixed parentage made up 59 per cent of 
the total population in Illinois as compared with 55 per cent for the 
whole country; in 1880 no comparison is possible as these statistics were 
not compiled by the census of that year; in 1890 the figures were re- 
spectively 50 per cent for Illinois and 45 per cent for the United States; 
in 1900 they were 54 and 46 per cent ; and in 1910, 53 and 46 per cent. 
The proportion was much higher in 1870 than in any subsequent 
period, as during the next two decades there was a considerable movement 
of the native born population into Illinois from states farther to the east. 
It reached the lowest point in 1890 and since that time has gradually in- 
creased aa^ain, though in 1910 it had not yet reached the proportion of 
1870. 

TABLE I— POPULATION OF ILLINOIS BY NATIVITY, 1870-1910. (See note below.) 





1870 


1880 


1890 


Class. 


Number. 


Per 
cent for 
Illi- 
nois. 


Per 

cent for 
United 
States. 


Number. 


Per 

cent for 
Illi- 
nois. 


Per 
cent for 
United 
States. 


Number. 


Per 

cent for 

nii- 

nois. 


Per 
cent for 
United 

States. 


Agereeate 


2,539,891 
2,024,693 

1,038,658 

986,035 
515,198 

» 28,992 


100 
79.7 

40.9 

38.8 
20.3 

»1.1 


100 
73.0 

44.7 

28.3 
14.4 

12.6 


3,077,871 
2,448,172 

(') 

(') 
582,979 

46,720 


100 
79.5 

(') 

(») 
18.9 

1.6 


100 
73.5 

(•) 

13.1 
13.4 


3,826,352 
2,927,497 

1,882,693 

1,044,804 
840,975 

57,880 


100 
76.5 

49.2 

27.3 
22.0 

1.5 


100 


Native white 

Native white, na- 
tive parentage 

Native white, for- 
eign or mixed par- 
entage 


73.0 
54.8 

18.3 


J'oreign born white 
Colored, Indian, 
Chinese, etc 


14.5 
12.5 



' Distinctions of parentage were not made in the census of 1880. 
' Distributed in groups above. 



TABLE I— Concluded. 



Class. 



1900 



Number. 



Per 

cent for 
Illi- 
nois. 



Per 

cent for 
United 
States. 



1910 



Number. 



Per 

cent for 
Illi- 
nois. 



Per 

cent for 
United 
States. 



Aggregate 

Native white 

Native white, native parentage 

Native white, foreign or mixed parent- 
age 

Foreign born, white 

Colored, Indian, Chinese, etc 



4,821,550 
3,770,238 

2,271,765 


100 
78.2 
47.1 


100 
74.5 
53.9 


5,638,591 
4,324,402 
2,000,555 


100 
76.7 
46.1 


1, .198, 473 

964,635 

86,677 


31.1 

20.0 

1.8 


20.6 
13.4 
12.1 


1,723,847 

1,202, 560 

111,629 


30.6 

21.3 

2.0 



100 
74.4 
53.8 

20.5 
14.5 
11.1 



2. Countnj of Origin of Foreign Born. 

We have no statistics of immigration into Illinois, so tiiat our 
table of foreign born in Illinois merely shows the number of each 
nationality living in the State at the specified period. Unless death or 
— 5 H S 



66 

emigration removed those who were in the State in 1870, they would 
be added to the newcomers between 187U and 1880, and so on, so that 
normally each successive census enumeration would show a larger num- 
ber until the earliest immigrants began to die off. This process is 
beginning to show itself in the case of those nationalities which were 
already settled in the State in large numbers by 1870. Now, almost 
fifty years later, the earlier settlers are disappearing and the later 
immigrants are not coming in fast enough to maintain the group. 
Thus, the crest of the wave for British, Irish, and Germans was reached 
in 1890, since which date their numbers have been declining. Immi- 
gration is still large from the Scandinavian countries, and the number 
of persons of Scandinavian birth has increased steadily with each suc- 
cessive census, especially of those from Sweden. Immigration from the 
Latin countries has been very steady, except for the great increase in 
Italians in the last two decades. But the most striking and important 
change has been the enormous increase in the Slavic elements of our 
population. So rapid has been the immigration from Austria-Hun- 
gary and from Eussia that it has brought with it new and difficult 
problems of assimilation and adjustment that were not presented in 
connection with the earlier immigration. These are particularly serious 
because the more recent immigration has coincided with a period of 
industrial development and of urban concentration, and has therefore 
resulted in a concentration of the newer comers in our cities, particu- 
larly in Chicago. Thus, while the proportion of the foreign born in the 
male population 21 years of age or over was 33.5 for Illinois in 1900, 
for Chicago it was 53.5, for Joliet, 49.8, and for Eockford 47.6.* The 
following table shows the country of origin of the foreign born popula- 
tion of Illinois for the last five census period. 

TABLE II— FOREIGN BORN IN ILLINOIS BY NATIONALITY. 



County of origin. 



1870 



1880 



1890 



1900 



1910 



Great Britain. . . 

Ireland 

British America 

Germanv 

Holland" 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

France 

Belgium 

Switzerland 

Italy 

Austria..." 

Bohemia 

Hungary 

Russia 

Poland 

others 

Total 



192,960 

32,550 
203,758 

4,180 
29,979 
11,880 

3,711 
10,911 
(0 

8,980 

('} 
2,099 
7,350 

(') 

(1) 

(0 
6,840 



515,198 



75,859 
117,343 

34,043 

235,786 

5,012 

42,415 

16,970 
6,029 
8,524 
1,464 
8,881 
1,764 
2,608 

13,408 

691 

1,276 

6,962 

4,541 



583,576 



95,113 
124,498 

39,525 

338,382 

8,762 

86,514 

30,339 

12,044 
8,540 

(') 

(') 
8,035 
8,087 

26,627 
3,126 
8,407 

28,878 

15,470 



842,347 



88.775 

114,563 

50,595 

332,169 

21,916 

99,147 

29,979 

15,686 

7,787 

(') , 
9,033 
23,523 
18,212 
38,570 
6,734 
28,707 
67,949 
13,402 



966,747 



85,176 

93,451 

45,233 

319,182 

14,402 

115,422 

32,913 

17,368 

7,966 

9,399 

8,660 

72,160 

1 

> 163,020 

} 149,016 
71,948 



1,205,314 



* "Reports Immigration Com.," 1911, I, 15. 
' Included in ''others." 



3. Distribution of Foreign Born in Illinois by Counties. 

If we select for further study those counties which at any one of 
the last five census periods show a percentage of foreign born in their 



67 

population larger than the average for the whole State we shall have 
a list of 29 counties. The following table enumerates these counties 
together with the proportion of the foreign born in each case by de- 
cades, and the absolute number of foreign born when this exceeds 
10,000. This latter figure is given to serve as a check in a few cases 
when the relative figure was high, but owing to the small size of the 
county, the actual number of foreign bom was small. 



TABLE III— TOTAL NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN POPULATION 

IN SELECTED COUNTIES, 1870-1910. 

< Figures are given only when they are over 10,000 population or a larger per cent than that for whole 

State.) 





1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


County. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Per 

cent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Per . 
cent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Per- 
cent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Per 

cent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Per 
cent. 


State 


515,198 


20.3 


583,576 


19.0 


842,347 


22.0 


966,747 


20.0 


1,202,560 


21.3 


JoDaviess 




28.2 
22.1 
22.9 
21.5 


........ 


23.5 














Stephenson 
















Winnebago 






2L6 
20.0 
19.4 
23.9 
39.9 
27.8 
24.6 
19.7 


11,208 

"482^652 
"18^254 


28.1 
22.2 
22.3 
24.7 
40.5 
28.8 
28.1 
22.8 


12,313 


25.7 


16,531 


26.2 


Boone 






McHenrv 












Lake 




27.2 
47.6 
31.2 
26.4 




'242i4i5 

"ii,bhh 


"624'i04 

"igjiss 


" 24.1 
34.0 
23.2 
24.3 


14,588 
842,651 


26 5 


Cook 


166,772 


35 


DuPage 




Kane 


10,336 


21,483 


23 3 


DeKalb 




Lee 




22.4 
29.1 
28.9 












Rock Island... 




10,399 


27.1 
26.4 


11,733 


27.9 
26.5 


13,238 


23.9 
23.4 
2L6 


16,306 


23 2 


Henry 


10,278 


2L5 


Bureau 


10,134 


23.0 


Putnam 
















27.4 


LaSalle 

Kendall. 


16,262 


26.7 
2L6 
26.7 
33.9 
31.5 
21.9 
21.4 
24.5 
20.8 
29.1 
35.8 
33.2 
27.8 
2L9 


17,834 

"u'yihi 
"io^sse 

10,028 
11,615 
15,972 


25. 3 
2L4 
26.2 
30.2 
24.9 
22.1 
19.0 
19.6 
19.8 
23.1 
2.3.8 
23.2 
21.8 
20.2 


22,439 
"i8i746 


27.7 
23.3 
36.1 
30.2 


20,448 


23.3 


19,261 


21.4 


Grundy 




"i9;7i4 


29.7 
26.4 
20.5 




27 7 


Will 


14,587 


""'22,064 


26 2 


Kankakee 




Ford 






2L5 








Woodford 












Peoria 


11,673 
11,740 
12.880 
18,321 


12,412 




12,469 




12,437 




Adams 




Madison 










15,546 




St. Clair 


12,868 










Monroe 












Clinton 
















Washington... 

































The first thing to be noticed about the distribution of the foreign 
born is their comparatively wide distribution throughout the State in 
1870 and 1880, and their increasing concentration in a smaller number 
of counties since that time. In 1870 and 1880 the proportion of for- 
eign born exceeded the general average for the State in 25 counties; 
this number fell to 15 in 1890, to 12 in 1900, and to 11 in 1910. On 
the other hand the number of counties, the proportion of whose foreign 
born was less than 10 per cent of their total population, rose steadily 
from 43 in 18;0 to 46 in 1880, to 50 in 1890, to 60 in 1900, and to 
66 in 1910. Inasmuch as the proportion of the foreign bom element 
in the State as a whole remained almost constant — 20.3 per cent in 
1870 and 21.3 per cent in 1910 — these facts indicate a tremendous con- 
centration of the foreign born in a small number of counties. In 1910 



68 

over 82 per cent of the foreign born population in the State were 
concentrated in 10 counties, and 73 per cent in the single county of 
Cook. 

The second significant fact about the distribution of the foreign 
born element in the State is the way in which they hug the northern 
border. If we should draw a line across the State from Will County 
on the east to Eock Island on the west there would not be found in our 
table for 1910 a single county south of this line. The few counties 
in the southern and central parts of the State that were listed for 1870 
and 1880 became more thoroughly saturated with native stock with each 
successive census year. Madison and St. Clair still show a considerable 
number of foreign born, but the proportion to the total population has 
steadily fallen. The explanation of this movement is to be found in 
the tendency of immigrants, especially those from northern Europe, 
who have until recently made up the bulk of the foreign born element 
in this State, to settle along northern lines of latitude ; to their desire 
to be near kinsmen in Wisconsin and other neighboring states peopled 
largely by foreigners; and more recently to the extreme concentration 
of the immigrants in Chicago, there to find employment in her grow- 
ing manufactures. 

4. Distribution of Foreign Born by Princi'pal Cities. 

If we take the twelve cities in Illinois which at the census of 1910 
had a total population of over 25,000 we note in them the same con- 
centration of the foreign born that we observed in the case of the 
counties, only here it is even stronger. While the foreign born made up 
only 21.3 per cent of the total population of the State on this date, in 
the twelve cities named they constituted 32.6 per cent. In 1870, with 
the exception of Decatur, each city had more than one-fifth of its pop- 
ulation of alien birth, and ten of them had over one-quarter. By 1880 
the distribution was less widespread and with each successive decade 
there has been a stronger concentration of the alien elements in Chi- 
cago and a proportionate shrinkage in most of the other cities. From 
80 per cent in 1870 the proportion of the foreign bom included in 
these twelve cities who resided in Chicago alone rose steadily until it 
reached 92 per cent in 1910. In the latter year Chicago had 65 per 
cent of all the foreign born in the State. But there are also some small 
mining and manufacturing towns which do not appear in the table, a 
large share of whose population consists of immigrants. 

If we consider the group of these twelve cities as a whole we find 
a steadily increasing proportion of the foreign born elements of our 
State population concentrating there. In 1870 only 35.3 per cent of the 
foreign born were to be found in these cities, most of them residing in 
rural districts. In 1880, the percentage in the cities was 41.5 per cent; 
it was 60.0 per cent in 1890; 66.5 per cent in 1900; and 70.9 per cent 
in 1910. At the beginning of the last half century the foreign born 
element was predominantly rural; to-day it is overwhelmingly urban. 

The causes for the concentration of the immigrants or foreign born 
in the large cities and especially in Chicago is first of all to be found 
in the exhaustion of the free or cheap land that took the earlier settlers 



69 

on to the farms. This outlet is now practically closed, A second cause 
is the development of factory industry which attracts and employs the 
immigrant in urban industrial centers. The city itself is a recent 
growth; in 1870 Chicago was the only city in the State with a pop- 
ulation over 25,000. .Consequently there could not yet have been much 
urban concentration. And finally, as an explanation of the massing 
of the alien elements in Chicago, it must be remembered that Chicago 
is the great distributing point for immigrants to the west and north- 
west. Some of those now residents there may move on to other sections 
after they have learned the language and become acquainted with the 
industrial opportunities open to them elsewhere. 

TABLE IV— FOREIGN BORN POPULATION IN PRINCIPAL CITIES OF ILLINOIS. 



1870 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 

cent 
of 

city 
popu- 
lation. 



1880 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 

cent 
of 

city 
popu- 
1 ation. 



1890 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
of 
city 
popu- 
lation. 



1900 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
of 
city 
popu- 
lation. 



1910 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 

cent 
of 

city 
popu- 
lation. 



Aurora 

Bloomington.. 

Chicago 

Danville 

D"catur 

East St. Louis. 

Elgin 

Joliet 

Peoria 

Quincy 

Rockford 

Springfield 

Total cities 
named .. 



3,071 


27.5 


2,632 


22.1 


4,819 


24.4 


5,067 


21.0 


6,702 


3,898 


25.5 


3,491 


20.3 


4,086 


19.9 


3,604 


15.5 


3,407 


144,557 


48.3 


204,859 


40.7 


450,666 


40.9 


585,420 


34.5 


781,217 


966 


20.3 


1,119 


14.4 


1,340 


11.6 


1,433 


8.8 


1,998 


997 


13.9 


1,166 


12.2 


2,158 


12.9 


1,934 


9.3 


2,422 


2,353 


41.6 


2,491 


27.1 


2,818 


10.8 


3,903 


13.2 


9,400 


1,452 


26.6 


2,213 


25.1 


4.874 
7,412 


27.4 


5,411 


24.1 


5,661 


2.304 


31.7 


3,148 


27.0 


31.8 


8,510 


29.0 


10,441 


7,357 


32.1 


7,125 


24.3 


8,254 


20.1 


8,927 


15.9 


8,810 


7,733 


32.1 


6,562 


24.0 


6,132 


19.5 


4,948 


13.6 


3,641 


3,041 


27.5 


3,272 


24.9 


7,802 


33.0 


9,332 


30.1 


13,828 


4,456 


25.0 


4,284 


21.6 


4,796 


19.3 


4,637 


13.6 


6,900 


182,185 


42.3 


242,362 


36.2 


505,157 


37.5 


643,126 


31.8 


854,427 



22.5 
13.2 
35.7 
7.2 
7.8 
16.1 
2L8 
30.1 
13.2 
10.0 
30.5 
13.4 



32.6 



5. Distribution of the Negro Population. 

The Negro population of Illinois has been increasing steadily since 
1870 and with the exception of the decade 1880-1890, at a more rapid 
rate than the white population. The appended table shows this very 
clearly. Especially rapid was the growth in the decade ending with 
1870, when it was 277 per cent or almost four times the rate of increase 
of the white population. As a result of this influx of Negroes the pro- 
portion which they constitute of the total population has increased very 
steadily from 1.1 per cent in 1870 to 1.9 per cent in 1910. But the 
absolute number is still small, amounting only to 109,049 at the last 
census. 

They are strongly massed in the southern counties and in three of 
them constitute a considerable proportion of the total population. Thus 
in Pulaski in 1910 they made up 37.8 per cent, in Alexander 34.2 per 
cent, and in Massac 18.2 per cent. In no other county did they con- 
stitute as much as 8 per cent. From these southern counties they 
gradually filter through the rest of the State. Like the foreign bom 
they show a considerable tendency to concentrate in cities, but East 
St. Louis is the only city in the State whose population is markedly 



70 

affected by them, 10 per cent of its population in 1910 consisting of 
Xegroes. No other city of those listed in the census has as much as 
6 per cent. 



TABLE V— COLORED POPULATION IN ILLINOIS, 1870-lPlO. 





Colored 
population 
in Illinois. 


Per cent 
of 

total. 


Rate of 

increase of 

colored. 


Rate of 

increase of 

wliite. 


1870 


28,762 
46,368 
57,028 
85,078 
109,049 


1.1 
1.6 
1.5 
1.8 
1.9 


277.1 
61.2 
23.0 
49.2 
28.2 


47.4 


1880 


20.7 


1890 


24.3 


1900 


25.6 


1910 


16.7 







II. MOVEMENT OF THE NATIVE BOEN POPULATION. 

The picture of the foreign born population is necessarily one of 
change and movement; scarcely less so is that of the native born popu- 
lation. In 1818, just a hundred years ago, John Bristed, in his Re- 
sources of America, said the Americans were the "most locomotive 
people" he had ever seen. This characterization is still true, and Illi- 
noisans are to-day apparently among the most restless of the seething 
people of this country. In discussing the movement of the native born 
population in Illinois, we find that there are two phases of the subject, 
namely, (1) the migration of native born whites from other states to 
Illinois, and (2) the migration of natives of Illinois to other states. 
These we may take up in turn. 

TABLE VI— NATIVE BORN POPULATION OF ILLINOIS. 



1870 



a 



a 

o 
o o ^ 



1880 



2; 



a 

_o 

O O g 

O O ft 
Pi 



1890 



3 



o 

O O ;f 
u."" 2 



1900 



42 

a 

3 



©or 

CJ +^ til 

So P, 



1910 



a> O o 

fe o p. 



Total population 
of Illinois 

Born in United 
states 

Born in Illinois. 



2,539,891 

2,024,693 
1,189,503 



100.0 

79.7 
48.0 



3,077,871 

2,494,295 
1,709,520 



100.0 

81.0 
56.0 



3,826,352 

2,984,005 
2,196,288 



I 



100.0 

78.0 
57.0 



4,821,300 100.0 



3,854,803; 
2,893,8571 



79.9 
60.0 



5,638,591 

4,433,277 
3,106,638 



100.0 

78.6 
68.0 



1. Migration of Native Born Whites to Illinois. 

It was of course natural — in fact necessary — that Illinois, one of 
the newer states, should be peopled by settlers from the older sections, 
and this process was by no means completed by 1870. Two generations 
had grown up within the State since it was first settled, and most of 
the people then residing in it had been born outside the State. Only 48 
per cent of the population in 1870 had been born in Illinois, but this 
proportion steadily increased, reaching 56 per cent in 1880, 57 per cent 
in 1890, 60 per cent in 1900, and 68 per cent in 1910. That is to say, 



71 

while the Illinois stock made up le&s than half the population of the 
State in 1870, it constituted over two-thirds in 1910. At the same time 
the aggregate American born element remained almost constant, at 
about 80 per cent of the total population. 

It is manifest, however, that if the percentage of native stock re- 
mains constant while those born within the State constitute an increas- 
ing proportion of the whole, the infusion of native born from outside 
the State must be declining relatively, if not absolutely. And if we 
examine the statistics of movement to and from the State this is exactly 
what we find. The percentage of the American born in Illinois com- 
ing from other states in the Union steadily declined during this period 
from 41.7 per cent of the native born population in 1870 to 31.5 per 
cent in 1880, 25.7 per cent in 1890, 24.9 per cent in 1900, and 22.6 per 
cent in 1910. This was of course a perfectly natural movement, for not 
only was Illinois itself being filled up, but the states further west of- 
fered even greater inducements to settlement in the way of free home- 
steads. Indeed, during the decades 1870-80 and 1880-90 there was an 
absolute falling off in the numbers of native born Americans migra- 
ing into Illinois. Transcontinental railways carried intending settlers 
rapidly past Illinois to the free farms of the boundless West. Not un- 
til the desirable public domain was practically exhausted did this move- 
ment spend itself and the settlement of Illinois begin again. Thus in 
the two decades ending in 1900 and 1910 the number of natives of other 
states settling in Illinois has increased absolutely, though relatively the 
movement has not maintained itself. Moreover it is interesting to note 
that whereas most of this group down to 1900 had been recruited from 
the eastern states, in 1910 there was a distinct back-eddy and Missouri 
appears among the four states most important in this regard, with a 
contribution of 85,161 to the population of Illinois. 

TABLE VII— STATE OF ORIGIN OF AMERICAN BORN POPULATION OF ILLINOIS 

FROM FIVE LEADING STATES. 





1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


States from 

which native 

born population 

came 

to Illinois. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
of 
native 
born 
popu- 
lation. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

native 

born 
popu- 
lation. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

native 

born 
popu- 
lation. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

native 

born 
popu- 
lat on. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
of 
native 
born 
popu- 
lation. 


Total 


835,910 


41.7 


784,775 


31.5 


758,822 


25.7 


960,946 


24.9 


997,189 


22.6 


Indiana 


86,407 

67,702 

133,494 

163,012 

98,614 


4.3 
3.3 
6.6 
8.1 
4.9 


91,388 

61,928 

120,199 

136,884 

89,467 


3.6 
2.5 
4.8 
5.5 
3.6 


96,349 

54,815 

110,220 

126,046 

76,723 


3.2 
1.9 
3.8 
4.2 
2.5 


128,155 

62,209 

111,078 

137,161 

78,646 


3.3 
1.6 
3.0 
3.6 
2.0 


143,388 
74,543 
92,300 

122,391 
78,116 


3.2 


Kentucky 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . . . 


1.7 
2.1 
2. 7 
1.8 



If now we inquire in detail which states of the Union supplied 
Illinois with the American born stock, which flowed in almost as rapid- 
ly as the foreign born, we find that the most conspicuous contributors 
were the states to the east. The largest number came from the five 



states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky, al- 
though as just stated Missouri should he included in the list in 1910. 
In general the movement into Illinois followed the same lines as foreign 
immigration, moving with curious directness along parallels of latitude. 
From New York and Pennsylvania, through Ohio and Indiana, and 
even from Kentucky into the southern counties of the State, the move- 
ment proceeded ahnost straight west. 

The inflow of citizens from Indiana increased steadily from 1870 
to 1910 and was the only one of the chief contributing states to show 
a constant increase. The contributions from New York, Ohio and 
Pennsylvania decreased pretty steadily from decade to decade with only 
a slight recovery in the decade ending with 1900, while that from 
Kentucky, after declining for thirty years, now shows an upward tend- 
ency. The reason for these differences is doubtless to be found in the 
fact that the industrial opportunities of Illinois are better than those 
of her nearest neighbors, Indiana and Kentucky, while they are not 
sufficiently different from those to be found in the other three states to 
attract their citizens in increasing volume. In every case, however, the 
percentage of persons residing in Illinois and born in the specified state 
has declined in proportion to the whole native born population. 

It is not possible to state in further detail in what part of Illinois 
the immigrants from other states settled except for the year 1870 and 
1S80, as the data on this point is not given in subsequent census re- 
ports. In 1870 the largest number from New York state settled in 
Kane and Winnebago counties; in 1880 in Cook and Will. For per- 
sons from Pennsylvania, Stephenson and Cook Counties were the 
favorite objective in both 1870 and 1880. Ohioans settled in McLean 
and Champaign in 1870 and in Cook and ]\[cLean in 1880; Indiana 
residents moved to Vermilion and Champaign in 1870 and to Vermil- 
ion and Cook in 1880; while those from Kentucky settled first in the 
counties of Sangamon and McLean, and later in Cook and Sangamon. 
The fact that in four out of five cases Cook County attracted the largest 
number of settlers and in the fifth case next to the largest number in 
1880 already indicates what probably has held true ever since, namely 
that Chicago rather than the agricultural counties has proved the lode- 
stone to persons moving into the state from other parts of the United 
States. 

2. Emigration of Natives of Illinois to Other States. 

Even more striking than the movement of native born Americans 
into Illinois has been the exodus of those born within the state to other 
El Dorados farther west. New as the State is, it is not so new as other 
states and to them Illinois has lost heavily of its sons and daughters. 
In 1870 and 1880 more native Americans moved to Illinois than left 
it, but by 1890 the tide had turned and with each succeeding decade 
the exodus became greater. In 1870 the proportion of persons born 
in Illinois and leaving the State was one-fifth, in 1880 one-fourth, and 
in 1890, 1900 and 1910 over one-fourth. Five states have absorbed most 
of these wanderers, namely : Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and 



73 



Nebraska, though at each census period other states have appeared as tem- 
porary rivals. 

TABLE VIII— FIVE LEADING STATES OF RESIDENCE OF PERSONS BORN IN ILLINOIS 

LIVING OUTSIDE OF ILLINOIS. 





1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


States to 
which 
jersons 
3om in 
Illinois 
emigrated. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 
of total 
popu- 
lation 
bom 
in 
Illinois. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of total 

popu- 

ation 

born 

in 

Illinois. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 

of total 

popu- 

ation 

born 

in 

Illinois. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
of total 
popu- 
lation 
born 
in 
Illinois. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
of total 
popu- 
lation 
born 
in 
Illinois. 


Total.... 


288,418 


19.6 


553,889 24.5 


817,717 


27.1 


1,012,637 


25.9 


1,308,085 


27.7 


Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Missouri 

Nebraska 


16,389 
65,261 
35,454 
72,324 
9,638 




27,201 

102,820 

106,992 

103,290} 

45,583 

i 


31,116 
114,471 
137,903 
135,585 
107,862 




58,487 
142,232 
113,704 
179,342 

85,812 




80,527 
138,310 
116,341 
186,691 

77,709 





In 1870 about one fifth (19.5 per cent) of the persons born in Illi- 
nois were living outside of the State, the largest number being found 
in Missouri; in addition to the states named above, Wisconsin (12,153) 
and Minnesota (10,962) had also received considerable contributions. 
By 1880 the proportion of Iliinoisans living outside the state was al- 
most exactly a quarter (24.5 per cent), most of whom were now in 
Nebraska. The situation shows clearly a strong westward movement, 
spilling the surplus population of Illinois over Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, 
and Nebraska, with smaller splotches in Texas (19,643) and California 
(17,254), and a back-eddy into Indiana.^ By 1880 the proportion of 
the native population of Illinois who have left the State is still greater 
(27.1 per cent) ; Kansas now claims the largest number, but together 
with Nebraska, reaches in this decade the climax of its popularity, for 
after this the number in each of these states declines. In addition to 
the states listed in the table, California (31,159) and Colorado (28,196) 
each attract growing numbers. The decade ending with 1900 shows 
a slight decline in the proportion of the natives of Illinois who have 
settled elsewhere — to 25.9 per cent — tho the absolute number keeps 
growing. Missouri has become the popular state. Iowa has reached 
its zenith, and the continuance of the far westward movement gives to 
California 42,304 persons, while Minnesota comes next with 36,612. 
The census for 1910 shows little change, except a strong movement to 
Oklahoma (71,085), which now usurps the position momentarily held 
by Minnesota, while the number in California grows to 87,291. 

The statistics cited leave no doubt as to the mobility of the popu- 
tion of Illinois; it slips easily over the State lines,^ whether moving in 
or out. This is not peculiar to the State, but is and always has been a 
characteristic of the American people. However, it seems to be some- 

I See an excellent map in the Tenth Census (1880), Vol. Pop., p. 385. 

^ This is doubtless true also of county lines, but unfortunately no statistical data exist to prove it. 



74 

what more marked in tlie case of Illinois than of most other states. For 
instance, in 1910 the proportion of persons in the United States as a 
whole who lived outside of the State of their birth was 21.7 per cent, 
but for Illinois it was 27.7 per cent. For the same year Illinois was 
exceeded onl}- by Xew York in the number of persons born in and leav- 
ing the State, and only by Oklahoma in the nimiber of domestic im- 
migrants who settled in the State. If, however, we take the percentages 
for these two movements, which give a juster statement, we find that 
Illinois ranks 10th in the first case and 2?th in the second. 

To make the efEect of this interstate migration upon the com- 
position of the population of Illinois a Kttle more concrete, let us sup- 
pose that every native born person in the United States should return 
to the place of his birth. ^\'hat would be the effect of such a home- 
coming upon Illinois? Inl870 Illinois would have lost 835,190 domestic 
immigrants, but on the other would have gained 288,418 natives of the 
State who had moved to other states; the total population would have 
been less by 546,772. In 1880 the loss would have been 784,775, and 
the gain 553,889; or a net loss of 230,886. In 1890 for the first time 
the number of domestic immigrants,758,822, was less than the natives 
of Illinois living in other states, or 817,717; consequently the State 
would have gained 58,895 from an exchange. In 1900 and 1910 the 
same thing was true, and in these two years a universal home-coming 
would have netted the State 51,691 and 310,896 respectively. 

These figures indicate to some extent the loss which Illinois has 
suffered by the emigration of her native born population; but after all 
the loss is not confined to the number of those who leave, for the de- 
scendants of those who left during the decade ending in 1890 are them- 
selves now grown up and they and their children would have been 
counted in the population of Illinois had their father or grandfather 
not left the State. Moreover, as the figures show only the number of 
those living in the given localities on the date specified, and as the 
number of natives of Illinois in other states has been constantly grow- 
ing at each successive census, we must conclude, in view of the mortality 
that must have occurred among those enumerated at the earlier per- 
iods, that the number of emigrants from Illinois is even greater than 
the statistics indicate, and that there has been a steadily increasing 
stream out of the State from year to year. 

The facts are fairly obvious, but the causal explanation of these 
facts is more difficult. How can we explain :he great restlessness, the 
high degree of nobility, of the American born population? The ear- 
lier movement into the State was probably occasioned by the agri- 
cultural opportunities; in 1870 many came and few left. But 1870 saw 
the height of the movement into Illinois up to that time; the next 
two decades saw a decided falling off. In 1900 and 1910, however, the 
industrial attractiveness of Chicago more than compensated for the 
lessened lure of Illinois land, and the number of native immigrants 
increased again, absolutelv if not relativelv. Much of the movement 
into and out of the State has been merely across state lines, which 
often denotes a less radical change than the transfer from the farms 



75 

to the city within the same State. Indiana and Kentucky contributed a 
considerable proportion of domestic immigration into Illinois, while 
from a third to a half of those who left the State settled in adjoin- 
ing states. Illinois seems to have occupied the position of a sort of half 
way house, whose restless population sojourned there awhile, but never 
really settled down. 

The principal cause of the emigration of the natives of Illinois 
to other states farther west — whither most of them have gone — has 
undoubtedly been the existence of cheaper land there. With the increase 
of population and the filling up of the State the price of land would 
go up and more careful and intensive methods of agriculture would 
be necessary. Many an early settler has thought it to his advantage 
to sell out his farm at a higher price, pocket the "unearned increment," 
and move farther west to cheaper land, where he could repeat the 
process. 

But another factor, closely connected with this, has probably been 
even more important in inducing emigration from Illinois. For many 
of the early settlers and natives of the State, bred to primitive con- 
ditions, with consequent careless tillage and a one crop system, a change 
in methods of farming would have proved more difficult than a phy- 
sical transfer of their families and themselves to another state where 
they could continue the same practices. Men changed more easily than 
methods. Hence we note a steady movement to the newer settlements, 
in turn, of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Texas and Oklahoma. 
Here, with new land, they may repeat the exploitative methods of farm- 
ing which were no longer profitable in Illinois, but to which they are 
accustomed. The strong movement to California may be in part ex- 
plained by the desire for a more congenial climate, and in part by the 
growing wealth of natives of Illinois which permits them to gratify 
their inclinations in this regard. 



76 



ILLINOIS AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD TO 

CANADA. 

(By Verna Cooley, University of Illinois.) 



1. THE OEIGIX AXD GEOWTH OF THE UXDEEGEOUXD 

EAILEOAD. 

Under the obligations of the Constitution, the act of harboring and 
secreting slaves was made illegal by the National Government. Because 
of the presence of men in the Xorth who were eager to betray the peo- 
ple who were breaking the law and to send the fugitive back into slavery, 
the performance of this act was not only illegal but secret. From these 
two factors the Underground Eailroad developed. The origin of this 
process is thought to have been in the year 1818. This conclusion is 
based on the testimony of H. B. Leeper. He placed the earliest activi- 
ties in the years 1819 and 1820, when a small colony of anti-slavery 
people from Brown County, Ohio, settled in Bond County, in the south- 
ern part of Illinois. From this locality they emigrated to Putnam 
County, where they continued to harbor the fugitive slaves. Leeper's 
father was one of this same type, who, being an enemy of slavery, had 
moved from Marshall County, Tennessee, to Bond County, Illinois, in 
1816. He remained in Bond County until 1823. After moving to-' 
Morgan County and from there to Putnam County, he finally settled 
in Bureau County. His home sheltered many a fugitive slave.^ 

In the years that witnessed the beginning of this process of help- 
ing slaves to attain freedom, bills were formulated in Congress to 
strengthen the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793. The alarm of the South 
appears in connection with the diplomatic negotiations of 1826 and 
1828 on the question of the fugitive slave. Clay, then Secretary of 
State, declared the escape of slaves to British territory to be a "grow- 
ing evil."- In 1838, there were resolutions in Congress calling for a 
bill providing for the punishment in the courts of the United States of 
all persons guilty of aiding fugitive slaves to escape or of enticing them 
away from their owners.^ 

Soon after 1835 the process was well established. Through the 
efforts of Dr. David Nelson, who had been driven from Missouri into 
Illinois on account of his anti-slavery views, Quincy was made a point 
of entrance for the slaves in the years 1839-1840," In 1839, the first 



I Siebert, The Underground Hailroad, p 41 

1 Ibid., p. 192. 

2 Ibid., p. 193. 
< Ibid., p 155. 



77 

known case of dispatching a fugitive from Chicago occurred.^ By 
1840, the practice of harboring and secreting slaves was widespread. 
The decade of 1830-1840 marked the opening of new cotton fields. 
With this increase of area for slavery came the negro's chief reason for 
flight, his dread of being sold farther south, thus being separated from 
friends and family. 

The increased activity of the anti-slavery people in Illinois made 
the border slave states realize that the security of their slave property 
was being menaced. In St. Louis, scarcely a week passed in which the 
increased business of the Underground Railroad was not chronicled. 
In 1843, the St. Louis Organ reported that "the depredations of aboli- 
tionists upon oiir citizens are becoming more frequent and daring daily. 
Accounts from all parts of the State convince us that a regular system 
has been adopted by the abolitionists in Illinois to rob this State of her 
slaves, and it is high time that a summary stop was put to this flagrant 
wrong. Doubtless, their agents are now in our very midst. There are 
over four hundred thousand dollars worth of southern slaves in a town 
near Maiden, Canada.'"^ Codding, in the Liberty Convention for the 
South and West, held at Cincinnati, June 11, 1845, told his audience 
that the people of Illinois were doing a fair business under the name 
of the Underground Railroad.'^ But he pointed out that they are com- 
pelled to meet the question of morals, for aiding the fugitive clashes at 
a thousand points with the interests of men. He also said that they 
were accused of stealing negroes, and the negroes of stealing boats and 
horses; therefore, the charge must be answered by applying the princi- 
ple which Christ taught them, of judging what is right in case of our 
neighbor by making it our own.^ 

Because of the more perfect organization and concert action of the 
anti-slavery men in Illinois, the people of St. Louis hold a meeting to 
adopt measures for greater security of negro property. Funds were 
raised and commissioners, whose names were to be kept secret, were ap- 
pointed. Resolutions were passed condemning all negro preaching and 
teaching. A memorial Avas adopted asking the legislature to pass a law 
forbidding all schools for education of the blacks and meetings for re- 
ligious worship, except in the day time and when services were con- 
ducted by a regular ordained white minister or priest,^ 

From 1850 to 1860 was the period of the road's greatest activity, 
accelerated by the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. The reaction of the 
conductors toward this law was that of defiance, hence they displayed 
added zeal in aiding fugitives.^" After the signing of the bill, a storm 
broke over the North with violence, political conventions, abolition 
meetings, and religious organizations poured forth a deluge of resolutions 
and petitions against the law. The Western Citizen printed a petition 
for the repeal of the bill to be cut from the paper and circulated through- 

* Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. 24. 

« Wexiern Citizen, September 23, 1«42. 

' The Western Citizen featured an interesting cartoon in 1844, showine: the picture of a train, carry- 
ing fugitives, and Eoing into a mountain tunnel. Under it was printed, 'Liberty Line. Regular trips 
are announced witn ,1. Cross as proprietor." Ihid., July 18, 1844. 

8 Ibid , July .3, 184o. 

» Western CiVizen, November 24, 1846. 

i« Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. 24. 



78 

out the State. It was asserted that scarcely a man could be found who 
would not sign it.^^ The colored people of Chicago saw that if this 
law were enforced no colored person in the United States would be 
free from liability to slavery, hence they considered it expedient to ap- 
point a vigilance committee to watch for attempts at kidnapping.^^ 

A defiant yet official action was taken by the Chicago Common 
Council, which passed resolutions requesting the citizens and police 
of Chicago to abstain from any and all interference in the capture and 
deliverance of the fugitive.^^ The question was placed before the pub- 
lic for discussion in a mass meeting held in the city hall. Resolutions 
were submitted to the people, which declared that "we recognize no ob- 
ligations of a moral or legal value resting on us as citizgns to assist or 
countenance the execution of this law." Frequent cheers interrupted 
the reading of the resolutions, and an outburst of enthusiasm showed 
the sympathy and satisfaction of the audience.^* Evidence of this open 
defiance of the law was not confined to Chicago. In reply to a speech 
given by Honorable William Thomas, entitled "Exposition and Defence 
of the Fugitive Slave Law," William Carter of Winchester, Illinois, 
wrote, "This fugitive slave bill, so far as I know, is the first ever passed 
by Congress commanding all good citizens to do what the Divine Law 
forbids. We are not bound to obey.^^ 

The problem became so grave for Missourians that in 1857, the 
General Assembly, by joint resolutions, instructed the Missourian rep- 
resentative in Congress to demand of the Federal Government the se- 
curing of their property as guaranteed by the Constitution, and in partic- 
ular against the action of certain citizens of Chicago who had aided 
fugitives to escape and had hindered and mistreated Missouri citizens 
in search of their slaves.^*' In 1859 the Western Citizen made the follow- 
ing estimate of the activity of the Underground Eailroad, rather ex- 
travagantly phrased, but nevertheless indicating the degree of boldness 
with which they advertised it. "This road is doing better business 
this fall than usual. The Fugitive Slave Law has given it more vital- 
ity, more activity, more passengers, and more opposition, which in- 
variably accelerates business. We can run a lot of slaves through from 
almost any part of the bordering states into Canada within forty-eight 
hours and we defy the slave holder to beat that if they can."^" 

These reports of the activity of the Underground Eailroad mean 
nothing if one does not know how many fugitives were actually aided. It 
was no doubt a tendency of these people who harbored and secreted the 
slave, under the spell of danger and adventure, to exaggerate the extent of 
their secret undertaking. However, when numbers are given, with due 

11 Western CiHzen, October 8, ISoO. 

12 Ibid., Octobers, 1850. 

15 Mann. The Chicago Common Council and the Fugitive Slave Law of ISoO., p. 70. 
i< Ibid., p. 72. ♦ 

16 A Reply to Hon. Wm. Thomas' "Exposition and Defence of the Fugitive Slave Law" by William 
Carter, Winchester, Illinois. Printed atT;he office of the Western Unionist, 1851, p. 5. 

i^ Trexler, Slavery in Missouri, p. 20Z. 

1 ' Western Citizen, November 9, 1859. The point about the increasing number of passengers is doubt- 
ful. From Chatham in Canada, J. E. Ambrose of Elgin, Illinois, received word that "the accursed Fugi- 
tive Slave Bill is driving them daily by hundreds into this country," Ibid., October 8, 1850. This 
probably referred to the negroes who had settled in Northern Illinois, and were fleeing for fear of kid- 
nappers. 



79 

allowance for over estimation, one can see concretely the degree of the 
road's activity. The entire number of fugitives who escaped annually 
from the South has been roughly estimated at two thousand. Reports 
of numbers transported on the Underground Eailroad through Illi- 
nois tends to substantiate this estimate. When one considers the num- 
ber of termini from the East to Iowa and that each aided fully as many 
as Chicago, it is not difficult to account for the two thousand. Take, 
for example, some numbers given in 1854 by the Western Citizen. 
Fifteen fugitives in the fore part of one week arrived in Chicago by 
the Underground Eailroad.^^ December 16, 1854, it was reported 
that since May 6, 1854, four hundred eighty-two were taken by the Un- 
derground Railroad across to Canada from Detroit^^ As many as 
twenty at a time were said to have left Chicago for Canada and free- 
dom.^" The largest number found in this year was given for the 
three months ending September 1,, 1854, one hundred seventy-six pas- 
sengers, and for the three months ending December 1, one hundred 
twenty-four, which made a total of three hundred for six months.^^ 

II. GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT. 

Illinois, bordered by Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and with 
her boundaries increased by the windings of the Mississippi and Ohio 
Rivers, was easy of access for the slave.-- The rivers served as channels 
of escape, especially through the regions hostile to the fugitive. Mis- 
souri, extending into free territory, became the chief sufferer. The 
Mississippi for hundreds of miles alone separated Missouri from an 
ever watchful abolitionist minority in Illinois. The great interstate 
shipping- along the Mississippi offered a chance for freedom to any 
plucky black who might be hired as a boat hand or stowed away by 
a sympathetic crew till a free port was reached.-^ In addition to this 
close c-onnection with slave territory, the Illinois Underground Railroad 
was in communication with the lines of Iowa-* and Indiana.-^ At Dav- 
enport the fugitive crossed the river into Illinois, and from there they 
travelled through a comparatively safe and friendly territory to Chicago. 

»« Free West, December 14, 1854. 

"Chicago Daily Democrat, December 16, 1854. 

2 SpriiiRfield State Register, September 21, 1854. 

21 Free West, December 21, 1854. 

In Jamiary, 1855, the Chicago Democrat reported, "On Friday night last sixteen human chattels 
from the Sunny South came up on the Underground Railroad on their way toward the North Star." 
Chicago Democrat, January 6, 18.55. 

22 A negro from the state of Virginia was resolved to find an asylum from slavery. He followed 
the Ohio to its mouth, then went up the Mississippi to the neighborhood of Alton, where he received 
provisions and was taken on to Springfield; Western Citizen, November 16, 1843. 

2 » Trexler, Slaver;/ in Missouri, 1804-1865, p. 173. 

** Beginnmg at Tabor, Fremont County, near the State line, the Abolitionists had stations extending 
by way of Des Moines, GrinncU, Iowa City, and Springdale to Davenport. B. F. Gue, History of Iowa, 
p. 373. 

'^ Fugitives were sent into Indiana from Wilmington and Joliet, Will County, to Crown Point, Lake 
County. George H. Woodruff, History of Will County, p. 5.57. Since the slave owner invaribly went to 
Chicago to look for his property, this line was no doubt used to avoid him. 



80 

While the large number of slaves came from Missouri and Ken- 
tucky,"" they also made their way from Virginia,-" and Tennessee,-^ but 
rarely from the more remote sugar and cotton growing states.-^ Slaves 
entering Illinois from the South and Southeast found a hostile terri- 
tory and were obliged to depend on their own resources.^" They 
crossed the river in the vicinity of Cairo which resented any im- 
plication of complicity in the Underground Eailroad, as is shown in the 
Cairo City Times which says: "The impression has gone abroad that 
there is to be an Underground Eailroad from this place to Chicago, 
and that negroes will be induced to run away from Missouri and Ken- 
tucky. We assure our friends abroad that such fears are entirely with- 
out foundation."^^ 

The chief points of entrance were Chester,^^ Alton,^^ and Quincy.'* 
The tracing of continuous routes from these starting points is a mat- 
ter of guesswork unless evidence could be gained at each station of 
its cooperation with the next station. But given the three chief points 
of entrance, the general direction northeast, and individual stations, 
with some evidence of cooperation in certain localities, one can form 
an opinion of three general pathways followed by the fugitive. Using 
Siebert's map with evidence gained from other sources, one sees that it 
is probable that one pathway from Chester led to Sparta, about twenty 
miles northeast, thence to Centralia and from there north, possibly 
through the friendly territory of Will County to Chicago ;25 the second 
from Alton, northeast to Jacksonville, then through the vicinity of 
LaSalle and Ottawa to Chicago,^^ and third, from Quincy, through 
the neighborhoods of Mendon, Farmington, Galesburg, Princeton, La 
Salle and ending at the terminus, Chicago.^^ 

" Slave owners wholived in Kentucky on the Ohio River were liable to loss of property, as is illus- 
trated by the followingincident. A negro was permitted by his owner to visit hisfree wife who lived in 
Shawneetown. He availed himself of the opportunity to go farther North, but was captured near Atlanta 
in Logan County, in spite of the fact that Abolitionists made an attempt to smuggle him into Canada. 
Ottawa Free Trader, August 8, 1857. 

-' A negro who had been sold away from his family and taken somewhere near the line between 
Virginia and Kentuckv, followed the Ohio, then the Mississippi to Alton, where he received aid. Western 
Citizen, November 16,'lS43. . „ . 

28 Dr. J. D. Mason of Jackson, Tennessee, found his fugitive slave near Centralia, Illinois, and in 
consequence of taking his property he was the object of the hostility of the Abolitionists. St. Clair Trib- 
une, November 24, 1855. 

2S Chicago Dailv Democrat, December 5, 1859. 

In the Western Citizen of July, 1845, it is reported that a husband and wife who had travelled on 
foot from Georgia, came into town. They desired to better their condition, so they started on a visit to 
some relatives who had preceded them several years ago and settled in Massachusetts. Western Citizen, 
Julys, 1845. . , , „ ,. x„- • 

3« The following item illustrates the dangers of a fugitive m traveling through Southern Illinois. 
Two negroes who had escaped from their owners in Kentucky the other day arrived in Chicago on the 
Illinois Central Railroad on Tuesday night, "having safelv passed the snares and traps laid for fugitives 
in Jonesboro (Union County) and other towns in Egypt. " Chicago Daily Democrat, December 15, 1859. 

31 Cairo City Times, February 7, 1855. 

32 Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois p. 60. 
3 3 Alton Daily Courier, December 1, 1853. 

Springfield Illinois Daily Journal, October 12, 1859. 
3< Western Citizen, June 30, 1846. . 

35 These references and the following give evidence of the location of a station at the particular place, 
the connection being a matter of guesswork and probability since the general direction is the same. 

Sparta, Belleville ^dioca^e, September 25, 1&51. 

Centralia, St. Clair Tribune, November 24, 1855. 

Will County, Western Citizen, August 25, 1846. 
3« Jacksonville, Charles H. Rammelkamp, Illinois College and the Anti-Slavery Movement, iransac- 
tions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1908, p. 200. 

LaSalle Western CT/izen, September 9, 1848. 

Ottawa, Ottawa Free Trader, December 31, 1859. 
3' Mendon, Western Citizen, November 2, 1843. 

Farmington, Ibid., September 16, 1842. 

Galesburg, History of Knox County, pp. 210-211. 

Princeton, Siebert, The Underground Railroad, V- ■i^- 



81 

Chicago was the great terminus, the point where most of the lines 
converged. Here the slave was virtually safe, for he was not only as- 
sured of protection from white people, but the negro element was strong 
enough to prevent his capture."^ The colored population did not hesi- 
tate to resist officers of the law and slave holders. The Western Citizen 
of November, 1850, tells of a slaveholder who, after taking his property, 
was overtaken live miles out of the city by the negroes. The slave was 
rescued by them and sent off to Canada. ^^ When attempts were made 
by the people to rescue a fugitive the colored people always formed part 
of the mob.*'^ The city proved to be an unpleasant place for the slave- 
holder or slave-catcher, as was evident in 1857, when Samuel Thomp- 
son came to Chicago with a negro boy who was not a slave. It was 
rumored about that the boy was a slave and that Thompson was tak- 
ing him back to bondage, A large crowd gathered about his lodging 
house and threatened violence. Although an officer, after an interview 
with Thompson, assured the people that all was right, the crowd was 
not quieted, and the man under suspicion was forced to submit to inir 
prisonment in order to escape violence,*^ The realization of the at- 
titude of Chicago by Southerners is aptly expressed by the Cairo 
Weekly Times. "They are undoubtedly the most riotous people in this 
State. Say nigger and slave-catcher in the same breath and they are 
up in arms.''*^ 

Few lines were known in the South except those developed by some 
Covenanter Communities between Chester and Centralia.'*^ The 
Southeast was the enemy's country for the fugitive. Bitter animosity 
was felt by the people of this region toward any person aiding the slave 
and also toward any section which distinguished itself in that respect. 
This feeling is expressed by the Shawneetown Gazette as a result of the 
satisfaction expressed by Chicago over the discharge of a slave from 
the claims of a slave agent." The paper says, "We of the South do 
not regard Chicago as belonging to Illinois. It is as perfect a sink hole 
of abolitionism as Boston or Cincinnati.''^ 

When the fugitive reached western and northern Illinois, he was 
placed less on his own resources. This is shown by the multiplicity of 
stations in that part of the State. North and west of the Illinois 
Eiver there was scarcely a county that did not have many places of re- 
fuge.*® It is even possible to add to Siebert's map in counties already 
well filled, additional stations, Bristol, Kendall County, and Troy Grove, 
LaSalle County. The aggressive leaders were of New England de- 

" "Besides those who pass through here, there are a number who make up their mind 

to stay here, believing that they will be almost as safe as they would be in her Majesty's the 

Queen's Dominions." Chicago Daily Democrat, December 5, 1859. 

" Western Citizen, November 5, 1850. 

* » Rock River Democrat, November 20, 1860, 

«i Rockford Register, September 5, 1857. 

<s Cairo Weekly Tines and Delta, September 9, 1S57. 

<«Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. Z2. 

** Chicago Daily Journal. June 7, 1851. 

<» Belleville ylrf!!Oca^«, July 17, 1851. 

<*Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. IIZ. 



-6 H S 



82 

scent*" and anti-slavery people from the South, whose presence was 
especially marked in Bond, Putnam, and Bureau Counties.** 

III. PERSONNEL. 

In every section of Illinois distinguished for its anti-slavery senti- 
ment, one finds courageous leaders who were bold in proclaiming their 
principles and so identified with the Underground Eailroad that they 
were jealously watched and often betrayed. They were not the kind of 
people whom one would naturally expect to engage in such an adventur- 
ous and reckless pursuit, for they came from the quiet and orderly class 
of the community, ministers, college professors, farmers, lawyers, and 
doctors. 

Quincy contributed to the personnel of the Underground Eailroad 
Nelson, one of the first engaged in this work, Eells and Van Dorn. In 
1842, Eells was tried under the fugitive slave act of Illinois for secret- 
ing and harboring a slave. The decision of the court was averse, and 
he was fined four hundred thousand dollars.*^ From the testimony of 
Van Dorn one learns that in a service of twenty-five years he helped 
onward two or three hundred fugitives.^" The abolition views of the 
faculty of Illinois College were frankly avoAved when President Beecher 
said that criticism would never silence them. Professor Turner was 
very active in the Underground Eailroad. In his reminiscences he told 
of piloting three negro women to the house of a certain Azel Pierson 
from whence they were helped onward to Canada.^^ Among the stud- 
ents Samuel Willard, William Carter, and J, A. Coleman all of whom 
belonged to abolitionist families, went so far as to abduct a negro slave, 
the property of a woman visiting in Jacksonville. The students were 
not prosecuted, but Julius Willard, the father of Samuel, Avas indicted 
in the Morgan County Circuit Court and fined twenty dollars and 
costs.^^ 

The same year as that of the Eells and Willard cases, Owen Love- 
joy was tried in the Circuit Court of the county of Bureau before John 
Dean Caton, one of the justices of the Supreme Court of the State of 
Illinois, October, 1843, for harboring and secreting a negro woman 

■" Siebert the Underground Railroad, p. 115. 

<8 In 1843 the Putnam County anti-slaverv society passed resolutions to the effect that "We are care- 
fully determined to protect all fugitives." Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, p. 115. 

AttheproceedingsoftheChristian Anti-Slavery Convention held at Greenville in Bond County 
October 20, 1846, it was resolved that "no man can deliver unto his master the servant that is escaped 
unto him, or refuse to harbor or feed the hungry, needy man, or a fugitive slave, without coming under 
the denomination of those represented by the Saviour on his left hand in Matthew 24: 41. " Western Citi- 
zen, November 3, 184fi. 

* 5 The ease was taken on a writ of error, first to the Supreme Court of the State, and after the death 
of Eells to the Supreme Court of the United States. In both instances the judgment of the original 
tribunal was confirmed. Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. 278. The points brought out by the case 
were: (1) That the State has the right to legislate on the subject of runaway slaves; therefore, it may 
prohibit the introduction of negro slaves into its territory and punish its citizens who introduce them, 
provided it does not interfere with the right of the maste'r to his slave or infringe upon that position of 
the sub ject covered by the Congress of the United States: (2) that the escaping of a slave does not make it 
free, but he still remains the property of his master subject to arrest and punishment. This last point 
is a repetition of the latter part of Judge Caton's charge to the jury in the Lovejoy Case. Harris, Negro 
Slavery in Illinois, p. 113. 

so Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in Ameiica. Vol IT, p. 67. 

61 Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1908 
Rammelkamp Illinois College and the Anti-Slavery Movement. 
Incident of Turner was taken from his reminiscences in the Daily Journal of August 2, 1884. 

" The Supreme Court through Judge Scates expressed the opinion that, "A slaveholder has perfect 
right to pass through Illinois with his slaves, and comity between states will protect him in regarding 
the slaves as such, while passing through our limits. Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, p. 114. 



83 

called jSTaney.^^ The counsel for Lovejoy was Collins. The tragedy of 
his brother caused him to persist in his fight against slavery. In 1854, 
he was elected to the legislature on that issue.^* Before the year of his 
indictment he openly counselled the negro to "take all along your route, 
so far as is absolutely necessary to your escape, the horse, the boat, the 
food.^^ 

These three decisions concerning the offences of Eells, Willard, and 
Lovejoy served only to arouse the abolitionists. The Illinois Anti- 
Slavery Society at its sixth anniversary, held in Chicago, June 7, 1843, 
elected Eichard Eells president for the ensuing year and took the 
ground in one of its resolutions that by the Constitution of the United 
States free states are not bound to deliver up fugitives. At the seventh 
anniversary of the same society, held in Peoria, in June, 1844, the ex- 
ecutive committee made a full report of all the fugitive slave cases 
during the year previous and praised the conduct of Lovejoy, Eells, and 
Williard.^« 

The community which seemed most permeated with the spirit 
of helping the slave was Knox County. Here we find John Cross, a 
Presbyterian minister, who made no secret of his attitude toward slav- 
ery. In 1844 he was indicted for hindering Andrew Borders from re- 
taking a colored servant, Susan, and for harboring and secreting her.^'^ 
Borders was a resident of Eden, Eandolph County. Two of his colored 
women servants who had left him were captured at the home of Cross 
and placed in the Knoxville jail.^^ The imprisonment of Cross was 
used to arouse anti-slavery sentiment. In the Western Citizen of July, 
1844, he wrote a highly colored description of his treatment in jail. 
The account of his experiences was copied by other anti-slavery sheets, 
y/ig Voice of Freedom, The Liberator, and the Valparaiso Indiana 
Ranger.^^ 

Galesburg, perhaps due to the pride of later generations which 
led them to preserve the experiences and exploits of their predecessors 
who were prominent in the community, stands out as probably the 
principal Underground Eailroad Station in Illinois. This prominence 
is also due to the evidence of cooperation between the residents of 
Galesburg and the surrounding neighborhood. From the beginning the 
inhabitants of Galesburg, which was founded in 1837, by Presbyterians 
and Congregationalists who united to form one religious society under the 
name of the Presbyterian Church of Galesburg as a result of intense anti- 
slavery sentiment, was a place where the fugitive was sure of a ref- 
uge.^° George Davis, Nehemiah West, Xeely, Blanchard, and Sam- 
uel Hitchcock were willing not only to shelter the fugitive but to pilot 
him onward by way of Andover and Ontario to Stark County, ' where 
they were received by Wycoff, S. G. Wright, and W. W. Webster.^^ 

'' ' It was in this case that Judge Caton when he charged the jury, said that if a master voUintarily 
brings his slave into free territory that slave becomes free, but if the slave comes into this State without 
the consent of his master he is nevertheless still a slave. Western Citizen, October 26, 1843. 

*< Bateman and Selby, Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, p. 345. 

»» Western Citizen, J\i\y 26, lSi2. 

'^ Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, p. 115. 

" Western Citizen, May 16, 1844. 

6 8 Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, p. 106. 

»» Western Citizen, July 18, 1844. 

" Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p. 96. 

^1 History of Knox County, p. 210. 



84 

The Ottawa Eescue case of 1859 was widely known throughout 
the State, for seven people at one time were indicted by the Grand 
Jury of the United States District Court at Chicago for aiding a 
fugitive to escape. Three of these, who were said to be among the best 
and wealthiest inhabitants of Ottawa, were arrested and imprisoned. 
The first of the series of the trials resulted in the conviction of John 
Hossack, a gentleman of wealth and prominence, and an earnest com- 
batant of slavery, for aiding in the rescue of "Jim," a fugitive slave, 
from the custody of Albright, acting as Deputy Marshal, owner's agent 
and jailor of Union County.^^ The evidence was so direct that the 
jury could do nothing but let the law take its course; however, they 
recommended the prisoner to mercy, the object of the counsel of the 
Government having been stated in the course of the trial as not im- 
prisonment nor an excessive fine, the purpose being merely conviction 
under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1851. •'^ In October the three of the 
rescuers were sentenced. 

Hossack's sentence was a fine of one hundred dollars and ten days' 
imprisonment, and Claudius B. Bang's, ten dollars and one day's im- 
prisonment. Aside from these penalties a bill of costs for each re- 
mained; Hossack's was two thousand five hundred dollars; Stout's, two 
thousand; and King's fifty dollars.^* As to whether these amounts 
were ever paid one cannot give any evidence. If the type of conduc- 
tors in Ottawa was the same as those already shown, one can infer 
that these convictions would increase rather than decrease the activ- 
ity of those attacking slavery. This case is an example of the activ- 
ities of the Underground Eailroad carried to the extreme of abducting 
the negro. Where seven were arrested and convicted for this bold 
deeds, hundreds were quietly and secretly conducting the road in a more 
unobtrusive manner. 

Among the pioneers of Will County, Samuel Gushing and Peter 
Stewart were intimately connected with the Underground Eailroad. 
Gushing was indicted in July, 1843, for aiding four negro slaves who 
came from the state of Missouri. Since the prosecuting attorney was 
not ready for trial, a nol pros was entered and Gushing was released.^^ 
The Stewart home, located at the junction of the Kankakee and Forked 
Creeks, was open to fugitive slaves. The complimentary and somewhat 
fanciful title of "President of the Underground Eailroad" has been 
applied to Stewart.®^ 

A brief glimpse has been given of the leaders of the Underground 
Eailroad who sent their passengers on to Chicago. These leaders_ re- 
ceived more publicity because their methods were bolder, and since 
they had become marked men, they were prosecuted. Chicago was so 
in sympathy with the fugitives' attempt to realize freedom, that the 
passing of negroes even in large groups of ten or twenty was related 
in contemporary accounts with no reference to particular conduc- 
es Chicago Press and Tribune, March 8, 1S60. 
6« Rockford RepuMican, March 22, 1860. 
^* Aurora Beacon, October 11, 1860. 
65 George H. Woodruff, History of Will County, p. 557. 
«« Ibid, p. 267. Siebert, The Underground Railroad, p, 69. 



85 

tors.*^^ However, if the fugitive was captured by a slave-agent there 
wei'e certain men who were willing to defend the fugitive. They 
openly maintained the right to give the fugitive aid, and to become 
the counsel of the conductor prosecuted for this act. At the trial of 
Hossack six of the leading lawyers of Chicago, Isaac N. Arnold, Joseph 
Knox, B. C. Cook, J. V. Eustace,E. Leland, and E. C. Larned, pre- 
sented his side of the case.*'^ The counsel for Owen Lovejoy was James 
H. Colhns.'''' 

In defense of the action of the citizens in carrying a fugitive away 
before the decision of the judge was given, Dr. Dyer, sometimes termed 
the president of the Underground Eailroad,^° and J. H. Collins/^ 
spoke in a mass meeting of the citizens. Collins gave a brief statement 
of the case, pointing out that all laws contrary to Divine Law are 
null and void and that while State officers may act in the capacity of 
slave-hunters where no State law prohibits it, the act would be purely 
voluntary on their part and not their legal duty.'^^ 

Following the official defiance of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 
by the Common Council of Chicago, there was a public meeting en- 
dorsing the action of the Council October 22, 1850. Among the names 
serving on the Committee on Eesolutions at this meeting, one finds 
Lemuel C. Freer,"^ George Mannierre, and Isaac Arnold. The spokes- 
men were Collins, Dr. Dyer, Larned, and Mannierre. The forceful 
but rather sensational manner in which Collins addressed the people 
shows the degree of his convictions on this subject. His first words 
were, "Honor, eternal honor to the Chicago Common Council. Dam- 
nation eternal to those who voted for or dodged the vote on the in- 
famous slave bill. The men who voted for it are bad; the men who 
sneaked away to avoid the responsibility of representing their con- 
stituents are both bad and base.^'"* The following evening, October 23, 
Stephen A. Douglas, who had happened at the meeting where the 
framers of the Fugitive Slave Bill were denounced by James Collins, 
answered the challenge by defending the law. He swayed the people 
by his oratory and logic to the extent that they adopted the resolutions 
he had framed.'''^ Friday evening, October 25, the largest meeting 
of the year was held to answer Douglas' speech and resolutions. The 
principal speech of the evening was delivered by Edwin C. Larned in 
which he said that the law, although designed to carry out the pro- 
visions of the Constitution, was in itself unconstitutional, since it de- 
nied the rights of habeas corpus and trial by jury, providing a dif- 

«' The following is an example of the kind of account which is given, "Seven colored fugitives from 
slavery passed through this city yesterday morning, and are by this time safe in the Queen's dominions . ' 
Chicago Daily Democrat, August 10, 18.59. 

*' Sicbert, The Underground Railroad, p. 283. 

«» Western Citizen, October 26, 1813. 

"> Western Citizen, December 22, 1846. 

'> Collins was a lawyer who came to Chicago in the fall of 1833. He entered into partnership with 
Judge John D . Caton in"l834. He was especially strong as a pleader, and was an uncompromising slavery 
man who often aided runawavs. Bateman and Selby, Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, p. 113. 

'2 Western OV/zew, November 3, 1846. 

' 3 Lemuel C. Freer cagie to Chicago in 1836. He studied lasv and was admitted to the bar in 1840. 
Bateman and Selbv, Historical Encydopcdia of Illinois, p. 176. 

'< Mann, The Chicago Common Council and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, p. 73. 

'5 Ibid., pp. 74-80. 



86 

ferent mode of trial which is to be a summary and is to prove the ques- 
tion of slavery or freedom.'^® 

As editors of the Western Citizen, Zebina Eastman and Hooper 
Warren were champions of the fugitive, giving the Underground Eail- 
road process some appearance of organization by means of engender- 
ing the spirit of cooperation. The exchange of information concern- 
ing the activity of the Underground Eailroad by the Chicago papers 
and the papers of the whole State enabled readers to see that their 
effort to aid a slave was but one step in a continuous process. East 
man's association with anti-slavery journalism did not begin with the 
Western Citizen. In Vermont he established the Free Press. After he 
came west he worked first on the Peoria Register and finally with 
Hooper Warren, who also had had much previous experience, began 
the publications of the Genius of Lilerty. In 1842, at the invitation of 
some prominent abolitionists, one of whom was Philo Carpenter, they 
moved the paper to Chicago, where it was issued under the name West- 
ern Citizen, later changed to the Free West.'''^ 

IV. METHODS. 

The conductors on this road not only had to avoid the penalties of 
the law, but they were held in contempt and suspicion by many of their 
neighbors. Governor Ford in 1843 characterized the fugitive's friends 
as "the fanatical misguided sect called Abolitionists" who received no 
encouragement from the people of Illinois. He also said that ninety- 
nine out of every hundred of the citizens look with indignation and ab- 
horence upon the conduct of an incendiary and misguided few who 
have interfered, and are disposed to continue to interfere with the right 
of the people of Missouri to a class of persons there made private prop- 
erty by the Constitution and laws of your State."^^ Very little evidence 
would in the nature of the case be left concerning the kinds of methods 
employed by the leaders in conveying the fugitive onward. One has to 
rely chiefly on personal reminiscences of the leaders for the interesting 
details of their adventurous and daring exploits. Secrecy was absolute- 
ly necessary. 

The hostility of Jacob Eaiightlinger, a Justice of the peace in Knox 
County, was an example of what the abolitionist incurred when aiding 
a fugi'tive.^^ About the year 1840 he observed a wagon-load of negroes 
being taken in the direction of the home of John Cross, a man who made 
no secret of his principles. Knightlinger with several of his friends 
investigated the Cross premises and found that their suspicions proved 
true. By their action, John Cross was indicted for harboring and 
secreting fugitives. In contrast to the people who aided the fugitive, 
there were men whose practice was to pursue slaves and deliver them to 
agents, doubtless to receive the reward. In the neighborhood of Wil- 
mington, Will County, there was a Dick Cox who drove a pedlar's wagon 
• 

'6 Mann, The Chicago Common Council and the fugitive slave law of 1850, p. 5. 
" Bateman and Selby, Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, pp. 145, 577. 

'8 Thomas Ford, Governor of Ulinois ,to Thomas Reynolds, Governor of Missouri, April 13, 1843, 
Governors Letter-Books, 1840-1 853. (Illinois Historical Collections Vol. 7.) 
' ' Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, p. 106. 



87 

and professed to be engaged in the business of capturing slaves. In 
184G he with David Masters captured two slaves^, took them to the justice 
of the peace and put them in jail before the people were up. A warrant 
of commitment was directed to the sherit! of Will County "in the name 
of the people of Illinois," stating that Elizabeth Freeman and others 
were accused of being runaway slaves and therefore requiring said 
sheriff to take their bodies and commit them to jail, there to remain un- 
til discharged by due process of law. Sheriff Brodie with the aid of 
some lawyers examined the warrant. They decided that it was invalid 
and therefore he was not legally bound to act.^° As soon as people of 
the type of Cox and Masters heard of the |)resence of fugitives they 
would procure a warrant from some "over-persuaded justice of the 
peace" and would search the homes of those under suspicion. S. G. 
Wright's home in Stark County was searched at nine o'clock at night 
by the constable at the instigation of two slave hunters, White and Gor- 
don. ^^ The disapproval of the whole community of Jacksonville was 
directed toward the actions of Julius Willard, and of three students of 
Illinois College, Samuel Willard, William Carter and J. C. Coleman, 
who attempted to assist a slave to escape. In order to show the public 
that their town had not endorsed the action of the abolitionists, the 
people held a meeting, February 23, 1843, in which they resolved that 
since they believed that there existed regular bands of abolitionists 
organized to run negroes tlirough the State, they would form an Anti- 
Negro Stealing Society to break up this movement.^^ 

Various methods were used by the abolitionists in their endeavor 
to aid the slave. The fugitives usually travelled in groups of two ur 
three, sometimes a family escaped, but with great danger of recapture. 
It was necessary to conceal the fugitive until suspicion cleared away, 
for often the slave-owner or agent was close upon his quarry and both 
the pursued and pursuer would be in the same neighborhood. Samuel 
C'ushing of Wilmington, Will County, concealed fugitives in the upper 
room of his cabin during the day until they could travel at night.^^ A 
hollow hayrick with a blind entrance was used by Deacon Jirah Piatt 
of Men don, Adams County, for a place of hiding.^* The story still cir- 
culates in Galesburg, Knox County, concerning the use of the gallery of 
the old First Church as a place of refuge for fugitives who were being 
aided by members of that church. ^^ Clothing for men, women and 
children was kept in readiness for the bedraggled negro who had escaped 
with only the clothes on his back.^® 

When one stops to consider the long distance the negro had to 
travel, it is not surprising that he made use of the first horse or boat 
available. The fugitives were encouraged in the practice by the aboli- 
tionists. A runaway negro who was taken care of by an abolitionst in 

'•> Western Citizen, August 25, 1846. 

81 Ibid., February 23, 1847. , ,, „,. . 

82 Rammelkamp, Illinois College and the Anti-Slavery Movement, Transactions of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, 1908, p. 200. 

"2 George H. Woodruff, History of Will County, p. 557. 

8<Siebert, The Uvderground Railroad, -p. 63. 

85 ibij p. 64. 
, 86 Susan Short Ma , historian of the Rochclle Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 
In a story of her early life in Illinois, relates that when she was a child "The Underground Railroad had 
a station in Bristol. At Mrs. Wheeler's I used to see clothing for men, women, and children kept in read- 
iness when they should stop on their way North to Canada. " Illinois Eistroical Society Journal, Vol. 6, 
No. I, April, 1913, p. 127. 



88 

the vicinity of Jacksonville until he Avas able to travel was advised to 
take tlie first horse he could find. He did so, and the owner of the horse 
was afterwards apprized of its whereabouts and assured of its return.*^ 
It was not always possible to return such property, hence the abolition- 
ists were confronted with a question of ethics. Both Lovejoy and 
Codding considered this case parallel to that of a victim in the cap- 
tivity of Indians who is not stealing when he takes the means of es- 
cape.^^ Where there was a part}'^ of two or three fugitives, they were 
often loaded into a wagon and conveyed to the next station. Dilly and 
Parker of Knox County disguised their load of negroes by hiding them 
under oat-straw.®^ Some of the fugitives were fortunate enough to 
smuggle on board north-bound steamboats on the Mississippi Eiver, 
thus escaping to Xorthern Illinois, where they were sure of aid in reach- 
ing Chicago. 

From the material examined, one finds only evidence of the use of 
the Illinois Central and Michigan Central Eailroads.^° The Western 
Cilizen reported in 1859, which is a safe date, that two negroes had 
arrived on the Illinois Central.^^ Cairo, however, denied that the rail- 
road was a means of escape, having in mind that its management had 
been accused of complicity in the Underground Eailroad. The CUt/ 
Times said, ""'The Illinois Central is no Underground Eailroad affair and 
has no Underground Eailroad connections.^- This may have been true 
that it was not a part of the process, conscioush', but nevertheless slaves 
in disguise may have managed to travel without being arrested. As early 
as 1854 fifteen fugitives from Missouri were shipped off from Chicago to 
Canada on the Michigan Central Eailroad.°^ Although there may have 
been less hardship in this method of travel, there was a far greater 
chance of being arrested. . The following incident illustrates the danger 
of detection when escaping on a railroad. A fugitive who was the 
property of a Mrs. Bohdecker of Yicksburg had escaped from the steamer 
''Kate Frisbie," on which boat he had been employed. He came to 
Cairo on the steamer Southern, and intended to make his way north on 
the Illinois Central Eailroad, but he lost his chances of freedom shortly 
after he had entered the State, for he was arrested on the train just as 
it was ready to leave Cairo for Chicago.^* 

The work of the Chicago Underground Eailroad conductors was 
to help the fugitives secure passage on Canada boimd vessels. This 
opportunity for freedom proved too tempting for the trtisty slave whom 
Uriah Hinch brought with him to Chicago to help him identify a fugi- 
tive. He deserted his master, escaped on board a steamer and sailed 
for Canada. ^^ The St. Louis Reveille printed an interesting letter from 

8' Chicago Dailp Democrat, March 9, 1S50. 

S8 Western Citizen, July 26, 1842, Ibid., Julv 3, 184.5. 

89 History of Knox Covnty, p. 211. 

"> Harris questions .'=!iebert' s theory that railroads were used for transporting fugitives. He says 
that before 1850 there were none in operation, and in the period of 1850-1860 he finds no evidence of their 
use for this purpose. According to Siebert, three railroads were used, the Chicago and Rock Island from 
Peru, LaSaile County, to Chicago, the Illinois Central from Cairo and Centralia to Chicago, and the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincv to Chicago. 

'1 Chicago Daihi Democrat, December 15, 1859. 

9 2 Cairo 07v Times, August 4, 1854. 

8 3 Free West. December 14, 1854. 

9< Cairo City Gazette. March 29, 18.59. 

9* Western Citizen, October 29, 1850. 



89 

a Harry Eyau of Chicago, who purported to be concerned about the 
slave property of the Missourians and solicited funds from them to aid 
liim in the work of preventing negroes from embarking on the steam- 
boats. He reported that four slaves were run off upon the Great 
AVestern with Captain AValker's knowledge, for after the boat left the 
wharf Dr. Dyer, a prominent Underground Eailroad conductor, stated 
that he had placed a slave whom he had rescued on board with three 
others.^^ Some of the captains were hostile, but the Illinois, which ran 
between Chicago and Detroit, with Mr. Blake as captain, was considered 
safe for Canada-bound passengers. ^^ 

The sympathetic interest in the slave was not always confined to 
the occasional aid given to the fugitive. It was often expressed in a 
bolder manner by rescuing slaves from the owner or a kidnapper.^^ The 
extraordinary events related by Levi ^orth give one an example of 
an exciting rescue case at Princeton. Two villainous looking men were 
seen in the vicinity of a rum shop, the New York House. During 
the day they made arrangements with Milo Kendall, a pro-slavery 
man, to defend them. The next morning, amied, they went just out of 
town to a meadow of a farmer named Matson, where they found John 
Bucknor, a colored man. mowing. He submitted to them and with his 
hands tied was led to the barroom of the Xew York House. But he 
was not alone long, for soon the fearless Owen Love joy with other com- 
panions was by his side. A warrant charging the kidnappers with 
riot was drawn up and all were marched off to the court house by the 
sheriff. The question was how to liberate John legally from his captive. 
It was decided that since they had taken the negro by no legal pro- 
cess, he should be set free. The rowdies, finding that his friends were 
likely to release him, resolved to use force. A wagon was placed in 
readiness for their use, but their plans were overheard and the con- 
stable and sheriff were informed. In accordance with the plans of 
John's enemies, the owner of the wagon rushed in, saying with a loud 
voice that he was authorized to take John before another magistrate 
and siezed him. Instantly a row commenced. John's rope was sev- 
ered, and he was hurried down the stairs by his friends. 

The door was closed by Levi North to keep the rowdies in. In 
the meantime John ran, followed by Owen Lovejoy, with more of his 
friends ahead of him. After running about thirty yards he was tripped 
up. but recovering his balance he ran on until he was met by a man who 
knew bis predicament and gave him a horse. He finally brought up 

«« Weslern Citizen, October 16. 184o. 

"Siehert, The Undfrground Ra>lrond,p. &i. 

'' In order to avoid violatinsr the law of the land the treedoi* of the fugitive slave was sometimes 
purchased by their friends. The citirens of Alton, rather than sec a colored girl, Amanda Cheeser, retiorn 
to slavery, raised twelve hundred dollars, purchased and freed her. Springfield Journal, January 21,1853. 
The colored ritizcns held a public meeting at the African Baptist Church to pass resolutions thanking 
their white friends for befrien.iing the girl. Alton Daih/ Courier, January 26. 18.')3. Two months later in 
the Alton Daih/ Courier this item appeared, "In order that the people of Central Illinois may keep posted 
upon the prices of negroes and know how much to pay hereafter when raising money to pay for the 
fugitive, we will publish from time to time notices of sales and prices." Ibid., March 1, 1853, p. 2. This 
is not a sarcastic comment, for at tke time of the rescue in this same paper it was stated thai, the Courier 
stood for the laws of the country, but it was glad that the fugitive slave'.^ freedom was purchased by her 
friends. 



90 

at Lovejoy's home "where at some time to the world unknown he took 
to the cars."''^ 

The abolitionists of Sparta armed themselves and threatened ' to 
attack a band of Missourians if they made any effort to recover a 
fugitive hiding there. Needless to say, the slave hunters returned 
home without their property.^°° An abduction of two negro apprentices 
boy and girl, was frustrated by the indignant villagers of Wilmington, 
Will County, who rushed forth to rescue the helpless. The kidnappers 
were terrified and pleaded faithfully never to come again.^°^ 

The colored population of Chicago was always ready to relieve 
a slave owner of his property. Stephen A. Xuckles of Nebraska City 
caused the arrest of a colored girl whom he claimed as his slave. 
When she was being taken before the Justice a conflict occurred be- 
tween him and a lot of negroes, the result being the escape of the 
girl.^°2 They had the advantage of seeing the fugitive whom they 
had rescued, immediately embark for Canada. 

Y. ILLINOIS AND THE FUGITIVE IN CANADA. 

Assistance of the fugitive involved an understanding of his ulti- 
mate destination even when there was no knowledge of the existence 
of the more remote stations. Canada meant liberty, hence the fugitive 
fwas following the direction of the North Star, enroute by the Under- 
ground Eailroad for freedom's domain. Therefor the question nat- 
urally arises as to whether there was any cooperation between the fu- 
gitive's friends in Illinois and the organizations in Canada which were 
helping the fugitive to adjust himself to freedom. The Western Cithen 
as the organ of the abolition movement in Illinois, served to disseminate 
all available information concerning the fugitive slave; through its 
columns, therefore, these organizations made their appeal for support. 
In order to make this appeal more concrete, they told of the location 
establishment and progress of their missions. 

In answer to inquiries rehiti-j ' -. Dawn Mission, made by the 
editors of the Western Citizen, E !-*i. .:m aiid McClelland, Hiram Wil- 
son wrote September 15, 1849, fOT.-.eriung the beginning of his work. 
His services in this refuro began October, 183G. He first served under 
the auspices of flie American Anti-Slavery Society in New York. His 
agency for tins .-society ceased, but his services as a missionary were 
continued until the Canada Mission became extensively known to the 
public. It became necessary to introduce other missionaries for the 
destitute refugees who were scattered through the province. These 
were all under his care as a general agent and itinerant missionary. 
As a pioneer in the field, it devolved upon him to prepare the way and 

99 Western Citizen, July 17, 1849. 

i"" This is an exchange from the Ca-pe Girardeau Eagle, a Missouri paper which also says, "We under 
stand that several ne^oes belonging to persons in Missouri, are harbored in Sparta and the neighborhood 
by three villains, and efforts should be made to recover them." Belleville ^-f raceme, September 25, 1851. 

i«i Western (Atizen, December 4, 1849. The citizens of Urbana and LaSa le rescued negroes from 
kidnappers. Urbana Union, September 14, 1854; Free West, July 20, 1854. 

lo^ Aurora Beacon Supvlement, November 15, 1860. 



91 

introduce some seventy other persons. For more than three years pre- 
vious to 1842 he resided in the city of Toronto. As a resting-place and 
temporary home of the fugitive, his home was greatly thronged.^°^ 

In 1843, a convention of colored people called to decide upon the 
expenditure of some fifteen thousand dollars collected by a Quaker, 
James C. Fuller, in England. They decided to start a manual labor 
school and to locate it at Dawn."* According to Wilson, they purchased 
three hundred acres of improved land in the township of Dawn at 
the head of the navigation of the Sydenham Eiver and commenced 
clearing, planting, and educating."^ Wilson changed the direction of 
his labors and location from Toronto to Dawn for the purpose of set- 
tling these families and heading the interests of Christian education 
in their midst with emphasis on the Industrial Manual System. From 
a small beginning of some forty persons their numbers increased to 
three hundred.^"*^ 

J. E. Ambrose, of Elgin, Illinois, who was evidently in communi- 
cation with Canadian missionaries,^"^ contributed information to the 
Western Citizen concerning the people. His purpose may have been to 
show the negroes the opportunities for securing land cheaply, and the 
advantages of living in Canada. In 1820 General Simcoe, Governor 
General of Canada, requested his home government to lay out a township 
of land on Lake Simcoe. This land, bordering on Owen's Sound was 
not offered to colored persons exclusively, but by improving it, they 
could have fifty acres and the privilege of buying fifty acres more. In 
1820, twelve families made a commencement. By 1839 there were 
thirty-three families. The land was good and the timber superior. In 
1851, some colored persons were going up and making an effort to 
settle. To what extent tbese negroes were fugitives can not be said, 
but one would imagine that those who would undertake this proposition 
were negroes who had been in Canada for some time and had become 
somewhat independent financially. 

In 1824, four hundred sixty persons contracted with the Canada 
Company for a township near London and were to pay for it in ten 
years. It was thickly settled and was called Wilberforce settlement. 

Twelve miles south of Chatham, William King established a col- 
ony called King's Settlement. King, a Presbyterian minister, for- 
merly a slaveholder in the South freed his slaves, went to Canada, and 
bought a large tract of land in company with others. This land, 
divided into lots of fifty acres, was sold to colored men at two dollars 
and fifty cents per acre with 6 per cent interest. The first payment 
down was twelve dollars and fifty cents. 

At Sandwich on the Detroit Eiver and Lake Erie there were large 
settlements. Besides the settlements on Lake Simcoe at Wilberforce, 

103 Western Citizen, October 2, 1849. Canada Mission, Dawn Mills, September 15, 1849.T Reverend 
Hiram Wilson to Eastman and McClcllan, editors of the Western Citizen. 

i»<Siebert, The Underground Railroad, -g.Vib. 

106 Western Citizen, October 2, 1849. 

i''«Ibid., p. 1, c. 3. 

• <" In 1853 Ambrose received an appeal from Chatham, Canada West, saying that they are in great 
stiaits and need immediate help. Western Citizen, February 18, 1851. 



92 

Kiiig"'s Settlcmeut at Buxton and Sandwich, there were several scat- 
tered over various parts of Canada.^"* 

From the report of Hanson, a colored agent for the self-emancipation 
of slaves, which was made before the Congregational societies of Chicago, 
one gains further information concerning the fugitive in Canada. He 
states that the number of settlers in the missions with those who were 
living independently was estimated at fifteen thousand in 18-15. All 
came from different states b}^ different processes. Some had been there 
fifteen years, but the majority had come in the period of the forties. In 
the vicinity of Dawn, the population was scattered over a territory one 
hundred miles in length by sixty miles L^ breadth, the south point being 
forty miles above Detroit, Michigan, on ii.'e east side of the river. This 
distribution of the settlers made it difficult for Wilson, a missionary, to 
reach them all. There were one thousand people in this district, the 
number in the mission being three hundred. ^°^ 

A statistical report of the colored population in Canada, published 
in the African repository at Washington, which computed the number at 
five thousand, was questioned by Wilson in his letter to the Western 
Citizen of October 2, 1849. This professed to be an official census as 
taken in 1817, but Wilson denied the fact that such a census had ever 
been taken, for neither he nor the negroes knew of it. When he travelled 
through Canada in 1837, from the best information he could get, he 
computed the negroes at ten thousand. At a convention of negroes in 
1840, they estimated their numbers at twelve thousand five hundred. 
The increase by birth and immigration could not have been less than one 
thousand annually; therefore, if carefully numbered, they could not be 
much less than twenty thousand."° 

Hanson in his report says that the location of Dawn was the best 
in the province. The land was extremely fertile, producing wheat, oats, 
corn, rye and tobacco, all of which found a ready market in Detroit and 
the neighboring towns and settlements.^^^ Many of the colonists owned 
tracts of ten, fifteen and twenty acres, mostly under cultivation, while 
others more enterprising, became prosperous farmers. ^^- In an article 
signed by a certain E. Smith, some negroes were worth thousands of 
dollars. Their condition was much better than in the United States.^^' 

When the fugitives first came, they were like children, easily dis- 
couraged in clearing up the land. For the first four or five years they 
were thriftless, because in slavery they had been accustomed to having 
their work planned for them. When they came to Canada, where they 
were forced to arrange their plans for themselves, they were confused at 
first, but after a time they became industrious and good citizens.^^* Wil- 

i»8 Western Citizen, Februarj' 18, 1831. Contributed by J. E. Ambrose, Elgin, Illinois. 

'09 Western Citizen, March 6, 1845. 

ii» Western Citizen, October 2, 1849. Hiram Wilson to Western Citizen. 

Howe comes to the conclusion that blacks were included in the whites column. In the census 
of 18G0, the number ol colored residents of Toronto was given as five hundred ten. George A. Barker, 
secretary of the Board of School Trustees, furnished a certified copy of the number of colored residents, 
which amounted to nine hundred thirty-four. The Mayor of London, Canada West, estimated the 
number of families among colored population at seventy-five, but the census made it only thirty-six. 
S. G. Howe. Report on the Refugees from Slavery in Canada West, p. 16. 

111 Western Citizen, March Q,lSi5. Hanson's report taken from CongregationalJournal. 

112 Ibid. 

ii^Ibid., March 15, 1849, p. 2, c. 6. E. Smith "Freed Slaves— How They Prosper." 
IK Ibid. 



93 

son said that the improved conditions of these settlers in Dawn and its 
vicinity was noticed and commended by many men of good standing in 
that part of Canada, among whom was the High Sheriff, who wasr a 
"very observing man/'"^ It must have been encouraging for the friends 
of the fugitive in Illinois to learn that in Canada, in contrast to the 
United States, the negroes engaged in more responsible employment, 
hence they were more respected. Few were to be seen working in 
taverns.^ ^^ 

The fugitives wished to consider themselves self-sufficient. They 
resented being considered as objects of charity, for they wanted their 
former masters to know that they considered their condition bettered 
through freedom, and that they had no desire to resume their life in 
slavery."^ The picture of a lazy, poor, starving community for whom 
annual donations of clothing were necessary to keep them from suffering 
was regarded a great injustice. According to a correspondent of the 
True Wesleyan, in a convention of the fugitives at Drummondsville they 
passed resolutions requesting their friends in the States to send no more 
clothing to Canada, except for newcomers and the schools.^" 

Although the fugitives were able to eke out a living from the soil, 
they were pitifully ignorant and needed education to enable themi to 
utilize the advantages of freedom in Canada. This responsibility was 
borne with difficulty by the missionaries. Of three hundred negroes 
Hanson saw collected at a religious meeting, not one could read or write, 
and neither could he, himself, a Methodist preacher, until he was in- 
structed by his little boy. He reported that there was an attempt being 
made to erect a seminary at the cost of two thousand dollars, in which 
two hundred negro children and youth could be instructed."^ At Am- 
herstburg, where Isaac Eice was doing mission work, they built a school 
for eighty scholars.^^" In the winter of 1848, Wilson had a school of 
sixty scholars. In addition, his wife instructed the girls in letters and 
needlework. On her sewing days, the house was thronged with girls and 
mothers to the number of thirty, who had come from distances of two 
and three miles.^^^ King, in his settlement, had a school which he used 
also for religious worship. ^^^ 

In spite of the fact that the people were assured that Canada was a 
safe refuge for the slave, in 1843, the people became alarmed at the 
fugitive clause in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty. It was agreed in the 
treaty "that the United States and Her Britannic Majesty shall, upon 
mutual requisitions by them, or their ministers, officers, authorities, 
respectively made, deliver up to justice all persons, who being charged 
with the crime of murder, or piracy, or arson, or robbery, or forgery, or 
the utterance of forged paper, committed within the jurisdiction of 

>i* Weslern Citizen October 2, 1849, p. 1, c. 3. Hiram Wilson to Western Citizen. 

116 Ibid., March 15, 1849. E Smith. 

11' Western Citizen, March 15, 1849. 

ii« Ibid., March 13. 1849. ^ ,^ • „ 

One of the objects of the "True Bands" organized by negroes was to put a stop to "begging," 
that is, going to the United States and misrepresenting their condition, raising large sums of money, the 
benefit of which the fugitives never received. The first Band was in Maiden, September, 1854. Benja- 
min Drew, A North-Side View of Slavery, p. 236. 

ii'Ibid., March 6, 1845. , „ ., r,- .. ^u t.j. 

I'o Ibid., October 9, 1849. Canada Mission, Amherstburg, September 27, 1849. Isaac Rice to the Edi- 
tors of the Western Citizen. 

i»i TTes/ern Ci&fJi, October 23, 1849. Hiram Wilson. 

i«» Ibid., February 18, 1851. J. E. Ambrose, Elgin, Illinois. 



9i 

either, shall seek an asylum, or shall be found within the territories of 
the other * * *."i23 j^ order to show the true attitude toward the 
slave, the interpretations of Lords Aberdeen, Brougham and Ashburton 
were published in the Western Citizen. In the course of the discussion 
in the British House of Lords upon the motion of the Earl of Aberdeen 
for a second reading of the bill relating to the apprehension of the 
fugitive from justice, under the treaty, his lordship remarked that it 
had been supposed that under this bill fugitive slaves would be given up, 
but there was no intention of introducing any such provision. To escape 
from slavery was no crime; on the contrary, the condition of the slave 
endeavoring to escape was to be regarded with much sympathy. He 
knew it had been said that a fugitive slave was guilty of robbery in carry- 
ing off the clothes he had on, which were the property of the one who 
claimed to be the owner of the slave, but to take such clothes was no 
theft. Neither was it a theft to take anything which would aid him in 
his flight, as a horse or boat. Lord Brougham agreed with his explana- 
tion, and said that it need not be included in the bill. According to 
Lord Ashburton, it was now a settled fact that a slave arriving in British 
territory, under any circumstances never could be claimed or rendered 
liable to personal service.^^* 

Further assurance was gained by the reply of Lord Ashburton to 
Thomas Clarkson, President of the British Anti-Slavery Society of 
England. Wlien Clarkson first knew" of the treaty which the bill before 
the Parliament was designed to execute, he foresaw that the masters of 
the slaves in southern states would avail themselves of it to reclaim the 
fugitives in Canada. Lord Ashburton, however, told him that the treaty 
would not act in that way, for if it did it would be dissolved. Clarkson 
feared that the section in which it would be possible for a slave to be 
given up for robber}^, might be construed to mean petty thefts, such as 
taking the means of escape. This fear was answered by saying that the 
use of a boat or any means of escape is not a theft. Fugitives will only 
be delivered up for crimes mentioned in the treaty.^^^ 

A memorial was addressed to the Congress of United States relative 
to the fugitive slave in which a request was made that negotiations be 
instituted between the government of the United States and Great 
Britain to provide for some satisfactory mode of preventing the escape of 
slaves into British possessions, and for their apprehension and redelivery 
after they have crossed the northern lakes. The Western Citizen showed 
its faith in the British Government by answering that evidently Congress 
is ignorant of Great Britain's attitude toward fugitive slaves, for when 
an attempt was made to insert such a clause, Lord Ashburton would 
not listen.^-^ 

The settlements for the negroes depended upon voluntary contribu- 
tions. In 1849, they needed money and needed it badly. The emphasis 

123 House Documents, Volume I., U. S. 27th Congress, Session 3, 418. 

is< Weslern C/fecra, August 10, 1843. "British Treaty— Fugitive Slaves." 

125 Thomas Clarkson to his Excellencv, Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bart., Governor General of Canada. 
Clarkson especially emphasized the point "that England was watching with anxiety the outcome of the 
treaty when it comes into operation, and that they would be grateful for any act of humanity shown on 
the part of his Excellency toward these unfortunate people. Western Citizen, December 18, 1843. 

i2« Western Citizen, February 2, 1847. 



95 

was placed upon the need of funds for the establishment and support of 
schools. In August of 1849, Hiram Wilson appealed to the people of 
Illinois through the Western Citizen for aid. It was recommended by 
the newspaper that the pastors of the churches advocate the cause and 
take up contributions to aid the mission, and that the Ladies Anti- 
Slavery Society convert their means into money which was needed. This 
evidently had not been the first appeal, for in the same paper, Wilson 
acknowledged the receipt of "Your very welcome and encouraging letter 
of June 23, also the thirteen dollars you enclosed for the purpose of pay- 
ing the freightage on a box and barrel of clothing vou forwarded at that 
time."i" 

The call for help also came from Isaac Eice of Amherstburg. For 
three months they had been unable to do mission work. Because of lack 
of funds, they could not pay the freight on boxes sent to them with 
relief for the fugitives. Clothing was especially necessary at Amherst- 
burg, for it was a fugitive station where nearly all the slaves landed. 
All money received had been put into finishing and paying for a school 
and mission house. Some of the uses for the money were a house instead 
of an open shed to be used for a kitchen, washhouse, wood room, cellar 
or roothouse, the upper part for a store room, where wheat, corn, oats, 
or flour could be stored, for sickness, funerals, freight bills, and a garden. 
Over fifty slaves had come to them in the past summer, and these and 
more in the future would have to be boarded until rested. To meet 
these expenses three hundred dollars were asked for.^^* 

Dawn Mission, due to defective management was burdened with 
debt in 1849. As a result there was no surplus left from the annual 
income for the cause of education. One hundred fifty dollars were neces- 
sary to bring up arrears, and Wilson's plea was "Could we have three 
hundred dollars. We are dependent upon voluntary support."^^® 

Wilson came to Illinois in November, 1849, on business connected 
with his work among the fugitives. His purpose was to visit the State 
and spend a few weeks soliciting contributions.^^" Among the communi- 
ties responding, one finds counties and towns which were prominent in 
giving aid to the fugitives: Aurora, Kane County; Bristol, Kendall 
County; Joliet, Will County. Some leaders of the Underground Eail- 

1^1 Western Citizen, August 21, 1849. Dawn Mills, Canada West, August 10, 1849. Hiram Wilson 
to Eastman and McClellan, editors of the Western Citizen. 

li^ Western Cil:zen, October 9, 1849. Canada Mission, Amherstburg, September 27, 1849. Isaac 
Rice to the Editors of the Western Citizen. 

IS" Western Citizen, October 23, 1849. Dawn Mills, Canada West, October 13, 1849. Hiram Wilson 
to Eastman and McClellan, editors of the Western Citizen. 

1 30 The results of his work were published in the Western Citizen at the request of Wilson, who said 
" Please have the kindness to insert in your paper the following acknowledgment of receipts in aid of the 
Dawn Mission to refugee slaves in Canada West. For reasons which I have not time to state, my receipts 
have been small, as the aggregate of tliree weeks of incessant toil will show, but those who have con- 
tributed from pure love to Christ and humanity, to help and sustain Samaritan like services will please 
accept the sincere thanks of their faithful and devoted servant, Hiram Wilson." 

Receipts— ^Jirom, Kane County, Congregational Church, $2.80; Bloomingdale, $1.37; Batavia, 
Sl.3.5; Bristol, Kendall County, $4.66; Ladies Anti-Slavery Society per Mrs. McClellan, S2; Mrs. McClellan, 

$.50; Rev. W. Beardsley, 50c; Rev. Faroham, $2.50; Chicago, First Presbyterian Church, $14.80; $6.16; 

Baptist Tabernacle, $2^87; C. B. Nelson, $1; J. B. D., $1; Mrs. Bates, $1; Mrs. Stuart, $.38; O. Davidson 
$1; Cash, $4; J. H. Collins, $5; Mrs. Laflin, $1; Mr. Downs, $1; Isaac Clay, $1; W. Johnson, $.94; H. Smith, 
SI; Cash, $1; Mrs. Creary, $.25; P. Carpenter (box of candles), $2; J. Johnston, (1 coat), $7; Dundee, Kane 
County, Congregational Church, $5; Elgin^li; Mrs. H. Gifford, $1; Orangeville, Dupage County, $1.25; 
Joliet, Will County, G. H. Woodruff, $1; H. P. Marsh, $..50; R. Hanse, $..53; Mr. Haven, $1; Lockport; 
O. R. Gooding, $5; C. Butler, $..50; W. S. Mason, $11; Plainficld, $3.30; Mrs. Royce and family, $1; Mrs. 
Pratt, $.50; Genoa, by letter through Abaer Jackman, $6.50. Total— $105.97. New Buffalo, November 
27, 1849. Hiram Wilson. Western Citizen, December 4, 1849. 



96 

road are among the donors : J. H. Collins and Philo Carpenter of 
Chicago, and Haven of Will County. These places and these people, 
however, were all in the vicinity of Chicago, which was confessedly anti- 
slavery in sentiment. No doubt in the three weeks Wilson did not have 
sufficient time to tour the whole State. It may be taken for granted 
that Chicago would be the first place visited, and that response would be 
given to his appeal. The evidence would be more conclusive if the con- 
tributing localities were scattered and less in communication with Chi- 
cago, the terminus of the Underground Eailroad. Nevertheless, this is 
evidence of the refugee's friends in Canada cooperating with his friends 
in Illinois, both through an anti-slavery paper, the Western Citiz&Ti, 
which is the source of information concerning the fugitive in Canada, 
and in the person of a missionary, Hiram Wilson. 

After seeing how little was contributed in response to the appeal of 
Wilson, it may be asked if all this discussion of the Canadian situation 
in the ^yestern Citizen, which was obviously to gain financial support, 
was of any importance in relation to the Underground Eailroad. It is 
probable that with a clearer idea of the destination of the fugitive, and 
also with a small part in the support of the missions, the abolitionists 
realized their obligations toward the negro more deeply, and thus became 
more active in the Underground Eailroad. 

VI. DEGEEE OF OEGAXIZATIOX AND MOTIVE. 

Judging from the facts concerning the Underground Eailroad, it 
is easily seen that while there was no formal organization, there was a 
practical organization suited for the emergency of the moment and 
based on the cooperation of neighbors. A terminology analagous to that 
of a railroad system sprang up in connection with this secret process. ^^^ 
While it served to mystify the public,"- it may have thrown a glamour 
over the whole movement, thus having the psychological effect of mak- 
ing the conductors feel that they really were a part of a well organized 
system. They may have realized that while each one was cooperating 
only with his sympathetic neighbor, there was a series of such neighbors 
who made it their business to see that the fugitive progressed one step 
nearer Canada. 

A splendid illustration of the assumption of a well organized sys- 
tem in Underground Eailroad activities is to be found in the report of 
the Western Citizen of September, 1846, that "the Northwest branch of 
the great subterranean thoroughfare has been doing brisk business the 
present season and we understand that the stock is several per cent 
above par. A dividend will probably be declared soon.^^^ Peter Stewart 
shared the honor of being called "President of the Underground Eail- 
road,'' with Dr. Dyer of Chicago. At a meeting of the Liberty Associa- 

> '1 The following is a typical report of the activity of the Underground Railroad expressed in this 
terminology. "A fugitive took his departure for a free country in the direction of the North Star, via 
the Underground Railroad, which is in good running order." "Aurora Guardian, February 23, 1853. 

1 22 An advertisement of the readiness of people to help the fugitives to gain freedom appeared intha 
following mystifying style, " Old line of stage to Canada via Mt. Hope. Proprietors of above line inform 
public that they are prepared to accommodate colored men, women, and children who wish to emigrate 

to Canada, with free passage, as they are determined not to be outdone by any other line John Morse, 

Agent, McLean County, September, 1844." Western Citizen, October 24, 1844. 

133 Western Citizen, September 15, 1846. 



97 

tiou, Lemuel C. Freer announced that the President of the Underground 
Eailroad would then declare a dividend to the stockholders. Dr. Dyer 
then arose and introduced to the meeting a "Southern gentleman," his 
wife and children, who had that day arrived on the cars, and Avho, he 
said, were a greater dividend than that of any other railroad company 
in the State.^^* 

Orators like Owen Lovejoy and Ichabod Codding were sent around 
to encourage the people in different towns.^^^ The murder of a fugitive 
by his pursuers aroused the community of Shelbyville to such an ex- 
tent that Robert Rutherford, a correspondent of the Western Citizen, 
thought that "much good might be done by a lecturer" and advised 
that Lovejoy, Blanchard, or. Cross come over.^^" It is easily inferred 
that the publication of a series of '"Tales of Fugitives" was to stimu- 
late the activity of the Underground Railroad. They were made effec- 
tive by having the fugitive tell his own story. For example in a "Con- 
versation with a Chattel" the negro says that although he had been 
told by white folks in the South that this was a poor country, very cold, 
the people mean, and that they could only make a living by stealing 
from one another, he thought that these people could not do any worse 
than steal all he had, as the southern people had done, so he decided to 
come up and see. The narrator ended his story by stating that this was 
the most intelligent piece of merchandise that had fallen in his way. 
He gave it a ticket on the Underground Railroad, and soon this tame 
beast found himself transformed into a nian.^^^ , 

The negro population of Chicago was organized to thwart all at- 
tempts to capture or kidnap a fugitive. September 30, 1850, they met 
at the African Methodist Church on Wells Street to take into considera- 
tion the course to pursue in case attempts should be made to arrest 
fugitives."* As a result of the meeting, they effected a colored police 
organization consisting of seven divisions which in turn Avere to patrol 
the city.^^^ 

The enemies of the fugitive fully realized the actual result of the 
Underground system when they said that "the state of insecurity is be- 
coming greater every day '^'' * * on accoimt of a more perfect or- 
ganization and concert of action of the anti-slavery men in Illinois."^*" 
The abolitionists of Farmington showed themselves capable of concert- 
ed action when they saw that two fugitives tracked by slave hunters 
were in danger of being captured. Jacob Knightlinger, Justice of the 
Peace, directed the pursurers on to Rochester. In the meantime the 
friends of the negroes at Farmington, having learned of the plan, "start- 
ed to see if the cars wore in i-eadiness at Rochester and arrived just in 
time to 

Wood u]) 1lie fires and keep ilu'iii llasliiiig 
While the train went onward dashing. 

i'< Western Citizen, December 26, 184r>. 

1 35 Carrie Prudence Kofoid, J'urilan Influence in llic FormaliicYcar.sof Illinois Ilislori/: Trnnxuiiions 
of niinois State Historical Society, 190."), p. 314. 
1S6 WcHern Citoen, September 25, 18J9. 
1 " Ibid., November 30, 1843. 
I's Chicago Daily Journal, October 3, 18.50. 
1 39 Ibid., Octobers, 1850. 
K" Western Citizen, February 2, 1847. 

— 7 H S 



98 

Four hours after this, along came the slave hunters, who searched the 
premises of two abolitionists and found no negroes.^'*^ Eeverend Wright, 
one of these abolitionists, spoke of this incident in his journal on Janu- 
ary 5, 1847. He said, ""The}' searched our premises in vain, however, 
for the birds had flown, having got a wink from friends at Farmington 
that tlie}' were pursued/'^*^ 

Between Galesburg, Andover, and Ontario the Underground Eail- 
road worked efBcientl}'. On one occasion Conductor Xeely with four 
passengers from Galesburg arrived at the residence of Hod Powell at 
Ontario. After a partial night's lodging and a meal, Powell took his 
load to Andover, the nest station.^*^ The story of Erastus Mahan of 
McLean County gives one an example of a fugitive being piloted from 
one point to another. Two colored people got off the Xorth-bound 
train of the Chicago and Alton Railroad in Lexington. They were 
directed to the home of his aunt, ^Yidow Mahan. Here they frankly 
admitted they were runaway slaves. Mrs. Mahan sent for her nephew 
immediately. He took them to the house of S. S. "Wright, about three 
miles from town where they remained until it was decided that the 
search was abandoned. John and Edward Mahan then carried them to 
the home of a man by the name of Eichardson, who lived about nine 
miles south of Pontiac. They stayed there one night and were vhen 
sent on to Chicago.^** 

Organization seems to have resolved itself into two separate stages. 
In the first instance, the fugitive was given a meal, some clothing, and 
information as to the location of the next friendly house. In the second 
instance, the fugitive received the same attention, and in addition was 
piloted onward to the next station ; when there was a party in close pur- 
suit, the conductors acted more swiftly and showed a greater degree of 
cooperation. 

The conductors made it a matter of conscience to aid the fugitive 
in any way. and if it was necessary, they felt it a moral obligation to 
help iiim on his way.^*^ It was resolved by the Illinois Anti- Slavery 
Society "that we would earnestly entreat our brethern and fellow citi- 
zens, by all that is interesting in human relations, by all that is desira- 
ble in "the favor of God * " * * to extend a hand of kindness and 
hospitality in all things necessary for his escape, to every parting fugi- 
tive from the Southern prison house, who may come within reach of our 
benevolence.^*® The prevailing anti-slavery sentiment and the belief 
that such matters were subject to a higher law took the place of a 
machinery of formal organization. They were held together by the 
common vision of the goal toward which they were working, the freedom 
of the fugitive from slavery. 

i<> Western CUizen. November 24, 1S16. Quoted from the St. Louis Era. 
H2 Historu of Knoi County, p. 426. 
i<3ihi(i., p. 211. 

I** ETSiitus}iiskhan, Friends of Liberty on the ^facUnal':: McLean County Historical Society Transae 
tions. Vol. I, p. 402. 

Ks Western CiVizfn, December 2S, 1843. 
H6 Ibid., August a, 1842. 



99 



A CELEBRATED ILLINOIS CASE THAT MADE HISTORY. 



(By Stephen A. Day.) 

In one sense, history is but the record of the growth of law. It is 
by the acts and deeds of men in the past upon which we build the 
structures of the future. Perhaps in no more enduring form are found 
these records than in the proceedings of our courts of law. Many adju- 
dicated cases furnish the land-marks along the path of civilization, and 
in the history of this Nation no more striking example of the power and 
majesty of this great Democracy is to be found than in a great case 
which occurred in the State of Illinois a little more than twenty years 
ago. 

In observing historical incidents, we are struck by the force of the 
climax, and sometimes are not equally conscious of the preceding and 
predisposing causes that lead up to the climax. We all recall the sor- 
rows and the tragedies of the panic of 1893, when the whole nation was 
shaken to its foundations by a financial depression and reign of disorder 
and dissension theretofore unequaled in our annals. Coincident with 
such crises and springing therefrom, there often are seen the flames of 
social revolution and rebellion which theretofore were smoldering in the 
minds of the discontented. 

As a part of the great industrial organization of the Pullman Com- 
pany, a model town was constructed for the employees, with the idea of 
building up a plant sufficient unto itself, possessing solidarity and co- 
operation as factors in its strength. D'uring the panic of 1893, those 
in charge of the aifairs and management of the Pullman Company, 
because of the general business depression, came to the conclusion that 
they could not continue to carry on their pay rolls large numbers of em- 
ployees who had been engaged in the construction of cars. These em- 
ployees were accordingly laid off, and a general feeling of discontent 
arose among the workers in this industrial town. The employees de- 
manded an increase in wages and claimed that because the rentals for 
their homes had not been lowered that the hai'd times prevailing required 
an increase in their pay. Those in charge of the Pullman Company 
refused the demands and insisted that as employers they would not 
arbitrate the points in dispute. In no way related to this dis]Kite, and in 
no way affiliated with the wage earners at Pullman there was forming in 
the Nation an organization known as the American Eailway Union, in 
which the moving spirit was Eugene V. Debs. 

Among the strikers at Pullman was a woman of intense magnetism 
and powers of eloquence, with the gift to inspire her following like that 



100 

possessed by the Immortal Maid of Orleans. She requested an oppor- 
tunity to address the members of the railway union to secure their aid, 
by way of a sjonpathetic strike, so as to render successful the strike of 
her fellow-workers at Pullman. This opportunity was afforded and 
the effect of her eloquence was electrical. The result was a demand by 
the railway union upon the general managers of the railways that they 
refuse to attach Pullman cars to their regular trains. This demand was 
promptly refused, and thereupon concerted action was taken under the 
leadership and management of Debs to incite the members of the rail- 
way union throughout the United States to refuse to permit the carriage 
and transportation of Pullman cars. This was the beginning of a nation- 
wide industrial disorder and violence, and almost immediately open 
conflicts occurred in almost every city in the Union. What had com- 
menced as a simple industrial dispute involving a single employer and 
its employees, soon flamed into widespread social rebellion. It developed 
later that telegrams were sent by Debs and his followers at an expense 
of over $500 a day, and this was continued even after an injunction was 
imposed. The total amount thus expended was admitted to be between 
$4,000 and $6,000 for the telegrams sent between June 26 and July 
27, 1894. 

The acts of violence and destruction of property in and around 
Chicago are typical of what occurred in other parts of the United States. 
There was deliberate wrecking of a train on the Rock Island Eailroad at 
Blue Island, Illinois. In the Chicago Tnhune of July 1, 1894, in speak- 
ing of this incident, it is said : 

"They broke the trains, drove passengers from the Pullmans, ran- 
sacked the buffet cars, destroying the provisions therein contained.^' 

"The Diamond SpeciaV a fine passenger train on the Illinois 
Central Eailroad, was wrecked just south of Grand Crossing, the "strikers 
having removed spikes from rails, so that they spread and threw the 
engine from the track." About this time in a statement given to the 
press Debs threatened to call out the employees of the Western Union 
and Postal Telegraph Company, as well as all members of the typo- 
graphical unions, so that the newspapers could not be printed. Whole 
trains full of passengers were held up for hours, and it is recalled that 
striking rioters shot at a moving train near Cincinnati, Ohio, with the 
object of killing a railway official who was on board. Freight cars were 
overturned on their tracks and general destruction of property became 
prevalent. Dangerous fires were caused in the stockyards, and at one 
time it was said that entire Packingtown would be burned up. 

So long as the conflict remained private in character, both sides 
had large numbers of followers and sympathizers among the general 
public. It is interesting to note that at this time those who favored the 
side of Debs wore white ribbons in their button-holes, and an appeal was 
made similar to that existing during the French Eevolution. Later on 
as the conflagration became more serious and it was seen that the 
strikers, frenzied by resistance, were getting to a point where the safety 
of the Nation was involved, those who favored a speedy termination of 
the trouble with the welfare of the great mass of our citizenship at 



101 

heart, wore the red, white and blue, in their button-holes. At this point 
it is well to add that Debs said to Judge Grosscup, who, together with 
Judge Woods, imposed an injunction against him and his followers, that 
but for the prompt action of the Federal Court, the United States would 
have been plunged into a state of disorder and insurrection that would 
have made the French Eevolution seem tame by comparison. This illus- 
trates the fact that violence and incendiarism is fanned into wide-spread 
conflagration like the wand blowing over a dry prairie. The time to act 
is when the fire is first lit, and when the means are at hand to prevent 
its spreading. 

When it became apparent that the activities of Debs and the Ameri- 
can Eailway Union were seriously embarrassing the carrying of the 
United States mails, and the orderly movement and transportation of 
interstate commerce, it was decided to have the United States Govern- 
ment intervene to protect its interests and the rights of the public. On 
July 2, 1894, a bill for an injunction was filed on behalf of the United 
States by Eichard Olney, at that time Attorney General, in the Federal 
Court at Chicago, praying for an injunction against acts which interfered 
with the carrying of the United States mails and the orderly movement 
of interstate commerce. Upon a hearing had before Judges Wood and 
Grosscup, the injunction order was issued and was given to the marshal 
to execute. At this time, as recited in the Chicago Tribune of July 2, 
1894— 

"A small army of deputies has been sworn in by the United States 
Marshal to enforce the legal action that will be taken by the Govern- 
ment. Large supplies of revolvers were purchased yesterday, and 150 
riot guns will be delivered at the Marshal's office this morning. Deputies 
in large force are to be sent to the scene of every disturbance, actual or 
threatened. If they are found unable to cope with any situation that 
arises, the Marshal instantly will call upon the Government for military 
reinforcements. The troops at Ft. Sheridan are in readiness to move 
at a minute's notice. A special train of ten cars stands on the track at 
the fort ready to bring them into Chicago in half an hour." 

When Deputy Allen attempted to read the injunction order to the 
strikers and cried out, "Let all give attention; we are going to read an 
order of the United States Court," everybody in the hearing of his voice 
hooted. Allen read the order distinctly and refused to be howled down. 
Upon the completion of his reading, shouts of "0, rats," and blasphemies 
were heard, such as "To hell with the United States Court," "Who is 
the United States Court?" the mob shouted. It was soon evident that 
the force of deputy marshals, several hundred in number, would not be 
sufficient to handle the situation. It is said in the press of that time : 

"The situation early yesterday morning was critical. Marshal 
Arnold, United States Attorney Milchrist, Judge Grosscup and Special 
United States Commissioner Edwin Walker, met at the Government 
Building, and after a short consultation decided nothing but the presence 
of the fighting arm of Uncle Sam's Government would compel com- 
plinnco with the court's order,*' 



102 

Thereupon Judge Grosscup communicated this fact to President 
Cleveland with the request that troops be immediately sent to quell the 
disturbance and to enforce the order of the court. ■ 

By a strange coincidence, with the dawn of the Fourth of July, 
1894, the Fifteenth United States Infantry, two companies of the 
Seventh Cavalry, and a battery of the First Artillery, arrived in Chicago 
from Fort Sheridan, to teach Mr. Debs and those of his followers who 
trampled on the dignity of the United States Court, and scoffed at its 
order, assaulted its officers, and otherwise treated it with contempt, that 
the law of the land was made to be obeyed, and not violated under any 
conditions. 

The situation was growing gradually worse, and was becoming more 
difficult to handle. To support the injunction proceeding which the 
Government had instituted, and in any event to put an end to further 
rioting. Judge Grosscup called a special grand jury and laid before them 
the question of indicting Debs and his followers as guilty of a conspiracy 
to violate a law of the United States by interfering with the carrying of 
its mails and the transportation and movement of interstate commerce, 
under the Federal conspiracy statute. About this time Debs issued a 
statement in which he said: 

"The employees from the beginning have been willing to arbitrate 
their differences with the company. That is their position to-day. The 
company arrogantly declares that there is nothing to arbitrate. If this 
be true why not allow a board of fair and impartial arbitrators to de- 
termine the fact? * * * Let them agree as far as they can, and 
where they fail to agree let the points in dispute be submitted to arbi- 
tration." 

On July 8, 1894, a proclamation was issued by President Cleveland 
calling attention to the seriousness of the situation, the need of protect- 
ing the Government against attack and interference, and notifying the 
people that the Federal troops had been called out with a definite object 
in mind, and that acts of violence must stop at once. As the pressure of 
the Government was extended Debs sought to incite greater numbers to 
join his allegiance. In some cases this was successful, but it is signifi- 
cant that many organizations and groups of laborers throughout the 
country refused to follow him, and went on record in opposition to his 
requests. It was charged that the strain of events, and the very enormity 
of the social upheaval had affected Deb's sanity. The fact is that as the 
strong arm of the Federal Government became felt an immediate sober- 
ing effect was had upon Debs and his followers, and they were counselled 
to refrain from violence and open disorder. 

After the passage of time when we have become accustomed to the 
exercise of authority, we sometimes are forgetful of the fact that every 
precedent was forged from raw material. The Government of the 
United States had never before been put to such a test of asserting its 
rights and insuring respect for them. ISTot since the Civil War had the 
executive been called upon to ^uphold the supremacy of the Xational 
Government and the supreme law of the land. The i'eal party involved 
in the celebrated case to which I refer was the Nation itself, and the 



103 

test of its strength was at liand. An interesting instance in this con- 
nection, and of considerahle historical value, is that upon receipt of the 
telegram from Judge Grosscup, President Cleveland sent for his Secre- 
tary of State, Mr. Gresham, and his Attorne^v General, IMr. Olnev, and 
the request for Federal troops was discussed. It is characteristic of 
President Cleveland that he said : "Send the troops at once ; we can dis- 
cuss the legal questions later on." It is also of great importance that 
in this critical event politics played no part. The judge ol' the Federal 
Court was a staunch Eepublican, and the President a staunch Democrat, 
but both were patriots first. Governor Altgeld of Illinois did not approve 
of the action of the President in sending Federal troops to maintain 
law and order, and severely criticized the action of President Cleveland 
in this regard. In response to Governor Altgeld's objections, President 
Cleveland insisted upon the right of the Federal Government to protect 
its rights and property at all times, and that it was sufficient unto itself 
to obtain obedience and respect for its orders and decrees. The com- 
munications passed between Governor Altgeld and the President clearly 
display the determination of the President to do soniotliing promptly 
and effectively and to leave discussion to follow after the law had been 
vindicated. This in itself furnishes a beautiful example of the true 
executive mind which is blessed with a facility to act, not to vacillate and 
hesitate. 

When the special grand jury assembled, after referring to the fact 
that the jurors were about to discharge a great public duty, Judge 
Grosscup in his charge to them, laying the corner stone of what has 
since become the magnificent citadel of our national solidarity and 
splendid strength, used the following words : 

"You have been summoned here to inquire whether any of the laws 
of the United States within this judicial district have been violated. 
You have come in an atmosphere and amid occurrences that may well 
cause reasonable men to question whether the go^■er]lnlcnt and laws of 
the United States are yet supreme. Thanks to resolute manhood and 
to that enlightened intelligence which perceives the necessity of vindica- 
tion of law before any other adjustments are possible, the government 
of the United States is supreme. You doubtless feel as I do, that the 
opportunities of life, in the present conditions, are not perhaps entirely 
equal, and that changes are needed to forestall some of the tendencies 
of current industrial life; but neither the torch of the incendiary, nor 
the weapon of the insurrectionist, nor the inflamed tongue of him who 
incites to fire and the sword, is the instrument to bring about reforms. 
To the mind of the American people, to the calm, dispassionate, sym- 
pathetic judgment of a race that is not afraid to face deep charges and 
responsibilities, there has as yet been no adequate appeal. Men who 
appear as the advocates of great changes, must first submit them to dis- 
cussion, discussion that reaches not simply the parties interested, but 
the wider circle of society, and must be patient as well as persevering 
until the public intelligence has been reached and the public judgment 
made up. An appeal to force before that hour is crime, not only against 
the government of existing laws, but against the cause itself; for what 



104 

mau of any iutelligence supposes that any . settlement will abide which 
is induced under the light of the torch or the shadow of an overpower- 
ing authority? 

With the questions behind present occurrences, therefore, we have, 
as ministers of the law and citizens of the Eepublic, nothing now to do. 
The law as it is must first be vindicated before we turn aside to inquire 
hoAv the law or practice as it ought to be can be effectually brought 
abotit. Goverimient of law is in peril and that issue is paramount." 

After defining insurrection against the United States and the un- 
lawfulness of interfering with the carrying of the United States mails 
and the orderly transportation of interstate commerce, Judge Grosscup 
said: 

"When men gather to resist the civil or political power of the 
United States, or to oppose the execution of its laws and are in such 
force that the civil authorities are inadequate to put them down, and a 
considerable military force is needed to accomplish that result, they be- 
come insurgents, and ever}- person who knowingly incites, aids or abets 
them, no matter what his motive may be, is likewise an insurgent. This 
penalty is severe, and as I have said, is designed to protect the Govern- 
ment and its authority against direct attack." 

Judge Grosscup in the course of his charge has this to say with re- 
ference to the industrial relations of employer and employees: 

"I recognize, however, the right of Labor to organize. Each man 
in America is a freeman, and so long as he does not interfere with the 
rights of othets has the right to do with that which is his what he 
pleases. In the highest sense a man's arm is his own, and aside from 
contract relations no one but himself can direct when it shall be raised 
to work or dropped to rest. The individual option to work or to quit 
is the imperishable right of a freeman, but the raising or dropping of 
the arm is the result of a will that resides in the brain and, much as 
we desire that such will remain entirely independent, there is no man- 
date of law which prevents their association with others or their re- 
sponsibility to a higher will. The individual niay feel himself alone 
unequal to cope with the conditions that confront him, or unable to 
confront the mj^iad of considerations which ought to control his con- 
duct. He is entitled to the highest wage that the strategy' of work or 
cessation of work may bring, and the limitations upon intelligence and 
opportunities may be such that he does not choose to stand upon his 
own perception of the strategic or other conditions. His right to chose 
a leader, one who serves, thinks and wills for him, a brain skilled to 
observe his necessity, is no greater pretension than that which is re- 
cognized in every other department of industry. So far and within 
reasonable limits associations of this character are not only not unlawful, 
but are in my judgment beneficial when they do not restrain individual 
liberty-, and are under enlightened and conscientious leadership. But 
they are subject to the same laws as other associations. * * * Xo 
mail in his individual right can lawfully demand and insist upon con- 
duct by others which wilflead to injury to a third person's lawful rights. 
The railroads carrying the mails and interstate co m merce have a right 
to the services of each of their employees and until each lawfully chooses 



105 

to quit, and any concerted action upon the part of others to demand or 
insist under effective penalty or threat upon their quitting, to the in- 
jury of the mail service or the prompt transportation of interstate com- 
merce, is a conspiracy unless such demand or insistence is in pursu- 
ance of a lawful authority conferred upon them by the men themselves, 
and is made in good faith in execution of such authority. . 

A demand and insistence under effective penalty or threat, injury 
to the transportation of the mails or interstate commerce being proven, 
the burden falls upon those making the demand or insistence to show 
lawful authority and good faith. 

Let me illustrate: twelve carpenters are building a house. Aside 
from contract relations each can quit at leisure. A thirteenth and a 
fourteenth man, strangers to them, by concerted threats of holding them 
up to public odium or private malice, induced them to quit and leave 
the house unfinished. The latter in no sense represented the former 
or their wishes, but are simply interlopers for mischief and are guilty 
of conspiracy against the employer of the carpenters; but if upon trial 
for such results the thirteenth and fourteenth man prove that instead 
of being strangers they are trustees, agents, or leaders of the twelve, 
with full power to determine for them whether their wage is such that 
they ought to continue or to quit, and that they have in good faith 
determined that question, they are not then, so far as the law goes, con- 
spirators ; but if it should further appear that the supposed threat was 
not used in the interest of the twelve men to further a personal ambi- 
tion or malice of the two it would not entirely justify their conduct. 
Doing a thing under cloak of authority is not doing it with threat. 
The injury of the two to the employer in such an instance would only 
be aggravated by their treachery to the associated twelve, and both em- 
ployer and employee should with equal insistence ask for the visitation 
of the law. 

If it appears to you, therefore, applying the illustration to the 
occurrences that will be brought to your attention, that any two or more 
persons by concerted insistence or demand under effective penalties and 
threats upon men quitting the employment of the railroads to the ob- 
struction of mails or interstate commerce, you may inquire whether they 
did these acts as strangers to these men advised to quit, or whether they 
did them under the guise of trustees or leaders of an association to 
which these men belong; and if the latter appears you may inquire 
whether their acts and conduct in that respect were in good faith and 
in conscientious execution of their supposed authority, or were simply 
the use of that authority as a guise to advance personal ambition or 
satisfy pride or malice. There is honest leadership among these, our 
laboring fellow-citizens, and there is doubtless dishonest leadership. 
You should not brand any act of leadership as dishonest or in bad faith 
until it clearly so appears; but if it does so appear, if any person is 
shown to have betrayed that trust and his acts fall within the defini- 
tion of crime, as I have given it to you, it is alike the interest and pleas- 
ure and a duty of every citizen to bring him to swift and heavy punish- 
ment. 



106 

"I wish again in conclusion to impress upon you the fact that the 
present emergency is to vindicate law. If no one has violated the law 
under the rules I have laid down it needs no vindication ; but if there has 
been such violation there should be quick, prompt, and adequate indict- 
ment — I confess that the problems which were made the occasion or 
pretext for our present disturbances have not received perhaps the con- 
sideration they deserve. It is our duty as citizens to take that up and 
by candid and courageous discussion to ascertain what wrongs exist and 
what remedies can be applied. But neither the existence of such prob- 
lems nor the neglect of the public hitherto to adequately consider them 
justifies the violation of law or the bringing on of general lawlessness. 
Let us first restore business and punish the offenders of law, and then the 
atmosphere will be clear to think over the claims of those who have real 
grievances. First vindicate the law. Until that is done no other ques- 
tion is in order." 

The grand jury returned an indictment against Debs and others 
because of his activities in impeding the carrying of the United States 
mails. 

The injunction suit against Debs and the railway union became the 
case of In re Debs, decided by the Supreme Court of the United States, 
when an attempt by the writ of habeas corpus was used to free Debs 
from the restraint imposed by the Illinois Federal Court. This cele- 
brated decision, written by Justice Brewer, has settled for all time the 
question of the sufficiency of our National Government to deal with 
attacks made against it and to compel an observance of its orders and 
respect for its authority. Therein it is said in part : 

"But there is no such impotency in the National Government. The 
entire strength of the Nation may be used to enforce in any part of the 
land the full and free exercise of all national powers and the security of 
all rights entrusted by the Constitution to its care. The strong arm of 
the National Government may be put forth to brush away all obstructions 
to the freedom of interstate commerce or the transportation of the mails. 
If the emergency arises, the army of the Nation, and all its militia, are 
at the service of the Nation to compel obedience to its laws. 

"But passing to the second question, is there no other alternative 
than the use of force on the part of the executive authorities whenever 
obstructions arise to the freedom of interstate commerce or the trans- 
portation of the mails? Is the army the only instrument by which 
rights of the public can be enforced and the peace of the Nation pre- 
served? Grant that any public nuisance may be forcibly abated either 
at the instance of the authorities, or by any individual suffering private 
damage therefrom, the existence of this right of forcible abatement is not 
inconsistent with nor does it destroy the right of ajDpeal in an orderly 
way to the courts for a judicial determination, and an -exercise of their 
powers by a writ of injunction and otherwise to accomplish the same 
result. * * * 

"Every government, entrusted by the very terms of its being with 
powers and duties to be exercised and discharged for the general welfare, 
has a right to apply to its own courts for any proper assistance in the 



107 

exercise of the one and the discharge of the other, and it is no sufficient 
answer to its appeal to one of those courts that it has no pecuniary in- 
terest in the matter. The obligations which it is under to promote the 
interest of all and to prevent the wrong doing of one resulting in injury 
to the general welfare is often of itself sufficient to give it a standing in 
court. * * * 

"It is obvious from these decisions that while it is not the province 
of the Government to interfere in the mere matter of private controversy 
between individuals, or to use its great powers to enforce the rights of 
one against another, yet whenever the wrongs complained of are such as 
affect the public at large, and are in respect of matters which by the 
Constitution are entrusted to the care of the Nation, and concerning 
which the Nation owes the duty to all the citizens of securing to them 
their common rights, then the mere fact that the Government has no 
pecuniary interest in the controversy is not sufficient to exclude it from 
the courts, or prevent it from taking measures therein to fully discharge 
those constitutional duties. 

"The National Government, given by the Constitution power to 
regulate interstate commerce, has by express statute assumed jurisdiction 
over such commerce when carried upon railroads. It is charged, there- 
fore, with the duty of keeping those highways of interstate commerce free 
from obstruction, for it has always been recognized as one of the powers 
and duties of a government to remove obstructions from the highways 
under its control." 

It is interesting to know tliat the decision of the Supreme Court of 
the United States in the recent so-called Adamson Bill case (Wilson v. 
New, et al.) is founded upon In re Debs, from which I have just quoted; 
and the opinion of the Chief Justice once more exalts the supremacy of 
national power and assures us of a Federal Government adequate to 
compel obedience to lawful authority and the orderly transportation and 
interchange of commerce between the states. 

The great war, in which the United States has joined, is for the 
triumph of democracy and the complete defeat of autocracy and empire. 
When this war comes to an end, a peace with victory, even the casual 
observer can see that there will be no chance to question the quality, the 
genuineness of the freedom that will be granted. All over the world, the 
people will demand and will obtain a true measure of the free exercise 
of human rights. There will be no patience shown to those who argue 
for anything less than the fullest and most complete distribution of 
democratic privileges and immunities. As a part of this adjustment to 
the new order, will come the need for the settlement of industrial dis- 
putes by an orderly method, some form of cooperative courts of arbitral 
justice," or there will be the most violent and sanguinary disorders that 
have ever occurred. We must prepare to meet this need — it is the most 
important problem that faces this Nation, in the time of war or in time 
of peace. 

Organized efforts, powerful and far-reaching are always at work to 
undermine the judicial power of our courts. The power to issue injunc- 
tions in labor disputes is challenged and denied. Under pressure of 



108 

force and a weak subserviency to political advantage, we are apt to yield 
and approve modifications of our judicial system and the power of our 
courts. With all the strength at my command, with all my devotion to 
this great republican government, I ask that we stand steady in the faith, 
true and courageous in our unalterable determination to see that the 
courts of this land be kept forever strong and sufficient, honest, fearless 
and above suspicion. The dispensation of justice is the highest quality 
in the human breast and the courage to uphold the law against any 
attack is the most sublime of any in the world. If the power of our 
courts in injunction cases is ever weakened, the end of the republic is in 
sight. No military force could keep it together. We would be dismem- 
bered in internecine struggle and rebellion. Let us stand forever loyal to 
our institutions of free government, unafraid to uphold our liberty 
according to law, to quell riot and disturbance, to live as neighbors and 
friends under the reign of law and order, to exalt justice and the worship 
of Christian ideals for the preservation of our freedom regulated by law. 

To all of us who love liberty and the pursuit of happiness, I wish 
to emphasize the need of insisting, at any cost, that the power of our 
courts ta issue injunctions be never weakened. It is the strong arm of a 
court of equity, ready to restrain the employer when he acts against the 
welfare of his employees, and to restrain the employees in acts unjust 
and injurious to the welfare of the employer. Above all, it is the final 
means of keeping us safe from violence and to protect the great mass 
of our citizenship that is not directly involved in the dispute. It is the 
power to protect life and property from unjust attack, no matter from 
whence it comes. It is the means of bringing the decrees of justice to 
the point of common obedience — the means whereby the Government 
may compel its right to endure and go forward with respect. Those who 
challenge the power of our courts challenge the very life of the Govern- 
ment, for the court is but the hand that protects the life of the com- 
monwealth. 

Illinois, proud State of the prairies and great rivers, has given to 
the Nation much that has made us glad to rejoice in the blessings of our 
freedom. When we think of the majesty of Lincoln, the iron courage of 
Grant, it is fitting to recall that the first real test of liberty according to 
law was worked out in this splendid State, and the timely courage of 
the firm, stubborn and unflinching Cleveland, responding to the call of 
our own Federal Court, enabled us to show to the world that a democracy 
based upon self-denial and mutual forbearance is yet strong enough to 
stand for its life and to compel respect for its authority. 



109 



REVERIE OF FIFTY YEARS. 



(By Clark E. Carr. Read by George A. Rogers.) 

The following beautiful lines were written by Col. Clark E. Carr as 
the final words or conclusion of his splendid address entitled, "Lincoln 
at Gettysburg." 

The address was presented at the annual meeting of the Illinois 
State Historical Society January 25, 1906. It attracted great attention 
and as the edition published by the Society was speedily exhausted, in 
1915 a new edition with additional material was published by A. C. 
McClurg & Co., of Chicago. Colonel Carr was at Gettysburg on the 
occasion of the dedication of the cemetery as the representative of Illi- 
nois. He heard the address and it has lived in his memory. He has 
pondered over it and the flight of time has but added to his love and 
veneration for the name and memory of Lincoln. Looking back over 
the half century which has elapsed since he heard the simple, noble, 
eloquent words. Colonel Carr has put into this "Eeverie," this luminous 
afterglow reflected by the memories of a full and useful life these beauti- 
ful words and they are published as a part of his book entitled, "Lincoln 
at Gettysburg." Mr. Eogers read the Eeverie with much feeling and 
with excellent effect. 

Colonel Carr was present and expressed pleasure with its presenta- 
tion at the annual meeting of the Society : 

"On a bright November afternoon of long ago, when the autumn 
leaves were tinged with a thousand hues of beauty, upon an eminence in 
the midst of a great plain bounded by lofty mountains, I saw a vast 
concourse of men and women. I saw among them illustrious warriors, 
gifted poets, and profound statesmen. I saw ambassadors of mighty 
empires, governors of great commonwealths, ministers of cabinets, men 
of high position and power. I saw above their heads, upon every hand, 
a starry banner, drooping under the weight of sombre drapery. I saw 
men and women standing among new-made graves, overwhelmed with 
grief which they vainly endeavored to conceal. I knew that I was in 
the midst of a people bowing under great affliction, of a land stricken 
with sorrow. I knew that the tide of destruction and death had not 
ceased to ebb and flow, but that at that moment the fate of my country 
was trembling in the balance, her only hope in the fortitude and valor 
of her sons, who were baring their breasts to storms of shot and shell 
only a few miles away. 

I saw standing in the midst of that mighty assembly a man of 
majestic yet benignant mien, of features worn and haggard, but beaming 



110 

with purit}'', with patriotism, and with hope. Every eye was directed 
towards him, and, as men looked into his calm, sad. earnest face, they 
recognized the great President, the foremost man of the world, not only 
in position and power but in all the noblest attributes of humanity. 
When he essayed to speak, such solemn silence reigned as when, within 
consecrated walls, men and women feel themselves in the presence of 
Deity. Each sentence, slowly and earnestly pronounced, as its full 
import was apprehended, sank into every patriotic heart, gave a strange 
lustre to every face, and nerved every arm. In those utterances, the 
abstract, the condensation, the summing up of American patriotism, 
were contained the hopes, the aspirations, the stern resolves, the con- 
secration upon the altar of humanity, of a great people. 

From the hour of that solemn dedication the final triumph of the 
loyal hosts was assured. As the Christian day by day voices the sacred 
prayer given him by his Savior, so the American patriot will continue 
to cherish those sublime sentiments and inspired words. While the 
Republic lives he will continue to repeat them, and while, realizing all 
their solemn significance, he continues to repeat them, the Republic 
will live." 

Clark E. Carr. 



—,r«v' •:, 



•*' ■■■■■■ iiMlil HIiJM iTiiriWi^iii 



■^BHRff 




THOMAS BEARD. 

From an oil painting presented to Beardstown by his daughter, Mrs. Stella Beard Poe. 



11] 



THOMAS BEARD, THE PIONEER AND FOUNDER OF 
BEARDSTOWN, ILLINOIS. 



(By Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D.) 

It is an honor and a privilege to participate in the holding of this 
Eighteenth iVunual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
because itself has such an emphatic, historical setting. It meets but 
a month after our great nation has become actively involved in the great 
world war, which has already distressed, if not laid waste most of the 
nations of Europe. Within the bounds of this city are now established 
two camps and training schools, one for the training of our soldiery and 
the other for the schooling of an army of Eed Cross nurses, for the equip- 
ment of a mighty, force in the participation of the great struggle for 
world-freedom and democracy. It is but four days since, as a conse- 
quence of this world's struggle, there visited this city the distinguished 
representatives of France, and here, in the Hall of our State Legisla- 
ture and at the tomb of the great Lincoln, with the city gaily decorated 
with the flags of two nations, paid a fitting tribute to this State and 
Xation, and made touching appeal to the great commonwealth to come 
to the help of the gigantic struggle, now going on on French soil and 
elsewhere, against militaristic autocracy. Again, it is but a week since 
in this city for the first time in its history, (and let us hope forever,) 
the notorious John Barleycorn, as a persona non grata to the majority 
of its citizens, was compelled to bow his exit from within its bounds. 
Once more, it meets just as the first century of the State's life, as the 
21st member in the federal union, is running to its close and while pre- 
parations are going on for the proper celebration next year, of the first 
centennial of Illinois as a separate State. 

While these preparations are going on for the fitting observance 
of Illinois' Centennial, it has been thought proper to direct attention to 
the history of local communities, as a sort of prelude to next year's more 
elaborate historical pageant, for it will be found that the State's history 
can only be spelled out by the sum of the life and development of the 
separate local communities. Like every thing else, the whole is but the 
sum of all its parts. Hence the writer will attempt in this paper to tell 
in brief the story of Beardstown and Thomas Beard, its pioneer founder. 

This city of Beardstown will itself celebrate the centennial of its 
founder's first setting foot upon its sandy soil only one year after our 
State shall have celebrated its enrollment among the great union of 
states, over which proudly floats our national emblem with its now 
forty-eight stars. 



112 

But first let me give a paragraph to show the true historical setting, 
at that time, when our State and this municipality came into being, as 
to our nation's and the world's life. As intimated above, our State was 
just one year old when Thomas Beard first came to the Moimds Vil- 
lage of the Muscooten Indians, which then occupied the site of the 
present proud municipal queen of Cass County. The white settlers in 
the limits of the county then could have been numbered with the fin- 
gers of one hand. As the great territory's settlement had scarcely be- 
gun, out of which was carved this twenty-first State of the union, none 
of the internal improvements, which now give Illinois such a conspicuous 
place in the sisterhood of states had yet come. There was then no foot 
of railroad built, or canal dug, in the entire state, which now boasts of 
being the greatest railroad State in the union. There were then scarcely 
any highways in all the state. "Tis true, there was a narrow rim of set- 
tlements along the southwestern border of the State, with Kaskaskia, 
the State's first capital, as its center. And there was a system of bridle 
paths and mud roads — ^made famous in the writings of Charles Dickens, 
who visited this territory just previous to its birth as a State — which 
connected these first settlements. In-coming settlers, as far as these 
came overland, made new paths through the rich glebe, for their prairie 
schooners while in the southern section road-making and road-build- 
ing was being discussed and effected between the French settlements of 
Old Vincennes, on the Wabash and St. Louis, on the Mississippi. But 
the central and northern sections of the State still lay in their unbroken, 
virgin, prairie condition. There was a map of the State giving its 
general outlines, but Chicago, Eockford, Dixon, Eock Island, Ottawa, 
Streator, Joliet, Bloomington, Peoria, Galesburg, Carthage, Quincy, 
]iIacomb, Havana, Springfield, Decatur, Champaign, Danville, Paris, 
Charleston, Pana, Hillsboro, Tandalia, Alton and Beardstown. together 
with the scores of flourishing towns Ivinsr between, were then not on the 
map. For a decade or more after this, the first settler had not yet come, 
either to the State's gigantic metropolis, Chicago, or its present pro- 
gressive capital city, in which we are now assembled. Beardsto'UTi came 
into being before any of the above named centers of municipal life and 
activity. She was among the first of the State's town-children to be 
born, and was a flourishing trading post, known far and wide, as a meat- 
packing center and emporium, while Chicago still lay in its infantile 
swaddling clothes, and while Omaha and Kansas City and Denver and 
Portland and Seattle were still undreamed of nonentities. Even Xew 
York, Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore were then comparatively 
small cities, while the whole nation had less than nine millions of popu- 
lation. We had just fought our second war with Great Britain, and 
Europe had newly come to rest from that nineteenth century dreamer 
of world-empire. Xapoleon Bonaparte. The first steamship had not 
yet crossed the Atlantic, nor had ever yet the streets of any Ameri- 
can city been lit by gas nor a telegraphic message been sent in all 
the world. As for telephones, cables, or wireless messages, bicycles or 
automobiles, aeroplanes or submarines, they were not dreamed of for 
another half century. Xegro slavery still flourished in the southern 
half of our country and continued for forty j-ears longer. The great 




BEARD SCHOOL BUILDING. 
Beardstown Illinois. 



113 

emancipator, who gave to this State her greatest fame as one of her 
adopted sons, was just ten years okl, and had not yet set foot upon her 
prairie soil. The Indians still occupied two-thirds of our immense 
domain. Lo ! what a century of exploration, invention, settlement, 
conquest, development and making of political history lies immediately 
behind us ! Illinois' one hundred years of life has seen the working of 
the mightiest wonders of progress in every -line of modern day advance- 
ment that this world has ever known. Physically it has been the wonder 
working century of all time. 

It was at the beginning of this marvelous century, just past, that 
Thomas Beard, a youth of twenty-three or twenty-four years of age, of 
eastern birth, first stepped upon the State's still uncultivated soil. But 
the then awakening empire of the middle west stirred his blood and 
lured him forth with the restless and insatiable wantlerlust of the ex- 
plorer. We shall see to what it led him. 

Thomas Beard was a man oi' good, sturdy. New England stock, 
Tn his forbears and his oAvn personal experience he contains aiul covers 
the best advancing trend of our nation's progressive history. Through 
his ancestors he is connected with the best blend of blood and progress 
that marked the centuries of settlement, historic development and politi- 
cal independence that had its beginnings in New England and the At- 
lantic seaboard. 

In the Eevolutionary war roster of sailors from Massachusetts ap- 
pears the name of Amos Beard, who served for seven years in that severe 
struggle for freedom "that tried men's souls." He was the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. Before he enlisted in the sanguinary 
struggle for liberty and independence, he had married Hannah Need- 
liam, descendant of another worthy New Engiander, and of this union 
was born in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, on September 24, 1764, 
their first son, Jededitlh. Six other brothers and sisters came to glad- 
den and fill up this new home before the fires of revolution were kin- 
dled, when the patriotism of the father, that burned like a hidden flame, 
broke forth to make him, with others, go forth with trusty flintlock and 
a stout heart to 

Strike till the last armed foe expires 
Strike for their altars and their fires; 
Strike for the green graves of their sires, 
God and their native land. 
This Jedidiah, from twelve to nineteen years of age, assisted the 
mother in the care of the home, while the father was fighting for his 
country's deliverance from the oppression of (ireat Britain. He became 
later the father of Thomas Beard, the western pioneer. "Near the close 
of the long military struggle the anxious and care-worn mother died and 
the patriot husband and father returned to his desolate home and to his 
motherless children. To better his condition ho removed his family to 
Granville, Washington County, New York, where certain of the relatives 
were then living." 

On September ], 17!);), at Granville. Jedediah lieard married Gliar- 

lotte Nichols, daughter of John Nichols, who was born in Vermont. Of 

-8 H S _^ 



114 

this union was born at Granville, on December 4, 1T94, their first child, 
Thomas Beard, the subject of this sketch. An uncle, Amaziah Beard 
had in 1798 removed from Granville to the "Western Eeserve" of Ohio. 
He sent back repeated and glowing reports of the prosperity and ad- 
vantages of this new country, so that Jedediah got the restless lure of 
the westward wanderlust, and as soon as he could overcome his wife's 
reluctance, which was in 1800, they, with certain other neighbors, took 
up the trail and trekked to the wilds of Ohio and settled near the south- 
ern shores of Lake Erie. Thomas was but six years old at the time of 
this flitting, but if an impressionable child at all, he was old and obser- 
vant enough to sow the seeds of adventure, which developed in his o^tl 
brain about fifteen years thereafter, when of his own accord he plunged 
into a newer and larger and more distant country to explore and settle 
and develop and write his own name upon the yet unwritten tablets of 
history, in the then new-born State of Illinois. 

The hardships endured in his family's removal from Xew York to 
Ohio have been related, but they were a valuable asset for the boy, who 
should brave greater hardships and plan greater exploits as a young 
man. Finally, however, the difficulties of that primitive journey on 
horseback in mere bridle paths came to an end after four months, when 
the boy's uncle, Amaziah, came out to meet them with an ox team from 
his settlement at the present site of Barton, on the west bank of the 
Cuyahoga river, where they also took up their residence on May 4, 1800. 
From a biographical sketch by J. N". Gridley, we learn that Jedediah 
Beard purchased a lot in the new town, having previously bought a mill 
property on the west bank of the river. In a double log cabin, erected 
on this lot, the Beards took up their residence and reared their family 
among forests, and amid wild animals and Indians. What a school for 
the coming adventurer and pioneer ! Some prosperity came to the house- 
hold and the children were educated to the best of their ability in their 
own home and later in a private school taught by a teacher named Eob- 
inson, in Conneaut, Ohio. The following letter written by Thomas Beard 
to his father, came to my hands through his niece, Mrs. Mar}' G. Fisher, 
a nonegenarian of Petersburg, Illinois, showing the young Beard away 
at school at Salem., Ohio, in 1814: 

"Salem, January 2, ISlJf, 
"Deae Father : We have this morning received news from Buffalo 
of its being burnt. The express arrived here last night at midnight, and 
says the enemy crossed over last Friday morning at Black Eock, and the 
regulars and militia to the amount of 2,000 attacked them, but not being 
able to stand this enemy, they retreated to Buffalo, where they were sur- 
rounded and taken prisoners. He says the enemy had proceeded towards 
Erie about ten miles, and were marching on as fast as possible with 
intention to burn the vessels that lie in the basin at that place. We have 
heard that there was 3,000 of the enemy that crossed over. As to our 
school we have had a very good chance so far. I have got as far as rebate, 
and Thalia is now on compound interest. Our bill is likely to be very 
high, as provision is hard to be got at any price. Wlieat costs 12 shillings 
per 1)ushel. If ,you could buy it at a reasonable price you could sell it 
here at a dollar "and a half a bushel. Mr. Eobinson wants to have you 



115 

bring down two or three cheeses for him when you come. We are very 
well contented with our situation there and at the school. Thalja hopes 
to see you here this month. I hope you will write us soon as you receive 
this. We have scarcely heard from home since we have been here. Curtis 
must write a letter at least a rod long, and let us have some news. I think 
I have wrote my part. 
Jedidiah Beard. (Signed) Thomas Beard." 

Under this instructor Thomas made rapid progress in his studies. 
In later years he attended an academy, where he studied history, matlie- , 
matics, surveying and other branches of learning. 

Like his grandfather, so his father had a strong patriotic nature 
and needed but the proper occasion to kindle it into a burning fiame. 
Accordingly at the outbreak of the war of 1812 Jedediah Beard became 
a soldier. He was chosen Lieutenant Colonel of the 1st Eegiment of 
4th Brigade of 4th Division of Ohio state Militia, and in March 1813, 
took the command of his regiment and reported at Cleveland, Ohio. 
He, like his father in the Revolutionary struggle, left wife and a large 
fanuly (nine children in all) to struggle in their domestic conflict, while 
he battled the enemy at the front. Thomas, a youth of 18 years, 
shouldered the responsibility of his father in this domestic struggle. 
But ic was not for so long a term, for immediately after Perry's victory 
on Lake Erie, in September 1813, the father returned to his family. 

Thom-^ >-oon thereafter leached his majority and with this period 
of his development, was manifested his desire of adventure and explora- 
tion. The opening west lured him. He had dreamed of the pioneer 
experience, of ditoovery and a home amid the newer and wilder scenes of 
the now opening Mississippi Valley. Though his mother was loath to 
see him leave home and made long protest, the ambitions and persever- 
ance of the son finally prevailed. In 1817 he left home. His first let- 
ter from Wooster, Ohio, dated December 13 of that year states his in- 
tention to start for the south on Monday next. The next letter was 
sent from St. Louis, from which city he proceeded to Edwardsville, Illi- 
nois. Here he must have remained some time. It is known he had a 
grave spell of sickness while residing here with a family named Duns- 
more. In 1819 he leaves Edwardsville, in company with Gen. IMurray 
MoConnel (whose later years were spent in Jacksonville, 111.,) to make 
an overland trip on horse-back to the Illinois River, having been pre- 
viously explored to some extent by his travel ma.te. Their destination 
was the Kickapoo ^Mounds just below the mouth of the Sangamon. At 
this place was then located an Indian village, or settlement, of the Mus- 
cooten tribe. They have given the name to the large local bay located 
here from which for many decades since the finest ice is harvested and 
shipped every winter and quantities of the best tish arc caught and ship- 
ped every summer. The prospect pleased Mr. Beard and he decided to 
remain, while Gen. McConnel returned. And his remaining and becom- 
ing the first white settler at this point fixes the date of Beardstown's 
beginning. His hut was the westermost outpost of civilization at this 
point and his first operations the stake-settings and beginning of the 
future Beardstown, though the town site may not have been plotted for 
nearly a decade later. Little did his protesting mother dream on his 



116 

leave-taking from home, that she aud her husband and many others of 
her family should ever be lured after him aud like Joseph of old, he be 
found in' this land of corn to give them a welcome in their old age and 
a happy home and a peaceful sepulture here in this prairie soil I The 
following "Description of a Journey,"' made by a sister and a brother- 
in-law of Beard's and their family is descriptive of Mr. Beard's life then 
and of the journey ings and settlements of Illinois' early pioneers : 

"The iirst relatives that came west was Edward Collins and his 
family, which consisted of his -wife, one daughter 16 years of age, myself 
and a boy 5 years old, and baby 1 year, also a daughter of Mr. Beard. In 
an old letter we find, they left Barton, Ohio, on Xovember 16. 1836, 
drove to "Wellsville, arriving there on the 19th. "We then went aboard 
the steamer Tremont, reached Louisville the 23d. We transferred to 
the Girard a better boat for St. Louis. On the 30th we left St. Louis on 
the Wyoming for Beardstown. the only boat that could run when there 
was ice in the river. My brother-in-law told me afterward there were 
but two boats built for that purpose, and they were not a success. We 
arrived in Beardstown on the 1st day of December, 1836, after a perilous 
trip from St. Louis, which took two days. 

"Incidents I remember of the journey : In those days the cabins 
were small, and not built for passengers. The deck was one large room, 
and each family was allowed a space for themselves and baggage, extra 
pay for the same. We had the center, and the spaces were partitioned off. 
The room for the deck hands was enclosed; there were little benches all 
around the room. AVe had boxes of provisions and clean straw beds. One 
nice family on the side of the boat who had a stove and kindly let us use 
it when we needed it. 

"^liile on the Girard our boat run a race and won. The children 
enjoyed it but mother did not. 

"On the Wyoming wheels were large buckets to help propel the 
boat, and I used to enjoy watching them. The buckets would dip up the 
water and when they came to the top of the wheel would turn over and 
empty the water. One bucket was broken. 

"The ice came thicker and faster, an unusual break-up at that time, 
but we moved slowly along. 

"The deck hands stood on the bow of the boat with long poles with 
sharp spikes in the end and when a large cake of ice came they would 
push it one side of the boat. 

"They had barrels of tar near the fire where they could dip the 
wood in when it was necessary to do so. 

"When the night came they lighted up the boat aud the large cakes 
of ice would strike the boat and every timber would shiver and shake. 
Loud voices were heard and great excitement prevailed. I was close in 
my mothers arms, and she would say another blow like that and we are 
gone, but we survived the night. 

"They stopped frequently for wood. Toward night my brother 
Chas, 5 years old, thought his father went ashore and tried to follow 
him; the plank was icy and he slipped and would have gone into the 
river, a man caught him and blessed providence saved him. 



117 

"Uncle Beard lived on the opposite side oi' the river from tlie town, 
keeping the ferry. He knew we were on the way but no telephone to 
infwm him of our whereabonts, and he was anxiously waiting for us. 
He finally decided to go to St. Louis with teams the next morning and 
meet us, but we arrived that night, before he started. 

"He heard the boom, boom of the boat down the river, and had all 
hands out with the flat boat and went over the icy river and met tlie 
steamer and we were transferred to the flat boat. 

"We reached the Schuyler side as a large cake of ice was coming 
down. 

"We made our way to the large two-story white house all lighted up 
to welcome us, and a lovely supper awaiting us. Hot biscuits and honey 
and other o-ood things with uncle Beard smiling awaiting us on December 
1, 1836." " 

Thomas Beard seems to have had no difliculty in becoming ac- 
quainted and a favorite among the red men. He began the life of a 
trader among them and continued it for a number of years. There were 
checkered experiences for these years. Thomas Beard, the squatter, 
managed to get into his possession some of the land on the river front 
where their mounds were located, to which he afterwards acquired legal 
title when the new State disposed of them (begun in 1833), In 1826 
his first land entry was made and the real beginning of town building 
began. Gradually new settlements came into these parts, which in a 
few years grew more rapidly. A westward trail led through these parts 
■\\iiich grew into a busy emigration highway for the country west of the 
Illinois. The peninsula formed by the Illinois and Mississippi rivers 
was parcelled out l^y the.Xational Government as botmty land to the 
soldiers of our second war with England, and has ever since come to be 
known as "the Military Tract." There was a rush for it, and the States 
beyond the Mississippi, viz., Missouri and Iowa. This made it profita- 
ble to establish a ferry at this point, which favorable opportunity Thomas 
Beard embraced in the year 1826. Soqu hotel quarters were needed on 
either side of the stream and Mr. Beard, having meanwhile laid out 
his land in a town plot, erected his hostelry at the corner of State and 
Main streets, which was known to past generations as "The City Hotel," 
and which was only displaced in 1915 to make room for the new Federal 
building, which now adorns this corner. The opposite side of the river 
also had hotel accommodations in charge of different men, but was in 
the hands of Thomas E. Collins, (a nephew of Beard, and born in Bar- 
ton, Ohio,) on the occurrence of the remarkable and sudden change in 
temperature, known in local history as "the Cold Day of Illinois," 
(which occurred on December 20, 1836,) and which he described, when 
many men out travelling and many heads of cattle were frozen to death 
in different parts of Illinois by an almost instantaneous drop of a mild 
temperature to many degrees below zero. 

The first accounts of Beard's doings here, given by himself and 
preserved, are from letters to his parents. But they are after he had 
jmrchased the land from the State and laid out his town-plot, thus : 

"Sangamon Bay, March 20, 1826. I have settled on the east bank 
of the Illinois River, on public land, 120 miles above St. Louis. My 



118 

reason for choosing this location is on account of its being a valuable 
site for a town and a ferr}-. The country is settling fast." 

A few other historical data may be quoted here as taken from J. 
Henry Shaw's address on Cass County's History, delivered on July 4, 
1876. They are as follows: 

"The principal Indian tribes of the Illinois were the Muscootens 
and their town was upon the present site of Beardstown on the east bank 
of the river, at the foot of Muscooten Bay, and was called by the French 
'the Mound Village.' 

"The Peorians, another of the Illinois tribes, more particularly 
occupied that portion of the country between the rivers (Illinois and 
Mississippi), having their town on the west bank of the Illinois Eiver, 
four miles above the Muscooten village, upon the bluffs back of the pres- 
ent town of Frederick. The present site of Beardstown was at that time 
an island, surrounded on the northeast and south by almost impassable 
swamps, containing dangerous quicksands and quaking bogs and which 
could be crossed only in canoes or by Indians jumping from hillock to 
hillock of the turf grass with which these swamps Avere interspersed, 
and on the west by the Seignelay (French name) or Illinois River. The 
Indian town of the Muscootens Avas a beautiful place. It was built upon 
a series of beautiful mounds, covered with grass, and partially shaded 
by tall trees, Avhich stood like sentinels upon the hills, or ornamental 
trees upon a lawn, so scattered as to obstruct the view of the whole town 
from the river. The island had CAddently been selected not on account 
of its natural beauty, but for its easy defense and safety from enemies. 

"Back of the swamp which protected the rear of the town, was a 
v\dde belt of rich prairie bottom land, and beyond six miles, loomed up 
the Sangamon Bluffs, looking like miniature Andes in the distance, be- 
tween which and the island, in the day time, all approaching foes could 
be discerned." 

Here follows the description of a great battle fought at Mus- 
cooten Bay, between the Iroquois and Miamis on one side and Illini 
(Peorias and Muscootens) on ttie other. The Miamis encamped upon 
the present site of Chandlerville and there buried their dead in bluffs 
nearby, whose skeletons were seen exposed by wind and rain long after 
the toAvn's settlement, while the Muscootens dispersed. Years later this 
island was taken possession of by the Kickapoo Indians, upon which they 
built their village, known as "Kickapoo Town" and remembered by the 
French missionaries as "Beautiful Mound Village." 

"This became a favorite trading post and missionary station and 
continued in the possession of the Kickapoos until its settlement by 
Thomas Beard in 1820, after Avhom the present city of Beardstown was 
named. 

"Forty years ago the great mound in Beardstown began to be en- 
croached upon by the spade and the pick-axe of the avaricious white 
man. The decaying bones of the red warriors as they lay in their quiet 
and lonely resting place, with the implements of war around them ; the 
silver and flint crosses of the missionaries; even the beautiful mound 
itself, which as an ornament to the river and a historic feature of the 
town, should haA'e been held sacred, could not restrain the money- 



119 

making white man from destroying it, and it is now recollected only by 
the old settlers, who used to sit upon its summit and watch the passing 
away of the last two races — the Indian in his canoe, and the French 
voyager in his pirogue. 

^ V ^ *T^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S|S ^ 

"In 1700, Illinois was a part of the territory owned by the French 
government and was called New France. 

"In 1720 all the country west of the Mississippi Eiver belongc.l to 
Spain, with Santa Fe as its capital. 

"In 1763 Illinois was ceded by France to Great Britain after a 
'seven years' war.' Many French inhabitants, rather than live under 
British rule, joined Laclede and settled St. Louis. 

"In 1778 the Illinois country was conquered from Great Britain by 
troops from the state of Virginia under the command of General George 
Eogers Clark, which was an independent military enterprise of that 
state; and on the 4th of July of that year, General Clark and his troops 
took possession of Kaskaskia, the capital of the British possessions west 
of the Alleghenies, and declared the Illinois country free and inde- 
pendent of Great Britain, thus making the 4th of July the natal day of 
this State as well as of our Nation. 

"In that year Illinois was created a county of Virginia, and Thimete 
DeMombreun was appointed by the Governor, Patrick Henry, a justice 
of the peace, to rule over it, which was possibly the most extensive terri- 
torial jurisdiction that a magistrate ever had. 

"In 1794 the Legislature of the Northwest Territory divided it into 
two counties, Eandolph and St. Clair, 

"In 1809 Illinois was a separate territory. 

"In 1812 Madison County was organized from St. Clair and then 
contained all of the present State north of St. Clair and Eandolph. 

"In 1818 Illinois was admitted into the Union as the twenty-first 
State. 

"In 1821 Greene County was formed from Madison County. In 
1823 Morgan County was formed from Greene and in 1837 Cass County 
was formed from Morgan County. 

"Immigration was retarded by frequent earthquakes in Illinois. 
Between 1811-13 they were as severe as any ever on. the continent. New 
Madrid, a flourishing town near the mouth of the Ohio Eiver was utterly 
destroyed and swallowed up. In 1825 the Erie Canal was completed and 
steamboats had been introduced upon the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
while immigration received a new impulse and flowed vigorously. In 
the East it was called "the Western fever," and it carried many ofi" — 
West. 

"In 1818 a man by the name of Pulliam settled upon Horse Creek, 
a tributary of the Sangamon, and later in November of that year, 
another man by the name of Seymour Kellogg, was the first settler in 
the country comprised afterward in the county of Morgan, and it was 
at his house that the first white child of Sangamon Country was born." 

This gives us the setting of this section and county at the time 
Thomas Beard arrived. He was the first actual white settler witliin 



120 

the limits of Beardstown, coming in 1819, as we have learned and 
remaining to make it his permanent future home. In 1820 Martin L. 
Liudsey and family, Timothy Harris and John Cettrough settled in 
Camp Hollow, a short distance east of the present county farm, where 
Mr. Lindsey built a cabin in which the first white child in this immediate 
vicinity was born. (Are any of these descendants still with ns? May 
our present mayor have come from this stock of Harrises? Then he 
should be re-elected as the offspring of earliest pioneers and honored to 
preside at our city's centennial celebration.) 

In 1820 the first family, after Beard, settled on the site of Beards- 
town. Their name was Eggleston. In 1819 the late mayor Elijah lies, 
of Springfield, landed here and passed on to the "Kelley Settlement," 
afterwards called Calhoun, and now Springfield, the State capital. He 
spoke of a hut at Beardstown, built of birchen poles, standing on the 
bank of the river. Was it Beard's temporary quarters or that of earlier 
French traders or missionaries? 

Archibald Job, later a prominent character in the county, took up 
temporal}' residence on Beardstown's site in 1821. That year there were 
but twenty families in all the limits of the present Cass, Morgan and 
Scott Counties. 

Where Beard found his first wife the present writer does not know, 
but that he was married to Sarah Bell in 1826 is recorded. Their oldest 
child, a daughter, was born here on July 1, 1827. W^e know also that 
they had two more children, when in 1834 they were legally divorced. 

We come now to the records of land entries made by this pioneer. 
These are found in the recorder's office of Morgan County. 

The first land entry was made by Thomas Beard and Enoch C. 
March, co-jointly on September 23, 1826. It was the JST. E. Quarter, 15, 
18, 12 and upon this quarter Mr. Beard's first cabin had been built. On 
the 28tli day of October, 1827, they entered the northwest quarter of 
this section, which extended to the river front below the big mound. 
Beard individually had entered the west half, southwest on October 10, 
of same year, and John Knight entered the east half, southwest, on 
Julv 17, 1828. These three men entered the entire section upon which 
the' original town was located, in the years 1826, 1827, 1828. This 
original plot was laid out into town blocks, 23 in all, fronting on the 
river three blocks deep, reaching from Clay to Jackson Streets, of which 
block 10, lying between the park and Main Street, is the center one. It 
was the work of Beard and ^larch, but the town was named for Beard. 
Francis Arenz (afterwards the closest and most confidential friend of 
Beard's) and Xathaniel Ware were among the first purchasers of prop- 
erty, and became joint land proprietors with Beard and March. An 
early deed was made to "Charles Eobinson of Xew Orleans" in 1828 for 
the consideration of $100. The plot was about twelve acres. He agreed 
to place upon it within a year a steam mill, distillery, rope walk or 
store, or in default, return the deed for the consideration given. This 
Cliarles Eobinson lived until late in the seventies near Arenzville. 

The first minister who settled at Beardstown, about 1823, and 
entered eighty acres nearby was Keddick Horn, a Methodist. Previous 



121 

to 1830, the time of the deep snow, about '^00 families had settled in 
the valley between Chandlerville and Arenzville. The event of the 
"big snow" became an eas}' incident to reckon from in point of per- 
sonal memory, as also the "cold day" in 1836 and the "big flood" in 1844. 

With the incoming rush of settlers and travel Beard^s three-fold 
business increased, viz., his ferry, his hostelry and his sale of town lots. 

Thus we learn that on May 10, 1836, he and Francis Arenz, acting 
for Ware, laid off an addition of thirty-six blocks, and called it "Beard's 
and Ware's addition" to Beardstowu. Ware then sold all his interests 
to Arenz and these two. Beard and Arenz, then on July 1, 1837, laid off 
another twenty-one blocks which they called "Beard's and Arenz's 
addition." 

From a letter to his father, written on February 23, 1830, we learn 
how Beard was flourishing at that time. The letter follows: 

"Beabdstowx, Mokgax County, Illinois, February 23, 1830. 

"T am still keeping ferry and public house. X part of my land J 
laid out in town lots, which the people have given me the honor of 
calling by my name. The place is improving. There are now three 
stores, and a ver}' extensive steam mill, capable of manufacturing from 
50 to 75 barrels per day. Also a saw mill and a distillery attached. I 
am now engaged in building a two-story and a half brick house, 33 by 43. 
This building prevented my coming home last fall as I intended. My 
iron constitution still holds good, though exposed, to every hardship." 

The building alluded to in this letter was the one already referred 
to as the "City Hotel" of Beard, which stood, somewhat improved by 
Henry T. Foster in later years until 1915, Avhen it was removed to give 
place to the new post office building. It was thus an ancient and historic 
landmark of eighty-five years, when it gave wa}^ to the march of greater 
progress in Beard's old town. But what changes it saw! What traffic 
on the river upon whose bank it stood a mute witness ! What a stream 
of travel and westward migration overland it saw course in and out its 
hospitable doors ! In 1844-5 it entertained Abraham Lincoln as guest 
according to Mrs. Mary G. Fisher, then an inmate, as niece of Thos. 
Beard. What a lively city it saw growing up about it ! What slaughter 
and meat-packing houses it saw rise and fall ! How the grist, saw 
and gin mills, as earliest businesses, grew apace within its life — 
the flowering mill of Schultz, Baujan k Co., alone now sending out 
1.500 barrels daily, the saw mill of A. E. Schmoldt, until recently doing 
a gigantic business and the liquor business now increased, alas I to 
twenty odd retail establishments ! How the young State has since de- 
veloj^ed into the third of the Union in population and wealth ! How it 
saw the birth of Chicago, the same to grow into the motro]iolis of the 
State and the second city in size in the United States ! 

Mr. Beard was enterprising, honest and upright, diligent and far- 
seeing, public-spirited and boiunolent and tlius ho was respected and 
prospered. 

Among the beneficent deeds of his life was the building of the first 
schoolhouse in 1834 (the one recently torn down on Sixth Street, near 
State, to make room for Floyd M. Condit's home) which he and Francis 



122 

Arenz built jointly and presented to the town. Well, therefore, that 
our present school board honored this founder and public benefactor 
with the naming of the latest, the finest, and the most modern school 
building of the city for this generous pioneer. Mr, Beard also presented 
the town with its Central Park, made historic by many public meetings, 
musicals, band concerts, political mass meetings, with such orators as 
Lincoln and Douglas speaking in it, and with the holding in it for a 
score and a half of j'ears of the notorious and popular "Beardstown 
Annual Free Fish Frys." Shame that it should have been desecrated 
by a lynching act. Its present condition of concrete walks, fine lights, 
well kept lawns and flower plots reflects credit and its rest benches bring 
comfort to Beardstown's present population. 

There is another relic of Beard's — the most historical of all, and 
Beardstown's most interesting shrine — as dear to this city as Faneuil 
Hall, or Old South Church is to Boston; or Independence Hall, or the 
Betsy Eoss house is to Philadelphia, and that is Cass Count3''s first 
courthouse, now our city hall of justice and administration, which faces 
Beard's park, and which in 1844 was erected under contract for the 
county by Thomas Beard. It is as classic as Carpenter's Hall of the 
Colonial period and as sacred as any hall of justice on the continent, 
because in it has justice swung her equipoised balance, without a tip to 
either arm we trust, during many years ; because over its right to be the 
county's administrative center have the hottest battles been fought 
locally, and because within its walls, America's greatest citizen and 
president pleaded and won the cause of freedom from a charge of murder 
for one of his befriended clients in a case, which, because of Lincoln's 
shrewd methods of cross-examination, whereby in the use of an almanac, 
he confounded the star witness against him and proved his testimony 
false, has been extolled in all the Xation and added a brilliant plume for 
the brow of honest Abe, before he was thought of as a candidate for the 
White House. While Lincoln's association with this hall may be its 
chief glorv, the name of Thomas Beard as contractor and builder is not 
a mean historical notoriety. Should it look for more honors to add to 
its sanctity it might be said that at least one of the oldest congregations 
of this city was organized within its walls and for over a year conducted 
its services within its court room. As this was before Mr. Beard's death, 
it is not impossible, nor a wild flight of the imagination, to conceive that 
he may have been a witness at this church's founding or organization. 
This congregation erected in 1850 its first building at Fourth and 
Lafayette Streets. 

But the murder trial of Duff Armstrong takes precedence of all 
other interesting incidents connected with this hall. The story of it is 
well and minutely told in an article by Hon. J. X. Gridley of Virginia, 
and published in the Illinois State Historical Society's Journal of 
April, 1910. It would be interesting to quote at length from the article 
here, but we refer the interested reader to the article itself and turn to 
another and the last of Beard's historic landmarks. This is his summer 
home in the bluffs, and has just given way to Time's devouring tooth, 
as it was razed this very spring. 



133 

In 1836 Thomas Beard, having found fortune smiled upon him, 
bought 560 acres of land at the bluffs to the northeast of town, where 
this skirting rim of land elevation forms an obtuse angle of about 240 
degrees in the frame it builds of the eastern and southern sides for the 
Illinois and Sangamon Eiver valleys. It is six miles from town and 
located just east of the brick schoolhouse (which, by the way, was built 
by Beard), where the bluffs shove out this elbow. The property is now 
the possession of Mrs. Ella Seaman, widow of the late Fred Seaman. 
Here Mr. Beard reared his summer home, located oh the first terrace of 
bluff land in the shape of a commodious bungalow of oak and walnut. 
He surrounded the same with choice orchards and vineyards and opened 
the house to hospitality, sociability and domestic bliss. Many were the 
occasions when these three sisters, like sweet graces, presided here, and 
many are the memories of our few surviving octogenarians of social func- 
tions enjoyed here ; and many the stories told of the choice and luscious 
fruits grown in these hill-side orchards. Few of the fruit trees survive 
and hardly any of the choice grapes that once grew here. There are two 
or three chestnut trees in the rear of the house — very rare arborial 
specimens for Illinois — which Mr. Zuar E. Maine, a relative and towns- 
man, recently told the writer his father had brought as nuts from the 
northern part of Ohio, when in 1837 he moved here at the solicitation of 
Mr. Beard, and planted them upon the latter's land. They bear nuts 
each year and thus form a sort of living link between two or three genera- 
tions—an annual dividend of kindly care and thoughtfulness for pos- 
terity. It chances that Mr. Beard soon succeeded in drawing to his new 
settlement a large portion of his eastern relatives, for in close proximity 
to his homestead the land was bought up by four or five brothers-in-law. 
Mr. Collins' and Mr. Loomis' farms adjoined his on the south, towards 
Bluff Springs, and Mr. Beales settled in the Sangamon Bottoms (present 
farm of Charles Bluhm), while Mr. Maine built his home on a two-acre 
patch on the Chandlerville road next to the brick school. Two other 
brothers-in-law were Mr. Bohme and a Mr. Canfield, who also settled 
nearby. All of these lived and died here and are buried in the Beard 
Cemetery. So were his aged parents induced to follow their prosperous 
son and spend the declining days near him. They also are buried in 
the Beard Cemetery. 

I will let a nephew of Mr. Beard's describe the first general Illinois 
Thanksgiving feast celebrated in the Beard homestead. The writer 
alluded to was the late Prof. John Loomis, A. M., well known by many 
now living in the city, in Virginia and various other places in Cass 
County, and whose nephew, Henry Loomis, and niece, Mrs. Charles 
Goodell, still reside at Chandlerville, Illinois. Thus he describes this 
first Thanksgiving feast. We quote from Historical Sketches, by J. N. 
Gridley : 

"in November, 1845. by the recommendation of the executive of 
this State, the first day of public Thanksgiving was observed — a vener- 
able custom in New England, but of recent observance in the West and 
South. On this occasion, invitations were sent by the pioneer to his 
friends and kindred to come and enjoy his hospitality. He had been 



124 

wont to celebrate New Year's day with similar festivities. But, partly 
out of respect to executive authority, and partly to kindred, who had 
recently immigrated, he had chosen this day to honor the former and to 
welcome the latter. Accordingly when the sun had passed the meridian, 
many wagons were seen converging to the farm house as a center, and 
not long after the whole scene was active with the arrival of guests and 
greeting of friends. Eeligious exercises, unlike the old Puritan Thanks- 
giving, were wanting to the day. Probably not a minister in the county 
had ever conducted exercises on such an occasion, for the few then were 
from the South, or the sjDontaneous growth of the West, more conspicuous 
for their zeal than for their learning. 

"In other respects it wonld compare favorably with the most ap- 
proved style of this festival. The barnyard had been trenched upon for 
fatlings of various kinds, quadruped and biped, beast and bird. He 
filled the taljle with substantial fare, while pastry from the pantry and 
fruits from the cellar spread a feast satisfactory, even to an epicure, and 
embracing variety enough to tempt the appetite of the most dainty. But 
all these are common to such an occasion. It was not in this respect, 
remarkable. In numbers, too, it was respectable. About eight}' persons, 
one-half children and youth, sat down to the feast. The pioneer at the 
head of the table had thanks offered, and then bid his friends welcome 
to his bounties. He moved among his guests delighting them l)y his 
cordiality, while he was delighted at the joy that everj^where prevailed. 
The children were buoyant with glee and the house rang with hilarity 
on this new holiday. The elder members were looking on with interested 
delight, or were recounting past events that stood out as waymarks in 
life's journey, thus far completed. Joy and rejoicing gave wings to the 
moments. New friendships were formed and old ones were renewed. 
New hopes were awaked, for festive glances tell the heart's secrets as 
well as words of love. 'All went merry as a marriage bell.' 

"The guests lingered till the waning day admonished them to de- 
part, a few from a distance remaining. The voice of the young grew 
fainter and fainter. The house was silent. I sat alone with the pioneer. 
Sleep fled from him as he recounted the early annals of settlement, the 
bright prospects and hopes, often obscured, but now happily beyond 
doubt. Hostile tribes of Indians had been subdued and security to 
family and property was now guaranteed to the settler. The climate was 
proved to be salubrious, and pestilential diseases, once dreaded, were no 
longer feared. The border man was selling out his claims and plunging 
deeper into the wilderness, whither the deer and buffalo had gone. A 
more intelligent and more thrifty class of citizens were ^Douring into the 
State. A Constitution, notwithstanding the cupidity of bad men and 
the efforts of demagogues to engraft slavery into it, had secured freedom, 
and good laws foreshadowed the enterprise and improvement which we 
are now witnessing. These reflections and many others crowded into 
the mind of the pioneer, and their successful issue were objects of pro- 
found thanksgiving. He had felt the weight of these evils and struggled 
against them. Now a clear sky promised a glorious future. 




BEARD HOMESTEAD. 



125 

"I have attended similar feasts in other lands. I have witnessed 
family meetings more affecting, but I have never witnessed si Thanks- 
giving occasion comprehending subjects of wicler range; nor have I 
ever witnessed hospitality more cordially extended or more truly appre- 
ciated than at this first appointed Thanksgiving festival at the house of 
the pioneer/' 

And now we turn for another scene amid the same surroundings, 
but everything greatly changed. Instead of gayety, mirth and thanks- 
giving, there was mourning, sorrow and lamentation. The pioneer, Mr. 
Beard, had died and the occasion is his funeral. It was four years after 
the former meeting for thanksgiving and social festivity. It was also 
in the fall — the month of November, 1849. We will let the same 
authority and graphic writer, Mr. Ijoomis. who was an eye-witness also 
of the latter scene, describe it for us in his inimitable gift of word- 
painting: 

"The news spread abroad that the pioneer is ill. The disease 
approaches and progresses flatteringly, at first slightly indisposing, but 
slowly developing into a malignant form of action, baffling alike medical 
skill and human sympathy. The strong arm of the victim and stronger 
will is 231'ostrated. He who has braved the elements alone, the savage 
beast and the still more savage man, is stretched upon the couch of 
suffering and asks help in faint whispers. . . . But the struggle 
is over. Nature yields to an invisible power. Death claims his own. 

"The news of the death of the pioneer spread. The hour was 

appointed for the last offices of respect. I hastened from a distant town 

to mingle in the company of mourners. The very aspect of nature was 

such as to give intensity to my feelings. It was autumn. The early 

frosts had touched the foliage and tinged the leaves with those varied 

hues that at once sadden the mind bj" apiDroaching decay and yet clothe 

the forest with the gorgeous robes of russet, brown and purple. I turned 

into a bridle path which the pioneer pointed out in my first rambles 

over the country. It was an unfrequented path Avhich wound along the 

margin of ravines and the tall trees of the barrens. 
********** 

"As I approached the homestead of the pioneer I halted to view the 
scene. I had emerged from the barrens near that point of the bluS 
from which I have already given description. There was the landscape 
of surpassing 'beauty. There were the various objects the pioneer had 
given his fostering care — the farm, the orchard, the schoolhouse, all that 
improved honie and neighborhood. There stood solitary the homestead, 
over the desolation of which there wept the friends of the deceased, with 
a bitterness that could not be comforted. While standing here, giving 
way to feelings inspired hy the scene, beautiful and sad to me, a long 
line of vehicles was seen, preceded by the hearse, slowly coming from 
the distant town, for there the pioneer had died. He was wont to spend 
the wintci's in Beardstown, but when spring returned he sought the 
country to adorn and beautify and to enjoy rural life to which he was 
ardently attached. 



126 

"I descended from my eminence and joined the cavalcade of mourn- 
ers. The burial spot was a retired and beautiful spot. It was a tongue 
of land;, rising several feet above the surrounding level, nearly circular 
and joined by a narrow neck to the sand ridges. There, nearly sur- 
rounded by a grove of young trees, the pioneer in health had chosen this 
as a resting place for himself and kindred. His parents were already 
buried there. 

"His father, a patriarch of eighty years, had come hither, leaning 
upon his staff, to be buried by his beloved son in these broad savannahs. 
And other friends were here, as man}^ a mute monument recorded. When 
we arrived at the grave, a circle was formed, and with uncovered brow 
the Hon. Francis Arenz stepped forward, himself an exile and a pioneer 
from another land, to do the last act of respect to bury the dead, and in 
his behalf to thank the living for their courtesy. But the duty was an 
onerous one. After getting the spectators' attention, he referred to the 
character of the deceased. He had known him long. Many years ago he 
had come, a stranger and an exile, and found in the deceased a brother 
and friend. Many years of intimacy had bound them by strongest ties. 
The unfortunate said he never went away unrelieved by him, if in his 
power to do so. No enterprise worthy the philanthropist was unim- 
portant to him while living. He was one of nature's noblemen. Saying 
which the speaker burst into a paroxysm of grief and tears. The rela- 
tives of the deceased gave vent to their grief in audible sobs. Even the 
idle lookers-on were moved to tears. The bodv was consigned to its last 
resting place. The grave was filled, the sod was laid upon it, the crowd 
dispersed — the kindred to a desolate fireside, the multitude to mourn 
for a good man." 

Following is a brief synopsis of Mr. Beard's domestic life. In 1826 
' he was married to Sarah Bell and to this union were born the following 
children : 

Caroline E. Beard, born July 1, 1827. 

Edward T. Beard, born October 19, 1829. 

Stella Beard, born February 25, 1832. 

In 1834 he was divorced from his first wife, and in 1837 he was> 
married again, his second wife being Mrs. Nancy C. Dickerman, widow 
of Willard A. Dickerman, the Dickermans having come hither from 
New York. This union was blessed with the following children : 

Francis Arenz Beard, born January 7, 1840; died June 23, 1841. 

Agnes Casneau Beard, born June 23, 1842. Married Augustus Sid- 
ney Doane, and still resides in Brooklyn, New York. 

James McClure Beard, born June 25, 1844, married Miss Augusta 
Dodge; died at Eantoul, Illinois, in 1914, a banker. 

Eugene Crombie Beard, born December 3, 1846; died at sea April 
11, 1868, while on a voyage to Peru, South America, in search of health. 

Mrs. Thomas Beard II, died at the home of her daughter. Mrs. 
Doane, November 13, 1899, at the advanced age of 95 years. Her re- 
mains repose in beautiful Greenwood cemetery in Brooklyn. 

Until recently three of the children of the pioneer survived him. 
Onlv one of these resided in Illinois, viz. his son James McClure Beard, 




MRS. NANCY C. BEARD. 
Wife of Thomas Beard. 



127 

who was a respected citizen and a prosperous banker in tiie town of 
Eantoul, Illinois, where he died in the fall of 1914, 

The other two were his daughters Stella and Agnes, the former 
married to Dr. Poe and residing until her death, on March 6, of this 
year, in Sheridan, Wyoming, aged 85 years. A few years ago she pre- 
sented to the town authorities a portrait of her father, done in oil, which 
now graces our City Hall. From it a photograph was taken as repre- 
sented in accompanying cut, defective because colors of background and 
body so nearly match. The latter daughter is still living at the age of 
75 years in the city of Brooklyn, jST. Y. 

I have recently corresponded with all three of these families and 
sought to find a better portrait of the pioneer, but with no success. I 
have, however, secured a johoto of his second wife and one from his son, 
late of Eantoul. 

A month before her death Mrs. Poe in her own hand wrote the 
writer this self-explanatory reply to a letter of inquiry and search: 
^'Rev. P. C. Croll, Beurdstown, Illinois. 

"Dear Sir: Yours of February 1st to hand, and in reply will say 
I very much regret that I cannot give you the desired information in 
regard to items of interest in my father's life, or the early settlement of 
Beardstown. Not having been there for over forty years, I am a 
stranger. 

"The portrait was the only picture I had but I think if you write 
to Mrs. W. F. Hampel in Rantoul, Illinois, my brother's daughter, she 
may have pictures or mementoes of my father, which my brother left 
her, when he died two or three years ago. Also write to Miss M. T. 
Collins, Petersburg, Illinois. She is very likely to be able to assist you. 

"1 thank you very much for the interest you have taken in writing 
up this article of my father and the city of his founding, and would be 
only too glad to assist you, if possible. 

"I am the second dauditer of Thomas Beard ; mvself and a sistei 
in Brooklyn, N. Y.. Mrs. Agnes Doane, are the only ones of the family 
left. 

'^Hoping to learn of your success in obtaining the items you desire, 
I am, 

Yours truly, 

Mrs. Stella Beard Poe, 

Sheridan, Wyo. 

February 11, 1917. 

P. S. — I am now 85 years old." 

The letters from Mrs. Hampel and Mrs. Doane follow: 

"Eantoul, Illinois, Fehruary 27, 1917. 
"Bev. Croll, Beardstown, Illinois. 

"Dear Sir : I was very much interested in your letter of recent date, 
but I am very sorry to say that I know of little that will be of help to 
you in your work. Eecords of my grandfather's life here seem to be 
only records of memory, instead of records in 'black and white.' Very 
little of anything personal has come to my sister or me. The only thing 
I have of Grandfather Beard's are the gim and powder horn that he is 



128 

said to have carried on his journey from ISTew York to Beardstown as he 
walked at the side of his horse on which rode his bride, who had been 
Mrs. Nancy Dickerman. 

"M}' annt, Mrs. Agnes Doane is still living in Brooklyn, Xew York 
and I will send yonr letter to her in the hope that she may be able to 
do more for yon than I can. 

"I have wished many times for a good picture of Grandfather 
Beard, but so far as I know, there is none. It is too bad that the oil 
painting you have there in Beardstown is not good for photography. 
If there is anvthing further that I can do for von I shall be verv aiad 
to help you. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edith Beard Hampel."' 
"89 PixEArPLE St., Beooklyx, March 6, 1917. 
"Rev. P. C. Croll. 

"Dear Sir : Your favor of February 14, written to mv niece, Mrs. 
Hampel, of Eantoul, Illinois, has been forwarded to me that I may per- 
haps give you some information as to the life and character of my 
father, Thomas Beard, pioneer and founder of Beardstown, Illinois. 
My mother had a daguerreotype of him which I hope to find in the 
possession of some of my cousins and will communicate with them and 
let you know as soon as I hear from them. 

"I have an account of a number of incidents in his life, which may 
prove interesting, and will write you as soon as I can find time to look 
them up. 

"I am greatly pleased that some interest is being taken in my 
father, for he was of the fine, brave type that has been the making of 
our country, a noble example for our young men. 

"Thanking you for the trouble you are taking in the matter, and 
hoping I may find what you desire, I am 
Verv respectfully, 

Mrs. Agxes Beard Doa^te, 
89 Pineapple Street, Brooklyn, Xew York." 

Cop3' of obituary notice which appeared in the Beardstoion Gazette 
of ^Yednesday. Xovember 28, 1849 : 

"Died on Wednesday evening, Xovember 26, of typhus fever, 
Thomas Beard, Esq., aged 55 years. 

"It is but seldom we perform the painful task of recording the 
death of a person so well known and universally respected as Mr. Beard. 
He was one of the first settlers of the country and substantially the 
founder of the town that bears his name. He emigrated to this place in 
early life, where he aided with his industry and sound practical sense 
the building up of the town and the improvement of the country; the 
new settler never applied to him for advice and aid in vain ; the former 
he was competent to give and the latter was as freely given when in his 
power. His character through an eventful life never suffered a blemish, 
though sustaining a position in which he would have gratified a worldly 
ambition, he never courted the applause of men; his was a natural 
nobility that the world could not corimpt, nor the fashions of an artificial 




JAMES M. BEARD. 

SON OF 

Thomas Beard. 




EUGENE C. BEARD. 
Son of Thomas Beard. 



129 

life take away. He is gone to tliat Court to which we are all summoned. 
May we who are left find at that bar as few accusers as onr departed 
friend." 

I have also received from Mr. Samuel Parker, of Glendale, Cali- 
fornia, 86 years old, an acquaintance and associate in Mr. Beard's later 
life, an estimate of Mr. Beard's character in reply to a letter of inquiry, 
from which I make the following extract : 

"A man of about 5 feet 10 inches in stature, rather thin, slightly 
stooped, he was of light complexion, had blue^e.yes, thin, sandy whiskers; 
liair same. He was an intelligent talker, though possibly not a graduate 
even of a grammar school, but of frontier life; and, dealing with frontier 
men, made him a sharp trader for self-protection. I do not believe that 
it is on record in Cass County, or Beardstown. or even a tradition in any 
shape, that Thomas Beard ever took advantage of anybody in a business 
transaction. In conversation he was rather slow-spoken and deliberate, 
impressing his hearers as a man of good judgment and of kindly, friendly, 
benevolent intent. 

Yours truly, 

Samuel Parker, 
Glendale, California. 

January 25, 1917." 

The writer feels that Mr. Beard is worthy of some fitting memorial. 
Thus far only a city street and a schoolhouse in Beardstown are named 
for him. While the Central City Park and the City Hall and the Beard 
Cemetery are relics and landmarks that recall his name and thoughtful 
generosity, the writer has advocated a more distinctive memorial in the 
form of a statue, or public fountain, and hopes the Centennial of 
Beardstown may bring it to pass. 

Until this fond wish shall be realized may this sketch help to per- 
petuate one of Illinois' worthy pioneers and noble builders, when the 
foundations of this great State were so firmly and safely laid. 



:» H s 



130 



LINCOLN AND THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1864. 



(By Arthur C. Cole, University of Illinois.) 
What happens iu a presidential contest largely depends on the judg- 
ment passed b}' the country on the success of a closing presidential 
administration. This may not be, perhaps, a desirable situation, but 
thus far the American people have failed to look for and find the larger 
issues of the day except in so far as they happen to be involved in the 
position of the two major political parties and of their leaders^, and this 
j)osition is assumed largely with reference to the developments of the 
three years under the previous administration. Under this situation the 
party in power has the advantage and the disadvantage of having its 
political record submitted most thoroughly to the light of public scrutiny. 
Judgment on a presidential administration is first passed by the party 
itself; if this test is survived, a final one comes in the contest at die 
polls in November. Only one president" has refused on principle to 
attempt to pass these tests. What is true of presidential contests in 
general must have a bearing on the very important contest that was 
staged during our great Civil War. 

The judgment of history upon the administration of Abraham Lin- 
coln is a most favorable one. He had with unquestioned sincerity grap- 
pled with the worst tangle of problems ever confronted by an American 
executive, and with persistence, energy, self-control, and some degree of 
tact, carried the nation through its greatest crisis. Yet the story of 
the election of 1864 reveals the fact that the contemporary popular 
judgment of these services was highly unfavorable and that only cir- 
cumstances largely accidental made the balloting of Xovember, 1864, 
an apparent expression of approval. 

Lincoln, it must be remembered, was the first President elected by 
the Eepublican party after an existence of only a half-dozen years. 
This party, tliough gathering up all the anti-slavery elements, including 
the radicals, had made the canvass of 1860 on a guarantee for the insti- 
tution of slavery Avhere it alreacly existed along with an aggressive plank 
for the non-extension of slavery. In spite of this general guarantee and 
tlie I'epeated assurances of the Eepublicans, the South chose to regard 
the Repul)]ican victory of 1860 as the beginning of an attack on slavery 
all along the line. The result was secession followed by civil war, which 
brought the new president face to face with a situation without pre- 
cedent in American history. Inasmuch as the Republicans had chosen 
to resrard the southern threats as mere blufp and bravado, thev were 
scarcely ])ropared to meet the consequences of their success. 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



lol 

111 Iiaudling the civil war problems, Lincoln assumed certain pow- 
ers which nuule his role quite as signiiicaiit as that of a dictator in the 
days of Eome's glory. Without legislative warrant and without preced- 
ent in American or even English history, he suspended the privilege of 
the writ of habeas corpus, one of the dearest of civil rights in the minds 
of the American freeman. He gave at least indirect approval to most 
arbitrary arrests by the direction of the secretaries of state and war.^ 
"He stands responsible/' says James Ford Ehodes, "for the casting into 
])risuu of citizens of the United States on orders as arbitrary as the let- 
tres-de-cachct of Louis XIV" and more tyrannical than any used by 
Great Bi'itai]i in modern times.- There was arbitrary interference 
with freedom of speech and of the press, even outside the zone of actual 
fighting. He issued an executive order or proclamation which purport- 
ed to strike the shackles from millions of negro slaves and to destroy 
jn'operty rights to the amount i»f millions of dollars, though slavery was 
recognized, if not protected, under the constitution. This act he sought 
to justify only as a military necessity, under the undefined war powers 
of the president. He recommended and ofhcially approved, March 3, 
1863, a conscription act which provided for the enrollment of all able- 
bodied male citizens and authorized the drafting of men when necessary. 
These were only the principal features of a situation which made it 
possible for James Bryce to say: "Abraham Lincoln wielded more 
authority than any single Englishman has done since Oliver Cromwell." 

These acts of the executive seemed to involve without question 
infractions of the constitution, unless the war powers of the president 
coukl be interpreted to cover them. Their supporters justified them 
only under the plea of absolute necessity. It was natural, therefore, 
that they should be subjected to a fire of hostile criticism. In the first 
place, moderate Bepublicans were much embarrassed by these policies. 
In the L^nited States senate they did not hesitate to express their dis- 
appointment at their adoption. Governor Curtin, the great war gover- 
nor of Pennsylvania, in a special message protested against them and 
questioned their necessity. Here, moreover, was clearly ground for 
wholesome and legitimate opposition on the part of the opponents of the 
administration. The Democrats sought on this ground to rally round 
their standards the defenders of personal liberty. 

The Democratic organs in Illinois made aggressive political capi- 
tal out of these conditions. The Cliicago Times. October 1, 1863, 
assailed the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus as "an act so bold, so 
flagrant, so unprecedented, and involving to so great an extent the 
riglits, the lil)erties, and even the lives of the people, that its legality 
and propriety cannot be too thoroughly discussed." The Belleville 
Democrat, September 26, 1863, called it "the death of liberty;" it 
"makes the will of Abraham Lincoln the supreme law of the land, and 
the people, who have made him what he is, the mere slaves of his cap- 
rice." To the emancipation proclamation Democrats replied in warn- 

i Senator Trumbull of Illinois openly condemned the imprisonment of citizens upon letlres-de-cachet 
and General John M. Palmer declared that the power would convert "this Constitutional Republic into 

despotism." Palmer to Trumbull, , January —, 1862. See also Illinois State Register, June 

6, 1863. 

2 History of the United States, IV, 235. 



132 

iiig that it meant the diversion of the war from its original and patriotic 
purposes, to a mere anti-slaver}' crusade ; they declared that it gave the 
South a principal in place of an abstraction for which to fight and that 
it would therefore prolong the war. 

In the name of constitutional liberty Democratic leaders appealed 
to the people to rally to rebuke the administration for these policies. 
The congressional and state elections of 1862 had Avitnessed a reaction 
against the administration, which, it was believed would sweep the 
country in ISGi. The slogan taken up in preparation for the campaign 
was announced (by the Chicago Times;) "There is hardly a provision 
of the constitution which the President has not violated or treated with 
contempt."^ 

Democrats complained that Lincoln took these steps because am- 
bitious of re-election, he had allowed himself to be coerced and had 
surrendered to the guidance of the radicals. But this Avas mild criticism 
compared to the fire of partisan invective and abuse that the less thought- 
ful Democrats levelled against the president. It Avas cA^en suggested 
that Lincoln ought to be impeached.* 

Democratic opposition at its Avorst Avas no more embarrassing than 
that which came from within the ranks of the administration party 
itself. AVhile there Avere many Eepublicans on this side more conserva- 
tive than himself, his greatest problem Avas to restrain those Avho without 
the responsibilities of his office, sought to hurry things more rapidly 
along anti-slavery lines. 

While the Democrats complained that Lincoln's policies shoAved a 
surrender to the guidance of the radicals, tlie latter chafed at his slow- 
ness of action. The seriousness of this pressure cannot be denied. In 
Illinois it meant that leading Republicans, influential party organs, the 
State administration from Governor Yates down, and even Senator 
Truml)ull were bitterly disappointed Avith the lack of real aggressiveness 
on the part of the president in his endeaA^or to conquer the South. 
Lincoln's fi'iend Herndon charged him Avith trying to put down the 
rebellion Ijy squirting rose Avater at it; Jonathan B. Turner, the Jack- 
sonville educator, condemned Lincoln for too much reading of the neAV 
testament instead of using the SAvord after the fashion of the old testa- 
ment saint, as had Andrew Jackson ; the editors of the Chicago Tribune 
were ready for a break Avith the president if developments should re- 
quire it. 

There Avere other evidences of the TJepublican party's lack of homo- 
geneity besides this clash between the anti-slavery element and the 

3 By this time the SpringflcldiSto^«i^«ff(s/fr felt that it had demonstrated "that he [Lincoln] possesses 
neither consistency, ability, statesmanship or resoUition; that even the claim set up for his honesty 
was absolutely unfounded "and that the country has never before been afiflicted with a ruler so absolutely 
destitute of integrity and good principles." February 28, 1864. 

*" No man with an ounce of brains will'deny that the President has been guilty of crimes 

in his official capacity that would behead the ruler of a monarchy, and his total inability to conduct 
the affairs of the nation, even in time of peace, is a matter of universal admission. It would be a matter 
of rejoicing to every patriot if the President could be brought to the punishment that he deserves for his 
many and flagrant violations of law " Jonesboro Gazette, April 4, 1865. 

" When a President will thus put aside the will of Congress, what are the people to expect from him? 
The Freedom of the press and the habeas corpus, the two great bulwarks of our liberty, have been ruth- 
lessly invaded. And last of all the voice of the ballot box has been crushed, and 'inilitary necessity/ 
that bloody and envenomed queen, has seized upon its holy precincts. Great Heavens! How much more 
iniquity will the freemen of America stand from the ursurper and tyrant who is only fit to split rails 
" Cairo Democrat, July 14, 1864. 



133 

conservatives. Survivals of the old alignment between Whig and Demo- 
crat revealed themselves in mutual mistrust and jealousy. Lincoln was 
charged with being too generous toward his former Whig associates; 
disappointed ex-D'emocrats questioned the honesty and sincerity of their 
old-time Whig colleagues, traditional opponents. There was the problem 
of the foreign vote ; could concessions be made to it without stirring up 
opposition from persons of nativist prejudices? What made matters 
even worse, Lincoln's cabinet was a hot-bed of bickering, suspicion, 
jealousy, and rivalry; he could not secure the hearty support of a ma- 
jority of it on any fundamental proposition or policy.^ 

Early in 18G4. therefore, evidence appeared of considerable specula- 
tion on the subject of the next candidate for president. A shrewd inter- 
preter of public opinion in Illinois announced the result of the general 
belief in Lincoln's lack of positiveness and self assertion : "The fact is 
the people are not satisfied with the loose way in which the war is carried 
on. Yet they dare not say much and they hardly dare change, yet it 
would take but little to throw them into confusion and lose us the elec- 
tion. If the Democrats nominate McClellan and we nominate Mr. 
Lincoln and some of the dissatisfied should start out on Butler or Fre- 
mont we should be whipped."" General John M. Palmer reported that 
Lincoln was practically without friends and adherents in the western 
arm}', whei'c it took the coui-age of a martyr to profess to be a Repub- 
lican.'' 

Party leaders came to make no secret in their own circles of their 
opinion that some other man than Lincoln ought to be nominated. 
General Fremont had a considerable following of ultra radicals; Chase 
was eagerly seeking supporters to back his claims;^ other persons like 
Senator Trumbull were frequently mentioned as available. A rather 
formidable Fremont faction took part in the Illinois Eepublican state 
convention in May, 1864, where it vigorously opposed the endorsement 
of Lincoln.^ There was little enthusiasm for Lincoln;" one question, 
however, greatly strengthened his hands: Would the Republicans dare 
to refuse to nominate him in the face of the clamor of their party 
opponents? Was he not the logical person to lead the nation through 
the groat national crisis? The radicals sought to answer these questions 
in an independent convention at Cleveland which nominated General 
Fremont early in the canvass, on the assumption that the Republicans 
would not dare to refuse to follow their lead; this, however, helped 
Lincoln by relieving him of a formidable opposition in the regular 
Republican convention. Chase canvassed his chances but found it im- 
possiljle to organize the remaining opposition to Lincoln. These develop- 
ments contributed to the certainty of Lincoln's nomination. This, how- 
ever, was accomplished at Baltimore without any display of enthusiasm. 

' Secretary of the Treasury Chase became more and more independent and having presidential as- 
pirations of his own, finally left the cabinet. See Diary of Gideon Welles, Vols. I and IT, passim. 
« W. A. Baldwin to Trumbull, April 4, 1864, Trumbull Papers. 
' J. M. Palmer to Trumbull, December, 1863. Ibid. 

8 Senator Pomeroy issued a circular in behalf of Chase. Springfield State Register, February 28, 
1864. 

9 Carthage Republican. June 2, 1864. 

» See Trumbull to H. McPike, February, 6, 1864. Trumbull Papers. 



134 

The Eepublicans thus entered the campaign of 1864 with the 
gloomy outlook upon a coming battle under a divided leadership. The 
whole summer brought no hope. With blunders on the sea, with failures 
in the land operations which exposed Washington, the capital, to capture 
by a small hostile force in spite of a ruthless sacrifice of blood and 
treasure in Grant's attempted offensive, more and more was said of the 
incompetency of the Eepublican administration. Gold rose to 285, 
making a paper dollar worth only thirty-five cents, and it held around 
250 all summer. Greeley and others now pleaded for peace, for an 
understanding with the South. Congress even went so far as to ask 
the president to set apart a day for fasting, humiliation, and prayer; 
when the appointed day arrived, August 4, Secretary of the N"avy Welles 
soberly commented : "There is much wretchedness and great humilia- 
tion in the land, and need of earnest prayer.^^ 

The Fremont-Lincoln embroglio rent the membership of the party. 
Lincoln's renomination was explained as the work of the spoilsmen : 
office-holders and contractors. In vain did the moderates praise the 
president and plead for union and harmony. The local and state cam- 
paigns brought out anti-Lincoln sentiment. Then came a new develop- 
ment in the quarrel of Lincoln and the radical Eepublicans over 
reconstruction. Lincoln had made a start with a policy of his own, 
which was criticized as too mild and as part of his intrigue to secure 
his re-election. The radicals led by Senator Wade and Henry Winter 
Davis brought forward a measure of their own which Lincoln con- 
sidered too drastic and defealcid with a pocket veto. The radicals 
replied with a manifesto, crying out their defiance. 

Enthusiasm within the party being all too lacking, the Xational 
Executive Committee, of which Henry J. Ea3'mond was chairman, 
sought to substitute pressure and compulsion. Eaymond, a man whose 
honesty and principle in party matters was challenged by Gideon S. 
Welles,^^ directed the collection of a party campaig-n assessment from 
government officers and emploj^ers in all departments. "WTien in some 
cases office-holders refused to pay or obstructed the collection, Eaymond 
requested and even insisted upon their removal. ^^ Pressure was brought 
upon President Lincoln who seems to have had full knowledge of this 
expedient and at least did nothing that served to discourage it. 

Fate seemed to be playing into the hands of the Democrats. Pos- 
ing as "a watchful guardian of the constitution," the Democratic party 
quietly enjoyed its steady gains and waited to organize its campaign, 
the national convention having been summoned to meet in the closing 
days of August. Earlier in the year the party had been discredited by 
the antics of some of the extreme "copperheads ;" the Coles County riots 
constituted one of the more serious outbreaks in Illinois. The party 
had seemed also to lack a great issue squarely placed before the people. 
The emancipation proclamation, to be sure, presented possibilities but 
now the country was pretty well reconciled to it. The summer of 1864, 

1 1 Diary of Gideon W^elles, 11, 93. 

i2 7&j(i.,II, 142. , 

i»/6td., II, 97, 108, 113, 122-123, 136-137,142-144. Captain Melanthon Smith, of Rockford, provost 
marshall of the second Illinois congressional district, protested against the payment of the $67.40 assess- 
ment levied upon him. Springfield State Register, September 25, 1864. 



135 

huwever, gave Democrats all sorts of eucouragement ; it pro\ideil iheni 
with au issue, the failure of the war. So they began to consider the 
questions of platfonii .and cantlidate. There was some early talk of 
Grant but more and more the choice began to concentrate on iieneral 
George B. McClellan, a favorite with the army of the Potomac, personally 
liked and admired by the soldiers." 

The failure of the war was in August the most likely Democratic 
rallying point, especially inasmuch as General McClellan could not be 
charged with resi^onsibility for any recent losses. Accordingly, when 
the convention met at Chicago, August 29, it nominated McClellan on 
a platform drafted by Vallaudigham declaring the failure oL" the war 
and the need of peace. The immediate reaction was an outburst of en- 
thusiasm throughout the country that boded ill for Lincoln's hopes of 
re-election.^^' Disgruntled Eepublican leaders h;ld been suggesting the 
w itlidi'awal of both Lincoln and Fremont. Fremont's chances were 
known to l)e hopeless; Lincoln's apparent strength when nominated Avas 
declared fictitious. Lincoln had made a memorandum on August 23 
practically conceding his defeat: "This morning, as for some (hiys 
past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not 
be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so cooperate with the Presi- 
dent-elect as to save the Union between the election and the inaugura- 
tion, as he will have secured his election on such grounds that he cannot 
possibly save it afterwards."^** 

At this crisis news arrived of Parragut's success at Mobile and of 
the capture of Atlanta by General Sherman after a hard long struggle 
continued through weary months.^' The Pepublicans became wild 
with sheer joy and spread the good tidings wiili enthusiasm. Then 
followed the report of a succession of victories by Sheridan in the valley 
of the Shenandoali. Republicans became still more juliilanf. enthusi- 
asts began to predict in the same breath the prompt supi-ession of the 
rebellion and the election of Lincoln. President Lincoln capitalized 
these developments politically by proclaiming a special day of thanks- 
giving to be celebrated in the churches, navy-yards, and arsenals. 

The Democrats had just declared the war a failure ; here was proof 
that they were in the wrong. The platform became impracticable and 
untenable; Eepublicans called it "^unpatriotic, almost treasonable to 
the Union."^^ So McClellan in his letter of acceptance repudiated the 
peace article in the platform. All Democratic planning for the cam- 
paign was upset. Gloom settled down upon the Democratic camp. 

But even now it was evident that victory could come only to a 
united Republican party; and Premont was still in the field. Tlis with- 
drawal, however, was arranged as a result of a bargain, to which Lincoln 
was at least indirectly a party. Postmaster-General Blair, a moderate, 
was sacrificed by the administration and asked to resign. Fremont then 

1 < J. M. Palmer to Trumbull, January 24, 180-1, Trumbull Papers; see also Rhodes, History, IV, 507n. 

1-^ Gershom Martin to Trumbull, Napervillc, September 3, 1864, Trumbull Papers. 

K-O. H. Browning, a prominent Republican, was said to have commended the nomination of McClel- 
lan and declared that he should not feel at all distressed if McClellan should be elected. State Register, 
September 3, 1864. 

Works of Lincoln, Federal edition, VII, 196-197. Lincoln informed Gustave Koerner of his fears 
of defeat. Memoirs of Koerner, II, 432. 

17 Diary of Gideon Welles, II, 135-140. 

18 /bid., II, 135. 



136 

withdrew ; he did so, however, only after this explanation : "In respect 
to Mr. Lincoln, 1 continue to hold exactly the sentiments contained in 
my letter of acceptance. I consider that his administration has been 
politically, militarily, and hnancially a failure, and that its necessary 
continuance is a cause of regret for the country."^" Eepublican workers 
chose to forget the sting of this declaration and concentrated attention 
on the canvass. 

It is hard to find a single constructive forward-looking issue in this 
campaign. The question of reconstruction, including the possibility of a 
thirteenth amendment abolishing slaveiy, might have been such an issue. 
Work on reconstruction was already under way and, because of the 
troubles it had already caused the administration, some Democrats urged 
that it be made the momentous issue.^° Another possible issue, though 
not essentially constructive, was the question of the approval or disap- 
proval of the Lincoln administration. For this the Democrats were more 
ready than the Eepublicans.-°^ The latter did not dare to endorse 
everything Lincoln had done — they could select only certain features and 
for the rest rely on his generally good intentions.-^ The importance of 
the labor vote suggested another available issue. Modern labor problems 
had their beginning in the Civil AVar period. Many Eepublicans, there- 
fore, wanted the president "to make the issue before the country dis- 
tinctly perceptible to all as democratic and aristocratic."'- The whole pur- 
pose of the rebels, said these, was the establishment of an aristocracy of 
blood and of wealth. The administration, however, was in no position 
to press this point after its delay in assuming the same ground in deal- 
ing with the property of rebel leaders. In truth, the Republican party 
of 1864 was not that democratic force it had been in 1856. The fiscal 
needs and financial transactions of the government had drawn to its sup- 
port and into a prominent place in the party the representatives of an- 
other aristocracy of wealth — bankers, manufacturers, and government 
contractors. The Democrats, moreover, as an opposition party, were 
able to make considerable progress with the argument that the industrial 
and laboring classes had been compelled to pay the greater portion of the 
Avar taxes. -^ Legislation, they said, had been enacted on the old aristo- 
cratic policy that makes the rich richer and the- poor poorer. But the 
Eepublicans in reply charged the Democratic party with being an aris- 
tocracy which had no place for "tailors, rail-splitters, mechanics and 
laborers."-* 

Campaign talk on the Eepublican side was largely vituperative de- 
nunciation of Democrats as Copperheads if not traitors.-^ The Chicago 
platform is unpatriotic, almost untreasonable to the Union. The issue 
is whether or not a war shall be made against Lincoln to get peace with 
Jeff Davis. A vote for McClellan will be a vote for slavery at a time 
when this crime has plunged this country into the sorrows and waste of 

" J. C. Fremont to Messrs. Georee L. Steams and others, a committee, September 21, 1854. McPher- 
son, Political History of the United Slates of America during the great rebellion, (3d ed.,1876) pp. 426-427. 

•-" Jonesboro Gazette, October 1, 1864, 2()a., Ibid., July 16, 1864. 

21 Champaign Union and Gazette, October 14, 1864. 

'- Diary of Gideon Welles, II, 141-142: see also 43. 

= 3 Joliet Signal, July 19, 1864. 

5* Aurora Beacon, September 29, 1864. 

^^ Memoirs of Gustave Koerner, II, 434-435. Koeraer enlisted as a campaign speaker but found his 
audiences entirely unwilling to listen to sober political analysis. 



137 

war. It will be a vote for the rebellion at a moment when the rebellion 
is about to fail. It will be a vote for disunion at a moment when the 
Union is about to be restored. The South is hoping and praying for the 
success of the peace candidate. The Democrats say the war is a failure ; 
Farragut, Sherman, Sheridan, and Grant have disproved it. To all 
this the Democrats could make no effective reply after the military suc- 
cesses that turned the political tide against them. 

Some of the Democrats met slander with slander. There was, per- 
haps, some ground for charging the administration and its associates with 
ignorance, incompetency, and corruption; but partisans went farther 
and slyly asked: "Has not Lincoln an interest in the profits of public 
contracts? Is Mr. Lincoln honest? His claims to honesty will not bear 
investigation.'" Others charged that the Republicans were preparing to 
secure their way by the use of the military, that "Abraham Lincoln 
would hesitate at no step, even the general massacre of his political 
opponents, if he can thereby insure his re-election."^® The more level- 
headed Democrats, however, made use of the argument that "our liberties 
are in danger through the action of the government in its efforts to put 
down the rebellion." They talked of martial law, of arbitrary arrests, of 
suppression of the press. They held that they, more truly than the 
Eepublicans, were the real champions of "the Constitution as it is, the 
LTnion as it was." But all this fell on deaf ears i the arniv news was 
more potent. 

The Democrats were demoralized by the defection of prominent 
members of their party who as War Democrats had supported the Lincoln 
administration and who now supported his re-election.^^ Eepublican 
divisions, on the other hand, were overlooked in the wild enthusiasm of 
the hour. Radicals who had sworn never to repeat their 1860 votes for 
Lincoln found themselves among the loudest Lincoln shouters. The 
German-American voters marched to the polls an almost solid Lincoln 
phalanx. It was no wonder then that Lincoln swept all before him and 
that McClellan was buried in this famous landslide of November, 1864. 

What, then, was the meaning of Lincoln's re-election? "Lincoln 
elected himself in spite of the people," declared the democratic Joliet 
Signal.-^ That this was not without some tnitli is evident from the situa- 
tion that prevailed during the summer of 1864. The Springfield State 
Register, November 10, 1864 called the result "the heaviest calamity that 
ever befell this nation;" it regarded Lincoln's election "as the farewell 
to civil liberty, to a republican form of government, and to the unity 
of these states." The Republicans considered it a splendid triumph, for 
the party if not for the administration. Ex-President Buchanan was 
calm and philosophical in defeat; "The Republicans," he explained, 
"have won the elephant; and they will find difficulty in deciding what 
to do with him."-^ This was only ton true. It was not a personal victory 
for Lincoln ; the radicals, who had set down certain considerations as the 

-^ Springfield State Register, September 8, 1864; see also issue of October 15. 

• '' General John A. Logan returned to Illinois from the front to participate in the canvass on the 
Kepiiblican side. Dawson, Life of John A. Logan, p. 87; see also Springfield State Register, October 5, 
1864; Springfield State Journal, October 29, 1864; Belleville Democrat, August 13, 1884. 

28 joiigt Signal, December 6, 1864. It continued; "Thousands voted for Lincoln under over powering 
influences— under the pressure of money, business or partv influences while their honest convictions 
of right and duty led them to desire the election of McClellan." 

2' Works of James Buchanan, XI, 377. 



138 

coiiditiuii oi' tlieir support, were soon ready to demaud a full accounting. 
Differences as to reconstruction policy grew increasingly serious. It 
soon became a question whether Lincoln would be able to stand up 
against the radical opposition that assailed him. On April 11, 1865, he 
announced himself ready to make some change in policy, it may be to 
fortify his position and defy the radicals, it may be to yield to the pres- 
sure of their criticism,^" but within a week he was borne off to a martyr's 
grave and this gigantic problem was turned over to his successor, Andrew- 
Johnson. It seems that Andrew Johnson inherited "the elephant." 

?» Works of Lincoln, Federal edition, VII, 362-36S. 



PART III 

Contributions to State History 



141 



THE AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN 

ILLINOIS. 



(By John Reynolds.) 

(Reprinted from Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, 

Vol. II. 1856-57. Pages 346-371.) 



THE SOIL, SURFACE AND AGRICULTURAL CAPACITIES OF 

SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 

The southern section of the State of Illinois is bounded on the east 
hy the Wabash and Ohio Rivers, and on the west by the Mississippi. 
Tlie southern extremity, the moutli of the Ohio, is considerably south 
of latitude 37 degrees north, and Southern Illinois extends north about 
two degrees, according to recent public opinion. This tract of country 
will embrace thirty counties or more, and its northern limits may extend 
across the State from about Alton, east, to the Wabash River. 

The climate of this section of Illinois is most delightful and 
salubrious, and the air, for the most part of the 3'ear, breathes a balmy 
sweetness and fragrance that is not enjoyed in any other section of the 
State. South Illinois is blessed with a happy location, almost in the 
center of the United States, and also in the center of the Mississippi 
Valley, which secures to this section great advantages of commerce. 
Most of the large rivers of the West concentrate at and near this pen- 
insula, which will add greatly to its commercial wealth. 

This tract of country enjoys much of the climate of "the sunny. 
South/' where the winters are mild and short and the summers are not 
scoreliod witli a tropical sun; but an agreeable and pleasant temperature 
])revails the whole year round. 

The soil of South Illinois is exceedingly strong and fertile, and 
produces in great abundance all the crops which are congenial to the 
climate. 

Geologists contend that the extraordinary quantity of fertile soil 
of the west was drifted here by great floods of water rushing from the 
northeast to the southwest, and that we enjoy the soil that once covered 
the surface of the country now composing the states of New England. 
Be this hypothesis true or not, it does not appear that all the Mississippi 
valley was at some remote period covered with water. The great depth 
and strength of the alluvial soil, and many other indications, make it 
almost manifest to my mind that all the vast valley between the great 
mountains, to the east and west, was once a sea of water, which grad- 
ually sul)sided, leaving the valley a great flat of alluvium. The streams 



143 

found the valley a vast plane, and occupied it to drain their -waters to 
the ocean, as it suited their convenience. 

jSTot only is it strange how so much soil accumulated in the West, 
but another phenomenon is presented by discovering wood, brushwood 
and the bark of trees many feet — sometimes one hundred or more below 
the surface. In some sections of the State, in digging wells, a "second 
soil," so-called, is found about eighteen or twenty feet below the surface, 
wherein wood, tree tops and bark of trees are imbedded in a black soil 
similar to the upper. 

Another curiosity is the boulders, or "lost rocks/' as they are fre- 
quently called, which are found on the surface of the earth in the middle 
and northern sections of Illinois. These are granite rocks, and all agree 
that the}' had not their origin in Illinois, but were conveyed here by some 
agent of nature. 

It is also stated, that potters' ware vessels, made of clay, have been 
discovered and brought up from many feet l)elow the surface, in various 
places of the West. 

These facts must bewilder geolog\'. and leave the human mind in 
darkness on the subject of the formation of the crust of the earth. Is 
it possible to fathom the operation of nature, to ascertain the manner 
of producing these wonderful phenomena on the surface of the earth? 

Large trees are frequently found in the ]\Iississipni bottom covered 
with earth many feet below the surface : but they are deposited there by 
the inundations of the river, and. in the course of time, the water 
abandon? them. The earth is washed over them, and they remain there 
for ages. But the wood and bark of wood above mentioned are found 
on the high lands, clear of anv influence of the rivers; and it seems to 
me that the operations of nature that placed them there must forever 
remain a mvsterv. 

The surface of South Illinois presents a gentle slope from north 
to south, abuudantly suflficient to drain the water from the earth, but not 
so steep as to wash the surface into deep gullies. There are no lakes or 
pools of water in South Illinois, except in the low lands of the rivers, 
and they may be all drained at a small expense. There is scarcely au 
acre of land in all South Illinois but may be cultivated in some manner 
and by some profitable crop, except the stagnant pools that stand some 
part of the 3'ear in the bottom lands of the rivers. In some few sections 
of South Illinois there are elevations that might be entitled to the name 
of hills, but not so high or so ban*en but that they would answer some 
valuable purpose to the agriculturist. I have traversed this section of 
the State often, ever since the year 1800, and know it well. Almost 
the entire country may be cultivated in grain fields or profitably em- 
ployed in pastures, meadows or orchards. ]\iost of the bottom lands of 
the Mississippi are situated within South Illinois, and will, when pro]v 
erly drained, be the most productive lands in the State. The "American 
bottom." so called from a settlement of Americans locating there in the 
year 1781, extends about one hundred miles, from Alton, in Madison 
County, to Chester, in Eandolph County, and will average at least five' 
miles in width. This tract of country is known all over the state for 
the fertility of its soil. Much of the i\ri->issippi lowlands, below, are 



143 

equally fertile as the American bottom, and will, when improved, pre- 
sent to the agriculturist one of the most productive tracts in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. 

At long intervals, the floods of the Mississippi inundate these bot- 
toms. In 1725, a great inundation of the American bottom occurred. 
In the year 17 TO another of less depth visited the bottom, and two years 
thereafter, in the year 1772, a great rise in the river overflowed the whole 
bottom. This flood tore away part of Fort Chartres, (situated on the 
Mississippi, twenty miles above Kaskaskia). and thereupon the English 
garrison moved to the last named village. The next extraordinary flood 
occurred in the year 1785, and was the next to the highest ever known 
in the Mississippi. I have often seen the marks of the high water of 
1785, on the houses in the French villages, for many years after we 
settled in Illinois, in 1800. The next inundation Avas in the year 1844, 
and was some hisher than that of 1785. The height of the flood in 
] 844, is marked on a stone monument, erected on Water Street, in the 
citv of St. Louis, and exhibits a terrific flood, rushing over the whole 
bottom, from bluff to bluff. Since my obsen'ation, there have been many 
small rises in the river, that seemed to protend danger; but no great 
injury was produced by them. Those deep and sweeping inundations 
did more injury to the agricultural interest of the country. 

Large bottoms also exist on the other rivers in Southern Illi- 
nois, which will be drained and improved in a few years, and will 
then add greatly to agriculture in this section of the State. The bottoms 
of the Cash Eiver are extensive, and will be well adapted to the growth 
of hay. At some day South Illinois wull be the most beautiful and most 
pro/luctive section of the State. 

Ill many parts of South Illinois, flne springs of perpetually running 
water break out of the earth, and add much to the beauty and ad- 
vantage of the country. 

In this section of Illinois the surface is more undulating than in 
tlie north, and beautiful streams of water abound. 

About eight counties only, in the extreme point, are destitute of 
prairie, and are covered wnth the finest timber of the same class in 
America. The timber that grows in South Illinois is not surpassed in 
the Union by the same species. There is no pine or hemlock in this 
section of country; but cypress grows in great quantities, and near 
Jonesboro red cedar is not uncommon. The most common grow^th are 
the oaks of all species, walnut, poplar, beech, cypress, cottonwood, hick- 
ory, pecan, sassafras, and others of less note. 

It is the thick, dense forests that have heretofore to some extent 
prevented the more rapid growth of this beautiful section of country. 
In former days, when the timber was not needed, it was exceedingly 
costly to clear away the dense forests and prepare it for cultivation. But 
at this day the timber is in good demand, wdiich will lessen the expense 
of preparing the land for cultivation. Since the Central railroad is 
constructed, and the country north is improved, so that lumber is in 
demand, great quantities of this valuable timber is sawed into lumber, 
and sold at high prices. These movements will advance the South, and 
a few years will present this tract of country in its true liglit. 



144 

1 am of opinion that the prairies have advanced Illinois forty or 
fifty years over a timbered country. It requires time and great expense 
to clear away a heavy forest and prepare it for cultivation, while the 
prairies are always ready for the plow. 

In South Illinois there are many mounds of earth, which trouble 
the masses as well as the literati, to know whether nature or art erected 
them. They exist all over the west, but the largest mound, known as 
the Big Mound, or the Monk Mound, is situated in the American bottom, 
five or six miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri, and is the largest 
tumulus in the west, as I am informed. This mound is two hundred feet 
high, and eight hundred yards in circumference. It is flat on the top, 
and a dwelling of the late Mr. Hill, the owner, is erected on it. On 
the northeast corner is a graveyard, but not of the ancient date of the 
mound. On the south side is a bench, or a level, of some hundred feet, 
and extending east and west the whole length of the tumulus. This 
bench reminds us of the second story of a building. 

On one side is a well, dug by Mr. Hill, where it is said the layers 
of the earth, in makino- the mound, could be discovered. It is rather 
my conclusion, that these earthern pyramids are the work of man. 

In the vicinity of this large mound there are many others in the 
American bottom, numbering fifty or sixty in all, perhaps, and of all 
shapes and sizes, down to small tumuli of earth. It is stated that more 
mounds exist in this region, near the mouth of the Missouri Eiver, than 
in any other section of the west. 

Three earthern pyramids still exist in this neighboorhood, that lay 
much claim to man for their erection. They occupy a kind of triangle, 
one in Missouri and two in Illinois. They are all erected on the bl^iffs 
of the Mississippi, and appear to be intended to sustain beacon lights, to 
give alarm in case of danger. 

The lowest, down the river, is in St. Clair County, about six miles 
from Cahokia. The French gave it the name of Prairie du Sucie, or 
sugar loaf, which in olden time was a celebrated place. Another mound 
is also erected on the high point of the bluff in Madison County, and was 
also called by the French, La Mammalle, a teat. The third is raised on 
the high bluff in St. Charles County, and was also called by the French, 
La Mammalle. It is supposed that these mounds were intended to 
sustain beacnjn lights, to give the alarm if the country was in peril. I 
have been on two of them, and it appears to me they are the work of man. 

A singular mound is situated a few miles north of Lebanon, in St. 
Clair County, and is of considerable elevation, and I am informed, con- 
structed on the cardinal points. It is an oblong square. 

I saw an ancient fortification, as it is presumed to be, in the county 
of Pulaski, near the Ohio Eiver. Some acres were embraced in the 
walls of earth yet visible, and larse trees growing in it. It had scate- 
hvays to the river, and one back to the north. I am almost certain that 
this mound was made by hand, and for a fortification. 

If these mounds were made by man, the query will force itself on 
the mind, by what people were they made, and at what time? These 
refl<'(-tions will draw the mind to the conclusion, that the earth is ancient 



145 

beyond all luiraan computation, and is the same, as to liinnan intelli- 
• gence, as if it was eternal — without beginning or end. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FIRST FKEXCIE SETTLEMENTS AND TUB FIKST FRENCH AGRICULTURE 

IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 

Eeligious altai's, Kaskaskia and agriculture commenced together in 
the American bottom, in the same year, 1682, that Philadelphia was 
laid out, one hundred years before any permanent settlements were 
made in either Kentucky or Tennessee, and twent)^-eight years before 
New Orleans existed. 

The villages of Cahokia and Peoria commenced their existence about 
the same time and manner with Ivaskaskia, and those then French 
villages formed the nucleus of the first colonies established west of the 
Allegheny Mountains. Fort Creveooeur was erected, by LaSalle, on the 
northern bank of Peoria Lake, one mile and a half above the present 
city of Peoria, some few years before the colonies were established, and 
the Eock Fort, or Fort St. Louis, Avas established, soon thereafter, on 
the "Starved Eock," which is situated on the south side of the high 
rocky bluff of the Illinois Eiver, about six miles southeast from the 
present city of La Salle. These forts were garrisoned, for some years, 
by French soldiers, to secure the Indian trade, and to keep possession of 
the country. 

A missionary, the Eev. Allowes (Alloucz), a Jesuit priest, located in 
the Indian village on the exact site where old Kaskaskia now stands, 
and commenced to Christianize the natives. The Eev. Mr. Pinet, another 
Jesuit priest, commenced in the Cahokia village of Indians, which occu- 
pied the same place that the present town of Cahokia does, and' com- 
menced his Christian labors. The traders also assembled in these Indian 
towns, and thus Indian villages, by Christianity and benevolence, were 
changed into civilized and happy colonies of whites. 

Agriculture made its first entrance into Illinois around these villages 
in the year 1682, and the American bottom has the proud honor to bear 
on her bosom the first fruits of agriculture which vras ]iroduced west of 
the Allegheny ]\Iountains. The French pilgrims froui Canada immi- 
grated to the country with the pure and holy principles of Christianity 
"to love thy God with all thy soul, and thy neighbor as thyself," im- 
pressed strongly on their hearts, and they lived in peace and friendship 
with the numerous herds of savages that were legion, at that time, in 
the west. They had scarcely any wai-s with the natives, but resided M-ith 
their neighbors, white and red, for a hundred and fifty years, in perfect 
peace and harmony. These Frencli colonists ticvci' disturbed anv one on 
account of their religion, or executed Quakers or anv other sect for 
difference of opinion in religious matters. Xo one was ever exiled from 
Illinois on account of his religion, or were the natives ever sold into 
slaverv^ These French colonies exercised no malignant spirit of 
vengeance and extermination against any one for the worship of God at 
a different altar from their own. They were a i)ea(<^able and Christian 

—10 H S 



146 

people, and, as such, they enjoyed that prosperity and happiness that 
can alone be experienced by the truly pious. 

But it is true the early French immigrants were not good farmers. 
About one-half of the population depended on the Indian trade and 
voyaging for a living; and the other half were husbandmen, and culti- 
vated the common fields. These colonies, as above stated, were estab- 
lished in the American bottom, where the soil was exceedingly fertile 
and easily cultivated. A very small amount of labor raised much pro- 
duce. Large common fields were established, inclosing much territory, 
with few rails in a fence. The rivers, blufl's or lakes, generally answered 
for some part of the inclosure. 

In these fields, wheat, mostly spring wheat, and a hard flinty species 
of Indian corn, were cultivated and raised in sufficient quantities to 
support the inhabitants, and much for exportation south. The villages 
of Prairie du Eocher, Fort Chartres village, St. Philips and Prairie du 
Pont villages were added to the former colonies in the American bottom, 
and a great portion of the whole bottom was in cultivation at the highest 
points of French prosperit}^ in Illinois. I have seen the marks of the 
plow for twenty or ttiirt}' continuous miles above Kaskaskia, in the 
bottom, where the land would permit, and in an extensive range of 
country around the villages of Cahokia and Prairie du Pont. It is 
stated b}' authors that great quantities of flour were shipped to Xew 
Orleans, in olden times, from the Illinois and Wabash colonies. 

The agricultural implements of the French were defective, and were 
not of the character that would be tolerated at this day. The poverty 
of the country and the want of agricultural science, forced the people 
to use carts without an atom of iron about them. In alluvial soil, where 
rocks or gravel did not appear, these carts performed tolerably good 
service : much better than sleds. The plows were honored with only a 
small point of iron on the front in the giound, and that tied on to the 
wood with raw hide straps. The beams of the plows rested on axles, 
supported by small wheels, also without iron, and the whole concern 
hauled on by oxen — ^horses were not used in the plows by the French in 
pioneer times — and the oxen were yoked to the plows by the horns. 
Straps of untauned leather tied a straight yoke to the horns of the oxen, 
and a pole or tongue coupled the yoke to the wheel carriage, on which 
rested the beam of the plow. At this early day the French farmers used 
no small plows, and had none. In the War of 1812 the French obtained 
the knowledge from the Americans of the use of the small plows to plow 
amongst the green corn. Before the war the French and Americans 
were strangers, and not friendly to one another, and learned nothing 
from eacli other. I presume for more than one hundred years the 
French plowed in their corn about the 1st of June, and turned under 
the weeds and not many grew until the corn was up out of the reach of 
them. Thoy planted the seed corn in the furrows as they broke the 
ground, and turned the furrow on the corn planted ; plowed a few fur- 
rows more and planted another row of corn : and so on, until the field 
was all planted. The weeds were kept down with the hoe, or briar 
scythe. Sometimes strange looking Indian pumpkins were planted with 
the corn, and at times, though seldom, turnip? were sown between the 



147 

corn rows. Potatoes were not raised to much advantage; not sufficient 
for the consumption of the people — I mean the French inhabitants of 
olden times. The Americans always raised abundance of Irish potatoes, 
since my recollection, in Illinois. For many years there were no sweet 
potatoes cultivated in the country. Not much corn was raised by the 
French in pioneer times, as they did not use it to any great extent for 
bread, and their stock wintered out, for the most, in the range. In the 
summer the range was excellent, and all kinds of stock were generally fat 
on it. Corn was sold to the Indian traders on which to support the 
voyageurs and couriers du bois, and some used to fatten their hogs. 

The history of one year of French agriculture will serve for nearly 
one hundred and fifty years; as. I believe, in that long period, not a 
new principle' of agriculture was ingrafted into the system, or an old 
one abandoned. A mathematical similarity reigned in all the French 
colonies for these long series of years, until the Americans introduced 
new agricultural principles among their French neighbors. 

The wheat crop was generally sown in the early spring, and tolerably 
well plowed in with the ox team. It was cut with the sickles, or reap 
hooks, as no cradles existed in those times. They bound the sheaves with 
grass cut for the purpose, hauled the crop home in their horse or ox 
carts, and stowed it away in barns. The ancient custom was, at 
'Tiarvest home," to tie together some nice straws of the wheat in the 
shape of a cross, and place it over the gate of the husbandman. This 
exhibition was in praise to providence for the harvest, and also to show 
that the crop was housed in the barns. 

In the winter the wheat was threshed out in the barns with flails, 
and ground, for the most part, in horse mills. 

The spring wheat made good, dark colored bread, which many pre- 
ferred to the bread made of fall wheat. Little or no oats, rye, barley or 
buckwheat was raised in Illinois for one hundred and fifty years from 
its first settlement. The French never cultivated, to any great amount, 
either flax, cotton or hemp, nor did they manufacture into clothing 
what little, if any, they did raise. They used a very few spinning 
wheels, and I do not recollect ever seeing a loom among them. All 
their clothing, except the deer skin moccasins they wore, they pur- 
chased of the stores. 

They raised considerable stock — horses and cattle, some hogs, but no 
sheep or goats. Their horses, known as "French ponies," were numerous, 
and of excellent pedigree. They were generally small, but of the pure 
Arabian stock, from Spain. No care was taken of them for more than 
one hundred and fifty years, and the breed scarcely ever crossed. Many 
generations of them never ate an ear of corn or other grain, but lived 
on the range, winter and summer. The French, in olden time, kept 
no stable horses; but let all the males run out in their natural state. 
These French ponies endured much hardship, and would do more 
sennce, living on the range, without .grain, than the American horses. 

French cattle were emigrants from Canada, and were a small, hardy 
breed, with generally black horns. They stood the winter better, with- 
out grain, than the American cattle, gave less milk in the summer, and 
kicked more all the time. The rudeness and barbarity the French ob- 



148 

served in changing the male cattle, prevents me from recording the 
operation. 

The French never raised hogs in proportion to their other stock. 
They lived on vegetable diet more than the Americans, and used less 
pork. Bacon was uncommon among them. They rendered a fat hog 
into lard for a family, and the pancakes then were triumphant. 

The common fowls were abundantly raised amongst the early 
French, and the poultry and eggs gave the people much healthy and 
agreeable support. They excelled the American masses in raising fowls 
in the gardens and in the dance. 

The French were attentive to the cultivation of their gardens, 
which gave them a good part of a healthy and cheap living. 

The French, English and American governments awarded to the 
French colonies large commons, attached to the villages, to advance 
agriculture; but at this day these commons are appropriated to raise a 
fund to support common schools. 

The French colonies in Illinois increased, slowly, from the first 
settlement, in the year 1682, until the year 1763, when the country was 
ceded to Great Britain. From that year, 1763, to the present, 1856, they 
have been on the decline. The highest point of French prosperity and 
population in Illinois was at the cession of the country to England, in 
1763, when about half the population moved to the Spanish possessions, 
on the west bank of the Mississippi. Judging from the best informa- 
tion I can obtain, I conclude there were about eight thousand white 
inhabitants and one thousand blacks in Illinois at the cession to Great 
Britain, and at this day I believe there are not more than two thousand 
five hundred Creoles, the descendants of the ancient French, and about 
three hundred colored people, the offsnring of the five hundred slaves 
Renault brought to the country in 1720, from San Domingo, to work 
in the mines in Illinois. It is a surprising fact, that the French popula- 
tion does not increase, although the government was so liberal in 
granting lands to them, and their lives being so moral and exemplar}'. 

The Jesuits, in early times, had water and wind mills erected in 
various sections of the country, to accommodate the agricultural interest. 
I saw, in early times, the remains of wind and water mills, said to 
have been erected by the Jesuit societies. 

As it is stated at the commencement of this chapter, religion and 
agriculture took their rise together in Illinois, and have continued, 
hand in hand, down to the present time. The French Creoles are uni- 
versally Roman Catholics, and are a sincerely devout and religious 
people. On their hearts are impressed, strongly, the great principles 
of Christianitv, bv which "the carnal man" — the base, low and vulsrar 
passions and instincts — are measurably subdued, and the higher, more 
enlarged and elevated principles of the soul are cultivated and im- 
proved, so that these people enjoy a serenity of mind and happiness that 
is the fruit of pure and holy religion. .\t the first settlement of the 
American colonies in Illinois, when the French Creoles had the ascend- 
ency, these principles of morality and religion exerted a powerful in- 
fluence in the proper and correct organization of nil the settlements. 



149 

This character of the early inhabitants gave tone and influence to all 
the subsequent settlements in Illinois. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE FIRST AMERICAN SETTLEMENTS AND THE FIRST AMERICAN 
AGRICULTURE IN SOUTH ILLINOIS. 

Many of the soldiers of the revolution, who conquered Illinois from 
Great Britain, under the command of the celebrated General Clark, were 
the first settlers in the captured country. These brave defenders of the 
rights of man, with incredible hardships, toils and dangers, wrested the 
country from British tyranny, and in peace and quietness sat down, 
under their vine and fig tree, to enjoy the harvest of their labors. One 
of the greatest generals of the revolutionary age, General George Eogers 
Clark, led his brave men to glory and victory, and in the conquered 
country, Illinois, these same revolutionary heroes laid aside the arms 
of war and took up the implements of peace and agriculture. 

Xo country can boast of a more glorious and honorable population 
than Illinois can, in her revolutionary soldiers, who conquered the 
country and then colonized it. 

Oil the -ith of July, 1778, General Clark led his little army to 
Kaskaskia and captured that post. In a few days thereafter all Illinois 
submitted to his power, and was in his possession. The next year, 1779, 
he conquered Vincennes and Fort Sackville. Clark had not the means 
to pay or support his brave troops, but encouraged them to become 
agriculturists, and thereby sustain themselves. The inviting prospect 
of the country, and the condition of the army, induced many of them 
to settle in the country. Other revolutionary soldiers, whose services 
were not performed in the conquest of the West, also settled in Illinois, 
and became the founders of large families. Three-fourths of the Ameri- 
can pioneers of Illinois, who located in the country before the war with 
Great Britain, in 1812, w^ere soldiers of the revolution, or had been 
soldiers in the Indian wars of the West. Illinois may feel truly proud 
of her ancient population, as she does of her citizens of the present time. 
The heroes of the revolution, the companions in arms of Washington, 
Wayne, Clark, Shelby, Eobison, Jackson, and a host of others, together 
with the brave defenders of the country from Indian depreciations, first 
colonized Illinois, and made lasting impressions on the country of 
inflcpendence and patriotism — glorious impressions that will be trans- 
mitted down to the latest posterity. 

In 1780 a settlement was made on the high land east of the Kas- 
kaskia Eiver and village. The same year, or soon thereafter, a colony of 
Americans was established in the American bottom, west of the present 
town of Waterloo, which gave the name to the alluvial tract of country 
extending between the bluff and river from Alton to Chester, 

Another settlement was made in the 3'ear 1781, at the Belle- 
fountaine, near the town of Waterloo. A few years thereafter, the New 
Design settlement was made, and in 1783 a fort and colony were estab- 
lished in the American bottom, nearly west of the Columbia, in Monroe 



150 

County. In 1791 Whiteside's Station was erected, and a settlement 
made around it, and in 1797 the Turkey Hill Colony commenced. A 
town was laid out in the year 1796 and called Washington; but after- 
wards it bore the name of Horse Prairie Town. It was located on the 
Kaskaskia Eiver, near the upper end of the Horse Prairie, where a town 
is now laid out and called Lafayette. About the year 1798 a mill was 
erected on Horse Creek, towards the mouth, and a settlement made about 
the same time in the upper end of the Horse Prairie, in Randolph 
County. In the year 1800 my father and several families settled in 
the colony east of Kaskaskia, and in 1802 the settlements around Belle- 
ville, and north, and in the present county of Madison, were com- 
menced. In the 3^ears 1804, '5, '6, '7 and '8, colonies were commenced 
on the Ohio Eiver, and extended from the mouth of the Wabash to the 
mouth of the Ohio, and up the Mississippi to Kaskaskia. These settle- 
ments were "few and far between," but were made mostly of pioneers, 
and composed the nucli of a densely populated country some years 
thereafter. 

In the above years, before 1808, settlements were made on Silver 
Creek and the Kaskaskia Elver, in St. Clair County, and on Shoal 
Creek and Sugar Creek, in the present counties of Bond and Clinton. 
The settlements of Wood Eiver and Silver Creek, in Madison County, 
were commenced and extended before the year 1808. A slow but 
gradual growth of the country continued in South Illinois from 1808 
and onward. About this time, 1808, the United States salt works, near 
Shawneetown, attracted public attention, and added much to the growth 
of the country in that section. 

The celebrated salt spring, situated a few miles south of Equality, 
in Gallatin County, had been known and worked by the Indians and 
French of Vincennes, since the first colony commenced at that village, 
about the year 1720, and still pours out volumes of salt water, but the 
wood being destroyed near the spring, and stronger salt water being dis- 
covered, it was abandoned. 

These salt works were a great advance to the agricultural interest 
of the country. Produce was exchanged by farmers for salt, when money 
was scarce in circulation. The alum salt becoming so plenty and cheap, 
these salt works gradually declined, and are at this day doing a limited 
business. 

Illinois was once under the government of the Xorthwestem Terri- 
tory, which was organized in Illinois, by Governor St. Clair, in the year 
1790. In 1802 Illinois became a part of the Territory of Indiana, and 
William H. Harrison the governor. In 1809 the Territory' of Illinois 
was organized, and Ninian Edwards appointed Governor. 

A change of government, and a newspaper established at Kaskaskia, 
the seat of government, increased the emigration to the country con- 
siderably. 

The immigrants to Illinois were generally poor, and their agricul- 
tural exertions for some time did no more than support them. The 
revolutionary patriots and Indian fighters, generally left the service 
after a seven year's war, without a dollar in their pockets, and were 
many of them forced to commence farming for a living, without a horse. 



151 

cow, or pig, and tiiat too on the public lands. But the same energy and 
enterprise that were their companions in the wars, still attended them, 
and they soon made a plentiful living. 

In early times mills in the fall to grind the bread corn were almost 
out of the question. The pioneers were compelled to resort to baud 
mills, graters, mortars, etc., to beat the com into meal. 

The early settlers depended greatly on stock and the range to 
support the stock. The prairies also furnished both the French and 
Americans with the prairie grass in the greatest abundance for hay. It 
was the general practice in Illinois, for at least one hundred and fifty 
years, tO' mow the prairie grass and make hay of it. I have mowed 
many a day in the prairie grass for hay. But the settlers in and near 
the river bottom, wintered their stock in the range. 

The cane, for range in the winter, extended north from the mouth 
of the Ohio about one hundred and twenty miles up the Mississippi, and 
there the rushes commenced, which was better than the cane for winter 
food. 

Some produce was each season exported and sent from Illinois to 
market. Hogs and com were shipped in flat boats to New Orleans, and, 
at times, good returns were made. The most difficulty was the dangerous 
navigation of the river. Many boats were lost in descending the river. 
Some hogs were sold to the miners workins; the Missouri lead mines. 

The first material advance that agriculture experienced in Illinois 
was by the emigrants from Hardy County, Virginia. Upwards of one 
hundred and sixty souls emigrated to Illinois in June, 1797. and were 
a hardy, honest and industrious population. They first settled in and 
near the New Design, and were the first who improved agriculture in 
South Illinois. They cultivated fall wheat for market, and raised sheep 
and made linseys for clothing. They were not hunters by profession but 
husbandmen of excellent morals and character. 

In the first year or two of the present century, several flat boats, 
laden with flour, sailed from Kaskaskia to New Orleans, w^hile that city 
was in the hands of the Spanish government. The flour was made of 
Illinois wheat, mostly raised at the New Design, and manufactured in 
the mill of General Edgar, a few miles northeast of Kaskaskia. 

The Americans cultivated both flax and cotton, but the latter the 
most, and spun and wove it into clothing. In olden times tolerably good 
crops of cotton were raised in South Illinois, and I Avell recollect the 
various modes of picking the seeds out. I have been often engaged in 
the primitive manner of picking the seeds from the cotton with the 
fingers. This operation is slow and expensive. The next was the gin, 
-with rollers, and now the cotton is picked with machinery, without 
much cost or time. In those primitive days the Americans cultivated 
some tobacco, but not much for market. The French raised and manu- 
factured more tobacco than the Americans. The Creoles manufactured 
+he tobacco into carrots, as they were called. A carrot is a roll of to- 
bacco twelve or fifteen inches long, and three or four inches in diameter 
at the middle of the roll, and tapered towards each end. The rolls were 
round, and would weigh four or five pounds, I presume. It is said this 



152 

was good smoking tobacco, and it made a considerable traffic witli the 
Indians. 

In considering the ancient agricultural capacities of South Illinois, 
it is proper to state there were in it six water mills, and one saw mill, 
about the commencement of the present century. Edgar^s mill, above 
stated, was, for the time, a fine flouring mill, with French buhrs, and 
made excellent flour. About the same may be said of Tate & Singleton's 
mill, on the Bellefountaine Creek, not far northwest of Waterloo. John 
F. Perry owned a good flouring mill on Prairie du Pont Creek, not far 
south of Cahokia. Judy owned a water mill a few miles south of 
Columbia. Andrew Kinney erected a mill near the Mississippi bluff, 
six or eioht miles southwest of Waterloo. Valentine owned a small 
water mill near the Mississippi bluff', west of Rock Creek, east of 
Waterloo. Henry Series, as heretofore stated, erected a water saw mill 
on Horse Creek, near the mouth of the stream. 

At this early day the teams and harness of the husbandman were 
defective, and scarcely sufficient to answer the purpose. The Indians, 
before Wayne's treatv' of peace, in 1795, were hostile to the Americans, 
and stole many horses of the whites. The settlers were thereby com- 
pelled to use oxen on the farms and for many other domestic purposes. 
The cattle grew large, and the oxen mostly, were excellent. It was often 
difficult to procure the ring and staple for the yoke. The wood of the 
yoke was manufactured at home in abundance. The harness for the 
horses was more difficult to procure. As smithshops were almost un- 
known in the country, horses were seldom shod; and it appeared the 
animal, in those days, could do better without shoes than at this time. 
Frequently poor farmers were compelled to use rawhide straps for 
traces, and at rare times I have seen some make hickory poles and 
hickory withes served for traces in the plow. Truck wagons, the wheels 
being made of large sycamore logs, sawed off, were frequently used, and 
were about similar to, but not so sightly as the French carts, without 
iron. The truck wagons were made entirely without iron, and often, 
almost without tools. In these aboriginal times husk collars were mostly 
used. I have often seen farmers in the timber pack the rails on their 
backs from the trees where they were made to the fence, and put them 
up into the fence. Sleds Avere sometimes used, but they were a bad 
excuse. The hoe, at that daj^, in the timber, was much more used than 
at this time. Many farmers, after they gathered their corn in the fall, 
hunted considerably, and thereby made some additional support for 
themselves and families. Peltries and furs were always in demand, and 
at a good price. The flesh was mostly preserved and used in the family. 
Some farmers, where their plantations would permit, engaged to make 
voyages on boats. These voyages sometimes extended to ISTew Orleans, 
Pittsburg and Mackinaw, or to Prairie du Chein. 

The settlements increased to the War of 1812, when the borders 
of the colonies remained stationary, or, perhaps, receded in some in- 
stances: but the territory grew in population as fast in the war as it 
had done in peace. 

The limits of the settlements during the war were as follows: 
Commencing at a fort or camp, on the Mississippi, opposite the mouth 



153 

of Missouri ; tlieuce to the forks of Wood Eiver, in Madison County ; 
thence to Camp Eussell, a few miles north of Edwardsville ; thence to 
the camp of Capt. Samiiel Whiteside, on Silver Creek, above the settle- 
ments; thence to Hill's and Jones' forts, on Shoal Creek, and thence to 
a fort at the present town of Carlyle. Most of these outside forts moved 
in during the ^Aar. Many other small forts were kept up around the 
nortli frontiers, in a general line with the above stations. A fort at 
Chambers', a few miles southwest of Lebanon, St. Clair County, was 
maintained most of the war, and one on Doza Creek, towards its mouth. 
Captain Short made a large camp of his United States Rangers on 
Crooked Creek, at the place known then as "the Lively Cabins." Fort 
La ]\Iotte was sustained, near the Wabash Eiver, during the war, twenty- 
five miles above Vincennes. Forts were erected on the frontiers of the 
settlements which existed a few mi].es out from the Wabash, Ohio and 
Mississippi Elvers, all the way around from the Wabash to the Kaskaskia. 
This was Illinois during the War of 1812. 

I was a private united ranger during"" the year 1813, and part of 
the year stationed on the Mississippi. We ranged round the frontiers; 
therefore, I knew the condition of the country during the war. It seemed 
to me the same quantity of produce was raised during the war as was 
before, and the inhabitants fared equally as well, as to the common sup- 
port, during the war, as at any other time. 

It is my opinion more corn would grow on an acre of equally good 
land, fifty years ago, than at present. The earth has become much drier 
within fifty years, but I knoAV not if that be the reason. No vegetation, 
grass or weeds grow as strong or as high as they did in 1800." In the 
old settlements, considerable quantities of wheat were raised, and much 
of the flour to supply the regular army at the outposts, during the war, 
was manufactured out of the wheat raised in the country. On the 
frontiers, not so much was raised. 

CHAPTEE IV. 

THE SALINES AND MINEEAL WEALTH OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 

Southern Illinois possess not only the greatest abundant capacity of 
direct agricultural wealth, but is also immensely rich in salines, and in 
many of the useful minerals. Salt is an indispensable article in human 
economy, and the southern section of Illinois is abundantly supplied with 
this necessary article. And although the salt works in Southern Illinois 
may not be worked at this day, yet they were once in operation, and 
supplied the country with salt. They stand by now, as a reserve, in an 
army, and may be again brought into successful action. They, at this 
day, liave a tendency to regulate and keep down the price of' salt that 
is imported into the country. The United States or the Ohio saline, at 
this day, stands aside, enjoying its dignity and well earned popularity, 
like a venerable and worthy President of the United States, after going 
through a prosperous and successful administration of the Government 
for eight years. The ex-President reclines with ease and honor on his 
well earned fame and character. So with the ex-saline; it slumbers in 



154 

• 

peace, after being the most famous salt works west of the mountains. A 
history of the operations of these salt works would fill a volume. Col. 
Isaac White, an agent of the United States for this saline, in the year 
1811, left his agency at the Ohio Salt Works, and entered the army, as 
a volunteer officer, under General Harrison, and at Tippecanoe, in that 
terrible night conflict, fell, charging the enemy. The honor of his 
actions is preserved in the name of a county. White, which is situated 
near his agency, the Ohio saline. Other salt works are situated on Big 
Muddy River, not far below Murphysboro, in Jackson County. A con- 
siderable amount of salt has been manufactured at these works, but 
nothing to compare with the Ohio saline. Other saline water was dis- 
covered in Bond County, near Shoal Creek, and works established at it. 
These works produced considerable salt, but, like the others, have fallen 
into disuse. Works were in operation, about thirty years since, in 
Madison County, on the east fork of Silver Creek. These works never 
did the owners or the public much service. Salt water was discovered 
on the upper branches of Little Muddy, and at various other places in 
Southern Illinois, but never worked to any great amount. It appears 
that salt water exists, in great abundance, in Southern Illinois, and cir- 
cumstances may yet arise that will make it necessary for salt to be 
manufactured here to supply the inhabitants. 

The mineral wealth of Southern Illinois in coal is abundant and 
inexhaustible. In_most of the coal localities three different strata exist, 
one below the other, and the lowest is always the best coal. It is stated 
that Illinois contains the most acres of coal land on the continent, and 
56,695 miles more than all Europe. In the year 1823, the first coal was 
hauled to the St. Louis market, from the bluffs, on the Illinois side of 
the Mississippi. But in the year 1809 William Boon shipped considerable 
coal from the Big Muddy mines to New Orleans, which was the first 
coal exported from Illinois. At this day coal forms an element in Illinois 
commerce that adds greatly to the wealth of the State. The railroads 
being constructed all over the State, and particularly the Central Eail- 
road, have given to the coal interest, within a few years, great energy, 
and much is exported, as well as used in the State. The farmers through- 
out the country are commencing to use coal as the common fuel, in place 
of wood, and I have no doubt they will increase the use of coal until 
wood will be measurablv laid aside. 

Both iron and lead ore have been discovered, in considerable quanti- 
ties, in Hardin County and the region roundabout. I have reason to 
believe great quantities of good iron ore exist in Southern Illinois, as 
it does in many other parts of the State. In fact, the whole western 
country seems to abound in iron ore. 

As to the amount of lead ore in Southern Illinois, I have no means 
of knowing; but it is hoped the State Geologist, Mr. Norwood, will soon 
make a report on the subject of lead ore and other minerals in Southern 
Illinois that will shed light on this important interest. 

In 1826 a great excitement was started in and around Monroe 
County, at the discovery of copper, and quantities of the public lands 
were entered to cover the supposed copper mines. It has all blown out. 
It is a blessing that silver and gold do not exist in Southern Illinois, as 



155 

I am satisfied these precious metals do the country no good. The gold 
of California has never paid all the expense, besides the loss of life, 
that it has cost to obtain it. The lead made in Illinois never paid for 
the labor and expenses incurred to procure it. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS SINCE THE 

WAR OP 1813. 

The war with Great Britain, in 1812, produced, in the whole 
country, an excitement and agitation that advanced the growth and 
agricultural interests of the territory of Illinois. The extraordinary 
fertility of the soil, the beautiful, undulating surface of the country, 
and the mild and agreeable climate were seen and appreciated by thou- 
sands in the various military campaigns through the State; and these 
volunteer soldiers were generally citizens of sound judgments, that gave 
Illinois a character and standing abroad that induced greatly the 
immigration to the territory. Moreover, a great portion of the citizens 
had been engaged in the military service of the country, and their 
wages paid them for their services were expended in the country. This 
extra circulation of money gave the country an advance that it never 
experienced before. In addition to the above, an act of Congress was 
passed, in 1813, granting to the citizens of the territory a pre-emption 
right, by which the actual settlers secured their homes at the Congress 
price of the public lands. Before this act of Congress, the public lands 
were not brought into market, and the great masses of the farmers 
resided on the publio domain as squatters. Under these circumstances 
no one would improve his farm to any great extent, fearing he would 
not be able to purchase it at the United States' land sales. 

Wheat, after the war closed, in 1815, was more cultivated, and 
mills were in proportion erected. Fine mills, in early times, were 
built on the Little Wabash, in Gallatin County, and in various other 
settlements in Southern Illinois. In fact, at one time, not long after 
the war, a speculation of mill building, that was carried too far, injured 
the country. The shovel plow, that had been, in pioneer times, used 
considerably, was superceded by the barshear, and a better breed of 
stock was introduced. Castor beans and tobacco were cultivated before 
the State Government was organized, in 1818. Flour was then manu- 
factured for exportation, and cattle and hogs were also raised for a 
foreign market. 

The territory of Illinois, in population and in agricultural interest, 
improved and flourished greatly in territorial times, between the war 
and tbe formation of the State Government. In 1812 the population of 
the territory was only 12,000, and in 1818 it had increased to 40,000. 
The immigration was generally a moral, correct people, who came to the 
country, on mature reflection, to better their own condition, and to 
provide a good country for their children. They emigrated from the 
various old states, not in masses, but by families ; and they assimilated 
themselves to the laws, habits and customs of the previous inhabitants of 



156 

the country. As it has been already remarked, the French and the 
original American settlers were a brave, independent and patriotic 
people; and the immigrants settling in the country amalgamated them- 
selves with the previous inhabitants, and became the same people. 

The laws of the territory were the foundation of the present State 
laws of Illinois, which, for their equity, justice and liberality, are not 
surpassed by any state in the Union, except, perhaps, by Louisiana, where 
more of the civil law prevails. The territorial laws of Illinois were the 
laws of the Northwestern Territory, which Avere adopted by the governor 
and judges of the territory from the laws of the various states, and 
were an excellent code of laws. It is to the laws, and the proper execu- 
tion of them, that the State of Illinois owes so much of her prosperity 
and rapid growth to her ultimate destiny. 

Directly, in the same proportion as the people of Illinois succeeded 
and prospered, the agricultural interest, and other great pursuits, 
advanced and prospered. It will be seen, by examining the history of 
the Territory of Illinois, that schools and churches were established in 
many sections of the country before the State Government was organized, 
and the people of the territory were as moral and correct, and perhaps 
more so, than they are at this day. Camp meetings were common, and 
churches established in every settlement in the territory. The counties 
that sent delegates to the convention, at Kaskaskia, that formed the State 
Constitution, in 1818, embraced not much more territory than is in 
the present supposed limits of Southern Illinois, and are the same 
people and their descendants, with the additional immigration. The 
original Constitution of the State of Illinois showed a wisdom and 
capacity of self-government in its various provisions that has not been 
surpassed ini the State since that day, and it is this charter of free 
government, with its wise and salutary provisions, which, to a great 
extent, caused Illinois to prosper and flourish in such an unprecedented 
manner, that this State is called, at this day, the Empire State of the 
West. 

The first colleges and conspicuous institutions of learning were 
established in Southern Illinois, and many of them remain, to this day, 
eminent seminaries of learning. The Eock Spring High School, the 
colleges at Lebanon and Hillsboro, opened into existence not long after 
the State Government was organized, and have performed signal service 
to the country. The Eock Spring establishment was removed to Alton, 
and is now in successful operation. This institution, (being enlarged, 
and assuming the name of the Shurtleff College), is one of the foremost 
seminaries of learning in this State, and bids fair to continue a blessing 
to the country. These institutions of learning bear witness to the 
prosperity and the enlightened progress of the people of Southern Illi- 
nois, and have had a powerful influence in establishing the high standing 
and character the whole State enjoys at this time. Not only is Southern 
Illinois conspicuous and eminent in colleges and common schools, but 
also a great number of the most eminent professional men in the State 
resided in and extended their influence in this section of country. The 
same may be said of the scientific and literary characters. Many 
scholars, profoundly versed in literature and science, have spent most 



157 

of their days in Soutlieni Illinois, and have, with the professional gentle- 
men, given nnich fame and reputation to the country. 

The south of Illinois has been called "Egypt," and we are delighted 
with the name, which is somewhat appropriate, inasmuch as our modem 
Egypt excels its ancient namesake in the abundant products of the 
earth ; and the people are everywhere known for their ardent patriotism 
and devotion to the Union and its institutions. 

The people of South Illinois are exerting their best energies in the 
agricultural interest. Flouring mills are being erected in every section 
of the country where they are needed. Seven fine steam mills are now 
in operation in St. Clair County, and two more, of great capacities, are 
being built within our limits. Other counties are also doing well in 
the manufacture of flour at this day. The railroads in the south, and 
particularly the central, are infusing life and energy into agriculture. 
JSTothing has done the farmer so much service, since nature gave them 
this most beautiful country, as the railroads. 

At this day agricultural implements are manufactured in abundance 
in almost every town, so that the people are not compelled to resort to 
the old and obsolete modes of preparing their crops for market. Horse 
and steam power is almost entirely used to cut and thresh the wheat, 
and manufacture it into flour, in Southern Illinois. 

A great many of the counties in the south have established agricul- 
tural societies and, fairs, and frequently exhibit articles that would take 
the premiums at the State fairs. The best breed of stock, and the most 
choice selections of seed grain, are sought for and being introduced into 
the country south. 

One other cause for this unexampled prosperity, at this time, in 
South Illinois, is the exceedingly high prices for all agricultural pro- 
ducts. The currency being abundant and sound, adds another element 
to the great advance of the Avealth and population of Southern Illinois. 
The health, likewise, of the last year, was most excellent, which advanced 
greatly, the interest of agriculture, and I believe I may say, in truth, 
that the people of Southern Illinois are prosperous and happy. 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE AGRICULTURAL PROSPECTS AND DESTINY OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 

It is stated by an eminent man of Missouri, Mr. Bates, "that agri- 
culture depends, for its very existence and success, on land, labor and 
learning." This is self-evident; and so it will appear to all intelligent 
agriculturists. The land in Southern Illinois is, without doubt, amongst 
the most beautiful and fertile tracts of the great West, and is also 
blessed with a climate that cannot be surpassed, in the valley, for its 
agreeable and pleasant atmosphere. This basis of the agricultural 
interest, in South Illinois, presents advantages that cannot be overrated, 
and that will make it the most beautiful section of the State by proper 
cultivation and improvement. But the labor and learning must evidently 
go together, as one cannot exist, to any advantage, Avithout the other. 
Work without learning will not succeed; and learning without work is 
equally disadvantageous. 



158 

The people of Southern Illinois are the noble descendants of worthy 
sires. They are composed of the descendants of the heroes of the revolu- 
tion and Indian fighters of the West, together with the choice spirits 
whose talents and energy enabled them to abandon the old worn-out 
states for a new and better country. 

This is the population of Southern Illinois, and a more noble stock 
cannot be found on which to engraft all the branches of agriculture. But 
the people must become intelligent in the science and practice of agri- 
culture, before they can succeed to any great extent. Nature has decreed, 
in her irrevocable laws, that man must labor for his support, and to labor 
with any hopes of success, he must be intelligent to a common degree at 
least. It is absurd to suppose that any one could become a successful 
agriculturist if he were void of intellect, and the more he improves his 
mind and labors in proportion, the better husbandman he will be. There 
is no excuse for any one in Illinois that he has no time or opportunity 
to improve his mind in his agricultural pursuits, as the earth produces 
in such abundance that any one, no matter how poor he may be, can find 
time sufficient to advance his agricultural "learning." And books and 
newspapers on the subject abound in every section of the State, and can 
be purchased at low prices. Moreover, a volume which does the State 
and its authors great honor, known as "The Transactions of the State 
Agricultural Society," has been published at the cost of the State, and 
many copies circulated amongst the people, free of expense ; and I am 
happy to be able to recommend it to the agricultural public as a book 
that every farmer should read and study. He will find in it more prac- 
tical and useful information to suit the farmers of Illinois than in any 
other work of the same extent. I have no hesitation in saying that, if 
the farmers of the State were to understand well the contents of this 
volume, and pursue the precepts and directions therein laid down, that 
Illinois would be made one million of dollars wealthier each year for 
many years to come. The officers of the State society, who conducted 
the State agricultural fairs with such sound judgment and discretion, 
and recorded in this work, to advance the best interest of the country, 
deserve the highest commendation of the public. 

Then there are the annual reports of the patent office, sent free; 
besides many cheap agricultural books, and two excellent periodicals 
published in the State. The Illinois Farmer — a first rate monthly 
journal — ;at Springfield, is sent to subscribers at the low price of $1 per 
year; and the old Prairie Farmer, Chicago — now published weekly — 
costs only $2 per year. 

We often hear complaints made that farmers are not selected for 
public offices and confidential trusts. The reason is, they do not gen- 
erally qualify themselves to perform the duties of these situations as 
others do. The agricultural interest would prefer one of their own 
number, if they were as competent as those of other professions to 
officiate in these responsible stations. Farmers of Illinois : how long will 
you neglect your own interest by overlooking the improvement of your 
minds? You are obliged to take a back seat in both public and private 
business, if you neglect education. 



159 

Fellow citizens of Southern Illinois : You possess the power and 
capacity to make your section of the State prosper and "'blossom as the 
rose." Nature has been most bountiful to you in presenting to you the 
best and most choice favors. You are blessed with a central location 
in the largest and most fertile valley on the globe, and in the centre of 
commerce of thousands and thousands of miles of river navigation. 
Almost all the large navigable streams of the west concentrate their 
mighty waters around your borders, and by their junction, at the eity of 
Cairo, the inland ocean is formed, which extends to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Xo point on the continent of Korth America has more natural advantages 
for a great inland city than Cairo, which is now fast rising to the great 
and grand destiny that awaits her. The Central Eailroad extending north 
from the mouth of the Ohio, through the heart of the great empire State 
of the west, and connecting with the lakes at Chicago and with the 
Mississippi near Galena, has already given Cairo and Southern Illinois 
an onward impulse that they never before experienced. Cairo is com- 
mencing to exert the powers that nature has so bountifully bestowed on 
her, and is extending her ample folds of commerce to all parts of the 
continent. Public and private edifices are being erected, of great and 
grand dimensions and of exquisite and elegant taste and workmanship. 
Fleets of steamboats from all parts of the west meet at this point, inter- 
change their freights, and then the floating palaces descend the Father 
of Waters with the northern products to the tropics, while the small 
steamers ascend again the smaller streams, with the rich freight of "the 
sunny south." jSTo ice or other obstructions in the Mississippi, will ever, 
from Cairo to the ocean, interrupt the navigation of that noble stream; 
so that Cairo and all the markets of the earth will be in direct water 
communication with each other. 

Water conveyance is the first mode of trade and travel known on 
earth, and will remain forever, the victory of God over man. The rail- 
roads are the auxiliaries to the navigable streams, and have within a few 
years performed wonders for the United States, and particularly for the 
State of Illinois; but it is at last the water convevance that will be re- 
sorted to for the great and heavy commerce of the world. 

The whole length of the Ohio River will be improved in a few years 
by slackwater navigation, or by canals. So will the other streams, the 
Wabash. Cumberland. Tennessee Eivers and others, so that Cairo will be 
the centre of a commerce that man, in no age or country, has ever wit- 
nessed. Cairo, before the close of the present century, will contain two 
hundred thousand souls, and Southern Illinois at least a million and a 
half of people. 

The great commerce of the valley of the Mississippi is founded on 
the agriculture of the same region, and they are allied together by indis- 
soluble bonds. The commerce of Cairo and Southern Illinois will force 
into existence a new impetus to the agriculture of the South of Illinois. 
The two thousand four hundred miles of railroads, now existing in the 
•State, will soon be increased to accommodate the wants of one and a half 
millions of people in Illinois. The late election returns show Illinois 
to be the fourth State in the Union in population — only three states in 
the Union that takes precedence of the Prairie State! This commerce, 



160 

and facilities of river and railroad conveyance, will force all parts of 
the State into healthy and energetic action. Southern Illinois will 
marshal into efficient energy all her agricultural resources, and discover 
probably other sources of agricultural wealth. The various agricultural 
crops will be more diversified and multiplied; so the seasons, dry or wet, 
will not so much affect the farmer. No country on the continent is 
better adapted to the growth of fruit than South Illinois. The French, 
down from their first occupation of the country, in the year 1682. culti- 
vated to advantage both pears and apples. The Americans raise with 
success all species of fruit in Southern Illinois, that the climate will 
permit. Hemp and tobacco find this section of the State their particular 
friend. Flax also grows well here; and cotton may be cultivated to 
advantage in Southern Illinois. All species of grass will find a con- 
genial soil in the Cash Eiver bottoms and other large alluvial tracts in 
this region of country. 

I have for the last thirty years pressed on the consideration of the 
farmers the raising of mules and hay for exportation, and I still recom- 
mend them as two of the best articles that can be raised in Southern 
Illinois. Mules are also the best animals for drudgery and draft on 
the farms, and are always a more ready sale than horses. And at all 
times hay will command a fair price in the southern markets. 

With all these fortunate circumstances urging Illinois to action and 
energy, the whole State has within a few years increased the substantial 
wealth of the country with great rapidity. The wars in Europe and 
other causes created a good market for most of the agricultural products 
of Illinois, and the people embraced the occasion with great avidity and 
advantage. Illinois is wending her wa}' with certainty and with nmch 
speed to her great and glorious destiny. In a few j^ars the Prairie State 
will be the great Empire State in population and agricultural Avealth in 
the Union, and will exert a gi-eat influence in o;iving tone and character 
to public opinion throughout the Nation. The known intelligence and 
patriotism of the people will be exerted for the general Avelfare of the 
whole Union, north and south, and east and west. The Union and Con- 
stitution of the United States will be secure in the hands of Illinois, 
so far as this young State has the power to preserve them. And, also, 
the people will be secure in all their rights and privileges, under the 
wise and judicious administration of the laws of the State. The people 
residing in this gi'eat and prosperous State, and enjoying so many 
advantages and blessings, will experience as much happiness as is allotted 
to man on earth. 



161 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abordcen (Lord) George Hamilton Gordon 94 

Abolitionists 62,86,87,90,97,98 

footnotes 79,80 

Abraham, Bible Character 37 

Adams County, Illinois 67,87 

Adams County, Illinois, foreign-born popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Adamson Bill, case (Wilson v. New et al U. S. 

Supreme Court) reference 107 

African Baptist Church, Alton, Illinois, foot- 
note 89 

African Methodist Church, Chicago 97 

African Repository at Washington, D. C, 

reference 92 

Agricultural, implements of the French in Illi- 
nois 146 

Agricultural Resources of Southern Illinois by 

John Reynolds, reprint 141-160 

Agricultural societies established in southern 

Illinois 157 

Agriculture, American settlements and the 
first American agriculture in southern Illi- 
nois 149-153 

Agriculture, Bates Edward (?) quoted on the 

success of 157 

Agriculture, Clark (Gen.) George Rogers, en- 
courages his soldiers to become agriculturists. 149 
Agriculture, French in Illinois were not agri- 
culturists 146, 147 

Agriculture, French settlements and the 

French agriculture in southern Illinois. .145-149 
Agriculture, Illinois State Agricultural Society, 

transactions 158 

Agriculture, periodicals and books on agri- 
culture 158 

Agriculture, Reynolds, .John, Agricultural 
Resources of Southern Illinois. Reprint. 141-160 

Albion, Illinois 5,22 

Albright, Isaac N. of Union County, Illinois. . . 84 

Alcott, Louisa M ." 61 

Alexander County, Illinois, negro population 

in 1910 69 

Alfred the Great of England 52 

Allegheny Mountains 119,145 

Allen, , (Deputy) reads the injunction 

order to strikers, Pullman strike 1894 101 

Allen County, Indiana 30 

Allen, Lemuel 43 

AUouez, (Father) Claude .lean, .Icsuit-Priest. .115 
Altgeld, (Gov.), John Peter. Did not approve 
of President Cleveland sending troops to 

Chicago at time of Pullman strike 103 

Alton, Illinois 19,28,80,89,112, 142, 149,1.56 

footnotes 79,80,89 

Alton, Illinois, American Baptist Church. Foot- 
note '. 89 

Alton, Illinois, Citizens of, raise fund to free 

Amanda Cheeser (colored girl). Footnote... 89 
Alton, Illinois, Daily Courier (Newspaper). 

Footnotes ' 80,89 

Alton, Illinois, underground railroad in Alton. 80 
Ambrose, .T. E. Footnotes 78,91,92,93 



PAGE. 

Ambrose, J. E., contributes information with 

regard to Canadian Missionaries among the 

negros in Canada 91 

footnotes 91 ,92 

America 48, .53, 57, 70, 143 

America, Bristed John, Resources of America, 

quoted 70 

American Anti-slavery Society in New York. . 90 

American Archaeology 11 

American Bank Note Company 53 

American Bottom, colony of Americans in, 

early settlement 149 

American Bottom, in southern Illinois, extent 

of, etc 142-143 

American Bottom, inundations of, 1700, 1725, 

1772^ reference 143 

American Bottom, Monk's Mound (Cahokia 

Mound), located in 144 

American Bottom, produced the first fruits of 

agriculture west of the Allegheny Mountains. 145 
American Bottom, Religious Altars, Kaska.s- 

kia and Agriculture commenced together in 

the American Bottom 145 

American Cattle 147 

American Colonics 35 

American Historical Association 25 

American Railway Union, Eugene V. Debs, 

moving spirit in 99,100,101 

American Settlements and the first American 

Agriculture in southern Illinois 149-153 

American silk mill, first one built by A. Hanks. 53 

Americans 146, 147, 151 ,152 

Amherstbury, Canada 93,95 

footnote 95 

Amherstbury, Canada, Isaac Rice's call for help 

for missionary work in 95 

Amherstbury, Canada, Isaac Rice, missionary 

work among the negroes in 93 

footnote 93 

Anderson, (Mrs.) Elsa Price 54 

Andes Mountains 118 

Andover, Illinois 83,98 

Andover, Illinois, underground railroad in, 

works elToctively 98 

Anti-negro Stealing Society 87 

Anti-slavery Newspapers ." 83 

Anti-slavery Society; Christian Anti-slavery 

Society convention held in Greenville, Bond 

County, Illinois, October 20, 1846, footnote. . 82 
Anti-slavery Society, Illinois Anti-slavery 

Society,' Dr. Richard Eells elected president 

of, 1843 S3 

Anti-slavery Society, Putnam County, Illinois, 

footnote " 82 

Appalachian Mountains 50 

Archaeology— American Bottom, Indian 

Mounds in 144 

Archaeology— Monk's Mound (Cahokia Mound) 

in the American Bottom 144 

Arenz, Francis 120,121 

A renz, Francis, gift to Beardstown, Illinois . 121 , 122 
Arenz, Francis, land entry recorded in Morgan 

County ' 120 



—11 H S 



162 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Arenzville, Illinois 120, 121 

Arkansas— Cache River, Arkansas, battle of, 

War of the Rebellion 33 

Armstrong, Dull, J. X. Gridley's article on the 
Duff Armstrong Trial, Beardsto\\Ti, Illinois, 

reference to 122 

Armstrong, Duff, trial in Bcardstown, Illinois. 122 

Arnold, Isaac N 62,85 

Arnold, Marshal 101 

Ashburn (Lord) Ale.xander Baring 91 

Athelston— Grandson of Alfred the Great of 

England, reference 52 

Athens County, Ohio 30 

Atlanta, Illinois, footnote 80 

Atlanta, Georgia, capture of, War of the Re- 
bellion, reference 135 

Atlantic Ocean .59,113 

Auglaize County, Ohio 30 

Aurora, Illinois, Beacon (Newspaper), foot- 
notes 84 ,90, 136 

Aurora, Illinois, Congregational Church, foot- 
note 95 

Aurora, Illinois, foreign-bom population in 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Aurora, Illinois, Guardian (Newspaper), foot- 
note 96 

Aurora, Illinois, response to call for missionary 

work among the negroes in Canada ". 95 

footnote 95 

Austria 66 

Austria, Hungary 66 



B 

Baker, Edward Dickinson 42 

Baker, Marvel L 54 

Baker, (Mrs.) Susan Rodger .54, .56 

Baldwin, W . A., footnote 133 

Baltimore, Maryland 112 

Baptist Church^ African Baptist Church, Alton, 

Illinois, footnote 89 

Baptist Tabernacle, footnote 95 

Barker, George A., footnote 92 

Barley, was not raised in Illinois at an earlv 

date ".147 

Barrington, (Cook Countv) Illinois 32 

Barton, Ohio " 114, 116,117 

Bata via, Illinois, response to call for missionary 

work among the negroes of Canada, footnote". 95 
Bateman, Newton, historical encyclopedia of 

Illinois, quoted, footnotes ." 83 , 85 , 86 

Bates, (Mrs.) , footnote 95 

Bates, Edward (?), statement on agriculture, 
"its e.xistence and success depends upon 

land, labor and learning " 157 

Baxter, (Mrs.) E.C 19 

Bayless Family 31 

Beales, Alvord, brother-in-law of Thomas 

Beard 123 

Beard & Arenz addition to Bcardstown, Illi- 
nois 121 

Beard & Ware's addition to Bcardstown, Illi- 
nois 121 

Beard, Agnes Caspean 126 

Beard, Amazlah removes in 1798 to the Western 

Reserve of Ohio 114 

Beard, Amos served in the Revolutionary 

War 113 

Beard, Caroline E 126 

Beard Cemetery, near Bcardstown, Illinois 

123 129 
Beardi Edward T . .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' ." .' .' ! .' .' .' .' .' .' ...... ! 126 

Beard, Eugene Crombie 126 

Beard, Francis Arenz 126 

Beard, James McClure 126 

Beard, .Tedidiah, father of Thomas Beard 113 

Beard, Jedldiah, letter of Thomas Beard to his 
father .Tedidiah Beard written from Salem, 

Ohio, 1814 114-115 

Beard, Jedidiah, soldier in the War of 1812 115 



P.VGE. 

Beard, Jedidiah, son of Amos Beard 113 

Beard, Stella 126 

Beard, Thalia 114,115 

Beard, Thomas, (Rev.) P. C. Croll, D. D., 

Thomas Beard, the pioneer and founder of 

Bcardstown, Illinois 16,111-129 

Beard, Thomas, Bcardstown, Gazette obituary 

notice 128', 129 

Beard, Thomas, Beardsto^-n, Illinois, named 

for 120 

Beard, Thomas, born December 4, 1794 114 

Beard, Thomas, death of 125,126 

Beard, Thomas, establishes ferry at Beards- 
town, Illinois ." 117 

Beard, Thomas, extract from a letter to his 

father dated Beard stown, Morgan Countv, 

Illinois, February 23, 1S30 ! ". .121 

Beard, Thomas, first land entrv made by in 

1826 ." 117 

Beard, Thomas, gifts to Bcardstown, Illinois, 

in propert J', etc 122 

Beard, Thomas, home near Bcardstown, Illi- 
nois 123 

Beard, Thomas, land entries recorded in 

Morgan County 120 

Beard, Thomas, letter to his father wTitten 

from Salem, Ohio, January 2, 1814 114-115 

Beard, Thomas, letter to his parents written 

from Sangamon Bay, March 20, 1826 117-118 

Beard, Thomas, starts for Illinois from Ohio.. 115 

Beard, Thomas statue to, suggested 129 

Beard, Thomas, thanksgiving feast at home 

of, described by Prof. John Loorais 123-124 

Beardsley, (Rev.) W., footnote 95 

Bcardstown, Illinois, Arenz, Francis, gift to 

Beardstown, Illinois 121 , 122 

Beardstown, Illinois, Beard & Arenz addition 

to ; 121 

Beardstown, Illinois, Beard & Ware's addition 

to 121 

Beardsto^vn, Illinois, Beard, Thomas, centen- 
nial of his first settling in, to be celebrated. .111 
Beardsto%vn, Illinois, Beard, Thomas, gifts to 

Beardsto^\Ti in property, etc 121 , 122 

Beardstown, Illinois, beginning of 115 

Beardstown, Illinois, centeimial of, reference 

111,129 

Beardstown, Illinois, Croll, (Rev.) P. C, D. ' 

D., Thomas Beard, the pioneer and founder 

of Beardstown, Illinois 16. 111-129 

Beardstown, Illinois, description of a trip of 

early settlers to Beardstown 116-117 

Beardsto\vn, Illinois, Douglas Stephen A., 

visit to Beardstown 122 

Beardstown, Illinois, early settlers in what is 

now Beardstown, Illinoi"? 120 

Beardstown, Illinois, excavations of Indian 

mounds in Beardstown 118-119 

Beardstown, Illinois, ferry established at by 

Thomas Beard 117 

Beardstown, Illinois, Gazette, obituary notice 

of Thomas Beard 128, 129 

Beardstown, Illinois, Lincoln, Abraham, visits 

to Beardstown 121 , 122 

Beardstown, Illinois, named for Thomas 

Beard 120 

Beardstown, Illinois, Schmoldt, A. E., saw 

mill. : 121 

Beardstown, Illinois, Schultz, Baujan & Co., 

flouring mill 121 

Beckwith, Hiram W., first president of the 

Illinois State Historical Society 34,36 

Beecher, Edward, President Illinois College, 

Jacksonville 82 

Belgium 66 

Bell, Sarah, first wife of Thomas Beard l20 

Bell, Sarah, first wife of Thomas Beard, child- 
ren of 128 

Bellefountaine Creek, Tate & Singleton's mill 

on 152 

Bellefountaine, Illinois, early settlement in.. 149 



163 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Belleville, Illinois 131 , loO 

footnotes 80,90 

Belleville, Illinois, Advocate (Newspaper), 

footnotes 80,81,90 

Belleville, Illinois, Democrat, September 26, 

lSi)3, quoted 131 

Belmont. Wisconsin, original Territorial 

Capital of Wisconsin 48 

Belshazzar's Banquet, reference 41 

Belvidere, Illinois 5,22 

Berkshire County, Massachusetts 113 

Berry House where Thomas Lincoln and Nancy 

Hanks were married, reference 55 

Berry, Richard, foster father of Nancy Hanks. . 53 

Bethlehem of Judea " 37 

Big Muddy Coal Mines, Illinois 154 

Big Muddy River, salt works situated on 154 

Bismarck, North Dakota 63 

Black, George N 26,36 

Black, George N., gift of books from the librarv 
of, to the State Historical Library an<l 

Societv ".. 26 

Black Ilawk War, 1832 39 

Black, John W 26 

Black Rock 114 

Blair, Montgomery, Post-master General, U. S.135 
Blake, (Capt.) fugitive slaves carried bv boat 

commanded by Capt.'Blake ." 89 

Blanchard, J ., anti-slavery man 83 

Bloomingdale, Illinois, response to call for mis- 
sionary work among the negroes of Canada, 

footnote 95 

Bloomington, Illinois 22,27,33,34,69,112 

Bloomington, Illinois, foreign-born population 

in 1870, ISSO, 1S90, 1900, 1910 69 

Bloomington, Illinois, Pantagraph (News- 
paper) 33 , 34 

Bloomington, Illinois, public schools 33 

Blue Island, Illinois, wreck on Rock Island 
Railroad at Blue Island during Pullman 

strike, 1894 100 

Bluff .Springs, Cass County, Illinois 123 

Bluhm, Charles 123 

Boehne, Henry H., brother-in-law of Thomas 

Beard ; 123 

Bogart, Earnest L., the Movement of the Popu- 
lation of Illinois, 1870-1910 15,64-75 

Bohdecker, (Mrs.) of Vicksburg, fugi- 

ti\e slave owned by, escaped from steamer. . 88 

Bohemia 66 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 112 

Bond County, Illinois 76,82,150,154 

footnote 82 

Bond County, Illinois, anti-slavery people in, 

reference 76 ,82 

Bond County, Illinois, anti-slavery people. 

Brown County, Ohio, settle in Bond County. 76 
Bond County, Illinois, early settlements "in 

Bond County .* 150 

Bond County, Illinois, salt works in Bond 

County 154 

Boon, William, ships coal from the Big Muddy 

.Mines to New Orleans, 1809 154 

Boone County, Illinois, foreigh-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Boone Countv, Indiana 30 

Boone, Danic"! 50,52 

Boone, Daniel, Daughters of the American 
Revolution mark trail of Daniel Boone by 

monument 50 

Borders, .Vndrew 83 

Boston, Massachusetts 81 , 112, 122 

Boston, Ufassachiisetts, Old South Church 122 

Brewer, David Josiah, decision of, in case of 

" In re Debs " 106-108 

Bristed, John, resources of America, quoted.. 70 
Bristol, Illinois, response to call for missionary 

work among the negroes in Canada 95 

footnote 95 

Bristol, Illinois, station for the underground 

railroad 81 

footnote 87 



PAGE 

British America 66 

British Anti-Slavery Society of England 94 

British Memorial to Congress relative to the 

fugitive slave T 94 

British Treaty, fugitive slaves, reference, foot- 
note 94 

Broadie, James, sheriff of Will Coimty, Illinois. 87 

Brooklyn, New York 126,127,123 

Brooklyn, New York, Greenwood Cemetery.. 126 

Brougham, (Lord) Henry 94 

Brown County, Ohio, anti-slavery people from 
settled in Bond and Putnam Counties, Illi- 
nois 76 

Browning, Orville H 42 

footnote 135 

Brovraing, Orville H., quoted on the nomina- 
tion of McClellan, footnote 135 

Bryant, William Cullen 61 

Bryce, James, quoted on the power of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, during the Civil War 131 

Buchanan, (Pres.) James 137 

footnqje 137 

Buchanan, (Pres.) James, works of, quoted, 

footnote 137 

Bucknor, John, negro, capture of, at Princeton, 

Illinois 89,90 

Buckwheat, was not raised in Illinois at an 

earl v date 147 

Buffalo, New York 59, 114 

Bureau County, Illinois 67,76,82,83 

Bureau County, Illinois, anti-slavery people in, 

reference 82 

Bureau County, Illinois, Circuit Court, case of 

Owen Lovejoy in 82,83 

Bureau Countv, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Burlington, Iowa, footnote 88 

Burnham, Joliii, of Norwich, England 32 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H 15,17,19,27,32-36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., business interests 33 
Burnham, (Capt.) Jolin H., A curious proposi- 
tion in 1776, article on 36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., The destruction of 

Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River 35,38 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., director of the 
Illinois State Historical Society from its 

organization 35 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., Forgotten States- 
men of Illinois— John McLean 36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., historical writings 

34,36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H.. History of the 
Thirtv-third Regiment, Illinois Volunteer 

Infantry 36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., Mysterious Indian 

Battle Grounds in McLean County, Illinnis. . 36 
Burnham, (Capt.) John H., one of "the organi- 
zers of the McLean County Historical Society 34 
Burnham, (Capt.) John H., resolutions on the 

death of, Illinois State Historical Society.. 22, 23 
Burnham, (Capt.) John II., Weber, Jessie 
Palmer, In Memoriam, Capt. John H. Burn- 
ham 16 ,23 ,32-36 

Burnham, (Capt.) John H., work in behalf of 

the Illinois State Historical Society 36 

Burnham, Sarah Perkins 32 

Bush, J.B 27 

Butler, Benjamin (?) 133 

Butler, C, footnote .' 95 

Butler County, Ohio *. 38 

Buxton, Canada settlement for the refugee 
negroes at Buxton 92 



C 

Cache River, Arkansas, Battle of, AVar of the 
Rebellion 33 

Cairo, Illinois, City Gazette (Newspaper), foot- 
note 88 

Cairo, Illinois, City Times (Newspaper) 80 

footnotes 80,88 



164 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Cairo, Illinois, Democrat, July 14, 1864, criti- 
cizes Abraham Lincoln, footnote 132 

Cairo, Illinois, prediction of its prosperity 132 

Cairo, Illinois, Weekly Times and Delta (News- 
paper), footnote. ..." 81 

Calhoim, early name for Springfield, Illinois. . . 120 

California State 28,53, 129, 155 

California State, emigration of Illinoisans to. . 73 

California State, Glendale, California 129 

California State, Pasadena, California 28 

Camp meetings in an early day in Illinois, 

reference ' 40, 156 

Camp meetings in the Methodist Church early 

ones, reference *. 40 

Camp Russell, a few miles north of Edwards- 

ville, Illinois 153 

Campbell, Edward T 28 

Canada 15,76— ,96,145,147 

footnotes 80,92,94,95,96 

Canada, Buxton, Canada 92 

Canada, colored population of 92 

footnote 92 

Canada, Cooley, (Miss) Verna. Illinois and the 

imderground railroad to Canada 15,76-98 

Canada Dawn Mills. Canada mission for fugi- 
tive slaves 91 

footnote 91 

Canada, French cattle from Canada, brought 

to Southern Illinois 147 

Canada, French colonists from, to Southern 

Illinois 145 

Canada, Howe, S. G., report on the refugees 
from slavery in Canada west, quoted, foot- 
note ; 92 

Canada — Illinois and the fugitive slave in 

Canada 90-96 

Canada, King, William, establishes a colonj- 

in Canada for negroes .91 

Canada, Lake Simcoe, Canada 91 

Canada, Metcalfe, (Sir) Charles, Bart, Gover- 
nor General of Canada, footnote 94 

Canada, mission work among fugitive slaves, 
call for aid, response of churches and individ- 
uals in Illinois 95 

footnote 95 

Canada, negroes, opportunity for securing land 

cheaply in, etc .' 91 

Canada, Simcoe, (Gen.) John Graves, Governor 

General of Canada 91 

Canada, Webster — Ashburton Treaty, fugitive 

slave clause in, reference , 03 

Canada, AVilbertorce settlement in Canada 91 

Canada, work of the missionaries in behalf of 

negro refugees in Canada 90,01,92,93,95,96 

Canfleld, J.' L., brother-in-law of Thomas 

Beard 123 

Cape Ann, Massachusetts 32 

Cape Girardeau, Missouri, Eagle (Newspaper), 

footnote 90 

Carbondale, Illinois 22 

Carlock, M illiam B 23 

Carlvle, Illinois 153 

CarlVle, Thomas 48 

Carolinas, The 50 

Carpenter, Philo, aids missionaries in their 

work among fugitive slaves in Canada 96 

Carpenter, Philo, anti-slavery man, 86,96 

footnote '. 95 

Carpenter, Richard V 5,22 

Carpenter's Hall of the Colonial Period 122 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E 5,15,21,109,110 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., Battle of Gettvsburg. 

Reverie of fifty vears after 109-110 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., Lincoln at Gettysburg. . 109 
Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., represents Illinois at 
the dedication of the Gettvsburg National 

Cemetery ". 109 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., Reverie of fifty vears 

after 15, 109, 110 

Carroll County, Indiana 30 

Carter, William, abduction of a negro slave... 82 



PAGE. 

Carter, William, aids runaway slaves 87 

Carter, William, of Winchester, Illinois, quoted 

on the Fugitive Slave Bill 78 

footnote 78 

Carthage, Illinois 112 

footnote 133 

Carthage, Illinois, Republican, Jime 2, 1864, 

quoted, footnote 133 

Cash River 143,160 

Cass County, Illinois 112,118,119,120,123,124 

CassCountv, Illinois, cut oil of Morgan County, 

1837 ". 119 

Cass County, Illinois, first court house erected 
imder contract for the county by Thomas 

Beard in 1844 ." 122 

Cass County, Illinois, Gridley, J. N., historical 

sketches of Cass County, c|iioted 123-124 

Cass County, Illinois, Shaw, Henry, extracts 
from address on Cass County, Illinois, de- 
livered Julv 4, 1876 118-119 

Catholic Church ^ 62 , 148 

Caton, John Dean 82 

footnotes 82,83,85 

Cattle, French cattle in southern Illinois 147 

Celebrated Illinois case that made history, bv 

Stephen A. Day 15,99-108 

Centennial Flag, State of Illinois 18 

Centralia, Illinois ; 81 

footnotes 80,88 

Centralia, Illinois, underground railroad in . . . 80 

footnote 80 

Cettrough, John, early settler in Illinois 120 

Chafln, Eugene W.," lecture on Lincoln, ref- 
erence 56 

Chafin, Eugene W., prohibition leader and 

lecturer 56 

Cahokia 144, 145 

Cahokia, beginning of 145 

Cahokia, Prairie du Sucie or Sugar Loaf Moimd 

near 144 

Cairo, Illinois 48,88 

footnotes 80,81,88,132,159 

Chambers' Fort, Illinois, War of 1812 153 

Champaign County, Illinois, immigrants from 

Indiana, settled in Champaign County 72 

Champaign County, Illinois, immigrants from 

Ohio, settled in Champaign County 72 

Champaign, Illinois. . . ." 5,21 ,112 

footnote 136 

Champaign, Illinois, Union & Gazette (News- 
paper) , footnote 136 

Chandlerville, Illinois 118, 121 , 123 

Charleston, Illinois 53,54,112* 

Charleston, Illinois, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, 
Semi-Centennial celebration held in Charles- 

tion, 190S 53 

Chase, Salmon P., presidential aspirations, 

reference 133 

footnote 133 

Chatham , Canada west 91 

footnotes 78,91 

Chatham, Canada, setJleinent near for negroes. 91 
Cheeser, Amanda, Alton, Illinois, citizens raise 
fund to free colored girl, Amanda Cheeser, 

footnote 89 

Chenoa, Illinois 19 

Chester Coimt v, Pennsylvania 52 

Chester, Illinois ". 80,81,142,149 

Chester, Illinois, undorgrotnid railroad in 80 

Chicago, Illinois 5,15,19,21,25,28,30,38,48,49, 

56, 66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78, 80, 81, 84, 85, 89, 90, 
92, 96, 97, 98, 99, 108, 109, 112, 121. 131, ].3v', 1.58, 159 

footnotes 79,80,84.85,86,88,95 

Chicago, Illinois, African ^lethodist Church... 97 
Chicago, Illinois, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, used for transporting fugitive slaves, 

footnote r 88 

Chicago, Illinois, Chicago & Alton Railroad... 98 
Chicago, Illinois, Chicago & Rock Island Rail- 
road used for transporting fugitive slaves, 
footnote 88 



165 



INDEX — Continued. 



pai;e. 
Chicago, Illinois, colored poopk- of, appoint 
vigilant committee to watch for attempts at 

kidnapping 78 

Chicago, Illinois, Common Council, oflicial 

deliance of the Fugitive Slave Act of ISuO 85 

Chicago, Illinois, Conimoii Council, passed 
resolutions requesting citizens and police to 
abstain from any and all interference in the 

capture and deliverance of fugitive slaves 78 

Chicago, Illinois, congregal ional societies of 92 

Chicago, Illinois, Daily Democrat (Newspaper) 81 

footnotes ". 79, 80, 8."), 88 

Chicago, Illinois, Daily Joimial (Newspaper), 

footnotes " 81 ,97 

Chicago, Illinois, Day, Stephen A., A cele- 
brated Illinois case that made history, lo, 99-108 
Chicago, Illinois, first known case of dispatch- 
ing a fugitive slave from Chicago 77 

Chicago, Illinois, First Presbyterian Church, 
response to call for missionary work among 

the negroes of Canada, footnote 95 

Chicago, Illinois, foreign-born population in 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Cliicago, Illinois, Hamilton Club 19 

Chicago, Illinois, Historical Society work of in 

preserving historical places in Chicago 49 

Chicago, Illinois, immigration to 1900, 1910 74 

Chicago, Illinois. Mann, Charles W ., The Chi- 
cago Common Council and the Fugitive Slave 

Law of 1S.30 70 

footnotes 85,86 

Chicago, Illinois, Press and Tribune (News- 
paper), footnote 84 

Chicago, Illinois, terminus of the underground 

railroad 81 

Chicago, Illinois, Times (Newspaper) 131 , 132 

Chicago, Illinois, Times, October 1, 1863, 
qtioted on the suspension of the writ of habeas 

corpus 131 

Chicago, Illinois, Tribune (iVewspaper) 100,132 

Chicago, Illinois, Tribime, July 1, 1894, quoted 

on the wreck at Blue Island", 1894 100 

Chicago, Illinois, underground railroad 80 

footnote 80 

Chicago, Illinois, Union League Club 19 

Chicago, Illinois, World's Fair held in 1893.... 38 

Choate Family 32 

Choate, Joseph H. .- 32 

Choate, Rufus 32 

Christian Anti-Slaverv Society held in Green- 
ville, Bond County, IllinoiSj'October 20, 1846, 

footnote 82 

Churches, African Baptist Church, Alton, Illi- 
nois, footnote 89 

Churches, African Methodist Church, Chicago. 97 

Churches, Baptist Tabernacle, footnote 95 

Churches, Catholic Cluirch 62,148 

Churches, Congregational Church 83,92 

footnote 95 

Churches, Congregational Church, Aurora, Illi- 
nois, footnote 95 

Churches, ('ongrcgational Church, Dundee, 

Illinois, footnote 95 

Churches, Congregational Church, Galesburg, 

Illinois ; S3 

Churches, Illinois Territory Churches and 

Schools, established in 156 

Churches, Lutheran Church 02 

Chtirehes, Methodist Church 40,62 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Bloomington, 

Illinois 34 

Churches, Presbyterian Church (First), Chi- 
cago, footnote 95 

Churches, Presbyterian Church, Galesburg, 

Illinois 83 

Churches, Quakers 145 

Churches, Unitarian Church 62 

Churches, Universalist Church 62 

Cincinnati Township, Tazewell Cotmty, Illi- 
nois 38 

Cincinnati, Ohio 25,77,81 ,100 



PAGE. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Liberty Convention of the 

South and West, held in, June 11, 1845 77 

Cincinnati, Ohio, striking rioters shot at 

moving train near, 1894 ICO 

Civil War. Sec War of the Rebellion. . 102, 130, 136 
Clark, George Rogers, captiu-es Kaskaskia 

J uly 4, 1 778 119, 149 

Clark, George Rogers, conquest of the Illinois, 

reference 119, 149 

Clark, George Rogers, conquest of Fort Sack- 

ville 149 

Clark, George Rogers, conquest of Vincennes. .149 
Clark, George Rogers, encourages his soldiers 

to become agriculturists 149 

Clark, William, Lewis & Clark expedition, 

reference 63 

Clarkson, Thomas, president of the British 

Anti-Slavery Society of England 94 

footnote 94 

Clay Coimty, Ind 30 

Clay, Henry, quoted on the escape of slaves to 

Canada 76 

Clay, Isaac, footnote 95 

Clendenin, H . W 5, 17,21 ,22,23 

Cleveland, (Pres.) Grover, called upon to send 

troops to suppress Pullman strike 102 

Cleveland, (Pres.) Grover, issues proclamation 
July 8, 1894, calling attention to the serious- 
ness of Pullman strike 102 

Cleveland, (Pres.) Grover, response to the call of 

Illinois Federal Court, reference 108 

Cleveland, Ohio 115, 133 

Cleveland, Ohio, Independent Convention at, 

nominated Gen. John C.Fremont for President 133 
Clinton County, Illinois early settlements in... 150 
Clinton County, Illinois, fofeign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Clinton County, Indiana 30 

CUnton, J . ^\■ 5 , 22 

Coal in southern Illinois 154 

Codding, Ichabod, anti-slavery man 77,88,97 

Codding, Ichabod, at the Liberty Convention, 
1845, tells of the business of the underground 

railroad ; 77 

Cole, Arthur C, Lincoln and the presidential 

election of 1864 16, 130-138 

Coleman, J. A . abduction of a negro slave 82 

Coleman, J. A., aids rimaway slaves 87 

Coles County, Illinois 53,55,134 

Coles County, Illinois, riots 1864, reference 134 

Collins, counsel for Lovejoy in Slave Case, 

Bureau County Circuit Court 83 

Collins, Charles 116 

Collins, Edward, brother-in-law of Thomas 

Beard 123 

Collins, Edward and Family, description of a 

trip from Ohio to Illinois 116-117 

Collins, James H., aids, mi.ssionaries in their 

work among fugitive slaves in Canada 96 

Collins, James H., anti-slavery man 85,96 

footnotes 85,95 

Collins, James H., (pioted on the action of the 
Common Council of Chicago and the F'ugitive 

Slave Law of 1850 85 

Collins, ( Miss) M . T 127 

Collins, Thomas E ., nephew of Thomas Board . . 117 

Colorado State 38,73 

Colorado State, emigrat ion of Illinoisans to 73 

Columbia, Monroe County, Illinois. .149, 150, 152 
Columbia, Monroe County, Illinois, fort and 

colony established near.". 149,150 

Columbian E.xposition, Chicago 1893. Colum- 
bian Bell made for, reference 53 

Columbiana County, Ohio 30 

Commons awarded to the French settlers in 

southern Illinois 148 

Condit, Floyd .M 121 

Congregational Church 83 ,92 

footnotes 92 ,95 

Congregational Church, Aurora, Illuiois, foot- 
note 98 



166 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Congregational Church, Dundee, Kane County, 

Illinois, footnote 95 

Congregational Church. Galesburg, Illinois 83 

Congregational J ournal, footnote 92 

Congregational Societies of Chicago 92 

Conkling, Clinton L fl, 15,21 ,27 

Conncaut, Ohio 114 

Connelly, (Maj.) H. C 28 

Conscription Act of March 3, 1863, approved by 

Abraham Lincoln 131 

Constitution of Illinois, 1818 156 

Constitution of the United States 83 

Contemporary Vandalism, annual address be- 
fore the Illinois State Historical Society — 

Jeukin Lloyd Jones 15,47-63 

Cook, Burton C 85 

Cook County, Illinois 32,67,68,72 

Cook County, Illinois, foreign-born population 

in 1870-1910 67 

Cook County, Illinois, immigrants from In- 
diana, settled in Cook County 72 

Cook Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from Ken- 
tucky, settled in Cook County 72 

Cook County, Illinois, immigrants from New 

York State, settled in Cook County 72 

Cook Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from Ohio, 

settled in Cook County 72 

Cook County, Illinois, immigrants from Penn- 
sylvania, settled in Cook County 72 

Cook, Daniel P., letters and documents from 

the correspondence of 26 

Cook, James L 26 

Cook, (Gen.) John 26 

Cook, John C 26 

Cooley, (Miss) Vema, Illinois and the under- 
ground railroad to Canada 15 , 76-9S 

Copper discovered in Monroe County, in 1826.. 154 

"Copperheads", reference 134,136 

Coshocton County, Ohio 30 

Cotton raised by the early settlers in Illinois. .151 

" Couriers du bois" 147 

Cox, Dick, pursues runaway slaves 86,87 

Cravens, Joseph M., of Madison, Indiana, helps 
to locate and mark grave of Sarah Lincoln, 

sister of Abraham Lincoln 57 

Creary, (Mrs.) — , footnote 95 

Creoles in southern Illinois 148 

Croll, (Rev.) P. C, letter of Mrs. Agnes Beard 
Doane to, dated Brooklyn, New York, March 

6, 1917 128 

Croll, (Rev.) P. C, letter of Mrs. Edith Beard 
Hampel to, dated Rantoul, Illinois February 

27, 1917 127, 138 

Croll, (Rev.) P. C, letter of Samuel Parker to, 

dated Glendale, California, June 25, 1917 129 

Croll, (Rev.) P. C, letter of Mrs. Stella Beard 
Poe to, dated Sheridan, Wyoming, February 

11, 1917 127 

Croll, (Rev.) P. C, Thomas Beard, the Pioneer 
and Founder of Beardstown, Illinois. .16, 111-129 

Cromwell, Oliver 62 , 131 

Crooked Creek 153 

Cross, (Rev.) John, anti-slavery man 83,86 

footnote 77 

Cross, (Rev.) John, anti-slavery man, harbors 

ftigitive slaves 83 

Cross, (Rev.) John, anti-slavery man indicted 

for harboring and secreting fugitives 86 

Crown Point, Lake County, Indiana, footnote. . 79 
Culver, (Gen.) J. S., erects monument to Nancy 

H anks Lincoln 57 

Cumberland Gap, Tennessee^ Lincoln Mem- 
orial University located at Cumberland Gap 

■. 50,55 

Cumberland River 159 

Cunningham, (Judge) J. O 15,17,19,22,28,36 

Cunningham, (Judge) J. O., resolutions on the 
death of Judge Cunningham, by the Illinois 

State Historical Societv 22 

Curran, AV. R .' 16,19,21,37,44 



PAGE. 

Curran, W. R., memorial address on James 

Haines, read by, reference 16,23 

Currency, value of during Civil War, 1864 134 

CuriousProposition in 1776 — by Capt. John H. 

Bumham 36 

Curtin, (Gov.) Andrew Gregg, War Governor 

of Pennsylvania 131 

Gushing, Samuel, active in the interest of the 

underground railroad 84 

Gushing, Samuel, aid fugitive slaves 87 

Cuyahoga River 114 



Dakotas (The) f 38 

Danville, Illinois 25,26,69,112 

Danville, llhnois, foreign-bom population in 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Daughters of the American Revolution 26,34,50 

footnote 87 

Daughters of the American Revolution mark 

trail of Daniel Boone 50 

Daughters of the American Revolution 

National Society 34 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Ro- 

chelle, Illinois , Chapter, footnote 87 

Davenport, Iowa 79 

footnote 79 

Davidson, Ohio, footnote 95 

Davis, David ' 42,62 

Davis, George, anti-slavery man 83 

Davis, George Perrin 36 

Davis, Henry Winter 134 

Davis, Jefferson 136 

Dawn, Canada, Manual Labor School started 

in 91 

Dawn, Canada Mission, call for missionary 

work in 95 

Dawn Mills, Canada, mission for fugitive slaves 

91,92,95 

footnotes 91 ,95 

Dawn, Canada, Wilson, Hiram, quoted on 

improved conditions of negro settlers in 93 

Dawson, George Francis. Life of John A. 9^ 

Logan, quoted, footnote 137 

Day, Stephen A., A celebrated Illinois case 

that made history 15,99-108 

Dearborn Count v, Indiana 30 

Debs, Eugene V'. 99, 100, 101 , 102 , 106-108 

Debs, Eugene V., Brewer, (Justice) decision in 

" In re Debs Case" 106-108 

Debs, Eugene V., case United States Supreme 

Court, " In re Debs" 106-107 

Debs, Eugene' v., indictment against Debs and 
others in impeding the carrying of the United 

States mail 106 

Debs, Eugene V., issues statement with regard 
to employees being willing to arbitrate, Pull- 
man strike 102 

Debs, Eugene V., moving spirit in the Ameri- 
can Railway Union 99 , 100, 101 

Debs, Eugene v.. President American Railway 

Union 90 

Debs, Eugene V., sympathizers with strikers 
and followers of Debs, wear white ribbons in 

their button holes 100 

Decatur, Illinois 28,68,69,112 

Decatur, Illinois Bridge Company '33 

Decatur, Illinois, foreign-born population in ' 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

DeKalb Countv, Illinois, foreign-born popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

DeKalb, Illinois 5,22 

Democratic Partv 

62,103,131,132,133,134,135,136,137 

DeMomhrcun, Thiniete, Justice of the Peace * 

in the Illinois Country 119 

Dempsey, Ralph i* 

Denmark ^^ 

Denver, Colorado 112 



167 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Description of a trip from Ohio to Benrdstowii, 

Illinois in lS3ti 116-117 

Des Moines, Iowa, footnote 79 

Detroit, Michigan 92 

Diary of Gideon Welles, quoted, footnotes 

133 , 134 , 135 , 136 

♦Dickens, Charles, visit to Illinois 112 

Dickerman Family 126 

Dickerman, (Mrs.) Nancy C 126,128 

Dickerman, (Mrs.) Nancy C, second wife of 

Thomas Beard, children of 126 

Dickerman, ^^ illard A 126 

Dicker, Theophilus Lvle 42 

Dillon Creek, Tazewell County, 111 39 

Dillon Settlement, Tazewell County, Illinois.. 38 

Dillv, , aids jugitive slaves. 88 

Dixon, H. S 27 

DLxon, 111 27 , 112 

Doane, (Mrs.) Agnes Beard, letter to Rev. P. 
C. Croll, dated Brooklvn, New York, March 

6, 1917 ■ 128 

Doane, (Mrs.)Augustus 126 

Doane, Augustus Sidney 126 

Dodge, (Miss) Augusta, wife of James McClure 

Beard 126 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 42,53,62,85,122 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, defends the Fugitive 

Slave law of 1850 85 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Lincoln-Douglas 
Debate, Charleston Semi-Centeunial, 1908.. 53 

Downs, (Mr.) , footnote 95 

Doza Creek, St. Clair County, Illmois 153 

Drew, Benjamin, a North-side View of Slavery, 

quoted, footnote 93 

Drummondsville, Canada, Convention of 

Fugitive Slaves held in 93 

Duga'n, (Mrs.) J. J 28 

Dundee, Kane County, Illinois, Congregational 
Church responds toappeal of the missionaries 
to help negro refugees in Canada, footnote. . . 95 

Dunne, (Gov.) Kdward F 25,36 

Dunne, (Afrs.) Edward F 25,36 

Dunsmore Family 115 

DuPagc County, llliiiois 67 

footnote. . .". 95 

DuPage Countv, Illinois, foreign-born popula- 
tion in 1S70-1910 67 

Dyer, (Dr.) C. V., anti-slavery man... 85, 89, 96, 97 
Dyer, (Dr.) C. V., called the president of the 
underground railroad 85 



Earthquakes in Illinois, reference 119 

East St. Louis, Illinois, foreign-born popula- 
tion in 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

East St. Louis, Illinois, negro population, 1910. . 70 

Eastman, Zebina 86,90,95 

footnote 91 

Eastman, Zebina, editor of the Free Press 86 

Eastman, Zebina, one of the editors of the 
Western Citizen 86 

Eden, Randolph Coimty, Illinois 83 

Edgar, (Gen.) John, early mill owned by, in 
Kaskaskia 151 , 152 

Education, Bloomington, Illinois, public 
schools 33 

Education, Dawn, Institute for the colored 
people in Canada 91 ,93 

Education, Hillsboro Illinois, college 156 

Education, Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois 5,21 

Education, Illinois-Southern Illinois State 
Normal Lmiversity, Carbondalc, Illinois 5,22 

Education, Illinois State Normal School, 
Charleston, Illinois 54 

Education, Illinois State, Northern Illinois 
State Normal School, DeKalb, Illinois 5,22 

Education, Illinois State Normal Vniversitv, 
Normal, Illinois 32,33 

* Error, Dickens visit to Illinois was in 1842- 



page, 

Education, Illinois University 

5,15,16,21,35,64,130-138 

Education, Illinois Territory, Schools and 

Churches established in '. 156 

Education, Lincoln Memorial University at 

Cumberland Gap, Tennessee 50,. 55 

Education, McKendree College, Lebanon, Illi- 
nois 156 

Education, Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, Illinois 5,22 

Education, Rock Springs Seminary (now 

ShurtlelT College) Upper Alton, Illinois 156 

Education, Shurtlefl College, Upper Alton, 

Illinois 150 

Education, Transylvania University, Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky 41 

Education, Wisconsin State Normal Schools.. 48 
Education, Wisconsin State University, Madi- 
son, Wisconsin 48 

Edwards, Benjamin S 42 

Edwards, John H 28 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian, Territorial Governor 

of Illinois 150 

Edwardsville, Illinois 115,153 

Edwardsville, Illinois, Camp Russell a few 

miles north of Edwardsville, Illinois 153 

Eells, (Dr.) Richard, anti-slavery man active 
in the work of the underground railroad... 82, 83 

footnote 82 

Eells, (Dr.) Richard, elected president of the 

Illinois Anti-Slavery Society, 1843 83 

Eggleston Family^ early settlers in what is now 

Beardstown, Illmois 120 

" Egypt", Southern Illinois so called 157 

"Elegy in a Country Church Yard," by 

Thomas Grav, quotation from 51 

Elgin, Illinois." , 69,91 

footnotes 78,92,93,95 

Elgin, Illinois, foreign-bom population in, 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Elizabethtown, Kentucky 53 

Emancipation Proclamation 131 ,132 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 48,49,61 

England 32,48,91,117, 148 

England, Norwich, England 32 

Enos, (Miss) Louise 1 27 

Erie Canal 69 , 1 19 

Erie Canal, completed in 1825 119 

Erie County, Ohio 30 

Esau, Bible Character 40 

Essex, Massachusetts 32 

Europe 47,58,111 ,112, 154 

Eustace, J. V 85 

Evans, Cadwalladcr 52 

Evans, Sarah, wife of John Hanks .'52 

Evanston, Illmois 5,22,31 

Ewing, (Gen.) James 5,34 

Ewing, (Mrs.) James 5,34 

Exposition and Defence of the Fugitive Slave' 

Law— by William Thomas 78 

footnote 78 

Exposition, World's Fair, Chicago, 1893 30 



Faneiiil Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, reference 

to 122 

Farmington, Illinois, Abolitionists of, reference 

97,98 

Farmington, Illinois Underground Railroad in 80 

footnote 80 

Farnham, (Rev.) , footnote 95 

Farragut, (Admiral) David Glasgow 135,137 

" Father of Waters" (The Mi.ssissippi River). . . 159 

Fayette County, 111 19 

Ferris, Walter L., D.D 44 

Ficklin, Orlando B 42 

Fifer, (Gov.) .foseph 34 

Fifer, (Mrs.) Joseph 34 



168 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Fisher, (Mrs.) Mary G 114,121 

Flaherty, ( Miss) Anne C 27 

Flax raised b v the early settlers in Illinois 151 

Flint, Thompson, I. S 41 

Flour shipped in an early day to New Orleans 

from the Illinois and Wabash Colonies 146 

Folsori, Peter, one of the organizers of the 

McLean Coiuity Historical Society 34 

Ford County, Illinois, foreign-bom population 

in 1879-1910 67 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas 42,86 

footnote 86 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas, letter to Thomas Rey- 
nolds, Governor of Missoini, dated AprillS, 

1S43, footnote 86 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas quoted on friends of the 

Fugitive Slaves 86 

Forked Creek 84 

Fort Chartres 143 , 146 

Fort Chartres, damaged by the Flood of 1772. . 143 
Fort Creve Coeur erected by Rene Robert 

Sieur de LaSalle 145 

Fort Dearborn, Kinzie Cabin in, reference 38 

Fort Dearborn Massacre, reference 38,48 

Fort LaMotte, (near Vincennes, Indiana) ^^ ar 

of 1812 153 

Fort Sackville, George Rogers Clark, conquest 

of 149 

Fort St. Louis, called the Rock Fort and 

Starved Rock 145 

Fort Sheridan, Illinois 101,102 

Fort Sheridan, troops from, ordered out to 

suppress Pullman strike 101 , 102 

Foss. (Mrs.) George E 28 

Foster, Henry T 121 

Fountain Green, Illinois 28 

France 66,111,119 

Franklin County, Ohio 30 

Fraternal organizations — Masons 3i 

Frederick, Cass County, Illinois 118 

Free Press (Newspaper) 86 

Free-Soil Party 62 

Free West, newspaper published at Chicago. . 86 

footnotes 79,88,90 

Freeman, Elizabeth, captured slave 87 

Freer, Lemuel C 85,97 

footnote 85 

Fremont County, Iowa, footnote 79 

Fremont, (Gen.") John C 133,134,135,136 

footnote 136 

Fremont, (Gen.) John C, Fremont-Lincoln 

embroglio 134 

Fremont, (Gen.) John C, Illinois Republican 
State Convention, May, 1864, formidable 

Fremont faction takes part in : 133 

Fremont, (Gen.) John C., nominated for the 
presidencv at an mdependent convention 

held in Cleveland, Ohio 133 

Fremont, (Gen.) John C, quoted on Lincoln's 

administration 136 

Fremont-Lincohi embroglio 134 

French cattle Ln southern Illinois brought from 

Canada 147 

French colonies in Illinois increased slowly 

from the first settlement in 1682 until 1763. . . 148 
French colonists from Canada to southern 

Illinois 145,146 

French Creoles in southern Illinois 148 

French immigrants to Illinois were not agri- 
culturists 146, 147 

French in Illinois raise tobacco 151, 152 

French missionaries 118 

French obtained kTiOwledge from the Ameri- 
cans of the use of the small plows in Illinois. . 146 
French ponies of the early settlers of southern 

Illinois ■ 147, 148 

French prosperity in Illinois, reference 146 

French Revolution 100 , 101 

French settlements and the French agriculture 
in southern Illinois 145-149 



PAGE. 

French settlers in southern Illinois excelled the 
Americans in raising fowls, in the gardens and 
in the dance 148 

French villages in Illinois 145 

Friends of Liberty on the Mackinaw; in McLean 
County Historical Transactions, by Erastus 
Mahari, footnote 98 

Frost, Charles S 31 

Frost Familv 31 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 77,78,84,85 

footnote 78 

Fugitive Siave Law of 18-50, Carter, William, ^ 

quoted on 78 

footnote 78 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Douglas, Stephen 
Arnold, defends 85 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Maim, Charles W., 
The Chicago Common Council and the 
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, quoted, footnote 78 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1S50, Thomas William, 
E.xposition and Defence of the Fugitive Slave 

Law, quoted "8 

footnote 78 

Fuller, James C, Quaker, collects funds for 
the negroes in England 91 

Fuller, Margaret 61 



Galena, Illinois 48,49 , 159 

Galesburg, Ulinois 5,15,21,83,87,90,112 

footnote 80 

Galesbtng, Illinois, Congregational Church 83 

Galesburg, Illinois, Old First Church in, used 

as a place of refuge for fugitive slaves 87 

Galesburg, Illinois, Presbyterian Church 83 

Galesburg, Illinois, principal Vnderground 

Railroad station in Illinois 83 

Galesbure, lUmois, Underground Raihoad in 

". T 80,83,98 

footnote 80 

Gallatin County, Illinois, early mills in 155 

Garfield, Jame"s A., Colonel Ohio Regiment, 

'\\ ar of the Rebellion 33 

Geauga Coimty, Ohio 30 

Genius of Liberty (Newspaper) 86 

Genoa, Illinois response to appeal of mission- 
aries to aid f ugiti^'e slaves in Canada, footnote 95 

Gentry vUle, Indiana 53 

Georgia State, footnote 80 

German-American voters, 1864, almost solid for 

Lincoln 137 

Germany 62,66 

Gettysburg, battle of, Clark E. Carr, "Reverie 

of Fifty Years After" 109-110 

Gettysburg National Cemelerv dedication 109 

Git^drd, (Mrs.) H., footnote..". 95 

Gill, Thomas N 41 

" Girard " Steamer 116 

Glastonbury, England 48 

Glendale, California 129 

Goodell, (Mrs.) Charles 123 

Gooding, O. R., footnote 95 

(Joodrich's History of Greece, reference 60 

Gordon, , slave himter 87 

Gordon, Daniel 28 

Gosforth, (Mrs.) 'WiUiam, early teacher in 

Tazewell Coimty 41 

Grand Armv of the Republic 34 

Grant, (Geri.) Ulysses S 108,134, 137 

Granville, Washington County, New York . 1 13 , 114 
Gray, Thomas, "Elegy in a Country Church- 
yard, " quotation from 51 

Great Britain 66,112,113,119,148,149,155 

Great Britain, second war with, reference 112 

" Great Western" (Steamer) 89 

Green Bowling 62 

Greencastle, Indiana 57 

Greene County, Illinois, formed from Madison 
County, 182i 119 



169 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Greene, Evarts Boutell 5,18,21,22,35 

Greene, Evarts Boutell, first secretary of the 

Illinois State Historical Society 35 

Greeley, Horace 61 , 134 

Greelev, Horace, pleads for peace and an under- 
standing with the South, ISiil 134 

Greenville, Bond County, Illinois, Christian 
Anti-Slaverv Society held in, October 20, 

1846, footnote " 82 

Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York... 126 
Gresham, ^\ alter Q.", Secretary of State, Cleve- 
land Administration 103 

Gridley, J.N 114,122,123,124 

Gridley, J. N., DufT .Vrmstrons Trial, article 
in Journal of the Illinois State Historical 

Society, .\pril, 1910, reference 122 

Gridley," J. N., Historical Sketches of Cass 

Couiitv, quoted 123-124 

Griggsville, Illinois 28 

Grinnell, Iowa, footnote 79 

Grosscup, (Judge) Teter S., charge to the jurv, 

Pullman strike case 103 , 104 , 105 , 106 

Grosscup, (Judge) Peter S.; presides over court 
at which Eugene V. Pebs was tried for con- 
tempt of court 101 , 102 

Grundy County, Illinois, foreign-born popula- 
tion in 1S70-1910 67 

Gue, B. F., History of Iowa, quoted, footnote 79 

Guernsey County, Ohio 30 

Guild Hall, England 51 

Gulf of .Mexico 159 



Habeas Corpus, suspension of the privilege of 
the writ of habeas corpus by Abraham 

Lincoln ., 131 

Haines' Cemetery, Pekin, Illinois 38 

Haines' Header 38 

Haines, James, Jr 41 

Haines, James, Sr., bioarapliical sketch 37-44 

Haines, James Sr., Curran, W. R., Tazewell 

Coimty Court, tribute to James Haines 

16,23,37-44 

Haines, James, Sr., In Memoriam. Report of a 
special committee of the Tazewell County 

Bar 37-44 

Haines, James, Sr., quoted on pioneer days in 

Tazewell County, Illinois 39-41 

Haines, Joseph, " early settler of Tazewell 

County, Illinois 38 

Haines, Sarah, wife of Joseph Haines 38 

Haines, \V illiam 08 

Hamilton County, Ohio 30 

Hamilton Familv 31 

Hampcl, (Mrs.) Edith Beard, letter to Rev. 
P. C. Croll, dated Rantoul, Illinois, February 

27, 1917 127-128 

Harapel, W. F 127 

Hancock County, Ohio 30 

Hanks, Benjamin, sailed from London to 

Plymouth, Mas.sachu?etts in 1699 52 

Hanks, Charles, son of Joseph Hanks 53 

Hanks, Dermis 54 ,56 

Hanks, Dennis, grave of near Charleston, Illi- 
nois 54 

Hanks, Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Hanks. . 53 

Hanks Family 50,. 52,. 53, 57,, 58 

Hanks Family, famous bell manufacturers 53 

Hanks Family, industries engaged in .53 

Hanks, John, son of "W illiam Hanks 52 

Hanks, John, cousin of .\braham Lincoln. . ..54,50 

Hanks, Joseph, father of Nancy Hanks 52,53 

Hanks, Joseph, will of, preserved 53 

Hanks, Joseph 2d 53 

Hanks, Nancy, daughter of Joseph Hanks, 

mother of A braham J ancoln 53 

Hanks, Nancy, mother of Abraham Lincoln... 
: 52,53,55 



PAGE. 

Hanks, Nancy, mother of .Vbraham Lincoln. 
Berry House where Thomas Lincoln and 

Nancy Hanks were married, reference 55 

Hanks, Nancy. Richard Berry foster father 

of Nancy Hanks 53 

Hanks, Nancy, wife of Thomas Lincoln, father 

of Abraham Lincoln 52 

Hanks, Sarah, wife of John Hanks 52 

Hanks, Thomas, soldier under Cromwell .52 

Ilanse, R., footnote 95 

Hanson, , colored agent for the self- 
emancipation of slaves 92 

Hardin County, Illinois, iron and lead ore 

discovered in". 154 

Hardin County, Ohio 30 

Hardin Family 50 

Hardy Coimty, Virginia, emigrants to Illinois. . 151 

Harris, James (should be James Haines) 41,42 

Harris, N. Dwight, negro slavery in Illinois, 

footnotes ". .80,82,83,86,88 

Harris, N. W 28 

Harris, Timothy, early settler in Illinois 120 

Harrison, (Gen.) William Henry 150,154 

Harrison, (Gov.) William Henry, Governor of 

Indiana Territory ". 150 

Harvey, (Dr.) L.J 28 

Haskell, (Dr.) W. A 28 

Havana, 111 112 

Haven, (Mr.) , footnote 95 

Haven, , (of Will Comity, Illinois) aids 

missionaries in their work among fugitive 

slaves in Canada ! 96 

Hebron, Illinois 28 

Hemp raised in southern Illinois 160 

Hennepin, Illinois 27 

Henry County, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Ilenrj- County, Indiana 30 

Henry, (Gov.") Patrick I19 

Hemdon, Mary, wife of William H. Hemdon . 55 
Herndon, William H., law partner of Abraham 

Lincohi 54,55, 132 

footnote 55 

Hemdon, ^^ illiam H., monument to, erected 
in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, see foot- 
note 55 

Highland County, Ohio 30 

Hill, (Mr.) '-, residence on Monk's Mound, 

reference 144 

Hill's Fort, Illinois, War of 1812 153 

Hillsboro, Illinois 112, 156 

Hillsboro, Illinois, college 156 

Hindi, Uriah, slave of, escapes to Canada 88 

Hingham, Massachusetts 51 

Hitchcock, Samuel, anti-slavery man 83 

Holland 66 

Hollenbeck, W. T 58 

Horn, Reddick, early minister in BeardstowTti . . 120 
Horse Creek, mill "of Henry Series on Horse 

Creek 152 

Horse Creek, tributary of the Sangamon 

River '. 1 19 

Horse Prairie, Illinois, Randolph County 150 

Horse Prairie Town, formerly Washington, 

Illinois 150 

Hossack, John, of Ottawa, his part in the 

rescue of "Jim" fugitive <:laye 84,85 

Hovey, (Col.) Charles E., Tliirty-third Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, War of the Rebellion.. 33 

Howard County, Indiana 30 

Howe, S. G.,"report on the Refugees from 
Slavery in Canada West, quoted, footnote.. 93 

Hull, Massachusetts 51 

Hungary 66 

I 

lies, Elijah, early settler in Sangamon Coimty, 

Illinois 120 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 20 



ITO 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois and the Fugitive Slaves in Canada.. 90-% 

Illinois and the Underground Railroad to 
Canada bj', (Miss) Vema Coolev 15,76-98 

" Illinois" (Boat) 89 

Illinois Central Railroad 88,100,143,154,159 

footnote SO 

Illinois Central Railroad, wreck of the "Dia- 
mond Special " during Pullman strike 100 

Illinois College, JacksonviUe, Illinois. . . .5,21,82,87 
footnote 87 

Illinois College and the Anti-slavery Move- 
ment— bv Charles H. Rammelkarnp, foot- 
notes...". SO , 82 , 87 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois, faculty 
of, abolition views, reference 82 

Illinois College, Jaekson\"llle, Illinois, students 
of, help runaway slaves 87 

Illinois Country, Cession of to Great Britain, 
population of 1763 148 

Illinois Country, DeMombreun Thimcte, Jus- 
tice of the Peace in the Illinois Coimtrv 119 

Illinois River 115, 117, 118,123, 145 

Illinois River (Seignelav) US 

Illinois State 5,7,8,9,10,11,12, 

15,16,17,18,19,20.21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29, 
30,31, 32, 33, 34, 35;.36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 49, . 
50,53,54,56,57,59,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,75,76, 
77,78,79,80,81,82,83,86,87,88,89,90-96,99-109, 
111-119, 121, 123, 126,127,128,129,137,141-160 
footnotes. .80,82,83,86,87,97,131,13?, 133, 135, 137 

Illinois State, activity of the Anti-slavery 
people in 77 

Illinois State, admitted to the Union, 1818 119 

Illinois State, Agricultural prospects and des- 
tinv of southern Illinois 157-160 

Illinois State, -^.gricultural societies established 
in southern Illinois 157 

Illinois State Agricultural Society, Reynolds, 
John. The agricultural resources of southern 
Illinois, reprint 141-160 

Illinois State Agricultural Societv, transactions 
of 158 

Illinois State Agriculture in an early day in 
IlUnois, crude implements 152 

Illinois State Agricultiire, improvement in, 
since the War of 1812 155-157 

Illinois State Agriculture, made its first en- 
trance into Illinois around the French settle- 
ments 145 

Illinois State, American pioneers of, who 
located in the country before the War of 1812, 
were soldiers of the Revolution 149 

Ilinois State, American settlements in, and the 
first American Agriculture in southern Illi- 
nois 149-153 

Illinois State Anti-Slavery Society 83,98 

Illinois State .Vnti-Slaverv Societv, Dr. Richard 
Eells elected president "of, 1843 1 S3 

Illinois State, barley was not raised in Illinois 
in the earlv days .". 147 

Illinois State, Bateman and Selby's Historical 
Encvclopedia of Illtnois, footnotes 83,85,86 

Illinois State, Bateman Xewton, Historical 
Encvclopedia of Illinois, footnote 83,85,86 

Illinoi"s State, Bogart, Ernest L., The Move- 
ment of the Population of Illinois, 1870-1910 
15,64-75 

Illinois State buckwheat was not raised in 
Illinois in the early days 147 

Illinois State, call for aid from missionaries in 
Canada, among fiigitive slaves, response of 

individuals and churches in Illinois 95 

footnote 95 

Illinois State, called the "Empire State of the 
West" 156,160 

Illinois State, camp meetings held in an earlv 
day ".156 

niinbis State, Capitol Building at Vandalia, 
resolution with regard to preservation of 19 

Illinois State, ceded bv France to Great Britain, 
1763, reference .' 119 



PAGE. 

Illinois State Centennial Flag ig 

Illinois State Centeimial, work of preparation 

for event 24 , 25 

Illinois State Central Railroad. .88, 100, 143, 1-3-4, 159 

footnote 80 

Illinois State Central Railroad, fugitive slaves 

sliipped by SS 

niinois State, cession of country to Great Bri- 
tain, population of at that tirne, 1763 14S 

Illinois State, Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers- 
Conquest of the Illinois 149 

Illinois State, coal in southern Illinois 154 

Illinois State, Cold Day of Illinois, December 

20, 1830, reference 117 , 121 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818, reference. . .156 
Illinois State, Cooley, (Miss) Vema, Illinois and 
the UndergroimdRailroad to Canada . . 15,76-98 

Illinois State, county of \'irginia 119 

Illinois State, Creoles in southern Illinois 14S 

Illinois State, Daughters of the American 

Revolution ; 26 

Illinois State, Day, Stephen A., a celebrated 

Illinois case that made history. 15 ,99-108 

HUnois State, DeMombreun, Thimete, Justice 

of the Peace in the Illinois Coimtry 119 

Hlinois State, description of a trip of early 

settlers to Illinois 116-117 

Illinois State, early immigrants to lUinois 150 

Illinois State, early settlers of, the French and 
original Americans, were a brave, indepen- 
dent and patriotic people 156 

Illinois State, earthquakes in, reference 119 

IlUnois State, education in early day 156 

Illinois State, "Egypt" (southern " Illtnois so 

called) ". 157 

Illinois State, emigration of natives of Illinois 

to other states 72 

table 73 

Hlinois State, emigration from, loss estimated. . 74 
Illinois State, " Farmer" (Agricultural Joumal)15S 

Hlinois State, favorite resort of immigrants 64 

Hlinois State, first State Constitutional Con- 
vention held i n Kaskaskia 156 

HUnois State, first thanksgiAing proclamation, 

reference to 123 

Hlinois State, flag or banner 27 

Hlinois State, flax and cotton raised by the 

earlv settlers 151 

Hlinois State " Flood of 1844 " reference 121 

HUnois State, foreign-bom in, distribution bv 

cities 68 

table 69 

Hlinois State, foreign-born in, distribution by 

counties, table 66-67 

Hlinois State, foreign bom in Illinois bv nation- 
ality, table ". 66 

IlUnois State, foreign-bom population, move- 
ment of 64 

Hlinois State, Fourth of July Natal Day in, 
George Rogers Clark captures Kaskaskia, 

July 4, 1778 119 

Illinois, State, French colonies in, increased 

slowly from the first settlement until 1763. .146 
Hlinois^ State, French colonists from Canada 

to southern Illinois 145 , 146 

Illinois State, I'rench, immigrants to, were not 

agricultiu-ists 146 

Hlinois State, French prosperity in, reference.. 146 
Illinois State. French settlements and the 
French agriculture in southern Illinois. . .145-149 

Hlinois State, French villages in, early ones 145 

Illinois State, fruits raised in southern Hlinois. .160 
Hlinois State, Hardy County, Virginia immi- 
grants to Hlinois. ." ". 151 

Hlinois State, Harris N. Dwight, negro slaverv 

in Hlinois, footnotes 80,S2,83,8i6,88 

HUnois State, hemp raised in southern Illinois. . 160 
Hlinois State, historical collections, see list, end 

of this vohime. 
Hlinois State, historical collections. Vol. 7, 
quoted, footnote 86 



171 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State Historical Librarv 

7,9,11,12,30,31,36 

Illinois State Historical Library, act creating.. 9 
Illinois State Historical Library, appeal for 

contributions of historical material 11,12 

Illinois State Historical Library, county 

histories of Indiana in the library ". 30 

Illinois State Historical Library, county 

histories of Ohio in the library. . .". ". 30 

Illinois State Historical Library, publications, 

.'(flist end of this volume 185 

Illinois State Historical Society 

5,8,10,11,12,18,19,21,22,23,24, 

25, 26, 27, 29,30,31,32,34,35,36,43,44,56,109,111 

footnotes 80,87,97 

Illinois State Historical Society, appeal for 

contributions for historical ma'terial 11,12 

Illinois State Historical Society, Beckwith, 

(Judge) Hiram W., first president 34 

Illinois State Historical Society, Bumham, 

(Capt.) John H., services to. . .! 32 

Illinois State Historical Society, constitution. 8-10 
Illinois State Historical Society, Genealogical 

Committee report .* 18,30,31 

Illinois State Historical Society, journal 

7,25,26,30,35,36,122 

footnote 87 

Illinois State Historical Society, membership. . 24 
Illinois State Historical Society, observes the 

ninety-eighth anniversary of" the admission 

of the State into the Union 25,35,36 

Illinois State Historical Society, officers 5,21 

Illinois State Historical Society, organized , 1S99. 35 
Illinois State Historical Society, resolutions on 

the death of Capt. John H. Bumham 22,23 

Illinois State Historical Society, resolutions on 

the death of Judge J. O. Cunningham 22 

Illinois State Historical Society, resolutions 

with regard to the preservation of the old 

State House, Vandalia, Illinois 19 

Illinois State Historical Society, publications, 

.'«(; list end of this volume 185 

Illinois State Historical Society, A\ eber, Jessie 

Palmer, Secretary, report 24-29 

Illinois State, hogs and com shipped from Illi- 
nois to New Orleans by flat boats in an early 

day ".151 

Illinois State, immigration to, country of origin 

of foreign bom, table 65-66 

Illinois State, immigrants from New York State 

settled in Kane and AA innebago Counties 72 

Illinois State, inhabitants of, among the most 

restless of the seething people of this country. 70 
Illinois State, iron and lead ore discovered in 

Hardin Count v , Illinois 154 

Illinois State Joiimal, Springfield, footnote 137 

Illinois State, laws of, territorial laws, founda- 
tion of present laws 156 

Illinois State, lead in 155 

Illinois State Legislature 9, 19,21 ,41,111 

Illinois State, Library Extension Commission . . 26 
Illinois State, limits of the settlemcntsin during 

the War of 1812 152, 153 

Illinois State, memorial building 20 

Illinois State, migration of native-bom whites 

to Illinois 70,71 

Illinois State, mills, early ones in Illinois 

150,151 ,152,155,157 

Illinois State, mills, water and wind mills in, 

.; southem Illinois erected by the Jesuits 148 

Illinois State, mules and hay advocated to be 

raised in southern Illinois 160 

Illinois State, native-born population, move- 
ment of 70 

Illinois State, native-bom population of 1870, 

1880. 1890, 1900, 1910, table 70 

Illinois State, negro population in, 1870, 1880, 

1890, 1900, 1910, distribut ion 69 ,70 

Illinois State, ninety-eighth anniversary of the 

State into the Union 35 



PAGE. 

llinois State Normal School, Charleston, Illi- 
nois 54 

llinois State Normal I niversity, Normal, Illi- 
nois 32,33 

llinois State, Northern Illinois State Normal 
School, DeKalb, Illinois 5,22 

llinois State, oats were not raised in Illinois in 
an early day 147 

llinois State, oxen used by the early settlers 
in Illinois 152 

llinois State, part of Indiana Territory 150 

llinois State, part of the North-west Territory, 
under the government of '. . 150 

llinois State, part of the territory owned by 
the French w as called New France 119 

llinois State, Pease, Theodore C, The Public 
Land Policy and Early Illinois Politics 16 

llinois State," peltries arid furs in great demand 
and command a good price in early Illinois.. 152 

llinois State, pioneer days in Illinois 39-41 

llinois State, plea for the. preservation of 
historic spots 49,50 

llinois State, population 1818 155 

llinois State, population of, bj' nativity, 
1870-1910, table 65 

llinois State, potatoes not raised to advantage 
by the French in Illinois, but abundantly 
by the Americans ".147 

llinois State, prairie grass furnished the early 
settlers with hay ".151 

llinois State, "Prairie State" 159,160 

llinois State, prairies of Illinois 

59, 108, 143 , 144 , 151 

llinois State, proportion of persons bom in, 
who lived outside State, 1910 74 

llinois State Register, Springfield, footnotes.. 
131,132,133,135,137 

llinois State Eegister, June 6, 18C3, quoted, 
footnote 131 

llinois State Register, February 28, 1864, 
quoted, footnote 133 

llinois State Register, September 25, 1864, 
footnote 134 

llinois State Register, quoted on Lincoln's 
Candidacy for re-election, footnote 132 

llinois State, Renault, Philip Francois brings 
slaves from San Domingo to work the mines 
in Illinois 148 

llinois State, Republican Convention, May, 
1864, formidable Fremont faction in, refe'r- 
enee 133 

llinois State, Revolutionary Soldiers con- 
quered and colonized it ! 149 

llinois State, Reynolds, John, Agricultural re- 
sources of southern Illinois, reprint 141-lfiO 

llinois State, rye was not raised in Illinois in 
an #irly day 147 

llinois State, salines and mineral wealth of 
southern Illinois 153-155 

llinois State, salt works in 150 

llinois State, Selby, Paul, Historical Encyclo- 
pedia of Illinois, quoted, footnote ." 83 

llinois State. Schmidt, (Br.) Otto L., The 
Illinois Centennial Cclcbrat ion 15 

llinois State, Soldiers' Orphans Heme 34 

llinois State, SonsoftheAmerican Revolution. 19 

llinois State, southem Illinois, general de- 
script ion 141-145 

llinois State, southem Illinois soil, surface and 
agricultural capacities 141-145 

llinois State, southem Illinois State Normal 
University, Carbordale, Tllir.ris ...''',12 

llinois State, state of origin of .A merican-bcr. 
population of Illinois from five leading statesn 
1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, table ,71 

llinois State, Supreme Court 82 

footnote 82 

llinois State, Supreme Court Building 15,18 

llinois State, Thanksgiving Prcclnmation, 
first issued , reference 123 



172 



INDEX — Continuea. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State, tobacco raised by the early 

French in Illinois ". 151,152 

Illinois State, tobacco raised in southern Illi- 
nois 160 

Illinois State, trees, species of, found in southern 

Illinois 143 

Illinois State, University of Illinois 

5,15,16,21,35,64,130-138 

Illinois State, War of 1812, limits of settlement 

during 152-153 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, Thirty- 
third Illinois Volimteer Infantry 33,36 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, Thirty- 
tliird Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 

history of by Capt. John H. Bumham 36 

Illinois "state, wheat after the War of 1812, was 

more cultivated in Illinois 155 

Illinois State, wheat crop in early southern 

IlUnois, how handled 147 

Illinois State, " Winter of the Deep Snow 1S30" 

reference 121 

Illinois Territory 119, 150, 155,156 

lUinOiS Territory, Edwards, (Gov.) Xinian, 

Governor of Illinois Territory 150 

Illinois Territory, laws of, were the laws of the 

Northwest Territory 156 

Illinois Territory, population, 1812 155 

Illinois Territory, schools and churches es- 
tablished in . . .". 156 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania 122 

Indian Com 146 

Indian Creek ilassacre, dedication of monu- 
ment 36 

Indian Pumpkins 146 

Indian \'illage of the Muscootcn Tribe near the 

mouth of the Sangamon River 115 

Indiana State 30,50,52,53,57,58,62,71,72,73,79 

footnote 79 

Indiana State, county histories of, in the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library 30 

Indiana State, emigration of IllLnoisans to. . .72,73 

table 73 

Indiana State, Gentry ville, Indiana 53 

Indiana State, Greencastle, Indiana 57 

Indiana State immigrants from, settle in Illi- 
nois 71 , 72 , 75 

Indiana State, Madison, Indiana 57 

Indiana Territory, Illinois a p^rt of 150 

Indiana Territory, AVilliam Henry Harrison, 

Governor of Indiana Territorv 150 

Indians 11 ,32,36",38,39,48,63,88, 

112, 113, 114, 115, 118,124,145,146,149,150,152,158 

Indians, Black Hawk War, 1832 39 

Indians, Fort Dearborn Massacre, reference .38,43 

Indians, Iroquois Indians -w ■• ^^^ 

Indians, Kendall Coimty, Illinois, Inman 

battle-ground near Piano 36 

Indians, Kickapoo Indians 115,118 

Indians, Kickapoo Indian Mounds, just below 

the mouth of the Sangamon River 115 

Indians, Kickapoo Town "Beautiful Mound 

Village " 118 

Indians, LaSalle County, Hlinois, dedication of 
monument to victims of Indian Creek Massa- 
cre 38 

Indians, McLean Countv, Illinois, Indian fort 

in ." 34 

Indians, Miami Indians 118 

Indians, Monk's Moimd (Cahokia Moimd) 144 

Indians, Muscooten Indians 112,115,118 

Indians, Muscooten Indians Mounds, village 

of 112 

Indians, Peoria Indians 118 

Indians, Pequol Indian War, 16,37 32 

Indians, Sacajawea, the bird woman with the 

LcAvis and Clark Exposition 63 

Iowa City, Iowa, footnote 79 

Iowa State 38,72,73,79,117 

Iowa State, emigration of lUinoisans to 72,73 

table 73 



PAGE. 

Iowa State, Gue, B. F., History of Iowa, quoted 

footnote 79 

Iowa State, immigration to 75 

Ipswich, Massachusetts 32,35 

Ireland 62,66 

Iroquois Indians 118 

Italy 66 

Ives, -\lmon B 34 

Ives, (Miss) Almira S., wife of Capt. John H. 
Bumliam 34 



Jackman, Abncr, footnote 95 

Jackson, Andrew 132 

Jackson County, Illinois, sail works located in. . 154 

Jackson, (Gen.) StonewaU 149 

Jackson, Teimessee, footnote 80 

Jacksonville, Illinois 5,21,22,28,87,88,115 

footnotes 80,82 

Jacksonville, Illinois, citizens of, disapprove 

attempts to assist ninaway slaves 73 

Jacksonville, Illinois, Daily Journal (?), foot- 
note 82 

Jacksonville, Illinois, runaway slaves harbored 

in 88 

Jacksonville, Illinois, Underground Railroad 

in 80 

footnote 80 

James, Edmimd J 5,21 

James, James A 5,22 

Jamison, (Mrs.) Isabelle 20 

Janesville, Cumberland Coimty, Hlinois 54,56 

J. B. D., footnote 95 

Jerseyrille, Illinois 28 

Jesuit, mills, water and wind mills erected by 

the Jesuits in southern Illinois 1 48 

Job, .\rchibald, early resident of what is now 

Beardstown, Illinois 120 

JoDaviess Countv, Illinois, foreign-bom popu- 
lation in 1S70-1910 67 

"John and Dorothy" Ship 51 

Johnson (Pres.) Andrew 138 

Johnson County, Indiana 30 

Johnson, W., footnote 95 

Johnston, J., footnote 95 

Joliet, Illinois 69,95,112,137 

footnotes 79,95, 136, 137 

Joliet, Illinois, foreign-bom population in, 1870, 

1880, 1890, 1900, lOlO 69 

Joliet, Illinois, response to call for missionary 

work among the negroes in Canada ". 95 

footnote 95 

Joliet. Illinois, " Signal ' ' (Newspaper) 137 

footnotes 136 , 137 

Jones, Abraham 51 

Jones Family, emigrants from Wales to the 

United States, voyage described 58,59 

Jones' Fort, Illinois, War of 1812 153 

Jones, Jenkin Lloyd, Contemporary Vanda- 
lism, annual address before the Illinois State 

Historical Society 15,47-63 

Jones, Jenkin Lloyd, describes pioneer days 

in Illinois and Wisconsin 59-61 

Jones, Jenkin Lloyd, describes voyage of his 
father's family "from Wales to the United 

States in search of a new home 58,59 

Jones, (Miss) Lotte E 29 

Jonesboro, Hlinois 143 

footnotes 80, 132 

Jonesboro, Illinois, Gazette (Newspaper), foot- 
notes 132,136 

Jonesboro, Illinois, Gazette, .\pril 4, 1865, 

criticizes .\braham Lincoln, footnote 132 

Jonesboro, Illinois, species of trees found in 143 

Journal of .Vmerican History 35 

Judd, Norman B " 62 

Judy, , owner of a mill near Columbia, 

Monroe Coimty, Illinois 152 



173 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Kane County, Illinois 67,72,95 

footnote 9.5 

Kane Countv, Illinois, foreign-born population 

in 1870-1910 67 

Kane County, Illinoi.s, immigrants from Iview 

York State, settled in ". 72 

Kankakee County, Illinoi.s, foreign-born popu- 
lation in 1870-1910 67 

Kankakee Creek 84 

Kans.as Cit v, Missouri 1 12 

Kansas State ; 38,72,73,75 

Kansas State, emigration of Illinoisans to.. .72,73 

table 73 

Kansas State, immigration to 75 

Kaskaskia, Illinois 35,36, 

112, 119, 143, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 156 
Kaskaskia, Illinois, Bumham, (Capt.) John H., 
Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi 

River 35,36 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, Clark, (Gen.) George 
Rogers captures Kaska.skia July 4, 1778.. 119, 149 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, Commons, reference 148 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, Edgar, (Gen.) John, early 

mill in Kaskaskia owned by 151 , 152 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, Engli.sh garrison moves to 

from Fort Chartres 143 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, first conslitutional conven- 
tion of the State held in 156 

Kaskaskia, Illinois first State Capitol 112 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, flat boats filled with flour, 

sail for Now Orleans 151 

Kaskaskia, Illinois, newspaper established at, 

reference 150 

Kaskaskia River 149, 150, 153 

Kaskaskia River, early .settlements along 150 

Kaskaskia River, Lafayette town on 150 

Kaskaskia River, settlement on the high land 

east of, made in 1780 149 

"Kate Frisbie" steamer 88 

Kelley Settlement, Sangamon County, Illinois. 120 

Kellogg. Seymour, pioneer of Illinois 119 

Kendall Coimty, Illinois 36,67,95 

footnote. 95 

Kendall County, Illinois, foreign-boni popula- 
tion in 1S70-1'.I10 67 

Kendall County, Illinois, Indian battle ground 

near Piano 36 

Kendall, Milo pro-slavery man 89 

Kenihvorth, Illinois 31 

Kentucky State 

3b, 59, ,52, 53, 57, .58, 61, 02, 71, 72, 75, 79, 80, 145 

footnote 80 

Kentucky State, Elizabethtown, Kentucky... 53 
Kentucky State, immigrants from settle in 

Illinois 72 

Kentucky State, immigration from, to Illi- 
nois 71 , 72 , 75 

Kickapoo Indian, Kickapoo Town "Beautiful 

Mound Village " 118 

Kickapoo Indian Mounds, just below the 

mouth of the Sangamon River 115 

King Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio 35 

King, Claudius B., fine and imprisonment for 

aiding in the rescue of "Jim" a fugitix'e slave. 84 
King, William, work among the negroes in 

Canada 91 ,93 

King's settlement in Canada for negroes 91 

Kinney, Andrew, mill of, near the Mississippi 

Bluit 152 

Kinzie Cabin at Fort Dearborn, reference 38 

Kirby, Edward P 28 

Knight, John, land entries recorded by, in 

ISI organ County 120 

KnightJinger, Jacob 86,97 

Knightlinger, Jacob, hostility toward Aboli- 
tionists ". 86 

Knox County, Illinois 83,86 

footnotes 80,83,88,98 

Knox County, Illinois, harboring of fugitive 
slaves in 83 



PAGE. 

Knox County, Illinois, history of, by Chiis. C. 
Chapman & Co., published, Chicago, 1878, 

footnotes 80,83,88,98 

Knox County, Ohio 30 

Knox, J ose])h 85 

Ivnoxville, Knox County, Illinois 83 

Koerner, Gustavus, Memoirs of, quoted, foot- 
note 135 

Kofoid, (\irrie Prudence, Puritan influence in 
the formative years of Illinois History, foot- 
note 97 



La Mammalle Mound in Madison County, Illi- 
nois 144 

La Mammalle Mound in St. Charles County, 

Missouri 144 

LaPorte County, Indiana 30 

LaSalle County, Illinois 81 

footnote 88 

LaSalle County, Illinois, foreigh-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

LaSalle County, Illinois, Indian Creek Massa- 
cre, dedication of monument to victims 36 

LaSalle, Illinois, footnote 90 

LaSalle, Illinois, Underground Railroad in 80 

footnote 80 

LaSalle, Rene Robert Sieur de. Fort Creve 

Coeur erected by 145 

Laclede Pierre, see Liguest 119 

Ladies Anti-Slavery Society 95 

footnote 95 

Lafayette, Illinois, located on the Kaskaskia 

River 150 

Laflin, (Mrs.) , footnote 95 

Lake Coimtv, Illinois, foreign-bom population 

m 1870-1910 .\ 67 

I/ake County, Indiana, footnote 79 

Lake County, Ohio 30 

Lake Erie 91 , 114 ,115 

Lake Erie, Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, War 

of 1812, reference ". 115 

Lake Forest, Illinois 28 

Lake Geneva, Wis 28 

Lake Simcoe, Canada 91 

Land granted bv the Government for services 

in the War of 1812 155 

Larned, Edwin C 85 

Lawrence Coimty, Indiana 30 

Lawrence, George A 15,21 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A., presents the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society with the State 

flag 27 

Lead in Illinois 155 

Leaverton, (Mrs.) C. .\ 28 

Lebanon, Illinois 144,153,156 

Lebanon, Illinois, Indian Mound near 144 

Lebanon, Illinois, McKendree College 156 

Lee County, Illinois, foreign-boni population 

in 1870-1910 67 

Leeper, H. B. quoted on the Underground 

Railroad 76 

Leland, E 85 

Letters, Beard, Thomas, letter to his father 
Jedidiah Beard, written from Salem, Ohio, 

1814 114-115 

Letters, Beard, Thomas, letter to his parents 
written from S.angamon Bay, March 20, 

1826 .' 117-118 

Letters, Beard, Thomas, extract from letter of, 
to his father dated Beardstown, Morgan 

County, Illinois, February 23, 1830 121 

Letters, Doane, (Mrs.) Agries Beard, letter to 
Rev. P. C. Croll, dated Brooklyn, New York, 

March 6, 1917 ". 128 

Letters, Ford, (Gov.) Thomas, of Illinois to 
Gov. Thomas Reynolds of Missouri, dated 
April 13, 1843, footnote 88 



174 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Letters, Hampel, (Mrs.) Edith Beard, letter to 
Rev. P. C. Croll, dated Rantoul, Illinois, 
February 27, 1917 127-12S 

Letters, Parker, Samuel, letter to Rev. P. C. 
Croll, dated Glendale, California, January 
25, 1917 129 

Letters, Poe, (Mrs.) Stella Beard, letter to Rev. 
P. C. Croll, dated Sheridan, Wyoming, 
February 11, 1917 127 

Lewis & Clark Expedition, reference 63 

Lewis, Meriwether, Lewis and Clark Expedi- 
tion, reference 63 

Lexington, Illinois 28,98 

Lexington, Kentucky, Transylvania Univer- 
sity in 41 

Liberator, (The) Anti-Slavery paper 83 

Liberty Bell in Philadelphia 53 

Liberty Convention for the South and West, 
held in Cinciimati, June 11, 1845 77 

Licking County, Ohio 30 

Liguest, Pierre" Laclede, founder of St. Louis. . . 119 

Lincoln, Abraham, son of Mordecai Lincoln.. 51 

Lincoln, Abraham, son of John Lincoln of 
Rockingham, Virginia 52 

Lincoln, Abraham 

16,20,21,26,32,38,42,50,51,53, 

54,55,56,57,58,61,62,63,100,109,121,122,130,138 
footnotes 55, 132, 135, 138 

Lincoln, Abraham, approves the Conscription 
Act of March 3, 1863 ... 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, Bryce, James, quoted on 
the authority of Abraham Lincoln during 
the Civil War 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, cabinet of, hot bed of 
bickering, suspicion and jealousy 133 

Lincoln, Abraham, Cairo, Illinois, Democrat, 
July 14, 1864, criticizes the President 132 

Lincoln, Abraham, candidacy for re-election, 
memorandum made by, conceding his de- 
feat, reference 135 

Lincoln. Abraham, Carr, (Hon.) Clark E., 
Lincoln'at Gettysburg 109 

Lincoln, Abraham, Chafin, Eugene W., lecture 
on Lincoln, reference 56 

Lincoln, Abraham, Ci\ril War, powers assumed 
by, as significant as that of a dictator in the 
days of Rome's glory, reference 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, Cole, Arthur C, The 
Presidential IE lection of 1864 16 , 130-133 

Lincoln, Abraham, Congress asks president to 
set aside a day tor fasting, humiliation and 
prayer 134 

Lincoln, Abraham, criticism of, methods em- 
ployed by, in Civil War 132 

Lincoln, Abraham, Dud Armstrong trial in 
Beardstown, Lincoln defends Armstrong 122 

Lincoln, Abraham, Edwards home in which 
Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln were married, reference 20 

Lincoln, Abrahain, Emancipation Proclama- 
tion 131 , 132 

Lincoln, Abraham, " First American " 62 

Lincoln, Abraham, first home of, in Illinois 
reference 56 

Lincoln, Abraham, Fremont, (Gen.) John C, 
quoted on Lincoln's Administration 136 

Lincoln, Abraham, Fremont-Lincoln em- 
broglio 134 

Lincoln, Abraham, German-American voters 
almost solid for in 1864 137 

Lincoln, Abraham, Hemdon, William H., law 

partner of 54,55 

footnote 55 

Lincoln, Abraham, home in New Salem where 
he boarded, reference 20 

Lincoln, Abraham, home, Springfield, Illinois. 20 

Lincoln, .\braham, Illinois State Register, 
quoted on Lincoln's candidacv for .second 
term, footnote ." 132 

Lincoln, .\braham, Jonesboro, Illinois, Gazette 
criticizes, footnote 132 

Lincoln, Abraham, judgement of history upon 
the Administration of. a favorable one 130 



PAGE. 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln Circuit Marking 
Association 26 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, 
Charleston, Semi-Centennial, 1908 53 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln, Memorial Univer- 
sity near Cumberland Gap, Tennessee 50,55 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lowell, James Russell, 
commemoration ode, quoted 51 

Lincoln, Abraham, New Salem, Illinois, home 
where Lincoln boarded in, reference 21 

Lincoln, Abraham, Palmer, (Gov.) John M., 
quoted on Lincoln candidacy for re-election . . 133 

Lincoln, Abraham, Rhodes. James Ford, 
quoted on Abraham Lincoln, and his acts 
during Civil War 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, suspends the privilege of 
the writ of habeas corpus, reference 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, visits to Beardstown, Illi- 
nois 121,122 

Lincoln, Abraham, war powers of Lincoln 131 

Lincoln, Abraham, works of, Federal Edition, 
quoted, footnotes 135, 138 

Lincoln and the Presidential Election of 1864— 
by Arthur C. Cole 130-138 

Lincoln Circuit Marking Association 26 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Charleston, Illinois, 
Semi-Centemiial, 1908 53 

Lmcoln Family 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, .58, 61 

Lincoln, Genealogy 51,52 

Lincoln Highway, reference 53 

Lincoln Home, Springfield, Illinois 20 

Lincoln, Illinois 25 

Lincoln, Jolm, son of Mordecai Lincoln II 52 

Lincoln, Joshua, son of Abraham Lincoln and 
Mary Shipley 52 

Lincoln Memorial University near Cumber- 
land Gap, Tennessee ". 50,55 

Lmcoln Memorial 53 

Lmcoln Monument, Oak Ridge Cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois 57 

Lincoln, Mordecai II 51 ,52 

Lincoln, Mordecia III, son of Abraham Lincoln 
and Mary Shipley 52 

Lincoln, Mordecai, fourth son of Samuel 
Lincoln 51 ,52 

Lincoln, Mordecai, uncle of Abraham Lincoln. . 53 

Lincoln, Nancy Hanks, mother of Abraham 
Lincoln 50,52,56,57,61 

Lincoln, Nancy Hanks, monument to, erected 
by Gen. J. S." Culver 57 

Lincoln, Nancy Hanks, monument to erected 
by P. E. Studebaker 56 

Lincoln, Robert, son of Abraham Lincoln 56 

lyincoln, Samuel 51 

Lincoln, Sarah, sister of Abraham Lincoln, 
grave of, located and marked 57 

Lincoln, Sarah Bush Johnston, stepmother of 
Abraham 50,54,56 

Lincoln, Sarah Bush Johnston, stepmother of 
Abraham Lincoln buried in Shiloh grave- 
yard near Charleston , Illinois 54 

Lincoln, Sarah Bush Johnston, stepmother of 
Abraham Lincoln, monument to, efforts 
in behalf of 56 

Lincoln, Thomas, The Cooper, of Hingham, 
Massachusetts 51 

Lincoln, Thomas, The Husbandman of Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts 51 

Lincoln, Thomas, The Miller of Hingham, 
Massachusetts 51 

Lincoln, Thomas, The Weaver, of Hingham, 
Massachusetts 51 

Lincoln, Thomas, son of Abraham Lincoln and 
Mary Shipley 52 

Lincoln, Thonias, father of Abraham Lincoln 
50,52,53,54,55,5(5 

Lincoln, Thomas, father of Abraham Lincoln, 
buried near Charleston, Coles County, Illi- 
nois 54 , 56 

Lincoln, Thomas, father of Abraham Lincoln, 
efi'orts to have the State of Illinois erect monu- 
ment to 56 



175 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Liudsey, Martin L., early settler m Illinois 120 

Little Muddy River, Illinois 154 

Little Wabash in Gallatin Couuty, Illinois, 

early mills on 155 

Lively 's Cabin on Crooked Creek, War of 1812 . . 153 

I-iverpool, England 59 

Loc'kport, Illinois, footnote 95 

Logan County. Illinois, footnote 80 

Logan, (Geii.) John A., Dawson, George 

Francis, Life of John A. I^ogan, quoted 137 

Logan, (Gen.) John .\., returns to Illinois from 

the front in 1864 to take part in the political 

campaign, footnote 137 

London, England 52 

Loomis, Cyrus, brother-in-law of Thomas 

BearO. 123 

Loomis, Henry 123 

Loomis, (Prof.) John, describes Thanksgiving 

Feast at home of Thomas Beard, 1S45 123-124 

Loomis, (Prof.) John, gives an account of the 

denth of Thomas Beard 12.5-126 

Lorain County, Ohio 30 

Lord, (Dr.) "Livingston C, president of the 

Normal School, Charleston, Illinois 54 

Louisiana State 1 .aws, reference 156 

Louisville, Kentuckv 116 

Lovejov, Elijali P. . ." 62 

Lovejov, Owen 82,83,88,89,90,97 

footnote 82 

I-ovejoy. Owen, takes part in the escape of 

JohnBucknor (negro) 89,90 

Lovejoy, Owen, tried in the Circuit Court of 

Bureau County, Illinois, for harboring and 

secreting a negro woman 82, S3 

footnote 82 

Lowden. (Mrs.) Frank Orren 16 

Lowell, James Russell 50,51 

Lowell, James Russell, Commemoration Ode, 

quoted 51 

Lucas Count V, Ohio 30 

Lutheran Church 62 

M 

McCambridge, 'William, one of the organizers of 

the McLean County Historical Society 34 

McClellan, Editor .viih Zebina Eastmaii, of the 

Western Citizen 90 

footnotes 91,95 

AtcClellan, (Mrs.) , footnote 9."^ 

McClell.in, (Gen.) George B 135,136,137 

footnotes 135, 136 

McClellan, (Gen.) George B., Bro%\Tiing, 
Orvillc H., quoted on McClellan's nomina- 
tion, footnote 135 

McClellan, (Gen.) George B., defeated for the 

presidency, 1864 137 

McClellan, "(Gen.) Cieorgc B., letter of accep- 
tance for the presidency, extract from 135 

McClellan, (Gen.) George B., nominated for the 

presidency 135 

McClurg, A" C. & Co. publishers, Chicago 109 

McConncI, Murray 115 

McCormick Reaper, 38 

McCulloch, David, 36 

McGrady, J.I 28 

McHenrv Count v. Illinois, foreign-bom popu- 
lation in 1870-1910 67 

Mackay . Henry 28 

■Mc Ketidree College, Ijebanon, Illinois 156 

Mackinaw, Michigan 152 

McLean Coimtv, Illinois 34,35,36,72,98 

footnotes 96,98 

AfcLeau County, Illinois, Burnham, (Capt.) 
John H., Mysterious Indian Battle Groimds 

in McLean d'ounty, Illinois 36 

McLean Coimty, Illinois, historical society.. 23, 34 

footnote. . . ". ". 98 

McLean Countv, Illinois, historical society or- 
ganized, March 10, 1892 ." 34 



PAGE. 

McLean County, Illinois, historical society 

transactions, footnol e 98 

McLean County, Illinois, immigrants from 

Kentucky settled in 72 

McLean County, Illinois, immigrants from 

Ohio settled in 72 

McLean County, Illinois, Indian Fort in, ref- 
erence ". 34,36 

McLean County, Illinois school records 35 

McLean County, Illinois, war records, reference 35 
McLean, John, Forsotten Statesmen of Illi- 
nois—by Capt. John H. Burnham 36 

Macomb, Illinois 112 

McPherson, Edward, Political History of tlie 

United States, footnote 136 

McPike, H., footnote 133 

Madison County, Illinois 67,68,119,144,150,154 

Madison County, Illinois, early settlements in. . 150 
Madison Countv, Illinois, foreign born popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Madison Countv, Illinois, LaMammalle Mound 

in : 144 

Madison County, Illinois, organized 1812 119 

Madison Coimty, Illinois, salt works in 154 

Madison, Indiana 57 

Mahan, Edward, aids fugitive slaves 98 

Mahan, Erastus, aids fugitive slaves 98 

Mahan, Erastus, Friends of Liberty on the 
Mackinaw, in McLean Coimty Historical 

Society transactions, footnote 98 

Mahan, "John, aids fugitive slaves 98 

Mahan, (Mrs.) = 98 

Mahoning County, Ohio 30 

Maine, Zuar E ,. 123 

Major (Gov.) E. W., of Missouri 25,35 

Major, (Gov.) E. W., of Missouri — address, 
"The Log Cabin Period" before Illinois State 

Historical Society 25 

Maiden, Canada 97 

footnote 93 

Maiden, Canada, southern slaves in 77 

Mann, Charles "\V., The Chicago Common 
Council and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, 

footnotes 78,85,86 

Manierre, George 85 

Manning, Julius 42 

March, Enoch C, land entry recorded by in 

Morgan County, Illinois 120 

Marion County, Indiana 30 

Marion Countv, Ohio 30 

Mark, David .". 41 

Marsh, H. P., footnote 95 

Marshall County, Tenn 76 

Marshall, Illmois 56 

Martin, Gershom, footnote 135 

Mason, (Dr.) J. D., footnote 80 

Mason, W. S., footnote 95 

Massac Countv, Illinois, negro population in 

1910 ." 69 

Massachusetts State 32,35, 113 

footnote 80 

Massachusetts State, Berkshire County 113 

Massachusetts State, Essex, Massachusetts 32 

Massachusetts State, Ipswich, Massachusetts 

32,35 

Masters, David, captures runaway slaves 87 

Matson, , farmer, near Princeton, Illinois. 89 

Mattoon, Illinois 56 

Mans, (Miss) Anne E., wife of James Haines.. 41 

Maus, William 41 

May, Susan Short, quoted on a Station of the 
Underground Railroad at Bristol, Illinois, 

footnote 87 

" Mayflower " Ship 51 

Mecsc, William A 5,22 

Medina County, Ohio 30 

Memoirs of Giistavus Koerner, quoted, foot- 
note 135 

Mendon, Adams County, Illinois 80 

footnote SO 



176 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Mendon, Illinois, Underground Railroad in. . . 80 

footnote SO 

Merriman, (Col.) Jonathan 42 

Metcalfe, (Sir) Charles. Bart, Goveruor Gen- 
eral of Canada, footnote 94 

Methodist Camp Meetings, reference 40 

Methodist Church 40,62,97 

Methodist Chiu-ch, African Methodist Church, 

Chicago 97 

Methodist Church, camp meetiags, reference.. 40 

Miami County, Indiana 30 

Miami Indians 118 

Michigan Central Railroad, fugitive slaves 

shipped bv 88 

Michigan State 58,88,92 

Michigan State, Central Railroad 88 

Milchrist, Thomas E., Tnited States Attorney. 101 
"Military Tract," land granted by the Goveiii- 

ment for services in the War of 1812 117 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 19 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 59,60 

Mill, early one erected on Hor.se Creek 150 

Mills, early ones La Illinois 148,150,152,1.55,157 

Mills, Judy, o\vner of a mill near Columbia, 

Monroe County, Illinois 152 

MUls, Kimiey, Andrew, mill of, near the Missis- 
sippi Blaff 152 

Mills, Perrv, John F., mill on Prairie du Pont 

Creek. . .". 152 

Mills, Series, Henry, mill of, on Hor.se Creek. . 152 
Mills, Tate & Singleton's, mill on the Belle- 

fountaine Creek 152 

Mills, Valentine, owner of a mill near the 

Mississippi Bluff 152 

MUls, water and wind mills erected in southern 

Illinois b V the Jesuits 148 

Minnesota State .30,61,64,73 

Minnesota State, emigration of DUnoisans to... 73 

Mississippi River 35,36,48,79,88,112,117, 

118, 119, 141, 142, 143, 148, 150,151,1.52,153,1.54,159 

footubtes 79,80 

Mississippi River, called "The Father of 

AVaters " 159 

Mississippi River, early settlements along 150 

Mississippi River, floods in, reference 143 

Mississippi River, Spanish possessions on the 

west bank of, reference 148 

Mississippi Valley 25,115,141 ,143 

Mississippi Vallev Historical Association 25 

Missouri State . .'. ,.. .28,33, 

35,71,72,73,75,78,79,80,84,86,88,117,144,151,1.57 

footnotes 78,79 

Missouri State, emigration of Illinoisans to. .72,73 

table 73 

Missouri State, Frederickstown, Missouri, 

battle of. War of the Rebellion 33 

Missouri State, immigration from to Illinois. . . 72 

Missouri State immigration to 75 

Missouri State, Indian Mounds in . . . .■ 144 

Mi.^souri State, lead mines 151 

Missouri State, representatives in Congress ask 
security of their property against certain 
citizens of Chicago who had aided fugitive 

slaves to escape, etc 7S 

Missouri State, Trexler, Harrison Anthony, 

slavery in Missouri, quoted, footnotes 78,79 

Missouri River 144 ,1.53 

Mobile, .\labama 135 

.\Ioline, Illinois 5,22,28 

Monk's Mound (Cahokia Mound) located in the 

-American Bottom 144 

Monk's Moimd, residence of Mr. Hill on, refer- 
ence 144 

Monroe Coimtv, Hlinois, di.-coverv of copper 

in 1826 ". ' 154 

Monroe Countv, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Monroe County, Indiana . . 30 

Montgomery County, Ohio 3C 

Moore, Ensiev 5.15,18,19,23 

Morgan County, Hlinois 76,82,119,120 



PAGE. 

Morgan Coimty, lUinois, Arenz. Francis, land 

entry recorded in Morgan County 120 

Morgan Coimty, Illinois, Beard, Thomas, land 

entries recorded in 120 

Morgan Coimty, Illinois, Circuit Court, case of 

Julius Willard in 82 

Morgan County, Illinois, cut off of Greene 

County, 1823 119 

Morgan Countv, Illinois, Knight, John, land 

entries recorded in 120 

Morgan County, Illinois, March, Enoch C, 

land entry recorded by, in Morgan County. .120 
Morgan County, Illinois, Robinson, Charles, 

early deed to land recorded in 120 

Morgan County, Illinois, Ware, Nathaniel, land 

entry recorded in Morgan County 120 

Morse, John, agent. Underground Railroad, 

McLean County, Illinois, footnote 96 

Moses, Bible character 37 

"Mound Village," Indian village of the Mas- 

cooten Indians , so called bv the French . . 112 , US 

Mt. Carroll, Illinois ". 28 

Mt. Hope, footnote 96 

Mount Sinai : 37 

Movement of the Population of Illinois, 1870- 

1910, by Ernest L. Bogart 64-75 

Mules and hay advocated to be raised in south- 
ern IllLnois 160 

Murphysboro, Jackson County, Illinois 154 

Muscooten Bay .". 118 

Muscooten Indians 112, 115, 118 

Muscooten Indians, Mound Village of 112,118 



N 

National Society, Daughters of the American 

Revolution. .'. 34 

Naper^-ille, Illinois, footnote 135 

Nebraska Citv 90 

Nebraska State 38 

Nebraska State, emigration of HUnoisans to. .72,73 

table 73 

Nebraska State, immigration to 75 

Needham, (Miss) Hannah, wife of Amos 

Beard 113 

Neeley, anti-sla verv man 83 

Neelev. one of conductors of the Underground 

Railroad 98 

Negroes, African repository at Washington, 

D.C '. 92 

Negroes, Anti-Negro Stealing Society 87 

Negroes, Bucknor, John, capture of, at Prince- 
ton, Illinois 89,90 

Negroes, Cheeser, Amanda, citizens of Alton, 

Illinois, raise fund to free her, footnote 89 

Negroes, Cooley (Miss) Vema, Illinois and the 

Underground Railroad to Canada 76-98 

Negroes, Canada, colored population of 92 ' 

footnote 92 

Negroes, Canada, opportunities for the negroes 

in securing land cheaply in Canada 91 

Negroes, Chatham, Canada settlement near for 

negroes 91 

Negroes, Drew, Benjamin, a north side view of 

slavery, quoted, footnote 93 

Negroes, Drummondsville. Canada, Conven- 
tion of Fugitive Slaves held in 93 

Negroes, Freeman, Elizabeth, slave captured.. 87 

Negroes, Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 76 

Negroes, Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 77,84,85 

Negroes, Fuller, James C. Quaker, collects 

fimds for the negroes in England 91 

Negroes, Hanson, colored agent for the self- 
emancipation of slaves 92 

Negroes. Harris, N. Dwight. negro slavery in 

Illinois, footnotes ' 82,83,86,88 

Negroes, Howe, S. G., report on the Refugees 
from Slavery in Canada West, quoted, foot- 
note ". 92 

Negroes, Illinois Anti-Slavery Society 98 



177 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Negroes, Illinois, negro population in 1870, 1880, 

1890, 1900, 1910, distribution 69,70 

Negroes, Jim, fugitive slave case of, reference. . 84 
Negroes, King, William, work among the 

negroes in Canada 91 ,93 

Negroes, King's settlement in Canada for 

negroes 91 

Negroes, Mann, Charles W., The Chicago Com- 
mon Council and the Fugitive Slave Law of 

1850, quoted, footnote 78 

Negroes, Manual Labor School started by, in 

Dawn, Canada 91 

Negroes, Nancy slave case in Bureau County 

Circuit Court 82,83 

Negroes, Rice, Isaac, missionary work among 

the negroes at Amherstbury, Canada 93 

footnote 93 

Negroes, Siebert , Wilbur H., The Underground 

Railroad, quoted, footnotes 

76,77,80,81,82,83,84,85,87,89,91 

Negroes, Smith, E., article on the negroes in 

Canada, quoted 92 

footnote 92 

Negroes, Smith, E.,. freed slaves, how they 

prosper, footnote 92 

Negroes, Susan, negro slave harboring and 

secreting of S3 

Negroes, "Tales of Fugitives" 97 

Negroes, Thomas William, "Exposition and 
Defence of the Fugitive Slave Law," quoted. 78 

footnote 78 

Negroes, Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise 
and Fall of the Slave Power of America, 

footnote 82 

Nelson, C. B., footnote 95 

Nelson, (Dr.) David, anti-slavery man active 
in the work of the Lnderground Railroad. .76,82 

Nelson, William E 28 

New Buffalo, footnote 95 

New Design, Monroe County, Illinois, early 

settlement in 149 

New Design, Monroe County, Illinois, emi- 
grants from Hardy County, Virginia, settle 

in 151 

New England 32,34,36,51,62,81,113,123,141 

New Jersey State 51 

New Madrid, near the mouth of the Ohio River 

destroyed by an earthquake 119 

New Orleans, Louisiana.. .120,145,146,150,151,152 
New Orleans, Louisiana, Boon, William, ships 
coal from the Big Muddy Mines to New 

Orleans in 1809 154 

New Orleans, Louisiana, flour shipped to in an 
early day from the Illinois and Wabash 

Colonies 146 

New Orleans, Louisiana, hogs and corn shipped 
in flat boats from Illinois to New Orleans in 

an early day 151 

New Orleans, Louisiana, imder Spanish rule, 

reference 151 

New Salem, home where Lincoln boarded in, 

while in New Salem, reference 20,21 

New York City, New York 28,59,61,90,112 

New York City, American Anti-Slavery 

Society 90 

New York City, Tribune (Newspaper) 61 

New York House, Princeton, Illinois 89 

New York State 71,72,74,113,126,127,128 

New York State, Brooklyn, New York. . .127,128 
New York State, immigration from to Illinois 

71,72 

New York State, Washington County, New 

York 113 

Newkirk Family : 31 

Newkirk, Thomas J 31 

Newspapers, Alton, Illinois, Daily Courier, 

footnotes 80,89 

Newspapers, Aurora, Illinois, Beacon, foot- 
notes 84,90,136 



PAGE 

Newspapers, Aurora, Illinois, Guardian, foot- 
note 96 

Newspapers, Beardstown Gazette 128 

Newspapers, Belleville, Illinois, Advocate, 

footnotes 81 ,90 

Newspapers, Belleville, Illinois, Democrat, 

September 26, 1S63, quoted 131 

Newspapers, Bloomington, Illinois, Panta- 

graph 33 ,34 

Newspapers, Cairo City Gazette, footnote 88 

Newspapers, Cairo City Times 80 

footnotes " ,.. .80,88 

Newspapers, Cairo, Illinois, W'eekly Times 

and Delta, footnote 81i 

Newspapers, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, Eagle, 

footnote 90" 

Newspapers, Carthage, Illinois, Republican, 

June 2, 1864, quoted, footnote 133 

Newspapers, Champaign, Illinois, Union and 

Gazette, footnote 136 

Newspapers, Chicago Daily Democrat 81- 
foot notes 79 , 80 , 85, 8» 

Newspapers, Chicago, Illinois, Daily Journal, 

footnotes 81,97 

Newspapers, Chicago, Press and Tribune, foot- 
note M 

Newspapers, Chicago Times 131 , 132 

Newspapers, Chicago Times, October 1, 1863, 

quoted 131 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune 84,100,132 

Newspapers, Congregational Journal, footnote. 92 
Newspapers, Free West, published at Chicago. 86 

footnotes 79,88 

Newspapers, Free Press of Vermont 86 

Newspapers, Genius of Liberty 86 

Newspapers, Illinois Farmer (Agricultural 

Journal) 158 

Newspapers, Illinois State Journal, Spring- 
field , footnote 137 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, footnotes 

131 , 133, 135, 137 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, June 6, 

1863, quoted, footnote .131 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, February 

28, 1864, quoted, footnote 133 

Newspapers, Jacksonville, Illinois, Daily 

Journal, footnote 82 

Newspapers, Joliet, Illinois, Signal 137 

footnotes 136 , 137 

Newspapers, Jonesboro, Illinois, Gazette, foot- 
notes 132 , 136 

Newspapers, Kaskaskia, early newspaper es- 
tablished at, reference 150 

Newspapers, Liberator (The) anti-slavery 

paper 83 

Newspapers, New York Tribune 61 

Newspapers, Ottawa, Free Trader, footnote ... 80 

Newspapers, Peoria, Illinois, Register 86 

Newspapers, Prairie Farmer, published at 

Chicago 158 

Newspapers, Rock River Democrat, footnote. . 81 
Newspapers, Rockford, Illinois, Register, foot- 
note 81 

Newspapers, Rockford, Illinois, Republican, 

footnote 84 

Newspapers, St. Clair Tribune, footnote 80 

Newspapers, St. Louis, Missouri, "Era" foot- 
note 98 

Newspapers, St. Louis, Missouri, Reveille 88 

Newspapers, Shawneetown Gazette 81 

Newspapers, Springfield, Illinois, Daily 

Journal, footnotes 80,89 

Newspapers, Springfield, Illinois, State Regis- 
ter, footnotes 79, 133,134 

Newspapers, Urbana, Illinois, Union, footnote 90 
Newspapers, Valparaiso, Indiana Ranger, anti- 
slavery paper 83 

Newspapers, Voice of Freedom (The), anti- 
slavery paper, quoted 83 



—12 H S 



,73 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Newspapers, Western Citizen 

77,79,80,81,83,86,90,92,94,95,96,97 

footnotcs 77,78,79,80, 

81,82,83,85,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98 
Nichols, (Miss) Charlotte, wife of Jedidiah 

Beard 113 

Nichols, John 113 

Nile River, Pyramids in the valley of the Nile. 37 

Normal, Illinois 5, 15,21 ,32 ,34 

North America 159 

North Carolina State 30,52 

North Dakota State 63,64 

North Dakota, Bismarck, North Dakota 63 

North, Levi, relates incident of capture of negro 

John Biicknor, Princeton, Illinois 89,90 

Northwest Territory 30,37,119, 1.50 

Northwest Territory, Illinois a part of 150 

Northwest Territory, laws of, reference 156 

Northwest Territory, St. Clair, Arthur, Gover- _ 

nor of 15, 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 5, 20 

Norton, W . T 16 , 12 

Norway 62, 6g 

Norwood, J. G., State Geologist 15. 

Norwich Cathedral, England 5^ 

Norwich, England 3, 

Nuckles, Stephen A Pj 





Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois 57 

Oats were not raisedin an early day in Illinois. . 147 

Ohio County, Indiana 30 

Ohio River 48,79,119,141,144,150,151,153,159 

footnotes 79,80 

Ohio River, early settlements along 150 

Ohio State 

.38,58,71,72,76,115,116,117,123,153,154 

Ohio State, Barton, Ohio 71,76 

Ohio State, Brown County, Ohio, anti-slavery 
people from, settle in Bond and Putnam 

Counties, Illinois 76 

Ohio State, Butler Countv, Ohio 38 

Ohio State, Cleveland, Oliio - 115 

Ohio State, county histories of, in the Illinois 

State Historical Library 30 

Ohio State, description of a trip from Ohio to 

Beardstown, Illinois in 18-36 116-117 

Ohio State, immigration from to Illinois 71,72 

Ohio State, Militia, War of 1812 115 

Ohio State, Oxford, Ohio 38 

Ohio State, Salem, Ohio 114 

Ohio State, United States or the Ohio Salines 

153,154 

Ohio State, Wellsville, Ohio 116 

Ohio State, " Western Reserve" 114 

Ohio State, Wooster, Ohio 115 

Oklahoma State 73,74,75 

Oklahoma State, emigration of Illinoisans to. . 73 

Oklahoma State, immigration to 75 

Old South Church, Boston, reference 122 

Olney, Richard, Attornev General, United 

States ■. 101,103 

Omaha, Nebraska 112 

Ontario, Illinois 83,98 

Ontario, Illinois, Underground Railroad in, 

works effectively 98 

Orangeville, DuPage County, Illinois, response 
to appeal of Missionaries to help negro refu- 
gees in Canada, footnote 95 

Osborne, Georgia L., Assistant Secretary, Illi- 
nois State Historical Societv 

5,15,17,18,19,20,22,26,27 

Osborne, Georgia L., report of the Genealogical 
Committee, Illinois State Historical Society 

30-31 

Ottawa, Illinois 25,80,84,112 

f ootn ote 80 

Ottawa, Illinois, Free Trader (New'paper), 
footnote 80 



PAGE. 

Ottawa, Illinois, fugitive slave case, "Jim" 

1859, reference 84 

Ottawa, Illinois, Underground Railroad in, — 80 

footnote 80 

Owen County, Indiana 30 

Owen's Sound, Canada 91 

Oxen used bv the early settlers in Illinois 152 

Oxford, Ohio 38 



Pacific Ocean 63 

Packingtown, Illinois 100 

Page, Edward C 5,17,19,20,21,22 

Palmer, (Gov.) John M 62,131,133 

footnotes 133 , 135 

Palmer, (Gov.) John M., quoted on Lincoln's 

candidacy for re-election 133 

Palmer, (G"ov.) John M., quoted on Lincoln's 

war powers, footnote 131 

Pana, Illinois 112 

Paris. Illinois 112 

Park County, Indiana 30 

Parker, aids fugitive slaves 88 

Parker,C. M ,-,-v ■■; ^8 

Parker, Samuel, letter to Rev. P. C. CroU, dated 

Glendale, California, January 25, 1917 129 

Parley, Peter 60 

Parkman, Francis 61 

Pasadena, California 2s 

PawTiee, Illinois 1» 

PajTie, E. W :. -■ • 20 

Pease, Theodore C, The Public Land Policy 
and Early Illinois Politics— by Theodore C. 

Pease -16 

Pekin, Illinois 16,19,23,38,39,41 ,42,43,44 

Peltries and furs in great demand, and com- 
mand a good price in early Illinois 152 

Pennsylvania State 48,51,52,64,71,72,131 

Pennsylvania State, Chester County, Pennsyl- 

vania °2 

Pennsylvania State, Curtin (Gov.) Andrew 

Gregg, War Governor of Pennsylvania 131 

Pennsvlvania State, immigrants from settle 

in Illinois 71,72 

Pennsylvania State, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 48 
Peoria County, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

Peoria, Illinois 67 ,69,83,86, 112 , 145 

Peoria, Illinois, foreign-bom population in 

1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Peoria, Illinois, French village 145 

Peoria, Illinois, Register (Newspaper) 88 

Peoria Indians 118 

Peoria Lake 145 

Peqiiot Indian War, 1637 32 

Periodicals, Journal of American History 35 

Periodicals, True Wesleyan, quoted 93 

Perkins, Sarah Choate, wife of John Burnhara. 32 
Perry, John F., mill on Prairie du Pont Creek. .152 
Perry, Oliver Hazard, Victory on Lake Erie, 

War of 1812, reference 115 

Peru, LaSalle County, Illinois, footnote 88 

Peru, South .Vmerica 129 

Petersburg, Illinois 19,114,127 

Pharoahs (The) 37 

Philadelphia, Pennsvlvania 53,112,145 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Liberty Bell in, 

reference 53 

Pierson, A. V 28 

Pierson, Azel, active in the LTnderground Rail- 
road 82 

Pinet, Pierre Francois, Jesuit 145 

Pioneers of the middle western states, devout, 

earnest home seekers 58 

Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 48,152 

Plainfield, Illinois, response to appeal of 
missionaries to aid fugitive slaves in Canada, 

footnote 95 

Piano, Illinois, Indian battle ground near 
Piano 39 



179 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Piatt, .1 irali .aids l'u<;it ivc slaves 87 

Ploughs, crude Freneh ones, used in an early 

day in Illinois 146 

Plvrnouth, Massachusetts 52 

" Plymouth Rock", Massachusetts 51 

Poe(Mrs.) Stella Beard, letter to Rev. P. C. 

Croll, dated Sheridan, Wyoming, February 

11, 1917 ■. ".127 

Pogue, H. W 2S 

Poland 66 

Political Parties, Democratic Party 

62.103,131,132,1.33,"l34,135,136,137 

Political Parties, Free-Soil Party 62 

Political Parties, Prohibitionist Party 62 

Political Parties, Republican Party - 

103, 130, 131, 1.32, 133,"l34, 135, 136, 137 

Polit ical Parties, Whig Party 62, 133 

Polo, Illinois 5,22 

Pomerov (Senator) Samuel C, footnote 133 

Pontiac", Illinois 98 

Pope, Nathaniel 26 

Population of Illinois, 1870-1910, by Ernest L. 

Bogart 15 ,64-75 

Portage County, Ohio 30 

Portland, Oregon 112 

Potatoes raised abundantly by the Americans 

in early Illinois ". 147 

Potatoes were not raised to an advantage by the 

French in Illinois ' 147 

Pntts, William \ 44 

Powell, Hod, aids fugitive slaves 98 

Prairie dn Chien, Wisconsin 152 

Prairie du Pont 146 

Prairie du Pont Creek, mill of John F. Perry 

on 152 

Prairie du Rocher, Illinois 146 

Prairie du Sucie or Sugar Loaf Moimd in St. 

Clair County, Illinois 144 

Prairie Farmer (published Chicago) 158 

Prairie Grass furni.shed the hay for early settlers 

in Illinois , 151 

Prairies of Illinois 59, 108,143, 144 ,151 

Prairies of Wisconsin 59 

Pratt, (Mrs.) , footnote 95 

Presbyterian Church 34,62,83 

footnote 95 

Presbyterian Church, Bloomington, Illinois. . . 34 
Presbyterian Church, (First) Chicago, footnote 95 

Presbyterian Church, Galesburg, Illinois S3 

Presidential Election of 1864— by Arthur C. 

Cole ■ 16,130-138 

Prettvman, B. S 42 

Prince, Ezra M 34,36 

Prince, Ezra M., one of the organizers of the 

McLean County Historical Society 34 

Princeton, Illinois, Bucknor, John (negro) 

rescue case of, at Princeton 89,90 

Princeton, Illinois, New York House 89 

Princeton, Illinois, Underground Railroad in. . 80 

footnote SO 

Prohibitionist Party 62 

Public Land Policy and Early Illinois Politics 

by Theodore C. Pease ." 16 

Pulaski Coimty, Illinois, ancient fortification 

near, mentioned by John Reynolds 144 

Pulaski County, Illinois, negro population in 

1910 ; 69 

Pulliam, Robert, early settler in Sangamon 

County r 119 

Pullman Strike, Altgeld (Gov.) John Peter 

does not approve of President Cleveland 

sending troops to Chicago during the Pull- 
man strike 103 

Pullman Strike, Cleveland, (Pres.) Grover 

sends troops to Chicago during Pullman 

strike 103 

Pullman Strike, Day, Stephen A., A Celebrated 

Illinois case that made history 99-108 

Pullman Strike. Grosscup, (Judge) Peter S., 

charge to the jury, Pullman strike case 

." 103,104,105,106 



P.^GE. 

Pullman Strike, United States Federal Court, 
prompt action in tlie Pullman strike 101 

Puritan influence in the formative years of 
Illinois History — by Carrie Prudence Kofoid, 
footnote : 97 

Purple, Norman B 42 

Putnam County, Illinois, anti-slavery people 
in, reference. ." 76,82 

Putnam County, Illinois, anti-slavery people 
from Brown County, Ohio settle in 76 

Putnam Coimtv, Illinois, Anti-Slavery Society, 
footnote 82 

Putnam County, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1S70-1910 67 



Q 

Quakers 145 

Quincy , Illinois 69,76,80,112 

footnote 88 

Quincy, Illinois, foreign-born population in 

1S70; ISSO, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Quincy, Illinois, point of entrance for slaves 

in the years 1839-1840 76 

Quincy, Illinois, Underground Railroad in — 80 
footnote 80 



Railroads, American Railway Union 99 

Railroads, Chicago & Alton Railroad 98 

Railroads, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, footnote 88 

Railroads, Chicago & Rock Island Railroad, 

footnote 88 

Railroads, Illinois Central Railroad 

88, 100,143, 154, 159 

footnote 80 

Railroads, Michigan Central Railroad 88 

Railroads, Rock Island Railroad 100 

Rammelkamp, Charles H 5,17,21 

footnotes 80,82,87 

Rammelkamp, Charles H., Illinois college and 
the anti-slavery movement, footnotes. .80,82,87 

Randolph Coimty, Illinois 35,83,119.142,150 

Randolph County, Illinois Horse Prairie in 150 

Randolph County, Indiana 30 

Rankin Family 62 

Rantoul, Illinois 126,127 

Raymond, Henry J.. Chairman, National 

E.xecntive Committee Campaign, lSti4 134 

Reconstruction, issue in the Campaign of 1864.. 136 

Reed, (Miss) Harriet, A. M ~ 28 

Renault, Philip Francois, brings slaves from 
San Domingo to w-ork in the mines in Illi- 
nois 148 

Republican Party 

103,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137 

Republican Party enters the Campaign of 1864 

with gloomy outlook 134 

Republican Party, Illinois Republican State 

Convention, May, 1864 133 

Republican Party of 1864, was not that demo- 
cratic force it had been in 1856 138 

Republican Party, victory of 1860, the South 
cnose to regard "as the beginning of an attack 

on slavery 130 

Reverie of fifty years after. Lincoln at Gettys- 
burg—by Clark E. Carr 15.1(19-110 

Rejniolds, John, The Agricultural Resources 

o"f Southern Illinois, reprint 141-160 

Reynolds, John, called "The Old Ranger," 

War of 1812 153 

Reynolds, (Gov.) Thomas, of .Missouri, letter of 
Governor Thomas Ford of Illinois to, dated 

April 13, 1843 86 

Rhodes, James Ford, history of the United 
States, quoted, footnotes.. ." 131,135 



180 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Rhodes, James Ford, quoted on Abraham 

Lincoln and his acts during the Civil War 131 

Rice, Isaac 93,95 

footnotes 93,95 

Rice, Isaac, call for help for missionary work, 

Amherstbury, Canada 95 

Rice, Isaac, missionary work among the negroes 

at Amhertsbury, Canada 93 

footnote ." 93 

Richardson, , near Pontiac, Illinois, aids 

fugitive slaves 98 

Richland Countv, Ohio 30 

Ripley, (Gen.) E. ^V 27 

Robinson, , early teacher in Conneaut, 

Ohio 114 

Robinson, Charles, early deed to land recorded 

Morgan Countv 120 

Robinson, David (Robison, David ?) 149 

Rochelle, Illinois, Daughters of the American' 

Revolution, footnote 87 

Rochester, Illinois 97 

Rock Creek, Monroe County, Illinois 152 

Rockf ord, Illinois 66 , 112 

footnotes 81 ,S4 , 134 

Rockford, Illinois, foreign-bom population in 

1870, 1R80, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Rockford, Illinois, Register (Newspaper), foot- 
note 81 

Rockford, Illinois, Republican, (Newspaper) 

footnote 84 

Rock Fort, (Fort St. Louis) 145 

Rock Island Countv, Illinois, foreign-bom 

population in 1870-1910 67 

Rock Island, Illinois 25,68,100,112 

footnote 88 

Rock Island, Illinois, Railroad, Blue Island, 

Illinois, wreck on train during Pullman 

strike, 1894 100 

Rock River, Democrat, (Newspaper) footnote. 81 

Rock River, Wisconsin 59,60 

Rock Springs Seminarv (now Shurtleff College) 

Upper Alton, Illinois 156 

Rocky Mountains 63 

Rogers, George A., reading of the Reverie of 

Fifty Years After— bv Clark E.Carr.. 15, 109-110 

" Rose " ship ". 51 

Ross, Betsy, home in Philadelphia 122 

Royce Farnily, footnote 95 

Rupert, G. H. & Co., banking firm, Pekin, 

Illinois 42 

Russel, Andrew 5,22 

Russia 66 

Rutledge Family 62 

Ryan, Harrv ..." 89 

Rye was not raised in Illinois in an early day. .147 



S 

Sacajawea, Indian, the bird woman with the 

Lewis and Clark expedition 63 

Sacramento River, valley of 38 

St. Charles County, Missouri, LaMammalle 

Mound in 144 

St. Clair (Gov.) Arthur, Governor of the North- 
west Territorv .' 150 

St. Clair County, Illinois 

! 67,68,119,144, 1.50. 153,157 

St. Clair Countv, Illinois, earlv settlements in. . 1.50 

St. Clair County, Illinois, flouring mills in 157 

St. Clair Countv, Illinois, foreign-bom popula- 
tion in 1870-1910 67 

St. Clair County, Illinois, Prairie du Sucie or 

Sugar Loaf Mound in 144 

St. Clair Tribune, (Newspaper) footnote 80 

Saint Joseph County, Indiana 30 

St. Louis, Missouri." 

28,77,112,115,116,117,119,143,144,154 

footnote 98 

St. Louis, Missouri, activity in the Under- 
ground Railroad ." 77 



PAGE. 

St. Louis, Missouri, coal hauled to, from Illi- 
nois in 1823 154 

St. Louis, Missouri, "Era" (Newspaper), foot- 
note ■ 98 

St. Louis, Missouri, floods from the Mississippi, 
height of the one of 1844, marked in St. 

Louis 143 

St. Louis, Missouri, Liguest Pierre Laclede 

founder of 119 

St. Louis, Missouri, Reveille (Newspaper) 83 

St. Phillip, Illinois 146 

Salem, Ohio 114 

Salines and mineral wealth of southern Illinois 

153-155 

Salt works in Illinois 150 

Sanborn Ancestry 31 

Sanborn, V.C. . ." 31 

San Domingo, Renault, Philip Francois, brings 

slaves from, to work in the mines in Illinois. . 148 
Sand ich on the Detroit River, settlements 

for the refugee slaves 91,92 

Sangamon Bay 117 

Sangamon Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from 

Kentucky settled in 72 

Sangamon "Countv, Illinois, Kelley settlement. 120 

Sangamon River ".115,118,119,123 

Sangamon River, Horse Creek tributary of 119 

Sangamon River, Kickapoo Indian Mounds 
just below the mouth of the Sangamon 

River 115 

Santa Fe 119 

Scales, Walter Bennett, footnote 82 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L., President Illinois 

State Historical Societv 

5,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,2^,28 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L., The Illinois Centennial 

Celebration 15 

Schmoldt, A. E., saw mill, Beardstown, Illi- 
nois 121 

Sehultz, Baujan & Co., flouring mill. Beards- 
town, Illinois 121 

Scituate, Massachusetts 51 

Scott Coimty, Illinois 120 

Scott, John M., one of the organizers of the 

McLean Countv Historical Society 34 

Seaman, (Mrs.) Ella 123 

Seaman, Fred 123 

Seattle, Washington 112 

Seignelay (Illinois River) 118 

Selby, Paul, Historical Encyclopedia of Illi- 
nois, footnotes 83,85,85 

Selleek, William E 28 

Seneca Coimty, Ohio 30 

Sequoia National Park, General Sherman tree 

in, reference 37 

Series, Henry, mill of on Horse Creek 152 

Shaw, Henry, address on Cass Countv, Illinois, 

delivered July 4, 1876, extracts from 118-119 

Shawneetown, Illinois 81,150 

footnote 80 

Shawneetown, Illinois, Gazette (Newspaper).. 81 
Shawneetown, Illinois, United States Salt 

Works near 150 

Shelbv, (Gen.) Isaac 149 

Shelbyville, Illinois 97 

Shenandoah Valley, victories of General Sheri- 
dan in. War of the Rebellion, reference 135 

Sheridan, (Gen.) Phil 135,137 

Sheridan, Wyoming 127 

Sherman, Bradford 30 

Sherman Family 30 

Sherman. Lawrence Y 5,21 

Sherman, (Gen.) William Tecumseh. . .37,135,137 
Shiloh Graveyard near Charleston, Coles 

County, Illinois, Thomas Lincoln buried In. . 54 
Shipley. Mary, wife of Abraham Lincoln, son 

of John Lincoln 53 

Shoal Creek, Bond County, Illinois, early set- 
tlements on 150 

Shoal Creek, Bond County, Illinois, salt works 
established at 154 



181 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Short, (Capt.) Jacob, United States Rangers, 
War of 1S12 153 

ShurtlelT College, Upper Alton, 111 156 

Siebert, Wilbur H., The Undergroimd Rail- 
road, quoted 81 

footnotes 76,77,80,81,82,83,84,85,87,89,91 

Silliman, E . C 19 

Silver Creek, Madison County, Illinois, camp 
of Capt. Samuel Whiteside, ^Var of 1812, near 
Silver Creek 153 

Silver Creek, Madison County, Illinois, early 
settlements on 150 

Silver Creek, Madison County, Illinois, salt 
works on 154 

Simcoe, (Gen.) John Graves, Governor General 
of Canada 91 

Slavery 

....76,77,78,82,83,81,85,87,89,90,93,94,95,97,98 

footnotes 76,77,78,79, 

80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,91,92,93,94,95,98 

Slavery, Anti-Negro Stealing Society 87 

Slavery, Anti-Slavery Society, Christian Anti- 
Slavery Convention held in Greenville. Bond 
Comity, Illinois, October 20, 1846, footnote. . 82 

Slavery," Anti-Slavery Society in New York. . . 90 

Slavery, British Anti-Slavery Society of 
England ". 94 

Slavery, British Memorial to Congress, relative 
to the fugitive slave 94 

Slavery, British Treaty, fugitive slaves refer- 
ence, footnote 94 

Slavery, Bucknor, John (negro), rescue case of, 
at Princeton, Illinois 89,90 

Slavery, Chceser, Amanda, citizens of Alton, 
Illinois, raise fund to free Amanda Cheeser 
(colored girl), footnote 89 

Slavery, Chicago Common Coimcil passed 
resolutions requesting citizens and police to 
abstain from any and all interference in the 
capture and deliverance of fugitive slaves 78 

Slavery, Clay, Henry, quoted on the escape of 
slaves to Canada 76 

Slavery, Cooley, (Miss) Vema, Illinois and the 
Underground Railroad to Canada .15,76-98 

Slavery, Drew, Benjamin, a north-side view of 
slavery, quoted, footnote 93 

Slavery," Freeman, Elizabeth, slave captured.. 87 

Slavery, Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, reference. 76 

Slavery, Fugitive Slave Act of 18.')0 77,84,85 

Slavery, Hanson, colored agent for the self- 
emancipation of slaves 92 

footnote 92 

Slavery, Harris, N. Dwight, negro slavery in 
Illinois footnotes 80,82,83,86,88 

Slavery, Howe, S. G., report on the Refugees 
from" Slavery in Canada West, quoted, foot- 
note 92 

Slavery, Illinois State Anti-Slavery Society. .83,98 

Slavery, Illinois State Anti-Slavery Society, 
Dr. Richard Eells elected president of, in 1843. 83 

Slavery, Ladies Anti-Slavery Society 95 

footnote 95 

Slavery, Mahan, Erastus, Friends of Liberty 
on the Mackinaw; in McLean County His- 
torical Transactions, footnote 98 

Slavery, Mann, Charles W., The Chicago 
Common Council and the Fugitive Slave 
Law of 1850, quoted, footnote 78 

Slavery, Nancy, slave case Bureau County 
Circuit Court 82,83 

Slavery, Putnam Coimty, Illinois Anti-Slavery 
Society, footnote 82 

Slavery," Rammelkarap, Charles H., Illinois 
College and the Anti-Slavery movement, 
footnotes 80,82 

Slavery, Republican Victory of 1860, the South 
chose to regard as the beginning of an attack 
on slavery 130 

Slavery, Siebert , Wilbur H., The Underground 

Railroad, quoted, footnotes 

76,77,80,81,82,83,84,85,87,89,91 



PAOE. 

Slavery, Smith, E., freed slaves, how they 

prosper, footnote 92 

Slavery, Susan, negro slave harboring and se- 
creting of 83 

Slavery, "Tales of Fugitives" 97 

Slavery, Thirteenth Amendment abolishing, 

reference 136 

Slavery, Thomas, William, Exposition and 
defence of the Fugitive Slave Law, reference . 78 

footnote 78 

Slavery, Trexler, Harrison Anthony, slavery 

in Missouri, quoted, footnotes 78,79 

Slavery, Webster-Ashburton Treaty, Fugitive 

Slave clause in, reference 93 

Slavery, Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise 
and Fall of the Slave Power in America, foot- 
note 82 

Smith, (Col.) D.C 5,15,21,23,34 

Smith, (Mrs.) D.C 34 

Smith, DeWitt, gift of original letters to the 

Illinois State Historical Library and Society. 26 
Smith, E., freed slaves, how they prosper, 

quoted 92 

footnote 92 

Smith, George W 5,22 

Smith, H., footnote 95 

Smith, (Capt.) Melanthon, footnote 134 

Soldiers' Orphan Home, Normal, Illinois 34 

South America, Peru, South America 126 

South Bend, Indiana 56 

South Carolina State 30 

"Southern" a steamer 88 

Spain 119, 147 

Spanish possessions on the west bank of the 

Mississippi River, reference 148 

Sparta, Illinois, Abolitionists of, arm them- 
selves and protect fugitive slaves 90 

footnote 90 

Sparta, Illinois, L^nderground Railroad in 80 

Speed, Joshua 62 

Springdale, Iowa, footnote 79 

Springfield , Illinois 

...5, 16, 19, 21, 26, 27, 28, 35, 47, 54, 55, .57, 69, 112, 120 

footnotes .32,79,80,89,133,134,137 

Springfield, Illinois, Art Association 26 

Springfield, Illinois, Calhoim early name of 120 

Springfield, Illinois, foreign-born population 

in, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 69 

Springfield, Illinois, Journal, footnotes 80,89 

Springfield, Illinois, Oak Ridge Cemetery in. . 57 
Springfield, Illinois, State Register, footnotes 

79,133,134,137 

Springfield, Illinois, State Register, February 

28, 1864, quoted, footnote 133 

Springfield, Illinois State Register, September 

2.5, 1864, quoted , footnote 134 

Stark Coimty, Illinois 83,87 

Starne, (Mrs.) Paul 18 

Starved Rock (Fort St. Louis) 145 

Stearns, George L., footnote 136 

Stephenson Coimty, Illinois, foreign-born popu- 
lation in 1870-19i0 67 

Stephenson Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from 

Pennsylvania settled in 72 

Stericker, (Mrs.) George F 26 

Stewart, Peter, active in the interest of the 

LTnderground Railroad 84 

Stewart, Peter, called president of the Under- 
ground Railroad 98 

Stout, (Dr.) Joseph, fine for aiding "Jim", • 

fugitive slave 84 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 61 

Streator, Illinois 25,28, 112 

Stuart, .John T 43 

Stuart, (Mrs.) , footnote 95 

Studebaker, P. E., erects monument to Nancy 

Hanks Lincoln 56 

Sugar Creek, early .settlement on 150 

Summit County, Ohio 30 

Supreme Court", State of Illinois 82 

footnote 82 



183 



INDEX — Continued. 



PACE. 

Supreme Court, L'nited States, Adamson Bill 

case (Wilson v. N'ew et al), reference 107 

Supreme Court, United States, decision, in re 

Debs case 106-108 

Supreme Court, United States, footnote 82 

Susan, negro slave, secreting of in Knox 

County, Illinois 83 

SwajTie. Henry S., one of the organizers of the 

McLean County Historical Society 34 

Sweden ' 66 

Sweet, M. P 28 

Swett , Leonard 62 

Switzerland 66 

Sydenham River, Canada 91 



Tabor, (Fremont County) Iowa, footnote 79 

"Tales of Fugitives" 97 

Tate & Singleton's Mill, on the Bellefountaine 

Cre«k 152 

Taylorville, Illinois 28 

Tazewell County, Illinois 37-44 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Bar, special com- 
mittee. In Memoriam, James Hames 37-44 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Cincinnati Town- 
ship 38 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Dillon Creek 39 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Dillon settlement in 38 

Tazewell County, Illinois, first court house 42 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Haines, James, 

quoted on, pioneer days in 39-41 

Tazewell County, Illinois, Historical Society. . 44 
Tazewell County, Illinois, Old Settlers' Asso- 
ciation ". 43 

Tennessee River = 159 

Tennessee State 30,50,53,73,75,76,79,80,145 

Texas State, emigration of lUinoisans to 73 

Texas State, immigration to 75 

Tennessee State, Marshall County, Tennessee. . 76 
Thomas, William, Exposition and Defence of 

the Fugitive Slave Law, reference 78 

footnote 78 

Thompson, James, monument to, erected by 

Mayor William Hale Thompson of Chicago. . 20 
Thornpson, Samuel, experience in Chicago with 

a negro boy, 18.57 81 

Thompson, William Hale, Mayor of Chicago, 
erects monument to James Thompson, pio- 
neer 20 

Thoreau, Henrv 61 

Tippecanoe, battle of, War of 1812 1.54 

Tipton Coimty, Indiana 30 

Tobacco raised in southern Illinois 160 

Tomlin, (Mrs.) Martha 27 

Torbet, Lewis K 19 

Toronto, Canada 91 

footnote 92 

"Town Site" (now the City of Pekin, Illinois) 

38,39 

"Town Site," (now Pekin, Illinois) platted 

out, before the village of Chicago 38 

Transylvania University, Lexington, Ken- 

tuclcy 41 

Trees, species of trees found in southern Illi- 
nois 143 

Tremont, Tazewell County, Illinois 41 

"Tremont" steamer. . . . .' 116 

Trexler, Harrison Anthony, Slavery in Mis- 
souri, quoted, footnotes 78,79 

Troy Grove, LaSalle County, Illinois, station 

Underground Railroad 81 

True Weslevan, Periodical, quoted . . . , 93 

Trumbull Countv, Ohio 30 

Trumbull, Lyman 62, 131 

Trumbull, Lyman, condemned the imprison- 
ment of citizens upon lettres de cachet, foot- 
note 131 

Trumbull, Lyman, Trumbull Papers, quoted, 
footnotes 131 , 133, 135 



PAGE. 

Turkey Hill Colony, begun in 1797 150 

Turner, (Prof.) Joiiathan Baldwin 82,132 

footnote 82 

Turner, (Prof.) Jonathan Baldwin, active in 
the Underground Railroad, reminiscences, 

quoted 82 

footnote 82 

"Turners' Grove ", land mark on the road from 
Galena to Chicago 49 

Tyler, C.C 28 

U 

Underground Railroad, activities of, typical 
report on, footnote 96 

Underground Railroad, Codding, Ichabod, 
quoted on the business of, in 1845 77 

Underground Railroad, degree of organization 
and motive 96 

Underground Railroad, geographical extent. 79-82 

Underground Railroad, greatest activity 1850 
to 1860 ■. 77 

Underground Railroad, Leeper, H. B., quoted 
on 76 

Underground Railroad, methods employed.. 86-90 

Underground Railroad, origin and growth of. 76-79 

LTnderground Railroad, personnel, courageous 
leaders 82-86 

Underground Railroad, Siebert, Wilbur H., 

ciuoted, footnotes 

76,77,80,81,82,83,84,85,87,89,91 

Union County, Illinois .• 84 

Union County, Indiana 30 

Unitarian Church 62 

United States 15,24,30,33, 

42,61,64,73,74,76,83,92,93,94,99,100,101,102, 
104,106,107,108,121,131,134,141,150,1.53,154,159 
footnotes 82 ,93 ,94 , 131 , 1.35 , 136 

United States Congress 76,94,134 

footnotes 82,94 

United States Congress asks President Lincoln 
to set apart a day for fasting, humiliation and 
prayer 134 

United States Congress, British Memorial to 
Congress relative to the fugitive slave 94 

United States Congress, House Docs Vol. I, 
27th Congress, 3d Session, quoted, footnote.. 94 

United States Congress, resolution in Congress 
calling for a bill providing for the punish- 
ment of all persons guilty of aiding fugitive 
slaves 76 

United States, Constitution of the United 
States 76,83 

United States, Constitution, harboring and 
secreting slaves made illegal 76 

United States District Court, injunction order 
read to strikers in Chicago at the time of the 
Pullman strike 101 

United States Federal Court, prompt action in 
Pullman strike affair 101 

United States Flag 15 

United States, McPherson, Edward, Political 
History of the United States, quoted, foot- 
note 136 

United States Mail, activities of Debs and the 
American Railway L'nion during the Pull- 
man strike 101 

United States Mail, indictment against Debs 
and others in impeding the carrving of the 
United States Mail 106 

United States Mail, interference with, Pullman 
strike case 102, 104 

United States or the Ohio Salines 153,154 

United States, Panic of 1893, reference 99 

United States, proportion of persons in the 
United States as a whole who lived out of the 
state of their birth 74 

United States, Rhodes, James Ford, History 
of the United States, quoted, footnotes.. 131, 135 

United States, salt works near Shawneetown, 
Illinois 150 



183 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGK. 

United States Supreme Court 106-lOS 

footnote 82 

United States Supreme Court, decision in, In 

re Debs Case 106-lOS 

United States Supreme Court, Justice Brewer's 

decision in, In re Debs Case 106-lOS 

United States, Tenth census 1880, quoted, foot- 
note 73 

Universalist Church 62 

University of Illinois 5,15,16,21,35,64,130-131 

Urbana, fllinois 5,21 ,28,35,36 

footnote 90 

Urbana, Illinois, Union (Newspaper), footnote. 90 

Utica, Illinois 28 

Utica, New York 59 



V 

Valentine, , mill of, near the Mississippi 

Blutf 152 

Vallandigham, ClementLaird 135 

Valparaiso, Indiana Ranger, anti-slaverv paper 83 

Vandalia, Illinois > 19,25, 112 

Vandalia, Illinois, preservation of the Old 

Capitol Building, recommended 19 

Vanderburgh Coimty, Indiana 30 

Van Dorn, anti-slaverv man active in the work 

of the Underground Railroad 82 

Vermilion Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from 

Indiana settled"in 72 

Vermont State 113 

Vicksburg, Mississippi 88 

Vigo County, Indiana 30 

Vincennes, Indiana 112,149,153 

Vinceimes, Indiana, Clark, George Rogers, 

Conquest of Vincennes 149 

Vincennes, Indiana French settlements in, 

reference 112 

Virginia, Illinois 122, 123 

Virginia State 30,50,51,52,80,151 

footnote 80 

Virginia State, Hardy County, Virginia emi- 
grants to Illinois ". 151 

Voice of Freedom, anti-slavery paper, quoted. . 83 



W 

Wabash River 112, 141 , 153, 159 

Wade, (Senator) Benjamin F 134 

Wales. Jenkin Lloyd Jones describes voyage 
of his father's family from Wales to the 

United States 58-59 

Walker, Edwin, special United States Com- 
missioner, Pullman strike 101 

Walker Farm, Tazewell Coimty, Illinois 41 

Walker, fCapt.) Jonathan 89 

Ware, Nathaniel 120, 121 

Ware, Naihaniel, land entry recorded in 

Morgan County 120 

Warren, Hooper, one of the editors of The 

Western Citi zcn 86 

Washington County, Illinois, foreign-boni 

population in 1S70-1910 67 

Washington County, New York 113 

Washington County, Ohio 30 

Washington, D. C ." 92,134 

Washington, D. C, African repository in 92 

Washington, (Gen.) George '. 149 

Wa.shington, Illinois, laid out in 1796 afterwards 

named Horse Prairie Town 150 

Water Mills, early ones in Illinois 152 

Waterloo, Monroe County, Illinois 149,152 

Watertown, Wisconsin. .". 61 

Wayne, (Gen.) Anthony 149,152 

Wayne, (Gen.) .Vnthony, treaty with the 

Indians, 179.5, reference. '. 152 

Wayne County, Indiana 30 

Wayne County, Ohio 30 

War of the Revolution 158 

War of 1812... 115, 117, 146, 149, 1.52, 1.53, 154, 1.55-157 



p.\r.E. 

War of 1812, Battle of Tippecanoe 154 

War of 1812, Illinois, agriculture, improvement 

in, since the War of 1S12 155-157 

War of 1812, Illinois, early forts and camps in. .153 
War of 1812, land granted by the Government 

for services in the War of 1S12 155 

War of 1812, "Military Tract." land granted 
by the Government for services in the War of 

1812 117 

War of 1812, Short, (Capt.) Jacob, United 

States Rangers, War of 1812 153 

War of the Rebellion 

32,33,34,36,62, 131,134, 1.35, 136 

War of the Rebellion, Atlanta, Georgia, capture 

of, reference 135 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Cache River, 

Arkansas, War of the Rebellion 33 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Frederickstown, 

Missouri 33 

War of the Rebellion, Conscription Act of 
March 3, 1863, approved by Abraham Lin- 
coln 131 

War of the Rebellion, Grand Army of the 

Republic 34 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Thirty-third 
Volunteer Infantry, called the "School- 
master's Regiment '"' 33 

War of the Rebellion, Illinois Thirty-third 
Regiment Volunteer Infantry, history of — 

by Capt. John H. Burnham 36 

War of the Rebellion, Modern Labor Problems 

had their begimiing in the Civil War period . . 136 
War of the Rebellion, Shenandoah Valley, 

victories of General Sheridan in, reference. . .135 
War of the Rebellion, value of gold and paper 

money, 1864 134 

War ofthe Rebellion, Wisconsin, Sixth Wis- 
consin Battery 62 

Weber, Jessie Palmer 

5,12,16,17,18,20,22,23,24-29,32-36 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, John Howard Burn- 
ham— In Memoriam 16,23,32-36 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary, Illinois State 

Historical Society ". . .5, 12,16,24-29,32 

Weber, Jessie Palnier, Secretary, Illinois State 

Historical Society, report 24-29 

Webster-Ashburtoh Treaty, Fugitive Slave 

Clause in, reference 93 

Webster, W. W., anti-slavery man 83 

Weik, Jesse W., assists in locating and mark- 
ing grave of Sarah Lincoln, sister of Abraham 

Lincoln 57 

Welles, Gideon, dairy of, quoted 134 

footnotes ." 133,134,135,136 

Wells, England 48 

Wells, E. S 28 

Wells, (Lieut.) William 48 

Welsh hymns, reference 60 

Welsh, Sarah Morris 52 

Wellsville, Ohio 119 

West, Nehemiah, anti-slavery man S3 

West Union, Illinois 28 

Western Citizen (Newspaper) 

77,78,79,81,86,90,92,94,95,96,97 

footnotes 77,78,79, 

81, 82, 83,85,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98 
Western Citizen, organ of the abolition move- 
ment in Illinois 90 

"Western Reserve" of Ohio 114 

Western Union and Postal Telegraph Com- 
panies, Debs threatens to call out employees 

of 100 

Westfall, S. V. E 41 

Wheat after the War of 1812 was more ex- 
tensively cultivated in Illinois 1.55 

Wheat crop in early Illinois, how handled 147 

Wheeler, (.VIrs.) — ^ , footnote 87 

Whig Party 62, 133 

White, , slave hunter 87 

White County, Illinois, named for Col. Isaac 
White -■ 154 



184 



INDEX— Concluded. 



PAGE. 

White, Horace 28 

White, (Col.) Isaac, agent of the United States 

for Ohio Salines 154 

White, (Capt.) Isaac, White County, Illinois, 

named for 154 

Whiteside, (Capt.) Samuel, camp of, War of 

1812 on Silver Creek 153 

Whiteside's Station erected in 1791 150 

Wilberforce, Canada, settlement for the refugee 

negroes in 91 

Wilderman, (Miss) Augusta 17 

Will County, Illinois 67,68,72,84,86,87,90 

footnotes 79,80,95 

Will Countj', Illinois, foreign-bom population 

in 1870-1910 67 

Will County, Illinois, immigrants from New 

York State settled in Will County 72 

Will County, Illinois, Underground Railroad 

in 80 

footnote 80 

Will County, Illinois, Woodruff, George H., 

History of Will County, published 1878, 

quoted', footnotes 79,84,87 

Williard, Julius, aids runaway slaves 87 

Willard, Julius, anti-slavery man 82,83,87 

Willard, Julius, indicted in the Morgan Coimty 

Court and fined for participation in the 

abduction of a negro slave 82 

Willard, Samuel, abduction of a negro slave. . . 82 

Willard, Samuel, aids runaway slaves 87 

Willard, Samuel, anti-slavery man 82,87 

Williams, George 19 

Williams, Richard 42 

Willis ,N. P 61 

Wilmington, Illinois 86,87,90 

footnote 79 

Wilmington, Illinois, citizens of, rescue slaves. . 90 
Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall 

of the Slave Power in America, footnote 82 

Wilson, Hiram, missionary for the destitute 

negro refugees in Canada 90,91,92,93,95,96 

footnotes 91,92,93,95 

Wilson V. New et al — Adamson Bill, United 

States Supreme Court, reference 107 

Winchester, Illinois 78 

footnote 78 

Winnebago Coimty, Illinois, foreign-born pop- 
ulation in, 1870-1910 67 



PAGE. 

Winnebago Coimty, Illinois, immigrants from 

New York State "settled in 72 

Wisconsin State 30,48,58,59,61,64,73 

Wisconsin State, early settlements in by 

Germans, Norwegians and Irish 61 

Wisconsin State, emigration of Illinoisans to. . 73 

Wisconsin State Historical Society 48 

Wisconsin Stale, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 28 

Wisconsin State, Normal Schools 48 

Wisconsin State, prairies of 59 

Wisconsin State University, Madison Wis- 
consin 48 

Wisconsin State, War of the Rebellion, Sixth 

Wisconsin Battery 62 

Wisconsin Territory, Belmont, original terri- 
torial capital ....'. 48 

Wisconsin Territory, early capitol ruins of 48 

Wisconsin Territory, Supreme Court officials, 

reference ." 48 

Wood County, Ohio 30 

Wood River, Madison Coimty, Illinois 150,153 

Wood River, Madison County, Illinois, early 

settlements along 150 

Woodford Coimty, Illinois, foreign-born popu- 
lation in 1870-1910 67 

Woodruff, George H., footnotes 79,84,87,95 

Woodruff, George H., History of Will Coimty, 

1878, footnotes '. 79,84,87,95 

Woods, (Judge) William A., presides over 
court at which Eugene V. Debs was tried for 

contempt of court 101 

Woolley, Myron 28 

Wooster, Ohio 115 

World's Fair, Chicago, 1893 38 

Wright, S. S., aids fugitive slaves 98 

Wright, S. G., anti-slavery man 83,87,98 

Wycoff , Elias, anti-slavery man 83 

Wyoming State, Sheridan", Wyoming 127 

"Wyoming" steamboat 116 



Yarmouth Bay 51 

Yates, (Gov.) "Richard (the younger) 5,21 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard, War Governor of Illi- 
nois 62, 132 



185 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 

AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Prepared by Edmund 
J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. S vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809 to 1812. Prepared 
by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 1.5 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmimd J. James, Ph. D., 170 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield 1901. 

No. 4. "^Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. Edited by E. B. 
Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. * Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios of the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6to23. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 1901-1916. (Nos. 
6 to 18 out of print.) 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckvvith, President of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1903. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord. CLVI and 663 tpp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. LinColn-Douglas Debates of 1858, Lincoln Series, Vol. I. 
Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1908. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Governors' Letter Books, 
181S-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collect ions. Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol.11, Kaskaskia Records, 1778-1790. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I, Newspapers and Periodicals 
of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 
610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' Letter Books, 
1840-1853. Edited bv Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. HI. George Rogers Clark Papers, 
1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel and Description, 
176.5-1865. Bv Solon Ju.stus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois I^istorical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol.1. The Critical Period, 1763-1765. Edited 
with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New Regime, 176.5-1767. Edited 
with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 
700 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The County Archives 
of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 1905. Illinois in the 
Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 38 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Librarv, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1908. Laws of the Territory 
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♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 1905. An Outline for the 
Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by .Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 
S vo." Springfield 1905. 

♦Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical Library. Com- 
piled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Societv. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, to Vol. X, No. 2. July, 
1917. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV, ^', VI, VII, VIII, and No. 1 of Vol. IX. 

♦Out of print. 



-13 H S 



UNIVERSITY OF ILUNOIS-URBANA 





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