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Publication Number Twenty-four 





Illinois State Historical Society 


The Centennial Meeting of the Society, April 17-18, 1918, 

and of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the 

Society, Springfield, Illinois, May 15, 1918 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 

Springfield, III. 

Illinois State Journal Co., State Printers. 

19 19 

14487— 3M 



Officers of the Society 5 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of tlie Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 


MEETING, 1918. 

Annual Meeting, 1918 15 

Business Meeting .- 16-26 

Dr. John H. Finley, Letter to the Historical Society 27 

APRIL 17-18, 1918. 

Edgar A. Bancroft. "Illinois— The Land of Men," Centennial Address.. 31a 

H. J. Eckenrode. "Virginia in the Making of Illinois" 31 

Allen Johnson. "Illinois in the Democratic Movement of the Century".. 38 

Elbert Jay Benton. Establishing the American Colonial System in the 
Old Northwest 47 

Charles W. Moores. The Interest Indiana Holds in Historic Illinois.... 64 

Clarence W. Alvord. "The Cencennial History of Illinois" 74 

M. Louis Aubert. "A Message from France" 83 


Andrew H. Mills, A. M. "A Hundred Years of Sunday School History in 

Illinois, 1818-1918," a Mosaic 93 

Index 197 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Society and Library 
following Index. 


IJonoranj President. 
Hon. Clauk E. Uarr (lalesburg 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
RiCHARiD Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
Ensley Moore Jacksonville 


Edmund J. James, President University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. EAMMELKA:\rr, President Illinois College Jacksonville 

■George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal University 


William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, ISTorthern Illinois State Normal School DeKalh 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyee Albion 

James A. James. Northwestern ITnivcrsity Evanston 

H. W. Clendbnin Springfielf! 

CoL. D. C. Smith Normal 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 

John IT. Hauberg Rock Islanrl 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
]\Irs. Jessie Palmek Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 


Differing from the practice of previous years, this volume includes, 
besides the oiticial proceedings of tlie annual meeting May 15, 1918, and of 
the meetings of Directors of the Society, the papers read at the special 
Centennial meeting of April 17-18, 1918, and some other matter contrib- 
ted during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to State his- 
tory" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their title, and 
form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transactions. The 
contributions are intended to include the following kinds of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and ex- 
tensive publication of official records in the Illinois Historical Col- 
lections, which are published by the trustees of the State Historical 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the soui'ces 
and containing genuine contributions to knoAvledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the 
main factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

The observance of the Centenary of the State has been the occasion 
of the delivery of many valuable historical papers and addresses. These 
the Society wishes to collect and preserve. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the Society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the dis- 
tinctly official pul)]ications of the Stcite Historical Library. In histori- 
cal research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual understand- 
ing that this Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in 
schools or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to 
this publication the best results of local research and historical scholar- 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. ISTevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 





Section 1. The name of the Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and 
stimukite a general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage his- 
torical research and investigation and secure its promulgation ; to collect 
and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of 
Illinois and its people. 


Section 1. The management of the affairs of the Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors, of v/hich board the President of 
the Society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice Presidents, 
not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a Secretary and Treasurer, and 
shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and 
committees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and to 
this end they shall have power: 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the liistory of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it 
may secure. 

(4) To accvmiulate for like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 


(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prjiits, paiutings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of all 
property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accord- 
ance with an act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled, 
"An Act to add a new section to an act entitled, 'An Act to establish 
the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' " approved May 25, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carrying out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt 
by-laws not inconsistent with this Constitution for the management of 
the affairs of the Society; they shall fix the times and places for their 
meetings; keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election 
by the remaning members, the persons so elected to continue in office 
until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. G. The President shall preside at all. meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presidents 
shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice Presi- 
dent shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President pro 

Sec. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed 
by the Society or the board of directors. The Treasurer shall keep a 
strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from 
the treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit 
an annual report of the finances of the Society and such other matters 
as may be committed to his" custody to the board of directors within 
such time prior to the annual meetings as they shall direct, and after 
auditing the same the said board shall submit said report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 


Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this Society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall, 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon pay- 
ment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life member with all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation 
of the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of 


the board of directors, be admitted as affiliated members of this Society 
upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual dues 
as active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be entitled 
to one duly credited representative at each meeting of the Society, who 
shall during the period of his appointment, be entitled as such repre- 
sentative to all the privileges of an active member except that of being 
elected to office; but nothing herein shall prevent such representative be- 
coming an active or life member upon like conditions as other persons. 

Sec. 5, Persons not active nor life memljers but who are willing to 
lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects 
of this Societ}', may, upon reconnnendation of the board of directors, be 
admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the Society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon 
persons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or con- 
tributions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 


Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and publish a suitable progi'am and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the board 
of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the President or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 


Section 1. The constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
of the members present and entitled to vote, at anv annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the Secretary 
to all the members of the Society. 





(Members please read this circular letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaBology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, cooperative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in which 
Illinois has taken part, especially material illustrating Illinois' part in 
the present great war and the wars with the Indians; privately printed 
works; newspapers; maps and charts; engravings; photographs; auto- 
graphs; coins; antiquities; encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliograph- 
ical works. Especially do we desire! 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it; also every book or pamphlet wi'itten by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere; materials for Illinois history; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts;, narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the ten'itory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late 
rebellion or other wars; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens 
and public men of every county, either living or deceased, together with 
their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the settlements of every town- 
ship, village, and neighborhood in the State, with the names of the first 
settlers. We solicit articles on every subject connected with Illinois 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city; reports of boards of trade and commercial asso- 
ciations; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons or 
addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, synods, 
or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; railroad 
reports; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 

ents, and school conimittees; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matter ho«- small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures; earlier Governors' messages and reports of 
State Officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years ,or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery^; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illinois 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished per- 
sons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements; also stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to suceeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber- 


Record of Official Proceedings 





The annual bnsiness meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was called to order at 10 o'clock a. m., May 15, 1917, in the rooms of the 
Illinois State Historical Library; a special Centennial meeting with 
elaborate exercises having been held on April 17-18, the 18th of April 
being the centenary of the Enabling Act. This meeting was held in 
cooperation with the Illinois Centennial Commission. 

Tliere were present Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Clinton L. Conkling, 
AValter Colyer, Mrs. I. G. Miller, Mr. Ensley Moore, H. W. Clendenin, 
Miss Agnes DnBois, Miss Grace O'Connell, Mrs. A. W. Sale, Mrs. Frank 
E. Jamison, Miss Georgia L. Osbonie and Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 

The meeting was called to order by the President of the Society, 
Br. Otto L. Schmidt. The report of the Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer 
AVeber, was read and approved, also her report as Treasurer. The report 
of the Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications was read 
by the chairman of that Committee, Miss Georgia L. Osborne. The 
vSecretary then gave an account of the special meeting of April 17-18, 

The matter of the election of oflficers for the ensuing year was taken 
up. All were unanimously reelected. Mr. John H. Hauberg of Rock 
Island was elected to fill the vacancy in the Board of Directors caused 
by the death of Mr. J. W. Clinton of "Polo, Illinois. 

At the suggestion of Mi's. Jamison a general discussion was held on 
the importance of collecting and preserving the records of Illinois 
soldiers in the present great world war and various suggestions were made 
as to the best manner of collecting this material. It was suggested that 
committees in every county of the State be appointed, their duty being 
to collect and preserve all letters, photographs, clippings, newspapers 
and other material bearing on the part of our soldiers in the war and 
finally to deposit this material in the Historical Library. 

There being no further business the Society adjourned. 



The nieetiii*,^ of ilie Diroctors of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was called to order by the President, Dr. Otto \j. Schmidt. There wei'o 
present : 

Mr. Clinton L. Conkling, Mr. Andrew Russel, Mr. H. W. Clendenin, 
l)'r. C. H. Rammelkamp, and Mrs. AA^eber, the Secretary. 

The minutes of the last previous meeting were read and approved. 
The Secretary brought up the question of what the Society will do to 
observe the Centennial of the State and made some suggestions. After 
some discussion it was decided that speakers should be invited to repre- 
sent the various states which had at any time laid claim to the land 
v/hich is now the State of Illinois — Virginia and the states of the Old 
Northwest Territory, and other Historical Societies to he asked to ^vui\ 
representatives, and the date of the meeting of the Society to be probably 
the 16th and 17th of April, as on the 18th of April it is probable that the 
Lincoln and Douglas statues to be placed on the State House grounds 
will be dedicated. This would enable the Historical Society to ask 
speakers and other guests to be present at the dedication of the statues. 

The Secretary was directed to confer with Judge Puterbaugh, head 
of the Department of Public Works and Buildings, under whose charge 
the statues are being erected, and if the 18th of April is likely to be the 
date chosen for this purpose, then the Historical Society will hold its 
Centennial meeting April 16-17 as planned. The question of the publi- 
cation of a historical volume as the Society's memorial of the Cen- 
tennial was discussed and on motion of Mr. Conkling it ■\\as voted that 
E. B. Washburne's life of Governor Edward Coles issued by the Chicago 
Historical Society in 1882 and now very rare be reprinted as the Histori- 
cal Society's Centennial volume. 

A committee consisting of Mr. Russel, Dr. Schmidt and Mrs. Weber 
was appointed to consider this matter and to confer with Governor 
Tx)wden and ascertain of this plan meets with his approval. Dr. Schmidt 
agreed to tind out from A. C. McClurg & Co. of Chicago as to the copy- 
right on the original edition and their wishes in the matter. Dr. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Weber and Dr. Rammelkamp were asked to bring the 
matter to the attention of the Library Board. 

The Secretary was directed to send invitations to suitable speakers 
for the Centennial meeting of the Society. There being no further 
business presented, the Board of Directors adjourned. 

Approved April 19, 1918. 



To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Gentlemen : I beg to submit tO' you my report as Secretary of the 
Illinois State Historical Society from May 11, 1917, to May 15, 1918. 

As is but natural, the greater part of the work of the President and 
Secretary of the Society has been work for the observance of the Cen* 
tennial of the State. These officers occupy the same respective positions 
in the Centennial Commission. It is, therefore, difficult if not impossible 
to separate the M'ork of the two organizations and in fact the Centennial 
work is such important historical work and of such great interest to the 
Society that no attempt is made to do so. 

•To-day, when every individual is vitally interested in the great 
world war* with the pressing deities and obligations which this crisis 
brings to everyone, it seems that people are more interested in and more 
anxious to study the history of their own country and their own State 
than ever before. All schools,colleges and clubs are finding this to be 
the case and in Illinois pageant writers, musicians and poets as well a.s- 
historians have been studying the history of the State. The number of 
clubs which have made the study of State history their year's work is 
surprising. The reference work of the Library is very heavy as we 
gladly assist clubs from all parts of the State in making up their pro- 
grams or courses of study and attempt in this way to make the resources 
of the Library and Society available to the people of all parts of the State. 

The Society now has 18 honorary members; 17 life members; 1,454 
annual members and 280 press association members ; the publications of 
the Library and Society are sent to 654 historical societies and libraries. 
This makes a regular mailing list of 2,423 and to this is added copies 
given to public officials and other citizens on request and leaves us but 
few copies after the first distribution is made. Our editions are but 
three thousand (3,000) copies. This explains why our publications are 
so soon out of print and difficult to obtain. 

We have such poor storage facilities that it would be impossible to 
keep large reserve supplies on hand. Even the small number which we 
keep quickly accumulates and it is very hard to find shelf room for them. 

I wish all the members of our Society could visit our underground 
store-rooms and I am sure that they would more than ever before recog- 
nize the urgent need of the new building. Dampness, darkness, musti- 
ness, mildew, changes of temperature, great heat, vermin and lack of ven- 
tilation are the dangers with which we have to contend in the basement 
and these are the greatest of all enemies to books. It is not alone our 
own publications that are stored in the basement but priceless newspaper 
files and other books. 
— 2 H s 


The annual meeting of last year, 1917, was more than usually well 
attended. The addresses were of high order of merit and there were 
several pleasant social features. The Society was received at the 
Executive Mansion by Mrs. Lowden — Governor Lowden was out of the 
city. More than one hundred members of the Society attended a 
luncheon at the St. Nicholas Hotel and the reception held in the Supreme 
Court room on Friday evening at the close of the session was largely 

As is the annual custom of this Society plans were made to observe 
December 3, Illinois Dav. In 1917 this dav marked the 99th birthday 
of the State or the opening of the Centennial year. 

The Centennial Commission asked the Society to cooperate with it 
ni observing the day. A great observance was the result of this cooper- 
ation. A meeting was held in the Senate chamber in the ^afternoon at 
which representatives from local centennial organizations were present 
and told of their plans for celebrations and questions were asked and 
answered on this subject. Brief addresses were made by the chairman 
and secretary of the commission and by the director of the Centennial 
celebration and other officials. At the close of the afternoon session a 
reception was tendered the guests by the Governor and ]\Irs. Lowden at 
the Executive Mansion. In the evening a banquet was held at the 
Lei and Hotel. Doctor Schmidt, President of the Society and chairman 
of the Centennial Commission introduced Governor Frank 0. Lowden 
who acted as toastmaster. The speakers were former Governors Joseph 
W. Fifer, Eichard Yates and Edward F. Dunne and United States 
Senator L. .Y. Sherman. The addresses were eloquent historical and 
patriotic worthy of the distinguished speakers and the occasion. It was 
expected that former Governor Charles S. Deneen would be present but 
at the last moment he found it impossible to attend. The banquet 
room of the hotel was beautifully decorated with the flags of the allied 
nation?. The Illinois Flag and the Centennial Banner were also used. 
i\Ir. Wallace Eice read a Centennial Ode which was written by him for 
the opening of the Centennial. It was a great and inspiring occasion. 
About 500 persons sat down to the banquet including many newspaper 
editors from all parts of the State. !Many more would have attended the 
banquet but the rooms were entirely filled and late comers could not be 

The Chicago papers and the ])ress of the State generally highly 
commended the meeting and the patriotic spirit which animated it. Gover- 
nor Lowden issued a special proclamation in eloquent words calling the 
attention of the people of the State to the day and the importance and 
patriotic significance of the Centennial observance. 

At a meeting of the Directors of the Society held on October 24, 
1917, it was decided to hold the Centennial meeting of the Society on a 
date as near as possible to April 18. the Centennial of the approval by the 
President of the United States of the act which authorized the Territory 
of Illinois to form a State Constitution and Government. At the time 
the Directors' meeting was held it was believed that the statues of 
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas to be erected on the capitol 


grounds as a part of the Centennial observance would be dedicated on 
April 18. 

The Directors also decided that the program should be made up of 
addresses by representatives of states which at various times held claim 
to the territory which is now and which has been for one hundred years 
the State of Illinois. As time passed it developed that it would not be 
practicable to dedicate the statues on the date mentioned. The program 
for the Centennial meeting of the Society was well under way and the 
Centennial Commission asked that it might cooperate with the Society 
and the Centennial of the Enabling Act be observed by the two organi- 
zations jointly. This, of course, the Society was glad to do, and the 
celebration was held on April 17-18. It was a great observance of a great 
historical anniversary. It was held in the House of Eepresentatives in 
the Capitol Building. As was planned, representatives from the states 
which had held claim to Illinois were present and many delegates from 
clubs and societies were in attendance. The address of welcome was 
delivered by President E. J. James of the State University and it was 
an address which made every one who had the pleasure of hearing it, 
proud that he is a citizen of Illinois. To mention the address of each 
speaker would be a pleasure, but I hope all of you heard them and I 
will speak only of addresses of Thursday evening — the Centennial ad- 
dresses. The large hall of Eepresentatives was crowded. Doctor 
Schmidt introduced Governor Lowden who presided over the meeting 
and introduced M. Louis Aubert, a member of the French High Com- 
mission, now serving at Washington — a brave soldier who has seen service 
in the trenches. Mr. Aubert speaks excellent English. He brought a stir- 
ring message from France as his address. His knowledge of French- 
Illinois history was surprising and his vivid account of present war con- 
ditions most impressive and appealing. It had been expected that Doctor 
John H. Finley, President of the University of the State of New York, 
who is a native son of Illinois, would be present and address the Cen- 
tennial meeting, but he was called abroad on important war service, to 
take charge of the relief work in Palestine and so was unable to come, 
but he sent a letter of greeting which was read by the Secretary of the 
Society. In this letter Doctor Finley told of his love for his native 
State Illinois, and said that this new and great work which he is to do 
•will be his Centennial service. 

The Centennial address was delivered by Mr. Edgar A. Ban- 
croft of Chicago. It was a magnificent historical and patriotic oration, 
ideal for the occasion and our present war conditions. Patriotic and 
special Centennial music was a part of the program. Miss Euby Evans 
sang the Star Spangled Banner, the Marseillaise, and a group of songs 
and Mrs. Gary Westenberger sang the two new Centennial songs bv 
Wallace Eice — the Illinois Hymn and Hail Illinois. The Governor 
and other State officers, the Justice of the Supreme Court, the 
Centennial Commission and the Directors of the Society occupied seats 
on the platform. The G. A. E. Post attended the meeting in a body. 

It was a great meeting and was a source of inspiration and satis- 
faction to every one who attended it. M. Aubert was accompanied by 


^[adamc Aubert and Mrs. Bancroft was also present. At the close of the 
meeting a reception was held in the corridor of the first floor of the State 
House and the people had the pleasure of meeting the distinguished party. 

On Thursday afternoon the Society and the guests were given a 
delightful reception and tea by the Springfield Art Club at historic 
Edwards Place. 

An important Centennial observance will be held in Randolph 
County on the 4th of July. This is in honor of old Kaskaskia, the 
French capital of the Mississippi Valley, the territorial capital of Illinois 
and the first capital of the State. 

Kaskaskia is the cradle of State history and we are all deeply inter- 
ested in this observance. The Randolph County organization will have 
charge of the observance with the cooperation of the Centennial Com- 
mission. Governor Lowden has consented to give the principal address. 
Several Chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution have 
expressed their interest in this observance and a desire to participate in it. 

The next official observance will be August 26, the anniversary of the 
adoption of the first Constitution of the State and is in cooperation with 
the State Fair Board. The Centennial Commission has charge of the 
arrangements for the day and plans are being made for a processional 
street pageant. This is to be made up of a series of floats depicting the 
history of the State. Various historical, patriotic and fraternal organi- 
zations are contributing these floats. The procession will be formed 
down town and go to the State fair grounds where it will be met and 
escorted to the reviewing stand where the Governor and other dis- 
tinguished persons will review it. An address will be made by a speaker 
of national reputation. Music and other attractions will be presented. 
All the State fair exhibits will be on exhibition. 

In September the old capital city of Vandalia will have a Cen- 
tennial celebration. During the first week in October the greatest of the 
official observances will be held in Springfield including the official 
Illinois pageant, the dedication of the statutes of Lincoln and Douglas 
and the laying of the corner stone of the Centennial Memorial Building. 
The President of the United States has been invited to be present. 
Governors of all the other States and many other distinguished persons 
will be invited to attend. 

The 5th of October is the one hundreth anniversary of the con- 
vening of the first General Assembly of the State and the 6th of October 
is the centennial of the inauguration of the first Governor of Illinois. 
This is to be the greatest and most impressive of the Centennial observ- 
ances. On December 3, this Society will again be asked to cooperate 
v/ith the Centennial Commission in observing Illinois Day, the anni- 
versary of the actual admission of Illinois into the Federal Union as a 
sovereign State. We must plan for this observance. 

I have mentioned in detail all the official celebrations in which the 
State Centennial Commission takes some official part. All over 
the State, County Centennial Associations have been formed and no 
county will be without some kind of a centennial observance. It is to 
be hoped that many of these county organizations will survive the Cen- 


teunial year as historical societies. The entire State lias received great 
stimulation in the line of historical work and the preservation of records 
by the work of the Centennial Commission. 

This Society should receive through it a mighty impetus. Splendid 
work is being done by many local historical societies. The work of the 
Morgan County, Piatt County and Tazewell County societies is to be 
especially commended. Madison County, St. Clair County, DeKalb 
County and LaSalle County have made elaborate plans for centennial 

The Secretary of the Society sent out a letter some months ago ask- 
ing members to compile historical data in relation to their localities. 
A large number of questions were asked as to the early history of each 
county. Replies to this questionaire have been very gratifying and many 
excellent historical papers have been received. These are, of course, on 
file in the Library and some of them will be published in the Journal. 
Mr. William H. Sandham, a member of this Society has written a 
series of sketches of the Governors of the State. These are being pub- 
lished in the newspapers of the State as a part of the publicity work 
of the Centennial Commission. 

Gifts to the Society and Library are acknowledged in the Journal. 
I will, therefore, mention but a few of them. We have received from the 
sculptor, Mr. George E. Ganiere of Chicago, a replica in plaster of his 
celebrated Lincoln head. 

Mr. Robert D. Loose, formerly of Springfield and now of Detroit, 
deposited in the Library the books of the general store of Elijah lies. 
These are four large books with entries covering a period from 182-1:- 
1830. Mr. lies conducted the first general store in the city of Spring- 
field. Mr. Loose is a grand-nephew of Major lies. 

Mr. W. R. Munce of Mount Pulaski has deposited a very interesting 
cane which has been in the possession of his family for more than sixty 
years. It was given to the father of Mr. Munce by a sea captain some- 
time previous to 1840. 

Mr. Henry F. Vogel of St. Louis has presented to the Society an 
etching portrait of General John A. Logan. 

Mr. Alfred Drennan of Springfield has presented a large crayon 
portrait of Dr. B. P. Stephenson, founder of the G. A. R. 

The Illinois Methodist Episcopal Conference has purchased a good 
sized steel safe, placed it in the Library and deposited in it the original 
records of the conference and much other valuable historical material. 
We already have on deposit the original records of the Presbyterian 
Church of Springfield. These are valuable records and the Society 
appreciates the responsibility of their custody and the honor of being 
entrusted with it. 

The State Fair Board found among its old papers an interesting 
relic. It is a large photograph of Governor Richard J. Oglesby. On the 
back of this has been pasted another large photograph — this is of the old 
Capitol Building, now the Sangamon County Court house, as it appeared 
at the time of the great sleet storm of February 2, 1883. We have had 


this picture framed with glass on each side that both pictures may be 

The publication work ol' the Libraiy and Society continues though 
much labor is being given to the Centennial publications. The Journal 
is several numbers behind but some of them are in the press. The 
transactions for last year are printed and are waiting only the com- 
pletion of the index. We index so thoroughly that the making of each 
index is a big task but we are repaid by the expressions of appreciation 
of these indexes by our students who say they are of the greatest assistance 
in their researches. I once asked President James if our indexes were too 
exhaustive and ho said "an index cannot be too exhaustive. In such a 
collection as yours the value of the book in a large measure depends on 
the index." I therefore, suggest that this Society at some time reprint 
Governor Ford's history of Illinois with a thorough index The Directors 
of the Society decided as a Centennial offering to reprint the life of 
Covernor Edward Coles, by Mr. E. B. Washburne published by the 
Chicago Historical Society in 1882. Mr. John H. Bingham of Vandalia 
has been greatly interested in this project and deserves much credit for 
bringing this important historical volume to the attention of the people 
of the State. 

The Centennial Memorial History is now drawing toward com- 
pletion. The first or preliminary volume, "Illinois in 1818," has been 
printed. It was compiled by Professor Solon J. Buck a member of this 
Society, who is now Superintendent of the Minnesota Historical Society. 
Some of the other five volumes are now in press and it is believed that 
all will be printed and distributed by the first week in October of this 
year. These volumes are not distributed free to individuals. A small 
official edition is sent to public libraries and institutions. McClurg & Co. 
of Chicago are publishing them and will sell them at a reasonable price. 

The Centennial Commission has since September, 1917, issued 
regular bulletins giving information as to the progress of the Centennial 
work and other historical information. These excellent publications are 
edited by Mr. H. 0. Crews, publicity manager for the Centennial Com- 
mission. The Commission has also issued a number of masques and 
pageants for the use of schools, clubs and communities in presenting 
centennial celebrations. Mr. Wallace Rice, official pageant writer for 
the Commission, has written six little Centennial plays for the use of 
children of the grade schools; a Masque of Illinois for college or higli 
school commencements or community use and a pageant of Illinois for 
community or school use. Mr. Eice will write the pageant to be pre- 
sented at the officiarcelebration the first week in October. Mr. Edward 
C. Moore, of Chicago has written music to accompany these masques and 

Mr. Rice has written the words and Mr. Moore the music for two 
Illinois songs — The Illinois Hymn and Hail Illinois. These were 
written especially for the Centennial observance and were sung at the 
April 18 meeting and are now meeting with great favor and are being 
pung at celebrations all over the State. Another pageant, bearing the 
title of "The Wonderful Story of Illinois" by Miss Grace A. Owen of 


Bloomington, Illinois, has been published by the Commission. This 
consists of two masques and a pageant. Music to accompany it has 
been written by Mr. F. W. Westhoff of Bloomington. An excellent and 
practical pamphlet containing suggestions for the presentation of pageants 
written by Mrs. Florence Magill Wallace has also been issued by the 
Centennial Commission. 

This brief resume of the work done by the Historical Society and tho 
Centennial Commission will give you an idea of the work accomplished 
and contemplated. 

The Secretary of the Society has made a number of historical 
addresses during the past year and has accepted invitations for others in 
the future. This is a great pleasure and gives an opportunity for making 
the acquaintance of members of this Society and of clubs and other 

The Society has lost by death since my last report twenty-one mem- 
bers, one of them, Mr. J. W. Clinton of Polo, a Director of the Society. 
The names of our deceased members are: 

Judge Farlin Q. Ball, Oak Park, August 29, 1917; J. W. Clinton, 
(Director), Polo, February 11, 1918; W. H. Edgar, Chicago, 1917; Mrs. 
Sarah E. Eaymond Fitzwilliam, Chicago, January 31, 1918 ; John 
Crocker Foote, Belvidere, July 12, 1917; Dr. W. 0. Ensign, Rutland. 
May 8, 1918; Rev. W. C. Gaynor, Biloxi, Miss., 1918; Dr. J. H. Goodell, 
Marseilles, January 12, 1918; Miss Savillah T. Hinrichsen, Springfield, 
August 28, 1917; Mrs. H. H. Hood, Litchfield, March 18, 1918; W. H. 
Jenkins, Pontiac, October 12, 1917; Carrie Johnson, Springfield, Decem- 
ber 10, 1917; Judge Charles P. Kane, Springfield, January 13, 1918; 
Abel Longworth, Clay City; John W. Lowe, Chicago, September 27, 
1917; Judge Henrv Phillips, Beardstown, November 11, 1917; Elias 
K. Prewitt, Bethalto. Mav, 1917; Rev. Edwin F. Snell, Winnetka, 
N"ovember, 1917; E. A. Snively, Springfield. October 22, 1917; Judge 
Halbert J. Strawn, Albion, December 31, 1917; Mrs. Eliza T. H. Tomlin, 
Jacksonville, October 29, 1917. 

Please report to tlie Secretary of tlie Society deaths in our member- 
ship. We will be glad to have you send us biographical material or data 
from which necrological notices may be prepared. In such a large and 
widely scattered Society as ours each member should consider himself 
a committee to keep the Secretary informed of historical events or happen- 
ings in his locality. The Secretary will be glad to receive suggestions 
for programs for meetings, material for publication or other matters 
in relation to the Society. 

Tbis has been a very important year for the Historical Society as 
for every other organization or individual. The world is making history 
so fast that the historian must be very industrious, indeed, to record 
any considerable portion of it, and yet I believe that this Society should 
have a committee composed of at least one member in each county in the 
State whose duty it is to keep personal records of what Illinois men and 
women are doing to help win the war. Piatt County through its histori- 
cal society is setting the counties a good example in this respect. We 
are all trying to do our part in the great patriotic endeavors of to-day. 


The history of these movements will be full of interest. Many books 
will be written about them. We can make these histories true by collect- 
ing reliable data. The field for the collection and preservation of 
history to-day is as wide as the world. Illinoisans are making history 
the world over. Let us strive to preserve and record it. Professor 
Greene is giving the greater part of his time to preparing the way for the 
future historian. He is at the head of the National Board for His- 
torical Service. 

The Library staif continues its painstaking and efficient service. 
Their duties are heavy and they perform them cheerfully. 

Our Library, our Society and our influence are 'growing rapidly. I 
believe I have told you of the principal happenings and efforts of the 
Society since my report of a year ago. The past year has been one of 
great importance and interest. The coming one will be equally so. I 
congratulate this Society upon these things and I urge the members to 
greater activity. 

Very respectfully. 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretary, Illinois State Historical Society. 



To the Members of the Illinois State Historical Society : 

Your Committee on Genealogy and Genealogical Publications begs 
leave to report that one of its meml3ers, Mrs. Harriet J. Walker, has just 
completed and placed in the libraries of the State and of the United 
States, a valuable contribution, namely ''Eevolutionary Soldiers 
Buried in Illinois." This research has covered a period of over six 
years of careful and painstaking work on the part of Mrs. Walker and was 
begun and published in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, April, 1912, beginning with Sangamon County. 

There are over six hundred Eevolutionary soldiers buried in the 
State, eighty-one counties are honored as being their burial places, and 
in a great many instances these graves are marked by stately monuments 
— in other cases simple markers placed by the Government. Five 
hundred of these soldiers were pensioned. Illinois is the only State so 
far, that has had this compilation of Eevolutionary soldiers by counties, 
and graves located and marked, although many of the eastern states have 
carefully compiled records of services, so we take just pride in this work 
of a member of this committee, and trust that it will not end here, but 
that additional material may be furnished from time to time in the re- 
maining twenty-one counties, where graves of Eevolutionary soldiers may 
yet be located. As we state each year in our reports, gifts to the depart- 
ment are acknowledged in the Journal of the Society but I mention some 
of the family histories here to give an idea of the attention our work is 
given by other states, as among the histories we have recent gifts from 
Massachusetts, Missouri, Ehode Island, Wisconsin. Mr. Ensley Moore 
of Jacksonville through his articles in the Jacksonville Journal from 
time to time furnishes us with family histories of the pioneer families 
of Morgan County and this historical work is commended to other 
members of the Society as being not only a valuable contribution to their 
own community but as furnishing additional material for the Genea- 
logical Department of the State. 

The family histories received by the Department are as follows : 

Alden Kindred of America. Vol. 2. No. 7. Gift of Mr. P. L. 
Barker of Chicago. 

Barney, Commodore Joshua. Compiled by W. Frederick. Gift of 
Mr. Everett Hosmer Barney, Springfield Mass. 

Bradford, Weston Gershom — Bradford, Deborah Weston of Dux- 
bury, Mass. Gift of Edmond Brownell Weston, Centrall Falls, E. I. 

Clark Family. Gift of Miss Daisy Clark, Mt. Sterling, 111. 


Corbett Family. Gift of H. E.. Corbett, Kenilworth, 111. 

Hartshorn-Descendants of Xoble Augustus Hartshorn and his wife 
Marv Susan Yinger. (lift of Mr. Harrv Lawrence Shiner, Kansas 
Git./, Mo. 

Hosmer, James. Gift of Mr, Everett Hosmer Barney, Springfield, 

Sauboruo Family. English Ancestry of the American Sanhornes. 
(fift of V. Sanborne, Kenilworth, 111. 

Sanborn, Benjamin Franklin. Gift of Victor Channing Sanborn. 

Selleck Family. Gift of Mrs. J. M. Selleck, Superior, Wis. 

Sherman Family. Gift of Mr. Bradford Sherman, Chicago. 

Staples Family. Gift of Mr. Everett Hosmer Barney, Springfield, 

Wilson Family. Gift of Mr. Edward Wilson, Bloomington, Illinois. 

Ziegler Family. The Michael Ziegler Posterity Association. Gift 
of Ziegler Bros., Elgin, Illinois. 

We are always glad of suggestions from the inomhers as to how we 
can make our work more etfective and ask their cooperation in securing 
contributions to aid students and workers in this department. 
Eespectively submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman, Genealogical Committee, 
Illinois State Histoncal Society. 



New York City, April 16, 1918. 
Dear Mrs. Weher: 

It is one of the greatest disappointments of my life that I am nn- 
able to go back to Illinois in response to the supreme honor shown me in 
the invitation to speak at her Centennial celebration. I have been sud- 
denly and unexpectedly "drafted" into a war service which I cannot 
refuse to give, though it takes me to the farthest end of the war line — 
and I must be off at the earliest possible day. It is to take the head- 
ship of the Commission to Palestine which is to follow and cooperate 
with the British Army. At the moment I am on my way to Washington 
for final arrangements and orders. 

Palestine was the first land which I have memory of knowing about, 
outside of the prairie horizon of Illinois, for I read the Bible with my 
prairie mother, who died when I was still a boy, before I had read the 
history of our own land. And so it was that Moses, Joshua and David 
belonged to Illinois along with Lincoln and Grant. 

I am particularly proud that as a son of Illinois I can go on this 
mission which is to symbolize in its purpose and to make serviceable as 
possible in its achievement, our cooperation with the allies in holding 
for civilization that particular part of the earth from Avhich we trace 
our Ten Commandments and our Beatitudes — though they seem to be 
forgotten by those who have waged this hellish war. 

I am going also to France whose sons, first of white men traced the 
streams of Illinois and evoked her prairies from the unknown. I hope 
that before my return I may again visit those cities, though now behind 
German lines, which gave birth to some of those brave, intrepid pioneers 
of France who ventured their all to convert to Christianity the aborigi- 
nal savages, whose barbarity however, is not to be compared with that 
of those who now occupy these places that lie far back of the Centennial 
history of Illinois. 

So I make as my Centennial address this expedition to France and 
Palestine — back to the birthplace of Illinois and of the faith of our own 
pioneer fathers and mothers. And I beg you to accept this as my homage 
to them and as a part payment to the world of what I owe to Illinois, 

I congratulate you that my absence procures for you that which you 
should have had in prospect from the beginning — an address by him 
who taught me my first lesson in public speech, who has been for me the 
best exemplar of true eloquence, my mentor since my college days, my 
best and longest friend and one of the noblest men Illinois has grown 
from her soil, Edgar A. Bancroft, of Chicago, who shares with me the 
friendship of your splendid governor, Frank 0. Lowden. It is a kindly 
providence that shaped these ends. 

However far T travel my heart will be true to Illinois. God 
bless her. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) John H. Finlet. 




Wednesday and Thursday Aprit. 17-18, 1918 
House of Representatives, Capitol Building Springfield, Illinois. 


Opening Session 
Wednesday E\'entng, 8 o'clock 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt. President of the 

Historical Society and Chairman of the Centennial 

Commission, Presiding 

Invocation Retv. William F. Rothenburger 

"Illinois" Temple Boys' Choir 

Address of Welcome "The Illinois Centennial" 

President Edmund J. James, University of Illinois 

Music Te:mple Boys' Choir 

Address "Virginia in the Making of Illinois" 

H. J. Eckenrode 
Richmond, Va. 

Music Temple Boys' Choir 

Address "Illinois in the Democratic Movement of the Century" 

Aixen Johnson, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Thursday Afternoon, 3 o'Clock 

The Centennial Hymn Mrs. Gary H. Westetxberger 

Address. ."Establishing the American Colonial System in the Old Northwest" 

Elbert Jay Benton 
Western Reserve University, Cleveland Ohio 
Secretary Western Reserve Historical Society 

Address "Indiana's Interest in Historic Illinois" 

Charles W. Moores, Indianapolis 

Address "The Illinois Centennial History" 

Clarence Walworth Alvord 


tea at historic edwards place 5:30 to 6 o'clock 
by invitatton of the sprtngfiei.d art club 

Thursday Evening, 8 o'Ci>ock 

The Honorable Frank O. Lowden 
Governor of the State of Illinois, Presiding 

"Illinois Centennial March" Edward C. Moore 

John L. Taylor's Orchestr.\ 

Invocation Right Re\'erend Granville H. Sherwood 

March — "Freedom and Glory" Edward C. Moore 

John L. Taylor's Orchestra 

Address— "A Message From France" The Honorable Louis Aubert 

of the French High Commission to the United States 

Songs Miss Ruby Evans. Bloomington 

Centennial Address Edgar A. Bancroft, Chicago 



Addresses at the Centennial Meeting, of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, the Illi- 
nois Centennial Commission Co- 
operating, April 17-18, 1918 



Illinois Centennial Address, April 18, 1919. 

(By Edgar A. Bancroft.) 
We are here tonight to celebrate with joy and pride both the growth 
and achievements of our State during its first hundred years. But we 
do not forget — ^we can not forget — how much back of that century, and 
how much now in this workl-shattering and saddening war we owe to 
France. As America has recalled proudly her debt to her in the days of 
LaFayette, so Illinois should remember what she ow^es to the France of 
nearly a century before — France the bravest, most generous and liberty 
loving of nations. 

Doctor Finley — whose absence, compelled by a distant and impor- 
tant mission, we all regret — has told with rare poetic insight the romantic 
story of the earlier explorations of this region in his lectures before the 
Sorbonne, which he has collected in a book entitled, "France in the Heart 
of America." In the preface, written since the war began, he gave this 
title a sentimental as well as a geographical turn. How truly was 
France in the heart of America ! And with what profound satisfaction 
we recognize tonight that America is in the heart of France in fact no 
less than in sentiment! Precious as are our past obligations to this 
heroic people, our future ties to them should be ever sacred. 

When General Pershing laid a wreath of roses on LaFayette's tomb 
he raised his hand in salute and said with soldierly brevity, "LaFay- 
ette, Ave are here \" So, we may say, "France, you have long been here ; 
Ave rejoice that we are noAv there; for Ave both knoAv that our cause is the 

When the vanguard of America's army marched through the re- 
joicing streets of Paris last June, little French children knelt doAvn at 
the curb as Old Glory passed. They felt and expressed it all. Since 
then the heart of America has been in France. 

Let us first recall briefly that earlier time of picturesque and chiv- 
alrous adventuring. 

It Avas the French Avho first explored this region and made it knoAvn 
to the Avorld — soldiers seeking new domains for the lilies of France; 
missionaries seeking converts to the Christian faith ; voyageurs seeking 
profit and adventure in this Avild land. LaSalle, Marquette, Joliet, 
Hennepin, and their associates were the real discoA^erers of this A'ast ex- 
panse along the Upper ]\Iississippi, Avith its fertile soil, natural beauty, 
abundant game and peaceful Indians. They mapped and named the 
water courses and other natural landmarks and the Indian villages. 

They established forts, founded missions, marked the trails and the sites 
for trading- which thcv learned from the Indians. Thev were everywhere 
the forerunners of the pioneers. But it is a curious fact that the French 
established no enduring settlements. Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Peoria, 
Fort Saint Louis (now Starved Kock) and Fort Creve Coeur, founded 
by the French fathers and soldiers, and nearly all their other outposts of 
civilization languished unless and until they were taken over by Ameri- 
can or English pioneers. 

It is to the intrepid missionary, Pere Marquette, that the State 
owes its name. Exploring the Mississippi, he came upon the footprints 
of a large band of Indians. Overtaking them, he asked who they were. 
They thrilled him with their answer: "We are the Illini — the tribe of 
men." Thus, this great land of prairies and wooded water courses be- 
tween the rivers, and the lake became the Illinois territory, and nearly 
a century and a half later the State of Illinois. And the whole signifi- 
cance of our hundred years must be found in the deeper meaning of our 
name — Illinois, the land of men. For, no matter how much we exalt 
cjuantities and values and incomprehensible numbers, we know that their 
origins and significances are, and must always be, in men. Back of all 
deeds is the doer, and back of all accomplishment is individual character. 

When the Congress authorized the formation of this State, and 
President Monroe signed the Enabling Act one hundred years ago to-day, 
it was the result of a very brief campaign here and was not regarded else- 
where as of special significance. Relatively little discussion had pre- 
ceded the presentation of the memorial from the territory or delayed 
the passage of the bill through House and Senate. This liad been a 
separate territory only ten years. Its population was then less than 
thirty thousand, mostly from slave-holding states, and all its settle- 
ments, without important exception, lay along the water courses near and 
south of the mouth of the Illinois Eiver. Though this was a part of the 
Xorthwest Territory, from which slavery was excluded by the famous 
ordinance of 1787, yet slavery existed here from the days of French 
control; the census of 1818 reported 829 "servants or slaves." 

* Daniel Pope Cook, the very young and energetic editor and pro- 
prietor of the Territory's chief newspaper, the Western Intelligencer, 
published at Kaskaskia, is to be remembered as the jnain factor in 
bringing forward and pressing the question of statehood at that time, 
when the territory had scarcely half of the sixty thousand population 
required for a state under the ordinance of 1787. 

Xathaniel Pope, our territorial delegate, in preparing the bill, fixed 
the northern boundary first at ten miles and finally at fifty miles north of 
the line through the south bend of Lake Michigan that had been indi- 
cated in the ordinance as the boundary of a new state. This change of 
boundary, in order to give Illinois access to Lake Michigan, seemed of 
small importance at the time, but it gave the State its entire lake f ront- 

♦ He was defeated as a candidate for the State's first representative in Con- 
gress, but he was appointed its first Attorney General. 

age with its great metropolis and its fourteen northern counties which 
now have a population greater than that of all the rest of the State. 

Here was a truly royal domain — with more acres of arable land than 
all England. It was, indeed, a new and fairer Mesopotamia, with 
leagues on leagues of verdant prairies, brilliant with wild ilowers and 
fringed with forests along the streams. Beneath the riches of its deep 
black soil lay undreamed of wealth of coal and oil, of lead and zinc and 
other minerals. Upon its lakes and rivers there was no sail, only the 
silent canoe of the Indian and the voyageur and the slow, cumbersome 
river boat of the pioneer. There was no smoke cloud anywhere of town 
or factory. The rude, primitive salt works at Shawneetown was the 
solitary industry of Illinois. The blacksmith and itinerant cobbler 
supplemented the skill of the pioneer and his wife in providing the 
simple equipment and coarse clothing of the frontier life. • The popu- 
lation — even including the 10,000 who came into the territory while it 
was framing a constitution for the State and thus made up the required 
40,000 and even including the 6,000 Indians, who were practically the 
only inhabitants of the north three-quarters of the territory — amounted 
to only one person to each one and a quarter square miles. 

What miracles a hundred years have wrought! The population 
has increased from 40,000 to about 6,000,000 — nearly twice the popu- 
lation of the thirteen colonies in 1776. The production of Indian corn 
has increased from a few thousand bushels, then produced by the settlers 
and the Indians, to 365,654,400 bushels in 1917. The total wealth of 
the State has increased from $4,000,000 to $15,000,000,000— nearly 
four thousand fold; and today the value of our productions from field 
and factory and mine is nearly $3,000,(X)0,000 a year. What a contrast 
between the little, crude salt works at Shawneetown and our vast and 
varied manufacturing enterprises today ! Our exhaustless coal measures, 
our unequaled railroad transportation and the easy access by water to 
the Nation's great iron ore supply have been great factors in producing 
these results. Illinois plows, Illinois cornplanters and Illinois harvesting 
machines have increased the food supply in every quarter of the world, 
as they first increased it here. Illinois automatic machinery and machine 
shop equipments are lightening the labor of human hands in all countries. 
Illinois packing house products reach every corner of the globe, and Illi- 
nois watches keep time for every civilized nation. 

Though the Illinois and Michigan Canal may seem now a rather 
sorry and expensive political reminiscence, it aided greatly in the growth 
of Illinois and of Chicago. Shadrach Bond, our first Governor, recom- 
mended it, and his successors, through discouragements and disasters not 
a few, persevered until it was completed in 1848. When the Erie Canal 
was finished in 1826, the commercial East and the agricultural West 
for the first time naturally joined hands at Chicago, instead of by way 
of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers as theretofore. Chicago has ' been 
called the child of New York and the Erie Canal. When the railroads 
came later the routes of commerce east and west of Illinois had been so 
far fixed through Chicago, and the natural influences were still so con- 

trolling, that Chicago's position as tho railroail eejiter of our country 
was soon lirnily estahlishcd.* 

If it seems one of the chief marvels of our hundred years that this 
young State should furnish the site of the Nation's second and the 
world's fourth city, it is hecause Illinois combines in the major and 
world-wide sense the granary and the workshop. The legejid of Chicago's 
seal tells the story, "Urbs in Irorio." 

These achievements are due to the foresight and character of the 
men, from Xathaniel Pope down through this wonder-working century, 
who discovered and developed the great natural resources and oppor- 
tunities. For, important as the advantages of geographic and economic 
position and of natural resources are to such great accomplishments, 
they have required here, as they always do, another and yet more im- 
portant factor — masterful men of vision. These accomplishments were 
largely by-products of the moral and political convictions and aspirations 
of the men and women of Illinois. From the beginning the people of 
this State have believed that the principles of the Declaration and the 
Constitution furnish the only sure foundation for a free and civilized 

The Slavery Issue. 

T]!(;ugli oUL'-tiiird of the territory of Illinois and all of its settle- 
ments in 1818 were south of the Mason and Dixon line, and the majority 
of its population had come from southern states, a commonwealth of free- 
dom was the ideal of those Illinois pioneers. 

Geographically this State extended into and bound together the 
sections of North and South. Likewise historically it held the strategic 
place in defeating slaveiy and disunion and in saving the Nation for 
human freedom. 

Tlie two exceptional and far-seeing provisions in the Enabling Act 
were: (a) Changing the northern boundar}', and (b) giving three of 
the five p&r cent of the sales of public lands (which had usually been set 
apart for public roads) to the cause of public education.* 

The Constitution under which the State was admitted contained 
rather complicated provisions as to slavery, that in effect recognized and 
legalized its existence as an indentured servitude under rigid restrictions 
for a limited time, l)ut definitely provided for its abolition within a 

The real fight over slavery in Illinois came with the election of 
Edward Coles as the second Governor in 1822. He was a Virginian of 
education and high connections and substantial property. He had been 
private secretary to President Madison, and was a special ambassador to 
Eussia in 1817. He inherited slaves, and, on his way to Illinois in the 
spring of 1819, he freed some twenty or more, but brought them to Illi- 
nois and gave 160 acres of land to each head of a family. He was 

* Tucker of Virginia said in 1818 that it cost tine farmer one bushel of 
wheat to carry two to a seaport town only eigrhty miles away. Land transpor- 
tation was then limited by its cost to 100 miles. 

* One-sixth of the total to so to the founding of a college or university. 

known to be strongly opposed to slavery. In the election of 1823 the 
slavery party elected the Lieutenant Governor and controlled both 
branches of the legislature by large majorities. Governor Coles, in his 
first message,recommended the freeing of the slaves and the revision of 
the lilack laws for the protection of free negroes. The slavery party met 
this challenge by passing through the legislatuie, by the necessary two- 
thirds votes, a resolution for a constitutional convention. Its sole purpose 
was to protect slavery in Illinois. The question then went to the voters 
and a bitter campaign was waged in the summer of 1824. Although 
substantially the entire population was in the southern half of the State 
and had come mainly from the slave states. Governor Coles won a great 
victory. Of the 11,613 voters then in the State, 6,640 voted against the 
constitutional convention, which meant against slavery, and 4,972 in its 
favor. This settled finally the character of Illinois as a free State, and 
thus at once stimulated immigration from the free states of the North. 
It also showed that the southern stream of settlers, that came first, held 
largely the same enlightened views as those who came later from Xew 
England and New York and Pennsylvania. 

It was Senator Douglas of Illinois who, a generation later, revived 
as a national issue the question of slavery by his bill to repeal the ]\Iiss- 
ouri compromise. Out of that controversy sprang the candidacy of 
Abraham Lincoln for the United States Senate and the Lincoln-Douglas 
debates of 1858. Lincoln came from Kentucky, a slave state, while 
Douglas came from Vermont. Lincoln, convinced that slavery was 
wrong, stood firmly against its extension. Douglas, though born and 
educated in New England, sought the path of compromise, and was 
more hostile to abolitionists than to slaveholders. In the debates they 
made Illinois the platform upon which the essential moral quality of 
this issue and the impossibility of permanent compromise were striking- 
ly shown to the American people. 

In the Civil War Illinois rose to her supreme height in the contri- 
butions she made to the cause of freedom and union through President 
Lincoln, General Grant, Senator Trumbull, Richard Yates, our War 
Governor, General Logan, General Palmer, General Oglesby and many 
more, who, at the front — 255,000 brave sons — in the Congress, in the 
Legislature and in private life devoted themselves with unselfish ardor to 
saving our Republic. The war ended forever the question of slavery, 
which had divided our State and Nation for so many years, and the 
cause for which Lovejoy gave his life at Alton in 1837 was won. And 
the great leaders who were so conspicuous in our first fifty years are our 
most inspiring possessions, our most abiding influences. 


Though the Enabling Act wisely provided that the larger portion of 
the proceeds from public lands within the State should go to education 
(because, as he so erroneously stated, the Illinois country did not need 
niudi money for good roads!) Nathaniel Pope's wise foresight was vain. 

Fluids fiom this source were absorbed and lost in the later craze for 
public improvements. 

While schools and churches were almost the first desires of many 
Illinois pioneers, public education here as elsewhere, was ver}'^ slowly 
developed. During the first fifty years the real centers of learning and 
enlightment were the communities where private initiative and gifts 
had founded academies and denominational colleges. They offered the 
opportunity of a liberal education to the children of the poor and well- 
to-do alike. Shurtleff, McKendree, Illinois and Knox Colleges were 
early examples of these centers of moral and mental enlightmeut and 
progress in this State. They constantly drew hither the more desirable 
settlers, and through their students and graduates disseminated higher 
ideals of conduct, business and government. They combine, as no other 
institutions of learning have done with equal emphasis, the development 
of the moral and religious as well as the intellectual nature. They 
ministered largely to the moral indignation against slavery which found 
full expression in "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Edward Beecher, president of 
Illinois College, and Jonathan Blanchard, president of Knox College, 
were strong anti-slaverv leaders in the discussions that followed the 
murder of Love joy. 

Not until the last fifty years did the early plans for public education 
become effective. Our public school system had hardly begun by 1855 
and progress was slow until after the Civil War. It is in her later years 
that Illinois has developed her great State university and the two other 
universities on private foundations at Chicago.* In libraries, in the 
fine arts, and in music Illinois has facilities, opportunities and students 
which give her a relative rank even greater than her wealth and 

Indeed, the connection is closer than is sometimes realized be- 
tween the agencies for religious, moral and mental development and the 
physical evidences of great wealth and enterprise. For it is not alone 
the combination of the trained scientific mind and business sagacity 
that have produced the vast wealth of our State. Sterling moral char- 
acter, fine public spirit, high personal and commercial ideals have given 
energy and stability to our great business enterprises. And the men 
who have won the largest successes have themselves attested the truth 
of this statement. Phillip D. Armour established the Institute of 
Technology as well as a world-wide business to fitly perpetuate his name. 
The memory of the commercial genius of Marshall Field will persist 
in the centuries to come, not so much in the marvelous business which he 
created as in the monument which is near its completion on the shore of 
Lake ^lichigan, and the influence of that monument will increase and 
expand with the years. George M. Pullman, whose engineering skill 

* Jonathan B. Turner's contribution is worthy of remembrance. He came to 
Illinois in the early thirties. He was the leader in the movement creating State 
Universities by National aid and to furnish agricultural and technical instruc- 
tion. He also introduced the osage orange hedges to save the expenses of rail 
fences and of ditches and embankments then in general use. In this war Ameri- 
can Universities and Colleges have made the priceless contributions of patriotic 
enthusiasm and eager young men specially competent for leadership in every 
branch of war service. And the roots of the osage orange — now supplanted by 
wire fencing — have yielded a dye for their uniforms. 

lifted Chicago out of the swamp before he established the business that 
bears his name, took pains to assure a continued influence of elevation 
in the great training school \vhich he founded. Similar instances are 
to be found in all parts of our State. Among us of Illinois no man is 
regarded as truly successful unless he adds high personal character and 
a generous civic spirit to his business abilities. 

It was the moral and idealistic training of American schools and 
colleges that made the martyrdom of Belgium and Germany's cruel 
crimes against humanity on land and sea and from the air potent and 
irresistible arguments for our joining the allies. It was largely our 
college men who went, and inspired others to go, overseas to aid French 
and English arms long before our declaration of war. We should never 
forget the moral heroism and vicarious sacrifice of this proud American 
vanguard of 30,000 men, fighting under the foreign flags for the life and 
soul of neutral America. 

The queenly stature of Illinois in the sisterhood of states has been 
due to her steadfast devotion to liberty, justice education, and all the 
agencies of moral, aesthetic and spiritual enlightment, and to a patrio- 
tism that embraces all these. 

What a powerful inspiration in the trying days of this World War 
have been the memories of the Illinois leaders in the War of the Union ! 
Every Ulinoisan Avho knowns what Lincoln and Grant and Logan and 
Palmer and Ogiesby strove for is bound to know and feel that their 
work is vain unless the Prussian arms and creed are beaten to the dust. 
But we all knew that as they sought a half century ago to save this 
Nation, not for its power or its glory, but because in its survival were 
bound ujo the deepest interests of mankind, so America is fighting with 
the allies in this war. And their spirit and capacity and devotion have 
reappeared during the past twelve mouths in the varied labors and solid 
service of Governor Lowden. His record and -his character are one of 
the strong promises for our second century. By his words and his acts 
he has made clear the purpose for Avhich America fights ; and that all 
that Illinois has, all that Illinois is, are but dust in the balance as com- 
pared with the cause for which American soldiers are fighting and dying 
on the Western front. 

Therefore, Illinois is pledged and prepared by her history and ideals 
to fight to the end, even if the war should take from us all that our 
Imndred years have gathered. 

Tpie Problems of the Future. 

What are the problems that confront Illinois as it enters upon its 
second century, and what are the lessons its past teaches? 

The problems are the old ones of making and keeping a democracy 
honest and humane in purpose, genuine, intelligent and steadfast in 
character. The perpetual problem, as Lincoln stated it, is to have a 
government strong enough to protect the liberties of the people in a 
crisis, but not too strong for those liberties in tiines of peace; the problem 
of keeping justice and liberty equal and fraternal, and of ever guarding 

and preserving not only the essential principles, but the essential insti- 
tutions of our free Republic. 

This war has tauglit us, as no other war in our history has done, 
that a republic must not only be willing to fight for its liberties, but it 
must be prepared to fight; that loyalty imposes a constant obligation 
which will be most cheerfully recognized and met if it is definite and 
applies to every youth alike. 

The utter coHap?e and disintegration of Russia have taughr us — as 
we needed to be taught — that there can be no justice assured to anyone 
except under ordered liberty, under a government of justice and law ; 
that a socialistic government, whether resulting in anarchy or oligarchy, 
is not the government which Washington founded and Lincoln saved. 
Their government was of the whole people, and not of any class, and was 
founded in rules of right and in permanent institutions of liberty and 

Free government no more means a government of the proletariat 
than of the grand dukes ; no more of the poor than of the rich ; no more 
of the ignorant than of the learned. It means a government in which 
all participate, and under which the rights of all are equally protected; 
and protected not by the will of the ruJers, whether a vast committee or 
an irresponsible czar, but protected by fundamental principles of justice 
and bv established institutions of freedom. 

Illinois has been ever true in conviction, if not always in practice, 
to the rule that "obedience to law is liberty." The disorders of the 
Chicago strike of 1894, and the more recent race riots at Springfield and 
East St. Louis, are painful reminders that dangers constantly lurk in a 
democracy and that neither justice nor liberty can live under mob law. 
Reverence for law must ever go with devotion to liberty, else liberty is 
lost. "Law is the uttered conscience of the state restraining tlie indi- 
vidual will." 

This war should teach us another lesson of the highest value. In 
England and in America the great crisis has submerged and obliterated 
for the time the divisions between so-called labor and capital. Both have 
forgotten their differences — have been ashamed of their differences — in 
the presence of a danger that threatened to engulf them both. If the 
war has taught cooperation and mutual confidence and the duty to 
suppress differences for the good of all, shall we not finally learn that 
lesson and apply it to all our relations hereafter? For internal class 
divisions and strife will wreck Democracy as surely as would the success 
of the German arms. 

It is increasingly patent that much remains to be done in order to 
make every Illinois boy and girl fit in spirit, in hand and in brain for 
the duties and the devotion of citizenship. This is a problem, not so 
much of making every citizen of greater economic worth to the State, 
but of making every youth, whether alien or native born, a loyal, an 
honest and an intelligent citizen. A formal naturalization of the immi- 
2:rants is not enough — it means verv little ; it should mean verv much. 
It should mean such knowledge of our language — and there is but one 
American language — and of our history and institutions, as will lead 

them unconsciously to love America with the singleness to which they 
pledge themselves in their oath of allegiance. Americanism admits of 
no divided loyalty — least of all between America and another nation 
whose governmental aims and principles are antagonistic to ours. 

The pitifnl exhibition of 'international democracy" in Eussia the 
past year shonld be warning enough to ns against every propaganda that 
weaken, anyway or for any hnman purpose, complete patriotic devotion 
to America. All such movements in the name of humanity destroy all 
the safeguards of essential human rights. 

"God gave all men all earth to love, 
But since man's heart is small. 
Ordained for each one spot to be 
Beloved over all." 

When the heat of summer lies heavy upon our land there comes a 
flower that bursts in white and gold on the sluggish stream, and decks 
with sweet stars of day the surface of many a murky pool. The Illinois 
of our pride today is not found in its population or wealth or its material 
resources. It is in the soul of our commonwealth. Like a pond 
lily, it has grown out of the depths of this fecund valley, and, striving 
upward through all the turbulent and turgid floods of a new industrial 
and civil life, has been nourished even by the impurities in which it was 

Only as our buildings and enterprises, our genius for pr\)duction 
and commerce strengthen and uplift the collective soul of our people, 
are they truly admirable. Every beauty of line in the material edifice 
of our greatness, every political or commercial achievement that stirs the 
spirit, is proof of the essential soundness of a civilization that has been 
and still may be somewhat crude, yet has been always genuine, always 

Even our largest material accomplishments disclose ideals that have 
not yet been realized, and that liave soared Avith each attainment ; that 
have gone like the purpose before a deed, leading to action, but mingling 
with fulfillment a high discontent that impels to yet higher doing. 
They are but the symbols of our power, the promise of our future. 

It is a brave banner that we unfurl, bearing the record of our 
hundred years. There you may read the story of Pere Marquette, 
carrying the cross to the wild tribes of our prairies; of the French 
coureu,rs du hois, romantic, brave, enduring; of the frontiersmen, who, 
like the explorers and fur traders, loved the wilderness, its hardships and 
adventures, with its free life and isolation, for their own sake, and then 
as towns and cities grew, they vanished beyond the Mississippi. 

You can see there the pioneers — the lonely log cabin, the little 
hamlet in the midst of the undulating sea of prairie flowers, guarded 
by the ehureh spire and the school house, rather than by the walls and 
gates of old. Into the peace and silence come a few harsh notes of 
strife between savage and settler: splashes of blood stain the lake's 
yellow sands. Then vou can see later ihe veomen of the countrA^- 

side marching with their flintlocks against the Indians in the one war 
that has touched the soil of Illinois. 

You can see the beginnings of communities, of an organic life bind- 
ing communities together; the self-contained, yet unconscious heroes 
of that simple time, moving with a certain giant strength and childlike 
directness to control the forces which were then raw and plastic, and to 
build out of them a puissant and stable state. The pioneers stood as the 
trees of a forest, together, but individual. 

"They rise to mastery of wind and snow; 

They go like soldiers grimly into strife 
To colonize the plain. They plow and sow, 

And fertilize the sod with their own life, 
As did the Indian and the buffalo."' 

Behold there the simple folk that defended themselves against the 
red race, now imperiling their liberty and their lives to give freedom 
to the fleeing slave. These men of the "underground railroad"' were 
the first projectors of Xorth and South railroad lines, and they surpassed 
all others in having successful operation accompanying the preliminary 

How that record blazes with the part of Illinois in the great war for 
Freedom and the Union I Behold the long lines of blue, gathering from 
farm and shop and store and school, and moving away to martial music, 
mingled, with huzzas and sobs — to meet death or victory, as might be, 
but to meet either with a smile. The story brightens and darkens as 
gloom follows gleam until at last, out of hoping and despairing comes 
victory, and the sad, yet rejoicing return. 

Then a shadow falls across the picture — a shadow so deep that it 
darkens every heart and every home in Illinois. Lincoln, the Great 
Captain, Lincoln the Emancipator of the Slaves, Lincoln the Saviour 
of the Xation, Lincoln the Martyr, lies dead. 

"When lilacs last in the dooryard bloomed. 
And the great star early drooped in the western sky in the night, 
I mourned and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring." 

Then we see the interrupted forces rearrange themselves; old enter- 
prises and new endeavors take on a new vitality ; we see a city leap into 
life as by magic, and then more suddenly vanish in flames. Its woe 
becomes its fortune : its destruction is its upbuilding. Enterprise, com- 
mercial and industrial, dominates every element of city and country 
life. Material foundations are laid so broad and so deep that all else 
seems forgotten. Streets are lifted out of the swamp; notable buildings 
are raised out of the ashes; numerical and financial strength increases. 
Out of them arise the beginnings of an intellectual and aesthetic life. 

"Whate'er delight 

Can make Day's forehad bright 

Or give down to the wins^s of Xiofht." 

Wealth, philanthropy and art, schools and universities blossom in the 
Dream-city of the Exposition, a city built of wave and cloud and sun- 
shine ; that opened, when the daylight faded, like a great night-blooming 
cereus by the margin of the lake. It glowed with the colors of evening 
and of dawn, and passed as they pass, leaving only imperishable memories- 
An then the portraits that hang in the hall of our hundred years! 
Plutarch's men, who lived the 

"Life that doth send 
A challenge to its end; 
And when it comes, says 
Welcome, friend !" 

Douglas, the "Little Giant," like a short, swart tower holding guns 
terrific for destruction and defense; Baker of the silver voice, who joined 
to the strength of the West and the calmness of the Korth, the warmth 
and fervor of the South — whose brilliant speech was forgotten in the 
keener flash of his sword, which, alas ! fell with him at Ball's Bluff in the 
very budding of his powers; and Palmer, who followed Douglas in put- 
ting aside his party and its principles for the higher cause of the Xation ; 
and in his old age again standing true to his convictions and assuminj!^ 
leadership to guard the Nation from financial disaster; and Oglesby, 
the homeless Kentucky lad, thrice chosen Governor of Illinois, and 
beloved leader in war and in peace; Trumbull, slender of stature, but 
great in intellectual power — the foremost constitutional lawj-er and 
debater of that time; and Logan of the sable wing, who left the com- 
panions of his youth to lead, as few leaders could, the impetuous legions 
of the Xorth — who with a soldier's reckless daring Joined a gentle heart, 
and in the thankfulness that followed war helped to heal its wounds by 
establishing the Grand Army of the Republic. 

And Grant, of the stern, unflinching, untelling face, of a figure and 
a stature that gave no hint of martial glory or of martial prowess, but 
which held a spirit that was dogged, indomitable, persistent and resist- 
less in war; that was gentle, self-sacrificing, and more sublimely brave 
in peace; that made Appomattox a shrine of magnanimity and Mount 
McGregor an altar of moral heroism. 

But above all in our Pantheon is Lincoln, the people's hero, whose 
greatness is the common possession of mankind: A face so plain it 
fascinates, so sad it touches the heart; so illumined that it draws us 
from all sordidness; e3^es that beacon to the safe harbor of a true soul; 
a form builded like the ships of the Vikings, strong to the uttermost, 
and graceful almost in the perfectness of its strength; a mind that 
brought every question to the test of truth, and would not deceive others 
because it would not deceive itself ; a mind ever ruled by a heart which, 
as Emerson said, was as capacious as the storehouse of the rains, but had 
no room in it for the memory of a wrong ; a mind and a heart distraught, 
oppressed, borne down under burdens greater than ever man bore, and 
shaken by a temperament touched with moodiness and mysticism — they 
kept their soundness in a philosophy that took the sense of the comic as 

a preservative of wisdom, and the sense of dut}' as the preservative of 
honor and endeavor; a spirit so fine that it felt, past all argument, the 
imminence of Divinity; a life harmonized and made glorious in the con- 
clusion of Darwin; though a man may not fully know the issue of his 
life or the nature of God, he can do his duty. And how Lincoln did 
dut}', mankind will ever love to tell. 

But there is another picture, a small part of a great canvas, not yet 
finished, radiant with a light that brightens every portrait, every paint- 
ing in that hall. It portrays Illinois summoning her youth by hundreds 
of thousands to prepare to prove at arms her loyalty to liberty and her 
gratitude to France, and to defend that government of the people which 
it is Illinois' chief glon- to have helped to save. 

There is here none of the pageantry or trappings of an army with 
banners. Like the rude cabins of the pioneers, multiplied into myriads, 
are the schools of military instraction going forward with the simple 
directness and the invincible purpose of a high resolve. Here above 
the broad prairie the young eagles are trying their wings and their 
talons, that they may strike to the earth the German vultures that are 
tearing at the vitals of defenseless millions. 

Then we see them again — long lines of khaki brown and glistening 
steel that go forward and ever forward — some wounded, some dying, 
all cheerful, all smiling, all determined. And above the lines and be- 
fore them — yea, and above the lines of France and of England — shining 
in the upper air, watching, rising, wheeling, striking — and sometimes 
falling ! — are the young eagles of Illinois ! 

And the light of that picture glows upon all her sons who served 
with perfect devotion, whether here or there; whether they have returned, 
or whether France shall keep them lovingly and make their resting 
places shrines of liberty. And the radiance of that picture is from the 
sun of universal justice, liberty and kindliness that is just rising upon a 
darkened world. 

All this — and how much more? — glows resplendent on our banner, 
though it shows but the simple legend, Illinois, the Land of Men. 



(By H. J. Eckenrode.) 

It is my privilege to bear the fraternal greetings of the A^irginia 
Historical Society to this assembly on the happy and auspicious occasion 
of the celebration of the one-hundredth anniversary of the Statehood of 
Illinois. It is also my honor and pleasure this evening to speak of the 
part played by Virginia in the origin and development of Illinois. 

Illinois has been often called, and with reason, the foremost com- 
monwealth of the Union; and, as we see it today it 'is great, prosperous, 
rich in material wealth and rich in human happiness. It is a type of 
modem civilization, offering all that seems best in twentieth-century 
life. But it is not of the present Illinois, in which it has been your 
fortunate lot to be born, that I am here to speak, but of that Illinois 
of long ago, the Illinois of- forests and uninhabited prairies, of Indians 
and wild beasts — the embryo Illinois, still unshaped by fate, as it waited 
to be born. The task is mine to outline those prenatal forces which 
determined what Illinois should be, when, in the fulness of time, it 
became a community of civilized men. 

Happily there is no tendency 1o-jday to begrudge the South the credit 
due it for its share in the making of America. After the long estrange- 
ment all parts of the United States are now joined in a fraternal love and 
fellowship which augurs well for the future of the nation. One of your 
finest Middle West statesmen — one of the finest Americans of the present 
generation, in my opinion — ex-Senator Beveridge of Indiana, in his great 
work on John Marshall, has generously acknowledged the important 
contribution of Virginia to the development of America. In the publi- 
cations of the Illinois Historical Societv, which are a model of scholar- 
ship and of the book-maker's art as well, the great work done by Virginia 
in the West is set forth at length. Indeed, in recent years there has 
been a growing tendency all through the Xorth and West to appreciate 
at its full worth the part of the South in the moulding of the American 
nation, and a realization that without the South the national life would 
be the poorer. 

The discover}' of America was one of those events which should 
help to confirm our faith in providence, even in spite of the fearful 
turmoil of the present. The discovery was not only a matter of supreme 
good fortune to mankind, but the time of discovery as well. It came 
at the end of the Middle Ages, in a period of great change and rapid 
development, when the influence of such an unprecedented happening 
produced its maximum effect. If the Norse had colonized America cen- 
turies before Columbus, there would have been only another feudal 
Europe on our shores: if the discovery of America had been delayed until 


Europe had come into full contact with India and the East and had 
completed the growth of the new civilization which came into being at 
the close of the feudal era, America would not have so greatly inliuenced 
the life of humanity. But the discovery, by enlarging man's physical 
world by vast, uninhabited regions at the very moment when his spiritual 
and intellectual vision was enlarging, proved decisive of the future of 
the race. 

At the end of the ^liddle Ages, European man had passed lliiiuigh 
the centuries of disorder and anarchy following the destruction of antique 
civilization and was busily engaged in evolving a life which embodied 
the germ of representative government and the other great, distinctive 
modern ideas. Much had been learned in the Middle Ages, but man had 
suffered very grievously in the course of his hard schooling. Political 
and social caste had become more deeply imbedded in man's conscious- 
ness than at any other time in human existence, and democracy was as 
3'et almost unthought of. Sir Thomas More's Utopia, written at this 
time, seemed a hopeless dream of justice and equality. Class distinctions 
were embodied in law, and the chance for the poor man, the obscure man, 
in England as in all European countries, was exceedingly small. There 
was then, at the time of the discovery of America, a young and plastic 
civilization, full of promise but threatened with destruction by the grow- 
ing economic pressure due to an increasing population. Some way of 
emancipation was needed and the jSFew World supplied the need. 

When the English settled America — Virginia first in 1G07, and 
Massachusetts a few years later — they brought with them the ideas, 
traditions and prejudices of medieval Europe, along "with the priceless 
inheritance of English liberty and English institutions. The contempo- 
rary accounts of American life in the first century of colonization do not 
make cheerful reading. De Foe, for instance, paints a dreary picture 
of Virginia, and there is no hint in his description of the splendid 
civilization maturing beneath the surface. In Xew England, too, there 
was a long age of relgious bigotry and narrow living — of smallness and 
dullness — before the Xew England spirit gained its great historic growth. 

But gradually, in the vast areas of America, in the immense stretches 
of pine and oak forest, offering breathing-space and working-space and 
happiness-space to the immigrants from crowded Europe, a spiritual 
revolution was wrought. Every individual was offered a chance to 
become a free man — that is to make a decent living for himself and for 
his family without a master over him. The pine forests have proved good 
for the health of the ailing body; they were also good for the ailing spirit. 
European man came sick to the American shores and in the wild, un- 
tenanted woods his soul found healing. He began to lose his age-long 
class consciousness and to stand erect and free. 

The English in Virginia, favored by a good soil and kindly climate, 
built up one of the two civilizations which were destined to grow into the 
United States. The other was devloping, at the same time and quite 
independently, in Xew England. 

The community founded by the tobacco planters in Virginia was one 
of the most notable and influential in modern history, by reason of its 


singular charm and its solid merit as well. It was a life of great freedom 
and eminent sanity that the planters lived on the beautiful rivers of old 
Virginia. The spell of that life, so admirably described by our am- 
bassador to Italy, Thomas Xelson Page, has been cast over the whole 
South and West. Surely the gracious tradition of Middle West hospi- 
tiJity is Virginian in origin, and from the same source comes the Middle 
"V^'est joy of living. 

The fine tradition of English constitutional liberty flowered in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses, which, by the middle of the eighteenth 
century, had become in many ways the foremost legislative body in the 
world. The modern committee system was first perfected in the House 
of Burgesses, before the House of Commons in England and before our 
own Congress. In almost every way the House of Burgesses was a model 
of parliamentary procedure and enlightened legislation. It was this 
House of Burgesses which first perceived and resisted the sinister 
tendencies of the British government as these became manifest at various 
times in the eighteenth century. It maintained clearly and effectively 
the principle of constitutional government. 

In Virginia, in that wonderful period between the close of the 
French and Indian War and the close of the Eevolution, American 
democracy grew to fruition. The Virginia planters, far freer and far 
more generous in outlook than their brethren, the English landed pro- 
prietors, willingly adopted the ideals of democracy and gave them 
practical realization in the government of the commonwealth. 

It was the great democrat Patrick Henry, whose name should be 
forever dear to the lovers of liberty, that first openly defied the British 
government and began the Eevolution. It was the equally great George 
Mason, who, in the Virginia Bill of Rights, laid down, once for all, the 
principles of free government, and who, in the Virginia constitution of 
1776, gave the world the first written constitution. And there, too, 
was Thomas Jefferson, the gi'eatest of them all, who wrote the Declar- 
ation of Independence and changed the ideal of national democracy from 
the dream-stuff of generous thinkers into that governmental system to 
which our allegiance and our lives are pledged. 

Virginia and New England together lighted the fires of the Rev- 
olution and brought the American nation into being in that ever-happy 
year of 1776. But the outcome of the war with the greatest military 
power of the age was doubtful ; and even if independence were achieved, 
it seemed likely that the United States would be bounded on the west by 
the Alleghany Mountains. There were then no American settlers in 
the vast region between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. A few 
Frenchmen were the only white inhabitants of this region, which was 
held by the British garrisons at various points. If the year 1783 had 
found those garrisons still in possession, of the Illinois country, the 
ground we stand on would be English soil and not American. The 
whole history of the United States would have been different, its promise 
would have been frustrated. The United States to-dav would be a 

— 3 H S 


second-rate power instead of the greatest and strongest nation on the 

The fact is held in grateful remembrance by all Americans that 
a Virginian preserved onr country from a thwarted destiny and gave to 
the republic tlie incomparable gift of the Middle West. Not equally well 
known is the share of the Virginia government in bringing about the 
fortunate consummation. 

George Rogers Clark was one of those immortal men who see through 
the darkness of the present to the may-be of the future, and so save the 
world from the might-have-beens. Amidst all the distraction of the 
Revolutionary War as it raged in the East, Clark preserved a wise de- 
tachment. He realized the possibilities of the great forest-covered, 
Indian-haunted West. The West fascinated him and he turned from 
the opportunity of honorable service in the Continental Army to the 
greater service of claiming the West for America. He dreamed of lead- 
ing an army past the Alleghanies and driving the British from the land. 

He could do nothing, however, without some governmental sanction 
and aid. And where was this aid to be obtained? The harassed Con- 
tinental Congress, at its wit's end to keep the Eastern army supplied and 
equipped, had no thought or resources to devote to so remote an adventure 
as the conquest of the West. Clark's one chance lay in the favorable 
action of the Virginia government, and consequently he went to Williams- 
burg and laid his case before the authorities. 

Most fortunately for Amexica and the world, Patrick Heairy 
happened to be governor of Virginia at the time, and he was the farthest- 
sighted statesman of his age. When the young Clark pleaded with him 
for his great idea, Henry listened with sympathy. He then called in 
consultation Thomas Jefferson, George Mason and George Wythe, and 
the decision was made to send out the expedition destined to conquer 
the West — surely one of the most fateful decisions ever made. 

It required courage on Henry's part to think of nuiking efforts in a 
new field at such a time. My researches in the Virginia Department of 
Archives, which in recent years has become a center of historical study, 
taught me that Virginia's share in the support of the American Rev- 
olution has been greatly underestimated. The records show that through 
all the early years of the struggle, when the North was the scene of in- 
vasion and therefore weakened in resources, immense quantities of beef 
and flour and thousands of guns went up Chesapeake Bay to Washing- 
ton's Army. Indeed, it is hardly too much to say that that army could 
not have kept the field but for the aid given by the Southern common- 

Although the burden of the Revolution thus rested so largely on 
Virginia, and every dollar was badly needed for the prosecution of the 
war in the East, Patrick Henry was sufficiently large-minded to see the 
vital importance of the West and to make a special effort to claim it. 
The means available were small and could not have been othenvise than 
small at such a moment. The obstacles were almost insuperable. Cir- 
cumstances and men alike seemed to conspire against the undertaking; 


and if it had not been for the unyielding will and unfailing enthusiasm 
of George Rogers Clark, the expedition would never have set out at all. 

But at last, in that history-making summer of 1778, Chirk sailed 
down the Ohio to claim for America a land richer than all the El 
Doradoes of the imagination. He had something less than two hundred 
men, and the little company trusted itself to the waters on rough wooden 
scows which were without other motive power than hand-poles. And 
yet his small expedition, armed only with rifles and poorly supplied 
with food and ammunition and everything else needed in campaigning, 
performed one of the most notable military achievements in the annals 
of war. 

That little band, drifting down the Ohio to the West through the 
interminable forest, carried with it the destiny of America. It carried 
with it all that Virginia had inherited from England and all that she 
had herself originated or developed — it carried the English law as applied 
in America, the idea of constitutional liberty, the fine qualities of planter 
culture, the democracy wliich had grown up under Henry and Jefferson 
and Mason — a rich seed for the fertile soil of the Middle West. 

How the valiant handful came to Illinois and conquered is an old 
story — through their matchless hardihood and their bravery they added 
the West to the United States. When Clark raised the American 
standard over the Illinois forts, the crisis had passed in the fate of the 
nation ; it then became a question only of time before the United States 
should expand to the Pacific. All our great advance towards the setting 
sun was the logical outcome of the American conquest of Illinois. 

It is a fact most gratifying to a Virginian and flattering to his pride 
that the first organization of Illinois as American soil was accomplished 
under the government of Virginia. In the fall of 1778, the assembly 
constituted the new region the county of Illinois in the Commonwealth 
of Virginia. After the old Virginia fashion, a county lieutenant, John 
Todd, jr., was sent out to organize the county and govern it. Thus a 
Virginian county lieutenant was the first civil ruler of Illinois under the 
American flag. Todd appointed judges and effected such an organization 
as was possible in a territory of vast distances and few and alien inhabi- 
tants. In his letter of instructions to county lieutenant Todd, Governor 
Henry struck the note of true Americanism as by some prophetic instinct : 
"You are on all occasions to inculcate in the people of the region the value 
of liberty and the difference between the state of free citizens of this 
commonwealth and that slavery to which Illinois was destined." Settlers 
from Virginia soon followed the soldiers, and the first permanent element 
in the life of Illinois was thus almost exclusively Virginian. 

The rest of the story is familiar to you — how Virginia generously 
resigned the territoi7 which her arms had won to the government of the 
United States. In the due course of time — now Just a century ago — 
Illinois began her great career as a sovereign State. The Virginian 
element in Illinois has been an honorable one, and many of the foremost " 
citizens of the commonwealth trace their origin to the Old Dominion. 

It will be seen that Virginia's share in the making of Illinois was 
a most important contribution. So, too, was that of New England. 


The New England settlers, who came by thousands in the early years of 
the nineteenth century, completed the work which it was Virginia's lot 
to inaugurate. Virginia did all in her power to fashion Illinois into an 
American commonwealth. New England sent her finest blood, her 
keenest brains, to assist in the building of the great State of the Middle 
West. Here the two main civilizations have blended to produce the 
typical American commonwealth and the typical American spirit. The 
rich Illinois lands drew not only Virginian and New Englander, but 
Pennsylvanians and New Yorkers as well, and men from all the Eastern 
States and f]-om beyond the seas. Here all currents of our life met to 
build up in the Middle West the first distinctively and originally 
American communities. 

In the Middle West the process of nation-making was completed. 
That process had had its origin in Great Britain and in Holland ; and .in 
the Atlantic States the ideal of free government, the germs of which had 
been borne across the ocean, had grown to flower. On the Atlantic slope 
modern democracy had its birth and the modern attitude towards life 
came into existence. 

But neither Virginia nor New .England represented the last stage 
in the long development. About both there lingered much of European 
custom and prejudice; both of them at times looked backwards towards 
the European shore. Both were too self-contained, too marked with 
local characteristics to produce the final type in American civilization. 
That was the work of the Middle West. 

The very names of the East are reminiscent of Europe — Virginia, 
Carolina, Maryland, New York, New England. They reflect the Euro- 
pean colonization of the Atlantic slope. But the beautiful name of Illi- 
nois is novel and unmistakable; it belongs to America and to America 
, alone. It breathes the thought of a new world born in the free forests 
and the unfenced prairies of the West. 

In 1812, the London Times, in commenting on the victory of the 
ronstitution over the Guerriere, spoke thus of the Americans : "They 
are of us. and an improvement on us." In the same way the East may 
say of Illinois : "It is of the East and an improvement on the East." 
In Illinois an American community came into existence which had no 
direct contact with European life — which was wholly American and 
growing to maturity in the age of the expansion of the American spirit. 
In the Middle West the last feudal scars on the soul of European man 
were smoothed away and mankind entered into the full enjo.yment of 
modem life, with its broad democracy, its free opportunity and its hope 
of happiness. 

It was the part of Illinois and the Middle West to give the world a 
fresh and rich civilization, which, it may be believed, will in the end 
transform the world. This civilization is democratic but it is also more 
than that. It is not the Athenian democracy of small things. It is a 
civilization which has vastly enlarged the prospect of man's material 
welfare. Here in the Middle West agriculture first became epic; on the 
broad prairies modern farming-machinery was first used with effect, and 
the world's food supply was increased ten-fold. It is this largeness of 


life which the Middle West has added to the making of America. The 
Middle West is uot a land of pettiness and smallness, of inertia and 
hesitation. It is a country of broad-minded men and women — -of people 
who go forward, who are not afraid of the untried, who look towards 
better things in the future because the present is so rich and full. 

We meet here in a solemn hour. The historic civilizations of 
Europe are dying. Science, art, literature, industry are perishing in the 
blood-flamed horror of the Great War. It is the fate of America to be 
the decisive factor in the struggle, to turn the even scales. When the 
titanic struggle for human right shall have ended, the United States will 
be the greatest, richest and most civilized country on earth. It will 
reach in a stride that manifest destiny which the forces of life marked 
out for the land more than a century ago, when the Middle West became 
American soil. How precious American civilization will be in the wreck 
of nations and the downfall of races^, we can hardly appreciate as yet. 
But we do know even now that America, as great in her generosity as 
she is terrible in her wrath, will be the hope of the world and that the 
stars of Old Glory will shine more brightly than ever in the darkness of 
humanity's night. 

The place of Illinois in the history of the century just past is a 
great and honorable one. Her share in the achievement of the coming 
century will be even larger. Illinois has always stood four-square for 
patriotism, freedom and the right to live and grow — ^for all the higher 
things of life. As never before the nation needs the virile democracy, 
the largeness of outlook, the open-mindedness of Illinois; and because of 
this need the hundredth anniversary of the birth of the great common- 
Avealth is a time of congratulation and a harbinger of good things yet to 




(By Allen Johnson.) 

In the month of November, one hundred years ago, two Congresses 
were in session — four thousand miles apart. One was an inconspicuous 
gathering of plain citizens, representatives of the common people, charged 
with prosaic duties: the levying of taxes, the appropriating of public 
moneys, the framing of laws for a people still largely raw and rural, still 
amazingly ignorant of the vastness of their country. This Congress sat 
in an unkept town whose public buildings had been burned, only four 
years before, by an invading army. The city of Washington was barely 
eighteen years old. 

The other Congress convened at the ancient town of Aix-la-Chapelle 
the German Aachen — shrouded in memories which went back to the 
Middle Ages, when German Emperors were crowned in its famous 
cathedral and buried in full regalia in its deep vaults. The ashes of 
Charlemagne^ so tradition said, lay under foot. This brilliant gathering 
was attended by royalty. The crowned heads of Russia, Austria, and 
Prussia with their entourage were present; the kings of Great Britain 
and France were represented by their ministers. These three monarchs 
had no mandate from their people, acknowledged no obligations to their 
people, sustained no intimate contact with their people. They were 
bound together by one of the most extraordinary alliances in all history — 
the Holy Alliance which had emanated from the strange mind of Czar 
Alexander I of Russia. The unctuous phrases of the pious document 
which the impressionable Czar had offered to his fellow monarchs of 
Austria and Prussia might mean much or little. Metternich. prime min- 
ister of Austria, declared the proferred alliance a sonorous nothing; the 
English premier referred to it as a piece of sublime mysticism and 
nonsense. Its significance in history lies in its name which was soon 
applied to the combination of the five great powers that met at Aix-la- 

The presiding genius of this European Congress — tlie dominating 
fi.STure of Europe, indeed, for full thirty years — was Prince l\Ietternich. 
He was the living embodiment of that repressive spirit which seized the 
minds of reactionary rulers after the fall of Napoleon. He ha^^ed the 
French Revolution with perfect hatred. To his mind the revolutionary 
spirit was a disease which must be cured; a gangrene which must be 
burned out with the hot iron. He abhorred parliaments and popular 
representative institutions. He represented perfectly the reactionary 
spirit of his liege sovereign who declared the whole world mad it 
wanted new constitutions and who crushed remorselessly every trace of 


liberalism in his Austrian domains. Playing upon this common tear ol; 
revolution and this common hatred of popular sovereignt}', Metternich 
bound the five great powers to a policy of repose, of political immobility, 
over against the propaganda of liberals throughout Europe. In case of 
further revolution in France — that hot bed of popular unrest — they were 
to unite to quell the storm. By further Congresses steps would be taken 
to cure the malady of revolution wherever it might break out. The year 
1818 marks the beginning of that repressive policy which sounded the 
death-knell of popular government in the Old World for a generation. 

While this famous Congress of monarchs-by-divine-right was setting 
the face of Europe against the mad doctrinaries who talked of consti- 
tutional government, our plain, sombre-clad congressmen on the banks 
of the Potomac were quietly and as a matter of course giving their 
approval to a constitution drafted by inhabitants of a distant territory 
where the native redman still roamed and where primeval forest and 
prairies still awed men by their great brooding silences. At the very 
time these self-appointed defenders of absolutism and the peace of Europe 
were leaving Aix-la-Chapelle, our national House of Eepresentatives was 
voting to receive Illinois into the American Union on an equal footing 
with the thirteen original states. 

In this contrast I find the fundamental reason for America's partic- 
ipation in the Great A\'orld War ! And now once again, one hundred 
years after Aix-la-Chapellc, irresponsible government has thrown down 
the gage of battle, and American Democracy has accepted the challenge! 

I have mentioned Great Britain among the five powers who followed 
the. lead of Prince Metternich. This is not the time or place to explain 
the circumstances that nuide contemporary England also reactionary. 
Enough that even the Mother of Parliaments had lost its true represent- 
ative character. Many an Englishman felt that he was losing his political 
birthright under the heavy repressive hand of the Tory squirearchy. 
Much as he might mistrust the firebrands of liberalism in Europe, he had 
no heart for a policy which denied to a nation the right to choose its own 
political institutions. And it was the silent, indirect pressure of such 
Englishmen that eventually forced the British government to protest 
against Metternich's doctrine of intervention. Eventually, too, liberal- 
ism broke through the tough crust of British conservatism and achieved 
the reform of Parliament. 

It was in these days of the un-reformed Parliament, when represent- 
ative government had become a farce, when the common man who did 
not possess a freehold worth forty shillings a year found himself a mere 
tax-payer without a vote, when a land-owning squirearchy monopolized 
political office and tahooed refomis, that English yoemen farmers cast 
wistful glances overseas. Held fast between the insolence of wealth on 
the one hand and the servility of pauperism on the other, they could see 
no prospect of relief in Merrie England. There was only hollow mockery 
in the name. 

Happily we are not without direct personal records of these English- 
men who came to America on their own initiative or that of their fellow 
farmers and mechanics. As they made their way over the Alleghanies to 


the prairie countiy, tlioy found America in incessant motion. "Old 
America/'' wrote Morris Jiirkbeck, one of tlicse plain English farmers, 
"seems to be breaking up and moving westward." He was a correct 
observer. America was on wheels or on horseback. Conditions some- 
what like those in Old England were driving Xew Englanders and 
A'irginians and l'enns3'lvauians in a veritable human tide into the valley 
of the Ohio. The commonwealth of Illinois was born in the midst of 
this ,«iwirling emigration. 

It has been the fashion of historians to ascribe this rapid westward 
movement to the lure of free lands. A fundamental instinct, no doubt, 
this passion for virgin soil that one may call his own. The pioneer who 
in his own clearing between the stumps of trees felled by his own hand, 
planted Indian corn in the deep rich — illimitable rich, black loam, was 
obsessed by one of the deepest of human emotions. This soil and the 
produce thereof was his — his! His sense of individual property became 
acute. Like Anteus of Greek mythology his contact with the soil in- 
creased his might. His manhood leaped to its full height as he brought 
acre after acre under cultivation. 

Yet other motives for the crossing of the Alleghanies played ]io mean 
part. Man does not live by bread alone. Birkbeck confessed to a strong 
desire to better his material fortunes — to "obtain in the decline of life, 
an exemption from wearisome solicitude about pecuniary affairs;" but 
he desired even more for himself and his children membership in a 
democratic community free from the insolence of wealth. That is a 
recun-ing note in the history of American expansion — a note that vibrates 
as passionately as lust for land. Deep seated in the breast of every man 
whom the conventions of an older society have barred from recognition 
is the sense of outraged manhood — rebellion against the artificial re- 
strictions of birth, family, and inherited wealth. It is this eternal pro- 
test of human nature against man-made distinctions of class that has 
driven thousands of souls into the wilderness. That self-assertive spirit 
of the Westerner which at times breaks rudely in upon the urbane life 
of older communities is his protest against conditions from which — 
Thank God I — he has escaped. Your westerner of the twenties and 
thirties of the last century, your westerner who hurrahed for Andrew 
Jackson and bore him triumphantly into the White House, was asserting 
his native manhood. He was the living embodiment of Carlyle's Ever- 
lasting No. 

It is interesting to observe the subtle influence of American con- 
ditions on this English farmer whom we have chosen to follow to the terri- 
tory of Illinois. The spirit of optimism radiates from his journal — an 
optimism that made him an inaccurate observer at times ; but the worth 
of his observations is less important just here than this objective impres- 
sion of his Inner mind. It is as thouo-h a weight were rolling off his 
heart. He breathes great drafts of prairie air, stands more erect, allows 
his eye to range over the prairies, and yield unconsciously to that sense of 
distance and space which has widened imperceptibly the mental horizon 
of three o-enerations of Illinoisans. 


I find my thought projecting itself forward fifteen years and my 
eye catches sight of a true son of Illinois who came from the cramped 
valleys of Vermont to the broad prairies of the Northwest, and who 
testified to his own mental growth by the not very gracious remark that 
Vermont was a good state to be born in provided you migrated early ! 

What charmed this transplanted English farmer was "the genuine 
warmth of friendly feeling" in the communities through which he passed 
— a disposition to promote the happiness of each other." These people 
have rude passions, he admits. 'This is the real world and no political 
Arcadia." But they "have fellow-feeling in hope and fear, in difficulty 
and success." After a few months on the prairies of Eastern Illinois ho 
feels himself an American. "I love this government," he exclaims ; 
"and thus a novel sensation is excited: it is like the development of a 
new faculty. I am become a patriot in my old age." 

And what was this government which he held in such affection? He 
does not name it but he describes it in unmistakable terms. "Here, 
every citizen, whether by birthright or adoption, is part of the govern- 
ment, identified with it, not virtually, but in fact." This was American 
Democracy ! 

Not all the states of the American Union at this time were demo- 
cratically organized. A few — a very few — were born democracies; 
some achieved democratic institutions; and some had democratic govern- 
ment thrust upon thern. It is one of those pleasing illusions which 
patriotic societies like to indulge and which are perpetuated by loose 
thinking, that democracy was brought full-fledged to America by the 
Puritan fathers. Nothing could be further from the truth ! Let us 
face the historic facts frankly and fearlessly. Men of the type of John 
Winthrop did not believe in social or political equality. They .would 
have stood aghast at the suggestion that every male adult should have 
a voice in the government which they set up on the shores of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. They shrank from those levelling ideas which radicals' 
were preaching in Old England. There was little in colonial New 
England that suggested social equality. Men and women dressed accord- 
ing to their rank and station in life. Class conventions were everywhere 
observed. Public inns reserved narlors for the colonial jrentrv ; trades 
people went to the tap-room or the kitchen for entertainment. All 
souls might be equal in the sight of God; but one's seat in church, 
nevertheless, corresponded to one's social rank. Learning might be open 
to all classes of men; but the catalogue of Harvard College in the 
seventeenth century listed the names of students not alphabetically but 
according to social standing. 

So feeling and thinking these Puritan patricians of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony indulged in no foolish dreams of democracy. Al- 
most their first precaution was to raise bulwarks against the unstable 
conduct of the ungodly. At first only church members were allowed to 
become freemen in the colony. Only godly men of good conversation 
should be intrusted with the choice of magistrates. And when this 
policy of rigid exclusion broke down under assaults from the home 
government, property qualifications were established as in the rest of the 
straggling English colonies on the Atlantic seaboard. 


When the American colonies declared their independence there 
was not one which did not restrict tlie right to vote to male adults who 
were property-holders or holders of estates. The usual qualification 
was the possession of a freehold worth or renting at fifty pounds an- 
nually or the ownership of fifty acres. Under these restiictions probably 
not more than one man in every five or six had the right to vote. It 
democratic government means the rule of the majority, then these 
thirteen colonies were hanlly more democratic than i'russia in this 
year of grace 1918 ! 

In framing constitutions for the stales in the course of the Kevo- 
lution, the fathers followed habit and precedent. They betrayed little 
or no concern for the unpiopertied or landless man. They followed the 
universal rule that those only were entitled to vote for magistrates who 
showed evidence of "attachment to the community." And evidence of 
such attachment consisted in the possession of i)roperty — preferably 
landed property. Said that typical American of his age, Benjamin 
Franklin, "As to those who have no landed property * * * the allow- 
ing them to vote for legislatoi's is an impropriety." Alexander Ilamil- 
lon, who was typical only of his class however, voiced a still stronger 
feeling when he contended that those who held no property could not 
properly be regarded as having wills of their own. 

I do not know how I can better illustrate the tenacity of these 
political ideas of the fathers than by alluding to a memorable constitu- 
tional convention held in the state of New York in the year 1821. Con- 
stitutional conventions are milestones on the road to American de- 
mocracy. In the deliberations of these bodies are reflected the notions 
that flit through the minds of ordinary citizens. Progress and reaction 
meet on the floors of these conventions. 

It is the 22nd of September, 1821. The subject under discussion 
is the elective franchise. It is proposed that the old property quali- 
fications shall still hold in elections to the State Senate. James Kent, 
Chancellor of the state of New York, is speaking — a learned jurist and 
an admirable character. There is deep emotion in his voice. The 
proposal to annihilate all these property qualifications at one stroke, 
and to bow before the idol of universal suffrage, strikes him with dismay. 
"That extreme democratic principle wherever tried has terminated 
distastrously. Dare we flatter ourselves that we are a peculiar people, 
exempt from the passions which have disturbed and corrupted the rest of 
mankind? The notion that every man who works a day on the road 
or serves an idle hour in the militia is entitled of right to an equal 
participation in the government is most unreasonable and has no founda- 
tion in justice. Society is an association for the protection of property 
as well as life, and the individual who contributes only one cent to the 
common stock ought not to have the same power and influence in direct- 
ing the property concerns of the partnership as he who contributes his 

Of this notable speech, another member of the convention remarked 
that it would serve admirably as an elegant epitaph for the old con- 
stitution when it should be no more. He was right. Chancellor Kent 


was facing backwards — addressing a vanishing age. And yet he was no 
mere querulous reactionary but fairly representative of a large class of 
men whose reverence for tradition was stronger than their faith in 
democracy. At this very time in another constitutional convention, 
young Daniel Webster was defending the property qualifications in the 
Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: The constitution which your fathers 
drafted one hundred years ago is a significant milestone in our march 
toward democracy. On this frontier of the old Northwest was born that 
spirit of self-confidence and self-help which has made the people of the 
great Middle West an incalculable power in the national life. It was 
as inevitable as breathing that these pioneer farmers should express this 
spirit in political institutions. With firm bold characters they wrote 
unhesitatingly into the constitution of 1818 these words: 

"In all elections, all white male inhabitants above the age of 
twenty-one years, having resided in the state six months next pre- 
ceding the election shall enjoy the right of an elector." 
I shall not pause here to question the wisdom of permitting even 
alien inhabitants to vote, nor to point out in detail why the convention 
of 1848 withdrew the privilege. It may well have been certain experi- 
ences in the old third congressional district which tempered the demo- 
cratic ardor of the constitution-makers. When an aspirant for congress- 
ional honors could vote en hloc hundreds of stalwart canal-diggers, fresh 
from Erin's Isle, it was well, perhaps, to call a halt. These laborers 
had in them, no doubt, the making of good citizens; but a residence of 
a few weeks even in Illinois could !not educate untutored minds 
to the point where they could make the necessary distinction between an 
election and a Donnybrook Fair. 

It is quite unnecessar}^, too, to remind this audience that suffrage 
has long since ceased to be restricted to whites. It is certainly the part 
of discretion, if not of valor, at this time, to refrain also from discuss- 
ing the latest extension of suffrage. I hazard only the prediction that 
the same democratic forces will ultimately give women the ballot when 
they demand it. There is an insistent force in this movement of the 
century which sweeps away all considerations of prudence and expedi- 
ency. But I have no desire to handle live wires: Let me confine my 
remarks to the far-reaching historical importance of the adoption of male 
adult suffrage by Illinois and her sister-states of the North-west. The 
reaction of West upon the East has too often been overlooked by Ameri- 
can historians. Not all good things follow the sun in his course. 
Political reactions are subtle and can often be felt more easily than they 
can be demonstrated. Yet there can be no doubt that it was the theory 
f)nd practice of manhood suffrage in the new states which led the older 
Eastern states one by one to abandon their restrictions. It was the new 
state of Maine — itself the frontier of Massachusetts — that led the way. 
It is no mere accident, I think, that Maine is also the first of the New 
England States to try out the initiative and referendum. This demo- 
cratization of the East was slow process. The nineteenth century was 
nearly spent before the conservatives abandoned their last stronghold. 


Meantime revolution liad broken out for the third time in central 
and western Eurojje. The system of Metternich had been shattered ; 
the repose of Europe ludely shaken. For a time it seemed as thou(,di 
even Geraiany would yield to the assaults of liberals and nationals. 
Unification and constitutional government seemed within reach in 1S48. 
I may not dwell upon these days of storm and stress, of shattered 
illusions and futile dreams. Suffice it to say that reactionary forces 
triumphed, and forced many a stalwart soul to turn his back upon the 
Fatherland. Jt was these exiled liberals, these Forty-eighters who came 
to the prairies of Illinois and the Middle West and made common cause 
with their brethern in the struggle for human liberty. In these times 
of storm and stress we do well to remember that these German exiles 
became bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh — laying down their lives 
for their adopted land when the hour of destiny struck. 

Slavery had already driven a sharp wedge into American democracy. 
Something besides the freedom of the negroes was at stake. Men were 
asking searching questions. Could a society that harbored slaves be 
truly democratic? Could a nation which permitted a minority to 
dictate foreign and domestic policies be termed democratic? Could a 
jDeople consent to refrain from talking about a moral issue at the dic- 
tation of slave-interests and still remain true to democratic traditions? 
Must a democratic people refrain from putting barriers in the way of 
the extension of slavery because a minority held slavery a necessary and 
blessed institution? 

Two stalwart sons of Illinois returned answers to these questions — 
answers that were heard and pondered throughout the length and 
breadth of the continent. Men then found these answers contradictor}'- 
and debated them with partisanship and passion but we may rise above 
the immediate issue and discern the essential agreement between these 
two great adversaries. Wlien Stephen A. Douglas asserted that no 
matter how the Supreme Court should decide, the people of a territory 
could still permit or forbid slavery by local legislation, he was enunci- 
ating bad law, it is true, but a principle thoroughly in accord with 
American nractice nevertheless. His great opponent never challenged 
the general democratic right of a people to self-determination; nor did 
he deny that irrespective of law, the people of a territory would in fact 
obey American traditions and decide questions of local concern through 
a public opinion that has more than once in frontier history ignored 
distant law-makers. 

When Abraham Lincoln stated the nature of the irrepressible 
conflict within the Eepublic by declaring that the Union could not exist 
half-slave and half-free, he registered his conviction as a great democrat, 
that no minority can be suffered indefinitely to force its will on the 
majority when a question of moral right is involved. 

And finally, when Lincoln declared that the decision of the 
Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott could not stand as law, he 
was speaking as a prophet, not as a lawyer. In effect, he was asserting 
that no minority may seek shelter behind the dead hand of legal form- 
alism when the moral sense of the living majority is outraged thereby. 


Even courts and legal precedents must eventually yield to an enlightened 
public will. 

These passionate days of the late fifties followed by four tragic 
years of civil war stripped the halo from democracy. It was seen that 
it was no panacea for all human woes; and that existing American 
democracy was not the perfect goal of political development. During 
reconstruction our eyes were opened to the perversions of democracy. 
We saw crimes perpetrated in the name of democracy. We saw stealthy 
hands thrust into our public treasuries; we saw mysterious interests 
interposed between the people and their government; we saw — in a word 
— government slipping away from the people either through the igno- 
rance or incompetence or connivance of their chosen representatives. 
Democracy has come to seem to many men less as achievement than a 
hope, a dream, a promise to be fulfilled. 

Dante compared the restless Italian cities of his day, with their 
incessant party struggles and changing gove^'nments, to sick men tossing 
with fever on their bed of pain. There is a similar instability in our 
Amei-ican life which seems to many learned doctors a symptom of 
disease in the body politic. The state of Oregon experiments with direct 
legislation; Arizona with the recall; Illinois has had some experience 
with proportional representation; every state has tried its hand at 
reform of nominating machinery and regulation of party organization, 
municipalities have set up governments by commission only to abandon 
them for city managers ; Kansas has even considered commission govern- 
ment for the State. 

To my mind this experimentation is a sign of health not disease. 
It is of the veiy essence of progress that human institutions should 
change. Distrust that state which rests content with its achievements. 
Dry rot has already set in. Those restless movements in American states, 
and cities are attempts to adjust democratic political institutions to 
new economic conditions. The machinery of government was perfectly 
adapted to society in Illinois when it entered upon Statehood one hundred 
years ago. Society was almost Arcadian in its simplicity. Substantial" 
social equality prevailed under rural conditions. Government was inevi- 
tably democratic. But this great Commonwealth has long since lost its 
Arcadian simplicity. It is a highly organized industrial community. 
Society is classified and stratified. Governmental institutions designed 
for another and different society must be readjusted to the needs of 
modem life. Yet the essential basis of democracy need not be changed 
and will not be changed. 

In these days of carnage and unutterable human woe, when 
democracy suffers by comparison Avith autocracy in efficient ways of 
waging war, I detect here and there, as I am sure 3'ou do, a note of 
distrust — even covert sneers at the words of our chosen leader that the 
world must be made safe for democracy. Ladies and Gentlemen: 
there are other tests of democracy than mere efficiency. I am prepared 
to concede — though the statement has been challenged — that German 
municipalities are better administered than American cities: that their 
streets are cleaner; that their police regulations are more efficient; that 


their conservation of natural resources is more far-sighted. What I 
cannot concede is tliat an autocratic government, however oflRcicnt, can 
in the long run serve the best interests of the people. Autocratic 
government does not develop self-help in its subjects. It enslaves. It 
robs manhood of its power of self-assertion. It denies opportunity to 
struggling talent. It makes subjects; it does not make citizens of a 
commonwealth. The impotency of the Gemian minority which hates 
Prussian Junkerdom is the price which the German nation is now pay- 
ing for efficient but autocratic government. 

There are two tests which every government must sustain, if it is 
not to perish from the earth. It must not only servo the material and 
moral welfare of its citizenry; it must also enlist their active support. 
It is not enough that democratic government should promote public 
contentment. It must also cultivate those moral virtues of self-restraint 
and self-sacrifice without which enduring progress cannot be made. 
Citizenship in a democracy cannot remain a negative and passive 
privilege to be enjoyed; it must be an active force for righteousness. 
And the ultimate test of the quality of citizenship in a democracy is the 
leaders which it produces. A brilliant Frenchman has applied this test. 
Surveying democracies the world over with a somewhat jaundiced eye, 
he has found everywhere only the cult of incompetence. I do not so 
read the history of American democracy. I do not find "Eight forever 
on the scaffold and wrong forever on the throne." Incompetence has 
often been enthroned it is true ; mediocrity has often been rewarded ; 
but in great crises the choice of the people has been unerring. Should 
we not judge democracy by its most exalted moments as well as by its 
most shameful? Our famous warriors have been idolized for a time; 
our merchant princes and captains of industry have been admired for 
their cleverness; our orators and politicians have had their little day. 
We put them in our Halls of Fame; but we withold our reverence to 
bestow it upon our Washington and Lincoln. There is something 
challenging, thought-arresting, awe-inspiring, in the emergence of 
Abraham Lincoln as a national hero. Here was a man who described 
his early life in the words of the poet Gray— "the short and simple 
annals of the poor;" who grew up in your midst — a man among men; 
who entered theAVliite House misunderstood, and derided as a "simple 
Susan ;" yet who became the leader of the nation in its greatest crisis. 
You do not honor him because of his intellectual qualities alone. You 
reverence his memory because he embodied the moral aspirations of 
American democracy. 

Abraham Lincoln was the greatest contribution of Illinois to the 
democratic movement of the century. 





(By Elbert Jay Benton.) 

The occasion of the Illinois Centennial is an auspicious time to 
pay tribute to the great achievement in American history during the 
infancy of the communities which form the group of states of the Old 
Northwest. That achievement is the establishment of the American 
Colonial System. It is not intended to raise the question of the Con- 
gressional History of the Ordinances which formulated it. That phase 
of the story may rest as it has been recorded.^ The problem now essayed 
is to trace the actual process of establishing the peculiar American 
mode of dealing with frontier communities. It was one thing for 
Congress to lay down in a series of Ordinances the outline of a plan of 
government for the western domain, it was another for officials to carry 
it out in practice — to overcome the barriers to its application in a 
geographically remote wilderness. It is, indeed, the appearance of these 
barriers and their overcoming by territorial authorities which con- 
stitutes the main problem of this study. 

The United States acquired so far as international relations were 
concerned a title to the Xorthwest Territory in the treaty which closed 
the Revolution. The national government still had two rival con- 
testants in the field: some of the older states thought their territories 
swept across the Mississippi Valley in wide belts; and there were the 
Indian occupants. The former was easily disposed of, thanks to eight 
years of cooperation in a common cause and the conciliatory 
spirit abroad immediately after the Revolution. The deed of cession 
of Virginia, March 1, 1784, finally gave the United States title to a 
large strip north of the Ohio Eiver. New York had yielded a more 
shado^vy claim to the same region three years earlier. Deeds of cession 
by Massachusetts, April 19, 1785, and by Connecticut, May 28, 1786, 
extended the national jurisdiction until it covered the whole of the 
Xorthwest. except Connecticut's western reserve along the soutli shore 
of Lake Erie. These cessions were the first price which states with west- 
em claims paid for Union. 

The other western problem at the outset was to acquire from the 
Indian occupants treaties ceding their claims to such portions as were 
wanted for immediate colonization. The United States dealt with 
the Indian as semi-dependent nations. The Congress of the period 
went about the task quite logically. It began by creating a commission 

^ McL/aughlin, Confederation and the Constitution, chs. 7, 8 ; Clianning', IV. 
ch. 17: Barrett. "Evolution of tlie Ordinance of 1787. Archer B. Hulbert, Tlie 
Records of the Ohio Company, has given a fresh account of the relation of the 
Ohio Company to the genesis of the territorial poHcy. 


to negotiate with tlic Tiulians, and an army to give protection to all con- 
cerned. At the conclusion of peace it ordered the Revolutionary army 
disbanded, except a small guard of 80 men for Fort Pitt and West 
Toint. On June 3, 1784, it instructed the Secretary of War to call 700 
men fiom the militia of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania for short temis of service in the piotection of the North- 
west frontier. The dismissal of the last regiment of the Eevolutionary 
army had occurred only the day before, so that the act of Congress was 
an illustration of the new republic's fear of anything approaching a 
regular trained army and its faith in the adequacy of short term bodies 
drawn from the state militia system.- Nothing is more character- 
istically American than this action. Colonel Josiah Harinar was given 
command of the western army.^ In the fall Hannar s force of state 
militia, about foui- hundred in number, made its way across the Alle- 
ghanics into the Indian country north of the Ohio Eiver. The militia 
of Connecticut and New York had not responded to the call. Some 
efforts were being made to recruit their quotas, but the frontier had to 
wait long for their coming.* 

During the year in which a military force was taking shape for the 
Northwest, another ten-itorial agency of the Confederation was organ- 
ized. The first step was taken three days after the United States 
acquired title to the strip along the north side of the Ohio Valley. 
Congress appointed five commissioners who were instructed to negotiate 
with the northern and western Indians for their claims on the 
western country. A resolution urged the commissioners to make haste 
with their task. They were given power to contract with merchants 
for supplies of provisions and other gifts for the Indians as well as the 
necessities of the commission.^ Three of them were present at a con- 
ference with the New York Indians at Fort Stanwix, and on October 
23, 1784, concluded a treaty which bears the name of the place of con- 
ference.® The Governors of New York and Pennsylvania had represent- 
atives at the conference and treated separately M'ith the Indians. Such 
conflicts of jurisdiction were not the least of the embarassing problems 
before the national commissioners.'^ In the end the commissioners 
secured from the Six Nations the abandonment of their pretentions 
to the region south and southwest of Lake Erie. The commission then 
ordered goods "delivered to the Six Nations for their nse and comfort."^ 

2 Journals of Congress. IV, 433, 438. 

^.Josiah Harmar, born in Philadelphia, 17B3, educated at a Quaker School, 
entered Pennsylvania militia as a captain in 1777, colonel in 1777. commandant of 
western army o? Ignited States in 1784, brevet Brig'adier-General in 1787, commander- 
in-chief of United States Armv in 1789. retired from army in 1792, died in Phila- 
delphia, 1813. 

■* Harmar to Thomas Mifflin, President of Congress, Dec. 5, 1784, Transcripts 
obtained from the State Department by A. T. Goodman in 1871 and deposited with 
the "Western Reserve Historical Society. Cited hereafter as Goodman Transcripts. 
See- also Journals of Congress, IV, 874-5 ; Major Ebenezer Denny, Military Journal, 
p. 257). 

» Journals of Congress. IV, 345, 352, 446, 484. 

« Journals of Congress, IV, 363; 378, 382, 531; American State Papers, Indian 
Affairs, Vol. I, p. 10. 

'The Olden Times, II, 412-430; J. .\. James, Some Phases of the History of 
the Northwest, Reports of the Mississippi Vallev Historical Society, 171. 

'Journals of Congress. IV, 531-2. 


Oliver Wolcott,'' Ricliaid Butler/" and Arthur Lee^^ served as 
(Jominissioiiers at the Fort .Stanwix conference. Wolcott was replaced 
by George Eogers Clark^' on the Commission which met (he western 
Indians. Butler kept a journal of the conference which it held with 
the Wyandot, F/elaware, Chippewa and Ottawa Indians at Fort Mcin- 
tosh during December and January in 1784 and 1785.^^ He describes 
a motley throng of Indians, men, women, and children, that assembled 
during the last days of November. The Commissioners doled out from 
their stores food, kettles, ))]ankets, rum, and powdei-, and then struggled 
to keep in control the obstreiierous element set off l)y firewater and em- 
boldened by lU'W supplie:* I'oi- their firearms.^* By a combination of 
bribery, threats, and coaxing the Indians were l)rought to sign the so- 
called treaty of Fort Mcintosh. A line was drawn through the central 
part of Ohio, east of which tlie Indians ceded their claims. ^^ The treaty 
of Fort Mcintosh followed the well worn colonial policy of inducing the 
Indians to move farther westward. It seemed a great achievement. 
The Indians had in effect ceded some 30,000,000 acres to tlie United 
States.^" One or two facts lessened its importance. Various influences 
caused the Indians to make scraps of paper of their pledges. 
To begin with, the Shawnee, the most powerful of the western Indians, 
were not parties to the treaty of Fort Mcintosh. But more serious 
was the fact that the treaties were concluded with only one element of 
the Indian tribes. At the very time the pacific element was coming to 
terms with the Commissioners of the United States, warrior bands were 
raiding white settlements. The political organization of the western 
Indians was extremely chaotic. No authority among the Indians could 
control the situation. And even the peace element which assented to the 
treaties had little interest in peace with the United States for its own 
sake, and an absorbing hunger for the goods which the commissioners 
were doling out. Such treaties backed by ineffective military forces 
were little less than futile absurdities, although the motives behind 
them were of the highest. 

'Oliver Wolcott. born in Connecticut, 1726. graduated from Yale College, 1747, 
became colonel of Connecticut Militia, 1775. brigadier-general 1776, member Con- 
tinental Congres.s 1776-8 and 1780-84, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
major-general, 1779. lieutenant-governor of Connecticut, 1786-96, governor 1796, 
died while governor 1797. 

^"Richard Butler, born in Ireland 1743, brought to America by parents when 
five years old, settled in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, appointed major of Pennsylvania 
militia in 1776, lieutenant colonel 1777, and colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment; ap- 
pointed major general in St. Clair's army, 1791, killed in battle, 1791. 

"Arthur Lee, born in Virginia in 1740, educated at Kton College and University 
of Edinburgh, studied law at the Temple in London, and practiced law in London, 
1770-6, sent by Congress on several diplomatic missions in Europe during the Revo- 
lution, membei- of Congress, 1782-4, member of the Board of the Treasury, 1784-9, 
died in Virginia, 1792. 

'-George Rogers Clark, born in Virginia, 1752. land surveyor by profession, 
became major in Virginia militia 1776, lieutenant colonel, 1777-79, commanding 
Virginia forces operating against the British in the Northwest, brigadier general 
in Continental Army, 1781, died in 1818. 

" Fort Mcintosh was a crude wooden foi't near the mouth of the Big Beaver. 

"The Olden Time, II, 433. 

''Journals of Congress, IV, 532; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 
p. 11. 

"Washington Writings, Ford edition, Vol. X, 447. 

— 4 H S 


No one recognized the incompleteness of the work more clearly than 
the commissioners.' ' Early in 1T85 they summoned the Shawnee to 
a conference. Clark and Butler were still on the commission, but the 
third, commissioner was Samuel H. Parsons/^ who was to take a place 
among the makers of the Xorthwest.^" The conference occured at the 
moutii of the Great Miami Kiver during January, 1786. A treaty was 
concluded January 31, 17S(!. The Shawnee were left in possession of 
a vast sweep of territory north of the Ohio Eiver, comprehending in 
general that between the Great Miami Kiver and the Wabash. The 
territory to the eastward of this tract was ceded by the Indians to the 
United States. The title of the National Government to a great area 
of the Northwest seemed complete, and the procedure for further 
acquisitions outlined. "° Yet there were other forces which defeated 
these paper agreements. The British garrisons continued to occupy the 
frontier posts on American soil; foreign fur-traders vied with American 
traders for the favor of the Indian; and squatters of American birth 
equally with uncontrollable Indian bands disregarded the treaty obli- 

Cong]-ess left the meager frontier army to struggle on with the 
forces which were nullifying the treaties, and went ahead with its legis- 
lative program. And a remarkable one this was. Important ordi- 
nances followed one another in annual sequence. One in 1784 outlined 
a plan under which the settlers were to institute government and take 
a place in the political union. One of 1785 adopted a plan of land 
survey, land endowments for education, and a policy of land disposal 
as a national asset. An ordinance of 1786, introducing a new mode of 
handling the relations with the Indians, completed the series.-' A few 
weeks earlier the northern and southern Indian Commissions had been 
discontinued in order to prepare the way for reorganization.-^ 

The Ordinance of 1786 for the Eegulation of Indian Affairs created 
a national Indian department of two districts. The Ohio Eiver became 
the general line of division. A superintendent in each district was in 
charge of Indian Affairs, and required to report to Congress through 
the Secretary of War. Other clauses forbade foreigners residing among 
the Indians or trading with them, and established the license system for 
Americans who resided among them or traded with them. The act 
intended to provide a mode by which the National Government could 
take an effective hold of Indian trade, make it an American monopoly, 

"Journals of Congress, IV, 486-7. 

'* Samuel H. Parsons, born in Connecticut. 1737. graduate Harvard College, 
1756. began practice of law, 17.59. member of Connecticut Legislature. 1762-1774, 
major in Connecticut Militia, colonel, 1775, major general, 1780, commanding Con- 
necticut line of Continental Army, member and President of Society of Cincinnati in 
Connecticut, stockiiolder and director of the Ohio Company. 

"Journals of Congress, IV, 574. 

-" ,Iournals of Congress, IV, 627; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 11; 
Butler's Journal in Olden Time, II, 521, Another Commission had carried to a 
similar point of success the negotiations with the southern Indians. Journals of 
Congress, IV, 627. 

^^Harmar's Letters, June 1, 1785, June 21, 1785, May 7, 1786, Goodman Trans- 
cripts; Butler's Journal, Olden Time, II. 433 ; A. C. McLaughlin, Western Posts and 
British Debts, American Historical Association Report. 1894. 413 ; J. A. James, 
Some Phases of the History of the Northwest, IMississippi Valley Historical Asso- 
ciation, 1914-15, p. 168. 

-2 Journals of Congress, IV, 677. 

=3 Ibid, IV, 664. 



and meet an'd checkmate the British economic interests in the North- 
west. A week later Congress chose Eichard Butler Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs for the northern district.^-* 

The Land Ordinance of 1785 had continued the office of Geographer 
of the United States, who was virtually Surveyor General, and who with 
the surveyors appointed by the several states was laying out the land 
according to the national system of surveys.'' The significant thing is 
that a service previously local was nationalized. Thomas Hutchins^'' 
who had served as a national geographer since 1781 was now reappointed 
for a term of three years. In September, 1785, Hutchins took up his 
work in the Northwest. The elecfion of Butler as Indian Superin- 
tendent brought two national agencies of administration into the de- 
veloping institutions of the new national territorial system. 

In the mean time Harmar's western army remained a comparatively 
feeble force. In 1785 Congress called upon Connecticut, New York, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania to supply eight companies of infantry 
and two of artillery. In reality the infantry seldom exceeded 500. 
Three years later, 1788, the two companies of artillery were not yet in 
western service. New York had not made any provision for recruiting 
its quota. The backwardness of the states in fulfilling their national 
duties which was paralyzing the Confederation in the East was also ham- 
pering the establishment of order and government in the Northwest.^^ 
The losses of the army in- numbers through those whose terms expired 
and through desertion from dissatification with the service nearly offset 
the gains from recruiting. Harmar complained that he had constantly 
to weaken his force by sending officers on recruiting missions into the 
states, and to maneuvre with the old soldiers in order to reenlist them. 
The necessity of securing the approval of state executives to all changes 
in officers in each state's quota undermined discipline.-® The Journal 
of Joseph Buell, a sergeant in Harmar's regiment, gives a glimpse of the 
kind of maneuvring which won re-enlistments. The entry is for July 
4, 1786. It reads as follows; "The great day of American independence 
was commemorated by the discharge of thirteen guns; after which the 
troops were served with extra rations of liquor, and allowed to get drunk 
as much as they pleased."^'' 

There is no evidence that time was creating a well equipped, well 
disciplined national force capable of coping with frontier conditions. 
The testimony of the witnesses records a constant struggle of the 
officers with the soldiers for the maintenance of discipline. In 1786 
after a long debate Congress yielded to the urgent representations of the 
commander of the western army, the Secretary of War, the Governor 

"Journals of Congress, IV, 683 ; Butler's jurisdiction extended from the Hudson 
to the Mississippi, and from the Ohio to the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. 

25 Journals of Congress, IV, 520. 

2« Thomas Hutchins, born in New Jersey, 1730, entered British army, joined 
American Continental army in 1779, appointed geographer for the southern army 
by General Greene in 1781, appointed sole geographer of the United States in 1784, 
continued in office until death in 1789. A Surveyor General was finally created by 
the act of 1796. Rufus Putnam became first Surveyor General. Journals of Con- 
gress, III, 617, 644; IV, 627, 636, 818. 

"Report of a Committee of Congress, October 2, 1788, Journals of Congress, 
IV, 874; Harmar, Letter of June 15, 1788, in Goodman Transcripts. 

-"Harmar's Letter, January 10, 1788, Goodman Transcripts. 

=»Hildieth, Pioneer History, 144. 


of Virginia, and the frontier settlements. The size of the western army 
was set at 2,000 men. And yet Harmar reported in 1788 that the 
limit of his expectations for the year was for 595 men. Such troops 
as Harmar had were of necessity kept scattered in small garrisons along 
the Ohio Valley.^" 

When Colonel Hannar arrived in the Ohio country he found 
squatters rapidly taking possession. Some had settled there during the 
Revolution.^^ After the Revolution it seemed "as if the old states 
would depopulate and the inhabitants would be transplanted to the 
new."32 Ijj iiyQ valley of nearly every tributary of the Ohio from the 
north was one or more pioneer shacks and tiny clearings. In the 
larger valleys considerable settlements existed. One of Harmar^s officers 
reported a settlement of 300 families on the Hockhocking Eiver and an 
equal number on the Muskingum. It is probable that the estimate was 
an exaggeration. There is not evidence enough to determine the exact 
extent of settlement. It is certain the number impressed those who 
witnessed the migration. The pioneers were chiefly the Scotch-Irish 
backwoodsmen from Pennsylvania, A^irginia, and Xorth Carolina who 
were venturing farther afield. Their civilization was the prototype of that 
which spreads over parts of the great Appalachian Highland still. ^'^ 
They were then the vanguard of the American people advancing in steady 
strides through the forest wilderness of North America. They were 
not waiting for the formalities of survey and title to the lands which 
they claimed. Tomahawk rights had been good enough for their ances- 
tors ; such rights were good enough for them. 

Some of them were beginning the rudiments of state building a.s 
their kind had been doing for many years on the borders of Virginia 
and Xorth Carolina.^* At Mercers Town the people had chosen Justices 
of the peace and begun to carry on town government.^^ At another 
place Harmar's men found a call for an election to choose members of 
a constitutional convention. From the fact that voters were to cast their 
ballots at the mouth of the Miami Eiver, the Scioto River, and the 
Muskingum the area covered by the embryonic state can be fairly well 
defined. The promoters set forth in the call the frontier interpretation 
of democracy. Their political creed was congressional non-interfer- 
ference and squatter rights in frontier settlement.^*' Similar move- 

2" The principal posts were Port Franklin, near the mouth of French Creek ; 
Fort Mcintosh, near the mouth of the Big Beaver ; Fort Harmar, at the mouth 
of the Muskingum ; Fort Steuben, at the rapids of the Ohio ; and Post Vincennes 
on the Wabash River ; Fort Harmar was the usual headquarters of the command- 
ant until Fort "Washington was established opposite the mouth of the Licking River 
in 1789. Harmar to Knox, September 12, .1789, Goodman Transcripts; Journals of 
Congress. IV, 874. 

'^ Ohio Archeological and Historical Society Publications, VI, 135; Hulbert, 
Records of the Ohio Company, I, xxi-xxiii. 

^ Olden Times, TI, 499; Wm. H. Smith, St. Clair Papers, II, 3-5 (Cited hereafter 
as St. Glair Papers). 

'* Ohio Archeological and Historical Society Publications, VI, 135; Olden Time, 
II, 442-6 ; The Journal of John Mathews, a nephew of Rufus Putnam, in Hildredth, 
Pioneer History of Ohio, 177-8. The latter describes a corn husking among this 
class, and frontier social manners. 

^ F. J. Turner, Western State Making, American Historical Review, I, 70. 

'5 Mercer's Town was in Belmont County nearly opposite Wheeling. See Arm- 
strong to Harmar, April 12, 1785, and Harmar to R. H. Lee, May 1, 1785, Goodman 
Transcripts; Butler's Journal in Olden Time, II, 443; St. Clair Papers, II, 3. 

3" St. Clair Papers, II, 5. 


ments south of the Ohio, finally matured iu statehood without Congress- 
ional interference. For example, the settlements of Kentucky became 
a state without a period of national control. This squatter migration 
into the Ohio country ran counter to a new national mode of state 
building, and was forced to give way. 

Congress began its territorial policy by closing the western lands to 
occupation until they were surveyed and formally placed on sale. In- 
ti-uders were to be driven otf. A proclamation to this effect was pub- 
lished by the commissioners while they were negotiating with the 
Indians at Fort Mcintosh, January 24, 1785. Colonel Harmar was 
instructed to enforce the proclamation.-" The impelling motives of 
Congress in this first step are plain : the promises of bounty lands to 
the soldiers of the Eevolution, the needs of a national treasury bank- 
rupt from the burden of interest on the war debt, and the treaty obliga- 
tions to the Indians were an effective combination of reasons for a new 
start in the settlement of the national domain. Harmar proceeded 
during 1785 to expel the squatters who had settled along the north 
shore of the Ohio and along the courses of its tributaries. In a few 
places the inhabitants threatened organized resistance; in all cases they 
gave way in the end Ijefore superior forces, sometimes sullenly, but 
always without bloodshed. Their cabins, such bark or log structures 
as there were, were destroyed. The bolder squatters were later, found 
to have returned, and the process was repeated until the country was 
apparently cleared of this type of settlers. The records of the Ohio 
Company show no evidence of the survival of these squatters, who if 
they had been present would have plagued it not a little.^^ 

Harmar extended his activities against the squatters to the western 
French villages in 1787. At Vincennes he found that 400 squatters 
had taken refuge in the village among the French. The Americans were 
cultivating their fields in the neighborhood in armed bands in a state of 
perpetual warfare- with roving hostile Indians. He warned them of the 
worthlessness of their land titles, but later events showed that he failed 
to terminate these particular lawless encroachments on Indian- lands. ^'^ 
While Harmar was on the Wabash he heard that the Kentuckians were 
pushing onto the public lands about Kaskaskia as through on open door. 
From Vincennes Harmar extended his western journey to the "great 
American Bottom." He found that many of George Rogers Clark's 
followers had made "tomahawk claims" in the region. At Bellefontaine, 
a small village near Kaskaskia, there was a stockaded American settle- 
ment. A little farther on was another village called Grand Eaisseau 

"St. Clair Papers, IT, 3; The Olden Time, II, 340; ,T. A. James, Some Phases 
of the History of the Northwest, Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Proceed- 
ings, 1913-14, 187. 

'* Harmar, December 5, 1784, April 25, 1785, May 1, 1785. June 1, 1785, and 
Armstrong to Harmar, April 12, 1785, Transcripts; St. Clair Papers, II 
3 ; Butler's Journal in Olden Time, II, 437, 438, 440 ; Journal of John Mathews in 
Hildreth, Pioneer History of Ohio, 183. 

^"^ Harmar, Augu.<^t 7, 1787, Goodman Transcripts; St. Clair Papers, II, 24, 26; 
Journal of Joseph Buell, Hildreth, Pioneer History, 154 ; Roosevelt, Winning of the 
West, HI., 79, 235. 


inhabited by the same sort of people. His descriptions of the Illinois 
villages and the conditions of living are interesting, but aside from the 
subject at this time. At Cahokia he assembled the French inhabitants 
and advised them to place their militia on a better footing, to abide by 
the decision of their courts, and restrain the disorderly element until 
Congress could provide a government for them. It shocked him to 
find that "'all these people are entirely unacquainted with what Amer- 
icans call liberty. Trial by jury etc. they are strangers to." A con- 
siderable number of other squatters were found scattered on the rich 
bottoms at some distance from the French villages. Ever3r\vhere 
Harmar warned the Americans from the lands they were occupying. 
For reasons not clear in the correspondence he took no steps to enforce 
the order. The Indians in these parts, he says, were not numerous, 
but "amazing fond of whiskey"' and "ready to destroy a considerable 
quantity." Before returning to the posts on the Ohio he visited the 
Spanish settlements on the west bank of the Mississippi and described 
at some length his experience in the foreign land.^*^ 

Harmar's well written, informing letters to the Secretary of War 
give the impression of a faithful, wide awake public servant. They 
present a continuous account of the struggle of the western army against 
disorder and lawless colonization. It would seem that Harmar 
succeeded in checking the squatter movement which had set into the 
Ohio country, that he drove out the adventurers along the upper Ohio 
River, that he only partially stopped the same movement across the lower 
Ohio, adventuring from the Kentucky side below the Falls, and finally 
failed utterly to master the divers elements in the French villages. The 
latter passed through eight years of near anarchy.^^ The American 
frontiersmen in their midst made conditions worse than they would 
have otherwise been. Remnants of the Virginia county government 
survived, but with such the French had little sympathy or understand- 
ing.^^ The French villages formed in reality city-states as independent 
as their classic predecessors in the Mediterranean basin had been. 

Though Harmar's forces brought the squatter movement under a 
fair degree of control, the relations of the government with the Indians 
were constantly embarrassed by the borderers who broke through the 
line of forts along the Ohio River either for the game or the plunder to 
be found on the Indian lands. The struggle between the roving bands 
of Indians and the equally lawless whites was a ceaseless one. It would 
have required a vastly larger army than Harmar possessed to have 
effectually curbed these elements.^^ Moreover his efforts were nullified 
by the influence of British interests on the northern frontier. He con- 
stantly pressed on the War Department the view that the United States 
could never have the respect of the Indians as long as the British garri- 

*" Harmar to Knox, Dec. 9, 1787, Goodman Transcripts; Journal of Joseph Buell, 
Hildreth, Pioneer History, 156; St. Clair Papers, II, 18, 30. 


" C. W. Alvord, Cahokia Records, Illinois Historical Collection, II, cxl, cxviii. 

"Harmar to Knox, August 10, 1788, August 9, 1787, and December 9, 1787, in 
Goodman Transcripts ; Saint Clair Papers, II, 18 ; Journal of John Mathews, in 
Hildreth's Pioneer History of Ohio, 177-183 ; Roosevelt, Winning of the West, III, 88. 


sons held American ])osts on the Great Lake frontier.^* Such was the 
situation in 1787. Harniar was trying to guard a frontier of more than 
twelve hundred miles which separated the white outposts of civilization 
from the Indian regions. Kichard Butler as Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs with his deputies was engaged in bribing the Indians with pres- 
ents into keeping their promises, while equally generous British agents 
at the Lake posts wei'e annul ing the effect of Butler's work. Geographer 
Hutchins with his small l)an(ls of surveyors was laying out tlie seven 
ranges of townships on the u])i)er Ohio River. Of regular civil govern- 
ment there was none, except the rudiments in the French city-states of 
the far west; of Amei'ican ])opulation there was no longer any, except 
that which clung to the neighborhood of the French villages for pro- 

On July 13, 1787, Congress passed an ordinance to give the Terri- 
tory of the Northwest the needed local government. The matter had 
been under consideration for nearly a year.^^ The plan of government 
which had been adopted in 1784 needed a provision for the period in 
which there were not enough inhabitants to constitute a republican 
government. Congress was in a frame of mind in 1787 to consider a 
substitute for its earlier measure. Recent researches show beyond doubt 
that there was an organized drive of investors, holders of revolutionary 
bounty rights, and of state and national securities of indebtedness to 
force Congi^ess to sell the western land in large lots and to accept 
securities of indebtedness in payment at their face value; they show 
further that these elements were cemented together by the fraternal 
bonds of a common membership in the Society of the Cincinnati and in 
the Union Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons ;^*^ and that they hastened 
the action of Congress in pioviding a government for the territory. 
However the Ordinance of 1787 in its final form was the result of several 
3^ears deliberation. The usual emphasis in the consideration of the 
act is on the rudiments of a Bill of Rights and the anti-slavery clause 
which it contained. Yet neither of those clauses much affected the 
history of the ISToi'thwest. The population of the Northwest would 
hardly have acted differently if the restraints of the Ordinance had not 
existed. It is probably true that the oratory which has been expended 
upon them has considerably stimulated American ideals. But the 
clauses of the Ordinance which provided for immediate civil government, 
and finally for the admission of the several portions of the territory into 
the national union of states on equal terms with the original states 
were rules which determined the course of American history. They 
were the fulfilment of Congressional pledges.*^ In them statesman- 
ship of the highest order found expression. 

" Harmar to Knox, June 1, 1785 ; to Francis Johnson, June 21, 1785 ; to Thomas 
Mifflin, June 25, 1785 ; to Knox. July 16, 1785, and May 7, 1786, in Goodman Trans- 
scripts ; Butler's Journal in Olden Time, II. 502. 

"Journals of Cong:ress, IV, 701, 702, 703, 746, 747, 751. 

** Records of the Ohio Companv. Marietta College Historical Collection, I. 

"Journals of Congress, III, October 10, 1780. 


How timely the passage of the act was is shown by the events of 
tli(> succeeding months. Manasseh Cutler*^ and Winthrop Sargent" 
carried through the dual contract of tlie Ohio Company of Associates 
and the Scioto group of- speculators. And before a year had elapsed 
Eufus Putmaii'^" as superintendent of the company led the advance 
party which began a colonizing movement as momentous as any in 
American history.^'^ Close on these events John C. Symmes^^ concluded 
a similar contract with the Treasury Board on behalf of the Miami 
Company, and led in person another body of home builders into the 
North west.^^ The leaders and large part of the colonists were Eevo- 
lutionary soldiers and officers from the far east. Harmar observed that 
they were a very different class from the squatters whom he had been 

The work of establishing civil government began with the passage of 
the Ordinance. One section of the Ordinance provided for the appoint- 
ment by Congress of a Governor, a Secretary, and three judges for the 
temporary government of the entire Northwest.' The terms and func- 
tion of the officers were prescribed. The Governor was assigned the 
executive functions, the judges those of a judiciary. The Governor and 
the judges together were to form a territorial Legislative Council. This 
was the bridge by which the government of the territory was to pass from 
the rule of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and military command- 
ant to the first stage of republican government when there should be a 
population of 5,000 free males. On October 5, 1787, Congress chose 
its President, Arthur St. Clair.^^ Governor of the Northwest Territory, 
and Winthrop Sargent, Secretary.^*' Manasseh Cutler's very human 
and Franklin like diary bears witness to the view that St. Clair's appoint- 

^' Manasseh Cutler, born in Connecticut In 1742. graduated at Yale College in 
1765, entered the ministry in 1770, pastor in Ipswich. Massachusetts 1771-1823. 
chaplain in a Massachusetts regiment during the Revolution, leading stockholder 
in the Ohio Company, member of Congress. 1801-05, died in 1823. 

■"Winthrop Sargent, born in Massachusetts, 17,53, graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege. 1771, became major in artillery during the Revolution, a surveyor in the North- 
west after the Revolution; stockholder and secretary of the Ohio Company, became 
Secretarv of Northwest Territory in 1788, Governor of Mississippi Territory in 
1798, died in 1820. 

™ Rufus Putnam, born in Massachusetts in 1738. cousin of Israel Putnam, 
apprenticed to a millwright in 1754, enlisted as a private in the French and Indian 
War, 1757, a practical surveyor from 1760, entered the Revolutionary army in 1773 
as lieutenant colonel, became Colonel and chief engineer in the army in 1776, 
Brigadier General in 1783, member of the Massachusetts Legislature, leading stock- 
holder and Director of the Ohio Company, Superintendent of the Ohio Company 
from 1788. judge of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territory, 1790-1796, 
Surveyor General of the United States, 1796-1803. 

^^ Cutler, Life, .Tournals and Correspondence of Manasseh Cutler, I, ch. 9 ; The 
John May Papers, Western Reserve Historical Society Reports, Vol. 97 ; Records of 
the Ohio Company, Marietta College Historical Collections, Vol. I, 13, 26. 

"^ John C. Symmes, born in New York. 1742. teacher and land surveyor, soldier 
in army of Revolution, member of Congress from New ,Iersey, 1785, 1786, leading 
promoter of Miami Company from 1787, judge of Supreme Court of the Northwest 
Territory 1788-1803, died in 1818. 

■•^ Symmes, Circular to the Public, Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, 
Quarterly, V, 82 ff. 

»* Harmar to Knox, April 23, 1788; to Johnston, April 28, 1789, in Goodman 
Transcripts; Harmar, March 22, 1789, and November 9, 1789, in Journal of Eben- 
ezer Denny, Appendix, pp. 440, 445. 

'^^ Arthur St. Clair, born in Scotland, 1734, educated at University of Edinburgh, 
entered British army and served in America in French and Indian War, settled in 
western Pennsylvania in 1764, became Colonel in Revolutionary army, 1776, Major 
General, 1777, member of Congress, 1785-7, President of Congress, 1787, President 
of Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, 1783-9, Governor of Northwest Territory, 

^* Journals of Congress, IV, 786. 


ment was a part oi' the political jobbery by which the dual purchase of 
the Ohio Company and the Scioto group had been put through Con- 
gress." St. Clair was a large land owner in the Ligonier Valley m 
western Pennsylvania, and a stockholder of the Ohio Company.-'* The 
office of northern Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which General 
Eichard Butler had held, was at the same time merged with that of 
Governor.^^ That Sargent and Parsons should be Secretary and one of 
the three judges, respectively, was a part of the bargain Cutler, on behalf 
of the Ohio Company, carried through Congress. Both were Directors 
of the Ohio Company.. James M. Varnum,«° another Director of the 
Ohio Company, and John C. Symmes, the leading stockholder in the 
Miami Company, were the other judges chosen by Congress.^^ It was 
a government in its personnel of great landlords, as colonizing enter- 
])iises in American History had generally been. 

The first immigrants of the Ohio Company who arrived in the 
Spring of 1788 were in advance of the arrival of St. Clair, and had to 
provide in a measure for their own civil affairs. The Board of Directors 
of the Ohio Company set up a temporary local village organization in 
June, 1788, for the interim until the regularly constituted authorities 
should arrive. The Board itself acted as a local Board of Police in 
Marietta. It organized the inhabitants into local militia, and minutely 
regulated the local affairs of the busy community. A minister and a 
teacher were engaged, and the expenses borne by the company's revenues."- 
But the period of extra-legal proprietary government soon passed. 

Early in July one of Harmar's military barges, driven by twelve' 
oarsmen, met Governor St. Clair at Pittsburgh and bore him to the 
headquarters of the western army, located at Fort Harmar, across the 
]\Iuskingum from Marietta. Soldiers and civilians were duly impressed 
by the solemnity of the first act in the drama of actually establishing 
Civil Government in the Xorthwest. The fifteenth day of July, 1788. 
was set for the formal opening. What seemed appropriate ceremonies 
took place at the bower erected for the occasion in the clearing which 
was becoming the site of Marietta. After the fonnalities of the occasion 
St. Clair described the temporary government which he was to establish 
for the infancy of the territory."^ 

The Ordinance of 1787 entrusted the Governor with the duty of 
laying out the territory into counties and townships, and appointing 
the necessary officials for local administration. The execution of this 
duty together with the exigencies of Indian Affairs made his office to a 
considerable extent an itinerant one. A proclamation of July 37, 1788, 

=' Cutler, Life, Journals, and Correspondence of, July 23, 26, 1787. 

5' Cutler, Life, Journals, and Correspondence of, July 23, 26, 1787. 

^* St. Clair Papers, I, 7; Records of the Ohio Company, I, 49n. 

•"'"Journals of Congress, IV, 784-5. 

""James M. Varnum, born in Massachusetts, 1749, graduated from Rhode Island 
College (Brown IJniversity), in 1769, began the practice of law, 1771, became 
colonel in Rhode Island regiment, 1775, brigadier general in Continental army, 1777, 
member of Congress, 1780-82, 1786-7, a stockholder and director of the Ohio Com- 
pany, appointed a judge in the Supreme Court of Northwest Territory, 1787-9. 

•"■1 Journals of Congress, IV, 799, 809. 

"^The John May Papers, Western Reserve Historical Society Reports, Vol. 97, 
pp. 71, 104-112; Records of the Ohio Company, I, 40; II, 6, 7, 29, 50-51. 

"3 St. Clair Papers, II, 53-56. 


formed the region east of the line of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, 
and the Scioto Rivers into a county with the name of Washington. The 
offices well known in the Pennsylvania county system were created, and 
the appointments made."* The progress of tlie Miami Company between 
the Little ]\[iami and the Big l\Iiami Rivers led to the organization of 
Hamilton county in Januar}^, 1790. The middle settlement of the 
company, christened Cincinnati and made the headquarters of the 
western army, became the county seat.''^ St. Clair preceded from Cin- 
cinnati on a tour of organization. At Clarksville, a small settlement 
forming on George Rogers Clark's tract, St. Clair tamed to make a 
beginning of local government, appointing a justice of the peace and the 
officers of the militia."" The French settlers farther west had petitioned 
for relief from their political anarchy. St. Clair undertook to meet 
their wishes. His party arrived in Kaskaskia in February, 1790. He 
found the task before him a complicated one. The settlement of land 
claims proved to be a difficult problem, and delayed him many months. 
In the end Congress gave every head of a family in the western villages, 
whether French or American, who was living in the region in 1783, 
400 acres of land. Every man enlisted in the militia in 1790 also 
received 100 acres of land."'^ The poor, gentle folk of the French vil- 
lages were not easily converted into an American political community. 
But the usual procedure was gone through. The region from the Ohio 
River northward along the Mississippi as far as the junction of the Little 
^fackinaw Creek with the Illinois River was joined together into St. 
Clair County, and the usual appointments from the local population 
made."* St. Clair had intended to return by Vincennes, and there to 
organize a fourth county, but Indian matters demanded his presence 
among the settlements on the upper Ohio. He accordingly sent Secre- 
tary Sargent to Vincennes to carry out that part of his program. The 
Wabash settlement received the county form of government, and the 
name of Knox, the Secretary of War. In the period of preliminary 
organization St. Clair used the executive proclamation freely, and 
encroached on the powers of the Legislative Council. Against this 
tendency President Washington warned him, and in characteristic stilted 
phrases advised circumspection in conduct in order to avoid a ground 
of clamor against public characters."^ 

The three judges appointed by Congress constituted a Supreme 
Court. Judge Yarnum died in 1789, and General Parsons in 1790. 
President Washington appointed George Turner"" and Rufus Putman 
to fill the vacancies.''^ The judges seldom sat together in a joint court. 

"St. Clair Papers, II, 78-9 

"3 Ibid, II, 129. 

"oibld, II, 131n; Caleb Atwater, History of Ohio. p. 130. 

"• American State Papers, Public Lands, II. 124 ; C. W. Alvord, Cahokla Records, 
Illinois Historical Collection, II, cxl. 

"^St. Clair Papers, I, 168; II, 136. 

"=' Washington to St. Clair, January 2, 1791, St. Clair Papers, II, 198. 

•» George Turner, from Virginia was appointed in 1789. Little is known of his 
'"^■„^^^ removed to the Far West in 1796, and resigned from the territorial court, 
in 1797. 

;iln 1789 the Congress of the United States re-enacted the Ordinance of 1787, 
modified so as to give the power to appoint officers of the territory to the President 
with the Senate as required by the Constitution. 


In practice each one held court where he was residing, with an occasional 
session in an outlying settlement. Symnies and Putman were the active 
directors of the two dominant land companies of the Xorthwest. Every 
land dispute that arose was connected with some act of one or the other 
of them. This meant that a judge of the Supreme Court was frequently 
sitting in judgment over his acts. St. Clair recommended an amend- 
ment to the Ordinance to require the presence of two or more judges 
in each session of the court, and to grant the privilege of appeal to the 
Federal Courts.^- The immediate result was to widen the breach 
which had already opened between the judges and the Governor in 
making laws. 

The Ordinance joined the Governor and Judges in a Legislative 
Council whose function was "to adopt and publish * * * such 
laws of the original States * * * as may be necessary * * * 
which shall be in force * * * unless disapproved by Congress." 
The process of making laws was irregular and simple in the early 
period. The Legislative Council adopted laws until 1795 by informal 
conference or correspondence. In only two cases were there more than 
two judges joined with the Governor in the passage of a law. There 
does not appear to have been any regular time or place, or indeed any 
meeting at all for the purpose of making laws. The Governor and the 
Judges acted as occasion arose. '^^ The members of this Legislative 
Council differed from the beginning over the meaning of the clause of 
the ordinance which defined the law-making power of themselves. The 
clause began with the phrase "the governor and judges, or a majority of 
them shall" etc. St. Clair contended that the clause meant that the 
governor's assent was necessar}^ to all laws. The true meaning, he said, 
was that "the governor and judges, or a majority of them, provided the 
governor be one of that majority', shall" etc. The judges held to the 
equality of the four members of the Legislative Council. The Governor's 
view in effect gave him an absolute veto, and this at a time when the 
executive veto was relatively uncommon in the older states. This was 
only one of several controversies over the interpretation of the Ordinance 
of 1787. A clause of the Ordinance had authorized the Legislative 
Council to "adopt and publish in the district such laws of the original 
States * * * as may be necessary and best suited to the circum- 
stances * * * which laws shall be in force * * * unless dis- 
approved by Congress." The judges assumed that the clause might be 
liberally construed, and accordingly chose laws of the original States, 
modifying them to suit the circumstances of the frontier. St. Clair 
took the view that the law limited their power to the adoption without 
modification of laws of the States. 

The issue has generally been made to illustrate the jealous care of 
Bt. Clair for the powers of the executive and reflect certain of his un- 

" St. Clair Papers, II. 332-4, 339-40. 
^ ?-,^*- ^^^''" Papers, II, 80nl, 167n, 275n, 311n. The Ordinances of 1788. 1790, 
and 1791, were published in Philadelphia in 1792 by Francis Childs and .lohn Swaine 
as Laws passed in the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio River." 
ihose of 1792 were published under the same title by the same publishers in 1794. 
the acts of 1795 were published in 1796 at Cincinnati by Wm. Maxwell, and are 
^°^^a% J H??"^" ^^ ^^^ Maxwell code. Those of 1798 were published at Cincinnati 
m 1 ns by Edmund Freeman, and are called the Freeman code. 

pleasant traits of character. As a matter of fact liis case is a strong 
one. He did not accuse his opponents of any ulterior motives. He 
conceded that the judges were by legal training better qualified to make 
laAvs if laws were to be made by the Council than he was, but he con- 
tended that their piocedure was a form of loose constiuction not war- 
ranted by the Ordinance, that their function was to select laws made by 
the democratic legislatures of the States, and that othenvise the liberties 
of the people of the Northwest would be endangered. On the one hand 
the jndges made the law-giving body of the territory a small group of 
four men, in which group the promoters of the land companies were 
dominant; on the other the Governor made the eastern state legislatures 
the law-making body, leaving the Legislative Council of the territory 
to choose from the codes of the East. On St. Claires side was the argu- 
ment that the basis of legislation in the ultimate analysis was the 
representative assembly; on the side of the Judges the defense that laws 
made for older eastern communities were seldom adapted to frontier 
conditions. Congress accepted St. Clair's view of the situation. It 
ruled that his assent was necessary to every law, and also withheld its 
approval from the laws which had departed in phraseology from the acts 
of the original States. However as the judges decided that the mere 
withholding of approval from territorial acts did not annul them, and 
continued to be guided in their courts by the laws which Congress had 
refused to approve, and as an attempt in Congress to expressly declare 
such laws null and void failed of passage, the legal situation in the 
iVTorthwest was for a time confusion confounded.''* 

If St. Clair was the nominal victor in the controversy over legis- 
lative procedure, he lost in the other over judical procedure. On May 8, 
1792, Congress for a second time amended the Ordinance of 1787.'^^ 
The Jndges of the Supreme Court were authorized to hold court 
separately, and the recommendation of St. Clair rejected. The amend- 
ment also empowered the Governor and Judges as the Legislative 
Council to repeal laws as well as enact them.'^^ 

The laws of the period followed the- well worn paths of American 
legislation for the frontier. The first act of the law makers reflected 
the social conditions of the time and place. All men from 16 j^ears 
to 50 years of age were to be enrolled in militia companies, furnish 
their own arms and hold a weekly muster each Sunday morning at ten 
o'clock at a place near the house of worship. St. Clair advised the 
enrollment of all new-comers as they arrived." He liad undoubtedly 
gotten the idea of continuous enrollment from the measures which the 
Directors of the Ohio Company took in the brief interim in 1788 before 
his arrival in the Northwest. They had appointed an officer whose 
duty it was to keep a census of the settlers. Travellers or immigrants 
were put under obligation to report to this officer within 24 hours after 
arrival. ^^ Nothing so simple and sensible and yet so likely to be irksome 

''^From 1792 to 1795. St. Clair Papers, II, 64, 67, 78nl, 333, 363-4; Burnet, 
Notes of the Northwest, p. 417. 

'•" See note 71. 

'"Annals of Congress, III, 1395; Laws of the United States, 1796. II, 126. 

■' St. Clair Papers, II, 61. 

'^The John May Papers, Western Reserve Historical Society, Reports, Vol.- 97, 
p. 107. 


to the individualists couid survive the air of license of the frontier. Few 
of the territorial laws have any special historical interest today. The 
creation of courts of justice, the definition of crime, the authorization 
of court houses, jails, pillories, whipping posts and stocks for the several 
communities were signs of the westward march of the old civilization. 
The development of Civil Government in the Northwest Territory 
was impeded by the Indian wars. During the closing scenes of the 
Coufederation the Indian conflict was put of! by more and more lavish 
gifts.'^^ The territorial authorities awaited anxiously the inauguration 
of the stronger National Government in 1789. The problem of the 
Indian of the Northwest was bequeathed to the administration of Presi- 
dent Washington. ^° But the vigorous, compact settlements of the 
Ohio Company and the Miami Company in the Ohio Valley in 1788 
and 1789 alarmed the more warlike tribes and consolidated the bolder 
warriors into a party of action before the new Federal Government was 
ready to meet the situation.*^ St. Clair and Harmar battled with the 
hopeless task with the small and badly organized forces given them. St 
Clair outlined a plan of campaign which called for a force nearly twice the 
number Harmar had, to be officered by regular army officers, instead of 
State militia officers, and which should advance in three or four divisions 
from the Ohio Eiver posts.^" The Secretary of War thought a plan of 
such magnitude "would not be compatible with the public view or the 
public finance,"^^ and advised a small punitive expedition. It is appar- 
ent that the western leaders had one problem in mind, the Secretary of 
War another. There were two real problems. The historical question 
is how much by way of sacrifice the citizens- of the new republic would 
have made for the western territory. The Secretary of War doubted 
the wisdom of making the call which the western authorities deemed 
needful. Harmar's expedition in October, 1790, was the attempt of 
the territorial authorities to carry out the wishes of the Department of 
War. Harmar led the western army, re-enforced by a small body of 
short tei-m militia, from Cincinnati through the almost pathless forests 
to the headwaters of the Wabash and the Maumee Rivers. He burned 
the Indian villages and destroyed their standing crops. The immediate 
object of the expedition was accomplished, but at such a cost in the loss 
of life from counter Indian attacks that it was a moral defeat.^* The 
risk of a punitive campaign 150 miles into the Indian country was 
repeated in 1791. The better military opinion in the Northwest had 
advised against such an expedition.®' The conditions were altogether 
against success. St. Clair had been given the chief command. It is 

"St. Clair Papers. II. 40, 47, 50, 90, 101. 

'"Harmar to Knox, June 14, 1788, October 13. 1788, in Goodman Transcripts. 

^* Cutler, Life, Journal, and Correspondence of Manas.=eh Cutler, I, 389; Harmar 
to Knox, June 9, 1789, in Goodman Transcripts. 

«=St. Clair Papers, II, 90, 91. 

«'St. Clair Papers, II, 183. 

** Harmar, October 21, 1790, November 4, 1790, in Goodman Transcripts; Ameri- 
can State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 104-5, 121-2 ; Burnet, Notes on the Northwest, 
pp. 127-8. 

«' The opinions of Harmar and St. Clair already cited ; that of General Rufus 
Putnam, St. Clair Papers, II, 305 ; of Judge John C. Symmes, Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio, Quarterly, V, 93. 


doubtful whether St. Clair showed the proper aggrci^sivc leadership. Cer- 
tain it is that factors beyond his control made defeat inevitable. The 
militia arrived too late for effective cooperation. A large part of them 
were entirely without military experience, and therefore worse than 
useless. The commisariat grossly mismanaged its affairs. The only 
conclusion of interest to historical students is that the responsibility for 
the disastrous campaign should properly bo distributed among the 
authorities concerned. 

Such expeditions as ITarmar's in 1790 and St. Clair's in 1791 only 
emboldened and enfuriated the Indians. For the three years which 
followed, the frontier settlements were thrown into a state of siege. 
Settlements receded, and Civil Government was almost paralyzed. This 
condition endured until General Wayne had taken over the military 
command, and slowly and painstakingly conquered the obstacles his 
predecessors had not been given either the time or the resources to over- 
come. The Battle of Fallen Timber ended an era in Northwestern 
History. But Jay's treaty, which withdrew the British from Detroit 
and placed an American garrison there, Avas an equally vital factor. 
The. Indians doubly discouraged by defeat and by the apparent desertion 
of the British entered into the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. By that 
a great section of the Northwest Territory — more than half of what 
was to be Ohio— was finally freed from the Indian barrier to settlement 
and Civil Government. 

The crisis in the history of the Northwest territory passed in 1795. 
The last of the several barriers to the development of an orderly 
colonial or territorial system had been overcome. The original back- 
woodsmen were from this time returning as settlers, either on the lands 
of Congress or of one of the land companies, in competition with ad- 
venturers from the seaboard. The Ordinance of 1786 by which the 
Indian trade was limited to licensed American traders was superseded 
in 1796 by the statute which took over the Indian trade as a government 
monopoly. The Federal Government for a time maintained trading 
posts in the Northwest, employed managers and clerks at the stores, and 
purchased goods for the trade. The adventure of the Government in a 
field ordinarily reserved for private enterprise was devised for the pro- 
tection of the Indians. It was never very popular in Congress or out 
of Congress, and soon ran its course.^® 

The informal processes of government which had marked the 
history of the Northwest through nearly seven years gave way to more 
formal ones. Emergency law-making by executive proclamation ceased. 
Law-making by Judges of the Supreme Court who were at the same 
time landlords of the territory likewise ceased. The Legislative Council 
formally organized as a legislative body at Cincinnnati, May 29, 1795. 
and remained in continuous session until August 25. A general code of 
laws, selected as the Ordinance prescribed from the statutes of the orig- 
inal States, was adopied and published. A period of government by bor- 
rowed legislation succeeded. The theory was as follows: if the people 

»« Annals of Congress, V, 152, 170, 230, 241, 904, 039. 


of the territories were not y(>t able to make their own Laws, the next best 
thing would be to employ ihe laws of commnnities which were demo- 
cratically organized. Tlie lawi^ of 1795 were almost all borrowed from 
Pennsylvania. A second session of the Legislative Council sat in 1798, 
and a second code was drafted.^' Tbe laws of 1798 were dravrn rather 
evenly from the codes of the States. The larger number was adopted 
from Kentucky, rather naturally for its frontier conditions were more 
closely akin to those of the Northwest territory. The opportunity to 
adopt laws from Kentucky after its admission into the Union made it 
easier to reconcile the rule of the Ordinance with the practical con- 
ditions of a frontier, the judgement of the judges as to practical legis- 
lation with the political instinct of the Governor.^^ 

The further progress in the organization of Civil Government in the 
Xorthwest was along the paths prescribed by the Ordinance of 1787. 
The critical period of the first phase of organization had passed. The 
records of the Northwest Territory showed in 1798 a population of 
5.000 males. St. Clair made the fact known as was his duty under the 
Ordinance. A representative assembly was duly chosen and assembled 
at Cincinnati in September, 1799. Delegates from the nine counties 
which by this time formed the Territory of the Northwest constituted 
the popular element in the Legislature, and five Councillors the second 
branch. ^^ The event inaugurated the second step toward the creation 
of full republican government. The final step came as a matter of 
course as portions of the territory reached the mark in population set 
for statehood. The overcoming of one barrier after another to Civil 
Government in the Northwest, and the progress from one stage to an- 
other as outlined in the Ordinance of 1787 Avere events which put into 
operation the American Colonial or Territorial System. In them the 
TJnited States finally mastered the problem with which the British 
Government began to grapple in its Proclamation of 1763.^° But the 
British Proclamation, because it said in effect "thus far shalt thou go," 
and because its authors accompanied it by a scheme of imperial taxation, 
and failed to relieve the situation by compensating constructive measures 
of imperial organization, led straight to the Eevolution. The American 
colonial policy after a short period of restraint opened the national 
domain to occupation, assured the colonizers self-government, and their 
political organizations equality with the original States in a National 
Union. Those who formulated the American System found ways of 
carrying out the promises in spite of formidable obstacles. 

" Laws of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio. Cincin- 
nati, 1796. St. Clair's Papers, I, 312. 353, II, 354, William Maxwell, publisher of 
this code, was the owner and publisher of the "Centinel of the Northwest." the 
first newspaper of the territory. It began appearing- at Cincinnati in 1793, and con- 
tinued for three years. 

»' of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio River, 
Cincinnati, 1798. Printed by Edmund Freeman. St. Clair Papers, II, 438. Free- 
man purchased the "Centinel of the Northwest" from William Maxwell in 1796, 
and changed its name to "Freeman's Journal." He continued to publish his 
newspaper in Cincinnati until he removed to Chillicothe where he sold it to the 
publishers of the Scioto Gazette. 

"*" St. Clair Papers, II, 438-9. 

«»Cf. C. W. Alvord, The Mississippi Valley in British Politics. 



(By Charles W. Moores.) 

The chief event in human history was when the Creator "caused 
a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and took one of his ribs and closed up 
the flesh instead thereof, and the rib which the Lord had taken from 
man" while he was still asleep "made he a woman." We are commemor- 
ating a similar event a hundred and nine years ago. for when Illinois 
was taken out of the side of Indiana, some reluctance might have been 
shown but for the "deep sleep" that made the operation possible. 
Indiana gave to America, as was given to humanity in that primeval 
creative act, what has proved to be gentle and sweet and strong — the 
queenly guardian of the Great Lakes and of the Father of Waters. 

Our loss would not have been so grave if we could have had the bene- 
fit of the first survey which is said to have run the state line west of 
Chicago instead of to its eastern borders, and Illinois would have been 
but little better than any other interior state if your northern boundary 
had remained at the south end of Lake Michigan. It is too late now 
for either Michigan Territory or Wisconsin or Indiana to claim Chicago, 
for most of Wisconsin's and Michigan's business men, and many of 
Indiana's authors and artists have become loyal citizens of the Windy 
City, and we can not call them back. 

You centenarians of Illinois may not claim all the credit for your 
hundred years of statehood, for Indiana has a right to be proud that it 
gave Illinois to the world and we are proud with that same splendid 
pride which in this year of war hangs its star upon the outer wall to 
attest that a million homes in America are ready to lay "their costly 
sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom." And so Indiana has the pride of 
parenthood. When a child does a thing well, lie may not boast, but no 
one can Idame the mother who glorifies him. As will appear before 
Indiana's greeting to Illinois is over, our claim does not end with hav- 
ing brought Illinois into being, but we shall hope to prove that much 
of what your State has done for civilization must be credited to the 
neighbor state upon your eastern border. 

Only an expert could distin.sruish between Arizona and 'New Mexico, 
or between North Dakota and South Dakota. "It is hard to draw the 
line" as the boy said when he found he had a whale on the hook. Dis- 
criminating observers can not tell one Chinaman from another. A new 
state, just emancipated from the chrysalis period, whose leaders have 
come from beyond her borders, and, who, because she has had no great 
experiences in sacrifice and service, no crises to face, and no sorrow to 
bear or to recall, has not yet developed personality. 


Three thousand miles away is a little state whose Gethsemane and 
Calvary have given her an iniiuortal soul — a personality — in whose 
presence the nations of earth stand with head bared. Within her 
borders, for a season, are encamped an infidel horde who deny the god 
Terminus to whom all civilized people bow down, a horde who can not 
respect a nation's personality because, in their gross materialism they 
deny the existence of whatever is born of the imagination or of the 

The essential differences between Illinois and Indiana are not 
superficially evident. You recall the discussion of this question between 
the two heroes of Mississippi Valley fiction, Tom Sawyer and Huckle- 
berry Finn. They were journeying by balloon from Missouri to the 
Atlantic seaboard and Huckleberry Finn was not convinced that they 
had crossed the boundary between your state and mine. As they looked 
down upon your prairies they had seen the same rich green that their 
geography maps gave to the State of Illinois, but beyond the banks 
of the Wabash the wooded hills and rich bottom lands of Indiana were 
just as green, and Huckleberry Finn, who remembered that on his map 
Indiana was pink, lost his faith in all geographers and map-makers and 
l)ecame a sceptic. Huckleberry Finn was only a superficial observer or 
intuition would have told him when he crossed the line. 

Indiana's Centennial year, 1916, was a year of self-dedication to 
patriotism. As we looked back over a hundred years of serene growth 
we neighbors on your eastern border came into a new state consciousness. 
We learned the inadequacy of Chief Justice Chase's definition of a state, 
for we knew that Indiana had come to be more than "a political com- 
munity of individuals inhabiting the same country," more than "the 
country or region thus inhabited," more than "the government under 
which the people lived," more even than "the combined idea of people, 
territory , and government." We were not merely a bit of land staked 
out for separate sovereignty, not a political fraction — one forty-eighth of 
a great nation- — holding its attributes in common with forty-seven other 
varieties of political or territorial entities, nor as Huckleberry Finn 
viewed it, an irregular splotch of pink on some great map. 

It was a year that marked our emergence into soul-consciousness, 
when we came to know by insight that Indiana had personality, and that 
its people read their books, thought their thoughts, and worked out their 
destiny, along distinctive lines, and was different because her pioneers 
and her later leaders had given to the slowly developing state a character 
"with a difference" — a personality. 

For more than a generation, perhaps, after statehood was given us, 
we, like you of Illinois, were actually only an arbitrary sub-division of 
that splendid empire which the fathers had dedicated to liberty — the old 
IvTorthwest Territory. It was not until Abraham Lincoln, trained among 
the Indiana hills and matured on the Illinois prairies, called America 
to the colors, that the sonl of your State and the soul of Indiana awoke 
to conscious life. 

— 5 H S 


There are those who believe that when the pioneer left New England 
to find a home in the wilderness of our middle west and when the 
Forty-niner crossed the "great American desert" in search of gold the 
last adventure of history was over. 

The pioneer who came to this Northwest Territory and penetrated 
the wilderness in search of an empire where he must obey the law of 
the jungle until in time he could make laws of his own, found the great 
adventure in this heart of America a hundred years ago. 

In some far away eternity the great adventurers will get together 
and talk over their earthly experiences. Hercules, Ulysses, Abraham, 
Moses, Jonah, Joan of Arc, Columbus, Balboa, Miles Standish, George 
Rogers Clark, and Eobert Falcon Scott will each have Ins story to telL 
And a great story hour it will be. 

I could be content to sit in the midst of a little group of men no less 
heroic and listen to the story of the Wabash Valley jungle of a century 
ago. In that group w^ould be George Rogers Clark, Pierre Gibault, 
Francis Vigo, Arthur St. Clair, and William Henry Harrison, the 
great men of our territorial period. But until the history of the people 
of the Northwest is written, America will not know- what heroes we had 
a hundred years ago. 

The pilgrim father who crossed the wintry sea and began his life of 
religious liberty in the snows of Massachusetts was no braver than his 
pioneer descendant who came from the civilized East two centuries later 
to find a home in the wilderness of Indiana, and the measureless 
prairies of Illinois. Across the Alleghany mountains his journey into 
the W^est lay along streams where treacherous Indians waited for him 
all the way. But the savage was the least of the dangers he had to face. 
AVhen he entered the forest, bears and wildcats were in his w'ay. About 
his new home wild creatures watched for his stock, and w^aited to devour 
his crops. More to be feared than any living animal was the peril of 
disease that threatened him until the lands could be drained and 
intelligent physicians be found for every neighborhood. Malaria was 
universal and there were not enough well people to feed and nurse the 
sick. Fever and ague made steady work impossible and life a torment. 

The twentieth century traveler finds it hard to picture that wilder- 
ness to himself. As we ride by railway and over our paved highways we 
forget that the pioneer had to build his wagon roads and bridle paths 
through dense woods, and that for forty years land travel was through 
bottomless prairie mud or among stumps and fallen timber cleared with 
the ax. And ever in the half-darkness of the woods w^as the unspeakable 
terror of the savage in hiding behind some tree, ready to kill. 

There were children in the wilderness who shared the father^s 
dangers and comforted the mother's loneliness. Little thumb-nail 
sketches of the boys and girls appear in the histories of that earlier day. 
We read of little J. G. Finch going out from Connersville with his 
father's cavalcade to make the first settlement on White River above 
Indianapolis. He was nine years old. He records : "II was snowing 
hard and the men of the company made their way very slowly with their 
ox team, driving stock before them and cutting the road as they went. 


I o-ot to crying and they came back to see what was the matter. I told 
them I was so cold that my back was cracked." And there arc the 
children on the way to the log school who were stolen by the savages or 
killed in cold blood in the somber shadows of the woods. 

And there is that other nine-year-old Hoosier, the very mention of 
whose name gives us a grip in the throat and a tightening about the heart ; 
we recall how death entered the lonely cabin and the boy who dreamed, 
fearing lest the mother's burial should go unremembered of God, sent 
beyond the Ohio to the Kentucky circuit rider to pray over the grave 
of Nancy Hanks. There is no story of Indiana that can leave out the 
tragic picture of the Hoosier boy standing uncomfortod beside the grave 
of a pioneer mother. 

Life was as much of an adventure to the circuit rider who saved the 
souls of pioneers as if it had been given over to the conquest of the jungle 
or the killing of the Indian. The arena of the human soul was to him 
as theatric a place as the Colosseum was v/hen the Christian martyr 
went down to his death. Hell was as genuine a terror as malaria and 
as near at hand, while the mysteries of faith were as plain as the simplest 
things of life. 

The Methodist way of conversion was not always gentle. A story 
is told of Reverend James Jones, who in 1820 was conducting a camp 
meeting in the Whitewater country. A woman who had just been con- 
verted was dragged from the altar by an angry husband. Mr. Jone>^ 
remonstrated in vain and finally seized the man, forced him to the 
ground, and seating himself on the man's back, refused to let him go 
till he prayed. The victim swore. The wife and other believers prayed 
aloud, and Brother Jones still held his man fast. As he prayed he 
felt the man's muscles relax and recognized other signs of the coming 
victory. Soon the man began to weep and cry aloud, "God be mercifu^ 
to me a sinner." The shout of victory came and the man's soul was 


Father Dickey, one of the first of the Indiana Presbyterians, sup- 
ported a family on an annual income of $80. including gifts. He helped 
by farming, teaching singing classes, writing legal papers, surveying, 
shoemaking, and conducting school. His home was a log cabin, with 
greased paper instead of window glass. His wife looked after her eleven 
children, managed the entire householrl, made garments for the family, 
and entert.ained numberless visitors. 

It is good to remind ourselves that back in the twenties and thirties, 
benevolent folk in the East were as generous in sending the gospel and 
civilization to us of the West, as we of the later generation have been 
to darkest Africa, or may yet be to pagan Germany. 

In the files of the Gazette, published at the old Indiana capital, 
Corydon, in January, 1819, when my state was three years old, the first 
announcement reads : 

"The reverend l\Ir. Eogers, missionary to the state of Indiana, will 
preach tonight at candle light at the court house." 

The pioneer was a failure as a publicity man. Even George Rogers 
Clark, the most romantic figure in American history, failed to make 


good when it came to advertising his exploits. IJeeall how he took 
Kaskaskia and won command of the Mississippi Valley withont firing 
a shot. He had left his little fleet near the mouth of the Ohio and 
tramped for a week with a hundred and seventy volunteers through 
mire and flood. As they came to Kaskaskia, England's stronghold on 
the ]\Iississippi, the sturdy Americans hid until midnight, and then 
slipped into the fort and took the commandant by surprise. George 
Eogers Clark wrote the story out in full in his report to Virginia's 
Governor, and this is what he said: "I broke into the fort and socured 
the Governor." That is the complete official account of one of the most 
thrilling events in American history. 

Did the day of adventure end when the pioneer moved no longer 
toward the west? We know it did not. We still thrill to the scream 
of the bugle and our eye still dims with tears when of a sudden we see 
the flag. The pioneer spirit remains. 

You who are old enough to have seen history in the making remem- 
ber how the sons and grandsons of the pioneer sprang to the colors when 
Sumter was assailed and "thronged the way of death as to a festival." To- 
day their grandsons are answering America's call and once more the 
road of righteousness is the road of death. In every crisis it is the blood 
of the pioneer that answers first to the call of civilization. And we of 
Illinois and Indiana may thank God that ours is the blood of the pioneers 
who conquered the wilderness and won the West for America and 
American ideals. 

Before Clark ventured into our Northwest there were perhaps 
seven hundred white men in the Illinois country. An early chronicler 
gives this figure for the year 1766 and explains that "the number of 
inhabitants at the Illinois is very difficult to ascertain as they are going 
and coming constantly." Last week at State and Washington Streets 
in Chicago I noted the same characteristic persisting after a century 
and a half. 

When Illinois was a part of Indiana territory there was little com- 
munity of interest between the Illinois settlers and their eastern neigh- 
bors. Our common capital, Vincennes, was as inaccessible to the people 
who lived along the Mississippi Eiver and had to cross prairies that 
were sunbaked in summer and flooded in winter, as it was to the men 
of Indiana who blazed their way thither through the almost trackless 
forest wilderness. 

The Illinois leaders cherished the promise of early independence that 
was to come with increased immigration, and their strong leanings to- 
ward slavery with which the masses in Indiana had no sympathy, 
encouraged Illinois in its aspirations toward an independent territorial 
government. The slavery struggle bulked large in territorial politics, the 
leaders in your State. Governor Bond and Senator Thomas, doing their 
utmost to force slavery upon Illinois as Governor Harrison would fain 
have done in Indiana but for the free-soil influences led by Indiana's 
first Governor. Jonathan Jennings. 

Strong counter-influences were at work among the people in both 
territories and Jefferson's secret anti-slavery missionary, James Lemen, 


employed energies and resources that were unsuspected in that day to 
save both states for freedom. 

In due time your proslavery leaders became less open in their 
support of a cause that was steadily losing popular favor. The main 
route of migration, down the Ohio and up the Mississippi, brought into 
Illinois many from Kentucky and Missouri who saw in the richness of 
your meadows a golden harvest for slave labor. But the current of 
migration from Kentucky brought not a few free-soilers, while Indiana 
and, through her, Ohio and Pennsylvania and New York, sent their 
steady stream of flat boats down the Ohio and up the Wabash and no less 
constant a caravan of prairie schooneers over the slowly opening high- 
ways, and these liberty loving pioneers held your State loyally to the 
pledge of the Ordinance of 1787 and made it in due time the fit forum 
for the great debate that on your soil was to arouse the sleeping conscience 
of the nation and make it ready for Appomattox. Illinois extended 
southward into the heart of the slave country and people in every com- 
munity in the southern part of the State had a natural sympathy for the 
material interests of the homes from which they had come, so that in 
Illinois the battle for freedom was more fiercely fought than in more 
austere Indiana. 

We are wont to imagine that the slavery question was dormant in 
these two states from their territorial beginnings until the compromise of 
1850. The truth is that the slavery question never slept. The St. Clair 
County resolutions of 1823 drafted, no doubt, by James Lemen, himself, 
read like the argument of Abrahani Lincoln in 1858, as a single sentence 
will show : 

"Confine slavery within the limited boundaries and necessity, that 
great law of nature, would devise measures gradually to emancipate and 
effectually to discharge from the country that portion of the population ; 
* * * extend it abroad, and you give scope for the unlimited increase 
of slaves in the Union." 

The only political issue in Indiana in 1816 and in Illinois two years 
later was slavery and the struggle between its advocates and its enemies 
in the making of your constitution and ours was as bitter then as it was in 
1858 when "the house divided" seemed to be tottering to its fall and the 
men of Illinois had to choose leaders between the pro-slavery Vermonter 
and the anti-slavery Kentuckian. 

The years of compromise had to end and the vain endeavor to per- 
suade an awakening public conscience that the right to earn one's bread 
by another's labor was merely an economic question, failed at last. You 
furnished the forum for the final discussion of this great moral question 
and it naturally fell to you to furnish the leader who should put the 
question at rest for all time. 

I would not withhold any credit from Illinois for having furnished 
the forum for the great debate. It was a natural development from the 
conditions that arose out of the character of your pioneers. The issue 
could not have come up in any other state, for nowhere else was the 
division so naturally, so honestly, or so completely, drawn as in Illinois 
in 1858, when Stephen A. Douglas waged a patriot's fight for further 

compromise and for peace against the resistless power of Lincoln's appeal 
to conscience and right. Had Douglas been less of a patriot than he was, 
or had he fought for a baser ideal than the prevention of disunion by 
compromise and adjustment — in other words, had lie been merely a self- 
ish politician as many sujierficial and partisan students of history declare 
him to have been, the debate would have been forgotten and there would 
not have emerged from it the one giant figure in American history. It 
was the greatness of both champions, Douglas and Lincoln, and the 
honesty of their purposes that made the debate what it was. And as I 
have said, it was the sincere difference of opinion among genuine 
patriots that gave to Illinois the distinction of settling the slavery ques- 
tion on her own soil. 

How far Illinois may claim credit for having given Abraham Lincoln 
to the world is purely an academic question. If we are to answer it, 
we must discover the sources of Lincoln's power. It is a matter of purely 
sentimental interest where a man was born, or what places afforded him 
his education, or his field of activity and achievement. The more practi- 
cal problem in our study is how far the place of his birth, the place of his 
education, and the place of his achievement contributed to the making of 
the man. 

There is nothing miraculous about Abraham Lincoln's growth in 
power. It was the most natural of processes. It will hardly be denied 
that he vras a susceptible man — responding with singular SAnnpathy to the 
influences that beset him. We are all familiar with his salient character- 
istics, chief among which it may be said that he was the man who under- 
stood. The expression of grave aloofness in those clear grey eyes van- 
ished in a flash when the soul within answered the appeal of any kindred 
spirit, and there was instantly an understanding glance, a smile, and the 
intercommunication of soul with soul. The solitary mood, that was as 
likely to be manifest in a crowd as when no one was near by. vanished, 
and he became a man among men, yielding to the psychic force of the 
mind which had aroused his own. As he faced his audience of men who 
knew him — some devoted followers and quite as many the severest of 
critics, the face they looked into had none of the stolidity we see in so 
many of his photographs, but it was ablaze with the inner fire of human 
interest and alive with the thoughts that dominated him for the moment. 
The physiognomy of the man affords us the demonstration of my prop- 
osition, that his was a responsive nature, answering to the feeling of 
others as that of one who understood. 

Mr. Herndon and some of his associate? and biographers assure 
us that he was not influenced by the will or reason or appeal of others. 
I can not believe that this is so. He was finn, it is true, firm to the 
point of stubbornness, when he had satisfied himself that he had come 
to a right conclusion, but it was what he termed "firmness in the right 
as God gives us to see the right." All the way along from the beginning 
of the problem until his soul had found its answer he was in touch with 
the thought of others, hearing with patience the demands of would-be 
dictators, reasoning the question out with unreasonable critics, listen- 
ing always to suggestions from all kinds of sources and trying, as he 


phrased it^ to see if he euuld bring himself out on God's side. The 
progress toward the conclusion, lonely as it seemed, was nevertheless by 
way of constant contact with the thought of others and complete under- 
standing of their point of view and an ultimate recognition that the 
other man's point of view was always entitled to consideration. 

If we grant this premise that what Lincoln came to be was the 
result of his understanding contact with all sorts of men, and his un- 
usually sympathetic response to the influence of an extraordinary en- 
vironment, it may be woiih our while briefly to consider whether in 
pioneer Indiana in the years of his education and growth of body and 
spirit there came to him the power that he used so effectively in the 
maturer period that belongs to Illinois and in the four final years that 
belong to all the world. 

The period of boyhood and adolescence is at least as significant in 
the making of character as is that of maturer manhood. A man does 
not wait until middle age before he chooses his ideals. He may not be 
conscious of the ferment within, but it is in boyhood that, consciously 
or unconsciousl}^, ambitions begin to besiege his soul. The teachers 
who suggest new interests to him, the first books that absorb his thought, 
and even his dreams, the friends whose companionship enriches his life 
— all these influences are the molds within which his character expands 
and becomes fixed. 

If we could call up before us the seven year old Kentucky boy — 
well-born for all the squalor that surrounded him, and watch his develop- 
ment until at twenty-one he led his father's ox-team to Illinois, the 
vision might diminish for us the mj'Stery of Abraham Lincoln's power. 
Certainly we can not be content to say that Lincoln was an ignorant 
and vulgar politician all his life and,over night, as it were, became the 
first gentleman and the polished orator of his century. Things do not 
happen so. Abraham Lincoln did not just happen. The developing of 
his greatness was not a forcing process that gave us a finished product 
in a single campaign or a year of presidental responsibility. It was 
a life-long growth, steady, constant, and slow, under influences that 
l)egan in the Nolan's Creek region when the little child of five gave 
Ids catch of fish to a veteran of the Bevolution because "Mother told 
him always to be kind to the soldier," and that continued through that 
first bitter winter in Indiana when he lay on the bed of leaves upon 
frozen earth in his father's half-faced camp listening to the liowling 
wolves, and that later winter when the comrade-mother died. There 
were the seven-mile walks through the wilderness to school, the thrilling 
adventures of his later boyhood upon the Mississippi flat boat ending 
with the hideous vision of the New Orleans slave market. There were 
the groups of men about the Gentryville store — men of vulgar speech 
no doubt, yet men whose idol was Andrew Jackson, themselves the Jack- 
son type, who devoured the occasional newspaper as Abe Lincoln read 
it to them, and who talked religion, politics, and slavery and told stories 
and made the big Lincoln boy one of their own circle. 

School declamation, soap box speech making, good Matured mimicry 
of itinerant preacher and temperance orator, and at last the printing 


of a school essay on temperance in a widely circulated newspaper, attend- 
ance at a sensational murder trial fourteen miles away at Boonville and 
the lonely, dreamy walk back and forth, the casual acquaintance there of 
a prominent lawyer who lent him the Indiana statutes containing the 
Declaration of Independence and the ordinance of 1787 with its bold 
commandment "Thou shalt not keep thy fellow man in bondage" — 
did these experiences touch and change the growing boy? We do not 
need to turn to Dennis Hanks for confirmation of our conclusion. 
From what the man of Illinois was we know what the boy of Indiana 
must have been — a double nature, self-absorbed but not self-centered, 
thoughtful with a leaning toward philosophy, sclf-discliplining always, 
moody and often melancholy — one aspect — understanding the point of 
view of those about him and tolerant of dissent, responsive to the moods 
of others and quick to the point of eagerness to answer to their needs — ■ 
the other aspect. He was 

"A blend of mirth and sadness, smiles and tears, 
A quaint knight-errant of the pioneers." 

Lincoln is indentified in the world's thought with the emancipation 
of the slave. What was used as a last desperate war measure by the 
patient president who was ready to try any remedy that measured up 
to his idea of right if only he could save the Union, was really the one 
thing by which he is remembered. The slavery question which 
opportunist politicians had avoided for half a century hoping that some- 
how it would solve itself entered into Lincoln's spiritual life at the very 
beginning and by slow degrees mastered it. It was to escape the con- 
petition of slave labor that Thomas Lincoln left Kentucky for a state 
dedicated to liberty. The only book the boy Lincoln had was a life 
of Washington whose struggle to win liberty gripped his imagination. 
The two journeys to New Orleans at the most impressionable period 
of his young manhood; the visit to Kentucky in 1841 when he described 
the slaves "strung together precisely like so many fish upon a trot line" 
to be taken to a land where the master's "lash is proverbially ruthless 
and unrelenting;" the slow awakening to a realization of his own oppor- 
tunity and his own power to force an issue with Douglas which would 
settle the question, and at last his happiness in the knowledge that the 
Thirteenth Amendment was giving to the slaves the freedom which his 
Emancipation Proclamation had promised them — constitute one story 
of the dominance of a single great idea. Can it be truly said that any 
local community determined the course of that man's life or made his 
greatness possible? 

T am convinced that a special obligation rests upon your State at 
the time of its Centennial. This year, a state pride, which is really 
patriotism, has been inspired as you pause to look back upon a hundred 
years of service to humanity. To each loyal citizen of Illinois has come 
a new impulse that may well become a consecration of Illinois and all 
her citizenship to world service. You will not have accepted this 
opportunity for self dedication if you leave no permanent memorial to 
remind your children and your children's children, that Illinois re- 
members her pioneers and all who bore their part in lier first one 


hundred years of life and keeps that remembrance sacred for coming 
generations. You have great names on your roll of honor, more than 
could well be named in this address. What better service could you do 
now than give to each place identified with these men a tablet to attest 
that in the Centennial year they were not forgotten? For one of these 
who stands head and shoulders above them all, as he did when he 
walked the .streets of Springfield no monument is needed. And yet the 
places he haunted ought to be remembered. The road from Springfield 
to Petersburg, Peoria, Pekin, Lincoln, Clinton, and Danville, and so on 
around the old Eighth circuit, and many an old court house and tavern 
and homestead along that way will be associated always with that 
brilliant company of itinerant advocates, and particularly the country 
lawyer Abraham Lincoln, while a number of places in Springfield are 
mutely eloquent reminders of his master personality. The site of the old 
Globe Tavern, the rooms in the old Capitol where his immortal speeches 
were delivered, the site of Speed's stoi'e with its hospitable upper room, 
the offices of Stuart and Xincoln, Logan and Lincoln, and Lincoln and 
Herndon, the room where the First Inaugural was written, and the site 
of the "House Divided" speech, these should be marked while Lincoln's 
personal friends still live, and imperishable bronze should tell to gener- 
ations yet unborn that Springfield remembers lovingly the places made 
sacred by his presence. 


(By Clarence W. Alvord.) 

Mi;. rKESiDENT. Ladies axd Gentlemen, Fellow Membehs of 
THE Illinois State Hlstorical Society : It gives me great pleasure 
to have this opportunity to talk to you about the task which the State of 
Illinois has placed upon me, the production of a centennial history of 
the State. I am peculiarly glad to bear testimony concerning the pro- 
gress of this work to you, fellow members of the Historical Society, for 
to you more than anyone else belongs the right of knowing what has been 
done and how ; what the centennial history is, and what it is not. 

One might expect that the very name chosen for this work would 
indicate to every one its character; but from correspondence and con- 
versation with many citizens of the State, it has been borne in upon me 
that the meaning of the title does not convey to every one the same idea. 
It is true that everybody under the sun believes that he or she knows 
what history is. And for that reason there have been many willing 
helpers in the production of the centennial history, and many have been 
the suggestions that have reached your editor-in-chief. From these 
suggestions I infer that many are expecting to have produced a cross 
between an encyclopedia and such a year book as the Chicago Daily 
Xews publishes. Avherein the reader may expect to find a statement on 
every subject that touches Illinois and the names of all public officials 
from those who hold the important State offices down to the latest 
county commissioners, as well as a list of all the men's and women's 
clubs, a list of all the labor unions and boy scouts, with a careful list in 
every case of the officers and in most cases their photographs. 

Xeedless to say to an audience composed of the members of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, the centennial history will not serve 
any such purpose. No organization, however important, will be men- 
tioned except in so far as it forms an illustration of an important de- 
velopment in our social history. There will not be. and cannot be from 
the very nature of the case, any listing of societies or organizations for 
the simple purpose of perpetuating the names of the officers. 

Other correspondents, whose souls have been stimulated by reading 
local history, think of the centennial history in terms of county his- 
tories; they look for a general history of the State, followed by histories 
of certain phases of State history, such as the history of medicine, the 
history of religion, the history of business, the historv of newspapers, 
and so forth ad infinitum, all this to be topped oflf by biographical 
sketches of important people who may be willing to spend fifty dollars 
to have their photographs turned into halftones for illustrative material. 
Such a Avork would have been very easy to prepare and in some ways 


might have satisfied many people iu the State better tiian the volumes 
which will be published next fall. But the centennial history is* as 
far removed from the average county history as can be well imagined in 
works that pretend to belong in the same field. There will be but very 
few illustrations, not more than four or five, in each volume. Some of 
these will be portraits, but only of men who have played a great part in 
building our State. There will be no continuous history of various 
professions and businesses, although it is hoped that adequate treat- 
inent in the general narrative will be given to the various interests in 
which the people of Ilinois are engaged. 

Most of the suggestions wliich have come to your editor have 
emanated from men and women saturated with that love and admiration 
of the past which fills them with reverence for the spot or object associ- 
ated with bygone ages. They possess that spirit of the antiquarian 
which has resulted so frequently in the preservation of invaluable 
manuscripts, the marking of historic spots, and so often has stayed the 
hand which would tear down the mementoes of our heroic past. They 
are expecting that the centennial history will be a guidebook to Illinois 
antiquities, a kind of ennobled Baedecker, enshrining in print the spots 
which each community loves to point out to visitors as being of historic 
importance: yonder Indian mounds of Podunk Centre; the spring where 
Black Hawk used to camp ; the block from which slaves used to be sold. 

No suggestion from these enthusiasts has reached the editorial 
ears that equals in extravagance that of a recent convert to the import- 
ance of conserving our records. He was a French Creole of a neigh- 
boring state and was converted by a historian who was preaching to him 
the gospel of the preservation of past memories and old documents. 
The imagination of the Creole was aroused, and he gave ready agree- 
ment to the proposition; "'for," he said, "the old people who remember 
the past are now dying out and the memory of the important events 
will soon be gone." He continued "I am sure that there is no one living 
to-day who can confirm an event that was told me by my grandfather. 
Knowledge of the fact is lost to history. I remember well my grand- 
father telling me that when Father Gautier died and the people were 
assembled to pay honor to the pious priest who had served them so well, 
a star from heaven came down and stood above the parish house so long 
as the coffin remained therein and when the coffin was carried out the 
star returned to the firmament." What answer can you make to a 
mind like that? 

Almost equally curious suggestions however have come to me from 
people who were highly cultivated and in their own lines of work stood 
high in the opinion of their fellows. Such a man recently grew eloquent 
over the historic importance of his home town, hallowed by the memories 
of the fleeing Black Hawk and the tramp of the valorous militia men. 
He told me that in his own back yard he had found an army canteen 
of that far off period and that one day some men while plowing had 
dug up a hexagonal pistol which they had given to him. Waxing 
enthusiastic over these childhood memories he advised me to go there 
and dig for mementos of the past, for T would be sure to find rich 


treasure. Let me ask you, would a collection of a thousand of the guns 
borne by the Illinois militia or could a collection of all the scalps that 
were removed from both white and red skulls help to elucidate the 
events that occurred during the Black Hawk ^^'ar? The centennial his- 
tory, fellow members of the Illinois State Historical Society, is not to 
be a glorified guidebook to historic Illinois, nor an apotheosized hand- 
book of Illinois antiquities. Anyone expecting either of these equally 
desirable woi'ks is bound to be bitterly disappointed, for the autliors of 
the centennial history have in no wise attempted their production. 

So much for what the centennial history is not. What, then is the 
history? But fust of all, let me assure you that the very optimistic 
report in the newspapers of recent date, that the history was on the point 
of being ready for distribution is, to quote a well-remembered remark 
of Mark Twain's upon the report of his death, greatly exaggerated. It 
is true that one volume, the second, will come from the press all printed 
next month and the others will follow in as rapid succession as possible. 

Knowing as you do that work has been going on in connection with 
the writing of these volumes for some three or four years, you may be 
interested in the processes of editorial work. It may be well to remind 
you that even when an author has once put dovN^n his story on paper, 
it does not at all mean that the book is ready to print. The first draft 
must be typed and collated, that is, compared with the original ; it must 
be revised and cut down by the author, footnotes filled in, statement of 
facts checked, and then retyped for the editorial office. Here it has to 
go through a multiplicity of processe.?, reminding one of the operations 
through which a factory product must pass. First the editor reads 
it, recommending points to be revised by the author and modifying the 
English. The chapters are then turned over to an assistant who checks 
carefully the accurac}' of each footnote reference, each quotation, each 
proper name. Then another assistant goes over the manuscript to see 
that capitalization, punctuation, and spelling are correct and in accord- 
ance with the set of rules worked out for the volumes. There is also a 
definite system for the citation of footnotes and for the bibliography, 
so that these things must be gone over very carefully to see that they 
conform. By this time so many changes have been made that it is 
necessary for a new copy to be typed for the printer ; it goes without 
saying that it must again be collated. In a book of one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand words these operations can naturally not be done 
in a day. The editor gives the maimscript a final reading before it goes 
to the printer; then the task of proof reading begins. Two sets of 
proof for every page of every book have to be very minutely read to see 
that the printer has printed what the author wrote and to correct any 
errors which may have escaped detection in the manuscript. Perhaps 
this sounds easy to those of you who have never tried it; if you have 
not gone through a similar experience, you can not dream of the knotty 
problems which can be involved in the placing of a mere comma; you 
do not know how many words look all right until you consult Webstei-'s 
Unabridged Dictionary, when you find you don't know how to spell at 
all; you little guess how inconvenient it is that the English language 


has no logical system oi capitalization. In spite of the great care exer- 
cised by each person who works over the manuscript, a new mistake is 
discovered with every reading; if you are sharp-eyed, no doubt some of 
you will detect a few in the final printed copy. 

With good luck, however, we are hoping that all five volumes will 
be ready for distribution some time next fall. If it so happens that 
this distribution coincides with the great celebration in October, we shall 
all be exceedingly happy. 1 may say here, to answer the question I am 
sure many of you are asking, that the centennial history is to be pub- 
lished by A. C. McClurg and Company of Chicago and that it will be 
s-old through the regular book market at two dollars a volume. 

Now what the centennial history has attempted to give is an inter- 
pretation of the development of the social, political, and economic life 
of the people of the State of Illinois. The final product might well have 
been called the history of the people of Illinois. There has been, there- 
fore, an effort made to paint with the pen a succession of moving 
pictures from the time the Illinois country was first traversed by the 
white men up till the present day. At every stage of our development 
sufficient information has been collected from various sources to give 
this picture of our changing civilization lifelike form. 

It is a history of a state and not the history of the United States. 
Therefore we have made no attempt to tell the story of Illinois in terms 
of national history, but rather the story of Illinois as illustrative of 
the growth of a mid-western state. This limitation implies several 
important points of view to which I wish to call your attention. The 
wars in which Illinois has been engaged as one of the states of the union 
are, for instance, important in state history; but this importance does 
not consist in the development of the war itself — I mean the war 
strategy and the campaigns — nor again in the engagement of Illinois 
troops in the war; the importance of wars to state history arises out of 
the social, economic, and political phenomena which the wars have 
produced within the boundaries of the state. Here then lies the problem 
of the historians, and it is to these phenomena rather than to the events 
outside of the state itself that the authors of the centennial history 
have devoted their attention. The same attitude of mind must be 
assumed in the treatment of the activities of our members of Congress. 
So far as they are engaged in the passage of national laws, they belong 
to national rather than to state history; but when our representatives at 
Washington reflect the attitude of the state itself on important national 
issues, their activities become a part of the state personality and as 
such form a part of the picture of our past. For the same reason 
national politics can be neglected so far as they are, extraneous to state 
affairs, but whenever the issues of national politics become vital in state 
history, then they fall within the treatment that the authors are giving. 

For the purposes of this new work on the history of the state the 
authors have neglected consciously the writings of previous historians 
in so far as such writings were not considered as source material. We 
did not desire to allow our judgment to be biased by the prejudices of 
men who had preceded us in this field. We have therefore gone directly 


to what historians call source mateiial, that is fo say the contemporary 
documents, made up oL' letters, legal documents, laws, books and news- 
papers that have come to us directly from the period concerning which 
we are writing. The collection of this material has been laborious. 
I may illustrate from the experience which 1 have had in the preparation 
of the first volume of the history that extends from 1673 down to 1818, 
the period of the Indian, the French, the British, and the American 
occupation. Covering this period there are thousands of printed pages 
of source material avaikibU'. These had to be collected at the University 
of Jllinois for my study. Besides these, however, there are in existence 
an equal number of unprinted materials scattered in archives all over 
the world, in London, in Paris, in Boston, and Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, in Albany, in Philadelphia and Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 
Washington, in Richmond, A^irginia and in Chester, Belleville, and 
Chicago, not to forget the numberless documents in the Draper Col- 
lections at Madison, Wisconsin. Thousands of copies of this nianu- 
ecript material have been collected for the purpose of interpreting Illi- 
nois' past. Take for instance the manuscript material in the archives 
in Paris which has been never used in its entirety by any historian of 
Illinois or even the United States. The library of Congress had for- 
tunately copied some forty folio volumes of these manuscripts. The 
librarian has kindly loaned me these volumes, and copies have been made 
in my office of such of them as were needful for my purposes. But there 
are many more documents in Paris itself. Of these there is in existence 
a recently finished finding list which was put at my service; and the 
State of Illinois maintained a copyist with one assistant for a year and 
a half in Paris doing nothing but copying for the purposes of this 
volume. What has been done in Pai'is has been done 'at other times in 
the other cities that I have named. The result is that no historian of 
Illinois has had collected at his disposal any such mass of source mater- 
ial as will be the basis for the interpretation of the early history of the 
State which is to appear in The Centennial History of Illinois. 

Similar collecting has been done for the other volumes. You would 
be amazed at the amount of newspapers that have been examined by 
the authors. Loans have been made from libraries all over the State, 
from Joliet, from Springfield, from Belleville and many other places. 
The libraries of Chicago have been examined, photograph copies of 
early newspapers in the State have been made from the collections in 
the library of Congress and from the Mercantile Library in St. Ix)uis, 
so that there has been collected for the authors a better collection of 
our very early newspapers, of which there are only few copies in 
existance, than can be found in any single library in the United States. 

In addition to these oldest newspapers there w^as the problem of 
consulting the large number of later files scattered around in various 
cities in the State which it was highly desirable to examine, yet which 
it was impossible for the authors to visit and inspect in person. How 
could these be made available? The problem was solved by arranging 
with the various newspaper ofiices and libraries to ship their papers, a 
few volumes at a time and in specially constructed boxes, to Urbana, 


where they wei-e exainii^d by the authors and by research assistants 
under their supervision. Passages which were wanted wore marked, 
then typed, and the copies compared with the original for accuracy. 
Thus in two weeks time by this method, a group of newspapers couhi he 
examined wliich would have required a month or nmre, had each author 
undertaken to go from place to place and take all Ids notes himself. 
Furthermore, there are now literally thousands oL' typed newspaper 
excerpts available for still further study and use. 

Besides the collection of newspapers the authors have also examined 
with great care large masses of unpublished letters. Dr. Pease, who is 
the author of the second volume, The Pioneer State, 1818-1848. has 
made an exhaustive study of the material to be found in the Chicago 
Historical Society, in the Illinois Historical Survey of the University of 
Illinois, and in the State Historical Library here in Springfield. Dr. 
Cole, the author of the third volume, The Era of the Civil War, 1848- 
1870, spent several weeks in Washington, going over the collection of 
Trumbull papers never before used and other collections that are to 
be found in the library of Congress . Professor C. M. Thompson who, 
with Professor Ernst L. Bogart is author of the fourth volume, 
The Industrial State, 1870-1893, has made great use of material col- 
lected from the descendants of men who acted during this period, 
besides using other well-kno\vn material. 

The fifth volume, The Modern Commonwealth, 1893 to the present 
da,y, differs in its character from the other four. This is a period in 
Avhich the actors are still living and when the events are so new that 
judgment can scarcely be passed upon them. It would therefore be a 
very doubtful policy to attempt to make an interpretation of these 
recent years; besides it was very essential for the history of the State 
that there should be a very complete description of the activity of the 
citizens of the State as they are exhibited in their agriculture, their 
manufacturing, their mining, their business in general, their govern- 
ment in all its ramifications, and their cultural development. The 
Centennial Commission therefore selected to write this volume an eco- 
nomic historian. Professor Bogart, and a political scientist. Professor 
J. M. Mathews, who have given us a description of the State as it exists 
to-day, and you will find therein a very complete analysis of present day 
conditions, and the best account of the government of the State that has 
ever been written. Besides this Mr. Henry B. Fuller of Chicago has 
written two chapters on the cultural development of the State; one of 
these will appear in the fourth volume and the other in the fifth. 

The secret of writing true history depends upon the collection of 
all the contemporary evidence bearing on the case. The reason that 
people complain of the changing interpretatigns of history is that new 
material is found as society demands a broader and broader interprv 
tation of the phenomena of the past. There was a time when history 
consisted in what we call to-riay the drum and fife history; the doings 
of the great political leaders, events of military glorv; and almost no 
other phenomena of changing society were noted. To-day the task of 
the historian, however, is far greater; and he is obliged to cast his net 


far alield in order to collect the material for the social development 
of the past. The task of interpretation is made easier the more coni- 
plete is the collection of source material, and it is the collection of their 
sources upon which the authors of the Centennial History particularly 
pride themselves. 

An example of how easy it is to misinterpret a past event, provided 
all the material available is uot collected, and how easy is that interpre- 
tation after the material has been found, has come under my observation 
and will be embodied in the narrative of the first volume. About forty 
years ago Edward CI. :\Iason, at that time secretary of the Chicago His- 
torial Society, found the record book kept by the county Lieutenani, 
John Todd, in the year 1779, when Todd came to govern the territory that 
had been occupied by George Eogei-s Clark and liis Virginians during 
the Eevolutionary War. In this record book "Mason found the copy of a 
warrant for the death of a negro, named ]\Ianuel, by burning at the stak<\ 
which burning was to take place after consolation to the criminal had 
been given by the parisli priest. The copy of the warrant had been 
crossed out by drawing lines through it. Please bear this fact in mind, 
since it should have suggested a correct interpretation. ISTaturally this 
warrant aroused the imagination of Mr. Mason, and he began to search 
for an explanation and discovered that about this time there was an 
outbreak of voodooism among the Illinois slaves and that two slaves 
had been put to death. He drew the natural conclusion therefore that 
Manuel had been burned at the stake for the practice of witchcraft. 
Basing his interpretation upon Mr. Mason's find, a well-kno\\Ti ex- 
president, Theodore Eoosevelt, who among other occupations has dabbled 
in history, wrote at some lengih upon this episode and drew a com- 
parison iDetween eighteenth century Catholic Illinois, where for the 
practice of witchcraft men were burned at the stake with the sancttion 
of the parish priest and in accordance with French Catholic law. with 
a similar episode in the history of Puritan Massachusetts in the seven- 
teenth century. 

Fortunately there has come into my hands a full record of the 
court's proceedings by which Manuel was condemned ; and I find that 
the judges in the case, although the}' were obliged to listen to the super- 
stitious accusations of negro slaves, were careful to determine the fact 
that Manuel and another negro had been guilty of murder by poisoning 
their master and mistress, Mr. and Mrs. Nicolle, and that it was for this 
act the two negroes were condemned to death. I then looked up the law 
of the land. Xaturally it might be supposed as Roosevelt did that this 
wa$ French law, but there was another possibility, namely that Virginia 
law in criminal cases would be used by a Virginian magistrate, such as 
John Todd. I found that the Virginia law in the case of murder of a 
master by a slave was death by burning at the stake so that in the case of 
Manuel 3'ou see that the condemnation was strictly in accordance with 
Virginia law and not with French law. Another document of even 
greater interest in the case also came to my hands. It certainly was a 
surprise. This was another warrant for the death of ^fanuel. issued 
at a later hour in the day, but by this later warrant the death penalty 


was changed from burning at the stake to hanging by the neck. To 
summarize then : Manuel was not condemned for witchcraft but for 
murder; he was not condemned to be burned at the stake in accordance 
with French law, but in accordance with Virginia law; and finally he 
was not burned at the stake at all, but was hung by the neck. This is 
an excellent example of the danger of drawing inferences in regard to 
historic events upon too narrow information. There was one fact 
which botli Mr. ilason and ]\Ir. Eoosevelt ignored in their interpre- 
tation of the warrant. The copy of the warrant was found in a care- 
fully kept record book, and was crossed out by lines being drawn 
through it. That fact should have made them suspicious of their own 
interpretation. Eecords such as this condemnation to death would not 
be lightly erased by the keeper of a record book. An historical Sher- 
lock Holmes would not have been misled. 

In closing permit me one last word of warning. The authors used 
the utmost care in the use of their material; the readers must not be 
blinded by their prejudices. The American public is moved by sentiment 
and is inclined to place on its nose rose-colored glasses when looking at 
the past. This is a common failing of all nations in the world ; the 
virtues of the fathers exceed the virtues of the son, the good old days and 
good old customs are the ones which we wish to perpetuate ; and therefore 
we picture in our minds our grandfathers as men of greater and nobler 
mould than we ourselves and our grandmothers as more virtuous, more 
noble, and more self-sacrificing than we are capable of becoming. With 
the same sentimental ism we as people raise our heroes to the skies. Long 
ago George AVashington lost his human semblance and arose to the rarified 
air of the empyrean. The apotheosis of Abraham Lincoln has taken 
place before the very eyes of the present generation. Already his long 
shanks are resting on a throne in the skies beside the divine George. How 
uncomfortable both these men who were so human in all that made up 
their characters must feel as they sit there weighed down by their golden 
crowns and their royal mantles! We go further and are inclined to 
deify even humble souls who have participated in our past. The pioneer 
is no longer human, but divine, no longer a man with human vices, but 
a hero of gigantic proportions. He must be pictured as invaribly just 
and noble in his dealings, though living in the midst of the violence of the 
wilderness; though uneducated, as rising to heights of political wisrlom 
seldom reached by his descendants. We would, if we could, drag back 
the generation of civilized men to the ruder virtues of primitive times. 
Such a conception of the frontier is by no means true. The conditions 
in Illinois at the time it became a State were not very dissimiliar from 
the frontier Alaska of our own days or the pioneer Montana of a gener- 
ation ago; ihe picture we have of either of these places can scarcely he 
called one of virtuous simplicity. On the border the uncultivated, the 
illiterate, and the desperado rubbed shoulders with the virtuous farmer, 
the college graduate, and the missionary. Here there were fine examples 
of noble self-sacrifice ; but here also were instances of selfish greed easily 
paralleling anything we know to-day. The frontier afforded a freedom 

— 6 H S 


which thrills the imagination of a more stilled generation; it allowed also 
a lawlessness and license whieh would be intol(>rable to the modern man. 
Illinois in passing from frontier conditions to a stage of higher civil- 
ization lost nothing that was worth keeping and gained mnch that was 
of the greatest value. The higher civilization has bronght to ns a 
greater solidarity of the people, a nobler sen?e of duty to the com- 
munity, and more intelligent action. To-day we arc in the midst of 
a great world event and our people have been thrilled, as they never were 
before, by a noble idealism. When 1 see the young men of all classes rush 
to the call of dnty sounding from a hattle line 4,000 miles away, in 
order to preserve to the world an ideal, when I see their sisters forego 
their pleasures in order to devote themselves to a cause requiring a high 
degree of intelligence to understand, I realize that the grandfathers and 
grandmothers, although dressed in homely homespun, were not greater 
than their grandchildren with their silk hosiery even in the simple virtues 
of self-sacrifice and devotion to duty. 




(By the Honorable Louis Aubert of the French High Commission to the 

United States.) 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I thank you for the 
privilege of addressing 3011 tonight in the name of France. In wishing 
that my country be represented at this Commemoration, you have given 
once more an evidence of that charming virtue of the American people: 
C ratitude. 

From 1825, when General Lafayette came to this State, up to 1917, 
the date of the visit of M. Viviani and Marechal Joffre you have wel- 
comed many illustrious Fi-enchmen. 

To-day, the greetings of France are brought to you by a more modest 
soldier. I hope you will not deem these greetings less warm and less 

Gentlemen, as it has been your delicate idea to give to our meeting 
of tonight the character of a family reunion, let us speak first of our 

A Frenchman cannot glance at a map of your State without being 
deeply moved by souvenirs fi'om the old country. Names of cities, Joliet, 
LaSalle, Vincennes — names of forts. Fort St. Louis, Fort Chartres, 
Fort Crevecoeur, how sweet those names sound to a French ear especially 
when heard far away from France ! 

,But, Gentlemen, there is something more eloquent than these 
stones or these names, now dear chiefly to archaeologists: It is the 
dream, the magnificent dream of which they are the last humble wit- 

The first white men to set eyes on the incomparable landscape of this 
great valley were Frenchmen: Marquette, Joliet, Cavelier de LaSalle. 
The grand empire, the creation of which semed invited by these beauti- 
ful waterways flowing between the Great Lakes and the mouth of the 
Mississippi, had its- inception in French minds. 

What you realized in this, the most splendid cradle of energy and 
boldness in the world, was first the dream of French pioneers. 

These stones, however, these French names scattered over your terri- 
tory do not merely bespeak dreams of bygone days : they attest the 
dominating and still enduring qualities which our race has manifested 
with a persistency that any race might be proud of. 

The idealism of a Marquette, of a LaSalle, who were neitlier con- 
querors nor merchants but merely explorers impelled by a scientific 
curiosity or a religious proselytism — their bravery coupled with prudence, 
their tenacity, their love of peace which made them act as umpires between 
rival tribes, their spirit of kindness towards the natives, all these traits 


of our ancestors we find in our explorers and soldiers of the nineteenth 
century, and to-day we find Ihcm in Brazza, who won for France the 
immense region of the Congo without shedding a drop of hlood, in General 
Lyautey who, almost without drawing a sword, has given Morocco the 
benefit of French Peace. And now in this hour of emergency ; France is 
reaping the reward of this human spirit in this war in which all her 
subjects, black, white or yellow have rallied with enthusiasm around 
her flag. 

A'o indeed, the descendants of Joliet, Marquette, Cavelier de LaSalle 
have not degenerated into the old stay-at-home decadent race that the 
Germans were so pleased to picture. They have proved it to these same 
Germans at the Marne, at Verdun, and they are proving it to-day in the 
Oise, the Somme and the Lys valleys. 

Likewise, I can safely predict that the qualities of your frontiersmen 
will come out in the sons of Illinois who are to fight in France ! 

1 well remember, when I was in the trenches, over there, how, in 
order to find an analogy to the strange existence I was thrown into, I, 
who had always lived in cities and whom war had surprised in a study, 
had to go back to a chapter of your historian F. J. Turner on "The 
significance of the frontier in American history." 

These trenches marked the farthest line of our civilization. Beyond 
the barbed wire was "^o man's land." Every night, in our patrols or 
reconnaissances, we would creep always in the same direction towards the 
listening posts, guided only by the odors and the sounds brought to us 
by the wind. Gradually, the traces of our steps made a trail like the 
trails of the "coureurs de bois." Then, later on when we pushed forward 
our lines and we advanced into "No man's land," these trails which then 
were used to bring supplies were widened into paths, then waggon roads 
and finally into railroads. So, in our turn, we passed through the 
different stages of your frontier life. And when, later, I heard of the 
skill and eagerness of the American soldiers in reconnoitering, I was not 
surprised : they are the worthy sons of the frontiersmen. 

Gentlemen, there is another trait of your ancestors that our ancestors 
helped to develop in addition to the spirit of boldness and energy : it is 
the spirit of freedom. Your historians have pointed out how your 
revolutionary spirit was stimulated by this large territory suddenly 
thrown open to the industrial conquest of a numerous, hardy and inde- 
pendent people. It is because the exploration by Frenchmen of the 
Mississippi Valley hastened the day of that Declaration of Independence 
for which fought LaFayette and Eochambeau. It is because some of the 
most brilliant qualities of your race were prepared and assisted by those 
Frenchmen who blazed the way for your spirit of enterprise and made it 
possible for you to satisfy yonr love of freedom, that from the very 
beginning up to to-day the image of France has been firmly implanted, 
to use Dr. Finley's wDrds, in the very Heart of America. That true 
spirit of freedom of your West, no one better than your great fellow- 
citizen, Lincoln, has expressed when he said : 

"I never had a feeling, politically, that did not spring from the 
sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence * * * ." 


Then speaking of the inspiration derived from that document, he went 
on to show that "it gave liberty not alone to the people of the country 
but hope to all the world for all further time." 

Then it is not an accident if so inspired that the words that Lincoln 
applied to the Civil War apply equally well to our great war of to-day. 

When he stated the impossibility for America to live "half slave 
and half free" did he not define exactly our own position ? 
Has any one ever written anything that fits more adequately the present 
situation than this sentence that one never tires of quoting: 

"We accepted this war for an object, a worthy object, and the war 
will end when that object is attained. Under God, I hope it will never 
end until that time." 

We were not the aggressors any more than you were. It was not our 
love of adventure which drove us into this war, but the necessity of 
fighting for our liberty. The admirable patience which, for more than 
two years and a half, you opposed to Gernian outrages, for 43 years we, 
their immediate neighbors, opposed to their exacting demands and prov- 

Challenged to a fight to death, we have sacrificed everything, land 
and men, without stint. For over three years and a half, out of a 
population that the invasion has reduced to 35 millions, France has 
mobilized seven and a half million men. Previous to the last drive, 
three million French soldiers in the army zone were holding more than 
two-thirds of the Western front. 

Before the present battle, that effort had already cost us : 1,300,000 
killed in action or dead from wounds received in battle ; About 1,000,000 
maimed and invalided — that is a decrease of two millions and a half out 
of our adult population, which to America would proportionately mean 
a loss of nearly six million men. 

All our forces have been thrown into the fight : the results are that 
our wheat crops have been reduced by two-third, our shipyards have 
manufactured only guns and shells instead of ships, and our export 
business has been practically stopped. 

All those sacrifices we have accepted without complaint, not only to 
defend our homes, but also to defend a great cause. 

We never fought a separate selfish war. Our reserves in man power 
and material we have always placed, in the hour of need, at the disposal 
of Serbia, of Italy — and to-day in Picardy and Flanders, our divisions 
fight side by side with our gallant allies, the British. 

With more than half of our coal fields and over 80 per cent of our 
iron deposits in the possession of the enemy, we have managed, not 
merely to set up entirely new industries to equip our armies, but we have 
been able to help our Allies, to whom, up to October, 1917, we had sent: 
1,500,000 rifles, 2,500 guns, 4,750 airplaines and you know that when 
you came into the war we guaranteed that, provided raw materials should 
be supplied, we could equip with guns and airplaines all American 
divisions brought over to France before July 1, 1918. 

That we did, and to-day we have full (confidence in your cooperation 
to the end. Upon the occasion of the first anniversary of your entrance 


into the war, your newspapers have reviewed the extent of your effort. 
Your elt'ort lias been tremendous and its results are already very 

General Pershing's action in placing all his resources in men and ma- 
terial at the disposal of General Foch, has deeply touched the heart of 
France. We know that your whole nation is at heart with that action 
and that all of you are ready to amplify it in placing all your resources at 
the disposal of our common cause. The success of your Liberty Loan 
will show it plainly. President Wilson's decision to brigade small 
American units into larger units of the French and British armies, re- 
minds us of those of our revolutionary government amalgamating the 
young recruits of Liberty among old seasoned troops and you know the 
lesson Austrians and Prussians were taught during the campaigns of 
the Fi'ench devolution at the hands of those troops whose love of liberty 
made invincible. 

The present battle, cruel as it is, has already brought serious and 
lasting advantages to the cause of the Allies. The first is the unity of 
command. We now have a generalissimo, a common leader, who is alone 
responsible for the strategy of the battle. Be assured that, when the time 
comes, he will know where to strike the blow. The second advantage is 
a greater unity of judgment. We now cherish less illusions than form- 
erly about the sufferings of our enemies, their revolutionary discontent, 
their disposition towards a negotiated peace. Such a peace, the Germans 
mention less and less since they have treated with Russia, Ukraine and 
Roumania ; they are gorged with lands to profit by and peoples to domin- 
ate and, even those who voted in favor of a peace of conciliation in the 
Reischstag in July last, are the first now to speak of necessary annex- 
ations in Belgium and in the French region of Briey. 

Each autumn, since 1915, the military leaders of Germany have 
made her people feel that war pays: Serbia crushed in 1915. Part of 
Roumania in 1916 and Russia and Ukrania and the whole of Roumania 
at the end of 1917. The Germans' hands are full, one more effort and 
all these gains will be insured forever. The magnitude of the stake is 
worth the boldest venture. Let us not rely on Austria either. Xot that 
she would not like to make peace — all the recent revelations on the secret 
negotiations which for a year Austria has tried to bring about, clearly 
indicate her desire to come out of the war, but Austria in a military way 
and industrialh', financially speaking is only a vassal receiving orders 
from Berlin. 

Let us not rely on our enemies, on the diplomacy that might divide 
them. Let us rely on ourselves. Let us rely on the valour of our armies 
to bring about Peace and let us take to heart the words of President 
Wilson : Force, Force to the utmost. Force without "stint or limit," 
the righteous and triumphant force ''which shall make right the law of 
the world." 

Gentlemen, the spirit in which France entered this war, the spirit 
in which she carries it through is the best test of the spirit in which she 
means to conclude peace. 


You entered this war. without territorial anihitions— you entered it 
i'or a principle. So did we ! Do you helicvc that our country could and 
would have stood her enormous material losses and her frightful 
sacrifices in men if she had heen prompted only by greed? Poor bar- 
gain, indeed! 

No, the spirit tliat has animated the French soldiers since August, 
1914, is a spirit of crusade, and it our national aspirations are summed 
up in the names of Alsace-Lorraine, it is because to us Alsace-Lorraine 
embodies the very spirit of this crusade. 

Last October, before the Ivcischstag, Herr von Kuhlmann exclaimed : 
Alsace-Lorraine is the symbol of the German Empire. Yes, Alsace- 
Lorraine annexed in spite of unanimous protests of its inhabitants, 
Alsace-Lorraine under German yoke for 43 years has been the symbol of 
this brutal Empire which already before the war had enslaved all its 
neighbors, the Danes of Slesvig, the Poles of Prussian Poland, and dur- 
ing this war has subjected Courland, Esthonia, Luthuania, Poland, Eou- 
mania, Serbia, Eussia and through Turkey Armenia. 

The return of Alsace-Lorraine to France on the contrary would 
consecrate the victory of the principle for which we are all fighting! 
It has become the symbol of the right of people to dispose of themselves. 

"Citizens possessed of fouIs and intelligence are not merchandise 
to be traded and therefore it is not lawful to make them the subject of 
contract," objected to their new masters the newly annexed Alsatian- 
Lorrainers through their representatives in the Eeichstag in 1874. 

And President AVilson echoed the same sentiment when he said last 
February : 

"Peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty 
to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game." 

Gentlemen, when Herr von Kuhlmann or Count Czernin proclaim 
that Alsace-Lorraine is the only obstacle to peace, do not believe them. 
At the Peace Conference, there will be other questions to settle to make 
the world safe for Democrarcy. Alsace-Lorraine is only one of the 14 
peace conditions enumerated by President Wilson. No, Alsace-Lorraine 
is not the only obstacle to peace. But no peace is possible without the 
return of Alsace-Lorraine to France, for the brutal severance of these 
French provinces was the first crime of the new German Empire against 
Democracy and out of that crime have come all the others that have 
astounded the world. 

Listen to the final touching words of farewell that the populations of 
Alsace-Lorraine addressed to the French national assembly in Bordeaux, 
47 years ago — and remember that when they were repeated before the 
Eeichstag in 1874, they were met with .sneers and laughter': 

"Your brothers of Alsace-Lorraine, now cut off from the common 
family will preserve for France, absent from tlieir hearths a filial 
affection until the day when she shall resume her rightful place here 
once more." 

Gentlemen, note these words — brothers, family, filial affection, 
hearths * * *. Tt is the whole question of Alsace-Lorraine ! 


And after 47 years, your President, whose only concern is a lasting 
peace thioiigh justice, has heard the protests and pronounced this 
verdict : 

"The wrong done to France by Prussia, in 1871, in the matter of 
Alsace-Lorraine which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly 
fifty years should be righted in order that peace may once more be made 
secure in the interest of all." 

At present the recruits of Illinois, your own sons, are perhaps 
occupying in French Lorraine at St. IMihicl or Aux Eparges, the sectors 
which face the Lorraine still occupied by the Germans. If some day, 
France owes to their gallantry the recovery of her children which 
were torn away from her. Gentlemen, then you will know that your sons 
have been the soldiers of Eight! 

Your forefathers and ours were empire builders. It is for us to show 
that their spirit may prompt us now to build up a world better than the 
one we have known. 

In the first place, we wall have to reconstruct France. You will 
help us. 

France feels that, in the past as well as during this war, she has 
served mankind. In the interest of mankind you will help us to rebuild 

We will have to reclaim "i^o man's land" and bring back life into 
the field of death. For this undertaking of peace, of civilization and 
happiness, I look forward to the cooperation of the descendants of the 
French and American settlers who raised your fair State of Illinois out 
of the wilderness of the prairies. 

AYe w^ill also have the world to reconstruct. This war has shown 
most plainly that there is no safety for a free state except in a close 
partnership with all other free states respectful of each other's rights ! 

During the w^ar, the nations most jealous of their national preroga- 
tives had to sacrifice something of their pride and accept the control of 
international organizations. 

After the war, something must survive of this union. We must 
discard the policy of "laissez-faire" and establish in its stead a better 
justice and a great efficiency. The antiquated conception of the balance 
of power must give way to a new^ regime. What will this regime be? 
We know already the one that German kultur would set up. It would 
control the whole of Europe and reach out to Persia and India, and the 
Far East. And once in control of Europe and Asia the Kaiser, as he 
bluntly told you, would stand no nonsense from America. So, in the 
end, it w^ould amount to nothing less than the domination by the Germans 
of land, sea, sky and man. 

The American conception of the new order is quite different. You 
know' what it is, you Westerners, who have the far-seeing eye of the 
prairies, you citizens of Illinois, who crave to America the man who saved 
the^ Union. You have realized on this continent a federal organization 
which, while respecting the rights of the states, is strong enough to insure 
fair relations between them. The society of nations is nothing else, 
Gentlemen, but the American spirit extended to the world. 


Perhaps our generation will see this league of nations realized. 
Meanwhile, avc must modestly begin by practising its spirit among our 
two countries, whose mutual feelings for the last hundred years are the 
surest promise of a better world to come. 

Let us set ourselves to this momentous task with the spirit of those 
builders and settlers who are our ancestors. When they cleared the forest 
in the wilderness, they dreamed of the city which would rise some day 
near that clearing. It would be a beautiful city, open to all, where all 
men of goodwill would have a chance, where all men respectful of the 
rights of their fellows would live free. 

Gentlemen, let us carry this dream one step further — let us work 
for a society of nations open to all peoples of goodwill and where all 
nations, great and small, will have the place they deserve. 


Contributions to State History 








Arranged by 


Decatur, Illinois 




Mr. Mills has been a nu'iuber of the Executive Committee of the 
International Sunday School Association since 1902, when he took the 
place of B. F. Jacobs. During all this time he has been greatly interested 
in the work of the association and one of the most active members upon 
its committee. Mr. Mills is a man who thinks for himself and thinks 
far into the future. He is a man of large vision and always helpful 
in his counsel upon the committee. His choice Christian spirit is, 
and we shall trust will continue for many years to be, a mighty asset in 
our great work. 

I know of no one who is better qualified to write a history of the 
Sunday School Work in Illinois than he. He has been connected with 
the Illinois work much longer than he has with the International 
and his influence in that association has always bulked large for its 
benefit. His sterling character and his ability to make and hold friends 
have made Mr. Mills a man well worth knowing. 

(Signed) Marian Lawrence. 

It has been my happy privilege to number Mr. Andrew H. Mills 
as one of my choicest personal friends and most appreciated comrades 
in our North American Sunday School Army. His intimate relationship 
with the Jacobs, Messrs. Eeynolds, Dr. Hamill, and other leaders in the 
Illinois Sunday School Association peculiarly qualify him to write the 
history of Illinois Sunday School work. 

We are all indebted to him for the painstaking piece of work he 
has done in writing this history. It will help us to be grateful to those 
who have been both our pioneers and benefactors in our beloved common- 
wealth. This record will also help us in our building for the future. 
Those who build the superstructure need to know the foundation. 
Those who enact new laws need to know the common law. We commend 
a study of this history to all who are called to places of leadership in the 
Illinois Sunday School Association. 

(Signed) W. C. Pearce*. 

For more than a score of years it has been my privilege to be associ- 
ated with Mr. Andrew H. Mills in Organized Sunday School Association 
Work. Tribute is due to his faithfulness, when president of the Illinois 
Sunday School Association and as chairman of its Executive Committee 
for many years, in addition to liis active interest on several sub-com- 


Illinois honored herself by appointing him as her representative on 
the International Sunday School Committee of which he is still a mem- 
ber, entitled by long service to life membership. He made it his 
business to attend the committee meetings and to do his part. Many 
problems have been referred to him for his opinion or decision. 

For a period of eight years he served a« chairman of the Elementary 
Committee (for the Children's Division) of the International Sunday 
School Association. He was always ready to devote time and thought to 
plans for promoting its work. iSTo committee member ever rendered 
more faithful, untiring devotion than he. His life has been rich in bless- 
ing for tlie Sunday School cause. In blessing others his own life has 
been enriched. 

(Signed) Mary Foster Bryner. 

"One Hundred Years of Illinois Sunday School History" would 
not be complete without note of the life and work of Mr. Andiew IT. 
Mills, of Decatur. 

Mr. Mills was born in Putman County, Illinois, October 6, 1851, of 
Quaker parentage. After his graduation from college and in the law 
he settled permanently in Decatur. He is an examplary Christian 
gentleman ; an ideal citizen who has always stood for the best in every- 
thing. He was an acknowledged leader in the campaign which made 
D'ecatur a "dry" city. He was for eighteen years the enterprising super- 
intendent of the Sunday School of the First Presbyterian Church ot; 
D'ecatur and now for many years has been the faithful teacher of the 
Sisterhood Organized Bible Class, a class numbering over one hundred 
and fifty members. 

My personal acquaintance with Mr. Mills dates from the early 
Spring of 1897, when I was attending a series of Sunday School Insti- 
tutes in Macon County with George W. Miller. I was greatly impressed 
by Mr. ]\Tills' ability, his strength of character, and his remarkable 
interest in organized Sunday School work. He was at that time an 
officer of the Macon County Sunday School Association. 

At the State Convention in Belleville, May, 1897, Mr. Mills was 
made vice president of the State Association ; in 1899 he was chosen as 
a member of the State Executive Committee ; in 1900, at the State Con- 
vention in Paris he was elected president of the State Association and 
again at Chicago in 1914, making the fourth man to serve twice as 
president of our State Association, the others being D. L. Moody, Dr. 
P. G. Gillett and William Ee}Tiolds. From that time he has been an 
influential member of the State Executive Committee. In 1902 he 
succeeded B. F. Jacobs as chairman of the committee, serving con- 
tinuously until 1914 when, at his own insistance, he was relieved of the 
chairmanship. On account of his great experience, his personal knowl- 
edge of the workers and the work, and his willingness to spare no pains 
in its compilation, Mr. Mills was chosen to write this volume. 


Mr. Mills is an eloquent, forceful speaker. His life has counted 
for Jesus Christ.. He has made a great contribution toward the better- 
ment of the world. 

(Signed) Charles E. Schenck. 

'J'he preparation of this Sunday School history was authorized by 
the Executive Committee of the State Sunday School Association, and 
Mr. Andrew H. Mills of Decatur selected to perform this service. 
After its completion, and the delivery of a part of it as an address before 
the State Sunday School Convention at Peoria, in May, 1918, a special 
committee was directed to arrange for its publication. As a result of 
this action, and on account of its value as a contribution to Illinois 
history, it is printed in this volume issued by the State Historical 
Society, and also in a special edition published by the Executive 

J. H. Collins, Springfield. 

Lyman B. Vose, Macomb. 

W. S. Eearick, Ashland. 

Committee on Publication. 

-7 H S 





(By Andrew H. Mills, A. M.) 

The niiglity work of Jesus Christ, wrought hy and through the 
consecrated men and women of the Illinois Sunday School Association 
during the past one hundred years — years of the beginning, growth and 
expansion of the plans and methods of Sunday School Avork within our 
borders, was of such variety and magnitude and its usefulness so far 
reaching on the destiny, not only of this great Commonwealth, but 
of the United States, of Xorth America, and of the entire World, that 
to give a just and fair history of the same within the time allotted to 
this period, is a task far beyond my ability. 

It was only at the united call of your Program Committee that 
1 reluctantly consented to pn^pave this paper for this occasion. 

My residence and acquaintance have been largely circumscribed to 
a small portion of this great State. I Have been compelled to rely, 
for much of this paper, on the records of the earnest and eloquent 
addresses by the God-touched men and women — the Grand old Guard — 
speaking out of their wide acquaintance with the prominent leaders of 
the early days — the rich personal experience and constructive work of 
this great organization that meets to-day to join in the one hundredth 
anniversary of this great Commonwealth whose influence extends from 
the rising of the sun to the going down thereof. 

You will recall that the ancient workers in glass and other 
materials by patient and skillful combinations were able to produce 
wonderfully beautiful designs, and as Milton, in Paradise Lost, says: 

"Each beauteous flower. Iris all hues, roses, and jessamin. 

Eear'd high their flourislr'd heads between and w-rought mosaic," 
so I have used many of these beautiful pieces of just appreciation and 
honest tribute to the devotion, ability and sterling worth of various 
members of the Old Guard of Illinois, as one after another of their 
number has heard the Master's Voice "It is enough," and my prayer 
has been during its preparation that I might take these bits of loving 
service, often without designation or quotation, in all their rainbow 
colors, together with others, out of my own grateful heart and under His 
Guiding Hand so arrange all these into a Real Mosaic that shall attract 
and inspire this generation to give and consecrate to this same Blessed 
Master the choicest service of which it is capable. My passion has been 
that He may so guide my hand, liead. and heart,in its preparation, that 


His Matchless Face shall be inwrought into every page of this paper 
so that hereafter whoever gazes upon it shall see, not only "The King in 
His Beauty'' but feel the might}- power of that Eternal Character and 
cry out of his soul's depth, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?" 


Tlie beginning of the Illinois Sunday School Association reaches 
back thirty-eight years before our beloved State was born, to Robert 
Raikes, and finds its genesis in the utterly wretched, intellectual and 
spiritual conditions that dominated England and the Continent during 
the closing of the eighteenth century. The noble and high born made 
a mock of religion, and the gulf between them and the middle and 
poorer estates was impassable. The middle classes took coloring from 
the godlessness and licentiousness of the nobility; while the poor from 
mine, factory and field had touched the very bottom of ignorance and 
sinfulness. There is no more pathetic picture in all history than that 
•of Wesley, flower of university scholarship, shut out from the pulpits 
of a debauched church, and forced to preach the Word of Life to 
surging mobs from his father's tombstone. Side by side with that 
picture, place its counterpart of the printer, Eobert Raikes, turning from 
the hopeless endeavor to convert the criminals in English jails and who, 
in going through a crowded part of the city of Gloucester, noticed the 
iarge number of destitute gamins thronging the back streets and alleys 
in all kinds of play — many even quarreling and fighting. His heart 
was touched by the sight and he determined to see what could be done 
to help these children in their life struggle. He gave the matter con- 
siderable thought and then hired four good women, for a shilling a 
Sunday, to gather thes^e children together and teach them the rudiments 
of reading, spelling and church catechism interspersed with godly 
admonitions, thus trying to make them better prepared for the duties 
of manhood and womanhood. Some people ridiculed and opposed Mr. 
Raikes' efforts to help the children. Some narrow-minded Pharisaical 
clergy claimed that it was desecration of the Sabbath, even a species of 
work. We are forced to believe tliat these descendants of the scribes 
of the Masters day were willing that these children should be left to 
grow up to gamble, fight, swear, lie and steal rather than to lend them 
a helping hand and teach them the Golden Rule. Most of those 
children, if they had been asked, would have admitted that it was easier 
or more to their purpose to swear than to study — to lie than tell the 
irrith — to steal than to vorl-. It was doubtless worh for hnth pupils 
and teachers. No cowboy ever had a tougher contest with, a fighting 
bronco than those teachers had with some of those rou^h, restless boys 
— ^with 4,000 muscles to keep them going and none to keep them still. 
Apparently the school was not a great success and yet it was a hegin- 
mng. a hud out of which great harvests have grown, not only in England 
and Illinois, but the entire world. Dr. John Potts said at the Sterling 
convention in 1902 that in 17Sn Bishop Francis Asbury of the Methodist 
Church started the first Sunday School in America, in the home of 


Thomas Crenshaw, in Hanover County, Virginia, and in 1790, that 
church orilered tliat Sunday Schools be organized to begin at 6 o'clock 
in the forenoon and remain in session until 10 o'clock and begin again 
at 2 o'clock in the afternoon and to continue till G o'clock when it 
did not interfere with public worship. Those days were only 132 years 
from this centennial. What would the people of to-day think of a 
program of that character? Every Methodist within the sound of my 
voice is saying to himself: "Thank goodness I didn't live when my 
great-grandfather was a boy." I hardly think many of us would want 
quite such a Billy Sunday-Teddy Eoosevelt strcnuosity Sunday School 
session, yet to-day the fact is that one session per Sunday of from one 
hour to an hour and a half is the rule in most of the Sunday Schools in 
Illinois. Transplanted to America the Eaikes idea soon secured what 
had been denied it in the land of its birth, first the toleration, then the 
friendship, and finally the adoption of the churches. Dr.Hamill said: 
"The first distinctly church Sunday School was formed in Pittsburgh 
in 1811. At that time it was estimated there were 100 Sunday Schools 
upon the North American Continent." Here, as in England, the 
Eaikes idea quickened the pulse of secular education. As truly as it 
may be asserted that the Eaikes Sunday School was the precursor, the 
mother indeed of the English public school system: so in America 
it became the inspiration and stimulus to all forms of Education, 
secular and religious. 

The first Sunday School organized in Chicago Avas in the year 1833 
by Eev. Jeremiah Porter, then chaplain of the soldiers' station at the 
Fort. The first building occupied for Sunday School purposes was a 
frame building erected at the corner of Franklin and Water streets by 
Dr. Temple. It was a Union School. With the growth of the city, 
schools continued to multiply until the First Mission School was organ- 
ized by the Second Presbyterian Church. This was known as The 
Bethel, and its superintendent for many years was Mr. S. Lockwood 
Brown. The Second Mission School of the city, also established by the 
Second Presbyterian Church, was called the Taylor Street Mission, 
of which Mr. Samuel I). Ward was for many years superintendent. 
The life of the school has been perpetuated in what is now known as 
Mosely Mission. 

The first Mission School organized by the Baptists of Chicago 
was known, as the New Street Mission, on the corner of what is now 
Seventeenth and Dearborn streets.This school was opened on the last 
Sunday in September, 1856, Mr. B. F. Jacobs being the superintendent. 

Mr. D. L. Moody came to Chicago early in '57 and organized the 
North Market Mission School, which has been continued and is now 
known as the Moody Church. The West Market Mission School was 
organized by members of the Third Presbyterian Church, and Mr. E. M. 
Guilford was for many years superintendent. 

During the fall and winter of 1857-58 what is known as the great 
revival occured. Noon meetings for prayer were established in Chicago 
and other large cities. The churches throughout the whole country 
were affected by this revival. In the spring of '58 the Young Men's 


Christian Association of Cliicago was organized and the young men 
of the churches became very active in Christian work. 

In the fall of 1857 an organization was affected in Chicago which 
was known as the Cook County Sunday School Convention, the plan 
being to have organizations in the various counties of the State, 
auxiliary to the State Organization. 

The Cook County Sunday School Convention was reorganized and 
an Institute held in November, 1864. As a result of this Convention 
the Chicago Sunday School Union was organized, and plans were made 
for a series of Institutes to be held during the year. 

An Autumnal Eeunion of the Chicago Sunday School Union, the 
Cook County Sunday School Convention and the Northwestern Sunday 
Scbool Teachers' Institute was held in the City of Chicago, November 
7-10, 1865. This meeting was a gratifying success, and resulted in the 
consolidation of the three organizations under the name of the Cook 
County Sunday School Union, with three departments: (1) The 
County Department, (2) The City Department, (3) The Institute. 
The meeting closed with a grand Festival and Social at Bryan Hall, 
Friday evening, November 10, at which Phillip Phillips sang several of 
his sweetest songs. 

In January, 1866, the first number of a monthly magazine called 
"The Sunday School Teacher" was issued under the auspices of the 
Chicago Sunday School Union. The editorial committee consisted of 
five members, with Eev. J. H. Vincent as Chairman and Phillip Phillips 
being musical editor. 

The offices of the Cook County Sunday School Union were estab- 
lished in the First M. E. Church Block, corner Washington and Clark 
streets. Rev. J. H. Vincent, editor-in-chief of "The Sunday School 
Teacher," being General Superintendent of the Sunday School work 
in the county. 

The printed report of Mr. E. Payson Porter, Corresponding Secre- 
tary of the Cook County Sunday School Union for the year ending 
May 30, 1866, shows that there were at that time in the City of Chicago 
eighty-three church schools and twenty-six mission schools having a 
membership of 25,635. The total reported for the county was 141 
schools, with a membership of 28,356. 

The records of the Cook County Sunday School Union were des- 
troyed in the fire of 1871. The work was reorganized in 1872 and 
from that time it continued to increase in interest and power year by 

Through the influence of the Eev. Doctor, later bishop, John H. 
Vincent and Mr. B. F. Jacobs, Dr. C. E. Blackall had turned aside com- 
pletely from his professional life as a physician to take up Sunday-school 
work. Dr. Blackall's first public work in Sunda^^-school lines was as 
general secretary of the Cook County Association during 1867. He thus 
came into touch with most of the great leaders of that time, not only in 
Illinois but elsewhere, a period of delightful work, which in many cases 
extended beyond the bounds of Cook County. 


At the expiration of his first year of service with the Cook County 
Association, he resigned to take np the work of the American Baptist 
Publication Societ}', in which he lias remained ever since. It was his 
great privilege and pleasure to know intimately the men who were then 
rapidly making Sunday-school history. 

In January, 1881, Mr. W. B. Jacobs was chosen Superintendent 
of the County work, which was then known as the Cook County Sunday 
School Association. 

The holding of monthly Superintendents' socials was a feature for 
nineteen years while ]Mr. W. B. Jacobs was connected with the Asso- 

At the annual meeting in 1900, Mr. W. B. Jacobs tendered his 
resignation as Secretary and Mr. W. C. Pearce of the Illinois Sunday 
School field workers was chosen as his successor. 

Mr. W. C. Pearce served for three years and resigned in April, 
1903, to take up work with the International Sunday School Association. 
Teacher Training and Adult work were special departments developed 
in his time. 

In September, 1903, Mr. Charles E. Hauck was called as Acting 
Secretary and at the following April Convention was employed as General 
Secretar}'. He sensed the Association in this capacity until 1909, which 
was the Fiftieth Annual Convention of the Association. He was 
followed by Charles E. Hall, who after two years was succeeded by T\Ir. 
Beeman as General Secretary. 

Many schools were organized in different parts of the State in the 
early part of the nineteenth century. I learned of one in the southern 
part of the State that was organized as early as 1808. but I have nothing 
satisfactory justifying the truth of the statement. 

The Mt. Zion Cumberland Presbyterian Church, now the Presby- 
terian Church, the oldest church organization of any denomination in 
Macon County, was established April 24, 1830, at the house of Eev. 
David Foster, who was its first pastor. The first Sunday School organ- 
ized in Macon County was organized by said Eev. David Foster, at 
that place in 1831. The first superintendent was James Scott, his 
assistant was Andrew Wilson. 

Many of the older people in this audience will recall the early Sun- 
day School days when we received the little tickets and ten of one color 
was equal to one of another color, ■\rany of you will remember the first 
Sunday School Convention you attended. I remember the first con- 
vention I, as a mere lad. attended. At my first county convention at 
which one of the Mr. Jacobs was present — I can't remember whether it 
was B. F. or W. B. Jacobs, he so gripped my heart and life that I felt 
the upward pull all these years and all I have been able to do in Sun-, 
day School work, I owe, under God. to the Godly men and women 
I have met in this greatest of all earthly endeavors of lifting humanity 
into the very presence of the l\raster — like the four friends of the paralytic 
in Jesus' day. that He may speak the word of healing and life to him. 



Dr. Hazard said in substance: The State Sunday-school Con- 
vention in Illinois has been a very great power. It has done a remark- 
able amount of good. Tlie first State Sunday-school Convention in 
Illinois was held in Dixon in 1859. The first few meetings were not of 
remarkable power. In 18()4 they met at Springfield, and the workers 
came there at rather an early hour in the morning, before the church 
was opened; and they found a window loose in the basement, lifted it 
out, and got into tlie church, and there by themselves held a little 
prayer-meeting that God would bless that Convention. The pastor of 
the church came in while they were so engaged and opened the door 
with his key, and was surprised to find that there was a little audience 
inside, and he knelt with the brethren and engaged with them in their 
devotions, it being just according to his heart. That convention was 
wonderfully blessed. No convention since has been of such wonderful 
power. It is said that ten thousand conversions were directly traceable 
to that convention. 

Mr. B. F. Jacobs said in substance: In considering the influence 
tliis organization has exerted, it is well to think how greatly it has 
developed and helped the men who have given time and thought to the 
work. Under God, it has been instrumental in teaching and disciplin- 
ing some of the best workers that the world has ever known: not only 
these who may be referred to, but many others, some whose names can 
not be recalled, have caught the fire here and have gone to other states 
and territories to carry forward the work there, and are now numbered 
among the most valuable workers in those fields. For several years 
Illinois stood in the front rank and, perhaps it is not too much to say 
that there is no other territory of the same extent, or other population 
of the same number, where the work is better done, or further advanced 
than in our own State. 

Looking back over the past, we are assured that the time and money 
expended has been as good seed in good soil and has produced thirty, 
s:xty, and an hundred fold. Difficulties there have been, but they have 
only proved the value of the work, and like Israel's trial in the wilder- 
i.ess, they have revealed to us the love and power of God. 

Mr. William Reynolds as International General Secretary said in 
the State convention in 1896 in substance : 

If I am of any use in this world in this work, I owe it, under God, 
to the State Sunday-school Association of Illinois and to the county 
and township conventions that it has been my privilege to attend for 
m.any years. 

In 1864 Mr. Moody and I sat together in Gen. Howard's head- 
(Uiarters at Cleveland. Tenn.. after the close of a large meeting at which 
Gen. Howard and others had spoken. Gen. Howard said to (he soldiers 
present: "I am going to lead you in a few days against the enemy; 
v.'hat will be the result of the battles I know not, nor how many of you 
v.'ill come out alive I cannot tell; if I knew every one of you were 
saved for God, how diflforontly would I marshall you against the enemy." 


Mr. Moody said to me, "This war is going to close in a short time; 
what are you going to do after it is over?" I said, "1 am going back to 
my business." "But what are you going to do for God?" I replied, 
"1 have not thought." Said he, "Do you know what the greatest work 
m this world is ?" I said, "What do you think it is ?" He said, "Teach- 
ing the children of this country the way to Christ and then building 
them up in Christ. Do you know that the Sunday-school is doing that 
thing? Let us go into the Sunday-?chool work; you come to Spring- 
field next June, we are going to have a State convention; Jacobs is 
going to be there ; let us try to capture that convention and try to make 
it a power in the State." I said, "I will follow you anywhere; Moody, 
for I am sure if you go into this it will be all right." That was my 
first convention. I had never been in a Sunday-school convention in 
my life before. As I. sat there and heard things entirely new to me I 
commenced to see the possibilities of such an organization. A few 
months after the war closed we took hold of that work, and what a 
mighty power it has been, shaking this State from end Lo end! What 
an impulse it has given to men, and what magnificent men it has 
raised up and educated under God! Bishop Vincent received his first 
conception of the magnitude and possibilities of this work in Illinois; 
B. F. Jacobs owes what he was to the education in this same line of 
vv'ork in Illinois; D. L. Moody would never have been the man that he 
became , at the head of the evangelistic work of the world, if it had not 
been for his training in conventions and meetings of this kind in Illinois. 
I could mention others who have been sent to other fields and whom 
we have in our midst to-day. What a power it has been in the develop- 
ment of character! And Illinois has not kept herself within herself; 
she has boiled up until she has boiled over. All over this great country 
we find representatives of Illinois in the front rank of the Sunday-school 
work. Whenever I go to a state that knows little about this work and 
find a man from Illinois, I know that man can be counted on almost 
always. He has a right conception of the work and is ready to enter 
into it at once. 

It is a great delight to meet with 3'Ou here and find the same spirit 
and energy that we had years ago. Some of our states have gone up to 
a high altitude and fallen back; some workers have moved away and 
they are not in the position they were some years ago, but not so in 
Illinois. Men may come and men may go in this State, but God's work 
goes on forever, and it is greater to-day than ever in the history of 
this State. 

As I have listened to the report of Mr. W. B. Jacobs and these 
faithful workers in connection with him, my soul goes up in gratitude to 
God for such men. The work has not retrograded, but occupies a larger 
and more aggressive position than ever before. The influence of Illinois 
throughout this land is and has been most helpful. Mr. Jacobs and I 
could not maintain the position we hold in the International work in 
this country if it were not that we are backed by Illinois. If there was 
another state in the union that exceeded in efficacy its organization 
we would have to move to it or bring Illinois up ahead of it. When we 


talk about what has been done and what can be done, we point with 
pride to Illinois and say, "It has been done, brethren, there it is, look 
at it, read its history." I often think of the time when Gen. Grant 
was nominated for the presidency by Gen. Logan. His speech was 
short and to the point. Somebody had brought in a bust of Gen. Grant 
and put it up before the great audience. Logan turned to it and said: 
"Fellow citizens, there he is, match him!" So we can put Illinois up 
and say to the country and to the world "Match her !" We are grateful 
to God that He has privileged us to be in such a position and to be able 
to extend our work through that influence all over this land." * * * 
All over this land we are emphasizing three things. We do not 
want any more machinery; we have enough machinery and as perfect 
as it can be made, I believe, but we want to emphasize these things 
we are now presenting. First, ingathering. We are determined with 
God's help to reach every family in the United States and Canada with 
an invitation to come to church and Sunday-school, so that not a boy or 
girl, man or woman, can rise up in America and say, "I live'd in this 
countrv but no one cared for my soul, no one visited me or invited me to 
come to churcli or Sabbatli-school." When we realize that in the last 
ten years the Sunday Schools of the United States have increased 
50 per cent, that in a little over one hundred years we have had 
in this country alone an attendance of eleven millions where there 
was not one before, think of the God we have to rely upon ! What 
is it to reach the balance of eight or nine millions of the children 
of this country? Child's play so far as effort is concerned, if we 
will go to Avork and distribute our forces, take up the work syste- 
matically and every one of us do his duty. If this house-to-house 
visitation is planned by counties and townships, how long wiV. it take 
to visit every family in the State of Illinois if every Christian or one- 
half of the Christians in this State will spend two hours a .week fof 
God in this work? Before this next convention comes, you can see that 
there is not a family in the State which has not been personally visited 
by some Christian man or woman and invited to church and Sunday- 
school. What would be the result? God only knows. He says, "Bring 
oil the tithes into the storehouse and prove me now herewith saith the 
Lord." Well, Lord, what will you do? "Bring in the tithes; what do 
you mean? "Your time, your money, your influence, what you have, 
bring it in and show me you are in earnest ; take hold of the work just 
as 3^ou do your business, and I will open the windows of heaven and 
pour you out such a blessing there will not be room enough to receive 
it." There would not be room enough in all the churches and school- 
liouses in the State of Illinois to hold the crowds that would come to 
1 ear His word preached and taught. I verily believe a nation could be 
born in a day, and I believe God stands ready to do this thing when 
we come up and prove to Him and show by our earnestness that our 
iiearts are in this work. Mr. Wanamaker said to me some time ago, 
"We are fooling with this thing of religion; let us go to work and take 
a grip ; let us show God we are in earnest." * * * 


When God wanted to do something for iis He did the best He 
could; when He wanted to make a present to the world He did not look 
around heaven to find something He could spare as well as not, but 
"God so loved the world that lie gave His only begotten Son." He sent 
the brightest jewel in all heaven as His present to a lost and ruined 
world. Sliouldn't we tlieii give Him our best endeavors? Somebody 
^aid a while ago, "You have given up your business?" "Yes sir." 
"What are you doing?" "Engaged in aiiullici- kind of business very 
extensively." "What is it?" "Going over this country making dis- 
satisfaction." "That is a new thing for you !" "Y^es sir." "'Do you 
like it?" "I never enjoyed anything so much in my life. If I can 
get peoi)le dissatisfied with themselves there is then some piospcct of 
their doing better; but if they feel they are doing about right and getting 
along pretty well they are in a hopeless condition. I was at a con- 
^•ention in Xew Jersey some time ago. I stated that my object in 
visiting the convention was to create some dissatisfaction, and if I could 
k-eep sonTio of them awake that night I should feel supremely happy 
and T should be glad to hear from them the next morning. As I went out 
two ladies were in front of me and one said to the other: "I feel 
thoroughly dissatisfied with myself." "Y'^es,' said the other one, *So 
do T and I am going to give up my class.' The other one said, 'I am 
not, but I am going to make myself a better teacher.' I went up and 
said, 'Ladies, thank you. I feel my mission is not in vain and I accom- 
plished my purpose. ! 'Oh Mr. Reynolds,' one replied, "I think you 
have accomplished your purpose as far as I am concerned.' And I 
said, 'Y^ou are not going to give up your class;' if you do you will never 
have a bit of rest until you take it up again. "No" she said, 'I won't.' 
That is what we w^ant. We must make them feel 'I am doing poor 
work for God and I must do better work' ." 

I have in my Sunday-school a machine, a magnificent machine for 
the manufacturing of teachers. I am not going round now picking up 
teachers as I used to do. I was in a Sunday-school a few weeks ago 
and there was a class of boys, I think seven, and they were having a 
great time trading jack knives, sticking pins and enjoving various 
other amusements exhilarating and lively. They looked like boys off 
the street, and no teacher! The teacher they had was an "off and on" 
teacher. The superintendent went down to a young lady and said, "I 
want you to teach that class." "T do not know anything about the 
lesson." "AYont you go over to them and keep them still?" Think 
of those boys with immortal souls, one hour a week all thev ever get 
of the Gospel of the Son of God. coming into that place and somebody 
implored to go over to them and keep them still ! How wonderful is 
the patience and long-suffering of God ! 

We must have better teachers. In my own school we have a society 
of Christian Enrleavor. T went in there and looked them over. I 
found some brioht intelligent voung girls and young men. T said to 
them, "Do vou want to do the highest and grandest and noblest work 'n 
the world? Would vou like to do what Jesus Christ did when He was 
in this world ?" "Yes sir." "T will put you where you can do it. The 

greatest work, ''I said, is to be a teacher, arA the greatest thing to teach 
is God's word, and the best material to teach children. Now come and 
give me your names and subscribe to this little document that I have 
here," a promise that they would join that class and be faithful in their 
attendance, etc., and seven of tliem signed that document. We got a room 
and fitted it up in the Sunday-school gallery. I went to a young man, 
a teacher in the public school, formerly a pupil in my school, and said, 
"Have you ever received any benefit from the school I am superintendent 
of?'' "That school has made me what I am, sir; I there learned 'o 
love Christ and in it I received the religious education of my life." 
"Would you like to do something for it now in view of what it has done 
for you ?" "I will do anything in the world for it." "Come down next 
Sunday and take a training class of young people and fit and qualify 
them for teachers." Last Sunday I was at home and I found eleven 
young men and women sitting there with that splendid fellow standing 
before them teaching Prof. Hamill's Normal lessons. I tell you I am 
not going around any longer picking up teachers to keep boy;^ still; T 
am going to have a first-class lot of teachers; no person is to graduate 
from that class until that young man gives them a certificate that they 
are qualified so far as he is able to qualify them to be teachers. Every 
one of you can do this. Put Normal classes in the Sunday-schools and 
have a training class for teachers. 

Keep up 3^our organizations. The organization is (he house; these 
other the goods to put into the house. You must have a good house 
with a good roof, in order that you have these articles to put in it and 
make them useful. We want these township conventions. the joy 
of attending township conventions! I have attended these larger con- 
vetions, but the joy of my life has been in these little township con- 
ventions where we get one ,two, three or four schools together and get 
down where people need to be instructed in their work. Brethren, 
the delight of this work is that you are able to help somebody else ; 
what a luxury it is to help somebody to a higher and better plane ! God 
has given us this wonderful organization; God is with this organization 
in a marked degree; what he intends to do with it He only knows, 
but let us be faithful to our trust. 

John V. Farwell said in substance: The Sabbath-school work 
beginning with the young, instilling into them the Gospel of the Son of 
God, has much to do with the future history of this Government. Each 
one of us here in this audience tonight has something to do to support 
the Government of this country, that one day, within the lives of some 
of these little children here tonight, will have over two hundred millions 
of people. Now, what have we to do with these oncoming millions? 
Why, let us begin right at home, and let us convey the Gospel of the Son 
of God to every child's heart that we possibly can reach, and let us do 
it in the fear of God, with the hope that we shall be instrumental in His 
Hands of building up an influence that shall convey this Government 
beyond the cavils of the politicians, and set it up upon a pinnacle where 
the nations of the earth shall look upon it. There is nothing that gives 
us so much power to work for those that are about us, and those that 


are dependent upuu us, as to have the soul fdled with the Spirit of God, 
that we get iu the study of the word. And as yunday-school teachers, 
we have the very highest motive that can be possibly placed before any 
one to labor in this work. 

i remember in the beginning of Mr. Moody's work in Chicago, 
that there were very many wase men there, and some of them told him 
in reference to his Sabbalh-school work, that he could serve God a good 
deal better by keeping still and keeping his mouth shut, than he could 
by opening it; that it was his place to stay in his own little church and 
let this outside mission alone. He asked God about it as well as his 
minister, and as well as the deacons of the church to which he belonged. 
And the answer from the Throne of God was to go down among the 
saloons of Chicago and gather up these neglected children and teach 
them the word of God. Brother Moody's work began against the advice 
of some of the best friends of the church of Christ in Chicago. Well, 
now, what has God wrought? So let us, each one, go home from this 
Convention, remembering that the conventions of Illinois began in the 
brain of Brother Moody and Brother Jacobs, and perhaps two or three 
others, and they have persistently kept up that work from that time 
until this, and they have put forth every effort that could possibly be 
brought to the front into the line of Christian work, and they have 
multiplied these influences all over this State. Moody gave God the 
right of way through his heart, his plans, and his life. We should each 
do the same. 


Daniel Webster: "If we work upon marble it will perish; 
if we work upon brass, time will efface it; If we rear temples, they 
crumble into dust, but if we work upon Immortal Souls; if we 
imbue them wdth principles, with the just fear of God and the love 
of fellowmen, we engrave on those everlasting tablets something 
wdiich will brighten all eternity." 

President Woodrow ]Wlsons "The Sunday School Lesson 
of to-day becomes the code of morals of tomorrow. Too much 
attention cannot be paid to the work of the Sunday School." 

President W. II. Taft: "No matter what views are taken of 
general education, we all agree — Protestant, Catholic, and Jew 
alike — that Sunday School education is absolutely necessary to 
secure moral uplift and religious spirit." 

Mr. Marion Laivrence: "The century we have just passed 
through, the greatest century of all the world, the century of pro- 
gress, the century of invention, the century of steam, electricity and 
philantliropy, the centun- of education and of missions, the centurv 
of the Y. M. C. A., of 'the Bible Societies, of the Young People's 
Societies of the various names, and the Sunday School, and the 
greatest of these is the Sunday School." 

Honorable John Bright: "No one can put too high a value 
on the voluntary work of the Sunday School teacher." 


Honorable John Wannamaker: "The greatest development 
of the nineteenth century is the Sunday JSchool. 1 may have 
wasted my time over many things but the time I have spent in 
Sunday School work has certainly not been wasted." 

Dr John Watson: "The greatest agency for good in the 
American nation, as I see it, is the Sunday School.'' 

Mr. U. J. Heinz: "The Sunday School pays the biggest divi- 
dends of any investment of time or money I have over made." 

President of Grant University: "The Sunday School teachers 
are the makers of America." 

Prof. Palmer of Harvard: "What constitutes the teacher is 
the passion to make scholars." 

Chaplin Dr. Jesse S. Dancy, in France, formerly M E. De- 
nominational Eepresentative on our Association and Chairman of 
our Business Committee : "With all respect to the fine work of 
the Eed Cross, of the Y. M. C. A. and of similiar organizations, 
let me say solemnly that none of them offer the opportunity to serve 
one's country that the Sunday School offers. You can train a 
soldier to fight in a year but it takes all his preceding life to train 
him morally and spiritually to the sort of a manhood that makes 
the sort of a soldier upon which his superiors and his country can 
safely rely." 


The Old Guard of the Illinois Sunday School Association were men 
of nerve, conviction and consecration. When a duty was assigned to 
them, they had but one reply: "This one thing I do." They had 
unflinching courage, not the courage of dress parade! No discourage- 
ments were great enough to keep William Eeynolds from laughing in 
their teeth ; or of B. F. Jacobs finding a way or making it, after opening 
the door of the church where his meeting was to be held, then going up 
and down the streets of an Illinois village ringing a bell to get an audi- 
ence ; or the stubborn purpose of D. L. Moody and other members of this 
Immortal Band in laying the foundation of our Sunday School work 
with a faith that was equal to every emergency, then I am sure the 
Young Guard can learn a Lesson from these Past Masters of heroism 
and unconquered zeal. These men and their associates may not have had 
the fine scholarship of some of our present day workers, but they had 
an experience, a vision, a faith, and a wisdom from God which only 
comes from a personal struggle with the elemental things of life. They 
knew the weak and the strong points of the men and women of that 
day. The Avomen gladly shared the severe trial of the men, "And to 
their glorious nature true, did all that angels could be asked to do." 
They doubled their joys and divided their sorrows. God'-i lamp of faith 
once lighted was never allowed to go out, even in the humblest cabin. 
They made no compromise with evil. Their strong hands, brave hearts 
and indomitable wills have laid the foundation deep, broad, and strong 
of the first century of Illinois' greatness — true and real greatness in all 


the essential elements necessary to perpetuate their matchless work 
unstained and eternal as the throne of God. 

STEPHEN PAXSOX, the John the Baptist of the Illinois Sunday 
School Association, was born in New Libson, Ohio, in 1808. In 1838 
he moved with his family to Winchester, Illinois. It was here that his 
faithful daughter lifted her father out of his wasted life and he gave his 
heart to God and she taught him to read, when he had almost reached 
the meridian of life. She inspired him to become a pioneer of righteous- 
ness, not only in Illinois, but in the mighty West. He dedicated his life 
to the Sunday School in behalf of the children and youth of our country. 
He died April 24, 1881, loved and honored not only in Illinois, but by 
thousands in other states. A suitable monument rests above his sleep- 
ing dust in St. Louis overlooking the Father of Waters, a fit symbol of 
the life and memory of the great man, which will continue to charm and 
brighten the hearts and lives of succeeding generations. His death 
was a great loss to the Sunday School workers of Illinois. Eev. Charles 
M. Morton said on one occasion : "It is reported that at the funeral of 
Daniel Webster when all were taking their last look one old man came 
and looked and said 'Daniel Webster, the world will be lonely ^vithout 
you,' so I feel that I express the feeling of the church and Sunday 
School workers when I say : "Father Paxson we are all lonely without 
you tonight." 

He was a manly man. The greatest sight in this world is a manly, 
christian man. No one knew of Father Paxon's doing an unmanly 
thing. If true to anything in his life, he was true to his christian man- 
hood. The blessing of God rested upon every member of his family. 
He had an intense hatred for sham. The hypocrite did not find his 
companionship comfortable. Another great characteristic was his loyalty 
to the Son of God. He did not worship the work, but realized for 
l;whom he w^as working. When asked by his son on his death bed: 
"Father how is it mth you," the old man looked up and said : "Ah my 
son, that question was settled long ago." He was full of common sense. 
He looked at everything through common sense eyes. He was the per- 
sonification of kindness. It is said of a lady going along the street of 
a city one day, right ahead of her she saw a boy standing against a house 
putting his bare feet under his pants. As she came along she put her 
hands upon his head and said in a kind way "Are you not cold, my boy?" 
"I was ma'm until you spoke;"' so many people were cold, many were 
sad and discouraged, and many were lonely until the old man spoke. 
Mr. Morton further said : "I do not believe there is a man in Illinois 
who has helped more to minister to and lift the loads off the hearts 
of Sabbath School Superintendents than he. Several times I have felt 
cold until I heard him speak. His memoiy will be like a golden chord 
of love let down from the Throne of God, drawing us nearer and nearer 
to heaven." 

He was an extraordinary man. His life was one of the srreatest 


successes ever achieved in this country. His real monument will be 
in the hearts of those who knew and loved him. Let us emulate his 
example. He was a consecrated man of God. Let us consecrate our- 


selves to God and follow him as he followed our Saviour. May the Lord 
bless this man's life to ever}' one of us. Many thank the Lord first that 
they ever knew that nmn, that his influence upon them brought comfort 
and peace to each heart. Let us thank God that He gave to Illinois 
Stephen Paxson. God bless us and help us so that when we die some 
one may stand over our graves and thank God that we ever lived. 

He was the man that touched the life of William Reynolds of Peoria 
and gave him a new vision of things really worth while in this life, and 
it was through his influence largely that Mr. Eeynolds left his business 
and became the great messenger for God in the estal)lishing of the pro- 
paganda of the Sunday School cause of Illinois and of the World. Mr. 
Reynolds said : "This State owes more to Stephen Paxon than to any 
other for its Sunday School organization. He was the first man that 
ever organized a County Convention in the State of Illinois, and he 
never rested nor left the State until it was organized from one end to the 
other. He organized 1,500 Sabbath Schools and enrolled 71,000 children. 
AVho can measure the influence that those Sabbath Schools have exerted 
in this State and in the world ? Many churches have been the out- 
growth of those Sunday Schools which would never have been started 
had it not been for Paxson. Thousands have been brought to a saving 
knowledge of Christ by this one servant of the Living God and the in- 
fluence that he set in motion in the work he did for humanity will 
continue to widen and deepen as the years come and go." 

Herbert Post, the Association's first General Secretary, said that 
Stephen Paxson met with much opposition, especially in what was known 
as Egypt. In one place he applied to the school trustees, asking if he 
might not hold a Sunday School there on Sunday. He was refused, 
the trustees saving thev did not want anv "new-fangled notions like 
that." Mr. Paxon said : "You will let us gather the children there 
and sing with them, wont you?" "Why yes; we do not object." "Well, 
after singing a while suppose we read to the children out of the Bible? 
We can do that can't we? "Why, yes" was the reply. Said Mr. Paxson: 
"That is what the Sunday School is." "Oh. well, if that is all, go ahead 
and we will help you." 

Mr. B. F. Jacobs said : "There were three things that character- 
ized Brother Stephen Paxson : First, his belief in the Word of God, 
and that Word in its fullness. Second, his belief and rest in the 
finished work of Christ our Lord, and Third, the indwelling power of 
the Holy Ghost. Stephen Paxson believed the word of God. That 
Bible to him was the revelation of God to man. I have often been with 
him and heard him read and saw the rich joy showing in his face as ho 
feasted upon it. He believed and God counted it to him for righteous- 
ness. Stephen Paxson dwelt in the presence of the Living and Seeing 
One. He was guided by the Eye of God. What we shall say of Stephen 
Paxson's reward is not in language to portrav, none but the heart of 
Christ himself can describe it." 

JOHN" M. PECK was born hi Litchfield, Conn, in 1789; in 1811 
he united with the Baptist Church ; in 1813 he was ordained to the 
Baptist ministiT, and in 1817 he was appointed a missionary with head- 


quarters in St. Louis, Mo., and early in July, 1817, he started for his 
field of labor with his wife and three children in a one horse wagon, 
reached Shawneetown, 111., in November, and later went to St. Louis, 
Mo., and afterwards removed to Eock Springs, 111., near Alton, and 
resided there till his death in 1857. When the American Sunday School 
Union was formed in 1824, Dr. Peck put himself immediately in touch 
with it and in order to acquaint this organization with the middle west 
he reported concerning the work he had done in this pioneer State and 
its needs. Later he founded the Eock Springs Seminary for general 
and theological education. In 1832 this and a Seminary at LTpper Alton 
united and in 1835 it became known as Shurtleff College. He was a man 
of strong personality and keen mind ; he devoted his life to missions and 
the earnest organization and vigorous support of Sunday Schools. He 
kept a diary and his first mention of Sunday Schools was in 1823 : 
"Lord's Day, September 28 — In the evening preached in Thomas Carlin's 
house (Carlin was Governor of Illinois from 1838 to 1842) from the 
Parable of the Sower. The people are attentive and solemn." 

The next Sunday he writes: "The Sunday School met at the house 
and recited Scripture lessons. I then preached from Phil. 1 :21. 
Eeligion now flourifhes in this settlement." 

"October 22 — I met the managers of the Bible Society of Green 
County. On the night of the 24th, I plead the Bible cause before 
a respectable assembly in Alton, and the next day (25) attended the 
proposed meeting in Edwardsville. By a little seasonable and pinident 
effort the Testament may become a class-book in the day-schools of this 
country. On the way to this place I succeeded in getting it introduced 
into five schools." 

In April and May of 1824 Mr. Peck makes a note that he worked 
in the central, southern, and Military Tract of the State in behalf of 
Sundav Schools and the Bible Society. 

At Kaskaskia, he formed a Bible Society of twenty members under 
circumstances of hopefulness, a pious Quakeress being made President. 

In June of 1824 he read in the newspapers of the formation of 
the American Sunday School Union at Philadelphia, and he immedi- 
ately entered into correspondence with the officers, giving the facts he 
had gathered in the vast region over which he had traveled. From that 
time we find him closely identified with the interests of this great 

His Bible and Sunday School labors brought him into contact with 
christians of all religious denominations then in Illinois. Speaking 
of a Methodist family that entertained him, he says, "I was received as 
kindly as I could have been in any Baptist family. Experience has 
taught me that it is a wretched policy for the sects in religion to oppose 
each other." 

As he traveled up and down and across the State, he presented the 
Bible Society work, and the Sunday School and Temperance causes to 
congregations of all denominations, and. at the same time he was husy 
with ton.gue and pen arousing public sentiment against the evil of 
human slavery. No other man, except it was Gov. Coles, say the best 

J 13 

authorities on State history, exerted a greater influence in making 
Illinois a free state than John M. Peck. 

In his diary of 1825, he writes: "From various quarters I learn 
that the Sunday School cause prospers. 

The State Legislature at Vandalia in the winter of 1825-6 was in 
session and he made an address to that body in behalf of the Bible and 
Sunday School work, and won over to these interests a number of promi- 
nent men of the State. While there, the matter of dissolving an agri- 
cultural society came before the Legislature for action. Ho was en- 
couraged to make an effort to secure for the Sunday School work a 
surplus belonging to this organization. By a little effort upon his part 
the sum of $260.00 was secured to promote Sunday School interests in 
the State of Illinois. This seems to be the only instance of a Legis- 
lature's appropriating money for Sunday Schools. 

In February 1826, Mr. Peck was appointed by the American Sunday 
School Union agent to solicit funds in New York, Boston and other 
eastern cities. This work took nine months of his time. 

In Washington he made addresses in the churches, spoke in Colum- 
bia College, was received by President Adams, and met many of the 
prominent men of the Nation. In Philadelphia, he dined with a body of 
Presbyterian ministers at the home of Alexander Henry, President of 
the American Sunday School Union. 

Dr. Henry took an active part in the International Sunday School 
Association and had charge of his church Sunday School publications 
for many years. 

In all of the large cities visited, Mr. Peck attended the best Sunday 
Schools he could find to observe the methods pursued in instruction and 
in organization. He speaks of one school in New York as : "Probably 
the best conducted Sunday School in the world." 

The following items from his diary made seven years later : 
"December 3. 1833, Peached Vandalia, and at night attended the 
annual meeting of the Illinois State Bible Society." 

December 4. "Most of the day was employed in finishing my re- 
port of the Illinois Sunday School Union. On the evening the anni- 
versary was held in the State house. A large assembly was present, and 
much interest excited. The Sunday School cause has obtained a strong 
hold upon the affections and confidence of the people. With prudent 
and energetic management it must succeed." 

December 5. '^ery busy through the day in settling and arrang- 
ing business with the Sunday School agents present, and attending 
meetings of the Board, committees, etc." 

December 8. "Lord's Day. In the morning attended the Sunday 
School and addressed it on the subject of Temperance." 

December 12. "Went to St. Louis, chiefly on Sunday School busi- 

December 14. "Saturda.y, very busy preparing the Sunday School 
report for the press." 

December 22. "Preached the funeral sermon for the late Governor 
Edwards in the Court-house at Edwardsville. Not only was the house 
— 8 H S 


crowded, but a multitude were out of doors, tlic wcatlier Ijeiug pleasant. 
The next day a call was made for the publication of the sermon with 
a short memoir of the Governor's life and character which will be com- 
plied with." 

PETI":K CARTWKIGHT was born in Va., September 1, 1785 and 
(iii'd at Pleasant Plains Sept. 25, 1872. He was the great pioneer of 
Methodism. In his biography of over 500 pages, written in 1857 and 
covering a period of thirty years or more in Illinois, the name Sunday 
School appears oidy once, a friend writes nic who made the investigation. 
That Uv Cartwright favored Sunday Schools is indicated in the state- 
ment in which he uses the words "Sunday School" to tell the reader 
that he had been a contributor of cash to the "American Sunday School 

He Avas one of those '"'rough and ready" characters that so often 
are found in the early settlement of the different parts of our State. 
His acquaintance with the early settlers of our State was very extensive 
and his strong traits of character gripped his friends with meshes of 
steel and made his influence very great. He was on intimate terms with 
many of the influential men of his day and he left an impression on his 
age of remarkable power. He had many characteristics that resembled 
those of President Abraham Lincoln. 

JACOB F. BERGEN, son of Abraham and Hannah Fisher Bergen, 
was born near Cranberry, New Jersev, May 27, 1802. He died at 
Virginia, Cass County, Illinois, December 23, 1887. 

In 1828 he came to Illinois in company with Rev. J. G. Bergen, 
having made the long Journey by cart and on horseback. He located at 
Old Princeton, Cass County. It is said that from a Sunday School in 
which he was interested, located in an out of the way place where there 
was no other religious influence, seven young men entered the ministry. 

He frequently gave days to trips through the country, even into 
other counties, often in company with Father Adams and later with 
Father Paxson. organizing and assisting Sunday Schools. When the 
latter accompanied him on these journeys lie generally left his horse, 
"Robert Raikes". at the Bergen homestead where both the horse and his 
master were great favorites of the Bergen children. While interested in 
the Providence Presbyterian Church, of which he was an Elder, he and 
his good wife often denied themselves the privileges of the Sunday 
service to go out into the country to encourage and help needy schools. 

During a period of nearly sixty years in Central Illinois, he was on 
the Sunday School job, and present every Sunday \inless physically 
unable to attend. There are many living in this State who testify con- 
cerning his valuable services to the cause when such layman as he were 
scarce. Such men by placing "first things first" made a lasting impress 
on the young life of the community in which they lived that is felt even 
to-day. They lived to a noble purpose and are held in grateful re- 
membrance to-day as the living embodiment of the Christ-life. 

DR. EDWARD EGGLESTON was born in Indiana in 1837, or- 
dained in the ministry in the Methodist Church in 1857. and was in 
pastorates for about ten years. He was the editor of the Little Corporal, 


a juvenile paper in 18GG and 1867, at Chicago, and editor of the 
National Sunday School Teacher in Chicago from 18G7 to 1870; literary 
editor of the Independent, New York, from 1870 to 1872; editor of 
the Hearth and Home, New York, from 1871 to 1872. He was the 
author of several popular works of fiction. Some of you will remember 
him as the author of "The Hoosier School master," "The End of the 
World," "The Circuit Rider" and other stories. In 1869 he edited two 
small volumes entitled Sunday School Conventions and Institutes with 
suggestions on County and Township organizations, and later a manual 
or practical guide to Sunday Schools. He was a fluent speaker, with 
a strong and pleasant personality, and was recognized as a leader and 
competent teacher of teachers. His lesson expositions and practical 
hints in the National Sunday School Teacher won him great favor. 
His fame as a "Sunday School man" vied with his fame as an author. 
He said that he "trained" with Jacobs, Moody, Gillett, Morton and 
Reynolds. In 1869 he was chairman of the Executive Committee of 
the Illinois Sunday School Association. At the Newark convention in 
closing his address he said : "Go home better men, wiser men, fuller 
men, crazier men in the Sunday School work." In the National Sunday 
iBchool convention in 1872 he stood almost alone in opposing the uni- 
form lesson plan and contesting heroically the popular tide. He made 
a large contribution to Sunday School efEectiveness and gave many 
young people a new incentive and a greater vision of life. Although 
opposed to the International Sunday School Lesson System, yet he did 
a large part towards its success by advocating it through his Sunday 
School Teacher. 

JAMES McKEE PEEPLES, President of the State Convention 
at Galesburg, 1871, heard the call of the Master in 1880. The whole 
southern part of the State felt his loss keenly. His personal work 
and liberal contributions, as well as his valuable experience, have been 
of great service to the cause of Christ in his own county, his District, 
and State. He was a member for many years of the State Executive 

He was associated with Thomas Eidgeway in the southern part' 
of the State. When William Reynolds was asked to go and organize 
the southern part of the State, he asked who there was to take hold of 
the work and go along ^^^th him to introduce him. He was told that 
there were two men living in Washington County, leaders in the Pres- 
byterian Church, J. McKee Peeples and Thomas Ridgeway. Mr. 
Reynolds said "I wrote to Mr. Peeples, having forgotten Mr. Ridgeway's 
name. I finally got an answer from him asking me what I wanted. 
I told him that I wanted him to come to the convention at Bloomington. 
He answered, "I- will be there, God willing." We had a great con- 
vention. A tabernacle was built and Mr. Moody was present. A gentle- 
man came to me at the close of the morning session, and said, "My name 
is McKee Peeples. You have requested that I should be present at 
this meeting." I said "Yes, sir, I am very much obliged." He said: 
"What do you want me to do." I replied, "I will be much obliged, Mr. 
McKee Peeples, if you will take a seat here every day." He replied, "I 


will do it, sir." Sometimes he would take up a paper and read, and then 
he would lay aside his paper and listen. The second day he did not 
bring his paper. The third day he took a scat next to the front. Mr. 
Moody asked me who that man was sitting down there. I said, "He is 
a man under my spiritual care. 1 want you to watch him with great 
care and say anything you can to wake him up. They need to be 
aroused where he lives, and I want to get him interested." He replied, 
"I think that he is interested." The result was, at the close of the 
session he came to me and said: "Reynolds, what can be done for 
Southern Hlinois?" I replied, "You are a business man, Mr Peoples, 
and I am a business man. Let us go through the State and canvass it 
for Christ." He replied, "We will do it, "Come down." We went down 
there, and I shall never cease to thank God for the privilege I had of 
laboring there with Peeples, Ridgewav, Hunter, and others. 

PHILIP G. GILLETT, L. L. D., for thirty-seven years Superin- 
tendent of the Illinois State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at 
Jacksonville, was twice President of the Illinois Sunday School Asso- 
ciation, once at Eockford in 1866, and again at Quincy in 1870. He 
died at Jacksonville, October 2, 1901. He was a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee for many years. 

At the great National Convention held in Indianapolis in 1872, 
Illinois presented Dr. Gillett as their candidate for President to succeed 
George H. Stuart, of Philadelphia, the most eloquent orator, and one of 
the most finished presiding officers of the Sunday School arena of tlie 
Nation. As President Gillett ascended the platform to take the place 
of his predecessor, standing by his side, he was easily recognized as the 
peer of the noblest in that brilliant assembly. The Indianapolis Con- 
vention was the beginning of a new era in our Sunday School history. 
To it, and largely to his wise ruling and skillful handling during pro- 
tracted debates, led by Vincent, Eggleston, Jacobs and others, when it 
seemed, at times, that it would be impossible to harmonize the different 
views by those who were giants and positive in their convictions, are 
the Nation and World largely indebted for the International Lesson 
system, which has to so large a degree unified the Sunday School teach- 
ing of the world, and made possible the Sunday Schools of to-day. 

Through the counties of this State, he went from convention to 
convention with his earnestness, his eloquence, and his deep, religious 
spirit, inherited from his father, a faithful Methodist minister, and 
his godly mother, cheering the discouraged, and inspiring all with some 
of his own zeal and enthusiasm, and contributing largely to the elevation 
of Illinois to its present exalted position in our Sunday School army. 

It was fitting that President Gillett should be chosen as a member 
of the first International Lesson Committee. He was also for several 
years a valued member of the Executive Committee of our Association. 

Near the close of the first International Sunday School Convention 
in 1875, he said : "Brethren and Sisters — sink or swim, live or die, I 
give myself to this Sunday-school work. They tell me that I have 
Sunday-school on the brain. I said one day to the man that told me 
that, you remind me of a gi-eat minister who became somewhat deranged 


and was shut in prison. A parishioner lookea through the grating and 
said to him " what brought you here?" "Brains, sir! brains! what will 
never bring you here !" Young America and old fogyism are not always 
to be measured by years. Father Paxson does more work to-day than 
many a young man who thinks himself a mighty man." 

JOHN H. VINCENT was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, February 
23, 1832. In his childhood the family removed to Lewisburg, Pa. and 
later to Milton, Pa. He studied in the Wesleyan Institute at Newark 
New Jersey, but was unable to obtain the higher training of the college, 
a fact strongly influencing him in the efforts later in life for the pro- 
motion of popular education. He carried his studies alone through the 
college course and was examined in 1875 and received the honorary degree 
of B. A. from Mt. Union College, Ohio. In 1870 he was given a degree of 
L. T. D. by Ohio Wesleyan, also Harvard in 189G, and that of L. L. D. 
by Washington and Jefferson College in 1885. He began preaching at the 
age of eighteen. 

In 1857 he was transferred to Eock River Conference in Northern 
Illinois. He organized for his young people for the purpose of studying 
bible history and geography, a class known as "The Palestine Class," 
which was afterwards published in 1888. He marked out a map of 
Palestine on the church lawn and led his students on pilgrimages from 
place to place and taught events in connection with the localities. 

He had charges in Mount Morris in 1859, and Galena in 1860 — 61 
and in 1862 was transferred to Rockford and then to Trinity Church in 
Chicago, in 1865, and here he met B. F. Jacobs and other leaders who 
found an able associate in the young pastor of the Trinity Church In 
1865 he was called to New York to become the General Agent of the 
Methodist Episcopal Sunday School Union. He established the Sunday 
School Journal for teachers in the fall of 1888. 

Between 1870 and 1873 he was one of the leaders in the movement 
for the International Uniform Lessons which became effective over the 
American Continent in 1872, and he went to England about this time 
and was very influential in bringing the Sunday Schools of Great Britain 
into line with the Uniform Lessons. 

Dr. Hazard said in substance : In 1860 John H. Vincent, an 
Illinois Sunday-school man, who had a brain of his own and thoughts 
of his own, thinking far ahead of his time, began to think of some sort 
of training class, and in 1864, or a little before, he was trying to introduce 
Sunday-school institutes. In 1865, near the close of the year, he started 
in Chicago, what afterwards became the National Sunday school Teacher, 
but then was the Sunday School Quarterly. In that quarterly he outlined 
a lesson course that was called "Two Years With Jesus." 

Looking through those first lesson papers that appeared in that 
quarterly, you find many things we have to-day. For a beginning they 
were wonderfully perfect, and there is not a lesson paper issued but what, 
in some respect at least, copies the ybtj first one that was issued. 

Dr. Hamill said : "Shoulder to shoulder with Paxson was another 
stalwart figure in Illinois for many years, who passed from us into other 
positions, but the fragrance of whose memory yet abides, the man whom 


I esteem the greatest of our teachers and who yet lives to wear the laurel 
of unfading ronown. I speak tlie name of Jolin H. Vincent with peculiar 
respect. God made him an inventor of .Sunday School things. It was 
the work of Paxson to lay the foundation; of Vincent to plan the modern 
Sunday School. A generation has passed since he began his first think- 
ing, yet the thoughts of the men grown gray are still as fresh as dew 
upon the flowers. We never had within our State a finer thinker than 

At the general conference in 1888 in New York, he was chosen a 
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a man of clear 
vision, of lofty inspiration^ of loving sympathy, and an efficient workman. 
He rendered a great service for the Sunday School cause of Illinois and 
other states and did a noble work for his own denomination and the 

MARSHALL C. HAZAED was born in 1839 and recently passed 
away. During much of that time he was a leader among the Sunday 
School forces, not only of Illinois, but of other states as well. He 
was graduated from Knox College in 1861, which a few years later hon- 
ored itself and Mr Hazard by conferring upon him the degree of Ph. D. 
He was admitted to the Illinois bar -as a lawyer in 1864, but his incli- 
nations were more strongly drawn towards literary than legal pursuits and 
in 1866, he became the editor of the Chicago Advance as the Western 
Representative of the Congregational denomination, which he continued 
for four years and which was followed by two years employment as con- 
fidential agent of Messrs. Jay Cooke & Co., one of the foremost bank- 
ing houses of that day. In 1874 he became the editor of The National 
Sunday School Teacher published in Chicago. In the various Editorial 
positions he has occupied he has written expositions of five courses of 
the International Sunday School lessons, of seven or six years each, and 
each course including selections from the whole Bible. These studies 
were sought by teachers in all denominations and highly appreciated. 
His service with The National Sunday School Teacher extended from 
1874 to 1882 and for the two following years he was Assistant Editor of 
the Sunday School Times, wliich position he left to become the Western 
Secretary of the Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society. 
In 1885 he moved to Boston where as Editor of the Pilgrim Teacher 
from its beginning and the various helps and other publications of the 
society he continued in active service until he became Editor Emeritus 
in 1910. He was intimately associated with Jacobs, Vincent. Reynolds 
and the Old Guard of Illinois, and frequently in her conventions, and 
in 1880 at the State Convention at Galesburg he delivered an address 
"One Hundred Years of Sunday Schools" which showed a thorough 
knowledge of the subject, and spoke as one having authority. He was 
a member of the Religious Educational Association and president of the 
Sunday School Editorial Association, and rendered valuable services in 
cooperation with the International Lesson Committee. He believed in 
the Graded Lessons and rendered valuable suggestions in that con- 
nection. His closing days were passed in Literary labors at his home in 
Dorchester, Mass., where he heard the Mastei-^s summons "Come Home." 


DWIGHT L. MOODY was bom in Northfield, Mass. in J 837; 
founded Northfield Seminary in 1879; then Moody Bible Institute of 
Chicago in 188G. He died in 1899. 

He was one of the greatest leaders of the organized Sunday-school 
work in Illinois and associated with most progressive movements of 
his time. He was won to Christ through the personal interest and 
work of Mr. Edward Kimball, superintendent of the Mount Vernon 
Congregational Sunday-school in Boston, where Mr. Moody, a stranger in 
Boston, was attending Mr. Kimball's Sunday-school, who gained the 
young man's confidence and led him to Christ. In relating this experi- 
ence Mr. Moody said : "Before my conversion I worked toward the 
cross but since then I have worked from the cross." 

Soon after uniting witli the church in Boston, Mr. Moody came to 
Chicago and united with Plymouth Congregational Church and at once 
became actively interested in the church and also the Sunday-school. 
He applied for a class in a little mission school in North Wells street 
and was told that he could have such a class if he w^ould get his own 
pupils. Much to the surprise of the superintendent Moody was "on 
hand the next Sunday with eighteen "hoodlums" gathered from the 
near-by streets, and the newly organized class grew rapidly. The 
experience which Mr. Moody gained here proved valuable to him. 

In 1858 he began work in the North Market Street Hall Sunday 
School and through his efforts and the association with him of other 
active Christian workers, this Sunday-school grew rapidlv and developed 
into the Illinois Street Church, and afterwards the Chicago Avenue 
Church. After the Sunday-school sessions Mr. Moody would visit the 
sick and sought to interest the parents of pupils in the evening Gospel 

His associates were Mr. John V. Farwell, the largest dry-goods 
merchant in Chicago at that time. I. H. Birch and others: and through 
their united efforts that Sunday School became the largest in Chicago. 

In I860- Mr. Moody gave up his business and a lucrative salary, and 
devoted his entire time and energies to religious work in which he never 
received any stated income. He soon received many requests to conduct 
evangelistic services, to which he gave himself with increasing delight 
and great usefulness. He kept a deep interest and a strong hold on his 
Sunday School work and drew about him great numbers of able and con- 
secrated workers, such as B. F. Jacobs, P. P. Bliss, Major Cole and 
others. One of these associates said of him. "He had the greatest power 
to set others to work and thus multiply himself of any man I ever 

After an extended evangelistic tour he again engaged in his Sunday 
School work. His school was the first large effort in the direction of 
an undenominational mission school. Eeports of it were stimulating 
and many workers went to Chicago to inspect the school and ascertain 
its methods. The mission school movement if Mr. Moody did not 
originate it, at least received a great impetus through his work. He 
made it popular and gave it momentum. 


Mr. Moody devoted much time to the Young Men's Christian 
Association and he gave great prominence and stabilit}' to this work in 
Chicago. He solicited aid for these two great enterprises through his 
friends in different parts of the State. These lives he touched soon 
became enthusiastic and large crowds attended the annual conventions 
and the interest spread to adjoining states and gave rise to National 
and International Assemblies. 

In 1865 Mr. Moody was a member of the State Sunday School Execu- 
tive Committee, which undertook the plan for promoting county organi- 
zation, a characteristic feature of the system of organization, which is 
now everywhere familiar. He visited many such conventions, not 
only taking a part in the program, but also urging the use 
of uniform lessons, and in 18G9 at the National Sunday-school Con- 
vention held in Newark, N. J., a committee was appointed to arrange 
for the International Sunday-school series of Bible Lessons. 

He was twice president of the Illinois Sunday School Association, 
at Bloomington in 1869 and at Jacksonville in 1876, and he was a daily 
speaker at the International Convention in Boston 1876. 

The present Moody Church in Chicago is the outgrowth of the 
little Sunday-school in the North Market Street Hall, and the present 
organization is the center of various aggressive forms of Christian activity 
in that part of the city. The work is still carried on in the spirit of this 
man of humble beginnings, but of great faith and complete surrender to 
his task. 

Personal work was the secret of his usefulness. He was a man of 
prayer, a student of the Bible, and a man of consuming zeal and tire- 
less service. He said at one time: "If I had the trumpet of God and 
could speak to every Sundaj^-school teacher in America I would plead 
with each one to lead at least one soul to Christ each year." 

Dr. Hazard said in substance : I remember when I was superin- 
tendent of a little mission school up here by the depot, that I heard of 
one or two men in Chicago whom I desired particularly to see. I heard 
of their conducting some mission schools there. I heard of their 
wonderful growth, of the methods they emploA^ed, and I was seized with 
a very great desire to know something of their methods and see the 
men. I heard that they were men of great moral courage, and men who 
were inclined to have their own way in spite of all obstacles. And 
finally I was permitted to go up there and see what they were doing. 
On the North Side D. L. ]\Ioody was building up a mission school that 
numbered something like ten or twelve hundred. On the "West Side 
D. W. Whittle was also building up a mission school that numbered then 
some fifteen hundred. And coming back I had caught their zeal and 
enthusiasm, and I went to work with a good deal better spirit than I 
had ever done before. Then came that special trinitv that God raised 
up among you, successors to their earlier pioneers, foremost of whom 
was Dwight L. Moody. 

Dr. Hamill said in substance : You know the story of Moody's 
life. You remember how as a boy he passed from the benediction of his 
widowed mother into a Boston store, and how as a younsr man he drifted 


to Chicago, the rising city of the West. You recall how he filled his 
pews at church with scores of young men who yielded to his importunity ; 
and how later he crossed the river to the north side and laid the foun- 
dation of his mission Sunday School ; and then began his larger career 
as a Sunday School worker, upon returning from the war with Reynolds 
and Jacobs, by resurrecting the Illinois Sunday School Association and 
laying the foundation of its present eminence, as a bright and shining 
star in the firmanent of Associations. I am sure when I speak the 
name of Moody there is responsive echo in your hearts of gratitude to 
God for making him one of the Old Guard of Illinois. 

-Mr. Moody's work in the early days was different in marked degree 
from his later work, and it bore more pointedly upon the Sunday-school; 
but throughout he was the exponent of high principle and thoroughly 
good work, his influence being felt from one end of Illinois to the other. 

MR. WILLIAM REYNOLDS was born in Roxbury, Pa. in 1830, 
and removed with his father in 1836 to Peoria, Illinois. Until 1887- 
he was a pork-packer, devoting much of his time and means to religious 
work. In 1858 he was converted and a year of two later, while in Phila- 
delphia, he was greatly quickened and began active service for Christ. 

In 1861 he started a mission Sunday School, from which grew 
Calvary Presbyterian Church, which he supeiintended until his death. 
He was active in many local religious and philanthropic causes. During 
the war he served with energy and effectiveness on the United States 
Christian Commission. 

In 1864 he attended the State Sunday-school convention at Spring- 
field and joined with Moody, Jacobs, Tyng, and others in building up 
the State work. At the convention in Decatur in 1867, Mr. Reynolds 
was made president and five thousand dollars was pledged, and the State 
was directed for a campaign of organization; Mr. Reynolds receiving 
by lot the southern section. All the lower counties were soon covered 
with working county Sunday-school associations. Mr. Reynolds con- 
tinued to the last his interest in the Illinois work. 

In 1869 he attended the national convention at Newark, N. J., and 
at Toronto in 1881 he assisted in putting B. F. Jacobs at the head of 
the International Executive Committee and opened the era of aggressive 
advance in International field work. He presided with great ability 
in the Fifth International Sundaj^-school Convention in Chicago, in 
1887, his business having been largely absorbed by the great packing 
interests of Chicago, he soon after accepted Mr. Jacobs' urgent invitation 
and became field superintendent for the International work and so con- 
tinued until his death September 28, 1897. It was during these ten 
busy years of faithful service that Mr. Reynold's name, commanding 
voice and figure became familiar to Sunday-school attendants in all 
parts of North America. He was genial, resourceful, with a clear 
vision and with apt incident to drive home his earnest pleas for better 
work, more efficient organization. He was enthusiastic in his constant 
tours to scattered conventions, practical, intense and Avith a business 
training, which he exemplified in liis local campaign. He was an ideal 
field agent. 


He was stricken at Louisville Avhile assisting the Kentucky asso- 
ciation in its local work, and expired after a few hours' illness. 

In early manhood he was married to Martha Brotherson of Peoria 
who survived him for some years. He had tlu^ able and devoted cooper- 
ation of Mrs. Reynolds in all his work, and when the severe blow came 
the sympathies of all the Sunday School world were turned toward Mrs. 
Reynolds. He made a most valuable contribution to the Sunday School 
cause of his age. He really carried its burdens in his heart and lifted 
it into the very presence of the great Father. 

Mr. Reynolds said at one time: "I am proud of the State of Illi- 
nois. I was traveling some time ago on the cars, when two gentlemen 
in front of me were discussing as to which was the greater state — New 
York or Pennsylvania. I listened to them a while, and then thought 
I could settle the dispute for them. "Gentlemen, excuse my inter- 
ruption, but I just want to call your attention to the greatest State 
there is in the IJnion." One of them turned and said "^Vhat State is 
that?" and I said "The State of Illinois." "What claim have you, sir, 
that it is the greatest State in the Union?" "Well, sir, in the first 
place, speaking of the products, we raise more wheat than any other 
state in the IJnion, and we raise more hogs than any other state in the 
Union. And then, sir, we have given you the best president you ever 
had — Abraham Lincoln." "We gave you the greatest general in the 
Union — U. S. Grant." "We have produced, sir, the greatest orator 
there is in this Union. We have produced, sir, the greatest Evangelist 
— D. L. Moody. We have got the greatest Sunday School Association 
in this country. We have the greatest grain market there is in the 
Union, the greatest pork packing establishments, and the greatest 
lumber market." One of them said "Hold on, stranger, we give it up." 
"I am not through — I was going to add we can produce the best Sunday 
School men there are in the Union, and Avhen they want any of them 
they come out to Illinois. Here is Dr. Vincent, a representative — an 
Illinois production." 

At another time he said: "I was out in Kansas and met a great 
many of the bes=t Sunday School workers there. I was introduced to one 
of them as from Peoria. "Peoria ! says he, "that's the town where there 
is so much whiskey made." "Yes, they make more whiskey there than 
any other place in the Union. They have got the largest distillery of 
any place in the world?" "All true, and we are sorry for it," I said, 
"but there is something else in Peoria. We have got more Sunday 
Schools to the square foot in Peoria than any other cit.y in the State of 

Mr William Reynolds said at another time: "One of Mr. Spur- 
geon's students went to him and said, "I am discouraged : I don't see any 
results from my work." IMr. Spurgeon said, "You don't expect to see 
results coming along all the time, do you?" "Why, certainly not.'' 
"Well, that is the reason you don't have them." Mr Reynolds then said, 
"I might have had that liarvest long before, but I did not look for it." 
One time in Peoria our pastor went away for one Sunday, and sent a 
supply. He was a very godly man, but very peculiar and queer in many 


ways. He was to be entertained at our house over Sabbath. He came 
and I met him at the door and he laid down his hat and coat and said, 
"Mr. Eeynolds what are you doing for God?" I told him, among other 
things, that I was teaching a class in the Sunday-school. "How old are 
they?" he asked, I to'ld him they were girls about eighteen or nineteen 
years of age. "How long have you taught them?" I said, "About three 
years." "Are they Christians?" I was forced to say that I did not 
know. "What!" said the man, "do you mean to tell me that you have 
taught those girls for three or four years and don't know whether they 
are Christians or not?" I said "Yes." He said, "Well let us pray." 
As soon as he got through I excused myself and went out into the 
kitchen where my wife was, and told her that I did not like the man at 
all. Of course she wanted to know why. I said, "Why, he had me down 
on my knees praying because I told him I did not know Avhether my 
girls were Christians or not." "Well," said she, "don't you think that 
he is about right?" That was too much for me when my wife went 
back on me too, and I went out and walked around the yard for a while. 
Then it occurred to me that was not a very nice way to treat a guest, 
so I went back into the parlor. The moment I entered my guest said: 
"Mr. Eeynolds, have you faith to believe those girls are going to be 
saved tomorrow?" I replied "ISTo, I have not." He said, "Then let 
us pray." After the prayer supper was announced. By keeping the 
conversation very warm, I managed to keep off that subject during the 
supper. After supper we talked about various things until it was time 
to retire. Then courtesv seemed to demand that the guest should be 
invited to lead the devotions. I handed him the Bible, and then he 
said, "Mr. Re.ynolds, do you believe those girls are going to be saved 
tomorrow?" "I replied "No, I don't," My guest said: "Then there 
is only one thing to pray for tonight and that is for yoii." I went to bed 
but not to sleep. I made up my mind that God must have sent that man 
there with a message for me. I had not been looking for results. 
Finally T rose without a wink of sleep, and Avent to the library and 
began to study my lesson, and as I began to study I began to weep. I 
got down on my knees before a chair and read over my class card. I 
read the name "Jennie" and talked to God about Jennie, and so on 
througli the list. "Do yon ever go to God about Jennie, and Charlie, 
one by one, and ask the thing you Avant? Tt pays to do that." T stayed 
there all night long, and at day-break I knocked at the minister's door, 
and asked him if he Avould get up and come doAvn. When he came 
doAvn T asked him if he Avould forgive me for the unkind thought I had 
the night before, and pray for my girls. T AA^ent to the class that day 
in a different frame of mind than ever before. I closed my Bible and 
said, "girls, I want to make a confession. I have been a poor teacher. 
Here I have been 3^our teacher for three or four years, and I don't know 
Avhether you are saved or not. Jennie, are you saved?" She began 
to cry. So I went on doAAoi the line until seven girls Avere in tears, and 
the last one said, "Mr. Eeynolds, AAdiy did you Avait so long to ask that 
question? We have often talked about it and Avondered why you did 


not, and thought perhaps yon did not care." Those girls were saved 
that very day. Let ns honor God by expecting results." 

Dr. i\[. C. Hazard said in substance: Our friend William Rey- 
nolds of Peoria hearing of the work that was being done in Chicago, 
had somewhat of a similiar desire that I had to go up and see what was 
going on, and did go up; and I have heard it said that he went to a 
place on the Xorth Side in the evening, where he found this same Mr 
Moody holding a little colored boy with one hand, and a Bible in the 
other, trying to read by the light of a tallow candle, trying to read to 
him about Christ, trying to keep him still while he read to him; and 
there were a great many of the words that he had to skip, and at last 
he laid the book aside, and said, "I can tell it to you better than I can 
read." Mr Reynolds found that that man was doing a wonderful work ; 
and he said that if he could do work he believed that he could ; and he 
Avent back to his own work with a determination that, God helping him, 
he would do more than ever he did before. And so, from one to 
another, men have got inspiration and enthusiasm in this work in 
Illinois, until they have come to love each other as brothers. 

Dr. Hamill said: "What shall T say of William Reynolds? Dear 
old Reynolds ! I can feel the touch of his hand and the throb of his 
great heart; I can recall his princely presence. I rode thousands of 
miles upon trains with him by day and night; I heard him in crowded 
city churches speaking to multitudes, or addressing nondescript audi- 
ences upon the street corners ; and wherever he went men were quick to 
recognize in him a prince in Israel. Fine in form and face, big in heart 
and in brain, skilled in organizing, I call forth from the past of the 
Old Guard this great organizer of Sunday School work. You know the 
stor}^ of his life, how he came of sturdy Presbyterian stock ; how he de- 
clined a ball tendered in his honor "for his mother's sake ;" how he 
challenged the infidel of his town, and afterward compassed his defeat 
as a candidate for governor of Illinois; how in a civic crisis he declared 
"Reynolds & Ely's hams are for sale, but not their principles;" how he 
was honored by great conventions, twice president of Illinois and once 
president of the International convention ; how he raised more money 
and drew to the work more helpers in organization than any other 
man living or dead ; and how at last, within two days of his public 
address, with his wife at his side, on September 28, 1897. he died with 
the words upon his lips : "I die, but I die in the harness." 

It was during the seige of Vicksburg, when Grant's army was 
suffering greatly from disease caused by lack of proper food, that the 
Chicago Board of Trade contributed a train load of onions and potatoes 
for their relief. Mr. Wm. Reynolds was appointed to deliver them to 
General Grant. Mrs. A. H. Hoge, of the Christian Commission, was 
delegated to accompany Mr. Reynolds. At Cairo the vegetables were 
taken from the train and placed upon a steamer. When this was done 
Mr. Reynolds applied to the General in command for a pass to proceed 
through the lines. It was refused, with the statement that General 
Grant had issued orders that no passes should be given nor any boats 


permitted to navigate the rivei-. Mr. Eeyiiolds pleaded the benevolent 
errand he was upon, but all to no purpose. 

"What would you do if I should go without a pass," he said. 

"Leave General Grant to settle with you." was the reply; "but if 
you go, you must understand that there are two Confederate batteries ten 
miles apart, so situated that they can enfilade you." 

Mr. Reynolds went to the hotel to communicate with Mrs. Hoge, 
telling her he had determined to go, but excusing her from the danger 
if she wished. 

At this juncture a lady, sitting in the parlor, looked up and said: 
"Excuse me. I cannot help hearing your conversation, and let me 
advise you to be very careful how you disobey the order of General 
Grant." It became known afterwards that this lady was Mrs. Grant. 

The captain of the steamer was not at first informed that they 
were going without the pass, but having decided to proceed, he and Mr. 
Eeynolds made a plan to put out the fires when nearing the first battery, 
having previously gotten up all possible speed. They passed the first 
battery in the night without a shot being fired. They steamed up with 
oil and passed the second battery without being molested. The way was 
then clear. 

Having arrived at Vicksburg with their precious cargo, they pro- 
ceeded to General Grant's headquarters. 

"We haA^e brought a train load of onions and potatoes for your 
army. General Grant, from the Chicago Board of Trade," said Mr. 

"Did the General at Cairo give you a pass," said General Grant? 

"No," replied Mr. Eeynolds, "ho would not give it to us." 

"By whose authority are you here then?" he sternly asked. 

"By an authority that outranks yours, General Grant," replied 
Mrs. Hoge. 

"Name it, madame." 

"The Lord God Almighty sent us on this errand," replied Mrs. 

"I acknowledge the superiority," said General Grant, and turning 
to Mr. Eeynolds he said : "I Avould rather have these vegetables than 
ten thousand fresh troops. What can I do for you?" 

"Nothing, sir, only give us a pass back through the lines." 

A mother who had long opposed her daughter's wish to give her- 
self to foreign missionary work, heard this thrilling incident, and saw 
that an authority higher than her own had spoken to her child — an 
authority to which she herself owed allegiance. She yielded, and now 
this daughter became a successful teacher in China. 

Mr. B. F. Jacobs said at Mr. Eeynold's funeral : 

"I lay three wreaths upon his casket — the wreath of brotherly love ; 
the wreath of the Illinois Sunday School Association, of which he was 
so useful and honoi-ed a member and officer, and the wreath of the Inter- 
national Sunday School Association of which he was once president, 
and the last ten years of his life, the Field Superintendent. I may 


anticipate tlie word of His hord and mine, and add — "Well d(nie, good 
and faithful servant ; enter thou into tlie joy of th}^ Jjord.'" 

There are two views of a good man's life— the earthly view, and tlie 
heavenly view. I ask you men and women of the city where he lived, 
two questions: What was it to be great? and. Was William Reynolds 
great ? If we take the earthly view, is not true greatness to be measured 
by the number of persons one has influenced for good? And by that 
standard I ask. Has a greater man than our brother ever lived in Peoria ? 
Greater far than any monument that we can raise, is the one that he 
has built for himself in the hearts of millions of men and women, children 
and 5'outh, that have been and will be helped by the life he has lived and 
the work he has done. 

Can we take the heavenly view? Can we reckon the eternal results, 
or estimate the eternal joy of a life spent here in the service of God and 
for the good of men ? We may envy the lifC;, and almost envy the death 
of our beloved friend and brother. He has fought the good fight, he 
has finished his course, he has kept the faith, and he has entered, with 
a song that shall never cease, the Gates of Light." 
■ At another time Mr. Jacobs said of Mr. Reynolds : 

"In my estimation, his place is with Illinois' greatest men. He was 
of princely form and manner, bold and courageous, but gentle a? a child. 
He w^as a leader of men. If greatness consists in influencing others, 
and if it is measured by the number influenced, and the result of that 
influence on their lives, William Reynolds was very great. His work 
has called him to every state and every Canadian province, from New- 
foundland to Florida, across to California and up to Vancouver's Island. 
In hundreds of cities, men who are themselves leaders have been in- 
fluenced by him, and millions of children have been and will be helped 
by his life and by his words. No other American has spoken to such com- 
panies in so many places, and certainly no one has ever presented, a more 
important subject than the moral and religious training of our children 
and youth. There are few men whose death would be mourned by such a 
multitude of good people in America, as William Reynolds." 

Mr. Jacobs, Chairman of the International Executive Committee, 
wrote : 

"I thank God, as I look back, especially for the last ten years, since 
1S87, wonderful years I of wonderful service! No other American ever 
had such a place, and none liavc left a richer legacy. 

He has gone out from Illinois to labor in all the land on the North 
American continent, and he has done his work as no other man could 
have done it. Is not that greatness? Is it possible for a man to have 
lived a more splendid life or to have died a more splendid death ? 

He was, indeed a wonderful man. We are as yet, too near to him 
and his work to fully appreciate either. As we advance we shall know 
him better. I do not see how we can love him more. 

Do not repine. Jesus said : "Weep not." "He took away des- 
pair when He said: "He is not dead;" He substituted hope when He 
added : "He sleepeth ;" and He gave us a glimpse of Heaven when 

He declared: "He shall rise again." "Love to you and to all with 


BENJAMIN F. JACOBS was born at Patersou, N. J., September 
18, 1834, and died in his GSth year at Chicago June 23, 1902. His 
parents were of blended Puritan-Hug-uenot stock and he was their 
eldest born. In 1854, before attaining his majority he came to Chicago 
and engaged in the commission and real estate business; giving without 
stint his time and money to Christian work. He united with the First 
Baptist Church in a short time after reaching the city. The same year 
he married Miss Frances M. Eddy. His stupendous Sunday School 
work began in 1856 when he organized the First Baptist Mission Sunday 
School and for fortA'-five years was, successively, the faithful and 
efficient superintendent of the New Street Mission, the First Baptist 
Sunday School, the Newsboy Mission, the Tabernacle Mission and 
Immanuel Baptist Sunday Schools. He helped organize the Chicago Y. 
M. C. A. and later was director and its president and with such fine 
spirits as Eeynolds, Stuart and Moody he served with great zeal on the 
Army Christian Commission during the civil war, very often at the front 
ministering to the sick and wounded. 

There were three men who were very closely associated in Sunday- 
school extension of whom B. F. Jacobs was undoubtedly foremost. In 
a small room in connection with his place of business he had set apart 
a special place for meditation and praj^er; three men were not in- 
frequently found in that room. These were Jacobs, Eeynolds, and 
Moody. Many were the precious hours that were spent in that room, 
and there they pledged to each other and to God a life of service, of 
devotion, and of purity; a bond that was never broken by any one of them. 

A few days before the death of Mr. Jacobs, his brother William 
was standing by his bedside and he was telling him some of his ex- 
periences in the Civil War, when, as a representative of the Christian 
Commission, he went down to Nashville to see the soldiers, and he told 
him of one great gathering of three thousand soldiers on the grass 
around the capitol building at Nashville. He was about to speak to 
them, and he said, "Boys, do you remember how you used to kneel by 
your mother's knee and say, 'Now, I lay me down to sleep, I pray the 
Lord my soul to keep ;' do you remember how you used to kneel by your 
Father's knee and say,''Our Father who art in heaven ?" Let us be boys 
again to-day ; let us forget that we are men, forget the cares of life, and 
like little children let us kneel to-day and open our hearts for a blessing. 
Let lis pray." In an instant all those three thousand soldiers were on their 
knees. The Chief of artillery who was riding by, the cannon booming 
on ever\^ side, said, "Wait a moment !" then he sent orders in every 
direction. "Cease firing during prayer!'' and every gun was silent as 
the petition of those soldiers went up to heaven. He told him of other 
precious experiences and then looking into his brother's face — -that last" 
look of his William ever remembered — he said, "0, William, why didn't 
T let everything else go and give my life to this work for Jesus Christ?" 
His brother ^\'illiam after relating this incident said : "Fellow Sundav- 


school workers, I suspect every one of us as we come near to the end of 

life, as we look back upon oui* lives, will be ready to say, "0, why didn't 
I let everything else go and give my 1 i fc to the service of Jesus Christ ?" 
We are here to ask that question. Wc arc here to consider questions of 
such paramount importance that the making of millions shrink to 
nothing beside them. May God help us, not on our dying bed, but this 
day and during this convention to resolve that by the grace of God we 
will let go of those things which are chaining us to earth and hinder- 
ing our usefulness, and that we will, with renewed consecration, devote 
ourselves to Him Who loves us, and will go out to serve Him with 
devotion and faithfulness, such as the past has never witnessed. 

Mr. Jacobs probably did the largest part in reorganizing and 
establishing the State work. He was elected President of the State 
Association in 1868 at Du Quoin and made a fine presiding officer. It 
was largely through him that the convention idea embodied so much of 
institute features, which inarked all of that period. As an indication 
of the rapid progress made, Mr. Jacobs reported to the third national 
convention (1869) a large degree of enthusiasm in Illinois, every 
county in the State being organized, and fifty counties having town- 
ship organizations. One thousand new schools had been, during the 
previous year, established, and ten thousand conversions reported. 

Mr Jacobs said at Champaign in 1896 : "But when we summon 
the angel of memory, and recall our joys, we cannot refuse to look as 
we are pointed back, to Springfield in '64, to the arrival on Saturday 
morning of the advance guard, led by our beloved Moody, and the con- 
vention presided over by A. G. Tyng, and a revival that spread over the 
State. At Peoria in '65, the plan for dividing the State into six dis- 
tricts, was formed, and the great campaign began. At Decatur in '67, 
William Eeynolds was our standard bearer, and here our first paid 
field worker was chosen. At Du Quoin in '68, we met in the old 
tobacco warehouse, and Illinois took the first step, by a vote favoring the 
Uniform Lesson System, and there, led by E. C. Wilder, our third 
president, and by Edward Eggleston, we planned for the revival of the 
National Sunday-school convention, which had been discontinued. 
These plans were acted upon at the meeting of the Y. M. C. A., at 
Detroit in the fall of that year, and the National Sunday-school Con- 
vention met in Newark, N. J. the following spring. We cannot forget 
Bloomington in '69, where D. L. Moody was first elected president; nor 
the evening meeting when President Edwards, D. W. Whittle and Dr. 
Burns, roused us to great enthusiasm. At Galesburg in '80, our 
brother beloved, J, McKee Peoples, was our leader. Moody and Sankey, 
Whittle and McGranahan, Ee}-nolds, 'Morton, Gillett and Lucy J. 
Rider, were all there." 

At a reception given in the City of Washington to the represent- 
atives of the International Executive Committee, the Hon. John W. 
Foster, said : "I deem it an honor to be called upon to follow the gentle- 
man who has just taken his seat (Mr. B. F. Jacobs). You and I, and 
the whole Protestant World know what Mr. Jacobs and his associates 
have done, and the great value of that work. I am glad to have an 


opportunit}^ to unite with you in commending the work of the Inter- 
national Sunday-school Executive Committee, and I esteem most highly 
the International Lesson System of instruction. These agencies are 
doing an inestimable service in adding new interest to the study of the 
Bible, in fitting the rising generation for better service as citizens, and 
in leading them to a fuller comprehension of their duties as members 
of society. It is a broad field, a patriotic and holy work.'' 

Mr. Jacobs was a man who when he wanted to say anything, said 
it. He was marvelous in our eyes, a wise leader, to whom, with several 
other Illinois Sunday School men are we indebted for some of the most 
marked improvements in Sunday School instruction. There are three 
men especially to whom we owe the privilege of the International 
system. He was the Peter among the Sunday-school apostles, and, 
whenever he believed that a thing ought to be done and can be done, 
it was difficult to make him keep his seat and keep quiet. When by 
his efforts in 1871 a committee was appointed by the publishers of 
Sunday-school Lessons to select a series of Lessons, a trial of the 
uniform plan, and when three of them met together and declared 
that the thing was impracticable, Jacobs took those men metaphorically 
by the throat and said, "You are appointed, not to declare that a thing 
is impracticable, but To Do It',"" and he made them do it. And it wa^s 
owing to that that we have to-day the International system. And I 
think tluit it is not at all improper, under the circumstances, to recognize 
the fact that to Illinois Sunday-school men alone is due the fact that 
we have such a blessing throughout the world. 

Dr. Hamill said : "How can I speak to Illinois of the last survivor 
of the trinity of great souls that God committed to us in holy leadership, 
Benjamin Franklin Jacobs. The. first time I attended an Illinois 
Sunday-school convention he took me by the hand, led me graciously 
to the platform, and spoke word of cheer that I needed before your great 
lx)dy of workers; and when I had taken my seat, he put his arm lovingly 
about me and said, "God bless you, Hamill." As the years of our 
fellowship rolled nearly into the score, that man of the great heart and 
of the great brain came closer and closer into my life, and molded 
me more and more into his ways of thinking, into his brave and unfail- 
ing optimism, into his stalwart devotion to the cause of the Sunday 
School, into something of his love for little children. I think it is 
Carl Richter who says : "The thing most like unto God is a little child ;" 
and the thing that is most like unto a little child is a truly great man. 
As the years shall succeed, we will come to estimate more truly the real 
greatness of Mr. Jacobs. May God bless his memory, and multiply his 
successors! May I be speaking to some young man to-day in this 
convention who in years to come shall stand in the place where Jacobs 
stood and lead the hosts of unborn years into victories which he achieved ! 
At the closing meeting of the World's First Sunday School Convention 
July 5, 1889, at Exeter Hall, London, B. F. Jacobs said in substance: 
"It is a wonderful thing to me at least to stand in this hall made sacred 
by so many associations, and filling your minds with so many memories, 
and look into your faces in remembrance of the hours of communion and 
— 9 H S 

fellowship that we have enjoyed together during the past few days. But 
it is a far more wonderful thing to stand here tonight in the presence 
of God, our Father, and of the Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour, and of 
the Holy Spirit, our Comforter and Guide, and look back over a 
century of Sunday School work, and see what has been accomplished, 
and try to look "forward to the coming century, and imagine what 
God is waiting to do for us. 

Let me remind you that the records of the first century of American 
national history are filled with achievements and progress that astonish 
the world. I speak as an American, and by permission. But the book 
that contains the history of the Church of Jesus Christ during the past 
century is crowded with wonders and blessings that call out the deepest 
gratitude and encourage the boldest faith. The history of the modern 
'Sunday-school work is nearly all recorded in this volume, and this work 
is admitted to rank among the great things of the century. 

The day has passed when men possessing intelligence, or who lay 
any claim to it, can look Sunday-school workers in the face and suggest 
that theirs is a work for women and children. There are at this hour 
engaged in this work men of equal brain power and equal heart power, 
of equal influence in the pulpit and in business circles, of equal purity 
of life and breadth of character with any other men that tread the 
planet on which we live. There is great dignity attached to the Sun- 
da3^-school work. I stayed a few weeks ago in the city of Xew Haven. 
I was permitted to spend an hour of fellowship with my beloved friend 
Professor William R. Harper of Yale College, perhaps in some respects 
the most wonderful teacher of Hebrew that our century has produced, 
in America at least; and the man whose name has gone around the 
world. That man I found to be not only deeply engaged and interested 
in this work, but personally the teacher of two Sunday-school classes in 
Yale College; one of the freshmen's class numbering 123 students, and 
a Bible class with from 90 to 100 members. Some ladies in the city of 
Xew Haven called upon Dr. Har]wr, and a.sked him if he would conduct 
a teachers' training class, a class for the thorough study of one book of 
the Bible, that they might get an insight into the way of studying the 
Bible; and the doctor told them that his engagements were too great 
and many to allow him to make new ones. They said, '"Doctor, we had 
not thought you would do this without compensation, and we have 
agreed to pay you 4 pounds each, or 20 dollars of our money, being 
$500., for the class of 25 ladies." Such was tlu' desire to study the 
Word of God in New Haven. 

I tell you. gentlemen, it is getting to be a dignified business to be 
a Sunday-school teacher. jSTot only so, but I was in the city of Boston 
with Mr. George W. Cable, whose name I am sure has floated across the 
Atlantic. He is a teacher of a class of more than 2.000 men and 
women, who come together on Saturday afternoon, liuving come there 
from 73 towns and cities, leaving their business, giving time and monev, 
paying their own expenses, and contributing 2,. 500 dollars or 5()0 
i)0unds per annum ro the teacher who will teach the one lesson a week 
during the year. It is dignified work teaching in the Sunday-school. 


Perhaps sonic of us have not had quite as much pay as would tend to 
increase our dignity; we may have little stimulus in that direction. 
But wo re-aHiii'iu the statement that, admitting all that can be claimed 
for any other branch of church or Christian work, wc solemnly declare 
our belief, that in the work performed, in the results achieved, and in the 
expense incurred, the Sunday-school is the most important, the most 
hopeful, and the most economical agency known. 

I have only one point to make in support of tliat statement, for 
you can easily solve the problem with this. It is the most hopeful, 
because we have the children. In the great and awful conflict between 
truth and error, between faith and unbelief, between morality and virtue 
on the one side and immorality and vice on the other side, between 
temperance and intemperance, between liberty and lawlessness, the side 
that gains the children will secure the victory, and the side that loses 
the children will suffer defeat. The destiny of England and America 
is in the hands of the children. If these children are rightly led and 
truly taught by faithful teachers, we shall be saved; if they are neglected 
and untaught, the danger is appalling, A large number of these 
children are now in our Sunday-schools, and many more are witliin our 
reach; therefore, we are to a great extent responsible for the future. 
Great and expanding as this thought is when applied to our own country, 
it increases as we remember that we have much to do in deciding the 
destiny of the world. The best way to meet responsibility is to push 
our work. The best place to begin our work is nearest our home, and 
the best time is now. 

It is impossible for us to know very much about our work unless 
we know those for whom we are Avorking. What wonderful mistakes 
of judgment would l>e corrected ; what wonderful mistakes of methods 
would be righted, what wonderful mistakes of every description would 
we avoid if we understood and felt for those whom we were to teach. 
Year.s ago a distinguished brother from New York, a merchant, iised to 
come to the west to help us in our Sunday-school convention, and he 
said he had been promoted from being a superintendent of the school 
and a teacher of a class of adults to become the teacher of the primary 
or infant class in the Sunday-school; and I tell you it is a great 

Hoar Mr. J. B. Gough. He said, one night in a sleeping car the 
passengers were kept awake until a late hour by the crying of a child, 
and suddenly a man got thoroughly out of patience — there were actually 
half a dozen of these men in America — put his head through the curtain 
and said, "Where's the mother of the child ?" A voice came back in a 
minute, "In her coffin in the baggage car." Presently there was a thud 
on the floor, and a pair of feet in blue yam stockings struck the carpet, 
a great pair of arms was stretched out, and a voice said. "Just give me 
that bal)y, and the rest of you go to sleep. You need not be afraid of 
my dropping it. I have held them before." He said, "Please, go to 
sleep." He put the babe over his shoulder, put his great hand on it, 
and liegan in his low voice to sing to it and soon the child was fast 
asleep. These are the yery kind of angels this world is longing for now. 


There has got to be more of tender sympathy entering into our work 
from beginning to end. We have got to deal with that tender loving 
spirit that filled the heart of the Son of God when He was down here. 
The Gospel must furnish the solution of the great social problems, 
and wc believe that, of all the Gospel instrumentalities used by the 
ehurcli, the Sunday School has the first place, because it has the children 
and the youth. 

As an educational force the Sunday-school has not been given its 
proper place. American Christians are slowly arousing to the mighty 
efforts that are made by skeptics and others to undermine our edu- 
cational S3'stem. And, while it may be truly said that the only text 
book of the Sunday-school is the Bible, yet how great its power. As an 
educator it is fitted to teach and train the conscience and to educate 
the reflective powers. 

President Grant said: "Hold fast to the Bible as the sheet anchor 
to your liberties;, write its precepts in your heart, and practice them in 
your lives. To the influence of this Book we are indebted for all pro- 
gress made in our true civilization, and to this we must look as our 
guide in the future.'' 

Talmage says : "The conquest of America will be by the conquer- 
ing army of children, they are the preface to the book of the future. 
The destiny of our country is revealed in the boy of to-day. Which 
shall conquer, the good or bad ?" And he cries out, "Oh for one gener- 
ation of holy men!" and he asks, "Shall it be the next?" That is our 
wish ; that is our work. 

Brethren, "Let us rise and go to our work, tomorrow we shall rise 
and go to our reward." 

"To the 4J/th Convention, Illinois Sunday School Association, In session 
at Sterling, Illinois. At Home, May 13, 1902. 
Dear Brethren: You have learned the reason of my absence 
from the convention, but you do not know how much I long to be there. 
The memories of other convention days, the loving greetings, the blessed 
fellowship, the holy enthusiasm, and the sacred joy, fill me with 
thanksgiving for the past, and with hope for the future. The splendid 
procession of workers seem to pass, and I hear the glad tidings, and 
thank God for you all. T am with you in spirit, and rejoice in 5^our 
success. The glad songs seem to come into my room, as dear Bro. Excell 
leads the great chorus, and good Dr. Potts urges you to go on. You 
know the old song: 

"If you cannot on the ocean sail among the swiftest 

You can stand among the sailors, anchored yet within 

the bay, 
You can lend a hand to help them, as they launch 
their boats away." 
So from my retreat I wave you a God speed, and a hon-voyage for the 
new year. Thirty years ago, when I was absent in the East, on account 
of the great fire of 1871, at your convention held at Aurora, you elected 


me Chairman of your Execuetive Committee. Again and again I have 
urged you to select another and a younger man for Chairman. Let no 
consideration or aifection for mc keep you from doing the wisest and 
best thing for the work so dear to our hearts. I am grateful for the 
kindness shown and the honors you have heaped upon me, and pray 
God to abundantly reward and bless you. But surely you have done 
all and more than I could ask, and I am content. 

It was my privilege some years ago to hold some meetings with 
children in Sterling, and to rejoice over some that accepted Jesus as their 
Saviour. I think of them now, and pray that as a result of your con- 
vention many of the children now living in that city may be won to 
Christ. And my prayer is for the last and lowest boy and girl in 
Illinois, that they may be reached and saved. 

'Faithful is He that calleth you, who also will do it.' 

Sincerely yours, B. F. Jacobs." 

The first step toward the AVorld's Convention at Jerusalem had 
been taken and there was given to our leader, B. F. Jacobs, the hero of 
many Sunday-school battles, a vision of the land of promise, which he 
greatly desired to see and conquer for Christ, but like Moses, he was not 
permitted to go thither. Five months passed ; delegates from every 
part of North America and some from Great Britain were journeying 
toward Denver to hold the Tenth International Convention, but our 
Chieftain lay prostrate upon a bed of fatal illness. He learned of the 
presence in Chicago of a long time friend. Dr. Geo. W. Bailey, a dele- 
gate to the Denver convention, who, against the protests of family and 
physicians, he insisted upon seeing, if only for a moment. He was 
too weak to speak — his greeting was the old familiar smile, and then 
as his friend knelt by his bed, with much effort he whispered, uttering, 
in broken words, "Men-die,-but-God-lives,-and-his-work-goes-on-. Give 
-my-love-to-the-brethren-." And in a few hours — even before the open- 
ing notes of the convention were sung — he died and was gathered to his 



In 1864. thirty-nine years ago; The Illinois Sunday School Con- 
vention met in the city of Springfield. Four young men, William 
Reynolds, Dwight L. Moody. Benjamin F. Jacobs, and A. G. Tyng, 
fresh from the work of the Christian Commission in which they had 
done grand service for the country, for the church, and for the soldiers 
of the army, reached Springfield, eager, full of zeal for service, and 
longing for the souls of men. * * * 

Such was the beginning of the service of B. F. Jacobs in the Illinois 
State Sunday School Convention. It was more than that, that little 
prayer meeting was the beginning of a new life and power that had never 
been felt before in the Sunday-school in Illinois. A new spirit pervaded 
the entire field. B. F. Jacobs, Reynolds and their coadjutors with 
other kindred spirits whom they enlisted and filled with their zeal and 


entliusiasm, commenced a tour of the State making a thorough canvass, 
organizing county conventions and creating a fever of enthusiasm tliat 
culminated in a magnificent convention held in Decatur in 1807 of wliich 
William Reynolds was President and in which were gathered more than 
a thousand delegates from nearly every county in the State. 

From those beginnings nearly forty years ago, Benjamin F. Jacobs 
has been the master spirit in the Sunday School work in Illinois, and 
subsequently the central figure of the world's Sunday-school movement. 
He has given his time and expended his money without stint in advanc- 
ing the cause so dear to his heart. His thorough study of the Bil)le was 
an inspiration not only to himself, but to ever}' one with whom he came 
in contact. His warm, loving heart was full of sympathy for the 
needy, and drew his associates and all who knew him to a warm love and 
personal devotion to himself that could hardly be equaled. He was so 
loving himself, so tender and thoughtful of others that he drew all 
closer and closer to him. His genial temperament and the wit and 
humor that gushed forth from his lips as from an everflowing fountain, 
all combined with his earnest spirituality made him easily the master of 
assemblies and the one man who controlled and in a sense held in his 
own hand the conventions and the Sunday-school work in the State 
and the Nation. For many years he was chairman of the executive com- 
mittees of the State, of the nation, and the world. He was present at 
every State convention since he entered it thirty years ago until two years 
ago, when increasing weakness forbade his attendance, but he sent his 
report as chairman of the executive committee to be read by another. 

One year ago when the convention met at Sterling, it was evident 
that he was drawing near the end of his wonderful life. Even then 
while lying on the bed from which he was never to rise, he managed to 
write another, his last report to the Illinois Sunday School Convention, 
which he sent to be read for him. All will remember how wonderfully 
comprehensive was that report written in the midst of the feebleness of 
approaching dissolution. He seemed to survey the entire field and 
recognize the needs of every part. While rising to higher and higher 
flights, seeming to catch glimpses of the heavenly land to which he was 
hastening, he was holding out his hands in benediction and blessing 
over the valleys he was leaving behind him, bequeathing to those whom 
he loved, messages of guidance and encouragement, of cheer and comfort 
to be held in loving memory long after his glorified spirit had taken 
its flight to the mansions of the blessed. 

While we are gathered in this annual convention, alone, yet not 
alone, with a full consciousness of the presence of our Saviour; with an 
abiding trust in that God in whom our brother trusted; with the faith 
that as his heart was full of love and sympathy while with us, so still 
more as he looks down upon this gathering from his heavenly home, 
we do not grieve; we weep, "sorrowing most of all that we shall see his 
face no more," but we rejoice for what he has been and what he has done, 
not only here, but in the Nation and the world. We thank God that for 
so many years we Avere blessed with his presence and leadership : for his 
Bible expositions, so full of force and power, not only in great gatherings 


but in his classes in Chicago, and through the public press; and we join 
heartily in saying that Benjamin F. Jacobs was truly a man sent from. 
God, with a message that he might "draw all men unto him." 

We thank our God upon every remembrance of him in the church 
militant and joyfully hasten on to meet him in the church triumphant. 
"To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die." 


Dr. John Potts: "He was the greatest Sunday School worker on 

Dr. H. M. Hamill : "Never from the days of Xerxes with his 
three million men, has any one swayed so great and intelligent and con- 
secrated a host as has this man. Xo man could have held in his grasp 
for nearly half a century the work that bears the name "International," 
without having been truly a great man." 

Marion Lawrence : "By the touch of his hand, by the inspiration 
of his word and presence, he has been instrumental in starting in this 
public work at least more men and women than any other man that 
ever lived." 

The Washington's Worlds Sunday-school Convention by resolution 
declared: "We recognize in Mr. Jacobs the greatest Sunday School 
leader the world has ever known." 

Measured by any just staiulard of greatness, B. F. Jacobs was a great 
man — great in his personality — his ability as an organizer, his potent 
influence over men, his clear and far seeing vision of Christian work, 
his power over great conventions as a speaker and religious teacher, his 
keen statesmanship as an executive chairman and his surpassingly mag- 
netic leadership of a great host numbering many millions of devoted 
men and women. By such contemporaries as Moody, Keynolds, Wana- 
maker, Maclaren, Potts, Warren, Vincent, Blackall, and Sir Francis F. 
Belsey, he was held in high reverence as easily their chief. Only one 
of a high order of greatness could direct so great and intelligent a cohort 
of Christian workers for so many years of continued victory. The one 
thing he loved most is his towering monument. His last letter penned 
feebly on his death-bed to Dr. fl. M. Hamill pleading for the Inter- 
national Uniform Lesson System at the Denver Convention, belting the 
world this invention of his has gone, including twenty-five millions of 
students in f(nir hundred languages, a world-wide popular system of 
Bible Study with which his name and fame to the end of time, will be 
indissolubly linked. 

The Editor of the Ladies Home Journal several years ago published 
an editorial severly criticising the Sunday Schools of the United States 
and refused to publish any reply from the friends of the Sunday Schools, 
Mr. B. F. Jacobs included. The P^ditor was scathingly berated by many 
p'apers and friends of the Sunday School through out the country. Mr. 
Jacobs (juietly prepared tlie following poem and at a meeting of the 
International Sunday School Executive Committee had Mi\ E. 0. Excell 
sing it as only "Uncle Ex" can do it. It was afterwards given wide 


publication: *A. H. Mills a few years later paraphrased the last verse 
of the original song ''Illinois" as a loving tribute to the Brothers, Jacobs, 
Moody and Eeynolds. 


Have you heard what they are saying? 

Illinois, Illinois. 
Is the Sunday-school decaying? 

Illinois, Illinois. 
We have heard you tell the story, 
You have often sung its glory, 
In each State and Territory, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Is it growing old and hoary ? 


Are you really losing ground ? 

Illinois, Illinois. 
Are your banners coming down ? 

Illinois, Illinois. 
No, the Eastern man is wrong; 
We can sing another song; 
We're Eight Hundred Thousand strong, 

Illinois, Illinois. 
And we're growing right along, 


We have better schools and more, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Than we've ever had before, 

Illinois, Illinois: 
All our counties are in line; 
Thirteen hundred sixty-nine 
Of our townships give the sign, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
That we're gaining all the time, 


We can speak for all the others, 

Illinois, Illinois. 
For our sisters and our brothers, 

Illinois, Illinois. 
We are happy to relate 
That every noble State, 
Yes, from Maine to Golden Gate, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
We are gi'owing strong and great, 



And v/e have a Avord to say, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
For our friends in Canada, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
The.y are growing every day. 
And we're sure that you can say 
Sunday-schools have come to stay, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Let us AVork and Watch and Pray, 

*]Srot without thy wonderous story, 
Illinois, Illinois, 
Can be writ the Master's Glory, 

Illinois, Illinois. 
On the record of thy years, 
B. F. Jacobs' name appears; 
Moody, Reynolds and our tears, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Moody, Reynolds and our tears, 

WILLIAM B. JACOBS was bom J^ovember 10,1839 in Homer, 
New York, and when ten 3'ears old was brought to Goshen, Indiana, 
where his boyhood was spent. He gave his heart to Christ at the age of 
17 and united with the Presbyterian Church in that City July 27, 1866. 
He heard and obeyed his Country's call in 1862 and on August 8, 1862 
was commissioned as First Lieutenant and made Captain on August 
21st of the same year and Major of the Regiment May 1, 1865, and 
served to the close of the war, returning home July 1865. He was elected 
Superintendent of the Presbyterian Sunday School and held that 
position until 1870 when he removed to Chicago and joined with his 
brother B. F. Jacobs in the commission business. In the fire and panic 
he lost all he had and his friends advised him to take the bankrupt law 
but he refused and paid CA'ery dollar of his indebtedness. In 1881 he was 
elected secretary of Cook County Sunday School Association and con- 
tinued to serve it for 19 years. In November 1882 he was asked to serve 
as General Secretary of the Illinois Sunday School Association giving 
the summer and fall to the State work and the winter and spring to the 
work of Chicago and Cook County. This he did and held the same till 
1900 when he resigned the Chicago work to devote his entire time to the 
State work. 

Comparatively few workers now remain who were present at the 
convention when Mr. Jacobs began his work as General Secretary of this 
Association at Champaign in 1882. We of the present day have no 
conception of the many hardships endured and sacrifices made by our 
brother beloved during his long years of loving, faithful service for the 
Master and the child. No man of the passing generation in this State 
stamped more deeply his personality on the homes of this State than did 


William B. Jacobs. Xo man had more friends or more loyal ones than 
he — they are in every city, vijhige and townsliip in this State. He not 
only had power with men but with God. He placed (Jod in the fore- 
thought of his life. He honored God and God has honored him and 
given him a name and influence in the Sunday-school world that any of 
ns might justly and pi-otitably emulate. One could not long be with 
Mr. Jacobs without instinetly feeling "Heie is a man who walks with 
God." The religious and devotional side of his life was never eclipsed 
by tlie practical and material side of his work. The Bible, prayer and 
communion were never relegated to a second place, (iod was given the 
main track and the right of way in bis life. He lived in God and God 
lived in him. 

When he had completed his twenty-fifth year of service there 
occurred the breaking of the Illinois Sunday School Alabaster Box. 


Doubtless the most surprised person among the great multitude 
who thronged the First j\r. p]. Church at the Dixon Convention in 1908, 
was our General Secretary, William B. Jacobs, Avhen Mr, W. C. Pearce, 
in the name of the Executive Committee and of the Sunday-school 
workers of Illinois, presented to him a beautiful testimonial. As a work 
of art it is beyond description; as a tribute of deepest love, of highest 
appreciation and of strongest confidence it speaks for itself. The 
testimonial is written on vellum in beautifully illuminated letters of 
red and blue, inlaid and decorated with gold. It is in the form of a 
book, about nine by twelve inches when closed, with binding of walrus 
hide. On the cover is a shield beaten out of solid gold, bearing the 
initial "J". It is impossible to describe the exquisite workmanship, 
but it may be sufficient to say that it was in perfect harmony with the 
beautiful sentiments expressed. 

The wording of the Testimonial, signed by all members of the present 
Executive Committee, is as follows : 

"By the good hand of our God upon him. our beloved brother, 
William B. Jacobs, has been enabled to complete twenty-five years 
of continuous service as the General Secretary of the Illinois Sunday 
School Association. 

HIS connection with organized Sunday School work spans a 
period during which great changos have been wrought, great ad- 
vances made, great triumphs won for our King: and witli these 
he has been vitally linked. 

THE completion of our system of township and county organ- 
ization, and the development of our Primary, Temperance, Teacher- 
Training, Home, and Adult Departments have demanded and 
received his constant attention and wise leadership. 

TO the great movements for wider and better study of God's 
Word and the extension of the :\[aster's Kingdom— in other States, 
over the Western continents, in lands bevond the Seas — to all he has 



given unsparingly of heart and hand, and b}' voice and pen has co- 
operated effectively with othervS engaged in advance Sunday School 
work throughout the World. 

THROUGH personal contact and correspondence with Sunday 
School workers in every part of the State, by his public addresses, 
by his opening of the Word, by his constant helpfulness, our brother 
has been used in leading men and women into larger and better 
Christian service, in giving new cheer to the discouraged, in raising 
the Sunday School work of Illinois to a high standard. 

HIS clear vision of God ''has oft refreshed us:" his love for 
and trust in the Master and devotion to His Truth have inspired us ; 
every worker in the State has shared in the uplift he has been 
permitted to impart. 

HIS fellow workers recognize gratefully the faithfulness and 
efficiency with which Brother Jacobs has wrought through this 
quarter century, and here record our loving appreciation of his wise 
and helpful ministrv." 
H. Mills. ' H. 

A. Wells. H. 

B. Vose. A. 
R. Clissold. C. 

John Far son. 













N. Pitkin. 
H. Ireland^ 
H. Nichols. 

This is followed l)y the names of all members of the State Executive 
Committee during the vears I880 to 1908: 

B. F. Jacobs. 
M. C. Hazard. 
A. G. Tyng. 
Phillip G. Gillett. 
J. R. Mason. 
Thomas S. Ridgewav 
T. B. Nisbett. 
Chas. M. Morton. 

E. A. Wilson. 
E. D. Durham. 
William Tracy. 
R. C. Willis. 

C. W. Jerome. 
H. T. Lay. 
William Revnolds. 
T. H. Perrin. 

R. W. Hare. 
John Benham. 
'Knox P. Taylor. 



















Frank Wilcox. 

D. B. Parkinson. 
W. S. Rearick. 
Geo. L. Vance. 
T. M. Eckley. 
H. M. Read". 
Henry Augustine. 
J. W'. Hart. 

G. R.. Shawhan. 
J. R. Harkcr. 
C. M. Hotchkin. 

E. A. McDonald. 

H. R. 
0. W. 
A. H. 
A. M. 
C. M 





J. B. 










, Rundle. 





. Bannen. 



Last of all are the names of those who have been associated with 
the General Secretary as paid workers of the State Association during 
the years 1883 to 1908. 

E. 0. Excell. H. M. Steidley. 

Lucy Eider Meyer. Mrs. Edith V. Northrop. 

Harry A. Burnham. Mrs. M. S. Lamoreaux. 

Mary I. Bragg. Mrs. Mary F. Bryner. 

Arthur W. Rider. Mrs. Herbert L. Hill. 

H. M. Haniill. Charles E. Schenck. 

I. M. Philips A. T. Arnold. 

W. C. Pearce. Henry Moser. 

G. W. Miller. Mrs. Howard M. Leyda. 

T. B. Standen. Everett E. Johnson. 

R. E. Hall. Mrs. Mamie Gordon Clayton. 
Knox P. Taylor 


(W. C. Pearce.) 
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Convention: 

This afternoon our beloved General Secrtary of the International 
Sunday School Association, Mr. Marion Lawrence is to arrive. One 
Sunday in his Sunday-school, some years ago, he spoke a certain message 
in regard to the value of the appreciation of those who are trying to do 
God's work. The next morning, when he went to his office, he found a 
white rosebud tied to the door-knob, to which was attached this little 
verse of poetry : 

"Better to buy a cheap bouquet. 
And give to your friend this very day, 
Than a bushel of roses white and red, 
To put on his coffin when he is dead." 

In the name of the Executive' Committee, and in behalf of this great 
host, I have been made a messenger to cari-y a bouquet. It is not a 
cheap bouquet. It is for our friend and brother, Mr. Jacobs. It is 
not cheap, but it is rare and rich. It is rare because it has taken twenty- 
five years to grow the flowers that are in it. It is rich because of the 
variety of flowers it contains. I cannot name them all, my brother, but 
I will name four of them. One is Gratitude. We are thankful that 
you were born. We are thankful to your Christian mother whom we 
never knew, and to your Christian father whom through you we have 
come to love. We are glad you were born again in the faith of our 
Lord; we are glad you came to live in Illinois; we are glad that our 
Father called you to this work; and we are glad that you have been 
spared through these many years. 

Another flower in this bouquet is the flower of Memory. Many 
times we have forgotten, but there are many things we remember. We 
recall this morning that when you began your work many counties were 
only organized on paper. We recall that your writing desk for a long 
time was your knee, was on the field of battle. We recall that the 


first years of your service not even your whole traveling expenses were 
paid. We recall the dark valleys through which you traveled to the 
hilltops to which you have led us. This is a sweet flower in this bouquet. 
We cherish it in our thought as we give it to you, and we expect to hand 
it down to our children. I expect to teach my boy, and, if I live, to teach 
my grand-children, to love your name and your memory. 

Another flower in this bouquet is Confidence. We have had to grow 
this flower, and the longer it has grown the stronger it has become. We 
have learned to trust you because we know you trust our Lord, and your 
faith is anchored in His Word. We have followed you througli battles, 
but always to victory; sometimes through difficult places, but always to 
see the face of our Lord. 

The last flower I shall mention in this bouquet is the flower of love. 
We have learned to love you more and more as the years have gone by. 
When we have been in the shadow, you have stood with us and made it 
lighter; when we have^been under burdens, you have gotten under them 
and made them easier; when we have been in the valley, you have walked 
with us and led us to the higher places. We cannot describe our love. 
It is greater than words can paint. Because of these flowers, I say this 
bouquet is rare. These are not cut flowers, soon to wither and to pass 
away, but they are living flowers, to grow through many years to come. 

Our committee, knowing how difficult it is to describe a bouquet and 
to keep flowers, has had a word painter paint a picture of this bouquet, 
and ask me to try to give it you. 

In the name of the Executive Committee, and in behalf of the 
Illinois Sunday-school workers, this right hand of mine never more cheer- 
fully did anything than to present to you this token of our love. 

Following the remarks of Mr. Pearce the large audience arose and 
tendered Mr. Jacobs a Chautauqua salute. 


MR. JACOBS : In June, 1880, I closed out my business ana went 
to London to attend the Robert Raikes Sunday School Centennial. I 
had not a dollar in the bank; I had a wife and children to care for, 
and I well remember as I came back on that ocean steamer I said, 
"What shall I do?" I went to my cabin and I said, "Lord, what will 
thou have me to do? I will do the first thing You give me to do, and 
without any conditions ; I will go where You send me and take what You 
give me and be satisfied."' I came home and attended a number of 
county Sunday School conventions in Illinois that fall, and in December 
of that year the Cook County Executive Committee said, "We want you 
to go into this Sunday-school work." They sent the president to my 
house to lay the matter before me for I was sick in bed at the time. T 
turned my face to the wall and said "No, Lord, I cannot do this." 
I told Him before that I would do whatever He said, but in my heart, 
though I did not know it, I had made up my mind as to what lie should 
say, and that was that T should be an evangelist. So I said, "I cannot 
entertain tliis proposition." The Lord kept me there three weeks on my 


back. Day l)v day I tiiniefl over my face to the wall saying, "Lord, 
what wilt Thou have me to do?" And the feeling grew stronger and 
stronger that this was what He wanted me to do. My house was 
mortgaged for six thousand dollars, drawing ten per cent interest, (six 
hundred dollars a year) besides the education and the support of my 
family. Tiie committee offered me a guarantee of five hundred dollars 
only; but the A'oice said. "Did you say that you would take the thing 
I gave vou to do?" "I did." "Did vou sav you would take it without 
any conditions?" 'i did." -Will you do it?" "I will." And I went 
into the work. 1 have never felt through all the years that I was 
worthy of the blaster who called me or the people who loved me and 
stood with me. I have gone on year after year with bright cheer in my 
path, with divine love giowing in my heart, with a great desire for the 
Sunday-school work and a great love for the Sunday-school workers of 
Illinois, seeking to do His will as He made it plain, and finding it the 
sweetest thing in the world to do the Lord's will. I could not be crowned 
with any higher crown, nor honored with any greater joy from earth 
than this tribute, this loving tribute, this beautiful bouquet presented to 
me in your name by my beloved brother and son, for I always think he 
is mine. 1 cannot ask any greater tribute, any greater honor from 
above than just the privilege of being in the work. 

During these last years I have felt that the time is not far distant 
when I must give up this work and I have turned to Him and said, 
"Well, my Father, whenever Thou are ready, whenever the work seems 
hindered by my staying, whenever better Avork will be done by my going, 
raise up the man and ])ut the work in his hands; but as You have put 
it in my hands to-day, give me grace and wisdom and strength to do to- 
day's work well and leave the rest to Thee." And so I have gone on. 
and so I am going on, and to-day I rejoice in His companionship and 
friendship and in the fellowship and love of this blessed company. 

The Lord be with you and bless you; the Lord cause His face to 
shine upon you and give you \yei\ce ; the Lord make you every one a bless- 
ing to others, and fill your own hearts with the joy of His sweet love 
and the privilege of His high service. ^lay this new year upon which 
we have entered, with such strong assurance of His presence, be the 
year of highest achievement and of greatest joy in His service; a year 
of in gathering of many precious souls; and in the Crowning Day you and 
I will not ask that the angel place crowns upon our heads, but if he 
does we will cast the crowns at Jesus' feet and say. "Thou are worthy 
to receive all. for Thou didst love lis and Thou didst redeem us from 
our sins by Thy precious blood, and Thou didst commit Thy work to our 
hands and send us forth with that blessed assurance, 'Lo, I am with you 
always — all the days — even unto the end.' " 

T thank you all ! You do not know my weaknesses — at least you 
seem blinded to them — and to my failures and my baitings. He knows, 
and He pardons and He strengthens and He sends me out again cheered 
by your love into this blessed service. May God grant us a year of the 
right hand of fhe AFost High, of sweetest fellowship with each other in 


His service and of the great joy of seeing many others won for the 
kingdom and service of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

As a token of the high appreciation of the splendid service of Mr. 
William B. Jacobs, he was elected at the Elgin Convention in 1912 an 
Honorary Member of the Executive Committee of the Hlinois Sunday 
School Association for life, with power to vote. 

At the last meeting of the P]xecutive Committee of our State 
association, held in Chicago November 38, the following splendid and 
eloquent tribute was paid to the retiring General Secretary, the reso- 
lutions being adopted by uiuiuimous vote. 

"Our dear brother, William B. Jacobs, on November 15th com- 
pleted twenty-nine years oL' faithful, loving and efficient service as Gen- 
eral Secretary of the Hlinois Sunday School Association. He has ten- 
dered and this Executive Committee has accepted his resignation as 
General Secretary to take effect January 1, 1913, or as soon thereafter 
as Mr. Hugh Cork, his successor, can close his work with the Inter- 
national Sunday School Association. 

"Mr. Jacobs has passed the seventy-second milestone in life's great 
highway, and will lay aside the great responsibility of his office and give 
life's gloaming to touching and inspiring workers in the wider field, 
as strength will merit. 

"The Sunday School work in this State has wonderfully developed 
and grown under his wise, devoted and consecrated leadership. He laid 
its foundation deep, strong and enduring. His trained men and women 
are doing uplifting and aggressive senice, not only in this State, but 
also in every state, territory and province of North America — yea, even 
in foreign lands. 

"During all these years he has stood with his right hand in the Hand 
of Our God and his left hand reaching down and around the huml)lest 
home in the farthest corner of our Father's vast estate — the unchoked 
channel and the ungrounded current, of right blessing and uplifting 
power to needy humanity. He has saturated his life with the Bible truth 
and God has greatly honored His servant. He has literally walked and 
talked with God. Twentv-nine vears of such service ! What a life-crown 
'twill be ! 

"It is with deep regret that the great host of Sunday School workers 
of Illinois sever the tie that has bound our dear brother to us for almost 
a generation, but we rejoice in the strength of character and Christ-like 
nature that has enabled him to place the Master's work above himself 
and Elijah-like, is saying to dear Brother Cork — his son in this great work 
and his successor, to this committee and to every worker in this great 
State "Ask what I shall do for thee, before I am taken from thee." 

"May the deepest desire and prayer of all our hearts be that a double 
portion of his spirit of loyalty, of consecration, of fidelity, of faith, 
of prayer and of power with God and with men, abide upon each of us ; 
and our prayer for you, dear brother, is this : 


"The Lord bless thee, and keep thee; 
The Lord make His face to ahine upon thee, 
And be gracious unto thee; 
Tlie Lord lift up His countenance upon thee, 
and give thee peace." 
"For many vcars there has been the closest relationship existing be- 
tween Mr. Jacobs and Mr. Cork, like father and son, and Mr. Jacobs 
rejoices with our Association that we have secured such a tried, true, 
strong, capable and efficient man as Mr. Cork for the new General 

Secretary of Illinois.'' 

Decatuk, OctohcrJf, I'Jll. 

Jlr. Hugh Cork, 

Assist^ Inteniational 8. S. Secretary, Chicago, Illinois. 
Dear Bi!Otiiei! Cotik : You have learned ere this of the resignation 
of Brother W. B. Jacobs, for almost a generation our beloved and 
efficient General Secretary. He did a great work for God and humanity. 
His succesor must do a greater work. 

Our committee have sought to find the man whom the master has 
had in training as Mr. Jacobs' successor; one great in heart, in hand, in 
training, and in personality — one whom we believe will be able, under 
our Lord's direction, to bring the Sunday Schools of our cities, towns 
and country-sides together with all the Denominations interested therein, 
into one might.y, intense, aggressive, intelligent consecrated and irre- 
sistible power for righteousness in the saving and keeping of the child- 
hood, womanhood and manhood of Illinois for Christ. 

With the election of our dear Brother Fred A. Wells as Chairman of 
the Executive Committee of the International Sunday School Association 
and the concentration in this State of the International and the World's 
Sunday School headquarters, with the next International Convention to 
be held in Chicago, in 1914, it places a great responsibility upon the 
Illinois Sunday School Association. 

Onr committee believes that "you are chosen of the Lord" for this 
great work and we hereby tender you the position as General Secretary 
of our State Association, at the same salary that you are now receiving, 
hereby pledging you our enthusiastic and united cooperation and the 
loyal support of the thousands of Illinois Sunday School workers, that to- 
gether we may so serve as to fully do the Master's will. 

We, therefore, pray that you will consider this a call from Him 
"whose we are and whom we serve." 

Your Friend, A. H. Mills. 
Chairman and in heliaJf of the Erccn- 
tivc Commiiice of the Illinois Sun- 
day School Association." 

Chicago, October 13, 1911. 
"Dear Mr. Mills: Your letter of October 4 was duly received, 
but it contained a matter of such importance to myself and tlie cause to 
which I have consecrated my life that T felt a reply must be delayed until 


I could be sure I was moving in the direction which will be according to 
the will of Him, whose I am and whom I serve. 

It was truly a surprise to me to learn that your Committee had 
decided I was the one chosen to follow Brother Jacobs. There surely 
is no other General Secretary whose work I would rather follow up. 
But there are interests in this larger field which had to be carefully con- 

Now, after careful and prayerful consideration of all that this change 
involves; after taking into my counsel kinsfolk and friends near and 
dear to me; after seeking advice from the splendid company of officials 
under whom and with whom T have labored with such delightful fellow- 
ship, it seems clear to me that my Heavenly Father desires me to 
become your General Secretary, to take up my new work January 1, or 
as soon thereafter as matters can be arranged with the International 

Although not worthy to assume an Elisha position, yet trusting the 
mantle of our Elijah may fall upon me as I try to be your executive 
leader, I am 

Most cordially, Hugh Cork." 

Mr. AV. B. Jacobs, while on his way to his office, on Wednesday morn- 
ing July 16, 1913, was run over by a street car and so seriously injured 
that he passed away at eleven o'clock. The news of his tragic death 
spread rapidly and the messages of love began to pour into the stricken 
family and the association oflfice. 

"Strange we never prize the music 
Till the sweet-voiced bird has flown." 

Dr. H, M. Hamill wi-ote of Mr. Jacobs in substance : I began my 
Sunday-school service in 1888 with W. B. Jacobs and the golden cord 
that bound us at the start long ago became a cable so strong that a hun- 
dred deaths cannot simder. It was nothing to him when or how he died. 
As Miss Bragg, his secretary wrote, "If anyone should say why is his 
body thus broken," he would be quick to answer, '"Was it not so with my 
Lord ?' 

I have known and labored with most of the great pioneers of 
American Sunday School Avork of the past generation, but not one of them 
did a greater work, if indeed, so great as did W. B. Jacobs. First his 
was a life long Sunday-school career, that essayed and succeeded in every 
department of Sunday School endeavor. He grew in Sunday School 
grace and knowledge to his last day and kept at it tirelessly and opti- 
mistically as no other man, not even his great and much honored brother. 
Others were generals, Avith drums and trumpets sounding mighty calls to 
battle. He was the indomitable fighter in the ranks, caring only for a 
hard fight and a sure victory for Jesus Christ and his Sunday School. 

He tried organization, and made Illinois the finest sample of an 
organized Sunday School State. He tried Sunday School methods, and 
for a quarter of a century great Chicago has found inspiration and ex- 
altation in his "Loyal Honor" plan. Ho tried Teacher Training side by 
side with Hamill and for twelve years the two were "Siamese twins" in 
—10 H S 


breaking down ministerial and churchly indifference. He had no rest for 
mind, body, or spirit in his long ministry. When barred by ill health 
from the field, he made his olhce a dynamo of insijiration and instniction 
through thousands of personal letters. Dear old conirade, he had plenty 
of gray matter in his brain and red blood in his heart. As a Sunday- 
sehool pioneer he was indeed great, but he was greater as a tine old-fash- 
ioned Christian gentleman who lived a noble life, wrought a peerless and 
abiding work, and went swift to heaven. If some of us tind life lonelier 
and steps more faltering, it is because we loved and miss him." 

Miss Mary I. Bragg, his assistant for twenty-seven years, missed him 
more keenly than any other person, outside of his immediate relatives. 
The supreme motive of his life was love. His first desire was to please 
God; his second to help others, and the secret of his life of usefulness and 
helpfulness was in his constant, living communion with God. In all the 
years of his Sunday School work, I am sure there never was a day, no 
matter how crowded with nuuiy duties, that he did not take time first for 
his hour of prayer and Bil)le study. He was always doing good, helping, 
comforting, and making some one happy. His friendship has been one 
of the greatest l)lessing of my life. He gave me the im])ulse, the trend, 
and the ins])i ration in the service which has bcome such a part of my 
life. What he did for me he has done for countless others. * * * 

Mr. Owen Scott said of Mr. Jacobs : "W. B. Jacobs is dead ! Can 
it be so? The answer came, no. Though dead, he yet liveth. His heart 
throbs in every valley, hill and plain of Illinois in the lives transformed 
through his persuasive, sweet and God-like influence in the Sunday 
School. Knowing first, very intimately, his great brother, B. ¥. Jacobs, 
I was fully prepared to be led by our absent one into the paths of service 
for the Master. His tragic death brought a shock to all, but the peaceful 
flight of his sweet soul into eternal rest and refreshment in the paradise of 
God came as the sweet compensation for his violent translation. 

The workers of Illinois will miss "the touch of a vanished hand," 
and will not again hear '"'the sound of a voice that is still." Yet, his 
spirit will ever hover over and be interwoven into the sublime in which he 
so long served." 

D'Tl. HOWAED M. HAMILL was born at Lowndesboro. Alabama, 
August 10, 1847. He died January 21, 1915, and was laid to rest at 
Mexico, Mo. While yet a boy, he left school to enter the service of the 
Confederacy in the Army of Northern Virginia, and marched and fought 
under General Lee until the surrender at Appomattox. He returned home 
at the close of the War and entered Alabama College at Auburn, from 
which institution he was graduated in ISfiS. Soon after this he was 
married to Miss Gertrude Dillar, who lived only a few years. From 
1868 to 1885 Dr. Hamill was engaged in teaching in, Missouri and Illi- 
nois. Hon. William Jennings Bryan was one of his pupils. In 1885 
he was married to ]\Iiss Ada L. Tuman of Jacksonville. 111. In the 
latter year he was licensed as a ]ueacher in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and joined the Illinois Conference in which he continued to hold 
membership until 1901. 

As a pastor, he was actively and intelligently interested in Sunday- 
school work, and because of his exceptional ability as a Sunday School 


leader there soon came about a large deniaiid for his services outside of 
the hounds of his owii pastoral charge. This demand at length became 
so constant and insistant that he was compelled to face the question as to 
whether the Sunday Schools were not his real field of service. His 
natural taste and aptitudes lendered an affirmative decision inevitable. 
In 1889 he organized the First Nonnal Department of the Illinois Sun- 
day-school Association and became its first superintendent. In this 
position he served until 1899, when he was elected by the Atlanta 
Convention Field Secretary of the International Sunday School Asso- 
ciation. This position he resigned to become superintendent of the 
Teacher Training Department of the TMethodist Episcopal Church, South, 
in which capacity he served with conspicuous ability and success through- 
out the entire South until the close of his life. During all of this time 
he was a member of the International Executive Committee from Tenn- 

At the State Convention in 1907 Dr. H. M. Hamill said: 

"I do not know when I shall ha-ve the privilege of standing before 
another Illinois convention. I want to tell you something of the Sun- 
day-school workers who have touched me life-long. One of them is an 
old woman; she is eighty-eight years old; she is in Birmingham, Ala- 
bama tonight. She reads everything that is readable. She sits at my 
side and converses with me about the poets and the scientists. I venture 
to say that she has read every line about the Peace Congress. She is 
an admirer of President Eoosevelt She knew his mother in Old 
Georgia. She is Georgia born and bred. She is my mother. She has 
been my sweetheart ever since I was a baby. She has been an influence 
all my life in Sunday-schools ways. Now and then when I go to see 
her she puts her arms around me and says, "Don't get tired; you are 
doing a great work." * * * 

I remember the preac-her-boys I used to have charge of in the Illi- 
nois Conference, some of whom are here to night. I recall how I quit the 
public school-room and went into a Methodist C-onference and became a 
Methodist preacher on one of the hard circuits of the Conference. I 
remember how those boys stood by me but also how, when I went into 
Sunday-school work, a presiding elder said : "You have side-tracked 
yourself by taking up Sunday-school work ; you have put yourself out- 
side the sympathies and affections of your hrcthreu in doing that." I 
said, "I have done what God called me to do; I have no tears to shed, 
and perhaps you are a false prophet." A few years later the Illinois 
Conference, and especially those hundred young men who had been under 
me in the (^onfereiice Course of study, l)y the hirgest vote ever given in 
the seventy-five years of the Conference, elected me to the leadership in 
the General Conference delegation, the greatest honor I ever received. It 
came chiefly from the hands of young men, some of whom, like Clear- 
waters and others, are sitting about me in this convention. 

As my last word permit me to speak briefly of two men by the name 
of Jacobs, one in heaven and one on earth. They are men, not angels. 
I want to tell you that no man is capable of sitting down and writing 
out the value of the services of these nu'n, which for so many years they 
have rendered under God to the State of Illinois. I am sorry for any 


of you if you have not begun to find the place of appreciation in your 
hearts for the two men tliat God has seen fit to put as leaders in this 
State. Illinois has a vast deal to be thankful for and to be responsible 
for in a Sunday-school way. I will never forget B. F. Jacobs, putting 
his arm about me, and cheering me on during the fifteen years I served 
under him. I will never forget great and gentle and good William 
Reynolds. J say this last word of these and other men I have labored 
with and not the least of the company is Excell himself. The "Old 
Guard" is passing, and he and I and W. B. Jacobs are part of it, and 
proud of the fact. So are Eearick, and Perrin, and Story, and Mills 
and Lay, and the sainted Hare who was treasurer so long, and all those 
fine Soldiers of Christ — the rol-1 is too long for me to call it tonight." 

In the Chicago Convention in 1914 he was elected president of the 
International Sunday-school Association and a member of the Inter- 
national Lesson Committee. 

In 1907-8 he and Mrs. Hamill made a tour of the Orient, speaking 
in Japan, China, and Korea in the interest of Sunday School work. Dr. 
Hamill was a prolific author as well as a teacher and organizer of great 
ability. Among his books that have a wide circulation are: The 
Legion of Honor, Teacher-Training Lessons, The Sunday School 
Teacher, International Lessons History, and The Bible and Its Books. 

At Lake Geneva Teacher Training School a memorial building has 
been dedicated to the memory of Dr. Hamill. A fine tribute to an 
efficient and great Teacher. 

Dr. Hamill was a pioneer in modern Sunday-school work. He was 
a man of clear vision and a remarkably eifective teacher. Perhaps no 
other man of his generation had a wider influence in the field of religious 

MAJOR D. W. WHITTLE was a well known evangelist, and was 
president of the Association in 1874 at Champaign. He was a choice 
spirit. Thousands of people thank God that he was born. He was 
loyal and true to every trust committed to him. He heard the Mastei^^s 
call on March 4, 190i, in East ISTorthfield, Mass. and loyally said "Yes 
Lord." He was intimately associated with Mr. Moody and with Mr. 
and Mrs. P. P. Bliss, Mr. and Mrs. James McGranahan, and Mr. and 
Mrs. George C. Stebbins, all of whom have rendered valuable service to 
our association. 

He recruited the 72d Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, and entered 
the Army. He was wounded at Vicksburg, but after a brief leave of 
absence he returned to the field, and was appointed on the staff of Major 
General 0. 0. Howard and served till the close of the war. In the army 
he was known as a devout and earnest Christian, one who exerted a 
powerful influence over others. Returning to Chicago he entered the 
employ of the Elgin Watch Company and so efficient did he become 
that his salary was raised to five thousand dollars per annum. He was 
superintendent of the Tabernacle Mission Sunday School and proved 
a great success. In 1874 on the appeal of Mr. Moody, Major Whittle 
resigned his business position and devoted all his time to evangelistic 
work. He became associated with Mr. P. P. Bliss and together they 


preached and sang the Gospel until the death of Mr. Bliss in December, 
1876. He wrote some of our best loved songs, as, "There shall be 
Showers of Blessing," "The Crowning Day is Coming," "I Know Whom 
I have Believed" and "Moment by Moment." 

CHARLES M. MORTON was elected President of our Association 
in 1879 at Bloomington. He was one of the early pioneers in our State 
and a man of strong convictions and a tender heart. He was an indom- 
itable worker and was ready at all times to lend a hand to ajiy one need- 
ing the help that he could render. He made friends wherever he went 
and once his friend, always his friend, for his christian manhood was 
of a type that the Master accompanied him wherever he went. He ren- 
dered a great service to the Sunday School cause of this State. His 
christian life began in the Sunday School. At the Convention in Alton 
in 1885, he was asked to respond on behalf of the Association to the 
Address of Welcome and in response said in part : "I was once in charge 
of the brethren and we had gone down and had quite a nice little gather- 
ing. I had talked all the forenoon and 1 was about tired out at twelve 
o'clock when we adjourned; and an old lady, just as fat as she could be, 
came down with her arms wide open and says, "Bro. Morton, aren't you 
a Methodist?" I said no, I am sorry I am not a Methodist, only a 
Christian." And she turned around and went up the aisle as fast as 
she could and I have never seen her since. My undenominationalism 
that day came mighty near making me lose my dinner. I am glad to see 
you get a little enthusiastic. Let us get full of it. Let us get full of 
this good air full of these good things, and full of real religious en- 
thusiasm. Some Christians remind me of an Irishman in New Jersey 
that I once heard of. He heard his mistress say that she liked turtle 
soup, and he went out and found a turtle and killed it as he supposed, 
and then brought it up and presented it to her. All at once the old 
turtle began to show very decided signs of life; "Why," said she, "I 
thought Pat, 3'ou said he was dead." "In faith, ma'am, he is, but he 
isn't conscious of it." Once in awhile we see that. Once in awhile we 
hear a man preach, and we say, "He is dead, but he isn't conscious of it." 
Walking in his sleep ; dead, and not conscious of it ! I think that is one 
reason why we love this State Association work so much, is that it has 
taken all of the want and vitality out of iis, filled us with enthusiasm, 
taught us that one is our Master, even Christ, and that we all are 
brethren. And so, unitedly and earnestly, and lovingly we accept the 
welcome so freely given." 

DR. CHRISTOPHER R. BLACKALL was born in Albany. New 
York, in 1830, and spent the early years of his life in that city. Choos- 
ing medicine as his profession he was graduated from Rush Medical 
College and for a time was in active practice. During the Civil War 
he was for two years surgeon of the 33rd Regiment of Wisconsin Vol- 
unteers. After his army experience he returned to Chicago and resumed 
his medical work. 

In 1865 he gave up- the practice of medicine at the earnest solic- 
itation of B. F. Jacobs and J. H. Vincent. His first official position 
as a Sunday School worker was that of secretary of the Chicago Sunday 


School Union. In ISOCi lie was promoted to bo the (General Sui)erin- 
tendent of the Chicago Sunday School Union, succeeding .John H. 
Vincent in that ofllce. In 18()V lie was secretary of the Cook County 
Sunday School Association and resigned to accept the secretaryship of 
the American Baptist Publication Society and in 18(i8 he became the 
western agent of said Society in Chicago, at which time he was trans- 
ferred to the New York branch house in 1875) and held that position 
until 1882, when he Avas again transferred to the head(|uarters of the 
Publication Society at Pliiladelpliia and nuule editor of its Sunday 
School periodicals. 

Dr. Blackall lias always been an indefatigalde worker. He has had 
under his charge a large number of periodicals. The Baptist Teacher 
and various quarterlies, and in later years the Keystone Craded Series. 
In 1884 the Society began the publication of the Baptist Superin- 
tendent, a i:)eriodical for Sunday-school suijerintendents, and in 1910, 
at Dr. Blackall's earnest insistance the Publication Society began the 
issue of the Home aiul Schools for special use in the Home Department. 
In all matters pertaining to progressive movements in the Sunday-school 
world Dr. Blackall has invaribly been in the forefront and ready to aid 
all plans and methods adapted to make Sunday School work more 
effective. To him, the Sunday-school workers of the Baptist Churcli 
are greatly indebted, and he is considered one of the wisest and sanest 
leaders. His sympathies and efforts have not been limited to his own 
denomination. For many years he has been connected with the Inter- 
national Sunday-school Association. He is one of the oldest of the Old 
(iiiard, being now al)out 90 years yoinuj. and yet he shows a vigor that 
is remarkal)le for one of his years. 

EEECB H. GRIFFITH was president of our State Association at 
Alton in 1875. He has heard the Master's voice "It is enough, come 
up higher." He was born in Wales, November 5, 1824. His father 
was a minister of the Independent faith in Wales. His father died 
when Peeee was a small lad. His mother thus left with three small 
children, he was early in life thrown upon his own resources. His 
mother was a woman of fine education and of deep spiritual power, and 
these qualities were firmly fixed in the life of her son, dominating his 
entire life and making him a potential factor in the community. He 
was a tried and true friend of the Sunday School cause. He had been 
connected with our State Association for more than a generation, being 
its President in 1875, and a member of the State Executive Committee 
for many years. He was a co-worker with, and the personal friend of 
Moody, Reynolds, Vincent and the Jacobs and a host of other loyal 
workers. He attended the great conventions of Sunday School workers, 
State, International, and World. His presence was felt in these con- 
ventions. His was a cheerful, happy, bouyant disposition. He caught 
the sunshine of life and loved to pour it into the lives of others. He 
was a perfect gentleman, given to hospitality, and his home was ever the 
safe and loving retreat of the Field Workers, his entire family joining 
him in entertaining these servants of the Lord, and they went out to do 
a better service for the Master, by the inspiration and benediction they 


obtained in this Christian home. He kept his heart young, even in his 
advancing ago. The young people loved and trusted him. He was 
earnest and faithful. He did his work well. He left the imprint of 
his Christian manhood on his State and age. 

E. 0. EXCELL. Dr. Hamill said of "The Old Guard" : "Another 
is the sweet singer who began his career with us many years ago, as 
minstrel of the Old Guard. God bless Professor E. 0. Excoll ! And 
you may be sure, after fifteen years that he and I spent together in 
sacred comradship, I could not leave this platform without saying my 
last word of one who is nearly the link between the Old Guard and the 
Young Guard of Illinois." 

At the Convention at Streator in 1883, our records say: "Prof. 
E. 0. Excell, a stranger to the convention, Avas introduced as a singer 
from Penns.ylvania. He pleasantly replied that being a stranger, he 
would sing his experience, and in the most wonderful and delightful 
manner sang the song, "He saved a poor sinner like me." The effect 
upon the audience Avas wonderful, l)oth the nuitter of the song and the 
manner of the singer being well calculated to stir their hearts." * * * 
At the close of Mr. Morton's address, Mr. Excell sang the song "The 
Model Chnrch." By request he also sang, an amusinsx l)ut not inappro- 
])riate song, "Keep in the middle of the road." He led the convention in 
singing "To the work, to the work, we are servants of God." The con- 
vention called for a song and he sang with wonderful power the song: 
"Jesus' blood has made me free; glory, glor\% glory." From that day, 
in 1883, to this good day this big man with a big loving heart has 
been leading our conventions almost every year since and we hope he will 
outlive Methusaleh so he can still lead the hosts of faithful Illinois Sun- 
day School people that will continue to meet in Convention year on year 
as the centuries come and go. Mr. Excell has the happy faculty of keep- 
ing his audience in a good humor and really has them singing out of 
full hearts before they are aware of it. He then thanks them for sing- 
ing so well and then assures them that "they can do just a little bit bet- 
ter" and under his nuigir they do it. He is not only a composer of music 
but a ])ublisher. His Sunday School songs have a charm, in fact, a 
religious spirit about them to many of us Sunday School people, that 
many others do not possess. 

Mr. Lawrence in the Dixon Convention in 1908 spoke of Mr. Excell 
as follows : "T am glad to say in an Illinois convention, and in the 
presence of our leader of song, and to him, that the highest compliment 
that has ever been paid to me so far as I know, and the one to which my 
heart responds more than to any other thing that lias ever been done, 
is the fact that this beautiful song which you have just been singing, 
"Do you know the world is dying for a little bit of love?" has been 
dedicated by Mr. Excell to myself. T appreciate it very much. I 
sometimes think that those of us who talk just say our pieces and pass on, 
and our voices are stilled, and no longer are people helped even if thev 
are helped while we are here, by the words we speak ; but these beautiful 
hyms, set apart for the worship of God, for the inspiration of the heart 
as it reaches up towards Him, will live, and some of them will be sung 


years and years after our good brother lias gone to his reward. It is a 
great contribution to the Christian work of the world to write a living 
hymn and a living tune for the people to use in the worship of God 
after the writer is silent." 

WTien Mr. Excell first went into Southern Illinois a short time after 
he became interested in our State work and had been leading the con- 
vention in song and ever3^body was charmed, there was an old man near 
the front of the audience who became very much interested in Mr. 
Excell's singing. After the audience had been dismissed and people 
wore chatting in little groups, Mr. Excell was still standing on the plat- 
form, this old man walked around INIr. Excell, keeping his eyes riveted 
upon liini all the time, and Avhen he got back to where his friend was 
standing he said: "No wonder he can sing, he's swallowed a whole 
brass band." 

He has made and still is making a great contribution, not only to 
our State Convention, but to our International Association, of which he 
is the eflficient Treasurer, and many other np-lifting organizations. 

Mr. Hugh Cork wrote for the August ISTumber, 1914, of The 
Trumpet Call : "Our State Vice President. It gives us great pleasure 
to present on the front page of this issue the portrait of one who has 
attended Illinois conventions probably more than any one else now living. 
He led the music for the "old guard" in the days gone by. 

I first remember him as he came to our college and with all the 
earnestness of his great heart and voice he stirred us to "Let the Saviour 
In." When I was wondering in those same days what my life-work 
should be his message in song came in the niche of time, "Open the 
Door for ihe Children." AVhen lamenting at times on how^ hard our lot 
had been and seeing more of the hole than we did of the doughnut, ''Uncle 
Ex" came along singing as he only can, "Count Your Blessings," and 
when you look on his shining face you feel the throb of his singing 
soul, "I am Happy in Him." and you go out. as multitudes have done, 
to "Help Somebody To-day." 

The musical critics may sneer at "The Little Brown Church in the 
Yale." but the memories of it, like the "Old Oaken Bucket," take some 
of us back to sacred days, wdien at mother's knee we were taught to go 
about "The King's Business." 

Sing on, dear soul, and "Scatter Sunshine," as you have for so 
many years, and when the cloud does receive you out of our sight the 
strains we know we will hear as vou enter the gates of the Citv are, 
"All Hail, Immanuel!" 

DAVID C. COOK of Elgin, many years ago became interested in 
Sunday School work and saw the need of better equipment and turned 
his fertile brain and constructive ability to supply those needs. By 
his painstaking and persistent attention to those needs of the fast unfold- 
ing and developing modern Sunday School he has established a very 
large and valuable plant for the production of such supplies. I under- 
stand it is now a corporation, and Mr. George Cook, his son, who was 
elected President of our Association at Elgin in 1912. is interested with 
his father in the business. Mr. George Cook became a member of our 


Executive Committee and a member of the International Association. 
Mr. David C. Cook is a keen business man of clear perception and when 
his mind is once made up it is .very difficult to change it. For some 
reason, and I never learned what, he refused to render any assistance 
to the advocates of the Graded Lessons. He has been and still is a 
liberal contributor to our Association and other enterprises that appeal 
to his judgment. His lesson supplies are used in many schools, not- 
withstanding many denominations have their own periodicals. He has 
rendered a great service to the Sunday School cause. 

EDGAR H. NICHOLS was born near State Center, Iowa, in 1867. 
When he was twenty years of age his ambitions led him to Chicago where 
he faced the world alone. He lived in a boarding house, where the 
influences were anj^thing but uplifting. He realized one Sunday morn- 
ing as he walked the streets that his life was drifting — he must make 
a stand for good or bad. He chose the good. At a certain spot which 
he well remembered in after years he gave his heart forever to Christ. 
He went at once to the Wesley Methodist Church and began his Sunday 
School career. At the World's Washington Convention in 1910, he was 
added to the Executive Committee of the World's Association. In 1914 
he was elected Treasurer of the International Association, in which 
position he served faithfully until his death in September 15, 1916. 
He was Superintendent of his own successful Sunday School for nearly 
twenty years. 

He was married and had two children, a boy and a girl, and when 
they approached the age of adolescence Mr. Nichols became very much 
interested in the teen age — boys and girls — -and through his influence a 
Department or Division of the International Association, known as the 
Advanced Division, or Teen Age was established. The most critical 
period in the life of every man and woman, and yet when it is passed 
they straightway forget what manner of man or woman they were dur- 
ing that crisis in human life. Mr.Nichols devoted much time, patience 
and effort to secure the needed help and he made a large contribution 
to the efficiency of the Sunday School at this critical age when the 
"dropping out" begins. Yet with tlie organization of Adult Classes of 
men and women the hold on the teen age boys and girls was greatly 
strengthened. He was a large, fine looking man, a keen business man, 
and banker. His family were the idols of his heart. He gave much 
time to his Sunday School work and the influence of his life on our 
Association and also the International was indeed great and helpful. 
He is greatly missed from our councils. The benediction of his up- 
right, manly, christian life will long linger with those who knew him best. 

FRED A. AVELLS of Chicago is one of the big men, not only of 
our Association, but also of the International and World's Associations. 
He was for several years a member of our Executive Committee. He 
became Treasurer of the International Association in 1905 and held 
that important position for six years when he was elected Chairman of 
the Executive Committee of the International Association composed of 
72 Committeemen with G4 Alternates, Sunday School men from all 
parts of North America. Mr. Wells deals in big things. He is a large con- 


tractor oC Chicago and his business takes him into all the large cities of 
North America and lie has a wide acquaintance witli tlie Captains of Big 
Business in all tliis vast territory, lie is a man of deep convictions and 
stands for what he believes to l)e right. He has an abiding faith in the 
dynamic powers of the- Sunday School to solve any problem involving 
the uplift of humanity and the bringing the world to Jesus Christ. 

He was elected at the World's Sixth Convention in Washington, 
D. C. 1910, with Sir George White, of Norwich, England, as Joint 
Treasurers of the World's Association, each for his own nation. 

lie has rendered, and still is rendering a very large service to the 
Sunday School cause, Hot only of oui' own State, but of North America 
and of the wide, wide World. He is in deep sympathy with any one in 
need and his big heart goes out to even the weakest in his earnest struggle 
after that which is higher and more Christ-like. He is a product of our 
Illinois Sunday School Association and is a type of the strong, vigorous 
and loving manhood that has been and still is being developed and 
trained for great places, under God, in bringing a permanent, just and 
lasting peace to this old blood-drenched world of ours. 

WILLIAM C. PEARCE became a Field Worker for our Asso- 
ciation in 1891 and resigned in 1900 to accept the Secretaryship of the 
Cook County Association and in 1903 he resigned that position to enter 
the employ of the International Association. As a worker in our Asso- 
ciation, he was under the training and influence of both B. F. and W. 
B. Jacobs to whom he looked for and obtained much instruction, in- 
spiration and power with people and with God. He has a keen mind and 
had ])reparod himself for professional life, when the Master turned the 
kaleidoscope of his life and he saw very clearly the Lord's leading and 
he was not disobedient to the message and he turned his back on his 
contemplated profession and followed the Master in the way, and that 
Master has wonderfully led him all these subsequent years. He has an 
abiding faith that the Lord's promises stand fast and sure. He, with 
Brothers Miller, Schenck and Moser, was a Field Worker for iive years 
in our Association and was tireless in his efforts in the Master's cause. 
His genial nature and strong religious faith drew many people to him 
and when he left our State work in 1900 to throw himself with all the 
holy zeal he possessed into the great Cook C^ounty work, he carried with 
him the sympathy and prayers of not only all the leading workers of our 
State, but many whose lives might seem from a human viewpoint to be 
unimportant, but whose prayers out of broken, grateful hearts, are often 
more potent with the Father than any other kind, followed ]\[r. Pearce 
into his more intensive Cook County work. He believed that the Sunday 
School was a good place for father and mother as well as the children 
and the more he thought about it the stronger his belief became, and 
dominated with that dynamic power, he seized the nucleus of such an 
organizatioji and soon had Cook County on fire with zeal for the Adult 
Classes in the Sunday School. That fire was not limited to the bound- 
aries of that county, but through his influence broke out in different 
parts of the State. Cook County under his leadership adopted a small 
red button with a round white center, designed by Herbert L. Hill of 


Chicago and one of its tnithusiastic workers, as the badge of the Adnlt 
Bible CMass. Its significance is: "There is no purity of life without 
sacrifice, and no cleansing of sin without the shedding of blood." Heb. 
y :22. Our State Association soon adopted this same button as its Adult 
Class emblem. 

When Mr. Pearce entered the International Association work he 
was assigned to the Adult Department of which I was chairman and we 
also adopted the little red button with white center as our emblem. It 
rapidly became a continent-wide bond of fellowship in addition to the 
good it is doing l)y way of helping to advertise and introduce the organ- 
ized Adult Bible Class work. 

At the Convention at East St. Louis in 1907, Mr. Pearce said in 
substance : This is the State that gave me birth, the State where I 
found Jesus Christ, the State that gave me my mother and a host of 
friends. Other States may come to be dear, and as an International 
worker I trust I may be loyal to other parts of this country, but there 
is one State that always finds tlie dearest place in my heart and it is 
Illinois ! For not only is Illinois a great Sunday-school State, but her 
workers are ever loyal to the work throughout the country. Wherever 
an Illinois man or woman goes there he goes i^reaching the Sunday-school 
gospel, and I pray that it may ever be so. I should be recreant to my 
trust if I failed to speak of the greetings which I am from time to time 
asked to convey to you. The other night in South Carolina, that far 
southern State, with their warm-heartedness and their splendid Sunday- 
school zeal, at the close of the last session, a gentleman arose and out of 
the fulness of his heart said : "Mr. Chairman, I move you that we send 
to Illinois, by Brother Pearce, the loving sympathy of the South Caro- 
lina, People;" and I bring it to you tonight! The war is actually over! 
A new time has dawned upon us. 

We need men and women in our Sunday Schools; the men perhaps 
more than the women, but I doubt it. If there is one class in all the 
world that needs to be brought into vital touch with the Sunday School 
it is the mothers of our land who have forgotten and left off the teaching 
of the Word of God in the home. We need them there. We need them 
as an example. Brother Little, who was the pastor of the Methodist 
Church in Danville, Illinois, told me this story of some pastor, perhaps 
himself, calling upon a family in a new charge. He saw a little boy 
playing on the floor and he said, "Is this your boy?" "Yes sir." "How 
many children have you?" "Four." "How many are boys?" "All of 
them." "Well, tliat is too bad that one of them could not have been a 
girl, is it not?" And the little five year old boy looked up and said, 
"Well, I would like to know who'd been her! Bill would not have been 
her, and Sam wouldn't have been her, and John wouldn't have been her, 
•Hnd 1 tell you right now T wouldn't have been her!" There is not any- 
thing in thjs world a boy wants to be except a man, and there is not 
any thing a girl wants to be but a woman. We need men and women 
as examples, and we need them as workers in our Sunday-schools and as 
supporters of them. 


MARION LAWEENCE was born in 1853 in Winchester, Ohio. 
He removed to Toledo in 1873, where he became associated with the 
Washington Street Congregational Sunday School, of which he was 
elected Superintendent in 1876. Under his leadership the school became 
widely known for the improved methods used in conducting its woi'k, 
and in 1888 he was engaged b}^ the cliurch as superintendent on half time, 
being perhaps the first paid Superintendent in our country. He con- 
tinued as a traveling man during the other half of his time. 

At the State Convention of Ohio Sunday-school Association in 1891 
he was sitting in the back of the church during the discussion as to the 
advisability of the election of a state secretary for the Association and it 
was carried. Mr. B. F. Jacobs of Illinois was present and he came to 
where Mr. Lawrence was sitting in the back of the church and put his 
hand upon Mr. Lawrence's shoulder and said : "Mr. Lawrence you are 
the man God has selected as General Secretary of Ohio." This so im- 
pressed Mr. Lawrence with his responsibility that when the committee 
afterwards came to him and- tendered the position he accepted it, and with 
great credit and honor he put the Ohio work "over the top," until he 
was elected as General Secretary of the International Sunday School 
Association in 1899, and upon the retirement of B. F. Jacobs, he became 
the active head of the International Field Force, and ever since has 
supervised the develoj^ment of that Organization. 

In 1910, Mr. Lawrence was made General Secretary of the World's 
Sunday School Association and the Headquarters of both Associations 
were moved to Chicago. Mr. Lawrence resigned as Secretary of the 
World's Association March 1, 1914, but has continued as General Sec- 
retary of the International Sunday School Association. 

He is a recognized authority on methods, field conditions, and upon 
the conduct of Sunday Schools and Sunday School architecture. 

He has published three books : "How to Conduct a Sunday School ;" 
"Housing the Sunday School," and "The Sunday School Organized for 
Service," which are widely circulated and are filled with common sense 
and practical suggestions so that it has almost become proverbial, that 
when any Sunday School question is asked, the reply is : "Ask Marion 
Lawrence." He is a man of beautiful spirit and more nearly typifies my 
conception of the "Beloved Disciple" than any man I ever knew. His 
very gentleness makes him great. He counts his friends by the millions 
and he lias done and is still doing a marvelous work for God and 
humanity. To know him is to love and trust him. 

He said in the Dixon Convention in 1908 : "It is fitting that Illinois 
should be associated with the World-wide Sunday School work. Illinois 
is in the very center of the Sunday School firmament, one of the bright- 
est stars, not because of your great conventions, but because the work 
has been radiating during all these years from this center into all parts 
of the world. I suppose there are more Sunday School workers officially 
connected with the work in various places in this land and others who 
were trained in Illinois, than from any other State in our Union. You 
are the mother of many of the Sunday School interests of the world; 
and as one of the mother's children I come down tonight and lay my 


head in mother's lap and plead again for a needy part of our great 
field. * * * You are favored in Illinois; I often say that, by the 
severest test of organization, Illinois still leads the Union, and I believe 
it with all my heart. What is the test of organization ? I will tell you 
what it is in this vState or in any other; that State is best organized 
whose counties and townships would go on and do their work the best 
and longest without any more State supervision. That is the test of 
organization. The test of the walking ability of a child is the ability 
to walk when mother's hands are no longer under its armpits helping 
it along. Dear friends, it is a wonderful place you occupy, right at the 
head of this wonderful procession. * * * 

I want to lay upon the heart of Illinois, grand old rich Illinois — rich 
in history and memory — the Illinois of Jacobs, of Eggleston, of Eey- 
nolds, of Moody, of Whittle, and many another saint of God — Illinois 
with the fine privilege of leading in the vanguard of the Sunday School 
work of the World, that has in it to-day, I suppose, more efficient Sun- 
da^^-school workers to the square inch than any other spot on the face 
of the earth. It would be a fine thing for this convention, notwithstand- 
ing you have already done so handsomely, to increase your State pledge 
at Louisville. I am not asking you to do that. We would like to have 
you do the thing the Lord lays on your heart. Do the things the Lord 
prompts you to do." In a few minutes, more than the $700 asked for was 

EDWARD K. WAERiEN of Three Oaks, Michigan, was in our 
State Convention at Springfield in 1884. Mr. Warren at that time 
was the General Secretary of the Michigan Sunday School Association. 
He made a short address in which he said : "I have heard so much 
about Illinois Conventions that I thought I would come over and spy 
out the land and find your secret. I have already discovered one of 
your secrets and that is you have men here who know how to give orders 
and the rest of 3^ou seem to know exceedingly well how to obey them. 
We are occasionally blessed by a missionary visit from some Illinois 
worker and you can follow his trail all over our State. Many of our 
counties have good county organizations but we are not as successful as 
Ave should like in joining the county with the State Association. On 
one occasion we were getting up a county convention and we pushed the 
arrangements so that finally the General Passenger Agent said "Please 
return delegates from such a place on account of the State Convention." 
My children are beginning to learn that when my old brown valise comes 
out, there is a Sunday School Convention somewhere. Not long ago 
the conventions came pretty thick and one of them happened to be in 
our county?" And my little boy said: "Papa, how often do they hold 
conventions in our county?" And my little girl said: "Why, don't 
you know? We hold them every month." As I came into the conven- 
tion this morning I looked over the faces of those who were here, and I 
noticed a great many elderly men and women, especially elderly men, 
and as I knew your record to some extent it gave me pleasure to see 
the men who have brought about this result, so that the influence of 
your Sunday School Association is felt in every part of the globe where 


the English langiiap-c is spoken. In that early session, I saw very few 
young men, hut later in the day I was pleased to notiee tliat the young 
nie!i are taking up the wdi'k iiiat is laid upon them, and, Mr. President, 
let me say to you that you have taken u]) a work that is no small thing. 
Out of the (iO(),00() Sunday School scholars in Illinois, I dare say there 
are 3.000 in small neighljorhoods, where a class nu\y have only three or 
foni- hoys in it. Strange as it nuiy seem, it is hard to hold the hoys. 
Sometimes we think that if we have not a large class of boys we are not 
doing them justice, hut T want to S4iy that you must not neglect one 
of them. Cive them something to do. It seems to me that there would 
he no ditficulty in looking after all our union work, if every church 
would ])ay the of its own Sabbath School. Let the nursery of 
the church be supported by the church and see that Sunday School work 
is pushed all over the land. Sometimes people think they are too busy 
to be teachers or superintendents in a school. Let me say, if you have a 
num or woman in your school that is not busy, there is something wrong 
somewhere. The other morning at family worship my little girl was 
reading the last verse of the First Epistle of John : "Little children, 
keep your hands from idols, amen," and she read it: "Little children, 
keep your hands from idle men." T leave you with this advice, keep 
your hands from idle men. 

The following incident will give you a clearer insight to the char- 
acter and quality of the manhood possessed by Mr. Warren than almost 
anything else that I might mention : The town of Three Oaks was a 
licensed town and, while Mr. Warren was opposed to saloons, he was 
unable to keep them out. Finally he concluded to arrange the matter 
in another way. The council passed an ordinance permitting only one 
saloon and raised the license fee to $500 per year. Mr. Warren then 
made application for that liquor license and it was granted to him. He 
paid the $500 each year and took his license and put it in his safe and 
never opened the saloon nor sold a dro]i of liquor. He has the distinction 
of being the only intense Sunday School "saloon keeper" that the Inter- 
national Sunday School Association has ever known. 

Mr. Warren has been so closely associated with the "Old Guard" 
and especially since the moving of the International and World's head- 
quarters to Chicago, that Illinois has long since adopted him as one of 
its "Old Guard." 

On the death of Dr. Hamill, Mr. Warren was elected President 
of the International Association. His health has now failed so that he 
must give up all bis great Sunday School work. He is the personi- 
fication of loving kindness. He has lived to a noble purpose and lifted 
the world nearer to God by his fidelity and i)ersistent labor of love. He 
never loses an opportunity to speak a good word for Jesus Christ — always 
doing some noble, loving ministry for someone else. If Dr. VanDyke is 
correct about the Angels building the Heavenly "Mansions" out of the 
materials that each individual daily sends to heaven by the angels, dear 
Mr. Warren's Mansion will be large and handsome beyond human speech 
to describe. He has been a great inspiration to many Illinois Sunday 


School workers who love and trust him fully. He is one of the choicest 
spirits I have ever known. 

DR. JOHN POTTH of ('ana(hi was such a very intimate friend of 
the members of "The Old Guard" and also of very many other Hlinois 
Sunday School workers and attended at least two of our State Con- 
ventions, one at Sterling in 1903 and the other at Clinton in 1906, and 
delivered several forceful and eloquent addresses that will always be 
remembered with pleasure and profit by those who heard him, that it 
seems appropriate that at least a very brief mention should be made of 
such a splendid character. 

The International Association at the Louisville Convention in 1908, 
engrossed on its record the following tribute to this great character. 

Rev. John Potts, D. D., LL. D. 

"Prince in Israel," Pastor, Preacher, Educator, Sunday School 
Worker, Master of Assemblies, Wise Counsellor, Loyal Friend, 
Tireless Leader of Men, Splendid Type of a Christian Gentleman. 
Member International Lesson Committee, 1878-1907 ; Chairman, 
1896-1907. Secretary of Board of Education of the Methodist 
Churches, Canada. Born in Ireland, Mav 3, 1838; "At Rest," Oct- 
tober 16, 1907." 

One of his addresses, perhaps the one that he delivered most fre- 
quently, was entitled : "Is the Sunday School worth What It Costs ?" 
You can easily imagine how he would answer that question, but perhaps 
you may be interested in hearing some of his general conclusions : 

1. The Sunday-school is worth what it costs in its educational value. 

2. The Sunday-school is worth what it costs in the supreme place 
which it accords to tlie Bible. 

3. The Sunday-school is worth what it costs because of the literature 
which it produces and disseminates. 

4. The Sunda3'-school is worth what it has cost because it is one of 
the greatest agencies for enlarging the kingdom of God. 

5. It is worth what it costs in its gift of workers to the church. 
Concerning the future of the Sunday-school Dr. Potts was in the 

highest degree optimistic. 

It was a favorite saying with him, "The Sunday-school must keep 
time to the music of the twentieth century." 

HUGH CORK. As hereinbefore stated on pages 84-5, on the 
resignation of Mr. W. B. Jacobs as General Secretary of our Association, 
Mr. Hugh Cork became our General Secretary. He was a man of wide 
experience in Sunday-school work in all its phases and he brought to his 
work January 1, 1912, a rich experience and with the promise of many 
years of constructive building on the broad and deep foundation Mr. 
Jacobs had laid for Sunday School work in Illinois. 

The following resolution expresses in concise terms our Asso- 
ciation's feelings for Mr. Cork and his work in our State. 

"Resolution Regarding IMr. Cork's Resignation. 


Mr. A. H. Mills read the following resolution, which was voted: 

Our beloved secretary, Brother Hugh Cork, who for four and one- 
half years has led our Association so efficiently, last December tendered 
to your committee his resignation, to take effect March 1st, last, but at 
your committee's earnest request, it was finally agreed that his resignation 
should not take effect until July 1st. This resignation came as a great 
surprise to many of the members of your committee, and will also be 
to many members of our Association in different parts of the 
State. Before this relationship is severed, it is right and proper that 
this Association take some action expressive of its appreciation, not only 
of the Christian character of our dear brother, but also of the quality 
and quanity of his handiwork during these years. He came to us at 
the close of the long and faithful service of the late beloved and trusted 
W. B. Jacobs, who had also touched the life of Brother Cork as a young 
man, and pointed out to him his life work. 

Both of these men were strong personalities. While having many 
■things in common, yet there were strong points of difference. Mr. 
Jacobs had laid the foundation of our work and had touched many lives 
who have done and are still doing great things for our Master. 

Mr. Cork's task was to build the superstructure upon that foun- 
dation, and he brought to that work a character that was earnest, fearless, 
resourceful, and a capacity for large personal work. His work has been 
very largely constructive; he intended it to be entirely so. He has 
brought the larger cooperation between the denominations and our 
Association by securing to the denominations representation on your 
executive committee, thus setting the pace for other state associations. 

We desire to assure our dear brother that he carries with him the grat- 
itude, love and benediction of this Association for the great work he has 
done in this State, and that we hereby assure him that our earnest 
prayers will accompany him into what-ever field of service our Father 
shall call him." 

MISS MARY I. BRAGG, for over twenty-five years connected with 
General Secretary, Mr. W. B. Jacobs' office, much of the time his 
Assistant Secretary, and also Assistant Treasurer, left that position with 
the close of the Elgin (Vmvontion in ini"2 and laid aside the heavy re- 
sponsibilities that she had so faithfully and efficiently carried all these 
years; such devoted service has been rarely equalled. She has broken 
her alabaster box — her trusting, loving, heart — and anointed every Illi- 
nois Sunday School worker and the fragrance of her beautiful life 
will continue a blessed benediction and inspiration to us all and our 
children for many, many years. May her mantle of loyalty, fidelity, 
purity and consecration fall on the young womanhood of Illinois and 
inspire these lives to the highest and most devoted service to the Blessed 
Master is the earnest prayer of the Sundav School forces of Illinois. 

In "The Trumpet Call" of October 1911, from the pen of Mr. W.. 
B. Jacobs this tribute to Miss Bragg will be found : 

"The Illinois Sunday School Association, and all interested in its 
prosperity have great occasion for thankfulness to God that twenty-five 
years ago — September, 1886 — He led our General Secretary to call to his 


assistance Miss Mary I. Bragg; and that during all these years her life 
has been spared to us, and devoted to loving, efficient and faithful 
service for the Master Whom she loves and in Whose Name our Illinois 
Sunuday School work is carried forward. 

No one so well as the writer can know how much Miss Bragg's 
pains-taking work has meant to our State Association. The multiplicity 
of details, each requiring thoughtfulness, accuracy, conscientious fidel- 
ity, have been looked after by Miss Bragg as if the success of our work 
depended upon her faithfulness, which is true to an extent not realized 
by many. The General Secretai7, who at first felt that only by his 
personal verification could he know that every detail of his office work 
was correct, soon learned so fully to trust Miss Bragg's judgment and 
accuracy, that when she said of anything entrusted to her, "This is cor- 
rect," he dismissed all care concerning it. 

Nor was Miss Bragg satisfied when her own particular duty had been 
faithfully and fully attended to. God gave her a wideness of vision 
and a largeness of heart, whicJi included all counties and all Sunday 
School workers of Illinois, and her desire and labor for the highest good 
of all. The work of the General Secretary, the Executive Committee, 
the Field Workers, the Department and County Officers, have been 
carried upon her heart, as if their work was a part of her own, and noth- 
ing has been left undone by her which an active mind, a loving heart and 
a helping hand could do for the larger success of our Illinois Sunday 
School Association. 

But words fail us to depict the unselfish devotion, the unwearied 
faithfulness and the high conception of duty which for twenty-five years 
has characterized the work of our Assistant Secretary 

Mary I. Bragg 
Heaven's Blessing rest upon her ! 
Heaven's Joy be her everlasting reward !" 

MRS. MARY FOSTER BRYNER of Peoria knew Mr. and Mrs. 
William Reynolds and Dr. Alexander G. Tyng when she was a small 
child and the influence of those lives upon her in the early' formative 
years of her life has been rich fruitage to our Association, the Inter- 
national Association, and the Sunday Schools of the World. She early 
came in contact with B. F. and W. B. Jacobs and others of "The Old 
Guard" and soon her life became dominated by an intense desire to give 
to this great work the splendid loyalty of her loving heart and fertile 
brain. She was in the employ of our Association until her efficiency 
attracted the attention of the International Association and she re- 
signed her work with us to take up that of the International. She be- 
t-ame one of its Field Workers, making long trips through, not only the 
United States, but Canada and Mexico. She has rare powers as a public 
speaker. She has something in her messages for the child, the teen age 
boy and girl, the young business man and woman, the fathers and 
mothers, and even the grandfathers and grandmothers. I have seen 
her address audiences having in them all these classes and she held the 
attention of each and every one^ — a remarkable gift; in it -all she ever 
remains the same practical, earnest, consecrated worker, always ready 

—11 H S 


fur the next task that the blaster has lur lier. She was elected Ele- 
mentary Superintendent by the International Association at Louisville 
in 1908 and she brought to the new duties her intense earnestness, fidelity, 
tact and wide acquaintance and rich experience gained in other branches 
of the Suiulay-school wuik that were of great help to her. Wherever 
she went in the International field she found many people who were 
ready to hear her message and follow her suggestions. She made a 
large contril)ution. not only to the International, but to every State 
Association to which she went and to all conferences, schools, and other 
interested groups of peoj^le in the welfare of the childhood of the North 
American Continent. She made friends easily and held them by the 
strength of her peri^onality and her ability to help tiiose needing and 
seeking help. 

At the State Convention in 1!»13 ^Irs Bryner said: 

"The Sunday-school may teach children to I'lioir what is right, but 
the home must teach them to Jo what is right. Sunday-school attend- 
ance for most pupils is less than 48 hours a year; tJiey live at home, in 
school, and on the playground ; they are hearers at Sunday-school ; tiiey 
are doers in daily life. 

The Sunday-school may admonish, "Oh, sing unto the Lord,'" 
"Enter into His gates with thanksgiving," "Eemember the Sabbath day 
to keep it holy," "Honor thy father and thy mother," "Search the 
Scriptures," "Keep thyself pure," "Keep thy heart with all dili- 
gence," "Lord, teach us how to pray," etc., but if these impressions 
never find expression out side of the church walls, there is little nurture 
for spiritual growth. 

If in the homes no sacred song is ever heard, no grace at table, no 
custom of church going, no difference regarding things planned for Sun- 
day, no opening of the Bible, no word of prayer, in fact, no spiritual 
ui)lift, it is evident that other influences are nurturing the growing life 
and the spiritual nature is not satisfied, but starved. Children are 
admonished by precept, line upon line; they are nurtured by the stories 
they hear, and by the example of those whom they see, hear, and imitate. 
Every parent or teacher should wn'ite out and pray with the children 
or class in mind : 

Dear Lord, 

I'll go where I want them to go, 
I'll say what I want them to say. 
I'll do what T want them to do, 
I'll be what I want them to be. 

Sign name. 

Admonition seeks to train from without, often by abstract state- 
ments, which children cannot digest. Nurture endeavors to assist the 
child to assimilate in concrete form that which will work from within. 
Paul's injunction gave first place to nurture, "Train them in the nurture 
and adominition of the Lord." 

The Home and Sunday School should join forces to secure spirit- 
ual training. Parents should become familiar with the general aim of 


Graded Lesions. "To meet tlie spiritual needs of every pupil, at each 
stage of his development." 

Mrs. Bryner wrote for the International Section of the December, 
1913, Trumpet Call as follows: 

"The Elementary colors, green and white, and their meaning of 
purity and growth suggest naturally the motto, "First the Blade." 

As the text-book of all Bible schools is the Word of God, it is also 
the good seed which every Elementary teacher strives to plant early in 
the hearts of the children. The heart of a child is the best soil in which 
this good seed may quicken into life. To nurture its growth, simple, 
childlike worship is needed. Prayers, songs and Bible stories help to 
cultivate its growtb. Teachers of children should watch earnestly for 
the first evidences of the tiny blades of spiritual growth, which may be 
indicated by a child's question and bis strivings to choose and do the 
right. The full fruitage must not he expected in a moment. It is 
God's way that there shall appear "First the blade, then the ear, then 
the full grain in the ear." 

But during childbood years there should appear that little blade 
whose stalk may strengthen, bud and blossom, bringing forth much 
good fruit. 

Mrs. Bryner's mother was in failing health, and her sister who cared 
for the mother for a number of years was failing under the stress of the 
care to such an extent that INIrs. Bryner felt that her first duty was to 
her mother and sister and she resigned her position with the Inter- 
national Association to give to tbe home loved ones a daughter's and 
sisters devotion and care, giving what time she could spare from such 
care to calls for convention help tbat might seek her services. 

When Mrs. Bryner left the employ of the International Association, 
many of her closest friends prepared a very handsome memory book for 
lier, each friend writing what was in his or her heart as a love token for 
her very great contribution to this great cause and to her. 

MRS. M. S. LAMOEEAUX of Chicago was Secretary of our State 
Primary Department for quite a number of years and she brought to 
her work a pleasing personality, and an intense desire to inspire her 
bearers, especially the parents of small children, to bring to the training 
of their children tbe very best of which they were capable. Her love for 
the Master was intense and she had great power over her audience 
whether she was pleading for the rights of the little children or whether 
she was appealing for the right treatment for the unfolding life of the 
teen age boy and girl. In 1907 she wrote a very practical and helpful 
book: "The Unfolding Life," with an introduction by Mr. Lawrence. 
The book has ])een widely read and is highly appreciated by Sunday 
School people. ]\Irs. Lamoroaux is a fascinating s])('aker and she holds 
her audience to the last word. She has largely contributed to the 
success of our Association. 

MRS. HERBERT L. HILL of Chicago, but now of N"ew York, 
was for many years President of the Primary Department of our Asso- 
ciation. She made a large contribution to that department of our work 
and had hosts of friends in all parts of the State who will always cherish 


the fine spirit she ever manifested in lier work, and never cease to thank 
the Master for bringing their lives in touch with hers. 

GEOEGE W. MILLER, who, for more than twenty years had been 
a faithful, earnest, and efficient field worker of our State Association 
severed his relation on November 1, 1912. He and Mr. Jacobs had 
always been the closest of friends and each had the full confidence of the 
other. Mr. Jacobs knew that he could rely upon ''George" wherever he 
was placed. Mr. Miller made and has all these years held hundreds of 
faithful friends in all parts of the State and they frequently speak of 
his loyalty and efficiency. He has for several years past been the efficient 
and consecrated secretary of the South Dakota Sunday School Asso- 
ciation and has made good, and his influence deepens and widens as the 
weeks go bv. 

ARTHUR T. ARNOLD in 1808 was one of our Sunday School 
Missionaries and attended many conventions and other meetings in 
behalf of our Association. He became one of our Field Workers in that 
year and continued as such worker and doing fine service' until February 
1. 1909, when at the earnest request of the Sunday School Association of 
West Virginia, he became its General Secretary and entered his new work 
with much- enthusiasm and after several years of splendid service, he 
received a call to the Ohio Association which he accepted and is now the 
efficient General Secretary of that State, following in the "footprints" 
of Mr. Marion Lawrence and Dr. Joseph Clark, (Timothy Standby.) 
Mr. Arnold is making good and doing fine work. 

HENRY ^rOSER was chosen a member of the State Executive 
Committee in 1898 and in the Spring of 1902 became one of the State 
Field Workers. His deep interest in the things of the Kingdom and his 
great love for the Master gave him great success in helping in Sunday 
School work. He closed his work for the Association on November 1, 
1912, and has engaged in other work since and now represents his de- 
nomination on the State Association Executive Committee and his long 
acquaintance with the work and workers makes him a valuable member. 

CHARLES E. SCHENCK, our present efficient Secretary, is doing 
splendid work along advanced Sunday School lines. He carries the 
Christly spirit with him wherever he goes. He is growing and is ever 
ready for suggestions as to how any part of our work can be made more 
efficient and bring greater results — his only ambition being to bring 
his Master into as close touch and sympathy with each Sunday- 
school worker as it is possible for him to do. His years of training under 
Mr. Jacobs are bearing fruit in these later days. 

George P. PERRY of Sterling. Illinois,' at the State Convention 
held in Danville, Illinois, in 1891, delivered an address on the Life of 
Christ using a large chart showing many of the principle events in the 
Life of our Lord, thus using the eye as well as the ear in teaching the 
great truths connected with the Life of our Lord. Mr. Perry had his 
chart coi)yrighted not only in the United States but in other countries. It 
is a great help in teaching the Gospels. It enables the mind to fix these 
great truths so that they become a part of us. Mr Perry has perhaps 


graduated more normal classes in Bible study than any other worker 
in our State. He surely is doing a fine piece of work for the Master. 

MES. ZILLAH FOSTEE STEVENS, late of Peoria and sister of 
Mrs. Mary Foster Bryner, heard the Master's gentle whisper "Come 
Home." and willingly obeyed His Call as she had done so many times 
before in His work in which she was so deeply interested and to which 
she devoted so much time, thought and study. The passion to save the 
boys and girls of America seemed to have taken absolute possession of 
her and everything she did and all she said seemed to come hot from 
her loving heart. She had her own way of saying things and putting 
facts together so that when she had ceased to speak most of her audience 
were willing to say "enough said." There was no compromise — ^no 
side-stepping — nothing but the absolute overthrow of the whole evil of 
intemperance would satisfy her. She has touched a wide field of labor 
by her voice, pen and personal touch. God has used her for sowing a 
harvest in righteous living that will be potent, not only in her own city, 
State and IS^ation, but in North America and even in foreign lands. 
The World's International and many. State Associations held her in 
high esteem and feel her loss very keenly as the many messages of con- 
dolence sent to the family on the announcement of her "Home Going" 
was made and I here insert just a very few : 

Mr. E. K. Warren : "What a blessing she has been to others ! In 
her quiet, modest, loving way, she accomplished a great work for Temper- 
ance through the Sunday Schools of North America." 

Mr Wm. Hamilton : "Her life was so eminently a life in Christ, 
that it leaves only a satisfaction and a joy." 

Mr. Frank L. Brown. Secretary of The World's Sunday School 
Association : "The impression of Mrs. Stevens on the life of this 
nation will be more evident as the years go by." 

MES. H. M. LEYHA of Chicago was the Elementary Superintend- 
ent of our Association from 1007 to 1014 and for years was a meml)er 
of the State Elementary Committee. She and her good husband have 
recently removed to Iowa to make their future home. She will be 
greatly missed by the Elementary workers in all parts of this State. 
She has a beautiful spirit and personality and her keen mind quickly 
grasps the important points of an address or a proposition and she has 
the ability to express herself so simply that anyone can fully undersand 
her. She has made a large contribution to the Elementary work in our 
State and will be long remembered not only by the workers but by the 
children that were naturallv drawn to her. 

MISS PEAEL WEAVEB of Indianapolis, Indiana, was unani- 
mously elected Elementary Superintendent of our Association by our 
Executive Committee on June 21, 1917, to succeed Miss Stooker re- 
signed. ]\riss Weaver had been on the Staff of the Indianapolis Sun- 
day School Association for several years and was eminently successful 
in her work. She comes to us with accurate knowledge, not only of 
the Elementary Division, but every phase of modern Sunday School 
work. Under her able administration the present excellent condition 
of the Elementary work in this State will be maintained and strength- 


enccl. She began her work September 1. She has a very ])leasing 
personality and makes friends easily and her work in the various parts 
of the Slate during the year has been highly appreciated and she will 
be of great assistance not only to the General Secretary, Mr. Schenck, 
but to all the workers with whom she comes in contact in the various 
parts of the State. The Association is to be congratulated in securing 
her. Mrs. Bryner and Miss Weaver are friends and she assures the 
Elementary workers of Illinois that Miss Weaver will continue the 
Avork of our Elementary Division as it has been promoted in the past 
twentv years by such splendid women as Mrs. Lamoreaux, Mrs. Hill, 
Mrs. Leyda and ^liss Stooker. 

MISS WILHELMINA STOOKER of Hartford, Conn., on Xovera- 
ber, 1913, accepted the call to the position of Elementary Superintendent 
of our Association, but owing to other engagements could not begin her 
work until February 1, 1914. She was a native of Xebraska and was 
highly recommended by Prof. H. M. Steidley and IMiss IVIamie Haines, 
General Secretary and Elementary Superintendent, respectively, »f 
Nebraska, both Illinois products of Sunday School 'experts. Miss 
Stooker was finely fitted for her work and made many friends through- 
out the State among not only Elementary workers, but persons 
engaged in other parts of this great work. At the Convention at 
Kewanee last year she tendered her resignation to take effect June 1, 
which at her earnest request and our general regret was accepted. She 
was an efficient worker, and under her skillful administration that 
Division made rapid advancement. She left a host of friends in this 
State who will always remember her with kindliest feelings. 

What shall I say of that great host of faithful, earnest, devout and 
consecrated men and women in every part of this great State who in the 
hundred years last past have given their very best service to this great 
cause in the redemption of the manhood, womanhood, and the saving 
of childhood through this latest and best method that our Father has 
given His children? Many of their names do not appear in this brief 
history, but they are all written in His greater histor}' and He has noted 
every effort that has been set forth, every helpful ministry that has been 
made, every word of encouragement and kindness that has been spoken 
to even one of the least of His children has been treasured and will 
receive its compensation and reward. 

I wish I had the time, the information, and ability to properly 
portray every name and sacrifice of every Illinois Sunday School worker 
in the advancement of the Master's cause in not only this State, but 
wherever his or her lot has been cast in the wide, wide world. 


One hundred years were spent in laying the foundation of the 
International Lesson System. Like all great movements, the system is 
composite, the work of many choice and master spirits. 

The successive steps leading to the conception and adoption of the 
International Lessons mav be summarized as follows: 


1. The spread of the Raikes mission schools through England, 
Wales, Scotland and Ireland in which the poor children, under hired 
teachers, whose sole motive was to teach the children to read so that they 
might read the Bihle. Their method was secular, their motive religious. 

2. The transplanting of the Raikcs idea into American soil and its 
early adoption and fostering by the churches as axpart of its specific 
work. Its growth was marvelous in its new environment. 

3. Our children had to learn to read like those of the British Isles. 
Books were scarce and even a copy of the Bible was not found in many 
homes and it soon became the text book in the Sunday School and they 
began to commit to memory verses from the Bible and these verses thus 
sown in the hearts of the children, under the influence of the Holy 
Spirit began to grow and grip the lives and held them true to God in 
the strenuous times to which they were moving under the guiding Hand 
of our Father. It became indeed a veritable mania, until child memory 
and advanced church leadership began the inevitable recoil. The modern 
Sunday School has lost much of its power by losing out of its 
program the committing to memory of the gi'eat fundamental principles 
of the truest and highest that are contained in the Book of Books. Out 
of this reaction from the exclusive memorization however came the first 
hint of our International System, Many men and women whose hearts 
God had touched and whose eyes He opened endeavored to evolve some 
"Limited Lesson" or "Selected Lesson" system of uniformity in the 
lessons for the Sunday School and it resulted in 1825 of the Sunday 
School Union starting what is called a contemplated plan of five years 
of forty lessons each. So well was this plan received that the American 
Sunday School Magazine in 1826 announced that most of the schools 
had adopted it. That same year Rev. Alfred Judson wrote the first 
question book, and many of us old boys and girls remember the old 
question books, but whether they were Judson's or some other we aie 
not certain, but of one thing we are certain and that is that some of 
those pointed questions and gripping answers became a sure anchor in 
our young lives. 

This system had within it the germ of four ideas — a selected rather 
than haphazard portion of scripture to be studied; study, rather than 
mere memorization ; one lesson for the entire school ; and help for the 
teachers in teaching — There was not a hint of general uniformity. 

5. In 1827 the American Sunday School Union, formed out of 
six denominations viz. Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, 
Episcopal and Reformed, began the publication of its annual series of 
question books. Some of these books gave an entire year to a single 
book of the Bible, others presented the chronological study of the life 
of Christ. In 1869 an "Explanatory Question Book" was added. Noth- 
ing was added by these books to the original concept of the author of 
the "Limited Lesson" scheme. 

6. Oiange Judd, the ])ublisher of the American Agriculturist, did, 
in 1862, take an advanced step l)y the addition to each selected lesson 
of its "connecting history" and "analysis." These question books were 
prepared under his direction by Dr. James Strong and Mrs. Dr. Olin. 


The Methodist Sunday School Union adopted the series at the request 
of its secretary Dr. Wise, and :Mr. Judd generously gave to it his copy- 
right. The series was called "Lessons for Every Sunday School in the 
Year" and 3,000,000 copies were sold between 1862 and 18G5. On 
the covers among other statements about the series were the words : "in 
accordance with the vieirs of all denominalions." The publication was 
discontinued by the Methodist Sunday School Union after 18G5 and 
when in 186G Dr. J. H. Vincent, one of the "Old Guard of Ulinois" 
was chosen Secretary of the Union he at once substituted his own 
"Berean Lessons." Dr. Judd's claim for his system was that it was 
"in accordance with the views of all denominations" is the first faint 
suggestion of interdenominational uniformity. The suggestion died 
at the moment of its birth, and the one who, destined of God, was to 
achieve a world-wide uniformity, in Bible study, was then a young 
business man on South Water Street, Chicago. But Judd's suggestion 
may have been and perhaps was the first bold work, like the gun at 
Concord, has been "Tieard round the world." 

7. The last preparatory step toward International Lessons was taken 
in Chicago. The Sunday School fires were blazing all over Illinois, per- 
haps with most intensity in Chicago — possibly because of its proverbial 
"breeze." The Sunday School Convention and Institute were in full 
blast. Great interdenominational organizations both in England and 
America caught the enthusiasm and Xational Sunday School Con- 
ventions were held and iSTew York organized its State Sunday School 
Association in 1854 and Illinois hers in 1859. It surely was an era 
of Sunday School ideas and of Sunday School giants; Pardee, Wells, 
Stuart, and McCook in the east; Moody, Vincent, Jacobs, Eeynolds, 
Whittle, Farwell, Eggleston, Hazard and Bhickall in the west were 
stirring the hearts of many conventions. Vincent and Jacobs, then 
in the early vigor of young manhood, "Were Sunday School Siamese 
twins of Chicago." Vincent did the thinking and teaching and 
finally the publishing; Jacobs did the thinking and planning and 
finally the achieving. Vincent organized the first normal class in the 
world during his pastorate at Joliet in 1857. He held the first Sunday 
School Institute in the world at Freeport, in 1861. He organized the 
earliest system of Sunday School Institutes in Northern Illinois and in 
Chicago. He published the Sunday School Teacher, and in 1866 it 
contained the first of a newly conceived series of lessons entitled "Two 
years with Jesus — A New System of Sunday School Study." Edu- 
cationally, it was a phenominal advance upon all other systems. Dr. 
Hamill said : "Side by side the teacher's helps and scholar's lesson- 
leaves, now published by the millions, there is nothing finer, edu- 
cationally, in method or matter, than Vincent's "Two years with Jesus," 
issued a generation ago." 

After 1865 the events leading up to the adoption of the Inter- 
national lessons crowded thick and fast. 4,000 copies of the "Teacher" 
and 20,000 of the scholar's "question paper" were published in 1866. 
Dr. Vincent that year severed his connections with these publications 
and became the newly appointed secretary of the ^Methodist Union and 


the same year began the publication of his "Berean Lessons" for his 
great denomination. Eev. H. L. Hammond, Dr. C. E. Blackall and Rev. 
Edward Eggleston, a brilliant young Methodist preacher and an ardent 
Sunday School worker, followed each other as Dr. Vincent's successors; 
the last of the three in four years from his beginning in 1867 had 
secured a monthly circulation of 35,000 for his paper and 350,000 for 
the scholar's lesson leaf. So swift was the spread of the lessons that 
he changed the name of his paper in 1869 to the "National Sunday 
School Teacher." While his paper was leading the way to national 
imiformity Eggleston himself from first to last was strongly opposed 
to the idea of uniformity as harmful to the Sunday Schools. His 
splendid contribution to modern Sunday School progress were centered 
on and designed for the Individual school. B. F. Jacobs, with eyes 
touched by the Holy Spirit, saw the nobler vision. He was the first 
Sunday School expansionist. Holy fire burned within him. Catching 
the inspiration from Vincent and Eggleston lesson suggestion his largest 
vision took in the wide, world. He wrote, "The Lesson is not for 
Sunday Schools of this locality only, or for this or that denomination, 
for the schools of this country only; hut, blessed be God, we hope, for 
the world." Such was his war cry, never for a monment intermitted 
until the final act of the Indianapolis Convention. He began a new 
venture in 1868 writing a weekly exposition of the Eggleston lessons 
in the "Chicago Baptist Standard." Under his influence, in a little 
while, five Baptist weeklies Avere doing the same. He began teaching 
the Sunday School lesson at the Chicago "noon prayer meeting." 
reports of which were prepared by Dr. M, C. Hazard and published in 
the Chicago Advance under the editorship of Dr. Simeon Gilbert and 
widely read. Mr. Jacobs pleaded for three things: one and the same 
lesson for the whole school; one uniform lesson for all schools world- 
wide ; expositions for the lessons in all papers, that could be persuaded to 
give them. In 1868 Mr. Jacobs presented his international and inter- 
denominational uniform plan before the Illinois ajid JSTew York Con- 
ventions. The fourth National Convention after an interim of ten 
years met in April, 1869, in ISTewark, IsT. J., under the presidency of 
George H. Stuart. Enroute to the convention Mr. Jacobs urged his 
uniform plan upon a meeting of the New York Sunday School Teachers' 
Association. He was made chairman of the Superintendent's section 
in the Newark Convention and secured the endorsement of his plan by 
three-fourths of the superintendents, reporting to the convention a 
resolution from his section that "it is practical and desirable to unite 
all the schools of our whole country upon one and the same series." 
The convention was ripe for the adoption of the plan but Mr. Jacobs 
opposed hasty action on the ground that many publishers and writers 
-of lesson series were not yet ready for uniformity. In 1870 thirty or 
more publications contained lesson notes and expositions upon as many 
as a half score independent series; those of Eggleston in the Chicago 
"National Teacher" and Dr. Vincent's "Berean" being largely in 
advance in patronage and prestige. 


The National Executive C'oinniittee met in Xew York, July, 1871, 
to plan for the fifth Xational Convention of 1872 in Indianapolis. 
Mr. Jacobs urged tiiem to instant action, as far as practicable, upon the 
question of uniformity. The coiimiittee decided to call a meeting of all 
the lesson publishers and writers in Xew York for the 8th of August, 
1871. On the day ai)pointcd, under Mr. Jacol)s' leadership twenty- 
nine i)ubli.shers and wi iters came together to consider the question of 
Xational Uniformity. It was a notable meeting. "To these men, the 
adoption of ^Ir. Jacobs' i)lan meant the sacrifice of copyrights, plates, 
already prepared and popular scliemes of study, aggregating in value 
many thousands of doJlais. It meant far more than this, something 
that money cannot buy, and which true men hold priceless, the pride 
of ownership, the joy of authorship, the consciousness of merited success, 
the sense of leadership and power. Xo severer test could have been 
applied." They miglit have said "Why follow this Chicago enthusiast? 
He has everything to gain and nothing to lose? What profit or wisdom 
is there in tearing down the splendid work we have liuilded to place his 
castles in the air? Why burn the bridge behind us to follow this 
dreamer? What thcv did is well worth remembering. They decided 
by a vote of 2G to 3 to appoint a committee TO SELECT A LIST OF 
Eggleston, Newton and D*r. H. C. McCook were appointed as that com- 
mittee. On adjournment of the publishers meeting at 3 o'clock p. m. 
this lesson committee was immediately (-(mvened, and Dr. Vincent urged 
that the lessons be at once outlined. Jacobs and Xewton were compelled 
to leave the City for the day, promising to return the next morning. 
It was agreed that the three remaining members, Vincent, Eggleston and 
McCook, should begin the selection of the course for 1872 under the 
instructions given by the publishers. After the others were gone these 
three men met, conferred together, and discussed the proposition in 
general, then prepared and mailed that same night to the various papers 
for publication the following card: 

"itxifor:\i lessoxs— the failure." 

"The undersigned, having l)een appointed at the conference held 
at the call of the Xational Executive Committee, a committee to select 
a course of lessons for the whole Sunday School public, find it impossible 
at this late day to select a list of subjects acceptable to all, or creditable 
enough to put the experiment on a fair basis. The compromise necessary 
to effect a union at this moment renders it out of the question to got a 
good list, and with the most entire unanimity we agree that it is best to 
defer action until the matter shall have been discussed in the Xational 

(Signed) "Edward Eggleston, 

'X^ew York, August 8. 1871." 

"J. H. Vincext, 
"Henry C. McCook, 


Noting the fact tliat the three men signing and sending forth this 
card were the authors of the three most popular and widely used lesson 
schemes — Eggleston's in the "Teacher/' Vincent's "Berean," and Dr. 
McCook''s "Presbyterian Lessons" — and that the performance of the duty 
put upon them "by the publishers meant the sacrifice of their study- 
schemes and the ado])ti()n of a new system, to be directed by other men and 
no longer under their own ])ersonal control or l)earing their names, their 
action was certainly livinan and therefore condonable to all except those 
who have never blundered or come short of duty. But it was not 
business. Their duty was to select lessons, not to proclaim failure. 
Mr. Lyon, one of the three publisliers of the Egglestou lessons, with 
finer sense of duty than his editor, at once telegraphed Jacobs at Long 
Branch. Mr. Jacobs hurriedly telegraphed Dr. Vincent to meet him 
the next morning in New York. "The card must be recalled, and the 
committee must do its work," were his words. The meeting of the 
committee, Mr. Newton excepted, was held the next morning. Dr. 
Vincent frankly admitted that a mistake had been made. Dr. Eggleston 
followed his example. The following card then written by Dr. Vincent 
was duly signed by all but Dr. McCook, who was present but declined 
to reconsider the action of the day before, and was sent to the papers 
to which the "failure card" had been addressed : 

"The undersigned desire to recall the circular forwarded yesterday, 
entitled 'Uniform Lessons — The Failure.' We desire to state that having 
reconsidered the whole subject, we have agreed upon a series for 1872. 
Will you accommodate the Committee by withholding the publication 
of the former circular? A list of lessons for 1872 will be forwarded 

"Edward Eggleston, 
"J. H, Vincent/ 
"B. F. Jacobs." 

The lessons for 1872 were selected, comprising two (piarters of the 
Eggleston outlines already announced, one from the Berean, and one 
selected by the committee of three. Such is the history of the first 
tentative national or international course. 

The climax came the following year, 1872, at Indianapolis, in the 
formal adoption by the Fifth National Convention of the Jacobs' plan 
of uniformity. Dr. P. (J. (Jillett of Jacksonville was the president of 
the convention and it has ever since stood out as a very notable one. 
Twenty-two states and one territory were represented by 338 delegates, 
besides men from Canada, Great Britain and India. Communications 
were received from leading workers in Scotland, France, Switzerland 
and Holland. Dr. H. C. Trumbull of the Sunday School Times was 
secretary of the convention. The giants were all there. Much of the 
time of the convention was given to the discussion of the one supremo 

Mr. Jacobs introduced the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That this Convention appoint a committee to consist of 
five clergymen and five lavmen, to select a course of Bible lessons for 


a series of years not exceeding seven, which shall, as far as they may 
decide possible, embrace a general study of the whole Bible, alternating 
between the Old and New Testaments semi-annually or quarterly, as they 
shall deem best; and to publish a list of such lessons as fully as possible, 
and at least for the two years next ensuing, as early as the first of August, 
1872; and that this Convention recommend their adoption by the Sun- 
day Schools of the whole country; and that this committee have power 
to fill any vacancies that may occur in their number by reason of the 
inability of any member to serve." 

Jacobs led the memorable discussion with five clean-cut points: 
That such uniformity would be better for the scholars, foi the teachers, 
for the parents, for the pastors, and for the lesson writers. Dr. Eggleston 
opposed the resolution strongly, declaring that it was a "movement 
backward." Dr. Vincent was finally called to the platform and said: 
"A year ago I opposed the scheme of national uniformity. To-day I 
am thoroughly converted to the other side." And declared that he was 
so completely converted that although his denomination was now in the 
sixth year of the Berean system, they were ready to break every stereo- 
type plate, abandon their selections, and begin de novo, on the broadest 

The resolution of Mr. Jacobs was adopted with a dissenting minor- 
ity of only ten votes. The convention midst great enthusiasm sang the 
Doxology. Mr. Jacobs asked that the brethren of the British Provinces 
appoint a committee of conference with the Lesson Committee named 
by the Convention. The convention appointed the first lesson com- 
mittee as follows: Clergymen, Eev. J. H. Vincent, D. D., New Jersey, 
Methodist; Rev. John Hall, D. D., New York, Presbyterian; Eev. 
Warren Eandolph, D. D., Pennsylvania, Baptist; Rev. Eichard Newton, 
D. D.,Pennsylvania, Episcopal; Eev. A. L. Chapin, L. L. D., Wisconsin, 
Congregational. Laymen, Prof. P. G. Gillett, L. D. D., Illinois, Meth- 
odist; George H. Stuart, Pennsylvania, Presbyterian; B. F. Jacobs, 
Illinois, Baptist; Alexander G. Tjmg, Illinois Episcopalian; Henry P. 
Haven, Connecticut, Congregational. Canadian members were added 
later, as follows: Eev. J. Munro Gibson, D. D., Quebec, Presbyterian; 
A. MacAllum, Ontario, Methodist. 

Jacobs' long dream was realized. The vision he had seen upon the 
mount had become incarnate. If ever the future historian of the Church 
shall suspend his pen, in doubt as to whose brow the laurel should adorn 
for the discovery or invention of the International Lessons, as a world- 
wide system of uniformity in Bible study, he is referred to the following 
testimonies, given in the heat of the battle long ago by the two men 
who of all others knew most of the inception, progress and final success 
of the great movement, and who in pocket and prestige, as natural 
business competitors of the movement, sacrificed most by its adoption ! 

Edward Eggleston, in the April "Teacher" of 1870, wrote: 
"Eecently a Synod in New York, and members of the Brooklyn Sunday 
School Union, and Mr. Tyler in the Independent, and Mr. Vincent, 
have all talked of uniformity; but we give fair warning if the blessed 
time ever does come when all the children study one lesson, we shall 


give the credit to B. F. Jacobs; he, and no one else, is the 'original 

Bishop John H. Vincent, in his "Modern Sunday School," published 
in 1887, wrote: "While the author claims the honor of having orig- 
inated the two great lesson S3^stems — the National (of Chicago) and 
Berean (of New York) — in 1868 respectively, and of having prepared 
and published the first of the now popular 'lesson leaves,' all of which 
made possible the conception of a 'National System,' it is to B. F. 
Jacobs, of Chicago, that the honor of the conception belongs. And to 
him, moreover, belongs the honor of having secured the experiment 
when the 'odds' were against him." 

From the time of their adoption, the International Lessons have 
been under the fire of criticism. The Lesson Committees have invited 
criticism and have profited by them. They have taken these criticisms on 
the theory that the critics were honest and have thoroughly tested the sug- 
gestions and if they stood the tests, they were used, but if not, the com- 
mittees have the satisfaction of knowing that the criticism was harmless. 
One of the most persistent criticisms has been that the system is "scrappy," 
"fragmentary" of "a hop-skip-aud-jump" or even the "kangaroo" system. 
If those critics had closely studied the "Old Book" of the Sunday School 
they would have found that the Bible moves by great leaps. Genesis 
with only 50 chapters covers a period of 2,500 years of the most im- 
portant personages and great events, even on the theory that the creation 
was 4,000 B. C, but if our scientific friends are correct and that from 
creation to Christ was one of time then the difficulties are increased for 
the critics. "The Acts of the Apostles" covers a generation of time 
and warrants the conquests of Christianity and yet the record passes over 
in almost perfect silence 8 of the 12 apostles. Another objection to 
the International lessons is that it is folly to set the child, the youth 
and the adults at- study upon the same Bible lesson. If suited to the 
child it is unsuited to the adult. I don't think that necessarily follows. 
I have children and grandchildren and these after a certain age sit 
around the family table and partake of the same food. Some ministers 
were trying to define "Faith" in a certain home where there was a small 
girl; the preachers discussed the matter for considerable time, and when 
one would suggest a definition another would immediately pick it to 
pieces. After the learned gentlemen had finished their meal and had 
retired to another part of the house, the little girl spoke up and said : 
"I know what "faith" is." The ministers said : "What do you say 
Faith means?" The child replied: "It means taking God at his word 
and asking no questions." Now I submit that no theologian can give 
a more complete and scientific definition, and the more you try to pick 
it to pieces the more securely it pulls together. If more of us grown-ups 
would apply the same rule to much that we quibble and haggle about 
in the Old Book we would be much happier and the upward pull of our 
lives would be far more powerful. 

Some of the denominations are beginning to treat the International 
Lessons now for the entire school. Grade the treatment and not the 
text. But the Sunday School work is no place for captious, carping 


criticism. Seli-ct tin- l)e8t yoii can find for the needs of your class or 
school and then make it a part of your very life and out of the deepest 
depths of your being teach each lesson, realizing that you must give au 
account of that hour's work, and live the kind of a life you want your 
scholars to live and the kind you will wish you liad lived when the Books 
are Opened. 


The idea of graded lessons evolved with the Sunday School. Even 
before the adoption of the uniform lesson in 1872, there were quite a 
number of graded lessons issued and used in America. So strong was 
the pressure for the uniform lesson at the Indianapolis Convention in 
1873, that the vote for such lesson as against the graded system was 
carried in spite of the strong and determined opposition. The great 
success of the unifoiiu lesson for })erhaps fifteen years seemed to be so 
strong that little was heard of the revival of the graded lesson. Strong 
and. vigorous criticisms were made of the uniform lessons and only 
partially answered by the comment writers who prepared the graded 
lessons on the scripture being intended for different departments of the 
seho(d. K'ev. Erastus Blakeslee |)romulgate(l a series of inductive 
graded lessons which, in the opinion of nuuiy elementary workers, was 
not found in the uniform lessons. 

Dr. C. E. Blackall, one of the Old Guard of Illinois and later of the 
American Baptist Pid)lication Society in Indianapolis, issued in 1893 
lesson quarterlies which were the outgrowth of the uniform lessons. 
While this was utilized largely by his denomination, it was not perman- 
ently successful. 

In 1893 at the Seventh International Convention at St. Louis 
through the leadership of Mr. Israel V. Black and Mrs. M. G. Kennedy, 
backed by a strong company of primary teachers, passed the following 
resolution : "That a.s a company of primary teachers we earnestly 
desire the continuance of this plan (the Uniform system), confident 
that the International Lesson Committee will carefully consider the little 
children in the selection of the lesson material.'' The lesson committee 
took the resolution in the spirit in which it was given. 

The Lesson Committee, at a meeting in Boston in December, 1893, 
prepared and issued a circular inviting suggestions from Sunday-school 
workers and organizations as to best method of promoting the Inter- 
national Lesson System. Some of the points mentioned in the circular 
were: "Separate Lessons for the Primary Classes; 2. lessons for Adult 
and IJniversitv Classes; 3. Graded Lessons; 4. Lessons not in the Bible, 
but about the' Bible." 

The idea of the graded les-on dated back as early as 1870 to 
organization in Xewark, X. ,7., called "The Newark Association of 
Infant Class Sunday School Teachers," under the leadership of Mrs. 
Samuel W. Clark, the mother of Dr. Joseph Clark, formerly General 
Secretary of the Ohio Association, but now the General Secretary of the 
New York Association, who is also known as "Timothy Standby" of 


these modern times. For ten years she trained and glided these 
Primary workers, using at first her own lessons and then the Berean 
Series. In the early nineties Mrs. J. W. Barnes, the Elementary Sec- 
retary of the International Sunday School Association and Miss Jose- 
])hine Baldwin, were found among its cori>s of primary teachers. In 
1894 Miss Bertha F. Yella, on the suggestion of the Lesson Committee, 
sent out a circular to all Primary Union lesson writers and teachers 
suggesting that a series of questions should he submitted to the Lesson 
Committee at its meeting in Philadelphia, March 14, 1894. Several 
hundred replies were made and at the meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the International Primary Teachers Union in March, 1894, 
they adopted the following resolution: "That we recommend to the 
Lesson Committee now in session in Philadelphia, that they select a 
separate International Lesson for the Primary Department, to begin 
January 1, 1896, and that it consist of one-half the length of time used 
to cover the regular course; (2) that it is the judgment of the Executive 
Committee of the International Union of Primary Sabbath School 
Teachers that this separate and special Primary course should be in 
addition to the regular course, and shall not interfere with the present 
lesson helps, which are prepared for the Primary Department, but it 
shall be optional for each denomination to prepare helps for the Primary 
Department, as at present upon this course, and it shall be optional for 
each school to adopt this course ;" these resolutions were signed by Mrs. 
M. Q. Kennedy, Mrs. S. W. Clark, Mrs. James S. Ostrander, Israel P. 
Black and Wm. N. Hartshorn. 

On the next day, at the invitation of the Lesson Committee, repre- 
sentatives of several organizations and of denominational publishing 
houses, editors, Sunda.y-school oflficers and workers, met with the Com- 
mittee to discuss the various matters pertaining to said Lessons. Dr. 
C. R. Blackall strongly favored the issuance of the Graded Ijessons. 
Mr. Black presented the above resolutions which was earnestly endorsed 
by ]\Irs. Kennedy and ^Ir Hartshorn. 

The Lesson Committee appointed a special committee of three, 
B. F. Jacobs, Prof. J. D. S. Hinds and Dr. Warren Eandolph, "to confer 
with the International Primary Teachers Union, with lesson publishers 
who already have separate Primary courses, with the Correspondence 
Committee in London, and with such others as they may select, to pro- 
cure outlines of a Primary course to be submitted to the whole Lesson 
Committee, to assist them in making up a separate Primary course." 

Such a course Avas formally issued in the fall of 1895, described 
as the Optional Primary Lessons for 1896. Several courses of Lessons 
for the beginners were published, but none were entirely satisfactory, 
yet their favor continued to grow and increase and at a conference of 
the Lesson Committee in Philadelphia, March 17, 1897, of Sunday- 
school specialists, publishers, editors, comment writers, teachers and 
others was held and many suggestions made in reference to the various 
courses of lessons. A special committee consi-sting of Messrs. Schauffler, 
Pepper, Rexford. Jacobs, and Dunning, was appointed and at the con- 


vention at Atlanta the committee reported that is could not at present 

unite on any separate plan of lessons for primary classes u'hich would 

he generally accepted in connection with the International Lesson System. 

At a meeting of the Lesson Committee in New York, April 25, 

1900, a standing Subcommittee on Graded Lessons was appointed con- 
sisting of Drs. Schauffler, Potts, and TTinds, and on April IG, 1901, the 
Editorial Association, an organization of editors, publishers, and com- 
ment writers, was formed in Xew York City for the purpose of advo- 
cating a separate course of lessons for one year, for beginners in Bible 
study, of six years and under and for a further course of two years that 
shall be topical and historical, for the adult or Senior classes. These 
resolutions were signed by M. C. Hazard, C. K.Blackall, W. J. Semelroth, 
and J. A. McKamy. 

The resolutions so impressed the Lesson Committee that it appointed 
two subcommittees: (1) Drs. Dunning, Schauffler, and Sampey to pre- 
pare a two years' course for advanced students; (2) Drs. Schauffler, 
Hinds, and Eexford, and Messrs. Jacobs and Pepper to prepare a 
Beginners' Course of one year. At the same time Dr. Potts, the chair- 
man of the Committee, was requested to confer with the British Section 
on the new departure. 

A Beginners' Course for one year, prepared by a joint committee 
of the Lesson Committee and the Primary IJnion, was issued December. 

1901, and soon used in many schools. 

At the Denver Convention in June, 1902, the advocates of the 
Uniform Lessons and the Graded Lessons again were in conflict. The 
Lesson Committee reported that one of its subcommittees had prepared 
an advanced course of Lessons, and that it was ready for publication at 
the option of the convention. This caused much discussion and the con- 
vention finally passed the following resolutions: (1) Besolvcd. that 
the following plan of lesson selection shall be observed by the Lesson 
Committee to be selected (chosen) by this Convention. One Uniform 
Lesson for all grades of the Sunday-school shall be selected by the Lesson 
Committee, as in accordance with the usage of the past five Lesson 
Committees ; provided, that the Lesson Committee be authorized to 
issue an optional beginners' course for special demands and uses, such 
optional course not to bear the oflficial of 'International Lesson.' " 
(2) Eesolved, that at this time we are not prepared to adopt a series 
of advanced lessons to take the place of Uniform Lessons in the adult 
grade of the Sunday School." The elementary workers in the Denver 
Convention tendered a vote of thanks to the Lesson Committee for the 
one year Beginners' Course. 

At the Lesson Committee's meeting in Washington, D. C, April 
15, 1903, the Subcommittee appointed at Denver reported that it had 
completed the two years'course, after much conference and correspond- 
ence with the Primary teachers in various parts of the country, and the 
course was adopted and designated as an ''Optional Two Years' Course 
for Beginners." 



A conference of the International Executive Committee, the Edi- 
torial Association, and other Sunday-school workers, was called and 
met at Winona, Indiana, in August, 1903. The publishers had pre- 
pared for this meeting by sending out a circular proposing the discussion 
of the question : "Which is better, an International Lesson, uniform 
for all grades, or an International Lesson uniform within certain 
defined grades?" These questions aroused great interest at the con- 
ference and a frank and a full discussion was had of the entire Graded 
Lesson idea. Even in the earnest discussion of these questions, every 
one conceded the necessity of retaining the Uniform Lessons for the 
majority of Sunday Schools. At the International Convention at Tor- 
onto, in June, 1905, the Elementary workers sent a message of thanks 
to the Committee for the Beginner's Course and requested the prepara- 
tion of a Primary Course as soon as possible. The convention adopted 
the recommendation that the Lesson Committee be authorized to prepare 
an Advanced or Senior course. The Lesson Committee appointed Drs. 
Schauffler, Sampey and Rexford t© prepare such a course. 

The first series prepared by this committee was not satisfactory to 
the Editorial Association. In response to this treatment the Subcom- 
mittee asked for suggestions from the Association. After considerable 
examination, the Subcommittee did not adopt any of the suggestions, 
but decided to prepare another course for 1907 on "The Ethical Teach- 
ing of Jesus," as an advanced course in accordance with the resolution 
of the Toronto Convention. The denominational publishers manifested 
little interest in such a course. Some adult classes used the Lesson 
Committee's lists without any published helps. The Lesson Committee 
also prepared and issued advanced courses for the years 1908 and 1909, 
but the publishers either neglected or refused to publish the same. 

In August. 1906, the International Executive Committee gave Mrs. 
J. W. Barnes, the Elementary Superintendent of the International Asso- 
ciation, considerable freedom in working out a plan of graded lessons. 
She was instructed to cooperate with the Lesson Committee and editors 
and others in the preparation of such lessons and to report to the 
Primary Committee of the Executive Committee any findings which 
she might have for their consideration and approval. 

In order to secure the united action toward a common goal, Mrs. 
Barnes called together and organized at Newark, N. J. in October, 1906, 
a group of Elementary workers who were especially interested in the 
Graded Lessons. These workers were from different denominations 
and of manifested, intense interest in their work and were designated 
afterwards as the "Graded Lesson Conference." 

This conference invited the Lesson Committee to select a committee 
"to assist, supervise, or make suggestions" regarding the conduct of 
this conference. The conference decided that its task should be the 
preparation of these for the Primary and Junior grades, together with 
a revision of the Beginners' Course then in use. The work was to be 
performed without any publicity whatsoever until the whole task should 
be completed. The lessons were to be the property of the Conference, 
and not that of any one person. 
—12 H S 


Within a year several denoininations asked that the members of 
the Conference representing their lospective churches should act as 
official mend)ers and ottered both financial and editorial aid in the work. 
In March. 1!)07, Mrs. Barnes wrote in a k'tter to Dr. Schaulller, Secretary 
of the Ij<'ss(»n Coniniittee, setting fortli the ideas of this Conference and 
professing their loyalty to the Uniform Lessons and recognizing the 
demand for (Jraded Lessons in a proportion of Sunday Schools too large 
to be further neglected. 

The secretary of the Lesson ('ommitt<'e repli(>d tliat the matter 
would be brought Ix'fore the Ix'sson Committee at its next meeting in 
Boston in April, !!)();, and that thus far the Lesson Committee had had 
no instructions to issue a graded cours<' of lessons. After a thorough 
discussion of the matter the Lesson Committee agreed to recommend 
to the Louisville Convention in l!)()cS, 'Uhat the Lesson Committee be 
authorized to prepare a fourfold grade of lessons as follows: (1) A 
Beginners' Conrse, permanent, for pupils under six years of age. 
(2) A Primary course, permanent, for pupils between six and nine years 
of age. (3) A General Conrse as at "present planned for pupils over 
nine years of age. (i) An Advanced Course parallel with the General 
(or IJniform) courses to be prepared by each T^esson Committee for such 
classes as may desire it." 

The Graded Lesson Conference pressed on steadily towards its 
goal and by careful and judical work brought to its support the co- 
operation of several of the leading denominations until finally the 
Editorial Association, of which ]\Tr. C. G. Trnmbull was chairman, 
was requested to confer with the Conference and give it such aid as it 
should need. 

Mr. W. N". Hartshorn, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
who was familiar )vith the work and progress of the "Graded Lesson 
Conference/' called a conference of leading Sunday School workers 
to meet in Boston, January 2, 1908. In this conference were repre- 
sentatives of the Liternational Executive Committee, of the Tjesson Com- 
mittee, of the Editorial Association and of the Graded Lesson Con- 
ference. In all it brought fifty-four men and women together and the 
results were crystalized in the following resolutions: (1) "That the 
system of a general lesson for the whole school, which has lieen in success- 
ful use for thirty-five years, is still the most practicable and effective 
system for the great majority of the Sunday Schools of North America. 
Because of its past accomplishments, its present usefulness, and its 
future possibilities, we recommend its continuance and its fullest de- 
velopment." (2) "That the need for a graded system of lessons is 
expressed by so many Sunday Schools ami workers that it should be 
adequately met by the Internaticmal Suiuhiy School Association, and 
that the Lesson Committee should be instructed by the next Inter- 
national Convention, to be held in Louisville, Ky., June 18-23, 1008, to 
continue the preparation of a thoroughly graded course covering the 
entire range of the Sunday School." 

This Conference cleared the way in the near future to plan definitely 
for Graded Lessons and the Conference turned over to the Lesson Com- 


mittee for its consideration tlie lessons it liad preparod in the three 
departments, namely. Beginners, Primary, and Junior. 

Before any definite action could he taken hy the Lesson Com- 
mittee, action had to he taken by the International Convention, and in 
its report in the Louisville Convention in June, 1908, the Lesson Com- 
mittee recommended the findings of the Boston Conference and the 
Convention heartily and unanimously adopted the report. 

The Seventh Lesson Committee as soon as it was elected at Louis- 
ville, took steps to carry out the letter and spirit of the resolution. A 
strong Subcommittee on Graded Lessons was appointed and instructed 
to proceed at once with its definite task that tliei'e might be an under- 
standing with the publishers as to the method and order of issuance of 
the Ciaded Lessons, the Lesson Committee held a conference with 
representatives of the jjrincipal iniblishing houses at the close of the 

The Subcommittee carefully scrutinized the lessons thus prepared 
and distributed the material to more than seventy expert Sunday School 
critics, carefully considered the criticisms which were returned and 
issued three lists in the final form to the lesson writers in January, 
1909, where in the spring of 1910, less than eighteen months after the 
first lists of Graded Lessons were issued — criticisms of the lessons 
appeared, which arose mainly in the South. These attacked an alleged 
absence of doctrine, the ]iresence of exti'a-biblical lessons, the omission 
of many important topics, and an attempted interpretation of the Scrip- 
tures for the Sunday Schools. The Southei'n Ba])tist Convention and the 
Southern Presbyterian Church passed resolutions at their respective 
Conventions criticising the Graded Lessons submitted. 

At its meeting in Washington D. C. in May, 1910, lasting nearly 
a week, the Lesson Committee earnestly discussed the threatening situ- 
ation and to protect "its subcommittee voted "that the Lesson Committee 
as a whole for the future a^^sume the same responsibility for the pre})ar- 
ation, revision and publication of the Graded Tjcssons as for the Uniform 
Lessons." At a meeting of the Lesson Committee in Chicago, in Decem- 
ber, 1910, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted: 
"Wheijeas, The constituency of the Internationa! Sunday School Asso- 
ciation is divided with respect to the use of extra-biblical lessons in the 
Graded Series uow in course of preparation; and. Whereas, We desire 
to meet tlie varying needs and wishes of our large constituency ; therefore, 

"Resolved, First, That we adhere to the historic policy of making 
the Bible the textbook in the Sunday School, always ])roviding the best 
possible courses from the Bible for the use of classes in every grade of 
the Sunday School. 

"Second. That a parallel course of extra-bibical lessons be issued 
with our imprimatur, whenever, and to the extent that, there is sufficient 
demand for them on the part of Sunday-school workers; the regular 
Biblical and the parallel extra-biblical courses alike to pass under the 
careful scrutiny of the liesson Committee as a whole before being issued, 
and the extra-biblical lessons also to he related as closely as ])ossible to 
the Scriptures. 


"Third. That tho Graded Lesson Subcommittee be instructed to 
provide Biblical lessons wherever lessons of extra-biblical material occur 
in the seven years' Graded Lesson Courses issued prior to May, 1910, 
making such minor changes as may be involved in carrying out this 

The issuance of the full Biblical Series for the extra-biblical material 
removed the objections urged by the Southern Baptist and Presbyterian 

Having been a member of the International Convention since 
the death of our beloved B. F. Jacobs in 1903 and much vi the time 
the chairman of the Elementary Committee, I have been in the midst 
of the controversy in regard to the Graded and Uniform Lessons. Mrs. 
J. W. Barnes was Secretary of that Department from 1905 to 1911, 
and she was followed by Mrs. Mary Foster Bryner, both of whom were 
fine Elementary teachers and enthusiastic advocates of the Graded 
System. Personally I believed that it was not adapted to and would 
not be used in many schools, and yet in many others it would be used 
and as it was simply a means to an end, the proper development of the 
child, I was perfectly willing that these experienced teachers and many 
others of like belief should have the very best lesson systems for their 
particular school that the International Association could supply. 


Edward Eggleston of Chicago was elected chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee in 1869, Benjamin F. Jacobs of Chicago in 1872, and 
resigned in 1902, and Andrew H. Mills of Decatur was elected in 1902 
and was relieved at his own request in 1911, which he put in the fol- 
lowing appeal to the Convention at the close of the annual report : 

"Twelve years ago there came to me your unexpected and unsought 
call to the important, responsible and honorable position as chairman 
of this great committee, and you did me the great honor of a unanimous 
election and have repeated it each succeeding year since that time, and, 
in addition, you have four times unanimously elected me as your repre- 
sentative on the International Sunday School Association Executive 
Committee for a period of three years each, and I assure you that such 
confidence and devotion have made a deep impression on my heart and 
life, and have been a great inspiration to me in the midst of tho 
arduous duties of these trust positions during these dozen years. 

I have given you the best service of which I have been capable, both 
in the State and the International Associations. Many very important 
problems have been presented in each and have been solved. Some 
mistakes have been made, but looking back to-day over the entire period, 
as gi-eat progress has been made in the Sunday-school work, as repre- 
sented by these Associations, as in any department of human industry 
or religious work. Many choice spirits have been met and splendid life 
friendships formed which grow dearer as the twlight deepens. For all 
these tokens of your confidence and love, your fidelity and enthusiastic 
loyalty and cooperation I thank you out of an overflowing heart. 


The time has now arrived when the Master's work imperatively 
demands younger men with an abundance of red blood, with broad vision, 
true heart, clear head and unbounded enthusiasm and devotion to this 
great work. I would suggest that you now divide the work, selecting 
one man as chairman of this great committee and another man to be your 
representative on the International Executive Committee; thus you 
will have the best that is in the two picked men, each will have more time 
and opportunity to study and solve the peculiar problems of his own field, 
and not have his energies divided between the two. Either one of these 
positions is a man's job — plus. No man can fill either unless he be 
endued from on high and the presence of the Almighty hovers over him 
like the pillar of fire and cloud overshadowed the Israelites in the 

During all these years my relation with all the members of these 
important committees, with the general secretaries, field workers, office 
force, and all other workers, have been the most cordial and pleasant, and 
while we may not all have seen all problems from the same angle or 
reached the same conculsion, yet when a conclusion was reached there was 
no opposition shown, but hearty accord and brotherly feeling pervaded 
both committees ; so I leave these positions and also as a member of this 
committee at the close of this convention with no unkind thought or feel- 
ing against any one, either in the State or International field, but with 
only the kindliest feelings and tenderest recollections of those most 
pleasant years of my life and an earnest and fervent prayer that the 
Master will come into the heart and life of my successor on both com- 
mittees in a marvelous way and they shall be instrumental in His Name 
in assisting in leading the Sunday-school hosts of America to achieve- 
ments lying beyond the keenest vision of the foremost Sunday-school 
expert in the world of to-day. 

The Convention released Mr. Mills and elected as Chairman Mr. 
Lyman B. Vose of Macomb, who has been re-elected every year since 
and has made a fine and capable chairman. 

The Convention elected Mr. George Cook as its member of the Inter- 
national Committee and Prof. Frank Ward as alternate. The Inter- 
national Executive Committee increased Illinois representation on 
account of increase in Sunday School enrollment and it elected IVIr. 
Andrew H. Mills a member and W. S. Eearick alternate as published in 
the Trumpet Call July 6, 1914. 


1 Dixon *Rev. W. W. Harsha 1859 

2 Bloomington *R. M. Guilford 1860 

3 Alton *E. C. Wilder 1861 

4 Chicago *Rev. S. G. Lathrop 1862 

5 Jacksonville *rsaac Scaritt 1863 

6 Springfield *A. G. Tyng 1864 

7 Peoria ='^Eev. W. G. Pierce 1865 

8 Eockford *P. G. Gillett 1866 


}) Decatur *Wm. Eovnolds 18G7 

10 DuQuoiii *B. F. Jacobs 1868 

11 Bloomino-ton *I). L. Moody 1869 

12 Quincy *P. G. Gillett 1870 

13 Galesbiirg *J. McKee Peeples 1871 

14 Aurora *('. R. Blackall . 1872 

15 Springfield -J. F. Culver 1873 

16 Champaign -D. W. Whittle - 1874 

17 Alton . .^ *H. H. Griffith 1875 

18 Jacksonville . *D. L. Moody 1876 

19 Peoria *E. C. Hewitt 1877 

20 Decatur -Rev. F. L. Thompson 1878 

21 Bloomington Rev. C. M. Morton 1879 

21 Galesbury- -\Vm. Revnolds 1880 

23 Centralia -J. R. ^[ason 1881 

24 Champaign O. R. Brouse 1882 

25 Streater Rev. Wm. Tracy 1883 

26 Springfield T. P. Nisbett 1884 

27 Alton John Benham . ., 1885 

28 Bloomington L. A. Trowbridge 1886 

29 Decatur" -J. R. Gorin 1887 

30 Rockford H. T. Lay 1888 

31 Mattoon Fi-ank Wilcox 1889 

32 Jacksonville *R. W. Hare . . .1890 

33 Danville W. C. Pearce 1891 

34 Centralia Hev. H. C. Marshall 1892 

35 Quincy *J. L. Hastings. 1893 

36 Peoria * Henry Augustine 1894 

37 Elgin W. S. Weld 1895 

38 Champaign \l C. Willis 1896 

39 Belleville Rov. H. E. Fuller 1897 

40 Galesburg *Jolin Farson 1898 

41 Decatur *J. B. Joy 1899 

42 Paris A. H. Mills 1900 

43 Bloomington *Knox P. Tavlor 1901 

44 Sterling H. R. Clissold 1902 

45 Taylorville H. P. Hart 1903 

46 Mattoon Dr. A. R. Taylor 1904 

47 Clinton Hov. Henry Moser 1905 

48 Kankakee IJev. J. G.'' Brooks 1906 

49 East St. Louis J. B. Sikking 1907 

50 Dixon W. W. Rosecrans 1908 

51 Peoria F. D. Everett 1909 

52 Olnev Dan Z. Yernor 1910 

53 Quincv J. M. Dunlap 1911 

54 Elgin"' Geo. E. Cook 1912 

55 Beardstown p]. H. Kinnev 1913 

56 Carbondalo A. PL IMills'. 1914 

56 Chicago 


57 Danville Kev. H. G. Rowc 1915 

58 Springficlil John H. Hauberg 1916 

59 Kewanee Charles W. Watson 1917 

60 Peoria • 1918 

You will noticf that four, Messrs. D. L. Moody, 1869-1876, Dr. P. 
(I. (Jillett, lS(i,S-1870, William Reynolds, 1867-1880, and A. IT. Mills, 
1900-1914, have each served twice as President of our Association. 


HERBERT I'OST was in 1863 elected the first general secretary 
and treasurer of our Illinois Association and served without salary until 
1873 when 

E. PAYSON PORTER of Chicago was elected as Ur. Post's succes- 
sor and he was succeeded by 

C. M. EAMES of Jacksonville who held such position until 1883 
when he was succeeded by 

W, B. JACOBS who held the position for twenty-nine years and he 
was succeeded by 

HUGH CORK in 1912, who resigned in 1916 and was succeeded by 

CHARLES E. SCHENCK who i^^ our present Secretary. 


Illinois has furnished other States with first-class General Secre- 
taries as follows : 

. W. G. LAND'ES to Pennsylvania, 

JOHN C. CARMAN to Colorado, 

H. M. STEIDLEY to Nebraska, 

HUGH C. GIBSON to Southern California, 

H. E. LUFKIN to Maine, 

W. J. SEMELROTH to Wisconsin, 

ARTHUR T. ARNOLD to West Virginia and later to Ohio, 

GEORGE W. ]\riLLER to North Dakota, 

W. C. MERRJTT to the North West, and 

STUART MUIRHEAD to Alberta, Canada. 

The following are new members of the Executive Committee during 
the years 1913 to 1916 under Mr. Cork's Administration, and many of 
the old members mentioned on page 76 are still acting: 
J. M. Dunlap. E. H. Kinney. J. H. Collins. 

Robert T. Brown. J. L. Schofreld. W. D. Kimball. 

Hugh S. McGill. C. W. Watson. J. P. I^wry. 

Dr. S. A. Wilson. J. C. Wells. 

Thomas S. Smith. Dr. R. E. Hieronymus. 

The following arc the new members of the Executive Committee 
during the years 1916 to 1918 under Mr. Schenck's Administration: 

H. H. Morse. Clarence L. DePew, Alexander Anderson, Charles A. 



At the State Convention at Elgin in 1913 tne executive committee 
by A. H. Mills, its chairman, asked the convention to permit each denom- 
ination in the State having a Sunday School membership of fifteen 
thousand or more, to appoint one of their representatives, other than a 
salaried officer, as a regular member of the Illinois Sunday School 
Executive Committee, which was unamiously voted and General 
Secretary Cork was instructed to inform the denominations and re- 
quest them to appoint a temporary member until their next annual 
denominational State meeting wlion such bodies will be asked to elect 
such member. At a subsequent meeting the denominational repre- 
sentation was reduced from fifteen thousand to ten thousand, thus allow- 
ing additional denominations to be represented. 

The denominations which have an enrollment of 10,000 Sunday- 
school members, or over, in Illinois, were quick to respond to the invita- 
tions for the appointment of a representative on the State Executive 
Committee, and they have also recognized this courtesy and that Illinois 
has set the example for all other State Associations in seeking to bind 
denominations and state organizations more closely together so that the 
State Association can render a larger service to the denominations within 
the state than it is possible for them to do without the denominations 
have specific representatives selected by themselves. The questions of 
policy can be viewed from different angles and standpoints and a position 
taken which is the strongest possible in which the matter can be placed, 
so that when a plan is adopted it may receive the hearty endorsement of 
all the Sunday School forces within the State, so concentrated that' it 
makes these plans at once effective and potent. 


Baptists Hon. Owen Scott 

Congi'egationalists Prof. Frank Ward 

Disciples ]Mr. J. P. Dowry 

Lutherans Rev. H. M. Bannen 

Methodists Dr. E. T. Evans 

Presbyterians Prof. G. L. Robinson 

United Brethren Bishop Mathews 

The Denominational Representatives for 1915-16 were the same as 
the preceding year, except Methodist, Rev. J. S. Danccy taking the place 
of Dr. Evans; Presbyterian, Rev. J. N. McDonald taking the place of 
Prof. Robinson ; United Brethren, Rev. S. E. Long taking the place of 
Bishop Mathews; Evangelical Association, Rev. G. A. Manshardt. 

The Representatives for 1916-17 same as preceding year,' except : 

Presbvterian Dr. R. H. Beattie 

Congregatioualist Dr. James M. Lewis 

Disciples . Clarence L. DePew 

United Evangelical Rev. Henry Moser 

The Representatives for 1917-18 same as preceding year, except: 


Disciples Rev. H. H. Peters 

Evangelical Association Rev. J. H. Staum 

Lutheran (to be supplied) 

Methodist (to be supplied. Dr. Dancy, Chaplain in France.) 

These representatives have been men of fine spirit and they have 
shown great interest in the work of the Association and we believe it 
would be a wise step for each State Association to take, for it more fully 
unites the forces of righteousness into one strong force. 



Sunday Schools 6,798 

Officers 41,415 

Teachers 61,138 

Pupils 733,301 

Cradle Poll Members 87,811 

Home Department Members 54,251 

Making a grand total of 984,714 


Booker T. Washington at the International Sunday School Con- 
vention at Louisville, Ivy. in 1908 among other things said: 

"Another thing that we are learning as a race is that we have 
got to keep our feet upon the earth. A short time ago I met an old 
colored man who had learned this lesson. I said, "Uncle Jake, 
Where are you going?" "I'se gwine to camp-meeting." I said, 
"Are you able to go to camp-meeting and spend a week in singing 
and shouting?" "Yes, I ain't been to camp-meeting fo' eight yeahs 
and I'se gwine dis yeah fo' suah. Eight yeahs ago Ah went to Tus- 
kegee, and Ah heard you teach de people to send dere chillen to Sun- 
day-school, an' build churches an' day schools, and save their money 
an' have a bank account, and Ah been following yo' advice for eight 
years an' Ah got fifty acres of land, an' done paid de las' dollar 
on dat land, and sah I'se a right to go to campmeeting dis jeah. 
I'se done saved mah money, ain't spent it fo' whiskey an' snuff 
an' cheap Jewelry ; I'se a nice house on de land, fo' rooms, painted 
inside an' outside, and Ah done paid de las' dollar on de house, 
and Ah suah got de right to go to camp meeting dis yeah. See 
dis wagon? Dis is Jakes' wagon. When Ah first got free Ah 
bought a buggy, but Ah found a man has got to ride in a 
wagon befo' he rides in a buggy, an' Ah've done sold de b\iggy an' 
bought a wagon and Ah've done paid de las' ten cents on de wagon, 
and shuly, de wagon has a right to go to camp-meeting. See these 
two big black mules? Dese is Jake's mules, Ah've done paid de 
las' dollar on de mules, dere is no mo'gage or debt on dem, an's suah 
de mules has a right to go to camp-meeting, too." Then he pulled 
a cloth from a basket and said, "Do you see dat co'n bread an' meat 
in de wagon? No sto' bought bread fo' me. I raised de co'n and 


de olo woman cooked de bread, an' I rased do pigs an' de ole woman 
cooked de meat, an' we is all gwine to eamp-meetin, an' we is all 
gwine to shout, and have a gret big time because we got money in 
our pockets and got religion in our hearts." * * * 

''I would remind you of his progress educationally. One hun- 
dred per cent were ignorant at tlie end of slavery; a few years after- 
ward only two per cent of us could read or write ; at the present time, 
a little over forty years after slavery, fifty-seven per cent of us can 
both read and write. Do you know in all history a record which can 
begin to equal that ? In tlie words of your own great fellow-citizen, 
Henry Watterson, ''The world has never witnessed such progress 
from darkness into light as the American Xegro has made within 
forty years." 

Our progress does not stop with material possessions and edu- 
cation. In porportion as our people have the Sunday-school and the 
church and the day school and the college and the industrial school, 
they become a more religious people. It is not true that the peni- 
tentiaries and jails are full of men and women who have been edu- 
cated at colleges and universities. I ask anyone to make the test. 
Go through the jails and jjenitentiaries of the South, and you can 
not find fifty men and women witli college diplomas or industrial 
school diplomas. The people in the jails or in prison have had no 
chance, they are the ignorant, the ones who are away down, and it 
is our duty to take them by the hand through the church and Sun- 
day-school and help lift them up: and in proportion as we do that 
we will meet our reward. 

And as a race of people we do not get discouraged. We remem- 
ber that in slavery we were property ; in the province of God we came 
out of that institution American citizens. We went into slavery 
without a language; we came out speaking the proud Anglo-Saxon 
tongue. We went into slavery ])agans; we came out of slavery with 
the Bible and Sunday-school literature in our hands. 

There is a great duty and responsibility resting upon the young 
white people and the young black people of this country. Some days 
ago I was in the city of Richmond, and I heard a story concerning 
an old black man there. He was living in the same home where his 
mistiess lived during slavery, and she had planted with her own 
hands a rose-bush in the yard. A new tenant took possession, and 
the new mistress said to this old colored man, "Dig up that rose- 
bush." The old man hesitated, and with a tear in his eye, shook his 
head and went behind the house. Again the lady came out and said, 
"Dig up that rose-bush," and he came up to her, touched his hat 
and made a polite bow and said, "Missus, I likes you, I want to obey 
you, but Missus, you don't understand ; these old hands can't dig up 
that rose-bush ; that rose-bush was jilanted fifty years ago by my old 
Missus, and these hands can't dig it up; you must excuse me. 
Missus." The feeling of sympathy, the feeling of friendship between 
the black people and the white people in the Southland was planted 
here years ago by our forefathers. Wo wlio are following in their 


foot-steps, black and white men, must not dig up that old rose-bush. 

AVe must nurture it with our tears and with our love and with our 

sympathy, and as we do it we will have the blessing of Almighty 


Many of our negro schools are doing fine work with and for their 
young people, and our Association has ever been as ready and willing 
to help them as the white schools or the schools of any other of our divers 
nationalities that are thronging our cities. God is bringing to our very 
doors the children of all races from all climes to receive the Bread of 
Life that He has given to us. Pic is asking us "How many loaves have 
ye. Go and see?" It is our duty to go and ascertain, report and bring 
"our all" like the laddie in the parable and we must have greater faith 
than to say: "But what are these among so many?" Ohey the Master 
is your dufi/ and mine and the multitude of all nationalities will he fed 
and there' will he bread enough and to spare. 


Did you ever hear these words in reply to a request to teach a class 
or assume a responsibility, or perform some act for the uplift of the com- 
munity; or to relieve some cause of distress; or to lead some meeting, 
or contribute some helpful service? This feeling I often fear is the 
cause of much of our failure to reach our highest duty and responsibility. 
Paul Lawrence, Dunbar's little poem teacher us an important lesson: 

"Get Somebody Else. 
The Lord had a job for me, 

But I had so much to do, • 

I said, "You get somebody else. 

Or wait till I get through." 
I don't know how the Lord came out. 

But He seemed to get along. 
But I felt kind o' sneakin' like — 

Knowed I'd done God wrong. 

One day I needed the Lord — 

Needed Him right away; 
But He never answered me at all. 

And I could hear Him say, 
Down in niy accusin' heart: 

"Nigger, I'se got too much to do ; 
You get somebody else, 

Or wait till I get through." 

Now, wdien the Lord He have a Job for me, 

I never tries to shirk ; 
I drops what I have on hand. 

And does the good Lord's work. 
And my affairs can run along. 

Or wait till I get through ; 
Nobody else can do the work 

That God marked out for you." 


(Mrs. Mary F. Bryner.) 

"The Elementary Division is important because it includes nearly 
one-half of the Sunday-school membership. All pupils under their teens, 
during the changing periods of childhood, are claimed for its depart- 
ments, known as the Cradle Eoll, Beginners, Primary, and Junior. 

The Cradle Eoll reaches parents and children, establishing cooper- 
ation with the home. During childhood early and lifelong impressions 
are given of the Heavenly Father's goodness and care, and the Saviour's 
special interest and love for the children. Elementary work deals Avith 
childhood in the story, memory, and habit-forming periods. Elementary 
teachers were the first to arrange a special course of training, including 
child study, as well as Bible study methods and principles. Child study 
emphasizes the need of closer grading, so that the Elementar\^ Division 
is usually more definitely graded than the remainder of the school. 

Child study and closer grading created an ever-increasing demand 
for lessons so graded as to "meet the spiritual needs of the pupil in each 
stage of his development." Dtiring the past year (1910) Graded Lessons 
have been provided by the International Lesson Committee covering the 
two years Beginners, three years Primary, and four years Junior work. 

We must save the children to save America." 


The Cradle Roll aims to deepen the feeling of responsibility of 
parents for imparting early spiritual impressions and training in the 
baby's life. It seeks to establish a closer bond of sympathy between the 
church and home through interest in the . youngest children. Mr. 
Lawrence says : "It is to take a mortgage on the baby and foreclose it 
when the baby is three years old" and take it into the Sunday School. 
Dr. Joseph Clark, (Timothy Standby) says: "It's fishin for the family 
with the baby as a bait." Its membership include from birth to three 
or four years of age. 

The world's average birth rate is 70 a minute, 4,200 an hour, 100,800 
a day, 36,792,000 a year. One-half of these are born in Asia and about 
3,000.000 annually in North America. The world's population is prac- 
tically renewed in forty-five years. The task of the church is to reach 
and teach as many as possible in each generation and its hope lies in 

The Cradle Roll idea originated with Mrs. Alonso Pettit and was 
further developed by her sister, ]\Irs. Juliet Dimock Dudley, both asso- 
ciated as "infant class teachers" in the Central Baptist Church of Eliza- 
beth, N. J. The idea grew from a birthday book in which Mrs. Pettit 
began in 1877 to keep a classified list of birthdays of the children be- 
longing to her class whose ages ranged from four to twelve years. 
Opposite each name and address were suggested a Scripture text and 


hymn. Each birthday was recognized by an offering brought by the child 
corresponding to its age, to be used for world-wide missions. 

In 1880 a little boy brought a birthday penny for a child one year 
old. Then began the custom of adding a penny to the birthday book of 
little ones too young to attend Sunday-school. In 1883 Mrs. Dudley 
kept in the back of her visiting book a list of babies and little children 
too young to attend regularly. Soon afterwards "Cradle Roll" was 
written over this list. 

During the next few years, the cradle roll idea being mentioned in 
Sunday School periodicals became quite popular. 

Mr. W. C. Hall, superintendent of the Tabernacle Presbyterian 
Church of Indianapolis, became the champion of the Cradle Roll. He 
insisted that "the Cradle Roll tends to make parents feel their responsi- 
bility the more. Every Sunday School has a right to have and ought to 
have a Cradle Roll. God will surely bless the efforts to place children 
under the instruction of God's consecrated Primary workers," and in every 
conference of primary workers this efficient agency is urged and im- 


In the early days, the Sunday School was divided into practically 
two divisions, the main school and the infant class, the latter ranging 
from two to nine 3^ears. It was a very difficult task to interest all of 
them upon the same topic at the same time. Golden Texts were directed 
to the older ones but they conveyed very little information to the smaller 
children and it was in that department felt that something more was 
needed and that it was not fair to the children or to the teachers, and so 
the matter began to be discussed and studied, and finally the beginners 
department was organized in many schools, and it has more than justified 
the fondest dreams of its early advocates, and not only is it now provided 
with different teachers, but it forms a department by itself, meeting in 
its separate room or rooms and under the direction of skillful trained 
teachers, the work is being carried on with great success in many schools 
of our State. 


(Eugene C. Foster.) 
"In many cases the Sunday-school is failing to meet the needs of 
the boy in his teens, and it is the purpose of this new department of our 
International Work to help the Sunday-school come to the point where 
such failure will cease. 

The division will be the recruiting agency and a training school for 
the church." 


(Mr. W. C. Pearce.) 

"Its place is to win to the Sunday-school, and enlist in Bihle study, 
the men and women of the world. 

It is a movement of power. 

1. Because its chief mission is to teach the scripture, it is a Bihle 
study movement, opening anew the Word of God to multitudes of men 
and women. 

3. Because it is evangelistic, emphasizing the teaching of the gospel, 
and developing a corps of ])ersonal workers that promise much for the 
saving of men. 

3. Because it is missionary. Sevent3'-one representative classes 
contrihuted $9,11!). 90 to missions in one year. The biblical vision is 
world-wide; the biblical voice savs, "Go;" the biblical conscience says, 

4. Because it is cooperative. Its continent-wide sweep is ushering 
in a true Christian brotherhood and imparting new zeal in every kind of 
Christian endeavor. 

5. Because it is connected with the Sunday-school, enlisting in its 
ranks those who can supply its material needs and provide efficient lead- 
ership. It is also building a wall around the big boy and the big girl. 

6. Because it is a force for civic righteousness, hastening the doom 
of the liquor traffic and kindred evils, encouraging every movement of 
righteousness, and promising a day when the streets shall be safe for the 


For many years in the early life of the Sunday School it continued 
to be principally a children's school. Few adults attended, aside from 
the teachers and officers, and such were known as the Bible Class. So 
completely was this the case in many schools that there came to be a 
notion among the men that the Sunday School was simply a place for 
women and children, but there were a good many men who felt that if the 
Sunday School was a good place for women and children it was certainly 
a good place for men — for men are only boys grown tall — and out of this 
the Cook County Illinois Sunday School Association established the 
Adult Department to advance the organization of Adult Classes in the 
Sunday School. The same year a similar action was taken by the Illi- 
nois Sunday School Association, it being the intention of those in 
charge that the Adult Department in schools was for the purpose of unit- 
ing all classes ■ for adults, whether there Avere men's classes, women's 
classes, or mixed classes. The range of age was wide, from twenty-one 
to three score and beyond. In these organizations there were certain 
definite and fixed principles and methods of organization adopted. 
There was to be a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and at 
least three committees, devotional, membership, and social. The teacher 
was not to have any official connection with the class aside from being its 


selected teacher. These coinmittees, as the names would indicate, were 
ijiven free discretion within their respective boundary to make the class 
as religious and as strong as possible. The class became a specific unit 
and in a short time began to look about to see what it could do, not only 
to hel]) itself, but to help the school and church with which it was con- 
nected ; also reaching out into the village or city in which it was located, 
and they became imbned with the idea that they were indeed and in 
truth their brother's and sister's keeper, that they were to render help 
for those who were strnggling after a cleaner and purer life. 

Mr. Pearce left the Illinois Sunday School Association where he 
had labored for many years under the direction of B. F. and W. B. 
Jacobs, the chairman of the Executive Committee, and General Secre- 
tary of the Illinois Sunday School x4ssociation. He I'eceived his train- 
ing under these Christly men and was well fitted to the work to which he 
was called in Cook County. He took hold of the matter with great vigor 
and remained there three years, until his efficient work attracted the 
attention of the International Sunday School Association and then ho 
was called to the Adult Department of the International Sunday School 
Association. During the time that Mr. Pearce was Secretary of the Cook 
County Association, Mr. Herbert I^. Hill devised a little button known as 
the Adult Class button, with a red ring around a white center, indicating a 
clean life, cleansed by the blood of Jesus Christ. This was adopted as 
the emblem, not only of the Cook County Association, but of the Illinois 
Sunday School Association for the Adult Department. 

After Mr. Pearce was transferred to the International Sunday 
School Association, a committee was appointed to recommend or select 
a symbol for the x^dult Department of the International Sunday School 
Association, and after a conference by the committee, of which your 
speaker was chairman, the little red button, the symbol of the Illinois 
Adult Department, was selected, and became the button or badge of the 
Adult Department of the International Sunday School Association, and 
through its agency has belted the world. 


(Dr. W. A. Duncan, Its Pounder.) 
"The Home Department is the University Extension of the church, 
and offers, through mendjcrship, the open Bible and Home Class Visi- 
tation to every home, man, woman and Cradle-Roll child in the world, 
not already connected with some other department, unable or unwilling 
to attend." 



(Mr. W. A. Brown.) 

"The work of missionary education in the Sunday-school ought to 

find expression both in better living and in increased gifts. When the 

Sunday-school is once aroused to its missionary opportunity, the conquest 


of the world for Jesus Christ will soon be an accomplished fact. The 
International Sunday-school Association encourages the formation of 
missionary departments in state, provincial, county, township, and 
kindred organizations through-out its entire field, and urges the adoption, 
of a policy for local schools which shall include: the creation of a 
missionary atmosphere; a missionary committee; weekly missionary 
offerings; monthly missionary programs; missionary instruction; a 
missionary section of the library ; a prayerful cultivation of the spirit 
of consecration for personal service; a course on missions for adult classes 
for eight weeks a year ; giving ; teacher-training and graded lessons. 

Missionary interest and activity in any Sunday-school insures its 
own success and life. The lack of it is an indication of approaching 
apathy and death." 


(Mrs. Zillah Foster Stevens.) 
"A Temperance Department in the Sunday-school strives for the 
following : 

1. Temperance Education educates every Sunday-school member 
for: (a) Total Abstinence; (b) the Destruction" of the Liquor Traffic; 
(c) the Extinction of the Cigarette Habit; (d) the Surrender of every 
Self-indulgence which impairs or destroys the power to give service to 
God and service to man. 

2. Regular Time for Temperance Teaching (a) Observe all ap- 
pointed Quarterly Temperance Sundays; (b) (special) Anti-Cigarette 
Day — Temperance Sunday for the Second Quarter; (c) (special) 
World's Temperance Sunday, — the fourth Sunday in November — to be 
emphasized as Christian Citizenship Day. 

3. Organization. A Temperance Department in every Sunday- 
school conducted by a temperance Superintendent. 

4. Pledge Signing. Enroll every Sunday-school member of proper 
age as a pledge signer." 


(Dr. Franklin McElfresh.) 
"The greatest need of the church is a true school of religion as a 
well-developed institution on the church itself. The greatest need of the 
church is a double number of trained, consecrated teac"hers in the 
Sunday-school. The organized effort to supply this deep want is the 
Teacher-Training Department. It aims to give to both the teachers of 
to-day and the teachers of tomorrow four things: a grasp of the Bible 
as a whole; a view of the child in the light of modern education; and 
outline of the tried methods of religious pedagogy; and an insight into 
the management and organization of the school. Holding aloft new 
standards for service in teaching in the schools of the church promises 


a noble temper and the conquering power of a clear faith in the gener- 
ation who will rule tomorrow," 

Our International Association has a tine Training School at Lake 
Geneva, Wisconsin, under the ef3ficient leadership of Mr. W. C. Pearee 
and a corps of fine teachers to which every county in our State should 
send not less than one young teacher each year. A new building has been 
erected dedicated to Dr. H. M. Hamill. 


(Mr. J. Shreve Durham.) 

"The greatest department of the organized Sunday-school work: 
"The Home Visitation Department." Through it Americans can know 
one another and one another's conditions. Through it we can reach 
everybody everywhere. Through it every department of Sunday-school 
and church work can be best served : Locating the babies for the Cradle- 
Eoll, and the "Shut-in" for the Home Department, and all others for the 
main sessions of the Sunday-school and church — reaching, teaching and 
saving all the people of America and the entire world. 

Again "May 11, 1918. We have just completed one of the most 
successful Home Visitations in the history of the Visitation work. 

Columbia has one of the most important Army Camps in our Coun- 
try, with many thousands of new people in the City as well as in the 
Camp. This Work has placed all of the people in touch with the Church, 
Synagogue and Sunday School of their choice. 

Have you thought of the fact that while our Nation is trying to 
unite all interests at this time, the Home Visitation is the only great 
Movement uniting all our religious interests — without which no other 
interest can stand permanently?" 


In the early history of the Sunday School, not only in Illinois, 
but elsewhere, it was thought that any place would be good enough for 
the Sunday School. Even in some churches, the church building was 
denied the Sunday School for its use, the teachers being compellel to 
secure other quarters for the convening of the school, but after the Adult 
Department was organized and it caught a vision of its possibilities and 
responsibilities, then there was nothing that was too good for the Sunday 
School and men of broad and constructive minds began to study the 
subject of the Sunday School and its needs, and as a result of this line 
of work many first class buildings have been erected, combining in their 
architectural designs, the highest possible efficiency of the Sunday School 
as the great working heart of the Church itself. These are now not only 
found in the large cities, but many of them in the smaller villages and 
even in the countr3^side, having separate class rooms provided for the 
pupils of the different grades and were Paxson to return and go up and 
down Illinois he would probably be more astonished at the improve- 

—13 H S 


mcnt of Sunda}' School architectural features, than at almost any 
other phase of the Sunday School work. 


There are three types of Sunday School athletic activities. The 
first is simple in form, which consists of Sunday Schools uniting and 
forming a league in base ball, basket ball or bowling. The second type 
is wider in its scope, its activities not only including leagues of base ball, 
basket ball, track and field athletics, both indoor and out, gymnasium, 
and tests of physical strength, and even frequently a camp for the sum- 
mer, cross-country hikes and instruction in swimming and first aid as 
that given to the Boy Scouts. These are under trained leaders in the 
various churches and are frequently accompanied by lectures or talks on 
kindred subjects. 

The league is usuall}^ under the direction of representative Sun- 
day School men in conjunction with the General Secretary of the Y. M. 
C. A. and frequently they have a badge or button. 

The third form is one of still larger variety of activity with more 
phases and features of Sunday School work. Some phase of these activi- 
ties is found in many schools of Illinois. 


(President E. Y. Mullins, D. D., Louisville. j 

First — It seeks to enlist all Sunday-schools in the common study 
of the lesson, but never to organize schools. 

Second — It seeks to enlist all Sunday-schools in the adoption of the 
best methods of promoting efficiency in the work of teacher-training. 

Third — It seeks in all proper ways to enlist theological seminaries 
to the extent of giving due recognition to the Sunday-school in their 

Fourth — It disclaims all creed-making power, and the sole function 
of its Lesson Committee is to select topic, the Scripture and the Golden 
text, leaving interpretation of the Scripture to the various denominations. 

Fifth — It disclaims all authority over the churches and denom- 

Sixth — It disclaims all legislative functions, save within its own 
sphere and for its own proper ends. 

Seventh — The work it seeks to do is confined to the common ground 
occupied by all the various denominations cooperating with it, as ground 
which these bodies have found can best be occupied through this common 
organization. The common ground and interests are chielfly as follows: 

(a) A uniform lesson system, graded or otherwise. 

(b) The propagation of the best methods and ideals in Sunday- 
school pedagogy. 

(c) The promotion in all proper ways of teacher-training. 


(d) The promotion of all Sunday-school life and progress through 
inspirational conventions and associations for the use and benefit of all 
the denominations. 

Eighth — The Association recognizes that in many of the above lines 
of activity the various denominations prosecute plans and methods of 
their own. In all such cases the International Association seeks not to 
hinder or trespass but to help. In short, it offers itself as the willing 
servant of all for Jesus' sake. It seeks to be a clearing-house of the 
best methods and best plans in the Sunday-school world. Above all, 
it seeks to be the means of extending a knowledge of the Bible, the 
inspired Word of God, through the Sunday-school to the whole world.'^ 


This is the fifth time that this central, important, and second city 
in our State has opened its hearts and homes to our Association — in 
1865, 1877, 1894, 1909, and now in 1918, the year we reach our first 
centennial milestone, as one of the great integral factors in the greatest 
Nation on Earth. During that time we, as a State, have made important 
contributions to its wealth, education, and evangelization, in fact to all 
the elements that make up true greatness of any people, whether we take 
the short view or the long view, the temporal or the eternal, this earthly 
life or the immortal life. 

This city like every other city of Illinois has had a dual civilization, 
its Dr. Jeckyl and its Mr. Hyde civilizations. These have often clashed 
in their history and development. This city was the home of William 
Eej^nolds — that mighty man of God — so full of loving services to uplift 
humanity into the very presence of the Son of God, the Saviour of the 
World that when the death messenger came he quietly said "I die with 
the harness on," giving the last full measure of devotion to the cause of 
Him whom he loved more than life itself. This old world was and 
always will be better, richer, safer for humanity because this great soul 
lived to its highest and truest nobility. 

This city was the home of that brilliant orator, the gi'eatest of his 
day — Eobert G. Ingersoll — the great agnostic, who, while exhibiting in 
his daily life, many noble traits, he and his brother Eben shaking hands 
every time they met, no matter how many times a day that might be, 
yet the eloquent infidel did much to wreck the faith and crush out love 
and hope, not only in this life, but in that higher and better life that is 
revealed in the Book of Books ; yet when death, the dread monster stalked 
into the Ingersoll home and touched that beloved brother, Robert G. felt 
the blow, most keenly and as that loved form was lowered into its last 
resting place, the dread silence was broken by the agonizing cry out of 
the gi-eat agnostic's crushed heart, "Faith sees a star and listening love 
hears the rustle of a wing." 

Peoria, the rich mansion of John Barley Corn, the greatest enemy 
of humanity, was also the home of Zillah Foster Stevens, that flaming 
"Joan of Arc" that went up and down the nation arousing and assem- 
bling the childhood, the motherhood and the christian manhood against 


this great enemy of the human race, that causes more suffering and 
sorrow than famine and war eoml)ined, until to-day in the midst of the 
World War, the greatest of all the ages, the days of John Barley Corn 
are numbered. This war will not cease, in my judgment, until our 
Government and its Allies shall rise to that degree of patriotic duty to the 
highest and best interest of the human race that they shall say: "No 
more grain shall be used to destroy manhood, crush womanhood and 
damn childhood but that it shall ever}' bit be used to feed and nourish our 
brave Soldiers and Sailors, and the toiling millions of our dependents." 
But friends, that time may not be far distant. This generation will not 
pass until old John Barley Corn will be buried face downward so that the 
more he digs the deeper he is buried. 

Peoria is the past and present home of some of the most distinguished 
Sunday School experts in the Sunday School world ; of beautiful homes, 
fine churches and Sunday Schools ; public schools, and colleges and insti- 
tutes, large manufactories and its big tractors that have made the cold 
chills chase each other up and down the Kaiser's spine and he begins to 
realize that Uncle Sam is "coming with the goods." 


Before the final word of this paper shall be spoken, I desire to thank 
all who have in any way contributed in its preparation, either in sug- 
gestions made or material furnished, but especially do I wish to here 
record the helpful ministries of Brothers, W, C. Pearce, C. E. Schenck, 
J. H. Collins, and W. J. Hostetler, and of Sisters Mrs. Mary F. Bryner, 
Miss Mary I, Bragg, Mrs. W. C. Pearce, and last but by no means least 
of Miss Lillian Ashmore, my faithful stenographer, without whose 
fidelity, industry and loving service this paper could not have been pre- 
pared ; and my earnest pra3''er is that the Master's Blessing may rest and 
abide upon each and all of them in great power. 




Abraham, Bible Character 66 

Adams, Father, with Father Paxton.144 

Adams, John Quincy 113 

Africa 67 

Aix-la-Chapelle 38, 39 

Aix-la-Chapelle, European Congress, 

met at 38, 39 

Aix-la Cliapelle, The German Aachen . 38 

Albany, New York 78,149 

Alabama College, Auburn, Ala 146 

Albion, 111 6, 23 

Alden, Kindred of, America 25 

Allegheny Mountains 33, 40, 66 

Alsace-Lorraine 87 

Alsace-Lorraine, Farewell Address by 
Population to French National As- 
sembly in Bordeaux in 1871 87 

Alton, 111 112, 149, 150, 180, 182 

Alvord, Clarence "Walworth, Centen- 
nial History of Illinois 74-82 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth, Editor 
Cahokia Records Illinois Historical 
Collections Vol. II, footnotes. ... 54,58 
Alvord, Clarence Walworth, The Ill- 
inois Centennial History. ... 28, 74-82 
Alvord, Clarence Walworth, The Miss- 
issippi Valley in British Politics, 

footnote 63 

America 25, 31, 32, 35, 

36, 39, 40, 41, 65, 66, 68, 85, 87, 165, 168 

footnote 49 

America, Birkbeck, Morris quoted on 

America 40, 41 

America, Contribution of Virginia to 

development of, 31 

America, World War, her entrance in 

without territorial ambitions 87 

American Baptist Publication So- 
ciety 150, 174 

Americin Baptist Publication Society, 

Cook County 102 

American Bottom, Early Settlements 

in 53. 54 

American Bottom, Tomahawk claims 
in the region of the American 

Bottom, Reference, footnote 53 

American • Colonial or Territorial 

System 63 

American Colonies, Political ideas of 

the fathers 42 

American Colonies, Qualification to 

vote in 42 

American Continental Army, foot- 
note .• 51 

American Democracy 41, 42. 44 

American Democracy, Slavery drives 

a sharp wedge in 44 

American Flag 35 

American Frontiersman 54 

American Historical Association Re- 
port 1894, footnote 50 

American Historical Review quoted, 

footnote 52 

American Posts, on Great Lake 

frontier 55 

American Settlers 33 


American State Papers, Indian 

Affairs, footnotes 48, 49, 50, 61 

American State Papers, Public Lands, 

footnote 58 

American States, Restless Move- 
ments in 45 

American Sunday School Union. 112, 167 
American Traders, Northwest Terri- 
tory 62 

Americans 33, 34, 36 

Americans, London Times quoted on. 36 

Anderson, Alexander 183 

Annals of Congress, footnote 62 

Anteus of Greek Mythology 40 

Appomattox;, Va 69 

Arizona State 45, 64 

Arizona State, Legislative Experi- 
ments 45 

Armstrong, (Gen.) John, footnotes. 52, 53 
Armstrong, (Gen.) John, Letter to 
Harmar, April 12, 1785, footnote.. 53 

Arnold, Arthur T 140, 164, 183 

Art Club, Springfield, 111 20 

Asbury, (Bishop Francis), Methodist 

church 99 

Ashland, 111 97 

Ashmore, (Miss) Lillian 196 

Asia 88 

Athletic Leagues 194 

Atlantic States 36 

Atwater, Caleb, History of Ohio, foot- 
note 58 

Aubert, Madame Louis 20 

Aubert, M. Louis, Member French 
High Commission to the United 

States 19, 28, 83 

Aubert, M. Louis,, Message from 

France. Address 28, 83-89 

Augustine, Henry 139, 182 

Aurora, 111 132, 182 

Austria 38, 86 

Aux Eparges, France 88 


Bailey, (Dr.) George W 133 

Balboa Vasco Nunez 66 

Baldwin, (Miss) Josephine 175 

Ball, (Judge) Farlin Q 23 

Bancroft, Edgar A 19, 27, 28 

Bancroft, Edgar A., Centennial Ad- 
dress 19, 31a 

Bancroft, (Mrs.) Edgar A 20 

Bankers, Jay Cooke & Co 118 

Bannen, H. M 139,184 

Baptist Church Ill, 127, 184, 188 

Baptist Church, First Baptist, Chi- 
cago 127 

Baptist Church, First Baptist Mis- 
sion, (Chicago 127 

Baptist Church, Central, Elizabeth, 

N. Y 188 

Baptist Church, Litchfield, Conn.... Ill 

Barker, P. L 25 

Barnes, (Mrs.) J. W. . 175, 177, 178, 180 
Barnett, G. W 139 


INDEX — Continued. 


Barney, Everett Hosmer 25, 26 

Barney, (Commodore) Joshua 25 

Barrett, Jay Amos, Evolution of the 

Ordinance of 1787, footnote 47 

Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 62 

Beardstown, 111 23, 182 

Beattie, (Dr. ) R. H 184 

Belgium 86 

Bellefontaine, 111., Early American 
Settlement in American Bottom.. 53 

Belleville, 111 78, 182 

Belmont County, Ohio, footnote.... 52 

Belsey, Sir Francis F 135 

Belvidere, 111 6. 2:5 

Benham, John 139, 182 

Benton, Elbert Jay, Establishing the 
American Colonial System in the 

Old Northwest 28, 47-63 

Bergen, Abraham 114 

Bergen, Hannah Fisher 114 

Bergen, Jacob P., Biographical 

Sketch 114 

Bergen, (Rev.) J. G 114 

Berlin, Germany 86 

Bethalto. Ill 23 

Beveridge, Albert J., of Indiana. ... 31 
Beveridge, Albert J. work on John 

Marshall, reference 31 

Big Beaver River, footnotes 49, 52 

Big Beaver River, Fort Mcintosh, 

near mouth of, footnote 52 

Biloxi, Mississippi 23 

Bingham, John H 22 

Birch, I. H 119 

Birkbeck, Morris, quoted on Amer- 
ica 40, 41 

Birminglaam, Ala 147 

Blackall, (Dr.) Christopher R. ... 101, 

135, 149, 168, 169, 174, 175, 176, 182 
Blackall, (Dr.) Christopher R. Bio- 
graphical Sketch 149-150 

Black Hawk 75 

Black Hawk War 76 

Black, Israel P 174, 175 

Blakeslee, (Rev.) Erastus 174 

Bliss, P. P 119, 148, 149 

Bliss, (Mrs.) P. P 148 

Bloomington, 111 

23, 26 28, 115, 119, 128, 149, 181, 182 
Bogart, (Prof.) Ernst L. Author Cen- 
tennial Volume Xo. 4, The Indus- 
trial State 1870-1893 79 

Bogart, CProf.) Ernst L. Author Cen- 
tennial Volume 5, The Modern 

Commonwealth 79 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 38 

Bond, (Gov. ) Shadrach 68 

Boonville, Indiana 72 

Bordeaux, France 87 

Boston, Mass 

78,113.119,130,174, 178, 179 

Boston, Mass., Mt. Vernon Congre- 
gational Church 119 

Boy Scouts 194 

Bradford, Deborah Weston 25 

Bradford. Weston Gershom 25 

Biagg, (Miss) Mary I 

140, 145, 146, 160, 161, 196 

Bragg, (Mis3) Mary I., Tribute to 

160, 161 

Brazza, Pierre, Savorgnan de 84 

Briev, France 86 

Bright, (Hon.) John 108 

British Army 27 

footnote 56 

British Garrisons in the Illinois Coun- 
try 33 


British Garrisons occupy frontier 

posts on American soil 50 

British Proclamation of 1763. Refer- 
ence 63 

British Provinces 172 

Brooks, (Rev.) J. G 182 

Brotherson, (Miss) Martha 122 

Brouse, O. R 182 

Brown. Frank L., Secretary World's 

Sunday School Association 165 

Brown, Robert T 183 

Brown, S. Lockwood 100 

Brown University, Rhode Island, 

footnote 57 

Brown, W. A 191 

Bryan. William Jennings 146 

Bryner. (Mrs.) Mary Foster. .... 96. 

140, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 180, 188, 196 
Buck, Solon J., Editor of Illinois 
1818, Preliminary Centennial ile- 

morial History 22 

Buell, Joseph, Extract from Journal 

July 4, 1786 51 

Buell, Joseph. Journal of. quoted.... 51 

footnotes 53, 54 

Burnet, Jacob, Notes on the early 
settlement of the Northwestern 
Territory Published 1847 quoted 

footnotes 60, 61 

Burnham, Harry A 140 

Burns, (Dr.) 128 

Butler, Richard 50, 51 

footnotes 50, 51, 52, 53. 55 

Butler, Richard, Biographical Sketch, 

footnote 49 

Butler, Richard, Journal in The 
Olden Time, quoted, footnotes.... 

50, 52, 53, 55 

Butler, Richard, Superintendent In- 
dian Affairs 51. 55, 57 

footnotes 49. 50, 52, 53, 55 

Butler, Richard. Superintendent In- 
dian Affairs, his efforts to hold the 
Indians to keep their promises 55 

Cable, George W 130 

Cahokia 54 

Cairo, 111 124, 125 

Canada 159. 161. 171 

Carlin, Thomas 112 

Carlisle, Pa, footnote 49 

Carlyle, Thomas 40 

Carman, John C 183 

Carolinas, The 36 

Carpenter, Richard V 6 

Cartwright, Peter, Biographical 

Sketch 114 

Census of Settlers in the Northwest 
Territory, Officer appointed to keep 

census 60 

Centennial History of Illinois, by 

Clarence W. Alvord 74-82 

Centennial History of Illinois, Re- 
search work in preparation of Vol- 
umes 78, 79 

Centennial Memorial Building 20 

Centennial Memorial History, First 

or preliminary volume 22 

Centennial Observances, State of Illi- 
nois, counties making plans for. . . 21 
Centinel of the Northwest News- 
paper. Published by William Max- 
well, first newspaper in Northwest 
Territory, footnote 63 


INDEX — Continued. 


Central Falls, R. 1 25 

Centralia, 111 182 

Champaign, 111 6, 128, 148, 182 

Channing, Edward, footnote 47 

Chapin, (Rev.) A. L., LL. D 172 

Charlemagne, Charles I. King of 
France, and Emperof of the West. 38 

Chase, Salmon P 65 

Chesapeake Bay 34 

Chester, 111 78 

Chicago, 111 6, 16, 21, 23, 

25, 26, 27. 28, 64. 68, 74, 77, 79, 80, 
96, 99. 100, 101, 102. 119, 124, 125, 
127, 133, 148, 150, 153, 154, 155, 158, 
163, 165, 168, 173, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183 

Chicago, 111. Baptist Church 100 

Chicago, 111., Board of Trade. .. 124, 125 
Chicago, 111., Chicago Avenue Church. 119 
Chicago, 111. Daily News, Newspaper. 74 
Chicago, 111., First Baptist Church.. 127 
Chicago, 111., First Baptist Mission.. 127 
Chicago, 111., First School organized 

in 99, 100 

Chicago, 111., Historical Society 

16, 22, 79, 80 

Chicago, 111., Illinois Street Church. .119 

Chicago, III., Newsboy Mission 127 

Chicago, 111., New Street Mission. . . .127 
Chicago, 111., Northwestern Sunday 

School Teachers Institute 101 

Chicago, 111., Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church 119 

Chicago, 111., Presbyterian Church, 

Second Presbyterian, Chicago 100 

Chicago, 111., Sunday School Union.. 

101, 150 

Chicago, 111., Tabernacle Mission, ... 127 
Chicago. 111., Wesley Methodist 

Church 153 

Childs, Francis, and John Swaine, 
Publishers of Laws of Northwest 

Territory, footnote 59 

Chillicothe, Ohio, footnote 63 

China 125, 148 

Chippewa Indians 49 

Churches, Baptist Church Chicago. . .100 
Churches, Baptist, First Baptist, Chi- 
cago 127 

Churches, Baptist, First Baptist Mis- 
sion. Chicago 127 

Churches, Baptist, Central Baptist , 

Elizabeth, N. J 188 

Churches, Baptist Church, Litchfield, 

Conn Ill 

Churches, Chicago Avenue Church, 

Chicago 119 

Churches, Congregational, Mt. Vernon 

Congregational, Boston 119 

Churches, Congregational, Plymouth 

Congregational, Chicago 119 

Churches, Cumberland Presbyterian, 
Mt. Zion Cumberland Presbyterian, 

Macon Co., Ill 102 

Churches, Disciples, or Christian 

Church 184, 185 

Churches, Illinois Methodist Episco- 
pal Conference, original records... 21 
Churches. Illinois, Street Church, Chi- 
cago .' 119 

Churches, Methodist Church 

21, 67, 118, 153, 155 

Churches. Methodist, Chicago Wesley 

Methodist 153 

Churches, Methodist,, Danville, 111... 155 
Churches, Methodist Episcopal, New 

York 118 

Churches, Mission, New Street, Chi- 
cago 127 


Churches, Mission, Newsboy, Chicago 127 
Churches, Mt. Vernon Congrega- 
tional,, Boston, Mass 119 

Churches, Mt. Zion Cumberland Pres- 
byterian, Macon County, 111 103 

Churches, Newsboy Mission, Chicago.127 
Churches, New Street Mission, Chi- 
cago 127 

Churches, Plymouth Congregational, 

Chicago 119 

Churches, Presbyterian 

21, 67, 96, 100, 114, 115, 121, 137 

Churches, Presbyterian, Second, Chi- 
cago, III 100 

Churches, Presbyterian, Third, Chi- 
cago 100 

Churches, Presbyterian, First, Deca- 
tur, 111 96 

Churches, Presbyterian, Homer, N. y.137 
Churches, Presbyterian, Calvary, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa 121 

Churches, Presbyterian, Providence, 

R. 1 114 

Churches, Presbyterian, Springfield, 

original records 21 

Churches, Presbyterian, Washington 

County, 111 115 

Cincinnati, Ohio 58, 61 

footnotes 59, 63 

Civil War, ses War of the Rebel- 
lion 45, 85 

Clark, (Miss) Daisy.- 25 

Clark Family 25 

Clark, George. Rogers 

34, 35, 49, 50, 58, 66, 67, 80 

footnote 49 

Clark, George Rogers, Henry, (Gov.) 

Patrick aids Clark 34,35 

Clark, George Rogers, Member of the 

Indian Commission 49- 

Clark, George Rogers, Sketch, foot- 
note 4» 

Clark, George Rogers, What we of 

the Middle West owe to Clark. .34, 35 
Clark, (Dr.) Joseph, (Timothy Stand- 
by) 164, 174, 188 

Clark, (Mrs.) Samuel W 174, 175 

Clarksville, Ohio 58 

Clay City, 111 23 

Clayton, (Mrs.) Mamie Gordon 140 

Clearwaters, (Rev. ) J. F 147 

Clendenin, H. W 6. 15, 16 

Clinton, 111 73, 159. 182 

Clinton, 111., State Sunday School 

(Convention held in 159 

Clinton, J. W 15, 23 

Clissold, H. R 139, 182 

Coe, D. 13ir 

Cole, Arthur Charles, Author of the 
third volume of Centennial History 
of Illinois, Era of Civil War 1848- 

1870 79 

Cole, Major 119 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward 16,22,112 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward, Life of, by E. 
B. Washburne, to be reprinted as 
State Historical Society Centennial 

Volume 16, 22 

Collins, J. H 97,183,196 

Columbia College, Washington, D. C..113 

Columbus, Christoplier 31, 66 

Colver, Walter 6, 15 

Concord, N. H 168 

Confederation and the Constitution, 
by McLaughlin, quoted, footnote.. 47 

Congregational Church 119, 184 

Congregational Church Mt. Vernon 
Congregational, Boston 119 


INDEX— Continued. 


Congregational Church, Plymouth, 

Chicago 119 

Conkling, Clinton, L 6,15,16 

Connecticut State 28, 47, 48, 51, 166 

footnotes 49, 50, 56 

Connecticut State, Congress calls on 

for troops, 1785 51 

Connecticut State, Deed of Cession to 

United States May 28, 1786 47 

Connecticut State, Hartford, Conn.. 166 
Connecticut State Militia, 1775, foot- 
notes 49, 50 

Connecticut State, Militia frojn, pro- 
tect Northwest Frontier 1784 48 

Connecticut State, New Haven, Conn. 28 
Connecticut State Society of Cincin- 
nati, footnote 50 

Connersville, Indiana 66 

Constitution of 1818, State of Illinois. 43 
Constitution of 1780, State of Massa- 
chusetts 43 

Constitution, Frigate, War of 1812, 
victory over the Guerriere. Refer- 
ence 36 

Constitutional Convention 1848, State 

of Illinois 43 

Constitutional Convention, State of 

New York, 1821 42 

Continental Ariny 34 

footnote 50 

Continental Congress, fodtnote 49 

Cook County, Illinois. . .150, 154, 190, 191 
Cook County, Illinois Sunday School 

Association 150, 190, 191 

Cook, Daniel, Biographical Sketch.. 

152, 153 

Cook, George 152, 181 

Cook, George E 182 

Corbett Family 26 

Corbett, H. R 26 

Cork, Hugh 

...143,144, 145,152, 159,160,183,184 
Corydon, Indiana, Gazette, Jan, 1819, 

Reference 67 

Courland, Government of Russia, 
southermost of Baltic provinces.. 87 

Cranberry, N. J 114 

Crenshaw, Robert, First Sunday 
School in America started in the 

home of, 1786 99,100 

Crews, H. O., Publicity Manager Cen- 
tennial Commission 22 

Culver, J. F 182 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 

Mt. Zion, Macon County, Illinois. . 102 
Cutler, M a n a s s e h. Biographical 

Sketch, footnote 56 

Cutler, Manasseh 56, 57 

footnotes 56, 57 

Cutler, Manasseh, Journals and Cor- 
respondence, 1787 quoted, foot- 
notes 56, 57 

Cutler, Manasseh, Leading stock- 
holder in Ohio Company 56 

footnote 56 

Cuyahoga River 58 

Czar. Alexander I of Russia, Holy 
Alliance emanated from the strange 

mind of Czar Alexander 1 38 

Czernin, Count 87 

Dancey. (Rev.) J. S 109,184,185 

Danes of Slesvig 87 

Danley, P. R 139 


Dantes, Aligerius, his comparison of 

the restless Italian Cities 45 

Danville, 111 73, 155,164, 182, 183 

Danville, 111., Methodist Church 155 

Danville, 111., State Sunday School 

Convention held in 164 

Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution 20 

David, Bible Character 27 

Decatur, 111 96, 128, 134, 144, 180, 182 

Decatur, 111., Presbyterian Church, 

First Presbyterian 96 

Declaration of Independence. . .33, 72, 84 

footnote 49 

De Foe, Daniel, English Author,.... 32 
De Kalb County, 111., To observe Cen- 
tennial of State 21 

Delaware Indians 49 

Deneen, (Gov.) Charles S 18 

Denny, (Major) Ebenezer, Military 

Journal, footnotes 48, 56 

Denver, (Colorado 133, 176 

De Pew, Clarence L 183, 184 

Detroit, aiichigan 21 

Dickey, Father, Pioneer Presbyterian 

preacher in Indiana 67 

Dillar, (Miss) Gertrude 146 

Disciples, or Christian Church. . 184, 185 

Dixon, 111 156, 181, 182 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. 16, 18, 44, 69, 70 
Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Lincoln- 
Douglas Debates 1858 69, 70 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Quoted on 

Slavery 44 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Statue to 
be placed on State House grounds. 

16, 18 

Draper Collection, Madison, Wiscon- 
sin 78 

Du Bois, (Miss) Agnes 15 

Dudley, (Mrs.) Juliet Dimock. .188, 189 

Duncan, (Dr.) W. A 191 

Dunlap, J. M 182, 183 

Dunning, (Dr.) A. E 175, 176 

Duquoin, 111 138, 182 

Durham, E. D 139 

Durham, J. Shreve 193 

Duxbury, Mass 25 

Eames, C. M 183 

East Northfield, Mass 148 

East St. Louis, 111 155, 182 

East St. Louis, 111., State Sunday 

School Convention, held in 1907. . .155 
Eckenrode, H. J. "Virginia in the Mak- 
ing 28,31-37 

Eckley, T. M 139 

Eddv, (Miss) Frances M 127 

Edgar, W. H 23 

Education, Brown University, Rhode 

Island, footnote 57 

Education. Columbia College, Wash- 
ington, D. C 113 

Education, Eaton College, England, 

footnote 49 

Education, Edinburgh Scotland Uni- 
versity, footnotes 49, 56 

Education, Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge, Mass 41 

footnotes 50, 56 

Education, Illinois, Northern Illinois 

State Normal School, DeKalb.... 6 
Education, Illinois, University of 
Illinois 6, 19, 28, 78, 79 


INDEX — Continued. 


Education, Marietta College, Ohio. 

footnotes 55, 56 

Education, Moody Bible Institute, 

Chicago 100, 119 

Education, Mt. Union College, Ohio.. 117 
Education, New York State Univer- 
sity 19 

Education, Northwestern University, 

Bvanston, 111 6 

Education, Quaker School, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., footnote 48 

Education, Rock Springs Seminary 

near Alton 112 

Education, Shurtleff College, Upper 

Alton 112 

Education, Southern Illinois State 

Normal University Carbondale. ... 6 
Education, Weslyan Institute, New- 
ark N. J 117 

Education, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland, Ohio 28 

Education, Yale College, New Haven, 

Conn 28 

footnotes 49, 56, 1 30 

Edwards, ( Gov. ) Ninian 113,128 

Edwards Place, Springfield, 111 20, 28 

Edwardsville, 111 113 

Eggleston, (Dr.) Edward. .. 114, 115, 

116, 128, 157, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 180 
Eggleston, (Dr.) Edward, Biograph- 
ical Sketch 114-115 

Eggleston, (Dr.) Edward, "Writings. 

114, 115 

Elgin, 111 26, 143, 148, 152, 182, 184 

Elgin, 111., Watch Co 148 

Elizabeth, New Jersey, Central 

Baptist Church 188 

Emancipation Proclamation 72 

Enabling Act, Illinois, April 18, 1818. 15 

England 32, 33, 40, 41, 154, 168 

England, Class Distinction in 32 

England, House of Commons 33 

England, Norwich 154 

English, Efvrly settlement in "Virginia 

by the English. Reference 32 

English Parliament 39 

Ensign, (Dr.) W. 23 

Establishing the American Colonial 
System in the Old Northwest. Ad- 
dress by Elbert Jay Benton. .28, 47-63 
Esthonia, A Government of Russia, 
one of the three so-called Baltic 

Provinces 87 

Eton College, Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land, footnote 49 

Europe, 31, 32, 38, 39, 44, 88 

footnote 49 

Evans, E. T 184 

Evans, (Miss) Ruby 19,28 

Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern Uni- 
versity 6 

Everett, F. D 182 

Excell, B. O. .132, 135, 140, 148, 151, 152 
Excell, E. O., Biographical Sketch. . . 


Excell, E. C, Songs 151-152 

Farson, John 139, 182 

Farwell, John V 107,119,168 

Father of Waters, Mississippi River. 64 

Fifer, (Gov.) Joseph W 18 

Pinch, J. G., Earlv Settler of Indiana 66 
Finley, (Dr.) John H 19,27,66 


Finley, (Dr.) John H. Centennial 
letter to Illinois State Historical 

Society 27 

Finley, (Dr.) John H., French in the 

Heart of America. Reference.... 84 
Finn, Huckleberry, Mark Twain 

Character 65 

Fitzwilliams, (Mrs.) Sarah E. Ray- 
mond 23 

Flanders Field, France 85 

Foch, (Gen.) Ferdinand 86 

Foote, John Crocker 23 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas, History of 

Illinois 22 

Fort Chartres 83 

Fort Crevecoeur 83 

Fort Franklin, near the mouth of 

F'rench Creek, footnote 52 

Fort Harmar, at mouth of Musk- 
ingum river 57 

footnote 52 

Fort Mcintosh, Indian Conferences, 

held at, 1784, 1785 49, 52 

Fort Mcintosh, Negotiations with the 

Indians at, January 24, 1785 53 

Fort Mcintosh, Treaty of, reference. 49 

Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania 48 

Fort St. Louis 83 

Fort Stanwix, Conference with the 
Indians, Treaty, October 22, 1784. 

48, 49 

Fort Steuben at the Rapids of the 

Ohio River, footnote 52 

Fort Sumter 68 

Fort Washington, at the mouth of 

Licking River, footnote 52 

Foster, (Rev.) David 102 

Foster, Eugene C 189 

Foster, (Hon.) John W 128 

France 19. 27, 28, 38, 83, 85, 87, 171 

France, Alsace-Lorraine, To be re- 
turned to France 87 

France, Aubert M. Louis, A Message 

from France 28, 83-89 

France, Aubert, M. Louis, Member of 
French High Commission to the 

United States 28, 83 

France, World War, France's Sacri- 
fice of men 85 

Franklin, Benjamin 42,56 

Franklin, Benjamin, quoted on those 
who have no landed property, re- 
stricted from voting 42 

Fraternal Organizations, Union Lodge 

of Free and Accepted Masons 55 

Frederick, W 25 

Freeman, Edmund, Journal, formerly 
the "Centinel of the Northwest," 

footnote 63 

Freeman, Edmund, Printer of lavrs of 
the Territory of the United States, 
Northwest of Ohio River, 1798, 

footnote 63 

Freeman, Edmund, Publisher of Free- 
man's Journal, formerly the "Cen- 
tinel of the Northwest," footnote. . 63 
Freeman, Edmund, Publisher of the 
laws of the Northwest Territory 

1798, footnote 59 

Freeport, 111 168 

Freeport, 111., Sunday School Insti- 
tute, first in the World, organized 

at Freeport, 111 168 

French and Indian War 33 

footnote 56 


INDEX— Continued. 


French Creek, Fort Franklin near 
the mouth of, footnote 52 

French in the Heart of America, by- 
John H. Finley. Reference 84 

French Revolution 38 

Fuller Henry B. Contributes chapters 
to the Centennial History of the 
State 79 

Fuller (Rev.) H. E 182 

Galena, 111 117 

Galesburg-, 111 6, 128, 182 

Ganiere, George B., Sculptor. Head 

of Lincoln. Reference 21 

Gautier, Father 75 

Gaynor, (Rev. ) W. C 23 

Gentry ville, Indiana 71 

German Municipalities better admin- 
istered than American Cities 45 

Germany 86 

Gibault, Pierre 66 

Gibson, Hugh C 183 

Gibson, (Rev.) J. Munro, D. D 172 

Gilbert, (Dr.) Simeon 169 

Gillett, (Dr.) Philip G 96,115, 

116, 117, 128, 139, 171, 172, 181, 182 

Globe Tavern, Springfield, 111 73 

Gloucester, England 99 

Goodell, (Dr.) J. H 23 

Goodman, A. T., Transcripts, in West- 
ern Reserve Historical Societv, 
footnotes. 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 61 
Goodman Transcripts quoted, foot- 
notes. 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56,61 

Gorin, J. R 139,182 

Goshen, Indiana 137 

Gough, J. B 131 

Grand Army of the Republic 19, 21 

Grand Raisseau, Village in the Amer- 
ican Bottom, Illinois 53 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S 

27, 105, 122, 124, 125 132 

Grant, (Mrs.) Ulysses S 125 

Grant University 109 

Great Britain 36, 38, 133, 171 

Great Lakes 33. 64, 83 

footnote 51 

Greene, Evarts Boutell 6, 24 

Greene, Evarts Boutell, Head of 
National Board for Historical 

service, war record 24 

Greene, (Gen.) Nathaniel, footnote.. 51 

Greenville Treaty 1795 62 

Griffith, Reece H 139,150,151,182 

Griffith, Reece H., Biographical 

Sketch 150-151 

Guerriere, fight with the Frigate 
Constitution, War of 1812. Refer- 
ence 36 

•Guilford, R. M 100, 181 


Haines, (Miss) Mamie 166 

Hall, Charles E 102 

Hall, ( Rev. ) John 172 

Hall, R. E 140 

Hall, W. C 189 

Hamill, (Dr.) Howard M 

95, 100, 117, 120, 124, 129, 135 

139. 140, 145, 146, 148, 151, 158, 168, 193 
Hamill, (Dr.) Howard M. Biograph- 
ical Sketch 146-148 

Hamill, (Dr.) Howard M., Writings. 148 


Hamill, (Mrs.) Howard M 148 

Hamilton, Alexander, Quoted on qual- 
ification of voters 42 

Hamilton County, Northwest Terri- 
tory, organized January 1790 58 

Hamilton, William 165 

Hammond, (Rev.) H. L 169 

Hanks, Dennis 72 

Hanks, Nancy, Mother of Abraham 

Lincoln 67 

Hanover County, Va., First Sunday 

school organized in, 99, 100 

Hare, R. W 139,148,182 

Harker, J. R 139 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Expedition 
against the Indians, October, 1790. 

61, 62 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, In command 
of Western Army of the United 

States, 1784 48 

footnote 48 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Journey to 

the great American Bottom 53, 54 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 
Frances Johnson, June 21, 1785, 

footnote 55 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 
Francis Johnson, April 28, 1789, 

footnote 56 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 

Knox, June 1, 1785, footnote 55 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters to 
Knox July 16, 1785, and Maj' 7, 

1786, footnote 55 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters to 

Knox, December 9, 1787, August 9, 

1787, August 10, 1788, footnote... 54 
Harmar, (Col.) Josiah. Letter to 

Knox, April 26, 1788, footnote 56 

Harmar, Josiah, Letter to Knox 
June 14, 1788, October 13, 1788, 
reference footnote 61 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 
Knox September 12, 1789, foot- 
note 12 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 
Thomas Mifflin, December 5, 1784, 
footnote 48^ 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letter to 
Thomas Mifflin, June 25, 1785, 
footnote 55 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters Janu- 
ary 10, 1778, June 15, 1778. Refer- 
ence, footnote, 51 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters De- 
cember 5, 1784, April 25, 1785, May 
1, 1785, .Tune 1, 1785, footnote.... 53 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah. Letters June 
1, 1785, June 21, 1785, June 25, 
1785, July 16, 1785, May 7, 1786, 
footnotes 50, 55 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters, Anril 
28, 1789, March 22, 1789 November 
-9, 1789, footnote 56 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Letters Octo- 
ber 21, 1790, November 4, 1790, 
footnote 61 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah Letters to the 
Secretary of War, with regard to 
Western Army 54 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Sketch, foot- 
note 48 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Troops of 

1788, scattered in small garrisons 
along the Ohio Valley 52 

Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, Western 
Army's struggle against disorder 
and lawless colonization 53, 54 


INDEX — Continued. 


Harper, (Prof.) William R. Yale 

College 130 

Harrison, William Henry 66,68 

Harsha, (Rev.) W. W 181 

Hartford, Connecticut 166 

Hart, H. P 182 

Hart, J. W 139 

Hartshorn Family 26 

Hartshorn, Noble Augustus 26 

Hartshorn, William N 175, 178 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., 

footnotes 41, 50, 56, 117 

Hastings, J. L 182 

Hauberg, John H 6, 15, 183 

Hauberg, John H., elected member of 
the Board of Directors Illinois 

State Historical Society 15 

Hauck, Charles E 102 

Haven, Heni-y P 172 

Hazai'd, (Dr.) Marshall C 103, 

117, 118, 120, 124, 139, 168, 169, 176 
Hazai'd (Dr.) Marshall C, Biograph- 
ical Sketch 118 

Hazard, (Dr.) Marshall C, Writings. 118 

Heinz. H. J 109 

Henry, Alexander, President Ameri- 
can Sunday School Union 113 

Henry Patrick 33, 34, 35 

Henry, Patrick, Defies the British 

Government 33 

Henry Patrick, Governor of Virginia 

aids George Rogers Clark 34 

Hercules 66 

Herndon, William H., Biographer of 

Abraham Lincoln 70 

Herndon, William H., Law partner of 

Abraham Lincoln 70, 73 

Hewitt, E. C 182 

Hieronymus, (Dr.) R. E 183 

Hildreth, Samuel P., Pioneer History 
of the Ohio Valley, quoted, foot- 
notes 51, 52, 53, 54 

Hill, Herbert L 19,154 

Hill, (Mrs.) Herbert L 140,163,166 

Hinds, (Prof.) J. D. S 175,176 

Hinrichsen, (Miss) Savillah T 23 

Hockhocking River 52 

Hoge, (Mrs.) A. H 124,125 

Holland 36, 171 

Holmes, Sherlock 81 

Holy Alliance, emanated from the 
strange mind of Czar Alexander I 

of Russia 38 

Homer, N. Y., Presbyterian Church. .137 

Hood, (Mrs.) H. H 23 

Hosmer Family 26 

Hosmer, James 26 

Hostetler, W. J 196 

Hotchkin, C. M 139 

Houghton, C. F ' 139 

"House Divided against itself" speech 
of Abraham Lincoln June 16, 1858. 

Reference 73 

Howard, (Gen.) Charles H., Union 

General War of the Rebellion 103 

Howard, (Major-Gen.) O.0 148 

Hudson River, footnotes 51, 55 

Hulbert, Archer B., Records of the 

Ohio Company, footnotes 47, 52 

Hunter, 116 

Hutchins , Thomas, Biographical 
Sketch, footnote 51 

lies, Elijah, Books of General Store 
of Elijah lies in Springfield 1824- 
1830 21 


Illinois College, Jaclisonville, 111 ... . 6 

Illinois Country 33, 68, 77 

Illinois Country, British Garrisons 
in 33 

Illinois Hymn, and Hail Illinois by 
Wallace Rice 19, 22 

Illinois River 58 

Illinois Song 28 

Illinois State 

6, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31-89, 95, 98-196 

Illinois State, Abraham Lincoln the 
greatest contribution of Illinois to 
the Democratic Movement of the 
Century 4G 

Illinois State, Adoption of Male Adult 
Suffrage 43 

Illinois State Centennial address, by 
President Edmund J. James, Refer- 
ence " 28 

Illinois State, Alvord, Clarence Wal- 
worth, Illinois Centennial History. 
28, 74-82 

Illinois State. Archives of Paris, 
Manuscript Material on early Illi- 
nois in 78 

Illinois State, Benton, Elbert Jay, 
Establishing the American Colonial 
System in the Old Northwest. 28, 47-63 

Illinois State, Bogart, (Prof.) Ernst 
L. author of Centennial Volume No. 

IV, The Industrial State 1870-1893. 79 
Illinois State, Bogart, (Prof.) Ernst 

L. author of Centennial Volume No. 

V, The Modern Commonwealth.. 79 
Illinois State, Buck, Solon J., Illinois 

in 1818 22 

Illinois State, Cahokia Records, Illi- 
nois Historical Collections, Vol. II, 
footnotes 54, 58 

Illinois State, Capitol 73 

Illinois State, Centennial 

7, 17, 20, 47, 72, 73 

Illinois State, Centennial Banner.... 18 

Illinois State, Centennial Commission 
Bulletins 22 

Illinois State, Centennial Commission 
Cooperates with Illinois State His- 
torical Society in Meeting April 17, 
18, 1918, Program 28 

Illinois State, Centennial History of 
Illinois by Clarence W. Alvord. .74-82 

Illinois State Centennial Memorial 
Building 20 

Illinois State, Centennial Memorial 
History, preliminary volume 22 

Illinois State, Cole, Arthur Charles, 
The Era of the Civil War, 1848- 
1870, Centennial Memorial History 
Volume III 79 

Illinois State, Constitution of 1818.. 43 

Illinois State, Constitutional Conven- 
tion, 1848 43 

Illinois State, County of Virginia. . . 35 

Illinois' State, Deaf and Dumb Insti- 
tution, Jacksonville, 111 116 

Illinois State, Department of Public 
Works 16 

Illinois State, Descendants of French 
American settlers in 88 

Illinois State, Eckenrode, H. J., Vir- 
ginia in the Making of Illinois . 28, 31-37 

Illinois State, Eighth Judicial Circuit. 73 

Illinois State, Emigrants fi'om Ken- 
tucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New 
York, Missouri, to Illinois 69 

Illinois State, Enabling Act April 18, 
1818 15, 18, 19 


INDEX — Continued. 


Illinois State, Fair Board 21 

Illinois State, Flag or Banner 18 

Illinois State, Ford (Gov.) Thomas, 
History of Illinois 22 

Illinois State, Fuller, Henry B., Con- 
tributes chapters to Centennial His- 
tory of State 79 

Illinois State, German Emigration 
to Illinois 44 

Illinois State, Historical Collections, 
(see list end of this volume. )... .216 

Illinois State Historical Library.?, 11, 79 

Illinois State, Historical Library. 
Appeal for contributions to So- 
ciety and Library 11 

Illinois State Historical Library, Pub- 
lications, see list end of this vol- 

Illinois State Historical Society 216 

6, 7, 8-11, 15-24, 25, 26, 27, 31-89 

Illinois State Historical Society, Ad- 
dresses at Centennial Meeting, April 
17-18, 1918 31-89 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Appeal for contributions to Society 
and Library 11 

Illinois State, Historical Society, 
Constitution 8-11 

Illinois State, Historical Society, 
Finley, (Dr.) John H., Centennial 
letter to the Society, dated New 
York City April 16, 1918 27 

Illinoia State, Historical Society 
Genealogy, report of Committee. 25, 26 

Illinois State, Historical Society 
Journal 7, 25 

Illinois State Historical Society Ob- 
serves Illinois Day, December 3, 
1917 18 

Illinois State, Historical Society Ofli- 
csrs •• " 

Illinois State, Historical Society Pub- 
lications, see list end of this volume. 216 

Illinois State, Historical Society. 
Record of official Proceedings. .15-24 

Illinois State, Historical Society, 
Secretary's report 17-24 

Illinois State, Historical Society, 
To preserve war records 15, 23 

Illinois State, Historical Society, 
Washburne's Life of Governor Ed- 
ward Coles to be reprinted as a 
Centennial Volume by the Society. 16 

Illinois State, Johnson, Allen, Illi- 
nois in the Democratic Movement 
of the Century 28, 38-46 

Illinois State, Lafayette's visit to, 
1825. Reference 83 

Illinois State, Legislative experi- 
ments 45 

Illinois State, Mathews (Prof.) J. M., 
Author Centennial Volume No. V, 

The Modern Commonwealth 79 

Illinois State, Methodist Episcopal 

Conference, original records 21 

Illinois State, Mills, Andrew H., A 

Hundred Years of Illinois Sunday 

School History, A Mosaic 98-196 

Illinois State, Moore, Edward C, Illi- 
nois Centennial March 28 

Illinois State, Moores, Charles "W., 
Indiana's Interest in Historic Illi- 
nois 28, 64,-73 

Illinois State, Name belongs to Amer- 
ica, breathes the thought of a new 

world 36 

Illinois State, New England settlers 
in Illinois 36 


Illinois State, New York settlers in 

Illinois 36 

Illinois State, Owen, (Miss) Grace A. 
The Wonderful Story of Illinois, 

Pageant 22 

Illinois State, Part of Indiana Terri- 
tory 64, 68 

Illinois State, Pease, Theodore Cal- 
vin, The Pioneer State, 1818-1848.. 79 

Illinois State, Pennsylvania settlers 
in Illinois 36 

Illinois State, Prairies of Illinois. . . . 
27, 31, 36, 41, 44, 65, 66, 88 

Illinois State, Randolph County to 
observe Centennial 20 

Illinois State, Revolutionary Soldiers 
buried in, list compiled by Mrs. 
Harriet J. Walker 25 

Illinois State, Rice, Wallace, Cen- 
tennial Plays, Masque of Illinois, 
Pageant of Illinois written by. . . . 22 

Illinois State, Slavery fight in Illi- 
nois 69-70 

Illinois State, Sleet storm, February 
2, 1883 21 

Illinois State, Southern Illinois State 
Normal University 6 

Illinois State Sunday School Associ- 
ation 125,, 150, 190, 191 

Illinois State Sunday School Con- 
ventions 103-108, 181, 183 

Illinois State, Sunday School Con- 
ventions, list of General Secretar- 
ies 183 

Illinois State, Sunday School Con- 
ventions, places and dates of hold- 
ing 181-183 

Illinois State. Sunday School Insti- 
tutes organized in Illinois 168 

Illinois State, Supreme Court 19 

Illinois State, Thompson, Charles 
Manfred author of Centennial Vol- 
ume No. IV, The Industrial State 
1870-1893 79 

Illinois State, University of Illinois.. 
6, 19, 28, 78, 79 

Illinois State, Virginia Settlers in 
Illinois 35, 36 

Illinois State, Walker, (Mrs.) Harriet 
J., Revolutionary Soldiers buried 
in Illinois, list compiled by 25 

Illinois State, War of the Rebellion, 
Seventy-second Regiment, Illinois 
Volunteers 148 

Illinois State, War record to be pre- 
served, suggestions 15, 23, 24 

India 32,88.171 

Indiana State, ... 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72 

Indiana State, Boonville, Indiana... 72 

Indiana State, Centennial 1916 65 

Indiana State, Indianapolis, Ind....l65 

Indifin-i Stat?. Jennings, Jonathan, 
first governor of Indiana 68 

Indiana State, Moores, Charles W., 
Indiana's Interest in Historic Illi- 
nois 28, 64-73 

Indiana State, Rogers, (Mr.) Early 
Missionary in Indiana 67 

Indiana State, Slavery fight in Indi- 
ana 69 

Indiana Territory, Illinois a part of 
Indiana Territory 64, 68 

Indiana Territory, list of great men 
of Indiana Territory 66 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

28,66.116,165, 170, 174, 189 

Indian Corn . 4* 

Indian Wars 61 


INDEX — Continued. 


Indians 11, 

12,31, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 55, 61, 62, 75 

footnote 51 

Indians, Black Hawk 75 

Indians, Butler, Richard, efforts with 
the Indians to hold them to their 

promises 55 

Indians, Butler, Richard, Superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs for the 
Northern district Northwest Terri- 
tory 51 

footnote 51 

Indians, Chippewa Indians 49 

Indians, Delaware Indians 49 

Indians, Fort Mcintosh Indian Con- 
ferences held at, 1784-1785 49 

Indians, Fort Stanwix Conference, 

October 22, 1784 48, 49 

Indians, Harmar, Josiah, Expedition 

against the Indians 1790 61, 62 

Indians, Northwest Indian problem, 
bequeathed to administration of 

President "Washington 61 

Indians, Ordinance of 1786 for the 
regulation of Indian Affairs created 
a national Indian department of 

two districts 50 

Indians, Ottawa Indians 49 

Indians, St. Clair, (Gen.) Arthur, 
Expedition against the Indians, 

1791 62 

Indians, Shawnee Indians 49, 50 

Indians, Shawnee Indians, Treaty 

with, January 31, 1786 50 

Indians, Six Nations 48 

Indians, Struggles with lawless 

whites 54 

Indians, Treaty of Greenville, 1795.. 62 

Indians, Wyandot Indians 49 

Ingersoll, Eben 195 

Ingersoll, Robert G 195 

"International Graded Lessons" Sun- 
day School Association 174-180 

International Sunday School Associ- 

..125, 150, 166, 174-180, 191, 192, 194 
International Uniform Lessons, Sun- 
day School Association 166-174 

Iowa State 153, 165 

Iowa State, State Center, Iowa 153 

Ipswich, Massachusetts, footnote.... 56 

Ireland, C. H 139 

Ireland 167 

footnote 49 

Italy 33, 85 

Italy, Thomas Nelson Page, Ameri- 
can Ambassador to Italy 33 

Jackson, Andrew 40, 71 

Jacksonville, 111 

6, 23, 25, 120, 146, 171 181, 182, 183 

Jacksonville, Illinois, Journal, News- 
paper 25 

Jacobs, B. P. 95, 102, 103, 104, 109, 111, 
115, 117, 119, 121, 125, 126, 127, 133, 
134, 135, 139, 140, 146, 147, 148. 149, 
150, 154, 156, 157, 161, 164, 168, 169, 
171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 180, 182, 192 

Jacobs, B. F., Biographical Sketch. . 


Jacobs, "William B 

.95, 101, 102, 104, 116, 127, 137, 138, 
140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148. 
150, 154, 157, 159, 160, 161, 183, 191 


Jacobs, "William B., Biographical 

Sketch 137-138 

James, Edmund Janes 6,19,22,28 

James, Edmund Janes Illinois Cen- 
tennial Address. Reference 28 

James, James Alton 6, 48. 50, 53 

Jamison, (Mrs.) Frank R 15 

Japan 148 

Jay Treaty 62 

Jefferson, Thomas 3 3, 35 

Jefferson, Thomas, and the Declar- 
ation of Independence 33 

Jenkins, W. H 23 

Jennings, Jonathan, Indiana's first 

governor under Statehood 68 

Jerome, C. ^Y 139 

Joan of Arc 66, 195 

Joffre, (Gen.) Joseph Jacques Ce- 

saire 83 

John the Baptist, Bible Character. .109 
Johnson, Allen, Illinois in the Demo- 
cratic Movement of the Century. . 

28, 38-46 

Johnson, (Miss) Carrie 23 

Johnson, Everett E 140 

Johnston, Francis, footnotes 55, 56 

Joliet, 111 78, 83, 168 

Joliet, Louis 83, 84 

Jonah, Bible Character 66 

Jones, (Rev.) James, Pioneer 

preacher in Indiana 67 

Joshua, Bible Character 27 

Journals of Congress, footnotes. . . . 

48, 49. 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57 

Joy, J. B 139, 182 

Judd, Orange 167, 168 

Judson, (Rev.) Alfred 167 


Kane, (Judge) Charles P 23 

Kansas City, Mo 26 

Kansas State, Legislative Experi- 
ments 45 

Kaskaskia, 111 20, 53,58,68,112,182 

Kaskaskia, George Rogers Clark, 

Capture of Kaskaskia, Reference. . 68 
Kaskaskia, Territorial and State 

Capitol 20 

Kenilworth, 111 26 

Kennedy, (Mrs.) M. G 174,175 

Kenney, A. M 139 

Kent, James, Chancellor of State of 
New York, quoted on property qual- 
ifications in elections 42 

Kentucky State 53, 54, 67 

Kentiicky State. Became a State 
without a period of National Con- 
trol 53 

Kentucky State, Circuit Rider 67 

Kentucky State, Emigrants from, to 

Illinois 69 

Kentucky State Laws of the North- 
west Territory adopted 1798 largely 

from those of Kentucky 63 

Kewanee, 111 166, 183 

Kewanee, 111., State Sunday School 

Convention held in 166 

Kimball, Edward 119 

Kimball, "W. D 183 

Kinney, E. H 182, 183 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111 118 

Knox, (Gen.) Henry, Secretary of 

"War, footnotes 52, 54, 58, 61 

Korea 148 

Kuhlmann, Herr "Von, see "Von Kuhl- 
mann 87 


INDEX— Continued. 



Lafayette, (Gen.) Marie Jean Paul 

Roch Yves Gilbert Motier 83, 84 

Lafayette's Visit to Illinois 1825, 

Reference 83 

Lake Brie 47 

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 148,193 

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, Teacher's 

Training School 148 

Lamoreaux, (Mrs.) M. S. .. 140, 166, 163 

Land Ordinance of 1785 51 

Landes, W. G 183 

LaSalle County, Illinois, to observe 

Centennial of State 21 

LaSalle, 111 83 

LaSalle, Rene Robert Sieur de. . . .83, 84 

Lathrop, (Rev.) S. G 181 

Lawrence, George A 6 

Lawrence, Marion 

95, 108, 135, 140. 151, 156, 164, 188 

Lawrence, Marion, Biographical 

Sketch 156 

Lawrence, Paul 187 

Laws of the Northwest Territory, 

footnote 59 

Laws of the United States, footnote. 60 

Lay, H. T 139,148,182 

Lee, Arthur, Biographical Sketch, 

footnote 49 

Lee, R. H., footnote 52 

Lee, (Gen.) Robert E., Confederate 

General War of the Rebellion. ... 146 
Legislative Council, Northwest Terri- 
tory, 1798 62, 63 

Lemon, James 68, 69 

Letters, Finley (Dr.) John H., Cen- 
tennial letter to Illinois State His- 
torical Society, dated New York 

City, April 16, 1918 27 

Letters, Harmar Josiah, letter to 
Francis Johnston (Johnson), June 

21, 1785, footnote 55 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, to Francis 

Johnston, April 28, 1789 footnote. 56 
Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letter to 
Knox, December 9, 1787, August 9, 

1787, August 10, 1788, footnote.. 54 
Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letter to 

Knox, April 26, 1788, footnote 56 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters to 
Knox, June 14, 1788, October 13, 

1788, footnote 61 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letter to 

Knox June 1, 1785, footnote 55 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letter to 
Knox September 12, 1789, foot- 
note 12 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letter to 
Thomas Mifflin, December 5, 1784, 
footnote 48 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters to 
Thomas Mifflin, June 25, 1785, foot- 
note 55 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters 
December 5, 1784, April 25, 1785 
May 1, 1785, June 1, 1785, footnote. 53 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters 
June 1, 1785, June 21, 1785, June 
25, 1785, July 16, 1785, May 7, 1786, 
footnotes 50, 55 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters Jan- 
uary 10, 1788, June 15, 1788, foot- 
note 51 

Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters, 
April 26, 1788, April 28, 1789, 
March 22, 1789., November 9, 1789, 
footnote .• 56 


Letters, Harmar, Josiah, Letters, 
October 21, 1790, November 4, 1790, 

footnote 61 

Lewis, (Dr.) James M 184 

Lewisburg, Pa 117 

Leyda (Mrs.) Howard M 140, 165 

Licking River, Fort Washington at 
the mouth of the Licking River, 

footnote 52 

Ligonier Valley, Pennsylvania 57 

Lincoln Abraham 

16, 18, 21, 27, 44, 46, 

65, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 85, 114, 122 
Lincoln, Abraham, First Inaugural 

address. Reference 73 

Lincoln, Abraham, Ganiere, George 

B., Head of Lincoln 21 

Lincoln, Abraham, "House Divided 
Against Itself," speech June 16, 

1858, Reference 73 

Lincoln, Abraham, Law partners. ... 73 
Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Douglas 

Debates, 1858 69, 70 

Lincoln, Abraham, Springfield sites 
associated with Lincoln should be 

marked 73 

Lincoln, Abraham, Statue of, to be 

placed on State House Grounds. 16, 18 
Lincoln and Herndon, Law firm, 

Springfield, 111 73 

Lincoln, Thomas, Father of Abraham 

Lincoln 72 

Litchfield, Conn., Baptist Church. .. .111 

Litchfield, 111 23 

Lithuania 87 

Logan and Lincoln, Law firm, 

Springfield, 111 73 

Logan, (Gen.) John Alexander. . .21, 105 
Logan, Stephen T., Law partner of 

Abraham Lincoln 73 

London, Bngland 36, 78, 129 

footnote 49 

London, Bngland, Exeter Hall 129 

London Times, Quoted, on the Ameri- 
cans 36 

Long Branch, N. J 171 

Long, (Rev. ) S. E 184 

Longworth, Abel 23 

Loose, Robert D 21 

Louisville, Ky 122, 159, 179, 185, 194 

Louisville, Ky., International Sun- 
day School Association held in 

1908 159 

Lowden, ( Gov. ) Prank Orren 

16, 18, 19, 27, 28 

Lowden, (Mrs.) Frank Orren 18 

Lowe, John W 23 

Lowndesboro, Ala 146 

Lowrv, J. P 183, 184 

Lufkin, H. E 183 

Lutherans 184, 185 

Lyantey. (Gen.) Louis Hubert 84 

I.,ys Valley, France 84 


Mac Allum, A 172 

Mc Clurg, A. C. & Co 16, 22, 77 

McCook. (Dr.) H. C 168, 170 

McDonald, E. A 139 

McDonald, (Rev.) J. N 184 

McElfresh ,(Dr.) Franklin 192 

McGill, Hugh S 183 

McGranahan, (Mrs.) James 1 48 

McKamy, J. A 176 

Mackinaw Creek 58 


INDEX — Continued. 


Maclaren. Justice John J 135 

McLaughlin, Andrew C, Confeder- 
ation and the Constitution 1783- 

1789, footnote 47 

McLaughlin, Andrew C. Western 
Posts and British Debts, quoted, 

footnote 50 

Macomb, 111 97, 181 

Macon County, Illinois, Mt. Zion 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 102 
Madison County, Illinois, to observe 

Centennial of the State 21 

Madison, Wis 78 

Maine State, First of the New Eng- 
land States to try out the initiative 

and referendum 43 

Manshardt, (Rev.) G. A 184 

Manuel, Slave, court proceedings in 

case of 80, 81 

Manuel, Slave, warrant for death of, 
found in John Todd's record book 

1779 80, 81 

Marietta, Ohio 57 

footnote 55 

Marietta, Ohio, College, footnotes. 55, 56 
Mai-ietta, Ohio. College, Historical • 

Collections, footnotes 55, 56 

Marne "River, France 84 

Marquette, (Father) James 83 

Marseillaise, National Air of France. 19 

Marseilles, 111 23 

Marshall, (Rev.) H. C 182 

Marshall, John. Albert J. Beveridge 

work on John Marshall 31 

Maryland, State 36 

Mason, Edward G 80, 81 

Mason, George 34, 35 

Mason, George, and the Virginia Bill 

of Rights 33 

Mason, George, Interest in George 

Rogers Clark expedition 34 

Mason, J. R 139, 182 

Massachusetts Bay 41 

Massachusetts Bay Colony 41 

Massachusetts State, 25, 26, 43, 66, 78 

Massachusetts State, Constitution of 

1780 43 

Massachusetts State, Deed of cession 

to the United States April 19, 1785. 47 
Massachusetts State, Duxbury, Mass. 25 
Massachusetts State, Early settled 

by the English 32 

Massachusetts State, Ipswich, Mass., 

footnote 56 

Mathews, (Bishop) G. M 184 

Matthews, John, Journal of, Refer- 
ence, footnotes 52, 53, 54 

Matthews, (Prof.) J. M., Author, 
Centennial Volume No. V, The 

Modern Commonwealth 79 

Mattoon, 111 182 

Maumeo River 61 

Maxwell. Code of Laws, Northwest 

Territory, footnotes 59, 63 

Maxwell, William, Publisher of Cen- 
tinel of the Northwest first News- 
paper published in the Northwest 

Territory, footnote 63 

IMaxwell, William, Publisher of the 
Maxwell Code of Laws Northwest 

Territory, 1795, footnotes 59,63 

May, John, Papers, Reference, foot- 
notes 56, 57, 60 

Meese, William A 6 

Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Mo.. 78 

Merritt, W. C 183 

Message from France, M. Louis, 
Aubert 28, 83-89 


Methodist Episcoiial Conference, Illi- 
nois, original records 21 

"Methodist Episcopal Sunday School 

Union," 117 

Methodist Church 

21,67, 117, 118, 153, 155, 184, 185 

Methodist Church, Danville, 111 155 

Methodist Episcopal Churchy New 

York lis 

Methodist Church, Illinois Methodist 
Episcopal Conference, original rec- 
ords 21 

Methodist Church, Wesley Methodist 

Church Chicago 153 

Methodist Sunday School Union 168 

Metternich Von, Clemens Wenzel, 
Austrian Statesman and Diplo- 
matist 38, 39, 44 

Mexico 161 

Mexico, Mo 146 

Miami Company 56, 57, 58, 61 

footnote 56 

Miami Company, John C, Symmes 
Stockholder in the Miami Company. 57 

Miami River 50, 52, 58 

footnote 52 

Michigan State Sunday School Asso- 
ciation 157 

Michigan State, Three Oaks, Mich. . . 

157, 158 

Michigan Territory 64 

Mifflin, Thomas, President of Con- 
gress, footnotes 4 8, 55 

Miller, G. W 140, 154, 164, 183 

Mills, Andrew H 95-97, 136, 

139, 144, 148, 160, 180, 181, 182, 184 
Mills, Andrew H., A Hundred Years 
of Illinois Sunday School History, 

A Mosaic 98-196 

Milton, P. A 117 

Minnesota State, Historical Society. . 22 
Missionary Department, Sunday 

School Association 191 

Missions, Mosely Mission Chicago. . .100 
Missions, Newsboy Mission, Chicago. 127 
Missions, New Street Mission, Chi- 
cago 127 

Missions, North Market Mission 

School, Chicago 100 

Missions Tabernacle Mission, Chi- 
cago 127 

Missouri State 25, 26, 69 

Missouri State, Emigration from, to 

Illinois 69 

Missouri State, Kansas City, Mo 26 

Mississippi River. . . .56, 64, 68, 69, 71, 83 

footnote 51 

Mississippi State, Biloxi, Miss 23 

Mississippi Territory, Winthrop Sar- 
gent, Governor, footnote 56 

Mississippi Valley 20, 47, 68, 84 

footnotes 48, 50, 53, 63 

Mississippi Valley, Explorations in. . 84 
Mississippi Valley, Historical So- 
ciety, footnotes 48, 50, 53 

Mississippi Valley in British Politics, 
by C. W. Alvord, Reference, foot- 
note 63 

Moline, 111 6 

Moody, Dwight L 96, 100, 103, 

104, 108, 109,115,116,121,122,127, 
128, 133, 135, 148, 150, 157, 168, 182 
Moody, Dwight L., Biographical 

Sketch 119-121 

Moore, Edward C, Composer of 
Music for Masques and Pageant of 
Illinois Centennial Celebrations... 22 


INDEX — Continued. 


Moore, Edward C, Illinois Centennial 

March 28 

Moore. Ensley 6, 1 5, 25 

Moores. Charles W.. Indiana's Inter- 
est in Historic Illinois 28. 64-73 

Moore, (Sir) Thomas. Utopia, Refer- 
ence 32 

Morgan County, Illinois 21, 25 

Morg-an Countv Illinois, To observe 

Centennial of State 21 

Morocco 84 

Morse, H. H 183 

Morton, (Rev.) Charles M 

109,115,128, 139, 149. 151 

Morton, (Rev,) Charles M., Biograph- 
ical Sketch 149 

Mosely Mission, Chicago 100 

Moser, Henrv.139, 140, 154, 164, 182, 184 

Moses, Bible Character 27, 66 

Mt. ]Morris, 111 117 

Mount Pulaski, 111 21 

Mount Sterling, 111 25 

Muirhead, Stuart 183 

Mullins, E. y., D. D 194 

Munce, W. R 21 

Muskingum River 57 

footnote 52 

Muskingum River, Fort Harmar, at 
the mouth of, footnote 52 


Nashville, Tenn 127 

Nebraska State 166 

Newark, N. J. . 120, 121, 128, 169, 174, 177 

New England 32, 36, 40 

New England Settlers in Illinois. ... 36 
New Englanders Emigrate to the 

Ohio Valley 40 

New Haven, Conn 28, 130 

New Jersey State 48, 51 

footnotes 51, 56. 

New Jersey State, Congress calls on, 

for troops in 1785 51 

New Jersey State, Militia from, pro- 
tect Northwest frontier in 1784... 48 

New Lisbon, Ohio 110 

New Mexico 64 

New Orleans, La 71,72 

New Orleans, La., Slave market 71 

Newspapers. Centinel of the North- 
west, first published in Northwest 
Territory by William Maxwell, 

footnote 63 

Newspapers, Chicago Daily News... 7 4 
Newspapers, Corydon, Indiana Ga- 
zette, January, 1819 67 

Newspapers, Freeman's Journal, for- 
merly the "Centinel of the North- 
west, Published by Edmund Free- 
man, footnote 63 

Newspapers, Jacksonville (Illinois) 

Journal 25 

Newspapers, London Times 36 

Newspapers, Scioto Gazette, Ohio, 

footnote 63 

Newton, (Rev.) Richard, D. D 

170, 171, 172 

New York City, N. Y 113, 

118, 131, 150, 163, 170, 171, 173, 176 

New York State 19,36,42,48,51,69 

footnote 56 

New York State, Congress calls on, 

for troops 1785 51 

New York State, Constitutional Con- 
vention 1821 42 


New York State, Emigrants from, to 
Illinois 19, 69 

New York State, Militia from, protect 
the Northwest frontier 1784 48 

New York State, Settlers in Illinois. . 
36, 69 

New York State, University of New 
York 19 

Nichols, Edgar H 139, 153 

Nichols, Edgar H., Biograiihical 
Sketch 153 

Nicolle, (Mr.) Case of poisoning of, 
by slave Manuel 80, 81 

Nicolle, (Mrs.) Case of poisoning of, 

by slave Manuel 80, 81 

Nisbett, T. B 139 

Nisbett, T. P 182 

Nolan Creek, Indiana 71 

Normal, 111 6 

North America 52, 133, 165 

North Carolina State, Settlers locate 
in the Ohio Valley 52 

North Dakota State 64 

Northfleld, Mass 118 

North Market Mission School, Chi- 
cago 100 

Northrop, (Mrs.) Edith V 140 

Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois 6 

Northwest Territory 16, 47, 

55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62. 63, 65, 66 
footnotes 48, 5G, 59, 60, 61, 63 

Northwest Territory, American 
Traders in 62 

Northwest Territory, Benton, Elbert 
Jay, Establishing the American 
Colonial System in the Old North- 
West 28, 47-63 

Northwest Territory, Burnet, Jacob, 
Notes on early settlement of the 
Northwest Territorj- published 
1847, quoted, footnotes 60, 61 

Northwest Territory, Census of the 
Settlers, officer appointed to keep 
census 60 

Northwest Territory, Childs, Francis, 
and John Swaine, Publishers of 
Laws of the Northwest Territory, 
footnote 59 

Northwest Territory, Civil Govern- 
ment in, development impeded by 
Indian Wars 61 

Northwest Territory, Civil Govern- 
ment in, progress 63 

Northwest Territory, Controversy 
over Legislative procedure 59, 60 

Northwest Territory, County of 
Knox 58 

Northwest Territory, County of Wash- 
ington, formed in 58 

Northwest Territory, Crisis in His- 
tory of, passed in 1795 62 

Northwest Territory, Establishing 
Civil Government in 56, 57 

Northwest Territory, Edmund Free- 
man, Publisher of Laws of North- 
west Territory, 1798, footnote.... 59 

Northwest Territory Indian problems 
in, bequeathed to the Administra- 
tion of President Washington.... 61 

Northwest Territory, James, James 
Alton, Some phases of the History 
of the Northwest, footnote 48 

Northwest Territory, Knox County. . 58 

Northwest Territory, Laws of 1795, 
almost all borrowed froin Pennsyl- 
vania 63 


INDEX — Continued. 


Xoithwest Territory, Laws of large 
number of adopted from Kentucky 
1798 63 

Northwest Territory, Laws of Terri- 
tory of United States Northwest 
of the Ohio River, 17 98, foot- 
notes 59, 63 

Nortliwest Territory, Legislative 
Council formally organized at Cin- 
cinnati, May 29, 1795 62 

Northwest Territory, Legislative 
Council 1798 59, 63 

Northwest Territory, Maxwell Code 
of Laws, footnotes 59, 63 

Northwest Territory, William Max- 
well publisher of Laws of North- 
west Territory, 1795, footnote.... 59 

Northwest Territory, Militia Com- 
panies organized in 60 

Northwest Territory, Nine Counties 
in 1799, reference 63 

Northwest Territory, Ordinance of 
1787, passed by Congress to give 
needed local government in 55 

Northwest Territory, Population in 
1798 63 

Northwest Territory, St. Clair County 
organized 58 

Northwest Territory, Supreme Court. 56 
footnote 56 

Northwest Territory, Swaine John 
and Francis Childs, Publishers of 
Laws of Northwest Territory, 
footnote 59 

Northwest Territory, Temporary 
government established 57 

Northwest Territory Territorial 
Legislative Council, footnote 56 

Northwest Territory, Washington 
County 58 

Norwich, England 154 

Oak Park, 111 23 

O'Connell, (Miss) Grace 15 

Oglesby, (Gov.) Richard J 21 

Ohio Company 53, 56, 57 60, 61 

footnotes 50, 55, 56, 57 

Ohio Company, Cutler, Manasseh, 

leading Stockholder in 56 

footnote 56 

Ohio Company, First immigrants of, 
1788 57 

Ohio Company, Hulbert, Archer B., 
Records of the Ohio Company, 
footnote 47 

Ohio Company, Parsons, Samuel H., 
Stockholder and Director of, foot- 
note 50 

Ohio Company, Putman, Rufus, 
Superintendent of the Ohio Com- 
pany 56 

footnote 56 

Ohio Company, Records of. Refer- 
ence, footnotes 55, 56, 57 

Ohio Company, Reports, footnote.... 57 

Ohio Company, Sargent, Winthrop, 
Stockholder and Secretary of the 

Ohio Company 56 

footnote 56 

Ohio Company, Varnum, James M., 
one of the directors 57 

Ohio River, 47,.48, 50, 51,53, 61 

footnotes. 33, 35, 52, 54, 55, 63, 67, 69 

—14 H S 


Ohio River, Fort Steuben at Rapids 

of Ohio, footnote 52 

Ohio River, Harmar, Josiah, expels 
squatters settled along north shore 

of the Ohio River 53 

Ohio River, Posts 61 

Ohio, State 49, 69, 156 

footnotes 52, 56, 58, 61 

Ohio State, Archeolog:ical and Histor- 
ical Society Publications quoted, 

footnote 52 

Ohio State, Atwater, Caleb, History 

of Ohio, footnote 58 

Ohio State, Belmont County, Ohio, 

footnote 52 

Ohio State, Emigrants from, to Illi- 
nois 69 

Ohio State, Historical and Philoso- 
phical Society, footnotes 56, 61 

Ohio State, Sunday School Associ- 
ation 156 

Ohio State, Toledo, Ohio 156 

Ohio State, Winchester, Ohio 156 

Ohio Valley 40, 52, 61 

Ohio Valley, Harmar, (Col.) Josiah, 
Troops of 1788 scattered in small 

garrisons along Ohio Valley 52 

Ohio Valley, Pennsylvanians emigrate 

to the Ohio Valley 40 

Ohio Valley, Pioneers were Scotch- 
Irish backwoodsmen from Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia and North Caro- 
lina 52 

Ohio Valley, Virginia Emigration to 

the Ohio Valley 40 

Oise Valley, France 84 

Olden Time, (The) Butler's Journal 

in, footnote 50 

Olden Time, (The), Edited by Neville 
B. Craig, Periodical quoted, foot- 
notes 48, 49, 52, 53, 55 

Old Princeton, (Cass County) Illi- 
nois 114 

Olin, (Mrs.) 167 

Olney, 111 182 

Ordinance of 1784 50 

Ordinance of 1785 50, 51 

Ordinance of 1786 50,62 

Ordinance of 1786, For the regula- 
tion of Indian Affairs 50 

Ordinance of 1787 . 55, 58, 59, 60, 63, 69, 72 

footnote 47 

Ordinance of 1787, Barrett Jay 
Amos, Evolution of the Ordinance 

of 1787, footnote 47 

Ordinance of 1787, Controversies over 

interpretation of." 59 

Ordinance of 1787, In its final form, 
result of several years deliber- 
ation 55 

Ordinance of 1788, footnote 39 

Ordinance of 1790, footnote 59 

Ordinance of 1791, footnote 59 

Oregon State, Legislative experi- 
ments 45 

Osborne, (Miss) Georgia L. Assistant 
Secretary Illinois State Historical 

Society 6, 15, 25, 26, 

Osborne, (Miss) Georgia L., Genea- 
logical report, Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society 25, 26 

Ostrander, (Mrs.) James S 175 

Ottawa Indians 49 

Owen, (Miss) Grace A., writer of 
Pageant, "The Wonderful Story of 
Illinois 22 


INDEX— ContinueH. 


Page, Edward C 6 

Page, Thomas Nelson, Ambassador 

to Italy 33 

Pageants, Owen, (Miss) Grace, writer 
of Pageant, "The Wonderful Story 

of Illinois" 22 

Pageants, Rice, Wallace, Pageant of 

Illinois -22 

Pageants, Wallace, (Mrs.) Florence 
Magill, suggestions for the presen- 
tation of pageants 23 

Palestine, Country of 19, 27 

Palestine, Finley, (Dr.) John L., 
Heads Commission in war work in 

Palestine 27 

Palmer, (Prof.) Frederick 109 

Pardee, Richard G 168 

Paris, 111 182 

Paris, France, Archives 78 

Parker, C. M 139 

Parkinson, D. B 139 

Parsons, Samuel H -..50,57,58 

Parsons, Samuel H., Biographical 

Sketch, footnote 50 

Paterson, N. J 127 

Paxson. Stephen. . .110-111, 117, 118, 193 

Peace Conference, 1919 87 

Pearce, William C 95, 102, 138, 

140, 141, 154, 182, 190, 191, 193, 196 
Pearce, William C, Biographical 

Sketch 154 

Pease, Theodore Calvin, Author of 
second volume of Centennial His- 
tory of Illinois, "The Pioneer State 

1818-1848" 79 

Peck, (Dr.) John Mason, Biographi- 
cal Sketch 111-114 

Peeples, James McKee 128,182 

Peeples, James McKee, Biographical 

Sketch 115-116 

Pekin, 111 73 

Pennsylvania State 

36, 40, 48, 51, 52, 57, 63, 69, 78 

footnote 56 

Pennsylvania State, Congress calls 

on, for troops in 1785 51 

Pennsylvania State, Emigrants from, 

to Illinois 69 

Pennsylvania State, Emigrants from, 

to the Ohio Valley 40 

Pennsylvania State, Ligonier Valley. 5'< 
Pennsylvania State, Militia 1776, 

footnote 49 

Pennsylvania State, Militia from, 
protect the Northwest Frontier 

1784 ; 48 

Pennsylvania State, Settlers in Illi- 
nois 36 

Pennsylvania State, Settlers locate 

in the Ohio Valley 52 

Pennsylvania State, Society of The 

Cincinnati, footnote 56 

Peoria, Illinois 73, 121, 

123, 124, 128, 165, 181, 182, 183, 19b 

Pepper, John R 175, 17b 

Periodicals, American Agriculturists. 167 
Periodicals, American Sunday School 

Magazine 167 

Periodicals, "Berean Lessons". . 168, 169 
Periodicals, "Chicago Advance" ... .169 
Periodicals, "Chicago Baptist Stan- 
dard" 169 

Periodicals, "Explanatory Question 

Book" 167 

Periodicals, "Keystone Grade Series". 150 
Periodicals, "Ladies Home Journal". 135 


Periodicals, "Lesssons for every 

Sunday School in the Year" 168 

Periodicals, "Modern Sunday School". 173 
Periodicals, "National Sunday School 

Teacher" 169 

Periodicals. "Olden Time" (The), 
Edited by Neville B. Craig, quoted, 

footnotes 48, 49, 52, 53, 55 

Periodicals, "Presbyterian Lessons". 17i 
Periodicals, "Sunday School 

Teacher" 168, 171, 172 

Periodicals, 'Sunday School Times". 171 
Periodicals, "The Trumpet Call".... 

152, 160, 163, 181 

Periodicals, "Two Years with Jesus, 
New System of Sunday School 

Study" 168 

Periodicals, Vincent's "Berean" ... .171 

Perrin, T. H 139, 148 

Perry, George P 164 

Pershing, (Gen.) John J 86 

Persia 88 

Peters, (Rev.) H. H 185 

Petersburg, 111 73 

Petit, (Mrs.) Alonzo 188 

Philadelphia, Pa 

78, 112, 116, 121, 150, 175 

footnotes 48, 59 

Philadelphia, Pa., Calvary Presby- 
terian Church 121 

Phillips, (Judge) Henry 23 

Phillips, I. M 140 

Phillips, Phillip, Singer and Musical 

Director, Chicago 101 

Piatt Countv, Illinois, To observe 

Centennial of the State 21 

Piatt County, Illinois, Records of 

World War, preserved 23 

Picardy, France 85 

Pierce, (Rev.) W. G 181 

Pilgrim Fathers 66 

Pitken, T. N 139 

Pittsburgh, Pa 57, 78 

Pittsburgh, Pa., First Sunday School 

organized in 100 

Pleasant Plains, 111 114 

Poland. Poles of Prussian Poland... 87 

Poles of Prussian Poland 87 

Polo, 111 15, 23 

Pontiac, 111 23 

Porter, E. Payson 101, 183 

Porter, (Rev.) Jeremiah 100 

Post, Herbert 111. 183 

Post, Vincennes, on the Wabash 

River 53 

footnotes 52, 53 

Potomac River 39 

Potts, (Dr.) John. .99, 132. 135, 159. 176 
Potts, (Dr.) John, Biographical 

Sketch 159 

Prairies of Illinois 

27, 31, 36, 41, 44, 65, 66. 88 

Presbvterian Church 

.21, 67, 96, 100. 114, 115,121,137,184 
Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 

Second Presbyterian 100 

Presbyterian Church, Decatur, Illi- 
nois, First Presbyterian 96 

Presbyterian Church, Homer, N. Y..137 
Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 

Calvary Presbyterian 121 

Presbyterian Church, Providence, 

Rhode Island 114 

Presbyterian Church, Springfield, 

original records 21 

Presbvterian Church, Washington 
County, 111 115 


INDEX — Continued. 


Prewitt, Ellas K 23 

Princeton, (Cass County) Illinois, 

Old Princeton 114 

Providence, R. I., Presbyterians. .. .114 

Prussia 38 

Puritan Fathers. '. 41 

Putman, Israel, footnote 56 

PuterbauRh, (Judge) Leslie D 16 

Putman, Rufus 56, 58, 59, 61 

footnotes 51, 56 

Putman, Rufus, Appointed by Wash- 
ington, one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, Northwest Ter- 
ritory 58 

Putman, Rufus, Biographical Sketch, 

footnote 56 

Putman. Rufus, Superintendent of 

the Ohio Company 56 

footnote 56 

Putman, Rufus, Surveyor, General, 
footnote 51 

Quaker School, Philadelphia, Pa., 

footnote 48 

Quincv, 111 116, •x82 

liaikes, Robert, Printer, Gloucester, 

England 99, 100, 141, 167 

Rammelkamp. (Dr.) Charles H...6, 16 
Randolph County, Illinois, Centennial 

observance 20 

Randolph, (Rev.) Warren, D. D. 172, 175 

Read, H. M 139 

Rearick, W. S 97, 139, 148, 181 

Red Cross 109 

Reischtag, Germany's Lawmaking 

body 86, 87 

Revolutionary, Bounty Rights 55 

Rexford, (Rev.) E. 1 175,176,177 

Reynolds & Ely, (Packers) 124 

Reynolds, William 

96, 103, 104, 109, 111, 

115, 118, 121-127, 128, 133, 134, 135, 
139, 148, 150, 157, 161, 168, 182, 195 
Reynolds, William, Biographical 

Sketch 121-127 

Rhode Island, Central Falls 25 

Rice, Wallace, Centennial Ode 18 

Rice, Wallace, Centennial Songs.... 19 
Rice, Wallace, Illinois Hymn, and 

Hail Illinois 19, 22 

Rice, Wallace, Pageant Writer, Cen- 
tennial Commission 22 

Richmond, Va 28, 78, 186 

Richter, Carl 129 

Rider, Arthur W 140 

Rider, Lucy J 128 

Robinson, G. L 184 

Rochambeau, Comte de,see Vimeaure 

Jean Baptiste, Donatien de 84 

Rockford, 111 116, 117, 181, 182 

Rock Island, 111 6, 15 

Rock Springs, 111 112 

Rock Springs Seminary 112 

Rogers. (Mr.) , Early Mission- 
ary in Indiana 67 

Roosevelt, Theodore 80, 81, 100,147 

footnotes 53, 54 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Winning of the 

West, quoted, footnotes 53.54 

Rosecrans, W. W 182 

T, ., , PAGE. 

Rothenburgei-, (Rev.) William F 28 

Roumania, a Kingdom of Southwest- 
ern Europe 37 

Rowe, (Rev.) H. G ! ! '. . 183 

Roxburg, Pa 121 

Rundle, W. B 139 

Rush Medical College, Chicago. ... !l49 

Russia 38, 86, 87 

Russel, Andrew 616 

Rutland, 111 .' . 23 

St. Clair, Arthur 49,57,58,59. 


. .53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 

St. Clair, Arthur, Biographical 
Sketch, footnote 

St. Clair, Arthur, Governor of North- 
west Territory 

St. Clair, Arthur, In Command of 
Expedition against Indians. ... 61, 

St. (5lair, Arthur, Proclamation of 
July 27, 1788, Reference 

St. Clair, Arthur, Smith, W. H., St. 

Clair Papers, footnotes 

52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 

St. Clair, Arthur, Washington, George 
letter to, January 2, 1781, Refer- 
ence, footnote 

St. Clair County, Northwest Terri- 
tory organized 

St. Clair County, Resolutions, 1823 
on Slavery 

St. Clair County, Illinois, To observe 
Centennial of State 

St Clair Papers, footnotes 

53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 

St. Lawrence River, footnote 

St. Louis, Mo 

21, 78, 109, 111, 112, 113, 1 

St. Louis, Mo., Mercantile Library. . 

St. Mihiel, France 

St. Nicholas Hotel, Springfield, 111 . . 

Sale, (Mrs. ) A. W 

Sampey, (Prof.) John R .176,1 

Sanborn, Benjamin 

Sanboi'n Family 

Sanborn, Victor Channing 

Sandham, William H 

Sangamon County, Illinois 21, 

Sangamon County Court House, 
picture of, as it appeared in sleet 
storm February 2, 1883 

Sankey, Ira K 1 

Sargent, Winthrop 56, 57, 


Sargent, Winthrop, Biographical 
Sketch, footnote 

Sargent, Winthrop, Secretary North- 
west Territory 


Sargent, Winthrop, Stockholder and 

Secretary of Ohio Company 


Sawyer, Tom, Mark Twain character. . 

Scaritt, Isaac 1 

SchaufHer, (Dr.) A. F. . i75,- 176, 177, 1 

Schell, O. W 1 

Schenck, Charles E 

97, 140, 154, 164, 166, 183, 1 

Schmidt, (Dr. Otto) L., President 
of Illinois State Historical Society. 
6, 15, 16, 18, 19, 

Schofield, J. L 1 


















INDEX — Continued. 


Scioto Gazette Newspaper, Ohio, foot- 
note 63 

Scioto River 52, 58 

footnote 52 

Scioto Ohio, Group of speculators. 56, 57 
Scott, Dred, Decision of the United 
State Supreme Court in case of 

Dred Scott 44 

Scott, James 102 

Scott, Owen 146, 184 

Scott, Robert Falcon 66 

Scotland 167, 171 

footnote 56 

Selleck Family 26 

Selleck, (Mrs.) J. M 26 

Semelroth, W. J 176, 183 

Serbia 85, 87 

Shawhan, G. R 139 

Shawnee Indians 49, 50 

Shawneetown, 111 112 

Sherman Family 26 

Sherman, Lawrence Y 6, 18 

Shiner, Harry Lawrence 26 

ShurtlefE College, Upper Alton, 111. . .112 

Sikking, J. B 182 

Slavery 44, 55, 68, 71, 72, 80, 81 

Slavery, Dred Scott case 44 

Slavery, Douglas, Stephen Arnold, 

quoted on 44 

Slavery, Emancipation Proclamation . 72 
Slavery, Lemon, James, Anti-slavery 

Missionary 68 

Slaverj-, Lincoln, Abraham, quoted 

on 44 

Slavery, Manuel, Slave, court pro- 
ceedings in case of 80, 81 

Slavery, Manuel, "Warrant for the 
death of, found in John Todd's 

record book, 1779 80, 81 

Slavery, New Orleans, Louisiana 

Slave Market 71 

Slavery, Ordinance of 1787 prohibits 

Slavery 55 

Sleet Storm, Illinois February 2, 
2gg3 2] 

Smith, (' Coi.) ' T)'.'C. ........... . '. . .' 6 

Smith, George W 6 

Smith, Thomas S 18^ 

Smith, William H., St. Clair Papers 

quoted, footnotes 

...52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63 

Snell, (Rev.) Edwin P 23 

Snively, Ethan A 23 

Society of the Cincinnati 55 

footnotes 50, 56 

Society of the Cincinnati, Connecticut 

Society of the Cincinnati, footnote. 50 
Society of the Cincinnati, Pennsyl- 
vania Society of the Cincinnati, 

footnote 56 

Some Phases of the History of the 
Northwest, by James Alton James, 

quoted, footnote 53 

Somme Valley, France 84 

South Carolina State 155 

South Dakota State 64, 164 

South Dakota Sunday School Asso- 
ciation 164 

Speed. Joshua, Close friend of Abra- 
ham Lincoln 73 

Springfield, 111 6, 18, 20, 21, 23, 

28, 73, 78, 97, 128, 133, 181, 182, 183 

Springfield, 111., Art Club 20 

Springfield, 111., Edwards Place. .. 20, 28 

Springfield, 111., Globe Tavern 73 

Springfield, 111., St. Nicholas Hotel.. 18 

Springfield, Mass 25,26 

Spurgeon, (Rev.) Charles Haddon..l22 


Standen, T. B 140 

Standish, Miles 66 

Staples Family 26 

Star Spangled Banner, Song 19 

State Center, Iowa 153 

Staum, (Rev.) J. H.' 185 

Stebbins, George C 148 

Stebbins, (Mrs. ) George C 148 

Steidley, (Prof.) H. M 140,166,183 

Stephenson, (Dr.) Benjamin F., 
Founder of the Grand Army of 

the Republic 21 

Sterling, 111. . .132, 133, 134, 159, 164, 182 
Sterling, 111., State Sunday School 

Convention, held in 15» 

Stevens, (Mrs.) Zillah Foster 

165, 192, 195 

Stone, H. 139 

Stooker, (Miss) Wilhemina 165, 166 

Storey. T. J 148 

Strawn. (Judge) Halbert J 23 

Streator, 111 151, 182 

Strong. (Dr.) James 167 

Stuart & Lincoln, Law firm, Spring- 
field, 111 73 

Stuart, George H. .116. 127, 168, 169, 172 
Sunday .School Association, Secre- 
taries in other states 183 

Sunday School Convention, Chicago, 

Cook County 101 

Sunday School Convention, World's 
Sunday School Convention Wash- . 

ington D. C, 1910 153, 154 

Sunday School History, Mills, Andrew 
H., "A Hundred Tears of Illinois 
Sunday School History" A Mosaic. 


Sunday School, International Uni- 
form lessons 166 

Sunday School, Journal, Periodical. . 117 

Sunday School, Statistics 188 

"Sunday School Teacher," Published 

in Chicago 101 

Sundav School Union, Chicago, 111.. 101 
Sunday, William (Billy), Evangelist. 100 

Superior, Wisconsin 26 

Supreme Court, State of Illinois.... 19 
Supreme Court of the Northwest 

Territory, footnote 56 

Supreme Court of the United States. 44 
Swaine, John, and Francis Childs, 
publishers of Laws of the North- 
west Territory, footnote 59 

Switzerland 171 

Symnes, John C. ., . . 56, 57 

footnotes . . . .' 59, 61 

Symnes, John C, Circular to tnc 

Public, Reference, footnote 56 

Symnes, John C, Stockholder in the 
Miami Company 57 


Tabernacle Mission Sunday School.. 148 
Tabernacle Presbyterian Church, In- 
dianapolis, Ind 189 

Taft, William Howard 108 

Talmadge, (Rev.) DeWitt 132 

Tazewell County, Illinois, to observe 

Centennial of the State 21 

Tavlor, (Dr.) A. R 182 

Tavlor, Knox P 139,140,182 

Taylorville, 111 182 

Temperance Department, Sunday 

School Association 192 

Temple Boys' Choir of Springfield, 
111 28 


INDEX — Continued. 


Thomas, Jesse Burgess 68 

Thomiison. Charles Manfred Author 
of Centennial Volume No. IV, The 

Industrial State 1870-1893 79 

Thompson, (Rev.) F. L 182 

Three Oaks, Michigan 157. 158 

Todd, John Jr., First Civil Ruler of 

Illinois, as a County of Virginia. . 35 
Todd, John Jr., Patrick Henry's in- 
structions to, when he assumed 
duties as County Lieutenant, in 

Illinois 35 

Todd, John, Record Book 1779, Refer- 
ence 80 

"Toledo, Ohio 156 

Tomlin, (Mrs:) Eliza T. H 2S 

Tracy. (Rev.) William 139,182 

Treaty of Fort Mcintosh 49 

Treaty of Fort Stanwix, October 22, 

1784 48 

Treaty of Greenville, 1795 62 

Treaty, Shawnee Indians, Treaty 

with, January 31, 1786 50 

Trowbridge, L. A 139, 182 

Trumbull, C. G 178 

Trumbull, (Dr.) H. C 171 

Trumbull, Lyman, Papers, Reference . 79 

Trumpet Call. Periodical 160,163 

Tuman, (Miss) Ada L 146 

Turkey 87 

Turner, Frederick J 84 

footnote 52 

Turner, Frederick J., Western State 

Making, quoted, footnote 52 

Turner, George, appointed by Wash- 
ington, one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, Northwest Terri- 
tory 58 

footnote 58 

Tuscaloosa, Ala ll'i 

Tuscarawas River 58 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama 18'( 

Twain. Mark, (Samuel L. Clemens) . 76 

Tyng, Alex G 

121, 128, 133, 139, 172, 181 


Ukraine, Russia, In the Valley of the 

/ middle Dnieper 86 

Ulysses 66 

Unfolding Life, (The) by Mrs. M. S. 

Lamoreaux, Reference 163 

"Uniform Lessons — The Failure" . . 

170, 171 

Union Lodge of Free and Accepted 

Masons 55 

United Brethern 184 

United Evangelical Church 184,185 

United States 32, 33, 38, 

39, 47, 48, 51, 54, 58, 63, 77, 78, 79, 164 


. . .48, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60, 62 

United States Army 48 

footnote 48 

United States Congress. ... 33, 38, 39, 77 
United States Congress, Annals of 

Congress, footnotes 60,62 

United States Congress, Journals ot 

Congress, footnotes 

48, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57 

United States Congress, Lands given 

by Congress to families who were 

living in the Western Villages in 

1783 58 


United States, Connecticut State, 
Deed of Cession to the United States 

May 28, 1786 47 

United States, Library of Congress. . 

78, 79 

United States, Massachusetts Deed 
of Cession to the United States 

April 19, 1785 47 

United States, Title to the Northwest 

Territory 4'< 

United States, Virginia Deed of 
Cession to the United States March 

1, 1784 47 

United States War Department 54 

University of Illinois. ... 6, 19, 28, 78, 79 

Urbana, 111 6 

Utopia, by Sir Thomas More, Refer- 
ence 32 


Vance, George L 139 

Vandalia, 111 22, 113 

VanDyke, (Dr.) Henry 158 

Varnum, James M., Biographical 

Sketch 57 

Varnum, James M., One of the Di- 
rectors of the Ohio Company. . .57, 58 

Vella, (Miss) Bertha F 17!) 

Verdun, France 84 

Vermont State 41 

Vernor, Dan Z 182 

Vicksburg, Mississippi 124, 125.148 

Vigo, Francis 66 

Vimeure, Jean Baptiste Donatien de 

(Rochambeau Comte de) 84 

Vincennes, Indiana 58, 83 

A''incent, (Rev.) J. H 

101, 104, 116, 117, 118, 121, 

135, 149, 150, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173 
Vincent. (Rev.) J .H., Biographical 

Sketch 117-118 

Virginia Cass County, Illinois 114 

footnotes 49, 58 

Virginia State 16, 28,31-37 

Virginia State, Constitution of 1776. 33 
Virginia State, Contribution of Vir- 
ginia to the development of Amer- 
ica 31 

Virginia State, Deed of Cession 

March 1, 1784, gave United States 

title to large strip of land North of 

the Ohio River 47 

Virginia State, Department of Ar- 
chives 34 

Virginia State, Eckenrode, H. J.. Vir- 
ginia in the Making of Illinois. . 

28, 31-37 

Virginia State, Emigration from, to 

the Ohio Valley 40 

Virginia State, Historical Society. . 31 
Virginia State, House of Burgesses.. 33 
Virginia State, Illinois a County of 

Virginia 35 

A''irginia State Militia, 1776, footnote. 49 

Virginia State, Richmond, Va 28 

Virginia State, Settled" by the Eng- 
lish, 1607 32 

Virginia State, Settlers locate in Ohio 

Valley 52 

Virginia State, Share in the making 

of Illinois 35 

Virginia State, Tobacco, planters of 

Virginia 32. 33 

Virginia State, Virginia's Bill of 
rights 33 


INDEX — Continued. 


Viviani, M 83 

Vogel, Henry F 21 

Von Kuhlmann. Herr 87 

Vose, Lyman B 97. 139, 181 


Wabash River 50, 61, 65, 69 

footnote Sii 

"Wabash River, Post Vincennes on 

the "Wabash, footnote 52 

"\A^abash Valley 66 

"VN^ales 150, 16T 

"Walker, (Mrs.) Harriet J., Compiler 
of list of Revolutionary Soldiers 

buried in Illinois 25 

"Wallace, (Mrs.) Florence Magill, 
suggestions for presentation of 

Pageants 23 

Wanamaker. (Hon.) John. .105, 109, 135 

"War of 1812, Reference 36 

"War of 1812, "Constitution" Frigate, 
fight with the Guerriere, "War of 

1812, Reference 36 

War of the Rebellion 19, 21, 8b 

"War of the Rebellion, Grand Army 

of the Republic 19, 21 

"War of the Revolution 

25, 33, 34, 47, 48. 52, 63, 71, 80 

footnotes 49, 56 

"War of the Revolution, Illinois, list 
of Revolutionary Soldiers buried in 

Illinois 25 

"VN'ard, Samuel D lOu 

"Ward, (Prof.) Frank 18,184 

"Warren, Edward K 135, 157,158,165 

Washburne. Elihu, B., Life of Ed- 
ward Coles 16, 22 

"Washington and Jefferson College, 

Pennsylvania Hif 

"Washington, Booker T. 185 

"Washington County, Illinois, Presby- 
terian church 115 

"V\"ashington County Northwest Ter- 
ritory 58 

"Washington, D. C 

..27, 38, 77, 78, 113, 153, 154, 176, 179 

"Washington, George 34, 46. 58. 72, 81 

"Washington, George, Indian Problem 

in the Northwest, bequeathed to 

the administration of "^Vashington . 6l 

"Washington, George, Letter to Gov. 

Arthur St. Clair January 2, 1791, 

Reference and footnote 58 

"Washington, George, "W^ritings, Ford 

edition, quoted, footnote 49 

"Watson, Charles "W 183 

"Watson, (Dr.) John 109 

\\''atterson, Henry 18t> 

"Wavne, (Gen.) Anthony 6:^ 

"Weaver, (Miss) Pearl 165, 166 

"U^eber, (Mrs.) Jessie Palmer, Secre- 
tary Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 6. 12, 15, 16, 17, 24 

"\A'eber, (Mrs.) Jessie Palmer, Secre- 
tary of Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, Report 17-24 

"Webster, Daniel 43, 108-109 

"Webster, Daniel, Defended property 
qualifications in the Massachusetts 

Constitution of 1780 4i 

"Weld, W. S 182 

"Wells, F. A 139,144,153,154,168 

Biogi-aphical sketch 153-154 


"Wells, J. C 183 

"U'esley, John 99 

"Wesley Methodist Church, Chicago, 

111 153 

Westenberger, (Mrs.) Gary H. . . .19. 28 
Western Lands, United States Con- 
gress, territorial policy in the 

Western Lands 53 

Western Posts, and British Debts, by 

A. C. McLaughlin quoted, footnote . 50 
Western Reserve Historical Society. . 28 

footnotes 56, 57, 60 

Western Reserve Historical Society, 

Reports, footnotes 56, 57, 60 

Western Reserve University, Cleve- 
land, Ohio 28 

Westhoff. F. W 23 

West Market Mission School. Chi- 
cago, 111 100 

Weston, Edmond Brownell 25 

West Point, Small guard left at, 

close of Revolutionary War 48 

West Virginia State, Sunday School 

Association 164 

Wetzel, Charles A 183 

"White, (Sir) George 154 

White River, Indiana 66 

Whitewater County, Indiana 67 

Whittle, (Major) D. "W 

120. 128. 157. 168, 182 

Whittle. (Major) D. W.. Biographi- 
cal sketch ,148-149 

M'hittle (Major) D. W., Writings. .149 

Wilcox, Frank 139, 183 

Wilder, E. C 128, 181 

Willis, R. C 139 

Wilson, Andrew 102 

Wilson, E. A 139 

"^'ilson, Edward -6 

Wilson Family 26 

Wilson, (Dr) S. A 183 

Wilson, (Pres.) Woodrow. ... 86, 87,108 
Wilson, (Pres.) Woodrow, Quoted on 
peoples and provinces being bar- 
tered about 87 

"Winchester, 111 1^9 

Winchester, Ohio 156 

Winnetka, 111 23 

Winning of the West, by Theodore 
Roosevelt, quoted, footnotes. ... 53, 54 

"Winona. Indiana 17T 

Winthrop, John a ' " A A " A ; ^i 

Wisconsin State 2o, 26, 64, 78 

Wisconsin State, Superior, Wis 26 

Wise. (Dr.) ;-^°' 

Wolcott, Oliver, Biographical Sketch, 

footnote -i^ 

Wolcott, Oliver, One of the Commis- 
sioners at the Fort Stanwix Con- 
ference ^^ 

"Wonderful Story of Illinois" Pageant 

by Miss Grace A. Owen 2L 

"Worchester, Mass "5 

World's Sunday School Association. _ 

Frank L. Brown, Secretary 16a 

World's Sunday School Convention, 

AVashington, 1910 '^^^Zat 

World War 37, 39, 87 

World War, America's entrance in, 

without territorial ambition 87 

"V\''orld 'War, France, sacrifice of men. 85 
World War, Peace Conference 1919, 

Reference 87 

Wvandot Indians 49 

Wythe, George, Interest in George 
Rogers Clark expedition 34 


INDEX— Concluded. 



Yale University, New Haven, Conn.. 28 

footnotes 49, 5b 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard, (The 

Younger) 6, 18 

Yinger, Mary Susan 26 

Young iNIen's Christian Association. 

100, 101, 109, 119, 127, 128, 194 


Young Men's Christian Association, 
Organized in Chicago 100-101 


Ziegler Brothers 26 

Ziegler Family 26 

Ziegler, Michael 26 




No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 2. 'Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 
1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. 
D., 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. 'Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 24. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901-1918. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858, 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1908. • 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Gov- 
ernors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 681 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I, News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1912. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical Period, 
1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and 
Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The new Regime. 
1765-1767. Edited Vvith inti'oduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and 
Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliogi-aphical Series, Vol. III. The 
Countv Archives of the State of Illinois. Bv Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 
730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1915. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 38 pp. 8 vo. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmei 
Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

* Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Compiled by Geoi-gia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield. 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, 
to Vol. XI, No. 2, July, 1918. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol. IX, 
No. 2 of Vol. X. 

• Out of print.